<%BANNER%>

The Third U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The Third U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue a Contrastive Study of Chinese and American Newspaper News Reporting
Physical Description:
1 online resource (70 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Zhang, Xinyi
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.A.M.C.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Mass Communication, Journalism and Communications
Committee Chair:
Wanta, Wayne M
Committee Members:
Roberts, Churchill L, Iii
Rodgers, Ronald

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
cda -- comparative -- discourse -- news
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
This study compares the news coverage of the third U.S-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue (S&ED) by the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal and China Daily from May 8 to 11, 2011. By examining how Chinese and American newspapers report the same event differently, the study aims to uncover the reasons behind the difference from the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Based on the three-dimensional model of Fairclough, together with Halliday's systemic functional grammar (SFG) as an analytic tool, a detailed and specific exploration of the news discourse was conducted so as to find the hidden ideologies from the different perspectives of the three newspapers. The present study conducts a qualitative analysis. During the research, CDA was found helpful to reveal the correlation between language, power, and hidden ideologies, namely, how language reflects power and ideology, or how the latter influence language.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Xinyi Zhang.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local:
Adviser: Wanta, Wayne M.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID:
UFE0045970:00001

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The Third U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue a Contrastive Study of Chinese and American Newspaper News Reporting
Physical Description:
1 online resource (70 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Zhang, Xinyi
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.A.M.C.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Mass Communication, Journalism and Communications
Committee Chair:
Wanta, Wayne M
Committee Members:
Roberts, Churchill L, Iii
Rodgers, Ronald

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
cda -- comparative -- discourse -- news
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
This study compares the news coverage of the third U.S-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue (S&ED) by the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal and China Daily from May 8 to 11, 2011. By examining how Chinese and American newspapers report the same event differently, the study aims to uncover the reasons behind the difference from the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Based on the three-dimensional model of Fairclough, together with Halliday's systemic functional grammar (SFG) as an analytic tool, a detailed and specific exploration of the news discourse was conducted so as to find the hidden ideologies from the different perspectives of the three newspapers. The present study conducts a qualitative analysis. During the research, CDA was found helpful to reveal the correlation between language, power, and hidden ideologies, namely, how language reflects power and ideology, or how the latter influence language.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Xinyi Zhang.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local:
Adviser: Wanta, Wayne M.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID:
UFE0045970:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

1 T HE T HIRD U. S C H I NA S T R ATE G IC A ND ECONO M IC DI AL O G UE: A CON T RA S T I V E S T U D Y O F C H INE S E A ND A M ERICAN N E W SPA PER N E W S RE P OR T ING By X IN Y I ZHANG A T H E SIS P RE S E N T E D T O T HE G RAD U A TE SC H O O L OF T HE UNIVERS I T Y OF FL O RIDA IN PA R TI A L FUL F I LL M E N T OF T HE RE Q UIREM E N T S FOR T HE DE G R EE O F M AS T ER OF A R TS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 20 1 3

PAGE 2

2 2 0 1 3 X in y i Zh an g

PAGE 3

3 T o m y Mom

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS g rat e f u l to a ll th e f a c u lty an d s ta ff o f t h e C o l l e g e o f J o u rn a l i sm a n d Com mun ic a ti ons f r o m w ho m I h a v e a c q u i r e d p le n ty o f s u p po rt a n d he lp. Fi r st o f a l l I m re a l l y a pp recia t e d t o m y c ha ir Dr. W a n t a w h o h a s g i v e n m e p a ti e n t g u id an c e an d a n a mo u n t o f u s e f u l s u gg e sti on s. T h a n ks t o h is in v a lu ab l e h e lp, I ha v e m a d e e f f o rt in w o rk i n g o n th e p e rfec t ion o f t h e t h e sis. I a lso w an t t o t han k Dr. C l ea r y D r Ro d g e rs, an d Dr. Ro b e rts. T h e ir b re ad th o f v is i on s o f k no w le d g e a n d s t r i ct a t t it u d e in re s ea rch h a s d e e p ly i mp ress e d m e du r i n g t h e p roc e ss o f t h e sis w r i ti n g. A n d l a s t, I w ou ld l i ke t o t h an k m y pa re n t s I w ou ld no t c om p le t e m y s tud y in t h e U.S. w it hou t t he ir f in an cial s up p o rt, p a ti e n c e an d l o v e

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 R esea r c h Ba c k grou n d ................................ ................................ ............................ 11 Re sea r c h P urpo s e a n d S ignifi ca n c e ................................ ................................ ....... 15 2 L I T ER A T U R E RE V IE W ................................ ................................ .......................... 17 N e w s Di s c ourse ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 17 Fe a t u r e s of N e w s Di s c ourse ................................ ................................ ............ 17 Soc i olo g y of N e w s M ak ing ................................ ................................ ............... 18 Soc i o Co g nit i v e Th e o r y ................................ ................................ ........................... 21 Soc i o c ogni t i v e A pp r oa c h ................................ ................................ ................. 21 Soc ia l R e pr e se n t a ti o ns ................................ ................................ ..................... 22 The L a y e rs of Soc io c ogni t i v e A pproa c h ................................ .......................... 22 C D A Re sea r c h on N e w s ................................ ................................ ................... 23 Criti ca l D i sc our s e A n a l y s is ................................ ................................ ...................... 24 St u di e s of C D A ................................ ................................ ................................ 24 K e y T e rms of C D A ................................ ................................ ........................... 28 Di sc ourse ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 28 Id e olo g y ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 29 P o w e r ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 30 Fairclough'sThree Dimensional Model ................................ ................................ 32 A Bri e f Intr o ductio n of F a ir c lough's Th r ee Dim e ns i onal Mo d e l ......................... 33 De sc ription ................................ ................................ ................................ 34 Interpr e tation ................................ ................................ .............................. 37 E x pl a nation ................................ ................................ ................................ 38 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 40 Data c ol l ec tion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 40 A n a l y s is m e t h ods ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 41

PAGE 6

6 4 C R I T ICAL A NA L Y SIS OF N E W S R EPO R T S ................................ ......................... 43 Description ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 43 M a ter ia l Pro c e s s ................................ ................................ ............................... 43 The A ppli ca tion of Mo d a l it y W ords ................................ ................................ ... 44 Interpr e tation ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 47 Reporting modes ................................ ................................ .............................. 47 N e w s s ou r c e ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 49 E x pl a nation ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 50 In s ti t u t ion a l c on t ex t ................................ ................................ ........................... 50 Soc ie tal c on t ex t ................................ ................................ ................................ 52 M a j or Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 52 5 CONCLUSION AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY ................................ ............... 62 L I S T O F RE F EREN C E S ................................ ................................ ............................... 65 BI O GRAPHIC A L S K E T CH ................................ ................................ ............................ 70

PAGE 7

7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Data source of group US in thesis ................................ ................................ ...... 42 3 2 Data source of group China in thesis ................................ ................................ .. 42 4 1 M a t e r i a l p r o c e ss o f US 1 ................................ ................................ .................... 54 4 2 M a t e r i a l p r o c e ss o f Chi n a 1 ................................ ................................ ................ 55 4 3 S a mp le s e n t en c e f r o m US 1 a n d Chi n a 1 ................................ .......................... 56 4 4 T h e d istr i b u ti o n o f m o d a l au x i l iary v e rbs u s e d in g ro u p U S ................................ 57 4 5 T h e d istr i b u ti o n o f m o d a l au x i l iary v e rbs u s e d in g ro u p C h ina ........................... 57 4 6 T h e p e rce n t a g e o f t h e t o p f o u r a u x i l iary v e rbs in g ro u p US an d g ro u p C h i n a .... 57 4 7 Sample sentences with modality verb from group US and group China. ............ 58 4 8 Dist r ib u t i o n o f re p o rting mo d e s o f i n t h e s a mp les f r o m G r ou p US a n d C h i n a ... 59 4 9 Sa m p le s e n t en c e s o f DD f r o m g ro u p US a n d g ro u p C h in a ............................... 60 4 10 S a m p le s en t e n c e s o f I D f r o m g ro u p US a n d g ro u p C h ina ................................ .. 61

PAGE 8

8 LIS T OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 T h e T h ree D i men sio n a l v iew o f d isco u rse ................................ .......................... 34

PAGE 9

9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CDA Critical discourse analysis CL Critical lingui stic SFL S ystematic functional language SFG S ystematic functional grammar S&E D T he U.S. China strategic and economic dialogue

PAGE 10

10 A b stract o f T h e sis Pr e s en t e d t o t h e G r a du a te S c h o o l o f t h e U n i v e rs i ty o f Fl o r i d a in P a rtial F u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e Re q u i r emen ts f o r t h e De g ree o f Mas t e r o f Arts in Mass Communication T HE T HIRD U. S C H I NA S T R ATE G IC A ND ECONO M IC DI AL O G U E: A CON T RA S T I V E S T U D Y O F C H INE S E A ND A M ERICAN N E W SPA PER N E W S RE P OR T ING By Xinyi Zhang August 2013 Chair: W a y n e W an ta Major: M a ss C o mm un i c a ti o n T h is s t ud y c o mpa res t h e n e w s c o v e ra g e o f t h e t h i r d U. S Chi n a S t r a t e g ic an d Ec on o m ic D i a lo g u e ( S &ED) b y th e N e w Y o rk Ti m e s, t h e Wa ll S tre e t J ou rn a l a n d Chi n a Daily f r o m May 8 t o 11 2 0 11 By e x am ini n g h o w C h in e se a n d A me r i c a n n e w s pape rs re po r t t h e s a m e e v en t d iff e re n tl y t h e s t ud y a i m s t o un c o v e r t h e r e a s on s b eh i n d t h e d iff e re n c e f r o m t h e pe r s pe cti v e o f Cr i tic a l D i sc ou rse A na l y sis ( C DA ) B a s e d o n t h e t h re e d i men s i ona l m od e l o f F a i r clo u g h to g e t h e r w ith Hall i da y 's s y st em ic f u n cti o n a l g ra m ma r ( S FG) a s a n ana l y tic too l, a d e t a i le d an d s pe c i f ic e x p lora t i o n o f t h e ne w s d isco u rse w a s c o n du c t e d so a s t o f i n d t h e h i d de n i deo lo g ies f r o m t h e d i f fe re n t pe rsp e cti v e s o f t h e th r e e n e w s pape rs. T h e p re s en t s t u d y c ondu cts a q ua l i t a ti v e a n a l y sis. D u r i n g th e res e a r c h C D A w a s f ou n d h e l p f u l to re v ea l t h e c o r r e la t ion be t w e e n l an g ua g e po w e r, a n d h i d de n i deo l o g ies, na m e l y ho w l an g ua g e r e f lec t s p o w e r a n d i de o lo g y o r h o w th e l a t t e r i n f lu e n ce la n g ua g e

PAGE 11

11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION R esea r c h Ba c k grou n d Chi n a a n d t h e U n it e d St a t e s a s t h e b i g g e st d e v e lo p ing c oun try an d t h e mo st de v e lo pe d c o u n try in t h e w o r l d res pe cti v e l y o cc up y i m p o rta n t po sit i on s in t h e w o r l d T h e U S Chi n a rel a ti on s h ip is o n e o f t h e mo st s en siti v e an d imp o rt a n t rela t i o n s h ips am o n g w o r l d po w e rs ( F r ie dbe r g 2 0 05 ). A c c o rding t o Fr i ed b e rg (2 0 0 5 ), t h e rel a ti o n s h ip be t w ee n t h e t w o pa c i f ic po w e rs i s i mpo r t an t t o t h e f u t u re s e c u r i ty a n d p ros p e r i ty o f t h e Asia n P a c i f ic re g ion a n d e v e n o f t h e w ho le w o r l d M o re o v e d e e p en ing U. S Chi n a en t e n te c ou ld b r i n g w i t h i n c r ea s e d po ssibil i ti e s fo r sus t a in e d w o r l d w id e e c on o m ic g r o w t h ( p 8 ). T h e h is t o ry o f t he ir rel a ti on s h ip re v ea ls t h a t it ha s b ee n f u ll o f t w ists an d t u rns a t d iff e re n t p e r i od s o f t i m e T he y may c om p e te o r co o p e rate ( M o r r iso n 2 0 11 ). T o d e ep e n c oo p e rati o n t h e t w o c oun tries s t a rt e d t h e U S Chi n a S tra t e g ic an d E c on o m ic D i a lo g u e (S& E D) in 2 0 09 T h e S &ED is a s t ru c t u re f o r a n o n g o ing s e r i e s o f a nn u a l me e ti n g s be t w ee n h i g h le v e l r e p res en t a ti v e s o f t h e U. S a n d C h ina t o d iscuss issu e s o f stra te g ic an d e c o no m ic i m p o rt a n c e T h is d ial o g u e ha s be e n r e f e r r e d t o in p r i n t b y v a r i ou s n a me s, incl ud ing U. S. Chi n a S tra te g ic an d E c o n o m ic D i a lo g u e (S & ED ) Chi n a U.S. S tr a t e g ic Ec on o m ic D i a lo g u e ( S ED) an d Sin o U.S D i a l o g ue For cl a r i t y t h is p ape r is us i n g th e ph rase U S Chi n a S t r a t e g ic an d E c o n o m ic D i a lo g u e (S & ED) th r o ug hou t t h e pa p e r. T h e f i r st C h ina S & ED w a s j o in t ly l aun c h e d b y P resid e n t Hu Jin g t a o an d Presid e n t B a rak O b a m a a t t he ir f i r st m e e ti n g in L o nd o n in A p r i l 2 0 0 9 H ig h le v e l re p res e n t a ti v e s o f bo t h c ou n tries w i l l mee t an nua l l y a lt e rn a ti n g be t w ee n t h e US a n d Chi na M o r r ison ( 2 0 1 1 ) d e sc r i be s t h e U S Chi n a S &ED a s a n i m p o r t an t p la t f o rm o n w h ich t h e t w o si de s e x c han g e o p ini o n s o n maj o r issu e s an d p r o mo t e c o o pe rat i o n a t t h e h i g he st g o v e rn m e n t l ev e l. Be r g st e n (2 0 0 9 ) s pea k h i g h ly o f t h e d ial og u e be t w ee n C h ina an d t h e

PAGE 12

12 US: T h e S &E D, a t t h is ea r l y s ta g e o f its e v o lu t io n ha s bo t h a po siti v e rec o rd o f a c h ie v em e n t an d a ri c h a g en d a f o r f u t u re a ct ion a t b o th t h e b ro a d c on c e p t ua l a n d v e ry p ractical p o l i cy l e v e l s ( p 3 ). Chi ne se an d A me r i c a n o f f ic i a ls c o ndu c t e d t h e th i r d S & ED o n May 9 10 20 1 1 On t h e f i r st d a y o f t h e d ial o g ue U S. T re a s u ry Se c r e t a ry T i mo t h y Ge it h n e r a n d U. S S e c r e t a ry o f S t a t e Hi l lary C l i n t o n w e lco m e d C h in e se V ice P r em ier W an g Q ish a n a n d Chi ne se St a t e C o un ci l o r Dai B in gg u o in W a s h in g t on D.C. O v e r t h e c ou rse o f t w o da y s, G e it h n e r a n d W a n g d i s c u ss e d e c o no m ic iss u e s w h i l e Cl i n t o n a n d D a i d iscuss e d stra te g ic issu e s. T h is d ial o g u e is o f s p e cial i mpo r t an ce be c au s e it w a s he ld a t a tu rn i n g po int in h ist o r y In 2 0 10 S in o US rela t io n s s u f fe red a s e t b a ck, ma inly be c au se o f A m e r i c a a rm s a le s to T a i w an In J a n ua r y Presid en t Hu Ji n t a o v is i t e d t h e U n it e d S t a t e s, w h ich he lp e d to impro v e th e rel a ti on s h ips. T h e th i r d S E&D w a s e x pe ct e d t o p ro pe l r e la t io n s f o r w a rd. B o th t h e U. S m e d ia a n d C h i n e se m e d ia h e a v i l y c o v e red th is d ial o g ue T h is t he sis w i l l ana l y z e ne w s m ed ia d i sc ou rses in t h e on l in e ed ition o f t h ree maj o r n e w s pape rs, t h e New Y o rk T i me s t h e W a l l S t r e e t J ou rn a l a n d C h ina D a i l y T he s e t h ree n e w s pape rs are au t h o r i t a ti v e a s w e ll a s i n f lu e n ti a l in A m e r i ca an d C h in a As o n e o f t h e m o st i n f l uen t i a l ne w s pa p e rs i n t h e w o r l d t h e N e w Y or k T i me s is a lso t h e t y p ical mo d e l o f t h e w e st e rn a n d e s s en ti a l m e d ium re p re s e n t a ti v e W i t h its l o n g de v e lo p m en t a n d p op u lar i t y t h e N e w Y o rk T i me s ha s be e n c o n sid e red a s a na ti o na l ne w s pape r o f rec o r d i n t h e A me r i c a n ne w s p ape r i n du str y W i th a d i g it a l ci r c u la t ion o f nea r l y 900 00 0 T h e N e w Y o rk T i me s h a s t h e h i g he st a v e ra g e circulati o n a t t h e t o p f i v e U.S. da i l y ne w s pape rs ( M oo s, 2 0 12 ). The W a l l S t re e t J ou r n a l is o n e o f t h e mo st in f l ue n ti a l f in a n cial d a i l ies in t h e w o r l d w ith emp h a sis o n f i n an cial a n d c o m me rc i a l f ie l d s.

PAGE 13

13 Pr in t ci r c u la t ion o f t h e W a ll S tre e t J ou r n a l is n ea r l y 1 500 00 0 a n d t h e d i g it a l ci r c u la t ion is ab o u t 80 0 0 0 0 ( M oo s, 20 1 2 ). B e sid e s f i nan c i a l i n f o r ma ti o n a n d c o m m e n ts o n i n t e rn a t i ona l l y i mpo rt a n t e v en t s, it a lso p ro v id e s o t h e r articles c on c e r n ing scie n c e edu c a ti o n a n d en t e rtai n me n t, e tc. Bo th t h e N e w Y o rk T i me s an d t h e W a ll Stre e t J ou r n a l a re e l i te ne w s pape rs i n t h e U S. As C h in a on ly na ti o n a l E n g l i s h la n g ua g e d a i l y n e w s pape r, Chi n a Da i ly is c on si d e r e d t h e V o ice o f C h i n a W i n do w t o C h in a ( T h u ss u 2 00 6 ). T h e ne w s pape r ha s a n a v e ra g e d a i l y c i rculati o n o f mo re t h a n 800 00 0 in 1 5 0 c o u n tries a n d re g io n s ( C h ina D a i l y 2013 ). Th u ssu ( 2 0 0 6 ) n o t e s on e th i r d o f C h i n a D a i l y re ade rs w a s bu si ne ss o r ie n t e d in m o re t h a n 10 0 c o u n tries. La u n c h e d in 1 9 95 C h ina D a i l y w eb site (chin ada i l y .c om c n ) is a c o mp r e hen si v e multi med i a o u tl e t a n d C h i n a mo s t i n f l u en t i a l E n g l i s h la n g ua g e W e b po rtal. I t s d a i l y pa g e v i e w s no w e x c ee d 3 1 m i l l i on w ith abo u t 6 0 pe r c en t o f v is i t o rs f rom o v e rse a s ( C h ina D a i l y 2 0 13 ). Chi n a D a i l y is a c o mp r e hen si v e pa p e r t h a t h a s t h e g re a t e st p u b l i c a ti on s i n C h ina an d i n t e r n a ti o n a l i n f lu e n c e Th e r e f o re, Chi n a D a i l y is c on sid e r e d a s a ne w s pape r s u ppo rting t h e i n t e rests o f t h e C o mm un ist P a rty o r t h e c ou n try a s C h ina is un d e r t h e l e a de rship o f t h e P a rty (Y on g & C a mp b e l l 19 9 5 ). T h is s t ud y w i l l t a ke a c on tras t i v e a n a l y sis ap p ro a ch w h ich a i m s t o st ud y rela t io n s h i p s b e t w ee n t w o o r mo re l a n g ua g e s an d e s pe c i a l l y th e d i f f e re n c e s t he y ha v e Acc o rding t o Ric h a rds, P la t t & P la t t (1 9 92 ), Co n tras t i v e a n a l y sis was de v e lo p e d an d p racticed i n t h e 1 9 5 0 s an d 19 6 0 s a s a p p l i c a t i o n o f struc t u ral l i n g u istics to l a n g ua g e t ea c h i n g (p. 8 3 ). As T u c h m a n (1 9 78 ) p o in t s o u t, j o u rn a l i sts c on struct a w in do w o n t h e w o r l d ho w e v e r, t h e w in do w i s a l w a y s a pa rtial v i e w M a ss m ed ia ha v e p la y e d a more a n d

