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1 ASSESSING LEADERSHIP ATTRIBUTE DEVELOPMENT IN A COMPONENT OF A HIGHER EDUCATION ADMINISTRATION DOCTORAL PROGRAM By GLENN BERTRAM MILLER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL F ULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013
2 2013 Glenn Bertram Miller
3 To my wife, Liz, son Cody, and daughter Sierra
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to extend my gratitude to innumerable family members, friends, coworkers, and supervisors for their encouragement and their sacrifice to create a clear path for my selfish graduate endeavor I thank my mentors, Dr. Brian Polding, Dr. Rodriquez Cruz, and D r. Reta Roberts, who challenged me to pursue graduate work and anticipated that I would have an impact within community colleges I also thank them for their exemplary ethics and professionalism, which they have imputed to me. I offer my sincerest gratitud e to Dr. Dale Campbell, who supported my efforts throughout my doctoral experience and gave me the opportunity to complete this work Additionally, I would like to thank my supervisory committee for their guidance and support, as well as the following indi viduals, for their motivational support: Dr. Barbara Yankowy, Dr. Matthew Basham, and Amanda C. Bauch, MFA.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FI GURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ....................... 11 Current Economic Impact ................................ ................................ ....................... 14 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 15 Research Que stions ................................ ................................ ............................... 15 Research Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ............................. 16 Definitions of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ 17 Limitat ions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 18 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 20 Leadership Gap ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 20 The 21st Centur y Educational Leader ................................ .............................. 21 Administrator Pipeline ................................ ................................ ...................... 22 Leadership Theories ................................ ................................ ............................... 24 Personality Traits and Leadership ................................ ................................ .......... 26 Online Personality Assessment ................................ ................................ ........ 29 Preparation and Talent Selection ................................ ................................ ............ 30 Gender and Leadership Research ................................ ................................ .......... 33 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 42 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 42 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 42 Research Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ............................. 43 The Leadership Progra m ................................ ................................ ........................ 44 Population ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 44 Instruments ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 45 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 49 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 49 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 51 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 51 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 53
6 Descriptive Data ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 53 Statistical Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 54 Learning Plan Assessment ................................ ................................ ..................... 59 Usefulness of the OPQ32n ................................ ................................ ............ 59 Mastering Targeted Attributes and Resp onse Received from Changed Behaviors ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 61 Recommendations to Maintain Mastery Attributes ................................ ........... 62 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 74 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 74 Overview of the Study ................................ ................................ ............................. 74 Descriptive Statistics ................................ ................................ ............................... 75 Changes in Personality Attribute Scores ................................ ................................ 78 Implications of the Study ................................ ................................ ......................... 81 Recommendat ions for Future Research ................................ ................................ 83 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 85 APPENDIX A INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (IRB) APPROVAL LETTER ............................ 87 B SAMPLE OPQ32 REPORT ................................ ................................ .................. 90 C LEARNING PLAN ASSESSMENT ................................ ................................ .......... 91 D PRETEST AND POSTTEST SCORES ................................ ................................ ... 93 E TARGETED ATTRIBUTE SCORES GUIDELINE PROFILE CHART ..................... 98 F FOLLOW UP QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ ............ 99 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 100 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 108
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1. Pretest descriptive data ................................ ................................ .......................... 66 4 2. Overall Wilcoxon signed rank test scores ................................ .............................. 67 4 3. Wilcoxon signed rank test sco res for females ................................ ........................ 67 4 4. Wilcoxon signed rank test scores for males ................................ ........................... 68 4 5. Overall Wilcoxon signed dimension ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 68 4 6. Wilcoxon signed females ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 69 4 7. Wilcoxon signed males ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 69 4 8. Overall Wilcoxon signed .............. 70 4 9. Wilcoxon signed ........ 70 4 10. Wilcoxon signed ension for males ......... 71 4 11. Overall Wilcoxon signed dimension ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 71 4 12. Wilcoxon signe d females ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 72 4 13. Wilcoxon signed males ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 72 4 14. Occurrence of targeted attributes for improvement by gender ............................. 73
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1. Number of ye ars until community college CEOs plan to retire: 2012 ..................... 19 2 college positions: 2012 ................................ ................................ ....................... 38 2 Questionnaire (OPQ) ................................ ................................ ..................... 39 2 ................................ .............. 40 2 ................................ ......................... 41
9 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Par tial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education ASSESSING LEADERSHIP ATTRIBUTE DEVELOPMENT IN A COMPONENT OF A HIGHER EDUCATION ADMINISTRATION DOCTORAL PROGRAM By Glenn Bertram Miller August 2013 Chair: Dale F. Campbell Major : Higher Education Administration This study identified crucial aspects of higher education leadership succession education faces both raise questions regarding the prepa ration and selection of future leaders. The study examined a higher education leadership graduate program that combines college level courses, coaching, and individual leadership growth The population for this study was a group of higher education profess ionals who participated in the leadership graduate program through a university in the southeast United States. This leadership cohort is a 90 hour doctorate program, which can be completed in 4 years of parttime study in online classes and up to three wee kend meetings per semester. This research used an ex post facto design with the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ 32n styles, and comparing gender differences in leadership After com pleting three classes the participants were administered the OPQ 32n pretest at the beginning of the 2010 summer term Participants then received a detailed report outlining their work style
10 preferences on 32 dimensions Attribute scores were indicated in sten score format on a 1 to 10 scale Based on the results, each participant used the data to develop an 1ndividual Learning Plan Assessment (LPA ) With assistance from an OPQ 32n administrator, each participant selected three attributes The participants then developed detailed goals that would improve their individual attributes and constructed an accountability protocol to measure each goal Over three months, participants si multaneously worked on their LPA s while completing coursework and other program requirements In addition to the data collected from the OPQ 32n pretest and posttest results, six individuals were chosen to participate in follow up interviews. The findings suggest that participants modified their leadership styles and behaviors as a re sult of the program However, the participants did not demonstrate statistically significant differences overall on the OPQ 32n Due to this three month program of coursework, professional coaching, and individual development and focus, both male and femal e academic leaders enhanced their leadership skills Their behavior modifications could enable them to be more effective educational leaders in the future.
11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This study examined an applied doctoral program and compared and contrasted s Currently, there is a concern in higher education regarding community college leadership attrition and preparation Also, a traditionally male dominated arena has shifted, as women increasingly accept community college leadership roles The literature documents the need for higher education leadership development to prepare all upcoming leaders in these professions This section outlines the statement of the problem, purpose o f the study, research questions, definitions, and limitations. Statement of the Problem Now more than ever, baby boomer administrators are retiring in massive waves Some researchers have predicted as high as 75% turnover by 2011 for education alone (Basha m, S tader, & Bishop, 2009, p. 363). The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), which recently published a comprehensi ve research brief about community college CEOs (Tekle, 2012) revealed that 75% of the respondents plan to retire within the ne xt 10 years That figure has also been corroborated by other (Boggs, 200 3 ; Campbell, 2002; Campbell & Leverty, 1997; Hockaday & Puyear, 2008) Additionally, the AACC research brief indicated that 43% of respondents expect to retire wi thin the next 5 years and 32% plan to retire in the following 5 years. Thus additional 15 % of the respondents are expected to retire in the next 11 15 years ( see Figure 1 1 ). Another fact contributing to underst anding this research is that the CEO respo ndents who are projecte d to retire in the near future have a median age of 60 years old Retirements will lead to an estimated 6,000 job vacancies
12 in postsecondary administration by 2014, creating a sizable hole in this labor market (Leubedorf, 2006) An o verall constricted labor market combined with the anticipated increasing demand for educational leaders are compounded by the current retirement cycle of the baby boomer generation Community colleges will be faced with trying to replace large numbers of s enior leaders over the next 5 10 years As of 2006, more than 50% of college presidents plan to retire before 2012 (Berry, 2008). s leadership in higher education reveals an underrepresentation of female college and university presidents (Stout Stewart, 2005, p. 303) However, more women hold presidency positions at community colleges ristics, leadership styles, and decision making processes provides a better understanding of community college leadership on the whole (Liu, 2007). The leadership gap applies to more than community college presidents; the crisis also impacts other administ rative positions A 2009 American Council on Education study of chief academic officers found that the average tenure was 4.7 years, less than The number of female chief executive officers has inc reased approximately 18% Hence, with the number of senior administrators expected to retire, the percentage of female community college presidents is expected to grow (Stout Stewart, 2005). With an anticipated 84% of community college presidents retiring within 10 years, there is a significant need to prepare upcoming leaders for this role These future
13 For community colleges to remain vital, they must consider the careful selection of future presidential candidates to bridge the large leadership gap Community college presidents must lead the se institutions into complex and challenging futures Therefore current and future Some individuals aspiring to become community college leaders are unaware of the multifaceted These potential leaders mus t become better acquainted with these challenges before seeking and obtaining administrative positions, regardless of the level (Green, 2008, p. 815) In the past 5 years, community colleges have been bombarded with increased enrollments, state budget cuts limited facilities, faculty turnover, rising technology costs, and increasing numbers of students requiring remedial work (Boggs, 2004) Concurrently, community colleges hear the persistent, demanding voices of policy makers, business and industry, taxpa yers, and accrediting agencies regarding accountability Over the years, fiscal constraints have placed community colleges in an awkward position, where they have to provide 2008). development, colleges must continue to pursue their missions and support federal mandates for accountability Achieving this goal means that community colleges need to develop su ccessful leadership initiatives, to wisely choose and develop the next generation of leaders (Lapovsky, 2006).
14 Current Economic Impact Research supporting the mass exit of higher education CEO s and faculty employees also identified a delay in baby retir ements (Hersch, 2013) According to Fidelity Investments (2013) many of the projected faculty retirements have been postponed for various reasons This report research collected detailed data on behaviors and at titudes of baby boomer faculty statin g that 74 % of current baby boomers at age 65 or older will delay their retirement plans or never retire (para. 1) Of these professionals, 81 % cited the delay for retirement w as based on professional reason s; however, 69 % had economic concerns and felt the y needed more guidance to ensure their financial situations after retirement (para. 1) The Fidelity report also stated that these professional s enjoy their work and felt healthy enough to continue the occupation they love However, the strong identifier t o the research is based on the economic impact on the retire e which reveal s the reality about the longevity of their career path : 55 % were uncertain if they would have enough money saved to live happily and have adequate maint enance funds to keep current with the cost of living 42 % want ed to maximize their Social Security benefits, and 42 % wanted to keep their current insurance protection (Fidelity, 2013 para. 2 ) Additionally, 61 % this of this group had concern s as to whether or not they had properly in vested and feared the possibility of downturn on their current investments Most of these baby boomers had minimal investment guidance regarding planning the ir retirement and wished they had more time to invest with a professional retirement planner (Fidel ity, 2013) John Ragoni, an executive vice president at Fidelity, said, para. 3 ).
15 For personal or economic reasons, both higher education faculty and administrators might delay their retirement s However, a c onsistent monitoring of this delay might indicate that it is short live d as overall confidence in the economy grows and baby boomers educate themselves about retiremen t planning and lay the foundations for successful retirements Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to examine a community college educational leadership graduate program that combines college level courses, mentoring and individual leadersh ip growth plans The population for this study was a diverse group of working professionals in higher education, who participated in the leadership graduate program through a university in the southeast United States. This leadership cohort is a 90 hour do ctorate program, which can be completed in 4 years of parttime study in online classes and up to three weekend meetings per semester. W hile these individuals develop their leadership abilities, they acquire innovative talents and learn to adjust their beha viors As a result, i mproved leadership talent within this program prepares current and future leaders for promotion wi thin the community college This program also focuses identif ication of individual skills and weaknesses, followed by pr ecise trait enhancement the assessment of which is the foundation of this study. Research Questions This study attempted to discover what effect participation in a leadership graduate The effects of prog ram based on the research questions specifically designed to monitor leadership progress The study addressed the following questions:
16 1. Is there a difference in the p ersonality attributes of participants in the leadership graduate program after three months of program participation? 2. Is there a relationship between personality traits, personality dimensions, and targeted attribute improvement for personal growth and dev elopment after three months of program participation? 3. Is there a relationship in personality dimensions between female and male participants in the leadership graduate program? Research Hypotheses For this study, six different null hypotheses were examine d to support discussion of the research questions These hypotheses are as follows: H 1 : There were no differences between OPQ32n pretest and posttest scores for the population of higher educational professional s H 2 : There were no differences between OPQ3 2n pretest and posttest scores between male and female higher educational professional s H 3 the OPQ32n between pretest and posttest scores for the population higher educational p rofessional s H 4 OPQ32n between pretest and posttest scores for male and female higher educational professional s H 5 of the OPQ32n between pretest and posttest scores for male and female higher educational professional s H 6 : There were no differences for the targeted areas for improvement with the OPQ32n characteristics between pretest and posttest scores for higher ed ucational professional s
17 Together, these six null research hypotheses were exhaustive in seeking support Definitions of Terms A DMINISTRATORS Community college employees in the position of president, vice president, dir ector, dean, provost, or a similar position, generally above the coordinator or department manager level. A TTRIBUTE A personal characteristic that helps determine and delineate a C OMMUNITY C OLLEGE A public institution of higher educa tion granting associate degrees, diplomas, and certificates. Often described as two year institutions and various programs including basic skills, continuing education, vocation al and technical education, and college transfer prep aration C OMPETENCY A capability described in terms of the behavior, knowledge, skill, and/or motivation that could be combined to produce a desired result. F OLLOW UP (S EMISTRUCTURED ) I NTERVIEWS Pers onal interviews that the researcher conducted with several study participants. G ENDER The sex, female and male, of both the community college president and the trustees. While some researchers distinguish between the word gender and the word sex the for mer referring to the characteristics considered appropriate for each sex and the latter referring to a biological distinction (Powell, Butterfield, & Bartol, 2008, p. 169), the terms are used interchangeably in this study, with gender being the preferred a nd most frequent word choice used herein. L EARNING G AIN The measurement of changes in leadership attributes between the OPQ32n pretest and the posttest. M ASTERY R efers to the quality o f being well qualified in a give n skill and motivation to produce a desire d result. O CCUPATIONAL P ERSONALITY Q UESTIONNAIRE (OPQ) framework for understanding the impact of personality on job performance. It is n.d ., para. 1). The OPQ32n was used to assess the population of higher education professionals that participated in the leadership graduate program. P ERSONALITY B ased on a psychometric concept, personality is the sum of an s and preferenc es that dictate his or her behavior s
18 P RESIDENT T h e chief executive officer of a community college who is (Dowdy, 2007, p. 28) including but not limited to fiscal managemen t; management of faculty and staff; and overseeing educational and curriculum policies. T ALENTS Participants were competitively selected to participate in the applied doctoral program, based on criteria that included their leadership potentials or talent s style attributes, identified by average to high scores (ranging from 7 8) measured on the OPQ32n admi nistered to participants in 2010 Limitations The study focused on leadership styles and per sonality traits of higher education professionals However, characteristics unique to higher education professionals were not addressed influence may affect such traits. Because the popul ation was predetermined, the independent variable could not be manipulated . Further, were collected prior to the t. report using the OPQ32n, which could promote score desirability i.e., participants may attempt to create a more desirable profile The questionnaire used during the semistructured interview phase of the study w as reviewed in advance by an expert panel, possibly mitigating data collector bias Finally, the length of time between the pretest and posttest and follow up interviews may have increased attrition in the participant pool.
