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Cognitive Underpinnings of Preschoolers' Overimitation

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Title:
Cognitive Underpinnings of Preschoolers' Overimitation
Physical Description:
1 online resource (73 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Tamargo, Jennifer M
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Psychology
Committee Chair:
Farrar, Michael J
Committee Members:
Miller, Scott A
Wynne, Clive David Lawrence
Ashton, Patricia T

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
imitation -- overimitation -- preschoolers -- self-regulation
Psychology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Psychology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
Recent studies find that when presented with novel tasks,preschoolers and adults will imitate another’s intentional actions even if those actions are irrelevant for task success. This learning technique is termed overimitation (production of both irrelevant and relevant actions). Some suggest overimitation occurs because of an “automatic causal encoding” (ACE)process in which humans will automatically infer all intentional actions on novel tasks as being causally necessary. However, only one study has altered the order of irrelevant and relevant actions and conclusions regarding the influence of action order on overimitation remains incomplete. The current study’s first aim examined the occurrence of overimitation in preschoolers when irrelevant actions occurred before goal achievement vs. after goal achievement.Some researchers suggest that ACE is “turned off” if obvious violations to causality occur. To support ACE hypothesis, it was expected that after goal irrelevant actions should be largely ignored as it would be obvious that these actions did not influence goal achievement. The second and primary aim was to examine the roles of false belief (FB) and self-regulation (S-R) on children’s overimitation as these skills advance during the preschool years as well. The examination of developmental influences on overimitation is sparse, but there is a consistent trend that this imitation style increases with age. Preschoolers (N =83, M = 4.4-years) observed a model produce a combination of relevant and irrelevant actions on two novel tasks. Children’s FB understanding, S-R,and receptive language were also measured. Children’s performance on FB and S-R measures were expected to predict the occurrence of overimitation when children observed a model produce intentional actions. Overimitation occurred more often when actions were intentional, increased with age, and persisted when intentional irrelevant actions occurred after goal achievement as previously reported in prior studies.Results also highlighted several new patterns. Overimitation was related to self-regulatory skills and when children reported a perspective to “copy actions” they were more likely to engage in overimitation. It is proposed that overimitation occurs because humans automatically infer intentional actions on novel tasks as having a general purpose and overimitation may be evidence of true “rational” imitation.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jennifer M Tamargo.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local:
Adviser: Farrar, Michael J.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID:
UFE0045871:00001

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Cognitive Underpinnings of Preschoolers' Overimitation
Physical Description:
1 online resource (73 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Tamargo, Jennifer M
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Psychology
Committee Chair:
Farrar, Michael J
Committee Members:
Miller, Scott A
Wynne, Clive David Lawrence
Ashton, Patricia T

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
imitation -- overimitation -- preschoolers -- self-regulation
Psychology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Psychology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
Recent studies find that when presented with novel tasks,preschoolers and adults will imitate another’s intentional actions even if those actions are irrelevant for task success. This learning technique is termed overimitation (production of both irrelevant and relevant actions). Some suggest overimitation occurs because of an “automatic causal encoding” (ACE)process in which humans will automatically infer all intentional actions on novel tasks as being causally necessary. However, only one study has altered the order of irrelevant and relevant actions and conclusions regarding the influence of action order on overimitation remains incomplete. The current study’s first aim examined the occurrence of overimitation in preschoolers when irrelevant actions occurred before goal achievement vs. after goal achievement.Some researchers suggest that ACE is “turned off” if obvious violations to causality occur. To support ACE hypothesis, it was expected that after goal irrelevant actions should be largely ignored as it would be obvious that these actions did not influence goal achievement. The second and primary aim was to examine the roles of false belief (FB) and self-regulation (S-R) on children’s overimitation as these skills advance during the preschool years as well. The examination of developmental influences on overimitation is sparse, but there is a consistent trend that this imitation style increases with age. Preschoolers (N =83, M = 4.4-years) observed a model produce a combination of relevant and irrelevant actions on two novel tasks. Children’s FB understanding, S-R,and receptive language were also measured. Children’s performance on FB and S-R measures were expected to predict the occurrence of overimitation when children observed a model produce intentional actions. Overimitation occurred more often when actions were intentional, increased with age, and persisted when intentional irrelevant actions occurred after goal achievement as previously reported in prior studies.Results also highlighted several new patterns. Overimitation was related to self-regulatory skills and when children reported a perspective to “copy actions” they were more likely to engage in overimitation. It is proposed that overimitation occurs because humans automatically infer intentional actions on novel tasks as having a general purpose and overimitation may be evidence of true “rational” imitation.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jennifer M Tamargo.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local:
Adviser: Farrar, Michael J.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID:
UFE0045871:00001


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1 COGNI T I V E UN D E R P INNINGS OF P R E S C H OOL E R S VE R I M I T A T ION By J E N N I F E R M T A M A RGO A DI SSE R T A T ION P R E SE N T E D T O T HE GR A D U A T E S C H OOL OF T HE UNI VE R S I T Y OF F LORIDA IN PA R T I A L F UL F I L L M E NT OF T HE R E QUIR E M E N T S F OR T HE D E G R E E OF DOC T OR OF P HILO S O P HY U N I VE R S I T Y OF F LORIDA 2013

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2 2013 J e n n i f e r M T a m a r go

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3 T o m y p a r ents and m y husband J o h n L esc h i tz

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4 A C K N O W L E DG M E N T S I t han k t h e pa r t i c i pan t s, t he i r pa r en t s, c h il d c a re c en t e rs, an d r e s ea r c h a ss i s t an t s f o r t he i r c oope r a t i o n a n d i n v o l v e m en t i n t h i s s t ud y. I a l so t han k my s upe r v i s o ry c o mm i tt e e f o r t he i r c on t r i bu t i on s t o t h i s p r o j e c t F i na l l y, I t han k J ohn my f a m i l y an d my f r i end s f o r t he i r e m o t i ona l an d f i nan c i a l s u ppo rt t h r o u gh o u t t h i s p r o c e s s.

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5 T AB LE OF CON T E N T S page A C K N O W L E DG M E N T S ................................ ................................ ................................ 4 LI S T OF T AB L E S ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 7 LI S T OF F IGU R E S ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 8 ABS T R A CT ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 9 C H AP T E R 1 IN T ROD U C T ION ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 11 2 LI T E R A T U R E R EV I E W ................................ ................................ .......................... 14 I m i t a t i on a nd Int e n t i on Un d e r st a n d i ng ................................ ................................ ... 14 Ov e r i m i t a t i o n ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 16 F a l se B e l i e f Un d e r st a n d ing ................................ ................................ ............. 22 S e l f Re gu l a t i on ................................ ................................ ................................ 24 Cu rr ent S t u dy ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 25 3 M E T HOD ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 29 P a r t i c i p a nts ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 29 M easu r es ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 29 Langua g e ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 29 F a l se B e l i ef ( F B ) ................................ ................................ .............................. 30 F B u nde r s t an d i ng: u ne x pect e d l oc a tion ................................ .................... 30 F B u nde r s t an d i ng: u ne x pect e d c o nt e nt ................................ ..................... 30 F B u nde r s t an d i ng: k n o w l ed g e ................................ ................................ ... 31 S co r i n g : F B l oca t i o n a nd ob j ect ................................ ................................ 31 Co d i n g a nd s c o r i ng: F B k n o w l ed g e ................................ ........................... 32 S e l f Re gu l a t i on ( S R) ................................ ................................ ...................... 32 Day/n i g ht st r oop ................................ ................................ ........................ 33 He ad to t o es ................................ ................................ ............................. 33 P r ob l e m S o l v i ng T asks ................................ ................................ .................... 34 Tr a p t u be app a r at u s ................................ ................................ .................. 34 P uzz l e b ox a ppa r at u s ................................ ................................ ............... 35 P r ocedu r e ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 35 CI Condi t i on ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 36 M CI Cond i t i on ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 36 ICI Co n d i t i on ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 36 4 R E S UL T S ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 38

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6 I n t e r R a t e r R e l i a b i l i ty ................................ ................................ ............................. 38 Occ urr en c e o f Ov er i m i t a t i o n ................................ ................................ .................. 39 Ov e r i m i t a t i o n A c r oss Con d i t io n s ................................ ................................ ...... 39 Ov e r i m i t a t i o n W i t h i n Con d i t i o ns ................................ ................................ ....... 40 I n fluence o f I n d i v i d u al F act o r s o n Ov e r i m i t a t i o n ................................ ..................... 41 Catego r i za t i o n o f Ov er i m i t a t i o n ................................ ................................ ....... 42 I n suf f i c i ent a nd R e l eva n t A ct i o n T y p es ................................ ............................ 44 T ask Und e r st a n d i n g Respon s e s ................................ ................................ ............ 45 5 DI S C U SS ION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 56 Occ urr en c e o f Ov er i m i t a t i o n ................................ ................................ .................. 56 I n fluences o n Ove r i m i t a t i on ................................ ................................ ................... 58 Co n c l u s i o ns ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 63 APPE N DIX A T R A P T U B E T AS K ................................ ................................ ................................ 67 B P U ZZ L E B OX T AS K ................................ ................................ .............................. 68 R E F E R E N C E L I S T ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 69 B IOGR AP HIC A L S KE T CH ................................ ................................ ........................... 73

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7 LI S T OF T AB L E S T a b l e page 4 1 Report of interrater reliability (Cohen's Kappa) ................................ ................... 47 4 2 Descriptive statistics for individual variables and total action types by condition ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 48 4 3 Partialled age correlat ions between Individual variables and action types by condition ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 49 4 4 Hierarchical logistic regression of predictors of general overimitation ................ 50 4 5 Frequencies of task understanding responses ................................ ................... 51 4 6 Chi square tests with copy action responses ................................ ..................... 52

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8 LI S T OF F IGU R E S F ig ur e page 4 1 Overimitation action types by condition ................................ ............................. 53 4 2 Dominant action type by age ................................ ................................ ............. 54 4 3 Dominant action type by self regulation ................................ ............................. 55 A 1 Tr a p t u be app a r at u s a nd a c t i on c o m ponents. ................................ ................... 67 A 2 Tr a p t u be ob j ect p l a c e m ent ( m ode l ed a fter H o r ner & W h i t e n, 2 00 7 ) ................. 67 B 1 M od i f i ed p uzzl e box a nd a c tion c o m ponents. ................................ .................... 68

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9 A bst r act of D i ss e r t a t i on P r esen t ed to the G r a d uate S cho o l of t h e U n i v e r sity o f F lo r i da in P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m ent of t h e Re q uire m ents f o r the D e g r ee of Doct o r o f P h i l osoph y COGNI T I V E UN D E R P INNINGS OF P R E S C H OOL E R S VE R I M I T A T ION By Jennifer M T a m a r go A ugust 2013 Ch a ir: M Jeff r ey F a r r ar M a j o r : P sycho l o gy Rec e nt st u d i es find th a t w hen pr ese n t e d w i th novel t a sks, p r escho o le r s a n d adults w i ll i m i t a te a not h e r i nt e n t io n a l a c t i o ns e ven i f t h o s e a c t i ons a r e ir r e l ev a nt f o r t a sk s u ccess. T h i s l ea r ning tec hn i que i s t e r m e d o ve r i m i t a t i on ( p r o d uc t i on o f both i r r e l evant a nd r e l evant ac t i ons ) S o m e s u ggest ove r i m i t a tion o cc u r s b ec a use o f an aut o m at i c c a us a l enco d i n g ( A C E ) p r ocess i n w h i ch h u m ans w il l aut o m at i c a l l y i nf e r a ll i nt e n t i on a l a c tions o n nov e l tasks as b e i ng c a usal l y n eces s a r y Ho w eve r o n l y o n e study has a l t er e d the o r d e r o f i r r e l eva n t and r e l eva n t actions a n d c o n c l u s i ons r eg a r d i ng t h e i n f l u e nce o f ac t i on o r der o n o v er i m i t a t i o n r e m a i ns i n c o m p l et e T he c u r r ent s t f i r st a i m e x a m i ned the o ccu r r ence of ove r i m i t a t i on i n p r e sch o ole r s w hen i rr e lev a nt a c tions occu rr ed bef o r e g o al ac h i eve m ent vs. after g o al a c hiev e m ent. S o m e r esea r ch e r s suggest t h at A CE i s t ur n e d o f f i f ob v i ous vi o lat i o ns to c a us a l i ty occu r T o s upp o r t A CE hypot h e s i s, i t w as e x pect e d that after g o a l i r r e l eva n t a c t i ons s ho u l d b e l a r g e l y igno r ed as i t w o u l d b e ob v i ous t hat t h e s e a c t i ons d i d n ot in f l uence go a l a c h i e v e m ent. T he s e c o nd a nd p r i m a r y a i m w as to e x a m i ne the r o l es o f f a l se b el i ef ( F B ) a nd se l f r eg u la t i on ( S R ) o n c hi l d r v e r i m i t a ti o n a s these s k i l l s a dvan c e du r i ng t h e p r escho o l y ea r s as w e l l. T he e x a m i na t i on o f d eve l o p m ent a l i n f l uen c es o n o v e r i m i t a tion

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10 i s s p a r se, b ut t h e r e i s a c o n s i st e nt t r end t h at t h i s i m i t a t i on st y l e inc r ea s es w i th a g e P r escho o l e r s ( N = 8 3, M = 4 4 y ea r s ) o bs e r v e d a m odel pr o duce a c o m b i nation of r elev a nt a nd i r r e l evant ac t i ons o n t w o n ovel t a sks. Chi l d r F B u nde r s t a n d i n g S R, and r ec e p t i ve l an g uage w e r e a l so m easu r ed. Chi l d r e r f or m ance o n F B a n d S R m easu r es w e r e e x pect e d to pr e d i ct t h e o ccu rr ence o f o v e r i m i t a tion w hen c h i l d r en obse r ved a m odel pr o duce i n t en t i on a l ac t i ons. Ov e r i m i t a t i o n o ccu r r ed m o r e o ften w hen a c t i o ns w e r e i nt e n t i on a l i n c r eas e d w i th age, and p e r s i st e d w hen i n t e n t i o n al ir r e l e v ant act i o ns o ccu r r ed after go a l a c h i e v e m ent as pr e v i ou s l y r ep o r t e d i n p r i or stu d i e s Re s u l t s a l so h i g h l i ght e d s e v e r a l n ew p atte r ns. Ov e r i m i t a t i o n w as r e l a t e d to s e l f r eg u l at o r y s k i l l s a nd w hen c h i l d r en r epo r t e d a pe r spec t i ve to c o py a c t i on s they w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to e ng a ge i n o v er i m i t a t i o n. It i s p r opos e d that ove r i m i t a t i on o cc u r s b e c ause h u m ans a ut o m a t i cal l y infer i n t en t i on a l act i o ns o n n ov e l tasks a s h a v i ng a g en e r a l p u r pose a n d o v e r i m i t a t i on m ay b e e v i den c e of t r ue a t i o n a l i m i t a t i on.

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11 C H AP T E R 1 IN T ROD U C T ION N u m e r ous stu d i es h ave d e m onst r at e d c hi l d r e n ar e c a pa b l e o f lea r n i n g i n a va r iety o f so c i a l cont e x ts in c l u d i ng i m i t a t i on, direct i nst r uc t i on, a nd c o l l ab o r a t i ve i nt e r ac t i on ( F l y n n, 20 1 0; M e l t z off, 1 9 95; W ant & Ha rr i s 200 1 ) S o m e s u ggest t h e w ay hu m ans e ngage in s o c i a l l e a r n i ng i s un i que a nd h as fa c i l i t a t ed the d ev e l op m ent of cu l t u r e ( T o m asel l o, K r u g e r & Rat n e r 1 993 ) S pec i f i c a l l y, h u m m ent i n i m i t a tion h as been a m a i n focus o f t h e d e v e l o p m ent a l l i t e r at u r e. A v a s t a m ount of r esea r ch d e m onst r at e s that y o ung t o d d l e r s a r e s e lec t i ve i n t he i r i m i t a tion ( e g ., i g n o r e unnecess a r y o r ir r e l ev a nt ac t i on s ) a nd that t h ey ar e e s pe c i a l l y s e n s i t i ve t o i nt e n t ion w hen d et er m i n i ng w hat to i m i t a te ( B r ugg e r L a r i v i e r e, M u m m e, & B ushn el l 2 0 07; Ca r pent e r A kht a r & T o m asel l o, 1 9 98; G e r g e ly, B ekke r i ng, & K ir l y, 2 002; W i l l i a m son, M e l tz o ff, & M a r k m an, 2008 ) De s pite the s e f i n d i ng s seve ra l m o r e r ecent st u dies docu m ent t h e o ccu rr e nce o f ov e r i m i t a t i o n ( i e. p r o d uc t i on o f ir r e l e v ant a n d r e l e v ant act i o ns) i n p r esch oo l e r a n d a d u l obse r v a t io n al le ar n ing ( G a r d i n e r G r eif, & B j o r k l und, 20 1 1; Lyon s Y oung, & K e i l 2 0 07; M cG u i gan, M a k i nso n & W h i t en, 2 0 11; M cG u i gan, W h i t en, F l y nn, & Ho r n e r 2 007 ) A s d ef i n ed i n L y o ns e t a l ( 20 0 7 ) o v e r i m i t a ti o n r ef e r s to i m i t a t i on o f ir r e l e v ant act i o ns ( i e ., a c t i ons unneces s a r y f o r task s u c cess) c o u p l e d w i th r e lev a nt ac t io n s. T he r e a r e s e v e r a l a r gu m ents r ega r d i n g the u nde r l y i n g c a uses o f ove r i m i t a t i on; h o w ever i nves t i g a t i on o f t h ese hypot h eses r e m a i ns l i m i t e d. S o m e r esea r che r s s uggest p r escho o l e r s e n g age i n ove r i m i t a t i on b e c ause they e nc o de a ll i nt e n t i on a l a c t io n s a s hav i n g c a us a l m ean i and t h i s p r ocess o f e ncoding i s e ss e n t i a l l y a u t o m at i ( G ar d i n e r e t al., 20 1 2; Lyons e t a l ., 2007; Ly o ns, Da m r osch L i n M ac r i s, & K e i l 20 1 1;

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12 M cG u i gan e t a l ., 2 0 11 ) A l t e r na t i v e l y, ot h e r s s uggest t h at ove r i m i t a t i on occu r s f or m o r e soci a l r eason s e g., a s en s i t i vity to b eing t a ught ( C s i b r a & Ge r ge l y, 20 0 9 ) a gen e r a l m ot i vat i on t o b e s o c i a l w i t h o t h e r s ( N i e l se n 2 008 ) o r te n dency to attend to i nt e n t i on ( Ho r n e r & W h i t en 2 0 05 ) Ho w ever i n t hese st u d i es, the i r r e l eva n t ac t i ons occur b ef or e go a l ac h i eve m ent and i t i s n o t c l ear i f t h i s a c t ion s e quen c e p r o m ot e s o ve r i m i t a t i on. O n l y one study has p r esent e d c h i l d r e n w i th a n ir r e lev a nt ac t i on a fter g o a l a c hiev e m ent and w h il e t h e a u t ho r s n ote c h i l d r en e n gaged in o v e r i m i t a t i o n t h e s t udy o n l y i n c l u ded o ne t e st t r i a l a n d d i d n ot con s i d e r a g e d i ff e r ences ( S i m pson & R i ggs, 2 011 ) F u r t h e r the r e w as n o c o nd i t i o n i n w h i ch c h i l d r en w i t n es sed both types of i r re l evant ac t i ons ( bef o r e goal ir r e l e v ant a n d a ft e r g o a l ir r e l e v ant) and t h us w het h er c h i l d r en o ve r i m i t a t e w i th bef or e go a l i r r e l evant ac t i ons m o r e t han a fter goal ir r e l e v ant ac t i o ns i s n ot c on c l u s i ve f r om the f i n d i ngs o f t h i s o ne stud y W hen p r e s ent e d w i th b oth ty p es o f i r r e l evant act i o ns, i t co u l d b e t h at ac t i ons p r es e nt e d pr i o r to g o a l ac h i eve m ent a r e p e r c e i ved d i f f e r en t l y t han a c t io n s th a t occur after g o a l a c h i eve m ent. If o v er i m i t a t i on p e r s i sts w hen i r r e l evant a c t i ons o c c ur a f t er g o a l a c h i eve m ent, t h i s m ay s u ggest ove r i m i t a t i on o cc u r s f o r m o r e s o c i a l r easons since i t w ou l d b e m o r e o b v i ous t h at t h e ac t i ons h ave n o c aus a l r elev a nce. T he c u r r ent st u dy e x a m i nes t h i s m et h od o l o g i c a l i s s ue. In a d d i t i on, d es p i te t h e h y p ot h eses r eg a r d i ng t h e u n d e r p i n n i n gs o f ov er i m i t a t i o n, t h e e x a m i na t i on o f c o g n i t i ve ac h i eve m ents t h at r e l ate to the o ccu r r ence of ove r i m i t a t i on has r e m a i ned l a r g e l y u n e x p l o r e d. T he r e i s s o m e e v i dence s u gge s ting t h i s m et h od o f l e a r n i ng i n c r eases w i th a ge ( B r ugg e r e t al., 2 0 07; M cG u i g an e t a l 20 1 1) a n d the p r i m a r y a i m o f t h e c urr ent study i s t o e x a m i ne c o g n i t i ve fac t o r s t h at m ay i nfluence t he pheno m e n on o f ove r i m i t a t i on i n pr es c ho o l e r s. It h as l ong b een s ugges t ed that c h i l d r e

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13 abi l i ty t o e n g age i n s o c ial lea r n i n g m ay b e i n f lu e nc ed b y ac h i eve m ents i n s p e c i f i c s o c i a l cognit i v e a nd e x ecut i ve f u nc t i on ( E F ) s k i l l s ( F lynn & W h i t e n, 20 0 8; Ly o ns e t a l ., 200 7 ; T o m ase ll o 199 9 ; W i l l i a m son e t a l ., 2 0 08 ) F or e x a m p l e, T o m asel l o h as a r g u ed that develo p m ent a l c h a nges i n s e l f r e g u l a t i on and f a l se b e l i ef ( F B ) a d v ance p r escho o le r abi l i ty t o l ea r n th r ough o t h e r s (T o m asel l o e t a l., 1993 ) In r e l a t i on, t he r e i s s o m e ev i d e nce to s uggest t h at F B u nd e r st a n d i n g r e lates to d e v e l op m ent a l d i ff e r ences in chi l d r e r cep t i on a nd u nde r s t a n d i ng o f i n f or m an a nd t e ache r s ( D i Y an n i & K e l e m an, 2008; Z i v & Fr ye, 200 4 ) Oth e r stu d ies a l s o f i nd t hat ad v ances i n s e l f r eg u l a t i on pr e d i ct gr o w th i n o t h er c o gn i t i ve d o m a i ns s u ch a s F B (F l ynn, 2 007) and l at e r acade m i c a chiev e m ent ( B ul l E psy, & W e i be, 2008; M cC l e l l a nd, Ca m e r on, Co n n o r F a r r i s, J e w kes, & M o rr i son, 2 00 7 ) T he cu r r e n t st u dy w i l l e x a m i ne the r o l es o f F B unde r st a n d i ng a nd s e lf r eg u la t i on o n c h i l d r en s e ngage m ent i n ove r i m i t a t i on a s c h i ld r en e x pe r i ence m a j or gr o w th i n the s e s k i l l s d u r i n g the pr es c ho o l y e a r s.