PAGE 14

14 mo re i m p o rta n t role in mo d e rn s o cie t y ; it s e r v e s a s t h e e x clusi v e l y e ss en ti a l s ou rce o f d i v e rs i f ied i n f o r m a ti o n B u t, clai m ing t o b e n e u tral a n d o b jec t i v e in r e f lec t ing s t a t e s o f a f f a i r s, n e w s re po rts b oa s ts its o w n fea t u res i n l an g ua g e ( C i l l ie, 1 96 7 ). Due t o t h e h u g e i n f lu e n ce o f m ed ia d isc o u rse o n s h a p ing p u b l i c op i n io n t h e s pe cial l an gu a g e o f n e w s re po rts ha s a r o u s e d m an y cr i tic a l d isco u r s e a n a l y s e s ( C DA) sc ho lars' a t t e n ti o n (F o w ler, 1991 ; Fairc l ou g h 19 8 9 ; v a n Di j k, 1 98 8 e t a l. ) As o n e o f t h e mo st i m p o rta n t p a rts o f c r itical lin g u istics, CDA is u s e f u l in ana l y z ing pub l i c d isco u rse s u ch a s ne w s re po rts an d e x p lor i n g th e impl i e d v a lue s y st e m a n d i d eo lo g y tha t is in t h e la n g ua g e F airc l ou g h ( 19 9 2 ) ar g ue s t h a t w ith t h e he lp o f CDA, p e op l e c a n b e cl e a r o f t h e w a y in w h ich la n g ua g e te n d s t o imp o se o n t h e a dd ress o r s v iew o f t h e w o r l d o n t h e add res s ee s" (p 1 39 ). Th u s, w ith t h e h e lp o f C D A, sc ho l a rs an d re ad e rs can mo re s y st ema tic a l l y a n d c o mp r e hen si v e ly unde rs t an d ne w s re po rts. Ho w e v e r, in t e r m s o f med i a d isc o u rse, f o re i g n a f f a i r s n e w s re po rting d ra w s little a t t e n ti o n S i mp s o n (1 9 93 ) p o i n ts o u t t ha t n o u s e o f la n g ua g e is c on sid e r e d t ruly neu tral, ob j e cti v e an d v a lu e f re e t h e n t h e o r e tic a l l y cr i tic a l l i n g u istic ana l y sis ma y b e pe r f o r m e d o n an y f o rm o f d is c ou ( p 2 ). Th e r e f o r e in t h e h o p e o f e x t end ing t h e e x isting cr i tic a l st ud ies o f med ia d isc o u rse, t h is t he sis c a r r ies ou t a c r i tic a l d isc o u rse ana l y sis o n t h e n e w s re po rts o f t h e t h i r d U. S Chi n a S &E D Thussu (2006) indicates in recent years, with the coming of the digital information age, broadcast, television, newspapers, and the Internet have become the main channels for people to acquire information from the outside world. Amon g them, newspapers have gained quite a lot of popularity because of their mass information, high authority and easy portability (de Beer, 2009). Moreover, the advancement of information technology enables readers to get access to electronic newspapers from the

PAGE 15

15 Internet. To compare the news reports of the third US China S&ED by Chinese and American mass media, this study focused on four days of data from the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal and China Daily. The articles examined in this study were pub lished between May 8 11, 2011, the official time span for the third US China S&ED. The four days of data include two days of the overall meeting, the day before, and the following day. As the dialogue ended on May 10, many media reported the achievements o f the dialogue on May 11. In order to explore the differences between news reports on the third US China S&ED in these three American and Chinese newspapers, stories published between May 8 China Strategic and Economic collected from the websites of the three newspapers. Among the ten news reports, five stories are from China Daily (www.chinadaily.com .); two news articles are from the New York Times (www.nytimes.com ) and the remaining three are collected from the Wall Street Journal (www.wsj.com ). The present research is conducted within Fairclough's three dimensional framework (1992) to analyze the news samples at three stages: description, interpretation, and explanation. At the first two stages, the linguistic choices of the texts will be examined by using t he analytical devices of Halliday's systemic functional grammar. At the third stage, the linguistic choices will be explained in the light of wider social context in which the texts are produced. Re sea r c h P urpo s e a n d S ignifi ca n c e Currently, the printed new s media is a popular route for people to get worldwide information (de Beer, 2009). This thesis makes a critical analysis of the reports on the

PAGE 16

16 third S&ED in American and Chinese news media. The study attempts to make a noticeable contrast between three le ading newspapers to examine the relation between dimensional model as the theoretical framework, this study explores powers and ideologies hidden in the language of three major me dia outlets in the US and China. The significance of this paper is three fold. First, previous studies explored news discourse concerning war, racism or economic issues (van Dijk, 1991; Wodak, 1989). But this study pays close attention to diplomatic events in this field. Through the current research, it shows that foreign affair news discourse is also an important carrier of ideology. Second, the combination of three dimensional theory and Halliday's functional grammar is important to conduct a comparative study of the news reports by different news agencies on the same event. This research shows that the comparative research method is helpful in discovering the ideology hidden in news discourse. Last, the present research is beneficial for readers to develo p their critical linguistic awareness.

PAGE 17

17 C H AP T ER 2 L I T ER A T U R E RE V IE W N e w s Di s c ourse Ne w s d isco u rse, a s a t y p e o f me d ia d isc o u rse, h a s b e c o m e a n i n d i s pen s ab le pa rt o f h um a n l i f e N e w s, a too l f o r ma ss c o m m un ic a ti on is p la y ing a n i r re p lac e a b le pa rt in pe o p le's d a i l y li f e Ne w s is p la y ing a more a n d mo re i m p o rta n t role in t h e i n f o r m a ti o n tra n s f e re n c e T o a l a r g e d e g re e p eop le rely o n t h e me d i a f o r n e w s. Fe a t u r e s of N e w s Di s c ourse Acc o rding t o Hjar v a rd ( 20 0 8 ), Me d ia t i z a ti o n is th e mo s t si g n i f i c an t c o n c ep t t o un d e rsta n d t h e imp o r t an ce o f m e d ia t o c u l t u re a n d s o ci e t y B a se o n t h e d e f i n ition o f med i a ti z a ti on H j a r v a rd ( 2008 ) po in t s m e d ia s i mu lt a ne o u sly be c o m e a n i n t e g rat e d pa rt o f o t he r insti t u ti o n s like po l i tics, w o rk, f a m i l y an d reli g ion a s more a n d mo re o f t he s e ins t it u ti o na l a cti v ities a re pe r f o r me d th r o u g h b o th i n t e racti v e a n d m a ss m e d 105 ). T h u s, m e d ia p lay a n i mpo r t an t role in p e op l e i v e s. T h e ana l y sis o f m ed ia d isco u rse ha s g a in e d g re a t a t t e n t ion a m o n g lin g u ists (Fo w ler, 1991 ; F a i r clo u g h 1 99 5 ; v a n Di j k, 19 9 5 ; W od a k, 19 8 9 ). For F o w ler (1 991 ), n e w s is pe rcei v e d a s a p r a ctic e a p r o du ct o f t h e s o cial a n d po l i tic a l w o r l d o n w h ich it re po rts. N e w s is a re p res en t a ti o n o f c on s tr u cti on ; it is no t a v a lu e f ree r e f lec t i o n o f f a c v a n Di j k (1 995 ) s ta t e s t h a t f o rei g n ne w s p ro du cts a re ba sically s e lec te d a cc o rding t o t h e i n t e rests o f po l i tic a l, m i l it a r y an d bu sin e ss e l i t e s. I nd e ed most f o rei g n n e w s is abou t po l i tic a l, m i l it a ry an d e c on o m ic e v en ts a n d n o t a b o u t s o cial a n d c u l t u ral e v en 2 48 ). As Ge is ( 19 8 7 ) sa y s, e rh a p s t h e mo st i n f lu e n ti a l po w e r of t h e n e w s m e d ia is t h a t it ha s t h e rig h t to re po rt w ha t e v en t is i mpo r t an t a t c e rtain t i m e an d t o c h o o se w ho se v o ice is to b e h ea rd a b ou t a p a rticular iss ue ( p 10 ). Acc o rding t o B e ll (1 99 1 ), me d ia d isco u rse c a n b e ta r g e t e d a s t h e r e s ea rch o b ject i n o rd e r to

PAGE 18

18 d isco v e r ho w m ed i a ma sk t he ir i d e o lo g ical po sitio n s, e mb o d ied t he ir a t tit u d e s an d op ini o n s, in t h e w a y the y re p res en t iss u e s. Th e r e f o re, ne w s d isco u rse is n o t on ly t h e c a r r ier o f i n f o r m a ti o n o f w ha t is h ap p en i n g a ro un d t h e w o r l d bu t a lso t h e c a r r ier o f s pe c i f ic i d e o lo g ies, w h ich f u n cti on s w ith th e b r oad c a st o f n e w s. F r o m th is po i n t to v iew, Chi n a an d US n e w s m ed i a a re d e d ica t e d t o bu i l d ing a n d s a f e g ua rding t h e i n t e r e st o f t he ir o w n n a ti o n w h i l e re po rting o n t h e t h i rd U S Chi n a S&ED. W i th t h e i n v o lve m e n t o f t h e na ti o na l ma ss m e d ia, t h e ne w s re po rts f r o m t h e m a re t h e re p re s en t a ti on s o f e a ch c o u n tr y w i l l t o s h o w t o t h e a ud ie n c e T he r e f o re, it is ne c e s s a ry t o re a d ne w s re po rts cr i tic a l l y an d d isco v e r t h e impl i cit i d eo lo g y c ompa c t e d in t h e ne w s d isco u rse. T h e n e w s m ed ia tra n s m it a n d e m bod y i d e o l o g y i mp l i citl y Fish m a n ( 19 8 0 ) sa y s t h e w a y t o m a k i n g ne w s an d t h e d ep e nd e n ce o n e x t e rn a l s ou rces ge ne rate a un i f o r m id eo lo g ical p ict u re o f t h e w o r l d T h is i d eo lo g y is l a r g e ly de f in e d in t e r m s o f t h e c on strai n ts o n t h e p ra c tic a l i ti e s o f ne w s m a ki n g M o re o v e r, v a n Di j ik (1 988 ) s t a t e s t h a med ia a re no t a n eu t r a l, c o m m o n s e n s e d o r rati ona l m e d ia to r o f s o cial e v en ts b u t e ss en t i a l l y he lp re p ro d u ce p r e f o r mu l a t e d i d e o lo g 11 ). As v a n Di j k (1 997 ) po in t s ou t, t h e f o c u s o f d isc o u r se a n a l y sis s hou ld b e t h e s o cial a c ti on s a cc o mp l i s h e d b y la n g ua g e u s e rs c o mm un ica t ing w it h in s o cial an d c u lt u ral c on t e x ( p 1 3 ). A s a res u lt, ne w s d isco u rse is a c t u a l l y no t a re p re s en t a ti o n o f r e a l i t y It is ba s e d o n t h is a ss u m p ti o n t ha t t h is t he sis is c o n d u ct e d w ith th e a im t o u n c o v e r t h e mo re o f t e n t ha n n o t h i d de n a n d i mp l i cit i d e o lo g ies a n d po w e r r e la t io n s. Soc i olo g y of N e w s M ak ing In o r d e r to e x p lore w h y in te rn a ti o n a l ne w s pa p e rs r epo rt t h e s a m e e v en t d iff e re n tl y it is w o rt h while to i n v e sti g a te wha t f o rces s h a p e t h e med i a mess a g e ; w ha t an d w h o s e ts

PAGE 19

19 t h e m e d ia's a g en d a (Re e s e 19 91 ). Ac c o rding t o Gitlin (1 978 ), m ed ia s o ciol o g y w ha t Da n iel B e ll ha s c a l l e d t h e re c e i v e d k no w le d g e o f p e rso na l i n f l u e n c e f o c u s e s o n h e po w e r o f t h e med i a t o d e f i n e no r m a l a n d a bno r ma l s o cial a n d p o l i tic a l a cti v i t y to s a y w ha t is po l i tic a l l y re a l an d l e g i t i ma te a n d w ha t is n o t; to e s t ab l i sh c e rtain po l i tic a l a g e n da s f o r s o cial a t t e n ti o n a n d t o c o n t a in, c h a nne l, a n d e x clu d e o t he rs; a n d t o s ha p e t h e ima g e s o f o ppo siti o n mo v em e n (p. 2 0 5 ). Re e se an d B a l l in g e r (2 001 ) t h ink med i a s o cio l o g y is he lp f u l to e x p lain ho w in d i v id ua ls c on struct n e w s w it h in a s o cial a n d o cc u p a ti o n a l s e t ti n g T h e y c on sid e r Da v id M ann ing W h i t e 's a na l y sis o f t h e g a t e k e epe r ne w s ed it o r a n d W a r r e n Br e ed 's e x p la na ti o n o f s o cial c on trol in t h e ne w s r oo m For W h i t e t h e de cis i on s o f in d i v id ua ls, s om e o f w h o m b y v i r t u e o f t he ir s t r a t e g ic loc a ti o n a t k e y g a t e ha v e t h e p o w e r to a f f e ct t h e f low o f i n f o r ma ti o n ( Re e se & B a l l in g e r, 20 0 1 p 6 47 ) M o re o v e r, W h i t e (1 9 50 ) a r g ue s, a n ed it o r s ee s t o it (e v e n t h o u g h h e ma y ne v e r be c on sci o u sly a w a re o f i t ) t ha t t h e c o m m u n ity s ha ll h e a r as a f a ct on ly tho s e e v en ts w h ich t h e ne w s ma n a s t h e re p r es e n t a ti v e o f h is c u lt u re, be l i e v e s t o b e tru e ( p 390 ). As R ee se (2 0 0 1 ) p o in t s ou t, o n e o f t h e ma in t a sks o f c o m pa r a ti v e me d ia s o ciol o g y is t o cl ea r l y d e f i n e t h e med i a s y st e m in w h ich jo u r n a l i sts o f i n t e rest w o rk. F o r e x amp le, In C h i na m o st o f t h e ne w s m e d ia a re o w ne d b y th e s ta t e T h e med i a a re e x pe ct e d to f o l l o w C om m un ist P a rty an d g o v e rnme n t po l i cies (de B ee r, 2 009 ). N e w s med i a a re re g a rd e d a s a t o o l f o r na ti o na l de v e lo p me n t, e du c a ti o n i n f o r m a ti o n a n d en t e r t a i n men t M ed i a a re s up p o s e d t o b e a b r i d g e be t w ee n t h e pa rty an d t h e p e op le. T h e g o v e rn m e n t k e ep s th e m e d ia i n line ma in l y th ro u g h re g u la t io n s a n d t h ro u g h t h e ap p o in t me n t o r re mo v a l o f ed it o rs (d e B ee r, 20 0 9 ). T hu s s u (2 0 06 ) a lso n o t e s t h a t in man y de v e lo p i n g c ou n tries, e c o n o m ic a n d po l i tic a l po w e r w a s an d re m a i n s restrict e d t o a t in y o f t e n un re p re s e n t a ti v e

PAGE 20

20 e l i t e a n d t h e ma ss m e d ia p l a y a k e y role in l e g iti m i z ing t h e po l i tic a l e s t ab l i s hm en t, w h ich is t o t a l l y d iff e re n t f r o m de v e lo p e d c oun trie s T h e re is a lso a ma j o r d iff e re n ce b e t w ee n A m e r i c a n a n d C h i n e s m ed i a p ress f r e ed o m T h e o ld e s t a n d b e st e st a b l i s he d o f t h e o r g an i z a ti on s mo n i t o r i n g p ress f re e d o m a ro u n d t h e w o r l d is Fre ed o m H o u s e a n on go v e rn m en t a l o r g an i z a ti o n ba s e d in W a s h i n g t o n D.C. ( d e B ee r, 2 009 ). T he re a re t h ree cr i t e r i a f o r F r ee do m H o u s e t o mea s u re p ress f re e d o m o f c o u n tries a ll o v e r t h e w o r l d T h e f i r st c a t e g o ry is th e l e g a l en v i r onme n t f o r t h e me d ia, f o c u sing o n t h e l a w s an d l e g a l ins t it u ti o n s t h a t restr i ct t h e med i a ab i l ity t o o pe r a t e T h e s e c on d o n e is t h e p o l i tic a l en v i r on m e n t. Fre e d o m H ou s e e x am in e s t h e de g ree o f po l i tic a l c o n trol o v e r t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e m e d ia. T h e l a st c r it e r io n is e c o n om ic en v i r onm e n t s u c h a s t h e s t r u ct u r e o f m e d ia o w ne rship, med i a c on c e n tra t i o n a n d c o s ts o f s t a rting a n d o pe r a ti o n med i a Ac c o rding t o t h e Fre e d o m o f t h e P r e ss 2 01 2 re po rt, 19 7 c ou n tries w e re c o v e red in th is r e s e a rch (F r eed o m H ou s e 20 1 2 ). Unit e d S a t e s r a n ks 2 2 w h i l e C h ina is o n e o f t h e b o t t o m 1 0 c o un tries (ranks 1 87 ) in p ress f re e d o m Acc o rding t o R e e se ( 2 00 1 b ), m ed ia s o ciol o g y s ug g e sts t ha t w e m u st t a ck l e t h e stru c t u ral c o n t e x t o f j o u rn a l i s m mo v ing be y o n d t h e narrower a t t em p t to p s y c ho lo g i z e th e m e d ia t h r o u g h t h e a t tit u d e s an d v a lu e s o f i n d i v id u a l p ractitio n e rs ( p 174 ). Ne w s is no t on ly th e ne w s w o rt h y e v en t its e l f b u t a lso t h e r e po r t o f t h e e v en t. B e f o re ne w s ap p ea rs o n t h e pa g e it g oe s th r ou g h s e v e ral st a g e s. The re p o rters o r ed it o rs, w h o a re u s u a l l y f rom d i f f e r e n t s o cial, e c o n om ic, po l i tic a l, a n d c u lt u ral ba ck g ro und s d e cide w ha t is ne w s w o rth y an d ho w it is to b e p re s en t e d (de B e e r, 20 0 9 ) A cc o rd i n g t o F o w l e r ( 1991 ), t h e med i a d o n o t si m p ly an d t r a n s pa r e n tly re po rt w ha t a re ne w s w o rthy i n t h em s e l v e s. Ne w s is t h e en d p ro d u ct o f a c o mp lex p roc e ss w h ich be g ins w ith a sys te m a tic s o rting a n d s e lec t ing o f e v en ts a n d t op ics a c c o rding t o a s o ciall y

PAGE 21

21 c on struct e d s e t o f c a t e g o r i e s" (p. 1 2 ). T he r e f o re, t h e e v en ts w h ich a re r epo rt e d c an n o t r e f le c t t h e imp o rta n ce o f t h e e v en ts, b u t s h o w th e s e lec t i o n o f t h e e v en ts a cc o rding t o a c o mp l e x an d a rt i f ic i a l s e t o f cr i t e r i a A n d t he s e cr i t e r i a a re k no w n a s e w s v a lu e s T h e e v e r y da y o r g an i z a ti o n o f n e w s m a kin g t h e ro u ti n e s o f n e w s g a t he r i n g an d t h e s o cial a n d e c o n om i c c on strai n ts o f ne w s p ro du cti o n ra t h e r t h a n h o w ne w s e v en ts o r t h e m a n y s ou rce t e x ts t ha t de scr i b e o r c o n sti t u te t h e m a r e a c t ua l l y p roc e ss e d i n to t h e ne w s te x ts w e re a d o r see ( v a n Di j k, 1 9 98 ). The ma ss m e d ia lar g e ly g ene rate a n d med i a te t h e p ro d u cti o n an d re p ro d u cti o n i d e o l o g ies o f p ub l i c te x t a n d ta lk ( F o w ler 1991 ; G o ldi n g 1 9 92 ; H a ll 1 98 2 ). Gitlin (1 9 78 ) as s e r t s tha t m ed ia s o ciol o g y ha s h i g h l ig h t e d t h e rec a lc i tra n ce o f a ud i e n c e s a n d t he ir resist an c e t o m e d i a g ene r a t e d me ss a g e s b y its me t ho d o lo g y Soc i o Co g nit i v e Th e o r y Soc i o c ogni t i v e A pp r oa c h T h e o r ig in a l s ou rce o f s o ci o c o g n iti v e app ro a ch is t h e s o ci o c o g n iti v e t h eo ry p ro po s e d b y Mosc o v ici in 1 9 70 s. v a n Di j k (1 9 8 8 ) p u t f o r w a rd t h e t he o retic a l f r a me w o rk o f t h e d is c ou rs e c o g n i t io n s o cie t y t r i an g le, a n d e mp h a si z e s th e i m p o rta n ce o f t h e s t u d y o f c o g n ition in t h e cr i ti c a l a n a l y sis o f d is c ou r s e a n d c om mun i c a ti o n v a n Di j k (1 988 ) e x p lores th e re l a ti on s h ip a m on g c o g n iti v e p h en o m e no n d isc o u rse struct u re an d s o cial struct u re. v a n Di j k (2 0 09 ) e m p ha si z e s th e i m po rta n c e o f a n a na l y sis o f e m a n tic ma c r o struc t u t ha t is, g lo ba l m e an in g s, t op ics a n d t h e me s w h ich c ou l d re v ea l t h e in ten t i o n o f t h e s p ea k e r ( p 68 ). H i s ma in f o c u s is ana l y z ing th e role o f t h e n e w s m ed ia in t h e re p ro d u cti o n o f racis m He d istin g u ish e s h is d isco u r s e a na l y s i s f r o m tra d iti o na l c on t e n t s t ud ies b y fo c u sing o n a s y st e ma tic d e scr i p ti o n o f s e m a n tic an d s y n t a c tic f ea t u res o f t e x t. S o c i o c o g n iti v e app r o a ch t o ne w s d isco u rse p a y s s pe cial a t te n ti o n to t h e role o f c o g n ition

