How differences in product involvement influence the emotional response of the Chinese consumer

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How differences in product involvement influence the emotional response of the Chinese consumer
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english
Creator:
Hu, Xiying
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University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Degree:
Master's ( M.Adv.)
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University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Advertising, Journalism and Communications
Committee Chair:
Morris, Jon D
Committee Members:
Sutherland, John C
Weigold, Michael Fredrick

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Subjects / Keywords:
advertising -- chinese -- emotional -- hu -- involvement -- product -- xiying
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
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theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
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Abstract:
The goal of this study was to measureChinese individuals’ emotional responses to products. The measuring tool is AdSAM,a non-verbal, visual technique used to evaluate human emotional responses (Lang,1980). AdSAM theorizes that every emotion can be thought as the combination ofthree dimensions – pleasure, arousal and dominance.  Previous research has mainly focused on emotionin advertising messages, as it relates to attitudes toward ads and brands, but fewscholars have paid much attention to attitudes toward the product itself. Theterm “involvement” is used in this study, to refer to the amount of anindividual’s interest in a product, and the importance of that product to theindividual. “Product involvement” or emotional response can be classified intofour categories based on the Foote Cone & Belding (FCB) grid (Vaughn,1980). These four categories are classified by theconsumer’s personal characteristics, brand factors, cultural factors, and theinfluence of society and families. These “product involvement” or emotionalresponses come to represent the individual’s feelings about the product and canbe cues that affect his or her future motivation to purchase the product and loyaltyto the brand. In this study, the framework includes fourrelated theories of involvement, brand factors, cultural factors, product involvement and emotiontheory. The new nonverbal emotion measurement, AdSAM, is used to avoid thedrawbacks of verbal measurement.  Thesubjects are all Chinese students. The study finds that China’s distinctive cultureinfluences the emotional responses of Chinese individuals in a unique manner. Thisconfirms the theory that “cultureaffects how consumers construe events and contexts, producing a range ofemotional responses to a stimulus” (Russell & Pratt, 1980, p. 314). Itwas interesting to conduct this research on a particular group of people in a uniqueculture. Survey data were analyzed using the statistical analysis program, SPSS.Conclusions, limitations and the direction of further research study were determined. The study indicates that Chinese individualshave a stronger and more positive emotional response towardcognitive-involvement products than they do toward affective-involvementproducts. Cognitive-involved products require three cognitive processes:interpreting the information given, retrieving previous knowledge about theproduct and combining the two to arrive at a decision as to responsive behavior(such as approaching or purchasing the product) (Mayer, 1997). Affective-involvementproducts refer to products that produce an emotional or arousing response to theproduct (Park & Young, 1986). Further, where the emotional dimensionsof pleasure and arousal are concerned, Chinese individuals have stronger andmore positive emotions toward high-involvement products (products that consumersneed more time to consider and have purchase behaviors) than they do toward low-involvementproducts (products that don’t need much time and effort to consider and are purchasedfrequently). Understanding consumers’ emotional response to different productscould help companies develop more effective advertising strategies.
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Xiying Hu.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local:
Adviser: Morris, Jon D.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2014-08-31

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1 HOW DIFFERENCE S IN PRODUCT INVOLVEMENT INFLUENCE THE EMOTIONAL RESPONSE OF THE CHINESE CONSUMER By XIYING HU A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT S FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 2013 Xiying Hu

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3 To my parents

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Firs t and foremost, I gratefully acknowledge my chair, Dr. Jon D. Morris for his g uidance and constant support throughout my writing of this thesis He has provided encouragement, patience, sound advice and motivation. I could not have asked for a better advisor. Second, I am grateful to Dr. John C. Sutherland and Dr. Michael F. Weigol d for their support and help as my committee me mbers. I appreciate the ir invaluable suggestions and the time they spent assisting me. In a ddition, I thank my friend Aron for helping me revise the grammar. I also thank the librarians in Library West for ki ndly helping things run smoothly and for assisting me in many different ways. I a lso thank my study participants for contributing their time. Finally and especially I thank my parents for helping me to get through difficult times and for the ir emotional support. I am profoundly grateful for their patience and tolerance. To them, I dedicated this thesis.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 Conceptual Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 12 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 13 Need for the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 15 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 16 Thesis Plan ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 16 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 17 2 EXISTING RESEARCH AND THEORIES ................................ .............................. 18 Involvement ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 18 Conceptualization of Involvement ................................ ................................ ..... 18 The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of P ersuasion ................................ ... 19 Different Classifications of Involvement ................................ ............................ 20 Product Involvement ................................ ................................ ............................... 22 Conceptualization of Product Involvement ................................ ....................... 22 Previous Models in Product Involvement ................................ ......................... 24 The FCB Grid Model ................................ ................................ ........................ 24 ..................... 27 Personal f actor ................................ ................................ ........................... 27 Object f actor ................................ ................................ ............................... 29 Emotion Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 30 Emotion Relevant Theories and Scales ................................ ............................ 30 Pleasure Arousal Dominance (PAD) Theory ................................ .................... 31 Emotional Measurement Method: AdSAM ................................ ........................ 31 Advantages of SAM ................................ ................................ .......................... 33 Product Involvement with Emotions ................................ ................................ 34 Product I nvolvement with PAD T heory ................................ ............................. 35 Brand Factor ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 36 Consumer B ased Brand Equity ................................ ................................ ........ 36 Product I nvolvement with B rand ................................ ................................ ....... 36 Emotions C onnected with B rand L oyalty ................................ .......................... 38 Cultural Factors ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 38

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6 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 42 3 METHOD ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 44 Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 44 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 46 Me thodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 46 Sample Selection ................................ ................................ ............................. 46 Survey Design and Procedure ................................ ................................ .......... 47 Dat a Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ 49 Data R ecoding P rocess and A nalysis T echnique ................................ ............. 49 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 49 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ .................... 51 Statistical Methods and Data A nalysis ................................ ................................ .... 51 Demographic Findings ................................ ................................ ..................... 51 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 51 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 59 5 C ONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS ................................ .......... 62 Discussion of findings and results ................................ ................................ ........... 62 Results in hypotheses ................................ ................................ ...................... 62 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 63 Implications for theory and practice ................................ ................................ ........ 64 A dvertisement ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 64 B rand L oyalty ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 65 P urchase Mo tivation and B ehavior ................................ ................................ ... 66 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 66 Direction of F urther R esearch ................................ ................................ ................. 67 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 67 APPENDIX: QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ .................... 69 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 76 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 85

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Analysis Results of Cognitive and Aff ective Involvement Products .................... 52 4 2 Analysis Results of Digital SLR Camera and Regular Shampoo ........................ 55 4 3 Analysis Results of Perfume a nd Diet Cola ................................ ........................ 57

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 The FCB grid ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 26 2 2 SAM (Self Assessm ent Manikin) ................................ ................................ ........ 33 2 3 China culture dimensions ................................ ................................ 39 3 1 The AdSAM Scale ................................ ................................ .............................. 48 4 1 The Perceptual Map ................................ ................................ ........................... 60

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising HOW DIFFERENCES IN PRODUCT INV OLVEMENT INFLUENCE THE EMOTIONAL RESPONSE OF THE CHINESE CONSUMER By Xiying Hu August 2013 Chair: Jon D. Morris Major: Advertising The goal of this study was to measure Chinese emotional responses to products The measuring tool is A d SAM, a non verbal, visual technique used to evaluate human emotional responses (Lang 1980) A d SAM theorizes that every emotion can be thought as the combination of three dimensions pleasure, arousal and dominance. Previous research has mainly focused on emo tion in advertising messages as it relates to attitudes toward ads and brand s but few scholars have paid much attention to attitudes toward the product itself st in a product, and the importance of that product to the individual. Product involvement or emotional response can be classified into four categories based on the Foote Cone & Belding ( FCB ) grid ( Vaughn 1980 ) The se four categories are classified by t he consume r s personal characteristics, brand factor s cultural factor s, and the influence of society and families These come to represent the feelings about the product and can be cues that affect his or her future motivation to purchase the product and loyalty to the brand.

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10 In this study, the framework include s four related theories of involvement brand factors, cultural factors, product involvement and emotion theory. The new nonverbal emotion measurement A d SAM i s used to avoid the drawbacks of verbal measurement T he subjects are all Chinese students The study finds that China distinctive culture influence s the emotio nal responses of Chinese individuals in a unique manner. This confirms t he theory that c ulture affects how consumers construe events and contexts, producing a range of emotional responses to a stimulus (Russell & Pratt 1980 p. 314 ). It wa s interesting to conduct this research on a particular group of people in a unique cul ture. S urvey data were analyzed using the statistical analysis program, SPSS C onclusions, limitations and the direction of further research study were determined The study indicate s that Chinese individuals have a stronger and more positive emotional re sponse toward cognitive involvement products than they do toward affective involvement products. Cognitive involve d products require three cognitive processes: interpreting the information given, retrieving previous knowledge about the product and combinin g the two to arrive at a decision as to responsive behavior ( such as approaching or purchasing the product) ( Mayer 1997 ) Affective involvement products refer to products that produce an emotional or arousing response to the product ( Park & Young 1986 ) Further, where the emotional dimensions of pleasure and arousal are concerned, Chinese individuals have stronger and more positive emotions toward high involvement products (products that consumers need more time to consider and have purchase behaviors) th an they do toward low involvement products (products that don t need much time and effort to consider and are purchased frequently) Understanding

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11 emotional response to different products c ould help companies develop more effective advertising s trategies.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Conceptual Framework P roducts hold a wide range of connotations for consumers These are the result of some dimensions: emotional connections, utilitarian effects ( functional appeal of the product ), benefits and person al experiences ( Zaichkowsky 1986 ; Ha & Lennon 2010) Chinese emotional responses and their involvement with products in these three dimensions is of particular interest Product involvement describes the combination of emotions that result fr om the feelings and thoughts that individuals associate with a product (Zaichkowsky 1985) At th e early stage of the research, the phrase product involvement is used to refer to the degree of importance a consumer attach es to a product or his or her subje ctive recognition of that It is the amount of personal relevance that the individual attaches to the product T hat perception is based on his or her needs, values, o r interests (Zaic hkowsky 1986). This study suggests a framework categories evoke different emotions. T he term product emotion refers to a ll the emotions experienced in response to ( or eli cit ed by ) seeing, using, owning, or thinking about a consumer product ( Desmet & Hekkert 2002 p 62 ) First, t he product emotion is meant to reflect the emotional responses of the individual to the product. P roduct s elicit obvious emotions, for example exciting, happiness, boring, sadness or arousal among many others emotions that people associate w ith specific products. Second, individuals often have a combination of mixed emotions rather than a single emotion ( Desmet 2008 ) How is the product causing this reaction ?

