Effect and Ethos of Music in Greek and Roman Authors - Exposition and Evaluation


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Effect and Ethos of Music in Greek and Roman Authors - Exposition and Evaluation
Physical Description:
1 online resource (503 p.)
Kramarz, Andreas J
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Classical Studies, Classics
Committee Chair:
Rea, Jennifer Ann
Committee Members:
Kapparis, Konstantinos
Van Steen, Gonda Aline Hector
Bloom, Rori I


Subjects / Keywords:
aristides -- aristophanes -- aristotle -- aristoxenes -- augustine -- basil -- boethius -- cassiodorus -- chrysostom -- cicero -- clement -- damon -- education -- emotions -- empiricus -- ethos -- greek -- harmony -- hibeh -- homer -- isidore -- latin -- macrobius -- martianus -- music -- paideia -- philodemus -- philosophy -- plato -- plotinus -- plutarch -- psychology -- ptolemy -- pythagoras -- pythagoreans -- quintilian -- quintilianus -- roman -- seneca -- theophrastus
Classics -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Classical Studies thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation


What makes music good or bad? Are there objective criteria for this distinction? And can music have a positive or negative impact on the human individual or even on society? These questions are the subjects of contemporary debate, but already in Greco-Roman antiquity the concept of ethos was used to issue value judgments about the possible qualities and effects of music. This present study offers for the first time a complete review of both Greek and Latin writings — extending from the early Pythagoreans (sixth century BC) to Isidore of Seville († 636 AD) — which contribute significantly to grasping the relationship between music, human character, and behavior. Since the last major English publication on ethos in Greek music, Warren D. Anderson’s Ethos and Education in Greek Music in1966, scholarship has made much progress in understanding the powerful influence of music on the human person and in analyzing pertinent ancient texts. Yet, the studies and conclusions of the classical writings and those of the philosophical, psychological, musicological, and therapeutic disciplines have little been seen in an interdisciplinary context and thus have not fully borne their fruits. The intent, then, is to enrich both the historical and the current reflection on musical effect and ethos by a systematic presentation and evaluation of terminology and argument. After illustrating the varieties of possible functions of music in ancient culture, the vocabulary and characterizations for musical features in literary texts are assembled according to positive and negative connotation, followed by the various ancient positions on music according to trends of thought. Themes such as criticism against problematic musical innovations or practices, the role of music in the order of the universe, and discerning good from bad music in the context of paideia are reviewed and then grouped in a synoptic collection of concepts from original sources. The study concludes by suggesting a coherent explanation for the relationship between music, ethos, and emotions. It is proposed that the ancient principle of harmony, consisting in the appropriate measure or balance of opposites, is promising in the pursuit of answers about what is good or bad music.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Andreas J Kramarz.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Adviser: Rea, Jennifer Ann.
Electronic Access:

Record Information

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Applicable rights reserved.
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Material Information

Effect and Ethos of Music in Greek and Roman Authors - Exposition and Evaluation
Physical Description:
1 online resource (503 p.)
Kramarz, Andreas J
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Classical Studies, Classics
Committee Chair:
Rea, Jennifer Ann
Committee Members:
Kapparis, Konstantinos
Van Steen, Gonda Aline Hector
Bloom, Rori I


Subjects / Keywords:
aristides -- aristophanes -- aristotle -- aristoxenes -- augustine -- basil -- boethius -- cassiodorus -- chrysostom -- cicero -- clement -- damon -- education -- emotions -- empiricus -- ethos -- greek -- harmony -- hibeh -- homer -- isidore -- latin -- macrobius -- martianus -- music -- paideia -- philodemus -- philosophy -- plato -- plotinus -- plutarch -- psychology -- ptolemy -- pythagoras -- pythagoreans -- quintilian -- quintilianus -- roman -- seneca -- theophrastus
Classics -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Classical Studies thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation


What makes music good or bad? Are there objective criteria for this distinction? And can music have a positive or negative impact on the human individual or even on society? These questions are the subjects of contemporary debate, but already in Greco-Roman antiquity the concept of ethos was used to issue value judgments about the possible qualities and effects of music. This present study offers for the first time a complete review of both Greek and Latin writings — extending from the early Pythagoreans (sixth century BC) to Isidore of Seville († 636 AD) — which contribute significantly to grasping the relationship between music, human character, and behavior. Since the last major English publication on ethos in Greek music, Warren D. Anderson’s Ethos and Education in Greek Music in1966, scholarship has made much progress in understanding the powerful influence of music on the human person and in analyzing pertinent ancient texts. Yet, the studies and conclusions of the classical writings and those of the philosophical, psychological, musicological, and therapeutic disciplines have little been seen in an interdisciplinary context and thus have not fully borne their fruits. The intent, then, is to enrich both the historical and the current reflection on musical effect and ethos by a systematic presentation and evaluation of terminology and argument. After illustrating the varieties of possible functions of music in ancient culture, the vocabulary and characterizations for musical features in literary texts are assembled according to positive and negative connotation, followed by the various ancient positions on music according to trends of thought. Themes such as criticism against problematic musical innovations or practices, the role of music in the order of the universe, and discerning good from bad music in the context of paideia are reviewed and then grouped in a synoptic collection of concepts from original sources. The study concludes by suggesting a coherent explanation for the relationship between music, ethos, and emotions. It is proposed that the ancient principle of harmony, consisting in the appropriate measure or balance of opposites, is promising in the pursuit of answers about what is good or bad music.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Andreas J Kramarz.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Adviser: Rea, Jennifer Ann.
Electronic Access:

Record Information

Source Institution:
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
lcc - LD1780 2013
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2 201 3 Andreas Kramarz


3 To my past, present, and future students


4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My g ratitude extends to far more persons than can be mentioned here. The first place of co urse, belongs to the members of the doctoral committee at the University of Florida : Dr. Jennifer Rea as the chair, Dr. Gonda Van Steen, Dr. Konstan t inos Kapparis, and Dr. Rori Bloom as external reader, for all their help and advice on the way and their pa tience in handling the number of pages to which this project has grown. Dr. John Palmer must be thanked for his input a t an early stage of the project and also all the other members at the Faculty of Classics for their assistance over the past years. I rec eived m uch valuable counsel from experts in the field of ancient music and classics : Dr. Charles Mercier (New Haven, Connecticut ), Dr. Eleonora Rocconi (Pavia, Italy), and John Franklin (Burlington, Vermont ). I particularly appreciate that Prof Andrew Bark er (Birmingham, England) was available for personal consultation and provided me with the unpublished English manuscript of his work Psicomusicologia Similarly I thank Dr. Stefan Hagel (Vienna, Austria) for providing his manuscript for a forthcoming arti cle. Andrea Katzenburg (Langerwehe, Germany), Melanie Schmitz (Kln, Germany), and Dr. Peter Hoffmann (Bochum, Germany) assisted with information on music therapy I am also very grateful to all who have helped me with proofreading and made suggestions for improvement: Dr. Kathleen Marks who so generously added this task to (New York) ; further Joseph Houser, Jonathan reviewed individual sections. Walke r Pratt, Thomas White and Matias Garmendia aided with much needed technical support, and I am greatly end ebt ed to the librarians at the Inter Library Loan


5 Office at the University of Florida without whose efficient processing of my many requests this thes is could hardly have been advanced. A mention of gratitude must be expressed to Angelos Langadas who passed away shortly after I was awarded the Langadas Graduate Fellowship one year ago. N umerous other benefactors contributed help on the financial side. T hen there is the c ommunity in Slatersvill e Rhode Island who allowed several times in order to advance the work in its most intense stages with the necessary quiet and all my colleagues and collaborators at the Legion of Christ College of Hum anities whom I thank for their support in so many ways, generously filling in for me while my availability was limited. Lastly on a personal note, I wish to add that at first I considered dedicating this work to my father Johannes Kramarz, who died in 20 04, to whom I owe, for a good part, both my love for the classics and for music; but then I thought that he would be happy to see it dedicated to all those who are entrusted to m y teaching in order to transmit to them the wealth of cultural achievements, p ast and present, so they can contribute building our future civilization on the values that have produced so many good fruits.


6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 10 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 11 LIST OF OBJECTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 12 L IST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 13 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 1 5 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 17 2 THE EFFECT OF MUSIC IN GREEK AND ROMAN LITERATURE ....................... 34 What Music Does Phenomenological Survey ................................ ..................... 38 The Place of Music in Greek and Rom an Culture ................................ ............ 38 When, How, and to which Effect Music Is Used ................................ ............... 39 The Iliad and the Odyssey ................................ ................................ ......... 40 Antiquity in general ................................ ................................ .................... 43 Characterizing Music ................................ ................................ ........................ 69 Parameters for the term survey ................................ ................................ .. 73 Characteristics of positive or neutral value ................................ ................ 79 Characteristics of negative value ................................ ............................... 95 Termin ological Clarifications about the Value of Music ................................ ......... 103 Music ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 103 The Value of Music ................................ ................................ ......................... 109 ................................ ................................ ........................... 110 Musical Ethos ................................ ................................ ................................ 115 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 118 3 THE IMPACT AND VALUE OF MUSIC ACCORDING TO ANCIENT THEORISTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 120 The Debate about Musical Decadence ................................ ................................ 128 ................................ ................................ ..... 128 Aristophanes ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 135 Hellenism ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 138 Pseudo Plutarch ................................ ................................ ............................. 140 Athenaeus ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 142 Development in Roman Times ................................ ................................ ....... 146


7 Musical Ethos in Education and Cosmos ................................ .............................. 152 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 153 The Pythagoreans ................................ ................................ .......................... 153 Damon ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 163 Plato ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 168 ................................ 169 The proper measure ................................ ................................ ................ 176 Conservatism to foster order in soul and State ................................ ........ 180 Good music and how to achieve it; bad music ................................ ......... 183 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 187 Music, cosmos, and the soul ................................ ................................ .... 193 Conclusions and questions ................................ ................................ ...... 196 Plutarch ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 200 Music excesses at symposia ................................ ................................ .... 200 The Spartan tradition ................................ ................................ ............... 205 Moderation and ................................ ................................ .......... 206 Strabo ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 208 Nicomachus ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 210 Ptolemy ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 211 Plotinus ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 219 Empirical Approach to Musical Ethos ................................ ................................ ... 226 Aristotle ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 227 Functions and ethos of music ................................ ................................ .. 227 Good and bad music ................................ ................................ ................ 234 Pitch and timbre evaluated ................................ ................................ ....... 241 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 243 The Pseudo Aristotelian Problemata ................................ .............................. 243 Ethos in move ment ................................ ................................ .................. 244 Why music is enjoyable: order, balance, appropriateness ....................... 246 Theophrastus ................................ ................................ ................................ 249 Aristoxenus ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 252 Polybius ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 256 Cleonides ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 258 Diony sius of Halicarnassus ................................ ................................ ............ 259 Hippocrates ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 263 Philostratus ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 264 Musical Ethos Questioned ................................ ................................ .................... 265 The Hibeh Fragment ................................ ................................ ...................... 266 Philodemus ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 268 Diogenes of Babylon about the usefulness of music, as presented by Philodemus ................................ ................................ ........................... 270 Philodemus about the uselessness of music, except for pleasure ........... 272 The question whether music has value ................................ .................... 285 Sextus Empiricus ................................ ................................ ............................ 289 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 295 Musical Effect and Ethos in the Latin Tradition ................................ ..................... 296


8 Cicero ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 296 Seneca ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 301 Quintilian ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 302 Censorinus ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 305 Aphthonius ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 307 Calcidius ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 308 Favonius ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 310 Macrobius ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 311 Ethos and Cosmos Rev isited ................................ ................................ ................ 315 Aristides Quintilianus ................................ ................................ ...................... 315 Importance and usefulness of music general considerations ................ 316 Music, ethos and pathos education and therapy ................................ ... 320 Musical ethos its inner workings ................................ .......................... 325 Cosm ic order through music ................................ ................................ .... 338 Evaluation ................................ ................................ ................................ 345 Martianus Capella ................................ ................................ .......................... 357 Boe thius ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 363 Early Christian Contributions on Musical Ethos ................................ .................... 369 Clement of Alexandria ................................ ................................ .................... 36 9 The New Song ................................ ................................ ......................... 369 Musical ethos in Christian education ................................ ........................ 375 Basil of Caesarea ................................ ................................ ........................... 378 John Chrysostom ................................ ................................ ........................... 381 Augustine ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 383 Aequalitas Music as a path to God ................................ ...................... 384 Dangers and benefits from musical delights ................................ ............ 391 Cassiodorus ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 396 A compendium of musical lor e ................................ ................................ 396 The blessings of music ................................ ................................ ............ 398 Isidore ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 402 Christian Music Practi ce and Criticism ................................ ........................... 406 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 414 4 SYNOPTIC TABLES OF REFERENCES ................................ ............................. 416 5 THE VALUE OF MUSIC IN SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS ................................ ......... 418 Philosophical and Psychological Considerations ................................ .................. 418 Basic Questions ................................ ................................ ............................. 418 Music ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 418 Ethos ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 420 Factors Modifying the Impact of Music ................................ ........................... 424 Music event ................................ ................................ .............................. 425 Recipient ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 425 Environment ................................ ................................ ............................. 428 The Impact of Music on the Human Person ................................ ................... 429 Music and intellect ................................ ................................ ................... 431


9 Music and emotion ................................ ................................ ................... 432 Value judgments on musical ethos ................................ .......................... 439 Intrinsically good or bad music? ................................ ............................... 444 Th e Central Place of Harmony ................................ ................................ ....... 449 The process of creating musical ethos and emotion ................................ 450 The prominence of music through harmony ................................ ............. 454 Contributions from Music Therapy ................................ ................................ ........ 457 Origins ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 457 Music Therapy and t he Question of Good and Bad Music ............................. 459 6 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 465 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 470 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 503


10 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Usage of music in ancient Greece and Rome ................................ .................... 66 3 1 Ancient Greek and Latin authors and texts on the effect and value of music ... 123 3 2 Benefits for soul and body in AQ 3.24 127.1 12 ................................ ............... 343


11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Functions of music within ancient culture. ................................ .......................... 70 2 2 Good and bad music subdivisions. ................................ .............................. 115 3 1 ................................ ............................ 175 3 2 The Ethical Pyramid. ................................ ................................ ........................ 188 3 3 The division of the human soul according to Aristides Quintilianus. ................. 326 5 1 Factors modifying the impact of music. ................................ ............................ 430 5 2 ................................ ................................ .................... 444


12 LIST OF OBJECTS Object page 2.1 Terms of musical characterization predominantly p ositive ............................... 79 2 2 Terms of musical characterization predominantly negative .............................. 95 4 1 Synoptic tables of references to musical effect a nd ethos ................................ 417


13 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S Anon. Bell. Anonymous Bellermann (= Anonymi scriptio de musica ed. F. Bellermann) AQ Aristides Quintilianus De Musica Boeth. Boethius c. century Cens. Censorinus cf. confer (compare with ) EB Encyclopdia Britannica ff following (pages, lines, or numbers) fr(s). fragment(s) GL Grammatici Latini (Keil) GMM The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians GMW Greek Musical Writings ( followed by volume and page number ) HH Homeric Hymn (followe d by the number, not by the name) MSG Musici scriptores graeci (Jan 1895) Mus. De musica (for all works with that title) n. /nn. footnote (s) or endnote(s) OCD Oxford Classical Dictionary 3 rd edition (1996) OED Oxford English Dictionary OHME Oxford Handbook of Music and Emotion (2010) OHMP Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology OLD Oxford Latin Dictionary PG Patrologia Graeca (Migne) PL Patrologia Latina (Migne) p(p). page(s)


14 TML Thesaurus Musicarum Latinarum (online) tr. t ranslation vol. v olume All othe r abbreviations, especially for classical authors and their work s, follow the standard of the OC D. Biblical books versons, or sections are abbreviate d according to the shorter forms of The Chicago Manual of Style, 16 th edition, 2010, sections 10.45 51 pp. 510 514. For full bibliographic information of abbreviated titles see the List of References


15 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degr ee of Doctor of Philosophy EFFECT AND ETHOS OF MUSIC IN GREEK AND ROMAN AUTHORS EXPOSITION AND EVALUATION By Andreas Kramarz August 2013 Chair: Jennifer Rea Major: Classical Studies What makes music good or bad? Are there objective criteria for this d istinction? And can music have a positive or negative impact on the human individual or even on society? These questions are the subjects of contemporary debate, but already in Greco Roman antiquity the concept of ethos was used to issue value judgments ab out the possible qualities and effects of music. This present study offers for the first time a complete review of both Greek and Latin writings extending from the early which contribute significantly to grasping the relationship between music, human character, and behavior. Since the last major English publication on ethos in Greek music, Warren D. Ethos and Education in Greek Music in1966, scholarship has made much progress in understanding the powerful influence of music on the human person and in analyzing pertinent ancient texts. Yet, the studies and conclusions of the classical writings and those of the philosophical, psychological, musicological, and therapeutic discipline s have little been seen in an interdisciplinary context and thus have not fully borne their fruits. The intent, then, is to enrich both the historical and the current


16 reflection on musical effect and ethos by a systematic presentation and evaluation of ter minology and argument. After illustrating the varieties of possible functions of music in ancient culture, the vocabulary and characterizations for musical features in literary texts are assembled according to positive and negative connotation, followed by the various ancient positions on music according to trends of thought. Themes such as criticism against problematic musical innovations or practices, the role of music in the order of the universe, and discerning good from bad music in the context of paid eia are reviewed and then grouped in a synoptic collection of concepts from original sources. The study concludes by suggesting a coherent explanation for the relationship between music, ethos, and emotions. It is proposed that the ancient principle of har mony, consisting in the appropriate measure or balance of opposites, is promising in the pursuit of answers about what is good or bad music.


17 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION There was Eru, the One, who in Arda is called Ilvatar; and he made first d he spoke to them, propounding to them themes of fort Then the voices of the Ainur, like unto harps and lutes, and pipes and trumpets, and viols and organs, and like unt o countless choirs singing with words, began to fashion the theme of Ilvatar to a great music; and a sound arose of endless interchanging melodies woven in harmony that passed the was only hearing; and they saw a new Wor And they saw with amazement the coming of the Children of Ilvatar, and the habitation that was prepared for them; and they perceived that they themselves in the labour of their music had been busy with the preparation of t his dwelling, and yet knew not that it had any purpose beyond its own beauty. 1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Silmarillion In solemn tone by weaving images of old into a new mythological language, J. R. Silmarillion commences to nothing less than forming and unfolding the Univ erse and its history 2 Why does Tolkien for this contemporary epic 3 choose music as the bridge from void to creation? It seems to be 1 Tolkien 1977/2001, 15 18 (excerpts). 2 Strict affect the perfect correlation (and transmutability) between the music and the world and its development, with the exception of the free actions of men which are precisely not contained in the music; see Flieger 2009. 3 Tolkien is not the only one who does this: C. S. Lewis, for example, in the sixth book of his Narnia series in the story line is the first) includes a simi lar account about creation through song (1955/1970, 96 108). Tolkien conceived his story between 1918 1920 (see Flieger 2009,


18 based on the assumption that music possesses the same or at least analogous organizing principles as the world and its unfolding. This is not a new idea but is already contained in the theory of cosmic harmony found in the writings of ancient civilizations and reiterated throughout the times. 4 There is one musical phenomenon that particularly suggests this parallelism, introduced in the Silmarillion thus: But as the theme progressed, it came into the heart of Melkor to interweave matters of his own imagining that were not in accord with the theme of Ilvatar; for h e sought therein to increase the power and glory of the part many that sang nigh him grew despondent and their thought was disturbed ) and a new theme began amid the storm, like and yet unlike the former theme, and it gathered power and had new beauty. But the discord of Melkor rose in uproar and contended with it, and again 5 The st ory subsequently reaches its climax with a third theme: And it seemed at last that there were two musics progressing at one time before the seat of Ilvatar, and they were utterly at variance. The one was deep and wide and beautiful, but slow and blended w ith an immeasurable sorrow, from which its beauty chiefly came. The other had now achieved a unity of its own; but it was loud, and vain, and endlessly repeated; and it had little harmony, but rather a clamorous unison as of many trumpets braying upon a f ew notes. And it essayed to drown the other music by the 6 160); since he never published it in his lifetime, it is not certain to what degree Lewis may have been inspired by Tolkien. The t opos of music at the origin of creation is old: cf. e.g ps. Plut. Mus. 44. 1147: E verything was constructed by God on the basis of harmonia Cf Pl. Cra. 405a e with reference to Apollo; Ti. 32b c; Strabo, Geographica 10.3.10 (referring back to the Pytha 4 See e.g. Barker 2007, 278 286; 318 326; and especially the long tradition about the Harmony of the Spheres ; a n anthology of relevant texts throughout history is provided by Josce lyn 1993. 5 Tolkien i bi d. 16 6 Id., 16 1 7. C. S. Lewis introduces the element of discord into his story by means of the annoying different from hers


19 ly : apparently purposeless beauty, evoking joy; greatness in melodic and harmoni c consonance as a communal exp erience; creative power and correspondence to other realities in the world; but then especially the duality of consonant and discordant 7 character which leads to the distinction between the eternal battle between good and evil in musical terms stages perfectly the theme for our quest: whether there is indeed, as ancient writers especially of Greece and Rome did not hesitate to affirm, such a thing as good and bad music, and if so, what it consists o f what it stems from, and what criteria we might establish to distinguish the one from the other. This is by no means on ly of academic (literary, historical, or philosophical) interest. In past decades a lot of adrenaline and ink have flowed in discussion s about whether certain rock bands or music chart leaders have not only corrupted music itself but also human life, morals, and even society. 8 In his bestseller The Closing of the American Mind sixties students includes the following observations: 7 text reveals that not dissonance in terms of tense acoustical intervals but a disruptive and destructive musical pattern as a whole, prompted by morally negative intentions (hence: discord), is posing the casus belli purpose, which cannot be pursued further here. 8 Th e war between accusers and defenders of particular groups or styles is carried on mainly in magazines, papers, and blogs, often of little scientific bearing. To mention just a few books: Pattison 1987 (analyzing vulgarity as a tendency that, according to t he author, unites Romanticism and the 20 th century popular music trends), Walser 1993 (explaining the value of Heavy Metal), Jones 1994 (whose analysis leads to conclude that the front lines should not be drawn between classical and rock/pop, but according to what the music is intended to do and does with those engaged in it), and Brackett 2009 (an anthology of rock music testimony and prevalently positive criticism) Gatten 1995 offers an extensive bibliography for which unfortunately no updated version ex ists. Concerns are also voiced in the area of education, e.g. Council on Communications and Media 2009 ; Kilpatrick 1992, 172 189.


20 Rock music has one appeal only, a barbaric appeal, to sexual desire not love, not eros, alliance with some real art and a lot of pseudo art, an enormous industry cultivates the t aste for the orgiastic state of feeling connected with sex, inevitable corollary of such sexual interest is rebellion against the parental authority that represses it. Selfishness thus becomes indignation and then transforms itself into morality. The sexual revolution must overthrow all the forces of domination, the enemies of nature and happiness. From love comes hate, masquerading as social reform. A world view is balanced on the or even decent can find a place in such tableaux. There is room only for the intense, changing, crude and immediate. 9 Along with emotional drain irrationality and the lost ability to engage in true human relationships, Bloom states : moral education at a time when no one else is seriously concerned with it. This has been achieved by an alliance between the strange young males our versions of and the record company executives, the new robber barons, who mine gold out of rock. 10 He continues ins the imagination of young people and makes it very difficult for them to have a passionate relationship to the art and thought that are the like effect of the earplugs im 11 9 Bloom 1987, 73 74 (excerpts). 10 Id., 76. 11 Id., 80 81. 81) in or der to fully appreciate his argument, which the quoted fragments can only represent imperfectly.


21 The widespread popularity of the described music makes it no surprise that not everyone subscribes to such a somber outlook on present criticism which by the way is not restricted to rock music), 12 but it is telling how the counter attacks, aimed to defend the incriminated audio trends, in their not rarely polemical or even hostile rebuttals 13 support the suspicion that a deep emot ional layer and maybe even a truth has been touched. 14 The English philosopher Roger Scruton, in a similar analysis and in the context of deploring the eclipse of taste negation of music, a dehumanizing o 15 and, at the same time, has the shaman, dancing before his tribe by the fan as an assault upo exists in order to blow away the external world, to create an imaginary living space, where the fan can move freely, endowed with miraculous powers. If the music sounds ugly, this is of no significance: it is not there to be listened to, but to take revenge on the world. 16 12 Ross 2007. 13 E.g. Zappa 198: w nother product of Lucasfilm could be raised, among 2002 gathers and evaluates Criticism on Bloom in a balance d manner, detecting well the philosophical underpinnings; he refers to the subject of music on pp. 143 144. 14 I have experienced myself how heated a debate can arise upon voicing the possibility that certain popular music may be harmful. Bloom, observing t seems to want to rob them of their most intimate pleasure Indignation is the 71). 15 1997, 502; see also dancing has no other means besides release. It requires neither knowledge nor self 16 Id., 500.


22 Culture and music appear to be correlatives, and although Scruton does not elaborate on its implications, he places the following foreboding phrase by Plato as motto over his last chapter 17 The underlying thesis is : a decay of music leads to a decay of morals which in turn, leads to a decay of society as a w hole. This raises questions: What evidence is such a statement based on ? Why should a seemingly harmless entertainment device which is so widely accepted around the globe be made responsible for the proper or improper functioning of what usually would se em the business of education, economy, politics, or perhaps philosophy? And even granted that there is a connection: i s music not merely a symptom rather than a cause for the state of a culture? Both Bloom and Scruton (and on that account, almost all moder n music theorists) refer at least incidentally to the classical tradition, prominently Plato and Aristotle which which means distinguishing music that fulfills our nature, from music which dest 18 And indeed, already the ancients deplored the demise of musical culture. Plato, most renowned for his strong commitment to promot ing virtue, finds himself in a current of corruption: As time went on, there appeared as instigators of unmusical la w breaking composers who, though by nature skilled at composition, were ignorant of what is right and lawful in music. In a Bacchic frenzy, and enthralled beyond what is right by pleasure, they mixed lamentations with hymns and paeans with dithyrambs, imit ated aulos songs with their kithara songs, and put 17 Id. 457, quoting Pl. Resp. 424c (the (through the mouth of Socrates) presents this statement as the conviction of the musician Damon and expresses his consent. T he concept, as we will see, is taken up again by later authors, e.g. Cicero in Leg. 2.15.38 39. 18 Scruton 1997, 496.


23 everything together with everything else, thus unintentionally, through their stupidity, giving false witness against music, alleging that music possesses no standard of correctness, but is most correctly judged by the pleasure of the person who enjoys it, whether he is a better man or a worse. By creating compositions of these kinds and by choosing corresponding words, they inspired the masses with lawlessness towards music, and the effrontery to suppose t hat they were capable of judging it. As a result the audiences which had been silent, became noisy, as if they understood what is good in music and what is not, and a musical aristocracy was displaced by a degenerate theatocracy. Now no doubt it would hav e been no very terrible thing if a democracy of free men had arisen just in the field of music: but in fact, from a starting point in music, everyone came to believe in their own wisdom about everything, and to reject the law, and liberty followed immediat ely. Believing themselves knowledgeable, people became fearless, and fearlessness bred shamelessness. 19 Several centuries later, already in Roman times, a text (falsely) attributed to of complaint: In ancient times people treated music in accordance with its proper status, just as they treated all their other activities. Nowadays musicians have rejected its more dignified aspects, and in place of that manly and inspired music, beloved of the gods, they bring into the theatres a music of effeminate twittering. 20 A third witness from roughly a century later (at the beginning of the 3 rd century Aristoxen us, observes how the degeneration of music is cause or at least part of a common cultural decline: In the old days a noble beauty was carefully preserved in music, and every aspect kept to the orderliness proper to it, in conformity with the principles of barbarized, and this vulgar music has advanced into the extremity of corruption, we too, few as we are, come together by ourselves and 19 Leg. 700a 701b, tr. GMW 1.156 157. 20 Ps Plut. Mus. 15 1136b, tr. GMW 1.220.


24 It happened that in ancient times the Greeks were music lovers; but later, with the breakdown of order, when practically all the an cient customs fell into decay, this devotion to principle ceased, and debased fashions in music came to light, wherein everyone who practiced them substituted effeminacy for gentleness, and license and looseness for moderation. What is more, this fashion w ill doubtless be carried further if someone does not bring the music of our forebears once more to open practice. 21 music tradition are striking. Someone could at first conclude that this is nothing but the conservatives of all times who rant against innovation or progress in art and suspect corruption whenever their traditionalist tastes are not old days their ancestors. 22 However, we must not discard the possibility of a moral import from music without having review ed the evidence. After all, both ancient and modern critics do not only speak in terms of old and new but assert that there is and human nature does not change so quickly as to invalidate gene ral statements about it over the centuries. They speak of musical laws, order, and principles of the art, qualities of gentleness, looseness, lawlessness, individualism, and performers only straining f or effect on the masses in the place of 21 Ath. 631e 632b, tr. GMW 1.291; 633bc, tr. Gulick 1950, both with slight adaptations. These complaints will be discussed with more detail in the first section of Chapter 3. 22 This last point continues to be true throughout the history of music: from Bach to Stravinsky ythmical spontaneity (to mention only two out of an infinity of possible examples), any innovation first raised eyebrows (to say the least) before becoming itself part of the tradition defended by posterior generations. With regard to popular music, Scruto n admits that runge and Heavy Metal will surel y leave the innocent melodies (italics are mine) melodies against which Theodor Adorno had vigorously raised his vo ice (id., 497).


25 23 These are elements that go beyond individual preferences and suggest the possibility of some sort of objective assessment. metaphy sical intuition and in the ancient and contemporary discussion: first, that music is considered to possess a particular power which is experienced by rational beings, 24 and secondly that, even independently from lyrics (meaning here text to be sung), music is held to 25 i.e. to be susceptible to both reflect ing and causing something either good or bad. 26 strong one and either helpful or not, is commonplace and par t of everyday experience. 27 Much thornier is the task of investigating what this power exactly consists of where it stems from, why and how it works, 28 and then why and how this power translates into value. This, however, will require first an understanding of what we here mean by 23 Already here be noted that t he Greek term as Barker justly points out in n. 158 to the text quoted above (see n. 21 e discussion May it be made clear here that characteriz authors have used and are not necessarily to be considered appropriate from a modern point of view. 24 We will leave aside the question whether music has any significant impact on plants or animal s. 25 or Latin vis (or virtus ) terms that again can mean simply 26 A deeper analysis of unexplained and to be understood in the broadest sense, will be given in the last section of Chapter 2. 27 Everyone will have experienced his or her spirits raised by some uplifting tune or the danger of 28 Countless publications endeavor to show and explain this phenomenon in popular terms; just to name a few: Tame 1984, Storr 1992, Jourdain 1997, Levitin 2006, Powell 2010, Ball 2010, Manne s 2011. Scientific literature in areas such as neurophysiology, music psychology, and music therapy will be referenced in Chapter 5.


26 music 29 and what role music plays on the individual and social level. By analyzing these levels and their subdivisions we then will discover that music can serve certain 30 which need to be distinguished; its presumed con tribution to a healthy culture and society is only one of many functions, for these can be as disparate as are marching hymns and love songs, or else serve as pain relief or a stimulant for buying ul ly it leads to the effect in its intended function. 31 And this effect, as we shall see, often depends on the emotions that music stirs up in human beings which for its part, inevitably directs us to the quite complex and much debated question about how music and emotions are related Regardless of whether the capacity of human beings to organize sound (as distinct from random noise) in an appealing way is a result of evolutionary processes 32 or a divine gift bestowed on them along with human nature by a C reator, 33 philosophers, 29 For our purpose I will not need to enter into the debate of delineating the boundaries of what could or should be conside red music at all and what not and for what reasons; on the difficulty of doing this satisfactorily see e.g. Ball 2010, 9 10; 340 343, although we will need to consider the definition of music later (see also for t his the last section in Chapter 2. 30 Scruton 1997, 458 introduces it: a purpose is a consciously intended end of a thing or an activity, functions such as relaxation or the training of social interaction, but is usually considered not to have any purpose beyond the game itself. 31 enjoyment of pure music is included. I am not promoting a mere utilitarian or functionalistic concept of art but respond to the fact that music does exercise multiple functions and is o ften times, with disregard to the purposefully engaged for these. 32 Attempts to explain the origin of music by phylogenic processes in Darwinian terms do not show convincingly survival advantages. One could also make th e case that the benefits of music developed out ather than the capacity out of a vital need for them. See e.g. Cross in OHMP 3 13; Budd 1985, 55ff. 33 This idea is found both in the classical Greek tradition (e.g. ps. Plut. 1 is in all respects a noble thing, and the invention [ ] of the on p. 415 ; see Dring 1958, 176). Of course, more explanations for the origin of music than evolution and


27 neurologists, and psychologists remain perplexed when trying to explain why human self produced acoustic stimuli can be so emotionally charged, 34 much more immediately and universally than language 35 or pieces of art addressing other senses. 36 T he next puzzle emerges whether we can identify specific characteristics within music that elicit particular emotional reactions, or whether these reactions are all conditioned by extra musical circumstances such as acquired associations, habits, or cultural conventions. 37 The status of the emotions aroused by music causes a further headache: are they the ones of the composer, or of the performer, or of the listener, or do they somehow lie just in the music itself, or is it a combination of all thes e? Are they the same, or similar, or memories of emotions which stem from other causes? 38 And finally (and most creation have been suggested by ancient autho rs, e.g. the imitation of birds, insects (cf. Roscalla 1998), etc. 34 Oliver Sacks, clinical professor of Neurology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, ave, as (2006, 2532). 35 See e.g. Patel 2008 36 Schopenhauer 1818/1844 ( Eng. 1966) offers a very original explanation of why music is much more powerful than other arts (because it supposedly connects us directly to the will that acts behind all things while other arts connect only to individual ideas), which we will not discuss here. What can be said in general is that certain visual products in forms of images or piece s of literature at times move stronger than music, but this is because of some drastic content they display; the ordinary observation remains true that visual arts leave us much more unaffected than music, which arouses without any specific content. An exp lanation of this, based on the evolutionary anthropological significance of each of the senses, is attempted by Kivy 1990, 3 1 2, concluding that our ear has just enough discriminative power to interpret meaning (but not necessarily representational like th e eyes) and shares the non interpretational common denominator for the senses in their conformity with harmonia with sight and hearing dominant (e. g. ps. Plut. Mus 25.1140a b). 37 It may be said already now that if all were externally conditioned, the singular emotional effect of music would remain utterly unexplained because the effect would depend on anything but music itself, similar to the behavi orist fallacy that any human action could be explained merely from without. The problem lies, this works. 38 All of these questions are discussed by present day psychological and musicological research as reviewed in the OHME and by music philosophers as in Kivy 1990 and Budd 1985 who review the main positions held by music theorists throughout the past hundred years.


28 important for us) we would need to tie musical emotions to the value they have with regard to a determined function. For while it is a common h uman experience that emotions can have a positive or negative influence on human life, it presents no easy feat to sort out the factors within music that are said to give it a particular value, especially on the moral level. We will be able to address thes e intricate problems only synthetically at the end of our study which nevertheless should provide the apparatus to appraise the different positions and gain a clearer idea of what we can say or not, value of music. 39 is probably as old as the ability of humans to produce music. 40 As pointed out above, modern critics not infrequently take recourse to judgments from ancient times. If th at is not done simply to add to their argument the weight of history, we should be able to offer good reasons for beginning an assessment of music value with antiquity. Even though there exists a strong similar stand in the cultures of China and India, 41 Gr eco Roman music theory appears to be the most appropriate point of reference for our investigation for the following reasons First, our own Western civilization is built on the foundations of ancient Greece and Rome, wherefore in thought and development t hey are more directly communicable to us And when these authors describe the value of music, they do so in terms which for the most part, are shared by human beings of all 39 Again, t clarification, which will be given later. 40 as our literary sources bri 41 See NOHM 1.86 87 (China), 196 199 (India), and Tame 1984 (33 71 China; 170 186 India) who gathers much material but whose work is p oor in terms of referencing his evidence and scientific apparatus; see also Sachs 1943, 105 194. The developments i n Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt are for a good part interrelated with Greece and Rome.


29 times and cultures. Secondly, as we shall see, music was a dominant ingredient of everyday life during antiquity, perhaps more than in other cultures, and this resembles our current situation. At least it is from Greco Roman civilization that we preserve the greatest amount of information about a universal usage of music. 42 Third ly and this reason has particular weight the ancient authors who developed the most significant (and a quite sophisticated) music theory, both regarding the technical and the ethical dimension, appear to be those of Greek and Roman times. 43 Supposing a substant ially unchanged interior constitution of human nature at least for the past few millennia, human sciences such as p hilosophy, p sychology, h istory, e thnology, etc., continue to profit from the achievements and theories of antiquity, given their keen insight s into human nature and society, for present day questions. Especially in the area of philosophy, the recourse to Greco Roman antiquity has been constant. As regards music, the amount of reference to ancient authors during the Renaissance and growing inter est in recent scholarship 44 indicate that the investigation of the power and effects of music should take into account what ancient music theory had to say about it. Fortunately, the surviving pertinent texts of ancient authors are by now readily accessible 45 and have been commented on and discussed. 42 Cantatur ac saltatur per omnis gentes aliquot modo 43 This statement is strengthened rather than diminished by the fact that later authors, especially since the Renaissance, depend directly on writings from Greek and Roman times and develop them further. Their contributions must for the most part remain outside of the scope of the present work for little has been added by them in the area of the ethical aspects of music. Other cultures such as China or India have developed their own musical theory, which, with its natural differences, runs astoundingly parallel to the Mediterra nean 44 See for a brief summary Mathiesen 1999, 1 6. 45 Especially in Barker 1984/2004, Strunk 1998, and Mark 2008 as well as Mathiesen 1999 and Wille 1967; for Christian authors see McKinnon 1987.


30 The Greeks first systematic ally theorized about music in all its dimensions (except, apparently, for harmony in the modern sense) 46 Scholarship has explored ancient Greek (and, to a lesser degree, Roman) music al ready to a great extent, 47 but what ancient theorists expounded concerning the moral or ethical implications and consequences of music has been studied relatively little 48 Each of the major works by Abert, Lippman, and Anderson his study was written almos t 50 years ago is limited in one way or another, and I have not found much research that would have undertaken either philo sophically or scientifically, a systematic evaluation or judgment. It seems appropriate, therefore, to assemble the ancient positi ons on the power and value of music for the first time as completely as possible so as to gain a solid understanding and appreciation of their tenets on musical value. On the other end of the historical timeline, over the past few decades the amount of con temporary scientific research and popular literature on the power of music has skyrocketed, and as we have seen from some examples, the issue of the ethical value of music has been the object of considerable polemics in the public square. A wealth of empir ical material has been gathered in the areas of neurophysiological brain analysis, 49 eth n omusicology, and music psychology, 50 and a host of field studies 46 ethos possess a maturity and philosophical 47 For an extensive bibliography with the most prominent scholarship on Greek music see Mathiesen 1999; for newer publications, to my knowledge no comprehensive bibliogr aphy exists. 48 Mainly in Abert 1899; Lippman 1963 and 1964; Anderson 1966; Mathiesen 1984; Barker 2005. All of these works proceed in chronological order and do not provide a systematic approach (except, to a certain extent, the ones by Abert and Barker). 49 See e.g. Koelsch 2005, Thaut 2005, Patel 2008, and the pertaining chapters in the OHME and OHMP. 50 A good survey on the current state of research give the OHMP and OHME.


31 accompanies the sustained rise of music therapy 51 as an attractive alternative or complement to tradition al medical treatment for certain pathological phenomena. A mult itude of other branches benefits from the results of these sciences, among them education, 52 the movie industry, and advertising. 53 One should expect, therefore, that modern human science contrib utes important answers to the above mentioned questions that have presented themselves upon undertaking the task of evaluating music. In view of this development, it is surprising that no significant attempt has yet been made to confront the considerations of ancient authors 54 and their presuppositions as analyzed by classical scholars with the research results within contemporary human science. 55 cum grano salis simply because they suffer fro m the limited scientific knowledge of their time; on compartmentalization that runs the danger of losing that holistic view which allowed peoples of the past to connect realities fro m different sectors of learning into a meaningful whole and from there again find deeper explanations for the individual 51 For a first overview on this vast field may serve Wigram/Pedersen/Bonde 2002 and W heeler 2005. 52 See e.g. Mark 2008 and McPherson 2006. 53 See e.g. Packard 1957 54 Contemporary authors who elaborate on music and its power in general (see those mentioned above in n. 28 ) do draw at times from both ancient text s and the experimental sciences but often in a rather eclectic way and without sufficient methodological or philosophical penetration. 55 starting point but published in the not very high profile journal of the German Orff society, does not appear to have found any resonance (even though also published in English translation); see also Meinecke 1948; Gamberini 1996. The standard works on music therapy, music and emotion, and music and education almost completely pass over authors of antiquity, apart from occasional generic references Republic and Laws Politics Very few se em to have taken note of other authors such as the Aristides Quintilianus


32 realities. 56 An interdisciplinary approach presents certainly the challenges of acquiring sufficient knowledge to assess the state of af fairs in each area and of dedicating adequate attention to each problem while maintaining the focus on the overall objective. 57 The present study will attempt, therefore, to prepare an encounter between these hitherto largely unconnected disciplines of clas sical philology and those sciences mentioned above which in the field of music all pursue their specific purposes, so as to combine the valid contributions of each towards a better understanding of the value of music. This preparation consists principally in a new and to the extent of what is possible by point or author by author comparison with modern science would exceed the possibilities of this already substantial volume, but at least some general hints for further development are given at the end. In a first part I will illustrate the view Greek and Roman authors take about music, concretely its role in cu lture, its power, and ultimately its value. I will first analyze characteristics given to music by literary works ( Chapter 2 ) and then present and discuss all significant writings that raise the topic of musical value directly ( Chapters 3 4 ) The second p art ( Chapter 5 ) will propose an integrated system between music, ethos, and emotion and identify questions to be considered by the aforementioned sciences without yet being able to explore their positions and results in full; but the 56 part, in Chrm. 156e 157a. 57 A well structured diagram of the sciences invol ved in the study of music can be found in Hodges/Sebald 2011, 4.


33 interface will be pro vided and the stage opened for further study in order to address, in a systematic manner, the various problems involved. One point about the delimitation of the treatment of music should be made clear : since our quest is whether music possesses intrinsic c haracteristics which on an objective level, can have a positive or negative effect on the human person we eliminate from our discourse the discussion of lyrics (text sung in musical pieces) and other extra musical factors and try to look at what music d oes by its inner qualities. 58 Nevertheless part of our investigation will be that these qualities are often seen to be effective precisely through some sort of relationship (e.g. through mim sis) to extra musical realities as well as the relationship betw een music and other factors A few technical note s : I have included many original language citations and terms so as to allow the knowledgable reader to appreciate the precise formulation and terminology which in translated form loses clarity and precision A ll translations from other languages are my own, unless stated otherwise. I have unified the Latin spelling sentences begin with a capital letter. Modern lang uage translations are referenced in footnotes with the translator and the year of publishing, even though the bibliography will list the item under the name of the ancient author. Special citation modes are indicated at the beginning of the section where t he corresponding author is discussed (in Chapter 3 ). For spellings of proper names I am following the OCD. For the plural of 58 This is basically the same demarcation as in Kivy 1990, 15 29.


34 CHAPTER 2 THE EFFECT OF MUSIC IN GREEK AND ROMAN L ITERATURE Music has been an integral component of life in all cultures and all times. 1 About seventeen centuries ago, Aristides Quintilianus describes the presence of music within the life of the ancient Greeks in these terms: There is certainly no action among men that is carried out without music. Sacred hymns and offerings are adorned with music, specific feasts and the festal assemblies of cities ex ult in it, wars and marches are both aroused and composed through music. It makes sailing and rowing and the most difficult of the handicrafts not burdensome by providing an encouragement for the work. It has even been employed by some of the barbarians in their funeral rites to break off the extreme of passion by means of melody. 2 This list is far from complete but it gives an idea of the multiplicity of contexts in which music was present at the time and to a certain extent still is today. While singing and playing instruments or listening to it had a well established part in culture since the dawn of civilized life, 3 the amount culture since the 1960s is an astounding phenomenon. A p assion, one could almost say obsessio n, with music has become a widespread phenomenon, as Allan Bloom describes it: Nothing is more singular about this generation than its addiction to music. 1 The in the GMM (at the end of section 3.7 ), or a cultural universal ( at the end of 1.5). Hodges/Sebald 2011, 19 go as far as to say: 2 Mus. 2.4 57. 23 31, tr. Mathiesen 1983, 120 Barker in GMW 2.461 translates in the first sentence would perhaps reflect best this ambiguity in English. In t he second sentence, no English translation can mirror the association that or (Barker), which is the order of the cosmos into which music transports the worshiper mean that h is first sentence lacks foundation in observation or experience of the author. 3 Athens but throughout the Greek city 16 ( Anderson 1994, 160). In antiquity, the lack of musical knowledge equaled lack of education (cf. Ar. Eq. 985 995; Cic. Tusc. 1.2.4; Arch. 9.20; Quint. 1.10.19 21; see also Wille 1967, 452).


35 Today, a very large proportion of young people between the ages of ten and twenty live for music. It is their passion; nothing else excites them as it ailable twenty four hours a day, everywhere. There is the stereo in the home, in the car; there are concerts; there are music videos, with special channels exclusively devoted to them, on the air nonstop; there are the Walkmans so that no place not public transportation, not the library prevents students from communing with the Muse, even while studying. 4 It might still evoke surprise that Seneca the Younger attests already for the Romans ed to or made music all day long. 5 These testimonies suggest that the omnipresence of music in our present society is felt in a similar way as the role it played in Greco Roman culture. But why is this significant? Bloom continues: Civilization or, to say the same thing, education is the taming or not suppressing or excising them which would deprive the soul of its energy but forming and informing them as art. The goal of harmonizing the enthusiastic part of the sou l with what develops later, the rational part, is perhaps impossible to attain. But without it, man can never be whole. Music, or poetry which is what music becomes as reason emerges, always involves a delicate c, as everyone experiences, provides an unquestionable justification and a fulfilling pleasure for the activities it accompanies: the soldier who hears the marching band is enthralled and reassured; the religious man is exalted in his prayer by the sound o f the organ in the church; and the lover is carried away and his conscience stilled by the romantic guitar. Armed with music, man can damn rational doubt. Out of the music emerge the gods that suit it, and they educate men by their example and their comman dments. 6 Plato, some 2000 years ago, expressed comparable idea: Rhythm and melodic order penetrate most deeply into the recesses of the soul and take a powerful hold on it, bringing gracefulness and making a man graceful if he is correctly trained, but the 4 Bloom 1987, 68. 5 Dial. 10.12.4. See also Wille 1967, 350 351. 6 Bloom 1987, 71 72.


36 man who has been properly trained in these matters would perceive most sharply things that were defective, and badly crafted or badly grown, and his displeasure would be justified. He would praise and rejoice in fine things and would receive them into his soul and be nourished by them, becoming fine and good: but he would rightly condemn ugly things, and hate them even when he was young, before he was able to lay hold on reason. And when reason grew, the person trained in t his way would embrace it with enthusiasm, recognising it as a familiar friend. 7 This theory that music connects with human passions, orders them (or excites them, as we shall see), and hence influences significantly the interior dispositions and behavior of human beings, even though mysterious in the how, suggests that both its ubiquity and its powerful impact on the individual and society should make it an important object of observation, investigation, and, as Plato and Aristotle (and not only they) 8 wou ld add, legislation. Our path will lead us from observation to investigation, and f or obvious Here is not the place to explain in detail the nature of Greek music with respect to it s history, the different genres, instruments, and the technical intricacies of harmonic systems, tones, modes, and notation. For all of this, very competent guides are available in abundance. 9 Literature on Roman music is much scarcer 10 but Gnther 7 Resp. 401d 402a, tr. GMW 1.135 with a slight adaptation; similarly Arist. Pol. 8.5.5 8 E.g. Cicero. One m ay recall here the restrictions on music made by the Catholic Church and other religious institutions in order to withhold secular spirit from the liturgical setting. In secular context, censorship on music, especially since the breakdown of the Soviet Union, is nowaday s virtually nonexistent; legal prosecution is limited to concomitant elements such as images, videos, or texts when deemed offensive of legally protected values or people. 9 Barker (GMW volumes 1 & 2) assembles an anthology of primary texts on Greek musi c with very detailed and instructive introductions and footnotes. West 1992 presents the first thorough discussion of Greek music in all its different aspects. Anderson 1994 gives a survey on Greek music performance based on archeological and literary reco rds. Comotti ( 1989 an amplified English translation of an original work in Italian from 1979) represents a rather general overview but includes also Roman music, though only in rather generic terms. Good and concise is Neubecker 1994 (in Ger.). Mat hiesen 1999 offers another detailed description of music in Greek life, dedicating more than half of the voluminous tomus to the discussion of music theory from Aristoxenus down to Byzantine times. See also the OCD


37 Wille p rovides in his monumental study 11 most of the necessary information. We will therefore only recall in generic traits the different contexts in which music occurs in antiquity so as to provide the proper environment for the subsequent discussion of effect an d value. In the following account, chronology will only be considered when certain usages are bound to particular historical periods. Since the scope is merely phenomenological, we do not need to separate Greek and Roman sources or distinguish between fict ional and non fictional references because both reflect in their own way how the anci ents experienced and used music, as long as it remains clear that not all uses existed or had the same importance at all times. 1003 1012 and GMM 10.327 348. These and W ille (see below n. 11 ) have been my main sources for the material exposed in the following pages. 10 For an overview and bibliographical references in general see GMM 21.606 614. Some recent titles are Moore 2012; Rocconi 2010; Scoditti 2009. 11 In his 799 page opus, Wille 1967 has exhaustively collected and systematically presented over 4000 literary references on music in ancient Rome along with archaeological, epigraphic and numismatic evidence It is to regret that no English translation of this study has ever been provided. His work has been included dutifully in the pertinent bibliographies, but few scholars seem to have ploughed through this treasure box and drawn the corresponding conclusions (see e.g. Landels 1999, 172 wh o still holds pervading relevance for music on one page; Wi lle is considered adequately in GMM 21.606). While the main thrust in Mountford 1965), its great value lies in detailed descriptions of Roman musical life and thought along with all original Latin and Greek fulltext quotations in the footnotes carmen or cantare do not always signify music but may refer to something spoken or recited. Wille addresses this briefly at the beginning (38 39) and admits that the distinction is difficult; this brings about that some of his witnesses may lose their conclusiveness. However, a vast majority of undisputable references keeps most of his arguments fully intact. In Wille 1977 this documentation is molded into a chronological account, including a survey of scholarship up to the date of publication.


38 What Music Does Phenomenological Survey The Place of Music in Greek and Roman Culture Music plays a predominant role in the ancient Greek 12 way of life, much more than is usually considered. 13 rather than scientific, and Greek art was 14 Lohmann traces even the development of the Greek alphabet back to the musical sense of the Greeks by adapting the Semitic consonant charac ters into a new system. 15 Friedrich Nietzsche 16 has seen in the spirit of music the birthplace for Greek poetry (and tragedy 17 and his ofte n cited intuition about the opposite poles of Apollonian and Dionysian character describes two extremes between which not only Greek music, but all of Greek life oscillates. 18 12 What will be said about Greece applies, mutatis mutandis, to Rom e as well insofar as t here was a direct continuation of Greek culture transmitted through the Hellenistic educational system which was in place with few variations until the end of antiquity (c f. Marrou 1956 95 96) Roman particularities will receive mention whe rever serving the purposes of the present work. 13 West 1992, 1 2 lists aulos a reed 14 Marrou 1956 41 15 Lohmann 1980 168 169 H e calls this a nodal point in world history, comparable to the ignitio n of the first atomic bomb or the landing on the moon the Athenian form of polis (in contrast to the Semitic Phoenician) and also to the logic analytical way of thought. 16 Nietzsche 1872. 17 Higgins 1986, 663. 18 understand them, a balance b etween the two is not possible. Jaeger 1954, 248 (in vol. 2) gives a different interpretation (rational Symposium.