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14 C H AP T E R 2 LI T E R A T U R E R EV I E W T he r e ar e s eve r a l pe r spe c t i v es r e ga r d i n g the i m po r t a nce o f soci a l l ea r n ing i n hu m an d eve l op m e nt. It has b e en p r oposed t h at t h e s k i l l o f i m i t a t i on s p e c i f i c a ll y i s a h i g h l y adap t i ve lea r n ing st r a t e gy w h i ch f a c i l it a t e s the d e v e l op m ent of cultu r e i n g en e r a l ( M cG u i g a n e t a l ., 2011; T e n nie, C a l l & T o m asel l o, 2009; W h i t en, Cust a nce, G o m ez, T e x i do r & B a r d, 1 9 96 ) N o n hu m an p r i m at e s o ften e n gage i n m o r e e m u l ation i n w h i ch t h ey w i ll c opy a n o t h e r g o a l but n ot t he m eans to a c h i eve that g o a l ( H o r ner & W h i t e n, 2005; Na g e l l O l g u i n, & T o m ase ll o, 1 99 3 ) In c ont r ast, w hen o b s e r v i ng ot h e r s hu m ans t e nd to e nga g e in m o r e i m i t a tion i n w h i ch t h ey w i ll c o py both t h e m eans a nd the g o a l T he a b i l i ty t o c o py a not h e r m eans i n a d diti o n to a no t he r g o a l a l l o w s o ne to l e a r n d i f f e r ent ty p es o f st r at eg i es a nd b eha v i o r s to ach i e v e the s a m e g oal ( W i l l i a m son e t a l ., 2008 ) T hus, t h e s k i l l o f i m i t a t i on i s p a r t i c u l ar l y i n f l u en t i a l i n h u m l ity to g a in kno w l edge a b out phy s i c al caus a l i ty as w e l l as s o c i a l l y accept a b l e b eha v i o r s i n g ene r a l ( Lyons e t a l ., 2 0 1 1; Ov e r & Ca r pe n t er 2011; W i l l i a m son e t a l ., 2 008 ) A s d esc r i b e d be l o w seve r al st u d i es e m phas i z e the f l e x ibil i t y w i th w h i ch tod d l e r s e n g age i n i m i t a t i on and m o r e r ecent r esea r c h h i g h l i ghts a d ev e l o p m ent a l s h i f t i n the w ay pr es c ho o l e r i m i t a te o t h e r s i n n ov e l s i t u a t i o ns. I m i t a t i o n a n d I n t e n t i o n U n d e r s t a n d i n g It i s c l e ar t h at i nt e n tion u n de r st a n d i ng i s a n e a r l y s oci a l c o g n i t i ve ac h i eve m ent w h i ch i n f lu e nces y o ung t od d l e r enga g e m ent i n i m i t a t i ve l e a r n i ng. Y o u ng to dd l e r s a r e capa b l e o f m ak i ng i n f er e nces a b o ut ot h e r e hav i o r s a n d these infe r e nces i n f l u e nce t h eir e n g age m ent i n i m i t a t i on. F or e x a m p l e, t o dd l e r s m ake i nf e r ences a bout t he i nt e nded g o a l s o f ot h e r s. M e l tz o f f ( 1 9 95) d e m onst r at e d that w hen a m odel on l y

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15 p r oduc e d a f a i l ed a tte m pt at r eac h i n g h er g o a l, tod d l e r s p r o d uced t h e m ode l d ed goal r at h er t h an i m i t a ting t he m ode l f a i led a t t e m pt behav i o r In r e l a tion, t o d d l e r s beco m e i nc r ea s i n g l y s en s i t i ve to a m ode l t ended a c t i o ns w hen d e c i d i ng w hat act i o ns to i m i t a t e C a r pent e r et al. ( 1 9 98) p r e s ent e d t o d d l e r s w i th a t w o ac t i on de m onst r at i on s equen c e o n a v a r i ety o f t a sks. In o ne c o n d i t i on, c hi l d r en w i t n essed t h e m i st a f o l l o w ed b y the i n t en t i on a l ac t i on w he r eas t h e or d er w as s w i tc h ed i n a n ot h e r condition ( i e., i nt e n tion a l t h en m i st a ke a c t i on p r esent a tion ) In the t h i r d c on d i t i on, i n t e n t i o n a l o n l a c t i ons w e r e p r esent e d t w i c e to r e f l e c t a t w o ac t i o s e q uence a s w as pr esent e d i n t h e a c c i de n t a l c o n d i t i o ns. C a r pent e r e t al. ( 1 9 98) f ound t hat t o dd l e r s i n t he i nt e n tion a l on l y c o n d i t i o n pr o duced t he f ull t w o ac t i on s equen c e s i g n i f i can t l y m o r e t h an the t o d d l e r s i n t h e t w o a cc i d e nt a l c o n d i t io n s. F u r t h e r m a j o r i ty of t od d l e r s o n l y p r oduc e d the i n t en t i on a l ac t i on r ega rd l ess o f w hen the m i st a ke w as pr esent e d ( bef o r e or a ft e r the i n t e n t i o n al ac t i on ) B oth o f t h ese f in d i n gs h i g h l i g h t t h at t o d d l e r s d o n ot s i m p l y m i m i a ll ac t i ons d u r i n g o bs e r va t i on a l l e a r n i ng and c o n s id e r t he i nt e n tion a l i ty behind a m ode l t ion ( C a r pen t er e t a l ., 1 9 9 8 ) Other st u dies p r opose tod d l e r s u se c o n t e x t wh e n i nt e r p r e t i n g a no t he r b eha v i or and w i ll diff er e n t i a l l y i m i t a te a m ode l h avio r s d ep e n d i ng o n s i t u a t i o n a l d e m ands. F or e x a m p l e, i n G er g e l y e t a l ( 200 2 ) to d dle r s i n o ne c o n d i t i on w i t nessed a m odel pr o duce an inef f i c i ent beha v i o r ( i e u s i ng h er h e ad to t u r n o n a l ig h t) w hi l e h er hands w e r e occu p i ed T o d d l e r s in an a l t e r na t e c o n d i t i o n w i t nessed a m odel p r oduce the s a m e i ne f f i c i e nt b e ha v i or b ut h e r h a n ds w e r e f r e G er g e l y e t a l ( 2 002) f o und t h at m o r e t o d d l e r s i m i t a t e d t he m ode l m eans o f t ur n i ng o n the l i g h t w hen h er h a nds w e r e f r e e du r i ng t h e d e m onst r a t i on t h an w hen h er han d s w e r e o c c upie d T he a u t ho r s s uggest

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16 t h at t h i s f i n d ing i n d i ca t es that c hi l d r en r edu c e i m i t a tion o f i n ef f i c i ent b eha v i o r s w hen t h e r e i s a a t io n a l r eason for t he p r oduc t i o n of t h e i ne f f i c ie n t b e ha v i or ( e. g ., m ode l hands w e r e o ccu p i e d ) F u r t h er f i n d i n gs f r om Ca r p ent e r C a l l a n d T o m ase ll o ( 2 005) s uggest t h at t o d d l e r s w i l l u se a m ode l a l t o m ake i nf er e nces a bout that m ode l t i o ns o r beha v i o r W h en a m ode l e nd g o a l i s a m b i guous, t o d d l e r s p r oduce m o r e o f t h a t m ode l e x b eha v i o r s w he r eas w hen a m ode l end g o a l i s o b v i ou s t o d d l e r s a r e m o r e li k e l y t o o m i s p e c i f i c beha v i o r s that a r e u n r e l a t ed to t he g o al ( Ca r pent e r e t a l ., 200 5 ) I n r e l a tion, t h e r e i s e v i d ence t o s u gge s t t h at t o dd l e r s a r e a l so s e l ec t i ve i n t h e i r i m i t a tion o f ir r e l ev a nt and r e l ev a nt ac t i on s B r ugger e t a l ( 2007) pr e s ent e d 1 5 m ont h o l ds w i th a t w o a ction n o v el t a sk i n w h i ch t h e necessity o f t h e f i r st ac t i on v a r ied b y conditio n In o ne c o n d i t i on, t he f i r st a c t i on w as u nnecess a r y ( i r r e l eva n t) f o r task s u c c ess ( e. g ., r e m ov i ng a V e l c r o l at c h that did not r e al l y h o ld a c o n t a i ner l i d s h ut ) In a n a l t e r nate c o n d i t i on the f irst ac t i on w as n eces s a r y ( e g., r e m ov i ng a V e l c r o l atch that h e l d a c o nt a i n e r l i d s h u t ) T he 15 m onth o l ds w e r e m o r e li k e l y t o pr o duce t h e f i r st a c tion w hen i t w as r elev a nt t h an w hen it w as i r r e l ev a nt and i n a s e cond study w i th 1 4 a nd 1 6 m onth o l ds, t h e s a m e p atte r n e m e r ged ( B r ug g er e t a l ., 200 7 ) T hus, i t see m s that young t o d d l e r s a r e c a pa b l e o f m ak i ng inf er e nces a b out ot h e r v io r s a n d w i ll use the s e i nf e r ences w hen e n ga g i ng in obs e r va t i on a l l e a r n i ng. O v e r i m i t a t i o n Des p i te the a m p l e e v i d ence t h at t o d dle r s a r e se l ec t i ve i n th e ir i m i t a t i o n, p r escho o l c hi l d r en often engage in o v e r i m i t a i n w h i ch t hey w i l l pr o duce b oth causal l y ir r e l e v ant ac t i o ns and r e l eva n t ac t i o n s o n n ov e l t as k s. Lyons et a l ( 200 7 ) fou n d t h at p r es c ho o l e r s e ng a ged i n ove r i m i t a t i on o n a n ov e l task even a f t e r t hey

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17 de m onst r at e d t h e a b i l i ty t o i den t i fy unneces s a r y a c t i ons o n fa m i l i a r o b j ects i n a t r ai n i ng sess i o n In a d d i t i on, c h i l d r v e r i m i t a tion p e r s i s t e d w hen the m odel w as a bsent du r i ng t h e c h i l t e m pt ( i e ., a fter s ocial pr e ssu r e to c o nf or m w as r e m oved) a nd w hen t h e m odel a sked c h i l d r en direc t l y n o t to p r od u ce e x t r a/ s i l l y a c t i ons ( Lyons e t a l ., 200 7 ) F in d i ngs f r om M cG u i gan e t a l ( 200 7 ) a l s o i n dicate that p r esch oo l e r s p e r s i st i n t h e i r ove r i m i t a t i o n o f i r r e l eva n t ac t i ons even w hen t ask c o m ponents a r e t r ansp a r en t a s i t u a tion i n w h i ch c aus a l l y n e c essa r y a c t io n s should be e a s i er f or c h i l d r en to id e n t i fy. Ho w eve r Lyons e t a l ( 20 0 7) f i nd that o v e r i m i t a t i o n i s s i g n i f i can t l y lo w er w hen bas i c c aus a l p r in c i p l es a r e m o r e o bvio u s l y v i o l at e d. F o r e x a m p l e, Lyons e t al. ( 2 0 07 ) p r esent e d c h i l d r e n w i th a s et of t w o c o nt a i n er s. In o ne c on d i t i on, t h e c o n t a i ne r s w e r e connect e d w i t h a tu b e a nd in an a l t e r na t e co n d i t i on the s e t of co n t a i ne r s w as n ot connect e d. One c o nt a i ner c o nt a i n ed a c o nce a l ed ob j ect w h il e t he o t h er c o n t a i ner d i d n ot. T h us a c t i ons pe r f o r m ed o n the c o nt a in e r w i t h out t h e ob j ect w e r e u nnecessa r y f o r ob j ect r et r i ev a l a n d a c t i ons p r o d uced o n the c o nt a i ner w i t h the o b j ect w e r e r e l e v ant to ob j ect r et r i ev a l In b oth c on d i t i ons, ir r e l e v ant a ct i ons w e r e a l w ays pr e s ent e d i n t e n t i o n al l y a nd w e r e p r ese n t e d b e f or e t he r e l ev a nt ac t i o n a nd ob j ect r et r i ev a l ( i e ., goal ac h i eve m en t ) T h e o n l y d i f f e r en c e b et w een con d i t i ons w as the c o nnec t i o n o f t h e t w o cont a i n e r s. T he p e r cent a g e o f c h i l d r en pr oducing i r r e l evant ac t i ons i n t h e connect e d c o n d i t i o w as s i gn i f i can t l y h i g her t h an i n t h e d i sco n nect e d c on d i t i on T hus i n s i t u a t i ons i n w h i c h the c a us a l p l au s i b i l i ty of act i o ns i s c o m p r o m i sed i n a m o r e s a l ie n t m anner ( e. g ., a c t i ons ar e l i t e r a l l y p r oduced o n s e pa r a t e o b j ects) c h i l d r e n d i s p l ay l ess engage m ent i n ove r i m i t a t i on ( Lyons e t a l ., 2 0 07 ) A cco r d i n g to L y ons a nd c o l l eag u es ( 2007 ) t h ese f i n d i ngs s uppo r t t h at ove r i m i t a t ion i s a ut o m at i c a nd o ccu r s because

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18 chi l d r en i nf e r th a t ano t he r i nt e n t i on a l a c tions c o nvey c a us a l m ean i n g and t h i s aut o m at i c e nco d i ng i s o n l y t u r n e d o w hen o bv i ous vi o l a t i ons t o c a us a l pla u s i b i l i ty occur ( e g ., v i o l a t i o n to c o nt a ct pr i n c i p l e ) Lyons e t a l ( 20 1 1) a l so h i g h l i ghts t hat t h e o c c u rr ence o f ov er i m i t a t i o n i s h ea v i l y i n f l u e nced b y a m ode l i nt e nt. L yons e t a l (2 011) p r esen t ed c h i l d r en w i th a m odel t hat i nt e nt i onal l y or un i nt e nt i onal l y p r oduced a n u n necessa r y a c tion w hen s o l v i ng a puz z l e bo x i n w h i ch a to o l w as u sed to r e t r ieve a n o b j ec t T he int e n t i o n a l m odel w as atten t i v e w hi l e he pr o d uced t h e i r r elev a n t a c t i o n In c o n t r ast, t h e u n inten t i o na l m odel w as d i st r ac t ( e. g ., t a l k i ng o n the p hon e ) w hen p r o du c i ng t he s a m e i r r elev a nt a c t i on. Chi l d r en p r oduced sig n i f i can t l y f e w er i r r e l eva n t actions w hen the m odel a p pea r ed u n i nt e n t io n a l t han w hen the m odel a pp e a r ed i n t en t i on a l i n h er ac t i on. G a r d i n e r e t a l ( 2011) a l so f o und t h at w hen i rr e l ev a nt ac t i ons ar e p r esent e d a s a m i st a ( i e ., un i n t e n t i o n al), p r escho o l e r s d e c r eased th e i r p r oduc t i on of t h e ir r e l e v ant ac t i o n a nd t h i s patte r n occu r r ed f o r 3 4 and 5 yea r o l ds. Ho w ever a s m ent i oned, n o ne o f t hese st u dies pr esent ir r e l e v ant ac t i o ns a ft e r ob j ect r et r i ev a l ( or g oa l a c h i eve m ent ) W h i l e c hi l d r en m ay a ttend to i n t ent b eh i nd act i o ns they m ay a l so attend to w hen the a c t io n s o ccur r e l a t i ve t o a g oa l T h e o n l y st u dy t h at r ev e r sed t he o r der of i r r elev a n t r e l ev a nt a ct i ons ( S i m pson & R i gg s 201 1 ) d i d n ot d i r ec t l y e x a m i ne w het h er o ve r i m i t a tion w i th b e f or e g o al ir r e l e v ant ac t i o ns o cc u r s m o r e t h an o v e r i m i t a t i on w i th a ft e r g o a l ir r e l ev a nt ac t i ons. It co u l d be th a t m ode l i nt e nt i n f l u e nces o v er i m i t a t i o n m o r e than a c t i on o r d e r a nd t h i s fin d i ng c ou l d s u g g est a m o r e soc i a l m ot i va t i on for ove r i m i t a t i on.

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19 In a d d i t i on, p r i o r stu d i es on o v e r i m i t a t i on d o n ot con s i der d ev e l op m ent a l i n f l u e nces o n the o c c u rr e nce o f ove r i m i t a t i on t ho ugh t h e r e a r e c l e a r i n d i v i d u al d i f f e r ences in p r escho o l e r r i m i t a t i on. F o r e x a m p l e, i n L yons e t a l ( 200 7 ) o n l y 6 0% of c h i ld r en in t h e c o nnect e d c o nt a i n er c o n d i t i o n w e r e p r odu c i ng ir r e l e v ant ac t io n s a nd t h e s a m p l e s i z e ( n = 29) w as r e l a t i v e l y s m all t o d et er m i ne a ge d i ff e r ences g i v en the l a r ge a g e r a n ge i n c l ud e d and t h e b e t w een s u b j ects des i gn. S i m il ar l y, K en w a r d ( 2 0 12) e x a m i ned ove r i m i t a t i on i n 3 a n d 5 y e a r o lds and m easu r ed th e i r t endency to p r ot e s w hen a th i r d p a r ty ( e g., a p uppe t ) d i d n ot p ro du ce the unneces s a r y a c t i o n a nd i n s t e ad on l y p r o d uced t h e r e l e v ant ac t i o n ( t h us the pu ppet ac h i ev e d the go a l ) K e n w a r d ( 201 2 ) on l y i n c lu d ed c h i l d r en t hat e n gaged in o ve r i m itation for a n a l y s i s a n d r e po r t e d 6 0% o f chi l d r en w e r e o v e r i m i t a t i ng o n a t le a st t h r ee of four t a sk s so m e 3 yea r o l ds w ou l d n o t engage i n ove r i m i t a t i on a t a l l and so m e c h i ld r en pr o t est e d t h e p u p o m i ss i o n o f t h e unnecess a r y a c t i on even t h ough t hey the m selves did not p r odu c e the unneces s a r y act i o n. F i n al l y, G ar d in e r e t a l ( 2 012) c a t e g o r ized 3 4 a n d 5 y e a r olds as poor i m i t a t or ( i e ., no / l i t t l e p r oduc t ion o f a c tion s e i t h er r elev a nt or i r r e l evan t ) p r e c i se i m i t a t or ( p r oduced m ode l t i ons p r e c i s e l y ) and pe r s eve r a t i v e i m i t a t or ( p r o duced act i o ns m o r e o ften th a n w as d e m onst r a t e d ) Ho w eve r t h e a ut h o r s d i d not r epo r t t h e p r opo r tion o f each a ge g r oup t h at m ade u p t h ese c a t e g or i es. In ad d i t i on, r o u g h l y 2 5% o f p r escho o l e r s w e r e c o n s i d e r ed t o b e poor i m i t at or after w i t n es s i ng a n int e n t i o n a l i r r e l evant a c t i on f ol l o w ed b y a r e l ev a nt ac t i on, s u gges t i ng t h ey d i d not e n gage i n ove r i m i t a t i o n ( G a r d i n e r e t a l ., 2 01 2 ) T aken t o get h er t hese st ud i es sug g est t h a t w hi l e m ost p r eschoo l e r s e ng a ge i n o v e r i m i t a tion th e r e r e m a i ns a s u bsa m p l e o f p r escho o l e r s w ho a r e n ot en g a g i ng i n t h i s m et h od o f l e ar n in g T hu s t h ese stu d i es h ig h l ig h t i n d i v i d u a l

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20 d i f f e r ences in the occu r r ence o f ove r i m i t a t i on and these d i ffe r ences m ay b e i n f lu e nced by d ev e l op m ent a l f act or s ot h er than ag e Des p i te the l ack of age d i ffe r ences i n t he stu d ies j ust m ent i oned, f in d i ngs f r om B r ugger e t a l ( 2007) and M cG u i gan e t a l ( 2 0 07; 2011) s u g g est t h e r e a r e develo p m ent a l d i ff e r ences in the occu r r ence o f ove r i m i t a tion a n d the t r end i s t h at t h i s m et h od o f l ea rn i ng s e e m s to i nc r ease w i th a g e. M cG u i g a n e t a l ( 20 1 1) m easu r ed ove r i m i t a t i o n i n 3 y ea r o l ds, 5 yea r o l ds, a nd adults ( 2 0 to 6 3 y e a r s ) T he m a i n focus o f t h eir study w as to d et er m i ne i f a m odel s a ge ( e. g ., c h i l d vs. ad u l t m ode l ) w o u l d i n f l u e nce the o ccu r r ence of ov e r i m i t a t i on in t h e th r ee age g r oups. A ll p a r t i c i pants obse r ved a m odel ( e i t h er a c h i ld or an a d u l t ) p r oduce i n t en t i on a l ir r e l e v ant ac t i o ns w hen so l v i ng a n ov e l t a sk ( puz z l e bo x A ll a ge g r oups e n g a ged i n m o r e o ve r i m i t a t i on w hen t h e m odel w as a n adult In a d d i t i o n 5 y e a r o lds p r odu c ed a h ig h er p r o p o r t i on of i r r e l evant a c t i ons t han 3 yea r o l ds ( fin d i ng m a r gin a l l y s i g n i f i can t p < .0 5 4) a n d m o r e su r p r i s i n g l y, adults p r oduc e d s i g n i f i can t l y h i g h er pr o p o r t i o ns o f i r r e l evant ac t i ons t han both o f t he p r escho o l a ge g r oups ( M cG u i g a n et a l ., 2 0 1 1 ) A g a i n, r es u l ts r eve a l e d i n d i v i d ua l d i ff e r ences i n t h e p r op o r t i on o f ir r e l e vant ac t i ons p r odu c ed i n t h at 30% o f t he act i o ns pr o duced by 3 y e a r olds w e r e i rr e l e v a nt w he r eas a l m ost 50% o f t h e a c t i ons p r oduc e d b y 5 yea r o l ds w e r e i r r elev a nt a c ti o n s In l i ne w i th Lyons e t a l ( 2 007 ) M cG u i g an e t a l ( 2011) pr o pose t h at even as adults w e c o ntinue to aut o m at i c a l l y inten t i o na l a c t i ons on n ov e l t a sks a s be i n g c a us a l l y r e l evant and t h i s e nco d i n g i s e s p eci a ll y st r o n g w hen the m odel i s c o n s i d e r ed to be a n e x pe r g i v en a d ults engaged i n m ore ove r i m i tat i on w hen the m odel w as an a d u l t than w hen t h e m odel w as a c h i l d Ho w eve r c l ose r e v i ew o f t h e r e s pon s es f r om p a r t i c i p a n t i nt e r v i e w s i n M cG u i gan