PAGE 22

22 b o th in p ro du c ti o n a n d in c omp r eh e n sion o f ne w s s t ruct u re. On c e on e ha s t h e c o g n ition t ha t h e o r she be l o n g s t o a g ro u p o r c o un t y h e w i l l a cc ep t t h e rele v an t id eo l o g y an d i den tity p ro g r e ss in a n a t u ral w a y Soc ia l R e pr e se n t a ti o ns Social representations theory is proposed and developed by S. Moscovici and Wagner et al. in the late 1960s. The social representation theory develops from the explanations for inter group beha vior and cognition provides approaches to how attitudes relate to each other and how attitudes are patterned by the membership of the groups who share the same representations. This theory puts more emphasis on the purpose of the behavior and communication on the central role of the group and on the group influence and communication of the individual ideology (Moscovici, 2000). Moscovici (2000) defines social representations as a system composed of preconceptions, images and values which contain its own cu ltural meaning and independents of individual experiences. In sum, the social representations are the group shared concepts, images, and social knowledge that are formed in specific history and society, which can be called a meaningful social symbols. Thus the social representations can help to build and sustain some social order by offering some social rules and communication. Then, they play the promoting role in forming the consistent social recognition and social attitudes (Howarth, 2006). The L a y e rs o f Soc io c ogni t i v e A pproa c h S o ci o c o g n iti v e f r a m i n g is i n f l u en c e d b y me a n in g ma king ( v a n D i j i k, 20 0 8 ). O n c e on e s e ts a g oa l, h e o r s h e w ou ld d o a n y t h ing po ssible to r e a l i z e it. F o r inst an c e o n t h e t h i r d U S Chi n a S&ED, be sid e s th e re p o rts o f t h e n e g o ti a ti o n p ro c e s s e s, t h e me d i a Chi n a D a i l y t h e N e w Y o rk T i m e s, an d t h e W a ll S tre e t J ou r n a l t e n d to b u i l d t h e ir na ti o na l id e n tity an d p r o t e ct t he ir i n t e rests a t t h e s a m e t i m e U n de r l y i n g c o g n iti v e c a t e g o r i es t h e

PAGE 23

23 o r g an i z a ti on c a t e g o r i z a ti o n an d s truc tu r i n g o f i n f o r ma ti o n a r e cl o s e ly rela te d w ith id e o lo g y an d s o c i a l p ractic e I d e o lo g y c a n b e b r o ad c a s t b y d iff e re n t la n g ua g e s t ra t e g ies. H o w e v e r, a s o cial re p r e s en t a ti o n is d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e a t t i t ud e At t it u d e s b e lo n g t o t h e in d i v id ua l le v e l, w he re a s s o cial r e p res e n t a t i o n s ha v e t h e s o ci a l c ha ract e r i stics ( W a g n e r et a l., 1 9 99 ). T h e s o c i a l r ep res e n t a t i on s ha v e b o th s o cial a n d in d i v id ua l c on c e p ts, w h ich h a v e v a lu e s, c on c ep t s a n d f u n cti on s s y st e m a tic a l l y M ean w h i l e it is o n e w a y o f e x p lai n ing th e r e le v an t be l ie f s a n d n a r r a ti on s in da i l y li f e T h e s o cial r e p res e n t a ti on s c o n t a in t h e d ee p e r co n c e p ts an d i deo l o g y. At t i t ude s a re on e o f t h e me a n in g s in t h e p roc e ss o f s o cial r e p r e s en t a ti on s. A t t i t ude s a r e t h e p e r i phe ral an d e v a lu a ti v e a s pe c ts o f s o c i a l r ep res e n t a ti o n s ( W ag ne r e t a l., 1 9 9 9 ). T h e ne w s m e d ia f o r m s t h e r e a d e s o cial re p res e n t a t i on s g ra d ua l l y th ro u g h ne w s re p o rts. T h e n it c o m e s to s e r v e th e rel a t e d n a t ion t o bu i l d a g o o d a n d he roic n a ti o na l id e n tity t o t h e r e ade rs. D i f f e r e n t op ini o n s c a n b e f o r m e d a n d j u d g m e n ts b e ma d e d u e t o d i f f e re n t id eo lo g ies. B e ll a n d G a r r e tt ( 1 9 98 ) g i v e t h e e x p la na ti o n t ha t me d ia u s a g e i n f l u en c e s an d r e p res e n ts t h e r e a de m i n d a n d a t t it u d e to w a rd c e rtain e v en ts; aud i en ce r e c e i v e s o cial m ean i n g s an d st e re o t y pe s p ro j e ct e d th r ou g h l an g ua g e a n d c o m m un ic a ti o n f r o m m ed i a u s a g e All t h e se fea t u res s h ou ld b e c o mb i n e d w ith t h e l an gu a g e c ha rac t e r i stic o f ne w s d isco u rse. C D A Re sea r c h on N e w s B e sid e s t h e s o ci o c o g n ition app r o a c h v a n Di j k (1 995 ) t h in k s t h e a n a l y sis o f ne w s re po rts s h o u ld c om e f r o m t w o a s p e cts, th e s u mm a ry p a rt an d th e b o d y pa rt, si n ce t he re a re s o m e d i f fe r e n c e s b e t w ee n t h e t w o In t h e a na l y sis o f ne w s re po rts, it is u s e f u l to ma ke c l ea r n o t o n ly th e pa rticular lin g u istic f ea t u res, b u t a lso s om e h i d de n i deo l o g y an d po w e r i n f lu en c e s. T h e a u t h o r i ti e s o f t h is ap p r o a ch c on sid e r t h e e x ist en ce o f une q ua l

PAGE 24

24 po w e r r e la t io n s in t h e e c on o m ic a n d po l i tic a l c o n t e x ts, w h ich i n f l u en ce ne w s p ro du ct i o n an d c on s u mp ti o n p r a ctic e s. Th e y re v ea l t h e h id d e n un eq ua l po w e r r e la t io n s in ne w s d isco u rse v ia t h is a p p ro a ch (Fo w ler, 19 9 1 ; v a n D i jk, 1 9 93 ; Fairc l ou g h 1 9 95 ). Fairc l ou g h (1 9 8 9 1 9 9 2 1 995 ) ha s a lso d e v e lo pe d h is o w n a p p ro a c h t o m e d ia d isco u rse. Dra w ing o n Hall i da y f un ct i ona l f r ame w o rk, F a i r clo u g h (1 995 ) app r oa ch is c on c e r n e d w ith l an g u ag e d isco u rs e a n d po w e r in s o cie t y He a lso d ra w s o n k no w le d g e o f s o cial t h e o r y e s pe c i a l l y th e i dea s o f Fr e n c h ph i l o s op h e r a n d s o c i a l t h e o r i st M ich e l Fo u c au l t T h e v iew o f t h is a p p ro a ch is t h a t e v en ts an d a cti o n s ma y b e d e scr i be d w ith s y n t a ctic v a r i a ti on s, which h i d e t h e i d eo lo g i e s. Fairc l ou g h s (1 9 9 5 ) st ud y a i m s t o c on trib u t e t o t h e s t ru gg les f o r social e m an ci p a ti o n t h ro u g h i n c re a sing th e cr i t ical a w a re ne ss o f ne w s r eade rs. A bo v e a l l t h e C D A s tu d y o f ne w s is a rec e n t l y de v e lo pe d d o m a in in lin g u istics. T h e rel a t i on s h ip b e t w ee n l a n g ua g e a n d i d eo l o g y is th e c o re o f c r itical s tud i e s. M ed i a d isco u rses, i n p a rticul a r, c a tch t h e a t t en ti o n o f res ea rc h e rs. In a d d iti o n mo st c r itical res ea rch f o c u s e s o n p o l i tic a l, e c o n o m ic d isa s t e r, a n d t e c h n o lo g ical ne w s re po rts. N e w s re po rts o n f o rei g n a f fa i r s a re pa i d l i t t le a t t e n t i on s o th is t he sis w i l l ma ke a n a t t e mp t in t h is a re a Criti ca l D i sc our s e A n a l y s is St u di e s of C D A T h e p ub l i c a ti o n o f L a ng ua g e an d C on trol b y R o g e r Fo w ler in 197 9 ma rk e d t h e be g in n ing o f CDA. K r e ss (1 985 ) po in t e d ou t re a d e rs sh o u ld b e e m p ha si z e d T h e n Fo w ler (1 986 1 987 ) re f o c u s e d o n cr i tic a l l i n g u istics a n d c on c en t r a t e s o n t h e pe r f e c ti o n o f t h e t heo ry an d me t h odo lo g y o f c r itical lin g u istics. He a r g ue d t h e most u r g en t t a sk is to d e v e lop a c o m p le t e ana l y tic a l s y st em w h ich s h o u ld b e e a sy fo r t h e a n a l y sts to l ea rn ( F o w ler, 1987 ). K ress ( 19 9 0 ) st ud i e s t h e a pp l i c a ti o n o f CDA an d de v e lo p s t h e t h e o ry o f

PAGE 25

25 c r itical re ad in g Dur i n g th is pe r io d t h e ma in p r inci p les, t h e g e n e ral g oa ls, a n d t h e me t ho d o lo g y o f CDA b e c a m e mo re d e f i n ite a n d c o n c r e t e B e sid e s, t h e re w e re m an y i n f l uen t i a l l i n g u ists s tud y ing CDA a t t h is s t a g e Fo u c au 1 9 7 5 ) s th e o ry o f d is c ou rse an d H a l l id a y 973 ) S y st em ic Fu n c ti ona l Gram ma r ( SFG) h a s h a d a g re a t i n f l u en c e o n sc ho lars l i ke H o d g e ( 1 988 ), F o w ler (1 991 ) an d F a i r clo u g h (1 995 ). F u rth e r mo re, W oda k (2 0 01 ) is e s pe c ially f a m ou s f o r his d isco u rs e h ist o r i c a l m e t ho d A n d v a n Di j k's ( 1 995 ) soc i o c o g n iti v e re v ea ls ho w d isco u rse stru c t u res a n d s o c i a l struct u res a r e i n f l u en c e d b y pe rs o n a l a n d s o cial c o g n itio n T h e sc h o la r s m e n ti o n e d a b o v e a ll s ee k t o re v ea l s o cial i n e q ua l i ti e s t h a t a r e g ene rat e d a n d r e f l e ct e d in d is c ou rse s o a s to c han g e t h e une qu a l c o nd ition in s o ci e t y Co n sid e r e d a s t h e p i o nee r o f C D A, Fo w ler (1 991 ) h a s ma d e g re a t c on trib u t i on s to t h e d e v e lo p m en t o f C D A. I n 1 9 9 1 h e a n d B e l l w rote th e f i r st gen e ral t e x t boo k in E n g l i sh o n m e d ia l a n g ua g e Fo w ler c on sid e r s th e t oo ls f o r a na l y sis a s a n e clec t ic s e lec t ion o f de scr i p ti v e c a t e g o r i e s s u i t e d to th e pu r p o s e : e s p e cially tho se s truc tu res id en t i f i e d b y H a l l id a y a s i dea t i ona l an d i n t e r p e r s ona l f un ct i o n (Co u l t ha rd & C ou t ha rd, 19 9 6 ). T h e g ro u p re p r e s en t e d b y F o w ler ha s be e n s t r o n g ly i n f lu en c e d b y H a l l id a y an d h is SF G B a s e d o n v a n Di j k (1 9 98 ), C D A a i m s t o o f fe r a d i f fe re n t pe rs p e cti v e o f a na l y sis an d app l i c a ti o n i n th is f ie l d T ra d iti o na l n e w s ana l y sis is c on structi v e It is th r o u g h ana l y z i n g th e n e w s c on t e n t a n d s ee ing t h e a pp ro p r i a t ene ss o f d ict i on o r w he t he r t h e struct u re o f t h e t e x t is re a s o nab le e tc to p re s en t s o m e p ra c tic a l s u gg e sti on s f o r i mp ro v em e n t an d ad j u st m e n t o f id e a s. As f o r v a n Di j k (1 998 ), C D A ma k e s a c on n e cti o n be t w ee n t h e t e x t ua l an a l y sis o f l an gu a g e a n d t h e s o cial p racti c e a na l y sis. I t stress e s e x p lai n ing th e c a u se o f d isco u rse f r o m t h e a s pe ct o f s o c i a l struct u re an d a n a ly z e s th e h id d e n p o w e r b eh ind l an g ua g e t o d isc l o s e t h e role o f l a n g ua g e in s o cial c h a n g e a n d t h e c on strai n i n g o f s o c i a l

PAGE 26

26 ins t it u t i o n t o d isc o u r s e It s t ud i e s t h e rel a t i on s h ip be t w ee n la n g ua g e t e x t a n d s o c ial s t ruct u re. I n t e res t e d i n t h e c o mp l e x i n t e r r e la t io n s o f s o c i a l a n d c u lt u r a l matt e r s an d t he ir re p res e n t a ti o n s in t h e f o rm o f si g n s, Kress ( 1 985 ) is al s o re g a rd e d a s on e o f t h e initi a t o rs o f C D A. Kre s s an d H od g e ( 1 979 ) p o in te d ou t t h a t C D A h a s ha d a po l i tic a l p roject f r o m t h e v e ry be g in n in g It a i m s t o re v ea l u ne q ua l d istr ib u ti o n s o f e c o n o m ic, po l i tic a l a n d c u l t u ral go od s in m o de rn s o cie t i e s. Thr ou g h t h e ana l y sis it c a n d isc l o se in e q ua l i ti e s a n d t he r e b y it is o f g re a t he lp in a c h ie v ing a m o re e q ua l s o cial c o n d itio n M o re o v e r, K ress (1 9 90 ) l i sts t h e cr i t e r i a t ha t c ha ract e r i z e w o rk i n th e c r i tic a l d isco u rse ana l y sis pa ra d i g m i l l u stra t ing ho w the se d ist i n g u ish s u ch w o rk f r o m o t h e r p o l i tic a l l y en g a g e d d isc o u rse an a l y sis. He a r g ue s m ea n in g s a re p r o du c e d t h ro u g h i n t e r a cti o n be t w ee n r e ade rs an d rec e i v e rs a n d t h e lin g u i stic fea t u res t a ke p lace be c a u se o f s o cial p roc e ss e s (Kres s 1 9 9 0 ). Fairc l ou g h (1 9 9 2 ) is t h e re p re s en t a ti v e o f t h e Lan c a st e r S c hoo l i n t h e f ield o f C D A. H i s s o cia l c u lt u r a l a n a l y sis c omb in e s d isco u rse a na l y sis w i th s o cial t h eo r y : it no t on ly s tud ies t h e c han g e o f l an g ua g e b u t a lso c han g e s in s o cie t y a n d c u lt u re. Acc o rding to F a i r clo u g h ( 1 995 ), C DA is in te rdisc i p l i na ry an d p ro b l e m o r i e n t e d st ud ies c o m p lex s o cial a n d p o l i tic a l p he no m e n a a n d e x p lores t h e i d eo lo g ical i m p l i c a t io n s a n d p o w e r rela t io n s t h ro u g h t h e a na l y sis o f l a n g ua g e u s e Fairc l ou g h ( 1 9 9 5 ) s t a t e s t ha t CDA lo o ks to e s t ab l i sh c on n e cti on s be t w ee n p ro p e rties o f t e x ts, f e a t u res o f d isco u rse p r a ctice (t e x t p ro du ct i on c on s u m p t i o n a n d d istr i bu ti o n ), an d w id e r soci o c u lt u ral p ractice. For F a i r clo u g h (1 9 9 5 ), t h e pu rp o s e o f C D A is to e x p lore h o w t h e rel a ti on s h ips o f c au s a l i ty an d de t e r m i n a ti o n t h a t f u n cti o n b e t w ee n d iscurs i v e p ractices, e v en ts a n d t e x ts, an d t h e rel a ti o n s h ips o f c au s a l i ty an d d e t e r m i na ti o n f u n cti o n s be t w ee n w id e r s o cial a n d c u l t u ral str u ct u res, rel a ti on s an d p r o c e ss e s. T h e c r itica l in C D A ha s t w o me a n in g s: f i r st,

PAGE 27

27 it r e f e r s t o t h e ana l y sis o f s o c ial i ne q ua l i t y ; s e c o n d t h is t y p e o f a n a l y sis is d iff e re n t f r o m t h e t r a d itio na l ana l y sis a s t h e l a t te r d oe s no t g i v e a n ana l y sis o f s o cial in e q ua l i t y B e sid e s, cr i tic a l d isc o u rse ana l y sis a i m s t o i n v e sti g a te ho w e v en ts a n d t e x ts a re g ene ra t e d a n d i d e o lo g ically s hape d b y r e la t io n s o f p o w e r. A lso h e s a y s t h a t t h e opa city o f rel a ti on s h ips be t w ee n d isco u rse a n d s o cie t y c a n ha v e t h e f un cti o n o f s e c u r i n g po w e r a n d h eg emon y (Fai r clo u g h 1 995 ). T h e m o st c o m p re h en s i v e f r a me w o rk o f CDA i s p ro po s e d b y F a i r clo u g h (1 989 19 9 2 1 99 5 2 003 ). I n t h is a p p ro a ch t o CDA, t he re a r e th r e e a na l y tic a l f o c u s e s, o r t h ree d i m e n sio n s a s F a i r clo ug h c a l l s it, in a na l y z i n g a c om mun ic a ti v e e v en t: te x t, d isc o u rse p ractice (t h e p ro c e ss o f p ro d u cti o n d istr i b u ti o n a n d c on s u m p ti on ), a n d s o c i o c u lt u ral p ractice (t h e sit u a ti o na l, i n stit u ti o na l, an d s o c i e t a l p ro c e ss) ( Fairc l o ug h 19 9 5 ). T h e se t h ree d i m en sio n s cl o s e ly res emb le v a n Di j k's (1 995 ) t h ree d i m en si o n s o f i d eo lo g y ana l y sis m e n ti on e d ab o v e : d isco u rse, s o cio c o g n itio n a n d s o cial an a l y sis, bu t d i f fe r in t h e s e c o n d d i m e n sio n w h ich med i t a te t h e o t he r t w o To b e s p e c i f ic, v a n Di j k be l i e v e s t ha t it is s o cial c o g n ition a n d me n t a l mo d e ls t ha t m e d it a t e b e t w ee n d isco u r se an d t h e s o cial w h i l e F a i r clo u g h m a i n t a ins t h a t t h a t t a s k is a c h ie v e d b y d isc o u rse p ractice ( F a i r clo u g h 19 9 5 ). Fairc l ou g h 992 ) t h e o ry m a inly d ra w s o n H a l l id a y n cti ona l G r a m ma r a n d rec en t s o cial t h eo r i e s i n Fra n c e He insists t h a t t h e se s o cial t h eo r i e s s up p o rt C D A a n d ana l y z e s v ar io u s te x t u a l s a m p les t o il l u stra t e h is t h e o r i e s. A m o n g t h e v a r i ou s t y pe s o f t e x ts, h is p r e f e re n ce is fo r m ed ia d isco u r s e e s pe cially in ne w s. H i s l i st o f f a ct o rs s hou l d b e c o n sid e r e d in ana l y z ing n e w s; t ho se f a ct o r s ha s a lso b e c o m e t h e g u id e l i n e o f man y c r itical d isco u rse a na l y sts ( F a i r clo u g h 1 9 91 ). M o re o v e r, h e p u t f o r w a rd a t h re e d i m e n sio n a l f r a me w o rk f o r C D A, w h ich w i l l b e d iscus s e d l a t e r. Fr o m t he se d e f i n itio n s, w e