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13 Background Several research theories have focused on investigating emotional respo nses to advertising ( Burke & Edell 1989; Englis 1990; Holbrook & Hirschman 1982; Holbrook & O'Shaughnessy 1984; Morris, Bradley, Waine, & Lang 1992; Morris, Wright, Bradley & Waine 199 2; Morris, Bradley, Sutherland, & Wei 1993 ; Ruiz & Sicilia 2004 ; Geuens, Pelsmacker, & Faseur 2011 ). Two areas concerning the influence of emotional responses to advertising have received substantial study. One is the attitude that results from advertisement ( Holbrook & O Shaughnessy 1984 ) and the other is the at t i tude that results from brands ( Cohen & Areni 1991 ) On e research group ( Friedstad & Thorson 1986; Stout & Leckenby 1986; Holbrook & Batra 1987 ) found that three dimensions: pleasure, arousal, and dominance mediate the effects of advertisement content on attitudes toward ads Further, it found that these three emotional dimensions plus attitude s toward ad vertisement s mediate the effects of ad content on attitudes toward brands. However, there has been relatively less research focus ed on a third area, how the emotion al responses affect attitudes toward the product. Therefore, prior to design ing the questionnaire to survey and measure target subjects emotional responses to different product involvement this paper examine s the fr amework used by earlie r literature and how important is that product to an individual. Thus, i n product involvement, i ndividuals have a variety of emotional responses A product may excite some individuals while the same product may produce little arousal in others. Some individuals may evince considerable arousal from a product while the same product may leave others cold. Some individuals may experience a high level of pleasure from a

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14 product, while the same product leaves others uninterested. T he reason for such differences is sought to be understood. They might be caused by a variety of r easons, including past use of the product, personal characteristics brand effect, background differences, perceived usefulness, or perceived ease (Ha & Lennon 2010 ) All of the factors can influen ce the individual s emotion al response to the product. According to the FCB grid ( Vaughn 1980 ) p roducts can be cat egorized into four types: high thinking products high feeling product s low thinking product s and low feeling products ( Ratchford 1987; Vaughn 1980) Similarly product involvement can be divided into four types : hig h thinking involvement high feeling involvement or low thinking and low feeling pro duct involvement High thinking or low thinking refers to the information required whe n purchasing the item. In high thinking product involvement, an important product is involved, thus a large amount of information is needed when making a purchase. A n example for a high thinking product is the amount of information needed when purchasing a high visibility or expensive product such as a television or a diamond. By contrast, a low thinking product involvement will be found with such as a frequently purc hased convenience product that requires minimal information to affect the purchase. An example of a low thinking product a product that requires a low level o f information needed when purchasing it, is paper towels, which is a product with less social ris k and little visibility or expense feeling ow feeling refer to the emotional involvement required when purchasing an item. In high feeling product involvement, a substantial amount of emotion al involvement with the product is present when pur chas ing the product. An example of high feeling product involvement is the amount of emotion al involvement present during the purchas e of an

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15 item of fine jewelry. The differences are not necessarily always so clearly defined as there may be a gradient betw een thinking and product involvement. P urchas ing decisions are made differently based on whether amount of information or amount of emotion is the more dominant requirement at the time of purchase (Ratchford 198 7; Vaughn 1980) As to high fee ling and low feeling product involvement, i ndividuals do not connect the emotions involved to the specific product. Rather, emotions are based on enduring involvement Enduring involvement refer s to such emotional state s as interest, ex cit em ent and enthusiasm that consumers hold on a long term basis for their favorite product categories ( Richins & Bloch 1986). Consumers may have enduring involvement when the product is important to their self concept or when it can express their values and s ocial status. Such a n enduring involvement type of product which is visible to others and expensive, c ould be clothes or an automobile. These feelings might change when the influence of product s cultural factor and brand effect are added, such as when va luable extra s are added to the product This is further discussed, below. This study examine s emotion al responses connected with different levels of product involvement and compar es levels of product involvement. Need for the Study The goal of this study was to measure Chinese individual emotional responses to different product involvement using the measuring tool A d SAM AdSAM follows the theory that the combination of three dimensions: pleasure, arousal and dominance could express every emotion. C oncer different product involvements, in a search of the literature, there w ere no theories or observed results published prior to the present study This study, i n addition to providing

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16 data on Chinese individual help s us better understand the emotional responses to products under this culture This will help marketers or companies to better understand the relationship between various products and the perception and em otions they elicit Moreover, by understand ing the emotions connected with products and brand loyalty advertisers will be in a better position to evaluate responses to products (as opposed to responses only toward ads or only toward brands ) in order to b etter develop an effective advertis ing strategy. Methodology When examining social phenomena, two principal research methods are used, the quantitative research method, which involves math, statistics or computation and the qualitative research method, w hich studies why or how a decision is made, usually in a particular case ( Jonson & Christensen 2008 ) Th e present research study use s the quantitative research method. First, a survey was created The questionnaire (A ppendix A ) contains 14 q uestions T o t est emotions related to different product categor ies t he survey use s the measuring tool A d SAM ( self assessment manikin) (Lang 1980) a non verbal, visual technique used to evaluate human emotional responses that avoid the drawbacks of verbal measurements. Research subjects were all Chinese university students, from 17 to 30 years old. Thesis Plan In this thesis C hapter 2 present s previous research and theories and the selection of scales of measurement Chapter 3 outlines the theory of res earch for this study, i ncluding the complete procedure, the selection of the sample and the design ing of the questionnaire Chapter 4 present s analysis of the data and measure s the

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17 hypotheses. C hapter 5 discuss es the findings and limitations and a suggeste d direction for further research. Summary C hapter 1 introduces the background of this research study, the justification for carrying it out, the methodo logy it uses the outline This study is ne eded because few previous theories have focused on individual s emotions as these relate to the product itself This important aspect has been neglected. Chapter 2 reviews the existing literature focusing on several aspects of studies and their theories, including the theory of i nvolvement product involvement, factors that influence individual s emotions toward product involvement and the selected measuring scale

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18 CHAPTER 2 EXISTING RESEARCH AND THEORIES This study test s the impact of brand factor s on individual emotional r esponses toward product s The goal was to measure Chinese individual s emotional responses to four product involvements and to compare the emotional intensity found in each case Chapter 2 focuses on existing research and theories in involvement found in t he literature : product involvement, emotion theory, and cultural factor s Individual s emotions might not be eli cit ed directly from the product Rather the emo tions might be a reaction to such external factors as additional brand factor, classification of products and previous purchase experiences These could result in enduring involveme nt. Moreover, such internal factors as personal characteristics; difference s in background and cultural factors also influence emotional responses. Involvement Conceptuali zation of Involvement Involvement theory attempts to describe the psychology that motiv at es an re action to advertising. Thus, i nvolvement may be an important intermediary of consumer (Mitchell 1981) Individuals may possess beliefs that place personal importance on particular attributes of objects These beliefs, which are related to situations, messages or products evoke certain emotional responses This phenomenon is known as involvement Mitchell ( 1981) de scr ibes involvement as an internal state variable whose motivational properties are aroused by a certain stimulus or situation In this paper, involvement considers individual arousal levels in response to various stimuli. According to Zaichkowsy (1985), invo lvement refers to the degree of association an individual has with a particular object. The level of

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19 association also depends on values, interests and basic needs and is affected by personal affective and realistic factors. In addition, the level of involvement to the same object might vary according to difference s in an individual s characteristics previous purchase experience, external brand factors, al status, and the influence of cultural factors (Antil 1984). Si milarly a elaboration likelihood (the extent to which an individual evaluates advertising arguments and changes them) and emotions are affected by situational factors, such as product category, and external brand factors (Nai Hwa Lien 2001) The Ela boration L ikelihood M odel (ELM ) of Persuasion In evaluating how to change attitudes, e laboration likelihood refers to the extent to which advertising arguments are evaluated and changed by the consumer ( Petty & Cacioppo 1986). The Elaboration L ikelihood Model (ELM) tests how the consumer will respond to the argument contained in the advertisement. According to ELM, t here are two relatively characteristic paths to persuasion the central route and the peripheral route (Petty 197 7 ; Petty & Caciop po 1978) T he peripheral route and the central route to persuasion represent how individuals differ in the way they process information T his difference is brought about by the degree of involvement (Muncy 1990) As follows, t he use of the central route to persuasion is more enduring. As individuals change their emotions, there is a likelihood that the trend of buying will also change. Individuals who are highly motivated a re likely to purchase a particular product I ndividuals with high brand loyalty are likely to spend more time and increased cognitive processing efforts to learn more about a potential product choice Increased cognitive processing effort is also known as high elaboration likelihood, which involves the use of the central route.