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21 et a l ( 2 0 11) m ay suggest a l t e r nate in f l uenc e s on the a d u l e n g age m ent i n ove r i m i t a t i o n. A t t h e close o f t he e x pe r i m ent, M cG u i gan e t a l ( 201 1 ) a sked t h e a du l t pa r t i c i pants about t h e i r t houg h ts r e g a r d i ng the g o a l o f t h e e x pe r i m e nt. T he a ut h o r s so r t e d p a r t i c i pa n t r es p onses i nto s i x d i ffe r ent cat e go r i es and r epo r t f r e quen c i es f or e a c h cat e go r y (T a ble 1; M cG u i gan et a l ., 2 011 ) F o r those i n t h e c h i ld m ode l c o nd i t i on, 6 2% of r esp o ns e s r e lated to r eas o ns o f p r o ble m s o l v i ng t e a n d/ o r ob j ec t / g o a l ach i e v e m T hus m ost pa r t i c i pant r espon s es for t h e c h i l d m o n d i t i o n w e r e m o r e r e l at e d to a p e r c e i ved g o a l o f t a sk p e r f o r m anc e In c o nt r ast, f o r those in the ad u l t m ode l c o n d i t i on, r ou g h l y 7 9% o f r esponses r e l a t ed to r easons o f i m i t a t i ve l e a r n i ng of co m p l ete s e quenc e i m i t a te i l l o g i c a l ac t i m e m o r y e x pe r i m a nd o bse r v a tion t e T hese r espon s e c a t e g o r i es a ll fo c used m o r e o n a p e r c e i ved go a l o f c opy a ct i ons. Rec a ll t h at a d ults e ng a g e d i n m o r e o ve r i m i t a t ion in the ad u l t m odel c o n dition th a n i n the chi l d m odel c o n d i t i on a nd d i d s o m o r e o ften t h an b oth p r esch oo l a ge g r o u ps. T a k en t o get h e r t h e fin d i ngs f r om M cG u i gan e t a l ( 2 011) s u g gest a ) the age o f t h e m odel i n f l u e nced t h e type of i nf e r ences t hat a du l t p a r t i c i p ants m a de a bout t h e e x pe r i m ent a n d b) ad u l t pa r t i c i p a nts p r oduced m o r e i rr e lev a nt act i o ns w hen the m odel w as a n a d u l t It i s p r op os e d t hat t hese r espon s e d i ff e r ences m ay i m p l y o ve r i m i t a t i on i s i n f lu e nced by the l e a r ne r i n t er p r et a t i o ns a bo u t a w a m odel i s p r odu c i ng i rr e l e v ant ac t i o ns. Lyons e t a l ( 200 7 ) p r opose l e a r n e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y i n f er i n t e n t i on a l a c t io n s a r e pr o duced beca use t h ey ar e caus a l l y necessa r y b ut the r espon s es j ust r ev i e w ed s u gge s t ot h e r w i se. In additio n w hi l e L y ons e t a l ( 2 0 07) s uggest t h a t social c o g n i t i ve advances m ay s u ppo r t chi l d r s al infe r e nces t h ey d o n ot d i r ec t ly e x p l o r e t h i s n o t i on. G i ven t h e i nc r e ase

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22 i n o v e r i m i t a tion d ur i ng t h e pr es c ho o l y e a r s, t h e s o cial c o g n i t i ve ac h i eve m ent of F B spec i f i c a l l y m ay b e in f l uen t i a l in c h i l d r e e r i m i t a t i on. F al s e Be l i e f U n d e r s t a n d i n g In u nd e r st a n d i n g F B s, o n e r ec o g n i zes t h at b e l i efs a r e s e pa r a t e f r om the p hy s i c a l w o r l d a nd do n ot a l w ays r eflect r e a l i t y i e., b el i efs of s e l f o r a no t her c an b e fa l se. T hus t h e a b i l i ty to c oo r d i n ate b et w een c o n fl i c t ing r e p r esent a tions i s a k e y feat u r e o f F B unde r st a n d i ng. D u r i ng t he p r escho o l y e a r s, c h i l d r en u n d e r go s ig n i f i cant c h ange i n th e i r abi l i ty t o d e m onst r ate a n d a p p l y F B u nd e r st a n d i n g S pe c i f i c a l l y, c h i l d r en a r e r e l a t i v e l y poor i n F B u nd e r st a n d i n g a t a g e 3 y ea r s, but m ost a r e pr of i c i e nt i n t h i s und e r st a n d i n g by the a g e o f 5 yea r s ( W e l l m an, Cross, & W a t son, 200 1 ) T he r e i s e v i dence to s u g gest t h at F B u n de r st a n d i ng i n f l u ences h ow i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r p r et t h e a c t i ons a nd i nf o r m at i on p r o v i ded by o t h e r s a nd it i s pr o posed t hat t h i s i n f l u e nce m ay e x t e nd to i n d i v i d u a l engage m ent i n ove r i m i t a t i on. Unl i ke 3 yea r o l ds, 4 ye a r o l ds a r e c a pa b l e o f m on i t o r ing o t h e r s f o r both accu r acy a n d i nacc u r acy a n d d e m onst r ate a n unde r st a n d i ng t hat acc u r ate i n f or m ants can s o m et i m es be wrong ( Co r r i v eau, Me i nts, & Ha rr i s 200 9 ) T he a u t h o r s s uggest t h i s develo p m ent a l d i ff e r ence m ay b e i n f l uen c ed b y th e c h a n ges that o ccur in c h i l d r e F B unde r st a n d i ng a t t h i s a g e ( t h ough n o m easu r es o f F B w e r e in c l uded i n th e i r s t u dy ) F u r t h e r c h i l d r pp li c a t i on o f F B u n d e r st a n d i ng in f l uences th e i r inte r p r et a t i o n o f w a n inf or m ant m ade a p a r t i c u lar m i st a ke ( Ro b i nson & Nu r m soo, 200 9 ) F o r e x a m p l e, i n R o b i nson and Nu r m soo ( 20 0 9) c h i l d r en r e c e i v ed i nf o r m at i on f r om e i t h er a n i g no r a ( i.e., po o r l y i n f or m ed ) i nf or m ant or a n u n r e l i a b l e ( i e ., ad e quat e l y i nf o r m b ut con s i st e n t l y in a ccu r at e ) i n f or m ant. C h i ld r e n w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to e n d o r se t h e i gn o r an t i nf o r m ant i f t h ey a tt r i bu t ed the inf or m i nacc u r acy to a F B h e l d by that

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23 i nf o r m ant t h an t h ose w ho d i d n ot d i s p l ay t h i s r easo n i ng ( Ro b i nson & N u r m soo, 2009 ) In c o nt r a s t, c h i l d r r f or m ance o n t r a diti o na l F B tasks d i d not re l ate to th e i r endo r se m ent of i nf or m ants ( Ro b i ns o n & Nu r m soo, 200 9 ) T hus, c h i l d r b i l i ty t o apply F B u n d e r st a nd i ng m ay b e m o r e i n f l uen t ial i n t h e i r i n t e r p r et a t i ons o f ot h e r s t h an t h eir a b i l i ty to p ass t r a d i t i on a l F B tasks p e r s e T he r esea r ch o n c h i l d r n de r st a n d i ng o f t each i ng f ur t h e r s u pp o r ts t h i s n o t i on. Z i v and Fr ye ( 200 4 ) fo u nd d e v elo p m ent a l d i ff e r ences i n t he i nf o r m at i on c h i l d r e n u se w hen m ak i ng pr e d i c tions a b o ut a n ot h e r t ea c h i ng a tte m pts. Y oung pr es c ho o l e r s ( 3 and 4 y e a r s) s eem to focus o n the k now l edge d i ffe r ence bet w een a t e acher and a pu p il w hen m ak i ng pr e d i c tions a b o ut w het h er o r n ot a teach e r w i ll atte m pt to teach (Z i v & Fr ye, 2 004 ) T h a t i s, i f a t eacher a nd a p u p il p ossess the s a m e k n o w l edge ( e. g ., b oth know h ow to r ead) then y oung c hi l d r en t end t o pr e d i ct t hat t h e teac h er w i l l not atte m pt to teach t he p u p il r eg a r d l ess o f t h at t e ache r bel i ef about t h e p u p i l w l ed g e. In cont r ast, by a ge 5 ye a r s, c h i l d r r e d i c t i o n s o f w het h er o r not an in d i v i du a l w i l l att e m pt t e ach a p u p il a r e h ea v i l y i n fluenced b y the i n d i v i du a l b el i efs about t h e p u p i l kno w l edge (Z i v & F r y e, 2 0 04 ) F or e x a m p l e, i f a t each e r f a lsely b el i eves that a p u pil cannot r ead, o l d er c h i l d r en o f t e n p r e d i ct t h at t he teach e r w i l l atte m pt to teach t h e p u p il how to r ead. In ad d i t i on, o l der c h i ld r en m ake th i s p r e d i c t i on a ft e r d e m onst r ating th a t t h ey u nd e r st a nd the r e i s n ot a r e a l kno w l e dg e d iff er e b et w een the tea c her and t h e pupil ( i e ., c hi l d r en a r e a w a r e t hat i n r e a l i ty, b o th c a n r e ad) ( Z i v & F r ye, 2 004 ) T h i s suggests t h at o l d e r pr es c ho o l e r s ar e atten d i n g m o r e to i n d i v i d u thou g hts and pe r cep t i o ns w hen i n t e r p r e t i ng a nd p r e d i c t i ng t he b eha v i o r o f o t h e r s t h an y o ung e r p r escho o l e r s.

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24 W ith t h e p h e no m enon o f ove r i m i t a t i on, i t m ay b e that i n d i v id u a l s w ho ar e less soph i s t i c at e d i n th e i r F B r ea s o n i ng fo c us m o r e o n the m ode l i n t ended a c t i on a nd g o al. In c o nt r a s t, i n d i v i du a l s w ho a r e m o r e a dvanc e d i n a p p l y i ng F B r ea s o n i ng m ay focus m o r e o n the f u l l scen e a n d c o n s i d e r why a m odel w ou l d pr o d uce i r re l e vant ac t i ons. I n ot h er w o r ds, i n d i v i d u a l s w ho ar e m o r e a dvan c ed in th e i r F B r e aso n i ng m ay m ake m o r e advanced i n f e r en c es a b o ut t h e m ode l t hou g hts and c o nsequ e n t l y h er beha v i o r F or e x a m p l e, i n d i v id u a l s w i th g r eat e r F B u n de r s t a nd i n g m ay i nf e r t he m odel i s t r y i n g to t e ach a n d / o r i n t ends f o r the in d i v i du a l to pr o d uce a l l ac t i ons ( e. g ., they m ake a so c i a l i nf e r enc e I n d i v i du a l s w i th m o r e a d v an c ed F B r easo n i ng m ay b e m o r e i n c l i ned t o m ake a soc i a l i nf e r enc e a bo u t t h e m ode l m ot i ve a nd u s e t h i s p e r spec t i ve to g u i d e t h eir o w n b eha v i or o n t h e task. C h i l d r en w i th g r eat e r F B u n de r st a n d i ng m ay b e c a pa b l e of r eco g n i z ing a m ode l i r r e l evant a c t i o n s i n a c o n f l i c t i ng m anne r i e ., a s caus a l l y unnecess a r b a s ed o n t h e i r o w n o bs e r va t i on, b ut a l so a s neces s a r y to p r o d based o n t h e i r i n f e r en c es a b o ut t h e m ode l p u r pose. S el f R e g u l at i o n In a d d i t i on to F B c h i l d r e x ecu t i ve f u nc t i o n i ng m ay a l so be i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e occu rr e n ce o f o v e r i m i t a tion g i ven the a ge a nd i n d i v i d u a l d i ff e r ence t r ends d esc r i b ed p r e v i ou s l y. E x ecut i ve func t i o n ing ( E F ) r e f e r s t o p r ocesses t h at m on i t o r a nd c ont r o l t h oughts and b e ha v i o r s and s o m e s u ggest w o r k i n g m e m o r y, i n h i b i t i on, and a t t en t i on s w i tc h i ng ar e s epa r ate c o m ponents of E F ( M iyak e F r ie d m an, E m e r so n W itz k i Ho w e r t er & W a g e r 2 000 ) T he s ki l l o f i n h i b i t o r y c o nt r ol spe c i f i c a l l y r e lates to e l f r eg u l a t i on ( e. g ., c o m p li a nce a n d e ff o r tf u l c o n t r o l ) a l ong w i th ot h e r e x ecut i v e func t i o n ski l l s i n c l u d i ng w o r k i ng m e m o r y and a tt e n t i on ( Ca m e r on P on i tz, M cC l e l l a nd, Je w kes, Co n ne r F a rr i s, & M o r r i son, 2 008) a nd c h i l d r e n b eco m e c o ns i d e r a b l y b e tter a t

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25 cont r o l l i ng t h e i r o w n b eha v i o r d u r ing the pr es c hool yea r s ( Ca r l s o n, 20 0 5; G a r on, B r yson, & S m i t h 20 0 8 ) I nh i b i t or y c ont r ol r eq u i r es o ne t o i n h i b i t a do m i nant r e s ponse w he r eas confl i ct i n h i b i t o r y c o n t r o l tasks r eq u i r e o ne to act i n c o n fl i ct to o n nat ur a l / d o m i nant r es p onse. It m ay b e that c h i ld r b i l i ty t o r e gu l ate t h e i r b e ha v i or f a ci l i t a t es th e i r a b i l i ty to i n hi b i t i g n o r i n g a n u nnecessa r y ac t i o n A s m ent i oned, w hen a m ode l a l i s o b v i ou s, t o d d l e r s s how a tendency to o m i t beha v i o r s un r e l a t ed to t h e g oa l ( Ca r pent e r e t a l ., 200 5 ) Oth e r stu d i es h ave a l s o fou n d t h at o l d e r pr es c ho o l e r s ar e m o r e li k e l y to r e m a i n f a i t h f u l t o the e x act m et h ods they obse r ve i n s o c i a l l ea r ning c o n t e x ts ( F l ynn & W h ite n 200 8 ; F l ynn & W h i t e n, 20 1 2 ) I n additio n M cG u i gan et a l ( 201 1 ) fou n d that b o th 5 ye a r o l ds and a d u l ts had sig n i f i can t l y g r eat e r l oy a l ty to the a d u l t m ode l m et h od than the 3 yea r o l ds. M cG u i gan e t a l ( 200 7 ) a l so find th a t 3 y e a r o lds a r e m o r e l i k e l y to en gage i n e m u l at i o ( i.e., p r oduc t i o n o f t h e end g o a l b ut not the m et h od) th a n 5 y e a r old s T hou g h M cG u ig a n e t a l ( 2 00 7 ) f ound no s i g n i f i c a nt age d i ffe r ences i n t he t i m e to r e w a r d r e t r i ev a l c h i ld r en w ho u sed e m u l ation w e r e fast e r to r e t r i e v e the r e w a r d than t h ose t hat eng a ged i n o ve r i m i t a t i on, w h i ch m ay suggest t h at t h e de m ands to r eg u l a t e o b ehavior a nd s t ay o n t a s k ( i e ., s u st a i n atten t i o n ) m ay b e gr eat e r w hen o ve r i m i t a tion is e m p l oyed. C h i ld r en inc r ea s e th e i r se l ec t i ve a tte n tio n a n d b eco m e b etter a t s h i f t ing a nd s u s t a i n i ng a tten t i on a c r oss t h e p r escho o l y ea r s ( G ar o n e t a l ., 2 00 8 ) C u r r e n t S t u d y In s u m st u d i es e x a m i n i ng o v e r i m i t a tion h ave docu m ent e d i n d i v i d ua l d i ffe r ences i n c h i l d r e ndency t o o v e r i m i t a t e H o w eve r t h ese st u dies have o n l y e x a m i ned e x t er nal f act or s ( e. g ., s o c i a l p r essu r e to c o n f o r m causal p l au s i b i l i ty, m ode l i nt e nt, m ode l that c o nt r i b u te to t he o cc u r r ence o f o v e r i m i t a tion. W ith t h e e x cept i o n

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26 of age, n o study t o d ate h as e x a m i ned int er na l fac t o r s t h at m ay i n f l uence ove r i m i t a t i on. In a d d i t i on, L yons a nd c o l l e a gues ( 2007; 201 1 ) pr o p ose th a t c h i l d r e n e ng a ge i n ove r i m i t a t i o n b eca u se t h ey v iew i nt e n t i o n a l a c t i o ns a s c a us a l l y necessa r y but o n l y o ne st u dy h as m an i p u l a t ed ac t i on or d er a n d f i n d i n gs f r o m th i s study do n ot add r ess w het h er chi l d r en o v er i m i t a te w i th b e f o r e g o a l i r re l evant a ctions m o r e so than w i th after go a l i r r e l evant a c t i o ns. T o a d d r ess t h ese i ssues, t he c u rr ent st u dy ha s t w o a i m s 1 ) to e x p l o r e t he occu rr e n ce o f o v e r i m i t a tion w hen i rr e l e v ant a c t i ons o ccur bef o r e vs. af t er g oa l ach i e v e m ent and 2 ) to e x a m i ne the i n d epen d ent r o l es of F B a n d S R i n c h i l d r engage m ent i n ov e r i m i t a t i on. T w o n ovel p r o b le m so l v i ng t a sks w i l l be u s e d to i nves t i g ate t h e d ev e l o p m ent of chi l d r er i m i t a tion. C h i l d r en w i l l b e r ando m l y ass i g n ed to one o f th r e e c o n d i t i o ns: r ele v ant ( c o rr ec t ) + aft e r g oal i rr elev a nt ( CI ) m i st a ke ( un i nt e nt i onal) i rr e l evant + r elev a nt + after g o al i rr elev a nt ( M CI ) i nt e nt i onal i rr elev a nt + r elev a n t + a ft e r g oal i rr elev a nt ( IC I ) In a ll c o nd i t i ons, c h i l d r en w i l l w i t n ess t h e s a m e e l e v and after g o a l i rr e l e v ant act i o ns. T h e b ef or e g o a l ir r e l e v ant act i o n w i ll v a r y a c r oss the th r e e c o n d i t i o ns ( i e ., u n i nt e n t io n a l i n M CI, i nt e n t i o n a l i n ICI, and n o n e x i st e nt in CI ) T he f i r st a i m w a s to e x p l o r e the occu r r ence o f o ve r i m i t a tion w hen i rr e l e v ant act i o ns o ccur bef o r e g o al ac h i eve m ent ve r sus after g o a l a c h i eve m ent. L yons a nd col l e a gues ( 2007; 201 1 ) ar g ue th a t c h i l d r e n a ut o m at i cal l y i n f er a m odel i s t r y i ng to convey c a us a l l y m ean i n g f u l a c t i ons w hen s h e pr oduces int e n t i o n a l a c t i ons ( i r re l evant and r e l e v ant ) i e ., c h i l d r e n m ake causal inf e r about t h e m ode l m ot i ve. C ons i d e r i ng th i s ar g u m ent, o ne w ou l d e x pect t h at c h i l d r e n w i ll ig n o r e a n i nt e n t i on a l

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27 i r r e l evant a c t i on i f t he a c t i o n i s p r e s ent e d after a g o a l h as b een ac h i eved g i ven i t w ould be m o r e s a l i ent t hat t h e a c t i on i s un r e l a t e d to ( and u n necess a r y fo r ) task s u c c es s If Lyons ar g u m ent i s s u pp o r t e d, ove r i m i t a t i on w ou l d n ot b e e x pect e d to occur f r equ e n t l y i n t h e CI and M CI c o n ditio n s a nd o ve r i m i t a t i on w ou l d o n l y o cc u r w i th t h e b e f or e go a l i r r e l evant a c t i on i n t h e ICI c o n d i t i on. Ho w eve r i f c h i l d r en p e r s i st i n t h e i r o v e r i m i t a tion w hen a n i nt e n t i on a l ir r e l ev a nt ac t i on o ccu r s a f t e r go a l ac h i eve m ent, th i s w o u l d s e em to suggest t h at c h i l d r e n a r e n ot m ak i ng c a us a l a ssu m pt i ons a bout i n t en t i on a l ac t i ons because i t w ould be a n o b v i ous vi o l a t i on o f c a usal pla u s i b i l i t y Ov er i m i t at i o n w i th a ft e r goal ir r e l e v ant ac t i o ns m ay s u ggest t h at e ng a ge m ent i n o ve r i m i t a t i on o c c u r s f o r m o r e soci a l r easons a s o ppo s ed to c a us a l r e aso n s. Re g a r d l ess of w het h er o v e r i m i t a tion e x t e nds to af t e r g o a i r r elev a nt ac t i ons, i t w as e x pect e d that ov er i m i t a t i o n w i th the bef or e go a l a c t i o n w ou l d n ot occ u r f r e q uen t l y in t h e M CI c o n d i t i on g i v en the i rr e l e v ant act i o n i s p r e s ent e d as un i nt e nt i ona l T he p r i m a r y a i m o f t h e cu rr ent study w as to e x a m i ne the indep e ndent r o l es o f F B and S R on c h i l d r e ngage m ent i n o ve r i m i t at i o n. Co n s i d er i ng h ow c h i l d r en a p p l y F B unde r st a n d i ng i n t h e i r d e c i sio n s to end o r se a n i n f o r m ant and th e i r p r e d i c t i o ns a s to w hen a n i n d i v i d u a l w i ll t e ach, F B m ay a l so b e i n f l u e n t i a l i n c h i l d r e ndency t o ove r i m i t a te d u r i n g o bs e r va t i o n al l ea r n i n g. F B unde r st a n d i ng w as e x pect e d to b e pos i t i v e l y r e l at e d to c h i l d r v e r i m i t a tion w ith i nt e nt i onal i rr e l e v ant ac t io n s ( n ot un i n t e n t i o n al ) C h i l d r en w i th g r eat e r F B r eas o n i ng m ay b e m o r e i n c l i ned to m ake a soc i a l i n f e r en c e ab o ut t h e m ode l m ot i ve f o r pe r f or m i ng t h e i r r elev a nt a c tion a n d u se t h i s i n f er en c e to g uide th e ir cop y i n g b eha v io r F u r t h e r d u e to t he a tt e n t i on a nd i n h i b i t o r y de m ands r equired to pr o duce a n d a tt e nd to i rr e l ev a nt ac t i o ns, c h i l d r e e l f r eg u l a t i o n

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28 m ay a l so p l ay a r o l e in th e i r a b i l i ty to ove r i m i t a t e T he r o l e o f S R i s s o m e w hat l ess c l e a r but i t m ay b e p os i t i v e l y r e l at e d to o v er i m i t a t i on o f i nt e nt i onal i rr e lev a nt ac t io n s a s chi l d r en m ay n eed to i n h i b i t the n at ur a l t end e ncy to i g n o r the i r r e l eva n t ac t i on. W i l l i a m son e t a l ( 200 8 ) r e po r t t hat c h i l d r o w n e x pe r i ences w i l l i n f l uen c e th e i r engage m ent i n i m i t a t i on and t h ey pr o pose t ha t m e m o r y a nd in h i b i t i on u nde rp i n i m i t a t i o n because t h ese e x ecu t i ve func t ion s k i l l s a s s i st i n o v e r r i d i n g o o w n m eans to a g o a l i n o r der to p r o duce anot h e r m eans to a c h i e v e that g oa l

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29 C H AP T E R 3 M E T HOD P a r t i c i p a n t s N i net y seven p r esc h o o l e r s w e r e r ec r u i t e d f r o m l oc a l c h i l dca r e c e n t e r s. A ll chi l d r en p a r t i c i pa t i ng w e r e r eq u ired to s peak E ngl i sh a s t h e i r p r i m a r y l ang u age d ue to t h e stan d a r d i zed la n gu a ge m easu r e u sed i n t h i s s t udy. P a r t i c i p a nts w ho c o m p l et e d a ll t e sting s e s s i ons r ec e i ved a $10 T a r get g i f t ca r d a s c o m pensat i on and c h i l d pa r t i c i p ants w e r e o ffe r ed s t i ck e r s a f t er e a c h tes t i ng s e s s i o n. F o r t y t h r ee b oys a nd 4 0 g i r l s b et w een t h e a ges of 4 1 and 6 6 m ont h s ( M = 5 3 m ont h s, S D = 7 m ont h s) w e r e i n c l uded for ana l y s i s. A m ong the 1 4 p a r t i c i p a nts w i t h d r a w n f r om th e study, t w o c h i l d r en w e r e i n e l i g i b l e a s they w e r e n ot na t i ve E n g li s h s p e a ke r s, seven c h i ld r en r ef u s ed to pa r t i c i pa t e and e x pe r i m ent e r e rr o r o ccu r r ed i n t h e tes t ing o f f i ve c h i l d r en. M a j o r i ty of the pa r t i c i pants w e r e C a uca s i an ( 82. 3 % ) P a r ent r epo r t of inc o m e i n d i cat e d m ost pa r t i c i pants w e r e f r om m i dd l e to u p pe r inc o m e h ouseh o lds. M eas ur es L a n g u a g e Chi l d r r e c ep t i ve l a n guage w as m ea s u r ed w i th the P eabody P i ct u r e V ocabula r y T est, F ou r t h E d i t ion ( PPV T ; Du n n & Dunn 2 00 7 ) w h i ch i s a w i d e l y used st a nda r d i z ed m easu r e o f r e c ep t i ve l a n guag e Chi l d r en w e r e s h o w n a p age w i t h fo u r p i ct u r es a n d a sked to p o i nt to t h e p i ct u r e s p e c i f i ed by the m eas u r e. S t a n d a r d p r oced u r es w e r e f o l l o w ed to e st a bl i s h a c h i l d s b ase s e t. T he nu m ber o f i t e m s a c h i ld got co r r ect p r o v i ded a r aw r ecep t i ve la n gua g e sc or e.