PAGE 28

28 c a n c o m e t o t h e c o n clusi o n t ha t CDA is i n t e rdisc i p l i na ry an d p r o b le m o r ie n t e d st ud ies c o m p lex s o cial an d po l i tic a l ph e n o m e na an d e x p lores t h e i d eo lo g ical i mp l i c a ti o n s a n d p o w e r r e la t io n s t h ro u g h t h e a na l y sis o f l a n g ua g e u s e As Si mp s o n (1 993 ) s t a t e s C D A a i m s t o e x p lore t h e v a lue s y st em s a n d s e ts o f be l i e f s w h ich reside in te x ts, in o t he r w o rds, i deo l o g y in l an g ua g e (p. 5 ). Fairc l ou g h (2 0 1 1 ) int eg rat e d a r g u m en t a ti o n t heo ry an d CDA to f o c u s o n p ractical re a s on ing o f t h e a r g u me n t in t h e c o rp u s o f 1 3 po l i c y ma king te x ts a n d t h e an n ua l l y P r e B ud g e t r e po rt o f B r i t a i n f r o m 1 99 7 to 20 0 9 B y ana ly z ing th e m a in a r g umen t o f t h e 20 0 8 Pre B ud g e t R e po rt o f Br i tish g o v e rn m en t. He ad v an c e d th is ana l y sis a s a c on tri b u ti o n t o C D A. Re y e s (2 011 ) u s e d a na l y tic a l t oo ls f r o m S FL u n d e r an i n t e rdi s ciplin a ry f rame w o rk o f CDA to e x p lain s p e c i f ic l in g u istic w a y s in which l an g ua g e r e p res e n ts a n i n str u m e n t o f c on trol a n d m a n i f e sts s y mbo l i c po w e r in d is c ou rse a n d s o cie t y S a g ha y e Bi r ia (2 012 ) s ou g h t t o s t u d y th e re p ro du ct i o n o f raci s m a g a inst Musl i m A me r i c a n s in t h e U n i t e d St a t e s C o n g ress u sing CDA b a s e d o n t h e c a se o f a c o n g ressio na l hea r i n g he l d o n M a rch 10 2 0 11 J a n e (2 012 ) c on d u ct e d a c o rp u s ba s e d CDA o f d e i x is (a la n g ua g e ph e n o me n o n w h ich r e fl e cts t h e rel a ti o n s h ip b e t w ee n l an g ua g e a n d c on t e x t in t h e la n g ua g e s y st em ) in U K e d u c a ti o n p o l i cy d isco u r se f r o m 19 7 2 o n w a rds to re v ea l t h e he g e m on y o f i n clusi o n an d ho w th e f l e x ible s e ma n tics o f pe rs o n d e i x i s w e re e x p loit e d so a s t o cl a i m c o n s en s u s o v e r p o l i tic a l l y c on t e st ab l e cl a i m s W e c a n c on c l ud e t h a t C D A is de v e lo p ing v er y f a s t t heo r e tic a l l y an d p ra c ti c a l l y popu lar w ith m an y lin g u ists o v e rse as K e y T e rms of C D A Di sc ourse In mo st s t ud ies o f CD A t h e n o ti o n o f d isco u r s e is more f re q u e n tly a p p l i e d b y res ea rch e rs t h a n l an gu a g e M a rtin a n d N a k a y am a (2 0 10 ) e x p lain d i s c ou rse r e f e rs to la n g u a g e in u s e w h ich m ean s t ha t a ll d isc o u rse is s o cial. B e si d e s, th e l a n g ua g e u s e d

PAGE 29

29 t h e w o rds an d t h e me an in g s t h a t a re c omm un ica t e d d e p e nd s n o t on ly o n t h e c on t e x t b u t a l s o o n t h e s o cial rel a ti o n s t ha t a re pa rt o f t ha t i n t e r a cti o n ( p 2 33 ). Fairc l ou g h (1 9 9 3 ) h o l d s t h e op ini o n t ha t d isco u r e f e rs to t h e w ho le p ro c e ss o f s o cial i n t e ract i on t h e i n t e r a c ti o n be t w ee n s pea k e r a n d a dd ress e e o r b e t w ee n w r i t e r an d r e a d e r. T he r e f o re, d isco u rse r e f l e cts t h e s o cial i n t e ra c ti o n be t w ee n t h e i n f o r ma ti o n s en d e r a n d rec e i v e r. T h e u n i q u e f e a t u r e s o f id eo lo g y de t e r m ine t h a t the y c a n no t b e re a d d i r e c tl y T hu s t h e c o m m u n ica t i o n o f id e o lo g y c a n on ly b e a c h ie v e d th ro u g h a c e rtain c h a n ne l. A s t h e crust o f id eo l o g y la ngua g e is t h e mo st c o m mo n me a n s o f c o m m u n ica t ion a n d d i s c ou rse p r odu ct ion Th e ref o re, d isco u rse, w h ich t a k e s t h e f o rm o f la n g ua g e is id e o lo g ical. v a n Di j k (2 006 ) st a t e s tha t i d e o lo g y an d o t h e r social re p res e n t a ti o n s c o n trol d isco u rses a n d o t he r s o cial p ractices o f g ro u p mem be rs. T h e r e f o r e d isc o u rse is a l an g u a g e g ro u p in p r o c e ssing ra the r t h a n a l an g ua g e p r o du c t Id e olo g y As has been mentioned above, the Frankfurt School argued ideology belongs to the superstructure which is determined by material production of the society. Nevertheless, the ruling class manip ulates the means of production. Accordingly, ideology will be shaped to meet its own interests. The distorted ideology is served as a national machine to impose "false consciousness" upon people, which helps the dominant class to disguise the inequality of reality and consolidate their ruling power (Devereux, 1998). However, critical linguists provide a neutral interpretation of ideology in the say and interact with the are

PAGE 30

30 particular ways o f representing and constructing of society which reproduce unequal discourse analysis regards ideology as a system of values representing a certain community or class, usually the ruling class. For CDA, ideology is almost the essential concept in the study. van Dijk (1998) argues that ideologies are the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs which are shared by the members of groups, organizations, or other social collective s of people. He (1995) also have the cognitive function of organizing the social representations (attitudes, knowledge) of the group, and thus indirectly monitor t he group related social practice; and hence also In spite of different definitions concerning ideology, critical linguists take the same ground that ideology is deeply rooted in society and directly engaged in soc ial process. Thus, ideology is the collection of judgments and opinions by a group of society and serves the purpose justifying and interpreting a certain event that happens in a particular social and cultural context. It is indispensable in any kind of di scourse analysis of our daily life and is really worth further exploration by linguistic researchers. P o w e r As a n e ss e n ti a l c o n c e p t in C D A, F o w ler (1 985 ) d e f i n e s p o w e r as t h e ab i l ity o f pe o p le a n d i n s tit u ti o n s to c o n trol t h e b e h a v io r s an d ma te r i a l l i v e s o f o t he r s (p 6 1 ). I n t h e a rea o f lin g u istics, e s pe cially in CDA, po w e r m e an s a ki n d o f c o n trol, w h ich ref e rs to t h e a cti o n o f m a n ip u l a t ing o t he rs' t h inki n g w i t h t h e u s e o f la n g ua g e ( Fo w ler, 1985 ). Acc o rding t o v a n Di j k ( 19 9 8 ), a s o cial g ro u p i s s a id t o h a v e po w e r if it h a s t h e p r i v i le g e s t o a c q u i r e r a re s o cial res o u rces, s u ch a s w ea lt h f a me k n o w le d g e in fo r m a ti o n a n d m i l it a ry f o rce,

PAGE 31

31 e tc. an d t h e ab i l ities to ma n i p u la t e t h e th o u g h ts a n d a cti on s o f o t h e r social g ro up s. For v a n Di j k (1 998 ), po w e r co n t a i n s s pe cial c ha ract e ristics a n d c a n b e d i v id e d i n to s e v e ral kin d s o f t y pe an d ea c h t y p e h a s d i f fe re n t le v e ls o f i n f lu e n ce in o v e r ma st e r i n g o t h e rs. F o r e x amp le, rich p eop l e c a n u se mo ne y t o ma ke o t he rs w o rk f o r t he m ; t h e cr u e l man c a n p ractice cr i m e o n o t h e rs t o r e a ch h is a i m W ha t is mor e t he re is ha rdly an y ab s o lu t e po w e r. Peop le in po w e r ma y no t a l w a y s ha v e un c o nd iti o na l f o rce. F o r ins t an c e a rich m a n c a nn o t a sk e v e ryo n e to w o rk f o r h i m be c a u se s om eo n e d o e s no t n e e d t h e m o ne y o r a c r ue l m a n me e ts a pe rson w h o is no t a f raid o f h is v iol en c e T h e r e f o r e p o w e r d oe s no t a l w a y s be lo n g t o a c e rtain g ro u p o f pe o p le. At t h e s a m e t i m e it is he l p f u l f o r t h e m t o c o n t rol t h e d o m in a n t d is c o u rse po w e r in v a r i ou s f o r m s o f p ub l i c d isco u rse. F o r d i f fe re n t s o cial g ro up s, s p e a k e rs h a v e the ir o w n la n g ua g e c ho i c e t o s h o w the ir i den titi e s T h e d iction o f l a n g ua g e v a r i e ty depe n d s o n man y f a c t o rs, s u c h a s t h e s o cial c o n t e x t, s o c i a l d ist a n ce b e t w ee n s p ea k e rs, s t a t u s o f s pea k e rs, t h e t o p ic, th e f o r ma l i ty o f t h e s e t t i n g an d so o n L a n g ua g e is en g a g e d in s o cial po w e r in a n u m b e r o f w a y s: la n g ua g e e mb o d ies po w e r, e x p ress e s po w e r, a n d it is in v o l v e d w he re the re is c on t en ti o n o v e r p o w e r ( v a n Di j k, 1998 ). As a c on c l u sio n po w e r r e la t io n s d e t e r m ine t h e s t ruc t u re a n d l a n g ua g e c ho ice o f t h e w h o le t e x t. CDA ana l y sts a re i n t e rest e d in t h e me a n s b y ho w lin g u istic f o r m s a re u s e d in v a r i ou s e x p ressio n s a n d man i pu la t i o n s o f po w e r. G ene ral l y s pea kin g t h e th r e e te r m s a r e i n t e r r e la t e d a n d i n d isp e n s a b le in C D A. T h e s t u d y o f CDA e n a b les l i n g u ists t o e x p l ore ho w po w e rf u l g ro up s m a k e u s e o f la n g ua g e t o m a in ta in p o w e r a n d t o i n v e sti g a te po w e r r e la t io n s a n d s o cial i ne q ua l i ty em b od i e d in d isco u rs e Hall i da y (1 973 ) sa y s "L a n g ua g e p la y s a c en tral pa rt, bo t h a s de t e r m in e r an d ha s d e t e r m i n ed : Lan gu a g e is c on trolle d b y th e s o cial struct u re, a n d t h e

PAGE 32

32 s o cial s t ruct u re is mai n t a in e d a n d t r a n s m i t t e d t h ro u g h l a n g ua g e (p .9 0 ). T ha t is t h e re a s o n w h y CDA res ea rch st a rts f r o m a n i n v e sti g a ti o n o f t h e lin g u i s tic fea t u res o f t h e t a r g e t d isco u rse f o r t h e pu rp o s e o f d isc l o sing t h e t r u e h i d d e n i d e o lo g ies a n d p o w e rs insi d e t h e l a n g ua g e I n add it i on i d eo lo g y is cl o s e ly rel a t e d w ith po w e r. Ba s e d o n t h e f o r me r r e s ea rch, F a i r clo u g h (2 0 03 ) h a s g i v e n a d e t a i l e d il lu m in a ti o n o f i d e o lo g y an d po w e r, id eo l o g ies a re re p res e n t a ti o n s o f a s p e ct s o f t h e w o r l d w h ich c a n b e s ho w n t o c on trib u t e t o e s t ab l i s h i n g ma i n t a ini n g a n d c h an g ing s o cial rel a ti on s o f p o w e r, dom i na ti o n a n d e x p loit a ti o n (p 117 ). In h is m i nd f ou n de d o n t h e em p lo y men t o f id eo lo g ies, p o w e r can b e c o n struc t ed p res e r v e d a s w e ll a s a lt e re d T h e re b y po w e r is bu i l t u po n i deo l o g y an d i d e o lo g y is th e c a r r ier o f po w e r. Fairclough'sThree Dimensional Model S y st em ic Fu n ct i ona l G ra m m a r ( SFG) d e v e lo pe d b y H a l l id a y (1 970 ) i s fo u n d t o b e a s u it a b le ins t r u m en t t o c o n du ct CDA. H a l l i d a y is th e ma in s ou rce a n d un d e rpin n ing o f t h e t he o r y In add it i on it p ro v id e s CDA w ith cl ea r l ing u istic c a t e g o r i e s f o r a n a ly z ing th e rel a t i on s h ips be t w ee n d isc o u rse a n d s o c i a l me an i n g T h e re is a c l o se rela t ion be t w ee n CDA an d SF G As ea r l y a s 19 7 0 Hall i da y (1 9 7 0 ) ha d s tress e d t h e rela t io n s h i p b e t w ee n t h e g ram ma ti c a l s y st e m a n d t h e s o cial a n d p e rso na l ne e d s t ha t la n g ua g e is re q u i r e d t o s e r v e Follo w ing H a l l i da y C D A p ractitio n e rs v i e w l an g ua g e in u s e a s si mu l t a n e ou sly pe r f o r m i n g h ree me t a f un cti o n s w h ich a re cl o s e ly in te rco n ne c t ed : f i r st, t h e i d e a ti o n a l f u n cti o n t h ro u g h w h ich la n g ua g e le nd s s t ru c t u re to e x pe r i en ce (t h e i d e a ti o na l struc t u re h a s a d ia l e ctic a l r e la t i o n s h ip w ith s o cial s t ru c t u re, bo th r e f lec t ing a n d i n f l uen cing it); s e c o n d l y t h e i n t e rp e rs o na l f un ct i o n w h ich c on sti t u t e s rela t io n s h i p s b e t w ee n t h e participants; and thirdly, the textual function which constitutes coherence and cohesion in

PAGE 33

33 transitivity, lexical classification, transformation, modality, presupposition, etc., have been employed in CDA. According to the review of the previous studies of critical discourse analysis as well as news discourse, Fairclough's three dimensional model is affected by SFG and suitable for the analysis of news reports, especially the political news with strong ideology influences. Thus, this paper will mainly employ this model as theoretical framework together with Halliday's systemic functional grammar a s the supplementary instrument. A Bri e f Intr o duction of F a ir c lough's Th r ee Dim e ns i onal Mo d e l Acc o rding t o F a i r clo u g h (1 9 8 9 ), la n gu a g e is a ki n d o f s o cial p ractice. D i sc ou rse ref e rs to t h e w ho le p r o c e ss o f s o cial i n t e ract i o n o f w h ich a t e x t is just a p a rt" ( p 2 4 ). F a i r clo u g h (1 9 8 9 ) insists t h a t c r itical a n a l y sts s hou ld no t on ly f o c u s o n t h e te x ts, t h e p roc e ss o f t e x t p r o du c t ion a n d i n t e rpre t a ti o n o f t h e te x ts, b u t a l s o l o o k i n to t h e in te r r e la t io n s h ip a m o n g te x ts, p ro du cti o n p r o c e ss e s, an d t h e ir s o ci a l c on t e x t. B a s e d o n s u ch a ss um p ti on s, Fairc l ou g h (1 98 9 ; 1 99 2 ; 2 003 ) de v e lo p e d h is t h re e d i men s i ona l f r a m e w o rk. In h is v ie w e v e ry c ommun i c a ti v e e v en t c o m p r i s e s t h ree d i m e n sio n s: it is a t e x t (sp ee c h w r i ti n g v isu a l i ma g e s o r a c o mb i na t i o n o f t h e s e ); it is a d is curs i v e p ra c tice w h ich in v o l v e s th e p r o du c t ion a n d c o n s u m p ti o n o f t e x ts; a n d it is a s o cial p ractic e Cor r e s po n d ing t o t h e t h ree l e v e ls o f d isco u rse, F a i r clo u g h de v e lo p e d t h ree s t a g e s o f C D A: d e scr i p ti on i n t e rpr e t a ti o n a n d e x p la n a ti o n For h i m d isco u rse is a kind o f s o cial p r a ctic e w h ich is t h e e m b od i me n t o f s o cial s t ru c t u re. Disco u rse is a un ity o f c on t e x t, i n t e ract i o n an d t e x t A m o n g th em t e x t l i e s in t h e bo t t o m w h ich is t h e re s u lt o f i n t e ractio n B o th t h e p roc e ss o f p r odu ct i o n an d p roc e ss o f i n t e r pr e t a ti o n r e ly o n c on t e x t ( F a i r clo u g h 19 9 2 ).

PAGE 34

34 T e x t, i n t e racti o n a n d c on t e x t a re t h e p r im a ry t h ree d i m en sio n s T h e re a s o n w h y Fairc l ou g h (1 9 9 2 ) us e s s o cio c u lt u ral p r a ctic e a n d "d isco u r s e p ract i c e t o re p l a ce c on t e x t" a n d in te ra c ti on is t h a t h e re g a rds a mo d e o f a cti o n a s d i sc ou rse. I n t h is w a y t h e v ie w po int tha t d isco u rse is a ki n d o f s o cial p ractice is s t re s s ed T h e t h ree d i m e n sio n a l mo de l c a n b e b r ie f ly il l u stra te d b y th e f o l l o w ing f i g u re. Fi g u re 2 1. T h e T h ree D i men sio n a l v iew o f d isco u rse [ adap ted from F a i r clo u g h Norman. 1 9 92. Discourse and Social Change (Page 93 Figure 5 2 ). Cambridge: Polity Press] De sc ription As it ha s b e e n m e n ti on e d a bo v e d e scr i p ti o n in te rpre t a ti o n a n d e x p la na t i o n a r e t h e t h ree s t ep s o f d is c ou rse a na l y sis. A cc o r d ing t o Fi g u re 2 1 in t h e de scr i p t i o n s t a g e l i n g u istic f e a t u res s u ch a s c h o ices in v o c a b u l a ry ( w o rdin g ), g ra m m a r (t r an siti v i t y pa ssi v i z a ti on ) an d t e x t struct u re (t he ma tic c ho ice, tu r n t a king s y st e m ) sh ou ld b e s y st ema tic a l l y ana l y z e d T h is is t h e f i r st s t e p in w h ich t e x t is t h e ob j e ct. For F a i r clo u g h (1 9 8 9 ), "de scr i p ti o n is t h e s t a g e w h ich is c on c e r n e d w ith f o r m a l p ro pe rties o f t e x 2 6 ). In o t h e r w o rds, lin g u istic f e a t u res o f t h e te x t a re t o b e e x p lored in t h e de scr ip ti v e s ta g e For t h e p u rp o se t h a t it c a n u nde r s t and more cl ea r l y h e a l s o po s ts t e n k e y q ue sti o n s to g e t he r w ith m o re o t h e r su b q ue st i on s, w h ich a r e ma inly

PAGE 35

35 i n v o l v e d w ith v o c abu lary s e cti o n g ram ma r se c ti on a n d te x t u a l struct u res s e cti o n (Fai r clo u g h 1 9 89 ). T h e s e ct i o n o f v o c abu lary m a inly d e a ls w i th t h e c h o ice o f d iff e re n t w o rds; g ra m m a r is a b o u t t h e g r a m m a tic a l f e a t u re s w h ich h a s a cl o s e rel a t i o n w ith H a l l id a y 's s y st em i c f u n cti o n a l g ram ma r w he re a s th e t e x t ua l st r u ct u res pa rt c on c e rns t h e w ho le struct u res o f t h e d isco u r s e Due t o t h e d ee p i n f lu e n ce t ha t H a l l id a y 's SFG ha s e x e rted o n F a i r c lo u g h 's t h re e d i m e n sio n a l mo de l, t h e me t a f un ct i on s c a n s e r v e a s a n ana l y tic too l fo r c r itical d isco u r s e ana l y sis, e s pe cially th e f i r st pa rt o f t h e t h re e d i men si o na l m o de l, lin g u istic p ractice. J u st a s F o w ler (1 9 79 ) o n ce me n ti o n ed During th e p roc e ss o f cr i tic a l d is c ou rse a na l y sis, it is o f g re a t i mpo r t an ce f o r res e a rc h e rs to e x p lore an d d isco v e r t h e h i d d e n i d eo lo g ies f r o m tra n siti v i t y mo d a l i t y tra n s f o r ma ti o n class i f i c a ti on e 1 9 8 ). A s f o r t h is, s o m e s p e c i f ic c o m p on e n t e l e me n ts o f Hall i da y 's t h ree me t a f u n cti on s c a n b e u til i z e d f o r c r itical d isco u rse ana l y si s w h i ch a re t r an siti v it y cla s si f ica t i o n an d m oda l i t y S y st em ic Fu n ct i ona l G ra m m a r ( SFG) p r o po s e d b y H a l l id a y (1 970 ), i s a s o ciol o g ically o r i en t e d f u n cti o na l l i n g u istic ap p ro a c h I t ho lds a v iew t ha t l an g ua g e is f un cti o na l in t h a t it is u s e d b y p e op le to a c h i ev e s o cial g oa ls. H a l l id a y (1 970 ) e x p lai n s t h e na t u re o f la n g ua g e in te r m s o f s o cial s t ru c t u re: w h y is l an g ua g e a s it is? T h e n a t u re o f l an g ua g e is c l o s e ly rel a t e d t o t h e d em and s t ha t w e make o n i t ; t h e fun ct i on s a re s pe c i f ic to c u lt u r e . t h e pa rticu l a r f o rm t a k e n b y th e g ra m m a tic a l s y st e m o f l a n g ua g e is clos e ly rel a t e d t o t h e s o cial a n d p e rso na l n ee d s t h a t l a n g ua g e is re q u i r e d t o s e r v e (p. 142 ). I n H a l l id a y 's ( 19 7 0 ) o p in i on l a n g ua g e is a s y st e m n e t w o rk co n sisting o f a nu m be r o f s u b s y st e m s f r o m w h ich p eop l e t a ke c ho i c e t o e x p ress t h e ir m e an in g s. Hall i da y (1 970 ) co n c e p t ua l i z e s t ra n siti v ity a s th e p ro c e d u re o f ho w t h e i d e a is tra n s f e r r e d th r o u g h t h e w o rds to e x p ress t h e me a n ing a n d h o w pe o p le e n c o d e t h e ir