19 Figure 1 1. Number of years u ntil community college CEOs plan to retire: 2012. [Adapted from Compensation and Benefits of Community College CEOs: 2012 (Research Brief, AACC RB 2012 1), by R. Tekle, 2012, p. 2. Copyright 2012 by the American Association of Community Colleges.]
20 CHAPTE R 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Leadership Gap Baby boomer administrators are retiring in massive waves By 2011, some researchers predicted as high as 75% turnover for just educational administrators (Basham et al., 2009, p. 363) By 2014, as a result of age and re tirement, researchers estimate that over 6,000 jobs vacancies in postsecondary administration, leaving a sizable void in the labor market (Leubedorf, 2006) cycle compounds the situation consisting of an overall constricted labor market with the anticipated increased demand for educational leaders Community colleges will need to replace high numbers of senior leaders over the next 5 to 10 years In 2006, more than 50% of college presidents planned to retire before 2012 (Ber ry, 2008) A survey conducted by Weisman and Vaughan (2006) estimated that 24% of presidents planned to retire within 1 3 years, 32% planned to retire within 4 6 years, and 28% planned to retire within 7 10 years. Furthermore, in researching this trend, th e AACC surveyed 370 community college CEOs and the results indicated that 75 % of respondents plan ned to retire with the next 10 years and an additional 15 % projected their retire ments within the next 11 15 years (Tekle, 2012, p. 1) Of the respondents 5 0 % had been in the presidency position for 26 or more years (Tekle, 2012 p. 4 ; see Figure 2 1 ) Additionally, many community college vice presidents are of the same generation as the presidents; therefore, they also will be leaving their positions All of the anticipated vacancies foster great concern about the quality of leadership experience and preparations for those who plan to partake in administrative positions of this magnitude (Wallin, 2006).
21 With more women entering community college presidencies from 11% in 1991 to nearly 28% in 2001 (Liu, 2007, p. 833) leadership styles can lead to an enhanced understanding of community college management. Tekle (2012) added that approximately 28 % of the AACC members w ho hold community college presidencies were women who hold an important role in community colleges (p. 3) T herefore, replacing women within the pool of community college presidencies is a further concern The 2 1st Century Educational Leader Identifying l eadership qualities has often proven an elusive goal, especially as such a goal pertains to higher education administrators, including community college presidents Researching and communicating the abilities, skills, knowledge and competencies of communi ty college presidents and raising awareness of their attributes could inevitably result in greater future success of individuals in that crucial role ( American Association of Community Colleges, 2005; Campbell & Leverty, 1997; Campbell, Syed & Morris, 201 0 ). That goal brought forth the 21st Century Education Leader Project which began in 1995 at the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Florida The goal of this project was to focus on the students graduate education program of study and to campaign for those who endeavor ed to becom e community college president s (Campbell & Leverty, 1997). Understanding the necessity of developing this system for success of community college presidents Campbell and Leverty (1997) developed an Attribute Based Person Job Match Report which objectively assess es based on profile and personality provided through use of the OPQ Although the
22 OPQ is effective and utilized in other areas, such as the corporate world it had ne ver been employed to develop work profiles within educational profession s One unique attributes, allowing for focused improvement efforts. Thus, t he ongoing development of t he 21st Century Education Leader Project provides an opportunity for community colleges to better ensure the development and success of higher education leaders and to enhance the contribution to this profession achievem Administrator Pipeline Over the past 5 years, much research and discussion has addressed the leadership gap phenomenon Impending retirements affect not only current leadership, but also the leadership pipeline An investigation determined that various positions often lead to presidencies, such as chief academic officer, business financial officer, director of continuing education, and vocational educational leader (Shults, 2001) Some researc h estimated that 75% of chief executive officers (CEOs) would retire by 2011 Although this statistic is less documented, such additional vacancies will impact other leadership and management positions (Basham et al., 2009). The pending retirements of comm unity college leaders creates a need to better understand the characteristics and roles of chief academic officers (CAOs) in community college leadership The leadership crisis extends to all levels of administration, and some suggest that the number of CA Os retiring is even more Traditionally, the CAO position has been viewed as the stepping stone to a presidency However, the pipeline to the CAO position is also shrinking (Keim & Murray, 20 08).
23 The CAO also plays a vital role in community college administration, such as developing and launching the strategic plan, refining academic programs, and recruiting and retaining faculty members A national study conducted by Eduventures Academic Lead ership Learning Collaborative found that 363 CAOs (43%) believed that provosts were holding their positions for shorter periods of time compared to 5 years ago (Mann, 2009) presiden cy at a different institution, retirement, and the desire to return to teaching or another scholarly career (Mann, 2009). A recently published report Crisis and Opportunity: Aligning the Community College Presidency with Student Success reported the need for a process before community college presidential candidates enter the pipeline for presidency (Aspen Institute & Achieving the Dream, 2013) First, candidates must have taken part in a traditional academic program and participated in continuing educati onal leadership training While interviewing several leaders in community colleges leadership training programs, the question was posed as to how candidate s for academic programs were selected Although th e response to that question might vary for individu al institutions several leaders stated that they focus ed on more traditional criteria such as Graduate Record Exams (GRE) scores and aptitude to complete a dissertation (p. 17) However, th o se qualities do not necessarily identify the competencies of a d efinite community college leader, though such individuals would typically be viewed as strong candidate s Secondly, community colleges should seek internal candidates for successors to step in to leadership roles Many community colleges feel that the most qualified candidates are put in place by choosing those with proven record s of support ing the ir
24 respective institutions goals and values It is projected that one third of all community college presidents were selected from within their own institution s Most experts support choosing from within, to provide in house training and ensure the leader is united with organization cultures Another reason to select from within the institution is to reduce resistance from administrators and faculty members ( Aspen Institute & Achieving the Dream 2013). However, some experts support hiring from outside of the institution providing the ability to choose from a broad talent pool which encompass ed all levels of administrators to en sure the most accurate fit is select ed to meet the changing demands of community college leadership. The report conclude d that reevaluating the process of selecting candidates to training programs and to serve as future leaders and focusing more on projected leadership competencies will ulti mately improve student outcomes ( Aspen Institute & Achieving the Dream 2013). Leadership Theories American higher education is an enterprise of complex heritage, mission, and governance culture an enterprise expected to serve as both cultural curator and cultural critic Contemporary issues, such as the call for accountability and the pressure of marketplace ideology, present colleges and universities with a possible breakpoint change moment in both mission and leadership (Bogue, 2006, p. 309) The work en vironment is characterized by globalization, along with accelerating rates of market changes, technologies, the workforce, and workforce expectations Changes are transpiring in cultural patterns, role definitions, structures, policies, procedures, and tec hnologies.
25 Leadership is central to this transformation, and the full range model of leadership, with the transactional transformational distinction as basis, provides a Cill ers, & van Deventer, 2008, p. 253) Transformational leadership is best described as behaviors that elicit extraordinary performance from followers This type of leader ram & Mohr, 2009) Historically, women have been characterized as transformational leaders, creating more congenial environments for future generations of leaders (Madden, 2005). Transactional leaders generally work reciprocally with their associates, wher e the leaders bargain and negotiate, using rewards or power to influence and create change (Kezar & Eckel, 2008, p. 380) In this social exchange process, the leader clarifies the path to complete the task and specifies the incentive(s) for completing the task The leader is proactive in identifying mistakes, complaints, infractions, and regulations Also transformational leadership may vary ba sed on years spent working in various positions and administration level s within higher education One research er indicat ed that if a faculty member serves at a higher education institution for a lengthy time period, that would be a significant predictor of tran sformational leadership w hile a president at a higher education institution may have a less significant pr edictor of transformational leadership (Jacobs, 2012) O verall, t ransactional forms of leadership are suggested as preferable for higher education, because authority and power is diffused (van Eeden et al., 2008; Kezar & Eckel, 2008).
26 A contrary form of le and/or absence of leadership The leader avoids setting goals and expectations and accomplish es small amounts of work (Wang & Berger, 2010) often burdening his or her subordinates with all of the responsibility (van Eeden et al.,2008). Hauser (2010) added that when community college presidents possesses a laissez faire leadership style, they create uninspiring work ethics, influence low morale, and reduce group unity (p. 18) Servant leadership is a term that Greenleaf coined in 1970 The most significant qualities of a servant leader are (1) listening and strong communication, (2) healing and the ability to s teer the institution toward the goal (Cassel & Holt, 2008) The servant leader honors empathy and integrity, doing what is right because a moral principle commends that course of action Any unethical acts can pollute the economic, political, and/or social reservoir While the majority of higher education administrators are male, females within the same roles are more naturally inclined to adopt a servant leadership style than the ir male counterpart s However, females may feel the pressure to tone down the display of a servant leadership style to meet the current cultural influences (Benham & Murakami, 2013). For higher education leaders to advance their effectiveness, they must embrace the vision of the servant leadership role, which can lead to the discove ry of empathy and integrity (Bogue, 2006). Personality Traits and Leadership Leadership defines the future, providing a vision and encompassing traits such as intelligence, determination, flexibility, and a high degree of emotional intelligence According to Basham and Mathur (2010), more than 3,000 personality assessments are currently available in the United States The validity of personality measures for
27 predicting job performance continues to be a widely investigated topic, in spite of continued pessim istic research results over the past 30 40 years In high stakes selection contexts, the observed validities of personality tests to predict job performance criteria are low and have not changed over time (Whetzel, McDaniel, Yost, & Powell, 2010, p. 310) A breadth of research in both corporate and educational realms exists regarding leadership traits, characteristics, and competencies Crucial leadership traits include learning from past experiences, enriching the journey, and establishing a connection and vision while leading from center values Collins, the author of Good to Great a bestselling management guide, described two levels of leaders Level 5 When absent, the busi ness can function without the se leaders because they have provided direction and preparation The level 4 leader self aggrandizes, perhaps instilling the organization with fear When selecting leaders, one must first know the s priorities and choose accordingly (Caulkins, 2008; Fulton Calkins & Milling, 2005). To identify and support the need to develop future institutional leaders, the American Association of Community College (AACC, 2005) identified five essential leadership characteristics needed for future community college administrators: (1) understanding and implementing the community college mission; (2) effective advocacy; (3) administrative skills; (4) community and economic development; and (5) personal, interpersonal and transformational skills Drucker (2006) identified eight characteristics of effective and competent leaders: bility for
28 decisions; (5) They take responsibility for communicating; (6) They are focused on opportunities rather than problems; (7) They run productive meetings; and (8) They thought and said we rather than I (p. xi) Shamandi, Silong, Isma i l, Samah and Omar (2013), who researched the AACC five essential leadership characteristics felt that these leadership characteristics are fundamental to the success of community college leadership Community college leaders have a duty to advance leadership compet encies to enable their institutions to survive and continually develop Community college leaders must currently and continue to meet the needs of a diverse student population, technology advance s, and globalization. Much research concerning leadership the ory originated from trait theory Traits distinguish personality characteristics, and personality is the sum of those traits (Lussier & Achua, 2007) The Five Factor Model is a widely accepted method for measuring personality traits The five categories of this model are: (1) surgency, dominant behavior; (2) agreeableness, warm friendly behavior, higher job performance; (3) adjustment, emotional stability; (4) conscientiousness, reliable, and organized; and (5) openness to experience, willingness to change (Lussier & Achua, 2007; Whetzel et al., 2010). Using a Delphi process, an Illinois college conducted research on characteristics crucial for future community college presidents The research identified the characteristics, competencies, and professional ex periences valued by college trustees: dependable, calm under pressure, understanding of multiculturalism, politically savvy, visionary, and student focused Such findings can guide the selection of professional development opportunities (Plinske & Packard, 2010).