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30 F al s e B e l i e f (F B) Co n s i d e r i ng t he focus o n c h i l d r n de r st an d i ng o f co n fl i c t ing r e p r es e nt a t i on, F B t asks w e r e u sed a s oppos e d to a m o r e g e ne r a l m easu r e o f c h i l d r t heo r y of m i s u ch a s th a t dev e l o ped b y W e l l m an a nd L iu ( 2 0 04 ) Tr ad i t i on a l u ne x pect e d loc a t i on ( UL) a nd une x pect e d c o n t e nt ( U C ) t a sks w e r e u sed to m easu r e c h i l d r e F B unde r st a n d i ng r e l a t i ve t o the d o m a i ns o f loc a t i on and o bjects r e s pec t i v e l y. In a d d i t i on chi l d r en r ec e i ved a F B task m ode l ed after Z i v and F r ye ( 2 004) w h i c h a d d r essed t he do m a i n o f know l ed g e T h i s ty p e o f F B task w as c h osen g i v e n the f ocus o n c hi l d r abi l i ty t o m ake i nf e r ences a b out a m ode l p e r spect i v e/ m ot i ve. F B un d e r s t a n d i n g : un ex p ec t e d l o ca t i o n UL t a sks w e r e b ased o n the S a l l y A n n e t ask a nd pr es e nt e d t o c h i l d r e n i n the f or m o f a p i ct u r e b o ok. T h e b a s i c st o r y l i ne w as that one n ave c ha r ac t er ( S a ll y ) h id an ob j ect and a not h er c h a r act e r A n n e ) c hang e d the l oca t i o n o f t h e o b j ect w h i le S al l y w as a w ay. T he e x pe r i m ent e r r e ad sta t e m ents w h i le sho w i ng t h e c h i l d the c or r espon d ing p i ct u r es. O n c e the s t or y w as c o m p l et e c h i l d re n w e r e a sked a F B q ues t i on r eg a r d i ng w he r e the nave c ha r ac t er w ou l d look f o r the ob j ect. Chi l d r e n w e r e a l so a sk e d t w o m e m o r y c o nt r o l q ues t i o ns r e g a r d i n g the o ld l o cat i o n o f t h e o b j ect and t h e n ew l oc a tion of t h e o b j ect. F B un d e r s t a n d i n g : un ex p ec t e d c o n t e n t U C t a sks w i ll i nv o l ve tan g i b l e o b j ects. One v er s i on of t h e UC t ask i n c l ud e d a B an d A i d box that cont a i n ed a s m all toy a nd t he o t h e r v er s i o n i n c l uded a c r a y on b ox t h at cont a in e d r i b bons. D u r i ng e ach UC t a sk, t he e x pe r i m ent e r a sked the c h i l d w hat he/s h e t h ought w as in s i de t h e b o x T he e x pe r i m ent e r then sho w ed the c o nt e nts of t he box to the c h i l d for the c h i l d to i de n tify and r e c l osed the b ox o nce the c h i l d ans w e r ed.

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31 T h e e x pe r i m ent e r then a s k ed the c h i ld a F B q uestion r e ga r d i n g h i s/ h e r o w n o r i g i n a l t h oughts about t he c o n t ents a n d a m e m o r y c o nt r o l q ue s t i on r ega r d ing the act u a l cont e nts of the b o x T he e x pe r i m ent e r then a s ked a s e co n d F B q u es t i on r ega r ding a nave o t h e r t h o ughts a bout t he c o n t ents of t he b o x F B u n d e r s t a n d i n g : k n o wl e dg e M ode l ed after Z i v a nd F r y e ( 2 0 04 ) c h i ld r en h ea r d st or i es a b out a t eache r bel i efs a bout a n i n d i v i d u a l w l ed g e. C h i l d r en vie w ed a p i c t ur e book a n d the e x pe r i m ent e r r ead s t a t e m ents co rr es p on d i ng t o e ach p i ct u r e. In o ne v e r s i on, t he t e acher und e r est i m at e d an i nd i vid u a l w l e dge ( e g., tea c her t hought the i n d i v i d u a l d i d not ha v e a s k i l l w hen in r e a l i ty t he i n d i v i d u al d i d have t he s k i l l ) In a d i ff e r ent v e r s i on of t h i s task, t he tea c he r o v e r est i m at e d an i n d iv i du a l k no w l edge ( e. g t e a c h er t h ought t h e i n d i v i du a l c ou l d p e r f or m a skill w hen in r e a l i ty t h e i n d i v i du a l c ou l d n o t ) A fter e ach st or y, c h i l d r en w e r e a sked about t h e i n d i v i d ua l r ue k n o w l e d ge a n d the t each e r t h oughts about t h at i n d i v i d u a l w l ed g e. T he test q u es t i on a s k ed c h i l d r en to p r e d i ct w het h er o r n ot the t e acher w ou l d a t t e m pt to t e ach. T he c ur r ent s t u dy a d d ed a n e x p l ana t i on ques t i on w h i c h r e q u i r ed c h i ld r en t o e x p l a i n th e ir p r e d i c t i on ( e. g ., w hy w i ll s/ h e d o t h at ?) S c o r i n g : F B l o ca t i o n a n d o b j e ct Chi l d r en r e c e i ved o n e p o i nt f o r e ach F B t est q uestion they a ns w e r ed c o r r ec t l y. If a c h i l d a ns w e r ed a m e m o r y c o nt r o l q ue s tion inc orr ec t l y, the F B test qu e s t i on a sso c iated w i th the m e m o r y q uest i on w as c o ded a s i nc or r ect. F or t h e UL tasks t he r e w e r e t w o F B ques t i ons r e l at e d t o the nave o t h e r be l ief. If t h e c h i l d i n d i ca t ed the n ave ot h er w o u l d l ook f o r t h e o b j ect in t h e o r i g i n a l l o c a t i on, t h e ans w er w as c o ded a s c orr e c t. T h e UC t a sks inclu d ed f our F B q ues t i o ns r e g a r d i ng t h e c h i l o w n b el i efs a nd a n ave ot h e r

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32 bel i ef s A r esp o nse w as c o ded a s c o rr e c t i f t h e c h i l d iden t i f i ed h i s/ h e r o w n o r i g i n a l bel i e f In a d d i t i on, i f t he c h i l d i n d i c at e d t he n a ve o t h er w as u na w a r e o f t h e a c t u a l b ox cont e nts, t he a ns w er w as c o ded a s c o rr ec t C hi l d r o t al F B sc o r e r a n ged f r om z er o to s i x C od i n g a n d s c o r i n g : F B k n o wl e dg e T he F B k n ow l edge t est que s tions a d d r essed chi l d r e r e d i c t i ons a bout a n i n d i v i d ua l ( a t e ach e r d e c i s i on t o teach. Of i n t er est for t he c u r r ent s t u dy w as the ty p e of p r e d i c t i on c hi l d r en m ade r at h er t h an t h e a ccu r acy of c h i l d r r ed i c t i ons, t hus chi l d r F B u nde r s t an d i ng of kno w l e d ge w as c o nsi d e r e d s e p a r at e l y f r om c h il d r F B u nde r s t an d i ng of l oca t i o n/ o b j ects. P r e d i c t ion e x p l ana t io n s th a t r ef e r enc e d the t e ache r b el i ef ( e. g ., b e c ause s h e t h i nks h e c r ea d ) w e r e c o ded a s be l p r e d i c t i ons w he r eas e x p l ana t io n s th a t r ef e rr e d to the i nd i vi d u a l t r ue k n ow l e d ge ( e. g ., because h e c a n r ead) w e r e c o ded a s t r u e k n o w l p r e d i c t i on s In s o m e i nst a nces chi l d r en r ef e r r ed to a r ole or c h a r act e r i st i c of t he teach e r a n d / o r t he i n d i v i d u al ( e. g because s h e li k es to t e ach) a nd t h ese r e s po n ses w e r e c o ded a s o l e pr ed i c t i ons. W h en c h i l d r en d i d n ot pr o v i d e a n e x p l ana t i on f o r th e ir pr e d i c tion ( e. g ., I n o w ) chi l d r r e d i c t i on r espon s es that c o r r espo n ded to t h e teac h e r e l i ef w e r e c o ded a s bel i ef w he r eas pr ed i c t i ons t h at co r r esp o nded t o the i n d i v i d u a l t r ue k no w l edge w e r e coded a s t r ue k n ow l edg e C h i l d r en r ec e i ved a b e l i ef p r e d i c t i o n sc o r e w h i ch w as s i m p l y a t a ll y o f t h e ir b e l i ef p r e d i c t i o n s t h us, b e l i ef p r e d i c t i on sc o r es r anged f r om z er o to t w o. S el f R e g u l at i o n ( S R) T w o types o f e x ecut i v e func t i o n tasks a r e d e s c r i b ed b e l o w E ach w as u sed to m easu r e c h i l d r e e lf r eg u l a t i o n. B oth tasks a r e ty p i c a l l y a d m i n i st e r ed to c h i ld r en in t h e r e p o r t e d a ge r anges ( Ca r l s o n 2 00 5 ; Ca m e r on P o n i tz et a l ., 2 0 0 8 )

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33 Da y / n i g h t s t r oo p T he d ay / n i ght s t r oop l i k e task ( G er st a dt, Hon g & D i a m ond, 1994) m easu r ed chi l d r confl i ct i nh i b i t or y c o nt r o l C h i l d r en w e r e s h o w n t w o types o f p i ct u r e c a r ds, one w i th a p i ct ur e o f t h e s u n r ep r e s en t i ng a n d o ne w i th a p i ct ur e o f t h e m oon a nd sta r s r ep r es e n t i ng n i ght T h i s t ask r e q u i r ed c h i ld r e n to s a y w hen s h o w n the n i g ht ca r d and to s a y n i gh t w hen s h o w n the d ay c a r d. Chi l d r en w e r e f i r st t r a i ned o n t h e r u l es f o r t h e task ( e. g ., w h en y o u s ee th i s c ar d, I w a nt you to s a y d ay [n i ght ] ) C h i l d r en w e r e th e n g i ven four p r ac t i c e t r i a l s. T he e x pe r i m ent e r r e peat e d t he t r a ining u p to fo u r t i m es w hen chi l d r en f a i l e d the p r ac t i ce tr i a l T he te s t i n g b lock cont a i n e d e i ght c ar ds and e i g ht nig h c a r ds a nd the s e w e r e pr es e nt e d i n a f i x ed r andom or de r If c h i l d r f i r st r esponse c o r r espon d ed to t he r u le p r o v i d ed t h e r espon s e w as sc or ed a s c o rr e c t. Chi l d r en r e c e i ved o n e p o i nt f o r e ach c o rr ec t r esponse t h ey pr o v id e d. Day/ N i g ht sco r es r ange f r om z er o to 1 6. He a d t o to es T he H ea d t o T oe s t ask m easu r es i n hi b i t or y cont r o l w o r k i ng m e m o r y, and atten t i on ( Ca m e r on P on i tz et a l ., 2 008 ) T h i s t ask w as c h osen b ecause it has b een t e st e d w i th c h i l d r en b et w een the a ges o f 3 a n d 6 ye a r s a nd has b e en fo u nd to b e r el i a b l e, v a l i d, and y i e l ds v a r i a b i l i ty i n c hi l d r en s p e r f o r m ances ( C a m e r on P on i tz et a l ., 2008 ) In t h i s t ask, c h i l d r e n w e r e t o l d t w o c omm ands: t o uch y o ur h ea d a nd t o u c h your toes C h i l d r en w e r e i nst r uc t ed t h at t h e ga m w as to d o the o ppo s i te o f w hat t h e e x pe r i m ent e r s a id. F or e x a m p l e, i f t he e x pe r i m ent e r s a i d t ouch y o u r h e a d t he c o r r ect act i o n w as for the c hi l d to t o uch th e ir toes. A s w i th the d ay / nig h t t a sk, the e x pe r i m ent e r asked the c h i l d t w o q ues t i ons to ensu r e th e i r unde r st a n d i ng o f t h e r u l e. C h i l d r en r ec e i ved f o ur p r ac t i ce tr i a l s a nd t h e r u l e w as r epeat e d up to t h r ee t i m es w hen c h i l d r e n

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34 f a i l ed in p r ac t i ce a s s u ggest e d in Ca m e r on P on i tz et a l ( 200 8 ) C h i l d r e n r ec e i v ed 1 0 t e st t r i a l s U s i ng the sc or i ng c r i t e r i a f r om C a m e r on P o n i tz e t a l ( 2 008 ) t w o p o i n ts i n d i ca t ed a c o m p l ete c or r ect r e s ponse w he r e a s o ne p o i nt in d i c at e d a s e l f c o rr e c t e d r esponse ( e. g st ar t in the w r ong d irec t i on but s e lf co r r ect to t h e c o rr ect direc t i o n ) A sco r e o f z e r o i n d i c at e d a c o m p l et e l y inco r r ect r esponse. T he test i t e m s w e r e pr esent e d i n a f i x ed r andom or der a n d Hea d to T oes sc o r es r a n ge f r om z er o to 2 0. C h i l d r sco r es o n each S R t a sk w e r e c o m b i ned to o b t a i n a tot a l S R s c o r e r an g i n g f r om z er o to 3 6. P r o b l e m S o l v i n g T asks Chi l d r en r e c e i ved t w o n ov e l p r o b l e m so l v i ng t asks i n w h i ch they nee d e d to u s e a t o ol to r e t r i eve an o b j ect. A ppa r a t u s des c r i p t i o ns a nd ac t i o n c o d i ng pr oc e du r es ar e d i scuss e d fu r t h er b e l o w T r a p t u b e a p p a r a t u s T he t r a p t u be a p pa r a t us w a s m ode l ed a fter H o r ner and W h i t e n ( 2 0 07 ) T he t ube w as c o nst r uct e d f r om c l ear p l as t i c m at er i a l a n d m eas u r ed r oug h l y 5 0. 8 cm i n l ength ( A pp e n d i x F ig ur e A 1 ) A r ect a ng u l a r t r ap ( 1 2 7cm i n l eng t h) w as l o c at e d u nde r neath t h e c e nt e r o f t he tu b e a nd an o b j ect w a s p l ac e d i n the t u be to either t h e l eft or r ig h t of t h i s t r ap. O n e s i de of t h e t r ap c ont a i n e d a f l ap i n o r d e r for t h e e x pe r i m ent e r to r e t r i eve t h e o b j ect f r om the t r ap a s need e d. A w ooden s u ppo r t h e l d t h e tube in o r d er f o r the appa r a t us to b e p l aced on a t a b l e d ur i ng te s ting s e s s i ons. T he t oo l to r et r i eve the o b j ect w as a li g ht w e i ght s t i ck m easu r i ng 5 1. 8 cm i n lengt h A f l i p l atch w as m ount e d on the w ooden s u ppo r t s t and to s er ve as the aft e r g i r r elev a nt a c tion. Ref e r to A p p en d i x F ig ur e A 1 for r e l ev a nt and ir r e l e v ant ac t i o n c o m ponents.

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35 P u zzl e bo x a pp a r a t u s T he p uz z l e box a ppa r at u s w as a m od i f i e d v e r s i on of t h e box d es i g n u sed in M cG u i g a n e t a l ( 2011 ) T h e p uz z l e box w as c onst r uct e d f r om c l ear p l as t i c b o x es m easu r i ng 2 6.7 x 1 5.2 x 1 6. 5 cm ( A ppend i x B ) O n e b ox w as p l aced on top of an o t h er to c r eate a t r an s pa r e n t ba rr i er bet w een the b o x e s. T he t o p b ox h ad a s m all u nco v e r ed ope n i ng. A p l as t i c b l ock w as m ount e d o n t h e t op o f t h e b ox to s er ve as the aft e r g o a i r r e l evant a c t i on. T he b ottom b ox h ad a s m a l l ope n i ng o n the f r ont and t h i s ope n i ng w as attached t o a s m a l l opaq u e b ox w h i ch c o nt a i n ed a n o b j ect. T h e o p e ning o n t h e b o ttom box w as c o v e r ed b y a s m a l l l i ft d oo r A m agnet t i p ped t oo l m easu r i ng r oug h l y 16cm acco m pan i ed the puz z l e b ox a s th i s t o o l w as r eq uired f or o b j ect r et r i ev a l A c t i ons on the t o p b ox w e r e i r re l evant t o task s u c c ess ( i e o b j ect r et r iev a l ) Re f er to A ppen d i x B for r elev a nt a nd i r r e l evant ac t i on c o m ponents. P r o ce d ur e T he c u rr ent s t u dy w as a 2( t a s k : puz z l e bo x t r a p t u b e ) x 3( con d i t i o n : CI, M CI, ICI) m i x ed d es i gn w i th c on d i t i on b e i ng b et w ee n sub j ects and task b e i ng w i t h i n sub j ects. T he F B t asks, S R t a sks, a nd p r o b l e m so l v i ng tasks w e r e a d m i n i st e r ed o n d i ff e r ent days in c o un t e r b a l a nced o r de r T h e l ang u age m easu r e w as a l w ays a d m i n i st e r ed o n the l ast t es t i ng s e s s i o n. T es t i ng s e s s i o ns l ast e d b et w een 2 0 30 m i nut e s p er c h i l d. B o t h p r o b l e m so l v i ng t asks a nd t he S R t a sks w e r e v i d e o r ec o r de d In m easu r i ng e ngage m ent i n ove r i m i t a t i on, c h i l d r en i n e ach a ge gr o u p ( 3 yea r s 4 yea r s, 5 ye a r s) w e r e r a ndo m l y a s s i gned to one o f t h r ee d e m onst r at i on c o n d i t i ons ( CI, ICI, M CI ) A t t h e sta r t of ea c h d e m onst r a t i on, t he m ode l e x pe r i m ent e r d i d n ot s a y anyt h i ng. C h i l d r en w e r e t o l d to w atch the m odel b y a s e co n d e x pe r i m ent e r n ot pe r f or m i ng t h e d e m onst r a t i on. T he c o n d i t i ons and m ode l t i ons a r e d esc r i bed b e l o w

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36 A l l aft e r g o a l i r r e l ev a nt ac t i ons w e r e p r esen t e d a s i nt e n t i o n a l w he r eas b e f o r e go a l i r r e l evant a c t i ons v ar i ed b et w een c o n d i t i on s CI C o n d i t i o n T h i s c o n d i t i o n pr e s ent e d a r ele v ant ( c o rr ec t ) + i rr elev a nt ( CI) ac t i on s e q uence. T he m odel e x pe r i m ent e r p i c k ed u p t he s t i ck a nd p e r f o r m ed the r e l eva n t ac t i on ( i e ., t he co rr ect s olu t i on) to the task f o l l o w ed b y the a f t e r g o a i r r elev a nt a c tion ( a c tion A ) S he sa i d T h e r e I got i t aft e r p e r f or m i ng the r e l ev a nt a c t i on a nd T he r e a f t er p e r f o r m i ng act i o n A M C I C o n d i t i o n T h i s c o n d i t i o n pr e s ent e d m i st a ke i rr elev a nt + r elev a nt + i rr elev a n t act i ons ( M CI ) T he m odel e x pe r i m ent e r p e r f o r m ed the bef or e g o a l i r r e l ev a nt ac t i on ( ac t i on B ) a nd sa i d O o op s and gr i m aced a f ter pe r f o r m i ng t he a c t i on t o i n d i cate t h e a c t i o n w as un i nt e nt i ona l S he then p e r f or m ed the r e l ev an t action a n d a c t i on A a s p r es e nt e d i n the CI con d i t i on. I C I C o n d i t i o n T h i s c o n d i t i o n pr e s ent e d an i nt e nt i onal i rr elev a nt + r elev a nt + i rr elev a nt ( ICI ) T he m odel e x pe r i m ent e r u sed t h e s a m e e x act act i ons a s M CI b ut s a i d T h e r e a fter a c t i on B to in d i cate t he b e f o r e g o a l i r r elev a nt a c tion w as i nt e nt i onal. S he then p e r f o r m ed the r elev a nt a c tion a n d a c t i on A a g a i n s a y i ng T h e re a fter e ach o f t h ese a c tions. Chi l d r en r e c e i ved t h e s a m e type o f de m onst r at i on for e ach o f t h e p r o b l e m so l v i ng t a sks. A l l of t h e i rr e lev a nt a nd r e l e v ant a ctions w e r e iden t i c a l i n each c o n d i t i on w i th the e x ception o f ir r e l ev a nt be f o r e a c tion w h i ch w as n ot pe r f o r m ed i n the CI conditio n De m on st r a t i on w as pr o v i d e d o n t w o t r i a l s ( T r i al 1 and T r i al 3 ) T he s e cond e x pe r i m ent e r c u ed c h i l d r en to a tte m pt t h e ta s k b y s a y i ng i o ur t u rn a nd a v o i ded

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37 i ns t r uc t i ng c h i l d r en t o i m i t a te o r r ep r oduce t he d e m onst r at i ng m ode l c tions. C h i l d r en atte m pt e d the task o n t h e i r o w n for a tot a l o f s i x test t r i a l s ( A p pen d i x A F ig ur e A 2) Chi l d r en w e r e a sked t hr ee q ues t i o ns to a sse s s th e i r u n de r s t a n d i ng o f t h e t asks a ft e r t h ey f u l l y c o m p l et e d e ach tas k W h at d i d we want you to do i n th i s g a m e? How do y ou w i n the g a m e? W hat d i d y o u h ave to do to w i n? Chi l d r m pts on the p r o b l e m so l v i ng t a sks w e r e c a t e go r i zed into s p e c i f i c i m i t a tion a c t i o n typ e s a s f o l l o w s: 1. I n suf f i c i ent i m i t a t i on: p r oduc t ion o f b ef o r e o r a fter i r re l evant ac t i ons o n l y or n ew m et h o d No r e l e v ant ac t i o n pr o duce d 2. Re l ev a n t o n l y: pr o d uc t i on o f r e l ev a nt ac t i on o n l y 3. Ov e r i m i t a t i o n b ef o r e : p r o duc t i on o f bef o r e i r r e l ev a nt + r e l e v ant ac t i o n o n l y. No a fter act i o n pr o duced ( not ap p l i c ab l e f o r CI con d i t io n ) 4. Ov e r i m i t a t i o n a f t e r : p r oduc t i on of r e lev a nt + a f t e r i r r elev a nt a c tion o n l y. N o b ef o r e act i o n pr o duce d 5. E x act o ve r i m i t a t i o n : p r o d uc t i on o f a l l m ode l i o ns i n s a m e or der o f pr e s ent a t i o n ( equ i v ale n t to o ve r i m i t a t i on a fter f or CI c o n d i t i o n ) On e ach t r i a l a c h i l c tion ( s ) c o u l d o n l y b e cat e g o r i z e d i nto o ne o f t he f i ve a c tion codes. O n ce ac t i ons o n e ach tr i a l w e r e c o de d t h e tot a l nu m ber o f t r i a l s i n w h i ch chi l d r en p r oduc e d e ach act i on ty p e w as tal l i ed for e ach task. T hus, e ach a c t i o n type i s a depend e nt va r i ab l e a nd in d i cat e s t he n u m ber of t r i a l s i n w h i ch c h i ld r en pr o d uced t h e sa i d ac t i on ( i e., e x act ove r i m i t a t i on r ep r esen t s the n u m ber o f t i m es c h i ld r en enga g ed i n e x act ove r i m i t a t i on and so on ) F or each a c t i o n, f r eq u en c i es r anged f r om z er o to s i x o n each task a nd t o t a l f r equ e ncies ( co m pos i te of both t asks) r anged f r om z er o to 1 2.