39 The Romans for their part not only inherited the rich Greek musical and poetic t radition in its Hellenistic form but also made their own contributions, partially dependent, partially independent from the East. 19 A general characteristic of Roman musical performance is, for example, its tendency to magnify everything up to bombastic dim ensions. 20 In our survey we will give Homer, the point of reference for almost everything in the classical world, the pride of place in gathering a first panorama; 21 then we will widen the horizon and see how music generally was present in Greek and Roman so ciety, before assembling more systematic ally the characteristics and effects that were attributed to the different appearances of music. At the end of this section, table 2 1 collects in summaric form the various usages, and figure 2 1 illustrates the func tions. When, How, and to which Effect Music Is Used Music enters the historical scene of the Mediterranean world through bards or aiodoi 22 wandering singers of old and new stories about mythological and 19 For a detailed discussion of the originality and presence of music in Roman culture see Wil le 1967. 20 This can be verified by comparing classical Greece and Hellenistic Rome in the variety and amount of instruments used (especially in the areas of cult, military, and theater), the luxury and refinement of instrument production (see Wille 1967, 1 73 174), and the level of artistic virtuosity as guaranteed by professional artists (id. 327 332). Carinus maintained an orchestra with hundreds of musicians (Vopiscus, Carus et Carinus et Numerianus 19.2 3); for this we find Hellenistic precedents such as Ptolemy Philadelphos (Athen. 5.201f: a procession choir of 600, among them 300 kitharists ). The multitudinous accumulation of musicians in theaters seems common (cf. Sen Ep. 84.10). Eccentricity at times joined dilettantism into such absurd phenomena as N 338). 21 of sound vocabulary) with their rich quantity of sound characterizations hardly reached in later au thors who, for their part, rely much on the Homeric tradition. 22 Analogous to medieval custom, they would sing at the courts of the ancient kings and nobles. They were followed in the fifth century by the so called rhapsodes who would no more sing but reci te, although Plato applies that term already Ion 533c for Phemius in Od 1.154, passim) ; c f. Barker 1984, 18 ; OCD 1005 1006. It may be pointed out that in ancient India (referring to the first centuries BC) poetry was always recited and sun g by bards in accompaniment of different instruments and at times dancers (see MGG Sachteil 4.664).


40 (semi)historical events: epic battles and adventures are told and retold at royal courts or public celebrations. Bards recite melodiously in verse, accompanying themselves on the phorminx or the lyra 23 T hose performances constitute a privileged form of entertainment which elicits excitement and not infreque ntly moves to tears (e.g. Od. 1.336; 8.83 95, 521 541). The first of these bards whose texts 24 have come down to us is known to us as Homer. 25 We learn from him not only about his own profession 26 but also something about the general role that music making p layed at the time he narrates or at least in which he lived. The Iliad and the Odyssey Iliad. exotic travels, is full of music. In the Iliad 27 to be sure, the context is predominant ly war and battle: A whole day long young Achaeans are singing and dancing to secure the benevolence of the god Apollo (1.472 473); Trojan soldiers are playing instruments during the night at the campfire (10.11 13); the Achaeans celebrate their victory wi th a paean (22.391 4); we learn about the custom of a war dance (7.241) 28 and witness a 23 For a detailed treatment of these and other stringed instruments of the time and the use of these terms by the ancient authors, see Barker 1984, 4 14; Wes t 1992, 48 80; Anderson 1994, 171 17 9. 24 the custom in German editions, calling them Gesnge ) English translations such as by La ttimore or Murray 25 For the discussion about the authorship of Iliad and Odyssey see Powell 2007 who holds that the singer of both was the same man ( xv), and Morris 2011. It may be noticed that music in the Odyssey exhales much more pleasure and delight, mostly linked to joyous social gatherings. 26 Cf., for instance, his frequent references to singers at banquets, especially in Od. 1.153 15 5, 325 32 6, 421 42 2; 4.17 1 9; 8.43 4 7, 62 6 1, 248 369, 471 541, 9.3 7, 17.261 2 71, 358 35 9, 605 60 6, 22.330 3 53, and h is alleged self references in Od. 8.62 6 5 and in the H om. H ymn to Apollo 3.1 72. 27 T extual quotes are from the Lattimore translations 1962 and 1967 respectively 28 At least interpreted as such by Barker 1984, 28 n. 28


41 terrorizing trumpet like war cry (18.219 222). 29 It does not appear unusual that a warrior accompanying himself on the phorminx (9.186 191), 30 while Paris earns some scoffing for his effeminate character to which belongs his music making (3.54, 393 394), and aces, the (24.261). weeps over her son in a threnody (18.51 66) and so does Achilles himself ove r Patroclus (18.314 318; 23.17 lament his death with a dirge (24.721 776). But apart from the war narrative, the Iliad here we find songs and dance at a wedding (18.493 496) 31 herdsmen making music (18.526), a musical harvest procession (18.569 572), and the dancing and singing of young men and girls in a festive celebration (18.593 605). 32 Music features as a gift from the gods as much as warfare (13.730 29 In 3.1 9, there is a contrast between the yelling Trojans and the silent Achaeans; cf. the discussion of music in war in Gell. 1.11.1 7. 30 Ovid has Briseis reproach Achilles for doing this instead of fighting: Ep. 3.113 116. 31 The use of the lyre for a wedding is also attest ed in 24.63. 32 A similar reference to girls dedicated to singing and dancing occurs in 16.179 1 83, a contrasting aside in the mi dd le of a battle scene.


42 (1.601 604). Hence the Muse(s) 33 need(s) to be invoked by the singing poet 34 as is first attested in Homer and thenceforth conventionally done thus the first two introduces itself with precisely these words. Odyssey. W hile in the Iliad these carefree and pleasant performances are restricted to the gods and meta representations, the Odyssey offers copious examples for music at banquets 35 and other joyful celebrations (8.253, 370 384), 36 including a (fake) wedding (23.133 1 36) and at times the bards' names are mentioned (Phemius and Demodocus). The Phaea c ians practice a sort of musical ball game (6.100 101) 37 and Circe in 10.221, 227, 254 255), but the most renowned chants in the Odyssey are probably the magically uttered songs by the Sirens (12.39 54, 183 198). There is also an example of healing a wound by singing a charm over it ( ) (19.457). 38 33 Often they are invoked in the singular (eg. Il. 1.1, Od. 1.1; Verg. Aen. 1.8), sometimes in the plural ( e.g. Hes. Theog. 1ff, 36ff; Op. 1 4 ), depending whether the poet has one particular Muse in mind (such as Theog. 79), Muse of epic poetry ( Ant. Pal. 9.504, 505), or all nine, or a collective noun for a plu ral; cf. OCD 1002. 34 Impiety towards the Muses is sanctioned with serious consequences, as Homer tells us about the Thracian Thamyris, the only singer mentioned by name in the Iliad, who for his boasting was maimed and deprived of voice and memory (2.594 6 00). Anderson 1994, 29 holds him to be the first identifiable bard whatsoever. Whether the fact that professional singers else do not feature in the Iliad (in contrast to the Odyssey) is more due to the different plot setting than to reflecting a different stage of musical development (as seems to be suggested by Anderson ibid., 24), may remain undecided; notice that in the Odyssey music making is not limited to professionals. 35 S ee references in n. 26 above 36 Singing and danc ing: 14.463 46 5 (as a result of drinking wine); 18.304 (suitors) 37 Barker 1984, 24 classifies it as such though the only indication to music ( cf. Il. 18.606, the only other references in LSJ f aspect is more explicit in the game description at Od. 8.473 484; West 1992, 28 supports interpretation. 38 See the comment and the note on this passage in Anderson 1994, 30 31 with reference to similar customs in Russia and e lsewhere in Europe. This passage is taken up as a first of several examples by


43 While in the Iliad we observed traces of depreciation of music, in the Odyssey the singer is instead explicitly defended and praised; 39 he is said to deserve special respect since his skill is of divine origin (8.44 45, 62 64, 73, 474 481, 487 500; 9.3 4; 17.270 271; 22.345 349). 40 When Odysseus invites Demodocus to discontinue his performance of its content (the lyrics) which has been saddening Odysseus (and Penelope in 1.337 344) and not because somethi prowess is questioned : 41 Antiquity in general 42 il and are finding an already quite representative assembly of occasions and ways in which music occurs throughout Greek and even Roman society in later times, except for some more specialized forms Plin. NH 28.2.21. It remains to be seen what is supposed to elicit the effect: the charm or the tune, or the combination of both; the former seems to be the case in Cato Agr. 16 0, and a whole series of rites is found in Varro Rust. 1.2.17. 39 B y Telemachus in 1.346 50; by Odysseus in 9.4 8 40 We are told that t he lyre was made by the gods to be a companion of feasting: 17.271, also 8.99; the ( ) (17.3 59), inspired ( ) (8.499) god of Phemius in Od. 22.347 348). 41 ire careful analysis; see below in Chapter 3 the section on Aristotle. 42 In this section, primary references are generally meant to be examples only, so I abstain from adding material from archeology or art (especially v ase paintings) could be added, but for this I am d eferring to the specialized literature listed in n. 9


44 that develop subsequently such as choral poetry and drama A syst e ma tized survey without any encyclopedic ambitions may complete the picture we have gained so far. 43 beyond consisted of song, solo or in a group or choir and often times accompanied by at least one instrument (commonly either the phorminx /lyre or the aulos ), and at certain occasions it goes along with dance. Pure instrumental performances do not occur in Homer but must have existed early; 44 later they will be censured by Pl ato. 45 Initially, the text prevails over the music, 46 and the inversion of this from the fifth century onward will 47 Ensemble music may have existed, but we know little about it. 48 In Hellenistic and Roman times, the variety of instruments and 43 Fo r a fuller account see for instance Barker 1984 and West 1992, 13 38 (ch apter ) llows levels of publicity: public festivals, private ceremonial, domestic personal use, and music accompanying activity. My order is guided by themes, which prepares better the posterior analysis according to characteristics. 44 Mathiesen 1999, 24 25; Anderson 1994, 66 mentions the nomos aul tikos as an aulos solo apparently 638a. 45 The reasons for this will be discussed below in the section on Plato For more on the interrelation between song and accompaniment see Barker 1984, 52 53 Anderson 1994, 37 and West 1992, 205 comment on preluding songs on the phorminx 46 Cf. Pind. Ol. 2.1 ing over the phorminx 47 Cf. Resp. 398d; 400a d ; Leg. 669b 6 70a. Wille 1967, 219 claims that the Romans had freed music from any subordination to the text melodies surpassed recitation and that in certain contexts the composer was different from the poet does not yet tell too much about the general nature of the text melody relationship in Rome when compared to the classical Greek tradition. 48 See Anderson 1994, 141 142 and 183 with refe aulos and kithara (mentioned in Ol. 3.8 9, 7.11 12) ; but he also argues that the aulos would have overpowered the strings; see for positive evidence Sapph. fr. 44.24 ion from 1982); GMW 1.12 n. 13 to Xen. Symp. in Ath. 14. 618a b (see GMW 1.274 275 with nn. 66, 68, 71).


45 forms and also the amount of musicians at certain occasions increases until the peak of this development which can be established around the time of Augustus. 49 Festivities. The tradition of professional bards singing songs with epic content in private or public settings continues after Homer even though the rhapsodes limited themselves to recitation. 50 The value of the bard or poet lies, beyond entertainment, in the fact that they perpetuate the fame of heroes at least an impor tant feature of the assertion from Pindar to Horace. 51 The tradition of poets singing to the lyre is still attested for Roman times (Pliny Ep. 1.15.2, 9.40.2). 52 From Hesiod we first learn about singing contests of poets ( Op. 651 7), and also ins trumentalists competed for prizes. 53 Musical contests will take up still much greater 49 So the chronological account in Wille 1977. 50 According to Barker 1984, 18 19, recitation of entire epics coexists wit h a musical rendering of shorter pieces: I n the hands of Terpander and Archilochus, and their successors, musical performances of Homeric excerpts were transformed from bard chanting into fully melodic pieces for a solo singer, accompanying himself on the kithara. was no more sung but recited. 51 Pind.; Hor. Carm. 4.9.25 28 carent quia vate sacro For a discussion of this point, with particular 0 and 32. 52 Wille 1967 discusses whether poems by Catullus (220 222), Virgil (225 227), and Horace (234 253, 281) were sung by the poets themselves or by contemporaries, and his conclusion in each case is affirmative. According to his analysis, Horace esta blished in Rome Aeolian lyric as artistic song with instrumental accompaniment and thus created the artistic achievement of original Roman music (id. 253). The evidence, which Wille collects for a sustained tradition of singing ancient poetry throughout th e Middle Ages down to the twentieth century is impressive. In this context should also be mentioned the significance of ancient pagan poetry for the development of Christian hymnody, especially in Hilarion, Ambrose, and Prudentius (Wille 1967, 288 305). 53 West 1992, 19 20. This is a particularity of Greek culture which was a see e.g. the study by Cohen 1995 who contrasts the Athenian ethos with customs in other cultural traditions. Mythology also includes examples of musical contests between divinities, e.g. the satyr supposedly eng aged in singing competitions (Theoc. Id. 5; Verg. Ecl. 3, 5), something, which seems to have roots in real practice (see Wille 1967, 118). This spirit spilled over to Rome. Ovid tells the contest between the Pierides and Muses (Ov. Met. 5.308 664. With Ner o, musical competition found a particularly enthusiastic promoter and even participant (Tac. Ann. 14.14 33; Suet. Ner. 20 5 ; Dio Cass. 61 3; Wille 1967, 338 50, see also below on p. 181 ), which was continued under several emperors; Dom itian introduced the Capitoline music competitions (Suet. Dom. 4.4).


46 dimensions during the sixth century BC when at city festivals entire choirs will compete against each other, as we know from Athens and elsewhere. 54 With or without competi tion, it is attested since the eighth century that public festivals, of which include processional songs (prosodia), hymns, and other choral performances which are dedicated for the most part either, as a paean, to Apollo or, as a dithyramb, to Dionysus These joyous cultic festivals, often connected with sports and games, are imitating the feasts and musical celebrations of the gods as described by Hesiod ( Theog. 1ff, 36ff) and in the Hom eric Hymns ( Apollo 3.182ff, 513ff). 55 They extend from established periodic religious festivals to celebrating, privately or in public, military or athletic victories (Pind. Ol. 9.1 4, Pyth. 5.106 107) or even outstanding individuals both mythological (Eur. Heracl. 678 684) or historical heroes (Isoc. 9.1) and, increasingly, contemporaries. Alcman at Sparta and Simonides, Pindar, and Bacchylides at various places are preeminent authors of poems which were sung at these occasions. Song often goes along with dance and is accompanied by syrinx, phorminx, or aulos players (Hes Sc. 272 85). Choral song tends to be antiphonal, i.e. the choir sings a refrain 54 See West 1992, 16 20 and CHCL 1. 222 55 The parallelism between divine celebration and festive earthly cult finds an analogy in the liturgy of the Catholic Church, which unfolds explicit (CCC n. 1090) The concept of humans imitating divine music is found in a number of authors, e.g. Cic. Leg. 6.18.18, Q uint. 1.10.12. Appeasing or pleasing the divinity (and at the same time engaging the religious assembly) through music was central throughout antiquity (cf. Wille 1967, 26 73) and, despite some criticism, is continued in Christianity (id. 385 386): God has according to Augustine, a very fine musical sense ( Enarratio II in Ps 32.8; cf. also Enarratio in Ps voce cantamus, ut nos excitemus, corde cantamus, ut illi [Deo] placeamus


47 alternating with the leader who sings the individual verses (Hom. Il. 18.51, 314 6, 24.720 76; Eur. Ion 112 183) or simply different text (Aesch. Pers. 909 1077). 56 In Latin Italy, Greek influence shapes the use of music from the third century BC onward, but even before there are many similarities. We know of sacral poems and musically enriched rituals at festiv als (cf. Catull. 63.19 30, Lucr. 2.618ff), mostly based on Greek or Egyptian traditions. 57 There are convivial songs with mythological historical stories, accompanied by the tibia (comparable to the Greek aulos ). The old ways of citharody and the correspond ing competitions are given a new promotion by the Roman emperors (Suet. Ner. 20ff). While it is certain that Greek musicians are prominent in Rome, we have much proof that the Romans themselves engage extensively in musical activity, including the private sphere of the home (Plin. Ep. 4.19.4, 7.4.89 90). 58 Mythology knows of the intercessory function of chant and dance, 59 and in general s ong devoted to worship therefore has a firm place within pagan Roman celebrations 60 and 56 A form, which again is not exclusive to Greece, cf. e.g. the antipho nal structure of a number of Psalms in the Old Testament (e.g. 42/43, 67, 118, 136), which was continued by the Liturgy of the Hours in the Catholic Church and other forms in Gregorian chant (cf. GMM 5.767 is not used in this meaning before Philo of Alexandria (cf. GMM 1.736 ). More on antiphony in different cultures in OHM 424 (Arabia), 131f (China), 307 11 (Christianity), 260, 262 (Egypt), 234f (Mesopotamia), 139f (Tibet); cf. also Sachs 1943, 92 95; Comotti, 1989, 55; for antiphonal singing of psalms at the time of Augustine see Wille 1967, 373 374; Isido r of Seville attributes the invention of antiphonal singing to the Greeks ( De ecclesiasticis officiis 1.7.1; Etym. 6.19.7) ; Wille (ibid., 377) contests the idea that t he Christians imported from the E ast the melodic pattern as well but holds that they rather used local ones. 57 See Comotti, 1989, 54 58 Wille 1967, 287 and passim. 59 E.g. the Nereids in Verg. Aen. 5.239f; Prop. 1.17.25f ( see Wille 556 557 ). 60 See Wille 197 6 26 74 with a detailed discussion of the different occasions, instruments, and musical groups involved; e.g. Liv 27.37.7 13 (chorus procession), 30.8 15 (Bacchus).


48 blossoms anew in Christian hymnody, always customary in the East but in the West apparently just since the fourth century AD. 61 Death and drama. As the above referenced sections in Homer show, choral chant is not restricted to cheerful occasions but applies also to dirges at funeral processio ns and lamentations over the dead (Aesch. Pers. 935 9 40, Sept. 861ff; Pl. Leg. 800e, 947b c). 62 The earliest use of lyre and aulos and song in general seems to be attested for the celebration of the dead and the cult offered to divinized heroes. 63 Later on, the combination between Dionysian choir lyric (the dithyramb and Satyric dances and acting) and commemorative dirges for heroes (connected with mythology) apparently 61 See n. 52 above; according to Augustine Con f. 9.7, it was Ambrose who first introduced hymnic singing in the West. Prudentius ( Cathemerina 3.81 90, 9.1 6) even even mentions the use of instruments (also in Paulinus Nolensis Carmina 22.9 13 and Venantius Fortunatus Carmina 2.9.53 62), towards whic h the Church fathers had ambiguous feelings (see below the section on Christian authors) Particularly rich is the singing culture in the monastic tradition, beginning with the rule of Caesarius from 534 (Wille 167, 301 302), which then culminates in the de velopment of Gregorian chant and related forms. On the development of Christian hymnody in general see Wille 167, 376 378. Significant is the explicit condemnation of the rejection of non Biblical hymns ( Fourth Council of Toledo 633 AD, can. 13 as cited i n Wille 1967, 378 n. 118 ). H ymns are meant to accompany the faithful throughout the whole day and thus praise God always (Prud. Cathemerina : P raef. 37 39); the Liturgia horarum of the Catholic Church continues this tradition into our days, including hymn t exts written by Prudentius and Ambrose. 62 AQ 2.4 57.29 31 (as quoted in the introduction to this chapter) seems to exclude Greeks from using W 2.462 n. 19; Mathiesen 1983, 120 n. 46 proposes as an example for this Mt 9:23). For Roman times, elegiac lamentations are attested in the context of death, exile, or si m ilar circumstances (Prop. 4.1.73 74; Ov. Pont. 3.4.45 46, elegy personified sings in Ov Rem Am 379), cf. Wille 1967, 282 286, again with many examples for musical settings beyond antiquity. Sorrow may be so strong that song is no more possible; in the case of Orpheus: Stat. Silv. 5.1.204f. In the Christian context, dirges were slowly su bstituted by Psalms or even joyous hymns due to the faith in the resurrection, so much so that the Martyr vigils converted into a substitution of the pagan pervigil, with excesses that Church leaders hastened to quench (cf. id. 381 383). In addition to ac companying the dead, especially the Romans thought that m usic would still be found in the underworld: Verg. Aen. 6.642 64 4; Tib. 1.3.59 60 ; Prop. 1.19.13 14 ; 4.7.61 62 ; Stat. Silv. 5.3.27; Claud. De raptu Proserpinae 1. 328 329. D epictions of Muses on sarco phagi indicate in G reek times that the defunct was an artist; in R oman times that they will help him towards eternal life since music purifies the soul for heaven (Schol. Verg. Aen. 6.119, an idea that is linked to the concept of the music of the spheres ). For the Christian context see August. Ep. 159.3; angels: Hier. Ep. 98.1; saints : Claud. Carmina 2 2.421 422. See also Wille 1967, 544 545. 63 See Anderson 1994, 20 2 3 Of interest are solemn lyric laments in the face of death, as referenced by Anderson 1994 72 for Arion (in Hdt. 1.24.2 6) and in classic tragedy. This long tradition reaches its apex in the elaborate opera arias that charact Liebestod in Richard Tristan und Isolde (1865).


49 leads to the development of the chorus part within Greek tragedy. 64 In dramatic works, the chorus, placed in the orchestra, is mostly singing and dancing, but at times also reciting. In Sophocles, modal shifts draw out abrupt changes of mood (such as from joy to grief). Euripides unfolds a sophisticated musical and poetic texture 65 and only grad ually the recitative (spoken) element comes to prevail in later times. The only instrument accompanying drama during the fifth century is the aulos except if some lyre or tympana are used on the stage as required by the action. 66 The chorus is essential in comedy as well, although Aristophanes already begins to reduce its role in his later plays until it loses its participation in the dramatic action during the Hellenistic and Roman period. 67 From early Roman times onward we find records of funeral lamentat ions (neniae) and popular dramatic presentations with song, tibia accompaniment, and dance, adding to ancient Etruscan traditions original elements of music. According to Livy, Roman drama originates in expiation for a plague ( Liv. 7.2.4 12 ) Later, Greek dramatic plays 64 See Lesky 1966 2 23 2 32 who discusses with much detail the different strains that converge in the final product of the tragedy. According to Anderson 1994, 86, ancient drama takes over both choral song and monody. 65 Anderson 1994 (on Sophocles: 120 121, Euripides 122 124) them Mozart Hel. 1338 1352), and the unheard of introduction of singing a syllable to more than one tone century Ath criticism as did the practice of Renaissance composers such a s Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525/6 1594) to employ secular madrigal tunes for polyphonic Masses or motets (see OHM IV 317, 325f; GMM XVIII 938 947). The Council of Trent decreed in its 22 nd session (1562 AD): Ab ecclesiis vero musicas eas, ubi siv e organo sive cantu lascivum aut impurum aliquid miscetur, item saeculares omnes actiones, vana atque adeo profana colloquia, deambulationes, strepitus, clamores arceant, ut domus Dei vere domus orationis esse videatur ac dici possit (Schroeder 1950, 424 ; Eng. tr. 151). 66 See Anderson 1994, 113 119 who subsequently describes how music during a dramatic performance may have taken place 67 Cf. CHCL I, 398 402; Comotti, 1989, 40 41 ; Anderson 1994, 118.


50 were adapted according to the traditions of the Dionysian artistic companies, jumbling recited and sung parts and alternating both in tragedy and comedy with no or little chorus (the orchestra is then used for the most distinguished spectato rs). The Romans seem to have given much more room for individual song and instrumental accompaniment, converting drama into a sort of operetta and developing artistic virtuosity. 68 Sung parts predominate over spoken passages, and instrumental interludes div ide up the acts. 69 From the first century BC onward, dramatic performances are reduced to spectacular, comic satiric mimes with at times qu ite pompous orchestral and choir arrangements 70 Social settings. Another important moment for choral lyric in Greek li fe are weddings, especially the procession of the bride to the house of the groom and outside the door or house of the spouses during their first night together (epithal a mium) ; texts for these songs 71 are preserved especially from Alcman, Sappho, and Pindar and many references to such celebrations are found in the tragedies (Eur. Tro. 304 341, HF 10 12, IA 1036 1057) and also comedies (Ar. Pax 1316 1359, Av. 1728 1765). In Roman times these could take up gigantic dimensions with whole orchestral performance s (Claud. Carm. min. app. 5.55 63). Otherwise, the Romans combined this Greek custom with their own tradition of popular responsive singing and the fescennia which were 68 Cf. Wille 1967, 158 166 who gives a detailed account of how the different Roman dramatic performances may have taken place (id. 166 187); see also Comotti, 1989, 49 ; Moore 2012. 69 Cf. Comotti, 50 51 70 Cf. Comotti, 53 54; Wille 178 187 71 famous fr 44 about the marriage feast of Hector and Andromache which does not necessarily exclude that these were also composed for actual marriage feasts. See also Catull. 64 (Bacchus and Ariadne), Ov. Met. 4.758 764 (Perseus and Andromeda), 12.214 215 (Peiritho os and Hippodame), Sen. Tro. 202, Apul Met. 4.33 (Psyche).


51 originally meant to avert evil spirits from the newlywed (Fest Gloss. Lat. 76) but th en took on a more rustic character (Hor. Ep. 2.1.145 146). 72 Hymenaeus, the god of marriage, son of Dionysus and Aphrodite, (or in Roman rendering the Muse Camena) is praised as a singer himself (Mart. Cap. 1.1). In more private context we know maiden songs by Alcman and Sappho who are also protagonists of monody, i.e. the individual expression of sentiments in a solo performance. 73 In all of antiquity (and probably all of human history), music and love are natural companions: 74 Thus we find the lover at night under the window of his paraklausithyron Fast. 4.109 112; Prop. 3.3.48ff) with its corresponding failure (Plaut. Persa 569 570), young people in the streets (Stat. Silv. 1.2.172 173), couples singing and dancing together (Ov Fast. 3.535 538), and also obscenities (Ov. Fast. 4.695; Quint. 1.2.8). Ovid loves women either because they sing, play, or dance well ( Am. 2.4.25 30). Music may help in being social to begin with. 75 Songs may have an abusive character, something which w as severely punished already in early Roman times ( Cic. Rep. 4.10.12; Ulp. Digesta 28 ) but not if in harmless contexts (Auson. Mos. 18.165 8). 72 For more details and quotes from Roman times see Wille 1967, 126 135 who at the end points out the contrast employed by some authors between the joyful wedding music and tunes for battle or fune rals (Ov. Met. 5.3 4, Ep. 12.137 140; Dracontius Romulea 10.523 525). 73 C f. Anderson 1994, 75 76. 74 Anth. Lat. 277 1 2 : Cantica gignit amor et amorem cantica gignunt. Cantandum est, ut ametur, et ut cantetur, amandum Similar August. Serm. 336.1.1: Cant are amantis est 75 Manil. 4.152 155, 525 529; Ov. Ars 1.595 596; to please the beloved one, to find a lover: Ov. Ars 3.315 28. See Wille 1967, 351.


52 Banquets (symposia) offer favorite opportunities for singing and playing the aulos or barbitos (Ar. V esp. 1208 1250, Eur. Ion 1177 8, Ath. 627e 628b). The participants usually follow a certain procedure : They took it in turns to sing whatever they cared to: a little hymn to a god, a piece of political comment or exhortation, reflections on the joys of win e or the pains of love, moral advice, humorous abuse. At the end of the evening the merry guests were liable to carouse through the streets, still singing and dancing. 76 They intone drinking songs (skolia) 77 or elegiac an d lyric poems by authors such as Stes ichorus, Anacreon, Alcaeus, Simonides, or Theognis, or invent their own; they may be accompanied by an aulete or play along themselves on the lyre or harp, given that playing the lyre is considered part of a good education (Ar. Vesp. 959, 989). Especially in the case of Alcaeus, banquet songs could also serve to promote political propaganda. 78 The custom of musical embellishment of banquets is happily continued by the Romans, leading up to concert performances during upper class dinner parties (Cic. Tusc. 4. 2.4, Prop. 2.30.13 16) 79 to such an extent that Martial even looks forward to their absence (5.778.22 27; 9.77.5 6.) and Quintilian reproaches their obscenities (1.2.8). are girls hired to play aulos music at these occasions in order to enterta in the guests; respectable women in contrast are never shown playing the aulos in Greek art with the understandable exception of the Muses. 80 Song 76 West 1992, 25; see also e.g. Polyb. 4.20.10. 77 An illustrative description of singing skolia in particula r can be found in Barker 1984, 103 n. 16. 78 C f. Comotti, 1989, 20 79 Apuleius presents a quite particular case in the Cupid Psyche story (Met. 5.3ff) where Psyche has invisible musicians play during the meal for her sisters, something which Wille compares with turning on the radio (1967, 146). 80 Anderson 1994, 143.


53 58, Juv. Sat. 6.14 15, Ov. Ars Am. 2.305 306), and in Ro man comedy prostitute and musician are largely synonyms. 81 Rich Roman households maintain a luxurious abundance of musicians for any sort of entertainment (Petron. passim, Cic. 2 Verr. 5.35.92, and still in Sid. Ep. 1.2.9). 82 Apart from these, we have eviden ce 83 of the existence of birthday serenades (Hor. Carm. 4.11; Prop. 3.10.23; Gell. 19.9.1 10), banquet songs to honor national heroes or paladins of the past (Hor. Carm. 4.15.29 Hor. Epist. 1.1.62), and tunes to which one could fall asleep (Hor. Ep. 1.2.27 31). Work and war. W omen hum or sing along while they weave or grind barley (Ar. Nub. 1358), lullaby their little ones (Pl. Leg. 790d e, Theoc. Id. 24.7 9, Quint. 1.10.32), or simply have fun singing and playing along with oth er women (Pl. Symp. 176e). 84 Men do the same during manual labor 85 and shepherds when tending their flocks, often using panpipes (Soph. Phil. 213, Eur. Alc. 576f; Pl. Resp. 399d). 86 Apart from ritual purposes 81 Wille 1967, 308 311 with plenty of references in Plautus and Terence; Rocconi 2006. 82 For a discussion of the social status of these and other musicians (slaves, freedmen, foreigners, or free citizens), see Wille 1967, 304 308, 311 324. That musical luxury was nothing reserved to the Romans but a Hellenistic phenomenon attests Just Epit 30.1.8 9 for Ptolemy II Philadelphos of Egypt. Musical corporations, especially for ritual and military purp oses, enjoyed high esteem (see Wille 1967, 357 366). Christian authors continued to favor religious song during banquets but rejected instrumental bombast (id. 380 381). 83 Wille 1967, 139 153 ; he also refers to the continued tradition of folk song in Italy which is not a direct continuation of the Latin music tradition, but shows the extended musicality of the heirs of the Romans. He further discusses the influence of these folk songs on artistic poetry. In a longer section (220 281) Wille analyzes the Sin gbarkeit (suitability to be sung) of poems by Catullus, Virgil, and Horace as Kunstlieder (art songs) and pursues the history of their musical adaptations down to the present. 84 Spontaneous singing in a random context is mentioned in Hor. Carm. 1.22.9 12; Petr. 62. Making music merely ad delectationem becomes a point of dispute in Christian times, favored by Ambrose and Augustine but repudiated by Lactantius (Wille 1967, 384 385 and 434). 85 S ee e.g. the parody of a rope Ran. 1284 1293. 86 Ath. 618d 620a compiles the particular song names for various occupations and occasions. For a wealth of references to Arbeitslieder in Latin literature see Wille 1967, 105 125 including all sorts of professions: gravediggers, sailors, fishermen, shepherd s, weavers, tailors, fullers, winegrowers,


54 (e.g. to praise Dionysus /Bacchus for the wine harv est: Tib. 2.1.51 56), such songs may also simply overcome boredom (Ennodius, Carm. 1.8 praef.), alleviate labor (Hor. Carm. 1.32.13 16) or express joy, 87 especially over the finished work. 88 Repetitive mechanical labor can be synchronized by song or instrume ntal tunes (Quint. 1.10.16), such as kneading dough, 89 treading grapes (Callixenus FGrH 627 F 2; Calp. Ecl 4.124), laying bricks for a wall (Xen. Hell. 2.2.23), rowing (Ar. Ach. 554, parodied in Ran. 206 267), traveling (Calp. Ecl. 1.28f; Hor. Sat. 1.7.30f ; Auson. Mos. 18.165 7; August. Serm. 256.3), marching into battle (Thuc. 5.70, Plut. Instituta Laconica 16 = Mor. 238b, 90 ps. Plut. Mus. 26. 1140c, Ath. 626b d, 627d e, Cic. Tusc. 2.16.37), or athletic exercise (Hipponax fr. 118c), even during Olympic games (Paus. 5.7.10, ps. Plut. Mus. 26. 1140c d). 91 peasants, calcatores torcularis vendors (each with his own modulatio ) slave works of different kind and even beggars; see e.g. Ov. Trist. 4.1.5 16; August. Enarratio II in P s 32.8.3 : m esse, sive in vinea, sive in aliquo opere ferventi, cum coeperint in verbis canticorum exsultare laetitia, veluti impleti tanta laetitia, ut eam verbis explicare non possint, avertunt se a syllabis verborum, et eunt in sonum iubilationis ; Isid. Etym. 3.17 .2: 87 Wille 1967, 121 and 152 points out the melismatic iubilus which i s still custom in the Alps (Jodeln) and was common among shepherds, vine dressers, and reapers. About its import into Christian liturgy see id. 375 376 with references to Augustine (see previous note) and Hilarius. 88 ber die im Weinberg beendigte Arbeit brachte der Winzer seine Seelenstimmung im Lied zum ( W ille 1967, 110 with reference to Verg. G. 2.417: iam canit effectos extremus vinitor antes Some of the bucolic poems were elevated to concert performances in the theater, e.g. Donat. Vita Verg. 26, which serves, according to Wille 1967, 115 as a proof t hat the bucolic genre was indeed musical. 89 A nice illustration for this can be seen on plate 8 in West 1992. 90 gus coupled love for music with drill for battle, so 91 Lists indicating multiple applications of work songs (and others) can be found in Ath. 5.199a, 14 .618c 619c; Pol lux 4.55. All these examples are already reported for the Etruscans: multiple quotes in Wille 1967, 569 570 n. 129.


55 War and battle are only particular applications of music accompanying another action. Stimulating war dances are customary, 92 and even religious dance, for its st beautifully honor the gods with 629, quoting Socrates). Whether in the context of the battlefield verses like those of Tyrtaeus (e.g. fr. 11) are actually employed or whether musical elements limited themselves t o arousing trumpet signals and aulos tunes, we do not know for certain, 93 but we do learn about spontaneous victory songs of Roman soldiers (Liv. 45.38.12). Music for change. A last but not less important area in which the Greeks use music consists in the a ttempt to directly manipulate reality, be it on the level of the individual, society, or even in the material world, with the purpose of achieving some faculties (virtue) both in body and spirit. Hence they appreciate music education as a tool in the service of character formation. 94 As early as in the seventh century BC, when music al life is flourishing particularly in Sparta, choral song assumes a paideutic function that 92 AQ 2.6 61.26 62.19 with reference to Cicero; Ar. Ran. 151; Pl. Leg. 815a b; Ath. 630d 631c On the other hand, the Argive army lead by Are s in Eur. Phoen. 784 794 is described as a unfit to dancing. 93 Even though Ath. 630 631 says so. Wille 1967, 75 100 and 572 578 gives a detailed account of the complex employment of different wind instruments and their significance in Ro man warfare and military training, in not few cases decisive for the outcome of particular maneuvers; see also AQ 2.6 62.12 19. Tacitus provides a detailed description of Germanic war songs ( Germ. 3.1), and Livy mentions repeatedly the gruesome Gallic ones (5.37.8, 5.39.5, 21.28.1). Gell. 1.11.1 7 discusses the use of music in war; cf. for the practice e.g. Herod. 1.17; Thuc. 5.70 (the latter emphasizing the disciplinary function of music); Plut. Mor. 238a; 452b; 458e. 94 Pl. Resp. 401 425; Leg. 653 671; 799 e 802; Arist. Pol. 8.5; ps. Plut. Mus. 41. 1146a b: the great with discordant deeds or words, and will maintain always and in all circumstances what is suitable, (tr. GMW 1. 247 ). Learning music seemed to have had a prominent place from the very beginnings of Greek education, cf. Ath. 626b d and Marrou 1956 17 18 and 41.


56 95 to the commu 96 We need to singing and playing music (so in Plato and Aristotle) or in the acquisition of rather theoretical kn owledge about music as an art or even as a science (so in later authors such as Quintilian, Aristides Quintilianus, and Augustine). Both approaches intend quite different formative results, even though it is not clear how much they are actually being treat ed separately or exclusively in the educational process. 97 On a larger scale, music may be related to developments in society and thus linked to decadence or social upheaval; 98 but the nexus between music and politics is more frequently employed in the oppos ite direction in order to consolidate tradition. 99 95 Comotti, 1989, 17 96 Id. 21; Marrou 1956, 34. 97 Wille 1967, 4 56 457, here in the context of music education for a rhetor. Another example for a more practical utility of music is that the ancients, already believed to observe that musical training sharpens the intelligence (Ath. 628b d). See later p. 573 98 C f. Pl. Resp. 4. 424c d Leg. 700a 701b; Ath. 62 6e f, 631e 632b, 633b although the examples given do not necessarily imply an intentional use of music in this sense but rather a consequence of a development. Another question is w hether is really a cause or rather just a manifestation of an ongoing social political change that is occurring for other reasons ( see on this West 1992, 26 and 246). The story goes that there were times in Sparta when adding mor e string s was prosecuted by the State : Paus. 3.12.10; Ath. 636e (Timotheus, even though acquitted because a statue of Apollo had the same amount of strings as his lyra ; GMW 1.96 n. 13 follows Pausanias in that it was a kithara, Athenaeus calls it a sort of harp; about this instrument see West 1992, 72 73 ) ; also mentioned in Cic. Leg. 2.15.39. Something similar happened to Phrynis (Plut. Quomodo quis suos in virtute sentiat profectus 13 = Mor. 84a, Apophthegmata Laconica 8 = Mor. 220c) and Terpander (id. Instituta Laconica 17 = Mor. 238c We will have to see why this appeared so dangerous (cf. below p. 162 ). 99 C f. ps. Plut. Mus. 42. 1146b: Terpander a famous musician from the early seventh century, allegedly resolved civil war in Sparta by cultivating music of the noble kind we are not told how exactly (the Suda tells that he mpbell 1982, vol. 2, 303 304, see there also n. 1 for further references). On the positive political function of music see


57 Tyrants promote the dithyramb so as to favor the Dionysian cult in contrast to other deities linked to the opposing aristocracy. 100 That political battle and propaganda use song as an effective device is repo rted for the time of the late Roman Republic (Cic. Quint. 2.3.2; Sest. 55.118; Suet. Iul. 80.2). But even the employment of musical elements such as melodic flow, voice pitch and timbre, rhythm, etc. plays an important part of oratorical theory and practic e throughout antiquity in order to render speech more effective and delightful in view of transmitting a message successfully 101 components) 102 makes music, transmitting its intrins ic order which reflects the cosmic one, 103 important in the field of medicine. Ps Plutarch ( Mus. 42.1146c ) attests for healing songs in Crete and that Thaletas released Sparta by means of music from a plague (though without revealing how). 104 Aulos music all egedly helps against snake bites (Gell 4.13.3) and other ills such as sciatica (Boeth. Mus. 1.1), and the sound of a especially Pl. Leg. 799e 802e who puts the proper exposure to music into place, among other reasons, precisely to ensure the stabilit y of hi s State. 100 C f. Comotti, 1989, 23 101 For the Greeks see especially Aristotle ( Rh. 3.1 1403b26 and 3.12 1413b30); in Roman times esp. Quintilian in 1.10 who engages to show how deeply rooted the art and practice of music is in the ancient ideal of edu cating the accomplished sapiens ; an extensive discussion of this can be found in Wille 1967, 447 to deal with cases that involve knowledge of music since this does not affect our question. However, his itself (which does not mean that speeches are supposed to be sung; Cicero and others reject this cantus obscurior the intrinsically melodic character of speech; see Wille 1967, 471 473); also Boethius sees a close relationship between music and rhetoric: Consolatio philosophiae 2.18; 2.3.2. 102 So e.g. in Anaximander, Pythagoras, and in the Corpus Hippocraticum ; see Jaeger 1.214 225; 2. 14ff, especially 36 39; Wille 1962. 103 See later our discussion especially of the Pythagoreans, Plato, and Aristides Quintilianus. 104 This last ev ent is also mentioned elsewhere (e.g. Paus 1.14.1; more references in GMW 1. 247 n. 255, further example where Apollo is appeased through music can be found the Hymn to Hermes 416 512.


58 trumpet should fittingly overcome deafness (Mart. Cap. 9.926). A number of authors describe how music itself can redeem corporal tribulatio ns, 105 even though we can also hear some skeptic al voices. 106 since the time of the Pyt h agoreans, music is often praised for its soothing effect on agitated minds, 107 for overcoming fear (Apul. Met. 2.25) 108 and anxieties (Hes. Theog. 55, 98 103; Eur. Hel. 1342 1345, Bacch. 381; Iuv. 10.210 211), 109 so that Horace can confide in the protection that Muses provide against any evil ( Carm. 3.4 ), just like Orpheus, who is said to have expelled by his song a wolf in the forest (Hor. Carm. 1.22). 110 In Pindar, song is the best healer after the toils of a combat ( Nem. 4.1 8 8.49 105 E.g Pind. Pyth. 3.51 ( a sung charm see below in the context of magic) ; Theophrastus in Ath. 624a b, there again especially the aulos ; Mart. Cap. 9.926. 106 Gulick 1950, 364 n. a cites some authors denying that Theophrasus should have believed wh at was attested in the reference from our previous n. 105 Barker in GMW 1. 35 n. 8 and 89 n. 178 sees the healing power of music being denied in Eur. Med. 190 203 (although the argument does not go directly against healing p ower rather : music even criticized as useless in joyful situations) ; cf. also Soph. Aj. 581f ( the doctor should use a knife instead of wailing 632) Serenus Sammonicus declares all musical healing clearly as superstition (50.930 931), similar Soran in Caelius Aurelianus Chronicae passiones 5.1.23 and Oribasius 1.5. 107 Pythagorei etiam docuerunt ferociam animi tibiis aut fidibus mollientes cum corporibus adhaerere ne xum foedus animarum Ps. Plut. M us. 40.1 145e f makes this point in the often cited case of Achilles who is Il. 9.186 9), thus showing that it is a a teaching that is supposed to stem from the teacher centaur Cheiron ( who educated Heracles, Achilles, and others) cf. GMW 1. 246 247 ) In the place of many others: Arist. Pol. 8.7 1342a9 15. The comforting effect of music is given as a reason why the Spartans cultivated it in their austere life (Ath. 633a). In Latin authors we find frequently expressions like these: levant et carmina curas (Nemes. Ecl. 4.19 ); carminibus dulcique parant relevare querella ( id. 2.14 16 ; cf. also 1. 58 59) ; see further Culex 99 101 ; Varro Sat. Men. 394: demitis acris pectore curas cantu castaque poesi ; Manil. 5.329 36 ; Schol. Hor. Carm. malorum enim levamen est citharae cantus. C f. Wille 1967, 219; 437; 444; 537 539 with more references. 108 See also illic o m ne malum vino cantuque levato, deformis aegrimoniae dulcibus adloquiis ( Epod. 13.17 18 ) 109 Even for the gods, so e.g. Ju piter in Mart. Cap. 9.899, in this case attributed to Harmonia. 110 Faunus with his music protects from wild animals: Mart. 9.61.11 12; Hor. Carm. 1.17.10 12.


59 50 ). Finally, music undoubtedly is capable of putting one to sleep 111 and defeat ing insomnia. 112 The most elementary and maybe even most ancient 113 wa y that music is held to exercise power to change is magic. Some of the healing methods based on sound may already fall into this category. 114 is the mythological figure of Orpheus after all the son o f the Muse Calliope 115 whom 116 His irresistible melodies form a topos frequently employed. 117 The Sibyl at Cumae is known for her 111 Aesch. PV 574 575; Hor. Carm. 3.1.20f; Sextus Empiricus Adversus musicos 24; Sen. Dial. 1.3.10; Hor. Epist. 1.2.27 31; Quint. 1.10.32. 112 Hor. Carm. 3.1.20f; Sen. Dial. 1.3.10. Wille 1967, 148 refers to th (1685 1750) 30 Goldberg Variations (BWV 988) ; however they were not composed for the purpose of putting someone to sleep but rather that his young student and talented harpsichord player Johann Gottlieb Goldberg (1727 1756 ) could cheer up Count Hermann Carl von Keyserlingk ( 1696 1764 ) during his hours of insomnia. This story is reported by Johann Nikolaus Forkel (1749 1818) in his biographical work ber Johann Sebastian Bachs Leben, Kunst, und Kunstwerke (1802 51f); the his toricity of the episode has been questioned (see GMM 10.93 94 and MGG P 7.1234). 113 According to Wille 1967, 545. On the general topic of magic in Greek Roman antiquity see Dickie 2001. 114 Several examples in Plin. NH 28.2.21; in general see Wille 1967, 42 a nd 445 446, and id. 1962, 51. 115 See below n. 227 116 Anderson 1994, 27, with reference to West 1983, stating that th e magic function has been removed from the bard s time (id. 30 31 ) while it remains vibrant i n both myth and medicine. On Orpheus and his musical achievements (especially overcoming the boundary between life and death through music, e.g. Eur. Alc. 357 60; Ov. Met. 10.1 105; 11.1 66; Hor. Carm. 2.13.33 40) see Wille 1967, 545 551. Orpheus is said t o have overcome the Sirens chant with his kithara (Apoll. Rhod. 4.903 909) and almost made them follow him : Sen. Med ea 355 360. 117 Aesch. Ag. 1630 ( all things that hear his melodious voice are roused and led in ecstasy of joy) ; Eur. IA 1211 12 15 (rocks fol low ), Alc. 357 60 ( the desire to possess the tongue and song of O rpheus to snatch someone back from Hades), Bacch. 560 56 4 ( when Orpheus plays the lyre the trees aw a ke and the wild animals gather to him : App. Verg. Cul. 278 282 ; Anth. Pal. 7.8 10; s ee also Varro Rust. 3.13.3: animals assemble at the blow of the bucina by a music slave called Orpheus; similar in Verg. Ecl. 8.1 5 ). Aesch. PV 173 and Pl. passim e.g. Phd. 114d, Resp. 608a, Phdr. 267d, Tht. 157c, Leg. 8 12c (cf. GMW 1.90 n. 185). Multiple Latin references to Orpheus can be found in Wille 1967, 545 5 5 1 and 558 559, summarized in Mart. Cap. 9.907 where Harmonia is epitomized as origin of all this power over nature. Such things are not restricted to Orpheus e.g. Arion ( Ov. Fast. 2.83 118 and Wille 1967,553 ) the nymph Canens (Ov. Met. 14.337 340), Silenus (Verg. Ecl. 6.18 30), or herdsmen in general (id. 8.1 5; in this


60 prophetic song (Verg. Aen. 3.457, 6.74 76), 118 and feared is the enchantress Circe (id. Aen. 7.10 12 and Ecl. 8.70). 119 by his harp and song, thus prolonging the life span. 120 Dionysian frenzy evoked by music in ritual and other context s leads human beings to the p oint of drawing from divine forces. 121 Further examples for the charming power of music can be found in Pindar, 122 in the magical incantations of barbaric songs (Eur. IT 1336 1338, Hdt. 7.191), in Eum. 902: wailing (Aesch. Pers. 686 688). 123 eclogue there is also reference to musical adjuration of moon and snakes and the singer hopes that his song may have that same power to stir up love in Daphne: 69 72); see also AQ 2.5 58.12 14 (for syrinx [pipe] and pektis [harp]); Pliny NH 8.50.114; 8.64.157 (horses dancing to music, similar Sext. Emp Mus. 20; Solin. 45.12); Varro Rust. 3.1 7.4 (fish) The power of the pastoral pipe is given by Apollo in Sil. 14.465 4 73 ( cf. Wille 1967, 536) Magic Flute (see Jones 1994, 22). Paus. 9.30.4 demythologizes the figure of Orpheus and interprets all the le gends as expression of Orpheus excelling in artistic beauty and power through divine mysteries and ways to purify, cure, and please the gods. 118 The prophetic chant of the f auns is mentioned in Cic. Div. 1.50.114. Wille 1967, 529 explains how the term vates originally conflated soothsayer, poet, cult singer, and shaman and was surely linked to singing. 119 For a longer discussion of the combination between music and magic in Rome see Wille 38 43 and 540 54 2 Collections of powerful musical deeds can be found i n Prop. 3.2.1 8; Ov. Ars Am. 3.311 326 (especially for love) and especially in Sil. 11.440 480. A whole host of mythological protagonists in music are assembled in Apul. Met. 6.24; Mart Cap. 9.899 929; Sid. Carm. 1.7 20 (see Wille 558 559). 120 Sen. Apocol 4.15 23. Of course, all o f this is said in satirical context, but the idea that music may have power over fate and life is independent of that. 121 This is analyzed by Rouget 1985 (esp. in his chapter Music and Trance among the Greeks 187 226). I am mention ing this aspect here because magic and pagan religion (in contrast to Christianity) are closely no mention whatsoever of incantation in either Plato or Aristotle re further discussion. 122 Pyth. 1,1 14 ( esp.: ; 3.51, 63 6 5; fr. 61.1 21 ( music calls forth the gods in their power ); Nem. 8.49 50 mentions which in the context of soothing toil. See also Anderson 1994, 103 123 C alling forth the ghost of Darius; see for this the comment by Barker 1984, 89 n. 184


61 The walls of Thebes are said to have risen up at the sound of the phorminx and lyra (Eur. Phoen. 822 824). 124 The same singer makes rocks move (Hor. Carm. 3.11.13 14) ; i slands at the Nymphaeum in Lydia reportedly moved with musical rhythm (Plin. NH 2.95.209), and a spring gushes forth at the sound of the tibia as it is able to create in them both fear and attraction 125 and used especially for hunting. Aesthetics? One way of dealing with music has not yet been mentioned and, strangely enough, this is the one which we nowadays are most familiar with: the simple enjoyment of music for what it is. Some scholars tend to deny Greeks or Romans an aesthetic sense for music (and art in general) with the argument that this developed only in the late 18 th century. 126 It is not possible to enter here into a thorough discussion of the status of aesthetics 127 prior to the Enli ghtenment, but I would like to argue that people of earlier times were receptive to beauty as such. There is, first of all, abundant evidence for both appreciation of beauty and theories about it throughout the history of 124 Mo re about this story in Paus. 2.6.4, 9.5 9, ps. Plut. Mus. 3. 1131 f 1132a ; Prop. 3.2.3 4 ; Sen. Phoen. 566 570; cf. GMW 1. 90 Ep. 5.139; 16,182; Mart 8.6.6. Met. 8.14 16). 125 Eur. Bacch. 560 564 (Orpheus); Ae l. NA 12.45 and Sext. Emp. Mus. descrip certain sounds. 126 E.g. Cross/Tolbert in OHMP 2009, 26 27, attributing to Hume and Kant t 127 first to appreciate and enjoy something insofar as it is beautiful, and second to reflect (philosophically) about this appreciation. I do not subscribe to the idea that a truly aesthetic experience cannot be based on any objective principles, or one would have to concede that suc h an experience were entirely subjective, unexplainable, and devoid of any foundation. A good introduction to these questions give Bychov/Sheppard 2010, xi xiv, a convincing justification for publishing a full volume of primary texts on Greek and Roman Aes thetics A fuller treatment is Halliwell 2002 who shows that the eighteenth century later Christian) ideas of the disinterested contemplation of tr anscendent (i.e., divine) beauty and


62 Western civilization. 128 Regarding a ntiquity, Hermann Abert divides up cultural development into sensual, ethical, and aesthetic al stages 129 and claims that the Greeks disregarded the aesthetic al dimension in favor of the ethical. 130 Edward Lippman, in a much more differentiated assessment, sho ws how aesthetics in the sense of Philebus, even though it also has ethical significance. 131 The fact that philosophers in specific auty) does not eliminate the general ability to ha al approach; on the contrary, as Lippman shows, the ethical and the aesthetical dimension are correlatives. 132 It has been shown how understanding music (and any art) does not di m inish but deepen the aesthetic 128 See e.g. Beardsley 1975, 22 28 who points out the difference between ancient Egypt and Greece. While the Egyptians seem to have hidden away their finest works in tombs and expressed mainly magnificence and eternity, the Greeks began to value art as such and produced a wealth of it, which keeps impressing us today. Mathiesen 1990 pursues the Greek roots of aesthetic reflections within Neo Platonism, which imports the Pythagorean understanding of harmony ( Timaeus and elsewhere ; see Lippman 1964, 26 35 and 87 110 ) into the Middle Ages. 129 Abert 1968, 1. Even though this classification is not to be read in a pejorative tone and contains some truth, it overly simplifies, as do similar atte mpts within the philosophy of history, fashionably dividing Cours de Philosophie Positive from 1830 1842). actual perception of beauty. 130 I das rein sthetische trat vollstndig zurck vor dem Ethischen Ein Beitrag zur Musiksthetik des klassischen Altertums while he then declares that the Greeks could not develop 131 110, especially 104 sensual beauty reflects the true idea of rational beauty, which, through proper imitation, becomes virtue. See also Beardsley 1975, 39 51; in the Philebus and deliver a single series of pure notes, ( Phlb. 51d, quoted from id. 43). 132 element of order; it is greatest when the order is metaphysi cally and ethically most significant, and 156, directly criticizing Abert, offers another valuable approach that shows the interconnectedness between ethical and aesth etical thinking, at least in post Pythagorean systems.