29 Online Personality Assessment When administering personality assessments, the latest trend has progressed through the advancements of the Internet (Bartram, 2001). In 2003, Salgado and Moscoso forecasted that in the 10 years following their researc h, the Internet would become essential for workplaces that use job related personality instruments as a tool for hiring and job development. Currently, according to Joubert and Kriek (2009) these predictions have come true, because the majority of personal ity assessment s are administered online The traditional form of paper and pencil personality questionnaires have given way to well constructed, easy to follow questionnaires which provide more thorough and complete assessment (Brown, Bartram, Holtzhausen Mylonas & Carstairs, 2005), immediate scoring (Buchanan & Smith, 1999; Mead & Drasgow, 1993) and prevention of lost data (Cronk & West, 2002; Rosenfeld, Booth Kewley & Edwards, 1993). Cronbach (1990) who has made major contributions in educational ps ychological testing and measurement research, identifie d the need to defin e the similarity of scores on a measuring instrument when it is used multiple times or with multiple methods. Therefore, it is vital to examine the psychometric properties of traditi onal paper and pencil assessments that are modified for the Internet. Joubert and Krie (2009) literature review of aforementioned research indicate that there is an equivalence relationship between paper and pencil tests and W eb based personality assess ment instruments that are reliable and commonly recognized (Bartram & Brown, 2004; Brown et al. 2005; Buchanan & Smith, 1999; Mylonas & Carstairs, 2003; Templer, 2005; Trippe, 2005). Collectively, numerous doctoral students at a prominent research institu tion in Florida have researched several forms of online personality
30 assessment instruments and reported reliable form s of personality assessment ( Basham, 2007; Litt, 2010; Salvano, 2005 ; Tunks, 2007 ; Yankowy, 20 11) Preparation and Talent Selection With 80 million baby boomers expected to retire in the next 25 years, businesses and educational institutions have incorporated leadership strategies and opportunities to prepare for the potential impact (Sacks, 2006) Upcoming retirements are si gnificant, and future community college leaders must be well prepared for higher education leadership Succession planning is needed to prepare future leaders for 2010 and beyond Such practices could include developing a vision, consistently reviewing lon g term goals, incorporating a mentoring process, and critically examining the institutional culture (Fulton Calkins & Milling, 2005). Leaders do not just exist they must be developed (Luoma, 2010, p. 4) The Chair Academy is an organization committed to pr oviding the necessary skills to become an effective leader in higher education worldwide training programs to postsecondary institutions The overall goal is to advance academic leadership The Luoma Leadership Academy is designed to provide necessary leadership theories and practices that support existing and upcoming leaders This academy has served colleges, in particular Minnesota State College, where faculty and staff who aspire to leadership learn crucial skills fo r education administration (Luoma, 2010) Both academies exemplify academic leadership preparation programs committed to providing exemplary leadership training to educational institutions.
31 In addition to such organizations as the aforementioned academies, Gallup has been researching top performing leaders for more than 40 years One crucial discovery has been that top performance is strongly correlated to seven main leadership activities: (1) visioning, (2) maximizing values, (3) challenging experience, (4 ) mentoring, (5) building continuity, (6) making use of experience, and (7) knowing self (Conchie & Hadd, 2009, p. 13) Mentorship is a valuable tool for leadership development Great leaders mentor their talent, bringing these followers to their highest p otential Effective talents become strengths (Conchie & Hadd, 2009). The Crisis and Opportunity report detail ed the importance of leadership programs and developing future co mmunity college leaders (Aspen Institute & Achieving the Dream, 2013) The report d id not assess leadership programs but merely identif ied key competencies that leadership programs should contain To acquire key leadership competencies, leadership training programs should be able to house plenty of seats for students who desire to seek administration and presidency positions. But most of all, leadership training core purpose is to give these aspiring student s leadership skills that will lead to student su ccess This report suggests that many leadership training programs lack key qualities that impede student success Nevertheless leadership training programs should possess the following qualities to assure that skills are met s are su ccessful : d eep c ommitment to s tudent a ccess and s uccess ; w illingness to t ake s ignificant r isks to a dvance s tudent s uccess ; t he a bility to c reate l asting c hange within the college; h aving a s trong, broad s trategic v ision for the c ollege and i ts s tudents, r eflected in e xternal p artnerships ; and r aise and a llocate
32 r esources in w ays a ligned to s tudent s uccess (Aspen Institute & Achieving the Dream, 2013) Good to Great has impacted the business sector, highligh research on education leade rship (Caulkins, 2008). When searching for talent, trustees typically search for presidential candidates who are familiar with the educational system, community needs, economic demands, future success (Plinske & Packard, 2010) Though these characteristics may be essential for culture . For example, egalitarian leadership promotes freedom within the organization On the other end of the spectrum, cult driven leadership instills fear, leaving employees anxious and powerless Both egalitarian and cult driven leadership are extreme styles I deally, leadership models that fall somewhere in between the leadership spectrum should be explored and promoted (Caulkins, 2008). Knirk (2013) research encourage d co llege leaders to be committed to recognizing and cultivating fresh leadership talent fro m within their own institutions and to present current leadership with future leadership opportunities However, Knirk (2013) research did not find evidence for talented individuals who are consistently and intentionally being identified as future leader s as guaranteed prospects study
33 added that certain leadership characteristics succession planning may fall short due to limited mentoring and placing prospects in positions where leadership role s cannot develop thoroughly, confus ing the prospect iv e talent regarding possible leadership role advancements. Gender and Leadership Research an und errepresentation of female presidents (Stout Stewart, 2005, p. 303) With more characteristics and leadership styles will lead to an overall enhanced understanding of community college management. Since 1991, people inquiring about the status of the community college presidency frequently ask one question: how many current presidents are women? Three prior surveys saw increases from 11% in 1991 to 28% in 2001 (Liu, 2007, p. 833) Howeve r, a 2006 survey showed only a 1% increase, bringing the 2006 percentage of female presidents to 29% Thus, over a 15 year period, the percentage of female presidents has increased by 18%, although this development has noticeably leveled off during the pas t 5 years (Weisman & Vaughn, 2006, p. 3). Presently, women account for only 31% of community college presidents (Cook & Kim, 2012) whereas those positions held makeup more than 54% of executive, administrative and managerial positions; 53% of the faculty ; and 57% of all fulltime community college employees ( U.S. Department of Education 2010). Researchers have studied various and diverse potential reasons of the constant gender imbalance
34 while the studies augment the comprehensive discourse on gender ine quity within community college presidents Related to gender inequity in community college presidencies, r esearchers have not yet studied the views of boards of trustees members Boards of trustees have the duty of recruiting, hiring, a perceptions of women as presidents (Dean, 2013). Over the course of time, considerable research has been conducted that compares and contrasts particularly as such pertain to gender and leadership (Barbuto, Fritz, Ma t kin, & Marx, 2007; Eagly, 2007; Eagly Johannesen Schmidt, & van Engen, 2003; Gardiner & Tiggeman n 1999; Mandell & Pherwani, 2003; Sikdar & Mit ra, 2009; Stout Stewart, 2005; van Engen, V an der Leeden, & Willemsen, 2001; Young, 2004). Literature review s exploring the topic of female leadership often establish ed that women display ed a transformational leadership style more often than men as well a s the conditional incentive characteristic of the transactional leadership style (Eagley et al., 2003) Eagly (2007) recommend ed that gender alone may not account for this variance. Eagly (2007) literature review suggest ed that women have to be more qual ified than their male colleagues to attain a place in leadership Consequently, women have to possess more effective leadership styles and behaviors that are associated with a transformation leadership style. T herefore, Eagly suggest ed th at women in leader ship roles might be adapting their leadership skills to overcome the barriers to attaining leadership positions
35 In addition, Sternberg (1995) research compar ed thinking styles of men and woman Sternberg defined thinking styles as a way of processing in formation in the mind Balkis and Isiker (2005) built on this research, investigating thinking styles and the characters of males and females Males tend to use a judicial and external thinking style, and females tend to use executive thinking styles (p. 2 92). administrators from both the community college and business sectors Using the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ), Kachik conducted six significant pair wise combinati ons and MANOVA to identify interactions Findings concluded that characteristics did demonstrate gender related differences wise combinations included community college female administrators compared to community college male administrat ors; community college female administrators compared to female corporate managers; community college female administrators compared to male corporate managers; community college male administrators compared to female corporate managers; community college male administrators compared to male corporate managers; and 2009, p. 25) For each pair wise combination see Figure 2 2, which provides a summary of the characteristics Kachik foun d, with the highest and lowest significance ( p < 0.0083). Desjardin (1994) researched the leadership styles and competencies of community college presidents Using equal numbers of males and female, Desjardin determined the competencies of 72 community col lege presidents Figure 2 3 depicts gender related competencies The majority of males tended to have a justice/rights orientation, whereas the majority of females tended to have a care/connected
36 orientation Male moral orientation tendencies included fair ness reasoning, objectivity, universality, valuing autonomy, and reciprocity Females tended to be included in the care/connected moral orientation (Figure 2 4 ) Care/connected moral orientation aniels, 2009) Behavioral preferences may also vary by gender. Women engage in more positive social behavior and agreement than men, who are more task oriented and disagree more than women Direct language, disagreement, and autocratic and dominating leade rship are less well received from women Hence, women are more constrained in the kinds of behaviors that they can engage in and still be as influential as their male counterparts (Madden, 2005, p. 6). Results of previous research support the premise that there is a need to train, educate, and prepare future administrators for higher education With the mass exodus of higher education leaders predicted in the current decade, the decrease of qualified leaders will affect a number of departments in the educat ional arena (Boggs, 200 3 ; Campbell, 2002; Campbell & Leverty, 1997; Hockaday & Puyear, 2008) This prediction may not only impact the balance of leadership as a whole, but also may add to the already strained challenges faced by community colleges such as budget constraints, student access, and enrolment practices This research focuses on how the OPQ 32 assessment is used to identify leadership qualities and a development plan to help improve in deficient skill areas Recent studies have also used this to ol to determine quality leadership in both a pretest and posttest setting (Salvano, 2005; Tunks 2007) These studies in particular highlight this method of assessment and yield similar results Both studies were designed with a
37 two prong ed approach Parti cipants completed a pretest and posttest of the OPQ 32 Results of the pretest determined each participant's leadership plan which was reviewed and followed by the development of an action plan Both researchers approached the study using an ex post facto design Though each study showed some improvement in leadership qualities, results were minimal. Tunks (2007) comparisons of gender did not reveal any significant differences in leadership styles, while Salvano's (2005) did reveal some significant chang es, but none that could be directly credited to the research design Similar to this study, recent research also used a small sample size, adding an additional limitation to the study Participants commented on their positive experience s with the learning plan s and how they felt their leadership qualities improved over the course of the study Yet a gain, results were minimally significant Conclusions drawn from both stud ies suggest ed that the leadership program should last more than one year, all owing participants ample time to receive training and improve their leadership skills Another suggestion that Tunks (2007) made was to add a mentoring piece which would allow participants to work one on one with a seasoned administrator, serving as a gui de through the leadership development process
38 Figure 2 college positions: 2012. [Adapted from Compensation and Benefits of Community College CEOs: 2012 (Research Brief, AACC RB 201 2 1), by R. Tekle, 2012, p. 2. Copyright 2012 by the American Association of Community Colleges.]
39 Significant Pair Wise Combinations MANOVA ( p < 0.0083) N = 294 community college administrators n = 141 females n = 153 males N = 296 private sector managers n = 142 females n = 154 males Community college female administrators compared to community college male administrators n = 141 n = 153 Highest Significance Lowest Significance practical behavioral competitiveness Community college female administ rators compared to female corporate managers n = 141 n = 142 Highest Significance Lowest Significance controlling corporate independent practical democratic traditional caring behavioral change oriented innovative forward planning critical active competitive achieving Community college female administrators compared to male corporate managers n = 141 n = 154 Highest Significance Lowest Significance controlling practical independent traditional democratic worrying caring competitive behavioral change oriented innovative forward planning critical active competitive achieving Figure 2 Questionnaire (OPQ). [ Adapted from 21st Century Educational Leadership Profiles by Cynthia J. Kachik, 2003, pp. 63, 64. ]
40 Women Men 1. View selves objectively and laugh at absurdities. 1. Perceive selves as able to make important contributions to society. 2. Recover quickly from setbacks. 2. Prefer environments that are dynamic and open to change. 3. Take personal responsibility for things that go wrong at their institutions. 3. Enjoy challenges and seek them out. 4. Comfortably discuss their own strengths. 4. Move swiftly to take advantage of oppo rtunities. 5. Set high standards for their own performances. 5. Set goals that are challenging but realistic. 6. Identify problems before they become critical. 6. Build behind the scenes support for positions. 7. Make unilateral decisions when the situa tion demands. 7. Exhibit a consistent pattern of casual interaction with people at their institutions. 8. Help people understand implications of policies and decisions. 8. Take time to get to know all faculty members. 9. Provide opportunities for subordi nates to be in the spotlight. 10. when making decisions. Figure 2 3 [ Adapted from Leadership and Gender Issues in the Community College by Carolyn Desjardins, as cite d in Hofmann and Julius, 1994, p.153. ]
41 Community college male administrators compared to female corporate managers n = 153 n = 142 Highest Significance Lowest Significance persuasive affiliate controlling traditional independent worrying mo dest democratic data rational change oriented conceptual innovative forward planning relaxed tough minded critical active competitive achieving decisive Community college male administrators compared to male corporate managers n = 153 n = 154 Highest Significance Lowest Significance independent traditional modest worrying democratic caring change oriented forward planning relaxed critical achieving social desirability Female corporate mangers compared to male corporate managers. n = 141 n = 154 Highest Significance Lowest Significance caring persuasive data rational active competitive decisive n = 72 Community College Presidents Highest Percentage Males: Justice/Rights (50%) Females: Care/Connected (66%) Lowest Percentage Males: Care/Connected (28%) Females: Justice/Rights (17%) Figure 2 4 [ Adapted from Leadership and Gender Issues in the Community College by Carolyn Desjardins, as cited in Hofmann and Julius, 1994, p. 150. ]
42 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Chapter 3 builds on the literature reviewed in the previous chapter and identifies the purpose of the study, provides an overview of the research questions, and describes the desired population This chapter also deta ils the survey instruments, research design, data collection methods, data analysis, and limitations. Purpose of the Study This study examined leadership behaviors of higher education professionals based on a leadership graduate program The purpose of th is study was to explore a theoretical framework of community college leadership advancement, by examining two models designed to increase leadership competencies The initial design proposed utilizing a blend of professional coaching and individual develop ment and focus Individuals would possess innovative talents, and adjust behaviors while developing their leadership abilities Improved leadership talent within this study embraced the future leaders for promotion within a community college The study als o identified individual skills and weaknesses, followed by precise trait enhancement, which was the foundation of this study. Research Questions This study attempted to discover what effect participation in a leadership graduate program had on participants leadership behaviors The effects of program based on the research questions specifically designed to monitor leadership progress The study addressed the followin g questions: 1. Is there a difference in the personality attributes of participants in the leadership graduate program after three months of program participation?