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38 C H AP T E R 4 R E S UL T S I n t e r R a t er R elia b ili t y A n i nd e pend e nt obs e r ver w ho w as n ave to th e h ypot h e s i s c o ded data o f 2 5 r ando m l y s e l ect e d pa r t i c i p a nts ( 3 0% o f t h e t o t al s a m p l e ) I n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i ty w as h i g h A l l Co h 8 8 f o r the c o d ing o f a c tion ty p es a t each t r i a l a n d task u nde r s t an d i ng ques t i ons ( T a b l e 4 1 ) T a b l e 4 2 p r esents t he m eans a nd stan d a r d d ev i a t i o ns for the i n d i v i d u a l va r ia b l es a n d tot a l ac t i on ty p e v a r i a bles. T he F B K no w l edge v a r ia b l e r e f l ec t s c h i l d r e b e l i ef p r e d i c t i o n sc or e r at h er t h an c h i l d r accu r a t e p r e d i c t i on sc or e and w as n ot i n c l u d ed i n t h e F B Und e r st a n d ing c o m pos i te g i ven t h e fo c us o n p r e d i c t i on ty p e r at h e r t h an p r e d i c t i on a c c u r acy. A o n e w ay A NO V A e x a m i ned i n i t ial c o n d i t i on g r o u p d i f f e r ences in the i nd i vid u a l v ar i a b l es. T he r e w e r e n o s i g nif i c ant g r oup diff er e nces i n A ge, F ( 2, 8 0) = 08, p = 92; L a ngua g e, F ( 2, 8 0) = 7 0, p = 5 0; F B Unde r s t an d i ng, F ( 2, 80) = 2. 4 3 p = 1 0 ; F B K no w l edg e F ( 2, 8 0 ) = 0 5, p = 9 5 ; or S R, F ( 2 79) = 4 9 p = 6 1. A s n ot e d, p r esent a t ion o r der o f t h e T ap a nd B l ock i r r e l eva n t ac t i ons w e r e count er ba l anced on the p uz z l e box (T a p bef o r e a c t i on/ B l oc k after a c t i on vs. B l oc k bef or e ac t i on / T a p a fter ac t i on ) A b et w ee n s u b j ects M A NO V A w as c o nduct e d w i th i nsu f f i c i e nt i m i t a tion, r elev a n t o n l y, ov er i m i t a tion a fte r and e x act ove r i m i t a t i o n a c t i on ty p es a s d e pend e nt va r i a bles. T he o v e r a ll M A NO V A r evea l e d n o s i g nif i c ant e f f e ct of o r der on a c t i o n type, F ( 4 73) = 2 0 1 p = 10, 2 = .09. A n i n d epen d ent sa m p l es t t e st a l so i nd i cat e d no s i g n i f i ca n t d i ff e r ence i n t h e o ccu rr en c e o f ov er i m i t a t i o n b ef o r e bet w een T a p B l ock a nd B loc k T ap o r de r s, t ( 5 4) = 1. 2 5 4 p = .2 2 P r e l i m i na r y an a l yses

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39 a l so i nd i cat e d c hi l d r ac t i ons o n the p uzzl e box and t r a p t u be w e r e h i g h l y c o r r elated ( all r s[79] r an g ed .43 to 6 0 a ll ps < 0 01 ) T h us t o t a l a c tion typ e f r equen c ies w e r e used f o r an a l y s i s ( i e., tot a l ins u f f i c i ent, tot a l r e l ev a n t o n l y etc. ) T h e r aw d ata f o r a c t i on ty p es w as n ot no r m al l y d i st r i b u t e d. R e po r t e d ana l y s es w e r e c o nduc t ed w i th l og t r ansf o r m ed sc or es for t h e tot a l a c tion type v a r i ab l es u n l ess ot h e r w i se n ot e d O c c urr e n ce o f O v e r i m i t a t i o n O v e r i m i t a t i o n A c r o ss C o n d i t i o n s T he f i r st a i m o f t h e c urr e n t st u dy w as to e x a m i ne the e x t e nt to w h i c h ove r i m i t a t i o n o ccu r s w hen a n i rr e lev a nt ac t ion i s p r esen t ed aft e r g o al co m p l etion. A bet w ee n sub j ects M A NO V A w as conduct e d w i th c on d i t i on ( 3: CI, IC I M CI) and a ge ( 3 : 3 yea r s, 4 ye a r s, 5 yea r s ) as t h e b et w ee n su b j ects va r i a b l e s and a c t i o n types ove r i m i t a t i on a fter and e x act ove r i m i t a t i on as the d epe n dent v ar i a b l es. T he assu m pt i on of ho m ogene i ty o f va r i a nce c o u l d not be s u p p o r t e d f o r Ov e r i m i t a t i on A fter va r i a b l e ( F [ 2 72] = 9 6 3, p < .00 1 ) thus P i l l a i r ace i s u sed for e s t i m at i on o f F s t a t i s t i cs i n t h e ana l y s i s. T he o ve r all M A NO V A r eve a l ed a si g n i f i ca n t m a i n e ffect of con d i t i o n ( F [ 4 1 4 4] = 6. 95 p < 0 01, 2 = 1 6 ) but t he r e w as n o m a i n effect o f age ( F [ 4 1 4 4 ] = 1. 28 p = 28 ) nor a n i n t er ac t ion b et w een a g e a nd c on d i t i on ( F [8, 1 44] = 0. 9 8 p = 4 8 ) F or p a r s i m ony, t h e b et w ee n sub j ects M A NO V A w as r e r un w ith a ge v ar i a b l e r e m oved. T o e x a m i ne the s i g n i f i c a nt effe c ts, f o l l o w up u n i v ar i ate A NO VA s r eve a l ed a s ig n i f i cant m a i n e f f ect of condition o n Ov er i m i t a t i on A fter ( F [ 2 7 8] = 7. 9 1 p < .01, 2 = 1 7 ) a n d E x ac t Ov er i m i t a t i on ( F [ 2 7 8] = 6. 4 0, p < .01, 2 = .1 4 ) M a i n effects w e r e e x a m i ned u sing B onf err o n i c o r r ec t i ons to c ont r ol f o r alp h a i n f l a t i o n A s e x pect e d the o ccu r r ence of e x act ove r i m i t at i on w as s i gn i f i ca n t l y l o w er i n t h e M CI c o nd i t i on ( M = 0 6 7, S D = 0. 9 6 ) th a n the CI ( M = 1 3 8, S D = 1 0 5; t [ 78] = 2. 6 9, p <

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40 0 5) a n d ICI ( M = 1 5 4, S D = 0 9 2; t [ 7 8] = 3 3 6, p < .01) c o n d i t i on s T h e ove r i m i t a t i on after ac t i o n type occu r r ed s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e i n the CI ( M = 1 3 8, S D = 1 0 5) c o n d i t i on t h an the ICI ( M = 0. 4 2, S D = 0 6 0; t [ 7 8 ] = 3 9 5 p < .001) but n ot t h e M CI c o n dition ( M = 0. 7 9, S D = 0 9 6; t [ 7 8] = 2 43, p = 052) c on d i t io n It w as s p ec u l at e d that t he m i st a ke act i o n i n the M CI c o ndition m i ght e m phas i ze t he int e n t i o na l ity o f t h e a ft e r g o a l ir r e l ev a nt act i o n a nd t h us e l i c i t m o r e ove r i m i t a t i on a fter w hen c o m pa r ed to the ICI con d i t i o n. Ho w eve r t h e r e w as n o s i g n i f i ca n t d i ff e r ence in t h e o cc u rr en c e o f o v e r i m i t a t i on a fter bet w een the ICI a n d M CI c o n d i t i ons (F i g u r e 4 1 ). Co n s i d e r i ng bef o r e g o a l ir r e l ev a nt ac t i ons w e r e n ot p r esent e d i n the C I con d i t i o n a b et w een s u b j ects t t e st w as c o nduct e d to e x a m i ne c o ndition d i ff e r ences in ove r i m i t a t i on b ef or e ac t i o n type. It w as e x pect e d that o v e r i m i t a t i on b ef or e w ould occ u r m o r e f r equen t l y i n the ICI c o n d i t ion th a n the M CI c on d i t i on, h o w ever the t t e st r eve a l e d no sig n i f i cant diff er e nce i n t h e o ccu r r ence o f t h i s a c tion type b et w een the t w o conditio n s, t ( 54) = 0. 4 2 p = .68. O v e r i m i t a t i o n Wi t h in C o n d i t i o n s T he o cc u rr en c e o f o v e r i m i t a tion w i t h i n c o n d i t io n s w as a l so c o nsid er e d. A R M A NO V A w as c o nduct e d w i th c o n d i t i on a s a bet w een sub j ects va r i a b l e a nd a c t i on ty p es ove r i m i t a t i on a fter and e x act ove r i m i t a tion as w i t h i n s u b j ects va r i ab l es. A s d i s p l a y ed i n F ig ur e 4 1, t h e o v e r a ll R M A NO V A r eve a l ed a s ig n i f i cant i n t e r ac t i o n bet w een c on d i t i on a n d o v e r i m i t a t i on type ( F [ 2 78] = 1 1. 8 3 p < .0 0 1, 2 = .23 ) E ffects w e r e e x a m i ned u s i n g B onf e r r o n i c o rr ec t i o ns t o c o nt r o l f or a l p ha i n f l a t i o n. T h e r e w e r e n o d i f f e r ences in o cc u rr ence o f ea c h o ve r i m i t a t i o n type w i t h i n t he CI a n d M CI c o n d i t i ons. W it h i n t he ICI c o nd i t i on, e ngage m ent i n e x act ove r i m i t a t i on ( M = 1 5 4, S D = 0 9 2)

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41 occu rr ed s i g n i f i can t l y m o r e than ove r i m i t a t i on after ( M = 0 4 2, S D = 0 6 0; t [ 78] = 6 0 4, p < .001 ) A s e cond R M A NO V A w as c o nduct e d w i th the CI c o n d i t i on r e m oved a nd ove r i m i t a t i on b ef or e ac t i o n type added. A g a i n t h e r e w as a s i g n i f i cant inte r a c tion bet w een c o n d i t i on a n d o v e r i m i t a t i on type ( F [ 2 108] = 6 2 7 p < .01, 2 = .10 ) B onf e rr o ni co rr ec t i o ns w e r e a g a i n a p p l i ed to c ont r ol f o r a lp h a i n f l a t i on. No s i g n i f i ca n t d i ffe r ences i n ove r i m i t a t i o n types e m e r ged w i t h i n t h e M CI c onditio n W it h i n t he ICI c o n d i t i on, e x act ove r i m i t a t i on ( M = 1 5 4, S D = 0 9 2) a l so o ccu r r ed s i g n i f i ca n t l y m o r e than ove r i m i t a t i on bef or e ( M = 0 68, S D = 0 8 8; t [ 7 8] = 4 6 3, p < 0 01) b ut t h e r e w as n o d i ff e r ence i n t h e occu rr e n ce o f o v e r i m i t a t i on a fter o r ove r i m i t a tion bef o r e ac t i on s T h us c h i l d r e n i n the ICI condition e n gaged in s i g n i f i can t l y m o r e e x act ove r i m i t a t i o n than the o t her o v e r i m i t a t i on ty p es w he r eas n o d i f f er e nces i n o v er i m i t a t i o n ty p e e m e r ged w i t h in t h e CI and M CI conditio n s. I n f l u e n ce o f I n d i v i d u al F ac to r s o n O v e r i m i t a t i o n Of c e nt r a l i n t er est w as to e x a m i ne the i n f l u en ce o f F B a n d S R on t h e o cc u rr ence of ove r i m i t a t i on. F i r st t h e r o l e o f t h e s e s k i l l s o n e ach ty p e of ov er i m i t a t i o n w as e x p l o r ed. It w as e x pect e d that F B v a r i a bles and S R w o u l d be p o s i t i v e l y r e l at e d to ov er i m i t a t i o n w i th i n t en t i on a l ac t i on s i e e x act ove r i m i t a t i o n ( CI a nd ICI con d i t i o ns ) o v e r i m i t a t i on bef or e ( ICI co n dition o n l y ) and ove r i m i t a t i on a fter ( CI and M CI c o n d i t i on s ) T a b l e 4 3 p r esents pa r t i a l c o rr e la t i ons w i t h i n each c o nd it i on to e x a m i ne the r e l a t io n s h i ps b et w een i n d i v i d ua l v a r i a bles ( l a n guage, S R, F B Und er st a n d i n g, a nd F B K no w l e d ge) a nd the t o t a l o ve r i m i t a t i on ac t i on ty p es c o n t r o l l ing f o r age. Co n t r o l l i ng f o r a g e S R w as s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t ed to e x act ove r i m i t a t i on i n the CI condition ( r [ 2 1] = 45, p < 05) b ut con t r a r y to e x pect a t i ons t h e r ela t i ons h i p w as n ot

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42 s i g n i f i c a nt i n t h e ICI c o n d i t io n S R w as s i g n i f ica n t l y r e l at e d to o v e r i m i t a t i on a fter f o r the CI c o n d i t i on, b ut t h e r e l a t i on s h i p d i d n ot r e ach s i g n i f i c a nce i n t he M CI c o n d i t i on t hough t h e c o r r e l a t i on c oef f i c i ent s uggests a m ode r ate r e l a t i on s hip e x i sts as w a s e x pect e d ( r [ 2 5] = 38, p = 05 ) I n c o n t r ast to e x pect a ti o ns, no s i g n i f i c a nt r e l a t io n s h i p e m e r ged bet w een S R and ov e r i m i t a t i on b ef or e i n t h e I CI c o n d i t i on a nd n e i t h er F B Unde r st a n d i ng nor F B K no w l e d ge w as s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t ed to any type o f o ve r i m i t a t i on i n any o f t he conditio n s. Ca t e g o r iz at i o n o f O v e r i m i t a t i o n T o e x a m i ne the r o l es o f S R and F B o n t h e o c cu rr ence o f ov er i m i t a t i o n m o r e gene r a l l y, c hi l d r en w e r e c a t ego r i z e d b y t he i r g ene r a l d o m i nant ac t i on t y pe. F r eq u en c i es of ove r i m i t a t i on b ef or e, ove r i m i t a t i on a fte r a n d ove r i m i t a t i on e x act w e r e c o m b i ned to c r eate a t o t a l ove r i m i t a t i v a r i a b l e a nd f r e q uencies of i nsuff i c i ent and r elev a n t only act i o ns types w e r e c o m b i ned to c r e ate a t o t a l no n ov er i m i t a t i o v ar i a b l e. Fr e q uen c i es f o r e ach v a r i a b l e r a n g ed f r om z er o to 1 2 s i nce c h i l d r en a t t e m pt e d 1 2 t r i a l s to t a l Chi l d r en w e r e c a t e g o r i zed as h a v i ng an ove r i m i t a t i do m i nant ac t i on type i f t hey h a d a t ot a l o v er i m i t a t i o n f r e q uency o f seven or g r e at e r ( i e., they enga g ed i n o v e r i m i t a tion f o r a t l ea s t sev en out of 12 t r i a l s ) Co n v e r s e l y, c h i l d r en w e r e c a t e go r i zed a s h a v i n g a do m i nant no n ove r i m i t a t i o n a c t i on type i f t h e y h ad a t o t a l n o n ove r i m i t a t i on f r eq u ency of seven o r g r eat er T h r ee p a r t i c i pants w e r e r e m oved f r o m a na l yses w i th gen e r a l do m i nant ac t i on t y p e a s t h ese c h i l d r en e n ga g ed in a n e qu a l a m ount of ov e r i m i t a t i on and n o n ove r i m i t a t i on ( i e ., sc o r e o f s i x on e a c h c a t e g o r y) a n d thus w e r e n o t do m i nant i n e i t her a c tion typ e M u l ti p l e l o g i s t i c r eg r es s io n s w e r e c o ndu c t e d w i th Gene r a l D o m i nant A ct i o n T y p e ( No n ov er i m i t a t i o n [0] vs. Ov e r i m i t a t i on [ 1 ] ) T o sta r t, s t ep w i se l o g i s t i c r eg r ession w as

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43 conduct e d w i t h a ll i n d i v i du a l v a r i a b l es and c o nd i t i o n a s p r e d i ct o r s c o n s i d er i ng n o st u dies have e x p l o r e d the r o l e o f d ev e l op m ent a l f act or s ( w i th the e x cept i on o f a g e) on t h e o ccu r r ence of ov e r i m i t a t i o n B ack w a r d e n t r y w as u sed to p r ot e ct a ga i nst su p p r ess o r effects and the c o n d i t i on v ar i a b l e w as d u m m y c o ded w i th t he CI co n dition a s t he r ef er e nce g r oup. T he b est f i t t i ng s t e p w i se m odel r eve a l e d a ge, S R, a nd c on d i t i on a s s i g n i f i c a nt p r e d i ct or s of ov e r i m i t a t i o n B ased o n the s t e p w i se r es u l ts, a hie r a r c h i c a l lo g i s t i c r e g r es s i on w as c o nduct e d to e x a m i ne the u niq u e i n f l u ence o f e ach v ar i a b l e. Con d i t i on w as e nt e r ed f irst w i th a g e and S R ent e r ed a t st e ps t w o a nd t h r ee r esp e ct i v e l y. A s d i s p l a y ed i n T a b l e 4 4, t he m odel w i th c o n d i t i on, a ge, a n d S R w as s i g n i f ica n t l y b ett e r than the nu l l m odel ( 2 [ 4 ] = 22. 0 4) and t h e a d d i t i o n o f S R s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p r oved t he m odel b ey o nd the a ge a nd condition m odel ( 2 [ 1 ] = 4 2 2 ) A ge ( B = 0 9 [ 0. 0 5], p < 05) w as a s i g n i f i cant pr e d i c t or of ove r i m i t a t i on w i th i n c r ea s i ng a ge i n d i c a t i ng g r eat e r pr o ba b i l i ty of ov e r i m i t a t i on. S R w as m a r g i nal l y sig n i f i cant ( B = .06 [0 03], p = 045) w i th t he s a m e p atte r n o f h i gh e r sco r es i n d i ca t i n g g r eat e r p r o b a b i l ity o f o v e r i m i t a tion. In ad d i t i on, b e i ng i n t h e ICI condition ( B = 2 10 [0. 7 5], p < 01) w as a sso c iated w i th a hig h er p r o b a b i l ity o f e nga g i ng i n o v e r i m i t a tion w hen c o m pa r ed to the CI c o n d i t i o n Ho w ever the m odel w as r e l a t i v e l y ave r age in pe r c ent a ge o f c o rr ect p r e d i c t i o ns ( 75 % ) S ensit i v i ty a nd s p e c i f i city w as 5 4% and 8 6% r e s pec t i v e l y w i th Hos m er a nd L e m esho w R 2 = .21. In r e v i ew o f age d i f f e r en c es, f r equen c i es d i s p lay e d 4 5% o f t h r ee y ear o l ds engaged i n o v e r i m i ta t i on w he r eas 65% and 8 3% of four a nd f i ve y e ar o l ds eng a ged i n ove r i m i t a t i o n r es p ec t i v e l y ( F i gu r e 4 2 ) S i m i l a r l y, i n c at e g o r i z ing c h i l d r en a s h i a nd l o w s e l f r eg u l a t or s ( m ed i an s p l i t; 2 2 = h i gh < 2 2 = lo w ) 78% o f h i gh s e l f r e gu l at or s

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44 engaged i n o v e r i m i ta t i on c o m pa r ed to ro u g h l y ha l f ( 51 % ) of l ow s e l f r eg u l a t or s ( F i g u r e 4 3 ) I n s u ff i c i e n t a n d Rele v a n t A c t i o n T y p e s T he o cc u rr en c e o f ins u f f i c i ent i m i t a t i o n i n d i c at e d th a t c h i l d r en o n l y p r oduc e d a n i r r e l evant o r n ov e l a c t i on and d i d n ot p r odu c e t h e r e l ev a nt ac t i on ( i e ., d i d n ot atte m pt to ach i e v e the go a l ) A o n e w ay A NO V A i n d i cat e d the r e w as n o s i g n i f i c ant ef f ect of condition o n ins u f f i c i ent ac t i on ty p e, F ( 2, 7 8 ) = 7 9, p = .4 7 In a dd i t i on, c h i l d r en w ho d i d not p r o duce a ny i rr e l e v ant ac t i o ns a nd instead o n l y pr o d uced a c t io n s r e lev a nt f o r g o a l success w e r e b y d e f i n i t i on n ot e ngag e d i n o v e r i m i t a t i on. A o n e w ay A NO V A i n d i cat e d t h e r e w as a s i g n i f i cant m a i n e ffect of con d i t i on on r e l ev a n t o n l y a c t i on t y pe, F ( 2, 7 8 ) = 9. 2 4, p < 0 01, 2 = .19. R e l e v ant o n l y ac t i ons occu rr ed m o r e f r equen t l y i n the CI condition ( M = 1 2 9 S D = 0 1 6) t h an t he M CI ( M = 0 6 6 S D = .16; t [ 7 8] = 2 8 3 p < .0 5 ) and ICI ( M = 0 3 6, S D = 0 1 5; t [ 78] = 4 2 4, p < .01) c o nd i t i ons. T he r e w as n o sig n i f i cant d i f f e r ence in the occu r r ence o f r e l ev a nt o n l y a ct i ons b et w een the M CI a nd ICI conditio n s. Co n s i d e r i ng t he r e la t i ons h i p bet w een i nsuff i c ie n t and r elev a n t only a c tions a n d i n d i v i d ua l v a r i a bles con t r o l l ing f o r a g e S R was m a r g i n a ll y r e l a t ed to i nsuff i c i e n t act i ons i n t he ICI c o nd i t i on ( r [ 2 5] = 3 8, p = .0 5 ) a nd r elev a n t o nly ac t i ons i n t h e CI c o n d i t i on ( r [ 2 1] = 4 1, p = .0 5 ) T h ough t h i s f i n d i ng i s n ot q u i te s i g n i f i c ant, t h e p att e r n s u ggests chi l d r en w i th h ig h e r S R p r o d uced l ess i nsuff i c i ent and r elev a n t only ac t io n s i n t h e ICI and CI con d i t io n s r e s pec t i v e l y. In a d d i t i o n c h i l d r n e r a l F B Unde r s t an d i ng w as s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t ed to r elev a n t only a c tions ( r [ 25] = .44, p < .05) in t h e M CI c o n d i t i o n. T h i s f i n d i ng s ugges t s c h i ld r en w i th gr e at e r F B u nde r s t an d i ng p r odu c ed m o r e r elev a n t