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20 Consumers will have a positive attitude and better product loyalty only when the informat ion is objective and persuasive (Petty & Cacioppo 1981 ). Persuasion, which results from the central route, will be more resistant to counter persuasion. On the other hand th e p eripheral route plays a role when individuals have l ow motivation to purchase a low involvement product. In that case, the attitudes will be determined by emotional appeals instead of objective information ( Petty & Cacioppo 1981 ). In such instances, c o nsumers will make purchases based on their emotions and the attractiveness of the advertisements Generally speaking, a high involvement product would raise individual s cognitive thinking of relevant information and the elaboration likelihood will be incr eased. In that case, the central route influences the persuasion model. On the other side, a low involvement product would cause the low level of information process, and a peripheral route could be used in persuasion ( Petty & Cacioppo 1981 ) Different C l assifications of I nvolvement Different contexts lead to different types of involvement. In existing research stud ies on involvement there are four levels of involvement which in order fro m low to high are identified as pre attention, focal attention, co mprehension, an d elaboration ( Greenwald & Leavitt 1984) The lowest level ( pre attention ) uses little cognitive capacity, whereas elaboration, t he highest l evel of involvement uses more capacity, which results in increasingly durable cognitive and attitu dinal effects (Greenwald & Leavitt 1984) Several studies have concluded that when processing a persuasive message consumers in high involvement situations ( not necessarily involving ego involvement but when making a type of purchase that is more importa nt to the consumer such as the

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21 purchase of tires ) are more likely to exert cognitive effort whereas less effort is expende d in low involvement conditions (Batra & Ray 1986 ; Petty & Cacioppo 1986 ; Swasy & Munch 1985 ; Yalch & Yalch 1984) When making a buying decision, five steps occur ( Khosla 2010 ) First, there is the recognition of a problem, second there are two possible types of search for information ( an internal search of memory for information about the product that might resolve questions about the purchase and a search of external sources ) third, alternatives are evaluated, fourth, the purchase takes place, and fifth, there occurs a post purchase evaluation. Kr ugman (1966) has found that the hierarchy of communication effects of persuasive an d communication process es in high involvement situations is cognition (awareness) then attitude (attitude shift conviction ) and finally, behavior (purchasing) In low involvement situations, such as those involving everyday repeat purchases, communicatio n is more likely to affect cognition (awareness minimal comprehension ) first, then behaviors (purchasing) and finally, attitudes (attitude shift, conviction) ( Ray, Alan, Michael, Roger, Edward, & Reed 1 973). These characteristics could be reflect ed in a dvertisement style and the advertisers should understand the classification of p roduct involvement to thus develop the most appealing advertisement strategies to attract consumers. All involvement describes a motivational role in processing information (Z aichkowsky 1985 ) Besides level of involvement, earlier studies have provided many classifications an d different types of involvement For example, Zaichkowsky (1985) found that involvements could be described over three areas : involvement with products, advertise ments, and purchase situations. Earlier, Houston and Rothschild (1978) made a distinction between situational involvement and enduring involvement

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22 This distinction has been widely accepted and proved in the previous research (e.g ., Andr ews, Durva sula, & Akhter 1990; Day, Royne Stafford, & Camacho 199 5). S ituational involvement is involvement with a certain situation or context and is tempora ry and active such as exists when a consumer ha s to purchase an auto after a car accident The circumstanc es, the time, the social surroundings, the physical location, the task required and antecedent states are influential ( Houston & Rothschild 1978 ) By contrast, e n during involvement is related to a long term or permanent concern that influences the level o f involvement to an object I t is determined by the extent to which the object or issue is associated with personally relevant values and goals ( Houston & Rothschild 1978 ) Zaichkowsky (1985) n otes that an enduring involvement is represented by the prod uct category involvement, whereas advertising (p. 342) Other studies have dichotomize d involvement into cognitive involvement and affective involvement (McGuire 1974; Park & Young 1986) Cognitive involvement can also be c alled rational (thinking) and emotional (feeling) involve ment (Laurent and Kapferer 1985; Vaughn 1980). Cognitive involvement ( or thinking involvement ) refers A ffective involvement ( or feeli ng involvement ) refers to the evoked by an object ( Park & Young 1986 ). Product Involvement Conceptualization of Product I nvolvement P ( Solom on 2004) There are many other def initions of product involvement. Bloch

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23 (1981) define s product ted to the needs of (p. 61) Mittal & Lee ( 1989 ) defined cons (p. 363) Gordon Mckeage, & Fox (1998) state with (p. 447) In addition, many sales pr omotions are now also designed to increase this type of involvement. In sum product involvement refers to the varying degree to which consumer s link their decision making style and follow up behaviors when purchasing various types of products. C onsum er s tudies show that product involvement can cause consumers to make a purchase decision and can determine the consumer s level of interest in finding information on a certain type of product and involves consumer s knowledge, attitudes, preferences and perc eptions about other different bra nds of the sam e product (Celsi & Olson 1988; Brisoux & Cheron 1990; Leclerc & Little 1997). The level of consumer commitment to a certain product brand in terms of attitudes, beliefs, cognition and behaviors is what cons titutes produc t involvement (Miller & Marks 1996; Gordon, McKeage & Fox 1998). Several studies stated that a consumer with high level of product involvement could be more loyalty to the same brand an d have positive emotions (Tr aylor 1981; Park 1996; Iwasaki & Havitz 1998). Other researchers found that product involvement was an important variable for the marketer and advertiser t o develop better marketing and advertising strategies (Havitz & Howard 1995; Iwasaki & Havitz 1998; Quester & Smart 1996 )

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24 Previous Models in Product I nvolvement Ratchford (1987) has s tate d that when communicating technique concepts it is critical to consider product types. This is because consumers have different ways of understanding information about types of products. According to previous studies, there are several measurement scales and classifications for product involvement and product categories: t he Foote Cone & Belding (FCB) g rid model by Vaughn (1980), the Bloch involvement Scale ( Bloch 1981), the Consumer Inv olvement Profile (CIP) Scale proposed by Laurent and Kapferer (1985), the Personal Involvement Inventory (PII) proposed by Zaichkowsky (1985) and the Causal Model proposed by Mittal and Lee (1989) This paper assume s the products used have already been te sted and classified based on the FCB Grid mo del that classif ie s the products into four different types high thinking products high feeling products, low thinking products and low feeling products ( Ratchford 1987; Vaughn 1980) The FCB Grid Model The F CB grid, a famous product typology, classifies products into four different categori es : the high thinking product, the high feeling product, the low thinking product and the low feeling product (Ratchford 1987; Vaughn 1980). In this classification, m oti ves to meet utility needs are re ferred to as thinking motives. Thinking motives are different from feeling motiv es, which act to satisfy sensory needs, gratifications a nd social acceptance (Ratchford 1987). Product involvement has been understood as the l e (Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann 1983). The FCB grid is significant and has practical applications in advertising. The FCB grid enables firms to identify crucial considerations when creating advertising. It allows different ways of communicating and classifying product categories

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25 when informing the market. T he FCB grid has four product classes and consumers have different ways of processing information about each individual class. The F CB g rid has f our qu adrants ( F igure 2 1 ). The top left quadrant is high and represen t s thinking involvement products ( for example, a personal computer) that require a large amount of information and thinking about related issues when making a purchase decision The top right quadrant is high and represents feeling involvement products ( for example, when purchasing a diamond necklace). T hese kinds of products are highly involved, similar to the first quadrant; however, emotions or attitudes toward the product are more important than objective information The bottom left quadrant represents low and thinking involvement products ( for example, paper towels) that requir e minimal thought or information and where there is a tendency to form buying habits for convenience. The b ottom r ight quadrant represents the low and feeling involvement products ( for example, chocolates) They are purchased to satisfy personal tastes, without requiring a great deal of information to consider.

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26 Figure 2 1 The FCB g rid Rossiter J. J. et al. (1991). A better advertising planning grid. Journal of Advertising Research. p. 12 In this research st udy, one product was select ed to represent each type of product involvement A d igital SLR camera was the high and thinking involvement product p erfume was t he high and feeling involvement product, regular shampoo was the low and thinking involvement product and diet cola was the low and feeling involvement product. These four products meet the standard s of their product category and have been tested and class ified by previous studies Therefore, this study did not conduct additional measurement s to identify the product categories.

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27 Factors th at I nfluence Individual s L evel of Product I nvolvement Different individuals have different attitudes and feelings towar d the same product. O ne person may like the design and style of a vase, while an other may have contempt for what he or she considers is its tedious pattern design One person may be pleased with the innovative function of a mobile phone, while another may think that it has function s Notably consumers emotional responses to a particular product might change for several reasons and be different in different times For example, one person may like a new laptop; however, he is probably to become d issatisfied after using it for a long time. Factors that cause emotions to change are complicated. An ad for a product may communicate different emotions. These emotions include inspiration, jealousy, and fascination among others. However, products do not communicate mere dislikes ( such as pain or aversion ) and likes ( such as pleasure or attraction ) Individuals always experience a range of emotions in a paradoxical and mixed manner instead of feeling a single emotion about products One person can be plea sed with a car and ex cit ed with its new features but at the same time will experience other emotions, such as being annoyed with its high price and feeling frustrated when unable to afford it. Zaichkowsky (1986) categorized the variables that influence product involvement into two factors : the person al factor and the object factor. Personal f actor Generally, product usage could be a personal factor in product involvement ( Tyebjee 1979) There is a correlation between product involvement and product u sage : product involvement is applicable to an individual in terms of satisfying the needs of that individual (Enge l Kollat & Blackwell 1982). Zaichkowsky (1985) said

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28 individuals who use a product frequently might have more involvement than others who us e the product infrequently Ac cording to Robertson, Zielinski, & Ward (1985), p roduct involvement is als o related to social visibility I f a product has personal relevance or self presentation [ and if] it express pe rsonal status, posit ion, personality and taste, there will be present a high degree of involvement (Robertson, Zielinski, & Ward 1985 p. 45 ). Where c ertain products cause the cons umer to stand out in society there will be a high degree of involvement P ersonal beliefs and culture influence individual feelings about a product and mediat e the degree of involvement Moreover, there is a risk involved in a a product This perceiv ed risk is found to be a precursor of product inv olve ment (Laurent & K apferer 1985 ; Zaichkowsky 1986 ; Mittal 1989) 1979 p. 6 ) The characteristics of a person are an essential constituent of the product knowledge (Celsi & Olson 1988). The produ ct knowledge is made up of knowhow and understanding, where understanding refers to the product related experiences that consumers have developed after some period and knowhow refers to the efficient performance of prod uct related obligations (Alba & Hutch inson 198 7). According to Mishra, Umesh, & more familiar with the class of the product are better placed to assimilate information presented in a more stable manner ( p. 334) When individuals have high product knowledge, the perceived significance of product choice risk is likely to be reduce d (Baker & Lutz 2000). A consumer planning to purchase an unfamiliar product would have perceived risk This perceived risk invol ved in purchasing an unfamiliar

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29 product m ay also evoke high levels of product involvement and result in stronger emotions ( Chaudhuri 2000). When c onsumers are highly involved with a product they are likely to be influenced by consumpt ion situations and s elf concept However, consumers who are not involved with a product are solely influenced by situational f actors instead of self concepts (Xue 2008) In other words, a c with the choice of brand is indicated through brand commitment, while repeat purchase or brand loyalty may simply show reduced effort and simplification of the process of mak ing purchasing decision s (Rodgers, Negash, & Suk 2005). When consumers are strongly attached to a certain product, they usually develop brand co mmitment and high le vels of involvement (Byoungho & Koh 1999). Object f actor T he factor of perceived differentiation of alternatives could be one antecedent of high and low involvement products Korgaonkar & Moschis ( 1982 ) ; Zaichkowsky ( 1986 ) ; and Lauren t & Kapferer (1985) stat e that products with a high price might evoke higher levels of product involvement compar ed with products with a low price. A nother important external factor would be brand factor. Famous brands would cause individuals to have highe r involvement and cause purchase motivation. P erceived risk may be higher for the same product facing follower brand s versus facing a famous brand (Sheth & Venkatesan 1968 ). The last external factor that influences individual s level of involvement to dif ferent product is the media factor or the level of exposure to advertising. To attract more target audiences, e ffective advertising strategies t hat gain more attention should be developed ( Buchholz & Smith 1991; Greenwald & Leavitt 1984; Krugman 1965 )