PAGE 36

36 t hou g h t to w a rds t h e r e a l i ty a s w e ll a s ho w the y unde rsta n d a n d e x p lain t h e e x pe r i en c e o f t h e w o r l d It is a n i n d isp en sib l e p a rt in t h e i dea t i ona l f un ct i o n an d it re a l i z e s th e id ea ti o na l f un cti o n t h r o u g h p roc e s s e s. G ene r a l l y s pea kin g t he re a r e six ki nd s o f p roc e ss e s: ma te r i a l p roc e ss, v e rb a l p ro c e ss, r e la t io na l p roc e ss, b eh a v ioral p roc e ss, me n t a l p r o c e ss a n d e x ist en ti a l p roc e ss. The d iff e re n c e s o f t h e p ro c e ss e s lie in t h a t t h e y c on t a i n d i f fe re n t i d e o l o g ical m ean i n g s. The p roc e ss o f t h e s e n t e n ce c a n b e c h an g e d on ce t h e pa rtic ip an ts o r t h e sit u a ti o n s a re a lt e re d In g ene ral, it is t h e i deo lo g y tha t de cid e s th e p ro c e ss o r th e tra n siti v it y In t h e f un cti o na l g ram ma r, class i f i c a ti o n is a bou t t h e d e scr i p ti o n o r d e f initi o n o f c e rtain e v en ts o r c h a r a ct e rs ( Hall i da y 1994 ). T h is ki n d o f a ct i o n ma i n ly relies o n t h e c ho ice o r t h e s e lec t i o n o f v o c abu lary b y th e s pea k e r or w r i t e r. S ince an y l an g ua g e in t h e w o r l d is no t c o m p le t e ly ob jec t i v e t h e cl a ss i f i c a ti o n o f t h e v o c a b u lary is m o re o r less a cc o m p a n ied w ith pe r s ona l e x pe r i en c e s a n d op ini on s In o t he r w o rds, i n st e a d o f a d i r e ct r e f lec t i o n o f a t h i n g 's ba sic q ua l i ti e s, t h e cl a ss i f ica t i o n o f t h e d isco u rse is mo re in f l uen c e d b y a pe rs o n 's c o g n iti v e l e v e l an d i deo lo g i cal i d e a W he n a pe rs o n c h oo s e s on e w o rd f r o m t h e o t h e rs i n t h e s a m e c on t e x t, it s h o w s h is o w n v i e w po int t o w a rds it. In t h is w a y it is he l p f u l f o r us to t a ke c l a ss i f ica t i o n i n t o c o n sid e r a ti o n d u r i n g th e d is c ou rse ana l y sis. B a s e d o n t h e v ie w po int o f f un ct i ona l g ram m a r, mo da l i ty m e an s t h e a t t it u d e i d ea o r o p ini o n o f t h e s p ea k e r or t h e w r i t e r e x p re s s e d t h ro u g h t h e u se o f l an g ua g e t o w a rds a c e rtain p h e n o me n o n o r e v en t. T h a t is, it i n c l u de s t h e ne g a ti v e o r p o siti v e v i e w po in t s o f t h e s pea k e r or t h e w r i t e r. T he r e a re i n de e d th ree t y pe s o f t h e e x p re s sio n s o f m oda l i t y : Fi r st, th e m o da l a u x i l iary v e rbs, like s h o u l d " m a y " m i g h t e tc. S e c ond t h e mo d a l ad jec t i v e s, l i ke po ssi b le " a f fi r ma ti v e" l i k e ly", e tc. T h i r d t h e mo d a l ad v e rbs, like "p ro b ab l y " pe r h ap s "u n do u b t e d l y e tc. As f o r t h e a n a l y sis o f d is c ou rse, t h e e x p lora t ion

PAGE 37

37 o f m o d a l i ty is to i n v e sti g a te t h e w r i t e r s c o m m e n ts an d st an d po in t s t h r o u g h t h e en ti r e l a n g ua g e em p lo y e d (Hal l id a y 1994 ) T h e m e a cc o rding t o t h e f u n cti o n a l g ram ma r, i s a s ta rting p o int o f t h e cl au s e a n d t h e m e is t h e s ub s t an c e a n d c o n t e n t a b o u t t h e t h e m e T o q uo te H a l l id a y 's (1 994 ) w o rd s The t h e m e is t h e e l e me n t w h ich s e r v e s a s t h e p o int o f de p a rture o f t h e m e ss a g e ; it is t ha t w ith w h ich t h e c l a u se is c o n c e r n ed ( p 3 7 ). T hu s, t h e t h e m e is v er y e ss en ti a l in t h e cla u se be c a u se a ll o t h e r p a rts a re r e v o l v ing a ro un d i t In t h e cla u s e s o f E n gl i s h t h e t h e ma tic s t r u ct u re is t h e f o un d a ti o n o f o r g an iz i n g th e p r o po siti o na l c on t e n t g i v e n b y th e s pea k e r or t h e w r i t e r. T h e c h o ice o f d i f fe re n t t h e me s in v o l v e s d i f f e r e n t id e o lo g ical i d ea s an d op ini o n s o f t h e m e ss a g e p ro v id e r. Interpr e tation Fairc l ou g h ( 19 8 9 ) sa y s in te r p ret a t i o n is c on c e rn e d w ith t h e rel a t i o n s h ip b e t w ee n t e x t an d i n t e ract i o n w ith s ee i n g th e t e x t a s th e p ro d u ct o f a p roc e ss o f p r o du c ti o n an d a s recourse in t h e p r o c e ss o f in t e rpre ta t i o n (p .26 ). In t h e i n t e rpr et a ti o n s t a g e t h e rela t io n s h i p b e t w ee n t h e d is c ou rse an d its p r odu ct i o n a n d its c on s u mp ti o n s h ou ld b e in te rpre t ed B e si d e s, d i sc ou rse is n o t on ly re ga rd e d a s t e x t bu t a lso a d is curs i v e p ractice in t h is s t a g e w h ich mean s a p a rt f r o m a na l y z i n g lin g u istic f ea t u res a n d t e x t struct u re, a t t en ti o n s ho u ld b e d ra w n t o o t h e r f a ct o rs su c h a s s p e e ch a ct a n d in te rte x t ua l i t y Th e se f a ct o rs l ink t h e t e x t to i t s c on t e x t. T h is d i m en sion (t e x t a s d iscurs i v e p ractice) incl ude s t w o p roc e ss e s O n e is ins t it u ti o na l p ro c e ss ( e d it o r i a l p roc e du re), a n d t h e o t he r is dis c ou r s e p roc e ss (t h e a lt e rati o n t h a t t h e t e x t g oe s th ro u g h i n p r o du c ti o n a n d c on s um p ti on ). Here, t h e k e y c on c ep t in t e rte x t u a l i t y is h i g h ly c ondu ci v e t o e x p lain t h e d isc o u rse p ro c e ss. I n o t he r w o rds, t h is st e p dea ls w ith th e e x p lora t i o n o f in t e r t e x t ua l r e la t i on s a m o n g d isco u rse, t e x ts

PAGE 38

38 a n d s e t t in g Th a t is, t h e d isc o u rse s h o u ld no t on ly b e c on s i de red a s t h e l i n g u istic v e rs i on bu t a lso a ki n d o f d iscurs i v e p ractice. Th o s e f a c t o r s w h ich rela t e t o ho w peop le p ro d u ce a n d i n t e rpret t h e ne w s d isco u r s e s h ou ld b e t a k e n i n t o c on sid e r a ti on t h e re b y t h e ne w s s ou rce an d re po rting mo d e s s h ou ld b e w o rthy o f e x p lora t ion in t h e i n t e r p reti v e s ta g e o f ne w s re po rts ( F a i r clo u g h 1 9 95 ). De B ee r (2 0 0 9 ) co n c e p t ua l i z e s th a t n e w s s ou rce is t h e i n f o r m a ti o n p ro v id e r w h o o f f e rs ma t e r i a ls f o r a c e rtain e v en t t o t h e re p o rters. M o re o v e r, a s t h e ne w s re po rters c an n o t w it ne ss o r e x p e r i en ce t h e w ho le e v en t t o a c q u i r e t h e f i r s t h a n d ma te r i a l t he y ne e d du r i n g t h e ed it o r i a l p roc e ss, t h e y ha v e t o d e pe n d o n t h e p ro v id e r s v o ice o r in fo r m a ti o n ( p 1 56 ). T h e r e f o re, t h e a pp l i c a ti o n o f o t he r pe o p le's me s s a g e is on e o f t h e in d isp en s ab le w a y s f o r t h e j ou rn a l i sts i n t h e n e w s d isco u rse p ro d u ct i o n a n d is in te r r e la t e d w ith d iscurs i v e p ractice. Fairc l ou g h (1 9 9 5 ) n o t e s r epo rting mo d e s i nd i c a te t h e qu o t a ti o n o f t h e w o rds o r st a t e m e n ts b y t h e re po rters f r o m o t h e rs i n t h e ne w s d isco u rse. Mo r e o f t e n t ha n n o t, t h e ne w s d isco u rse ma inly i n clu de s t w o p a rts, t h e th ing o r e v en t a b ou t t h e ne w s an d t h e t a lk o r w o rds s a id b y p eop l e In f a c t re p o rting m o de s a re e x a ctly c onne c t e d w ith t h e t a lk me n ti o n e d b y th e pe rson i n v o l v e d in th e ne w s e v en t. T h is is a l s o a n e ss e n ti a l c om p o n en t i n t h e n e w s re po rts ( d e B ee r, 2 0 0 9 ). E x pl a nation Acc o rding to F a i r clo u g h (1 9 8 9) e x p la na ti o n is c on c e r n e d w ith t h e rel a ti on s h ip be t w ee n i n t e racti o n an d s o cial c on t e x t w ith t h e s o cial de t e r m in a ti o n o f t h e p ro c e ss o f p ro du ct i o n an d i n t e rp r e t a ti o n an d the ir s o ci a l e f f e ct s (p. 26 ). On t h e o t he r h an d t h e ana l y sis in e x p la na ti v e pa rt is in r e f e r e n ce t o t h e h is t o r i c a l, s o cial, a n d c u lt u r a l c on t e x ts.

PAGE 39

39 Since n e w s d isco u rse c a n b e c o n sid e r e d a s a ki n d o f s o cial p racti c e s o ciality an d ins t it u ti o n in f a ct, e x e rt hu g e i n f l u en ce o n ne w s re po rts. In d isco u rse ana l y sis, e s pe cially ne w s re po rts, t h e u nd i sc o v e red i n f o r ma ti o n o f po w e r, id eo l o g y an d l an g ua g e w i l l b e in v e sti g a t e d a n d e x p la i ne d i n th is pa rt b y t w o c on t e x ts, i n sti t u ti o n a l c on t e x t a n d s o cie ta l c on t e x t ( F a i r clo u g h 19 95 ). T h e e x p la n a ti o n st a g e c o r r e s p o nd s t o t h e d i m e n sion "d isco u rse a s s o cial p r a ctic e ," m o re p re c i s e ly s o cialc u l t u ral p ra c t i c e ." I n th is s t a g e f a ct o rs l ike i d eo lo g y o r p o w e r are ta k e n i n t o a cc oun t so a s t o f u l l y e x p lain t h e i n t e racti o n be t w ee n s o c i al c u lt u ral c on t e x t an d t h e p ro du cti o n a n d c on s um p ti o n o f t e x ts. As a ma t t e r o f f a c t, t h e th ree s t ep s a re cl o s e l y rel a t e d w ith ea c h o t h e r no n e o f t h e m a re i nd is p en s a b l e W i t h t h e t h ree s u cc e ssi v e s tep s un i t e d t o ge t he r, t h e h id d e n k no w le d g e o f lin g u istic, i n t e r t e x t ua l an d s o c i a l f a c t o rs can b e e x p o sit e d in t h e a n a l y sis o f t h e n e w s d isco u rse. T h is pa p e r a d op ts a c o n tras t i v e ana l y sis o f th e ne w s c o v e ra g e o f t h e t h i r d U S Chi n a S & ED. Ba s e d o n F a i r clo ug h 's t h re e d i m en si o na l m o da l t o g e t he r w ith Hall i da y 's SFG a s a n a l y tic too l, a d e t a i le d a n d s pe c i f ic e x p lora t i o n o f t h e ne w s d isco u rse w i l l b e c o nd u ct e d so a s t o f ind t h e h id d e n i d e o lo g ies f r o m d i f f e r e n t pe rsp e cti v e s. B a s e d o n t h e H a l l id a y f o r C D A a n d F a i r clo u g h mo d e l, i n t e g rati n g th e q ua l i t a ti v e m e t ho d t h e the sis a i m e d a t a n s w e r i n g th e f o l l o w ing th ree q ue sti on s: RQ 1 : W h a t a re t h e d i f fe re n c e s i n d isc o u rses o f re p o rts o n t h e t h i r d U S C h ina S&ED? RQ 2 : How a re t h e d i f f e re n t id e o lo g ies e x p re s s e d t h ro u g h t he ir lin g u istic f ea t u res an d s truc tu res in t h e s amp l e re p o rts? RQ 3 : W h a t a re t h e e x p l a na ti o n s b eh i n d t h o se d i f f e r e n c e s in d isc o u rses o f t h e ne w s c o v e ra g e o n t h e d ial o g u e ?

PAGE 40

40 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Data c ol l ec tion T o c o mpa re t h e n e w s r epo rts o f t h e t h i r d U S Chi n a S &ED b y C h in e se a n d A me r i c a n ma ss m e d ia, th is st u d y fo c u s e d o n f ou r d a y s o f r epo rts ( M a y 8 11 2 011 ) in t h e N e w Y o rk T i m es t h e Wa ll S tr e e t J ou rn a l an d C h ina D a i l y All th r e e n e w s pa p e rs are au t h o r i t a ti v e a s w e ll a s i n f lu e n ti a l in A m e r i ca an d C h in a As o n e o f t h e mo st i n f l uen t i a l ne w s pa p e rs o f w o r l d t h e N e w Y o rk T i me s is a lso t h e t y p ical mo d e l o f t h e w e st e rn a n d e s s en t i a l m e d i u m re p re s en t a t iv e T h e Wa ll S tre e t J ou rn a l is on e o f t h e m o st i n f l u en ti a l f i n a n cial da i l ies in t h e w o r l d w i t h e mp h a sis o n f i n an cial an d c o m m e rc i a l f iel d s. As a p resti g io u s ne w s pa p e r w h ich ha s t h e g re a t e st in t e rn a t i ona l i n f lu e n ce i n C h in a Chi n a D a i l y is c on si d e red a s a m o u t hp iece o f t h e Com mun ist Pa rty o r t h e c oun try ( Y on g & C amb p e l l 1 995 ). T h e re is n o d ou b t t h a t E n g l i sh ha s a l r ead y b e c om e o n e o f t h e mo st i n f lu e n ti a l la n g ua g e s a ll o v e r t h e w o r l d unde r t h e b a c k g ro u n d o f g lo ba l i z a ti o n ( M a rtin & Nak a y ama 2 0 10 ). N e w s re po rts, e s pe cially de si g ne d f o r t h e p u rp o se o f c o mm un ica t i o n an d i n f o r ma ti o n t r a n s f e r are a l w a y s in a n En g l i sh v e rs i on Th e r e f o re, da ta in t h is p a pe r a re a ll p ub l i s h e d in t h e En g l i sh l an g ua g e T h e a rtic l e s e x am in e d in t h is s t ud y w e re pub l i s he d be t w ee n M a y 8 a nd 1 1 2 01 1 t h e o f f ic i a l t i m e s pa n f o r t h e t h i r d U S Chi n a S &ED. T h e f o u r d a y s o f da ta i n clu d e s t w o da y s o f t h e o v e rall m e e ti n g t h e d a y b e f o re a n d t h e da y fo l l o w in g As th e d ial o g u e en d e d o n May 10 ma n y m ed ia w ou ld re p o rt t h e a c h ie v em e n ts o f th e d ial o g u e o n May 11 T h e t e rm t h i r d U S Chi n a S t r a t e g i c a n d E c on o m ic D i a lo g ue w a s u s e d a s s e a rch w o rds. R epo rts o n t h e o v e rall p ro g ress o f t h e d ial o g ue ma i n ly o n p r epa rat i on ou tc o me s a n d a s s e s s me n ts o f t h e d ia l o g u e w e re c o l l e ct ed

PAGE 41

41 As a re s u lt, 3 5 n e w s re po rts in Wa ll S tre e t J o u rn a l ( w w w w sj.c o m ) fi v e f r o m t h e New Y o rk T i m e s ( w w w. n y ti me s.c o m ) a n d 7 4 from Chi n a D a i l y ( w w w c h in a d a i l y .c om .) me e t t h e m e n ti o n e d r e q u i r emen ts a b o v e H o w e v e r, w ith fu rth e r in v e sti g a ti on s o m e a rtic l e s w e re no t f o c u s i n g o n t h e t h i r d U S Ch i n a S &ED. R e po rts o f US/Chi n a e c o n om y pub l i c rela t i on s, s tra t e g y e tc. w e re i n clu d e d i n t h e s e le c t e d a rtic l e s. T h e r e f o r e t h r e e ne w s re po rts f r o m t h e Wa ll S tr e e t J ou rn a l, t w o f r o m t h e N e w Y o rk T i m e s an d f i v e st o r i e s f r o m Chi n a D a i l y a re u s e d a s t h e f i n a l s amp l e o f t h e q ua l i t a ti v e res ea r c h T h e n t h e 1 0 s a m p le t e x ts s e lec te d a re cl a ss i f i e d i n t o t w o g ro up s: t h e re po rts f r o m A m e r i c a n med i a a re l abe l e d a s Gro u p US a n d t ho se f r o m C h i n a a s G ro u p C h in a T h e h e ad l i ne s a n d I n t e r n e t U R L s a re s ho w n in Tab l e 3 1 and Table 3 2 I n t h e a n a l y sis, Ame r i c a n a rtic l e s a re r e f e r r e d a s US 1 US 5 a n d t h e Chi ne se ne w s a s C h i n a 1 n a 5 A n a l y s is m e t h ods T h e q ua l i t a ti v e a na l y s i s w a s adop t e d to e x p l a in ho w th e e v en t is re p o rted in d iff e re n t n e w s pape rs a n d h o w i deo lo g ies f u n c ti o n i n t h e re p res e n t a ti o n o f n e w s re po rts. T h e a na l y sis is i l lus t rat e d w ith th e s pe c i f ic a n d re p re s en t a ti v e e x a m p les e x trac te d f r o m t h e ne w s s amp l e s. T h e p re s en t res ea rch is c on d u ct e d w it h in Fairc l ou g h 's t h re e d i m e n s i ona l f r a me w o rk to ana l y z e th e n e w s s amp les a t t h ree s ta g e s: de scr i p ti on in te rpr e t a ti o n a n d e x p la na ti o n At t h e f i r st t w o s ta g e s, t h e lin g u istic c ho ices o f t h e t e x ts w i ll b e e x am in e d b y u sing th e a na l y tic a l de v ices o f H a l l id a y 's s y st em i c f u n cti o n a l g ra m m a r. A t t h e th i r d st a g e t h e lin g u istic c h o i ce s w i l l b e e x p lai ne d in t h e li g h t o f w id e r so c ial c on t e x t in w h ich t h e t e x ts a re p r o du c e d I n o r d e r to make t h e r e s ea rch mo r e relia b le an d s y st e ma tic, t h e q ua l i t a ti v e ana l y s e s a re a d op t e d in t h e res ea rch.