43 2. Is there a relationship between personality traits, personality dimensions, and targeted attrib ute improvement for personal growth and development after three months of program participation? 3. Is there a relationship in personality dimensions between female and male participants in the leadership graduate program? Research Hypotheses For this study, six different null hypotheses were examined to support discussion of the research questions These hypotheses are as follows: H 1 : There were no differences between OPQ32n pretest and posttest scores for the population of higher educational professionals H 2 : There were no differences between OPQ32n pretest and posttest scores between male and female of higher educational professionals H 3 the OPQ32n between pretest and posttest scores for the population of higher educational professionals H 4 OPQ32n between pretest and posttest scores for male and female higher educational professionals. H 5 : There were no diff OPQ32n between pretest and posttest scores for male and female higher educational professionals. H 6 : There were no differences for the targeted areas for improvement with the OPQ32n characteristic s between pretest and posttest scores for higher educational professionals Together, these six null research hypotheses were exhaustive in seeking support
44 The Leadership Program Th e leadership graduate p rogram is a com mutative 90 hour program, created for students who are working professionals in diverse higher education positions Attending parttime students can complete the program in approximately four years, with an earned Doctor of Education (EdD) This program is constructed in an online cohort setting, which offers graduate level curriculum in a blended design. In addition to the online classes, students are require d to attend in person gatherings three weekends per semester, which are rotated at different colleg e campus es in the state of Florida. The core coursework consist s of relevant higher educational classes, as well as educational research and research design, which provides the conceptual groundwork for a doctoral dissertation Each year, s tudents also att end at least one in state, national or international professional conference associated to their profession al goals in the program. Required c ourses i nclude the following : Higher Education Administration Higher Education Finance The Community College in A merica Theory of Student Development Curriculum in Higher Education Diversity Issues in Higher Education Organizational Leadership Law and Higher Education Resource Development in Higher Education Population The population for this study was a group of hi gher education pro fessionals who participated in a leadership graduate program through a university in southeast Florida All participants had to apply and obtain acceptance into the program. The selection pro cess for entrance into the leadership training program is highly competitive, based
45 on various criteria: (a) degree was required and preference was given to (b) all admissions packages are judged by the admi ssions committee in totality; (c ) the committee w eighs each package based on the score years in the field, level of responsibility, unique talents and accomplishments; (d ) letters of recommendation; and (e ) a writing sample. The program cohort had 15 participants, consisting of fiv e males and ten females, with a range of ages and ethnicities The age and ethnicity data w ere not The participants encompassed diverse administrative duties within community colleges located throu ghout the Southeastern United States. Instruments S the field of personality testing for psychological assessment s has evolved dramatically and currently demonstrates both reliability and valid ity (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997). H owever, psychological personality assessment instruments ha ve also advanced into the practice of information technology and technological improvements. The two data collection instruments used in this study were the OPQ32n and a brief follow up interview, administered with a questionnaire after the posttest Both tools have previously demonstrated validity and reliability (Bain & Mabey, 1999; Kachik, 2003; Salvano, 2005; Saville, Sik, Nyfield, Hackston, & MacIver, 1996) The OPQ32n, which was specifically designed to develop a comprehensive assessment within the workplace, was the basis for a personality profile created for this study The OPQ32n is considered the standard for identifying work style profiles, job based matc h es, and the instrument is used for leadership development and executive
46 consideration As a personality assessment instrument the OPQ32n is used internationally by more than 1,000 diverse corporations who are seeking key individual identifier s to promo te their companies success (Campbell et al. 2010) Specifically, evidence supporting the validity of the OPQ instruments has been reported in numerous studies (Robertson & Kinder, 1993; Saville et al. 1996). The British Psychological Society (BPS) stud ied the OPQ32 and concluded that the OPQ32 is one of the frontrunners of personality questionnaires (Marshall & Lindley, 2007). The studied lead to the OPQ32 earning the highest possible ranking for quality, including a remarkable rating for reliability and validity (Marshall & Lindley, 2007; Campbell et al. 2011). c oefficient a lpha exhibited that the internal consistency reliability of the OPQ ranged from .67 to .88, with a median score .81 The test retest correlation coefficient of OPQ scales ranged from .64 to .91 with a test retest interval of one month (S aville & Holdsworth [SHL] 200 1 ). The version of the OPQ32n used in this for this study was the OPQ32n, which is capable of gather ing information to create a 32 dimension personality profile, based on specific traits. This OPQ32 personality questionnaire was designed to provide information on individual workplace styles or preferences The OPQ32n contains 230 occupationally relevan t questions that can be applied to effectively assess critical w ork behaviors This instrument of behavior is broken down into three specific dimensions: Relationships with People (10 traits), Thinking Style (12 traits), and Feelings and Emotions (10 trait s) By combining the scores from these three dimensions, researchers
47 have created desired employment profiles. The OPQ32n asked participants a series of questions E ach question had four statements and participant s ha d to choose one statement as a respon se to each question. Statements ranged from m ost like me to l east like me Data collected from the OPQ32n can be grouped into combinations to accurately assess preferred leadership style, preferred team type, and work related behaviors that are matched to The OPQ32n also measures another area, Social Desirability This scale is used to assess the consistency of sults preferences OPQ32n results used in this study were presented in a Stein score format (Saville & Holdsworth, 1996). The OPQ32n relies on styles referred to by Bass (1990), which describe preferred leadership styles such as directive, consultative, delegative, participative, and negotiative Utilizing the OPQ32n, an employer has the ability to gain information team type Using the OPQ32n enables the employer to gain valuable information for employee selection, as well as determining employee development purposes To ensure a more precise job match, combining the OPQ32n data with the SHL Work reas for improvement, as related to a specific job profile (Saville & Holdsworth, 2001). To further investigate the effects that learning plan activities might have on a follow u p interview questionnaire was used in this study Questions directly related to
48 the individual effects that the learning plan activities may have had on overall leadership development A panel of experts juried the questions in advance of instrument implementation A minimal number of participants were chosen for follow up interviews, based on behavior level and leadership style change Based on selection, a ll participants OPQ32n pre and post test scores were compared and evaluated to determine s change d the most significant ly from the pre test to the post test (Tunks, 2007) From the group a total of six participants were chosen for follow up interviews based on their individual level s of behavior and leadership style change s (Salvano, 2005; Tunks 2007) In order to present data to reflect score increases or decreases, assumptions were made to identify recognizable changes Categories were used to group the scores to determine the direction in behavior s from the pretest to the posttest as accurately as possible For the purpose of this study, the guidelines were broken down into the following categories: L ow : Scores ranging from 1 2 L ow A verage : Scores ranging from 3 4 A verage : Scores ranging from 5 6 H igh A verage : Scores ranging from 7 8 H igh : Scores ranging from 9 10 By utilizing and understanding this scoring platform, researchers were able to identify the level s of variation Although the participants attribute score s were analyzed to establish any changes in leadership behavior s the variation in the scale was not to reflect whether these score changes were positive or negative, but simply reco gnized as either an increase or decrease in the scores The
49 purpose was to determine the direction of the movement whether toward the low end or high end of the scale However, adapting this scoring technique allowed researchers to identify participants scoring, either at the low end or high end of the scale as extreme behaviors recognizing the possibility of those participants lacking a preferred leadership style in most environments. Research Design The study focused on learning gains and changes in co mmunity college This development program was comprised of instructor led coursework and self guided learning plans Parry (1998) revealed that most leadership studies were cond ucted using quantitative research methods Parry also stated that leadership is a social influence process and therefore compatible with qualitative research methods Combining quantitative and qualitative research methods creates the model approach to stu dy leadership and provides a framework for the design of this study, as well as the data collection and analysis Therefore, the study used a nonexperimental ex post facto research design. The lack of control groups or randomization within the groups prese nts several limitations for this study, which will be discussed in further detail in that section of this chapter. Data Collection After the researcher received Institutional Review Board approval to conduct the study, data collection commenced (see Append ix A) The community college cohort participants were administered the OPQ32n at the beginning of their applied doctoral program Dr. Dale F. Campbell, a qualified SHL Test User, administered the OPQ32n to all subjects online OPQ32n scores outlined th e identification of each
50 Participants could then use the information provided to pr epare and create an individual Learning P lan Assessment (LPA ) With assistance from an OPQ qualified adm inistrator, subjects were encouraged to create an action plan by selecting one to three attributes that indicated room for improvement, which could be enhanced to contribute to leadership success Participants were instructed to create specific goals and c onstruct objectives designed to develop characteristics needed for professional development and accountability (see Appendix C) For a period of 15 weeks, during the 2010 summer semester, participants took the pre and posttest OPQ32n, attended three week end meetings, completed a LPA, underwent mentoring, and completed three college level leadership courses. Each of these courses was worth three credit hours, and participants concurrently worked on their LPAs while taking the courses. During the first cour se, Education Policy Development, participants developed their LPAs. While taking the second course, Community Colleges of America, participants continued to work on their LPAs and being mentored. During the third and final course of the summer semester, L eading Change, participants evaluated their LPAs. After the program concluded and the course of study ended, all participants evaluated their individual progress by completing a written assessment of their achievements regarding their LPA objectives As a posttest, Campbell administered the OPQ32n a second time via the I nternet and participants were notified of their scores and provided with a second report of the findings.
51 Data Analysis The descriptive data were calculated for the population to ensure a standard normal distribution and to ensure that there were no outliers As mentioned, the population size for this study was 15 participants, 10 females and 5 males Therefore, nonparametric techniques were used to statistically evaluate the quantitative d ata The Wilcoxon signed rank tests offered the preliminary analysis of the data to establish a generality distinction, linking the pretest and posttest scores as a whole Secondly, the Kruskal Wallis one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determ ine (see Appendi ces D and E ) Finally, qualitative data collected during the follow up in the program (see Appendix F ). Limitations personality traits However, characteristics unique to community college administrators were not addressed Therefore, results may var environmental influence may have affected such traits. Because the population was predetermined, the independent variable could not be manipulated . Further, beca use of the ex post facto model, the data w ere involvement. Additionally, the sample size was small and did not allow controls for demographic criteria such as age, ethnicity, income, and so forth. In this chapter the dis cussion built on the reviewed literature and identified the purpose of the study, provided an overview of the research questions, and described
52 the population Details were also provided about the survey instruments, research design, data collection, data analysis, and limitations The next chapter will present the data analysis and results.
53 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This study examined higher education professionals in a leadershi p graduate program and relationships to leadership behaviors of highe r education administrators In this chapter the descriptive data, statistical data analysis of the research hypotheses, and results of qualitative reports from a subgroup of participants are presented. Descriptive Data The descriptive data were analyzed to determine whether any outliers or anomalies existed for the population ( N = 15) Both pretest and posttest descriptive data had fairly normal distributions with no need to remove any outlier data, as shown in Table 4 1 In the pretest group data the three characteristics with the highest means were independent minded, outgoing, and variety seeking ( M = 6.67), outspoken and decisive ( M = 6.47), and caring ( M = 6.33) The lowest means were modest and vigorous ( M = 4.67), persuasive ( M = 4.13), and data ratio nale ( M = 3.93). In the posttest group data the three characteristics with the highest means were independent minded ( M = 7.00); outspoken, evaluative, behavioral, and forward thinking ( M = 6.60); and variety seeking ( M = 6.40) The lowest means were modes t ( M = 4.73), vigorous ( M = 4.53), and persuasive ( M = 4.33). Both pretest and posttest data showed several variables with slightly large standard deviations The pretest group included worrying ( SD = 2.17), tough minded ( SD = 2.23), and trusting ( SD = 2.4 1), while the posttest group included evaluative ( SD = 2.10), conscientious ( SD = 2.25), tough minded ( SD = 2.23), and vigorous ( SD = 2.29) The social desirability scale data w ere calculated for the pretest data ( M = 7.60,
54 SD = 1.24) and posttest data ( M = 7.73, SD = 1.44) After calculating and examining the descriptive data, the hypotheses were statistically tested and analyzed. Statistical Analysis This section relates the statistical testing of the research hypotheses and presents the subsequent analys is of each hypothesis. H1: There were no differences between work style preferences pretest and posttest scores for the population of higher educational professionals This hypothesis was tested using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test to determin e the differences between overall OPQ32n pretest and posttest scores for the population Five participants had higher pretest scores than those they achieved after the leadership training, as shown in Table 4 2 However, nine participants had higher sten scores after the training, and one participant had no change in sten score Generally higher scores were reported on the posttest ( M = 185.40, SD = 10.58, N = 15) than those reported on the pretest ( M = 181.33, SD = 12.54, N = 15) Results from Wilcoxon si gned rank tests showed no statistical difference ( p > 0.05) between the two groups: z = 1.01, p = 0.32 (two tailed). H2: There were no differences between work style preferences pretest and posttest scores between male and femal e higher educational profes sionals As indicated in Table 4 3, the data for female participants demonstrated that three subjects had higher pretest scores than posttest scores However, six female participants had higher posttest sten scores, and one participant had no change in ste n score The results from the Wilcoxon signed rank tests for the females ( n = 10) showed no statistical difference ( p > 0.05) between the rankings within the females: z = 0.711, p = 0.48 (two tailed).