63 experience. 133 Under this premise Mathiesen can even justly assert that for Hellenistic the higher principles that reason discovers in music. 134 To resolve the issue on an empirical level we could ask whether the ancients ever had instrumental 135 concerts where they simply sat down and listened. All uses of music mentioned above aim at a purpose outside of music itself. 136 At least in classical Gree ce 137 Plato and others are suspicious of music that does not accompany and is not submitted to text. 138 All of this does not mean, however, that the Greeks did not perceive bea uty in 133 E.g. in Scruton 1997; Kivy 1990 and 2001; Budd 2008 134 the judgment may be based on reason, but the experience is still bound to the senses. An extreme is mathematical need of a musical instrument, as Plato himself explains, when he says that it is not necessary to agitate the strings of an instrument (with hand to ear) like curious folk trying to overhear something. What we desire is to understand harmony and the celestial mus be taken as the approach of common people at any time, but among theorists in the neo Platonic tradition it is fairly prominent, traces of which we can still see in some Church Fathers such as Jerome. 135 I because, as we have seen, the re were performances with (sung) text, but there both the melody setting and instrumental accompaniment were wholly at the service of the text. The question now is whether they possessed an aesthetic se 136 T he musical performances during the symposia or festivals will most closely approach intention of entertainment or cult. In Helleni stic and Roman times we find Tafelmusik (musical presentations during meals), which we can imagine as simple background music for conversation or, at least at times, object of attentive listening; the latter is quite probable, especially given the artistic proficiency that had developed by that time (Wille 1967, 143 147). Then there is also the theater where musical overtures and interludes come into play (id. 169 175); dance and mime give music again a more subordinate function (id. 175 202). 137 See Lippman explicitly programmatic or doubtless in its form, melody, and rhythm especially full of meaning derived owever, some evidence for pure instrumental performances, e.g. the Delphic contests about which Strabo reports (9.3.10): he distinguishes (singers with kithara) and along with pipers who played without chant ( ). 138 See below the section on Plato kithara for accompaniment clearly implies this; he allow s as the only exception the syrinx for shepherds ( Rep. 399d).


64 prescriptive (in reaction to contrary customs). 139 That people did not only possess the ability to make or listen to music for sheer enjoyment but widely made use of it emerges is convenient ( Pol. 8.3). 140 Wille speaks Aristotle, 141 but even if there was a change of emphasis in the ph ilosophical reflection on the value of music, that does not prove a sudden appearance of aesthetic receptivity in the culture of the time but rather is a response to its previous existence. A last point may be added to enlighten this debate. As long as anc ient civilization lasts, music (as much as poetry) has never ceased to be attributed to divine origin and inspiration 142 mostly to the Muses, 143 always to be invoked (Hes. Theog. 48). 144 Aristotle is more lenient, even though also he censures e.g. the aulos in the educational context, among other reasons because it cannot go along with text ( Pol. 8.6.1341a17 28) which then, h owever, leads to the conclusion that the aulos was mainly and precisely used as a solo instrument without chant (except to accompany choruses, see West 1992, 105). 139 Anderson (1994, 42) Iliad (9.186 189 Achilles ) esthetic response to music in Western literary tradition, and it concerns the affective capacities of an instrument, not those of twice delight/ See also Strabo 10.3.9 who mentions pleas ure and beautiful execution 140 ) ( / ) which does not have any further purpose than pleasure, true joy ( ) and blessed life ( ) : 1338a2 3. See also Busse 1928. Even Abert 1899, mes closest to the modern aesthetic view of art. 141 Wille 2001, 13: sthetische Erlebnis ist von ethischen, akustischen und hrphysiologischen Bedingungen des Hrens weitgehend unabhngig. And yet Wille (ibid.) the aesthetic judg m ent be comes for Aristotle the most important goal of formation and education which attests that aesthetics and ethics remain intimately related Lord 1982, 84 85 is correct in diminishing the distance between Plato and Aristotle given their common educational interest, but even if it is true that Aristotle sacrificed the pleasure motivation for music for the sake of rescuing music education, this does not prove the non existence of aesthetic appreciation at the time but rather confirms it. 142 Among the exceptio ns is Alcman, who claimed his art as his own achievement (cf. fr. 39/40), without, however, omitting the invocation of the Muses elsewhere; cf. CHCL 1.184 185. Lucretius, of course, offers a nature based history of the origin of music: 5.1379 1891.


65 Barker 145 explains that the Muses not only give the power of song, but insp ire the poet with knowledge, insight into the mind of Zeus. Such claims continued to be taken seriously, 146 and became a subject for philosophical investigation; see e.g. Plato, Ion Why did the gods invent and make music? Monroe J. Beardsley in his history of aesthetics puts it in these terms: been invented by the gods for their own delectation 147 Hence i t is the divine carefree bliss in which the Muses and other divinities themselv es indulge which overflows to the benefit of humans. 148 If this was the origin and ideal which the ancients had in mind for music, where should they have conceived it from if not from certain experiences of such bliss in their own music making? If the exal of aesthetics in times when social, ethical, or religious factors were linked to art in 143 E.g. Th eog 24 34 and 43 ff, also Op. 658 6 62, where their song substantially becomes his own; Pindar, Nem 2.1 3; and many others. 144 Nevertheless, and Plut. Lyc. 21 as quoted in Anderson 1994, 60 & 64). 145 GMW 1.34 n. 2. About the depiction of the Muses in Roman times see Wille 1967, 520 524, esp. the reference to Ps Cato Mus. 1 11 in n. 297. 146 Continued in Roman times, e.g.: Tib. 2.5.1 4; Ov. Rem. a m. 703 705; Hor. Carm. 4.15.1 2. 147 1975, 26 (italics are mine). See also Comotti 1989, 13 14; Lippman 1964, 19; Wille 1967, 514 540. 148 E.g. Hes. Theog. 61; Arn. Adv. nat. 3.21: vocum novem con ; similar id. 4.33. For divinities engaged in music and dance, see Hor. Carm. 1 4.5 7 (Venus, Graces, Nymphs), Apul. Met. 5.24 (Venus, choir of Muses, and other divine musicians), similar Verg. Aen. 1.498 500 and Ov. Me t. 2.441 442 (Artemis/Diana) and the musical celebration in Mart. Cap. 9.888 920. As one examle for the later continuation of this topos may serve John Milton in Thus they in Heaven, above the starry sphere, / Their happy hours in joy and h 7). Milton, himself very prone to music, applied pervasive musical symbolism to his work (cf. Steggle, 2001).


66 general and music in particular, I would hold against this quoting Lippman 149 characte ristic Greek setting, music is given the utmost force by social tradition and which for his part concludes that there is no music whatsoever without aesthetics: The art of through which we perceive it. Music is intrinsically aesthetic; and any society that makes music is already taking an interest, however primitive, in something that has no purpose but itself. 150 Ta ble 2 1. Usage of music in ancient Greece and Rome Context Effect Sample References singing poetry (bards) entertainment, sentiments from the text Hom. Od. passim ; Hes. contests at festivals ( prosodion ) praise Hes. Op. 651 7; Pind., Pyth. 12 joyous cele brations of victory or city (choral, odes, epinikia ) happiness; immortalizing glory Hom. Il. 22.391 4; Pind. Odes Suet. Iul. 49.4, Liv. 45.38.12, 45.43,8. praise and memory of people or events (paeans, encomia, carmina triumphalia ) appreciation, affiliat ion, unity Hom. passim Pind. Nem. 7.12 16; Ol. 10.91 6 praise of the dead appreciation, affiliation Hom. Il. 9.186 191 cult, praise of the gods (hymn, paean, dithyramb) awe, gratitude, ensure benevolence and support of the god(s), ecstatic union with go d(s), prophesy Hes Op. ; Alcm. fr 1, 3; Aes, Eur ; Plut. Mor. 437e Hor. Carm. 1.36.1 3 Cic. Har. resp. 11.23 lamentation over death, defeat, etc. ( threnos dirge; in tragedy; neniae ) Expression of sorrow, consolation Aesch. Sept. 5 8, Pl. Leg. 947bc; Verg. Georg. 4.464 472 lamentation before death expression of anguish, at times heroism Hdt. 1.24.2 6 149 1964, 52. 150 1997, 478.


67 Table 2 1. Continued Context Effect Sample References drama (chorus) dramatic emotional expression; evocation of evil; balancing emotions Eur. and Aesch. passim wedding ( hymenaeus epithalamium, fescennina ) averting evil spirits, joy Sappho frs. 44, 103 109; Pind. Pyth. 3 Theoc. Id 18, Plaut. Cas. 798 806, Catull. 61, 62; Hor. Epist. 2.1.145f maiden songs ( partheneion ) love, union Alcman fr. 1, Sappho fr 132, Pind. frs. 94a c love (lover to beloved) (e.g. paraclausithyron) love Alcm.; Alc.; Anac.; Theocr. Id. 3; Anth. Lat. 227.1 2; Hor. Carm. 3.9, 10; Ov. Am. 1.6 banquets, symposia (skolia, carmina convivalia) entertainment, competition Archil.; Ar. Ve sp. 1208 1250, Xenophon Symp. private circles expression of joy and friendship Archil.; Sappho; Hor. Carm. 4.11; Gell. 19.9.1 10 satirical song abuse, anger Paul. Sent. 5.4.6, 15; Catull. 23, 25, 29, 33, etc. private song persona l expression of sentiments; tuning in with nature Hom. Il. 9.186 191; HH 19.14 26 work, rowing, sports equal rhythm, higher spirits Ar. Ran 206 267; Ov. Trist. 4.1.5 16; Anth. Lat. 388a shepherding pasttime, love, control and dressage of animals, honor (in competitions) Hom. Il. 18.526; Soph. Phil. 212 213; Eur. Alc. 569 587, Theoc. Id. 5, 6; Polyb. 12.3.5ff, Verg. Ecl. passim; Varro Rust. 3.13.1 harvesting praise of gods (esp. Dionysus); joy over accomplished work Hom. Il. 18.569 72, Verg. G. 2.417 hu nting joy (?); luring animals Terentianus Maurus GL 6.383.1031 1038; Ael. NA 12.46 traveling motivation, joy Hor. Sat. 1.7.30 31; Verg. Ecl. 9.64 65 sailing joy, courage Hor. Sat. 1.5.15ff; Paul. Nol. Carm. 17.109 110 begging mercy Porph. Hor. ep. 1.17. 48; Pers. 1.88ff


68 Table 2 1. Continued Context Effect Sample References war, battle, torture arousing courage, aggressiveness, signals, joy over victory, abuse of the defeated Tyrtaeus; Aesch. Pers. 388 95, Sept. 267 270 politics promotion of public o rder Thaletas (Plut. Lyc. 4.21) revolution lawlessness Pl. Resp. 424c oratory sentiments to convince Quint. 1.10 education character formation, sophrosyne tuning of the soul, reverence Democritus; Ar. Ran 729, Pl. Resp., Leg. Aristotle healing cure, sleep, tranquility Theog 8; Pindar; Aes, Eur; Quint. 9.4.12 magic divine power Od 12.36 200/ Cass; Aes; Eur aesthetics enjoyment of music Pl. Phlb. 51d; Arist. Pol. 1337b28 29 This list follows the same order as the Summary. For the ancient Greeks and Romans, music is at work virtually everywhere 151 Originating in the sphere of divine delight and beauty, it manifests itself in the cosmic order, musically expressed by the harmonious movement of celestial bodies and reflected in the sounds of nature, and becomes a prominent way for man to address the divine through cult or to conjure supernatural powers through magic. In human life music can be a factor within societ y through both public or private festivals and celebrations on multiple occasions, uniting people for festivities or work, love or fight, but sometimes also creating discord and abuse; it is a close associate to the expression of the poetic word and serves to communicate sentiments or ideas and to educate them. Individuals may be emotionally touched by music or find in it a venue to express feelings themselves; they may engage in aesthetic enjoyment of pleasing music or get irritated over unpleasant sounds; they may use music to simply entertain 151 In Mart. Cap. 9.923 summ arizing account of information on other ancient peoples such as the Etruscans (certainly under much Greek influence), Celts, Gauls, Germans (mostly war music and epics sung by bards), and Iberians, shows that music had a similar importance for them and occ urs in comparable social contexts (Wille 1967, 562 580).


69 themselves or grow in virtue; music may help them to overcome physical or psychological ailment or give them strength to address a difficult task; and they may be professional s who earn a living playing music all o f this not without experiencing in a mysterious way a specific kind of pleasure, at least in most cases, in each of these moments of encounter with the Muse. It may be left open whether music can ever exert no function at all, 152 but those it does are certai nly all encompassing, and this makes the role of music in ancient culture paradigmatic for what we find in our present world. Characterizing Music Now that we have before us the whole panorama, we can begin to take a closer look at the positive or negative effect the ancients attributed to music, particularly expressed in the way they valued different musical phenomena in their value. But first, I will focus on the way in which ancient poets describe musical sound, either directly or metaphorically through epithets or characteristics for musicians, songs, instruments, etc. Descriptions from literary works are of great value here because for the most part they are not yet under the influence of the ideas pursued by philosophers and music theorists, thus allow ing us to understand what the common perception was probably like. 153 Many, if not most instances where ancient authors and especially Latin writers mention music, do not include valuational classifications. But once they do, we can observe a wide range of descriptions. Before the developments of the later fifth century, 152 Ar istotle does know the concept of art having an end in itself (Eth. Nic. and uses the example of aulos playing, in Arist. Mag. mor. 1211b27 153 A lso poets may ha ve their preferences, but only few (especially Aristophanes) are taking an explicit stand in the emerging debate on music. Poets and other authors may not perfectly represent the mainstream perception, but they provide our only source of information. Among them we can certainly observe certain differences and preferences.


70 Figure 2 1. Functions of music within ancient culture. 154 154 1) music as an influence on physica l response, (2) music as a form of communication, (3) music as a form of emotional expression, (4) music as symbolic representation, (5) music to enforce conformity to social norms, (6) music to validate social institutions and religious rituals, (7) music to contribute to the continuity and stability of culture, (8) music to contribute to the integration of society, (9) music for aesthetic enjoyment, a eliminated bold font in the original).


71 justly called by Barker 155 sweet harmonious strains of lyre and aul os music, simple in rhythms and structure, 156 individual or choral song, any of which can be either human or divine. Musicians may perform better or worse than others, be victorious or defeated in contests, but music style does not seem to be an issue. 157 How ever, the new patterns of music introduced by Timotheus of Miletus and others lead to polarization and provoke open criticism from those who prefer the traditions of the past. 158 Polemics arise between adherents of old and new styles and continue from then o n. It is probably no coincidence that this is also the time during which theoretical philosophical reflection about music initiates and the ethical value of music is consciously perceived, systematic ally analyzed, and vigorously promoted. 159 Damonian educat 155 GMW 1.93. 156 See West 199 2, 355. 157 Multiple innovations occurred during the seventh century, attributed especially to Terpander and Olympus, but apparently they were not debated but rather praised (see the first section in Chapter 3 ); c f. West 1992, 329 336 who on p. 343 n. 65 ref 158 For details about the protagonists and features of the new trend, see e.g. West 1992, 356 368. 159 A fundame ntal objection to this thesis could be the Pythagorean tradition, which, according to Aristotle and Iamblicus, developed a sophisticated approach already since the sixth century, especially with regard ical theory. Nevertheless, we possess no written account of these theories until two centuries later, and traces of a debate on these issues at that earlier time are conspicuous in their absence. While people had certainly been aware and made use of the po wer of music for many centuries, explicit records of a systematic reflection about it are unavailable and maybe non existing before the need for such expositions due to the emerging public debate occasioned an inverted causality, that the greater theoretical awareness about the value of music only created the conditions within which criticism and debate would flourish, could also be made; even the kind of innovation brought forth (in contrast to earlier chan ges) may have played a role, but it is significant that (written) criticism arises only half a century later, after the first reflections on ethos in music had been proclaimed (after all, most innovators had won at competitions!). It is probably impossible to reconstruct the exact process. I am inclined to assume a reciprocal stimulation between the emerging music theory and criticism, with the first impulse coming from the theorists.


72 positions of Plato and Aristotle. Regardless, the literary description of music continues and, at least in Latin te xts, even intensifies throughout the centuries. T he current section will consider mainly poetic expressions about music that are which music has for those authors who, each i n his own way, reflect the positive or negative import that music and its elements have on the common people. Excluded remain, therefore, the terminology of the musical treatises, theoretical considerations, and characterizations which are made in such co ntexts. 160 The following survey cannot claim to be exhaustive 161 but intends to offer at least a representative spectrum of characteristics, positive and negative, attributed to music in both Greek and Latin. By this means we are preparing the ground for the r eview of the philoso and analyses. 160 Some references to authors such as Plato and Aristotle who theorize on music did find entry here, but only from narrative sections, which are not controversial and comparable to other literary sources. 161 The material presented here is compiled from passages referred to in the works on ancient music that I have used, including a more systematic review of expressions in Homer, the Homeric Hymns, Pindar, and some lyric poets, so as to cover well the early stages of literature. Latin terms are collected for a good part with the help of the material gathered in Wille 1956. For both languages the standard dictionaries were consulted as well. It would be very interesting, but far beyond the possibilities of the present work, to undertake a complete study of all terms attributed to music and to register them statistically, so as to map the whole word field that the ancients used for describing the value of music. Kaimio 1977 offers a chronological study of the characterization of sound in Early Greek Literature (down to Aristophanes but excluding Plato); this study is wider in scope tha n mine because it treats any acoustic phenomenon; it is narrower insofar as it is does not consider later or Latin sources. Another helpful work is Steinmayer 1985. Gnther Wille, in his second monumental work Akroasis (written between 1956 and 1958 but pu blished posthumously only in 2001), goes much more in depth, includes descriptions of the perceptive process and extends the historical overview down to Aristotle. No English translation exists to this point; for a review see Lindenlauf 2005. The study on Greek musical terms by Rocconi (2003 ) includes also many technical terms but contains for our purpose a useful survey of metaphorical descriptions of sounds, especially related to different senses; unfortunately she does not refer at all to Wille rk See further Garca Lpez 1969; Pizzani 1997; Caldern 1999.


73 Parameters for the term survey The most instructive way to illustrate the relevant characterizations seems to be a systematic vocabulary list, in order to facilitate an overview and comparison of the term s in question. 162 In order to reconcile different parameters such as semantics, chronology, elements of music, and value, I have chosen to divide the material into two main tables: one for positive (or neutral) and one for negative evaluation, 163 since this di stinction is our main concern. The criterion for considering a musical characteristic positive or sense as explained on p. 26 ) that is perceived as pleasing or constructive. Merely As we will see, some terms and references are ambiguous or fall into in both categories; instead of repeating them I have included them only in t he one table where they occur predominantly, explaining opposite value references in footnotes or in the text. 164 Within each table, the concepts are grouped according to similar meanings and, within these, to cognates; the flow of the semantic spectrum with in the table is evidenced in the text. The most basic, important, or frequent terms are underlined Latin terms are placed next to their closest Greek counterpart. In some cases, when seen useful, an etymological explanation is given. 162 Notice that qualities, which do not contribute to evaluate music as such, e.g. those attributed to the included, neither is the merely technical vocabulary of music theory with very few exceptions (e.g. / gravis and acutus because in some contexts they are descriptive beyond the technical meaning). 163 The reader is reminded that I will give a clearer definition of these terms later in this chapter ; for now they may be taken in the broadest sense, that is, not limited to a moral or aesthetical judgment. 164 Often times the characteristic is determined by the nature of the context and/or the corres ponding musical genre (e.g.: victory hymn positive characteristics; dirge negative).


74 The modifiers had to be listed in the Greek 165 or Latin 166 original because, as will soon become evident, the English translation 167 is incapable of reproducing the full meaning of each term. 168 Each lemma is documented by one or more sample references in an approximate chronological order 169 and only those referring to music, directly or in analogy, 170 are included, together with the concept they describe (which can be simply the voice of a human being or a god/goddess/Muse, a chorus an instrument, 171 a melody, a song, etc. Upon selecting references, the difficulty arose that the boundary between the singing and a speaking voice (or other sounds) is blurry. 172 Hence some of the characteristics given below are floating in a grey zone between both, 165 For unifying purposes, terms are always given in the Attic lexical form, according to LSJ. 166 For the same reason as in the previous note and since non are distinguis hed (in this deviating from the OLD). 167 all times for not sufficiently reflecting the etymological connotations. I selected the ones that fit the musica l context best. 168 T he inadequacy of the English language (and probably of any other) to translate the rich list of Greek words with all its compounds becomes patent especially Latin this problem is diminish ed by the more precise circumscriptions of meaning found in the OLD but these can hardly be used for translations. And thus o ne will notice quickly that the translations within these semantic fields seem almost arbitrary For instance, many translators u Greek words, or change Evelyn White 1936 for Hes. Theog. 22 and 68) an almost endless list of examples could be added. 169 certain; the Anthologia Palatina and Latina are always placed at the end without considering the life dates of the authors and texts quoted therein. 170 Occasionally characterizations of animals (especially birds and here especially the nightingale) are given as long as the word is used at least also for music strictly speaking; this is done because it helps to grasp some of the connotations that these terms possess when applied to music. 171 Instruments are only included insofar as they receive standard attributes. 172 F formal lamentation including melody and even text. Similarly, references to poetic performances may or may not imply singing. Although this distinction is not always clear, some of the doubtful references are still listed for the sake of offering a greater range of vocabulary.


75 but epithets for speech only 173 or other non mus ical utterings are not included since this would clearly depart from the realm of music dealt with here. Most revealing are the characteristics that the authors explicitly declare responsible for a certain effect which then is indicated in the correspondi ng column. Often times, however, no such effect is mentioned, and many of the attributes in emotional reaction) which then is not repeated in this column. With regard to t he selection of lemmata it may seem obvious that most characteristics occur in the form of adjective attributes (or adverbs modifying an action of making music), and indeed, that is what the tables below mostly contain. It is certainly possible to use geni expressions are as rare in literature as they are frequent in theoretical treatises, and so the tabl e almost exclusively contains adjectives. 174 In a few instances I have included a other qualifying adjectives in specific passages. There are also verbs that infer a characterization of the sound produced, but the se are not included with some exceptions (especially in the footnotes, e.g. contribute directly to the question of musical value. Some references on dance can be found, as dance in most occasions includes musical accom paniment and the characterization may refer to both elements. 173 See e.g. Arist. Top. 1.15.106a 107b; Plin. HN 28.6.58: vox candida ; see on this also Stanford (1969, 7) 174 References with an adverb directly derived from the adjective are listed under the same lemma.


76 A last preliminary comment may be made about the nature of the adjectives found adjectives in Greek which are primarily used to describe a sound, most words having been borrowed from other fields of sensory perception. And it is even more problematic (cf. p. 452 ) For now it may just be emphasized, backed by the empirical material, that most terms used to describe music are either generic and thus applicable to other senses as well etc.), 175 meaning simply that something possesses a (perhaps nice) melody, without revealing a particular characteristic. 176 The value of music is, for the most part, described metaphorically or in analogy to other senses. 177 In order to corroborate this, the tables below indicate in a specific column 178 those senses other than hearing for which the adjective is also (or even primarily) used; the column also shows when an adjective has further usage apart from sensual perception and specifies whether a word may 175 14.626f and the note by Gulick ad loc. who considers the possibility of understanding 176 Barker 2002, 24 27 illustrates well this phenomenon, e.g. how adjectives often mingle acoustic description with psychological features of percepti on. He also shows, with reference to Aristotle, how the sense of hearing was considered derivative or metaphorical (e.g. to touch: Arist. De an. 2.8.420a28 b4). Those words that are exclusive for music are so because they contain an element signifying a ba sic (sweet sounding, from cry aloud shout, resound ). 177 This seems to be true not only for Greek or Latin, but for English and other Indo European languages as well. Even the technical vocabulary, apart from th close between visual and acoustic phenomena; see also the interesting German terms Klangfarbe ( Farbton 237 in particular on the v isual field. See also Arist. De an. 2.8 420a28 De audib. 801a22 32 178 Entries in thi s column follow generally the order in which they are listed in LSJ or the OLD.


77 particularly describe human character since the ancient theorists claimed the influence of music on character, a linguistic bridge between the two could serve as an empirical hint that the connection is backed up by experience. Care needs to be taken, h 179 with the psychological (or neurological) phenomenon of synesthesia. 180 We need to distinguish the involuntary (interior) perception from one sense (e.g. colors) while actually perceiving another (e.g. sound) which rhetorical evocation of a two sense experience by means of creating one complex image by 181 and thirdly from the 179 Stanford 1936, 47 etymological resemblance the imaginative force and beauty of expressions such as w hite 57) perception, a constant and immediate co perior to our distinguished one is questionable does not the force of these images live from the fact that we usually do not compose them? In any case, his phylogenetic hypothesis is dvoid of any corroboration, and consist of more than a (poetically certainly valuable) composite sensation image or an analogical expression (that is when a language does not possess words to describe an experience in one sense and takes recourse to a term describing an experience of another sense). 180 Encyclopdia Britannica Online s. v. "synesthesia," accessed March 27, 2012, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/578457/synesthesia Colours associated with sounds, where a person experiences a visual sensation when receiving an auditory sign al (for example, hearing the musical tone C and perceiving the colour red), is also quite common. Although tone colour relationships are not identical for all people, there are general uniformities: the deeper a musical note, the darker the colour. and: E ncyclopdia Britannica Online s. v. "illusion," accessed March 27, 2012, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/283066/illusion see p articular colours whenever they hear given tones and musical passages; poets sometimes claim to Olivier Messiaen (1908 1992) was known for his association bet ween certain chords and colors while Wassily Kandinsky (1866 1944) used to hear what he painted. See Marks 1975; Peacock 1985; Jonathan 1986; Bernard 1986; OHMP 407. An ample bibliography can be found here: http://leonardo.info/isast/spec.projects/synesthesiabib.html accessed April 19, 2012. The distinction between the ps ychological phenomenon and the stylistic device is, for example, not reflected in Waern 1952. 181 Into this categ ory may fall the comment in Ath. 14.626 f orchestras at his festivals.


78 conventional usage of describing the perception of one sense with vocabulary from 182 We are mostly concerned with the third type. Now, the observation of a very limited originally musical vocabulary does not hinder the Greek language 183 from em ploying a real wealth of words to characterize sound in general and musical sound in particular, especially by means of compounds. The Greeks must have possessed a very fine ear if they developed a vocabulary so rich in shades to describe sounds. This perc eptiveness may also account for the deep effect that these sounds had on them and hence the psychological, educational, and moral impact that they ascribed to and apparently experienced in music. 184 The Romans, as Wille proves with innumerable examples, cont inued on that road and developed a refined sense for natural and human musical sound, to the point that one would relish a lavish acoustical evening experience. 185 182 N experience (such as produced at t corpulent bass soloist). There was certainly a reason for loaning the technical musical vocabulary mostly from terms for other senses when language was formed; however, I cannot defeat the te mptation of thinking that these transfers are widely arbitrary and conventional because the musical experience is so different from the other senses, and the corresponding emotions fail to be effectively explained outside of it ( more on this later in Chapt er 5). The ancients were well aware of the inter sensual transfer for descriptions, e.g. Sext. Emp. Mus. 30, 33; AQ 1.9 16.1 4. 183 The fact that Latin possesses fewer words for this than Greek rests for a good part on its narrow ability to form compounds an d in its smaller semantic diversification at large. 184 conventional set terms that are repeated again and again (Kaimio 1977, 238 245). Nevertheless, the authors believed these images to be effective and kept drawing from them. 185 Epist. 2.2.14 : It is delightful to sit here and listen to the shrill cica d a at noon, the croak of frogs in the gloaming, the clangour of swans and geese in the earlier night or the crow of cocks in the dead o f it, the ominous voice of rooks saluting the rosy face of Dawn in chorus, or, in the half light, nightingales fluting in the bushes and swallows twittering under the l eaves. To this concert you may add the seven stopped pipe of the pastoral Muse, on which the very wakeful Tityri of our hills will often vie one with another, while the herds about them low to the cow bells as they graze along the pastures. All these tuneful songs and (tr. Dalton 1915, 40 41).


79 Char acteristics of positive or neutral value The vast majority of texts present music in a favorable light. We will be able to give some explanation of this fact after reviewing both tables. I am first presenting the list and will subsequently comment on it, a dd some further examples beyond the adjective analysis, and draw some conclusions. Object 2.1. Terms of musical characterization predominantly positive (.docx file 90 KB) Good and beautiful. One might at first wonder why the most basic word for our where it covers a great variety of obje cts. Later authors apparently prefer more specific terms. seems to be intended here 186 Likewise, the Latin bonus or bellus, rarely found in a musical context, refers often to the qu ality of a performance or the ability of a musician. Thus it does not seem that ancient authors intended to give music itself a directly moral qualification; consequently, clearly ethical terms such as , or virtuosus seem to be scarcely used in musical context and indeed, one would hardly call music itself The table continues with a list of adjectives which all compounds of the prefix plus a musical term, describe a well or beautifully sounding melody, song, voice, or instrument. The same applies to compounds with but this base also has derivate uses outside of music. The poetic value of these words, and of many later ones, can be 186 This is different in the use of this term by the music theorists; see n. 23 in the Introduction.


80 seen in association s from other usages where they are attributed to water, insects to the expectation of those who listen. Quotes from all different styles and periods show how universall y accepted these characteristics are even though the exact meaning may shift from one author to another Latin authors, deprived of such an assortment of compounds, simply abstain from such characterizations benesonans is very rare and occurs as one wor d only late. Graceful and lovely. roots which exerts a certain attraction and emotional response. Loveliness ( ) in song is considered a divine gift (Pind. fr. 141), and hearing the voice of Orpheus leads to joy ( ) (Aesch. Ag. 1630). 187 stands out as used almost exclusively by Homer and Hesiod. Latin features few passages including gratus and words but for other terms such as pulcher 188 or amoenus 189 no reference to music was found; occasionally iucundus is used. Most of these attributes can apply to human character as well. Pleasant and sweet. The word initiates a vast section compr ising aesthetically rich concepts by explicitly emphasizing the aspect of pleasantness and 187 On the purpose of splendor/beauty/joy ( ): HH 4.476; Hes. Sc. 285 in a general joyful context of instrum ent playing and dance (270 284). 188 used for physical appearance and moral value, but also for speech and writings. A quote from Augustine ( Serm. 243.4.4 ) the difference between the visual pulchritudo and the musi cal suavitas becomes patent : 189 This term pleasant, agreeable, enjoyable occurs mostly for things to see; the only audible application is speec h (e.g. Gell. or agresti aure ac tam hispida, quem lux ista et amoenitas orationis uerborumque modificatio parum or sermonibus usqu equaque amoenissimis demulcebat).


81 enjoyment. Aristotle 190 states a common agreement among all people that music is one of the most pleasant things; 191 pl easant 192 193 The key word here is and if Aristotle is at least partially right, then the frequent attribution to music of this and similar terms is well explicable. The basic meaning of posite development, meaning ng in general; yielding pleasure or enjoyment; agreeable, delightful, charming 194 The same happens in Latin with dulcis/suavis and similar terms in other languages. Even though etymology links to suavis rather than dulcis (which for its part, according to the OLD, is related to ) the latter word corresponds to and its cognates as the predominant Latin term. 195 pleasant experiences for which Pindar develops the greatest variety, but his favorite is 190 These q uotes are not referenced in the table for belonging to the theoretical discussion treated later; however, they appear here because they introduce us well into the aspect considered here. 191 Pol. 8.5.2 1339b20 192 Ibid. 1339b22 23: 193 Ibid. 1339b23 Cf. Pind. Pyth. 3.88 90: The uppermost happiness ( ) for men is to listen to the go lden crowned Muses singing and dancing ( ). 194 Category 5 at http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/195665?rskey=jHt5nx&result=2&isAdvanced=false#eid accessed August 18, 2012. 195 Virgil, for instance, hardly ever uses the word suavis (and then mostly for scent) but dulcis with certain frequency, even though in his canonical writings only twice related to music. Apuleius, for his part, makes ample use of both ter ms.


82 196 Latin will again have to put up with a minimum of basic terms. It is only ry element and then forms compounds on its own ( ). An important word here, again Dorian that only a few later Latin authors have used the honey association for music, 197 and English translators are at a loss, without a chance to reproduce the rich Greek imagery. According to Pindar ( Nem. 3.76 80), song is like a drink mixed out of honey and milk and a crown of foam or, as Philodemus has it ( Mus. 4.12 D126 ), like a sweet des sert after dinner. 198 Isidore ( Etym. 3.20.4) even suspects an etymological connection between melos (or ) and mellus / mel ( ): melos a suavitate et melle dicta The effect of musical sweetness is at times made explicit by verbs such as 199 200 or i n Latin 196 In Pindar a whole lot of things are sweet: message ( Ol. 4.5), reward ( Ol. 5.1), Aphrodite ( Ol. 6.36), mixing bowl of songs ( Ol. 6.91), arrow ( Ol. 9.11 1); longing ( P yth. 4.184), marriage ( Pyth. 4.222 223), garden ( Pyth. 5.24), laughter ( Pyth. 8.85), offspring ( Pyth. 11.57), rest ( Nem. 7.52), return home ( Nem. 9.22 23), etc. 197 At times we find words like melleus or mellitus ( Anth. Lat. 658 .22); Boethius ( C onsolatio Philosophiae 2 .3.2) speaks of rhetoric and music by means of a honey image: The effect is marred by its fleetingness: auribus insonare desierint insitus 198 Poets have compared themselves to bees pouring nectar, cf. Pind. Ol. 7.7 8; Nem. 7.77 78; Pl. Ion 534b. For more detailed information on the connection poet bee honey see Roscalla 1998, 66 68. 199 The following notes give some re ferences in addition to those in the table (for not necessarily related to sweetness, but to music); for e.g. see Hom. Il. 1.474 (Apollo); 9.186/189 ( Achilles, with regard to his (heart, as seat of passions) and respectively ); Od. 1.347; 8.45, 91, 368 (in the midriff/heart ( 17.385; HH 4.506 ( Zeus, because of Apollo singing with lyre); Hes: Theog. 37; 917 ( song of Muses ) ; Pind. Ol. 6.105: hymns are sprouting like a charming ( ) flower; Eur. Hel. 1352 (Cypris/Aphrodite, because of the aulos ). 200 Pind. Pyth. 1.5 14 (bringing peace a ), which carries a double meaning here, alluding to both an instrument of war and music ; cf. Lippman 1964, 19: Apollo is


83 especially by mulceo 201 or similar mollio 202 lenio, 203 flecto, 204 or simply moveo. 205 Behind this wealth of sweet music hides a greater variety of evaluative levels than one perhaps would expect. Certainly, most c ontexts remain on the level of beauty and simple appreciation. The singing poet can be sweet, as can the words, the melody, the sound of an instrument 206 or a chorus or voice, 207 and, of course, birds. 208 Early Roman the god of war and harmony, hence also of healing); see also Pind. Nem. 4.1 5 (songs of the Muses ); Od. 1.338), evokes silence ( Od. 1.325, 339), or joy ( Od. 8.367). 201 lightly, stroke, caress, move gently a long; 2. to soothe the passions, pacify, quiet, appease, or sim.; 3.to give ease from physical pain, relieve, to alleviate, to make easier or more tolerable, to make sweeter or more fragrant; 4. to affect in an agreeable or relaxing manner, soothe, charm, to animals (for examples see Wille 1967, 590). Some examples: Verg. G. 4.510 (Eurydice, wailing charming tigers ) ; Aen. 7.755: Ov. Met. 5.561: canor mulcendas natus ad aures (about th e human voice of the Sirens); 14.339 ( mulcere feras et flumina longa morari about Canens); Ov. Trist. 4.1.12: harundineo carmine mulcet oves; pectora suave mulcentibus c oncordia of the Sirens); Quint. 9.2.5: tum di sponenda atque varianda sunt, ut auditorem, quod in fidibus fieri videmus, omni sono mulceant (Variation creates delight ); Pliny NH 8.50.114 : mulcentur fistula pastorali et cantu (deer ); Sil. 14.472; Apul. Met. 10.32: tibiae multiforabiles cantus Lydio s dulciter consonant. quibus spectatorum pectora suave mulcentibus id. 8.30 (in the Phrygian modulum ) ; Ambrosius Hexameron 5.24.85 (tunes at night calm people down); Arn. Adv. nat. 7.32: Mart. Cap. 9.913; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1.2.9 (lyre well played mulcet as much as bombastic orchestras); Isid. Etym. 3.17.2 ( musica animum mulcet); Ven. Fort. Carm. 2.9.59; 10.11.4; Boethius Consolatio Philosophiae 3.1.1: permulceo in Columella Rust. 12.4 ( effect of an orderly performance); Sil. 11.290 (the war trumpet); Apul. Met. 2.25: Serv. Aen. 1.66.4; Cassiod. Psalm. 145 Praef. : musica ista salutaris non solum mortalium permulcet auditum, sed etiam i ntellectum delectat angelicum ; Mart. Cap. 9.913; Isid. Etym. 3.17.2 ( musica animum mulcet). 202 E.g. Sid. Apoll. Epist. qui cotidiana saxa et robora coreneasque fibras mollit dulciloqua canorus arte 203 E.g. Luc. 9.643: sibila cantu 204 E.g. Prop. 3.2.6: 205 According to the OLD 1139a moveo touch Examples: Ov Ars am. 3.321: : here and in sim ilar places probably not only physical movement, but also with all its implied anthropomorphism 206 For the Greeks almost always the lyre or kithara; for the Romans, a bit surprisingly, mostly the aulos or flute. 207 very often for the human voice in general ; for just one example ( including the concept of honey) see Hom. Il. 1.248 249.


84 dramatic performances show this characteristi c. 209 Sweetness is the determining factor in the singing competition between Pan and Apollo. 210 But sweet sound is also at times attributed to weeping, and thus seen as feminine. 211 Ambrose thinks the opposite and interestingly defines that ntilena quae non corpus effeminate, sed 118.7.26). Macrobius suspects that dulcedo musicae has its origin in heaven where souls return after death (In Somn. 2.3.6). On the other hand, sweet music can also b e judged as negative or corruptive. 212 Christian authors take diverse and at times ambivalent positions regarding the legiti macy and function of aesthetic beauty in (liturgical) music; it is mostly accepted uty is to prais e and please God, to increase piety, or to effect conversion. 213 Soft, fine, delicate. Another series of adjectives (beginning with ), again thus 208 The ancients thought that the swan sings his own funeral song (dulcia carmina): Mart. 13.77.1 2, cf. Ov. Met. 14.428 430. 209 Anth. Lat. 111.3 6: diffundit cantica dulcis Lucian Salt. 72. 210 Ov. Met. 11.170 ; similar in Theoc. Id. 1.1, 2, 7 ( ); ps Theoc. Id. 8.82 83, including a honey image. 211 Boet. Mus. 1.1: di. Id vero etiam fuit antiquis in more, Here sweetness is more the effect but yet directly linked to the music, something, which Boethius calls We will discuss the distinction of musical character ac cording to gender in the context of Aristides Quintilianus. 212 E.g. Cic. Leg. 2.15.38 39; we will revisit the negative aspec ts in the next section. A striking example from outside the realm of music offers Sen. Ep. 90. 20.1: Incredibilest, mi Lucili quam f acile etiam 213 See Wille 1967, 384 397; Hieronymus has a negative view (quotes in Wille 1967, 380 ); different Cassiod. Historia ecclesiastica 8.6; Augustine is torn between both sides (see in the corresponding s ection). For the effect of conversion through sweet liturgical music see Isid. De ecclesiasticis officiis 2.12.2: faciat A lso August. Conf. 9.6.14: quantum flevi in h ymnis et canticis tuis, suave sonantis ecclesiae tuae vocibus commotus acriter! voces illae influebant auribus meis, et eliquabatur veritas in cor meum, et


85 loaning a concept related to the sense of touch and to feeling. Latin quotes show stronger presence for mollis and blandus for which the effect ranges from in triguing to putting to sleep. In some Latin texts these are characteristics of a good musical performance, especially with string instruments. Learned and skilfull. In this section mostly the musician and his (or her) talent or performance matter most, eve n though the qualities are sometimes, as a metaphor or hypallage, attributed to an instrument or song. The Greek language is again capable of condensing into single words what the skill is referring to. Whether one plays the lyre well or poorly has a very different outcome, as described in HH 4.482 488: it provides (Ep. 87.12) justly points out that good instruments do n o t yet make a good musician. 214 Occasional ly authors exemplify qualities that are expected from a good musician or poet, e.g. in Ar. Thesm. 162: he should make savory or season the 215 or in Lucian where we find a long list of characteristics for a good singer. 216 According to West, 217 the first recorded (positive) critical judgment about a 214 Lucian ( Ind 12) reports some painful stories to illustrate this: one (Ind. 9) about Evangelus who presumptuously thought his golden adorned kithara would give him a victory in musical contest but instead got flogged for his awful performance, and the other about Nea nthus, son of the tyrant Pittacus at pieces, like Orpheus, but by dogs who had gathered for the sound ( ). 215 I do not quite see where the roughness should come from. 216 Lucian, Imagines 1 4 see already above under : Penthea supposedly is so perfect in observing the proper rhythm, measure, synchrony with the kithara, softness in touch ( ) flexibility of the melodies/modulations ( all beyond Orpheus or Antiphon; her singing stuns and turns to stone as the Gorgon, and one remains enchanted ( ) as by the Sirens, but wax 217 1992, 352, with references to Ar. Vesp. 220 and scholia, 269, 1490, 1524 and others.


86 reography. Aristophanes knows little restraint when it comes to poin ting out qualities or deficiencies in poets or musicians. Distinctness ( ) is expected of the tones produced on an instrument (1 Cor 14.7). One word, with the adjective 218 with the sense for beauty and art, 219 skill in music, 220 and sweetness of song. Orderly, harmonious, no ble. The previous concept leads into the consideration of the proper qualities within music. Some of these seem rather abstract (AQ quotes Pindar with in reference to Apollo), hence not too many of them can be found in poetry. For now i t is important to notice that the general idea of harmony and proper order appears throughout the literary genres and periods as an essential ingredient of how music is expected to be. Already in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes 4.478 482 we find the concept of which thus contribute s to feast, dance, and joy, teaching through sound all which gives delight 221 Harmony as a mea ningful combination and integration of dis parate elements is, as will further emerge in the course of our study at are related, as 222 The correspo ndence of content and form can 218 For this, LSJ 722 quote s from ps. Plut. De p lacit is p hilosophorum 4.20 : o for references for the other concepts; see also in Longus 2.35. 219 E.g. Dion. Hal. Dem. 49. 220 E.g. Diog. Laert. 2.17. 221 Something similar is said about melody in Anacreontea 60a.6. 222 E.g. Strabo 10.4.16: The Cretan State stipulates that bo ys learn war dance and other songs according to Cretan rhythms Instituta


87 be seen where the quality of the voice is in agreement with what is expressed. 223 Other concepts in this area include temperance/moderation, 224 taste, and nobility. Divine and devout. From noble to divine is only a small step, an d both music and musicians are often said to be inspired from heaven, 225 if they themselves do not belong already to the superior realm (e.g. the Muses, Graces, Fates, or Harmonia 226 herself). Stories about the divine descen t 227 or at least instruction 228 of music ians and aetiologies about instruments 229 and melodies testify their high appreciation and endorsement. Only in the case of the Dionysian rites does music incur negative descriptions as well (see below). The transcendent source of music offers at least one e xplanation for the fact Laconica 14 = Mor. 238a. In his complaint about decadent contemporary music, Cicero ( Leg. 2.15.39 ) pra ises the iucunda severitas in the music of the ancient dramatists Livianus and Naevius. 223 E.g. in Eur. Hel. ), appropriate to appease Demeter, the goddess of the earth who for her part engag ) aulos 224 E.g. Cic. Leg. 2.15.38 (regarding instrumental music in theater). 225 See above p. 42 and 63 and the following examples: Hes. Op. 658 662; Theog. 22 3 95, 103 (singers and kithara players exist through the Muses and Apollo); HH 3. 518 519; Pind. Pyth. 12 (Athena invents song for men after the victory over the Medusa); Ol. 3.7, 10; Pae. 9.34; fr. 141 (loveliness ( ) given by god); fr. 151 (from Eustathios Il. 9.40; here the Muse incites, which is different from Homer ( ad loc. ) who incites the Muse!). 226 E.g. HH 3.195 ; Hes. Th. 933 7; Eur. Phoen. 822, and the ninth book in Mart. Cap. De nuptiis. 227 Orpheus, for example, is calle Met. 10.167) he was rather the son of Oiagros (Pind. fr. 126.9; Apollod. 1.3.1; Mart. Cap. 1.3), so Apollo is rather his he Muse Calliope; for Amphion Zeus is claimed as his father and Antiope as mother (e.g. Hom Od. 11.260 262). Vergil Ecl. 4.56 56 mentions Linus as son of Calliope and Apollo. 228 For evidence about Olympus as a disciple of the satyr Marsyas ( aulos ) see Wille 1967, 535 n. 480 and Barker 1984, 92 n. 197. Achilles learned to play the phorminx from his mentor, the centaur Chiron (cf. Hom. Il. 11.830 832), who, according to Phot. Bibl. 190, had been instructed by Dionysus himself. 229 Hermes, for instance, found or invented the kithara (HH 4.24ff), being the father of Pan (Cic. Nat. D. 3.22.56; Ov. Met. 1.711 712) who, for his part, invented the syrinx (Verg. Ecl. 2.31 33; Ov. Met. 1.689 710). The aulos is purported to have been invented by Athena/Minerva; however, the strange face she had to make playing it led her to reject it with contempt (e.g. In Arist. Pol. 1342b 2 7; Ath. 14.616e 617a; Hyg. Fab. 165; Fulg. Myth. 3.9; Ov. Fast. 6.695 702). This, of course, cannot be the reason for the ethical quality that is at tributed to its sound.


88 that the ancients attributed particular power to music. 230 The gods always prevail over the presumption of humans who attempt to surpass them in this art (e.g. the daughters of Pierus against the Muses in Ov. Met. 5.269ff). Hence, mus ic should be pleasing to the divinity. Sometimes gods and their power are thought to be made present through music. 231 Cosmic speculation culminates in the assumption that all of nature and the universe is adjusted according to musical parameters and thus po ssesses a harmonic sound. 232 Human music, then, looks up to the divinities as its patrons. 233 The idea of music as a gift from God, still present in Roman thought, 234 continues into Christianity. 235 The vocabulary includes here as well some terms not directly conn ected to religion but still breathing the spirit of the sublime ( , sollemnis, cultus). Splendid and marvelous. Not necessarily linked to superior forces, but to highlight supreme quality, authors rely on terms taken mostly from the sense of si ght. Both Latin and Greek offer a number of descriptions for which certainly more could be found. Shining splendor metaphorically links to wonder and surprise, and whatever is 230 See above and Wille 1967, 443, collecting the reports on Apollo, the Muses, Orpheus, Linus, Arion, and Amphion; also Lippman 1964, 45 51. 231 So the Pythagoreans, see Iambl. Myst. 3.9 (quoted in Mathiesen 1990, 43 44), due to the att raction of 232 Cf. Mart. Cap. 1.11 28 with Apollo at its origin. 233 Cf. Ar. Thesm. 111 11 3 g forward sacred reward in 234 E.g. Sen. Ben. 4.6.5. 235 E.g. August. Mus. 6.17.57; Ep. 166.13: See also Wille 1967, 622 and in the corresponding section below It may be important to noctice that the ide a of a divine (origin of) music did not enter Christian thought as a foreign import from Neoplatonic sources via Augustin and others, but could count on a basis in the Judeo Christian faith that God has created the world according to mathematical principle But you have disposed all things by measure and number and weight 13; 14.2 3; 15.3 4).


89 new 236 has always exerted particular appeal 237 But newness can also be prompted by different experiences. 238 Clear, shrill, resounding, and loud. In a way, the characterizations collected here are in opposition to the ones above on sweetness and softness. It might surprise that phorminx, and it is used as well for the Muse s, Circe, the Sirens (more frequently ), the aulos and the swan. It must be rather the clarity than a particular timbre that motivates the choice of these words in tinnulus ) and can have a negative connotation. Also the associative range of and its twin includes negative elements, especially wailing and a general shrill ness of sounds. 239 236 More points follow in C hapter 3 since the same attribute is sometimes also crit icized; it is included here for passages with positive meaning (see also Kaimio 1977, 242). n addition we may ( vd"_x' ryv i / v / canticum novum) with its eschatological dimension of deliverance and redemption; cf. Jdt 16.1 (psalmus),13 (hymnus); Pss 32 (33).3; 39 (40).4; 95 (96).1; 97 (98).1; 143 (144).9; 149.1; Is 42.10; Apoc 5.9; 14.3; cf. August. Serm. 34.1.1: 336.1.1: us cantoris, fervor est sancti amoris 237 Od. 1.351 352; cf. Pindar Ol. 9.48 49 and quoted in Pl. Resp. 424 b) an early precursor to modern hit lists. See also Ath. 14.623e: music reveals always 238 HF 767 with text correction by Barker in GMW 1. 81 n 127) 239 Hom. Od. 12.44, 183), but the vantage point of a clearer semantic distinction of musical vocabulary m akes one reluctant to stretch a term to the opposite of its most frequently attested meaning. Homer knows of other ways to describe sweetness of Notice also that Latin authors hardly ever use wor ds such as dulcis or suavis for the Sirens but prefer canorus. More about the Sirens see on p. 131


90 resonance (while argutus combines volume and a particular mix of timbre). The by far most preferred term in Latin is canorus which semantically overlaps in part with / (and thus fills the same slot of an epithetic stereotype) but seems to neither reach into the concept of shrillness nor allow for a use in a negative context. Most terms in this section are actually proper to the sense of hearing; some are loane d from sight (e.g. clarus) or even touch (e.g. acutus); acutus can apply to all senses / are limited to sounds, but it is not limited to music. 240 The lyric poets have a preference for this sort of sound. 241 Happy and joyful. From the lo ud music there is an easy transition to the joyful, even though direct characterizations of this kind do not abound. 242 Strictly speaking, we are dealing again with examples of hypallage, since the authors attribute to the song or instrument its effect on th e musician or listener. Rousing and wild. The first two words here indicate an important musical effect usually expressed by verbs (and hence not found further in our list). 243 The 240 T he earliest references for (from the Iliad) actually show its origin from natural sounds: 5.526 and 23.215 (wind); 11.532 (whip); 14.290 (bird); cf. Hes. Op. 583 (locusts). It is further used for shouting (Hes. Sc. 233) and wailing (Eur. Med. 205), especially in the tragedies. 241 Anderson 1994, high pitched, clear, and sweet) and collects in n. 28 references for the usage of in Alcman and other lyric poets; he later (73 75) comments on Alcaeus, Sappho, and Stesichorus. They all understandably (e.g Anacreontea 43.11). A certain ambiguity of shrillness is also reflected in verb such as ring/shriek/scream positive in Eur. Alc. 346 and negative in Alcm. 1.86. 242 I have listed almost exclusively Latin terms, but most probably there are also Greek examples that I have not been able to identify. 243 Just one e xample from Hom. Od. 23.143 145 where the kithara arouses ( ) to dance and song (c f. for the same verb Hes Sc. 274 where the bridal hymn itself rises or swells up).


91 corresponding quot ation of Plutarch 244 is particularly rich; it describes the S partan music which is stirring 245 this all in the service of education to warfare. Another frequent context of ecstatical music is the frenzies of Bacchic 246 which tend to be considered rather harmful and are included in this section. Varia. The table ends with some attributes that do not fit well into any of the previous categories and highlight metaphorically some particular characteristics which except for the last one (consolabilis), we cannot fully appr eciate. 247 Music images. A last area to be included here (but not reflected in the table) is not directly evaluative of music but allows us to appreciate still further how the ancients perceived music in a spontaneous and poetic manner Just as the language oftentimes needs to take recourse to other senses to describe a particular perceptive effect, we find a wealth of imagery and analogy in order to convey more complex ideas about how music is thought to be. A few examples may suffice to illustrate the point 248 244 Instituta Laconica 14. S ee also n. 90 245 246 E.g. in Pind. Dithyramb 2.19 23, pre ceded by the 1 14 loud thundering groans ( ) of the Naiads. 247 See the corresponding table entry for ; swans appear elsewhere with quite distinct somewhat mysterious. 248 Kaimio 1977, 242 gathers a few more (especially for the genre of choral lyrics) :


92 Musical tunes appear like a woven texture 249 a shot arrow (Pind. Ol. 9.5 14) hitting the mark (Pind. Nem. 6.28 9; 9.55), a slumber, or a drink from a fountain in the heat of summer (Verg. Ecl. 5.46 47). 250 Song is more delightful than the murmuring of wind or mountain rivers and their banks (Verg. Ecl. 5.81 84). Most comparisons are drawn from birds. We already commented on the nightingale in the vocabulary table ; Alcman is called a swan singer of wedding song s ( Anth. Pal. 7.19); swan like songs appear in Alcm. 1.101 and Lact. Phoen. 45 49; the swan is even compared with the lyre in Lucr. 2.505 506 and Sid. Epist. 8.9.4; Phrygian rhythm flows swan like along with the wind ( Anacreontea 60a.5 10 ) ; Mart. Cap. 9.91 8 mentions his teneri cantus Sometimes 251 Birds in general count a s the first inventors of music and its teachers 252 Some 253 or a crotala player 249 E .g. Pind. Pyth. 12.8 ; Nem. 4.44 45; possibly also th e sound of weaving in Eur. IT 222 223; Ar. Ran. 1315 1317; see also GMW 1.71 n. 61 Indirectly but nicely in Pind. Pyth. 8.68 (cf. Anderson 1994, 100). 250 Slumber also ps Theoc. Id. 9.33. 251 HF 691 ; Cycnus gets transform ed into a swan while lamenting (Verg. Aen. 10.189 92; another swan song appearance in 7.699 701 : 252 E.g. Democritus in Plut. De soll. an. 20 = Mor 974a = DK 68 B154 (humans learned song by imitation of swans and nightingales ; cf. id. 19 = Mor. 973a ) ; Varro Rust. 3.16.7; Lucr. 5.1379 1381. Similarly about the wind: id. 5.1382 1383 (cf. Wille 1967, 424 425). Wille 1967, 155 reports that the Romans paid more for a nightingale th an for slaves and charioteers, and how they were directly included into instrumental music and imitated by sophisticated mechanisms (cf. Pliny NH 10.29.84). For a special praise of the Anth. Lat. 658.1 28 and the idyllic be 1.15 20. 253 Alcm. 1.85 88; for more about this comparison in Alcman, see Anderson 1994, 68 69.