PAGE 42

42 Table 3 1. Data source of group US in thesis Artic l e S ou rce US 1 U.S. a n d C h i n a B e g in H ig h Le v e l D i a lo g u e h t tp : / / o n l i ne w sj.c om / a rtic l e / S B 1 00 0 1 4 24 0 5 27 48 7 04 6 81 9 0 4 57 6 31 3 14 0 9 1 49 2 32 56 h t m l US 2 U.S Chi n a T a lks M a k e P ro g ress o n Mark e t Acc e ss h t tp : / / o n l i ne w sj.c om / a rtic l e / S B 1 00 0 1 4 24 0 5 27 48 7 04 6 81 9 0 4 57 6 31 5 3 5 0 4 1 45 7 43 00 h t m l US 3 B e i j ing B lames F o rei g ne rs f o r I ts Fe a rs o f U n rest h t tp : / / w w w n y ti me s.c om / 2 01 1 / 0 5 / 0 9 / w o r l d / a sia /09 c h in a h t m l ?_ r = 0 US 4 M o re H ope s Th a n Ga i n s A t U S Chi n a M ee t i n g s h t tp : / / w w w n y ti me s.c om / 2 01 1 / 0 5 / 1 1 / w o r l d / a sia /11 c h in a h t m l ?_ r = 2 &sc p = 1 &s q= Chi na US% 2 0 d i l o g ue &st = cse US 5 U.S. W i ll P ress C h i na t o H a st e n Y uan 's Ri s e h t tp : / / w eb c a c h e g oo g le u s e rc o n t e n t c o m / s ea r c h? q= c a c he : t 0 z C m w KH Y p g J: on l i ne w sj.c om / a rtic l e / S B 1 0 0 01 4 24 0 52 7 48 7 04 6 8 1 90 4 57 63 11 0 93 8 51 8 1 0 73 6 h t m l + &c d = 2 & h l = e n &ct=c l n k& g l = u s Table 3 2. Data source of group China in thesis Artic l e S ou rce Chi n a 1 S ha r e d i n t e r e sts h i g h l ig h t e d h t tp : / / w w w .c h in ada i l y .c om c n /c h i n a / 2 0 1 1 sin o u s d ial o g ue / 2 0 1 1 05 / 1 0 /c o n t e n t 12 47 57 8 5 h t m Chi n a 2 Bi g g e st ene r g y p la y e rs t o c o n ti n u e c oo p e rati o n h t tp : / / w w w .c h in a d a i l y .c om c n /c h i n a / 2 0 1 1 sin o u s d ial o g ue / 2 0 1 1 05 / 1 1 /c o n t e n t 12 48 51 8 6 h t m Chi n a 3 Ce n tral b an k pe g s y ua n r a t e a t ne w rec o rd h i g h h t tp : / / w w w .c h in ada i l y .c om c n /c h i n a / 2 0 1 1 sin o u s d ial o g ue / 2 0 1 1 05 / 1 0 /c o n t e n t 12 47 58 1 9 h t m Chi n a 4 Chi na US s ee k c o mm o n g ro u n d h t tp : / / w w w .c h in ada i l y .c om c n /c h i n a / 2 0 1 1 sin o u s d ial o g ue / 2 0 1 1 05 / 1 0 /c o n t e n t 12 48 43 6 8 h t m Chi n a 5 S ha r e d i n t e r e sts o u t w e i g h d iff e re n c e s h t tp : / / w w w c h in ada i l y .c om c n /c h i n a / 2 0 1 1 sin o u s d ial o g ue / 2 0 1 1 05 / 1 0 /c o n t e n t 12 47 55 7 9 h t m

PAGE 43

43 C H AP T ER 4 C R I T ICAL A NA L Y SIS OF N E W S R EPO R T S T h e f o l l o w ing pa rt is t h e c o mpa r a ti v e an d de t a i l e d a na l y sis o f t h e 1 0 ne w s re po rts f r o m C h i n e se a n d A me r i c a n me d i a The a na l y sis in te nd s t o r e v ea l t h e h id d e n id eo lo g ies a n d po w e r r e la t io n s in t h e a rtic l e s from t h ree s t a g e s: d e s c r i p ti on in te rpre t a ti on a n d e x p l ana t i on At t h e f i r st t w o s ta g e s, t h e lin g u istic c ho ices o f t h e t e x ts w i ll b e e x am in e d b y u s ing th e a na l y tic a l de v ices o f H a l l id a y 's s y st em ic f un cti o na l g ra m ma r. At t h e t h i r d s t a g e t h e lin g u istic c ho i c e s w i l l b e e x p lai ne d in th e li g h t o f w i de r s o cial c o n t e x t in w h ich t h e t e x ts a re p r o du c e d Description M a ter ia l Pro c e s s According to Halliday (1985), material process is a process of expressed by an action verb (e. g. beat, break, kick), an actor (logical Subject), and the goal of the action (logical direct subject, usually a noun or a pronoun). The different choice of actor relating to the same event or sentence is ideologically significant. Because he news reports are very long, it is impossible to analyze all the samples. Table 4 1 and Table 4 2 list the actors and process in US 1 (American article one) and China1 (Chinese article one). There are 4 categories of ac tors found on the two tables: U.S., China, the U.S and China, and the dialogue. Then we can find the great difference between the two tables. In Table 4 1, nearly two thirds of the actors in the news report from American media are U.S. related. However, in Table 4 2, only one third of the actors in the text from China Daily is about China. There is also a great difference in the news coverage of dialogue content in the two samples. Examples are listed in Table 4 3. First of all, the leads of US 1 and China 1 are totally different. In the lead of US 1,

PAGE 44

44 to this sentence, the main focus of There are also direct and indirect quotes from Mrs. Clinton and Vice President Joe Biden that focus on human rights problem of China in sentence 2 and 3. However, compared with the article from the Wall Str eet Journal, China 1 more concentrates more on the main purpose and significance of the dialogue. For instance, China1 uses the speech of whereas the news sample from China Daily only notes the topic twice without detailed 4 of US 1 and China1 that U.S. has a ve ry strong and dominant attitude on the From the analysis of the material processes in US 1 and China 1, we can conclude that American news reports paid more attention to the conflict and had a harsh attitude human rights issue and Chinese currency while China Daily mainly expressed the will of the two countries to help each other and develop together. Thus, China is active and positive about the talk with reporting on the harmonious process. On the other hand, the U.S. is portrayed with a hegemonic and aggressive image by the material clauses with the U.S. as actors. The A ppli ca tion of Mo d a l it y W ords T h e i n v e sti g a ti o n o f m oda l i ty is si g n i f ica n t t o C D A be c a u se it is a to o l t h a t e x p ress e s th e a t t i t u d e an d c o m m e n t o f t h e s p ea k e r or w r i t e r. W o rds s u ch a s w i l l, c an c ou ld, ma y a n d s hou l d a re f r e q uen t l y u s e d b y ne w s re po rters t o e x p ress t h e ir app r o v a l

PAGE 45

45 o f o t he s p ee ch a n d p res en t t h e ir v i e w po in t In t h is s e c ti on w e mai n ly f o c u s o n t h e mo d a l a u x i l ia r y v e rbs u s e d in A m e r i c a n an d C h in e se a rtic l e s. Ac c o r d ing t o H a l l id a y (1 994 ), s pea k e rs or w r i t e rs e x p re s s a h i g he r o r lo w e r d e g ree o f c e rta i n ty abo u t t h e v a l i d i t y o f a s t a t e m e n t an d ma k e a b ig pu s h o n c a r r y ing ou t c e rtain c o m m a nd s. Mo da l i ty u s a g e c o n t a ins t h e s p ea k e r a n d r e po r t e rs v i e w po in t s. L y on s ( 1 99 1 ) d e f in e s a s t h e e x p ression o f t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e s p e a k e r, o r t h e e x p ression o f s ub j e cti v i t y an d t h e s pea k e r s op ini o n s a n d e m o ti on s M o d a l i ty is th e w a y o f i n tro du c i n g add iti o na l v o ice in t o t h e t e x ts. T ab le 4 4 a n d 4 5 s ho w th e d istr i b u ti o n o f m o d a l au x i l iary v e rbs u s e d in 1 0 ne w s s amp les f r o m A me r i c a n a n d C h i n e se ne w s pape rs r e s p e cti v e l y W e c a n s e e t h e u til i z a ti o n o f m oda l au x i l iar i e s f r o m t h e f i g u res in T a b le 4 4 a n d T a b le 4 5 T h e t o p f ou r a w i l l n u l d ou b o th in g ro u p US a n d g ro u p Chi na T h e T a b le 4 6 s ho w s th e p e rce n t a g e o f t h e f o u r au x i l iary v e r b s. F r o m t h e t w o t ab les it c a n b e c on cl u de d t h a t b o th C h i ne s e an d A m e r i c a n ne w s me d ia ma k e g oo d u se o f t h e mo d a l i ty w o rds t o e x p ress t h e ir a t t it u d e to w a rd th e d ial o g u e a n d t o make p re d iction f o r t h e ou t c o m e o f t h e c o n f e re n c e s T h e w o w i l c a n p ro v ide i n f o r m a ti o n ab o u t w ha t w i l l happ e n in t h e f u t u re, i n w h ich t h e add res s e r p u ts h i m s e lf a s t h e g ua ra n t o r, a s it w e re, o f t h e t ru t h o r t h e o cc u r r en ce o f t h e e v en t h e r e f e rs to (L y on s, 19 7 7 : 3 1 0 ). W ha e w i l l e x p ress t h e s p e a k e a s s u r a n c e s ab o u t a cc u racy o f t h e p ro po sit i on s. Ca n h e t y p ical m o da l i ty w o rd o f po ssibil i t y / ab i l it y / pe r m iss i on It in d ica te s w ha t t h e w r i t e r s s up p o sin g s ome t h ing is po ssible t o h ap p e n o r s o m eo n e c ap a b i l ity o f d o ing s om e t h in g T h e w o ho u a n t a ke o n t h e m e an ing o f mo ral ob l ig a ti o n o r du ty o f s o me t h ing (Co a t e s, 1 9 8 3 ). H o w e v e r, a cc o rding to t h e d e t a i le d o f t he se mo da l i ty w o rds in t h e c o n t e x ts o f s en t e n c e s f r o m g ro u p US a n d g ro u p C h in a t he re is a b ig d i f fe re n c e b e t w ee n A me r i c a n a n d C h i n e se m e d a t t it ud e t o w a rd th e

PAGE 46

46 d ial o g ue Acc o rding t o Ta b le 4 6 an d T ab le 4 7 th e s a m p le s en t en c e s w ith mo da l i ty v e rb f r o m g r ou p C h ina s h o w th e Chi n a D a i l y ma i n ly u s e d th e w o rd w i l l f o re c a st t h e f u t u r e sit ua ti o n s a n d a c h ie v eme n t o f t h e d ia l o g ue Chi ne se o f f ic i a l s b e l i e v e b o th U. S a n d Chi n a is g o ing t o b e ne f it f r o m t h e t a lk a n d h o ld p o siti v e a t t it u d e s t o w a rds t h e me e ti n g T h e y a lso s ho w a s t r o n g w i ll t o c o rp o ra t e w ith U.S a n d i nd ica t e t h e t w o c oun tries h a v e mo re s ha r e d i n t e rests t ha n d i f f e r e n c e s. H o w e v e r, ne w s s amp les f r o m A me r i c a n me d ia mo stly u s e d t h e mo d a l i ty v e i l l de scr i b e t h e p ro c e ss o f m ee t i n g s u ch a s t h e c on t e n t an d top ic to b e c o v e red in t h e c o n f e r e n c e I t a lso i nd ica t e s th e U. S si d e h e ld a n un c e rta i n a t tit u d e a bo u t t h e o u tc o m e o f t h e t a l k. The w o an s e n t en c e 9 f r o m g ro u p U.S. s h o w s tha t t h e U.S. b e l i e v e s Chi n a c a n d o n o t h ing b u t r a ise th e c u r r en cy o f t h e y uan A me r i ca a l s o h o l d s a ne g a ti v e a t t it u d e o n C h i n a po ss i b i l ity an d a b i l ity t o c o n f ro n t t h e c u r re n cy iss ue O n t h e o t h e r h an d t h e e x a m p le 9 f r o m g ro u p C h ina s ho w s Chi n a d i d n w an t t o m a ke y uan v a lue ri se f a st. C h i n e se e x pe rts t h ink t h e a p p reciati o n o f y ua n w i l l c au se j o b l o ss e s a n d is no t he l p f u l to C h i n a n f la t i o n p r ob l e m U. S a n d Chi n a h a v e d i f f e r e n t o p ini on s ab o u t t h e rise o f y ua n c u r r en cy be c a u se t he y ha v e c o n f l i ct in e c o no m ic b e n e f its. As a c o n c lusi o n mo da l au x i l iar i e s in th e n e w s re po rts o f Chi n a D a i l y o n t h e d ial o g u e ma inly e x p ress t h e m e an ing o f v o l i ti o n a n d p r e d iction e s p e c ially b y w i l l an d w ou ld an d i n d ica t ing th e pe r m iss i on po ssibil i t y an d ab i l ity po t e n ti a l b y c an c ou l d m a y an d m i g h t. R e p res e n t a ti v e s f r o m C h ina s ho w a po siti v e a t tit u d e to w a rd th e f r u it o f t h e me e ti n g w he re a s U. S pa y s m o re a t t en ti o n t o t h e p roc e ss o f t h e t a lk.

PAGE 47

47 Interpr e tation As ha s b e e n d iscuss e d i n C h ap t e r 3, in t h e in t e rpre t a ti v e s ta g e th e d isco u rses w i l l no t on ly b e t r e a t e d a s t h e te x ts th e m s e l v e s b u t a lso a s d iscurs i v e p ractice, n a me l y t e x t p ro du ct i o n an d c on s u mp ti o n Acc o rdin g l y a t ten ti o n s h ou ld b e d ra w n t o a n o t h e r f a c t o r in te r t e x t ua lit y Acc o rding t o F a i r clo u g h (1 9 95 ), in t e rte x t ua l i ty ref e rs to t h e p roc e ss o f c on struct i n g a te x t w ith o t he r t e x ts. I n o t he r w o rds, ne w s re po rtin g to a l a r g e e x t en t, is maki n g a d e scr i p ti v e rec o rd o f w ha t o t he r p e op le s a y an d ho w the y s a y T h e re a r ra n g em e n t is n o t r a n d om ly ope ra t ed N e w s d isco u rses q uo t e nu m e ro u s w o rds f r o m o t he rs w ith a pu rp o s e t o g ene ra t e a s en s e o f re a l i ty an d make t h e r e po rt s e e m s t o b e ob jec t i v e I n f a c t t h e re is n o ab s o l u t e ly ob jec t i v e an d f a ir re p o rt. T h e s t a t e m e n ts q uo t e d a re s e le c t e d b y w r it e rs i n te r m o f ne w s s ou r c e s a n d re p o rting mo d e s. N a t u ral l y t h e s e le c t ion ma d e b y w r it e rs i s i deo lo g y lo aded I n t e rte x t ua l i ty is c on c e rn e d w ith t w o iss ue s, r e po rting mo d e a n d n e ws s ou rce. Ne w s s ou rce is on e w h o p ro v id e s t h e i n f o r m a ti o n to t h e ne w s re po r t e r. Be c au s e t h e re po rter c a n n o t a l w a y s w it ne ss w ha t hap p e ne d o n t h e s p o t b y t h em s e l v e s, t he y ha v e t o res o rt to o t h e r p e op le's de scr i p ti o n o f t h e e v e n t. H o w e v e r, ne w s re po rts d o no t g ene ral l y q uo te s t a t e m e n ts ra nd om l y Th e y a re ma inly ba s e d o n w ha t a n a u t h o r i t a ti v e s ou rce t e l l s a re po r t e r. T h e v a lu e s o f n e w s re po rts a re i n f l u en c e d b y t h e q ua l i ty o f s o u rces. Reporting modes Fairclough (1995) distinguishes reporting modes into three categories: direct discourse (DD), indirect discourse (ID), and direct discourse slipping DD(S). The direct discourse means it is absolutely faithf ul to the original statement, while the indirect discourse indicates that it is only faithful to the original content but not the expression form. ideational meaning of the secondary discourse" and "DD carries a commitment to give

PAGE 48

48 also the exact form of the words used'' (as cited in Fairclough, 1995, p. 56). In addition to the two main reporting modes, there is another type of reporting mode, DD(S) which is abbreviated form f or sub type of direct discourse) is a category for case of slipping between the direct and the indirect mode (Fairclough, 1995). Fairclough (1995) indicates the choice of reporting modes and sources is the subtlest way to embed the writer's ideology into n ews discourse. In Chinese and American news samples, the three modes DD, ID and DD(S) are employed. Table. 4 8 is the distribution of reporting modes of in the samples from group US and group China. According to Table 4 8, direct discourse (DD) and indirec t discourse (ID) are the two main reporting modes applied in both groups. As mentioned above, DD is believed to be faithful to not only the original content but also the form of the reported statement. By deploying the mode of DD, writers can distance them selves to the reported discourse so as to achieve a sense of objectivity, which can also help writers to evade commitment to the information. Although the figures in Table 4 8 shows DD takes a predominant position in both groups (42% and 42.4% respectively ), the reported statements in the two groups have different focuses after a detailed analysis. Table 4 9 and Table 4 10 list the example sentences of DD and ID from group US and China. With a close look of sample sentences from group China, we can see that most of DD and ID are the expressions of personal emotion, judgments or attitudes rather than stating facts. It also shows China Daily mainly focuses on the dialogue whereas U.S. media pay more attention to some various topics such as human rights (senten ce 10 and 11 from group US), economy of China (sentence 12 and 13), and foreign investment of China (sentence 14).

PAGE 49

49 As a conclusion, the reporting mode is a strategy used by the journalists and news reporters to break through the constraints of personal att itude, opinion and the report and comments. The quotations do not come up randomly and are selected based on the s are the reflection of the ideologies. present different social forms and then make discourse represe attitude. N e w s s ou r c e Ne w s s ou rces ref e r to t h e add res s o rs or e x p ress e rs w ho se s p ee c he s, id ea s a n d v i e w po in t s a re q uo t e d i n t h e n e w s re po rts ( F a i r lo u g h 1 9 95 ). I t is u p t o t h e re p o rter, a n d u lti ma t e ly t h e n e w s pa p e r he o r she w o rks f o r, to d e cide w ho se v o ice is to b e h ea rd o n w ha t issue a n d s u c h d e cis i on s a re u s u a l l y h i g h ly s i g n i f ica n t. B o t h g ro u p US an d gro u p Chi n a q uo t e p o l i tic a l l e ade rs a n d e x pe ta t em e n ts. C h in e s e a n d US re po rters bo t h ski l l f u l l y ab ide b y th e r u le o f be ing "ob j e cti v i t y" b y u sing a b un d an t s p e ci f ic s ou rces. For e x amp le, i n US 5 t h e w r it e r c i t e s C u i T i an k a i ( v ice m inist e r o f f o rei g n a f fa i r s ) ; C l in to n (the s e c re ta ry o f st a t e ) ; C l in ton ; C u i T ia n k a i; G e it h n e r ( US T re a s u ry Se c r e t a r y ) a n d J oh n Fr i s b ie ( p resid e n t o f t h e U S Chi n a B u si n e ss C o u n ci l ). In C h i n a 5 t h e f o l l o w ing s ou rces a re e mp lo y ed : th e W h i t e H o u s e ; A s e n ior US o f f ic i a l; A s en i o r US o f f ic i a l; t h e W a s h i n g t o n P o st; F a n Jishe (an e x pe rt o n U S s tud i e s a t CA S S); W an g Q ish a n ; Dai Bin g g u o (S ta te C o u n ci l o r ) It is e a si l y unde rs t oo d t h a t t h e re a re v o ices f r o m b o th s i de s in AN5 a n d CN5 be c a u se it is a Dial o gu e b e t w ee n th e t w o c oun trie s In US 5 t h e w r i t e r tries to s h o w tha t h is re po rt is ob jec t i v e b y e mp lo y ing 6 s pe c i f i e d s ou rces. H o w e v e r w e c a n f i n d mo st o f t h e

PAGE 50

50 s p ee c h e s a re f r o m v o ices o f A me r i c a n o f f ic i a ls. On ly on e C h i n a ne w s s ou rce, w h ich is Cui T i a n k a i is me n ti o n e d in t h is re p o rt. C o m p a red w ith US 5 t he re a re f ou r s p ee c he s q uo t e d f r o m t h e A m e r i c a n si d e an d th r e e f r o m t h e C h i n e se s id e As a c o n clusi o n US 5 ma inly e x p ress t h e o p ini o n a n d t hou g h t f r o m U S. si d e a n d f o c u s o n Am e r i c a o w n a t t i t u d e to w a rd th is e v en t. I t c a n b e s e e n t h a t n e w s re po rters c hoo s e s pe c i f ic ne w s s ou rc e s t o e n s u re t h e o b jec t i v ity o f t h e re p o rts. H o w e v e r, t h e r e po e o lo g ies a n d a t t it u de s c a n b e re v ea led th r o u g h a de t a i le d a n a l y sis. E x pl a nation Acc o rding t o F a i r clo u g h (1 9 9 5 ), n e w s d isco u rse c a n b e c on si d e red a s a ki n d o f s o cial p ractic e S o c i a l i ty an d i n stit u ti o n in f a c t e x e rt a hu g e i n f lu e n ce o n ne w s re p o rts. In d isc o u rse a na l y sis, e s pe cially ne w s re po r t s, t h e u n d isco v e red i n f o r ma t i o n o f p o w e r, id eo lo g y an d l a n g ua g e w i l l b e i n v e sti g a t e d an d e x p lai ne d in t h is pa rt b y i n stit u ti o n a l c on t e x t a n d s o cie ta l c o n t e x t ( F a i r clo u g h 1 9 9 5 ). In s ti t u t ion a l c on t ex t News media, a special kind of social organization, has a close relationship with the government and politics (Thussu, 2006). China and the US are often taken together for newspaper from China and U.S. would try to build a good national image in front of the audiences and indoctrinate the ideology and attitude to them. More often than not, it is the national ideology that directs the press to provide a certain kind of news, which ser ves for the politics in shaping the majority of people's mind (de Beer, 2009). From this point of view, the institutional context such as characteristics of organizations is meaningful to explore because it often reflects the hidden background information for news media during the editorial process.