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45 only ac t i ons i n t he M CI c o n d i t i on, w h i ch i s the oppo s i te o f the r e l a t i ons h i p p att e r n t h at w as d i splay e d i n t he CI co nd i t i on ( r [ 2 2] = .37, p = .0 7). T ask U n d e r s t a nd i n g Res p o n ses Chi l d r r e s ponses t o the t ask u n d e r st a n di n g q ues t i ons f e ll i nto t h r ee m a i n cat e go r i es: K no w Co p y A ct i o ns, and G et O b j ect. Responses o f I d n o w o r co m p l et e l y r andom r esponses ( e. g ., you h a v e to l i st e n to y o ur m o m m y ) w e r e cat e go r i z e d a K now r esp o nse type s R esponses r ef e r en c i ng p r oduc t i o n o f t h e i r r e l evant a nd r e l evant ac t i ons ( e. g ., y ou take it o ut [ d e m o tak i n g o ut t he b l ock] and y o u t a ke i t [ g es t u r ed to f r o g] out w i th the s t i c k ) a n d / o r r e f e r en c ed c o p y i n g i n g e n e r a l ( e. g ., you w i n the ga m e b y d o i n g i t l i ke they s h ow y o u ) w e r e c a t e go r i z e d a s C o py A r esponses. Responses r ef e r en c i ng the o b j ect on l y g e t t h e [ f r og/ m ouse] ) a nd/ o r the r elev a n t o n l y a c t i on y ou p ut t h e s t i ck i n and get t h e f r og o ut ) w e r e c a t e g o r i z ed a s G e t O b j e c r esp onses. A r gua b l y, r ef e r en c i ng t h e r e l ev a n t o n l y a c t i on i n d i c at e s c h i l d r en w e r e copying a n ac t i but t h e a c t i on w as n ecessa r y to ac h i eve t he t r ue g o a l of get t i ng t he o b j Re f er to T a b l e 4 1 f or c o ding r e l i a b i l i ty. Re s ponses f r om e ach task w e r e c o m b i n ed a n d r e s ponse f r eq u en c i es a r e d i s p l a y ed i n T a b l e 4 5. M a j o r i ty of c h i l d r en in the I C I and M CI c o n d i t i o ns s u ggest e d g et t i n g the ob j ect ( i e., the f r og or t h e m ouse) w as b oth the g o a l and h ow to w i n the g a m e. Res p onses f r om c h il d r en i n t he CI co nd i t i on o n these t w o q ues t i ons w e r e a l m ost even l y s pl i t bet w een n o w a nd get o b j W hen asked w hat t h ey h ad to do to w i n ( i e., A ct i on to W in ) 48% o f c h i l d r en i n t h e ICI c o nd i t i o n g ave r esp o nses r ela t i ng to copy act i o w he r eas t he m a j o r i ty of c h i ld r en in t h e CI and M CI c o n d i t i ons g ave a r es p onse r ela t i ng to get the o b j

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46 Ch i s qua r e tests w e r e c o n d uct e d t o e x a m i ne t he a sso c i a t i on b et w een c h i l d r e gene r a l do m i nant ac t i on type ( ove r i m i t a t i on v s no n o v e r i m i t a tion) a nd c o py a c t i o n r espo n ses ( co py ac t i on vs. n o n c o py a c t i on r e sponse ) F or a l l t hr e e q ues t io n s, g e ne r a l do m i nant ac t i on ty p e w as s i g n i f i c a n t l y a sso c i a t e d w i th a c opy a c t i o r esponse ( T a b l e 4 6 ) A c r oss a ll th r ee q ue st i ons, o v er 8 0% o f c hi l d r en w ho g ave a r esp o nse r e lated to copy a c t i on s e n gaged in ove r i m i t a t i on. W he n c h i l d r en gave a no n r esp o nse, r oug h l y 5 7% e ngag e d i n o v er i m i t a t i o n

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47 T a b l e 4 1. Re p o r t of i nt e r r at e r r e l i a b i l i ty ( Co h e n s K app a ) P uzz l e b ox Tr a p t u be Co h en Co h en T r i a l 1 0. 9 0 0. 9 5 T r i a l 2 1. 0 0 0. 8 8 T r i a l 3 0. 8 9 0. 9 0 T r i a l 4 1. 0 0 0. 9 5 T r i a l 5 1. 0 0 0. 8 9 T r i a l 6 1. 0 0 0. 9 5 W h at d i d w e w ant you to d o i n t h i s ga m e? ( G a m e Goa l ) 1. 0 0 1. 0 0 How d o y o u w i n th i s g a m e? ( W in) 1. 0 0 0. 9 5 W h at d i d y o u have to do to w i n ? ( A c t i on t o W i n) 0. 9 5 0. 9 0 N ot e A ll p v a l ues < 001

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T a b l e 4 2. Desc r ip t i ve st a t i s t i cs f or i n d i v i d u a l va r ia b l es a n d t o t a l a c t i on ty p es b y co n dition CI ( n = 2 7 ) ICI ( n = 2 8 ) M CI ( n = 2 8) M SD M SD M SD A ge ( m ont h s) 54. 1 9 7.16 53. 5 0 7. 1 3 53. 1 1 6. 8 2 PPVT 87. 8 9 20. 2 0 94 0 7 22. 6 4 92. 7 5 18. 4 1 S e l f r eg u l a t i o n 19. 4 6 a 10. 0 5 20. 6 4 10. 7 4 18. 3 6 10. 4 4 F B u nde r s t an d i ng 2. 8 9 2. 0 3 3. 8 2 2. 0 6 2. 8 0 2. 3 0 F B kno w l edge 0. 6 7 0. 7 8 0. 6 8 0. 8 2 0. 7 1 0. 8 1 I n suf f i c i ent 2.60 b 3. 2 5 3. 0 7 2. 8 2 3. 2 5 3. 3 3 Re l ev a nt 4.36 b 4. 2 5 0. 7 1 1. 2 7 1. 9 3 3. 2 0 O v e r i m i t a t i o n b ef o r e 1. 9 6 2. 8 6 2. 2 9 3. 5 9 Ov e r i m i t a t i o n a ft e r 5.04 b 4. 4 1 0. 8 6 1. 3 8 2. 5 0 3. 5 0 E x act o ve r i m i t a t i o n 5.04 b 4. 4 1 5. 3 6 4. 1 5 2. 0 4 3. 1 3 Not e PPV T = P eabody P i c t u r e V oc a b u l a r y T est (r aw sc or es ) ; F B = f a l se b e l ief; a n = 2 6 d u e to m i ss i ng dat a ; b n = 25 d ue to m i ssing d a t a. 48

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49 T a b l e 4 3. P a r t i a l l e d a ge c o r r ela t i ons b et w een In d i vid u a l v a r ia b l es a n d ac t i on ty p es b y condition 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 C I ( n = 2 7) 1. Lang u age .39 b 4 9 * 7 1 ** 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 2. S e l f r e g ula t i on 2 7 2 6 0 5 41 b 4 5* 4 5* 3. F B u nd e r st a n d ing 5 0 * 0 1 3 7 1 2 1 2 4. F B k n o w l ed g e .18* 0 2 .03 0 3 5. I n suf f i c i ent 3 4 3 1 3 1 6. Relevan t o n l y 6 1 * 6 1 * 7. Ov e r i m i t a t i on b e f or e a 8. Ov e r i m i t a t i on a f t er 1. 0 0 ** 9. E x act ove r i m i t a t i on ICI ( n = 2 8 ) 1. Lang u age .32 3 9* 3 6 2 0 4 1* 1 7 1 6 0 3 2. S e l f r e g ula t i on 1 8 0 8 38 b 0 5 0 3 0 1 .12 3. F B u nd e r st a n d ing 0 3 1 3 1 7 0 2 .29 2 2 4. F B k n o w l ed g e 1 1 0 9 1 9 0 8 0 1 5. I n suf f i c i ent 1 4 0 6 1 6 4 9 * 6. Relevan t o n l y 0 3 1 2 5 5 * 7. Ov e r i m i t a t i on b e f or e 1 8 .40* 8. Ov e r i m i t a t i on a f t er .13 9. E x act ove r i m i t a t i on M CI ( n = 28 ) 1. Lang u age 0 7 2 0 38 b 1 7 1 5 3 2 0 5 3 3 2. S e l f r e g ula t i on 2 1 4 3* 0 2 0 3 0 7 38 b 1 5 3. F B u nd e r st a n d ing 38 b 1 3 4 4* 2 1 0 6 0 8 4. F B k n o w l ed g e 1 0 0 5 1 1 0 6 0 3 5. I n suf f i c i ent .27 1 1 1 4 3 3 6. Relevan t o n l y 2 4 1 4 2 1 7. Ov e r i m i t a t i on b e f or e 4 6* 1 7 8. Ov e r i m i t a t i on a f t er 0 4 9. E x act ove r i m i t a t i on Note. a not appl i c a ble i n CI c o n d i t i on; b p = 05 p < .05. * p < .01, ** p < .001

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50 T a b l e 4 4. H i e r a r c h i c a l l o g i s t i c r e g r es s i on o f p r e d i ct or s of ge n e r a l o v e r i m i t a tion S t e p V a r i a b le M odel 2 B S E B E x p ( B ) Null M od e l 102. 7 2 Co n st a n t 0. 6 0 0. 2 4 1. 8 1 S t e p 1 95. 3 1 Co n d i t io n : ICI vs CI 1. 6 4 * 0. 6 3 5. 1 3 Co n d i t io n : M CI vs CI 0. 7 9 0. 5 7 2. 2 0 S t e p 2 84. 9 1 Co n d i t io n : ICI vs CI 2. 0 6 * 0. 7 1 7. 8 1 Co n d i t io n : M CI vs CI 1. 0 2 0. 6 3 2. 7 8 A ge 0. 1 2 * 0. 0 4 1. 1 3 S t e p 3 80. 6 9 Co n d i t io n : ICI vs CI 2. 1 0 * 0. 7 4 8. 1 4 Co n d i t io n : M CI vs CI 1. 1 9 0. 6 6 3. 3 0 A ge 0. 0 9* 0. 0 4 1. 1 0 S e l f r eg u l a t i o n 0. 06 a 0. 0 3 1. 0 6 Note. a p = .045, p < 05, * p < .01

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51 T a b l e 4 5. F r eq u en c i es o f t a sk u n d e r st a n d i ng r esponses CI ICI M C I Q u es t i on/Res p onse N % N % N % G a m e g oa l ? Do n' t k now 26 50% 15 27% 19 35% Co p y a c t i ons 4 8% 17 30% 12 22% G e t ob j ect 22 42% 24 43% 24 44% How d o y o u w i n? Do n' t k now 28 54% 16 29% 16 29% Co p y a c t i ons 3 6% 15 27% 10 18% G e t o b j ect 21 40% 25 45% 30 54% A ct i on to w i n? Do n' t k now 16 31% 15 27% 17 30% Co p y a c t i ons 6 12% 27 48% 13 23% G e t o b j ect 29 57% 14 25% 26 46% T ot a l s Do n' t know ( n = 1 6 8) 70 42% 46 27% 52 31% Co p y a c t i ons ( n = 10 7 ) 13 12% 59 55% 35 33% G e t o b j ect ( n = 2 1 5 ) 72 34% 63 29% 80 37%

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52 T a b l e 4 6. C h i s qua r e tests w i th c opy a c t i on r es p onses Co p y a s g a m e goa l a Co p y a s how to w i n b Co p y a s ac t i on to w i n c Y es No Y es No Y es No Ov e r i m i t a t i o n 21 30 19 32 26 25 84. 0 % 56. 6 % 86. 4 % 57. 1 % 81. 3 % 55. 6 % No n o ve r i m i t a t i on 4 23 3 24 6 20 16. 0 % 43. 4 % 13. 6 % 42. 7 % 18. 8 % 44.4% Note. a 2 ( 1) = 5. 6 3, p < .0 5 b 2 ( 1) = 5. 9 6, p < .0 5 c 2 ( 1) = 5. 5 2, p < .05

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53 F ig ur e 4 1. O v e r i m i t a tion a c t i o n types by c o n d i t i on. Note. A st e r i sk in d i cat e s e x act ove r i m i t a t i o n i n M CI i s s i gn i f i can t l y l o w er than CI a nd I CI c o nd i t i ons ( p < 0 5; p < .01) a nd o v er i m i t a t i on a ft e r i n ICI i s s i g n i f ica n t l y lo w er than CI co nd i t i on ( p < .001 )

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54 F ig ur e 4 2. Do m i nant a c t i on t y pe b y a ge. Not e A st er i sk in d i cat e s 5 ye a r o l ds enga g ed i n o v e r i m i t a tion s i g n i f i ca n tly m o r e than n o n o v e r i m i t a t i on ( p < 0 5 ).

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55 F ig ur e 4 3. Do m i nant a c t i on t y pe b y s e l f r e gu lat i o n. Note. A st er i sk i n d i cat e s c h i l d r e n w i th h i g her s el f r e g u l a t i on enga g ed i n o v e r i m i t a t i o n s i g n i f i can t l y m o r e than non ov er i m i t a t i o n ( p < 05 )

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56 C H AP T E R 5 DI S C U SS ION T he c u rr ent s t u dy e x t e nds the i nves t i g a tion o f p r escho o l e r g age m ent i n ove r i m i t a t i o n a nd r e p l i cat e s s e ve r al patt e r ns f r om pr i or stu d i es of ov er i m i t a t i o n A s m ent i oned, ov e r i m i t a t i on r ef e r s to i m i t a t i on o f both i r r elev a nt and r elev a nt a c tions ( Lyons e t a l ., 2 0 0 7 ) W h i l e s t u d i es h a v e fou n d th i s ty p e o f i m i t a t i on gen e r a l l y e m e r ges i n t h e pr es c ho o l y e a r s; t h e r e h as b een v er y l i t t l e i nves t i g a t i on o f dev e l op m ent a l f a ct o r s t h at i n f l uen c e the oc cu r r ence o f o ve r i m i t a t i on. In a d d i t i on, o n l y o n e study p r esen t ed i r r e l evant a c t i ons pr i or t o g o a l ac h i eve m ent ( S i m pson & R i ggs, 2 011) and i t w as n ot c l e a r i f o v er i m i t a t i on o ccu r r ed m o r e f r eq u en t l y w i th i rr e l ev a nt ac t i ons pr es e nt e d pr i or to a g o a l I n v es t i ga t i on of dev e lo p m ent a l fact o r s and the e x t e nt to w h i ch o v er i m i t a t i o n pe r s i sts aft e r g o al ac h i e v e m ent i n f o r m c urr ent e x p l ana t i ons a s to w hy o ve r i m i t a t i on occu r s a t a l l O c c urr e n ce o f O v e r i m i t a t i o n A l l con d i t i ons in the c u rr e nt st u dy pr es e nt e d c hi l d r en w i t h a n i r r elev a nt a c tion after t h e g o a l a c h i eve m ent. T he c o nd i t i ons o n ly va r i ed i n p r ese n t a t i on o f bef o r e g o al i r r e l evant a c t i ons ( i.e., a s no n e x i st e nt, a s int e nt i o n a l or a s u n i n t en t i on a l ) No st u dy r evie w ed h as m an i pulated b oth m odel i nt e nt a nd a c t i on s e q uence w hen i nve s tiga t i ng t h e i n f l uence o f t h ese fact o r s o n ove r i m i t a t i on. Resu l ts st r e n gt h en t h e con c l u sio n s th a t m odel i nt e nt w i ll a l t e r t he o cc u rr en c e o f o v e r i m i t a t i on ( G ar d i n er e t a l ., 2 0 1 1; Lyons e t a l ., 2011) a nd a c t i o n or d er d o es n ot have a n in f l u enc e o n t he o cc u rr en c e o f ov er i m i t a t i o n ( S i m pson & R i ggs, 2 011 ) C hi l d r en in t h e c u r r ent st u dy e ng a g e d i n m o r e e x act ove r i m i t a t i o n ( i e ., pr o duced a ll ac t i ons e x act l y a s m ode l ed) w hen a c t i ons w e r e p r esent e d i nt e n t io n a l l y ( a s in the CI and ICI c onditio n s ) M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y, c h i l d r en i n

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57 t h e CI con d i t i o n e n g aged i n m o r e o ve r i m i t a t i o n w i th the a f t e r g o a l i r r elev a nt ac t i on t h an chi l d r en i n t he ICI c o nd i t i on, b ut o n l y m a r g i n al l y m o r e than t h e M CI c o n d i t i on. In additio n w i t h i n i n the ICI c on d i t i on, c h i l d r en e ngag ed i n s ig n i f i can t l y m o r e e x act ove r i m i t a t i o n than the o t her t y pes o f ove r i m i t a t i on s u gges t ing c h i l d r en v i e w ed ( cons c i ou s l y o r u nc o nscio u s l y) a ll i n t en t i on a l act i o ns a s b e ing i m po r t a nt to c o p y It c o u l d b e a r g u ed that these patt e r ns s u p p o r t t h e p r o pos a l by L y ons e t al. ( 2 0 11) t h at hu m ans e ngage i n ove r i m i t a t i on b ecause of uncons c i o us au t o m at i c c a us a l enco d i ( A C E ) w hen they a r e pr e s ent e d w i t h i n t e n t i on a l ac t i ons o n a n o v e l task. Ho w eve r f i n d i n gs f r om L yons e t a l ( 200 7 ) i n d i cate o ve r i m i t a t i on o c c u r s l ess f r eq u en t l y w hen o bv i ous v i o la t i ons of c a us a l p l a usi b i l i ty occu r It w as e x pect e d that i f c h i l d r en w e r e m ak i ng c a usal infe r ences, t h ey w ou l d h ave l a r ge l y i g no r e d the after go a l i r r e l evant act i o ns b ec a use the s e a c t i ons w e r e c l e ar l y u n r elated t o g o a l a c h i eve m ent ( i e ., r e t r i ev a l of t h e o b j ects occu r r ed f irst ) In a d d i t io n bo t h t a sks w e r e t r ansp a r ent and c h i l d r en c o uld see the c a us a l st r u c t ur e of each ho w ever n e i t her o f t hese c h a nges d et e r r ed c h i l d r en f r om e ngag i ng in o ve r i m i t a t i on. A CE h ypot h e s i s w ou l d sugge st c h i l d r ove r i m i t a t i on m ay h ave p e r s i st e d b ecau s e the after go a l i rr e l ev a nt ac t i o ns i n the c u r r ent st u dy w e r e pe r f or m ed o n the s a m e phys i c a l ap p a r at u s a n d c h i l d r en m ay h ave e r r one o u s l y assu m ed c a usal m ean i ng b e h i nd t he i nt e n tio n al a c tions e v e n tho u gh the s e a c t i ons had no p os s i b l e e ffects on the g o a l ( ob j ect r e t r i ev a l ) Ho w eve r e x a m i n i ng c h i l d r r esponses to t ask u nde r s t a n d i ng q ues t i o ns y i e l ds a d iff er e nt i nt e r p r e t a t i on a s to w hy c h i l d r en e n gaged i n o v e r i m i t a tion. Ov e r 8 0% o f t hose w ho g ave copy a c t i o r esponses enga g ed i n o ve r i m i t a tion w he r eas r oug h l y 5 7% o f t h ose w ho g ave n o n copy r esp o n ses o v e r i m i t at e d. T o s u pp o r t A CE h ypot h e s i s, the

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58 copy a c t i o n r e s ponses c o u l d o f f er f u r t h e r e v id e nce th a t c h i l d r e n v i e w ed c o pying a s necessa r y b ecause i n t e n t i o n al ac t i ons w e r e u nconscio u s l y v i e w ed a s h a v i ng c a us a l i m po r t a nce for s u ccess. A n a l t e r na t e i nt e r p r e t at i o n i s that c h i ld r en v ie w ed c o py i n g a s t h e g en e r a l p u r pose of t h e inte r ac t io n / e x pe r i m ent c op y i ng n eeded to p l ay ) T he second i nt e r p r e t a t i on s e e m s m o r e li k e l y w hen c o nsid e r i ng t h i s f i n d i n g r e p l i c a t e s the patte r n f o und in M cG u i g an e t al. ( 2 0 11 ) A du l ts i n t h e i r s t udy e n g aged i n o ve r i m i t a t i on cons i d e r a b l y m o r e w hen they w i t n essed a n ad u l t m odel a n d o f t h ose i n t h i s conditio n r oug h l y 7 9% g ave c o py a c t i on r e sponses ( e. g i m i t a te i l l o g i c a l a c t i o o b se r va t i on t e tc.) w hen a sked about t h e pu r pose of t h e e x pe r i m ent. C l e a r l y the s e r e s p onses d o n ot r e f lect that a d u l ts as s u m ed causal i m po r t a nce of ac t i ons a nd e v en i f cau s al e nco d i ng w as u ncons c i o us i t see m s odd for ad u l ts to c o n t i n u e o ve r i m i t a t i ng ac r oss s e ve r a l t r i a l s a ft e r they had g a in e d e x pe r i ence w i th the t ask. F u r t h e r w hen a d u l ts o bse r ved a c h i l d m odel o v e r i m i t a tion dec r eas e d. T h ese a d r esp o nses w e r e m o r e r e l a t ed to t ask p e r f or m ance ( e. g ., ob j ect/go a l a c h i eve m o r p r o b l e m so l v i n task ) T he s e r es p onses s u ggest a d u l ts w e r e c a pable of r ecog n i z i ng the c a us a l n a t u r e o f t h e n ov e l task a nd h ow to a c h i eve t h e t a sk g o a l In a d d i t i o n w hen Ho r ner a nd W h i t e n ( 200 5 ) p r esent e d p r es c ho o l e r s w i th a de m onst r at i on on the puz z l e b o x chi l d r en i n a p i l ot study i n d i c at e d t h ey v i e w ed the ga m e a s a opying g a m T aken toge t her i t see m s m o r e l i k e l y t h pe r s p ec t i ve of t h e f u ll s i t u a t i on/ e x pe r i m ent m ay g u i de t h e i r c o pying b e h a v i or a nd t h i s p e r spe c t i v e i s not necess ar i l y li m i t e d t o c a us a l i n f er en c es. I n f l u e n ces o n O v e r i m i t a t i o n T he a g e t r e nd d es c r ib e d i n M cG u i g a n e t a l ( 2 011) w as a l s o r e p l i c a t e d a n d gene r a l ove r i m i t a t i on i nc r eased w i th a ge. T he ski l l s o f F B a nd S R h ad v ar y ing