93 omen. 254 An animal particularly famous for its alleged musicality is the dolphin which is said to love the aulos 255 ; and the kithara in Stat. Silv. 2.2.118 20; also in Sext. Emp. Adversus musicos 24). This might stem from or explain the story tha t a dolphin miraculously rescued the singer Arion who, condemned to death, wa s thrown into the ocean. 256 A according to Pliny NH 9.24 it even likes the organ. 257 Bacchic music supposedly transformed a group of Tyrrhenians into dolphins: Hyg. Astr. 2.17 ( in Wille 1967, 562 n. 23 ) Conclusion. The testimony of poets and other literary authors of classical antiquity shows an overwhelming agreement that good music is beaut iful pleasing, gracious, taste ful, and resounding. More than proving the obvious, however, behind these general features is assembled a much more detailed spectrum which shows significant preferences. The Greeks here especially the early poetry from Homer to Pindar (and still Aristophanes) reveal a particular taste for two characteristics: (compounds with 254 E.g. the owl in Verg. Aen. 4.460 463, Ov. Epist. 2.118 (avis) Met. 10.452 453, Ibis 223 224. 255 y the lovely melody of auloi Hel. 1451 1455: aulos Ar Ran. 1317 quoting Eur El. 435 (GMW 1.116). 256 Hdt. 1.23 24 and Gell. 16.19, further in Pliny NH 9.8.28 and presented by August. Civ. 1.14 as an argument to belief in the Biblical account about the prophet Jona rescued by a whale. About Arion in 555. 257 Although Pliny might have gotten something mixed up here, since it had been the Delphians who apparently appreciated the organ very much as reported fr om the Pythian Games in 90 BC (see West 1992, 380).


94 compounds), be (compounds of ), along with notions of softness and delicacy; on the other hand there is the clear and high pitched sound ( / ) which does not seem in contradiction to the previous concept of sweetness since often times the same authors thus characterize the same or similar subjects (e.g. divinities such as the Muses) but it can be seen that sweetness applies rarely to instruments (and if, then to the lyre), while clearness or shrillness can go with vo ices and animals alike (interestingly also for the phorminx/kithara, probably because of its metallic timbre). Tragic authors use positive imagery mostly to mark the very absence of (joyful) music (e.g. Eur. Med. 421 429 and p. 96 ), and actual song, consistant with the genre, takes up the quality of mourning and weeping. The Romans, with a much less diversified vocabulary available, emphasize sweetness (dulcis) and pleasantness (suavis), with a greater variety of words for softn ess (mollis, lenis, levis, etc.), but then also for sonorous resonance (canorus, clarus, etc.). In both language traditions there is a strong belief in the divine origin and inspiration of music which gives it its dignity and splendor. At the same time, e valuation and criticism of composers and performers and their skill is present from the early beginnings as evident from both descriptive terms and the institution of musical contests. Lastly and very importantly, the quality of music is measured by a cert ain order or harmonious combination of the different musical elements. This will be a key point for the later theoretical discussion.


95 Characteristics of negative value As in the previous section, the explanation of this table is given below. Object 2 2. Terms of musical characterization predominantly negative (.docx file 56 KB) Bad, immoral, and immoderate. A direct negative moral judgment on music is, like a positive one, rarely expressed, 258 and e ven if it is, then it is not always clear whether the music is meant, or the text, or the general circumstance in which a performance occurs. But it seems that some musical patterns in themselves are Suet. Ner. 42.2 as quoted). That we find here only examples from Roman times is not surprising since cultural decadence as a phenomenon discussed in literature (and not only by the philosophers) features mostly from the Hellenistic period onward and comes to a certain climax during the reign of Nero. Immoderation and excess belong into this category. But for the most part, the presence of music is a sign of goodness, and so Pindar begins h is first Pythian Ode 259 contrasting the charm of the Muses with the ter ror their music inflicts on those which states that music is incompatible with evil. 260 Inversely, the joy over the toil of good deeds is short lived if one goes to Hades without a song (Pind. Ol. 10.91 93). 261 258 For the same reason as explained above , , etc., do not seem to have music as their subject. 259 Pind. Pyth 1.1ff, taken up again in 97 98 where virtuous Croesus is opposed to the cruel tyrant Cf. about this also GMW 1.55. 260 See also in the OT Am 5.23 and Ez or the harp because of moral evil commited by the people ); Is 24.8 9 261 This reference, however, seems to aim more at the fame perpetuated through sung poetry than at the joy music itself can provide, but maybe both elements are meant.


9 6 Sad, mournful, and miserable. Miserable music may be caused by the pitiful state of mind of the musician or by deplorable talent. As for the former, 262 the most should firs t not e that such situations often times indicate precisely the absence of music (or at least of instrumental accompaniment) which in itself functions as a manifestation e silentio for the dreadfulness of the state of affairs. 263 Even though some say that th e Muse should not deal with sad business, 264 we still find many examples throughout antiquity where dirges are solemnly performed and instruments express sad sound. but we might perhaps get some idea if we listen to the melody of the nightingale which served as a favored comparison for songs of mourning. 265 As mentioned above (n. 172 ) the distinction between a formally musical wa iling and non musical groans or cries is not always clear. Cries of lamentation appear Phoen. 1036 1042 (here also 262 263 Unaccompanied song occurs also in Eur. Alc. 430 431 ; death is the culmination of the absence of music (Soph. OC 1220 1223: no wedding song, lyre dance, cf. Soph. Ant. 810 8 16; in war (Ares): Aesch. Supp. 635, 678 6 83, Eur. Phoen. 784 7 91); desire of being never Muse less: Eur. HF 676; deprivation from musical delights also in Soph. Aj. 1199 1204 Cicero: no music a t the funeral of his enemy Clodius ( Mil. 32.86 ; cf. Luc. 8.734 : ut resonant tristi cantu fora ); instruments fall silent as war is imminent: Dracontius Romulea 8.641 645. See also the OT: w ailing should not have music: Si. 22:6 / Musica in luctu importuna narratio ( Song in mourning is (like) untimely talk ) ; NT Apoc 18 22 ( the devastation of Babylon voice of kitharists and the first of a whole series of privations ); cf. also Mt 11.17/ Lk 7.32 (no dancing to aulos playing) 264 Ov. Fast. 4.83 84: 265 E.g. Aes ch. Supp. 57 72 ; Ag. 1140 1148 ; Soph. El. 147 14 9 ; Aj 626 631 contrasted with human cry ( toned songs ( Eur. Hel. 1107 10 16 ; Rhes. 546 5 50 ; That the nightingale is not always associated with sorrow can be seen from these references: Ar. Av 1380 ; in Latin: Pliny N H. 10.29.81, Lactant. De opificio dei 10.15, Petron. 68 (to be imitated by slave); Plaut. Bacch. 38 (comparison with a songstress).


97 like thunder) and Tro. 148; terrors can be wrought into unutterable clamour and high p itched melodies (Aesch. Ag. 1152 1153). Aeschylus in general employs the high pitched soundpair / for sad sounds (LSJ 1084), but the other extreme, deepness, can also carry some connotation to a sorrowful groaning, 266 in both the the Latin gravis 267 Destructive and terrible. The most obviously negative effect music can have is when it is put to the service of direct damage and destruction, even death. The ecstatic and frenetic musical rituals connected to Dionysus/Bacchus or Cybele (especially by the Corybantes), the latter of Phrygian origin, can lead to destructive madness. 268 Drums, aulos and high pitched hoarse yells to particular rhythms and dance movements encite a spectacle that transmits horror and fear. The tragedians 269 make f requent use of such devices, e.g. when in Aesch. Eum. 329 333 the Erinyes erupt into a mind destroying binding the mind, withering for mortals, or when a maddening death dance precedes a catastrophe (Eur. HF 871 899). 270 Ill soun ding music expresses anger against the other sex (Eur. Ion 1090 1098; Med. 419 427), but can also be related to the previous topic of mourning (as in Aesch. Pers. 633 639; Sept. 266 Both pitches are combined in Aesch. Supp 112 267 E.g. Hor. Carm. 4.9.8 (with reference to Stesichorus); low is connected with sadness: Stat. Theb. 6.120 122: um signum luctus cornu grave mugit adunco tibia, cui teneros suetum producere manes supposedly softening up the spirits of the dead (manes). 268 For a detailed description based on mostly Latin sources see Wille 1967, 53 56 (Bacchus) and 56 62 (Cybele) of course, the worshippers themselves would not have classified their rites as negative, but most of the authors describing them did ( especially in Plautus, Tibullus, Ovid for references see Wille 1967, 59 60). About the relationship between music and trance in Greek music and rites see Rouget 1985, 187 226. I disagree with some of his conclusions but this cannot be discussed here. 269 W e would have to exclude Sophocles for a good part who is generally sparse in music descriptions. 270 Aulos and dance elicit fear( ) and frenzy. Notice the contrasting silence after the terrible deed: ibid. 926 930.


98 854 origin of crime and doom where the hymn is the first sin ( ) (Cassandra about the Erinyes in Aesch. Ag. 1186 1192). 271 A fearful heart prompts Orestes to sing and dance in grudge/rancor/ill Cho. 1024 1025). Dionysian rage is it which causes the death of Orpheus, torn into pieces by Maenads 272 or, according to Vergil (Georg. 4.520 527) and Ovid (Met. 11.1 53; cf. Lucian Ind. 11; Paus. 9.30.5), by Thracian women who with their org 273 In other contexts, tunes are perceived negative for being the forebearer of some looming evil (e.g. in war, here mostly the trumpet or battle songs) 274 or the consequence of it (see e.g. in the table ). Occasionally the terror inflicted by musical sound can also have a positive outcome: Triton saves himself from the giants by blowing into a snail shell (Hyg. Poet. astr. 2.23) performance: both Greek and Latin authors assemble quite an arsenal for musical invective (some of these terms appear in other sections of our table). 275 A recurrent Latin term mostly for wind instruments, is raucus, implying a mostly (but not in all 271 S 272 So Apollod. Bibl. 1.3.2 273 More on the different versions about the death of Orpheus see n. 5 ad loc. by Frazer in his translation (1921) Wille 1967, 551 comments: Orpheus ist damit als Vertreter der apollonischen Musik umgekommen. 274 See also, for instance, Hom. Il. 217 cry). 275 Timo shrieks of shrill and loud music Timoth. Per s. 21 6 217, tr. GMW 1.96); for Latin examples: Verg. Ecl. 3.26 27; Calp. Ecl. 3.55 60; 6.22; Horace ridicules bad performance in Carm. 3.15.13 14; 4.13.4 8.


99 conte xts) negative tone. Music in early (Roman) times is described as rather rough and crude. 276 It is significant that many of the adjectives in this section apply also to human character or behavior, the quality of which is transferred onto music. Frequently th ey can also describe negative perception from the other senses. Piercing, harsh, and shrill. acuteness, but even though the pitch level could be similar to what etc. indicates, the terms here appear in clearly negative context, again either in tragedy or as piercing sound (metallic, like a cymbal) with clearly unpleasant con notations. Loud. Even though this section is very small, I separated these few words from the others because they single out volume as the disturbing element, and almost always connected to lamentation. Ignorant and discordant. The table concludes with a s eries of terms that are instrumental play. Except for the Lucian passage there ar e mostly Latin words, and much concerns criticism of the musicians, but about this topic more Greek ones can be Phrynicus (Com. 69, in Ath. 2.44d) who slanders the musicia 276 Cf. Ov. Ars am. 1.111 114; AQ 2.6 61.26ff.

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100 and all this just because he w Aristophanes has Aeschylus and Euripides mock each other extensively in the Frogs 277 and takes up Agathon as well (in Thesm. 100 212, for being womanish). Horace elaborates on technical mistakes of musicians 278 who, according to Martial, could then be thrown out of the theater, despite the magic power which the kithara could normally have. 279 Dangerous. This last section, in a way, takes up again what was said above rms in other sections of both tables. There is music that is apparently good, for being attractive, but yet harmful. The Sirens, 280 femal e bird monsters with human heads and enticingly 281 humans to their island an d then have 282 at any rate, the quality of the song is undisputed. The 277 A gainst Aeschylus espec ially in Ar. Ran. 907 933; 1249 1250 (for repetitiveness); against Euripides 1296 1369 (for mixing genres, rhythms, etc.); see also West 1992, 352 354 and nn. 118, 122, 123 130 ); 278 Ars P. 347 350: Sunt delicta tamen quibus ignovisse velimus; nam neque ch orda sonum reddit quem volt manus et mens, poscentique gravem persaepe remittit acutum, nec semper feriet quodcumque A t 374, Horace mentions the offense of symphonia discors when something better is expected gratas inter mensas; also Vena ntius Fortunatus in Carm. 2.9.3 6: 279 Mart. 14.166f: 280 Meaning here those mentioned in Hom. Od. 12. 39 54, 183 198 (cf. also Ov. Ars Am. 3.311 31 4 ; Sil. 12.33 6 ) not the celestial ones who, according to Pl. Resp. 617b, produce the harmony of the spheres; both cannot be identical. 281 Barker in GMW 1.31 n. 37 points out that the word used here ( ) does not specify the exact nature of the music, although it is usually assumed that the Sirens are producing vocal song. According to Claud. De raptu Proserpinae 3.257 they used lyres ( in pestem vertere lyras ) on some depictions even auloi (c f. Wille 1967, 541). Fin. 5.18.49). Wille (ibid.) points out that Cicero is alone with this hardly convincing view. Others rather emphasize the magic b ehind the song (e.g. Pliny NH 30.2.5 6). 282 239 above.

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101 joy the beauty and avoid the harm, and others were even able to surpass them 283 or make them fall silent. 284 Hence, the danger here comes not from the music as such but from a particular situation in which music is employed as bait for a trap. Nevertheless, th effect of deceitful attraction. 285 Charming seductive sound 286 is related to deceitful speech or superficiality. 287 Christian writers sometimes suspected damage to the soul due to a sweet voice or high pitch. 288 In general, the idea of musical enchantment, be it seen in a positive or negative light is widespread. 289 Conclusion. evil or produ c ing it but for its asso ciation with a negative circumstance (anything that could be the reason for wailing: death, defeat, any sort of catastrophe, menacing armies 283 See above n. 116 284 Daphnis in Sil. 14.471 473 285 286 This concept is frequen t in other contexts, e.g. Aesch. PV tongued incantations of 287 C f. Quint. 5.8.1; Petr. 127; Maxim. Eleg. 5.19f. The Romans used to depict a battle between Muses and Sirens in which the Sirens represented corrupting music (so the n referred to in Hieronymus In Esaiam 6.14) and the Muses purifying harmony; (see Wille 1967, 542, along with symbolic use of the eternal life). 288 E.g Hieron. Ep. 107,4 9; 128.4.3. 289 See GMW 1.90 n. 185 with references for / (spell) and A lso the verb would have to be considered (especially in Lucian, Imagines 14 (see above n. 216 ); Eur. Alc. 359 (to charm like Orpheus); Pl. Lysis 206b (here is implied words and songs sho the contrary of which Prt. 315a b (Protagoras, enchanting with his voice like Or pheus), cf.Luc. Ind. 12 (Neanthus trying to e n chant [in addition, is used] like Orpheus on his very lyre ; see more at n. 214 Mus. 1.32 D49.38.

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102 announced by the sound of the trumpet, etc.). Sometimes it is not easy to determine whether in a given passage is a ny music at all or just a shrieking, sighing, groaning, or the like. The general notion of music is positive throughout, so much so that it is seen incompatible with moral evil or even to be present in depressing circumstances, while inversely the absence of music (or at least of enjoyable music) may precisely indicate a n adverse situation. As we have seen, Greeks and Romans show a general preference for mellow lower, but extreme s hrillness and harsh timbre they find disturbing. There are only three significant instances (which will remain prevalent throughout antiquity) in which music takes up a negative tone: the context of sorrowful wailing (in both the epic and the tragic genre) the destructive frenzy of Bacchic dance song, and which though itself extremely beautiful, presents a deadly danger precisely because of its deceitful attraction. Apart from these, a negative judgment is cast on mus icians who display a lack of moderation or talent in For a concluding illustration of the antithesis between good and bad song it is fitting to return to Homer, to the end of the Odyssey: From the mouth of the deceased own wife, Clytemnestra, who had murdered him, for which e ds

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103 290 Thus the character of a song ought to correspond to the good or evil deeds of which it tells. Morality and aesthetics are harmonized in the divine Muse. Terminological Clarification s about the Value of Music In the preceding empirical surv ey of ancient literary texts we have encountered a widespread variety of characterizations for aspects of music with positive and negative connotations. Before moving on to systematic ally review the more theoretical expositions regarding usic, we are now able and also need, to properly define and organize the concepts involved Music A general and clear cut definition of what exactly music is remains elusive because of the difficulty of deciding what should and should not pertain to music 291 In and still later could generally mean, as opposed to sports, all of culture, comprising poetry (spoken or sung ), dance, the theoretical science of harmonics, and even philosophy the meaning shifts depending on the context. 292 If is narrowed down to the area of sounds, a ccording to the ancient classification it 290 Hom Od. 24.197 , similar idea according to which a good hymn is fitting recompense for a virtuous king ( Pyth. 2.14 ) in contrast to a not virtuous one: Pyth. 1.95 98: Croesus vs. Phalaris ) 291 See e.g. Ball 2010, 9 34; Nettle in the GMM 17.425 436 offers multiple possible definitions from various vantage points such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, authorities, different cultural contexts, and scholarship. 292 Cf. Pl. Resp. 376e (see also Shorey 1930 and Emlyn Jones/Preddy 2013 ad loc.); for what we would (Resp. 398d: including words, tune, and rhythm). etymological derivation in Cra. searching, philosophy ) is discussed in Moutsopoulos 2002, 39 n. 1 and is not the most probable. About the scientific status of music in Plato and Aristotle see Richter 1961 is still attested for Plutarch (Per. 4). Later, i n the Latin tradition of the artes liberales quadrivium, togeth er with arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy.

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104 c ould be considered either a science ( scientia) 293 in view of its mathematical underpinnings, 294 or an art ( ars) 295 in view of its practica l application Sextus 296 Aristides Quintilianus, while offering a definition that uses 297 insist 298 both theoretical (definitions and propositions) and practical (composition and performance ) ( 1.4 4.20 1.5 6 27 ). N owadays music is considered both art and science involving both talent and c s composing music (with rational principles). 299 Treating is not unproblematic, 300 but we do not 293 (Eth. Nic. change a nd can be taught. 294 So developed since the Pythagoreans and can still be seen in the definition in Cassiod. Mus. 4 Augustine), but mathematically described. 295 ( Eth. Nic. ( ) with the maker (as opposed to necessity or nature) as its causa efficiens 296 Mus. 1.1 1.18 2 10 and Greaves 1986, 125 n. 8. 297 H e actually works with four definitions ( 1.4 4.18 < > (tr. GMW 2.402, see ibid. n. 13 on the argume nt and the textual emendation), science as secure, without change, and the deduction of principles. At some point he says that music is the art that separates gooness from badness regarding harmonies an 9). 298 Id. 1.4 5.1 ... ) (tr. GMW 2.403). 299 general encyclopedias in Western nations. 300 MGG 17.433 434 points out two problems: that not all music s difference between everyday language and literature.

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105 need to pursue here the debate on whether music is a science or an art 301 because our concern is not its gnoseological status but rather how as a hu man artifact, its effect on the human person can be evaluated. What we rather need, therefore, is another kind of definition which would determine the essential qualities of music based on its most 302 According to what is perhaps the most common ancient (even though rather post classical) 303 rendering, music is the scientia 304 bene modulandi (Cens. DN 10.3; Aug. Mus. 1.2.2; Mart. Cap. 9.930) Significant in this definition is the value term (to which we will return further below ) while modular indicates the melodical, rhythmical, and harmonical creation of music. 305 This definition, however, remains rather narrow insofar as it delineates only the field of musical science (which, for the ancients, mainly deals with the mathematica l rules and proportions that underly the different musical parameters the complying with which would render a composition bene modulata) F or our purposes music is bet ter described in its actual sonoric reality. 306 301 F or this see e.g. Budd 1985, ix x who, for the purpose of his st in extenso Barker 2007. 302 MGG 17.427. 303 Wille 1967, 416 and 594 assumes that this definition goes back to Varro (116 28 BC) as part of his lost treatise on music; so also Hentschel (in August. Mus. 2002, 178, n.8). 304 Hentschel (in August. Mus. 2002, 178) n. 10 ad loc. acquire or have acquired and to process certain knowledge. 305 Cf. Wille 1967, 416 n. 106 and 605 with a commentary on the definition; Wille points out that Augustine includes here the movement of dance as part of musical rhythm; cf. also Richter 1965, 90 91. 306 The ancients sometimes offer simple definitions of this kind ; according to Strabo 10.3.9, for instance, y but the context of music at religious festivals suggests that the author adds immediately enjoyment and beauty since happiness makes humans more alike to the gods. Plato, at some point (Leg.

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106 As an example for a contemporary approac h I propose analyzing a definition from a popular work of reference that pretends to represent a commonly acceptable formula. The Encyclopdia Britannica provides combining vocal or instrumental sounds for bea uty of form or emotional expression, usually according to cultural standards of rhythm, melody, and, in most Western music, harmony later that for at least up to the mid 20 th century music is characterized by the regularity of its vibrations 307 T his definition implies that music is produced by human beings only, 308 is ambiguous about verbal sound ( whether spoken or only sung text ( lyrics ) are part of it or not ) and does not attempt to cover all that anyone ever has declare d music, 309 but rather what most people in past and present would consider to be music In the following sentence, the Britannica states the factors places. T he definition above remarkably asserts that music is at least in part, suppose d to aim at beauty, that is, to pursue a positive value in aesthetical terms Later on w e will discuss the relationship between music and aestheti cs, but for the moment we should notice that this connection can not simpl y be taken for granted, especially the claim that The analysis of ancient authors already revealed instances of music where beauty is 307 http ://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/398918/music (accessed on July 4, 2011) or in the Macropdia 2010, vol. 24, 493. 308 In other words, animal or natural sounds deserve musical description only in analogy because they are lacking the rational component t hat human music virtually always possesses. For a further discussion of this distinction see Wallin 2000 and in the MGG the entry 309 See about this point e.g. Ball 2010, 10.

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107 precisely excluded (e.g. in the context of mourning). T he only other purpose mentioned which is a concept highly disputed among scholars and hence requires further qualification The Britannica does not consider other functions such as group integrati on essential enough to be included in a general definition even though the social dimension cultures. 310 The fact that the ancient Greek s considered dance at least ideally, as an essential factor in music 311 is left a side as well. The arduous task of defining or at least describing what music is grows in complex ity if we ask whether music is som ething objective or rather subjective or in other words, whether it is bound to the human mind as such or just to an individ ual mind Is music the accumulation of sound waves with specific characteristics and in a certain order (which might serve as a physical description of music ) or is it only their interpretation according to reasonable (or meaningful) 312 patterns that these physical phenomena in their creation and perception are given by the human mind? 313 Would 310 See Clayton in OHMP, 35 42. 311 See, for instance, Lippman 1963, 19 5. 312 Music and meaning is another great field of dispute, related to the one on expression: does music (independently of lyrics or extrinsic associative context) mean anything (i.e., correspond to something that could be translated into language terms), or does its meaning exhaust itself in its own form (like a number game), or does it not have any meaning at all (but in what would its rationality then consist)? To respond verview see Cross/Tolbert in OHMP, 24 32. 313 See for the distinction between a sonic and a musical event Kivy 1990, 100. The subjectivity problem is, of course, related to the general tenet of transcendental philosophy since Kant, which holds that reality f or us exists only according to our perception filtered by the categories of the intellect. To our question, however, does not pertain the gnoseological reflection but the inquiry to what degree music, and therefore its effect and value, is created by our m ind and to what degree there is at least an objective foundation for this.

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108 314 And with regard to the effect that music has on humans (and other creatures), does its cause lie in anything in something inherent to the physical makeup of music and in the physiological psychological perception and reception process which effectuates that certain musical features prompt particular reactions within the being that is producing or liste n ing t o them ? O through conditioning, custom, convention, etc.? 315 Since we are not in a condition to answer these questions yet, we will have to leave the definition of music op en enough to allow for any direction in which the solution of these problems may be found. Given the manifold uses of music in ancient and modern culture, I propose for our study the fo llowing twofold definition: music (a) in the proper sense is organi zed vocal or instrumental sound 316 as consciously composed and perceived by human or other rational beings ; 317 music (b) in a wider and analogous sense is non human 314 Even though one may exclude non human music by definition, the sonoric phenomenon may still exist apart from humanity. This question may appear merely speculative or marginal but it opens interesting horizons in view of what is objective in music. The Pythagoreans certainly would respond affirmatively, at least as far as the harmony of the spheres goes, eternally resounding with man usually being unable to hear it consciously. The (Neo Timaeus) sees the whole cosmos designed in a musical order, and Christian authors know of the celestial music of the angels (see above n. 62 ; Ringenbach 1986; Schadel 1 995) but this latter mus would have to be based on non material processes since the angels are conceived as spirits whose essence is without physical matter. 315 Anderson 1966, 180 states that the Hellenic theoris ts carefully means to maintain not that melody as such is good or bad but that music has the power to influenc e the remains unanswered. 316 course, this definition could also apply to speaking, and given the melodiousness of some languages the boundaries between singing and speaking are fluid. However, I do not need to treat the distinction between music and language (for this see e. g. Raffman 1993; Kivi 2007; Patel 2008; Hodges/Sebald 2011, 150 152) since I am excluding from my study the pronunciation of text. The same applies to dance some reflections about it. 317

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109 318 music (a) and/or it is a structure composed of the same or similar organizing principles as music (a). 319 Ne ither definition contain s any demand for a specific moral, aesthetical, or expressive v alue in order to speak of music. 320 Music (a) is then both the acoustical phenomenon and the object to be considere d in the science or art of music; while art will logically only be able to deal with music (a), science will be able to discuss music (b) as well The Value of Music Before determining the most appropriate definition of for our study, the overarching requires some differentiation. T he manifold descriptions of positive or negative value of music collected in the previous section allow the identification of three levels 321 according to which music can be evaluated : 1. A rti stic V alue : inasmuch as a music al piece, style, performance etc. corresponds to the standards established within a particular cultural or at least musical tradition The value can depend on intrinsic or extrinsic factors ; intrinsic is whether the music in itself and objectively follows the appropriate rules and conventions and possesses the corresponding aesthetic qualities; extrinsic factors are the expectations which either the artist himself, his manager (if the re is one) or the audience have and how they are met by the skill shown in the composition or 318 music by imitating nature, its ontological status needs to remain anthro the structure of the non human sound must possess sufficient similarity to music (a) in order to allow for the analogy; obviously, no exact criterion for this similarity can or need to be given here. 319 This last part in the physical world (angels, God, etc.). 320 music, but this would complicate unnecessari ly 321 There is a rough parallelism between these levels and the distinction Plato draws in L eg. 667b e, that between delight (rendered by the artistic performance), usefulness (purpose) and correctness (related to the ethical dimension), only the last two of which Plato really considers important for being related to the truth, while the first is no more than a game.

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110 during the performance, including the context or any circumstance that render a performance successful and enjoyable ; 322 2. V alue for a P urpose : inasmuch as music serve s one or more particular purposes ( outs ide of itself ) which can lie on the individual, social, cosmic, or supernatural level here enter examples such as the usefulness of music to coordinate manual labor, instigate to battle, open the heart of a beloved one, entertain, heal, put to sleep, et c. all depending on the desired effect; 3. M oral V alue : inasmuch as music influences or even conditions human dispositions and actions that themse lves underlie a moral judgment 323 in this category fall especially the considerations about character formation dev e l o ped by authors such as Plato and Aristides Quintilianus. 324 T he moral impact of music might be conceived as universal, i.e. being in effect always, either without any restrictions (total) or within a specific socio cultural setting ( limited in place o r time), or it might be based on certain anthropological predispositions (brain functions, the interrelation between affectivity and reason, etc.). Such an effect might also exist for a particular person or context only, without claim to be in force elsewh ere. 325 especially through Plato and Aristotle who, to a certain extent, became aware of their 322 See e. g. Ball 2010, 278 281: emotion arises from met or unmet expectation); Huron 200 6. 323 In some cas es, this third level could overlap with the second when the moral effect is directly intended (if, for example, specific music is composed to have a moral impact on others); but since this is not always so or not even in the majority of the cases, and for the importance of the third category, I am treating these levels separately. Of course, 2 and 3 might also depend to a certain degree on 1 (for instance, a poor musical performance will be less effective in any other order unless it were part of a comedy o n bad so like with any distinction, in real life these aspects are interrelated. 324 Any moral value that music acquires concomitantly, i.e. becaue of the moral value of a text or other extra musical elements (e.g. dance, images) associated to it, is excluded from this study; no judgments about musical pieces based on extra musical elements will be considered. 325 This distinction in itself does not intend to anticipate an answer to the question whether music actually possesses such a power, which is denied by some as we will see, and to what degree. It is obvious that not every musical piece or feature elicits such an effect in a noticeable way; to assess the conditions for the possibility of this effect is precisely one of the objectives of this study. To prove an individual case is, of course, much easier (as all that is needed is to find a clear example) than to show any sort of universal pattern but the latter is what would be needed if music is to truly have any moral impact on society or ev en on the political stability of a State.

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111 equivocity. 326 T o describe the of music we have thus far been using the term to conversely to 327 We are now in a condition to draw up more precise definitions. All three levels of the value of music laid out above have in common that the value depends on some function 328 that is, the effect or effects, regardless whether intended or not which music possesses Whether music is good or bad is then equivalent to whether or not it fulfills a specific functi on. If the effect is welcomed, music The first level concerns mostly the musicians themselves within their art insofar as they are to produce music up to certain expectations. 329 Here t he whole debate about aesthetics and by what standards?) and the value of music i n its own right without any intended exteri or purpose come into play 330 Music is good or bad according to the enjo yment (the pleasure felt by a human being because of met expectations, on the aesthetical or 326 Mostly and or as opposed to / / or ; in Plato above all Hp mai. 293a 300c, Grg. 474d e and Symp. 210a 212a; in Aristotle Top. 1.15 106a21 23 (opposite: ) 107a3 12, and, along with the concept of virtue ( ) in Rh. 1.5.6 15 1361a b and 1.9.1 35 1366a 1367b and in E th. N ic. 2 .2.6 2.6.20 1104a14 1107a 27 See a more detailed discussion in Horn/Rapp 2002, 227 231. 327 void an infinite regress of definitions I am appealing to the common meaning of these words. 328 See our brief mentioning of this concept in the i ntroduction ( p. 25 ) including the distinction between Cf. Pl Grg. 474d e: something is called ... whi ch applies to the moral level, we have all three levels present It is interesting that Plato here even makes explicit reference to music as an example. 329 Ancient musicians were not less subject to criticism, sometimes quite mordant, than contemporary ones when they performed poorly ; cf. Hor. Ars P. 347 34 9; Wille 1967, 332 336. 330 Some modern artists will not find the cause of enjoyment in beauty (as traditionally understood) but in rational (or irrational) principles.

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112 emotional level) which playing or listening to it provides on its own account Even function towards enjoyment is what makes it relevant and appealing in the first place. M uch of the argument here depends on individual or common conventions and tastes and is treated in ( ethno ) musicology music psychology, and music philosophy W e will not discuss this level in more detail since we are not dealing with music criticism here. 331 The highly interesting question why human beings enjoy music so much at all and why certain people prefer certain forms of music begs for a clarification of the mech anisms behind these preferences, and these bear consequences for the other two levels as well This, however, will need to be explored by music psychology and we will not be able to address it here. The second level supposes an explicit purpose directly pu rsued in view o f a particular effect, for in specific contexts music is intentionally employed as a means for another end; and the efficiency of achieving this end depends clearly on what music does with the human being. F or antiquity we already reviewed h ow musical tunes help to coordinate actions like rowing, to heal sickness, incite love, appease divinities, or gather courage in battle I n our modern world music is no less utilized in areas such as music therapy, the advertising business, religious cerem oni es or to add emotional spice to movies In all of these, the value of music is direct ly proportional to its effectiveness with regard to the extrin s ic end. Good film music for instance, consists of melodies that match the images and deepen the ir affec tive impact without annoying or distracting from 331 In the study of antiquity in general, of course, the discussions matter mere enjoyment existed at the time (see Aristotle), or whether the ancients knew of a purely aesthetic expe rience: see above pp. 59 ff; see also Wille 1967, 431 434 on the Romans and enjoyment.

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113 what happens on the screen Good liturgical music helps to pray 332 and celebrate the faith, while bad liturgical music are songs or settings that irritate or transport feelings not proper in the context of wor ship. 333 Now the same piece might be good for getting work done but bad for pain therapy. Hence, f exist, again depending on culture and circumstances or on the immediate context which will indicate the preci se musical features fitting for the purpose in question the specifics of which lie outside of our scope. Musicology and music psychology are investigating why music has such a power that it stimulates o r intensifies certain actions or processes and why c ertain music is apt for certain goals and not for others. The third level concerns the moral or (strictly speaking) ethical dimens ion which received particular attention among the ancient theorists. Music is thought to be able to predispose the human be ing towards moral ly good or bad actions either short term, as an immediate reaction to a musical stimulus in a given situation, or long term through the education of children and character formation in general (which actually is not limited to children but an ongoing process ). 334 In deeper analysis it becomes clear that it is specific parameters such as instruments, modes, melodies rhythms etc. each on its own or in combination with other elements which are responsible for lead ing people to either cons tructive or destructive actions or reactions in the interior or exterior of the person Good music is then what promotes attitudes or actions seen positive 332 The phrase is often attributed to Augustine, but none of his preserved works contains such a quote, which seems to summarize ideas from Sermo 336.1 .1 ; see also CCC 1156 with reference to Enarratio in Ps 72 1 (see below n. 842 ) 333 The Catholic Church, for example, has issued documents (see e.g. Pre dmore 1936) which establish criteria about the style of music fitting for Mass or other liturgical celebrations. The judgment about what is deemed pleasing to the divinity usually depends on the aesthetical tastes of the adherents within each belief system ; we will discuss some of these points in the context of Christian authors below 334 We will see how authors like Plato, Aristotle, and Aristides Quintilianus consider this aspect.

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114 with in the ruling moral value system, bad music what promotes negative ones. Ancient authors have di scussed (and some have denied) these effects in their consequences for the individual and society, even for the stability of the S tate. Our question here is what moral power exactly the ancients attribute to music, and on what grounds and whether these c laims can be substantiated by modern scientific research. It is this third level with which our study is mostly concerned. Two further comments must be added about these levels F irst we can observe that in a certain way they build upon each other: the fi rst level (especially the emotional response to music) is the condition for the second (for a particular effect of music can only be achieved on the general basis of an existing causality), and the third can be a special case of the second by adding the mo ral aspect. Secondly, so far we have only levels of musical value this needs to be qualified in two ways: on the one hand we are, of course, not dealing with contradi ctory or discrete but with continuous terms ( e.g.: best good less good or problematic bad worse) including particular music piece or parameter has no significant effect in the value scale) ; on the other hand, since the same musical piece or feature can have multiple effects and functions on all three levels, the value judgment would need to be differentiated according to each effect or function that one is concerned about It is possible to imagine a musical piece that is characteri zed by a positive aesthetic value on the first level but triggers a negative moral reaction on the third. 335 A tune may be catchy 335 An example from another artistic field would be the movie Jud S (1940) which at the time was considered a cinomatographical masterpiece but ought to be judged morally reprehensible because of its abhorrent anti Semitism.

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115 enough to raise emotions during a political propaganda rally but rather primitive from an artistic point of view. A meaningful c ommunication of v alue judgments about music, therefore, would always require a specification of the purpose or function regarding which a musical piece, performance, or element is being evaluated Figure 2 2. Good and bad music subdivisions. Musical Ethos Classical scholarship building on terminology from the ancient authors themselves, has frequently used characteristics and effects of music 336 We already m ention ed at the beginning groundbreaki ng work Die Lehre vom Ethos in der griechischen Musik (1899 /1962 ) and Ethos and Education in Greek Music ( 1966 ). 337 336 For one example see Arist. Pol. 337 There are of course, more and also some recent publications, e.g. Lippman 1963 and 1992, 3 16; Zoltai 1970; Mathiesen 1984; Boccadoro 2002; others treat musical ethos in particular authors or

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116 The OED 338 defines the English word Rhetoric t he characteristic spirit, prevalent tone of sentiment, of a people or community The wide range of elements possibly to which belong social, religious, artistic, and moral aspects, can be narrowed if we look at t he two Greek words on which the English ethymologically depend s : 339 and the older 340 manners; as action patterns congealed into a person or society ) These terms are closely related, but the second is prevalent in the context of education 341 and of music when its role i n character formation 342 or the nature of elements such as modes 343 are discussed The usage of the English term is not always clear. Anderson conceives its essential meaning in the context of music for the ancient authors as regarding specific aspects (e.g. Hornbostel 1929; Wilkonson 1938; Solomon 1981; Rossi 1988; Praliara 2000). 338 http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/64840?redirectedFrom=ethos#eid accessed on August 18, 2012. 339 In opposition to Eth. Nic. 1179b21; LSJ 480 assumes that this word is rather a falsa lectio th century BC, but both terms are also used together, especially by Plato and Aristotle, with distinct meanings ( Eth. Nic. 2.1 1103a17, cf. Pl. Leg. 792e); see for this and the following Horn/Rapp 2002, 155 157. 340 In opposition to among others, in Long Rhetoric. A brief history of the term can be found in Anderson 1994, 135 Homer) used with a metaphor of place, then qualified with adjectives expressing moral evaluation (Hes. Op. 67f) and being able to be taught (id. 699). Aristotle is the fir st to apply the term explicitly to music, even though the Pythagoreans and Plato do talk in other terms about the moral value of music. Anderson leaves it open whether the idea of the ethical dimension of music stems from Greece or is a foreign import or b oth. Since ethos in music is documented for China and India, an Eastern origin is possible, but the idea may also have developed in Greece independently. 341 E.g. in Pl. Resp. 375a e; 500d and in Arist. Eth. Nic. 2.1.1ff 1102a14ff. 342 E.g. Pl. Resp. 400d; Ari st. Pol. 8.5.4 10 1339b43 1340b19. 343 E.g. Pl. Resp. 398c 401b ; Cleonides 206.3 18; AQ 1.8 (W I 15.19 20) et passim [1.9 (W I 19.7 10) with n. 116 ; 1.11 (W I 22.11 12, using ) with n. 126; 1.12 (W I 30.9) ; Sext. Emp. Math. 6.49. See about this also GMW 2.432 433 n. 150.

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117 of expre 344 The texts Anderson word which Anderson justly rejects as an adequate rendering on its own 345 not limited to mor ality M by itself has no direct moral implication, but is favored by the ancients in character formation which if this quality is intended, would belong to the second of the three value levels introduced above since the third i s limited to morality in the strict sense. Assuming that Anderson did not really intend to limit musical ethos to the moral dimension, 346 both e xpressing and influencing ethos through music would be considered on the second level, unless the effect consists in influencing character or dispositions in the moral sense (by forming, h abituating or inclining in a specific manner) which would belong to the third level. In the present study, e in the context of music will be used in a wide sen se to make it applicable to character (i.e. individual patterns of being and behavior including but not limited to the moral dimension ) or nature of a person or of a group of persons (a s ociety ) and, in analogy, of music or musical features insofar as t hey are held to either express 347 or influence the character of a person or society 348 344 Anderson 1966, 32. towards moral (good or bad) attitudes or actions. 345 14 n. 21. Barker (e.g. GMW 2.432 346 Still, his entry, together with Mathiesen, in the GMM 8.403, suggests sense 347 ultural values are embodied in words, dance, and melody, becoming the basis of specific musical genres of closely defined styles and types of melody with l and 59 ff). 348 Although Lippman 1963 195, justly remarks that the Greek concept of music ( ) is originally complete only comprising text, melody, an d dance confusion arises when on the one hand he later

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118 Now, whenever music fulfills on the second level, the function of expressing effectively and properly an equivalent aspect of ethos i t is good ( and if it does not, it is bad) and the value judgment would depend on an analysis of the correspondence between the musical ability of expressing ethos and the expressed ethos. Whether such an expression is actually possible is part of the debate about music and expressivity whic h will be looked at in the context of Plato and in Chapter 5 But in the context of influencing morality (third level) the value of music depends exclusively on the resulting moral effect and the only reason for music to have a value here is that it is a vowed to instill these dispositions or actions with moral relevance in a person or a group of persons Summary Music, defined as an acoustical phenomenon of organized vocal (sung) or instrumental sound, consciously composed and perceived by human or other rational beings, is subject to value judgments on the levels of art (or aesthetics), purpose, or morals, according to the degree to which a musical piece or parameter fulfills either well or badly an expected function based on a specific effect the musica l phenomenon exerts on the human person (in general or in an individual case) Greek theorists belong to the third and, in certain where the ethical impact is clearly due to the text and not to the musical elements, and even the glory vanished (and even more has the correspon ding dance). It is not helpful to study the ethical force of music by including into its definition text and dance (even though for the Greeks only all of these together ion) plays becomes confused with what poetry means and achieves already on its own. Our question is: What is the Brotherhood (200).

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119 cases, to the second level of evaluation ; the effect s of these functions of music they sought to take advantage through music education and music therapy. In order to appreciate the we first reviewed the functions music exer ts within antiquity and then collected positive or negative d escriptions for music and its effects by means of characteristics (epithets) given to various musical parameters including direct l iterary accounts of the impact that music has on those who either perform or listen to it We have been able to identify Greek or Roman preferences in aesthetical categories, their keenness in artistic criticism, manifold examples for profitable or detrime ntal musical features and some of the reasons that the literary authors attributed to either effect: divine origin, knowledge or skill, moderation, and order for the good, and for the bad : evil realities, ignorance, frenzy, deceit, discordance, and the lac k of moderation. Now it is the moment to see what ancient authors have thought of good and bad music on the theoretical level.

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120 CHAPTER 3 THE IMPACT AND VALUE OF MUSIC ACCORDING TO ANCIENT THEORISTS In the first Pythian Ode Pindar evokes the lyre of Apoll o, reminding us that music is god given, and hated by the beings to whom the love of Zeus does not extend. Music soothes, cheers and pacifies; it threatens the power of the monsters, who live by violence and lawlessness. Those lonely, antinomian beings are astounded by music which speaks of another order of being the order which this very order that is threatened by the monsters of popular culture. Roger Scruton The Aesthetics of Music, p. 504 What Roger Scruton says here about ancient Greece, he means for our time. But Western civilization, from its early stages onward, is framed in an antagonism of rivaling musical styles and trend s. T astes and artistic preferences differ and change is natural and necessary for any development of culture But aesthetics cannot always remain neutral A piece of music, just like any piece of art or literature, takes place within certain realm s of pol itics, philosophy and religion any of which may either promote or endanger objectives in their respective fields of interest. The emerging awareness of the capacity of music to move the human heart the denial of which is a particular case and will be s tudied as well due to its deep emotional impact, eventually leads to reflections about the moral value of the effect that these psychic motions, with their influence on the intellect, could or should have, since the emotional state is an important sourc e for human dispositions and actions. Thus the aesthetic judgment, formed by the cultural context and individual personality, regarding what music is pleasing or not receives an additional qualification from the ethical perspective : the stimulation, prese rvation and transmission of values as expressed in attitudes (virtues) and behavior. A change on the aesthetic level, therefore, makes those concerned with the well being of their socio

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121 political entity alert about possible ethical implications which cou ld translate into problems on other levels of society. For example: how can a city state defend itself ipline and hard work or even an environment of dignity and respect be guaranteed in a musical culture that invites to licentiousness and sensuality accustoming the young people to violate time honored laws ? Ingemar Dring 1 observes that the criterion for the distinction between good and as a depravation. It is usually characterized as dissolute and effeminate and as having a true that modern sty l es (in all areas of culture) tend to provoke resistance from conservative defenders of tradition (among the ancients at the forefront are to be mentioned Aristophanes and Plato), from what we have already said this is not an issue of b but there are reasons why modernizing trends are problematic. At any rate, affirmations of the kind that music may exert a and proof, something we will invest igate in the ancient authors and then re assess from 2 1 1958, 175. 2 debated question whether Plato and Aristophanes were sim ply reactionaries, resisting the natural course of development, or whether they justly diagnosed pathological symptoms. Musicologists tend to take the conte xt of the particular problem of mixing instrumental and vocal melodic patterns ( nomoi)

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122 used, they represent the evaluation made by certain authors themselves, for we need to respect that this is the way they saw it. I n the current chapter, I will present the authors and texts which contribute in a relevant way to illustrate, explain, or discuss the effect and value of music so as to provide an overview of the existing material, along with some bibliographical information concerning primary and secondary t exts. The sources discussed belong to very different genres comedy, dialogue, letter, historiography, treatise, or even Biblical commentary the topic we are concerned with. They also belong to a period extending over nearly a thousand years The scope of this work does not allow a full review of the sc holarly work about each of these authors and their texts; I am limiting myself for the most part to commentaries and analyses already offered by specialists in the area of ancient music. In this exposition I will attempt to group the authors according to t he philosophical or music theoretical principles they share, be it the cosmological vision of the Pythagorean tradition, or the more empirical approach of the Peripatetics, 3 etc Within each section, the authors will usually be presented in chronological o rder; a table at the end of this introduction allows an over v iew of all the authors as much as possible, in strict chronology. 4 3 82 and Barker 2007. 4 I deliberately did not choose a fully chronological treatment; first, because the general historical development is already available, at least in summarized form, in Abert, Anderson, and the works quoted the interconnectedness of authors and the evolution of thought in a similar string of tradition across the centuries can better be seen in a systematic arrangement, even though this has to be paid for with historical discontinuities between the different sections.

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123 In Chapter 4 four longer tables assemble, as completely as possible, all direct references about the ethical impact of music f or all the texts cited or referred to within this chapter. These tables will allow a comprehensive vision of all the differenct aspects and characteristics that come into play, across the different schools and authors. Table 3 1 Ancient Greek and Latin au thors and texts on the effect and value of music Author Life Dates or f loruit Work(s) Main Point s Pythagoras of Samos and his followers ca. 5 70 ca. 490 B C esp. in Arist. Met. 985b 986a, Cael. 290b12 291a29; Strabo 10.3.9; ps. Plut. Mus. 1147a; Nicomachus Manuale harmonices 3; Theon 12 passim Ptolemy Harm.; Iamblic h us, VP 15, 25 26 31, 34 m and cosmic harmony ; healing and purification Damon b e fore 444 BC esp. in Pl Resp. 400c 424b c; Phld. Mus. D22; ps. Plut. Mus. 1136e; Ath. 628c d e thos in m Ar istophanes ca. 460 386 BC / Nubes (423, revised 418 416) old and new m. education / Thesmophoriazousae (411) ethos in m. / Ranae (405 BC) Aeschylus (old) vs. Euripides (new) Alcidamas (?) 4 th c. BC Hibeh Papyrus 1.13 (ca. 390 BC) c riticism of eth os in m Hippocrates of Cos (?) 5 th c. BC / De victu 1.18 (ca. 400 BC) variety in m. Plato ca. 429 347 BC / Respublica (ca. 380 BC) m. ethos and education / Timaeus ( ca 360 BC ) m. and cosmic harmony / Leges (ca. 357 347 BC) m. ethos in the State Aristotle 384 322 BC / Politica 8.2 7 (ca. 335 322) m. and education Pseudo Aristotle / Problemata physica 19 (3 rd c. BC 6 th c. AD) m. and enjoyment

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124 Table 3 1. Continued Author Life Dates or floruit Work(s) Main Points Theophrastus of Eresus ca. 371 287 BC Frs. 552, 555, 716, 719, 720, 724, 726 m. expressing and healing emotion Aristoxenus of Tarentum (ca. 370 after 322 BC / Elementa harmonica (after 322) pathos and ethos in th e whole of m. Polybius ca. 200 ca. 118 BC / Historiae 4.20 21 m education forming character Philodemus of Gadara ca. 110 40/35 BC / De musica (frs.) criticism of ethos in m.; m is useless except for pleasure Cleonides ca. 1 st c. BC (or 2 nd 4 th c. AD) / Harmonica introductio 13 ethos in m. Marcus Tullius Cicero 106 43 BC De oratore 3.51.197 (55 BC) m. and ethos, pleasure De re publica 2.47.69; 6.18.18 19 (51 BC) harmony; harmony of the spheres Tusculanae disputa tiones 1.2.4; 3.18.41 43, 3.19.46, 5.4.116 (45 BC) m. and ethos; only for pleasure De legibus 2.15.38 39; 3.14.32 (ca. 44 BC) effect of m. in education, State, morals Strabo ca. 64 BC ca. 21 AD / Geographica 10.3.9 10 religious and moral func tion Dionysius of Halicarnassus ca. 20 BC / De compositione verborum 11 qualities of enjoyable and beautiful m. and style

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125 Table 3 1. Continued Author Life Dates or floruit Work(s) Main Points Lucius Annaeus Seneca (the Younger) ca 4 BC 65 AD Epistula 84 (64 AD) harmony Epistula 87 (64 AD) good musician Dialogus de ira 3.2.4, 3.9.2 (41 AD) ethos in m. Marcus Fabius Quintilianus ( Quintilian ) ca. 35 ca. 96 AD De institutione oratoria 1.10.2 33; 9.4.9 12 m. in education and rh etoric Lucius Mestrius Plutarch us ca. 50 ca. 120 AD / Instituta Laconica 14 16 education, State and m. / Quaestiones convivales 7.5, 7.8.4 immoral m. Pseudo Plutarch close to Plutarch / De musica (1 st /2 nd c. AD) ethos in m.; ancient vs. new sty le Nicomachus of Gerasa 1 st /2 nd c. AD / Manuale harmonices (ca. 100 AD) harmony of the spheres / Manuale harmonicum (after previous) harmony of the spheres Theon of Smyrna 5 70 135/140 AD ( ) / (De musica ( Expositio rerum mathematicarum ad legendum Platonem utilium ) m. and cosmos Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Ptolemy ) ca. 100 ca. 170 AD / Harmonica m. and cosmos Sextus Empiricus late 2 nd c AD / Adversus musicos criticism of ethos in m. 5 He is not discussed individually but included in the s ection on the Pythagoreans.

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126 Table 3 1. Continued Author Life Dates or floruit Work(s) Main Points Titus Flavius Clemens ( Clement of Alexandria ) ca. 150 ca. 211/6 AD / Protrepticus 1.1 8 (ca. 1 90 AD) m. and harmony; Christ as the New Song Paedagogus 2.6 (ca. 190 192) proper Christian m. Lucius Flavius Philostratus 170 245 AD / Vita Apollonii 5.21 (ca. 210 230 AD) power of the aulos Iamblichus of Chalcis ca. 245 ca. 325 / De vita Pythagorica 15, 25 26, 31, 34 m. and cosmic harmony; healing and purification / De mysteriis 3.9 effect of m. and divi ne inspiration Athenaeus of Naucratis ca. 200 AD / Deipnosophistae 14.623e 639b ethos and effect of m. Plotinus 205 270 AD Enneades 3.2.16 17; 4.4.40 cosmic harmony; m. and magic Censorinus 3 rd c. AD De die natali 10 13 (238 AD) ef fect of m.; m. and cosmos Basil of Caesarea ca. 330 379 AD / Homilia in Psalmum primum 1 2 power of m. in the psalms Aristides Quintilianus late 3 rd /early 4 th c. AD / De musica ethos in m., cosmic theory Aelius Fe stus Aphthonius 1 st half of 4 th c. AD De metris, in: Gaius Marius Victorinus, Ars grammatica 6.158 160 (4 th c. AD) natural origin and affect in m. Calcidius 4 th c. AD Platonis Timaeus interprete Chalcidio (esp. 40, 50, 73, 95, 267) harmonic structure of c osmos/soul; m. restores virtue of soul John Chrysostom ca. 354 407 AD / Expositio in Psalmos 41.1 3 (387 AD) usefulness o psalm m.