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30 Emotion Theory Feelings, as mentioned in C hapter 1 are key feature s of emotions. Emotions are geared to actions: angry individuals tend to fight and shout; happy individuals tend to smile and be ex cit ed The role of emotions and emotional behaviors is to express a human state, particularly while relating with the world and surrounding s (Gross 1998). Individuals have mixed emotion s about various product s. These emotion s are directly related to their behavior and evoke the purchasing or non purchasing ac tion. According to previous research, positive emotions about products will cause high product involvement and are likely to lead to purchas ing behavior and create brand loyalty ( Chardhuri 1998) Emotion Relevant T heories and S cales P ast studies have use d a variety of scales to measure emotions. For instance, Plutchik & Kellerman (1974) using an evolutionary perspective identif y primary emotions : fear anger joy, sadness acceptance, disgust expectancy, and surprise (p. 316) To calculat e thes e emotions, they d esigned a tool: the emotion profile index. A shorter version of it was later designed by Holbrook & Westwood (1989) Izard (1977) came up with his own ways of examining emotions. His focus was on the function of the facial muscles in impr oving survival. T he facial muscles of interest were those attached to emotional responses. He came up with a scale for measuring the ten emotions. His differential emotional scale (DES) is presented in f our different forms. His DES II is the most popular. This tool is composed of thirty adjectives and three measures of each of the ten primary emotions. Some authors have criticize d is dominated by negative emotions (Laverie, Kleine, & Kleine 1993; Mano & Oliver 1993; Oliver 1992).

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31 Pleasure Arousal Dominance ( PAD ) T heory Emotions have similarities that enable them to vary along three dimensions (Mehrabian & Russell, 1977; Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum, 1957). These three dimensions are: pleasure displeasure, aroused extreme calm and dom inance submissiveness. Mehrabian and Russell (1974) developed the pleasure arousal dominance (PAD) scale, used to eva luate emotional responses to marketing stimuli. The PAD scale rates the perceived pleasure, arousal, and dominance caused by environmental stimuli. It contains eighteen semantic differential items -six for each category. In context and content, the PAD scales objective is different from scales based on emotion theory. Regarding content the PAD scale differs significantly from other measurin g methods The PAD scale does not measure certain emotions; it measures the perceived pleasure, dominance, and arousal e voked by environmental stimuli ( Mehrabian 1980 ). Conse quently, the PAD scale is best used to gauge the underlying emotional states of s tudy participants, rather than their specific emotions. Emotional Measurement Method: AdSAM Assessing the emotional relationship between advertising and different products and brands is fundamental Subjects rate d the ir emotional connection to several pro ducts using the nonverbal measure called the SAM ( Self Assessment Manikin) ( Morris, Bra dley, Waine, & Lang 1992), a pictorial measure of emotional resp onse ranging from most pleased to most unpleased most arousal to boring, and most dominance to most out of control. I n this study, AdSAM, which is based on the Self Assessment Manikin (SAM) (Lang 1980 ), was used to measure the emotional responses and analyzed the results AdS AM serves the purpose of measuring emotional reactions to marketing

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32 sti muli. It us es a database of 232 adjectives that are scored with SAM w ith the major aim of gaining insight and analyzing the relationships among numerous factors such as attitude, individual curiosity on a given brand, general mind set and individual cogn ition. T he SAM illustrates every dimension of PAD using a certain form of graphic characters arrayed along a continuous nine point scale. Since SAM was developed in three independent, bipolar dimensions, it has been used to describe the complete gamut of human emotions ( arousal, pleasure, and dominance ) (Morris, Woo, Geason, & Kim, 2002) Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum (1957) described them as ev aluation, activity, and potency. Mehrabian & Russell (1974) described them as pleasure, arousal, and dominance. This is a process that combines all the basic emotions and the combinations differ in certain aspects based on the three theories on the gamut of human emotions. All the emotions are defined effectively and sufficiently through the three independent, bipolar d i mensions (Mehrabian & Russell 1974). In these three dimensions, the Self Assessment Manikin (SAM) illustrates the details of PAD dimension with an animation sca le of measure, which is usually an interrupted nine point scale. In the first row, pleasure an d displeasure is from extreme happiness to despondency are represented. The second row represents the intensity of arousal ranging from extreme calm (eyes closed) to full ex citation revealed by open and elevated eyebrows. As to d ominance or submissiveness, that usually illustrates a feeling of power, control, influence or dominance as opposed to a feeling of lack of control submissive, or inability to influence. In most cases, subjects demonstrate how individuals feel by using the PAD s cales (Mehrabian & W etter 1 987) ( Figure 2 2 )

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33 Figure 2 2 SAM (Self Assessment Manikin) ( A large figure represents the maximum control while a minute figure indicates a small amount of control. ) C opyright 1 996, 2012 AdSAM Marketing LLC. All rights reserved. Advantages of SAM Until now, SAM has been accepted and used widely to evaluate emotional responses It was used in various research studies, including effects from advertis ements (Morris, Bradley, Waine, & Lang 1992); photos (International Affective Picture System I APS) (Green wald, Cook, & Lang 1989; Lang et al 1 993) ; and images and audio (Bradley 1994). V erbal response is difficult to measure in most advertising studies. The real meaning expressed through words is perc eptions. For instance, happiness may represen t one emotion to an individual; however, it will become a different emotion to the other. This may change s actual response s of emotion. I t is difficult to translate all the words with the same meaning a nd use one instrument to show its meaning. However, facial expressions are universal and share similar meanings, regardl ess of the language spoken in a given country or culture (Ekman & Friesen 1971 ; Ekman, Sorenson, & Friesen 1969).

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34 The other problem i nvolves using open ended questions for a response on a given ad from a partic ular respondent (Stout & Rust 1986; Stout & Leckenby 1 986). Cognitive processing is needed for both approaches. By contrast SAM, the nonverbal measure, is easier to use and lik ely to eliminate the cognitive processing usually related to oral measures (Edell & Burke 1987; Morris & Waine 1994; Lang 1 980). between rati ngs generated by SAM and by the semantic differential scales used by s, Bradley, Sutherland, & Wei 1 993, Morris, Bradley, Lang, & Waine 1992; Morris & Waine 1 994 p. 9 ). In addition, subjects are able to finish rating on the SAM scale within 15 s econds, thus lessening the time and allowing many stimuli to be tested SAM generally attracts attention and they show more interest than other open end questions (Lang 1985). On every scale, subjects were asked to mark the dot that under the ma nikin or the dot between the manikins that best reflected their emotions or feelings after seeing the stimuli. T herefore, SA M is fit to be used in diverse cultures and countries since it is a no culture barrier and language barrier measurement scale (Br ad l ey, Greenwald, & Hamm 1994; Morris, Bradley, & Wei 1994). Product Involvement with E motions Attitudes are relatively enduring, affectively colored beliefs, preferences, and predispositions toward objects, persons or events ( Russell 2003 p. 167 ). Pr oduct involvement is how consumers see different product categories in conjunction with various feelings, behaviors, and tho ughts (Gordon, McKeage, & Fox 1998). Previously, p roduct involvement was viewed in two different capacities: product

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35 importance (Hu pfer & Gardner 1971; Lastovicka & Gardner 1979 ), and enduring involvement ( B loch 1981). When a consumer plan s to purchase a product, if he has a positive impression and positive emotion s to ward the product, his purchase willingness and behavior w ill be h eightened and he will have more brand loyalty ( Dick & Basu 1994 ; Chaudhuri & Holbrook, 2001 ) These kind s of positive emotions come from previous purchase experiences and the characteristics of consumers, while additional information come s from outside a nd from different brand value s ( Z iethaml 1981 ) Products that are hedonic (that give pleasure because of the quality of the product purchased) mi ght evoke enduring involvement ( H ouston & Rothschild 1978) In contrast, functional or utilitarian products can be very important to a consumer but with less enduringly involvement. For example, the paper tow el is important for consumers T hey use it every day yet they likely have little emotion connected with it. Product I nvolvement with PAD T heory W hen indiv iduals eat chocolates, their perfect expectation emotions are satisfaction, pleasure, e njoyment and happiness. Conversely when a medicine is mentioned individuals may feel negative emotions, such as terrible, unpleas ant and repulsi ve According to Mehra bian & Russell (1974), all the emotional connotations of stimuli could be characterized into three dimensions: pleasure displeasure, degree of arousal and dominance out of control. Pleasure is the key factor that can motivate consumers to have purchase b ehavio rs. Regarding human factors, Jordan (1999) offer s a pleasure based approach, where pleasure with products is seen as the emotional, practical, and hedonic benefits in non arousal constitutes a physiological dimensio n

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36 (Mehrabian, 1980 p. 141 ). Arousal non information rate. In addition, dominance submissiveness relates to sentiments of power, influ ence, or control, as opposed to being powerless or out of control. A combination of different levels of pleasure, dominance, and arousal are essential to describ e any (Russell & Mehrabian, 1977). Products that can cause emoti ons su ch as pleasure or arousal are classified under enduring involvement. Functional products could be highly important to consumers but have less enduring involving Moreove r, situations and other factors ( such as brand influence ) may also influence a consumer Brand Factor Consumer B ased Brand Equity According brand to the product (p. 27) S wait et al (19 93) defin e implicit valuation in a market with various brands, compared to a market without brand differentiation. (p. 42) The customer based perspective shows how the customer perceive s the brand instead of valuing it through numbers. Customer based brand equity relates to how marketing creates a different result in br and knowledge for the consumers. Product I nvolvement with B rand Vaughn (1980) found that high priced products ( in conjunction with self esteem social status, social value, and perceived risk ) require additional informati on and efforts. However, low involvement products need less time to consider, elicit little interest, h ave less risk, and as a result, need less purchase information and effort while customers are

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37 making purchase decisions. When consumers plan to purchase high involvement products, they will pay more attention and spend more time to understand information and advertisements for related products In addition, they will be affected by the situational information or emotion related issues. I nvolvement is a tw o dimensional construct, encompassi ng Traylor 1981 p. 51 ). The point, at which consumers get involved with products based on the function of the products or the influence of the brand is called the utili tarian/value expressive involvement. Previous studies suggest that high product inv olvement is more likely to cause high brand loyalty (Quester & Lim 2003) Some additional values, which are familiar to consumers and are well known brand s for example l e ader brand s have a strong competitive power that can help the low involvement products build brand loyalty L eader brand s play a critical role in building trust with consumers. To consumers, these groups of brands are trustworthy and promise the future an d quality of products. T he follower brand is not as familiar to consumers and the market share of that product is low compared with the leader brand. When customers choose products, they are not familiar with the follower brands and have lots of perceived uncertainty I n that case, they choose leader brands to ensure their hig h quality purchase and decrease the perceived risk. Therefore, brand factor plays a significant role in product i nvolvement and can help the low involvement product gain brand loyalty.