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59 i n f l u e nces o n c h i ld r o ve r i m i t a t i on t h ough both h ad s o m e i nfluence on c h i l d r engage m ent i n obse r v a t i on a l l e a r n i ng. T he o c cu rr ence o f ov er i m i t a t i o n i n g e ne r a l w as best p r e d i c t e d b y age, S R, and c o nd i t i on. O l d er c h i l d r e n, g r eat e r s e l f r eg u l at o r y s k i l l s, and the ICI c o n d i t i on h ad a la r g e r i n f l u e nce o n o ve r i m i t a tion. Co n t r a r y t o e x pect a t i ons no sig n i f i cant r e l a t i on s hips e m e r ged b et w een F B u nde r s t an d i ng and e ngage m ent i n ove r i m i t a t i o n, but in t h e M CI c o n d i t i o n, F B w as p osit i v e l y r e l a t ed to p r odu c tion o f r elev a n t only ac t i o n s. In t h i n k i ng a bout a ge d i ff e r ences, t h i s f i n d i n g chal l e nges t h e i nt e r p r e t a t i on t h at chi l d r en p r od u ce ir r e l e v ant ac t i o ns b eca u se t h ey a ttend to i nt e n tion a s H o r ner a nd W h iten ( 20 0 5) p r opos e T h i s i n t er p r et a t i o n d o es n ot a d d r ess w hy a ge d i f f e r en c es e m e r ge w i t h i n a n age g r oup of c h i l d r en that a r e e qu a l l y c a p a b l e o f d r a w i ng c on c l u s i ons r ela t i ve to t he i nt e n t i ons o f o t h e r s. T h e i nde pe ndent r ole of S R o n o ve r i m i t a t i on i n gene r a l s uggests t he r e i s s o m e e x ecut i ve fu n ct i on c o m ponent to e ng a ge m ent i n ove r i m i t a t i o n o n n o v e l p r o b l e m so l v i ng tasks. Y oung c h i l d r en d o n o t need e x cept i o n a l se l f r eg u lato r y s k i l l s to e n g a ge i n i m i t a t i on; ho w ever o ve r i m i t a t i on r eq u ires o n e to p r oduce e x t r a a c t i ons u n r e l at e d to a task g o al. Ca r pent e r e t a l ( 20 0 5) n ote th a t t o d d l e r s w i l l r ep r odu c e a m ode l x act ac t i ons m o r e w hen a g o a l i s a m b i guous, but w hen th e r e i s a c l e a r g o a l t o d d l e r s ar e m o r e i n c l i ned to i m i t a te o n l y t he n eces s a r y a c t ion to a chieve the g o a l It c o u l d b e ar g ued t h at t h e cu r r ent t a sk g o a l s w e r e u n c l e ar a n d thus c hi l d r en e n gag ed in m o r e o ve r i m i t a t i o n. Ho w ever the a ge t r end i nd i cat e s 5 yea r o l ds e ngaged i n m o r e o ve r i m i t a t i on t h an 3 yea r o l d s t h us i t s ee m s v er y u nl i k e l y t hat 3 y ea r o l ds got i t a n d 5 y e a r o lds w e r e conf u sed w hen t h i n k i ng a bo u t t h e i n t ended g o a l I t i s s u gge s t e d t h at t h e age t r end a nd

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60 consequen t l y the S R d i f f e r en c e e m e r ged d ue to d i ffe r ences i n w hat 3 and 5 yea r o l ds attend to a nd t hus th e r e m ay h ave b een a d i f f e r ence i n how g oa l s w e r e p e r c e i ve d In r e v i ew o f c h i ld r e s ponse f r equ e n c i es to all t ask u nde r s t a n d i ng q ues t i o ns, m a j o r i ty of r esp o nses i n t h e CI a n d M CI c o n d it i ons r ef e rr ed to ge tt i ng t h e o b j e c t as the goal /r e l a t ed to w i n n ing a nd t h i s w as m o r e pr o nounced i n t h e M CI c o n d i t i o n T h i s suggests t h at as a g r o u p, c h i l d r e n r e c og n i zed t h e task g oa l a nd th i s g o a l w as m o r e obv i o us i f c h i l d r en w i t n ess e d a m i st a ke p r ior t o g o a l a c h i e v e m ent. S R w as a l so r e l a t e d to o ve r i m i t a t i on a f t e r i n t h e CI c o n d i t i on a nd m a r g i n a l l y r e lated i n t he M CI con d i t i on ( p = 0 5) ev e n a ft e r c o n t r o l l ing f o r a ge. It m ay b e that w hen pr esent e d w i th p r o b l em s o l ving t a sks in w h i ch a n end g o a l i s m ade s a l i ent (r e t r i e v a l o f an o b j ect) pr o d u c i ng i n t en t i on a l i r r e l evant a c t i ons i s m o r e o f an effo r t a nd a d v ances i n e x ecu t i ve func t io n i ng i n gene ra l m ay b e i m po r t a nt f o r c h i l d r e n to a t t e nd t o a ll a ct i on s r e m e m ber the a c t i ons, and ove r r i de t h e t e ndency t o o n l y p r oduce a c t i ons d i r ec t l y r e l a t e d to g o a l a c h iev e m ent. P atte r ns i n t h e ICI c o n dition s u p po r t t h i s n o t i o n a s g en e r a l o v er i m i t a t i o n w as m o r e pr eva l e n t i n t h i s c o n d i t i on, S R w as u n r e l at e d to s p ecif i c o v e r i m i t a t i on a c tions w hen c o nt r o l l i ng for a ge, and c h i l d r r esp o nses w e r e a l m ost spl i t bet w een get ob j a nd c o py a c t i on s ( 63 a nd 5 9 r e s pec t ive l y ) T o be c l as s i f i ed as a d o m i nant ove r i m i t a t or c h i l d r en h ad to e ngage in a ny f o r m o f ove r i m i t a t i on ( be f o r e, afte r o r e x act) on t h e m a j o r i ty of t a sk t r i a l s. G e n e r a l e n gag e m ent i n o ve r i m i t a tion m ay have o ccu r r ed m o r e i n the ICI c o n d i t i on b ecause all t hr e e a c t i ons w e r e i n t en t i on a l w h i c h pr o v i d ed m o r e poss i b i l i ty t h at o v e r i m i t a tion o f a ny type w o u l d o ccu r T he t h r ee i n t en t i on a l ac t i ons i n a r ow a l so m ay h ave b een a s a l i ent c u e to l e a r n e r s that ac t i ons sh ou l d b e c o p i ed a nd the v i e w i ng t h r ee b ac k t o back inten t i o na l a c t i ons m ay h ave m ade the e nd g o a l l ess

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61 obv i o us. If c h i l d r en p e r c e i v e d a n a m b i gu o us e nd g o a l t h i s m ay e x p l a i n w hy the r e w as no a sso c i a t i on b et w een S R and s pe c i f i c o ve r i m i t a t i on ty p es w hen c ont r o l l i ng for a ge cons i d e r i ng t o d d l e r s a l so p r oduce m o r e e x act act i o ns i n a m b i guous end g o a l s i t u a t i o ns. F in a l l y, t h e dev e l op m ent a l patte r ns r e v e a l ed in t h e M CI c o n d i t i on p r o v i de m o r e ev i d e nce th a t c h i l d r e n m ay o ve r i m i t a te b e c a u se o f t h e i r p e r c ep t i on a bo u t t he g e n e r a l pu r po s e o f t he s i t u a t i o n be y ond t he p u r po s e o f ac t i on s on t he task. T he M CI condition p r o v i des a u n i que s i t ua t i on f or u nc o ve r ing w hat m ay o ccur w hen o ne i s de c i d i w hat to c o py i n o bse r va t io n a l s i t u a t io n s. Co n t r ol l i n g for a ge, F B w as pos i t i v e l y r e l at e d to p r oduc t ion o f r elev a n t on l y actions a nd S R w as m a r g i n a l l y ( p = .05) r elated t o e ng a ge m ent i n ov e r i m i t a t i on a fte r I n t h i s c o n d i t i o n, t h e m i s t a ke a c tion c o u l d have r e i n f o r ced the i n t en t i on a l i ty be h i nd both t he r e l ev a nt and after g o a l i r r e l eva n t act i o ns. C h i l d r e n w i th g r eat e r s e l f r eg u l a t o r y s ki l l s w e r e b ett e r a t a tten d i n g to a ll a c t io n s ( even t h ose that o ccu r r ed a fter t he g o a l), i n h i b i t i ng t h e m i st a ke, a n d pr o du c i ng a n a c t i on un r e l at e d to t h e g o a l Ho w eve r g r ea t er F B u n de r st a n d ing w as associated w i th m o r e r elev a n t only ac t i on type, s ugges t i n g that c hi l d r en w i th g r ea t er F B u nde r s t an d i ng d i d n ot l i m i t t h e i r d ec i s ion to copy o r n o t to t h e i nt e n t i on a l i ty be h i nd t h e m ode l t i o ns a nd i t cou l d b e a r gued these c hi l d r en w e r e a c t u a l l y m o r e a dvanced in th e i r r ea s o n i ng a bout t h e s i t u a t i on o ve r a l l Ro b i n s on a nd Nu r m soo ( 2009) f i nd t h at c h i l d r en w ho a tt r i bute anot h e r m i st a kes to a F B h e l d b y that in d i v i du a l a r e m o r e l i k e l y t o e ndo r s e the i nd i vid u a l e v e n w hen the pe r son i s r epe a t e d l y i nacc u r at e T hus c h i ld r en i n t h e i r st u dy w e r e less l i k e l y to e ndo r s e an in d i v i du a l i f t he p e r son w as u n r e l i a b le ( a d equat e l y i nf o r m ed ) than i f t h i s i n d i v i du a l w as s i m p l y i g n o r ant ( po or l y i nf o r m ed Chi l dr en w i th gr e at e r F B u nd e r st a n d ing m ay

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62 have v i e w ed the m odel i n the c ur r ent st u dy a s b eing a d e quat e l y i n f or m ed b ecause pr i or to the m ode l m onst r a t i on c h i l d r en w e r e t o ld to w atch h er and y o l l have y o u r t u r n i n a m i nut e w h i ch m ay h ave c u ed t hem to think t h at t h i s m odel k new w hat she w as do i n g Due t o t h e m ode l r epea t ed m i st a kes in t h e c u r r ent t a sk c h i l d r en m ay h ave j udged h er to b e u n r e l ia b l e a n d w e r e m o r e m o t i va t ed to p r odu c e the a c t i on t h ey v i e w ed as r e l evant to g o al success. I n a d d i t i o n, W i l l i am son e t a l ( 2 0 08) f i n d that in s i t u a t i ons in w h i ch pr esch oo l e r s h ave to i n f e r t h e g o a l of a t a sk, t h ey w i l l r e s o r t to th e i r o w n m et h ods to a c h i eve t hat g o al w hen a m odel i s unsucc e ssf u l T hus pe r c e i v e d r e l i a b i l i ty of a m odel coupled w i th i n t en t i on a l i ty of ac t i ons in f l uenc e s i m i t a t i on i n g ene ra l T h i s p att e r n i s a s i m i lar to the p atte r n fou n d i n M cG u i gan et a l ( 201 1 ) r e l a t i v e to d i f f e r ences in o v e r i m i t a t i on of e x pe r t a nd n o n e x pe r m ode l s. A d u l ts e ngag e d i n l ess ove r i m i t a t i o n w hen they w i t n ess e d a c h i l d m odel and as m ent i o ned t h eir p e r cep t i ons o f t h e e x pe r i m ent r e l at e d to e f f i c ie n t t a sk pe r f or m ance. M cG u i gan e t a l ( 201 1 ) p r opose t h eir r e s u l ts sup p o r t A CE h ypot h es i s a nd s ug gest t h e i r fin d i ngs i n d i c ate aut o m at i c cod i n g m ay b e p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r ong in the p r es e nce o x pe r m ode l s, a n d d i l ut e d in t h e p r esence o n e x pe r ( p. 1 4 ) W h i l e i t i s a g r eed t hat ov er i m i t a t i o n m ay b e d ue to aut o m at i c c o d i ng, i t i s p r o p osed t h i s aut o m atic c o ding i s n ot l i m i t e d to c a us a l i ty, but r at h er that t he r e i s an a u t o m at i c e nco d i ng to d et er m i ne the r a t i on a l pu r p ose o f a s i t u a tion / i n t e r ac t i on m o r e g en e r a l l y. T h i s e x pla n a t i on s e e m s m o r e a pp r o p r i ate w hen cons i d e r i ng ove r i m i t a t i on e x t e nds i n t o a d u l t ho od. It i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h at ad u l ts c o u l d m ake u nconsc i ous c a u s a l i nf e r ences i n i t i al l y w hen pr esent e d w i th a n ov e l t a sk a nd i nt e n t i on a l a c tio n s, b u t i t see m s d oubtf u l that adults m ade c a usal i n f er e nces c o n s i d e r i ng M cG u i gan e t a l ( 2011) r e p o r t t h ey e n g aged i n o ve r i m i t a tion r e peat e d l y over s eve r a l

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63 t r ia l s A d u l r e p e t i t i on o f o ve r i m i t a t i on c ou p l e d w i th a d u l t i n t e r v i ew r esponses s u ggests n t e r p r et a tion o f t he s i t u a t ion i n g e ne r a l ( e. g ., w hat i s e x pect e d o f m e? w hy i s t h i s pe r son do i ng t h i s ? etc.) m ay b e g u i d i ng th e i r i m i t a t i ve b e h a v i o r C o n cl u si o n s F in d i ngs f r om th i s study o ffer s e v e r a l r e p l i ca t io n s a nd c l ar i f i ca t i ons r e l a t i ve t o the occu r r e n ce o f o v e r i m i t a tion. A s p r i o r stu d ies h ave foun d o ve r i m i t a t i on occu r s m o r e oft e n w hen a c t i ons a r e i nt e n t i on a l i n c r eases du r i ng t h e p r escho o l y e a r s, a n d p e r s i s ts w hen i nt e n t i o n a l i r r elev a nt a c tions o cc u r a ft e r goal ac h i eve m en t F u r t he r ove r i m i t a t i on i s r elated t o s e l f r eg u l a t o r y s k i l l s w hen a n e n d g o a l i s o b v i ous and w hen o ne h as a consc i o us p e r spec t i ve t o copy a c t i on s they a r e m o r e l i k e l y to e ngage in o v e r i m i t a t i on. T aken t o get h e r i t i s p r opos e d that ove r i m i t a t ion i s in f l uenc e d b y i nf e r ences of p u r p ose and m ay r ef l ect t r ue a t i o n a l i m i t a t i on. In c o n s i de r ing r a tion a l i m i t a tion, C s i b r a a nd G e r g e l y ( 2 009) f i nd i nf a nts w i l l p r oduce in e f f i c i ent ac t i ons l ess o ften w hen th e r e i s a r a t i on a r e ason a s to w hy the i ne f f i c i e nt ac t i o n o ccu r r ed ( e. g ., m ode l h an d s o ccu p i ed w hen m odel u sed head t o tu r n on a l i ght) a nd t hus the aut h o r s p r opose i n f a n t s c a n r a t i o n a l l y i m i t a t e Ho w eve r P a u l us ( 2012) s u gge s ts i nf a nts a r e n ot r ea ll y c a pa b l e o f eng a ging i n r a t i on a l i m i t a t i on a nd i nst e ad p r oposes t h r ee skil l s a r e n e c essa r y f o r one to e ng a ge i n t r ue r a t i o n i m i t a tion: 1) p e r c eive ac t i on c a pa b i l i t i es of ot h e r s, 2 ) r e a son a bout s e l f and o t h e r s, and 3 ) e ngage i n c o unt e r f a ct u a l r easo n ing ( t h e a b i l i ty to t h i nk a bout s i t u a t i ons h y p ot h e t i c a l l y ) P a u l us ( 2012) o u t l i nes dev e l op m ent a l t r ends for e ach o f t h ese s k i l l s a nd a ll t h r ee u n de r g o subst a n t i a l c h ange d u r i ng t he p r escho o l y ea r s a nd a r e n ot p r ese n t i n i nf a nc y T h e l ast ski l l p r op osed by P a u l us ( 201 2 ) s e e m s m ost r e l ev a nt to t he d e v elo p m ent a l t r end o f ove r i m i t a t i o n. F o r e x a m p l e, B eck, R i gg s and G or n i ak ( 200 9 ) f i nd t h at c h i l d r

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64 r ecep t i ve v o c ab u l a r y a nd i n hi b i t or y c ont r o l p r e d i ct e d th e i r e ng a ge m ent i n c o u nt er f a c t u a l r easo n i ng w he r eas n o r e l a t i ons h ip e m e r ged b et w een a ge a nd c hi l d r p e r f o r m ance on c o unt e r f a ct u al r ea s o n i ng t a sk s S pe c i f i c a l l y the a b i l i ty to r eas o n w i th a pr i n c i p l e t h at one r ec o g n i zes a s fa l se to m ake a v a l id con c lus i on i s o ne e x a m p l e o f cou n t er f a c t u a l r easo n i ng ( B eck e t a l 200 9 ) In t h e c u rr e n t s t udy, c h i l d r e e l f r eg u l a t i o n pr e d i c t e d gene r a l ove r i m i t a t i on a n d i t m ay b e that t h i s r e l a t i o ns h i p i s m ed i at e d b y c h i l d r e m e r g i ng r ea s o n i ng ab i l i t ies. F o r e x a m p l e, i n t he c ur r ent st u dy the a fter go a l i nt e n t i on a l ac t i o n o n t he t r a p t u be w as fl i p p i n g the l a tc h I t m ay b e that hu m ans h ave a n a ut o m at i c assu m pt i on t h at a ll i nt e n t i o n a l a c t i ons h ave p u r pose F l i p p i n g the l a tch w as i nt e n t i on a l i n t he c u r r ent s t udy a n d thus t he i m p li c i t r eas o n i ng q ues t i o n b eco m es, d i d f l i p p i ng the latch h ave a p u r p ose? P r es c ho o l a g ed c h i l d re n ar e c a pa b l e o f iden t i f y i ng a c t i ons a s un n ecess a r y a nd t od d l e r s tend to o m i t ac t i ons u n r e l at e d to t h e g o a l w hen a g o a l i s obv i o us ( C a r pent e r e t al., 20 0 9; Lyons e t a l ., 2007 ) C h i l d r en w i th gr e a t e r i n hi bit or y cont r o l m ay r ecog n i ze f l i p p i n g the l a tch h as n o p u r po s e for the tas k but p e r f o r m i t any w ay b ased o n t h e a ut o m at i c p r in c i p l e th a t all i nt e n t i on a l a c tions h a v e p u r pose. W h en y o un g er p r escho o l e r s e n g age i n obse r v at i o n a l l ea rn i ng o f a n ov e l t ask, t h ey m ay cons i der intend e d g o a l s r e l a t i ve t o t hat t a n g i b l e task a n d g u i de th e i r beha v i o r to a c h i eve t he i nt e n ded g o a l W h i l e o l d e r p r e s choole r s m on i t o r int e n d ed g o a l s r e l a t i v e to a task, t hey m ay a l so st a r t to c o n s i der ot h er p ossible g o a l s s uch a s g o a l s o f t he i nt e r ac t i on or l e a r n i ng e x pe r i e nce a s a w ho l e. In a d d i t i on, the F B r e l a t i on to r e lev a n t on l y a c t i ons i n t he M CI c o n d i t i on and p a r t i c i p a nt r esp o nse p at t e r ns f ound i n t h i s study, Ho r ner a nd W h i t e n ( 20 0 5 ) a nd M cG u i gan e t a l ( 201 1 ) a l so s uppo r t t h at ove r i m i t a t or s m ay b e c o ns i de r i ng the m ode l t i o ns w i t h i n the c o nt e x t of t h e f u ll s e t t i n g. T h e c o py

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65 act i o n r es p onses of a ll th r ee stu d i es suggest copy i n g a m ode l t i o ns w as pe r c e i ved to b e n ecessa r y to ac h i eve a n u nst a t ed s o c ial g o a l not c aus a l l y n eces s a r y to ach i e v e the t a sk i ts e l f. S ocial g o a l as i t i s u s ed h e r e r ef e r s to r ecog n i t ion o f p u r po s e beyond i nf e r ence o f a m ode l i n t ent b e hind a ct i ons a nd i n depen d ent of the tas k T hus, i t i s p r opo s ed that the r e m ay b e a ut o m a t i c e nco d i ng w hen o ne e ng a ges i n ove r i m i t a t i o n a nd ove r i m i t a t i on m ay b e a n a d a pt i ve lea r n i n g tech n iq u e i n n ov e l s i t u a tions. Ho w ev e r i t i s p r opos e d that hu m ans a ut o m at i cal l y encode p u r pose i n g ene r al and t h i s p u r pose i s not l i m i t e d to a phy s i c a l c a usal pu r p ose ( L y ons e t al., 20 0 7; 20 1 1; M c G u i gan e t a l ., 2 0 11 ) In t h i n k i n g o f P a u l ( 2 012) ar g u m ent, o ve r i m i t a t i on m ay b e ev i d e nce o f t r ue r a t i o n al i m i t a t i on and m ay o ccur b ecau s e o f a hu m an tendency to m ake r at i on a l s e n s e o f o ur w o r ld and t he b eh av i o r s o f o t he r s. It c o u l d be th a t once hu m ans h ave d evelo p ed t he a b i l i ty t o r ea s on r at i o n a l l y, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to stop t h i n k i ng r a t i on a l l y a n d thus w hen a n ot h er p e r s o n d oes s o m et h i ng int e n t i o n a l l y t h e r e m ust be a r eason w hy. T h i s c l a i m i s s u p p o r t e d w hen c o ns i d er i ng t he a ge t r e n d i n o v er i m i t a t i o n, t h e e x t e ns i o n o f o v e r i m i t a tion to a fter go a l a c t io n s, t h e p e r s i st e n c e o f o v e r i m i t a tion a ft e r r epeat e d t r i a l s, and p a r t i c i pant r e p o r t e d t a sk u nde r st a nd i ng. It i s s ugges t ed th a t t h e r e i s a s h ift i n h ow h u m ans e ngage i n o b s e r va t i o n a l l e a r n i ng d u r i ng t he p r escho o l y ea r s b ut f ur t h e r i nves t i ga t ion o f t he p r oces s es dr i ving t h i s c h ange i s necessa r y T h e c u r r ent f i n d i n gs s u g g est c h i l d r e l op i ng s e l f r e g u l a t o r y s k i l l s p l ay a r o l e i n th e i r c han g i ng i m i t a t i v e b e h avio r s. I n a d d i t i o n the f i nd i ngs s u ggest F B u n de r st a n d i ng m ay b e i m po r t a nt f o r the i n t er p r et a t i o n o f e rr o n eous b eha v i o r s a nd a p p l i ca t i on o f t h i s i n t er p r et a t i o n i n f l u e nces i m i t a t i v e b e h avio r O v e r i m i t a tion s h ou l d b e f u r t h e r e x p l o r ed w i th o ld e r c h i l d pop u l a t i ons, m o r e t r i a l s, and w i th n o n t o o l u se tasks a s the s e v a r i a t io n s m ay y i eld

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66 d i f f e r ent patt e r ns i n t h e f r e quency of ove r i m i t a t i o n In a dd i t i on, t h e i n c l u s i on of pa r t i c i pant e x i t i nt e r vie w s, e x ecut i ve func t i o n count er f act u a l r easo n i n g, and s o c i a l cognit i v e m easu r es w i ll p r o v i de a br o ader r ep r esent a t i on of t h e p r oces s es s u pp o r t i ng ove r i m i t a t i o n. M o r e br oa d l y, t h e c u rr ent study c o nt r i bu t es to unde r st a n d i ng t he p r ocesses i nv o l v e d i n th e o r i es o f s o c i a l l e a r n i ng. T he r e a r e s e ve ra l p e r s pec t i ves r e l a t i ve to t h e i m po r t a nce o f i m i t a t i on a nd i ts i m po r t a nce for t h e d ev e l op m ent of c u l t u r e i n o ur s p e c i es (T en n i e e t a l 2009; W h i t en e t al., 19 9 6 ) T he s e p e r spe c t i v es s u g g est i m i t a t i o n i s i m po r t a nt f o r our unde r s t a n d i ng o f t h e p hy s i c a l w o r ld ( Ly o ns e t a l ., 2 01 1 ) a nd o ur s oci a l w o r l d s u ch a s le ar n i n g s o c i a l l y a cce p t a b l e be hav i o r s ( O v er & Ca r p ent e r 20 1 1 ) W h i l e seve r a l h a v e sugge s t e d s o c i a l c og n i t i ve a nd e x ecut i ve func t i on i ng s k i l l s p l ay a r o l e i n soc i a l l e a r n i ng ( F l y n n, 20 1 0; Lyons e t a l ., 20 0 7; T o m asel l o e t al., 19 9 3; W i l l i a m son e t a l ., 200 8 ) the d irect e x a m i nat i o n o f su c h s k i l l s as they r e late to s o c i a l l ea r ning i s s p a r s e T he a b i l i ty t o e ng a ge i n i m i t a t i on c l e ar l y e x pands a s e v i d e nced b y s t u d i es o n inf a nt i m i t a tion ( B r ugger e t a l ., 2007; C a r pe n t e r e t a l., 1998; 2005; Me l tz o ff, 1 99 5 ) a nd m o r e r ecent st ud i es o n t he e m e r gence o f ove r i m i t a t i on i n pr es c ho o l e r s ( G a r d i ner et a l 2 011; Lyons e t a l 2007; M cG u i g a n e t a l ., 2 01 1 ) T h ese c h anges i n i m i t a t i o n c o r r espo n d w i th develo p m ents i n s o c i a l c og n i t i ve a nd e x ecut i v e func t i o n i ng a b i l i t i es a n d the c u rr e nt st u dy h i g h l i ghts h ow these s k i l l s p l ay a r o l e i n t h e e m e r gence o f ov er i m i t a t i o n.