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127 Table 3 1. Continued Author Life Dates or floruit Work(s) Main Points Aurelius Augustinus ( Augustine ) 354 430 AD De musica 1, 6 (386 389 AD) m. as science, to discover evenness as a path to God Confessiones 10.33.49 50 (ca. 397 400 AD) attraction of m. pleasure Favonius Eulogius late 4 th /early 5 th c. AD Disputatio de somnio Scipionis (380 420 AD) cosmic harmony and earthly m. Ambroisus Theodosius Macrobius 5 th c. AD Commen tarius in Ciceronis s omnium Scipionis (after 430 AD) divine origin of m. in the harmonic soul of the universe Saturnalia (after 430 AD) decadence in m. practice Martianus Minneus Felix Capella last quarter of 5 th c. AD De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercuri i 9 (ca. 430) ethos in m., harmony rules everything Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius ca. 480 ca. 524 AD De institutione musica (ca. 500) ethos in m., power of m. Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus ca. 490 ca. 585 AD De musica (in: Institutiones divi narum et saecularium litterarum ) (543 555 AD) m. harmony and power of m. Variarum liber 2.40 (506) power of m. Isidorus Hispalensis ( Isidore of Seville) ca. 560 636 AD Etymologiae sive origines 3.15 23 power of m. This table gives all titles in their original form and language plus the common Latin title s for the Greek works For authors whose works are only fragmentarily quoted in other authors, th o se other works are listed; important compilers of works or quotes from different authors are also includ ed separately The life and work dates are compiled mainly from the OCD and the EB and only meant as a point of reference without any intent to take sides for disputed ones for our discussion, not nece ssarily the central aspect of the particular work or chapter. Underlining

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128 The Debate about Musical Decadence The Emergence Only isolated testimony exist s about musical ethos before the fifth century BC. 6 Therefore, we begin our discussion once the issue really becomes a debate. For a bout at the time when the first (preserved) theoretical considera tions about musical ethos are written towards the end of the fifth century BC, Greek music undergoes something that 7 which in his words, is characterized by a rapidly developing growth of complexity and variety in all aspects of musical composition in melody, in rhythm and metre, in poetic diction coupled with an abandonment both of repetitive formal structures and of rigid divisions between musical styles. 8 (ibid.) come on the technical level, an increase of strings for the kithara and a greater popularity of the technically enhanced aulos in order to manage virtuo so modulations between the then established harmoniai. 9 6 Cf. Anderson 1955, 89 n. 5. 7 As briefly mentioned already earlier, cf. p. 69 8 GMW 1.98; the next quote is from p. 97. 9 W e could p tempered tuning during the eighteenth century, first explored by Bach in his Well T empered Clavier and then stretched to its limits by the exuberance of Romantic harmonic texture until its dissolution in the aftermath of Impressionism. The modern development might seem much more drastic since it involves mostly on the level of melody and mode), but from the heat of the debate we can gather that the Greeks experienced the changes in their own musical tradition with similar intensity. In a world with fewer sensual stimuli and a finer perception of detail, smaller changes already p rovoke a profound impact. West 1992, Lexicon of Musical Invective 1953, 42 52 harsh criticism against ogether inappropriate to compare the transition from eighteenth century Classicism to nineteenth a public taste shifting from Wagner to Jazz and beyond at the begin ning of the 20 th century, because the moral implications are in this case more pronounced (cf. Jones 1994, 91 98).

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129 This is not the place to give a full account of all the changes and the protagonists involved. 10 Here we will focus on those points that are applicable to the evaluation of music, especially if connected to ethos, although we will see that aest hetic al and moral considerations overlap to a certain extent. After a summar y glance over some relevant characteristics, we will see in Aristophanes an early treatment of the dispute; a bri e f sketch of the ulterior evolvement during the Hellenistic period follows, further illustrated by the accounts of pseudo Plutarch and Athenaeus; lastly, before entering into the discussion of individual positions, we will review the Roman, mostly Latin, contribution to the debate. At the outset a word must be said about the historical accuracy of the descriptions Robert W. Wallace has undertaken a sensible study about the presumed changes from the fourth to the fifth century BC in the theater audie nce He is Theater of Dionysos, with a central and to create something new, for which deliberately played to the emotional side of 10 For a more extensive treatment see e.g. Anderson 1966, 34 63; id. 1994, 113 144; GMW 1.93 98; Comotti 1989, 29 42; West 1992, 356 372.

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130 11 This does not account for all charges pr omoted against the new musical style but gives some credit to the change of a general tone within society. Rossi (1988) suggests the symposium as the place in which new musical styles were freely tried and, perhaps, singled out by Damon by observing the et hos manifested by the performers of these styles. the different views as best as the sources allow us, without the intent to assess how widely accepted and representative they were. It remains remarkable, however, that our sources consist almost exclusively in defenders of the more traditional side, and rarely the cause in favor of innovations is made, just the m usicians themselves who did not bother to theorize and compose apologie s for their tastes and attitudes. In order to begin our survey of what these musical changes consist of, a first surprise lies in the fact that innovation by itself has not necessarily been declared a bad thing. Pseudo Plutarch, 12 along with other authors, gives a detailed account of the 11 Wa llace 1997, 107 brow does not share so much the pejorative judgment about these developments, mostly because his observation that treatment of and education in serious matter has been delegated to less public forums such as philoso 12 This author will be presented with more detail in a subsequent section; he is introduced here because he informs about the chief traits of the new musical style. For his report and the one of Athenaeus and others some caution is needed because the positions they attribute to earlier authors may or may not be historically accurate but often times we possess no other sources to check these quotations against.

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131 development of Greek music teeming with inventiveness, 13 but once something beautiful or noble had been established, the next generations, according to th e same author, should not have strayed from it. 14 The problem is set off with a group of musicians around Timotheus of Miletus (ca. 450 360 BC). Even though Timotheus at first does not want to appear right away as 15 of usu al music, his modernization eventually goes too far in the eyes of the city rulers of which his plight at Sparta for adding extra strings is only an exterior manifestation: 16 they are employed for modulations and a musical style that now express ed what the critics perceive as a negative ethos, ), 13 An explicitly positive ch aracteristic is given (ps. Plut. Mus. 11.1134f 1135a) when Olympus is said to ) that new ( ) introduced by Terpander. (12 1135c). Already in the H ). Of course, these statements are clearly apologetic and prompted by people who accused the critics of the New Music as enemies of all that is new. 14 Ps Plutarch ( Mus. 12 .1135c) praises those who did not deviate ( ) from the principle is strongly emphasized in Plato, cf. below p. 209 Dionysius of Halicarnassus offers some very sensible reflections on the prin ciple of variation (in Comp. which here is meant in a merely technical, not moral sense. 15 will become a lea d to li centiousness, cf. Resp. Leg. 700d. The current reference is from ps. Plut. Mus. 4.1132e. 16 Plut. In stituta Laconica 17 = Mor. 238 c describes the context and attributes a similar situation already to Terpander (early 7 th c. BC) in his case just one string; it was seen as an attempt to corrupt see above Cha pter 2 n. 98 and also Plut An seni 23 = Mor. 795d: Timotheus gets hissed at for his innovation ( ) and transgressing ( ) but at the same time prophetically encouraged by Euripides that the t heaters would shortly submit to him. The actual decree is allegedly conserved in Boethius Mus. 1.1 182.7 183.10 (text, tr., and comm. in Bower 1989, 185 188), giving the following reasons: dishonoring the ancient music, corrupting the ears of the youth (th rough variety), effeminate/complex ethos instead of simple/uniform, performing at an improper occasion and without due reverence; Timotheus is charged to reduce his kithara strings from eleven to seven. The authenticity of this transcription is hard to ass ess.

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132 self confidence, Timotheus declare s Muse not against the old this caveat seems politically induced 17 While in earlier times the focus has been on ethos (37.144f), now ostentatious artistry and the pride of the musician stand in the foreground. The speakers in p seudo De Musica deplore musical decadence as a problem of their own time, 18 but such a phenomenon was already addressed by Plato and Aristoxenus as we will see The music of which the elders respected the gods ( 19 the chromatic genus, modulations between the harmoniai, etc. The rise of ks had dedicated all their musical skill to divine worship and education (27.1140d e); this r (Leg. 701a) meaning the dictation of style by the taste of the populace, and reflects in a similar vein the remarks transmitted from Aristoxenus (see below). Even modern aulos musi c for athletic 17 ; the context of the quote is Pers. 202 240 According to Ath. 122c : About the contradictory evidence regarding his position see Anderson 1966, 50 & 228 n. 40 with references. 18 The point comes up in various sections: 12. 1135c d; 15.1136b c; 18.1337a b; 21.1137f 1138c; 26.1140b 27.1140f; 30.11 41c 19 (reappears in 30.1141c) and notes (n. 123) how position.

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133 It is noticed that some musical styles produce proper ethos in the accompaniment but not in the melody, something that recent trends have been muddling (19.133 7b d). Furthermore, the subordination of the instrument ( aulos in particular) to the accompanied text is lost. Pratinas of Phlius ( early 5 th c. BC, in Ath. 14.617b f) curses the aulos now outma tches the chorus instead of accompanying it 20 converting Dionysian cult into a ; 21 instead, Pratinas exalts his own Dorian composition. Traditional and progressive schools stand in sweeping opposition against each other, and after Timotheus things keep moving further in the same direction so much so that even he appears at the time of the account already somewhat outdated. 22 In a famous passage quoted from the comic poet Pherecrates (ca. 430 BC) the M use herself laments her abuse by various modernizers (Menalippes, Cineas, Phrynis, and as confused twisting and turni n g ( 23 20 See about this point Anderson 1 994, 86 88. 21 Hypallage 22 m against certain musical features stemming from this time continues into the Roman period and not just as an antiquarian memory; see Plutarch and the Latin authors cited below. 23 This verb occurs elsewhere in musical invective: in Ar. Nub. 969 with a figu ra etymologica ( VA 4. 39: a drunk run ) Plutarch in De seipsum citra invidiam laudandum 1 ( = Mor. praise on occasion of his victory over (the Ionian) Phrynis whom he calls apparently Timotheus lashes out the way he receives.

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134 different harmoniai) like crooked ant tracks 24 (30.1141d 1142a ) all in all a chaotic (ca. 380 BC) word it, another comic poet who does praise Philoxenus (ca.435 380 BC) but dismisses all other co ntemporaries as composing ivy fountain songs with Telesias of Thebes (dates unknown) illustrates how someone, originally educated in the be music including its most new Plut. Mus. 31.1142b c ). 25 Music education, therefore, should not be based on what happens to please the stu dent or teacher but on the tropoi 26 that befit best the establishing or correcting of ethos ( 27 As we can already see from this section the sources provide many fewer quotations defending the new style than rejecting it, a tendency we will observe also 24 30.1142a: cf. similar Ar. Thesm. ) about Agathon; GMW 237 n. 203. Ael. NA 6.43 des cribes 25 The author remarks with some implicit satisfaction that Telesias was unsuccessful in composing according to the new ways of Philoxenus because his excellent training in Pindar and others wi th the following the old way, along with liberal education and philosophy as the judge for what is proper and [ this passage see Barker 2007, 247 249). But Philoxenus himself was unable to innovate by composing a Phrygian dithyramb (Arist. Pol. 1342b9 12). That Philoxenus was supposedly better than other innov ators emerges from Ath. 644d e. For a more detailed description about him see GMW 1.94 95 and Anderson 1966, 160 ry witnesses, including Phld. 1.18 D31 (where he tropos with Pindar) 26 Barker GMW 1.239 n. 213 proposes to understand this term here as 27 As an example of how real goodness/beauty are sacrifi ced for the sake of acoustic convenience, the aut h or brings up the example of the enharmonic genus, which was abandoned because people thought they could not hear the small diesis interval any longer (38.1145a; for further refer ences about the loss of this genus see GMW 1.245 n. 242). Furthermore, the innovators are upseting the rationality of the tetrachord system (39.1145c d).

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135 further on. It is difficult to get a clear idea of these changes, first because we have very few actual examples handed down to us (Anderson and West discuss these in their works), and then because derogative criticism provides only distorted information about the reality in question. In lack of better evidence we continue this first round with an author who does not even pretend to be objective but still sheds some revealing light on the issue. Aristophanes 28 Even though Aristophanes is by no means a music theorist or philosopher, this protagonist of Old Comedy is the first one to take sides within the developing antagonism between two musical and also poetical styles. Hence his contribution comes not in form of theoretical deliberation but through biting ridicule and parody, embodying the opposing schools in the distortion of caricatured poets that would drive his point home in a less nuanced but all the more pronounced way In The Clouds (Nubes), the modern educational approach taken by th e Sophists is under heavy attack for corrupting the traditional social values of dignity and respect. For one part, the (possibly Damonian) attempt to teach ethical classifications of rhythms and other elements is presented as nonsensical. 29 maintaining faithfully the traditional harmoniai and being punished for doing away with those of today who 28 Text and tr.: Henderson 1998 2002; tr. (excerpts): GMW 1.99 116. 29 About Damon being a sophist and t he possible allusion to his theory at 635 694 see GMW 1.99 101, esp. n. 10, but also below in the section dedicated to him.

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136 30 Such crooked, affected way of modern melodic style is taken on again with Agathon in the Thesmophoriazusae and associated with a feminizing character, 31 in The Birds (Aves) with Cinesias, an o ften abused modern poet, 32 and again generally in The Clouds their attentiveness to public acclaim and monetary gain, finds satirical treatment in Av. 917 953. 33 But even before the generation ar ound Timotheus aroused the spirits, with Euripides a notable change of style had occurred in classical tragedy, in contrast to Aeschylus 34 which determines the story in The Frogs (Ranae) : 35 Dionysus stages a contest between both in Hades which naturally r evolves mainly around matters of plot, literary style, and dramaturgy, but touches upon some aspects about music. From a 30 970 ; my attempt of rendering the pun in English; about Phrynis and the imagery see 23 31 Agathon appears dr essed like a woman and is all concerned about beauty; his bent and ant like verses are mentioned at 68 139 (r idiculing the mixture of styles: 156; Henderson, n. 8 to line 100 : his desire to acqu ire manhood through imitation (154 156) corresponds to the idea developed in Plato (cf. Resp. 395c e) that leads to the assimilation and habituation of what is imitated; see below in the biguous treatment of Phrynichus who is mentioned in Thesm. ornamentation of the new aulos GMW 1.111 n. 49. 32 107. The main passage bantering his style is Av. 1373 1409; cf. Eccl. 330. 33 when t he poet is compared with Simonides at 919; cf. on the point Pax 697 699. 34 The third of the great three, Sophocles, as we could already observe from the analysis of characterizing terms, stayed rather low profile with regard to music (cf. also Ar. Ran. 76 82; 786 790), although also he brought about some innovations, cf. Comotti 1989, 33 34. 35 1471.

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137 firestorm of invective and exaggeration the following can be gathered (1249 1364): Euripides accuses Aeschylus of composing in an unexc iting lengthy and monotonous (kithara) pattern, while the latter in turn mocks the former for commit t ing a promiscuous the affected elaboration of imagery and diction, and in one case the distortion of 36 37 That Euripides was fashionable among the new generation is also reflected in The Clouds (1353 1378) where Philippides the prototype of a youth corrupted by Sophistic education declares singing 38 summarizes terms: the poetic text and becomes instead a means of expressing dramatic moments, the emotions and the states of mind represented in the trag edy popular, heart rending, and exotic songs which were aimed only to appeal to the emotions of the audience and which defiled the solemn and austere character of the ancient Aristophanes, at least for the genre in which he writes, shows no interest in the ballast of theoretical reflection that he sees the Sophists and Plato develop, but he does hold that musical style and traditional values (and thus ethos) are mai ntained or perish together. He ridicules the new tortuous complexity for the sake of an emotional rush 36 Part of this is the one syllable one note rule which Euripides violated (ridiculed in Ran. 1314, 1348; A nderson 1966, 58 59 who also mentions Dion. Hal. Comp. 11: Euripides is accused for ignoring the patterns of tonic word accent when composing his melodies). 37 GMW 1.115 n. 66 and 1.116. The mixing of styles is attacked by Plato in Leg. 812d e. 38 1989, 34.

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138 which contrasts with a simultaneous exaltation of banality in content. It seems, however, that even succumbs to at least some of the new features, 39 as the stream of musical development resists changing its course in defiance to all contrary efforts. Hellenism During the Hellenistic period, generally conceived as beginning with the d eath of Alexander the Great, the rise of professionalism in the theatrical and musical arts intensifies the development towards virtuoso performance on all fronts: instrumental, vocal, melodic, rhythmic, and textual complexity. As West puts it: n age in which in music as in the theatre, public enthusiasm was increasingly focused on the virtuoso skills, personality, and 40 Guilds of musicians and actors organize performances around the whole Levant while ar 41 the style of the New Music continues and is developed further through the increase of proportions (everything becomes greater: numbers of perform ers, artistry, sophistication, etc.) 42 and complexity (e.g. chromaticism modulations ) Under the early Empire a tendency of simplification can be observed (e.g. the d iatonic genus, less modulation), but the ornate affection seems to have been present until the end of antiquity. 39 Cf. Comotti 1989, 39; Anderson 1994, 123. 40 West 1992, 366. 41 West 1992, 381; see following pages for the next points. 42 Also new instruments are invented. The interest in impressing others and seeking applause with exotic musical furniture can, for inst ance, be seein in Ath. 4.175a b (a new aulos like invention), but the author

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139 Platonic and Peripatetic philosophers alike each group from its own ground, rise to the task of combating of music 43 The p articular arguments will be examined from the treatment of individual authors lat er on. 44 In general, Aristoxenus 45 laments the transfer of music from worship in the temples and from character formation in schools to the theaters, 46 bringing about a complete 47 In the a ncient style, songs possessed and maintained a specific character according to nomoi i.e. well defined melodic structures, rhythmic form, and tonal range, designated to a particular occasion with their na mes of origin. 48 In such a setting, music eleva ting, could therefore form paideia. 49 Violating the traditional musical patterns is now judged as a commencing disintegration of education and culture at large. Aristotle already noticed that instead of education, music was being pu r sued mostly for the sake of enjoyment. 50 Now, even the 43 Ps. Plut. Mus. 3.1131f. ere 44 and the related decay of cultural and musical standards see Pl. Leg. 659b c; 700a 701b; Grg. 501 502b; Arist. Pol. 1341b9 20; Wallace 1997, 97 101 quotes further witnesses 45 From t his Peripatetic philosopher and prominent Music theorist (ca. 3 70 ca. 300 BC) we possess important sections about more technical aspects of music, but only few comments about ethical issues survive. 46 So in fr. 124 and ps. Plut. 2 7.140d f from a section that is not directly quoting Aristoxenus but represents his thought; cf. Mathiesen 1999, 364 365; West 1992, 370. 47 Ath 632 b Gulick (n. c ad loc.) calls alludes Symp. 180e 181a (cf below n. 186 ). 48 Cf. ps. Plut. 6.1133b c and Comoti 1989, 15 16. 49 Mathiesen 1999 364 365, commenting on ps. Plut. 31.1142c d. 50 Pol. 1337b28

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140 practitioners of musical art themselves fall into disrepute due to their wanton style of both performance and life and the connection between these two for the criti cs, is more than obvious 51 Pseudo Plutarch 52 At this time an unknown author virtually all scholars agree that it is not Plutarch discusses questions of music in a symposian setting, mostly assembling quotations from earlier personalities. The work, desp ite of a literary value inferior to the original Plutarch, presents a goldmine of otherwise lost information about ancient music. As can be seen from its introductory paragraph, multiple comments throughout 53 and the final sections, this work aims to illus trate the educational value of music insofar as it characteristic of music, to give everything its proper measure ( (44.1147a). In part to illustrat e this thesis, and for the other part also to provide some sort of compendium on music in general, the author recounts the histocial stages of music development in its parameters such as instrumentation, nomoi, tonoi, genera, rhythm, and intervals, based i n much on other authors such as Plato, Aristotle, Aristoxenus, and Heraclides. 54 51 composers, and dealt in poetic feminine garments, but also as playing a variety of unseemly roles both male and female, an adulteress, a procuress, a drunk sere 52 Text and tr. : Einarson/Lacy 1967; tr. and comm.: GMW 1.205 249; summary and discussion: Mathiesen 1999, 355 366 (although mostly on the technical sections). I am referencing by the chapter numbers followed by the standard codex numeration. 53 E.g. 26:1140bc; 27:1140e; 31 3 2:1142b d 54 See GMW 1.205 and his commentary throughout.

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141 His position is rather conservative, quoting criticism against the decadence of music in the theaters in contrast to the ancient ideal of character formation through music (15. 1136b; 27.1140de). He defends Plato and musicians who follow similar approval or use of only few harmoniai, narrowness of range, or fewness of notes does not stem from igno rance but better judgment (17.1136e 22.1138c). 55 Traditional music used to be more complex in rhythm, the current one is more complex in melody, 56 and that the elders omitted certain features that count as modern was because they had no utility ( ) for very specific purposes 1138c). After explaining the historical development of the different musical elements and, embedded into this, confronting the old and new style, the author presents the mathematical underpinnings of interval theory for which he departs from Platonic Aristotelian and moves into mere (neo )Pythagorean considerations, not without relishing the logical consistency and concordance which is embedded in a cosmic divine harmony to which huma ns have access through sight and hearing, hence considered the noblest senses (22.1138c 24.1140b). All of this had motivated the ancient Greeks to include music as an essential element in education in order to rough music towards gracefulness and decorum, evidently on the grounds that music is of value 55 See for the same idea AQ 2.7 65.12 were purposefully kept secret; cf. GMW 2.469 n. 64. 56

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142 in dealing with all circumstances and for every action that is seriously 57 After a longer treatment of t echnical details to explain the elements that compose musical ethos apparently following closely Aristoxenus t he author concludes with a portrayal of the general usefulness of music, appraising the ethos acquired through education in it, drawing from t he stock of legends about Achilles (Hom Il. 9.186 189), Terpander, Thaletas, 58 and the Achaeans appeasing Apollo (Hom Il. 1.472 474). The two foremost functions of music are grateful recompense to the gods and creating harmony in the soul (42.1146c); next c omes its sobering and calming funct ion at greatest and most serious matter, however, the celestial motion based on musical and thus remains to be taken up by othe r authors (e.g. Nicomachus, Theon, Ptolemy, and Aristides Quintilianus). The new trends, no longer mentioned here, have no chance to comply with these sublime tasks that are entrusted to music. Athenaeus Within the Deipnosophistae, 59 that monumental assembl y of excerpts from authors throughout antiquity until ca. 200 AD again within the setting of a dinner party there is one section dedicated in particular to themes that refer to the value of music, apart from a few isolated comments that I refer to els ewhere The general fertility and 57 26.1140b 58 For details on these stories see Chapter 2, n. 99 59 Text and tr. of the here pertinent section: Gulick 1937; Olson 2011; tr. and comm. (excerpts): GMW 1.258 304.

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143 ability to calm down temper and heal diseases (623f 624a). Athenaeus discusses the origin and ethos 60 of the various harmoniai which according to Heraclides of Pontus ( 4 th c. BC, in 624c), are reduced to three (Dorian, Aeolian, Ionian/Iastian). 61 A direct correspondence between the different ethnic temperaments and their music as reflected in the harmoniai is drawn; it is noticeable that none receives unqualified praise: Pratinas declares the Aeolian to be preferred as the intermediate, not Dorian usually the unchallenged favorite which 62 Also the other harmoniai receive not very unified characterizations depending on the author, and some, like the Ionian, have also changed over time (624c 626a). Music is useful in war for several reasons, not only to instill bravery in the soldiers but also to soften the hearts of opponents during negotiations (626e 627e ) It plays a beneficial (and sobering) role at feasts and in tempering character in general, even for the gods (627e f). Worship of the gods proceeds in a more dignified way if music and prayer are joined, and so music does not appear in the feasts of Dio nysus for pleasure only. Interestingly, the Spartans are praised for having rescued music three times from destruction (627f 628b). 63 Music can exercise and sharpen the mind and can influence 60 He emphasizes that a harmonia 61 I will not list a ll the characteristics here; they are given in the synoptic table. There is a different triad in 635d and 637d: Dorian, Phrygian, and Lydian (according to Anacreon and Pythagoras respectively). 62 This term has sometimes positive connotation (e.g. Strabo 10 .4.16), but negative in Arist. Pol. 1290a27 where it is associated to despotism Solomon 1981, 98 n. 33 attempts to parallel these harmoniai with the in Cleonides; see below about here see also Winnington Ingram 1936, 18 21. 63 these to be the inst ances of Terpander (Ath. 635f; ps. Plut. Mus. 9.1134b c), Timotheus (Ath. 636e), and Phrynis

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144 the soul, according to the kind of songs, in a positive or negati ve way. He refers here to ethos and musical (or dance) expression need to be in agreement, dance which is 64 reveals a soul of the same kind; also text (content) and dance should correspond considered reprobate ( ) (628c d) we see a nother (628e). A nice rule slightly critical to contemporary flamboyancy stems from the aulos the big lies the good, but in the 65 What follows is a long list of different dance types which we will not analyze since dances do not fall directly into our investigation (a few of them are marked in the table, those which in ethos are characterized in similar terms as music). Noteworth y is the claim that wars that the author has some causality in mind, as if the dance had indeed created a proclivity to wars (631a b). 66 Every now and again a sigh of no (Ath. 638c; Plut. Quomodo quis suos in virtute sentiat profectus 13 = Mor. 84a ). He uses the same word Plut. Mus. 1140e ; cf. also Pl. Resp. 424d 64 Gulick in n. e ad loc. e music that a soul learns to enjoy determines its character, and its character determines what music it will cre 29 : t his is one of the 65 66 He says that only the Spartans continued the dance, but also that the dance became more moderate and had a most beautiful melody ( ) attached to it.

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145 art: 67 auloi harmoniai that they would play, whereas at applause of the crowds was previously a sign of bad art ( ) but now has 68 His key witness is no one less than the distinguished musician Aristoxenus whose complaint abo ut the loss of musical character training in favor of mere theater spectacles we have already quoted above. As a remedy Athenaeus suggests philosophy along the lines of Pythagoras, relating music with wisdom ( ) 69 giving music its proper weight since th e whole universe is composed through it (632b c). 70 This theme returns a bit later when exemplified by the intrusion of violating the ancient musical laws, but when ever adher ence to the laws dissolved, the ) by softness ( ), moderation ( ) by licentiousness ( ) and relaxation ( ) (633b c). No direct causality between moral and musical decline is stated, but it seems music appears, as we will see it in Cicero, a manifestation of the general situation. At the end of a lengthy discussion of various instruments, especially the magadis, the discourse on music ends with some further words on musical de cadence, mentioning songs of a 67 68 69 With Barker (GMW 1.192 n. 1 62) we should note that Athenaeus does not mean her 70 Ath 632 c

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146 wretched ( ) nomos 71 that stand in no comparison to Terpander or Phrynis (638c) In summary, Athenaeus treats the advantages that music brings for education and healing, both physically and psychologically, but also for of war, feasting, and worship. Given the close relationship between beauty and goodness (or ugliness and evil), a decay in musical style goes along with deteriorating morals. Much of what he says here we find differently phrased in Plato. On the other hand, it is astonishing that Athenaeus repea ts all the advantages and uses of music as if no doubt about them had ever existed; not a single time (in his whole opus magnum with hundreds of authors quoted) does he mention the s k eptics of musical ethos, Philodemus or Sextus Empiricus either he simpl y does not know them or, what may be more probable, tacitly ignores them. Dev e lopment in Roman Time s The debate about musical taste and decay finds its way into Roman culture 72 especially once Greek artists started flooding Rome after 146 BC. This influx pr ompts a boost in musical activity but also polarizes people between enthusiastic adorers of exuberant Hellenistic fashion and those who disapprove the loss of the severitas iucunda in the melodies of Livius Andronicus and Naevius (Roman poets, both late 3 r d c. BC) 73 Also here a rtistic and moral license are going hand in hand. Thus it is not surprising that, l ike in Sparta, even legal action is taken to i ons on the 71 (Anderson 1966, 55). 72 A more detailed account of these developments can be found in Comoti 1989, 51 54 and Wille 1967, 326 some elements. 73 So e.g. Cicero in Leg. 2.15.39; the passage will be discussed with more detail on p. 322

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147 performances of the Greek virtuosi and on the use of instruments other than th e tibia 74 (edict in 115 BC ). These measures do not prove capable of stemming the avalanche of attractive novelty. Latin authors largely echo the criticism voice d during early Hellenism (especially by Aristophanes, Plato, and Aristoxenus): on the aesthetic a l level against decorative exuberance and sweetness in style, the excessive virtuosity and showmanship to please the mushy taste of the masses and to earn the greatest applause in the theaters; on the ethical level they continue to be concerned for one par t about the decline of a positive pedagogical use to form young souls in simplicity, virility, and respect for law and tradition, for the other part about an increase of sensuality and licentiousness provoked by soft emotivity, at times paired with indecen t dance practices 75 The Romans (and the Greeks among them) continued the Hellenistic trend to ever more spectacular massive and sophisticated performances at the same time coarsening the aesthetic quality 76 Within the historical context, the official pr omotion of ecstatic musical inebriation during public spectacles can be interpreted as a n easy and effective means of the ruling classes to entertain, appease, or, if needed, electrify the masses otherwise hard to control. 77 A few testimonies from different periods may be given to illustrate 74 Comotti 1989, 51 with n. 5. 75 See for this e.g. Plut. De esu carnium 2.2 (= Mor. 997b c) as discussed below (see at n. 282 ), and t he passage in Macrobius referred to in n. 90 76 For a more detailed description of these phen omena see Wille 1967, 327 329. 77 Cf. Perl quoted in Wille 1967, 328 n. 295: noch als eine s der bequemsten Hilfsmittel, um die immer schwerer beherrschbare Menge bei Laune zu halten, abzulenken, einzulullen, zu entnerven und gegebenenfalls aufzuputschen. Gerade die Sinnflligkeit der Musik war es, die das beste Werkzeug abgab, um die erstrebten Wirkungen zu erzielen. Musik als reine Magie, als Frderin vitaler Affekte, als Reizmotor der Extatik, der Erotik, der kollektiven Verdemtigung unter eine irdische Gewalt, mit einem Wort, Musik als Bindeglied zwischen Menschheit und irdischer Fesselung: so tritt uns

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148 these points except for the last one for which I refer to the rich documentation in Wille Ovid dissuades a heartbroken lover from visiting the theaters for their enervating playing of kithara, pipe, lyre, and singing 78 Pliny the Younger, however, already a few generations later alleges that the taste of the audience has changed to the better: whereas in the past the theater induced the musicians to apply a bad style, the improved preference for severitas has him hope that this will rub off on the musicians as well. 79 On the level of style, Cicero contrasts the florid, soft adorned mode of singing with a more sober one which apparently even the multitude seems to prefer, an observation that seems to contradict many ot hers witnesses Regardless, as in oratory, extreme sensations do not last long. 80 To avoid tediousness, along with decoration one has to know how to pause, cut back, and offer variety. 81 Quintilian who advocates strongly the inclusion of music training for o rators, with equal vehemence rejects the which has razed what was left 78 Ov. Rem. a m. 751 75 4 : I admit that th is case might not be universally applicable, but it agrees with what other authors say. 79 Ep. hac severitate aurium laetor, ac sicut olim theatra male musicos canere docuerunt, ita nunc in spem adducor posse fieri, ut eadem theatra bene canere mus icos doceant. Omnes enim, qui placendi causa scribunt, qualia placere viderint scribent. This is quite the opposite of how Plato believes things should work: the musician should responsibly influence the audience, not the other way round. 80 De or. 3.25.98 : He makes the same observation for the other senses and oratory and shows how flee t ing intense sensations are after a first extreme impact, even ending up in disgust. 81 3.25.100: About the point of variety see below under will be discussed in the section dedicated to him.

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149 of manly vigor ; neither does he want to hear of the psalter ium and spadix 82 to be refused even by modest girls. For his purpose s erves only the music sung of and by strong men the music that manages to move or calm the emotions. 83 Reasons for this position are given in a later part of the Institutio where he reiterates the preferen ce of harshness over weakness because the sweeter t he rhythm is, the more monotonous and less emotionally effective it becomes. 84 Th is reasoning is for the orator more motivated by the objective to impress a judge properly, but nevertheless reflects the expectations of ethos within a particular purpose Qui ntilian frequently criticizes the current speaking style in court which shows characteristics similar to those of the N ew M usic. 85 Ammianus Marcellinus (ca. 330 395) tells of the closing of libraries and study houses for the sake of amusement and the const ruction of instruments like lyres as big as chariots (14.6.18) a testimony of cultural decline while simultaneou s ly engrossing through musical extravagances. 82 According to the OLD the word occurs only here as an instrument (perhaps because of its it was so reproachable. What melodia fracta, mentioned by various authors, exactly was, is not completely clear either; we mi ght think of the repercussion effect that Aristophanes already ridiculized in Euripides. 83 1.10.31: non hanc [musicam] a me praecipi, quae nunc in scenis effeminata et impudicis modis fracta non ex parte minima, si quid in nobis virilis roboris manebat, e xcidit, sed qua laudes fortium canebantur, quaque ipsi fortes canebant; nec psalteria et spadicas, etiam virginibus prolis recusanda, sed 84 9.4.142 143: am compositionem malim esse quam effeminatam et enervem, 85 Take, for instance, 11.3.58: vero movendis adfectibus contrarium magis quam, cum dolendum irascendum indignandum commiserandum sit, non solum ab his adfectibus in quos inducendus est iudex, recedere, sed ipsam fori sanctitatem ludiorum talariorum licentia solvere? nos etiam cantan di

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150 Several authors parody musicians for their eccentricity, so Varro in his satire (Asi nus ad lyram), 86 or Horace when mocking the capricious singer (and rival) Tigellius as an example for extremism both in his singing style and in his private life, 87 88 With reg ards to the impact on morals, Macrobius (Sat. 3.14.4 14 ) reports complaints, reaching back to the times of Scipio Africanus the Younger, 89 that at his time even upper class boys and girls would learn how to act, dance to the crotala, play the sambuca and ps alterium and learn to sing, and that together with cinaedi. 90 Idleness a n he Elder Seneca towards the end of the R epublic, a life marked by the general tendency of effeminacy which is reflected in th eir musical practices 91 T he Younger Seneca blows into the same horn when he lectures on how man has fallen into luxury and made the soul a slave to 86 One of his Menippean satires, very fragmentary; for the text see e.g. Riese 1865; Astbury 1985. 87 Hor. Sat. 1.2.1 6; 1.3.1 19. 88 E.g. 28 33, 64, 69. 89 Dated at 133 BC, see Kaster 2011, 99. 90 quae maiores nostri (id. 7). On the sociological level, the problem was that free born were engaged with things that were considered below their dignity, i.e. being trained like professional musicians or entertainers (see id. 5: non quod saltare, sed quod and that these youngsters learned it amidst cinaedi (a bout the link between the cinaedi Sat. Men. 353). Another problem was the type of dances, which they learne d, (id. 7). That some of these artists were important public figures or gained respect and support, in the eyes of the author only adds to prove the increasing corruption of the time. Wille 1 967, 326 thinks that Macrobius here and in 2.1.5 actually approved such practices, but this goes counter the repeated remarks of th e participants of the Saturnalia that they are living in a time morally superior to the previous when these things took place (e.g. 3.14.3: ). 91 Controv. 1 pref. 8: in unius honestae rei labore vigilatur: somnus languorque ac somno et languore turpior malarum rerum industria in v asit animos, cantandi saltandique obscena studia effeminatos tenent, et capillum frangere et ad muliebres blanditias extenuare v ocem, mollitia corporis certare cum feminis et immundissimis se expolire munditiis nostrorum

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151 are the soft movements of the body (dancing) and soft and weakened songs. 92 Tacitus describes how under Emperor Nero (54 68 AD) theater music and moral decline coincide especially in the youth, and refers concern that weak sound and sweet voices will not enable them to enact justice and occupy noble offices. 93 Plutarch deplores that in dancing has tyrannically subjugated almost all music to her capricious and mindless theater performances it thus has lost honor with men who 94 In Quintilian we have a harsh critic of an overindulged educat ion practice at home which is aggravated further by the licentious and obscene music performances in dinner parties thus the new generation cannot avoid adopting a pampered lifestyle 95 Overall, we can find widespread unanimity among the Roman authors in that manly, severe, even harsh ethos style. 92 Ep. 90.19: cf. Ep. 114.1. 93 Ann. 14.20 21: im patrios mores funditus everti per accitam lasciviam, ut quod usquam corrumpi et corrumpere queat in urbe visatur, degeneretque studiis externis iuventus, gymnasia et otia et turpis amores exercendo, principe et senatu auctoribus, qui non modo licentiam vitiis permiserint, sed vim adhibeant ut proceres Romani specie orationum et carminum scaena polluantur. an iustitiam auctum iri et decurias equitum egregium iudicandi munus expleturos, si fractos sonos et 94 Quaest. conv. 9.15.2 = Mor. , Sandbach 1961 in n. b ad loc. e xplains that Plutarch may have in mind the pantomimi: musicians and a choir whose songs were explanatory of the dance, whereas in the ideal hyporchema of the moralist dance and song we see below in the section dedicated to him. 95 1.2.6 8: omne conviv

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152 Musical Ethos in Education and Cosmos After outlining some traits of the controversy between the two main contrasting tendencies in the practice of ancient music criticism of the new musical trends and styles. As we will see, these reasons are of political, social, aesthetical, moral, re ligious, even metaphysical kind s with each author weighing them according to his own perspective and world view. At the same time, many of these views are interrelated, build on each other, and have common points of departure. Categorizations are always s implifications, but I hope that the following division into cosmological, empirical, skeptical synthetic, Latin, and Christian sections 96 will be useful in order to distinguish groups of authors and thinkers who are closer linked to each other than to othe rs. The further down we go in history, the more complex and mixed the material is from which the writers draw. I have tried to identify all the ones that contribute something significant to the general picture of ancient music evaluation; some do so in a rather anecdotic al way, others through extensive theoretical reflection. By choosing to review the authors one by one, I am aware that there will be some r epetitions of ideas. I hope however, that such repetitions will serve to aid a nuanced grasping of t he arguments that possess a greater weight 96 ify at the beginning of each section the rationale behind this organization.

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153 Introduction 97 This phrase could be a motto to sum up a good deal of what the Pythagorean Platonic view of music is about. In the current section we will s tudy the probably oldest and most influential system which begins by linking music to natural and cosmic laws. These are expressed in mathematical terms to allow a better understanding and determining of interior workings of music (especially tuning, inte rvals, scales, rhythms, and the construction of instruments), but also to systematic ally put music at the service of specific preconceived political, social, moral, religious, and even medical objectives. The Pythagor e a n s Pythagoras and his school, 98 highly influential on Greek science and thought can be credited with the first traceable theoretical reflections 99 accord ing to which if the biographers can be trusted here they also lived. Furthermore, their tenets on the power of m usic are integrated into an organic view of the whole cosmos 100 expressed in mathematical terms and thus they are set ting the stage for 97 Pl Prt 326 b Mus. 1.32 D49; 1.13 D22. 98 I am a ware that there is no such thing as a unified school but rather different ramifications; for our purpose, however, it is sufficient to refer simply participants in this tradition may have agreed on every aspect. Furthermore, the inclusion of Neo Platonists as witnesses in this discussion is justified in matters of our topic the Platonic schoo l draws heavily from the Pythagoreans, and Theon (12) states that Plato himself followed them in many ways. A good overview of the Pythagorean tradition based on the results of modern scholarship can be found in Kahn 2001 who also summarizes and discusses well sources, ideas, and the historical development. 99 Neubecker 1994, 128: Musik At the same time s he points ou t that the origins for a differen t iated view of the effect of music are probably older and shares with Abert 1899 and Anderson 1966 the hypothesis that it was prompted by the influx of oriental music or even directly imported from the East. 100 e whole be ing of the universe i s held Philolaus in DK 44 B 6 sees in harmony the principle that allows order in the universe, so as to unite what is unequal. Kahn

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154 one of the two main traditions of music theory in antiquity 101 Much of this will be taken up and further developed by Pla to Of Pythagoras himself there exists no extant written word, and from his immediate followers only sparse fragments of text survive ; however, multiple authors quote his theories directly or indirectly, either to agree or disagree with hi m. From the Middle Platonist Theon of Smyrna 102 we learn about Pythagorean mathematics, astronomy, and musical cosmology. One of the most prominent collector s of information on his life and doctrine al though quite late, is Iamblichus, 103 a Syrian Neo Platonic p hilosopher (ca. 2 4 5 325 AD) who discusses this matter especially in his work De vita pythagorica. It is neither possible nor necessary to discuss here what testimonies and position s are properly attributed to this school and what is historical or rather legendary Kahn in his study gives some credibility to later reports about the existence of, as well as certain 2001, 3 ween music, mathematics, and celestial with the cy cle of reincarnation. Kahn also, after pondering the sources, argues in favor of attributing losophy (2001, 14 17). Boccadoro 2002 presents a perspicacious study showing how changing philosophical principles are responsible for the historical development of musical ethos down to Aristides Quintilianus a work, which has found surprisingly little attention. He shows how the attribution of ethos emerges from early conceptions about natural forces analogous to medicine and dedicates much space to the Presocratics and the Pythagorean view, which, in his interpretation, attributed ethos rather to the s ingle notes and their combination than to structural elements as in the later philosophers due to changed ideas such as about the relationship between matter and form, body and soul, and the theory of perception. 101 Barker in GMW 2.3 8 contrasts Pythagorean with Aristoxenian writers; see id. 28 29 on the significance of the school for music in general. See also Neubecker 1994, 128 130; Mathiesen 199, 412 426 (on Theon). 102 ays very literal or reliable English translation provide Lawlor 1979. See also Mathiesen 1990, 44 48; id. 1999, 412 429, and some excerpts in Joscelyn 1993, 16 20. 103 Text for VP: Deubner/Klein 1975; tr. Taylor 1818; for Myst.: tr. Taylor 1821; Wilder 1911; Clarke et al. 2003. See also Kahn 2001, 133 137; Neubecker 1994, 129 130 n. 7.

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155 practices and believes of an 104 He does not discuss in particular how reliable the description s of Pythagorean practices of shaping are, but there is no reason for preferring other practices over these, besides they are mentioned in a good number of authors. I ing to do with character 105 rather, a s we will see, a connection between these two realities, even though not explicitly stated by the later biographers, is not all that improbable For the ethical consideration of music, the Pyth agoreans have la id important groundwork by distinguishing more precisely the nature of concordant and discordant intervals, based on mathematical proportions; 106 these proportions, for their part, correspond to similar ones in other areas of nature so that a lmost everything can be described by numbers culminating in the assumption of a cosmic harmony which keeps everything together and in order 107 Music, then, appears 108 wherefore the study of musical proportions raises 104 2001, 8 13. 105 Anderson 1966, 130. Van der Waerden 1943, 164 178 argues that also the Pythagoreans first departed from general experience then formed their theories, and late r, when challenged, submitted them to experiment. 106 Theon 8.13 17 offers an eloquent eulogy about the value of numbers, commenting on the (pseudo Platonic) Epinomis as the of number lacks any sort of reason; it is without order, without beauty, without grace and ultimately 107 References in GMW 2.30 38; see in particular Arist. Met. 985b 986a; 1090a20 30 and, about the harmony of spheres, Arist. Cael. 290b12 291a29. Aristotle disagrees and finds these theories forced and, as we will see, Philodemus goes in his criticism even further. See also [Pl.] Epin. 991e. 108 Mathiesen 1990, 42. He also mentions a number of other ancient authors who elaborated on the Harmonics. According to Theon 12.11 12, the Pythagoreans define music as

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156 the philosopher to the realm of the universe p hilosophy itself is described in musical terms or even called the greatest music. 109 The human soul is embedded in this universal harmony, and i t seems that Philolaus taught that also the human soul i tself is a harmony (by harmonizing opposites of the body) or has a harmony (harmonized parts of the soul). 110 Theon introduces music as the unifying factor for opposites 111 in which concord of things and the rule of the universe takes place a truly divine ma tter 112 He highlights t he importance of such consonance ( ) which is derived from mathematical (c ombination of opposites, such as unity multiplicity; separately mindedness and agreement [Lawlor 109 Pl. Phd. 61a, a ttributed to Pythagoras (witho ut Resp. 548b, which is neglected by those who prefer gymnastics over music. About the relationship between music and philosophy in P lato see Moutsopoulos 2002, 25 31. 110 GMW 2.39; cf. Kahn 2001, 23 30, 68 69. Plato refutes the idea of the soul being a harmony in Phd. 85e 86d & 91d 95a (see below n. 200 and Barker 2005, 73 74 ; Arist. De an. 407b28 408a34; Lu cr. 3.131 135: musicians should keep the term harmony for themselves); the proposal that the soul has harmony is mentioned in Arist. Pol. 1340b18 ; see also GMW 2.39 n. 41. In Pl. Ti. 36e d) has renewed the idea of the soul being the harmony for the body like for song or strings, cf. Cic. Tusc. 1.10.19 20, 1.11.24, and 1.18.41 (where Aristoxenus is reprimanded for meddling with hi s love for songs in philosophy since ) ; Lactant. De opificio Dei 16.14 17: quid in nobis esset harmoniae simile, ictu moveretur externo sicut ( in Wille 1967, 508 n. 170 ). 111 (12.14 15). This idea, even in musical terms, is also what is opposite [is] combined, and from the d iffering ones [arises] the best/most beautiful the contrary harmony/combining invisible harmony/combining is stronger than the visi ble); cf. B 10 in [Arist.] Mund. 5.396b7 397a8 where, together with more examples from nature and the arts, the combination of high and low, long and short tones in diverse voices to one harmony is mentioned and the beauty ( ) stemming from such order ; cf. about this also Kahn 2001, 37, and Boccadoro 2002, 60 61. 112 Mathiesen 1999, 414, paraphrasing Theon 12.15 17: (12.18 19). That the Pythagoreans believed that the universe is created according to harmony is reported also in ps. Plut. Mus. 44.1147a.

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157 principles 113 114 Hence, concordant sounds referring to tho se which show affinity ( ) with, or sympathy ( ) for, others bear positive value because as a simultaneous chord they create the sensation of sweetness ( ) and soft tone ( ) (51.2 4) referring to the intervals of fourth fifth, and octave These considerations give a first idea of how these authors draw the connection between the cosmic, mathematical, and ethical realm. Another important example that points towards ethos can be found in Plutarch who reports that the Pyt hagoreans introduced the distinction between odd numbers as male and even numbers as female. 115 This distinction will become important especially in Aristides Quintilianus Be it the rationality of proportions or the union of contraries (Philolaus), the prop er order is the object of these reflections resulting in practical applications that pursue such order 116 Since according to the Pythagoreans music is responsible for creating consonance and harmony, it is understandable that Iamblichus (VP 15) attributes t o Pythagoras the discovery 117 of the healing power of beautiful rhythms and melodies as a remedy for 113 Theon (47.6 8) distinguishes i g i and ies ; the first are numbers, the second sound. 114 , (47.1 3; tr. Lawlor 1979, 32). 115 Quaest. Rom. 102 = Mor. 288d. enerative, and, when it is added to the even number, it prevails over it. And also, when they are divided into units, the even number, like the female, yields a vacant space between, while of the odd number an integral part always remains. Wherefore they t (tr. Babbitt 1936). 116 Cf. Ritok 2001, 60. 117 This was certainly not a new idea there are earlier literary references to musical healing, especially regarding the Orphic tradition ( c.f. Moutsopoulos 2002, 32), but it is possible that the Pythagoreans were the first to make systematic use of it, based on speculative principles.

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158 manners and passions He and his followers apparently applied melodies in specific genera ( diatonic, chromatic, or enharmonic ) 118 to temper the passions and le ad them into the opposite direction ; concrete examples are given how he used to calm down 119 and purify his disciples in the evening and arouse them again in the morning by peculiar songs and modulations performed by the lyre or the voice all these terms s uggest an allopathic approach 120 Pythagoras for his part is said to have enjoyed directly the and the harmony of the spheres on ratios ) and at the same time a variously beautiful 121 This experience trained his mind so as to acquire and exceptional capacity for perception and wisdom. He tried to imitate epresentations ( ) of t hese sounds for his disciples by means of 118 It may be mentioned already here that the primary ethical force at the time around Plato and Aristotle (an d probably earlier) seems to have been attributed to the harmoniai, underlying melodies. This shifted shortly after, around the time when the Hibeh Papyrus was redacted, to the genus (a specific way of dividing up the basic un it of the tetrachord within a specific harmonia). Iamblichus as a late author assumes the genus as specifying the ethos, while we may presume that the Pythagoreans, if they worked with musical ethos, most probably rather focused on the harmoniai. 119 Several other authors refer to the Pythagoreans about the idea of avoiding insomnia: Quint. 9.4.12 ( lyra playing before going to sleep: lenire mentes, ut, si quid fuisset turbidiorum cogitationum, componerent Cens. 12.4; Boeth. Mus. 1.1 185.26: ut Pythagorici quibusdam cantilenas uterentur ut eis lenis et quietus sopor increperet 120 Ptol. Harm. 100.7 12 refers to this practice but in a slightly different way: according to him, Pythagoras had them in the morning be exposed to some rather calming musical settin g so as to turn their confused souls into a settled and well ordered condition before undertaking the activities of the day. About the allopathic method see e.g. Busse 1928, 50; Wille 1962, 45 46. 121 VP 15.65 66; tr. Taylor 1818, 33. This idea is confirmed as Pythagorean also in Sext. Emp. Mus. 30 and in Theon 138.9 147.6 (Lawlor 1979, 91 understood as perceived by the mind, not the senses; cf. also Theon 16.16 17.8 and in Mathiesen 1990, 45. Barker 200 5, 117 affirms that the mathematical proportions in music came first and instigated the search for parallels in other areas (astronomy, human nature, etc.). Aristotle (cf. n. 1 07 ), criticizes this practice explicitly for tryin g to make things fit to a preconceived system.

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159 instruments and the voice so as to become conformed to them by a divine power. O ut o f all this wisdom his disciples were able only (ibid.). The practical benefit of music is taken up again in Chapter 25 and partially repeated and illustrated with more examples especially for creating the proper ethos through communal musical activity which : 25.110 ) harmonious and orderly Pythagoras would compose particular melodies for purification of soul s affected by depression, anger and any perturbation while he devised another type of melody again s t 122 In addition to melody, dancing and the lyre are employed while the aulos because of its insolent and ostentatious character, its is not used. 123 Here fits in the story about the sobering effect of the Dorian 124 (or, as called here, spondaic ) mode in contrast to the Phrygian which elsewhere is attributed to Damon ; 125 in a similar vein 122 As an example for the cultivation or recovery of continence might serve the case mentioned in Iamb. VP 31.195 (Taylor 1818, 102) where, by means of music, who had be Ath. 624a tells the case of the Pythagorean Cleinias who, himself of outstanding character, would calm himself down with the lyre to avoid anger. 123 Taylor 1818, 60 n. 1 adds a comment by Proclus that explains in Platonic terms t he prohibition of the aulos According to Iamb l Myst. 3.9.4 5, the aulos tr. Wilder 1911, 121; Taylor 1821, 130 animis nostris perturbations inferre et auferre Even though Iambl ichus is responding to arguments brought forth in a letter by Porphyry, the thrust of the whole passage is not to refute the effects of music mentioned in the letter, but to argue the role of the gods (and our pre knowledge of and about them) within the gr eater context of divination. 124 The explicit p reference for Dorian is made later ( VP 34.241 Epicharmus, and prior to him Pythagoras, conceived tha t the best dialect, as well as the best harmony of music is the Doric; that the I onic and the Aeolic participate of the chromatic harmony; but that the Attic dialect is replete with this in a still greater degree. They were also of opinion, that the Doric dialect which consists of vocal letters, is enharmonic. 125 See below n. 155 : first it is said that the person was enraged because he saw his mistress coming from the house of his rival, and then that he was inflamed

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160 Emped o cles is credited with having prevented a patricide by singing a Homeric verse. 126 The Pyth agorean school, so says Iamblichus, develops a wh o le set of songs fitting to change combination and treatment T hey even rely on fully cure passions and diseases 127 Iamblichus himself summarizes: In this way then Pythagoras established through music in many ways the most useful improvement of human and lives. The positive value of music is seen th erefore, in its power of purifying or healing 128 the soul by means of music that corresponds to the desired effect (by both strenghthening the good and leading away from a bad disposition). Ch apter 26 gives an account of how Pythagoras discovered the musical proportions and concludes disciples as subservient to every thing that is most good/ beautiful ( ) 129 al and moral meaning, both areas resound in this expression. A more explicit connection between the harmonic speculations and the ethical impact of music is not establi shed at this point and excited by a Phrygian song; one would think that jealousy would not need Phrygian aulos music to lead to violence; but the point is that the calmer music brings about order and moderation in general, for it changed the whole attitude and behavior of the affected person who prev iously acted without restraint and stupidly. Sextus Empiricus ridicu les this story in Mus. 17 after recounting it in 7. 126 VP 25.113. On the one hand this seems to be rather an example for the previously mentioned having the greater import; on the other hand, Iamblichus stresses the change of harmony in the music ( ) along with the text. 127 It is significant that Iamblichus emphasizes that these are VP 25.114), so the magic is done by the music only. 128 See also in 29 .164 ( Taylor 1818, 88): Pythagoras, ho wever, thought that music greatly contributed to health, if it was used in a proper manner. is for the body (see in 25 .110 (...) similar Plut. De virtute morali 441e; AQ 2.3 54.27 55.23. 129 26.121 (tr. Taylor 1818, 65).