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38 Emotions C onnected with B rand L oyalty When looking at an advertisement or product, positive customer attitudes and evaluations could be supported by trust in an advertisement ( Fuan & Paul 2006) Conversely, negative attitudes or perspectives can cause d istrust. Man y researchers (Ehrenberg et al., 1990 ; Kahn et al., 1986; Ehrenberg, 2000) theorize that repeated purchases c an capture consumer loyalty to the brand. Oliver (1999) found customer satisfaction de veloped through product usage is necessary to f orm loyalty. (p. 34) However, it becomes less important as loyalty forms through other means, such as individual fortitude and social bonding (the degree to which s ociety encourages the consumer to stay loyal). Many researchers fe e l the need to explore a ttitude s s suggested that consumers with more positive emotions for the products and related brands w ould have more brand loyalty. Cultural Factor s Cultural factors play a significant part in determining individual emotions and the level of involvement toward a certain product. Individual values and thoughts change in response to societal influence, personal background, social visibility, and specific culture ( Cohen 2001 ) According to Dawar & Parker (1994), values, norms, and beliefs that appear explicit to a particular social setting are usually referred to as culture. They further contend that a particular culture can be used in defining various but diverse levels of emotions. This is because such e motions vary depending on a given culture. This implies that cultural differences arise as a result of the present methods and normative respon ses of individuals (Mesquith Frijda, & Scherer 1997).

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39 Hosfstede (1997) argu es that the given culture and the gi ven country of individu als are likely to affect emotions, methods of learning, and experiences of individuals as they socialize. Hofsted e s general cultural dimensions are extensively accepted and have been used widely b y numerous marketing researchers wit h the aim of locating and rese arching specific countries ( Dawar & Parker 1994 ; Lynn, Zinkhan & Harris 1993; Roth 1995). H is cultur al dimensions were used to analyze this factor in the present study. S ubject s in this research study were Chinese individu als China has an interesting and special culture. Based on Hofstede s culture dimension s, culture has five aspects: power distance, individualism, m asculinity uncertainty of avoidance and long term orientation. Figure 2 3 Hofstede s China culture d imension s (From 1 for th e lowest to 120 for the high est) Hofstede, G. (2013 ).Retrieved from http://geert hofstede.com/china.html Power distance (PDI) members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that

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40 power is distributed unequ (Hofstede 1991 p. 28) China has a relatively higher score in power distance (80) compar ed to other countries. This reflects that individua ls in societies are not equal and have status differences. Th is society believes that the existence of inequalities among individuals is acceptable. Individuals prefer to choose products that can help them show their societ al status and achievements. Ind i vidualism versus Collectivism (IDV) reflects the extent to which individuals are integrated into grou (Hofstede 1991 p. 51 ). This d imension is the deg ree of interdependence that members have in a society The s ocieties focuse d on individualism, indiv iduals tend to care for their own interests and those of their immediate family members. In collectivist cultures, individuals identify with groups that care for them and work in the interests of the group. China ranks low in individualism, but is a highly collectivist country Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) refers to competitiveness versu s modesty and 1991, p. 82) Wit h a measure of oriented. The need for success is demonstrated by the way Chinese individuals would forego family and leisure activities so that instead they may work. Individuals in the service industry, such as barbers, will provide work until late hours. W hen masculinity is high, individuals tend to de velop self esteem and society status which are usually dominant. This also contributes to symbolic consumption, which is usually prevalent ( De Mooij & Hofstede 2002) and emotional appeals associated with self concept are sought (Tsikriktsis 2002). The i de a that purchasing the latest and most novel products serves as a success substitutes is referred to as a symbolic argument.

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41 Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) The dimension of uncertainty avoidance describes how a society deals with uncertainty of the future a nd whether to control circumstances or to just let things be as they are. In cultures with high uncertainty avoidance, most individuals prefer to stick to the status quo. Conversely, in a culture with low uncertainty avoidance, most individuals usually see k more information to challenge what they believe T his helps them become more or less innovators ( De Mooij & Hofstede 2002; Smith & Bristor 1994). Despite the above intent of low uncertainty avoidance, seeking new ideas can at times prove extremely risk y because individuals may choose to go for established brands. At a score of 30, China is low in terms of uncertainty avoidance. Truth could be relative Although in social circles, individuals are concerned with truth, rules and norms individuals do not want to perceive risk. Long term orientation (LTO) With a measure of 118, the Chinese are highly focused on long term prospects where persistence and perseverance are considered the norm. Relationships in China depend on and are ordered by status, and the rank of status is observed. New traditions and changes are adapted to accommodate new conditions. Thinking focuses on being fully confident or not being confident, which contrasts with low scoring long term oriented nations w ho work in terms of probabilit y. In terms of the culture analysis in Hofstede s five dimensions, Chinese individuals are interested in seeking product information because of their low score of uncertainty avoidance Moreover, Chinese individuals prefer to purchase high price and high q uality products to reflect their social status in terms of their high power distance and masculinity ranking. Individuals like to choose famous brands in high involvement product s and tend to have more brand loyalty to decrease perceived risk.

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42 In addition Chinese customers score high in long term orientation : they pay more attention to the quality of products and expect the investment to have a high payback (the products can be used for a long time or give them a good self concept or high social status). They would have more positive emotions for high end products and leader brands when compar ed to their emotions for low end products and follower brands. Summary C hapter 2 compiled a literature framework of previous theories and studies about product invo lvement emotion theory, the brand factor s, and cultural factor s From these theories and studies, the following information can be concluded Involvements can be classified in different ways : enduring and situational involvement ; advertising product and purchase situation involvement ; cognitive and affective involvement ; and high and low involvement. This study focuse s on product involvement According to the FCB g rid, product involvements fit into four different categories and individuals have mixed em otions connected with each one for several reasons. Individual s level of involvement with a product could be affected by personal factor s and object factor s Customers personal characteristics, the society visual ization of what the product could bring them, the additional brand factor and cultural factor s all influence individual s emotions to some extent. E motion is a key factor that affect s individual s level of involvement with a product motiv ate s individuals to have brand loyalty and create s pur chase behavior in the future. According to the literature, when a consumer has posit ive and stronger emotion s toward a product, he is in high involvement, and is more likely to seek related

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43 information on that product and purchase the product, and is even more likely to be a loyal customer Therefore, it is helpful for advertisers and companies to understand consumers emotion al responses to certain product categories and to develop an effective advertising strategy and marketing position for the product. C hapter 2 examine s emotional theory and method s for measuring emotions. Ad SAM is an effective non verbal measurement method to measure individual s emotions toward product involvement in the pleasure, arousal and dominance dimensions. The section following then analyze s cultural factor s that affect individual s behaviors and emotions. S ubjects in this research study were Chinese students since China has a special culture. It would be interesting to discuss the relation between the cultural dimensions based on H ofstede (1980) and individual emotions connected with products. Chapter 3 discuss es in detail the entire methodology that this study utilizes, including the designing of the survey, the procedure, sample information, the step s of data collecti on an d the method of analyzing the data.

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44 CHAPTER 3 METHOD Chapter 3 intro duces the complete design of the research study and the sample selection of the survey and discusses the measurement scale s and the procedure. Th is study i s guided by phenomenological inquiry. The aim i s to understand the perceptions and relationship s of emotiona l responses from Chinese individuals P henomenology i s an ideal guiding framework as it is committed to understanding the phenomenon from the actor s perspective Hypotheses Th e literature review in C hapter 2 revealed numerous theories and research studies focused on advertising involvement. A f ew of them refer to the three dimensions of emotion that are connected with the product itself and with the possibility of additional br and factor s influenc ing emotional responses. Therefore, this research study focus e s on the product itself and on individual s emotional responses among four different product categories. The goal of this study i s to measure Chinese individual s emotional responses to different product categories under various involvements H igh involvement products connect with stronger emotions and require individuals to spend much time to consider T he purchase behavior of low involvement products takes place without muc h consideration and always less emotional involvement but product usage and its also play a significant role. Furthermore, when individuals purchase thinking products, they need more information to support their decisions T hus ads fo r cognitive products require the obtaining of more information while ads for

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45 affective products can rely on emotional appeal Therefore, the hypotheses were formulated as below : Hypothesis 1. C ognitive involvement products have significantly greater emoti onal responses than do affective involvement products Hypothesis 1a Cognitive involvement products have significantly greater pleasure response than do affective involvement products. Hypothesis 1b. Cognitive involvement products have significantly great er arousal responses than do affective involvement products. Hypothesis 1c. Cognitive involvement products have significantly greater dominance responses than do affective involvement products Hypothesis 2 For the cognitive category high involvement pro ducts have significantly greater emotional responses than do low involvement products Hypothesis 2a. For the cognitive category high involvement products have significantly greater pleasure responses than do low involvement products. Hypothesis 2b. For the cognitive category high involvement products have significantly greater arousal responses than do low involvement products. Hypothesis 2c. For the cognitive category high involvement products have significantly greater dominance responses than do low involvement products Hypothesis 3 For the affective category high involvement products have significantly greater emotional responses than do low involvement products. Hypothesis 3a For the affective category high involvement products have significan tly greater pleasure response s than do low involvement products. Hypothesis 3b. For the affective category high involvement products have significantly greater arousal responses than do low involvement products. Hypothesis 3c. Fo r the affective category high involvement products have significantly greater dominance responses than do low involvement products.