55 Of the male participants, two had higher pretest score s than posttest scores, and three participants had higher posttest sten scores, as displayed in Table 4 4 The results from the Wilcoxon signed rank tests for the males ( n = 5) showed no statistical difference ( p > 0.05) between the rankings within the mal es: z = 0.68, p = 0.50 (two tailed). dimension between pretest and posttest scores for the population of higher educational professionals This hypothesis was tested using the nonpa rametric Wilcoxon signed rank tests to determine the differences between overall OPQ32n pretest and posttest scores for the whole sample population, females only, and males only, in the OPQ32n Table 4 5 displays dat a for the entire sample population Although reported posttest scores were generally higher ( M = 57.67, SD = 5.62, N = 15) than reported pretest scores ( M = 57.20, SD = 5.95, N = 15), results from Wilcoxon signed rank tests showed no statistical difference ( p > 0.05) between the two z = 0.32, p = 0.75 (two tailed). Unlike the sample population data, the results from the female posttest data ( M = 56.70, SD = 5.38, n = 10) showed slightly lower scor es than those reported on the pretest ( M = 57.10, SD = 7.16, n = 10) As displayed in Table 4 6, results from the Wilcoxon signed rank tests showed no statistical difference ( p > 0.05) between the pretest and posttest scores for the female group in the OPQ People dimension: z = 0.26, p = 0.80 (two tailed).
56 Like the population data, the results from the male posttest data ( M = 59.60, SD = 6.19, n = 5) showed slightly higher scores than those reported on the pretest data ( M = 57.40, S D = 2.97, n = 5) As shown in Table 4 7, results from Wilcoxon signed rank tests showed no statistical difference ( p > 0.05) between the pretest and posttest scores z = 0.74, p = 0.4 6 (two tailed). between pretest and posttest scores for male and female higher educational professionals This hypothesis was tested using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test to determine the differences between overall OPQ32n pretest and posttest scores for the Table 4 8 displays data for the entire sample population Although r eported posttest scores were generally higher ( M = 72.40, SD = 7.32, N = 15) than reported pretest scores ( M = 69.07, SD = 6.78, N = 15), results from Wilcoxon signed rank tests showed no statistical difference (p > 0.05) between the two groups in the OPQ3 z = 1.48, p = 0.14 (two tailed). Like the overall sample population data, the results from the female posttest data ( M = 71.90, SD = 8.37, n = 10) showed slightly lower scores than those reported on the pretest ( M = 67.90, SD = 6.47, n = 10) As displayed in Table 4 9, results from Wilcoxon signed rank tests showed no statistical difference ( p > 0.05) between the pretest and z = 1.33, p = 0.19 ( two tailed).
57 Also similar to the overall sample population data, the results from the male posttest data ( M = 73.40, SD = 5.27, n = 5) showed slightly higher scores than those reported on the pretest data ( M = 71.40, SD = 7.54, n = 5) As shown in Table 4 10, results from Wilcoxon signed rank tests showed no statistical difference ( p > 0.05) z = 0.54, p = 0.59 (two tailed). H5: There were no differences fo dimension between pretest and posttest scores for male and female higher educational professionals This hypothesis was tested using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank tests to determine the differences between ove rall OPQ32n pretest and posttest scores for Table 4 11 displays data for the entire sample population Although reported posttest scores were slig htly higher ( M = 55.33, SD = 6.57, N = 15), than reported pretest scores ( M = 55.07, SD = 5.98, N = 15), results from Wilcoxon signed ranked tests showed no statistical difference ( p > 0.05) between the two groups ension: z = 0.085, p = 0.93 (two tailed). Like the population data, the results from the female posttest data ( M = 56.90, SD = 5.15, n = 10) showed only slightly higher scores than those reported on the pretest ( M = 56.00, SD = 4.94, n = 10) As displayed in Table 4 12, results from Wilcoxon signed rank tests showed no statistical difference ( p > 0.05) between the pretest and dimension: z = 0.25, p = 0.80 (two tailed).
58 Unlike the population data, the results from the male posttest data ( M = 52.20, SD = 8.56, n = 5) showed slightly lower scores than those reported on the pretest ( M = 53.20, SD = 7.98, n = 5) As shown in Table 4 13, results from Wilcoxon signed ranked tests showed n o statistical difference ( p > 0.05) between the pretest and posttest scores z = 0.67, p = 0.50 (two tailed). H6: There were no differences for the Targeted Areas for Improvement with the OPQ32n characteristics between pretest and posttest scores for higher educational professionals This hypothesis was examined using both quantitative and qualitative analysis Study participants selected targeted attributes for personal growth using the OPQ32n; selected attributes are listed in Table 4 14 For the quantitative analysis, this hypothesis also was tested using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank tests to determine the differences between overall OPQ32n pretest and posttest scores for th e whole sample population Although slightly higher scores were reported on the posttest ( M = 4.70, SD = 1.81, N = 46) than those reported on the pretest ( M = 3.46, SD = 1.68, N = 46), results from Wilcoxon signed rank tests showed a high statistical diffe rence ( p > 0.05) between the two attributes targeted for improvement using the OPQ32n: z = 3.71, p = 0.00 (two tailed). A Kruskal Wallis test was conducted to determine any statistical significance between females and males in the sample population Data derived from the Kruskal Wallis test showed a statistically significant difference between the pretests ( M = 3.46, SD = 1.68, N = 46), with a mean rank of 25.97 for females and 18.88 for males, and the
59 posttest ( M = 4.70, SD = 1.81), with a mean rank of 2 4.95 for females an d 20.78 for males (Table 4 14). Participants can have significant gains when targeted attributes are identified: females targeted attributes greatest significant gains where persuasive, evaluative and data rational and males significan t gains were persuasive and data rational As indicated in the Kruskal Wallis mean ranking, female participants had lower reported scores on the targeted attributes posttest than the scores male participants reported; however, no significance was found ( X 2 = 1.038, df = 1, p = 0.31). Learning Plan Assessment Participants completed Learning Plan Assessments (LPA s ) twice during the summer semester while in the l eadership graduate p rogram. A total of 30 LPAs were collected ; the first LPA s were completed after the OPQ 32n pretest, and the second LPA s were collected after the OPQ 32n posttest For the qualitative analysis of the final research hypothesis, the interview data were analyzed for common themes Three closely related predominant themes were identified: the usefulness of the OPQ32n including the mastering of individual target ed attributes and the response received as a result of their changes in leadership style s and work behaviors. Usefulness of the OPQ32n Similar to previous research, participants agreed that the OPQ32n was an essential tool for measuring leadership behaviors Overall, the leadership program provided a detailed analysis in which participants could reflect on their experiences and establish goals to become better leaders Subjects g ained insight to their current leadership practices and to which areas needed improvement Several participants discuss ed the immediate value of taking the OPQ 32n and how the OPQ 32n assessment added to their development as a leader A female participant stated,
60 I received my OPQ results, it was like looking in the mirror I saw me, and I wanted to Identifying common themes among participants the persuasive attribute was an area of improvement several male participants wanted deve lop A participant that was employee at a s tate c ollege explained: After reviewing my results online, I was not shock ed The score represents who I was My low scores explained who I was and I needed do some work on myself Focusing every day on my low sc ore, I wanted to make a change I know I needed to work on my persuasiveness and I did every chance I got. I volunteered to become a part of the Information Technology Committee to help with the design and implementation of a new system using virtual comp uters in the college convincing members the implementation will ultimately benefit them so they become advocates of the new system. To be able to sell the virtual computer project to the stakeholders, my colleagu es at the college, I will first need to learn more about the project Currently the project is in the first stage of implementation. A manager over seeing student success at a s tate c ollege in Florida found that being persuasive was not an easy task, and on e that he will have to continue work ing on: Because of the OPQ . In order to be affective at persuasion list en ing is the key When meeting with staff and others I allow them to speak first ; this has allowed me to hear their concerns first so that I c an ensure that I address their needs and concerns I n the past I would usually begin meeting with my comments and / or opinions as I was the only one at the meeting That has changed. At each meeting, I chose someone different to lead the meeting. kind of fun and less stressful for everyone. After on e male participant received his score from his posttest, he was h appy that he received two scores higher For the past few months I have already been successful at contributing my view and changing the direc tion of severa l keys policies in our program and further into the institution of a local community college Part of this is presenting viewpoints that I hold, and part is presenting information to back
61 the viewpoint I would also say modera te success in the area. Mastering Targeted Attributes and Response Received from Changed Behaviors In addition to the general usefulness of the OPQ32n, other participants noted ways in which their results helped them master their targeted attributes, as w ell as responses they received from others regarding their changed behaviors. For example, one participant commented on the continuation of achieving learning and performance objectives: I think I have been pretty successful overall I know I have spent mo re time in what I thought was probably my weakest area than the other areas But I can tell that I have made progress and just from some of t he feedback when I speak to people about different projects that I may be working on at work. So I think I have bee n pretty successful. Continuing to master the attributes identified in the LPA promotes continuous growth in leadership One participant shared an anecdote about confidence in mastering those skills. I think I am headed in that direction mastered it I would say the progress has been significant has better positioned me to strengthen it even more. know, I was not actively engaged in b ecoming successful in those areas Once I became aware of the OPQ, I became actively engaged by getting involved in different leadership styles and skills necessary to become a successful leader For example, I got involved with the Faculty Senate, where y ou are involved with different groups I got involved in the development where you are involved with activities and talking to people about the institution, and I have been trying to become more involved with data collection and data analysis to develop th ose skills as well. Some participants shared the learning activities that were instrumental in helping them achieve their learning objectives. For instance one participant stated the following:
62 The first one is and this is not necessarily like a workshop these are things that I just do on a regular basis now, and I visit with or sit and talk with our research specialist on a regular basis, as far as the numbers, back to the data rationale again The second thing is now when I go to conferences, I am more l ikely to identify a breakout session that deals with outcomes and assessments, things that deal with those areas that I am not as strong with I am more likely now to attend something that is difficult to shy away from in terms of coming out of my comfort zone in terms of the workshops that I attend The third thing I would say would be [that] I attend a lot of meetings, so in terms of activities, I make sure that I have substitute basically support what I am saying [is] that I spend a little more time The se are kind of individual activities, as opposed to being in a conference or reading this book I spend more time in those areas that I am just strong in. On the whole, participants agreed that the OPQ32n was useful in helping to master targeted leadershi p attributes The interview data supported the hypothesis of using the OPQ32n for measuring leadership behaviors and targeted attributes for personal improvement. Recommendations to Maintain Mastery Attributes The final theme emerging from the data involv ed recommendations to enhance and maintain mastery of attributes One participant addressed this concept in the interview comments: One of the things that I have done it is not differently I kind of do it after the fact. We have at our institution what we call a Professional Development Plan In that Professional Development Plan, the accountability part comes in our annual evaluation In other words, how are you keeping up with your knowledge, skills, and abilities and those kind of things that you need to strengthen upon? If I had to do [something] differently, or from the beginning, I probably would have taken my learning plan and incorporated some of those things and actually taken [them] off my learning plan and put them into my Professional Development Plan, where it is up front and center, where you see it all the time where you are more accountable when it is in your face, when you have to be, when you have to to the side for something that you could actually react to each one of the points in more of a structured way.