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161 In another of his works ( Myst. 3.9 ) Iamblichus talks about the relationship between music and the gods. He refers to the observ ation that music can be moving ( ) and passionate ( ) ; causing or healing inordinate passion s ; ; either instigating or finishing a Bacchic frenzy or other ecstasy and he declares that all these effects are physical and works of human art The ultimate reason for divinely inspired effect, however, lies according to Iamblichus in between the chorus songs different divinities in their orders and powers, and the cosmic movements and sounds produced by them This relationship or connec tion ) of the gods; the participation possession and inspiration by the gods and their power are concomitant to the divine harmony The other functions of music (healing, purifying) are exp licitly declared as not of divine origin. T he divine harmony does not proceed from the soul as if it belonged to her essence but as reminiscence of her perception of it before her union to the body, prompted by the similarity of particular songs. But t he t ext is not fully consistent because if music properly belongs to the gods, how could it then on the divinities? But regardless, the thrust is to separate properly th e natural and the supernatural spheres and not claim direct divine intervention for any phenomenon. This passage, even though it deals only with the specific case of divine possession within the context of ritual music, shows how firmly the link between mu sic and cosmic divine forces is thought of as being able to resonate in the soul however not due to recalling

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162 ( to them, represented in the harmony of the spheres. 130 Again, to what degree these theories were really held by the early Pythagorean school is hard to say; retro alimentat ion from Plato and later speculation are quite possible. At any rate, the correlation between divinities, cosmos, soul, human behavior and music is a constant for both earlier and later witnesses. The Pythagoreans do not s such, but if it is to connect us with the cosmos and open up to wisdom, one would assume that the music humans use should be of a kind that blends in with those universal principles: creating harmony, consonance, and concord, brilliant like the logical c onsistency of mathematical equations. If the Pythagoreans discovered that specific musical parameters are fitting to provoke or change certain states of mind or even body, they must have had an intuition into the idea of musical ethos. And if there is any truth in the claim that Pythagoras pretended to beautiful, his followers can hardly have missed the bond between the aesthetical and the ethical, since both stem from th e same root, the harmony of the cosmos. 131 Whether 130 It does not s le aesthetic divine inspiration frees music from other functions and may include at times some sort of aimless contemplation of (divine) beauty, which w e could call aesthetic; still, frenetic Bacchic dances might not quite match what we would call an aesthetic experience. It is another thing to say that music as such, 131 It is a common view in scholarship that ancient harmonic science was for the most part divorced from may find expression in audible sounds and in instruments. Such sounds may remind us of a musical knowledge innate in us, but they are not the objects of Pythagorean music. This music is, as Proclus says in the similar case of geometry, a way for us of looking at ourselves, a form of self knowledge, and approach to the structure of in harmony in one way and other music in another, music must have been for the Pythagoreans more than a playground of mathematics, and conversely their insight into what arithmetically can be established

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163 or the work of a soul drawing on its own, divine powers swing within the musical sound and become present through it, making music in this conception, so special and powerful. Damon 132 The somewhat mysterious figure of Damon (or Damonides of Oea, as Aristotle calls him in Ath. Pol. 27.4 ), 133 appears on the horizon about half a century after Pythagoras. He is often considere and seems, perhaps for the first time, to have established a link between musical ethos and its influence on society and politics. No direct writings of his are pre served. 134 From mention in ancient authors we learn that he was a renowned sophist and musician, teacher 135 and adviser (Pl. Alc. I 118c) of Pericles to with which he [Pericles] harmonized the city 136 According to Plutarch Damon was so astute that the citizens decided to o stracize him (Plut. Nic. 6.1) for as consonant and dissonant, etc., must have played a role in melopoiia, in their music production in order to distinguish music that is good, fitting, co nvenient from music that is not (cf. Else 1958, 87 who also century doctrine which affirmed a likeness o r kinship between music and tion (and philosophy) for them is not reached through the auditive but through the study of abstract harmony as a rational ordering of the soul (cf. Calcidius, In Tim. 267, 273.2 2005, 139). Rocconi 2012, 68 expresses cauciously a similar view. Ritok 2001, 60 61 shows how the Pythagoreans moved in both the mathematical and therapeutical treatment of music away from its mythological or magical understanding. 132 See for general information and discussion: Wiliamowitz Moellendorff 1921, 61 66; Richt er 1961, 22 24; 33 34; Anderson 1955; id. 1966, 38 42; GMW 1.168 169; Comotti 1989, 30 32; Wallace 1991; West 1992, 246 247; Neubecker 1994, 130 131; Hagel 2013, 1 8. 133 on error. Plut. Per. 134 Most references to his life and doctrine are collected in DK 37. 135 According to Isoc. 15.235 he was the most prudent ( ) among the citizens. Plut. Per. 4 says Damon or Pythocleides 136 Olympiodorus, In Alcibiade 137.20 138.11, quoted from Wallace 19 91, 50.

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164 137 He is said to have delivered a speech before the Areopagus about the importance of music in education (Phld. 4. 3 4 D148.1 5 ) 138 Plato makes cursory r eferences to Damon in Laches 139 and in the Republic Socrates invo kes him as an authority in two instances 140 A ccording to one source, Damon was even Socrates (Diog. Laert. 2.5.19). Scholars disagree about the exact content ; how much credit w e can give him for ideas attributed to him by other authors 141 and how much of exposition on musical theory is really D amonian are subjects of critical debate Damon certainly recognized the ethical implications of musical parameters ( which he might have inherited from the Pythagoreans ) but i f it is true that he invented a form of the ) and taught all of the other harmoniai 142 then it is questionable that Damon censured the harmoniai on the 137 Plut. Per. This fact seems to stand against the possibility that Damon may have had no political aims of h is own he was greatly involved in (political) issues ( ) and supported tyranny ( ) Plut. Arist. 1.7 spins it slightly differently by saying he was too much of ( which probably means that he was dangerously smart and as such too well connected to political realities). Aristotle ( Ath. Pol. 27.4, referred to also in Plut. Per. 9) supports the political indictment. Comotti 1989, 3 0 dates his exile at 444 443 BC and surmises as a reason that he induced Pericles to spend much views. 138 The debate about this speech and its value is summariz ed in Richter 1961, 23; see more recently Wallace 1991, 33 139 180d (here for being both the most accomplished musician and a worthy companion for young men), 197d (Socrates cal b (an ironical reference from the mouth of Laches). 140 Pl. Resp. 400c (about a detailed ethical analysis of rhythmical patterns) and Resp. 424b c (about the negative political impact of changin g musical style). 141 As Wallace 1991, 32 points out, it is almost imposible to distinguish what Damon himself taught from what was developed by his school. For our purpose this distinction is negligible. Most of the more recent studies strive to distinguish carefully between Damonian and Platonian elements (e.g. Praliara 2000, 206 210 and others quoted in our footnotes). 142 Ps. Plut. Mus. 16.1136e; cf. Procl. In R. 1.61.19; Wallace 1991, 48. The exegetical problem of attributing the invention of the Lydian mo de to Damon is discussed in Praliara 2000, 173 175 (with n. 43).

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165 grounds of their ethical distinction Republic; neither does there seem to be any evidence that Damon developed a theory of or of an analysis of the soul 143 According to Anderson 144 he differs from Plato by his openness to innovation instead of static perfection by his greater tolerance of pleasure and by add ing that music trains not only in manlin ess but also in justice 145 Both Plato and Damon share the conviction of the ethical value of musical elements and the political impact of changes in music. A deeper connection of Damon to the Pythagoreans seems improbable. 146 ment as follows: 147 Damon's work was important and original because it provided, for the first time so far as we know, precise technical descriptions of the structures on which the music of that period was based, and because in correlating each structure wit h specific ethical and aesthetic characteristics it reduced the vague descriptions and haphazard associations found in the poetic tradition to systematic and intelligible order. If Plato exploited it in the cause of a moral crusade, that is no reason for s upposing that Damon did so too. 143 Cf. Barker 2005, 70 71; Anderson 1955, 89, 100 includes the idea of in because he accepts the reference from Aristides Quintilianus, see n. 151 below. 144 1966, 75 81; 241 n. 22; 161 162 (with reference to Phld. Mus. 1.13 D22). 145 In Phld. Mus. 3.77 (as in DK 37 B4 and Wil iamowitz Moellendorff 1921, 63 64) D22.12 15/100.37 45 I believe Leg. 664b does imply some of this; see also below (n. 503 between Damon and Plato (already in Anderson 1955, 97), for the ethos of a harmonia can hardly be reduce d to one virtue only. Ptolemy found another solution for incorporating justice (see p. 244 ). 146 This assessment hinges in part on the extent to which Aristides Quintilianus reflects Damon ian thought (Schfke 1937, for example, sees a strong relation while most recent scholars rather disbelieve it) See Richter 1961, 23 24; Anderson 1966, 242 n 26; Wallace 1991, 51 53 who shows how (neo ) Platonic hat Damon himself had Damon most probably took which would link him more to Aristotle than with Pythagoras (even though, as we have seen, Pythagoras may ha ve reached some conclusions as well in the first place from observation). I include him in the current section above all because of his close association to Plato. Cf. also Pelosi 2010, 30 n. 36. 147 Barker 2005, 71.

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166 His views regarding musical ethos can be gathered in three points : 148 Music is the product of a special kind of movement in the soul and reflects this movement. 149 Rhythms and harmoniai 150 can be classified according to an ethos t hat they express 151 An analysis of the harmoniai and rhythms reveals the elements on which their affinities with different character types depend. Musical forms ( ) are never changed without [changes in] the greatest political laws (Pl. Resp. 424c). Ac cordingly, music presents an important influential or educational tool that can be used to achieve definite political objectives Damon, or at least his followers, hold s that songs with positive characteristics (e.g. ) forms souls with pre cisely those qualities, while negative ones produce the opposite Something s imilar applies to dance movements (Ath. 628c d ) 152 a clear testimony for a correspondence between aesthetics and ethos as is 148 C f. GMW 1.69 and 2.383 n. 143. 149 This a pplies if Ath. 628c d and AQ 2.14/80.23 206, and Ritok 201, 63 misleadingly Republic, whatever that may mean in relation to Damon. 150 Barker 2005, 67, based on AQ 1.9/ 19.2 3, argues in favor of attributing to Damon also the ethical theory of the harmoniai, even though his name is not mentioned in that context in the Republic (so also Neubecker 1994, 130) Hagel (2013, 7 8) objects that Damon may not have posse ssed any actual theory of the Republic does not support the notion of a full Hagel also questions s harmoniai 5). Rossi 1988 had already argued that Damon derived the different harmoniai with their from the symposia as the most convenient (or possible) place where these were being tried out. Damon may have gathered these from observation; to what detail he went in theoretical description we cannot know. 151 Barker (in GMW 1.69) assumes that Damon identified harmonic ethos not by means of qualitative mathematical rationales (such as interval proportions) according to Pythagorean tradition, but along the lines of a qualitative ethical (particularly: male female) classification of notes, just as Arist ides Quintilianus does it ( Mus. 2.14/79). Hagel (2013, 5 classification to Damon argumentum e silentio while Plato does sho w traces of such a theory (e.g. Pl. Leg. 802d e; cf. also GMW 2.470 n. 71 and Pelosi 2010, 47 48). 152 dance and walk, beautiful (is) gracefulness and good order Ritok (2001, 63 64) compares two possible interpretations of this passage (music is either both product of the soul and influencing it (thus creating an ethical harmony between souls engaged in the same

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167 underscored by the story immediately following in A thenaeus, about someone who proved himself unfit for marriage through an improper dance Ritok 153 shows well how of creating an individual and communal order as ethos and how this confers social, even political importance on music education A fragment from Philodemus (Mus. 1.13 D22) has Damon teach ing that song and playing kithara exercises boys in manliness, moderation, and justice. This would again imply a positive (mor ally and socially relevant) effect of music in general, even though this passage does not consider any differentiation in types of music. The story 154 that Damon brought youngsters drunken and mad from Phrygian aulos music to their senses by changing the m ode to Dorian is attributed elsewhere 155 to Pythagoras and may be considered apocryphal; but it shows a clear link betwe en the ethical and therapeutic functions of music. Still, whatever use of music Damon considered positive and to be of f icially promoted, h e might not have found universal agreement, if his expulsion from the city had anything to do with his political employment of music. music) in aesthetical thinking, I disagree with Ritok when he claims that Damon did not speak of beauty cannot be perceived without an aesthetic association. 153 2001, 64 65. 154 It is told in Gal. D e p lacitis Hippocratis et Platonis 5.453, see DK 37 A 8, and slightly different in Mart. Cap. 9.926 ( See about the schola rly discussion Neubecker 1994, 19 with n. 57; also Wallace 1991, 48. 155 Cf. Iambl. VP 25 .112 ; Quint. 1.10.32; Sext. Emp. Mus. 8, 23; see also above n. 125 The confusion of the protagonist here does throw a hint at some perceived closeness between Damon and Pythagoras; however, the authors attributing the story to Damon are late.

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168 156 Damon's work was important and original because it provided, for the fi rst time so far as we know, precise technical descriptions of the structures on which the music of that period was based, and because in correlating each structure with specific ethical and aesthetic characteristics it reduced the vague descriptions and ha phazard associations found in the poetic tradition to systematic and intelligible order. If Plato exploited it in the cause of a moral crusade, that is no reason for supposing that Damon did so too. Even if there is no evidence that Damon clearly declared specific musical elements historically crucial because he developed a framework which enabled Plato and later authors to describe and explain the ethical impact of music in a systematic way and to formulate concrete educationa l objectives and procedures based on this framework Plato 157 on music in general and ethos in particular contained for the most part in the Republic and the Laws, is perhaps the most prominent one mentioned in eory, psychology, or therapy. 158 Although it is not very systematic ally developed in a dialogue narrative with a different general scope, its distinct and controversial statements and implications have challenged philosophers and musicians ever since. His t heory has frequently been summarized and commented on. 159 Thus my own analysis cannot be substantially new, but I hope to present a 156 2005, 71. 157 The two main text referenced in this section are: Republic: text: OCT (Slings) 2003; text and tr.: Shorey 1935/1937; Emly n Jones/Preddy 2013; tr. (excerpts) and comm.: GMW 1.127 140; Laws: text: OCT (Burnett) 1922; text and tr.: Bury 1926; tr. (excperts) and comm.: GMW 1.141 163. 158 E.g. Wigram/Pedersen /Bonde 2002, 17 18 which is trigger ed 159 E .g. Moutsopoulos 1959/2002 (esp. 224 407); Anderson 1966, 64 110; Zoltai 1970, 30 35; GMW 1.124 163; Neubecker 1994, 132 133 ; Pelosi 2010. The great amount of secondary literature about Plato and music does not allow for an a decuate appreciation of all existing interpretations here. I am discussing

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169 more recent scholarship and serves for f uture discussion. This section is more extensive because we will visit a good amount of points that are crucial for understanding and evaluating the positions presented afterwards. admonition to not carelessly identify Socrates, P lato, and other speakers featured in the dialogues 160 I still believe that Plato agrees at least for the most part, with what he has Socrates expound in the Republic and in the Laws. M uch of what differs in the Laws from the Republic in terms of legislatio n on music apart from its being a reaction to possible criticism against his restrictive attitude in the Republic can be explained by the different pedagogical objective s ; both works need to be read together as mutually complementary. Other dialogues w ill be referred to insofar as they offer related ideas. 161 Plato treats music with a very specific objective to define its role in the integral formation to be provided for the guardians of his ideal State (Republic) and for its citizens in general (Laws). The educational value of music as the softening correlative some issues of greater relevance in the footnotes but had to refrain from more so as to supercharge the text with side tracks. 160 Hagel 2013, 9 10; cf. about my point Beardsley 1975, 31. 161 Barker 2005 discusses in depth similarities and differences between references to musical ethos in earlier dialogues (in the mouth of interlocutors other than Socrates) and his two main works. One has to take into consideration the nature of the ear lier dialogues and their different aims, which explains what is lacking in them in comparison to the later works. It seems to me, however, that the assumptions about a different viewpoint of Plato in earlier times are almost all based on argumenta e silent io. I think it is remarkable enough that dialogues concerned with quite different problems refer to musical ethos at all, with ideas rather similar to what later will become a more systematic theory in the Republic. When Barker (on p. 60) contrasts Laches (in La. 188c to find it just as natural as Protagoras does to apply musical descriptions to people and their lives ttribute musical metaphors to speeches by Laches and Protagoras.

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170 to the hardening effect of gymnastics ( Resp. 410c 412a 441e 442a ), stems from the ability of the human soul to be shaped and impressed accordi ng to what it perceives, 162 and this susceptibility is held to be the greater the younger a person is and thus one comes to prefer what one grows up with (Leg. 802c d) Plato establishes his general pedagogical procedure in Resp. 376e 377c and develops the rule that bad examples are to be avoided first for text ( ) part of 163 F rom 398c onward he applies this or 164 in 399c e to instruments 165 and in 399e 401a to rhythm, all of whi ch are supposed to (lyrics) i.e. to depend on and support the text by showing corresponding characteristics (398d). Th is line of dependence is then extended to the correspondence between text ( and ) 166 and the ethos of the soul ; 167 actually, 162 For the correlation between music and the soul the reason is given in Ti. 47c: harmony is akin to the also 90c d. 163 The reader is reminded of the wider meaning of this term as explained in Chapter 2. 164 The use of this term in Plato is not fully clear; see GMW 1.130 n. 18, 163 168. Barker understands it in 2005, 23 24, a modello di accordatura [pattern of gives a melody the ethically relevant features Plato the ethos of a particular melody stems from the structures underlying it, just as the moralit y of a 2007, 308 327. 165 Barker 2005, 29 notes that Plato rejects the aulos and other instruments not because of their tone qualities, as we might e xpect, but because of their ability to play different harmoniai. We should specify that the point is that they can apparently be played at once, within the same piece and without need of re tuning as a string instrument would require all in line with the modal patterns as voiced also in other authors (see the previous section on the New Music) 166 in this context refers to the text regarding its content. For a more detailed distinction see Barker 2005, 32, n. 11. is discussed e.g. in Theon 72.24 73.15 (L awlor 1979, 47 48). 167 0e: the intermediate between reason and percep tion, see Horn/Rapp 2002, 105 provided itself truly well and beautifully with may be unconscious, as Plato points out later (402a c; cf. Leg. 653b), in itself, due to i

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171 all the arts 168 are ( expressions 169 All of these are good or bad 170 in direct connection to ; therefore, anything that is bad in any art needs to be kept from adolescents C onversely th ey ought to be exposed to everything good/beautiful and graceful ( ; ) so that they acquire similarity, friendship, and consonance ( ; ; ) with the good/beautiful (400d ; cf. Prt. 326a c ) for the goal of music is the love of what is good/beautiful: Plato presents a concrete canon of virtues or habits of the soul that he wants music to foster, among which stand out manliness, 171 self control (or moderation ), gracefulness, and a free and noble mind. In order to achieve these, concentration on those few harmoniai (Dorian and Phrygian) 172 rhythms (not specified) and instruments rational principle that at least the educators should understand (see Leg. 654c e), in line with the the principle of the proper order. 168 s and includes everything from poetry to architecture, even weaving. 169 Cf. also 654e 655b; Leg. 170 Plato consistently adds the prefixes (or ) and to the corresponding nouns. 171 In the Laws, Plato pursues a different path by distinguishing the according to sex and social status (free or slave) (669c d), probably becaus e he now talks about the education of all people, not just Republic and in the Laws obviously allowed for women, but it seems that music reflecting ethos linked to e) the reasons for this are further explained in Resp. 603c 605c. Anderson 1966, 80 with 90 91 calls for caution against relating the sexual classification of music to the system that we find in Aristides Quintilianus (who attributes it to Damon), but 172 There is a long debate about why Plato accepted Phrygian, a traditionally ecstatic and frenzic mode Leg. 666b) to which he here attributes quite different qualities. Anderson, after reviewing some of the discussion, points at a changed practice in Athens in whi quoting Winnington Ingram, and 129). Hagel 2013, 9 11 argues that the inclusion of Phrygian by later, in the Laws favor the idea of an assessment of music by experienced aged citizens. But since this

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172 (lyre and kithara) 173 that naturally convey them is required, and hence simplicity an d stability within both the musical and the poetical repertoire He conversely rejects harmoniai and rhythms of different ethos innovations makes one wonder whether Plato was really devoid of any clear idea on what reality such judgments should be based upon. I believe Praliara 2000, 210 aims at the right direction bringing up the specific objective of the Republic, the formation of the guard ians, which required different criteria than the wider educational goal in the Laws. Gostoli 2007, 28 34 suggests, based on Phdr. 244d her otherwise ingenious theory seems to falte r for not explaining why this very (34) should not have induced Plato to maintain also the aulos which was equally essential to these rites as she herself relates (33, based on Cri. 54d where the aulos is mentioned explicitly, but not the Phrygian mode, cf. Tartaglini 2001, 298). For further theories see e.g. Busse 1928, 40 n. 1 (Plato wants to educate warriors who need resilience in the battle Aristotle does not have this in mind); Koller 1954, 22, Lord 1978, 203 219 (who thinks tha t Dorian is pacific and Phrygican warlike), and, in response, Tartaglini 2001 who offers the most complex explanation by establishing a link between the cathartic effect of the Phr ygin harmonia with the need of the guardians to be free willed ( 39 9c). But serious problems remain. For instance, Plato describes the ethos of the Phrygian harmonia not as the result of a cathartic experience (through some sort of divine madness) induced by this harmonia, but as the ethos of the harmonia itself, which co nsists in imitating the sounds of a person in the state of the desired ethos, just as he does with the Dorian. If Plato takes a positive stand towards some sort of catharsis elsewhere, this ation for which we would expect him to be more explicit (and, apparently, not even his disciples understood him in this way). Besides, other authors have stated Plato s suspicion against praeter rational realities (e.g. Anderson, see below n. 245 ; Halliwell 2002, 73). Some deeper anthropological reflection would also be required: Tartaglini speaks of the will as virt acquisible attraverso la paideia spir control to endure hardships (such an effect does not see m to be mentioned in Phdr. 244d, which Tartaglini calls at witness; the context of augury and purification from illnesses is something quite different) especially if it is a simple tune in Phrygian played on a kithara without aulos It does not help tryi ng to reintroduce the once excluded aulos in Resp. 411a (Plato here makes a hypothetical consideration to explain psychological processes) or Leg 790d 791b (which is not the context of guardian educatio n, see also below n. 192 ). For the discussion of what music Plato deemed good or bad, it is less relevant what to do with the label Phrygian harmonia in its considered beneficial for the purpose of paideia this would have important consequences and would separate him further from Aristotle who explicitly did not suggest such things for the education of childre n (cf. below n. 372 ). For these and other reasons I am not prepared to accept these attempts of interpreting the Phrygian harmonia for our purposes. 173 Apollo (standing for the lyre/ kithara) is preferred over Mars y as ( aulos ; Re sp. 399e). About dance, re lated to rhythm and postures, not much is said in the Republic ; it receives more attention in the Laws.

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173 variations and mixtures 174 that confuse or corrupt the ethical import of story and music. 175 It is important to notice that in Plato the above mentioned value levels one and three are fused together : for him, the ethos of a person depends on the value of both the aesthetic al and moral influence s that flow from the a rts, 176 but especially from music because rhythm and harmony sink most deeply into and most strongly take hold of the innermost part (or the passions) of the soul 177 and because education in music provides the capacity to discern good and bad, both aesthetical ly and morally, 178 for the person educated in musical taste has acquired an interior 179 even prior to conscious understanding. 174 Leg. 700a b; Comotti 1989, 7 8; 31 32. 175 Barker (GMW 1.124, 128 n. 13) observes here initiated by Timotheus, even though they had been around for quite some time when the Republic was written; they are more explicit in Leg. 660a e; 669b ns 176 obscures therefore the wider range of these concepts across the three value levels. In Leg. 653b c Plato uses for the positive Barker develops a similar point about the meaning of 135 n. 40: there are no morally neutral musical laws. 177 ( Resp. (Leg. 812c). 178 Such distinction can be fetched from Leg. 654b d: someone well educated ( ) not only sings and dances well ( in the aesthetic sense) but also good [songs and dances] ( ) (in the moral sense) And ethos prevails over aesthetics: to administer properly ( ) voice and bod y without delight in good and hatred for the bad counts as less educated than to keep up correctly ( ) delight and hatred even though one cannot keep up voice and body perfectly correct. 179 Leg. 653a c.

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174 What exactly is express ed by the musical parameters remains somewhat obscure 180 Socrates/ Plato exonerates himself of further explanation by referring to Damon for details when it comes to discuss ing the correspondence between rhythm and ethos. But w hatever Plato had in mind, we can grasp his principle: the nature of musical sound agrees expresse s ( or as it is conveyed by the acc ompanying text) and this agrees with the ethos of the soul T hese three ends of the will always have the same value, good or bad, 181 which can be initiated from any angle: bad content will find its expression ( ) in bad music and shape a bad state of the soul, and the reverse for the good and the state of the soul good or bad, will accept only content and music fitting to it. 182 Plato does not directly discuss t h e case of attempting to combine good music with bad content or vice versa this he would have considered simply an absurdity and not appropriate ( / ) ; 183 it would break the synchrony of the triangle with certainly no profit for the state of the soul. Since Plato guided by an educational ideal, he initiates the triangle at the point of the soul by chosing content (virtues) considered 180 It is hard for us to imagine what sorts of utterings, produced by someone hit by bad fortune, the Dorian harmonia should be imitating, and how such music should then form the soul to instinctively recognize what is good an d beautiful (similar to the other characteristics). Barker 2005, 22 illustrates the general are given in Leg. 669c 670a, but it remains to be seen ho w musical elements can convey these 181 An illustration of harmful imitation is given for pitch and rhythm of speech in 397b 398b, despite its attractiveness for boys, teachers, and the crowd. 182 This idea is taken up again in Leg. 658e 660a and 802a e: the wise elders decide according to their properly formed taste and pleasure what music is to be considered good. 183 The debate in Aristophanes about adequate music seems to reflect this problem: modern dramatists are criticized for an improper musical ren dering of text. Examples for improper or senseless ( ) combinations are given in Leg. 669c d (which has a historical background, cf. 700a not the musical elements in themselves but the unfitting context in which they are used.

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175 CONTENT Text (story line, values, etc.) EXPRESSION Music (melody, rhythm, etc.) ETHOS (good or bad) SOUL (emotions, character, etc.) beneficial for it 184 and requires musicians to design their harmoniai, rhythms, and instruments in a w ay that express 185 As a consequence, an affinity, even love ( ) 186 towards all things and persons that are 187 grows in the soul of the young people formed this way 188 Figure 3 1. applied to music. 184 For that purpose Plato undertakes his strict scrutiny of the poetic tradition in 377b 398b. Similar Leg. 660a. 185 Resp. 401b d; Leg. 660a; 661c. 186 ) in Resp. 402d 403b as being directed, in a self controlled ( ) ( ) way, towards wha t is well ordered ( ) and good/beautiful ( ) lust ( ) madness ( ) and licentiousness like the love related to Aphrodite ) Aphrodite in Xen. Sym p. 8.9 10). Consequently, signs of improper love carry the blame of (lack of music/taste) and (ignorance of the good/beautiful). To love that, which ought to be loved is also a topic of Leg. 653a 654a and considered the content of educa tion as given by Apollo and the Muses. Problems can arise because the most just life does not always seem to be the the most pleasant, so that people, especially children, need to be induced to the truth by poetry and music (Leg. 661e 664c). 187 This term ca n here be considered as summarizing all virtues that Plato enumerates as desireable fruits of his educational ideal, as listed in the table below. 188 Leg. 655 a 656b.

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176 The proper measure also called this in Aristotle and in Chapter 5 but here may be pointed out that Plato, rather than speaking in absolute terms, seeks to balance out different forces in order to achieve an integrated equilibrium not only here, but in many other parts of his work. 189 It is pertinent to our discussion in two ways: first through the decadence caused by excessive food (403e 404e) and too much music (411a c) or gymnastics (411c e) moderation in each field is re quired and second through the above mentioned correlation between music and gymnastics which eliciting opposite effects on both body and soul, 190 together will forge a harmoniously fine tuned personality. 191 Each exercise, left alone and pursued to an ext reme, 192 would result either in coward ice a choleric temperament, rudeness 189 Aristotle uses this principle more systematically, above all (but not exclusively) in his ethical theory. significance see Kramarz 2000. 190 Both Anderson (1966, 94 (Resp. 376e; Leg. 795d e), but elsewhere he emphasizes (Resp. 410c). In this there need not be seen a contradiction. Naturally, gymnastics is the exercise of the body, and music is foremost spiritual (while dance is the area where both overlap). Just previous to the latter passage, Plato discusses the interdependence between soul and body and how the soul guarantees the well being of the body (Resp. 403d 409e). Hence, it is logical that he now addresses the effect of gymnastics on the soul, without, which a proper understanding since the soul, calibrated by both disciplines, ultimately guarantees the proper treatment and state of health of the body. 191 In Leg. 631e 632c and 634a 635d Plato uses the principle of fine tuning t o balance out pain and pleasure (and other extremes); cf. also Ti. 88b c (balance between body and soul, study and exercise, as a condition for being rightly called and which the herdsman will sing and play (Plt. 268b). 192 Notice that Plato is aware of a magical lure within the softening effect of certain tunes; see the verb 411b, describing how someone can be drawn in too much. Interestingly, Plato suggests elsewhere ( Leg. 659e; 664b c) a positive use of musical enchantment ( ) in order to provide and acceptance of the truth (that happiness lies in justice) in ch case is Leg. 790d 791b where a lullaby is described in terms of a ), combined with a rocking movement, on frightened and sleepless infants, with an effect,

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177 discontent, and we a k spirit, 193 or in harshness, violence, ignorance, and gracelessness. 194 Therefore, even the previously discarded wailing tunes could prompt a healthy result on the 195 by means of the best ) and 196 blend of tightening and loosening ( tension and relaxation ) in both disciplines (411a 412a). 197 which is compared to calming down those affected by Corybantic or Bacchic frenzy. But what has the soothing effect here? This passage is sometimes used to prove a homoeopathic approach in Plato and that Corybantic frenzy was also used for healing madness (cf. Ustinova 1998, 50 9 and Gostoli/Tartaglini as quoted in n. 172 ), but the text does not support this interpretation, which would also contradict all that Plato says elsewhere about the effects of music on the soul. Plato speaks o caused by Corybantism ( ) and emphasizes clearly the exterior movement ( ), which rules over ( ) the interior one of fear and frenzy and overcomes the madness of those w ho dance and play aulos Frenzy is not defeated by more frenzy but by tranquilizing movement; and the aulos which elsewhere is seen as precisely the cause for frenzy ( Cri. 54d; cf. Anderson 1966, 64 & 235 n.1) does not seem to play a role in the remedy (d espite the term but see 237 n. 4 on reference to Plutarch about tranquilizing by a change of mode). 193 Symp 179d e the contrast Orpheus Achilles) and some general scorn for music (see GMW 1.24 with ref erences to Hom. Il. 3 54; 24 261 ). 194 Plato, relying more on common observation, does not offer a psychological explanation for these effects, less so because only later are the parts of the soul introduced systematically and even then without the level of De Anima and Nicomachean Ethics 195 See further below about the anthropological context of this term. Concerning the difficulty arising from this apparent contradiction see below n. 372 196 This concept is also important f (see further Phdr 264c about the proper proportion of the parts to each other and to the whole). 197 The proper ethos requires, th erefore, the ideal measure (or, in the case of music, also quality) within each discipline and the ideal proportion between both disciplines. Plato does not contemplate the cases of someone who would exercise neither music nor gymnastics, or too much of bo th, but it is not difficult to imagine how a person could accumulate the defects of the lack from both. But an excess in both is rather improbable, given that for their complementarity a strong natural inclination towards one would fairly much exclude the other. Examples for an incorrect mixture between music and gymnastics follow in the discussion of the different forms of government in book VIII (e.g. 546d; 548c). ( ), which are attuned conversely by the two disciplines; see GMW 1.138 n. 50 and Barker 2005, 36 38; 50 53. This is taken up again in 441e are used.

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178 most musical and well harm tuner 198 good ethos to which actual music is only a vehicle. 199 This interior order entails, on the level of the individual and the soul, 200 the rule of reason ( ) over passion ( ) and both over the desires ( ) ( Resp. 439d 442b). The constructive cooperation of with reason is guaranteed through its proper measuring , which evens out th e extremes. 201 Music in itself is already order placed into disordered movements and sounds (Leg. 653d 654a; 672c d), 202 and it has the power to 198 e. In La. armonious in that his words and actions match, according to the ethos of the Dorian harmonia (which Socrates is then said to possess); cf. further La. 193d e. A smilar idea is expressed in Ath. 14.628e about dance and words. 199 A bit later in the text, t he ) of himself (meaning here the entire poetic (most useful) to himself and to th e State (cf. similar Prt. 362a of not only assimilating but also preserving the musical patrimony for the well being of the political balanced personality. The use triangle shows the intuition of their close connection within the collective conscio usness of the people who ) results from 423e. plays within it see Cha pter 2 in Halliwell 2002. Later in 522a, the ancillary function of music as praeambulum for philosophy is emphasized again; only the mathematical science of harmony leads up to the highest science of dialectics (cf. 530d 531e). This might be the m entioned in Symp. 187c which is beyond the ambiguous actual music making ) if it pursues the beautiful and the good ( ; Resp. 531 c ). 200 In Phd. 85e 86d with 91d 95a, Plato a nswers the question whether the soul is harmony composed by the body negatively because the souls rule over the body and can differ in virtue 201 A maybe somewhat trivial example of how a musician we could think, as the first one to give witness of the po sitive effect of music should show a more moderate behavior see Phdr. 268d e (instead of a rude response , he would speak gently 202 This anticipates an idea further developed in Ti. 3747c e.

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179 bring together opposing forces. 203 This applies no longer to the specialized guardians only but to the public at large: people, 204 but especially children should listen to what is even better than their so as to improve their enjoyment 205 and thus their ethos. The proper music is to be decreed by law ( Leg. 657a b; 660a) and sung especially to children to form their ethos well. 206 Plato crowns the apex of his Republic (619a) by proclaiming the principle t hat extremes ( ) are to be avoided and the mean ( ) to be sought : this, life and in the next, within the eternal harmony of necessity which in itself is son g uttered by the Sirens and the Fates (617c). 203 A reflection on this idea can be found in Symp. 187b e, pointing out that the opposites cannot be (any longer) at variance ( ), rather harmon y is consonance ( ) or agreement out of things varying ( Ti. 80a b might offer an explanation of how this is to be understood); cf. on this passage Barker 2005, 75 95 and 2007, 325 326. Harmonic systems are distinguishable easily on the level of in composing or performing actual music and in its quite inaccurate]), there is the danger of immoderation ( ) because of the pleasure ( ). L ike in medicine, the proper balance between the opposites is required, which can only be assessed properly by the one who is at home in the science of unambiguous harmony. 204 Cf. A nderson 1994, 165. 205 206 the idea that the whole city is supposed to enchant itself by song in choirs organized by age groups dedicated to the Muses, Apollo, and Dionysus the latter so as to motivate the elderly singers through wine (see Plut. Instituta Laconica 15 = Mor. 238a nce in Plato for a belief in strictly magic charms, at least as far as music is concerned. Apparently there are still degrees even within the acceptable music, for the third choir is supposed to present the best songs ( unless one sees passages such as Leg. 670a 671a as proof for a more lenient approach in the Laws, as Anderson does (1966, 73); but probably Plato is just realistic in how to get to the ideal but does not change the general normative.

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180 Conservatism to foster order in soul and State an 207 Such danger, expressed in the Timaeus in metaphysical terms, exi sts for Plato similarly on the level of individual and State. It is only natural then, that once the proper mean or balance is found pains must be taken to maintain it h 208 and gymnastics which he describes as a gradual process of corruption 209 to the norms 210 and finally the government (or constitution) (424b 425a). It is to be noticed however, that Plato does not reject any particular innovation but innovation as such, 211 for he 207 Ti. 41a b 208 Plato specifies the difference between of these, of course, there may be plenty of new ones, see Leg. 665c) the restriction falls on the last two. Cf. Rocconi 2012b, 129 130. 209 Cf. Object 4 1 n. 15. It sounds as if Plato were citing the excuse used by the innovators to appease those concerned t do anyone harm and they might even believe it themselves, choral dances being something outdated ( ) occurs in L eg. 657b. 210 h because Plato does not speak here about civil laws only but means and also rules of custom and convention, as the following passage shows (425a b) (cf. about this also Wallace 1991, 47 ). About the shifting meaning of the term as political and musical, and the attempts at interpretation, see Anderson 1966, 99 100; 252 254 and Bartles, 2012, 135 136. The great prototype for millennium long fidelity to tradition is Egypt (Leg. 656d 657b). Anderson 1966, had already gone through at least and 1943, 62 63 who attributes these changes to the fifteenth century BC (about a thousand years before Plato), mostly based on the import of many new instruments. It is difficult to imagine the tunes should not have changed along with the instruments, but Plato claims their constancy f or his time as much as the visual arts have remained constant, due to corresponding legislation and ritual use. Sachs 1943, 71 73 also reports about unchanged features. 211 Cf. Leg. 659d and with more detail 797a 798d. Similarly, as Barker points out (2005, 29), Plato does not reject particular instruments for elements such as timbre or loudness but because they are and this makes them prone to violate the established norms. This sort of reasoning Timotheu Instituta Laconica 17 = Mor. 238c), and likewise that he was acquitted because a statue of Apollo had the

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181 does not want children to grow up getting used to transgressing establishe d norms and thus becoming transgressors or lawless themselves ( ) What sounds like rigor ous conservatism is based on the conviction that, once the best way of government and living in a State is achieved through the constant changing only of what is bad (Leg. 797d e) with respect to the unchangeable truth ( cf. Leg. 668a) and divine disposition (cf. Leg. 653c 654a; 797a b) any further change can only be for the worse. 212 Plato is very serious about this and does not speak in theory only but has a concrete historical example in mind which he describes in Leg. 700a 701 c : the degeneration of morals and social stability and order in democratic Athens would have begun with an audience driven, pleasure pursuing 213 break of musical conventions This is supposed to have lead to a theatrocracy in which the common peo ple deem themselves competent judges in everything, challenging shamelessly those who should know better A ll this is then projected to culminate in the rejection of submission and respect to rulers, parents, elders, and ultimately in ignoring the law, oat hs, and the gods thus t he line of decadence would end in a repeat of the fate of the Titans who are suffering eternally 214 With that in mind Plato now teaches that conv ersely the same amount of strings as his lyra (in Ath. 636e f) because the recourse to authority is c ompatible with (see for this also Le g. 660b e). Another reference to penalties for musical law violations in Argos is ps. Plut. 37.1144f. 212 This derives from a rather static conception of the world and man within it, which underestimates the human capacity to develop culture from good to bet ter. 213 Grg. 501b 503d. About this phenomenon see also Wallace 1997 who assesses the historicity of this description. 214 The Athenian speaker has talked himself into such a raging tirade that he needs to remind himself of what they had been talking about a moment of self irony and comic relief, which might also reveal an intuition that he has gone a bit too far; but it also shows that a neuralgic point has been hit.

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182 observance to the norm both prevents and restores 215 order 216 as much in the individual as in society. 217 The ultimate goal for Plato is a S tate in which there is perfect order among the citizens, 218 everyone dedicated to his own affairs (cf. Resp. 423c d); the S tate is thus just the middle ground between the perfectly adjusted interior of each individual and the harmony of the cosmos. 219 215 Resp. 425a. Barker 2005, 95 (cf. 126) thinks that Plato is not interested at all in restoring deformed Ti. 47d e. The healing process of society as described by Plato earlier (424a): good education produces good natures (characters) and these provide, in turn, good education a sort of self purifying evolutionary process driven by proper educational principals. The corresponding vicious cycle is described in Leg. 659a c. At another place one of the dialogue characters quote Socrates lamenting the (Cleitophon 407c d). 216 See the definitions of musical terms given in Leg. 664e of motion, harmonia as the of voice (high and low blended), and choral dance as the combination of both. Already in its interior structure does music represent order and organization, a microcosmic image perhaps of the perfect State. 217 interior structure and following the same ethical principles (Resp. 427e 44 5e; esp. 441c); hence the status of interior integrity within the individual has repercussions on the State and vice versa. As the means to achieve musical stability, like in Egypt, it is proposed to dedicate all dances and songs to religious festivals (Le g. 799a b) since consecrated music seems to resist change better ( stated in Leg. 657b). Concrete stipulations for this sort of music are given in Leg. 800e 802e: the content should have these characteristics: auspiciousness ( ), prayer ( ) to the gods, and care not to pray for anything that is not really good; the corresponding songs (ancient and new) are to be selected by competent elders and musical advisers to fulfill the requirements of the ethical triangle. Bartels 2012, 141 highlights the soc ial significance of ethos in the Laws and hence the significance of proper musical education. 218 paideia (with refrence to Leg. totalitarian streamlining, especially because the State is not an end in itself but the benefit of its citizens. Regardless, it strikes me that Plato does not consider explicitly the unfying aspect of making music toge ther, perhaps because this was so obvious to him (his choral performances are important because they are public and exercise commonly the ethos to be promoted). Later authors (e.g Cicero and Christian writers) pay more attention to this point. 219 Resp. 441 c e; 530d 531d; cf. Anderson 1994, 66 67; 163 164.

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183 Good music and how to achieve it; bad music Good music t hen is characterized by simple 220 harmoniai and rhythm, express ing in some way ethically positive content (manliness and moderation) faithful to traditional genres, norms and patterns and without distracting variations submitting to text and content I ts positive effect still depends on the proper balance with physical a ctivity (gymnastics) which if achieved, will render an emotionally well rounded personality in which reason rules with the help of affection for what is good in any field, loyal to the laws, and hence contributing to the stability and cultural integrity of society. Thereto the aesthetically perfect performance matters less 221 than that music transmits what is objectively good as established judged, and promoted by those who understand after the proper training, 222 For w hile m usic, as a gift of the gods, has the capacity to provide pleasure, this is not the first criterion for its value or 223 R ather it is that the one s who experience the pleasure 224 are 220 Leg. 812d e. This includes homophony (unison singing); cf. Anderson 1966, 96 97 with 251 252. 221 Leg. 654b d, somewhat preparing the ground for the chorus of the elders (with its lessend technical brillia nce due to age) as instituted in Leg. 665d 666c; nevertheless, musical training forms a necessary in 654b ) ; about this same point see above p. 33 n. 3 222 This specialized education comprises both good perception and understanding of rhythms and harmoniai and their correc tness and adequate employment in view of ethos ( Leg. 670b e; 812b c), something, which ordinary people, or even composers, often neither know nor need to know, as long as tue. This concept of music education leading to proper judgment is taken up in ps. Plut. Mus. 41.1146a b. See on this point the lucid study by Bartles 2012 who suggests that the oldest group of citizens (in her interpretation not identical with the third c horus but still older), through life experience and maturity, is the most qualified to identify the best in music and, at the same time, as true the best of living. 223 Cf. Leg. 653d 654a; 655c d to say the opposite would be neither tolerable nor pious; not even the ) (656c; cf. 801a c). The pleasure criterion is reduced ad absurdum first in 658a d because of its subjectivity and again in 667b 668d because it is irrelevant to discover/understand the truth. Later follows a historic political refutation of the pleasure principle for music in 700d 701b by showing its disastrous consequences. On the other hand, virtue itself is happiness, and this the poets ought to convey (660e 661c). Grg. 5 01c 502c discusses further the faulty pleasure seeking in the arts.

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184 the best in virtue and education 225 and particularly tha t they (come to) understand essentials for any ( such as painting or music ) : what it is (i.e., what is express ed), how correctly and how ( technically ) well it is crafted. 226 In the end pleasure arises anyway from what one has beco me used to since childhood, and regardless of whether there are sweet ingredients 227 in music or not (Leg. 802 c d). An addition al songs (in harmony, rhythm, melody, meter) according to gender, based on the natural differences between male and female magnificence ( ) for the former, and what tends to order/decor and temperance ( ) for the latter (Leg. 802d e ). In Leg 669c this conception is extended to the difference between prisoners or slaves and free 224 We may suppose that in Ti. anger in ordinary pleasure seeking through music see Pl. Symp. 187c e. and in this context has been pointed out by Bartles 2012 and Halliwell 2002, 66 (even though he does not discuss the difference but the general probl em of pleasure as an unstable factor within the mimetic experience). 225 659a). Plato points at another vici ous cycle of continued deterioration if the spectators determine by their pleasure what is best and thus corrupt also the composers and judges, as historically illustrated in 700c e (Anderson 1966, 245 n. 41 contributes further references to this point fro m other authors). See also 802a d (for the described screening process done by the elders, Plato does allow the counsel of composers and musicians, even trusting their pleasures a remarkable flexibility). Anderson 1966, 98 and1994, 165 states for the Laws a greater reasonableness in general, which could, of course, if ever applied, lead again to subjectivism, because on what grounds would the judges decide to trust the pleasures or desires of musicians rather than their own? 226 b). These points are drawn from, and therefore also apply to the judgment of whether something is good/beautiful ( ) (668d 669a ). For the deeper problems of reconciling mimetic representation, correctness, and ethos see Halliwell 2002, 65 69. Thomas Aquinas ( Summa Theologiae 1.39.8 ) lists three qui te similar constituents for pulchritudo: 227 c ).

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185 men. Good music then can also be relative to the person to whom its ethos would rightly belong. This distinction, of course, did not have any relevance in the Republic when the formation of the guardians was discussed. At least in earlier works, Plato does not seem to consider it problematic when the musician (and poet ) hi mself enter s in to some sort of frenzy, inspired by the gods ) like the Corybantes; and it seems that it is the very music that draws him into that state 228 without which he would not be able to compose at all. The great quality of their works is due to th e god speaking through them (Ion 533e 535a). 229 But this is a special case; for the rest of the citizens reason and understanding should reign, lest the dictatorship of passion and desire for pleasure obscure what is objectively good and true. Apart from t he educational function, there is also some room in Plato for m usic that heals ( e.g. Leg. 790 d e) In Chrm 156e 157b the treatment of the soul, from which all the well bein g These may be understood to be either sung magic formulas or tunes that create moderation are cure s for the head (the context i s a headache) and the body 230 In Lysis 206b t he proposition is offered as obvious that speaking and 228 See Ion harmonia and in rhythm, they ent er into Bacchic frenzy ( the younger show that Plato has not dismissed this dimension in the Laws. 229 This is the reason why poets and composers are not pr oper judges on good and bad music, as said above: they do not have knowledge about their own field, which, for them, is not an art. That the poets can still produce bad works supposes that not all that they write or perform stems from divine inspiration, a nd this applies even to greats such as Homer and Tyrtaeus (e.g. Leg. 801a c; 858e). Anderson 1966, 84 85 and 244 nn. 36 & 37 points at the tension between the idea of inspiration on the one hand and the be demanded for the objectively good compositions or performances. At the same time, not the claim of inspiration but the objectively certified judgment by the competent jury vouches for the goodness of a composition. 230 It is possible, however, that this passage also used.

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186 231 the opposite of which 232 M usic is bad according to what we have seen in the following case s: 1) when it expresse s bad ethos; 2) when it mixes musical elements associated with different or when music with a particular ethos is performed by someone to whom it does not correspond (and hence is confused, unintelligible, and ridiculous) ; 3) wh en it introduces changes to the traditional musical rules; 233 4) when it is complicated and complex; 5) when it is poorly made or performed. 234 Plato observes with some psychological insight (Leg. 654b 656 c ) that those who due at display ing their preference publicly as they sense the in congruity. Bad music produces its damage regardless of the pleasure felt (656a), so the only solution to prevent ing such a conflict is seen in the proper habituation through education imposed by legislation. Is there anything intrinsically good or bad in music on the ethical level ? Barker 235 argues that Plato does not assume this in the Symposium (187c e) where the value of music depends on the aesthetic categories of composition, performance, and individual 231 232 See above p. 131 n. 289 For further examples on overcoming fear, madness, or sleeplessnes s see also above in this section n. 192 233 Strictly speaking, point 2 is a subpoint to 3, but it is important enough to form an argument on its own. 234 Leg. 669b. This is last and least because it is of little importance for Pl Anderson 1966, 86 87 and 244 245 nn. 38 & 39. We might subsume here also the cases when musical quality suffers because of showiness in order to gain public applause (Leg. 700d e; Grg. 501b 503d). Be it noted here also that performi ng and listening for Plato seem to have the same value; see Anderson 1966, 100. Aristotle addresses this distinction more directly and demands active music practice for early education. About and ethos in Plato see also: Beardsley 1975, 31 39; 46 5 1. 235 2005, 79 80.

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187 disposition, but that he does assume it in the Republic This is true insofar as Plato discards certain musical features (e.g. specific harmoniai) from the State, without denying their artistic value ( 397d 398b ). However, also in the Republic (and later in the Laws) the re are two other factors in play. One is the proper measure : music in itself is ( the problem arises when thi s effect becomes too prevalent) T he other point is the proper correspondence between the ethos of a musical parameter or piece to a specific content which is exemplified later in the Laws insofar as tunes and rhythms may fit one genre or even context whi le not fitting another. 236 It seems that in the Laws, the value of music depends more on the context the fourth end Only insofar as bad (e.g. effeminate, lascivious) content co uld in some way be represented legitimately (e.g. in a literary work), then the music which would have to match this content, would at least be fitting and the question of music and ; a more explicit stand on this last point will be taken later in Plutarch. If we want to understand more deeply why and how, according to Plato, music is able to possess ethical force, we need to consider two concepts, the first of which is 237 It deserves particular attention because the ethical value of music hinges 236 Here it would matter little whether underlying structures, rhythmic forms and patterns of attunement problem in themselves but as so Symp. 187c). The Republic is more restrictive because most its stipulations are directed 237 o influence and mold character. Thus the conception of imitation acts as an intermediary between the concrete

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188 Figure 3 2. The Ethical Pyramid. on the presumed capacity of musical features to be identified with something that lies outside the mere aesthetic coordination of to nes. The role of in ancient authors, including the later development, has already been the subject of a profound study by Stephen Halliwell. the word means with multiple shadings throughout the history of aesthetics some combination of representation and expression. 238 Roger Scruton has argued that music as we understand it, strictly 238 2002, 37 14, esp. n. 31; on expression and representation in Aristotle see151 164 (the quote later in the text is from 161), again in 247 between representation and expression; I would side with Scruton in that Plato does not reflect on the fact that does not work the same way in music as it does in the visual arts. But another problem ut without the been considered by the authors I am discussing. Unfortunately, scholars often use indiscriminate terminology (e.g. one can speak of them as a figure and a melody representing the coward and the courage the representation of character in the visual arts is slighter than in musi which ).

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189 speaking, does not represent but express 239 Halliwell in turn when discussing Aristotle, convincingly contends that the ability to experience (or express) ethos (or emotion) in music supposes that there is something in music that makes this communication possible ; tive content of the then necessarily contains both the dimensions of representation and expression as two sides of a coin. It seems to me that the same could or even should a lready be said for Plato as well. We will need to leave the discussion of the possible expressivity of music for Chapter 5 ; for now it is enough to look at the way Plato envisions that as expression of ethos, works in the case of music. Certainly Plato is convinced of the strong psychological impact of artistic representation, especially in drama (comprising text, gesture, and music), for both the actor and to a lesser degree, for the spectator and he feared the consequences of a habituation to bad ethos by means of negative This has led some commentators to believe that Plato would prefer to rescind as much as possible. 240 H Republic 241 shows that there are positive forms of (e. g. 397d) which allows An older standard wor k, but in parts outdated, is Koller 1954, which already received some important correction in Else 1958. 239 1997, 118 170. Still, e 155 157). 240 Comotti 1989, 38; Barker in GMW 1.128 the city should not be (based on Resp. 396e 397d; 595a 607a), while later 147 demonstrates how the tenth book of the Republic is to be understood as a rhetorical, even satiritcal argument against aesthetical naturalism but not as a rejection of the concept of as such. 241 2002, 72 85.