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46 Research Design Methodology To test the model, a web based questionnaire created in on line survey software Qualtrics, https://ufljour.qualtrics.com/ was selected as the research instrument A ll questions were guided and approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board (IRB) The survey was called emotion testing and was sent to subject s via Email and social media S ubjects were given one week to complete the survey. There were two parts to the questionnaire : the first is questions for research study and the second is basic demographic information about the subjects. Data were electroni cally downloaded into a .csv file, which was imported into SPSS software for analysis. Four typical products ( represent ing four different product categories specified in previous studies) were select ed based on FCB grid ( V aughn 1980 ) for doing the survey: An SLR camera represents the high thinking (cognitive) involvement category. Perfume represent s the high feeling (affective) involvement category. Regular sham poo represents the low thinking (cognitive) involvement category. Diet C ola represents the low feeling (affective) involvement category. To assess the quality of the questionnaire, a pre test was taken by a convenient sample of 10 subjects sele cted from among Chinese students of the University of Florida, College of Journalism and Communication. Th e pre test is to test the reliability and validity of the survey The result was evaluated to revise the questionnaire appropriately. Sample Selection All participants c a me from China. Some were international students studying or working in the United Sta tes or other countries The rest are now studying in Chinese

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47 universities or working in China. Chinese students were selected for several reasons. China is a quickly developing country and has a special culture. Consumers in China might have different valu e theories according to the influence of a soci ety and family orient ed culture. It is interesting t o find out how they feel toward four different types of products and to compar e the emotional intensity each product type generates As seen in previous res earch, emotional intensity predicts brand interest and identity and purchase behavior (Morris, Woo Geason, & Kim 2002). Survey Design and Procedure The survey is divided into two parts: the emotion test and the basic demographic information questions. T here are several potential limitations in this research study: the All of the subjects were Chinese students from various universities. To ensure the reliability and feasibility of the research, the entire sample has a similar demographic background and age range The questionnaires were made into Chinese version because it is easier for Chinese subject s to take i t After doing the pre test, the link to the survey was sen t to students randomly selected from the University of Florida and other universities in the United States and China in different major s via social media and emails The students had similar ages and educational backgrounds. The entire survey process took about one week. T he questionnaire begins with a few i ntroductory instruction s of the survey and SAM scale. The first row of figures is the pleasure /displeasure scale, which ranges from extreme happy, with a smiling face to extreme unhappy, with a fro wning face. The middle row is the arousal scale, which ranges from extremely calm with eyes closed

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48 manikin to extremely excited with eyes open manikin The last row is the dominance scale from a tiny figure which indicates less power and control to a lar ge figure represents full of power and maximum control ( Figure 3 1 ). This research study chose this measure scale because emotions are difficult to measure and define Individuals from different countries might have different translations for the same word However, a SAM picture can represent almost the same emotion worldwide and can convey the meaning of the emotions accurately. Figure 3 1 The AdSAM Scale C opyright 1996, 2012 AdSAM Marketing LLC. All rights reserved. Before t he survey began the i nstrument and clear definition of each scale w ere given to the subject to avoid potential confounding variables and meaningless results. Four representative products were selected to be the stimul i S ubjects used the pleasure, arousal and dominance scales to exp ress the first feeling while using or seeing each product. Questions resembled in following: How do you feel about ? How do es____ make you feel like?

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49 After the subjects saw the product, they were supposed to give their immediate emotional respo nse to the product In this survey, the independent variables were different level s of involvement in four product categories according to FCB grid (V aughn 1980 ) The dependent variables were individual s emotions in three dimensions: pleasure, arousal an d dominance. Data Collection The complete data collecti on proce ss lasted a week and a half and 435 responses were received of which 301 are valid and counted into the final analysis for the hypotheses Q uestionnaires returned with incomplete or invalid a nswers were eliminated to avoid potential confusion Data R ecoding P rocess and A nalysis T echnique R esults data were input into the SPSS for analysis. To ensure the accuracy of the data, the scale was changed in the questionnaire. A fter putting all the dat a into the SPSS, there was a recoding process in pleasure and arousal dimensions before analyzing the data. T he score of some dimension s also need ed some change s O n the pleasure and arousal scales, s ele ction to the far left represents a s core of 9 and far right represents a s core of 1. In the dominance scale, s election to the far left represents a s core of 1 and far right a score of s core 9. This research compar es answers to one questions to their answers to other questions so i t is a repeate d measures design. In the analysis, the repeated measure was selected under the general linear model to measure significance. Summary Chapter 3 discussed the methodology used in the research study and the hypotheses of this paper. The goal of the research is to measure Chinese individual s

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50 emotional responses toward four different product categories. Moreover, it measures whether a significant difference exists between cognitive and affective in volvement product s high cognitive involvement product s and low cognitive involvement products and high affective involvement products and low affective involvement products. The method that this study used was a survey, a nd the target subjects were Chinese students who had similar demographic information. A fter rec eiving the data SPSS was used to analyze the data and measure the hypotheses The results are discussed in Chapter 4

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51 C HAPTER 4 R ESULTS AND ANALYSIS D ata from the survey were cleared and analyzed in detail by SPSS according to the hypotheses. These ana lyses measure d whether significant differences existed in individuals emotional responses to different product involvements A repeated measure analysis was conduct ed and the results were considered significant at (p<0.05). Statistical Methods and Data A nalysis Demographic Findings The sample for the survey was 301 Chinese students ages 17 to 30, of whom 187 were international students studying or working in United States, 99 were studying or working in China, a nd 15 have relocated to o ther countries. O f the 301 students : 163 were male and 138 were female. All of them were attending a university and pursuing degrees from undergraduate to doctoral. One hundred thirty one (131) students were employed Of the 436 individuals who responde d to the survey, 13 5 individuals did not finish and therefore their data were unusable. Thus, t he final sample was 301 Results Nine hypotheses were tested for difference. The results are as follows: Hypothesis 1. C ognitive involvement products have significantly greater emotional responses than do affective involvement products Products in the cognitive involvement category include d Digital SLR camera s and regular sh ampoo. The affective involvement product category include d perfume and diet cola. T he pleasure scores of the D igital SLR camera and regular shampoo were added together and divided by two to get the mean pleasure value of cognitive involvement product s. T he pleasure score of perfume and diet cola were also added

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52 together and divided by two to gain the m ean ple asure score of affectiv e involvement product s T he mean scores of arou sal and dominance for cognitive in volvement products and affective involvement product s were obtained in the same manner. A repeated measure was then used under the general linear model to compare the mean values and conduct the analysis. Based on the questionnaire, t he directional values of the pleasure and arousal dimension s ranged from 9 to 1, dominance dimension ranged from 1 to 9, where 9 represented the highest score in each dimensi on and 1 represented the lowest. There was a recoding process in pleasure and arousal dimensions. Table 4 1 Analysis Results of Cognitive and Affective Involvement Products Source Cognitive Involvement Product s Affective Involvement Product s Si g Pleas ure 6.985 5.879 .000 Arousal 5.566 5.022 .000 Dominance 5.535 5.507 NS df=1, F=102.848, p=.000 df=1, F=25.038, p=.000 df=1, F=.069, p=.793 Hypothesis 1a Cognitive involvement products have significantly greater pleasure response s than do affective involvement products. The study compared subjects pleasure responses toward cognitive involvement product category with affective involvement product category. Based on F igure 4 1 the results of a repeated measures analysis of variance within subjects effect s : F=102.848, df=1, p=0.000 was significant (p <0.05 is significant). According to mean value analysis for the different pleasures scores, the mean value of pleasure for cognitive involve ment product wa s 6.985, which wa s significantly different from the pleasure score for affective involvement product s ( 5.879 ) Moreover, according to the coding system, the higher the score, the stronger the emotion wa s. In th is case, Chinese individuals tend ed

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53 to have stronger pleasure responses to cognitive involveme nt product s than they do to affective involvement products. Therefore, the data support ed Hypothesis 1a. Hypothesis 1b. Cognitive involvement products have significantly greater arousal responses than do affective involvement products. According to the ab ove SPSS data analysis, the directional values of the arousal scores designed in questionnaire were on a scale from 9 to 1 where 9 represent ed the highest arousal score and 1 represent ed the lowest arousal score. The results of a repeated measures analysi s of variance: within subjects effects (subject s arousal response to cognitive involvement product category and affective involvement product category) : F=25.038, df=1, p=0.000 (p<0.05) wa s significant. In addition the mean value of the arousal score for cognitive involvement product s wa s 5.566, which wa s significantly different from the arousal score for affective involvement product s of 5.022 T he confidence interval was 95%. T he arousal score for cognitive involvement products wa s higher than that of a ffective involvement product. This support ed Hypothesis 2a, which state d that there would be a significant difference between cognitive and affective involvement products in arousal response. Hypothesis 1c. Cognitive involvement products have significantl y greater dominance responses than do affective involvement products. Based on the data analysis above, the directional values of the dominance scores designed in questionnaire were on a scale of 1 to 9 where 1 represent ed the lowest dominance score and 9 represent ed the highest. The results of a repeated measures analysis of variance: the test of within subjects effects ( compared the dominance response between cognitive involvement product category and

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54 affective involvement product category ) was F=0.069, df=1, p= 0.793 (>0.05) was insignificant (p <0.05 is significant). The mean value analyses for the different dominance scores for cognitive and affective involvement products were conducted. The mean value of dominance for the cognitive involv ement product s wa s 5.535, which wa s not significantly greater than th e dominance score for affective involvement product s ( 5.507 ) This evidence indicate d that the H ypothesis 1c wa s not supported. There would not be a significant difference between cogniti ve involvement products and affective involvement products in dominance response s In summary H ypothes e s 1a and 1b were supported but 1c wa s not. C ognitive involvement products had significantly greater emotional responses than affective involvement pro ducts o n pleasure and arousal dimension s, but no difference wa s found on the dominance dimension. In a ddition, among the three dimensions, Chinese individuals tend ed to have more positive and arousing emotions toward cognitive involvement product s than the y d id to a ffective involvement pro ducts. Hypothesis 2 For the cognitive category high involvement products have significantly greater emotional responses than do low involvement products In Hypothesis 2, two cognitive involvement products were selecte d to represent the high involvement and low i nvolvement product s re spectively. In this study, the D igital SLR camera wa s a high cognitive involvement product and the regul ar shampoo wa s a low cognitive involvement product. The survey collected the scores fo r (Table 4 2). Based on the questionnaire, t he directional values of the pleasure and arousal dimension

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55 scores range d from 9 to 1 dominance dimension score ranged from 1 to 9, where 1 rep resent ed the lowest score a nd 9 represent ed the highest. The same recoding process had been done in pleasure and arousal dimensions. As related t o this hypothesis, the pleasure, arousal and dominance scores of the D igital SLR camera s and regular shampoo w ere compared R epeated measures were used under the general linear model for analy sis. Table 4 2 Analysis Results of Digital SLR Camera and Regular Shampoo Source Digital SLR camera Regular shampoo Sig Pleasure 7.316 6.654 .000 Arousal 5.910 5.223 .0 00 Dominance 5.532 5.538 NS df=1, F=29.379, p=.000 df=1, F=18.467, p=.000 df=1, F=.002, p=.964 Hypothesis 2a. For the cognitive category high involvement products have significantly greater pleasure responses than do low involvement products. T he res ult of repeated measure analysis of variance was : the test of within subjects effects ( compar ed Digital SLR camera and regular shampoo in pleasure) was F=29.379, df=1, p=0.000 was significant (p <0.05 is significant). In the mean value analysis for the di fferent pleasure scores, the confidence interval wa s 95%. The mean value of pleasure for the D igital SLR camera was 7.316 (a high pleasure score) w hile the pleasure score for regular shampoo was 6.654. Th us, t he high cognitive involvement product s had a s ignificant ly different and higher pleasure score than the low cognitive involvement product s had Moreover, the high cognitive involvement p roduct s produced significantly stronger emotional response than the low cognitiv e involvement products on the pleasu re factor. Therefore, H ypothesis 2a was supported.