PAGE 51

51 p. xi). According to them, American press depends on advertising for its profits; it is dependent on government officials for its sources; it is intimidated by right wing pressure groups; it is imbued with anti communist ideology. Therefore, the direction of choice making of a news agency is led by the government in ideological sense. On the other hand, China is one of the bottom ten countries in press freedom according to the Freedom of the Press 2012 report (Freedom House). In China, the government has a strong control over the national media, especially the most authoritative mass media of communication but also act as the mouthpiece of the Communist Party and the govern ment. As the mouthpiece, they mainly express the latest tendencies on behalf of the government and lead public opinion at home. As the authoritative news media of the China and USA, the news reports from China Daily, the New York Times, and the Wall Street Journal represent international issue. The news texts contain the undying ideologies of the serving grouping of the nation simultaneously. For example, on the lexical choices level, the news reports of Chi na Daily use more gentle words and more moderate tones compared with those from U.S. Furthermore, the coverage in China Daily focuses on the dialogue and expresses a positive view to the results whereas the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal pay mo re attention to U.S. and the conflicts between the two countries such as human rights and the raise of yuan currency.

PAGE 52

52 Soc ie tal c on t ex t A pa rt f r o m i n stit u t i ona l c on t e x t, s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t a lso p la y s a v it a l r o le in un d e rsta n d ing th e p r o f ou n d l e v e l o f n e w s re po rts ( F o w ler, 1991 ). G ene ral l y s pea kin g med i a a re i n f lu e n c e d b y th e s o cie t a l c on t e x t o f t h e e v en t an d t h e c o u n tr y s u ch a s h ist o r i c a l, e c on o m ic an d po l i tic a l f a ct o rs ( Hall, 19 8 0 ). Ac c o rding t o F o w ler (1 991 ), t h e med i a d o n o t si m p ly an d t r a n s pa r e n tly re p o rt w ha t a re n e w s w o rthy i n t h em s e l v e s. Ne w s is t h e en d p ro d u ct o f a c omp l e x p roc e ss w h ich be g ins w ith a s y st e m a tic s o rting a n d s e lec t ing o f e v en ts a n d top ics a cc o rding t o a s o cially c on struct e d s e t o f c a t e g o r i e s" (p. 12 ). T h e d is p a r i ty be tw ee n t h e n a t u re o f C h i n e se a n d A m e r i c a n m e d ia l i e s in t he ir d iff e re n t e c on o m ica l a n d p o l i tic a l c o n t e x ts. The rel a t i on s h i p b e t w ee n C h ina a n d A me r i ca is v e ry c omp l e x T he y a re no t on ly stra te g ic pa rtn e rs d u e t o c o m m o n be ne f its bu t a lso c o m p e tit o rs d u e t o c on f l i cts o f in te r e sts. Chi n a t a k e s t h e U S Chi n a S &ED a s a g oo d p la t f o rm f o r Ch i n a t o e x p ress t h e w i l l to c oo p e rate w ith A me r i c a a n d a lso t h e c han g e s o f Chi n a a s t h e b i g g e st de v e lo p ing c oun tr y Ho w e v e r, Ame r i ca m a i n ly f o c u s e s o n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s an d c o n f l i ct b e t w ee n t h e t w o c o u n tries. F o r inst an c e n e w s s amp les f r o m g ro u p A c r itic i z e Chi ne se g o v e rnme n c on trol o v e r t h e a pp re c ia t ion o f c u r r en c y w h ich s ho w s th e e c on om ic c on f l i ct o f Chi n a an d t h e U. S M a j or Findings B a s e d o n F a i r clo u g h 's t h re e d i men s i ona l m od e s o f CDA a n d H a l l id a y 's Fu n cti o n a l Gr a m m a r a s ana l y tic a l t oo ls, t h e p res en t s t ud y c o n du c t e d a cr i tic a l a na l y sis o f t e n n e w s re po rts o n t h e s a m e iss u e f r o m t w o si de s, n a me l y Chi ne se ne w s pape rs inclu d ing Chi n a D a i l y a n d US ne w s pape rs i n c l ud ing th e Wa ll S tre e t J ou rn a l an d t h e New Y o rk T i m e s. T h e ma jor f i nd in g s c a n b e s u m ma r i z e d a s f o l l o w s As f a r as t h e t e n n e w s st o r i e s a re c on c e r ne d a lt h o u g h bo t h t h e U S. re po rts a n d Chi ne se r e po rts c en t e r ar ou n d t h e s a m e t o p i c no ti c eab le d i f fe re n c e s lie in t h e ir l i n g u istic

PAGE 53

53 f e a t u res s u ch a s mat e r i a l p roc e ss, mo d a l i ty an d i n t e rte x t u a l i t y P u t t ing th e t e x ts an d d iscurs i v e p ractice in t h e i n stit u t i o n an d s o cial c o n t e x t, t h e res u lts il l u stra t e ho w ne w s d isco u rses a re s h a p e d b y th e re p o rters' id eo l o g y an d h o w i deo lo g y is ski l l f u l l y c on c ea l e d i n t h e d is c ou rses. It is f o u n d t ha t t he s e lin g u istic c ho ices a re n o t ra nd o m ly m a d e b y re p o rters b u t a re de l ib e ra t e ly o rch e stra te d u n de r t h e i n f l uen c e o f id eo lo g y T h e c o m p a rati v e a n a lys i s re v ea ls t ha t a lt h o u g h ne w s pa p e rs try t o b e ob jec t i v e an d i m p a rtial, t h e s ee m in g ly neu tral r ep re s e n t a ti o n s c o n c ea l e d t h e na t u ral i z e d id eo lo g y T h e d istin c ti on s i n lin g u istic f e a t u res be t w ee n C h in e se a n d A me r i c a n ne w s pa p e rs a re ro o t e d in t h e ir id eo l o g i c a l o r i en t a t i o n d e t e r m in e d b y its i n stit u ti o n a l c on t e x t, a n d t h e ma ins t r e a m s o cial i de o lo g y Due t o t h e c on sc i ou s o r s u b c on sc i ou s i deo lo g ical c o n trol, ne w s m ed ia c a n ha rdly k ee p t h e ir i nd e pe n de n c e T h e s t u d y a lso re v ea ls t h a t ne w s d isco u rses a re s o cially c on struc t e d a n d a re p ro du cts o f v a lu e s an d i deo lo g ies, w h ich a re in t u rn ma in t a in e d an d re i n f o rc e d b y l an g ua g e a n d d is c ou rses. T h e s e em in g ly f a ct u a l ne w s re po rts a re in f a ct n o t a t ra n s pa r en t r e p res e n t a ti o n o f t h e w o r l d bu t c on struc t e d r e a l i ti e s.

PAGE 54

54 T a b le 4 1 M a t e r i a l p r o c e ss o f US 1 Actor Process U.S. U.S. administration s have sought U.S. officials have created U.S. officials said Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said Mrs. Clinton and Vice President Joe Biden made clear U.S. officials urged Mr. Geithner said He (Mr. Geithner) said Mrs. Clinton and M r. Biden make clear Mrs. Clinton said Mr. Biden told We (U.S.) have The Dialogue The talks mark The closely watched talks opened on The U.S. and China The U.S. and China squared off China Chinese officials disputed State Counselor Dai Binggu o followed He (Dai Bingguo) said Vice Premier Wang said China has intensified

PAGE 55

55 T a b le 4 2 M a t e r i a l p r o c e ss o f Chi n a 1 Actor Process The U.S. and China China and the United States have Leaders from both sides sounded Both sides brought the two sides will break into The US and Chinese leaders were also scheduled to meet Both sides hope to build The Chinese team is led by China Dai (China's top foreign policy official, State Counselor) made China, wants Sun Zhe (director of the Center for US China Relations at Tsinghua University) said China's concerns include U.S. US Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton led Geithner said Clinton said US Vice President Joe Biden said Both Biden an d Clinton acknowledged He (US Vice President Joe Biden) welcomed Geithner said The dialogue annual talks aim to The talks wrap up

PAGE 56

56 T a b le 4 3 S a mp le s e n t en c e f r o m US 1 a n d Chi n a 1 US 1 China 1 1. Lead The U.S. and China squared o ff over Beijing's human rights record during Monday's launch of wide ranging talks among officials overseeing the two countries' trade, foreign policy and defense policies. 1. Lead China and the United States have far more shared interests than differenc es, and nothing can hold back the momentum of cooperation, Vice Premier Wang Qishan said on Monday. 2. Mrs. Clinton and Mr. Biden both made clear the U.S. won't back down on the human rights issue, even as Washington tries to improve ties with Beijing. 2. Clinton said the annual talks aim to build a stronger relationship, "to weather through disagreements when they arise, and narrow areas where our interests each other, build trust to work to avoid misunderstanding an d miscalculation." human rights," Mr. Biden told the delegates. 3. Both Biden and Clinton acknowledged that the two countries have differences over human rights. 4. U.S. officials urged China to allow its currency to appreciate more quickly. 4. While Geithner said last week that the US would press China to accelerate efforts to revalue the yuan, he had sounded a conciliatory tone prior to the talks

PAGE 57

57 S e m an tic cl a s s e s M od a l a u x i l iar i e s Occ u r r en c e s P e r m iss i o n / c a n 5 P o ssibil i t y / c ou ld 4 ab i l ity ma y 3 m i g h t 0 O b l ig a ti on / M u st 1 ne c e ssity s hou ld 5 V o l i ti o n / w i ll 23 p re d iction w ou ld 2 T o t a l T a b le 4 4 T h e d istr i b u ti o n o f m o d a l au x i l iary v e rbs u s e d in g r o u p U S Semantic classes Modal auxiliaries Occurrences Total Permission/ Possibility/ ability can could may might 5 2 1 1 9 Obligation/ necessity must should 1 2 3 Volition/ prediction will would 13 1 14 Total 26 T a b le 4 5 T h e d istr i b u ti o n o f m o d a l au x i l iary v e rbs u s e d in g ro u p C h ina 12 6 25 43 T a b le 4 6 T h e p e rce n t a g e o f t h e t o p f o u r a u x i l iary v e rbs in g ro u p US an d g ro u p C h i n a w i ll c a n c ou ld s hou ld US 34 6 % 19 2 & 7 6 % 7 6 % Chi n a 53 5 % 11 6 % 9 3 % 11 6 %

PAGE 58

58 Table 4 7. Sample sentences with modality verb from group US and group China. US China 5. U.S. Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner and China's Vice Premier Wang Qishan, meeting here this week, will discuss the yuan, trade, and other economic issues. 5. Dai made an evo cative speech highlighting that cooperation between the two countries will benefit future generations. 6. Mr. Geithner said U.S. officials also will focus on opening Chinese markets to U.S. firms, including financial firms, and encouraging China to boost domestic demand for goods and services. 5. Geithner said that sound China US relations will benefit not only the two countries, but also the world economy. 7. Other U.S. and Chinese officials will address sensitive strategic concerns such as human right s, North Korea's nuclear aspirations and Iran sanctions. 7. As concerns over energy security grow across the globe, the world's two largest producers and consumers of power will continue to cooperate on climate change initiatives and clean energy developme nt, senior officials from China and the United States said on Monday. 8. During a meeting known as the Strategic and Economic Dialogue, they will smile across conference tables and talk about cooperating on a range of issues: trade, currency, North Korea. 8. China and the US have far more shared interests than differences, and nothing can hold back the momentum of cooperation, Chinese Vice Premier Wang Qishan said at the S&ED. 9. Allowing the yuan to rise faster also would allow the Chinese government t o sell fewer yuan and buy fewer reserves as a burden because there is little that can be done with them other than invest them in very low yielding U.S. Treasury bonds. 9. But Chinese experts said the export sector will suffer if the yuan's value rises fast and the country will suffer from lost jobs while the appreciation may not solve China's inflation problem.

PAGE 59

59 T a b le 4 8 Dist r ib u t i o n o f re p o rting mo d e s o f i n t h e s a mp les f r o m G r ou p US a n d C h i n a Group US (Ne ws York Times; Wall Street Journal) Group China (China Daily) Modes Number Percentage Number percentage DD 21 42% 25 42.4% ID 20 40% 22 37.3% DD(S) 9 18% 12 20.3% Total 50 100% 59 100%

PAGE 60

60 T a b le 4 9 Sa m p le s e n t en c e s o f DD f r o m g ro u p US a n d g ro u p C h i n a US China 10. Mrs. Clinton said: "We know over the long arc of history that societies that work toward respecting human rights are going to be more prosperous, stable and successful." 10. "With vision and foresight, the two presidents opened a new pa ge in China US relations," Wang said. human rights," Mr. Biden told the delegates 11. "Our ability to work together is important to the overall health and stability of the global economy," Geithner said. are seeing very promising shifts in Treasury Secretary Timothy F. Geithner said Tuesday. 12. "A thriving US is good for China, and a thriving China is good for the US," she (Clinton) said. 13. "All of these rec ent moves by China result in its economy becoming less competitive and less welcoming to foreign direct investment," Mr. Locke said. 13. "I am doing this (attending the meeting) to implement the consensus of our presidents for the achievement of one loft y goal, to make our two countries and people forever good friends and good partners, and to enable our children and children's children to live in peace and happiness," said Dai. 14. "We want to see these Geithner said. 14. "We need to better understand each other, build trust to work to avoid misunderstanding and miscalculation," said Clinton.

PAGE 61

61 T a b le 4 10 S a m p le s en t e n c e s o f I D f r o m g ro u p US a n d g ro u p C h ina US China 15. Monday night, China's top economic o fficial, Vice Premier Wang Qishan, said in a Charlie Rose interview that inflation is the country's biggest economic challenge. 15. Dai made an evocative speech highlighting that cooperation between the two countries will benefit future generations. 16. The Treasury official said Washington was also able to secure important commitments from officials that should foster a better environment for U.S. businesses seeking to compete in China's growing economy. 16. Geithner said that sound China US relations w ill benefit not only the two countries, but also the world economy. 17. While the official said there won't be any changes to carefully watched wording on China's currency policy in the statement from the bilateral negotiations, the official also said t here was a marked change in the tenor of conversations over China's yuan policy from previous negotiations. 17. Clinton said the annual talks aim to build a stronger relationship 18. He (Geithner ) said the U.S. wanted to make progress on protecting int ellectual property rights for firms operating in or exporting to China 18. Tuesday's talks in the Economic Track will focus on rebalancing both economies and strengthening recoveries, Chen said. 19. U.S. officials said the two sides also discussed way s to coordinate in stabilizing Pakistan and Afghanistan, including pursuing development projects 19. Sun Zhe, director of the Center for US China Relations at Tsinghua University, said the US is mainly concerned about the yuan exchange rate, innovation, in tellectual property rights and government procurement.

PAGE 62

62 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Acc o rding t o t h e res u lt o f t h e s t ud y ne w s re p o rts a re no t me r e ly re po rting th e ne w s f a c ts, b u t c o r r e s po n den t t o i deo l o g ies an d i n t e rests o f t h e t w o s e r v ing g o v e rn m en ts re s pe cti v e l y T hu s, t h e N e w Y o rk T i m es t h e Wa ll S tr e e t J o u rn a l an d Chi n a D a i l y re p o rt t h e s am e i n t e r n a ti o na l e v e n t d i f fe re n tl y T h e s pe c i f ic a r ra n g em e n t o f t h e ne w s s t ruct u re a n d th e f o c u s o f t h e c o v e ra g e a re p u rp o s e f u l l y s e lec t e d F ro m t h e c o g n ition a s pe ct, t h e n e w s head l i n e a n d n e ws le ad s c a n c a tch t h e a ud ie n c e a t t en t i on In c o n sid e rat i o n o f t h e s e Chi n e se a n d A m e r i c a n med i a f o c u s o n d i f fe re n t po i n ts o f t h e d ial o g ue A pa rt f r o m t h e c o m m o n f o c u s o f t h e ne g o ti a ti o n p r o c e ss e s t h e ne w s re po rts o f t h e t w o me d ia ha v e d iff e re n t e m p ha s e s T a b le 4 7 4 9 a n d 4 1 0 an d il l u str a te t h e d i v e r g en c e s an d t h e h i dd e n re a s on s f o r t h e a pp e a ra n ce o f t h is p he n om e n o n A me r i c a n med i a p ub l i ci z e i deo l o g y an d l e t t h e ir he g e m on y po w e r be rec o g n i z ed O n t h e o t h e r ha n d Chi n e se g o v e rn m e n t b u i l d s t h e h a r mo n io u s an d p e a c e l o v ing na ti ona l i deo l o g y an d b ro a d c a s t s t h is i m a g e t o t h e aud i en ce t h r ou g h mai n str e a m me d i a s u ch a s Chi n a Daily, Pe o p le s D a i l y an d X in h u a N e w s A g en c y A bo v e a l l d i f fe re n t ne w s m ed ia w ou ld a p p ly th e s i m i l a r disc ou r s e s t rat e g ies o n re po rting th e s a m e e v e n t, a l t h o u g h v a ry i n g f r o m d i f fe re n t re p o rting a n g les. W h i l e re po rting th e ne w a c ts h e ne w s m e d ia c h oo se d i f f e r e n t r e po rti n g pe rsp e cti v e s w ith t h e a im o f b u i l d ing t h e ir na ti o n a l id e n titi e s to t h e a c c ep t an c e s o f t h e pub l i c. T h a t is t o s a y t h e n e w s te x t s c ompa c t t h e u n d e r l y ing i deo lo g ies o f d i f fe re n t n a ti on s. T h e ne w s med i a u s e si m i l a r d isco u rse str a t e g ies to bu i l d t h e ima g e s, (the mo s t p r o m in e n t o ne ) t h e o v e rall s t rat e g y o f po siti v e s e l f p res e n t a t i o n o f t h e d om i na n t i n g ro u p a n d t h e ne g a ti v e o t her p re s en t a ti o n o f t h e d o m in a t e d ou t g ro up s ( v a n Di j k, 1 998 ).

PAGE 63

63 Lim i tations of the St u d y Fi r st, du e to t h e l i m it o f ti me it is i m po ssible t o a n a l y z e a ll th e C h in e se a n d A me r i c a n n e w s re po rts c on c e rn i n g th e is s ue T h e d a ta u n de r a na l y sis a re c on f in e d t o t e n ne w s s a mp l e s s e l e ct e d f r o m t w o sid e s, w h ich m a y no t b e r e p re s en t a ti v e o f t h e d iscurs i v e p ractices o f a ll th e ne w s p ress e s in C h ina an d A m e r i c a Th e r e f o r e c on clusi o n may b e t en t a ti v e an d t h e v a l i d i ty o f t h e a n a l y sis ma y b e re du c e d t o s o m e e x t en t. S e c o n d The p re s en t s t u d y is on ly a c a se s t ud y ba s e d o n a de t a i le d a na l y sis o f t e n ne w s re po rts, a n d ma y no t b e a p p l i e d t o a ll g en res o f ne w s d isco u rse. Third, d u e t o t h e s pa ce li m it, t h e s t u d y doe s n e x am ine a ll t h e lin g u istic f e a t u r e s. S o m e a na l y tic a l de v ices, s u ch a s t hem a tic s t ruct u r e a n d t r a n s f o r m a ti o n a re n o t inc l u de d w h ich ma y a f f e ct t h e a c c u racy o f t h e res u l t s T h e s t u d y on ly c on c e n tra te s o n t h e ana l y sis ba s e d o n H a l l id a y u n cti o n a l t heo ry a s a na l y tic t oo ls an d F a i r clo u g h h r e e d i m e n sion o f CDA a s t heo reti c a l f r a me w o rk. T h e c o g n ition o f re a de c o mp r e hen si o n o f ne w s d isc o u rses ha s b e e n i g no re d In o t he r w o rds, ho w re ade rs c o m p re h en d ne w s d isco u rse c o n s t ruction a n d ho w re ade rs c o n s u m e t h e d isco u rses i n f o r m a ti o n in t he ir c o g n iti v e p roc e ss? T h e se kin d s o f q ue s t io n s ha v e n o t b ee n s o l v ed T h e i n t e rpre t a ti o n o f id eo l o g y in th e s a m p les is just ba s e d o n t h e a u t ho r s a ss u m p ti on s o f r ea d e p ro b a b le c o mp re hen si o n T h e r e f o r e o n ly th e an a l y sis o f h o w th e d isc o u rse is c on s truc t e d an d ho w t h e re po r t e rs em b e d t h e id e o lo g y in t h e d isco u rse c o m b in e d w ith t h e s t ud y o f r e a de o g n iti v e p roc e ss c a n a c h ie v e a c omp r eh e n si v e un d e rsta nd i n g o f h o w ne w s d isco u rses e x e rt a n in f l uen c e o n re a de i deo lo g y W ha mor e t h e s t ud y t r i e s t o e x p lore d i f f e r e n t la n g ua g e s t ra t e g ies a n d d is c o u rse a r r an ge m e n t c r iticall y It w ou ld b e w ise to s tud y th e t w o m ed d isco u rse f r o m o t h e r s i de s, s u ch a s