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190 the possibility that artistic representation might be productive of ethical understanding, though it insists on the separation of such understanding from the kind of full psychological immersion in a character that is involved, from classified as the mimetic mode. Moreover, this mode makes it possible within narrative representation 242 This is still said for all the arts. Furtherm assertion that beautiful form involves of good character ranging statements about mimetic art to be found anywhere in Plato, and it rests on the proposition that in the visual arts (a nd elsewhere) form is not neutrally depictional but communicative of is taken to be inescapably engaged in making moral sense of the human world not just registering appearances, but actively construing, interpreting, and jud ging them for Plato, is an expressive form of ethical value 243 Plato says that all i s mimetic (Leg. 668a c; 798e), in the sense of 244 This assertion sh ould not be understood as refe r r ing to music alone because as we remember the term also encompasses poet r y to which music is usually linked; Plato actually cements this connection by prescribing that there should be no melody or rhythm without words and no instrument without voice (Leg. 669e). 245 242 Id., 79. It may be added that the concept of is most probably Platonic, not taken from Damon, cf. Else 1958 and Anderson 1966, 40 41 & 222 n. 13 who sees in traces of in Damon a s a much different conceptio n, more like what Aristides Quintilianus developed. 243 Halliwell 2002, 132, with reference to Pl. Resp. only speak of beautiful form, but also that ugly form involves of bad charac ter 244 Again, if Scruton argues that music (strictly speaking) does not really represent but can express things, especially emotions, his question about whether music always expresses something would depend on wether music always has a meaning that points beyond itself. We do not need to answer this question now in general, but it seems that Plato would respond with yes, even without an interpretative text going along with music. 245 For a more detailed discussion about truments see Anderson 1966, 102 106 with 255 1964, 106 107 sees the main re ason in the difficulty for purely instrumental music to express content. Timaeus is

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191 His argument goe s that without text it is hard to discover what is intended and expressed and that part. 246 This is an important observation, because despite the power over the soul that Plato has attributed to music as such (here explicitly in the strict sense: melody and rhythm, cf. 401d), he tells us now t hat the intrinsic expressivity of ethos through music alone is limited ethos of a musical piece. This could appear to be at variance with the clear attribution of ethos to specific harmoniai and rhythms which should be recognizable B ut the context of Leg. 669 allows us to assume that it is the jumbled and confused music ( as previous ly described ), that is deprived of any clear indication of ethos, and that is aggravated by the lack of lyrics. M usical can take the form of crude imitation of animal sounds or the incongruous expression of emotions and states of mind, especially w ithin a dramatic (and hence musical) setting; 247 these forms are entirely rejected Muse at best ridiculous ( Leg. 66 9c d ; cf. Resp. 396b ). At least for music, only of positive ethos should be chosen, because Plato as opposed to Arist otle, takes the thought of as a purely tonal art; all that matters is its ability to reflect the abstra ct values of noetic harmony; its slight imitative capacity in the absence of words and physical gesture has ceased to be of the concrete practice of s onoric music. 246 Arist. Pr. 19.27 (919b36 37) holds that a melody without lyrics ( ) still possesses ethos, but as Plato has pointed out (Resp. 398d e; 400a c), the exact correspondence between music alone and ethos is only accessible to the musical expert and hence not effective enough. 247 A vivid illustration of this practice in drama is derided in Ar. Eq. 522 524. The theory that even syllables are imitative is mentioned by later authors ( Phld. Mus. 4.32 D146; AQ 2.13 14); Anderson 1966, 162 something like this in Crt. 424b as Anderson himself says at 281 n. 30.

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192 homoeopathic approach that like produces like. 248 One should avoid therefore desires ( ), pleasures, and pains get ting stirred up by harmful (606d e). Another problem arises when the artist (painter, poet, or musician), in seek ing the of the soul instead of the better ones (Resp. 605a b). Regarding all these stipulations we ating goodness and stimulating good behavior for Plato these are i nsep a 249 It is always interesting to test a theory on its promoter. Halliwell inspects the o rship. 250 In the case o f musical an interesting observation has been made recently that I will include even if only as a curiosity: Jay B. Kennedy has presented stichometric analyses Republic. Thi s further s the argument that there is a strong Pythagorean influence on Plato. If true, this could also mean that Plato perceived his wo a musical scale which organises a dialogue and yet is submerged beneath its surface a n unheard melody finally accessible to reason and measurement. Just as the individual in the Republic mirrors the order of the polis, and the individual in the Timaeus mirrors the order of the cosmos, each dialogue is another microcosm mirroring macrocosmi c principles of 251 248 This is said against the assumption that there is no musical catharsis in Plato; cf. above n. 172 Hence I disagree with Busse 1928, 47 48 who suggests a homoeopathic procedure in Leg. 790d (cf. above n. 192 ), but it is much more probable that Plato followed the allopathic tradition of the Pythagoreans. 249 Beardsley 1975, 49. 250 2002, 84 85. He comes to a nua nced result, for which he needs to distinguish between dramatic development of arguments and the very arguments brought forth. 251 2010, esp. 16 18 and 25.

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193 Without committing myself to the reliability of this finding, it would be in line with ancient (and even medieval) custom to load an artistic work with forma l symbolism. If substantiated, Plato would have left an impressive stamp f or his conviction that musical harmony permeates all realities that are good and beautiful. Music, cosmos, and the soul expressed most typically in measured language and tone. But by virtue of a rapprochement between musical theory and harmonic metaphysics, it also enjoyed the privilege unique among the arts of imitating divine and ideal order. 252 At the end of the Republic and especially in the Timaeus, Plato takes up Pythagorean musico cosmical speculation but gives it a deep psych ological relevance. For example, his claim that deviation from musical norms (especially in children) leads to a mentality of licentiousness and lawlessness is not self evident; for while it is clear that chil dren need to learn to follow norms the idea that listening to or making music that is overstepping norms creates the mentality of political revolutionaries presents more difficulty H ow should the children be aware of these norms ? Andrew Barker 253 through his reading of the Timaeus, proposes a solution culled from : the structure of the soul and musical (melodic and rhythmical) patterns are analogous, so thereby icipation 254 I n education this happens through steady and repeated even if 252 Lippman 1963, 196 197. 253 2005, 33 47 and again in 120 128. Another very detailed an Timaeus offers Pelosi 2010, 68 113 with particular attention to the recovery of proper rationality in the soul through music. 254 late r in the Republic; Barker (2005, 46 is being used in an entirely non technical sense, and refers straightforwardly to the visible 'shape' or 'appearance' of human body contrast to the Theory of Forms where the virtues are considered in what they are in themselves;

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194 unconscious exposure to the same musical pattern. According to the Timaeus, the ul, although human music inevitably falls short of the perfection of cosmic (Barker, ibid.). T o restore harmony which got disturbed by bodily and sensual influence and thus became prone to error and los s of reason (Ti. 43a 44b), both vision (through astronomical contemplation) and hearing ( through harmony and rhythm) serve in an immediate sensual way for ordinary people and in an abstract way for the philosophers who gain an understanding of the mathematical underpinnings ( 47c e ; 80b ; 90c d ) Reading the Republic and Timaeus together, Barker deduces that some harmoniai conform better to the cosmic harmony than others which then leads to the corresponding judgment of the educated philosoph er. This whole process, he concludes, is therefore therapeutic not healing of particular illnesses but of soul 255 achieving the ultimate end of human life : the likeness to what is understood, the divine and cos m ic order. 256 Exposure to music reflecting cosmic harmony will dispose the children s soul s in a way that is also favorable to attaining harmony and Shore ontological status of the ethical patterns/forms is of little bearing for our general discussion. 255 T his takes place in two stages, which correspond sig nificantly to those envisaged in the third and seventh books of the Republic There too, in the first phase of education, music influences the soul non rationally, in the guise of images while in the second the underlying structures which encode thes e images are unravelled by a mind trained in mathematical analysis 127). 256 ); this is in some way analogous to the idea that the sense or the soul /intellect becomes what it perceives (cf. Arist. De an. 2.5 416b32 418a25; 3.8 431b20 28; Thomas Aquinas Summa theologiae 1.14.2; 1.85.2 ad secundum).

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195 proper balance in their own ways of life; and if the norms of music blend with the norms of the State, the immedi ate response of the soul will be favorable towards them. Anderson thinks that Plato reachable only in the science of h armonics which deals with the mathematical ratios as laid out in the Pythagorean lore and can be visited in the Timaeus. A udible music, so Anderson, served 257 then Plato is the first theorist who explicitly developed a system in which music, cosmos, and the soul, and with it the well being of human life and society, are all bound together through the kinship (cf. Resp. 401: between beauty and goodne ss, between aesthetics and ethos. The foundation for this relationship lies in the mathematically pursuable rationality as evidenced in harmonic science. 258 seen at the end of the Republic (the famous Myth of Er). 259 While good music is beneficial for every human being, the deeper understanding of harmonics 257 1994, 16 6. 258 For an illustration of this in Ti. 35a ff see Kytzler 195 9 A recent comment on the harmonics in the Timaeus offers Barker 2007, 318 327 who also shows (p. 323 the human soul is equivalent to the same musical d and recently also Rocconi 2012b, 126 form and content in artistic producti converge. 259 We will not pursue this concept further as its details do not advance the discussion of musical value. For a list of all ancient witnesses of this theory see Ppins article in the RAC 13.594 618. There is a lot of popularizing literature about the history of the concept, e.g. James 1993.

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196 which where the uninitiated only feel enjoyment. 260 Conclusion s and questions A summary of what in Plato could be considered good or bad music has already been given above. I believe it would be helpful to gather in a s ystematic order the most important tenets and presuppositions that underlie his ethos theory and that have surfaced on the way. 1. Music has a most powerful influence on the soul. 2. This power consists in the fact that music is expressive of ethos and as such i s along with its exterior manifestations 3. Music produces ethos by i.e. specific sound patterns in some way refer to and evoke extramusical dispositions or attitudes (e.g. manliness and strength, weakness and relaxation). It induces ethos in musicians and spectators in a similar, but not identical way. 4. Good ethos consists for one part in virtues or qualities that are fitting for the individual, according to sex, social status, age, profession, etc.; for the other part it consists in the proper order of the soul, i.e. the correct hierarchy of the different facultie s and tendencies within it which 5. Pleasure in itself is no criterion for good ethos; however, the educated critic will discover good ethos in the objective beauty that good music possesses and find enjoyment therein: bonu m et pulchrum convertuntur. 261 260 Ti. 327 notes a few marks the beginning of the 261 Cf. Leg. 655b. Pelosi 2010, 5 2 67 points at the tensi o n between this principle and the fact that Plato rejects elsewher e (aesthetical) pleasure as criterion for good music. He traces the cause of enjoying (Leg. 655d 656), which it is necessary to know the model and mechanisms through, Leg. 668c d)), in the case of music this is the model of good (or bad) ethos. I believe we need to distinguish different levels of pleasure: one, which arises blindly from whatever taste a feel. Unpurified pleasure will lead to erroneous judgments about what is good. The coincidence of beauty and goodness, there fore, is fully achieved only in taking pleasure in what has been identified, by reason, as truly good. Now the intellectual delight in Ti. 80b is, as Pelosi (p. 66) correctly remarks, stems from the

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197 6. The soul is most influenced and shaped in young years wherefore musical education is crucial for acquiring good ethos 7. Like produces like: people need to be exposed to good ethos in order to be disposed to it Consequently, ne gative ethos ought to be eliminated from education or at least be clearly identifiable as rejectable. 8. That the citizens of a State possess good ethos is paramount for its stability and well being. Given the powerful influence of music in ethos forming, mus ic education and the choice of music conducive to good ethos is of great relevance for the State and therefore requires regulation through those who are best trained and experienced; any innovation is to be carefully checked. 9. d the individual soul are set up according to musical proportions, mathematically describable. 10. The science of harmonics which studies these realities provides the advanced student with the necessary insight to the inner workings of music, producing in him interior harmony and delight to the fullest degree and enabling him to judge musical ethos properly according to reason and wisdom. 11. The ultimate goal of music is love for the good/beautiful. Q uestions which modern science should try to resolve regarding 262 1. Are there proofs for a particular power of music over the human psyche? What does this power consist in? 2. Is there any evidence for a n intrinsic (i.e. nature given) 263 correspondence between music and extra musical content which it is s upposed to express (or ? insight into music as of eternal harmony, not of virtuous attitudes. But if exposure to this harmony is supposed to bring order into the soul, this order would precisely consist in virtue (cf. the anthropological development in Resp. 588 592b: the animalistic parts of h uman nature need to be dominted by reason, 262 These questions follow roughly the tenets above but do not correspond point by point. 263 One may, of course, talk about a conventional correspondence, developed in a cultural context and acquired individually by ontogenetic habituation and even this is music theory. But if cer tain extra musical features (character, emotions) can be expressed in music by means of convention, it seems that there has to be some inner connection between music and ethos that makes such a connection at all possible; here is again the concept of decisive, cf. Hailliwell (cf. also 244). Plato simply affirms ( Leg. 655b) that those qualities of music related to goodness or ba dness of soul or body are generally ( ) and all ( / ) good or bad. See also Leg. 657a and in the case of Egypt, the objective goodness of the traditional melodies is sanctioned by their divine origin (Isis). Anderson

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198 3. Can musical parameters have ethical value and effect ? H ow exactly does melodic or rhythmic of character function ? Plato keeps this mystery for himself; the descript ion of ethos in dance which he does give does not help too much since dance is visual, not acoustic. 264 4. What psychological effects, positive or negative, can specific forms of musical parameters (rhythm, mode, melodic lines, timbre, etc.) have and how far are they ethically relevant ? And are any of (d oes, for n stable, angry, and discontent personalities, as he claims ) ? 265 Lastly, is it possible to establish a taxonomy o f musical ethos that is mo characterizations (and those of most other authors)? 1966, 106 identify e thos in music without text (Leg. 669d e) seems to confirm this, but on the other hand stands the of ethically charged utterances or movements cannot be wholly arbitrary. 264 Pelosi 2010, 199 musical, psychic and corporeal m For dance see Anderson 1966, 101 102 with 254 n n.75 & 76 base d on Leg. 814e 816d. 265 Another example may be allowed to illustrate the question: at least in the Western Christian tradition, the prominent place the pipe organ took (in an astonishing turnaround career from an instrument ba nned because of its use in pagan spectacles to the strongly preferred instrument in Catholic liturgy) appears to allowing all sorts of modulation, broug ht to an exuberant perfection by probably the greatest master of organ and polyphony, Johann Sebastian Bach. It is based mostly on the sound of wind instruments, and although it conspicuously absent is what wou ld correspond to the ancient lyre or kithara (or the modern guitar). But does the organ elicit the negative effects Plato is eager to avoid? The contrary seems to be the case. Whoever has listened to a Prelude and Fugue by Bach in a cathedral, with all its rhythmic, harmonic, and instrumental variety and virtuosity, will confirm the tremendous force that it has on both bringing serenity and balance to the soul and lifting up the spirit to prayer and devotion. On the other hand, the guitar is now an instrume nt popular among young people, constituting a more fashionable approach to sacred music, more tolerated than promoted by Church authorities because it provokes associations with the profane This is also true of the piano or even more so drums and other in struments used by rock bands (I am refering to the occidental cultural and liturgical tradition; the state of affairs in Africa or Latin America, for instance, is different.). Does this inverted experience of musical ethos tions about the effect of particular musical endorsing out of personal preference? In other words, are there any constants in musical ethos, or does its p erception fluctuate completely according to times and cultures? An aggravating factor is that or practice of the people whose preferences may rather have been in line with what he cri ticizes (about this see e.g. GMW 1.133 n. 32 concerning instruments). Plato himself is very much aware of this because he bluntly declares that the crowds do not know the difference between good and bad music ( Leg. 670b: 655c; 700e 701a)

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199 5. Is it possible to establish objective criteria for beauty (or its opposite) in music which are, at least partially, detached from enjoyment? 6. Is it true that musical formation at a young age is more effective? What does this Laws? 266 7. Does music therapy function with homeopathic or allopat h i c methods, or are there different fields of application for each of these? 8. anarchy faces two difficulties: one is the accuracy of his historical example Athens which for us is dif ficult to assess; 267 the other is his inductive inference that, even if the development in Athens was the way he describes it, a general political degeneration. About the latter mo re could be said if there were at least another example from history that would be able to corroborate the nexus between music and morals. Not a few authors have argued that the development of music especially in the nineteenth and twentieth centur ies offe rs another striking example When Plato has the protagonist in the Laws draw a direct line from musical deviation in ethos to the eternal suffering of the Titans, he comes consequenc es as we presented it at the outset, or to those who observe demonic 268 What proof can there be given for attributing to music any responsibility for the moral and political development in s ociety? 9. reflected in our psyche and transmitted through music? I t will also be worth exploring further how soul ( emotions ) ethos, and musical stru ctures can be explained and substantiated in modern scientific terms. condemnation of solo instrumental music, etc.), but there might be intuitions of principles with lasting validity. We will address some of th e s e questions in Chapter 5 266 Republic and the ongoing musical formation in the Laws see Pelosi 2010, 14 28. 267 See about this Anderson 1994, 162 165 and Wallace 1997, 101 who summarizes various theories and 268 In allusion to Nietzsche 1872 and Jones 1994.

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200 On the level of political and musical development, despite his confidence in the predominance of established ritual chorus songs (Leg. 657b), has in praxi remained widely ineffec tive route into full fledged which continues throughout the Roman period when the sensual exploits of an increasing musical artistry reach the extremes and excesses of court. 269 Notwithstanding the ex ternal course of music history, the idea and ideal of musical ethos has not die d with Plato but resonates in many other authors throughout antiquity and beyond. Plutarch is good or bad music, we now move several centuries forward to Plutarch His monumental literary output covers a huge range of areas, but he is certainly not a music theorist. Nevertheless, he touches upon music with some frequency. We will discuss here some of the more relevant reference s, while some other comments of his are included elsewhere in the context of other authors. 270 Music excesses at symposia 271 An illustration for this is the discussion of an instance where a musical performance during dinner deteriorates into becoming temporarily out of control ( one might associate such 269 See p. 180 270 The works by Plutarch are cited from the Loeb Classical Library edition, with various translators. 271 LSJ references it for Quaest. conv. 9.15 = Mor. 748c (deploring the degeneration of dance) and er, the Supplement the word occurs also in the heading of the section discussed here ( Quaest. conv. 7.5.1 4 = M or. 704c 706e) without doubt meaning music in the former sense.

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201 abandon w ith a modern day discot h eque ). An unnamed auletes takes on the task of spellbind ing and inebriating his audience more effectively than wine. The participants first shout and clap, then they begin to dance disgracefully employing rhythm and melody that e xhibits a kind of madness ( ). Once the rage dies down, a brief debate arises between three of the symposiasts about how to judge the incident which caught everyone a bit by surprise At first, Callistratus tries to excuse it by dismissing the possible accusation of a ) H e assembles various points in a not very stringent argumentative flow: that ) can be applied to the enjoyment of all senses, not just hearing and sight, that such enjoyments are not limited to humans but also ani mals ; 272 that auditive and visual enjoyment particularly melody, rhythm, and dance, give joy to the soul (and not just the body as the other senses) through ; for pleasur ). O nly this last point contains some real substance pertinent to the actual oc casion ; just because an event may be p ublic it does not necessarily follow that the mentioned vices are avoided. This assessment is counte red by Lamprias who argues that cannot be applied to people who out of ignorance fall pr e y to inordinate pleasure due to a surprise, as just occu rred H e warns of weakness ( ) and luxury ( ) for the performers are tickling ears and eyes and not just smell, taste, or sexuality: whoever exposes himself to melody and rhythm allows such enjoyment to manipulate and 272 effect of music on various animals, a topic found also in other texts of Plutarch (see the table below).

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202 corrupt his soul 273 for they are ), ), and stronger than food or smell; they are dangerous precisely because they captivate judgment and understanding more than anything else and worse, are available for free, without other obstac les to impede their impact; 274 hence, readily available, almost omnipresent, music a What exactly such corruption consists of is not said. Platoni c concerns clear l y echo in these phrases. The narrator (Plutarch hi mself) objects in ironic terms against hyperbolic precaution, whereupon Lamprias drives his point home with the exhortation to lead the one enjoying badly fabricated and styled and tunes back from the Sirens to the Muses, to Euripides, Pindar, and Menander cleansing the ears with the fresh water of reason. 275 One should not get overwhelmed tumultuous frenzies, yellings, and neck tossings like by a stream but rather return to the ho ly, august, and noble songs and poems. 276 The meat of the discussion lies in whether vision and hearing have a more prominent effect on humans than the other senses and whether the enjoyment they bring presents any danger of corruption ; both parties admit th at the soul (or mind) is more affected. The problem consists in the extravagant practice of music and dance. When performances of music and poetry do not offer any restraint, the only solution is 273 274 Plutarch gives examples where a high price discourages the pursuit of certain pleasures in effect of the other of avarice 275 This last phrase is from Pl. Phdr. 276 readings ( ).

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203 art and taste. 277 It remains i nteresting, though, that Lamprias praises three poetic musical innovators, especially Euripides who had received much flak in Aristophanes. 278 We can observe here again that wh at was considered bad in one period has become good in another, ( Quaest. conviv. 7.8.1 4 = Mor. 711a 713f ) the interlocutors sift through literature and music in order to establish a fitting canon not fo r a State like Plato, but for symposia. An unnamed sophist suggests suppressing all forms of entertainment except a new form in which characters of Platonic dialogues are express ed by a voice style movement, and delivery according to the text something which purportedly has been rejected by unmanly, enervated, unmusical, and aesthetically ignorant ones 279 who to those aware of the antagonism between the old and new music style but it is applied here in quite an unconventional inverted fashion in order to defend an innovation -something that evokes the immediate opposition of Philip (although his main point is the irreverent ) Diogenianus then begins to sort appropriate pieces from inappropriate ones praising especially the New Comedy as fitting and morally acceptable. Eventually the narrator addresses music directly and admits both kithara 277 There are antecedents to this view in Pl. Prt. 347c e and Symp. 176e where the music is only deemed a distraction in symposia of the educated; cf. Anderson 1966, 143. 278 One critical point o n Pi ndar which Plutarch himself mentions, quoting Corinna, is that he was missing out on myth (and with it poetical substance) within all the of style, melody and rhythm: De glor. Ath. 4 = Mor. 347f 348a. 279 , , (711c).

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204 and aulos but not for dirges or lamentations. The aulos is praised for its soothing effect on the soul as long as it guards the proper measure ( ) and does not fill with emotion ( as already criticized by Plato and others) adding to the effect of alcohol. He explains that this ha s a non rational effect as the herdsmen do with their flock which does not understand words. 280 At the same time he stresses that at symposia but even at other occasions, the aulos or lyre should never be played without sung words, or else one would be carried away like by a stream (see above a t 706e), for the rationality ( ) would be excluded. 281 n another text, Plutarch observes that j ust as gluttony has befallen people, so also hearing has fallen sick and corrupted music which stirs the desire for shameful and Shameful d ebauchery leads to unmusica l sounds, abominable melodies and things to hear lead to horrible theater performances and these for their part to insensibility and crudeness towards people. 282 Moral decline and ultimately loss of humanity appear as the consequences of excessive sensual i ndulgence in food and music. 280 The benefit is particularly helpful when the dinner gets agitated and headed with anger; mu sic then can put out abuse, take hold of an unpleasant discussion, and restrain political controversies (713e f). 281 A poetic image is chosen: we should not listen to the sound of psalterion and aulos on their own knocking at (the door of) our ears, but to lead them in when it comes with words and song to entertain and please reason in us. Plutarch suggests here that the crime of Marsyas (see Chapter 2 n. 53 ) was that he tried to prevail with instruments only against song and ki thara together (713b d). 282 (De esu carnium 2.2 = Mor. 9 97 c).

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205 The Spartan tradition Probably as a reaction to concerns about hedonistic degeneration, t he Spartan way of life which was marked by harsh discipline sparks interest since music play s an important role in it. Plutarch reports (Instituta Laconica 14 = Mor. 238a) that the Spartans con s ciously to awaken high vigorous impulse 283 along with lyrics about noble and hero ic deeds, performed by three choirs representing the stages of age. 284 Their marching rhythms in battle along with the aulos instilled manliness, boldness, and contempt for death. 285 Lycurgus managed to couple their love for music with war exercise so as to achieve concord and harmony through the combination of both. 286 Here music has the same mitigating function that Plato applies to equilibrate the hardening effect of gymnastics. This double function, here united in one passage, is found separately in other p where music is described as either stimulating or diminish ing which depend ing on the sense of the term can mean either 287 283 284 Leg. 664b 667a are certainly inspired by this tradition. 285 286 sacrificed to the Muses as a motivation for the soldiers to want to be remembered later in songs of worthy deeds. 287 Thus in De virtute morali 12b = Mor. 452 legis lators in general used music to increase the fighting spirit, while according to De cohibenda ira 10 = Mor. 458e the Spartans strove to remove anger and let reason ( ) reign.

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206 M oderation and In Aristotelian terms Plutarch emphasizes t he importance of the proper mean ( ) and measure ( ) in virtue as moderating passions and compares it with ing between the extremes of high and low pitch ( De virtute morali 6 = Mor. 444e f) an image already used b y Plato (Resp. 443d e). 288 Th is means that the extremes are not to be abolished, but the blend ( ) of both is pursued in music and elsewhere (ibid. 12 = Mor. 451e 452c). In a similar work ( Prof. virt. 13 = Mor. 83f 84a) progress in virtue is equal to preferring Dorian over Lydian by favoring a life style that is more hard or austere ( ) more deliberate ( ) in actions, and admiring ( ) teachings and people instead of living in a rather soft or lax way ( ), fallin g into precipitatious action ( ), and being contemptuous ( ) towards others although one should eventually avoid the extreme in any direction. 289 is Quomodo adul. 3 ( = Mor. 18a f ) e ven though it refers only to painting, poetry, and simple sound imitation: a young person to be educated should relish the artistic value in a well crafted depiction of an ne) and its representation. 290 Plutarch first introduces this as an aesthetic al category, but if it is taught that evil people perform 288 A much more detailed development, base d on the Platonic analysis of the sou l, can be found in Quaest. Plat. 9 = Mor. 1007e 1009b. 289 Here the example of Phrynis is given who had to cut off two extra strings either on the top or at the bottom of his lyre but to pursue the proper mean ( ) for virtue and in dealing with passion one would have to cut off on each end. 290 see Halliw ell 2002, 296 302, but he does not mention this passage.

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207 evil acts, there is no danger of actually promoting evil actions. Plut arch has no more mes s age remains clear and the teacher procures a positive antidote for a negative example in order to balance it out This principle can mutatis mutandis appl y to music as well, even though Plutarch does not mention this explicitly, insofar as its parameters express the ethos of the person or action which the music interprets. In this case, would be reduced, because the ethos of the so ul would no longer agree with the ethos of content and artistic expression, while the last two aspects still are bound to match up Plutarch also treats the harmony of the spheres ( with the proportions of planets being analogous to musical intervals) in De animae procreatione in Timaeo 32 33 = Mor. 1029a Republic (the Sirens) Plutarch assumes that the creator of the world brought about the world soul by establishing order in the whole universe. Images o f t he gods depicted them with musical instruments in their hands not because they are actually playing lyre or aulos but because no work is so much of the gods as harmony and concord. 291 In summary, the dangers of music according to these accounts lie in the greater (and possibly corruptive) impact which the senses of vision and h ear ing have on the soul, especially because they affect reason, as does alcoholic intoxication. Bad music itself is deprived of reason if it is badly composed ( meaning mostly exagg eration in the various musical parameters or the bodily movements in dance) if there is no text which gives it proper meaning and if no exterior measure (like payment) puts a constraint on 291

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208 her, but some long term effect seems to be considered as well when Plutarch quotes Homer to the effect that bad music and songs create unmanly and lives and men who love luxuriousness, 292 Good music is characterized by maintaining due measure and balance, by avoiding excessive emotion, and by bringing about desired states of mind, either by arousing the spir its or mitigating existing passion in order to prevent disproportionate behavior. for pleasure which comes through the ears is enchantment 293 The seasonings adds to words through melody, meter, and rhythm make their educational function more exciting, but also any harmful effect more inevitable; they are like the intriguing exterior grace of women. 294 Strabo 295 This Greek geographer from the early Empire offers a succinct but insightful dancers or dancing ministers of Dionysus or Cybele in Crete. 296 Strabo describes the role of music, defined as dancing, rhythm, and melody, within religi ous festivals 292 Plut. Quomodo adul. 4 = Mor. 19f ( 293 Plut. De soll. an. 3 = Mor. 294 Amat. 23 = Mor. 769c 295 Text and tr.: Jones 1928. 296 This wide r context is 10.3.8 13. The passage on music is in sections 9 and 10.

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209 according to both Greeks and barbarians. His main points are these: music joins craftedness which does not seem primarily to aim at pleasing the god but those who celebrate them F or men represent some sor some sort of unhealthy excitement, the cause for which he sees in education. Here assembled the universe through harmony. close to the gods as poetry. He goes on mentioning the divinities involved in music, especially the orgiastic or Bacchic rites, and concludes that all educated men are servants of the Muses, especially the musicians. 297 Strabo is merely reporting and not voicing his own opinion but we learn from him a view that links good music to divine origin and cosmic harmony and suspects the origin of bad (or lesser) music as displayed in certain public settings in problems within the education system F or all of this Plato and the Pythago reans are called witnesses. Already early in his work (1.2.3), Strabo cites the Pythagoreans and Aristoxenus in 297

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210 ethos 298 ) poetry see m s to be linked to an immoral life. 299 Nicomachus 300 This second century mathematician Nicomachus, is a fervent promoter of Pythagorean number theory, even though he probably draws from Aristoxenus as well. His M anuale harmonices in twelve chapters, written i n letter style, is nevertheless mostly of a technical nature It is mentioned here because i n Chapter 3 Nicomachus derives concept and names for the diatonic scale from the planets, building on the Pythagorean vision of the harmony of the spheres ) which here are the tones produced by planets as they rotate through the ether with the Sun in the middle thus forming a heptachord 301 These notions are repeated and expanded in the (only fragmentarily transmitted) Manuale harmonicum 302 In Chapter 6 t he seven planets are now also linked to vowels (which would imply some sort of timbre specification) and further n umber speculations of Pythagorean origin added accounting for the lyre strings New is the notion that within the cosmic ha rmony, the combination of a harmonic principle with matter (e.g. the 298 An example from Homer follows (Od. 3.272), which abo ve all seems to show the presumed personal integrity of a bard to whom Agamemnon entrusts his wife Clytemnestra during his absence. But Strabo apparently takes this for a proof that, if music forms good character, the musician should have such a character in the first place in line with Resp. 420b; see on this idea also Theon of Smyrna 10.17 12.9, even though 299 14.1.41, mentioning var ious individuals. 300 Text: MSG 237 265; tr. and comm.: GMW 2.245 269 and Levin 1994. Summary and discussion: Mathiesen 1999, 390 406; Gersh 2005, 196 197. 301 See above n. 121 302 Text: MSG 266 282; tr. Levin 1994, 186 199; summary and discussion: Mathiesen 1999, 406 411.

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211 string of the lyre) brings about a living thing just as when the soul enters a body 303 which can be used to call upon the divinites. This idea of giving to the moment of the actual music production a metaphysical weight attributes to music an almost hypostatic quality and explains why later authors who draw much from Nicomachus, especially Aristides Quintilianus, continue the path of giving to music such a central place in human life. In C hapter 7 he parallels the three genera to the three parts of the soul (rational, irrational, and physical) but this analogy is not further developed. Ptolemy 304 Th e second century Alexandrian scholar Ptolemy mostly known for his astronomical writings wa s also engaged in music theory, bringing its Pythagorean Platonic brand to a culmination 305 but also incorporating some aspects from the Aristotelian Aristoxenian tradition. His is a unified view of reality ex pressable in mathematical terms but at the same time they should also be empirically verif i able : Because the harmonic structures are expressions in sound of a mathematical order that is not peculiar to music or sound as such, but is the rational order underlying formal perfections throughout the univers e, Ptolemy can argue that the same principles are at work in the soul and in the heavens. The task of harmonics is to explicate the mathematical foundations of systems whose beauty and excellence is evident to the ear, not those of some other, purely t heoretical constructions. It seeks, in fact, to 303 , , 304 Text: Dring 1930 (Ger. tr. and comm.: id., 1934); t r. and comm..: GMW 2.270 391, Solomon 2000; discussio n: Mathiesen 1999, 429 494; Barker 2005, 171 190. I will quote indicating page and line 305 One could consider giving Aristides Quintilianus that honor, but while Ptol scope, it is nevertheless more solid in its scientific value. The next high point of this kind after Ptolemy is Harmonices mundi Kahn 2001, 162 1 71.

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212 show that it is on rationally coherent mathematical patterns of order that the perceived beauty of real music rests. 306 The task is to find the most perfect rational description of a (presumed) perfect order in the world and to find ways to realize this perfection 307 in actual music. Much of his concern remains again on the technical level such as tuning systems alue of particular compositions, but he develops an i mpressive analogy between music, ethos, and cosmos based on the same principles: In different material matrixes, the same formal relations create musical beauty, excellences of character and intellect, and the perfect celestial geometry of the skies. It is these intelligible relations that underlie perceptible beauties wherever they are found, and it is only these formal aspects of things, susceptible to mathematical analysis and understanding, that can be completely and scientifically known. 308 From the firs t book we can highlight in Chapter 3 the explanation of different which is the foundation for the attribution of ethos. 309 He ends Chapter 4 with a n unusual outburst, calling the (human) voice the most beautiful of sounds. 310 The further exposition of the science of harmony is centered on the discussion of the musical parameter of genus. Like most authors who simply explain the functioning of music, he does not yet add ethical characteristics to his d 306 Barker in GMW 2.271. 307 word used in this context 308 Barker in GMW 2.274. 309 Ptolemy understands these parameters in a quantitative way, measurable in different degrees, as roach ( see below). 310 10.26 , , hence consonance takes its name from it ( ) ; consonant notes have in common a similar impression on hearing, something, which dissonances do not have. The effect is not specified.

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213 ( ) 311 Their value, however, is at least aesthetic because audiences feel familiar with and take delight in some characteristics more than in others. 312 Ptolemy is interested in the effect the genera h ave on the listener; he gets most descriptive regarding the even (or equal ) diatonic: it sounds foreign, rustic, but for the trained ear rather gentle, 313 for it is orderly does not cause offense to the sense 314 H e mentions a whole series of types of tuning based on genera (39.8 14 ) but they are not qualified in value 315 Andrew Barker has elucidated how Ptolemy manages, perhaps for the first time, to link convincingly mathematical proportion or with visually or acoustically perce i v ed beauty : 316 tuning chords according to consonant intervals to the point of greatest satisfaction reveals that at the same time a mathematically pitch 311 28.29 29.5 ; again 34.33 35.7, 38.2 9, etc. ; the term withou of the movable notes within the tetrachord (GMW 2.302 nn. 107 and 108); I propose that it simply means etween soft and tense. 312 C f. 38.1 6; 74.5 75.1; similar Aristox. El. Harm. 22.31 ( so also Ptol. Harm. 42.8). Ptolemy affirms the general preference of diatonic over chromatic and the too lax ones ( ) 313 38.30 32: 314 ; Barker (GMW 2.312) shock to the hearing. 315 For a futher discussion of these: G MW 2.313 314 n. 145 and again later to 80.6 81 21 GMW 2.356 361. It may be noticed that the mixing of genera is taken for granted here something that was seen very problematic in earlier authors such as Plato; cf. GMW 2.312 n. 144. Modulations ( ) do not change the type (or ethos) when it is just a transposition of the tonos (melody) to a different pitch level; does change with changes in genus or (54.12 56.1) or even tonos (57.10 58.20, with a helpful explicatory note in GMW 2.332 n. 60 and Mathiesen 1999, 463 466) Tonos modulations a fourth or fifth apart are more suitable ( ) than those based on adjacent notes (62.13 15) this resembles the fact that in the Western harmonic tradition modulations and chord progressions proce ed preferably between keys related in the circle of fifths (or fourths). 316 2010, esp. 411 does not correspond to our modern term ility understood as

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214 proportion has been achieved Ratio et pulchrum convertuntur. The combination of mathematical harmonics and acoustical aesthetics which in Plato remained re g rettably obscure or even breached 317 finds in Ptolemy a striking renewal and explanation. In the third book, after finishing the technical exposition of harmony, Ptolemy reflects about the stat us harmony has within the whole of the world. He identifies it as the causa efficiens for the proper form of good melody, rhythm, order, and beauty 318 given its rationality which it shares with God and distributes to nature as good ( ). The function ( ) of harmony is to cooperate with reason ( ) by bestowing order ( ) and due proportion ( ) to audible things on the (divine) level of intelligence ( the laws of what is good: ), the (rational) level of skill ( the pr actical execution ), and (natural) level of habit ( experience: conforming the material ) 319 The senses of hearing and sight are the most prominent ones because only their perception reaches, beyond enjoyment ( ), the realm of the good/ beautiful ( ) or the bad/ ugly ( ) and also what is useful ( 317 occupation with real sound, which Plato h ad abandoned, and for which Aristotle and later authors had Resp. rd Republic might also apply here but we cannot pursue this question further. 318 92. 14 16: , , , The causa materialis would be the sound, formalis its goodness, and finalis the product of good melody, etc Solomon 2000, 1 39 n. 69 notes that harmony takes the middle or center place ( ) both between matter and form (being movement) and between God and nature (being rational) 319 Barker GMW 2.372 n. Intelligence in its perfect form is identical with God; through it the contents of its awareness are perfectly constituted. Skill is the capacity to impose excellence on material under the guidance of reason. Through habit or natural disposition things may be brought towards excellence independently out that Ptolemy goes beyond Plato by admitting that theoretical truth, beyond mathematical theoretical

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215 all of which occur in melody, shape, movements of the celestial bodies, or human actions T his makes these senses like sisters who serve reason by mutually supplying and intensifyi as Ptolemy illustrates with examples : thus makes something visually known (e.g. waves, places, battles, circumstances of passion/emotion) expressive ( ) and our soul s are disposed ( if they were being observed 320 The pursuit of harmonical science extends good order ( ) on to those who got accustomed to it. 321 The power ( ) of harmony is present in all self moving and esp ecially rational beings in which of the ratios that create appropriateness ( ) and tuning ( ) is best preserved (95.8 10) On these grounds in the following, Ptolemy seeks to show that the same harmonic princ iples are at work within music, the human soul, and the movement of the heavenly bodies (planets). Important for us is the criterion he establishes, as a fruit of his previous elaboration, for this connection: that which is well tuned/harmonious ( ) is the virtue ( ), what is badly tuned/dissonant ( ), and the same applies to the human soul in which virtue corresponds to its harmonious tuning and vice to its lack of harmony, for in either case the a rrangement of their parts according to nature is what makes them harmonious, or unharmonious if beyond (or 320 93.11 94.20. For the particularity of both senses see also Pl. Resp. 530d (they make the sciences of harmonics and astronomy possible), Arist. Pol. 1339b40 1340b19 (they have impact on ethos, but hearing much more than sight, similar Arist. Pr. 19.27, 29, cf. t he analysis below); see also the discussion of the senses in Kivy 1990, 3 12 (see our introduction, n. 26 ). All of this is, of course diametrically opposed to what Philodemus says, that enjoyment is the only function of music; Philodemus speaks more 321 95.2 3:

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216 contrary to) nature 322 that the proper mathematical ratios be followed and it is supp osed that these are already equivalent in the nature s of both music and the human soul. Ptolemy sets up two systems, one in which he assigns specific powers to each of each of these parts, for spec ific reasons, belonging to one of the homophone or concordant intervals: octave, fifth, and fourth with the same number of components (e.g. the senses to the perceptive part) equivalent to the number of tones within the musical intervals; the second syst spirited, and appetitive. 323 In both cases, he follows the hierarchical order of powers or virtues as resembled in pitch levels 324 Next, Ptolemy draws a parallel ism between the musical genera and areas of application of the virtues (theoretically: theological mathematical natural; practically: political ( State ) domestic ethical (individual), on either level corresponding to the genus of diatonic chromatic enharmonic); all this cu lminates in the description of a harmonized whole, with all parts well integrated by the virtue of justice ( ). 322 97.3 , , 323 95.28 98.4; a parallelism to musical genera is given in 98.6 29. Barker 2005, 177 181 gives a more complete description and evaluation of this procedure. H elpful diagrams for these classifications can be found in Mathiesen 1999, 481 482. 324 arousal lements but perhaps one should not force the analogy too much. Barker 2005, 184 & 189 190 expects a correlation between the ratios of tones within each interval and the virtues within each part of the soul and points at the evasiveness of associating the virtues with exact musical tones and ratios.

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217 Up to this point Ptolemy has not insinuated any nexus of causality for the attunement (ethos value) between the areas of music and soul but seems to establish a mere analogy. I n a last step of applying harmonic principles to the soul he match es up changes in personal or collective life situations with harmonic modulations: 325 e.g. peaceful, belligerent, or needful conditions each elicit a different nuancing of the virtues 326 which are similar to changes of musical tonoi (Dorian, Mixolydian, etc.) Even though he does not attempt to determine a precise equivalency here but contents himself with highlighting some few general similarities of ethos in melody and life he does now justify such comparison with the (not further proven) statement that hum an (ethical) dynamics of melodies recognizing their common origin (of ratio ) and being molded or drawn according to the characteristics of melody 327 Ptolemy concludes by picking from the common stock of e thical effects of music and explicitly mentioning the Pythagorean practices of modi fy ing the ethical state of a soul and the expectation that the gods gently hear human prayers brought forth with music and melody. The last chapters of book 3, partially of disputed status in terms of originality and integrity, refer to analogies between music and the zodiac of the various planets; no further information for our context is provided, except that the additional astrological 325 From the two types of modulation ( ) that Ptolemy discussed earlier ( 54.12 55.12), not the simple pitch transposition is meant here but the change of genus or 326 Again, here seems to be an inconsistency in the imagery: the nuancing can only be by reducing the (quantitative) degree of each virtue, while a musical modulation would imply changing from one tonos or genus into another, thus changing the proportions between the tones (i.e. the intervals between them). 327 99.25

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218 considerations provided by a scholias t point out planets bringing good ( ) or qualities of hot, active /effective and male) or the Moon (seen as damp, idle, and female) 328 the identification of such c haracteristics will be significant in the ethical app roach in Aristides Quintilianus, since the association of particular musical tones with planets possessing ethical value will have consequences there for understanding the significance of music al ethos a t large. Overall, t he value of actual music is addressed inasmuch as music draws its characteristics from particular tonoi and genera and modulations between them. Ptolemy confirms the existence of the ethical value of music which is founded on the mathem atical framework of basic ratios common to the areas of music and the human soul 27 30) the relevance of astrological influence remains opaque given the doubtful or spurious material towards the end of the Harmonics. However, q uestions remain: 329 does Ptolemy simply illustrate a striking resemblance between musical interval systems and the human soul which their common origin in harmonic reason (some sort of has bestowed upon them or does he also suggest a causality of ethos between the one and the other? Is it sufficient to some why a specific ord er and ratio between tones or scales should be perceived in an ethical 328 For further treatment see GMW 2. 390 391 and Solomon 2000, 165 166 who also translates fully the scholiast. 329 These questions are also asked in view of the considerations offered i n Barker 2005, 174 190 where more about their comparison in the evaluation of the latter author.

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219 way? a specific tone within the fourth interval translate to an ethical behavior of moderation? Nobody will doubt that there is a balancing and harmonizing within the whole system of powers and virtues, but does it come about through music (or in the same way as in music? The only clear interconnection that Ptolemy establishes between both spheres I ca n see in the context of modulations, but there the synergeia does not consist in the numerical coincidence between intervals and virtues but in the exciting or relaxing effect that parallels music to the emotions felt in the life situations that Ptolemy de scribes. But why does high pitch excite and low pitch relax? Why do certain harmoniai work in one way or another? We all recognize the effect, but the kinship of relation between both spheres remains for the most part a mystery, which, I believe, Ptolemy d id not pretend to have revealed. Plotinus 330 Th e highly influential Alexandrian Neo Platonist Plotinus uses music often within his own system mostly as a means of comparison or metaphor, and incorporates traces from earlier treatments of music. As he explai ns how the universe is one but composed of divergent elements, he compares this with the conflicting characters in a drama : the junction 331 of high and low tones in a melody ( 52), the strings of an instrument at their proper place, or the differen t pipes in a pan pipe, which in their inequality 330 Text and tr.: Armstrong 1966 1989 ( except for En n. 2 and 3 based on the OCT Henry Schwyz text from 1982). Cf. also Mathiesen 1990, 40 41; Sorgner 2010, 275 294. A detailed analysis of all musical references in Plotinus offers Wegge 1999, with special attention to the musical conception of the soul and t he universe and the I will only highlight the Enneads. 331 ru arching harmony within the whole.

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220 construct the whole of the melody ( 75). 332 Here a very original conception of (...) thinking intends to illustrate the dualistic conception of the good and evil principle as being necessary and at work in order to form a harmonic whole. While in the cosmos Plotinus e image of sounds proper to Tartarus must be understood aesthetically. Even though he does not use these terms, the metaphor could be translated perfectly to the interplay of consonance and dissonance: dissonance in o consonance both elements create a beautiful this badness if it is at the proper place to serve a beautiful whole. 333 This doctrine is applied to the souls as well and their harmonious contribution to the whole within a cycle of re incarnation is based on the description of the music of the 332 He thus builds on the old (Pythagorean) idea that harmony is needed to unite what is unequal, cf. e.g. Philolaus in DK 44 B 6.5 9 and above n. 185 A brief analysis of this passage is found in Gersh 2005, 203 333 Plotinus compares with the ( (ibi d. lines 83 49) inus justified both evil behavior as part of life and bad dancing as simply an unavoidable part of a good performance. think, though, that Plotinus Wegge on pp. 94 95); not the technical skill of the musician but the intrin sic value of the music he plays is set parallel to moral ethos. comments on the difficulty in Plotinus regarding the origin of evil can be found in Sorgn er 2010, 279.

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221 Republic I nsofar as the souls are in harmony with their fate as determined by the figures o f the stars, they never go out of tune ( 27). What matters here is the correlation between soul and cosmos, which is described in musical terms. 334 We see how this conception integrates and develops what we have seen in other authors about the context based approach to musical value, and the development of contrasting elements to ultimately achieve a harmonious (and ethically desirable) result, as it is sketched out in the Aristotelian Problems (see below) In a different passage 335 In chanted spells 336 are able to persuade the higher spirits to take away evils, while Plotinus holds that such negative powers and similarly the healing forces, re side rather in the natural causes of excess, defection, or decay. The idea that sounds could induce these powers are deprived of the devotion owed to them (Enn. 2.9 (33).14) Plotinus ), acting without reason or understanding (Enn. 27). 337 This is possible 334 See Wegge 1999, 12 consonance/dissonance within the soul (which corresponds to virtue/vice and to the unity within the soul and between soul and body), between souls, and between soul and the universe. In pp. 25 28 he shows (not harmony), and in 55 335 For the whole question of magic in Plotinus (and in general) is helpful Hellerman 2010, esp. 122 129. 336 He gives a full list of them: , , all of which supposedly need to be pronounced in a very specific way of words, voice, timbre, etc. 337 This is in line with what Philodemus says (Mus. 3.39 D81, see below p. 301 ) that nothing irrational like music could exercise influence on reason ( ); this was apparently held by Diogenes; see Anderson 1966, 163 & 282 n. 34.

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222 because of the natural organic interconnectedness of all things in the cosmo s, 338 the and unequal ones, the Empedoclean forces of attractive and repulsive (love and correlation or correspondence, 339 but it is important to take note that he does not understand this interdependence in a mechanistic or deterministic way. Human beings ought to freely choose virtue and control their passions (2.3.7, 9). 340 Enchantment is not only seen negatively because it can serve to unite the soul to the One (5.3.17), but in general Plotinus prefers that humans use their reason in order to bring about good and rise up to virtue. After all, the higher parts of the cosmos are transcendent, im material, and without emotion or passion, and to these neither magic nor the enchanting use of music ascend. Nevertheless, in another sense, music presents the first step for a human being that wants to reach the heights of philosophy and dialectics in ord er to contemplate the 338 See Enn. Th is is compared to the synchronized but varied conjunction of dance, aulos playing and song (ibid.9 12). The following point is from that resonate when anothe r from the same harmonia is plucked, even on another instrument ( 10; this effect today we explain by means of the overtone series: strings belonging to higher harmonics vibrate together with a sounding base tone). 339 For this I refer again to Helle rman 2010, 129 137. The cosmic harmony is described in musical terms in 27. See also Wegge 1999, 43 48 about the importance of number; Wegge does not consider connections with the Pythagorean numerology. Alexandrakis 2002 offers a brief account o f Pythagorean 340 This might prompt his aside that people like to be enchanted but they do not ask this from the musicians ( 27): there is some reluctance in delivering oneself up to these irrational forces. After all, the (rational) contemplation of the One is not achieved through audible music, which affects the irrational part of the soul, cf. Wegge 1999, 38 39.

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223 Good, the Origin and the First. 341 Plotinus describes the musician as someone who is well moved and excited towards the Good/Beautiful 342 as he discovers the good/beauty in sounds; while he always flees what is unharmonic or not one (i.e. unified) in melodies and rhythms, he pursues what has good rhythm ( ) and good form ( ). Eventually, the musician has to to understand its proportions and principles towards the universal good/beautiful A bout the actual music he says elsewhere that (together with rhethoric) it changes the soul to the better or to the worse. The reason for this see ms to consist as in Plato and Aristotle, in the likeness which links the part to the whole. 343 Melodies ( ) 344 341 ; .20 34. The second stage is the lover ( ), who contemplates the visible and other forms of beauty, and the third is the philosopher ( ). Sorgner 2010, 286 289 explains how each of these is responsible for one part of the soul: music for the sensitive, love for the volitive, and philosophy for the intellectual part; in comparison with the other mimetic arts, music obtains a privileged function as pars pro toto or primus inter impares, because music contains the numeric proportions that are proper to the higher forms of being; however, music in itself is not sufficient to unite with the One; it only prepares for the ascent through an analogous form of ecstasy which unites as to the whole sensible world. A thoughtful general study, which incl udes the Platonic texts from which Plotinus draws for his reflections on beauty, love, and goodness, is Garca Castillo 2010. 342 that the musician is unable to be moved by the Good/Beautiful (just towards it) may mean that the audible music is conceived to be only a vehicle, not yet the direct impact of the the unin with which is only reached through the soundless beauty of philosophical contemplation See about the ascent of the soul to the One, which, on one hand, is described in musical terms, and on the other, occurs through the intellectual grasping of mathematics see Wegge 1999, 29 33 and 68 74. The identification of good and beautiful (and of ev il and ugly) is explicitly stated in 27. 343 Enn. 4.4 (28).31 32. T Wegge 1999, 64 65 discusses the however, Plotinus does not use this term here icularly about music, but we can infer that the process of participation should explain that certain musical proportions are thought to affect proportions in the soul positively if they are similar. 344 This term seems to mean in Plotinus either a concrete m a clear definition, if at all achievalble, would require a precise terminological study of its use in Plotinus.

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224 show beauty and therefore lead the soul upward. Good music, theref ore, needs to be beautiful according to the measures of the not sounding melodies ( ) in order to lead to union with the One ( 33). 345 Even though the soul needs to leave behind the sensual world in order to reach the higher intellectual realm, the return of the enlightened mind to the sensual world allows one to discover there the real Truth and Beauty and this applies to the musician as well. 346 Thus Plotinus defends the value of sensible music against the Gnostics. This being said, the effect of music requires some explanation. I f the art ist s ), one needs to consider that ; therefore, art goes back to the original principles ( ) and likewise music derives from a still higher sort of music, the celestial one. 347 In 3.6.4 .44 53, Plotinus says further that the 345 her harmonic whole as he has clamed in a different context; the same objection can be made about the point that the soul needs to be purified from th e filth and ugliness of the body (1.6.5). The requirement of the musician (and artist in general) to follow the higher principles is expressed in 28. 346 2.9 (33).16.39 1999, 72 auty (in 1.6.1; Wegge uses (which Wegge would have done wel l mentioning; this is correct in Alexandrakis 2002, 152) as the only criterion, which would exclude the beauty of something simple or of the parts of the whole, while ( or , e t c.) is the composition of already in themselves beautif ul forms that participate in the not to be affected by the argument against reaction against the Stoic aesthetical theory. That can still be a valid aspect emerges from 5.9 (5).11 (among other places); it is a manifestation (rather than the essence) of beauty ( 30). 347 5.8 (31).1.33 36, cf. 5.9 (5).11.

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225 F 348 affection ( ) directly or through some sense perception, just as the melo d y causes the movement of strings by mediation of the artist 349 Hence, the soul is moved to emotion through music by the Form (the melody with its underlying abstract principles). The significance of this concept is well summarized by Wegge : 350 Plotinus expla ined that form created motion in the soul. The soul comes into motion is in response to the forms, and music is involved in all motion. Aditionally, because music contains the forms, and the forms excite a soul about the intelligible, music instructs the soul about the forms. Plotinus does not offer any explanation, how e ver, of how different ethical or aesthetical value c ould be traced back to their metaphysical origin. 351 Two dif ferent concepts of musical value seem to be present in Plotinus: on the on e hand, good or bad music constitute s the necessary opposing principles to form a harmonic whole whereby good corresponds to consonant and bad to dissonant even though the 348 Wegge 1999, 74 80 explai 349 passage seems both to use music as an explanatory metaphor and also to explicate the moving effect of 7 (and on making this distinction; howe ver, it needs to be clear that also for Plotinus harmony maintains its status as constituent of reality and music its mediatory function in the ascent of the soul. 350 Wegge 1999, 9 6 9 7 351 It is evident that Plotinus saw beauty realized both on the aesthetic al and the ethical level, cf. 1.6.2 5; Sorgner 2010, 279 281. Wegge 1999, 97 points at the Neoplatonic belief that music, for its effect on the mea the general notion of (not exclusively musical) harmony as Wegge develops it on pp. 18 21; music appears here mostly as a point of comparison rather than as a cause.