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56 Hypothesis 2b. For the cognitive category high involvement products have significantly greater arousal responses than do low involvement products. The results support ed Hypothesis 2b. For the cognitive category there would be a significant difference in arousal responses between high involvement products and low involvement products. T he results of a repeated measure analysis of variance were as follows : the test of within subjects effects (compared Dig ital SLR camera and regular shampoo in arousal) was F=18.467, df=1, p=0.000 ( p <0.05 is significant ) T he mean arousal score for the D igital SLR camera wa s 5.910, which wa s significantly higher than the arousal score for regular shampoo of 5.223. Moreover, Chinese individuals had stro nger emotional responses toward the high cognitive involvement product s on the arousal dimension. Hypothesis 2c. For the cognitive category high involvement products have significantly greater dominance responses than do low i nvolvement products According to the above figure s the data on within subjects effects (compared the dominance response between Digital SLR camera and regular shampoo) show ed these two variables did not differ significantly ( F=0.002, df=1, p=0.964 (>0.05 ) (p <0.05 is significant). T he mean value of dominance for the D igital SLR camera was a neutral score of 5.532, which was not significantly different from the dominance score for the regular shampoo ( 5.538 ), Thus, H ypothesis 2c was not supported. For the cognitive category there would not be a significant difference in dominance response s between high involvement products and low involvement products In conclusion, H ypothes es 2a and 2b were supported, but H ypothesi s 2c was not. For high and low cognitiv e involvement products the emotional responses had

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57 significant differences in terms of the pleasure and arousal dimensions but tend to have similar dominance score s In the emotional intensity area individuals had much stronger emotion s toward high cogn itive involvement product s compar ed with their emotions toward low cognitive involvement product s in both pleasure and arousal. Neutral emotion scores were found for dominance. Hypothesis 3 For the affective category high involvement products have signi ficantly greater emotional responses than do low involvement products. H ypothesis 3 disc usse d the relationship between high involvement products and low invo lvement products in the affective category The two affective involvement products selected were pe rfume and diet cola to represent the high and lo w involvement product s, respectively. The survey documented the scores for emotional responses toward these two specific products. The directional values of the pleasure and arousal dimension sc ores were on a scale from 9 to 1 dominance dimension score was on a scale from 1 to 9, where 1 represent ed the lowest score in pleasure and 9 represent ed the highest. The analysis of this hypothesis was similar to that of H ypothesis 2 T he pleasure, arous al and dominance scores of perfume and diet cola were compared After the recoding process, t he repeated measures under the general linear model were used to analyze the data. Table 4 3 Analysis Results of Perfume and Diet Cola Source Perfume Diet cola S ig Pleasure 6.764 4.993 .000 Arousal 5.698 4.346 .000 Dominance 5.362 5.651 NS df=1, F=102.249, p=.000 df=1, F=56.800, p=.000 df=1, F=2.552, p=.111 Hypothesis 3a For the affective category high involvement products have significantly greater ple asure response s than do low involvement products.

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58 According to Table 4 3 H ypothesis 3a was supported. The results of a repeated measures analysis of variance were as follows : the test of within subjects effects (compared the pleasure response between perf ume and diet cola ) : F=102.249, df=1, p=0.000 is significant. A ccording to mean values analysis for pleasure for perfume and diet cola (p <0.05 ) was significant. The mean value of pleasure for perfume was 6.764, which was much higher and greatly different t han the score of pleasure for diet cola ( 4.993 ) The data support ed H ypothesis 3 a that pleasure emotion in high affective involvement product s was significantly greater than the low affective involvement product s Hypothesis 3b. For the affective category high involvement products have significantly greater arousal responses than do low involvement products. H ypothesis 3b was supported on the basis of the results of a repeated measures analysis of variance: within subjects effects (compared the arousal re sponse between perfume and diet cola) : F=56.800, df=1, p=0.000 (<0.05) was significant. The mean values analysis for the two different arousals scores were as follows : arousal for perfume was 5.698 and arousal for diet cola was 4.346. These two mean value s had a significant difference. Furtherm ore, arousal toward high affective involvement product s is much stronger than it is for the low affective involvement product s Hypothesis 3c. Fo r the affective category high involvement products have significantly greater dominance responses than do low involvement products. In terms of the data show n in table 4 3 the test of within subjects effects (compared the dominance response between perfume and diet cola) show ed that F=2.552, df=1.p=0.111 was not significant (p<0.05 is significant). The mean value of

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59 perfume wa s 5.362, which wa s not significantly differen t than the diet cola mean value of 5.651. Hence, H ypothesis 3c wa s not supported. There was not a significant difference in dominance responses between high and low affe ctive involvement product s In summary, H ypothesis 3a and 3b were supported. Between high affective involvement products and low affective involvement product s there was a significant difference in pleasure and arousa l scores However, H ypoth esis 3c was not supported T here was no difference in the dominance between high and low affective involvement products Moreover, regarding emotional intensity, subjects had much stronger and more positive emotional responses to high affective i nvolvement products than they had to low affective involvement product s in both of the pleasure and arousal dimensions. Summary Based on the analysis, Hypotheses 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, and 3b were all supported by data. Hypotheses 1c, 2c, and 3c, on the other hand, wer e not supported. I n other words, individuals have different emotional responses in pleasure and arousal toward cognitive involvement and affective involvement products as well as high involvemen t and low involvement products, but not in dominance. The PAD scores are run through the AdSAM model and results are displayed in t he perceptual map (Figure 4 1) There are four parts in this map, which are the high appeal /low engagement feelings (positive, but unmotivated), high appeal/ high engagement feelings (str ong involvement and interest), low appeal / low engagement feelings (uninterested and negative feeling), and low appeal / high engagement feelings (intense negativity, strong negative motivation) According to the map, the cognitive involvement category (P : 6.99, A: 5.57, D: 5.54) and the affective involvement category

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60 (P: 5.88, A: 5.02, D: 5.51) are both in the high appeal / high engagement feelings quadrant, and the emotion are wholesome and mature. However, the cognitive involvement category has more pos itive emotion and higher engagement than affective involvement category. In hypothesis 2 and 3, the perceptual map states that the emotion for the Digital SLR camera (P: 7.32, A: 5.91, D: 5.53) is stronger, and has higher level engagement than the regular shampoo (P: 6.65, A: 5.22, D: 5.54) The emotion of the diet cola (P: 4.99, A: 4.35, D: 5.65) tends to be neutral and has feeling as aloof. It has much less engagement than the perfume (P: 6.76, A: 5.7, D: 5.36). Figure 4 1. The Perceptual Map C opy right 1 996, 2012 AdSAM Marketing LLC. All rights reserved.

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61 These difference s show that cognitive involvement products are strong er in pleasure and arousal than affective involvement products are. For both of the cognitive and affective categories, high in volvement products are stronger in pleasure and arousal than low involvement products are. In the dominance, the emotions are similar between the compared factors. Chapter 5 will discuss the finding, the implications for theories of advertising, brand lo y alty, and purchase motivation and future research direction.

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62 CHAPTER 5 C ONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS Chapter 5 includes the major findings resulting from this research study the limitations, and the direction for future research. The goal o f this study was to discuss the relationship between Chinese individuals emotions in three dimensions by products delineated by product involvements According to the statistical results, differences existed between cognitive and affective involvement pr oducts high and low involvement products on the emotion dimensions of pleasure and arousal, but not dominance Discussion of findings and results Results in hypotheses According to the analysis covered in Chapter 4 t he results of this study show that Hy potheses 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a and 3b are supported. However, Hypotheses 1c, 2c and 3c are not supported. Hypothesis 1 In H ypothesis 1, individuals emotional responses toward cognitive involvement products in pleasure and arousal dimension have significant d ifferences in regards to affective involvement products. However, in the dominance dimension, this difference is not significant and the subjects tend to get similar responses scores. I n terms of Hypothesis 1a and 1b, subjects have much higher scores in co gnitive involvement products than affective involvement products, which means the pleasure and arousal emotions are much stronger and more positive when they face functional products. Although the dominance score tends to be neutral, the dominance score fo r cognitive involvement products is a little bit higher than that of the affective

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63 involvement products. In summary, individuals have stronger emotions toward cognitive products co mpared with affective products. Hypothesis 2 The results of H ypothesis 2 sh ow that Chinese individuals are more likely to have stronger and positive emotions on pleasure and arousal to the cognitive high involvement product s than the cognitive low involvement product s However, the dominance scores toward these two groups of prod ucts are similar and produce no significant difference. Hypothesis 3 According to SPSS data analysis subjects have much higher and stronger emotions toward affective high involvement product s than the affective low involvement product s in the pleasure and arousal dimensions, but similar scores in the dominance factor. Findings First, Chinese individuals have stronger and more positive emotions toward cognitive involvement products than they have toward affective involvement product. Previous research found that a cognitive involvement product would be important to individuals, but cause less enduring involvement than the affective involvement product. However, the results of this research study show the opposite. The cause for this different result cou ld be the cultural factors that Chinese individuals have low scores in uncertainty and prefer to seek information of products. They will devote much more effort and attention with no pr actical qualities A dditionally, Chinese individuals have stronger and more positive emotions toward the high involvement product s when compared with low involvement product s in both the cognitive and affective area. This result supports the theory that a consumer