63 I will say that I am 80 % there There are a few that I have not had an opportunity to develop like I plan I plan to do an internship what is the word for that? I was planning to shadow one of the VPs in the institution and get a different perspective of her work here, and I hav opportunity because, basically, I am a faculty member, and she is a VP, those skills I would like to develop further. Vice Presidents and people at that level. All of the qualitative interview data w ere very positive regarding the use of the OPQ32n in personal growth and development plans, particularly in targeted growth and development. A female participant, who was an administrator at a private university, stated the following during the interview: This has become an every day focus point for me. Every day when I go to work, there are constant fire s I am putt ing out fro m students, faculty and bosses. . family, relation ships, getting the pool clean, feeding the cat and just paying bill s It is hard to stay focus ed when so many things are thrown at me every day Talking about this [ staying focus ed] to another student in the program, she starting working out at a gym she called it her time and her time really help ed out I found two things that work for me : when I get up in the morning, before anyone else, I take 10 to 15 minutes to meditate, think positive about me, my day and how I can impact people who I come in c ontact with, even if it is an email Secondly, when I get home, I run, I started out walking and now I can run up to a mile I reflect on my day, positive things only and how to do it better the next time p lus I feel better See, this leadership stuff [i .e., the leadership program, courses and OPQ ] is life stuff too. It not just for work just be a leader at work because I have to a leader to kids and eve ry one around me as well Reviewing the data from the LPA, a common theme among participants was that they wanted to start or they ha d just started a physical activity program During an interview, a participant was asked about this theme, and he responded During the program, one of the students had lost weight and just had a better attitude and we all recognized this While at a social function with other students, we cornered that this guy and asked what [was] the story behind all the changes? He shared about working out, eating better and having a positive a ttitude and how times were hard at work and at home,
64 he needed to make changes This guy story and change in behavior inspired all of us. His testament actually rubbed off on each of us and for me, I started working out myself. Toward the end of each int erview, a final lead in question was asked about thoughts on the leadership program and ways to impro ve the program All six participants select ed for the follow up interview applaud ed the leadership program and said that they would recommend the program to other colleges They believed that the program help ed participants develop into leader s that could advance in the ir career s Three of the participants ha d already been promoted crediting their advancements to the ir involvement in the progr am. However, four out of the six participants stated that they would like for the OPQ pretest, the LPA and the OPQ posttest spread out over several semesters W hen participants took the OPQ32n pre test and posttest s and completed two LPAs, it was over a summer term that was approximately four months in duration In the past, participants had a year between their OPQ32n pre and posttests they completed more than two LPA s and they took double the amount of classes This extra time and the additional ac tivities gave participants a longer amount of time to develop leader ship skill s and behaviors. One of the male participants who had already received a promotion since starting the program was eager to share his recommendations: I was excited when I found out that my OPQ score improved in such a short period of time. My lowest score was data rational a 3 I increase d my score to a 5. I know if I had more time in between the tests, I could have scored even better. Actually, I know if I take the OPQ now, my overall score will improve because of new experiences, additional leadership tr aining, more college classes, learning from professors and students lessons learned, etc. In this chapter the descriptive data, statistical data analysis of the research hypo theses, and results of qualitative reports from a subgroup of participants was
65 presented The next chapter will present a discussion of these results, implications for future research, suggestions for practitioners who use this research, and conclusions fr om the study.
66 Table 4 1. Pretest descriptive data OPQ32n Characteristics Pretest Posttest M SD Skew M SD Skew Persuasive 4.13 1.41 1.15 4.33 1.18 0.45 Controlling 5.33 1.45 0.68 5.33 1.45 0.68 Outspoken 6.47 1.13 0.96 6.60 1.40 1.19 Independent minded 6.67 1.40 1.05 7.00 1.56 0.26 Outgoing 6.67 1.99 0.03 6.27 1.94 0.37 Affiliative 5.80 1.86 0.49 5.67 1.54 0.83 Socially confident 5.67 1.40 0.33 5.60 1.18 0.23 Modest 4.67 1.05 1.37 4.73 1.03 1.18 Democratic 5.47 1.41 0.43 5.73 1.49 0.68 Caring 6.33 1.63 0.97 6.20 1.32 0.01 Data rationale 3.93 1.79 0.11 5.40 1.76 0.17 Evaluative 5.67 1.59 0.23 6.60 2.10 1.31 Behavioral 5.87 1.68 0.86 6.60 1.40 0.24 Conventional 5.27 0.88 0.12 5.40 1.18 0.27 Conceptual 6.53 1.25 0.30 6.67 1.45 0.3 5 Innovative 5.87 1.81 0.11 6.33 1.76 0.41 Variety seeking 6.67 1.23 0.21 6.40 1.06 0.12 Adaptable 6.20 1.26 0.06 5.60 1.40 0.66 Forward thinking 6.07 1.44 0.70 6.60 1.55 0.12 Detail conscientious 5.73 1.33 0.06 6.00 1.65 0.55 Conscientious 5.73 1.67 0.15 5.73 2.25 0.56 Rule following 5.53 1.06 0.52 5.07 1.49 0.17 Relaxed 6.00 1.96 0.13 6.13 1.81 0.27 Worrying 5.47 2.17 0.94 5.00 1.69 0.00 Tough minded 5.47 2.23 0.38 5.80 2.08 0.14 Optimistic 5.07 1.67 1.40 5.60 1.76 0.37 Trusting 5.33 2.41 0.21 5.60 1.92 0.04 Emotionally controlled 5.80 1.57 2.19 5.73 1.44 0.13 Vigorous 4.67 1.80 0.27 4.53 2.29 0.42 Competitive 5.20 1.21 0.16 5.27 1.10 0.24 Achieving 5.60 1.24 1.41 5.40 1.24 0.65 Decisive 6.47 1.19 0.09 6.27 1.10 0.13 Soci al desirability 7.60 1.24 0.65 7.73 1.44 0.96
67 Table 4 2. Overall Wilcoxon signed rank test scores Participant Gender (M / F) Pretest Posttest Diff Sign Absolute diff Rank Signed rank Subject 1 F 174 191 17 17 9 9 Subject 2 F 168 191 23 23 12 12 Subject 3 F 196 176 20 + 20 10.5 10.5 Subject 4 F 208 179 29 + 29 14 14 Subject 5 F 176 176 0 + 0 --Subject 6 F 176 202 26 26 13 13 Subject 7 F 172 192 20 20 10.5 10.5 Subject 8 F 188 198 10 10 4 4 Subject 9 F 178 173 5 + 5 2 2 S ubject 10 F 174 177 3 3 1 1 Subject 11 M 167 183 16 16 8 8 Subject 12 M 168 179 11 11 5.5 5.5 Subject 13 M 185 171 14 + 14 7 7 Subject 14 M 192 203 11 11 5.5 5.5 Subject 15 M 198 190 8 + 8 3 3 z = 1.00, p = 0.32 Table 4 3. Wilcoxon signed rank test scores for females Participant Pretest Posttest Diff Sign Absolute diff Rank Signed rank Subject 1 174 191 17 17 9 9 Subject 2 168 191 23 23 12 12 Subject 3 196 176 20 + 20 10.5 10.5 Subject 4 208 179 29 + 29 14 14 Subject 5 176 176 0 + 0 --Subject 6 176 202 26 26 13 13 Subject 7 172 192 20 20 10.5 10.5 Subject 8 188 198 10 10 4 4 Subject 9 178 173 5 + 5 2 2 Subject 10 174 177 3 3 1 1 z = 0.71, p = 0.48
68 Table 4 4. Wilcoxon signed rank test scores f or males Participant Pretest Posttest Diff Sign Absolute diff Rank Signed rank Subject 11 167 183 16 16 8 8 Subject 12 168 179 11 11 5.5 5.5 Subject 13 185 171 14 + 14 7 7 Subject 14 192 203 11 11 5.5 5.5 Subject 15 198 190 8 + 8 3 3 z = 0.68, p = 0.49 Table 4 5. Overall Wilcoxon signed dimension Participant Gender Pretest Posttest Diff Sign Absolute diff Rank Signed rank Subject 1 F 51 52 1 + 1 2 2 Subject 2 F 52 57 5 + 5 7.5 7.5 Su bject 3 F 63 56 7 7 10 10 Subject 4 F 70 60 10 10 14 14 Subject 5 F 54 61 7 + 7 10 10 Subject 6 F 62 67 5 + 5 7.5 7.5 Subject 7 F 47 51 4 + 4 5.5 5.5 Subject 8 F 61 60 1 1 2 2 Subject 9 F 51 50 1 1 2 2 Subject 10 F 60 53 7 7 10 10 Subject 11 M 53 62 9 + 9 12.5 12.5 Subject 12 M 57 53 4 4 5.5 5.5 Subject 13 M 61 61 0 + 0 --Subject 14 M 59 68 9 + 9 12.5 12.5 Subject 15 M 57 54 3 3 4 4 z = 0.32, p = 0.75
69 Table 4 6. Wilcoxon signed rank test scores for for females Participant Pretest Posttest Diff Sign Absolute diff Rank Signed rank Subject 1 51 52 1 + 1 2 2 Subject 2 52 57 5 + 5 7.5 7.5 Subject 3 63 56 7 7 10 10 Subject 4 70 60 10 10 14 14 Subject 5 54 61 7 + 7 10 10 Subject 6 62 67 5 + 5 7.5 7.5 Subject 7 47 51 4 + 4 5.5 5.5 Subject 8 61 60 1 1 2 2 Subject 9 51 50 1 1 2 2 Subject 10 60 53 7 7 10 10 z = 0.26, p = 0.80 Table 4 7. Wilcoxon signed for males Participant Pretest Posttest Diff Sign Absolute diff Rank Signed rank Subject 11 53 62 9 + 9 12.5 12.5 Subject 12 57 53 4 4 5.5 5.5 Subject 13 61 61 0 + 0 --Subject 14 59 68 9 + 9 12.5 12.5 Subject 1 5 57 54 3 3 4 4 z = 0.74, p = 0.46
70 Table 4 8. Overall Wilcoxon signed Participant Gender (M / F) Pretest Posttest Diff Sign Absolute diff Rank Signed rank Subject 1 F 73 80 7 + 7 3.5 3.5 Subject 2 F 62 76 14 + 14 7 7 Subject 3 F 74 69 5 5 2.5 2.5 Subject 4 F 74 60 14 14 7 7 Subject 5 F 60 56 4 4 0.5 0.5 Subject 6 F 63 70 7 + 7 3.5 3.5 Subject 7 F 71 81 10 + 10 5 5 Subject 8 F 67 79 12 + 12 6 6 Subject 9 F 76 74 2 2 1 1 Subject 10 F 59 74 15 + 15 8 8 Subject 11 M 70 79 9 + 9 4 4 Subject 12 M 60 70 10 + 10 5 5 Subject 13 M 76 66 10 10 5 5 Subject 14 M 71 76 5 + 5 2.5 2.5 Subject 15 M 80 76 4 4 0.5 0.5 z = 1.48, p = 0.14 Table 4 9. Wilcoxon signed rank Participant Pretest Posttest Diff Sign Absolute diff Rank Signed rank Subject 1 73 80 7 + 7 3.5 3.5 Subject 2 62 76 14 + 14 7 7 Subject 3 74 69 5 5 2.5 2.5 Subject 4 74 60 14 14 7 7 Su bject 5 60 56 4 4 0.5 0.5 Subject 6 63 70 7 + 7 3.5 3.5 Subject 7 71 81 10 + 10 5 5 Subject 8 67 79 12 + 12 6 6 Subject 9 76 74 2 2 1 1 Subject 10 59 74 15 + 15 8 8 z = 1.33, p = 0.19
71 Table 4 10. Wilcoxon signed Participant Pretest Posttest Diff Sign Absolute diff Rank Signed rank Subject 11 70 79 9 + 9 4 4 Subject 12 60 70 10 + 10 5 5 Subject 13 76 66 10 10 5 5 Subject 14 71 76 5 + 5 2.5 2.5 Subject 15 80 76 4 4 0.5 0.5 z = 0.54, p = 0.59 Table 4 11. Overall Wilcoxon signed dimension Participant Gender (M / F) Pretest Posttest Diff Sign Absolute diff Rank Signed rank Subject 1 F 50 59 9 + 9 14 14 Subject 2 F 54 58 4 + 4 8.5 8.5 Subject 3 F 59 51 8 8 13 13 Subject 4 F 64 59 5 5 10 10 Subject 5 F 62 59 3 3 5.5 5.5 Subject 6 F 51 65 14 + 14 15 15 Subject 7 F 54 60 6 + 6 12 12 Subject 8 F 60 59 1 1 --Subject 9 F 51 49 2 2 3.5 3.5 Subject 10 F 55 50 5 5 10 10 Subject 11 M 44 42 2 2 3.5 3.5 Subject 12 M 51 56 5 + 5 10 10 Subject 13 M 48 44 4 4 8.5 8.5 Subject 14 M 62 59 3 3 5.5 5.5 Subject 15 M 61 60 1 1 --z = 0.09, p = 0.93
72 Table 4 12. Wilcoxon signed females Participant Pretest Posttest Diff Sign Absolute diff Rank Signed rank Subject 1 50 59 9 + 9 14 14 Subject 2 54 58 4 + 4 8.5 8.5 Subject 3 59 51 8 8 13 13 Subject 4 64 59 5 5 10 10 Subject 5 62 59 3 3 5.5 5.5 Subject 6 51 65 14 + 14 15 15 Subject 7 54 60 6 + 6 12 12 Subject 8 60 59 1 1 --Subject 9 51 49 2 2 3.5 3.5 Subject 10 55 50 5 5 10 10 z = 0.26, p = 0.80 Table 4 13. Wilcoxon sign ed males Participant Pretest Posttest Diff Sign Absolute diff Rank Signed rank Subject 11 44 42 2 2 3.5 3.5 Subject 12 51 56 5 + 5 10 10 Subject 13 48 44 4 4 8.5 8.5 Subject 14 62 5 9 3 3 5.5 5.5 Subject 15 61 60 1 1 --z = 0.67, p = 0.50
73 Table 4 14. Occurrence of targeted attributes for improvement by gender Attribute Number of times targeted by Females Males Persuasive 5 3 Controlling 2 0 Outspoken 1 0 Independent Minded 0 0 Outgoing 2 1 Affiliative 1 0 Socially Confident 1 0 Modest 1 0 Democratic 0 0 Caring 0 0 Data Rationale 4 4 Evaluative 3 0 Behavioral 0 1 Conventional 0 0 Conceptual 0 0 Innovative 0 0 Variety Seeking 0 0 Adaptable 0 0 Forward Thinking 1 0 Detail Conscious 2 0 Conscientious 0 0 Rule Following 1 0 Relaxed 0 1 Worrying 0 1 Tough Minded 2 0 Optimistic 0 2 Trusting 0 2 Emotionally Controlled 1 0 Vigorous 1 1 Competitive 1 0 Achieving 1 0 Decisive 0 0 z = 3.71, p < 0.000* Note. Kruskal Wallis test statistics: X 2 = 1.04, df = 1, p = 0.31
74 CHAPTER 5 D ISCUSSION Introduction Chapter 5 begins with an overview of the study After the overview, this chapter The descriptive statistics will be followed by the discussi on of the findings, including how those findings relate to the research hypothesis Additionally, this chapter will present implications of the study, recommendations for future research, and conclusions drawn from the study. Overview of the Study With Ame rican community colleges experiencing a leadership shortage, it is essential that institutions recognize this issue and embrace leadership development for future leaders As the literature review indicated, the exodus of current community college leaders w ill create a gap in leadership positions and a dearth of qualified individuals to fill those positions Such a situation highlights the importance of building qualified leaders through meaningful leadership graduate programs As discussed in the literature review, one technique that can be used to help build qualified leaders is leadership assessments. Although no leadership assessment is perfect, most have common attributes demographics, personality styles, and mentorship programs and have been used in bot h corporate and continuing education leadership graduate programs As supported by the research, a combination of professional development, experience, and mentorship can provide individuals with the necessary skills to function and sometimes excel in lead ership positions Identifying individual skills and offering the opportunity to
75 improve those skills is the cornerstone approach to leadership develo pment As suggested in past studies (Salvano, 2005 ; Tunks, 2007), through the use of assessments in leaders hip development and training, the next generation o f community college leaders could be fully developed and better equipped to perform their duties in A key component of this study was to examine the outcomes of a d iverse group of working professionals in higher education who were participating in a leadership program This examination process included using leadership assessments to measure personality traits and leadership styles This research intend s to build on current research and to investigate a potential method to reduce the impact of the leadership gap and to develop strategies to fill those positions with qualified, skilled employees. Before examin ing the meaning and implications of base leade rship characteristics, and any discernable changes after applying a treatment the note from Chapter 4 concerning the social desirability scores, which are indicators of accuracy of self rating and are somewhat high must be reemphasized Individually and a s a group for both the pre and posttest scores there is no reason to believe the ratings are less critical in their responses than they should be, meaning the data itself may be inaccurate. Descriptive Statistics The researcher wanted to ensure that the data assumed a fairly normal distribution and analyzed the results of the descriptive statistics, to identify significant changes in group characteristics The researcher analyzed and compared the standard deviations from the pretests and posttests examini ng data results outside of 1
76 standard deviation, the skews for a normal distribution, and the means to identify significant changes in reported behavior Most of the reported responses showed standard deviations of approximately 1 or 1.5, indicating that e scores were similar, probably between 4 and 6, closer to the median However, some responses had data results closer to 2 standard deviations, indicating a broader range of raw scores. U pon examining the pre and post test descriptive m ean statistics the researcher saw indications that statistical significant changes for the group as a whole for evaluative, behavioral, forward thinking, and data rationale might be found The descriptive statistics data changes after the treatment seem t o support the information from the posttest interviews in which several respondents noted the awareness of deficiencies in these areas and alerted them to these areas for growth during the treatment Moreover, the group as a whole, from the descriptive sta tistics data, rated independent minded as their overall highest scoring leadership ch aracteristic both pre and post test . T hus, rated being highly independent minded infers their resistance to change According to the OPQ32n results LPA s, and follow up interviews, this group as a whole ex hibited a willingness to change; however the collective environmental constraints in th eir individual workplaces probably had a profound effect on this leadership characteristic In addition to this observation, another constraint could have be en the duration of th is portion of the leadership program ( four months ), which might not have giv en participants adequate time the make this change