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67 APPE N DIX A T R A P T U B E T AS K F ig ur e A 1 T r a p t u be a ppa r at u s a n d a c t i on c o m ponents. ( A ) I rr e l e v ant ac t i o n a ft e r ob j ect r et r i ev a l : f l i p l ock o pen. ( B ) I r r e l ev a nt a ct i on b ef o r e o b j ect r e t r iev a l : i ns e r t t o o l push o b j ect t o w a r ds t r ap. ( R ) R e l e vant ( c o r r ec t ) a c t i on: ins er t t o o l push o b j ect a w ay f r om t r ap, r et r i eve ob j ect. M od i f i e d v er s i o n Ho r n er a n d W h iten ( 20 0 7) t r a p t ube. F ig ur e A 2. T r a p t u be o b j ect p l ace m ent ( m o d e l ed a ft e r Ho r n er & W h i t e n, 200 7 )

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68 APPE N DIX B P U ZZ L E B OX T AS K F ig ur e B 1 M o d i f i ed puz z l e b ox a nd a c t i on c o m ponents. ( A ) I r r e l evant a c t i o n : push b l ock. ( B ) I rr e lev a nt a c tio n : i ns e r t t o o l t o o l t a ps i nt e r nal ba r r ier o f t o p b o x ( R) Re l ev a nt ( c o rr ec t ) a c t i o n : l ift do o r i ns e r t t o o l r et r i eve ob j ect. M od i f i ed v e r s i on of M cG u i g a n e t a l ( 20 1 1) p uz z l e bo x

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69 R E F E R E N C E LI S T B eck, S .R., R i ggs, K .J., & Go r n i ak, S L ( 2 0 0 9 ) R e l a t i ng d ev e l op m ents i n c hi l d r count er f act u a l t h i n k ing a nd e x ecut i ve f u nc t i o n s. T h i nk i ng a nd Reason i ng, 15, 337 354. B r ugge r A ., La r i v i e r e, L. A ., M u m m e, D. L ., & B ushnel l E W ( 20 0 7 ) D o i n g the r i ght t h i n g: I n f a e l ec t i on o f ac t i o ns to i m i t a te f r om o bse r ved e vent se q uences. Ch i ld Dev e lo pm ent, 7 8 ( 3 ) 80 6 824. B ul l R., E spy K A ., & W ie b e, S A ( 200 8 ) S ho r t t e r m m e m o r y, w o r k i ng m e m o r y, and e x ecut i ve fun c tio n i ng i n p r esc h o o l e r s: Lon g i t u d i n a l p r e d i c t o r s o f m at h e m at i cal ach i e v e m ent at age 7 y e a r s. Dev e l o p m e n t a l Ne ur opsycho l ogy, 33, 205 228. C a m e r on P onitz, C. E ., M cC l e l l a n d M M ., J e w kes, A M ., Conno r C. M ., F a r r i s, C. L ., & M o rr i son, F J. ( 20 0 8 ) T ouch y our t o e s D e ve l o p ing a b eha v i o ra l m easu r e o f p r escho o l s el f r e g u l a t i on. E a r ly Ch i ld h ood R e sea r ch Q u a r t e r ly, 2 3 14 1 1 58. do i : 10. 1 0 1 6/ j e c r esq. 2 0 0 7. 0 1. 0 04 Ca r l s on, S M ( 20 0 5 ) Dev e lo p m ent a l l y s e n s i t i ve m easu r es of e x ecu t i ve f u nc t i on i n p r escho o l c hi l d r en. D evelo p m ent a l Ne u r opsy c holo g y, 28 ( 2 ) 59 5 6 16. Ca r pent e r M ., A kht ar N., & T o m asel l o, M ( 1 998 ) F ou r t ee n t hr o ugh 1 8 m ont h old i nf a nts d i ff e r en t i a l l y i m i t a te i nt e n t i on a l a nd a c c i de n t a l a c t i on s I n f a n t B ehav i o r & Dev e lo pm en t 2 1 ( 2 ) 3 1 5 3 30. d o i : 10. 1 0 16/ S 016 3 6 383 ( 9 8 ) 9 0 00 9 1 Ca r pent e r M ., C a l l, J., & T o m asel l o, M ( 200 5 ) T w e l ve and 1 8 m ont h o l ds c o py a c t io n s i n t e r m s o f goa l s. D evelo p m ent a l S c i ence, 8 ( 1 ) F 1 3 F 2 0. d o i : 10. 1 1 1 1/ j 1 46 7 7687. 2 0 0 4. 0 0 3 85.x Cs i b r a G. & G e r g e l y, G. ( 20 0 9 ) Nat u r a l p e d a gogy. T r ends i n Cogn i t i ve S c i ences, 1 3 148 1 5 3. d o i : 1 0. 1 01 6 / j .t i cs. 2 00 9 0 1. 0 0 5 Co r r i veau, K H., M e i nts, K & Ha r r i s, P L. ( 2 0 09 ) E a r l y t r ac k i ng o f i nf or m ant accu r acy and i nacc u r acy. B r i t i sh J o u r nal of Dev e lo p m e nt a l P sycholo g y, 2 7 ( 2 ) 3 3 1 342. do i : 1 0. 1 3 48/ 0 2 6 1510 0 8 X 3102 2 9 D i Y an n i C., & K e l e m en, D. ( 200 8 ) U s i ng a b ad to o l w i th g ood i n t en t i on: Y o u ng chi l d r i m i t a tion o f ad u l q u es t i ona b l e c h o i ces. J ou r nal of E x p e r i m ent a l Ch i ld P sycholo g y, 10 1 24 1 2 61. Du n n, L M ., & Dunn, D. M ( 2007 ) P eabody P i ct ur e V ocabula r y T est ( 4th ed. ) C ircle P i nes, M N: A m e r i can G u i dan c e S e r v i ce. F l y nn, E ., ( 2007 ) T h e r o l e of i n h i b i t o r y c o n t r o l i n fa l se b e l i ef und e r st a n d i n g. I n f a nt a nd Ch i ld Dev e lo pm ent, 1 6, 53 6 9. d o i : 10. 1 0 0 2 / i c d. 5 00

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70 F l y nn, E ( 2 010 ) Unde r pin n i ng c o l l a bo r a t i v e le ar n i ng. In B W S ok o l U. M l le r J. I. M Ca r pend a le, A R. Y oung, & G. Ia r oc c i ( E ds. ) S elf a nd s o c i al r egulat i on: S oc i al i nt er act i on a nd the d evel o p m e n t of soc i al un d e r st a nd i ng a nd e x ecut i ve funct i on s ( pp. 3 1 2 33 6 ) New Y o r k, N Y U S : O x f or d Unive r sity P r ess. F l y nn, E ., & W h i t e n, A ( 200 8 ) C u l t u r a l t r a n s m i ss i on o f t o ol use i n y o ung c h i l d r en: A d i f f usion c h a i n study. S oc i al Dev e lo pm e nt, 1 7 ( 3 ) 6 9 9 7 1 8 d o i : 10. 1 1 1 1/ j 1 46 7 9507. 2 0 0 7. 0 0 4 53.x F l y nn, E ., & W h i t e n, A ( 201 2 ) E x pe r i m ent a l m i c r ocu l t u r i n y o u ng c h i l d r en: I d en t i f y i ng b io gr a ph i c, cog n i t i v e and s oci a l p r ed i c t o r s o f info r m at i on t r ans m i ss i o n Ch i ld Dev e lo pm ent, 8 3 ( 3 ) 9 1 1 925. d o i : 10. 1 1 1 1/ j 1 46 7 8624. 2 0 1 2. 0 1 7 47.x G ar d i ne r A K ., G r e i f, M L & B j o r k l und, D. F ( 201 1 ) G u i d ed b y i n t en t i on: P r escho o l e r m i t a t i on r e f l ects i n f er e nces o f c ausa t i on. J o u r nal of Co g n i t i on a nd Dev e lo pm en t 1 2 ( 3 ) 3 5 5 3 73. d o i : 10. 1 0 80/ 1 5 248372. 2 010. 5 42216 G ar on, N., B r yson, S E ., & S m i t h I. M ( 2008 ) E x ecut i ve f u nc t i on in p r es c ho o l e r s : A r eview u s i ng a n i nt e g r a t i ve f r a m e w o r k. P sycholo g i cal B ul l e t i n, 13 4 ( 1 ) 31 6 0. do i : 10. 1 0 37/ 0 0 3 3 2 9 09. 1 3 4. 1 3 1 G er g e l y, G B ekke r i ng, H. & K i r l y I. ( 2002 ) Rat i o na l i m i t a t i o n i n p r eve r b al infants. Natu r e, 4 1 5 7 5 5. d o i : 1 0. 1 03 8 / 415 7 55a G er st a dt, C. L., Ho n g, Y J., & D i a m ond, A ( 1994 ) T he r e l a t i ons h i p b et w een c o g n i t i o n and a c t i on: P e r f or m ance o f c h i l d r en 3 7 y e a r s o l d o n a st r oo p l i ke day n i g ht t e st. Co g n i t i on, 5 3 ( 2 ) 1 2 9 1 5 3. d o i : 10. 1 0 16/ 0 01 0 0 2 77 ( 9 4 ) 90 0 6 8 X Ho r ne r V & W h i t e n A ( 2 0 05 ) C a us a l k n o w le d ge a nd i m i t a t i o n / e m u l ation s w i tc h i ng i n ch i m panzees ( P an t r o g l ody t es) a n d c h i l d r e n ( H o m o s a p i en s ) A n i m al Co g n i t i on, 8, 164 181. d oi:10. 1 0 07/s 1 0 07 1 004 0 23 9 6 Ho r ne r V ., & W h i t e n, A ( 2 0 07 ) Lea r ning f ro m o t h e r s' m i st a kes? L i m i ts on unde r st a n d i ng a t r ap t u be task b y y oung c h i m panzees ( pan t r o g l ody t es) a n d chi l d r en ( ho m o s a p i ens ) Jou r nal of C o m pa r a t i ve P sycholo g y, 12 1 ( 1 ) 1 2 2 1. do i : 10. 1 0 3 7/ 0 7 3 5 7 0 36. 1 2 1 1 1 2 K en w a r d, B ( 2012 ) Ove r i m i t a t i ng p r esc h o o le r s b e l i eve unneces s a r y a c t i o ns ar e no r m at i ve a nd enf or c e th e i r p e r f o r m ance b y a third p a r ty. J o u r n a l of E x pe r i m ent a l Ch i ld P sycholo g y, 112, 1 9 5 20 7 d o i : 1 0. 1 016/ j j ecp. 2 012. 0 2. 0 0 6 Lyons, D. E ., Da m r osch, D. H., L i n J. K ., M a c r i s, D. M ., & K ei l F C. ( 2 0 11 ) T he s c ope and l i m i ts of ove r i m i t a t i on i n t he t r ans m i ss i on of a r t e f act c u l t u r e. P h i los o ph i cal Tr ansa c t i ons Royal S oc i ety B : B i olo g i cal S c i e nces, 366, 115 8 1167. d o i : 10. 1 098 / r st b 2 010. 0 3 35

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71 Lyons, D. E ., Y oung, A G., & K ei l F C. ( 200 7 ) T he h i dden st r uc t u r e o f o ve r i m i t a t i on. Lyons, P r oce e d i ngs o f t h e Nat i onal A cade m y of S c i ences, 10 4 ( 50 ) 197 5 1 19756. M cC l el l a nd, M M ., Ca m e r on, C. E ., Conno r C. M ., F a r r i s, C. L., J e w kes, A M ., & M o rr i s o n, F J ( 2 0 07 ) Links bet w een b e h a v i o r al r eg u la t i on a n d p r escho o l e r s' l i t e r acy, voca bu l a r y, and m ath skil l s. Dev e lo p m ent a l P sycholo g y 4 3 ( 4 ) 9 4 7 9 5 9. do i : 1 0. 1 0 37/ 0 0 1 2 1 6 49. 4 3 4. 9 47 M cG u i gan, N., M ak i ns o n, J. & W h i t e n, A ( 20 1 1 ) F r om o ve r i m i t a t i on t o s u p e r cop y in g : ad ults i m i t a te c a us a l l y i r r e l evant a spe c ts of t o ol u s e w i th h i g h er f i d e l i ty t h an young c h i l d r en. B r i t i sh J o u r nal of P sycholo g y, 10 2 1 1 8. do i : 10. 1 3 4 8/ 0 0 0 7126 1 0 X 49311 5 M cG u i gan, N., W h iten, A ., F l ynn, E & Ho r n e r V ( 2007 ) I m i t a tion o f c a us a l l y o p a que ve r sus c a us a l l y t r ans p a r ent to o l u se b y 3 and 5 yea r o l d c h i l d r e n C o gn i t i ve Dev e lo pm en t 2 2 3 5 3 3 6 4. d o i : 1 0. 1 0 1 6/ j .c o gdev. 2 007 01. 0 01 M e l tz o ff, A ( 199 5 ) Un d e r st a n d i n g the i n t e n t i o ns o f ot h e r s: Re e n act m ent of i n t ended acts by 1 8 m ont h o l d c h i l d r en. Dev e l op m e nt a l P sycholo g y, 3 1 8 3 8 8 5 0. do i : 10. 1 0 3 7/ 0 0 1 2 1 6 49. 3 1 5. 8 38 M i yake, A ., F r i ed m an, N. P ., E m e r son, M .J., W i tz k i A .H., Ho w e r t er A ., & W a ge r T .D. ( 2000 ) T h e u n i ty a nd d i v e r sity o f e x ecu t i ve f u nct i o ns a nd t h e i r c o nt r i b u tions to co m p l ex r ont a l l obe t asks: A lat e nt v a r i a b l e ana l y s i s. Co g n i t i ve P sycholo g y 41 49 100. d o i : 10 1006/ c ogp. 1 9 99. 0 7 34 Na g el l K ., Olg u i n, R. S ., & T o m ase ll o M ( 1 9 93 ) P r oces s es o f so c i a l l e a r n i n g i n the t o ol use o f c h i m panzees ( P an t r ogl o dyt e s ) a n d hu m an c h i l d r en ( Ho m o s a p i en s ) Jou r nal of Co m p a r at i ve P sycholo g y, 10 7 ( 2 ) 1 74 186. N i e l sen, M ( 200 8 ) T h e s o c i a l m ot i va t i on f or s oc i a l l e a r n i n g B ehav i o r al and B r a i n S c i ences, 31, 33. d o i : 1 0 1 017/ S 0 1 40525 X 0 70 0324X Ov er H., & Ca r pent e r M ( 20 1 1) P ut t i ng the soc i a l i n t o s o c i a l l e a r n i ng: E x p l a i n ing b o t h se l ec t i v i ty and f i d el i ty in c h i l d r e cop y i ng b e hav i o r Jo u r nal o f Co m p a r at i ve P sycholo gy d o i : 1 0 1037 / a002 4 555. P au l us, M ( 2 012 ) Is i t r a t i on a l to assu m e that i n f ants i m i t a te r a t io n a l l y? A th e o r e t i c a l ana l y s i s and c r itiq u e H u m an De v elo pm e nt, 5 5 10 7 121. d oi: 1 0. 1 1 5 9 / 0 0 0339 4 42 Ro b i n s on, E J., & Nu r m soo, E ( 200 9 ) W hen do c h i ld r en lea r n f r om u n r el i a b l e speake r s? C ogn i t i ve Develo pm ent, 2 4 ( 1 ) 1 6 22. do i : 10. 1 0 1 6/ j .c o gdev. 2 00 8 0 8. 0 01 S i m pson, A ., & R i ggs, K J. ( 2011 ) T h r e e a n d 4 ye a r o l ds encode m ode l e d a c t i ons in t w o w ays l ea d i ng to i m m ed i ate i m i t a t i on a nd d e l ay e d e m u l a t i on. De v elo pm e nt a l P sycholo g y, 4 7 ( 3 ) 8 3 4 84 0

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72 T en n i e, C., C a l l, J., & T o m asel l o, M ( 2009 ) R atc h e t i ng u p the r atc h e t : On t h e e v o l u t i o n of cu m u l at i ve c u l t u r e. P h i los o ph i cal Tr ansact i ons o f t h e Royal S oc i ety B : B i olo g i cal S c i ence s 364 240 5 2 415. T o m ase ll o M ( 199 9 ) T he c u lt u r al o r i g i ns o f hu m an c o g n i t i o n C a m b r i dge, M A : Ha r va r d Un i v e r sity P r ess. T o m ase ll o M ., K r uge r A C., & Rat n e r H. H. ( 1993 ) C u l t u r al le ar n i n g. B ehav i o r al and B r a i n S c i ences, 16, 495 552. W a nt S C., & Ha r r i s, P L. ( 20 0 1 ) L ea r n i n g f r om o t h er p eo p l m i st a kes: caus a l unde r st a n d i ng i n le ar n i n g to u se a to o l Ch i ld Dev e lo pm en t 72 4 3 1 4 4 3. do i : 10. 1 1 1 1/ 1 4 6 7 8 6 24. 0 0 2 88 W e l l m an, H. M ., C r oss, D., & W at s on, J. ( 20 0 1 ) M et a a n a l y s i s of t h e o ry of m i nd develo p m ent: T he t r uth a b out f a l se b e l i ef. Ch i ld Dev e lo pm e nt, 7 2 6 5 5 684. d o i : 10. 1 111 / 146 7 8624 00304 W e l l m an, H. M & L iu, D. ( 2 004 ) S cal i n g o f t h eo r y o f m i nd tasks. Ch i ld Dev e lo p m e n t 75 ( 2 ) 52 3 541. W h ite n A ., Cust a nc e D. M ., G o m ez, J. C., T e i x i d o r P ., & B a r d, K A ( 1 996 ) I m i t a t i ve l e a r n i ng o f a r t i f i c i a l f r u i t p r oces s i ng inc h i l d r en ( Ho m o s a p i en s ) a nd c h i m panzees ( P an t r ogl o dyt e s ) Jou r n al of C o m pa r at i ve P s y cholo g y, 11 0 ( 1 ) 3 1 4. W i l l i a m son, R. A ., M e l tz o ff, A N., & M a r k m an, E M ( 2008 ) P r i o r e x pe r i ences and pe r c e i ved ef f i cacy i n 3 yea r o l i m i t a t i on. D e velo pm en t al P sycholo g y, 4 4 ( 1 ) 275 2 8 5. d o i : 1 0. 1 0 3 7/ 0 012 16 4 9. 4 4. 1 2 75 Z i v, M ., & F r ye, D. ( 20 0 4 ) C h i l d r n de r st a nd i n g o f t eac h i ng: T he r o l e o f k n o w l ed g e and b e l i ef. C ogn i t i ve Develo pm ent, 1 9, 45 7 4 77. do i : 10. 1 0 1 6/ j .c o gdev. 2 00 4 0 9. 0 02

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73 B IOGR AP HIC A L S KE T CH Jennifer T a m a r go w as b o r n a nd r a i sed i n J a c ksonvi l l e, F l o r i d a. S he g r adu a t e d f r om B i shop K enny H i gh S cho o l a n d r ec e i ved her B ach e l o r o f A r ts i n p sych o l ogy ( m i nor soc i a l w e l f a r e) f r om the Un i v e r s i ty of N o r th F lo r ida i n 2 00 4 In 2 011, s h e c o m p l et e d a g r adua t e c er t i f i c ate i n s o c i a l s c ie n ce m et h odolo g y a nd e a r n e d h er P h.D. in develo p m ent a l p syc h olo g y f r om the Un i ve r s i ty o f F l o r ida i n 2 0 13. A s a n u nde r g r a d uat e s h e h e l d i n t er n s hips w i t h Head S t ar t and t h e J a ckson v i l l e Chi l d r m m i ss i on ( JC C ) Up o n g r ad u a t io n she j o i n e d the JCC f u l l t i m e a s a develo p m ent a l sc r e ener for l ow i nco m e c h i l d r en. A fter t w o y e a r s w i th t h i s a g e ncy s h e began t h e d ev e l o p m ent a l p sych o l o gy d oct o r a t e pr o g r am a t t h e Un i v e r s i ty of F l o r i d a. P r i m a r i l y, she i s i n t er es t ed i n t h e d ev e l o p m ent o f so c i a l c o g n i t ion a nd s e l f r eg u l a t i o n and the r o l es o f t h ese s k i l l s i n p r esch oo l e r l e a r n i ng d ev e l op m ent. Her m ast er t h es i s add r ess e d the i n f lu e nce o f f a l se b el i ef un d e r s t anding a n d s e l f r eg u l a t i o n o n p r escho o l e r g age m ent i n l e a r n i ng f r om d i r ect inst r uc t i o n. A s s h e c o n t i nued h er s t u d i es i n dev e l op m ent a l p syc h olo g y s h e a l so b e c a m e i nt e r est e d in e v a l u a tion r es ea r c h S he c r e at e d a n e v a l ua t i o n p l an f o r t h e E a r l y L e a r n i ng Co a l i t i on o f A l achua C ounty to e v a l ua t e th e i r chi l dc a r e In t en s i ve Q u al i ty I m p r ov e m ent S yst e m a nd a ss i s t ed i n a f o r m at i ve e v a l u a t i on o f su m m er pr og r a m s i n Duval Co u nty w i th the R A ND Co r po r a t i on. C u rr e n t l y s h e w o r ks w i th t h e R A ND Co r p o r a t i on a s an ad j unct r esea r ch a sso c i ate f o r a pr o j ect asse s s i ng t h e e f f ec t i veness of v o l un t a r y su mm er pr og r a m s o n ste m m i ng c h i ld r s umm er l ea r n i ng loss.