PAGE 64

64 po siti v e d isc o u rse a na l y sis, t o c o mpa re ho w th e t w o c o u n tries ma ke p l a n s to g e t he r r eg a rding t o th e i n t e r n a t i ona l e c o n om ic issue c o ope r a ti v e l y Due t o t h e li m it a ti on s a bo v e it is h op e d t h a t a m o re c o mp re h en si v e fra m e w o rk w i ll b e e m p lo y e d w ith e x hau sti v e da ta a n a l y sis to l e a d a more v a l i d s tud y o n ne w s d isco u rse. A pa rt f r o m t h e li m i t a ti on s me n ti o n e d a b o v e t h e s t u d y c o u ld b e o f s o m e h e lp in p ro v idi n g in s p i r a ti o n f o r f u rt h e r a n a l y sis in t h e rel a ti v e f iel d s It is a lso w o rth w h i l e in t h e de e pe r e x p lora t i o n o f t h e n e w s v a lu e ne w s p ro du c ti o n a n d c o m p re hen si o n a n d s om e o t he r a s pe cts c o n c e rning i n f o r ma ti o n t r an s m iss io n a n d d iss e m in a t i on Since i n e ss en c e CDA is a n i n t e rdisc i p l i na ry s ub jec t mo re r e s ea rch o f ne w s d isco u rse a n a l y sis in c o m b in a ti o n w ith o t h e r h u m a n istic st ud y s u ch a s j o u rn a l i sm or c o g n ition in t h e f u t u re a re e x pe ct e d a n d w e lco m e d

PAGE 65

65 L I S T O F RE F EREN C E S B e l l A. ( 1 9 9 1 ). The l a n gu a g e o f n e w s m ed i a O x f o rd: Black w e l l B e r g st en C. F. (2 0 09 ). T h e U n i t e d St a t e s Chi n a E c on o m ic Rel a ti on s h ip a n d t h e Stra te g ic a n d E c on o m i c Dial o g ue t e s ti m on y be f o re t h e S ub c o m m itt e e o n A si a t h e P a cific a n d t h e Gl o ba l E n vi ro n m en t, C o m m itt e e o n F o rei g n A f f a i rs, US Ho u s e o f R ep re s en t a ti v e s 1 0 S e p t e m be r. Blom m a e rt, J. ( 2 0 0 5 ). D i sc ou rse: A cr i tic a l i nt ro du cti o n C a mb r i d g e Uni v e rs i t y P ress. Cal da s Co u lt h a rd, C. R., & C ou l t ha r d M (1 9 96 ). Tex t s a n d p ra c tic e s: Re ad i n g s in c r itical d isco u rse a na l y si s B u rns & Oa t e s. Cart e r, R. (1 9 97 ). I n v e sti ga ti n g E n g l i sh Disc o u rse: L an g u a ge L it e r a cy, L it e ra t u r e Ro u tl ed g e Ca z den C. B (1 9 8 8 M a rch). T w o me an i n g s o f o u P ape r p res en t e d a t t h e A nn u a l Me e t i n g o f t h e A me r i c a n A ss o c i a ti o n f o r A pp l ie d L in g u istics, S ea t t l e W A Chi n a D a i l y ( 2 0 13 ). Ab ou t Us. R e trie v e d f r o m h t t p : / / u s a .c h i na d a i l y c om c n / 2 01 1 04 / 1 3 /c o n t e n t 12 3 1 94 49 h tm o n M a y 25 2 0 1 3 C l a rk, R. O. M. Y ., & I v an ic, R ( 1 997 ). Cr i tic a l d isco u rse a n a l y sis an d e d u c a ti o na l c han g e K n o w l e dg e a b ou t l a ng u a g e 2 17 2 2 7 Co a t e s, J. (1 9 83 ). T h e s e m an tics o f t h e m od a l au xi l iar i e s L on d on : C ro o m H e l m Co nne l l I. (1 9 79 ). T V/ Vid eo : T e le v is i on Ne w s an d t h e So c i a l Co n t r a ct. Sc re e n 20 (1), 87 1 0 8 Co t t e r, C. ( 2 0 0 1 ). D i sc ou rse a n d m e d ia. T h e ha n db o o k o f d isc o u rse ana lys i s 416 436 C r y st a l, D., & Da vy D. (1 969 ). In v e sti g a ti n g En g l i sh S t y le d e B ee r ( E d .), Gl o b a l j ou rn a l i s m : To p ical iss u e s a n d m ed ia syst e m s B o st o n : P ea rs o n 20 0 9 p r i n t De v e re u x E. (1 998 ). D e vi l s an d a n ge ls: T e le v is i on id e o lo g y a n d t h e c o v e ra g e o f po v e rty U n i v e rs i t y o f L u t o n P r e ss. D i jk, T A (2 0 08 ). D i s c ou rse a n d c on t e xt: A s o cioc o g n itive a pp r o a c h Cambrid g e UK : Cambrid g e U n i v e r s ity P ress. Du nm i r e P L ( 2 012 ). P o l i tic a l D i sc ou rse A n a l y sis: E x p lor i n g th e L a n g ua g e o f P o l i tics an d t h e Po l i tics o f L a ng ua g e La n g u ag e a n d L in gu is t ics Co m pa ss 6 (1 1 ), 7 35 751. Fairc l ou g h I & F a i r clo u g h N. ( 2 011 ). P ract i c a l r ea s o n ing in po l i ti c a l d isco u rs e : T h e UK g o v e rn m en p on s e t o t h e e c o n o m ic cr i sis in t h e 2 00 8 P r e B u d g e t Re p o rt. D i sc ou rse & S o ci e ty 2 2 (3), 2 4 3 2 6 8 Fairc l ou g h N. (1 9 89 ). Lan g ua g e an d po w e r. Lo n don : L o n g m a n

PAGE 66

66 Fairc l ou g h N. (1 9 92 ). D i sc ou rse a n d s o cial c han g e C a m b r i d g e : P o l ity P ress. Fairc l ou g h N. (1 9 95 ). C r it ical d isco u rse a na l y sis: th e cr i tic a l st ud y o f l an g ua g e L o n d on : Lon gm an Fairc l ou g h N. (1 9 95 ). M ed ia d isc o u rse. Lo nd on : E d w a rd A rn o ld. Fairc l ou g h N. (2 0 03 ). A na l y s i n g d isco u rse: Te x t ua l ana l y sis f o r soc i a l r e s ea rch. Lo n don : R ou t l ed g e Fairc l ou g h N., & W o d a k, R. (1 9 97 ). C r itical d isco u rse a na l y sis. I n T A v a n Di j k (E d .), D i sc ou rse a s s o cial i n t e raction ( pp 25 8 2 84 ) L o nd o n : S a g e Fish m a n M ( 1 980 ). M anu f a ct u r in g t h e ne w s Au sti n : U n i v e rs i ty o f t e x a s P ress. Fo w ler, R o g e r. ( 1987) Notes on critical l inguistics. Language Topics: Essays in Honour of Michael Halliday 2 481 492 Fo w ler, Roger. ( 1 991 ). Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press (Vol. 20). London: Routledge. F r ie dbe r g A. L (2 0 05 ) The F u t u re o f U S Ch i n a R e l a ti on s: Is Co n f i c t I ne v it ab l e ? I n t e r n a ti o n a l S e c u r i t y 30 (2), 7 45 G e is, M. L (1 9 87 ). T h e l a n gu a g e o f p o l i tic s New Y o rk: Sp r i n g er V e r l a g Gitlin, T. (1 9 78 ). M e d ia s o ciol o g y Th eo ry a n d s o cie ty 6 (2), 2 05 2 53 Hall, S (1 9 80 ). Cul t u r a l S tud ie s : t w o pa r a d i g m s. M ed ia, C u lt u re an d So ci e t y 2 ( 1 ), 5 7 72. Hall i da y M A. K. ( 1 9 7 8 ) L an gu a g e a s s o cial s em io t ic: T h e s o cial i n t e rpre ta t i o n o f la n g ua g e a n d me a n in g L o nd o n : A r no l d Hall i da y M A. (1 9 9 4 ). An i n tr o du cti o n t o f u n c t io n a l g ram ma r (2 n d ed n .) L o nd o n : E d w a rd A rn o ld. C r itica l Disco u rse A n a lys i s 2 83 Hall i da y M A. K. an d M a t th iess e n C. ( 20 0 4 ) An i n t r odu c ti o n to f un c ti ona l g ram ma r. Lo n don : H o d dar Arn o l d He nde rs o n R. ( 2 0 0 5 ). A F a i r clo u g h ian app r o a ch t o CDA: P r i n cip l e d e c l e cticism o r a me t ho d s ea rch i n g fo r a th e o r y ? C r itica l S t ud i e s in E d u c a ti o n 46 (2), 9 24. Ho d g e R., & K ress, G. (1 993 ). L a ng u a g e a s i deo l o g y L o n do n : Ro u t le d g e Ho w a rth, C. (2 006 ). A s o cial re p res e n t a ti o n is no t a q u iet t h in g : e x p lor i n g th e cr i tic a l po te n ti a l o f s o cial r ep r e s en t a ti on s t h eo r y Br i tish j ou rn a l o f s o cial p syc ho l o gy 4 5 (1), 6 5 86. J a y M (1 996 ). T h e d ial e ctic a l i m ag in a ti o n : A h ist o ry of t h e Fra n k f u r t Sc h o o l a n d t h e I n stit u t e o f S o c i a l Res e a rch, 1 92 3 1 9 5 0 (V o l. 10 ). Uni v e rs i ty o f C a l i f o rnia P ress. J u ck e r, A H. (1 9 92 ). S o cial s t yl i stics: sy n t a ct i c v a r i a ti o n i n B r i tish n e w s p ape rs ( V o l. 6 ). De Gru y t e r M ou t o n

PAGE 67

67 Lu k e A ( 1 9 9 5 ). T e x t a n d d is c ou rse in e d u c a t i on : A n i n t r odu c ti o n t o c r i tic a l d isco u rse ana l y sis. Revi e w o f re s ea rch in e d u c a ti o n 21 3 48. Kress, G., & Trew, T. (1979). Language and control (pp. 185 185). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Kress, G R & H od g e R. (1 9 7 9 ). L an g ua g e a s i d e o lo g y L o nd o n : R ou tl e d g e & K e g a n P au l. Kress, G ( 19 8 5 ). I d eo l o g ical s t ruct u res in d i s c ou rse. H a n d boo k o f d isco u rse a na lys i s 4 (1), 22 4 2 Kress, G ( 19 9 0 ). C r itical d isco u rse a n a l y sis. A nn u a l r e vi e w o f a pp l i e d lin g u istic s 11 (8 4 ), 84 9 9 M a rtin, J. R. ( 2 004 ). P o siti v e d isco u rse a na l y sis: So l i da r i ty an d c h a n g e Revista C a na r i a d e E s t ud ios I n g les e s 49 179 2 00 M a rtin, J. R., & R o s e D. (2 003 ). Wo rk i n g w i t h d isc o u rse: Me a n ing be y o n d t h e cl a u s e Co n ti n u u m. M a rtin, J. N., & N a k a y am a T K. (2 0 10 ). La ng ua g e an d I n t e rcult u ral C o m m u n ica t io n In I n t e rcul t u ral c o m m un ica t ion i n c o n t e xts (p p 2 1 8 2 6 4 ). New Y o rk, N Y : M cGr a w Hill. M cCart h y M ., C a rter, R., & Mc C a rth y M J ( 19 9 4 ). L a n g ua g e a s d i sc ou rse: P e rsp e cti ve s fo r l a n gu ag e t ea c h ing ( V o l. 1 5 9 ). Lo n do n : L on g m a n M o r r iso n W M. (2 0 1 1 ) Chi n a US tr a d e is s u e s. 3 0 36 M oo s, J ( 2 01 2 3 0 O c t obe r ) New Y o rk T i me s Ci r c u la t ion u p 4 0 % a s N e w s pape r Nu m b e rs G e n e ral l y F l a t. P o y n t e r Re t r i e v e d A p r i l 11 20 1 3 f r o m h t tp : / / w w w po y n t e r.or g M o sc o v ic i S. (2 000 ). S o cial re p re s en t a ti on s : E x p lora t i on s in s o cial p syc ho l o g y G Du v ee n (E d .). C a mb r idg e : P o l i ty P ress. M u ld e r r i g J. (2 012 ). The h e g e m on y o f i n clus i on : A c o r p u s ba s e d cr i tic a l d isco u rse ana l y sis o f de i x is in e d u c a ti o n p o l i c y D i sc ou rse & S o cie t y 23 (6), 7 0 1 728. Re e s e S. D., & B a l l in g e r, J. (2 0 01 ). The r o o ts o f a s o ciol o g y o f ne w s: Remem be r i ng M r. G a t e s a n d s o cial c on t r o l in t h e n e w s r oom J o u rn a l i sm & Mass Com m un ica t ion Q ua rterly 78 (4), 64 1 6 58 Re y e s, A. (2 0 11 ). S tra t eg ies o f l e g iti m i z a ti o n i n po l i tic a l d isco u rse: From w o rds to a cti on s. D i sc ou rse & S o cie t y 22 (6), 781 8 0 7 R i c ha rds, J. C., P la t t, J ., P la t t, H., & C a n d l i n C. N. (1 9 9 2 ). L ong m a n d ictio n a ry of la ng u ag e t e a c h i n g a n d app l ie d lin g u istics (V o l 78 ). Lo n d o n : L o n gma n p 8 3

PAGE 68

68 S a g ha y e Bi r ia, H. (2 0 1 2 ). A m e r i c a n Musl i m s a s ra d icals? A cr i tic a l d isco u rse a na l y sis o f t h e US c on g ressio n a l hea r i n g o n x t en t o f R a d icali z a ti o n in th e A me r i c a n M u sl i m C o m m u n ity a n d T ha t C o m m un it y p o n s e D i sc ou rse & S o cie t y 23 (5), 5 08 5 24 Si mp s on P. ( 1 993 ). L a ng u age i d e o lo g y a n d po int o f vi e w R ou tl e d g e St u b b s, M ( 1 983 ). D i sc ou rse a na lys i s: T h e s o ciolin gu istic ana lys i s o f n a t u ral l a n g ua g e (V o l. 4 ). Uni v e rs i ty o f Chic a g o P ress T h i b au lt, P a u l. R e v iew o f N o r m a n F a i r clo u g h d isc o u rse a n d s o cial c han g e 1 9 9 2 ." S o cial S e m io t ics 3 .2 ( 1 993 ): 29 3 3 10 T h uu ss u Da y a (2 0 06 ) I n t e rn a ti o na l c o m m un ica t io n : C on ti n u ity a n d c ha n g e 2 nd e d New Y o rk: B lo om s bu r y 2 0 06 T u r n bu l l J L ea D P a rk i n s on D & P h i l ips, P (2 0 10 ). O x f o rd ad v an c e d l ea r n e r s d ictio na r y T h o m p s o n G. (1 9 9 6 ). I n tro d u cing f un c ti o n a l g ra m ma r. s truc tu r e 4 2 v a n Di j k, T A (1 9 87 ). Com mun ic a ti n g racism: E t h n ic p rej u d ice in t h ou g h t a n d t a lk. Ne w b ur y Pa rk, CA: Sag e v a n Di j k, T A (1 9 88 ). Ne w s a s d isco u rse. Hi l lsd a le, NJ: La w re n ce E r l bau m A ss o ci a t e s. v a n Di j k, T A (1 9 8 9 ). S o cial C o g n ition a n d D isco u rse in H. Giles a n d R.P. R ob in s o n (e d s) Ha n d boo k o f S o c ial P s y c ho lo g y an d L a n g ua g e p p 1 63 1 83 Chic he st e r : W il e y v a n Di j k, T A (1 9 90 ). D i sc ou rse & s o c i e t y : A ne w j ou r na l f o r a n e w res ea rch f o c u s. D i sc ou rse & S o cie t y 1 (1). 5 16. v a n Di j k, T A (1 9 91 ). Racism a n d t h e p ress. Lo n don : R ou t l ed g e v a n Di j k, T A (1 9 92 ). D i sc ou rse a n d t h e den i a l o f raci s m D i sc ou r s e & So c i e ty 3 (1). 87 118. v a n Di j k, T A (1 9 93 ). Pr i n cipl e s o f cr i tic a l d isco u rse a na l y sis. Disco u rse & S o cie t y 4 (2). 24 9 83. v a n Di j k, T A (1 9 9 5 ). D i sc ou rse a n a l y sis a s i deo lo g y ana l y sis in la ng ua g e an d p ress. Da m n ou t h : Al d e rsh o t. v a n Di j k, T A (1 9 97 ). W ha t is p o l i tic a l d isco u rse ana l y sis? P o l i tic a l l in g u is t ics, ed B y J a n B l o m m a e rt a n d C h r i s Bu lce an 1 1 5 2 A m st e r d a m : J o h n B en j a m ins. v a n Di j k, T A ( 20 0 0 ) Ne w (s) racis m : A d isco u rse ana l y tic a l a p p ro a c h in S .C o t t l e ( ed .), Et hn ic m in o r i ti e s a n d t h e med i a p p 33 49 B u ckin g h a m : O pe n U n i v e rs i t y P ress.

PAGE 69

69 v a n Di j k, T A (2 0 09 ). C r itical d isco u rse st u d i e s: A s o cioc o g n iti v e a p p ro a c h M e t h od s o f c r itical d isco u rse a na l y si s 2 6 2 86. W a g ne r, W D u v een G Farr, R., J o v c he lo v i tc h S ., L o re n z i C i o ldi, F., M a rko v a I & Ros e D. ( 1 999 ). T h e o ry an d me t h o d o f s o c i a l r ep r e s e n t a ti o n s. Asian J ou rn a l o f S o cial P syc h o lo g y 2 ( 1 ), 95 1 2 5 W h i t e D. M. ( 1 950 ) T h e Ga t e k e epe r: A C a se St ud y in t h e S e lec t i o n o f N e w s, J ou rn a l i sm Qua rterl y 27 38 3 3 90 W oda k, R. ( 1 9 8 9 ). L an gu a ge p o w e r an d i de o lo g y: S t ud ies in p o l i tic a l d isco u rse ( V o l. 7 ). J oh n B en j am ins P u b l i s h in g W oda k, R. ( 1 9 9 6 ). D i s o rd e rs of d isco u r s e Lo nd o n : L on gm an W oda k, R. ( 2 0 0 1 ). T h e d isco u rs e h is t o r i c a l a p p ro a c h M e t h od s o f c r i t ical d isco u rse ana l ys i s 63 9 4 W oda k, R. ( 2 0 0 6 ). L i n g u istic ana l y s e s in l a ng ua g e po l i cies. A n i n t r odu ct i o n t o l a n g u ag e po l i cy: Th e o ry a n d m e t ho d 1 7 0 1 9 3 W oda k, R. & C h i l t o n P (Eds.). (2005). A new agenda in (critical) discourse analysis: theory, methodology and interdis ciplinarity (Vol. 13). John Benjamins Publishing. Y on g Z., & C a m p b e l l K. P. ( 19 9 5 ). En g l i sh in C h in a Wo r l d E ng l i s he s 14 (3), 3 7 7 390

PAGE 70

70 BI O GRAPHIC A L S K E T CH X inyi is a g ra dua te s t u den t f r o m t h e D epa r t m en t o f J o u rn a l i sm a n d M a ss Com mun ic a ti o ns o f U n i v e rs i t y o f Florid a M a j o r i n g in mass c o m m un ic a ti on X in y i t ook ad v an t a g e o f h e r st ud y ab ro a d e x pe r i e n ce a n d d id st u d i e s o n s i m i l a r i ti e s a n d d iff e re n c e s a m o n g i n t e rn a ti o n a l ne w s a g en ci e s in U. S an d Chi n a S h e w a s a n i n t e rn i n t h e he a d q ua rter o f X in hu a N e w s A g en cy in Be i j ing a s w e ll a s th e no rth bu r e a u o f X in hu a in N e w Y o rk. A f t e r g ra d u a ti on s h e w i l l w o rk as a n a ssis t an t p ro g ram ma n a g e r f o r S o Zo Gr o up a n on p r o f it c o mp a n y w h ich tr i e s t o i mp r ov e th e rel a ti o n s h ip be t w ee n U. S a n d Ch i n a a n d p ro v ide ad v isory s er v ice to C h in e s e c om p an ies w h ich w an t to i n v e st in A me r i c a B o rn in 19 8 8 X in y i is f rom B a z hon g a s ma ll city in t h e s o u t h w e st p a rt o f Ch i na Her parents operate a food company in the hometown. X in y i f i r st c am e t o U S. in 2 0 0 7 a n d c o mp le t e d t h ree y ea s tud y m a jor i n g in E n g l i sh w ith d istinc t ion in T roy U n i v e rs i ty while a u d iting in cl a ss e s w h ich s he p r e f e r r ed Dur i n g tha t pe r i o d o f t i me s h e w a s e x po s e d to d i f f e r e n t c u lt u res a n d edu c a ti o n a l p a t te rns w h ich g a v e he r m u ch e x pe r i en ce t o s t ud y a b o a rd. I n s p i re d b y w e st e rn c u lt u re, s h e b ro a d en e d h e r ho r i z o n a n d w id ene d he r k no w le d g e w h ich en r i c he d t h e c re a ti v ity a s w e ll a s i ma g in a ti o n g re a tl y