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64 with higher product involvement will have positive emotions compared with low product involvement (Tr aylor 1981; Park 1996; I wasaki & Havitz 1998). According to a prior e the personal characteristics, product usage, social visibility, perceived risk, brand factor s cultural fact ors and the influence of society. It is also interesting in terms of the special culture in China. Individuals prefer high priced products to refl ect their societ al status as shown by high score s in power distance and masculinity Individuals in China prefer high priced products or famous brand s to avoid the risk in accord with their low rank of UAI ( Hofstede 1991 ) Moreover, they trust brand a nd think the higher the price, the better the qualit y has the product. They have stronger and positive emotions connected with high involvement products. Consequently, i t is important for the advertisers and companies to under stand this culture and the s pe cific emotions it connects with products. In advertisement, it is better to pack the products into a high end product and use a n information strategy to attract consumers attention. Implications for theory and practice The findings of this study contribu te to assisting advertiser develop effective advertising strategies for Chinese audiences based on their emotional responses toward different products involvements. A dvertisement According to previous research, consumers will have positive attitude s and better product loyalty only when the information is objective and persuasive. C onsumers have stronger emotions toward high involvement products T herefore, they will pay more attention and spend more effort to understand products and the related advertisem ent information, and will be less aroused with low involvement product Further, they are

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65 less likely to have extreme behaviors. Petty et al. (1983) found that individuals under high involvement conditions will elaborate the information through the central route, and would be persuaded by product related information. Individuals in a low involvement situation will elaborate the data via a peripheral route, with their attitudes determined by emotional appeal instead of objective information Consumers purch ase behavior depends more on feeling s and emotions and they are attracted by emotional appeals in an advertisement. Rossiter & Percy (1997) foun d tha t emotional authenticity strategies work best for low involvement products. (p. 7) Consumers have negati ve emotions toward products or related advertisements; they will also have a negative impression and attitude toward the brands in a low involvement environment In contrast high involvement products are best suited to the information strategy instead o f the emotional appeal since individuals are expected to understand and explore to find more information. Chinese consumers have more positive and stronger emotions with cognitive involvement products than with affective involvement products and with hig h involvement products than with low involvement products. They prefer informational advertisement strateg y than the emotional appeal one. The advertisement, which reflects the social status, the high end product information will be effective strategy for reach ing customers and get them involved B rand L oyalty Many studies have made claims about t he relationship between brand loyalty and level of involvement. High involvement is more likely to cause high level of brand loyalty. Positive and arousing emotio ns are connected to high involveme nt. I f consumers have positive emotions with products, they might be more likely to have

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66 brand loyalty and get involved with the products. Moreover, the power of the brand (an external factor) emotion al connection with the product and individuals brand loyalty. M ore studies and experiments are needed to test the hypothesis. P urchase Mo tivation and B ehavior Consumers make purchasing decisions for several reasons. Richins & Block (1986) found th at consumers highly committed to a certain product or in a high involvement situation would find the products or brands interesting and develop attitudes to always purchase them regardless of the buying terms. These interests and positive emotions are dev eloped from the way consumers perceive these products in satisfying their needs and wants. On the other hand individuals who buy cognitive products need more information related to the products, and those who buy affect ive products need the influence of related emotions. Thu s, a strong, logical argument and brand factors are effective for high involvement products. In contrast, emotional appeal and attractiveness were more persuasive for low involvement products, Indiv iduals make purchase decisions of low involvement in terms of their hobbie s, interests or the function of the products; they do not care about the brand. Robertson (1976) state s t hat nsumer is not buying the same brand out of strong preferences, but bec (p. 20) under low involvement situation. Limitations The following limitations in this research study may have affected the results and findings. The research sample was a convenient sample. It might be narrow and limited

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67 in geographical location and oth er demographic backgrounds. Results may not be representative of other countries. The selection of the products to represent different classification of product involvements is random and may not be representative. This may influence the results of this re search study. Respondents could easily fail to remember the description of three emotional dimensions when they do the survey since they cannot go back to the previous page This may influence the accuracy of the research study. Direction of F urther R esea rch This study examine s emotional responses in three dimensions ( pleasure, arousal, and dominance ) among different classifications of product categories. We wondered how brand factor s influence emotional responses. Individuals have certain emotions towar d product categories. W ould these emotion scores change for products with additional brands? How would the leader brand and follower brand influence individuals emotion? Moreover, we wondered how individuals emotion al responses to products would affect p urchase inten t ion and behavior What is the relationship between attitudes and behavior ? Additional research could focus on the relations hip between ad messages or strategies and individuals emotional responses to different product categories Summary In closing, the aim of this research study was to measure Chinese individuals emotional responses to different products in four classifications of product involvement. Results showed that Chinese individuals have stronger emotions connected with cognitive i nvolvement product s than with affective involvement product s and also more

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68 positive emotions with hig h involvement product s than the low involvement products. These results are consistent with China s special culture. Understanding emotion al connect ion with products is important and can help advertisers develop more effective advertising strategies for their target audience to get involved It could also help us better understand brand loyalty purchase motivation and purchase habits.

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69 APPEN DIX QUESTIONNAIRE : : 10 : : : : : 781 333 9191. Email huxiying113@yahoo.com.cn : Jon D. Morris 352 392 0443 Email jmorris@jou.ufl.edu : U niversity of F lorida (The Instituti onal Review Board (IRB))

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70 University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250. : irb2@ufl.edu 392 0433 AdSAM AdSAM AdSAM AdSAM

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71 AdSAM 1. Q1. Q2.

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72 2. Q3. Q4

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73 3. Q5. Q6. 4. Q7 Q 8

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74 Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12 Q13

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75 Q14

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76 LIST OF REFERENCES Alba, J. W., & Hutchinson, J. W. ( 1987 ) Dimensions of consumer expertise. Journal of Consumer Research 13( 3 ) 411 454. Andrews, J. C., Srinivas, D., & Syed, H. A. (1990). A framework for conceptualizin g and measuring the involvement construct in advertising research. Journal of A dvertising, 19, 4, 27 40 Antil, J. H. (1984). Conceptualization and operationalization of involvement. Advances in Consumer Research, 11 203 209 Baker, W. E., & Richard J. L (2000). An empirical test of an updated relevance a cce ssibility model of advertising e ffectiveness. Journal of Advertising, 29, 1 14. Batra, R., & Ray, M. L. (1986). Affective responses mediating acceptance of a dvertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 1 3 Bloch, P. H. (1981). An e xploration into the scaling of consumers' involvement with a product c lass. Advances in Consumer Research, 8 61 65. Bradley R H. ( 1994 ) The HOME Inventory: review and reflections. In Advances in Child Development and Behavi or ed. H Reese, 241 88. San Diego, CA: Academic Bradley, M. M., Greenwald, M. K, & Hamm, A. O. (1994). Affective picture processing. Psycho physiological, Cognitive, and Clinical Aspects N. Birbaumer and A. Ohman, eds. Toronto: Hugute Huber. Brisoux, J. & Cheron, E. (1990) Brand categorization and product involvement. Advances in Consumer Research 17, 101 109. Buchholz, L. M., & Smith, R. E. (1991). The role of consumer involvement in determining cognitive response to broadcast advertising. Journal of Advertising, 20 4 17 Burke, M. C., & Edell, J. A. (1989). The impact of feelings on ad based affect and cognition. Journal of Marketing Research 26, 69 83 hedonic s hopping values. Journal of Consumer Studies, 10 67 84. Celsi, R.L. & Olson, J.C. (1988) The role of involvement in attention and comprehension processes. Journal of Consumer Research 15,9, 211 224. Chaudhuri, A. (2000). A macro analysis of the relation ship of product involvement and information search: the role of risk. Journal of Marketing, 8, 1 15

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78 Engel, J. F., Kollat, D. T., & Blackwell, R. D. (1982). Consumer behavior. Chicago: Dryden. Englis, B. G. (1990). Consumer emotional reactions to television advertising and their effects on message recall. Emotion in advertising: Theoretical and practical explorations 231 253 New York: Quorum. Farquhar, P. H. (1989) Managing brand equity. Marketing Research 1(3) 24 33. Friedstad, M., & Thorson, E. (1986). Emotional eliciting a dvertising: effect on long term memory and j udgment. Advances in Consumer Research, 13, 111 115. Fuan, L ., & Paul W. M. (2006). On the potential of advertising to facilitate trust in the advertised b rand. Journal of Advertising, 35 (4), 101 1 1 2. Geuens, M ., De Pelsmacker, P., & Faseur, T. (2011). Emot ional advertising: revisiting the role of product c ategory. Journal of Business Research, 64, 418 426. Gordon M E McKeage K & Fox M A (1998). Relationship marketing effectiveness: The role of involve ment. Psychol. Mark, 15(5) 443 459. Greenwald, A. G., & Leavitt, C. (1984). Audience Involvement in advertising: Four levels. Journal of Consumer Research 11(1) 581 592 Greenwald, M. K., Cook, E. W., & Lang, P. J. (1989). Affective judgment and psychop hysiological response: Dimensional covariation in the evaluation of pictorial stimuli. Journal of Psychophysiology 3 51 64. Gross, J. J. ( 1998 ) Antecedent and response focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and p hysiology. Journal of personality and social psychology 74(1), 224. Havitz, M.E., & Howard, D.R. (1995). How enduring is enduring involvement? A seasonal examination of three recreational activities. Journal of Consumer Psychology 4 255 76. Ha, Y., & Le nnon, S. J. (2010). Online visual merchandising (VMD) cues and consumer pleasure and arousal: Purchasing vs. browsing situation. Psychology & Marketing, 27 (2), 141 165. Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. London: McGraw H ill. Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. London: Mc Graw Hill.

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85 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Xiying Hu was born in Shanghai, China. She earned a b achelor s degree in advertising from Shanghai University in 2009 and worked as a research assistant. She received a m aster s degree in corporate and organization communication from Northeaste rn University ( Boston ) in 2011. She then studied at the University of Florida earning another master s degr ee in advertising. She worked at the Qiantang Decoration Company, and emba rk ed on her advertising agency career at the Y oung & R ubicam / Wunderman advertising agency in Shanghai in 2008.