77 When observing the descriptive data as a whole, some areas may show significance; however, with the independent minded leadership characteristic showing very highly, one must reason that there will be littl e significance for this study, since the group exhibits some resistance to change This is not unlike findings from previous leadership studies ( Tunks, 2007), which also showed slight significance in the studies using the sa me instrument. Tunks (2007) research identified that participants were able to modify their leadership style s and behavior s as a result of the leadership program. However, the group overall did not demonstrate statistically significant differences using the OPQ Salvano (2005) identified some difference s in subgroup s, comparing gender but little significant change as a group using the OPQ When comparing gender, trait differences when using the OPQ Overall, as discussed, the significance showed slight gains as a group This research and past research support the findings that leadership programs can change behaviors, but looking solely at OPQ statistic al significan ce as a group indicated no or slight statist ical change m (see Appendix D, Table D 3) which leads to the belief that this group would be resistant to change While conducting follow up interviews, several subjects mentioned i ncreased workloads, the threat of being laid off, budget cutbacks for their respective department s, and constant changes in upper managements, all of which created more stressful work environment s During a follow up inter view one participant said, P rofe ssional ly this is And the work stress excluded external personal pressures from relationships, children illnesses, financial loss and absence of recreational
78 functions For example, o ne individual provided in depth detail s about the heavy burden and incessant demands of caring for ill parents which compounded workplace stress With such additional stressors, enacting the necessary changes to m ake the journey of develop ing into a future leader becomes infinitely more compli cated. Even if a n individual has clearly identified transparent recommendations labeling specific leadership trait improvements, mak ing th o se changes would be difficult, reflecting a resistance to treatment If change is to occur, a person must possess me ntal focus and desire to improve their personality leadership traits Therefore, to becom e a well rounded leader, one must first be eager to learn and invite the willingness to change, fostering the development of future community college leadership. Chang es in Personality Attribute Scores T his section will examine the research hypotheses based upon statistical analysis between pre and posttest scores In research hypothesis one the researcher looked for no differences in the group as a whole between the p re and posttests after the treatment and I found support for the hypothesis: there is no difference These results hold for research hypothesis two examining differences between females and males as well The research in this study supports the earlier fin dings of Kachik (2003), Tunks (2007) When examin ing the descriptive data for the group as a whole three leadership characteristics in particular stand out: Persuasive, modest, and vigorous On each of these leadershi p characteristics these three were at or near the bottom of the overall group mean scores This finding indicate s that the group as a whole tends not to be adept at selling ideas and that group members are not able to build off their successes or even foll ow through on their ide as or the ideas.
79 When research hypothesis three and four findings were examined the researcher also found no significant differences between men and women for either relationships with people or thinking styles The researc her did however find slightly lower scores posttest for females and slightly higher scores posttest for males in both sections This is reverse of the literature reviewed by Madden (2005) who said women would exhibit more positive social behavior than me n However, there are two factors underlying this lack of findings contrary to the literature reviewed First, the overall higher social desirability scores can lead to the conclusion these results are less than what they really are and may be flawed Seco ndly there are the phenomena where scores can change under a microscope Therefore, since the females were being observed on their ability to increase their data rationale and thinking style scores, they may have rated themselves higher in those areas, rat her than the relationship scores. R esearch hypothesis five examined similar trends in the feelings and emotions section and found different results Here the opposite was found : the females exhibited slightly higher mean scores and the males exhibited slig htly lower scores The logic for these findings follows from the hypothesis three and four: (1) higher social desirability scores undermines the credibility of the findings and (2) these scores are the reverse of the literature reviewed, most notably the w ork of Madden (2005), Desjardin (1994), and During the follow up interviews, females appeared to be car ry ing heavier work and personal stressors than males. Female participants who felt the pressure to make change s may have discovered thi s through the OPQ 32n leading to a goal to increas e the social desirability scores. Regardless, t he span of three months between the OPQ 32 pre and posttest s may not have been enough time for males to
80 change behavior s Therefore, future research should s tudy the implications of the time span between the administration of the OPQ 32 pretest and posttest Finally research hypothesis six examined the viability of targeted objectives for use in professional development The data presented in C hapter 4 indica te d a very high statistical significance giving the impression that the work style preferences assessment is a viable tool for professional development However, as mentioned throughout the preceding two chapters a modicum of caution should be used when interpreting the data because the social desirability index was very high for both the pre and posttest scores Considering that social desirability scores were identified as high, the participants may have found the need to create a positive impression to other participants, professors and th e researcher To some extent, the leadership graduate ehavior and leadership skills However, this conclusion is limited, because the findings are general at best Results indicated a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores In addition, several attributes between the pretest and posttest averaged more than one full point difference of the total population, which substantiates that the leadership graduate program inf behaviors Also, participants stated their overall satisfaction with the program, sharing that they achieved some level of success in enhancing their leadership skills and behaviors Although all of th e data did not yield statistical results, some participants shared how they had attained mastery of each of the attributes identified in their individual learning plan s
81 These findings are consistent with previous research indicating that leadership gradua te leadership styles critical themes that surfaced from the interviews: participants indicated mastery of their tar improved; and participants valued the educational opportunity and the chance to interact with their peers. With the help of one on one coaching, course work, and indivi dual development, both groups made improvements and enhanced their leadership skills. Overall, even in small groups, the mix ed method approach work ed well in targeting growth plans During the interview process, many participants openly discussed the value of and how well the OPQ32n pretest s and posttest s LPAs, and mentor ing work ed together to improve individual targeted results. Each method was valuable in developing participants end results. The mix ed method research design collects and analyzes both q ualitative and quantitative data, which identifies various details of the research processes T he mix ed methods research was a reliable methodology for this study an assertion support ed by past research designs (Tunks, 2006) Colle c ting and processing the statistical data provide d a strong foundation of information while obtaining data through accepted predetermined set of interview questions provided further in depth knowledge of the participant personal experience s wh ich statistical measurement would not attain. Implications of the Study The results of this study contribute to the existing literature pertaining to community college and higher education leadership, which discusses the need to recruit
82 and to prepare future higher education leaders Nume rous higher education leadership positions will soon become vacant because of the massive exodus of leaders intending to retire in the near future Due to this predicted mass vacancy, the literature stressed the importance of further research on leadership development as a means to produce effective leaders Leadership graduate programs can be a direct pathway to increasing leadership skills that are applicable in the work setting Though traditional behavioral theory explores the individual leadership styl es and behaviors of effective leaders, a hybrid model that combines trait and behavioral theory may provide a more effective method for measuring leadership effectiveness Such an approach in higher education would produce transformational growth among pro fessionals, which in turn would promote opportunities for individual growth and advancement. For this group of individuals, based on the results of this study, one could recommend that they focus on their pure leadership skills first and then focus on ind ividual leadership characteristics in order to move up their respective career ladders While working on individual characteristics is laudable some baseline leadership weaknesses first need to be overcome most notably resistance to change, persuasive s kills, modesty and ability to follow through on projects and ideas Leadership graduate programs can guide participants in that direction, emphasizing the importance of developing baseline and essential leadership skills as the primary objective of the pr ogram. After sufficient strides have been made in those areas, the programs can then guide participants to address the more individual characteristics, to supplement improvements already made in the essential areas.
83 Additionally, participants should receiv e assistance in learning how to both maintain and continually improve both baseline leadership and individual characteristics. Recommendations for Future Research The results of this study have answered important questions and indicated possible directions for future research preexisting doctorate cohort of diverse higher education professionals All data collection was performed prior to the involvement of the primary researcher This ex post facto design was a li mitation of this study; however, a n experimental design would increase the validity and reliability of this study It is also suggested that a longitudinal design, including a larger subject base and a broader population, would improve this research Furth er, this research was limited to self report of the mastery of behavioral change, creating potential bias and th e need for social acceptance Immediately following participants of their results from the OPQ32n posttest, a follow up interview disc ussing results may produce a true generalization of the learned leadership attributes. Previous research suggested that achieving mastery in certain traits is more difficult than others, which poses a challenge to individuals who attempt to change their ow n behaviors In this study, females demonstrated learning gains in dimensions and traits that are harder to modify In contrast, males demonstrated less change in dimensions and traits that are reported to be more challenging to modify Further investigati on into the difficulty of modifying specific dimensions and traits would perhaps produce a clearer picture of this discrepancy. Another recommendation is the implementation of 360 with supervision Such an approach would allow students an opportunity to re ceive constant feedback on weak
84 areas and create strategic development plan s for identified improvements. After taking the OPQ 32 pretest, students can receive feedback on the results and working with a coach, create goals based on identified weakness es Then students could routinely complete a LPA with the coach and discuss goals and whether or not prior goals have been met The continuous feedback would allow future leaders to develop leadership skills over the course of the leadership training At the completion of the leadership training, the student would complete the OPQ 32 posttest When the student receive d their scores, they would have a final discussion with the coach and discuss changes in behavior based on the OPQ 32 scores This process is no t recommended for short term leadership training programs, but for programs that have a minimum duration of one year or three traditional semesters The diverse sample size with regards to age and stage of life prohibited the inclusion of the intervening v ariable, yet there was inadequate age variation among the participants to allow a true analysis of the impact of age on the leadership graduate program outcomes In the follow up interviews, some participants referred to their abilities in working with fac ulty, indicating that demographic differences, such as age, might not influence successful leadership as much as experience with and the ability to develop relationships. Examining the meaning and implications of base leadership characteristics, and any di scernible changes after applying a treatment the note from Chapter 4 concerning the social desirability scores, which are indicators of accuracy of self rating and are somewhat high must be reemphasized Individually and as a group for both the pre
85 and posttest scores, the researcher has reason to believe the ratings are less critical in their responses than they should be, meaning the data itself may be inaccurate. Overall, the social desirability trait was high for both the OPQ32n pretest s and posttes t s with females attaining slightly higher scores The cause for this, the researcher believe, is that ed favorable by others and to present themselves in the best light possible A p articipant who complete a self report and does not answer the questions honestly can affect the validity of the assessment This type of bias is known as social desirability bias The participants for this study measure d somewhat high on social reliability which could i ndicate that members of this group sought to present positive image s of themselves For the participants, working close ly with other colleagues and mentors, participants may have felt the need to answer the survey in a way that made them appear to have the needed traits to be a future leader With that knowledge it is recommend ed that measures be taken to minimize the social desirability bias One strategy that can be applied is to have a discussion with participants before they take the assessment, stress ing the importance of each question being answered with honesty. Conclusion This study explored the theoretical framework of leadership development by examining the leadership skills and behaviors of pa rticipants in diverse higher educational positions Th e results of statistical analysis suggested that participants were able to modify their targeted behaviors after completing the OPQ32n pretest and posttest and participating in a l eadership graduate program Within this leadership program, the combination of OPQ32n, c ollege courses, mentorship and LPA s
86 participants could change their behaviors and develop their leadership traits. This research adds to existing literature that focused on the importance of leadership development and how leadership program s will capture areas of behavior that need modification and ultimately prepare individuals for a position in higher education leadership.
87 APPENDIX A INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (IRB) APPROVAL LETTER
90 APPENDIX B SAMPLE OPQ32 REPORT
91 APPENDIX C LEARNING PLAN ASSESSMENT Name: Title: College: Date: Part I. Learning Proposal 97, p. 49). 1 Please identify the specific the one to three attribute(s) and sten score(s) from your initial OPQ that you have been working on for your Learning Contract (i.e., persuasive (4), etc.). (a) Attribute: Sten Score: (b) Attribute: Sten Score: (c) Attribute: Sten Score: 2 What learning activities have you completed? 3 How successful have you been in achieving your objectives? 4 What evidence do you have that you are making progress to achieve your goals (i.e., unsolicite d comments from your supervisor, coworkers, classmates, etc.)? Part II. Self Assessment Part of assuming responsibility for your own learning includes your own assessment of that learning You have been working on achieving the goals in your Learning Co ntract since our initial individual conference Please give me a realistic assessment of the extent of your commitment and effort you have put forth in achieving the goals in your Learning Contract. 1 Circle one of the following levels that best describe the extent of your commitment from lowest to highest levels (I V) in attaining mastery of the attributes you identified to work on in your Learning Contract. Level II: Go o n a Diet (Purchase a book on a new diet and/or enroll in a seminar) You make a plan and achieve some short term success However, you soon slip back into regular eating habits.
92 Level III: Join a Health Club (Pay a monthly fee for services and your amount of participation is at your discretion) You do make progress and achieve a basic level of knowledge of what you should do and some level of mastery Requires some stretch outside of your comfort zone and some monetary investment. Level IV: Hire a Person al Trainer (Have a regular appointment and receive one on one coaching) Individual trainer holds you accountable and ensures that you stretch to attain stated goals Requires a higher monetary investment The more you progress your confidence builds and y ou attain mastery You no longer see your goals as that big of a stretch. Level V: Learning is Internalized (Actual behavioral change occurs) No longer outside your comfort zone Mastery is not only achieved, it becomes your preferred style. 2 Consider ing the above, what do you believe your attribute sten score(s) will be for each attribute on the post assessment? Please specify. Part III. Post Assessment Reflections (Complete after you have been given your actual scores.) 1 Record your new actual s ten score(s) for each attribute on you were working on from your post assessment Do the scores surprise you in anyway? If so, why? 2 What, if anything, would you do differently or recommend that others do to further enhance the likelihood that you would achieve mastery of the attributes that you identified? Dale F. Campbell, 2007 All Rights Reserved.
93 APPENDIX D PRETEST AND POSTTEST SCORES Table D 1. Raw sten scores for female participants Subject 1 Subject 2 Subject 3 Subject 4 Subje ct 5 Subject 6 Subject 7 Subject 8 Subject 9 Subject 10 Attributes Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Persuasive 3 3 3 5 4 3 3 2 4 4 3 5 3 4 7 5 4 4 7 6 Controlling 3 6 3 5 7 6 6 4 4 6 6 10 7 6 7 6 3 4 6 5 Outspoken 6 5 6 7 8 6 8 6 6 9 7 6 6 6 6 7 5 7 6 5 Independent Minded 7 6 6 8 7 5 5 5 6 9 7 8 7 8 5 6 9 7 6 6 Outgoing 5 4 8 8 9 7 9 9 4 4 10 7 4 5 8 7 4 4 7 6 Affiliative 5 5 6 6 7 7 10 8 7 5 8 6 3 2 6 7 3 4 5 5 Socially Confident 4 4 5 5 5 5 8 6 6 7 5 8 4 6 6 6 6 4 7 5 Modest 5 4 5 5 5 5 3 5 6 6 2 4 5 6 4 2 5 5 4 5 Democratic 5 7 5 3 4 6 8 7 5 5 8 6 4 3 5 6 6 6 6 5 Caring 8 8 5 5 7 6 10 8 6 6 6 7 4 5 7 8 6 5 6 5 Data Rational 5 5 3 7 7 8 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 3 7 1 2 3 5 Evaluative 6 6 4 8 7 5 5 1 3 5 5 5 7 9 3 8 7 8 5 6 Behavioral 8 9 5 5 6 7 9 7 4 6 5 7 5 5 5 7 9 8 5 4 Conventional 5 6 4 4 7 7 6 5 5 5 4 5 6 5 6 5 4 6 5 8 Conceptual 6 6 5 5 6 5 7 6 5 6 7 5 7 8 5 8 8 9 5 5 Innovative 7 6 3 5 4 3 6 6 8 7 3 6 5 10 6 9 9 7 6 5 Variety Seeking 7 5 8 8 6 5 5 7 6 5 6 7 5 6 5 7 8 6 7 7 Adaptable 5 4 5 5 8 9 6 6 6 3 7 5 5 5 6 5 8 7 7 5 Forward Thinking 6 7 8 8 5 4 6 5 5 7 8 9 9 8 5 8 6 6 5 6 Detail Conscious 6 8 5 7 6 6 8 6 4 2 6 7 6 7 7 5 7 6 4 9 Conscientious 6 10 6 9 6 4 7 3 5 3 4 6 7 9 9 5 3 4 3 7 Rule Following 6 8 6 5 6 6 5 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 7 5 6 5 4 7 Relaxed 6 8 6 7 6 4 8 7 7 6 3 6 5 6 6 5 5 5 7 6 Worrying 7 7 7 6 5 5 5 6 6 4 9 5 5 3 5 4 7 5 5 4 Tough Minded 4 6 3 3 5 4 5 3 8 8 2 7 6 7 4 6 3 3 6 4
94 Table D 1. Continued Optimistic 5 7 6 8 5 4 7 6 6 5 5 8 6 8 6 6 7 6 5 5 Trusting 7 8 4 5 5 6 9 9 5 6 6 8 2 4 6 5 5 5 5 3 Emotionally Controlled 5 3 7 6 6 5 5 4 6 6 1 7 7 8 7 5 6 6 7 8 Vigorous 3 5 5 5 7 6 8 9 5 3 5 5 5 5 6 8 2 3 5 4 Competitive 3 4 6 7 6 6 4 4 7 7 6 6 5 5 7 6 5 6 5 5 Achi eving 4 5 5 6 6 4 6 4 6 6 9 8 5 7 6 7 5 5 5 5 Decisive 6 6 5 5 8 7 7 7 6 8 5 5 8 7 7 7 6 5 5 6 Consistency 7 8 7 8 8 7 9 8 6 9 9 9 9 9 7 7 8 9 5 5
95 Table D 2. Raw sten scores for male participants Subject 11 Subject 12 Subject 13 Subject 14 Subject 15 Attributes Prestest Posttest Prestest Posttest Prestest Posttest Prestest Posttest Prestest Posttest Persuasive 5 6 3 5 5 5 3 5 5 3 Controlling 6 5 5 5 5 3 6 7 6 5 Outspoken 5 7 6 5 9 10 6 7 7 6 Independent Minded 7 8 5 5 10 10 7 8 6 6 Outgoing 6 6 7 5 8 10 6 8 5 4 Affiliative 5 7 7 6 4 4 6 6 5 7 Socially Confident 4 5 4 4 7 6 8 7 6 6 Modest 5 5 5 4 5 5 6 6 5 4 Democratic 5 6 6 7 3 4 5 7 7 8 Caring 5 7 9 7 5 4 6 7 5 5 Data Rational 5 6 1 5 3 3 3 8 7 7 Evaluative 6 9 5 7 8 8 6 6 8 8 Behavioral 4 8 7 8 6 7 4 6 6 5 Conventional 6 6 5 6 5 5 6 3 5 5 Conceptual 7 7 6 6 9 8 7 7 8 9 Innovative 6 7 4 6 6 5 8 8 7 5 Variety Seeking 8 6 6 5 7 7 7 7 9 8 Adaptable 5 5 8 6 7 6 4 7 6 6 Forward Thinking 7 9 4 5 5 6 5 5 7 6 Detail Conscious 4 5 4 5 7 5 7 7 5 5 Conscientious 6 6 4 5 7 3 7 6 6 6 Rule Following 6 5 6 6 6 3 7 6 6 6 Relaxed 2 3 6 7 5 4 8 8 10 10 Worrying 7 7 7 8 5 6 1 3 1 2 Tough Minded 7 7 4 5 7 7 8 7 10 10 Optimistic 1 2 4 5 2 3 6 5 5 6 Trusting 2 4 6 6 1 2 8 6 9 7 Emotionally Contro lled 7 4 6 6 5 5 7 7 5 6
96 Table D 2. Continued Vigorous 1 2 4 3 4 2 6 7 4 1 Competitive 4 3 4 5 6 5 6 5 4 5 Achieving 6 5 4 4 5 4 7 6 5 5 Decisive 7 5 6 7 8 6 5 5 8 8 Consistency 8 9 6 5 8 9 8 6 9 8
97 Table D 3. T argeted attribute scores for select p articipants wit h significant gains pre post OPQ32n Subject 6 (F) Subject 8 (F) Subject 10 (F) Subject 12 (M) Subject 14 (M) Subject 15 (M) Attributes Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Persuasive 3 5 3 5 5 3 Controlling Outspoken Independent Minded 7 8 Outgoing Affiliative Socially Confident 5 8 Modest Democratic Caring 3 5 Data Rational 5 6 1 5 3 8 7 7 Evaluative 3 8 Behavioral Conventional Conceptual Innovative 4 6 Variety Seeking Adaptable 4 7 6 6 Forward Thinking Detail Conscious 7 5 4 9 Conscientious Rule Following Relaxed Worrying Tough Minded 4 6 Optimistic Trusting 6 8 Emotionally Controlled Vigorous Competitive Achieving Decisive Consistency
98 APPENDIX E TARGETED ATTRIBUTE SCORES GUIDELINE PROFILE CHART Low Average High Attributes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Persuasive X Controlling Outspoken X X Independent Minde d X Outgoing X Affiliative Socially Confident X Modest X Democratic X Caring X Data Rational X Evaluative X Behavioral X Conventional X Concept ual X Innovative X Variety Seeking X Adaptable X Forward Thinking X Detail Conscious X Conscientious X Rule Following X Relaxed X Worrying X Tough Min ded X Optimistic X Trusting X Emotionally Controlled X Vigorous X Competitive X Achieving X Decisive X Consistency X
99 APPENDIX F FOLLOW UP QUESTIONNAIRE Respondent ID: [to be assigned by researcher] At the beginning of the Leadership G raduate Program, you developed a learning plan to improve your skills or behaviors relevant to specific attributes Here are the attributes that you identified and your corresponding OPQ scores: Attribute OPQ Score (Pre) OPQ Score (Post) 1 Since the beginning the Leadership G raduate program until now, how successful have you been in achieving your learning and development objectives for each of the attributes that you identif ied in your learning plan? 2 How well have you succeeded in attaining a mastery of each of the attributes that you identified in your learning plan? [Interviewer follow 3 How well have you succeeded in mastering these beh aviors to the extent that you would say that they have become your preferred style? [Interviewer follow up: Please 4 What are three learning activities in which you have participated that have been instrumental i n helping you to achieve your objectives? 5 What, if anything, would you do differently or recommend that others do to further enhance the likelihood of achieving mastery of the attributes? 6 What feedback have you received to let you know that you h ave been successful in achieving your goals?
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108 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Glenn B. Miller began his undergraduate career at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale During his first year, he decided to pursue a Bachelor of Science degree in workforce education Eager to continue his education, Glenn chose to attend the University of Phoenix in Jacksonville, Florida, where he earned a Master of Art s in Leadership Af ter graduation, Glenn began teaching as an adjunct instructor at Florida State College at Jacksonville (FSCJ) in the Department of Public Safety At FSCJ, Glenn has been contracted to create college courses and vocational training for the United States Mil itary, using multiple technological devices and delivery methods. continued to teach and work toward his Doctor of Education degree at the University of Florida In addition, Glenn h as and continues to serve on numerous committees and boards in higher education Glenn also serves on the board of Veterans Affairs for Florida State College of Jacksonville However, his greatest love is volunteering and serving as a board member for the Safe Harbor Maritime Academy, which strives to create men of character, integrity, and vision Mr. Miller currently resides in Yulee, Florida, with his wife and two children.