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226 ; on the other hand, only music that is beautiful, i.e. in agreement with the transcendent Beauty and Goodness, leads the musician towards philosophy and the contemplation of Beauty/Goodness (the One) itself: beautiful music reveals celestial harmony; 352 effect that sonoric music has appears to be irresistible, magic; it is helpful only as a vehicle towards in tellectual harmony where eternal Beauty imprints its affection on the human soul that is able to re discover Beauty in art Although Plotinus does not develop an educational (or else institutional) strategy as Plato or Aristotle, his conception strongly su cosmic harmony which is represented and even, in a way, realized through the performance of good music. Empirical Approach to Musical Ethos In the previous section we have observed that, to a certain extent, actual music practice already served as a source for music theory, beginning with the early Pythagoreans and possibly Damon until Ptolemy in particular. However, the previous authors have in common that their approach to musical ethos seems to be more bound to general theoretical assumptions or principles and often also to a theory of cosmic harmony. For the current section, the point of reference lies more in the observation of reality as such ; that is, the current section employ s a more inductive methodology. In 352 Moutsopoulos 2008 offers an analysis of the concept of harmony in Plotinus, as particularly endebted to Plato, and concludes (pp. 116 cosmic, divine, intellectual, psy chic, behavioral, since all of them, as a whole, form a continuum in the notion remark Moutsopoulos gently glosses ove r the unresolved tension in Plotinus as we have pointed out: how harmony may for one part require goodness/beauty/virtue, and for the other part the combination of positive and negative.

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227 addition, there is a stronger line of dependence upon the following authors as a earlier, these classifications simplify and cross references between schools are frequent, but they help to identify general trends of thought. Aristotle 353 Music receives little treatment in the Aristotelian corpus; the main relevant source for our purpose is the last book of his Politics Here Aristotle reveals his empirical approach : he departs from the observation of what people think about music and do with it, and he has a slightly different objective than Plato : to clarify whether m usic has a place in education at all and if so, for what purpose and within what parameters We will review briefly his train of thought with particular attention to the value and ethos of music. 354 Functions and ethos of music Aristotle considers three functions of music (133 9a11 ff) 355 its propensity to create a specific ethos and hence to 353 Text: OCT (Ross) 1957; t ext and tr. : Rackham 1944; GMW 1.171 182; d iscussion: Busse 1928; Anderson 1966, 111 146; Lord 1982, 68 150; Halliwell 2002, 234 259; Barker 2005, 99 108. 354 Lord 1982, 69 ces that we preserve are post Aristotle (from the Epicurean of a general exchange between different philosophical schools. 355 Anderson 1966 264 n. 25 with reference to Jaeger 1954, 247 248 (vol. 2), points at the paideutic role of the symposium, but since Aristotle explicitly limits the educational value to the second function of music, it is improbable that he thought of the symposium in that way her e, especially since we can assume that the educational value of the skolia lies more in the text than in the music. See also later id. 143: a use of Dorian in the skolia might have made symposia somewhat educational (cf. n. 381 ).

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228 virtue ( 356 357 Music brings pertaining to the mo st pleasant experiences ; education is indicated here so that the adolescents learn how to find the best form of enjoyment ; 358 but particularly for the second function insofar as music can shape ethos Aristotle then (1340a7 ff) evaluate s the that music can produce: enthusiasm 359 but especially express ing, even without words 360 representations 361 rhythms and melodies exp ress wrath me e kness, manliness, and moderation along with their opposites and other Aristotle strengthens the thesis that these musical features express most closely the real ethos with the observation in our soul when we hear such 356 About this term see GMW 1.172 n. 2, Barker 2005, 101 102, Anderson 1966, 269 271 nn. 51 & 54, Lord 1982, 81 82, and Neubecker 1986, 159. In 1341b38 41 ); see below n. 376 Anderson 1966, 122 notes tha t Aristotle omits the liturgical use of music to which Plato had given more weight. 357 About this term and the difficulty to accommodate it in the context see Lord 1982, 72 n. 8. 358 M usic can h 1339 a 24 again in 1340 a 17 where it is added that the enjoyment is based on fitting and good deeds: This is because th best reasons (or sources) for his enjoyment (...) 9) something to be learnt from. Such enjoyment is also useful, providing relaxation or recovery from hard labor and toil (1339b15 17). Ultimately all tends towards the end ( ) of leisure ( ; cf. the Ciceronian otium ) which needs to be properly understood as (1337b33 1338a6). About leisure as the highest goal ( ) of human life see als o 1333a33 133b 5. This conception approximates what Democritus says in DK 68 A 167 (cf. below n. XX). 359 Olympus is mentioned whose melodies had Phrygian character, traditionally linked to this ethos (cf. ps. Plut. Mus. 5.1132f; 7.1133d; West 1992, 181). 360 The correspondi ng passage is disputed and requires textual emendation to make proper sense; for the discussion see Anderson 1966, 125 126,186 188; GMW 1.175 n. 10; Lord 1982, 87 89 assumes poetic many general shortcomings of his interpreta tion are resolved in Halliwell 2002, 244 (and elsewhere). 361 Neubecker 1994, 134 n. 19 remarks that these terms have here, other than in Plato, no deprecatory connotation although we have seen that even Plato takes a quite differentiated approach to is That most music is based on is also stated in Poet. 1447a13 28.

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229 23) ; 362 he states that other perceptions (touch and smell) do not express any ethos and sight only to a lesser degree than hearing 363 only melodies have in themselves the whatever that may mean A division of harmon iai follows: 364 by M ixolydian, people are disposed 365 to becoming mournful and anxious 366 by other ones soft by by Phrygian enthusi astic ( ) Similarly, rhythms are of an either more stable ( ) or moving ( ) ethos, the latter subdivided into more vulgar ( ) or free ( ) 367 All of this, Aristotle claims, is said well by those who investigate this and find it empirically confirmed ( ). Ethos training through music recommends itself, 362 Aristotle compares this with enjoying the sight of a statue vs. the represented person; today we could say that contemplating the photograph of a beloved person elicits feelings similar to those experienced when seeing the real person. 363 He contrasts similarities ( / ) of ethos, as applied to sound, with signs ( ) like forms and colors that indicate only the bodily expression of ethos but not ethos itself. Anothe r explanation of the difference between the senses can be found below under ps. Arist. Pr. 19.27 For futher discussion of the current passage see Halliwell 1999, 14 21; Barker 2005, 107 111. 364 I would like to propose the possibility that Aristotle does no t always distinguish clearly between harmonia can hardly indicate a difference in meaning, for what people hear are not 111) for a shift from finding ethos in abstract patterns (Plato) to ethos in concret e melodies (Aristotle) would need to be reconsidered. Furthermore, even if in 1341b32 37 a terminological distinction is made, Aristotle cannot mean that ethos harmonia ) (earlier in 1340a40 1340b5 and later again in 1342a28 1342b33) with their corresponding emotional reactions, but that each melody receives its ethos precisely from the underlying harmonia. The most striking passage to illustrate this last poin t is 1342a28 group of melodies and harmonies. How could harmoniai have an ethos without of ethos? At any rate, a distinction between melody and harmonia is, for the assessment of ethical value, not too r elevant. 365 Aristotle is precise here in not calling the harmoniai themselves mournful, etc., but the people who are disposed by them ( ); later he does not keep this distinction for the rhythms or melodies. 366 Barker GMW 1.175 n. 13) ; LSJ has 367 Cf. also below a similar division in Cleonides. Treitler (in Strunk 1998, 46 n. 20) division to Arist. Pol. 1341b34 35, but there Aristotle does not actually classify the

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230 therefore, but also because of the sweet enjoyment connected to it ideal for children which Aristotle explains by the mysterious and its harmony and the musical harmonies and rhythms which Plato and the Pythagoreans, already considered (1340b17) Aristotle raises the question which did not matter much to Plato, whethe r it is proper for a noble person to actually perform music and hence, to educate by active music making. After initial ly presenting arguments to discredit cf. 1339a37 1339b10), 368 he decides in favor of performing mus ic because of the following reasons: 369 it fosters the ability to discern between goo d and bad music and enjoy 370 fr experience; it keeps the children occupied, and educates All this should happen within the frame of melodies, rhythms, and instruments pre selected according to the proper age changing to mere listening at a certain stage and avoiding professional and showy practice just enough to be able to enjoy the beautiful melodies and rhythms beyond the common way of slaves and children. The instruments for education should be only the ones that help to learn better. 371 Aristotle bans the aulos only for education since its effect is not ethos building but 368 which Barker hears in this passage (GMW 1.173 n. 7) finds explanation in the fact that Aristotle, to a certain extent, is playing here the advocatus diaboli gathering arguments against musical practice, some of which he later disagrees with. 369 This and the following paragraph summarize 1340b20 1341b19. 370 See below n. 391 371 other lessons, maybe already with the idea of stimulating the mind or calming the pupils down. The idea of adding pleasure to education is developed in Plut. Quomodo adul. 1 = Mor. 14e f.

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231 arousing ; this effect is go o d for purification 372 but not instruction and it word/ ( ). 373 He calls to mind an earlier prohibition which was loosened but then recovered in Sparta and Athens due to experienc ing what directs towards 374 We do not hear about the exact reason for this ruling unless it corresponds to what is mentioned in the next paragraph : the professional aulos player subdues the coarse ) of the audience makes this his base objective ) and adapts to it his music, body, and personality hence it is nothing for freem en. For education, in addition to the aulos no other not even the kithara, is allowed 375 Upon con firmin g with other experts and philosophers the educational force of the harmoniai and rhythms, Aristotle reminds us of the three functions of music 376 and 372 See also later in 1341b39. In reference to what Aristotle describes in Poet. 1449b27 as H alliwell (in: Aristotle 1995, 18 aulos may have in producing this effect within tragedy, children would not be ready for such a refined sort of ethical enhancement but need to be trained on a much more basic level. About the difference of educational habituation and instantaneous dramatic stimulation see Barker in GMW 1.177 n. 22, even though he still holds the traditional view of katharsis as a mere discharge of 373 This may mean that the player cannot sing along himself but Aristotle is not so adverse to solo instrumental music as is Plato. Anot her reason could be that the aulos is so loud that it will not serve as background music for conversation or other instruction. 374 Aristotle adds the story (cf. e.g. Ath. 616d 617a) about Athena throwing away an aulos 375 This is more restrictive than Plato who does allow the kithara (Resp. 399d). One wonders what instrument s are left No doubt Aristotle is thinking principally of the tortoise shell lyre which was regularly used in traditional Athenian education. 376 Cf. 1339a11 29 (see above n. 356 earlier because it does not mean the function of music in education; but the terminology is no t (which now goes Busse 1928, 44 45 and Lord 1982, 111. This paragraph summarizes what Aristotle says from 1341b19 until the end of book 8.

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232 proceeds with a corresponding distinction of harmoniai 377 between ethical i nvigorating and enthusiastic ones 378 Based on this division, a n application of musical parameters is p ossible more differentiated than in Plato who evaluates them at least in the Republic where the analysis of ethos is carried out with the sole focus on education In Aristotle all the h armoniai can be used in their proper context: the ethical for education (including active playing), the i nvigorating for relaxation and the enthusiastic for purification ( the last two only through listening ) 379 mainly in dramatic performances. The i nvigorating type is assigned to the vulgar and lower class people and includes, for their 380 the one bringing about purification belongs to the free and educated people. A few assignments of concrete harmoniai and melodi es to each type are given: Dorian for being most steady and manly, 381 is fitting for education 377 He never gets to talk further about rhythms; for this and other reasons it is commonly held that the Politics is unfinished. The only moment he goes into some detail is 1340b8 10 where he classifies rhythms as stable ( ), moving ( including some vulgar ones ), and free ( corresponding to a f reeman). 378 ion in n. 31. I differ from Barker to stay consistent with my own he relationship to the divinity. Strunk 1998, 32 This distinction parallels a threefold distinction of in Poet. 1447a28; cf. Anderson 1966, 273 n. 66. 379 B arker GMW 1.180 n. 31, toget her with 177 nn. 21 & 22, explains the difference between education, which forms ethical habits by repeated dealings with positive character forming music, and the purgation as a brief exposure to intense emotion, which one should not live through constant ly. That the professional musicians have to do this does not concern Aristotle but will be one reason for their non free and morally questionable status, which he harps on repeatedly in these passages. Lord 1982, 112 113 argues convincingly contra Schadewa ldt 1955 that Aristotle treats catharsis indeed as ethical, but separate from the education of the young. 380 (1342a23); further characteri stics pitched) and 61). 381 1342b12

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233 of the younger, along with the Lydian for being beautiful and educative 382 E ven though Aristotle does not explicitly say whether he approves of Phrygian mode for e ducation or not (which is rather improbable because of the effect he attributes to it), he does criticize its inclusion in Republic for being inconsistent with the ban of the aulos because both have the same ethos: orgiastic and passionate 383 which seems to recommend details; the book ends with the admission of harmoniai again contrary to the Republic, that are easier to be used in advanced age. 384 He distinguishes three criteria for the choice of music in education: the mean, possibility, and suitability: 385 suitable is the ethically desired effect, possible the vocal range 382 1342b31 passage as originally from Aristo tle (because it contradicts in a way the earlier praise of Dorian and Resp. 398d 399a), see Anderson 1966, 145 with 274 n. 74. Lord 1982, 115 118 suggests an assignment of the various harmoniai to the three general classes and, in 203 219, interprets the end of book eight as an interpolation by an adherent of the Damonian school. Some of the arguments for this thesis I do not share, e.g that AQ 2.14 80.23 81.6 should vouch for an education of the young and the very old in Damon (as contrary to Aristotle), a rather bizarre concept. 383 Anderson 1966, 107 109 holds that by rejecting Phrygian Aristotle maintains the ancient Dionysian stereotype while Plato apparently had in mind an extenuated Athenian practice. It is a much discussed question as to why Plato appears to differ from the 181 suggests that Aristotle to the harmoniai but maintains that the prohibition of the aulos is inconsistent; on p. 183 n. 58 however, he considers that its versatility for manifold imitations lows, cf. Gostoli 2007, 28 n. 20 and esp. Tartaglini 2001, 296 29 9 who shows, with reference to Pl. Resp. 411a et alii loci that the aulos finds also positive areas of application, especially in the context of catharsis which is not contemplated in the pe dagogy of guardians; the problem is its excessive, deleterious usage. A review of some other arguments is given above in n. 172 384 Earlier on (1339b10) there was the exception that active music making as was allowed even for adults; in view of this, the younger should also have some exercise in the harmoniai that can only be performed in advanced age (as ); cf. GMW 1.182 n. 41. 385 1342 b

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234 accor ding to age, and the proper mean can be found in the Dorian mode which maintains a middle position between extremes. 386 Good and bad music discussion of music we can see that he sets new accents in his concept of music as g ood or bad. H e follows Plato in acknowledging that music is overall a pleasurable experience and that this should not be the standard for a value judgment But for Aristotle n o intrinsically bad music seems to exist; any musical form finds its justificati on and application in a given suitable context, either of social status age, or defined by a particular function such as relaxation, education of children while living through a dramatic performance, or ecstasy occurring in religious rites. The only directly negative judgment he issues concerns professional musicians, 387 first because professional music as includes manual labor which for a free citizen of ancient Greece, is considered demeaning; secondly because those professionals draw their style from audiences which if themselves rather lower in class, expect vulgar musical forms unfortunatel y, Aristotle does not tell us exacty what characteristics the se would show ; and lastly because the musicians by playing in such a way, influence their own character in a vulgar way. But t his crude 386 This was a pplied to ethos earlier in 1340b3 4 where the modes and their characteristics were first discussed; as Barker points out (GMW 1.181 n. 38), Dorian is intermediate also with regards to pitch. As Lord 1982, 219 keenly remarks, Aristotle in that conception do es not need another mode to balance out the personality as in Plato who seems to have perceived the Dorian and the Phrygian harmoniai as complementary to fine tune the soul. About the necessity of avoiding extremes see also De an. 426a28 426b7: excessively high or low tone destroys ( ) the hearing this means probably here that it takes away the enjoyment of the melody rather than destroying the sense (for which actually the pitch is not so significant than the volume); the greater pleasure is found i n a (balanced) mixture of pitch. 387 The negative context contrasts with the characterization of such performances as astounding and respectively).

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235 scale, is still in some way the people it corresponds to, for it serves the purpose of relaxation so the workers keep their spirits high and can later engage anew in their tasks. This view seems to betray a rather utilitarian view of the lowe r classes: he bothers little about their personal character development as long as they effectively fulfill their assigned role in society. Since a good part of Aristotle is education much of his explanation serves to identify the music suitable for the purpose of character formation in young people through musical features that express the desired traits ; through familiarity with what is truly beautiful, they will themselves rejoice in fitting ethos and good works 388 As already briefly mentioned, t music through expresse s ethos, but Aristotle provides us with even fewer clues than Plato about why and how this is meant to work. 389 How exactly the mimetic force of music is imagined remains unclear also which halts at intrinsic qualities of tone and rhythm, qualities rties do not learn what patterns and properties and how they correspond to emotions ; the 388 134017 becoming friends with virtue through enjoying the proper musical eth os, recognizing it also outside the sphere of music (cf. Resp. 401d 402a ). 389 In Poet. 1447a26 Plato gives a better idea of how dance does this concretely ( see above n. 264 )

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236 cum on the audience as attested by common experience. 390 At one point, the issue of learning how to discern good (or use ful) from bad (or not use ful) music is raised 391 but not discussed since the context is the question of whether to learn music actively or only passively. Apparently a student should by his own practical experience become familiar with precisel y what Aristotle is laying out in these passages and acquire a sense for what music is fitting ( ) for whom, when, and where. In this context, t ethics. 392 The highest form of music, it seems, would be the one perf ormed for the free 390 Halliwell 2002, 160 and 159. He refers further to the aspect of movement ( ) the experience of affective sequences or impulses, but his reference to the Politics (13 40b8 10 and 1342a8) do not really provide substance to a clear theory here; the point is only developed systematically later in Pr. 19.27 Helpful semantic and affective cor the media (emotion entails something like a kinetic or dynamic co rrespondence between the use of rhythms, tunings, and melodies, on the one hand, and the psychological states and feelings belonging to qualities of character, on the other: the emotionally, and we move with it 391 1339b3 4: 25 and 1340b36 ( ; but, as we have st ated earlier ( Chapter 1, object 2 1 n. 3) the concepts of goodness and beauty converge in this term (see also 1341a14 where, as occurs, which calls up aesthetical connotations ) ; Anderson is right, however, in excluding only an expert is fit for properly judging works of art (Eth. Nic. 10.9.20 1181a18 24) and Anderson elsewhere (119 120) shows (with reference to Eth. Nic. 2.4.3 1105a27 33) that the latter must mean an aest hetical (hence technical) value judgment, not a moral one. Lord 1982, 99 poetry] imitate 104). I believe that the conceptual dichotomy between aesthetic and moral is anachronistic; but this particular statement by Lord obscures the fact that the moral benefit of music education, for both Pl ato and Aristotle, consists in same time express positive ethos. The aesthetic judgment is streamlined with the ethical one. 392 See above n 386

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237 in Latin later otium ) As Anderson 393 shows Aristotle gives the impression that music also has an influence on the intellect and contributes to intellectual well being but does not tell us in what way it would do that. In setting intellectually engaged leisure as the highest goal of human life, 394 he insinuates that music could find its ultimate function in providing delight and stimulation to the intellect something that an aesthetic and intellectual contemplation, closely related to the philosophical contemplation of truth which is represented as the highest perfection of human nature at the end of Aristotle's Ethics 395 Concluding from this, however, t hat it is Aristotle who takes the first step towards musical aesthetics would not be appropriate, from what we remarked earlier (p. 61 ff, On one hand, the ethical function of music cannot be reduced to its pedagogical purpose, 396 because the assumed moral nature of a musical piece o r feature does not present itself only in the context of forming character traits or habits ; in is also an important ingredient for music being able to el icit a catharsis O n the other hand both Plato and Aristotle affirm repeatedly that enjoyment comes along with music regardless of its purpose but the experience of enjoyment in 393 See his development of the argument in 1966, 136 137 with 269 271 nn. 51 55: the connection of music with and the rejection of the non intellectual aulos music by Athena (1341b6 7). 394 Combining 1334b15 17 with 1337b38 1338a 3 and 1339a25 26. 395 Barker 2005, 102. This sounds as if Aristotle had in mind a custom of performances similar to classical music concerts in the Western musical tradition since the Renaissance period; similar Anderson 1966, 265 n. 31. However, I am not aw are of evidence for such practices 396 Here I disagree with Anderson (and similarly with Lord 1982, esp. 99 100), who seems to tie these two g childhood. While it is true that paideia and katharsis in Aristotle are realities separate not only in concept but also according to the stage of life, both participate in the ethical function that music possesses (see 376 and as understood in our previous definition ). To this we can join the force music adds to the paideutic function of dramatic works, which Anderson justly admits (1966, 271 n. 55).

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238 music must have its origin in its aes thetic appeal Aristotle seems to fee l that pleasure (and with it music ) can have a negative impact when he uses the attribute ( ) but he does not say any thing more concrete here (1342a16) Bad music may certainly occur on the aesthetical level as a phrase suggests that sounds at first little more than a truism: A musician enjoys good melodies and is distressed by bad ones ( Eth. Nic. 9.9.6 1170a10 11). 397 But in the context of the Politics, bad music is music performed (or listened to) in a way that is improper to the circumstances. Orgiastic Phrygian aulos music prophetic state which in itself is neither good nor bad but simply outside the rational; 398 such music may also have a cathartic effect by homo e opathically 399 cleansing a perturbed emotional state, along with the affective import of the dramatic action, in a pleasing way, 400 which is good for adults but not proper for education ; the same is said about the theatric tendency of musical vulgarization and sophistication which ha s found entry into education 401 Aristotle proposes, therefore, a separation of audiences 397 this phrase serves as a comparison to the good man who rejoices over virtuous actions while he is displeased by bad ones. 398 Cf. Anderson 1966, 125 and 266 n. 33 with reference to Pl. Leg. 801b. 399 Cf. Ander son 1966, 273 n. 67. Lord 1982, 119 (homoeopathic) concept of catharsis is unique and new, since the Pythagoreans proceeded in an allopathic manner, and ritual purification was not to be understood psychologically or at least it did not come about through music. He also concludes that there are different types of catharsis : enthusiastic vs. obser vation that catharsis in the Poetics has no explicit reference to music (131, 139 140) that the cathartic effect in tragedy was thought independent of music does not seem to me fully conclusive. 400 1342a14 107 gives a more detailed explanation about how this musical catharsis would come about. Lord 1982, 132 134 (1342a8 9), which provide a catharsis to the possessed prov ide simple pleasure of harmless excitement to other people. 401 1341a12 13. This might actually have been the motivation for his whole section on music in the first paideia upside down

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239 between ree correspond to the New Music for the former and the traditional music for the latter audience and for education. 402 this distinction since in an anthropology that assigns equal dignity and right to full human development to any human being, it would not make sense to reserve the highest goal of human life as expressed in the concept of only to the upper class of society and disregard th e ethos development of those living under lower economic or social conditions. While propriety is still determined by interior characteristics that link musical features to human ethos, this link, as in Plato, remains unexplained; it would require, in clas sical terms, to investigate further the relationship between music and the human soul : why does specific music evoke specific affections and, in their repetition, shape or change ethos? While Plato endeavored to seek an answer in the cosmological speculati ons of the Pythagorean tradition, Aristotle, who is highly skeptical about the 403 refrains from such attempts 404 and leaves a in the hands of other (contemporary) authorities w hose doctrine, nevertheless, he explicitly endorse s as based on empirically 402 Cf. Lord 1982, 141 14 6 He suggests that the former would use the harmoniai, and the latter, especially for tragedy, the Phrygi an (or Mixed Lydian) harmonia in the enharmonic genus. However, I do not think Lord is right in asserting that competitions with the new style in the t heaters, probably at separate events. We know that even slaves had access to theater spectacles (cf. Hansen 1999, 63). 403 See above n. 107 404 The furthest he goes is what he says in 1340b18 19 about the kinship ( ) between the human soul, harmoniai, harmony.

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240 provable facts 405 Whether these authors achieved anything more than working on a appraised chara cteristics 406 we cannot tell for lack of evidence 407 Certain is as Barker concludes that such connections were widely accepted and almost taken for granted: Q uestions about the value of music, about its effects on human beings and about its potential for use in education were discussed widely in this period, and were debated by intellectua ls of several different sorts. They are not just the eccentric obsessions of two very unusual thinkers, Aristotle and Plato. 408 Platonic and Aristotelian music 409 Both authors are writing with the intention to define parameters for ethos education through music, and in this context A ristotle admits other (public) usages as well. However, if we remember the multiplicity of musical functions as outlined in our second chapter, it strikes us that a number of these are passed over or by either author or are barely mentioned (e.g. songs for weddings, work, love, lullabies, etc.). It is hard to 405 Cf. 1340b7 8; 1341b27 33. Anderson 1966, 127 130 sifts through the arguments and finds them weak, concluding tha there had not been much substance to their points. Neither Plato nor Aristotle needed to go into further detail for their own purposes, which would have been a wide digression; to interpret their own silence on it f reports striking ethnomusicologically founded examples of conceptual communication (mimicking expected. One could imagine some similarly sophisticated syst em of ethical codification, especially in the conjunction of instrument, rhythm, dance, and melody. The difference here is that there seems not to have existed an explicit code but a rather half or unconscious system of common association since musical eth os develops more on the level of pathos About the methodological difficulties see Ande rson 267 n. 38 and Richter 1960. 406 Hagel forthcoming, 11. 407 Unless one would re disputed a nd hardly upheld by the most recent scholarship; see again Hagel 2013. 408 Barker 2005, 100. 409 Anderson 1966, 143.

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241 imagine even Plato disapproving these or prescribing a specific mode for them (except for stating, perhaps, that some modes or rhythms would come more naturally for each of these than others). Rather t han being an oversight, this seems to show that neither author attempts to discuss and legislate about every possible musical phenomenon. From this follows then that Plato did not see paideia as the only legitimate goal for music, just as the principal one for performances with public relevance, precisely because as soon as the ethical dimension of music comes into play, the State is affected. Aristotle is more explicit about other usages, but also his discourse is mainly centered on educational purposes. O n the other hand, if music really shapes character, then it does not only do so at school or in other public settings. How could music al features which are bad for children be kept from them if adults apply them in their presence at home? It is not until Quintilian that we hear about the conflicting musical influences children are exposed to (1.2.6 8), against which the best ped agogical efforts seem pointless ; this does not mean that this problem did not exist in earlier times. P itch and timbre evaluated A few observations are added here that belong to the work De audibilibus 410 The author discusses issues of sound production and reception and in that context addresses the quality of clear, bright vocal or instrumental sound which appears to be seen as th e most preferable timbre. 411 The idea 410 Text: Dring 1932, 67.24 77.18; text and tr.: Hett 1936, 50 79; tr: GMW 2.99 109. Although Porphyry attributes it to the Stagirite, it is usu ally considered pseudo Aristotelian; however, Andrew Barker holds that the case against authenticity is not conclusive ( GMW 2.98 ) Dring 1932, 67, after citing contrary opinions : 411 E sp. 801b; terms a re: is associated with small children, drunk, or old people; confused, undistinct sound ( ; ) is negative.

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242 confused ( ) voices fit better ( ) f o r calamities 412 or old age ; we encounter again the concept of the correspondence between quality of sound and a circ umstance they express However, even though or expresse s something properly, it still seems that the aesthetical value is not rough) voices are not worse ( 413 In general this text reveals keen insights into the nature of sound as emitted by different instruments and the aesthetic consequences of different scenarios and ways of producing instruments. Particular a ttention d eserves the section that speaks of the thin, weak, or produced through little breath flow and occurs in children, women, eunuchs, sick or exhausted people 414 In a similar passage (Gen. an. 786b 35 787a), an explicit value judgment is m ) which in contrast to the high which also applies to melodies. At any rate, the ethos of the sound producing person (and an instrument in of it) determines the ethos of the sound which seems to include both pitch and We observe in these texts a fine perception of musical sound with the attempt t o relate particular characteristics to ethos. Adding timbre and articulation to the analysis 412 but the context suggest s a rather negative connotation. 413 802a2 3. Barker (GMW 2.103 n. 19) concludes that this phrase shows that application (which is mentioned in the text right after), not meaning that it would aesthetically be considered equal to the clear voice. 414 Cf. Gen. an. 787a23 788a34 where it is stated, however, that such attribution is not absolute.

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243 usually restricted to rhythm and melody provides a richer arsenal out of which variform shades of ethos could be furnished. Summary The most important par seem to be the following: 1. The value of music depends on its function (which can be pastime, the creation of ethos, and considerate thoughtful aesthetic appreciation) and on the nature of the person performing or listening to it (especially age and social stratum). 2. Music belongs to the most pleasant experiences and, at the same time, is able to change the ethos of a person and stimulate intelligence 3. Music (in terms of rhythm, melody, harmonia) expre sses ethos, more than any other object of sense perception, because of a kinship between the human soul and musical parameters which through intrinsically resemble emotional states 4. tent, expression, the soul, and context and their contribution to establish ethical value). 5. Making music actively is adviced for early stages of education for a deeper understanding, discernment of good and bad, and appreciation while avoiding professional classes). 6. Apart from paideia, arousing musical features can serve, in adults, to evoke catharsis homoeopathically as a remedy to an inordinate emotional state 7. Moderation and the proper mean (middle between extremes) apply in music as the best criteria for educational purposes. 8. Aesthetically displeasing music is bad, and so is music of a specific ethos if used outside of the context to which it belongs. The Pseudo Aristotelian Problemata 415 Thi s compilation of post Aristotelian doctrine contains in book 19 questions and e are relevant for our question and add 415 Text and tr.: Hett 1953; Mayhew 2011; tr. and comm. (selections): GMW 1.190 204; 2.85 97; discussion: Barker 2005, 108 112.

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244 interesting details, especially about why certain musical features are pleasing i.e. experienced pos itively over others R eferences that are dealing with particular musical phenomena are not included ; here I am briefly discussing those that are of more general interest. Overall, i t is not certain to what degrees these points are representative of music t heory at the time, but at least they seem mostly compatible with Aristotle and, to a lesser degree, with Plato Ethos in movement Pr 19.27 (919b 2 6 37) provides a remarkable reflection about how the connection between music and ethos could be psychological ly understood. The question as to w hy only sound 416 (and not other sensations) has ethos is answered: because its movements but only rhythms and intervals 417 belong to action which for its part is a sign of ethos. 418 Other senses also include a perceptive in the case of a musical stimulus, structured in time (rhythm) and tone (pitch), we perceive the very movement of it 419 which lends itself to be ing 416 The context makes clear that musical sound is meant, particularly music without words ( ). Plato had issues with acknowledging ethos in music alone (cf. Leg. 669e). 417 arrangement ( ( / ). The explicit exclusion of chords from ethos may be due to the fact that Greeks apparently did not venture into real polyphony and shows t hat they talk about intervals mainly in the melodic sense; cf. GMW 1.197 n. 55 (but see Theon 51.2 4 who describes the pleasing effect of simultaneously ; Moberg 1930, with reference to a passage from pseudo Longinus, suggests tha t at least in the first century AD accompaniment in forths and fifths was practiced ). Problems and other texts and shows that there must have been an accompan iment other than octave parallels. 418 Pr. 19.29 puts this in slightly different terms: (musical) movement is (like other actions) an ethical operation ( ) and creates etho s ( ) which probably means that movement is bound to produce in the observer the ethos that it resembles. 419 v We do not perceive smell, touch, or sight as movement (even if the perceived object m oves) while hearing depends completely on the sequential nature of sound. Barker (GMW 1.197 n. 53) suggests two slightly different possible interpretations. Hett

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245 In short tunes are a movement or action which signifies ethos. This seems to mean that h umans associate the melodic up and down, rhythmically structured, with similar exterior human movements that reveal an ethos. The passage does not explicitly establish two meanings of action (the perceptive sonoric one and an exterior one), but this needs to be assumed because otherwise the whole concept of ethos within action would remain locked up within the musical context and not explain anything. Consequently t here is a twofold transformation in this chain: musical movement is converted exterior human movement (or, we could say, behavior) which for its part, is ethos visibly manifested This do u ble step blur s the correspondence between tune and ethos and requires conscious reflexion in order to detect it clearly. Upon a closer look this can be identified as ethical triangle (music content ethos) in which now substituted But how exactly do we have to imagine th e correspondence between the elements within this new triangle of musical form, movement /action, and ethos ? For sure, the whole reasoning relies fully on the concept of even though the term is not mentioned The ethical significance of music depends on the previous codification of certain external movements with ethical connotations; 420 ethos is extrinsic to music, but the capacity to reflect movement is intrinsic. It is not determined by numbers but by which seems not precise, because even t hough through movement like with the other senses), this is not necessarily conscious but can become so as soon as we reflect about how tion to ethos; the fact that it is rather subconscious makes the whole reflection about ethos in music necessary in order to make it explicit. 420 Leg. 654e 655b where it is s aid that certain reveal the state or ethos of a soul. In general the idea seems to be:

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246 melodic and rhythmic patterns a qualitative approach Theophrastus would have agreed with Why music is enjoyable: order, balance, appropriateness The section of Pr. 19.38 (920b28 921a7) discusses reasons why humans enjoy insta nces and reasons are given: 1) h umans according to nature enjoy movements according to nature and here it is interesting that even newborn children are attested to enjoy them ; 421 2) because of the ethos 422 of the melodic patterns ( ); 3) rhythm is enjoyed because it has a ) and recognized and moves us in an organized way which is according to our nature this idea is illustrated by the fact that organized actions in general (hard work, eating, drinking) makes us healthy and grow in contrast to disorganized procedures; 4) consonance is enjoyed because of its combination of related opposites, and the relation imp lies organization which by nature is pleasing also because what is mixed is more pleasing than the unmixed especially when the relationship in the perceivable consonance has its strength from the equality in both opposites. In summary, this argument de duces musical enjoyment from our inborn tendency and preference towards order and balance. 421 : for the if infants already enjoy music, it must be something innate. The aspect of movement refers back to Pr. 19. 27 (919b26 37) alone but also to melody. Barker (GMW 1.199 n. 67) shows parallels in Pl. Leg. 653d e and 664e 665a, which apply this observation to the educational value of music in that it creates ord er in the human being. 422 meaning more than a mere moral qualification. Barker (ibid. n. 68) refers again to Plato (Leg. 655d 656a) where the enjoyment of music

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247 Building on the previous problem, in Pr. 19.39 (921a8 31) the octave is declared more pleasant than unison because of the added structured complexity ; it is also mor e pleasant than other parallel intervals (fourth, fifth) because the tones are completed together, 423 There is a clear preference for naturally harmonized sounds and balanced complexity over unaccompanied unison or unorganic mixtures without any true blend (cf. about this Pr. 19.43 922a1 20), and harmony is expected and particularly enjoyed after a discordant development. Francisco Pelosi 424 shows how musical ethos, based on the of physical movement, in principle could not exist in simultaneously produced sounds (consonances) since there is n o movement O n the other hand, the trace contained in Pr. 39 (from dissonance to consonance) corresponds to We can deduce 425 that such a pro gression brings back the aspect of movement an d thus gains another element, that of consonance, within the complex determination of musical ethos within a piece, according to the Aristoxenian holistic approach. Pr. 19.9 (918a22 29) explains that the accompaniment of a voice should not pleasing an other indication o f a sense of balance and proper measure. A similar point is raised in Pr. 423 I.e. the impulse of the sound waves of both tones coincides at each end of the lower tone. 424 Pelosi 2002, esp. 217 223. 425 Pelosi surprisingly does not draw this conclusion as he drops the thread of ethos right before

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248 19.16 (918b30 33) wher e obscuring occurs due to magadizing 426 in interval s other than the octave which therefore is considered less pleasurable. Pr. 19.48 (922b10 27) discusses the of different harmoniai in the context of tragedy F or our purpose only the criterion of appro ) may be pointed out: the harmonia needs to correspond respectively to the ethos of chorus or the character of the play In Pr. 19.1 (917b19 21) it is stated that aulos playing both increases the capac ity to I n other words, the aulos is said to support an emotionally positive state. Pr. 19.15 (918b13 29) points out that professionals are good in rep resent ing all sorts of characters and are able to use complex metrical and musical features, while the chorus made up of the free people is limited to simple pieces. This is a mere aesthetical consideration, taking into account realistically the ability of the different performers within a dramatic performance. Finally, Pr. 19.5 (918a3 9) raises the point that m ore pleasure lies in songs one is familiar with than in new ones 427 because it is more pleasant to recognize/contemplate more clearly the attainme nt of an end ( ) 428 than to learn, and what is familiar ( ) is more pleasant. Pr. 19.40 (921a32 39) basically repeats this argument (5 is about singing, 40 about listening) but adds a rare consideration of 426 635b; GMW 1.194 n. 35); later it can refer also to parallels in another harmonic interval (fifth or fourth), cf. the medieval organum. 427 T he opposite is said in Hom. Od. 1.351 352; see GMW 1.26 n. 21: the point in Homer might rather be the new text; but newness can also have its appeal in music, see above p. 112 428 Barker ( be, on a less technical level, the satisfaction of fulfilled expectation.

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249 tween listener and singer when the tune is known, and the listener is able to sing along thus music forms a bond between those who share familiar tunes. 429 The last sentence of 40 is does not directly contribute to the previous point but is still of intere st as it states that everyone enjoys singing if t he y do We notice that neither emotions nor passions nor any educational aspects are mentioned in these passages In all the problems listed here, except for the first one, the main interest rests on aesthetical categories that foster pleasure. Plato would not have approved this emphasis on pleasure as apparently the main objective, but the particular considerations are not too far from his thought as they continue to sustain the idea of ethos and within music, the characteristics of appropriateness, order, and balanced harmony. Theophrastus 430 the Lyceum) and prominent in natural sciences but also engaged in the fields of metaphysics, psycholo gy and ethics About his music theory only a small number of fragments remain s but among them are a few strong statements that relate to the problem of ethos in music. According to fr. 724, a quotation within an Arabic source, and fr. 720 (in Philodemus, incomplete) he seems to be skeptical about relating music to 429 This is a favor ite function of music observed by ethnomusicologists but also something that everyone will easily confirm from personal experience. 430 Text and tr. : Fortenbaugh 1992; t r. and comm. : GMW 2.110 118; discussion: Barker 2005, 131 137 who is my main source for t for the section on music is still pending.

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250 virtue 431 and never expounds positively on music as useful for character formation in this regard he would have to be considered a precursor of Epicurean skepticism On the other hand, he does s upport the relationship between music and emotion. According to Plutarch, he even holds that hearing is the most emotional of all senses for no other sense provides so distraction , and terrors/ excitements lay hold of the soul through hearing; still, hearing is decribed as more rational ( ) than emotional because virtue enters only through the ears if the proper words enter and the flattering and mean ( ) ones are warded off. 432 This is said without direct reference to music, but elsewhere Theophrast us develops concrete ideas about the musical function of expressing emotions, namely of grief, plea 433 the movement of the soul which occurs in connection with its release from the evils caused by emotions or it is 431 fr. 724: Since a deer likes the sound of instruments, he should also acquire some virtue if that were associated with listening to mus ic; frs. 719, 720, and 721A, on the other hand, seem to imply some sort of ethical effect of music. 432 De recta ratione audiendi 2 = Mor. 38a b 433 fr. 719A (= Plut. Quaest. conv. 1.5.2 = Mor. 623a): , a re mentioned as ) that change the voice at any rate, the voice expresses them too and hence might also cause them in the listener, although this is not said in this text; in 719B (= Aphthonius, De metris 4.2), the emotions aroused by song (apparently) are almost the same: voluptas, ira, enthusiasmos (sacri furor is instinctus), but the text is also somewhat ambiguous since it starts with a description of how the stimuli of an incalescens ingenium produce which then bring forth sublime cothurnatum canorum et tragici ponder is carmen. The interpretation of the rest all depends on what the subject in the following sentences is, whether still from before, or Barker 2005, 133 points at a similar phenomenon in Aristox. Harm. 9.29 33: sometimes leads to a voice movement rather of singing than of speaking.

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251 434 which takes place by means of a m elody accurately designed according to the emotional pattern it is meant to express (fr. 716.7 9) evidently an idea that supposes active music making, not just listening. In fr. 719 B however, the concept is extended to listening as well, possibly simila r to the Aristotelian catharsis Later sources quote Theophrastus even concerning bodily cures by means of music 435 Barker justly points out that the sense for the psycho somatic unity of the human person made the Greeks keener which they would be less likely to consider as supersti t ious as some scholars would have it; modern music therapy has a lot to say about this as we will see in Chapter 5 But r egardless of what Theophrastus, so fa r as we can tell, is the first theorist to have treated therapy as music's primary function. 436 At the same time, Theophrastus refutes the musical number theory of Pythagorean and Platonic origin, especially in its quantitative approach and holds instead t hat melody is generated based on specific qualities of each tone (fr. 716 ) 437 Unfortunately we have no information about how he would fathom the correspondence 434 Barker 2005, 133 (tr. of fr. 716.130 132 from the English manuscript, amending the tr. in GMW 2.118). The power of moving the soul is quoted in fr. 721B (= Censorin us, DN 12.1): About alleviating labor through music: frs. 552A (= Ael. VH 9.11: the painter Parrhasius used to sing and hum, thus working and and lightening the toil) and 552B (= Ath. 543f, although this quote presents singing more a consequence ) 435 Ath. 624a b (= fr. 726B) in Phrygian harmonia should heal from sciatica; Apollonius Mir. heals many of the sufferings ( ) that affect the soul and the body, such as aulos someone who had lost his mind because of the sound of a salpinx; also in Gell. NA 4.13.1 2 (= fr. 726 C ) we hear about heali ng Mention to alleviate 436 Barker 2005, 135. 437 fr. 716 is the longest of the frs. on music and is cited in Porph Harm. 1.3.

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252 between emotion and melody without the recourse to considerations of cosmic harmony Theophrastu s does not expound directly on good or bad music, but since he establish es a parallelism between melody and emotional expression emotion being both origin and product of music we can surmise that for him, as in Aristotle, good music is the one proper t o the purpose of expression and healing. Bad music would counteract such purpose. Only one text, reported by Aspasius, uses the negative word intemperate licentious) right after mentioning that pleasurable songs can drive out hunger: to fully avoid being distressed and suffering, people provide for themselves great and ex cessive enjoyments. 438 This is an interesting psychological insight with ramifications and points of comparison to our own times. Aristoxenus Aristoxenus, who s hares the hometown Tarentum with Archytas, 439 grew up in an environment strongly influenced by Pyth agorea n teaching and thus assimilated ideas of the ethical power of music. 440 Nevertheless, t his great master of music theory distances himself from the mathematical Pythagorean Platonist system and takes a new empirical descriptive approach by emphasizing t he need for both hearing and understanding : the relationship between intellect and auditive sense in grasping what 438 ( fr. 555 = Aspasius, In Arist. Eth. Nic. 7.1 4 .4 6 1154a27 1154b15 Aristotle himself speaks in general terms, with no reference to music). 439 A Pythagorean philosopher with his floruit between 400 350 BC, attributed especially with the first mathematical description of the three harmonic genera. 440 Rocconi 2012, 72 74 ; at 66 67 she mentions his stay in Arcad ia around 350 BC, which might have next section).

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253 music does. 441 His rather conservative stand regarding musical style has already been mentioned in the first section of this chapter. Eleonora Rocconi identifies as his original contribution to the theory of musical ethos that all musical parameters, not just the harmonia or the genus, need to be considered in their combination ( : combination of note, time, text, etc.; and : the perception of everything as a whole ) as responsible for the ethical effect of a melody 442 something considered in the theory of melodic composition ( ) 443 The ethical objective for a mel ody in general will indicate the proper parameters, and judgment requires both perception and understanding of the final product in its elements 444 resulting in the aesthetic al (the degree to which s intention) and ethical appropriateness, the latter of which is described as the purpose ( ) of a performance or composition. B oth ought to correspond: the performance needs to be appropriate to the composition and to what the performer wants to pursue composer has indicated to be awakened. Pathos and ethos are closely related, and this relationship can only be judged when considering the whole. We recognize here a 441 Cf. Mathiesen 1999, 321 324. Barker 2007, 105 112 explains the Aristotelian conception of science as t he gnoseological framework for the empirical (or inductive) road taken by Aristotle and, even more, by Aristoxenus whom he discusses in the following (113 258). 442 ] Plut. Mus. which harmonic or rhythmical science and ethos. This passage parallels Pl. Leg. 670a 671a. 443 Rocconi 2012, 76 81 based o n p s. Plut. Mus. 32.1142d b 33.114 4 e, esp. 1143 a d; cf. also AQ 1.12; Neubecker 1994, 135 136 and above n. 442 This section is analyzed with much detail in Barker 2007, 235 444 This idea, extensively elaborated upon by ps. , (35.1144b).

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254 (he does not talk a bout context) and to the principle of identifying beauty and goodness 445 Ancient music theorists differ essentially about whether perception or understanding is primary for musical judgment; Aristoxenes stands for the first, Pythagorean tradition for the se cond position 446 Nevertheless, also for him, similar as to Plato, music education serves as a praeambulum for philosophy which in turn is the discipline that is able to discern what is appropriate regarding musical ethos. 447 Little is preserve d from the many works Aristoxenus wrote on different topics about music. In the extant text of his opus on harmony 448 he mostly deals with technical explanations and clarifying terminology, but at times he also indicates some criteria ) and non harmonic melody ( ) (El. Harm. 18.16 23), concordant ( ) and discordant intervals ( 445 Rocconi 2012, 82, ), quotes conveniently Arist. Rhet. 1.9.3 1366a33 , , bonum et pulchrum et delectabile convertuntu r. This is essentially language marks no clear borderline between these kinds of value, and perhaps we should not try to foist the distinction on Ari something intrinsic in music rather than as of something enhancing the character of the hearer (2002, meanings carry essential 370 Barker suggests that Philodemus used Aristoxenus for his attack against musical ethos as presented by Diogenes of Babylon and the Stoic tradition. S imilar patterns of argument may not suffice to justify associating Aristoxenus in Aristoxenian school we observe a greater detachment from the idea that music shapes ethos in people. 446 S ee GMW 1.244 nn. 23 9, 240 referencing Aristox. Harm. 32.18ff; Ptol. Harm. 11.1ff, 19.16ff and Theophr.; Pythagoras judges according to the proper proportions: not just hearing 447 Cf. Rocconi 2012, 85 86, with reference to ps. Plut. Mus. 32.1142c d and Aris tox. Harm. 41.10 25. Barker 2007, 243 distinguishes two judgments: one about ethos and one about appropriateness of ethos to a particular composition. 448 Text and Ger. tr.: Marquard, 1868 ; text and tr. (Eng.): Macran 2004 [1902]; text and tr. ( It. ): da Rios 1954; tr. an d comm.: GMW 2.119 189.

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255 ) (19.30 20.2). A general principle in music found in various musical 449 terms which can be understood also in an ethical way, even though Aristoxenus does not often enter into this sphere. When discussing the genera, he does arg ue that the based on the enharmonic genus is not the worst ) but perhaps the best/most beautiful ( ), while those preferring the fashionable chromatic genus are drawn by the desire to sweeten 450 At the beginning of book 2 of the El. Harm. (31.18 29) Aristoxenus clears up the misunderstanding that studying meaning that certain musical parameters benefit character wh ile others harm it, 451 and th at people did not understand that he wanted to limit the extent to which music can be useful. 452 Barker concludes that Aristoxenus must have shared at least part of the ethos theory. 453 Still, when he discusses the tonoi and the gen era, Aristoxenus refrains from attributing any ethical characteristics to them. In general, melodies are understood 449 These terms are introduced in the context of pitch (El. Harm. 10.24 29, see also GMW 2.133 n. 42 explaining that the sound itself is meant, not the source producing the sound). 450 The phrase (23.22) is translated very differently: Marquard 1868, 33 whereas Barker (GMW 2.142) has: and the melody is corre their tendency to sweetness leads them back into their favorite genus; but see Barker ibid. n. 91 treating the issue further; he points out that later authors (e.g. AQ 1.9 16.14 18) explained the loss of the enharmonic by the difficulty of singing quartert ones rather than aesthetical or ethical considerations. Following the Aristoxenian system, Vitruvius (De arch. 5.4.3) mentions the ethos of the enharmonic and chromatic genus; he does not give an ethos for the diatonic except that it is and fa 451 31.25 452 That the study of harmonics alone does not resolve these questions is also said in ps. Plut. Mus. 33.11 42f 1143a. 453 GMW 2.148 n. 6.

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256 (38.27 39.3). between ethos and musical composition: Can we really say that the ethos of a p articular piece re sides ultimately and only in the whole, the combination of all parameters? But how can the whole acquire ethos if the ingredients are not already contained, at least in nuce, within those very parameters? Can ind ividual non ethical parameters produce an ethical compound? I believe Aristoxenus did not attempt to deny that the individual elements (e.g. harmoniai, rhythms, etc.) in themselves are ethically charged, 454 but that the full extent ( ps. Plut. Mus. 1143a) of ethos in a piece cannot be grasped without judging the whole as such Polybius 455 As a historian, Polybius touches upon music en passant at several instances, but here may be pointed out a significant section in book 4 (20 21) of his Histories. He advances the idea (21.1 2) that the adversities of human life such as hard labor and ; i.e. they develop under such circumstances T his reality was noticed in particular by the ancient Arcadians. 456 In 454 for example, the enharmonic or the chromatic genus as such that is appropriate to a specific ethos Barker is certainly c compositions (cf. ps. Plut. Mus. 1137b) might have more to do with the artistic Barker speaks of at p. 249) in them, which goes far beyond the application of compositional rules, be they of technical or ethical matter. 455 Text and tr.: Paton 1922/2010 (vol. 2). 456 Arcadia is located in the central region of the Peloponnese (OCD 138).

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257 order to counteract this natural development, they instituted, along with other practices, an intensive musical education from childhood onward to the age of 30 in order to soften and mix up ( or temper) the stubbornness and harshness of nature 457 and to tame and mitigate the hardening of the soul by the habituation to such (musical) exercise 458 Polybius describes with some detail the effort the Arcadian s made to educate their children and to bring music into their lives which does not appear very different from what we generally know about Greek musical practice and he proves the point through a negative example: the Cynaetheans, inhabiting the plac e in Arcadia with the worst geographic and climatic conditions, totally neglected musical exercise, and bec a me brutal perpetrators of the most sacrilegious crimes, thus staining the fame of virtue, humanity, and hospitality which characterized the rest of Arcadia. Polybius ends his discussion oneself through education and especially through music 459 as the only means to avoid falling into savagery. While this humanizing function of music formed a real necessity ( ) in the case of the Arcadians, Polybius considers music (and he stresses: truly music, probably meaning the actual use of it and not just the theory) useful ( ), probably in a similar fashion, for all human beings (20.4). 460 He eve n strikes a certain apologetic tone when emphasizing that music has not been 457 458 459 460 This argument is, as we will see, contrary to the reasoning brought forward by Philodemus who holds that musical practice does not stem from any need.

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258 people, a charge which he attributes to t he historian Ephorus (20.5). Polybius does not enter into the debate about what type of music could be more beneficial than others, but his historical example intends to show how music as such can have a significantly positive influence on the character of a people as a whole. His which restricts its usage to precise limits and even bans much of the musical business from his ideal State (cf. Resp. 373b) even though one could argu e that the stipulations in favor of choral chant made in the Laws might suffice to lead to the results envisioned by Polybius. Regardless, we have here another claim that music and the political moral status of a society depend, for a good part, on music. Cleonides 461 Only at the end of his rather technical essay on music which follows Aristoxenian doctrine, does Cleonides touch on the question of ethos in the context of modulation H ere he mentions three 462 all of which are said to lead the soul into a specific state : t condition simi ; 463 461 Text: MSG, 179 207; text tr. and comm.: Solomon 1986 ; tr.: Strunk/ Treitler 1998, 35 46; summary and discussion: Mathiesen 1999, 366 390; Barker 2007, 255 256. 462 Cf. Arist. Pol. 1340a40 1340b11 and above n. 367 but see Solomon 1981, 98 about the difference between these disti nctions, even though I do not agree that Plato and Aristotle consider the harmonic however, that these three are not harmoniai for an attempt to assign ha rmoniai to these see Solomon 1981, 100 n. 40 Cf. also AQ 1.112 30.12 15 and Heraclides Ponticus in Ath. 624d. 463 this could fit to the Dorian harmonia ( or Hypodorian as described in ps Arist. Pr. 19.30 ). See Solomon

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259 ; 464 and accompani 465 No further comment is made these characterizations enrich the catalogue of ethos classifications from a perspective of the first century BC and will be taken up again by Aristides Quintilianus. Dionysius of Halicarnassus In the context of instructing on literary composition, 466 Dionysius at some point (Comp. 11) takes recourse to music based on the assumption that music and speech achieve enjoyment or attractiveness ( ) and beauty ( ) i n a similar way. 467 Enjoyment stems from the following characteristics: springtime bloom / elegance, grace, goodness of taste/pleasantness, sweetness, persuasiveness S imilar ly, elements of beauty are : magnificence, dignity/gravity, impressiveness, honor/digni ty, and 468 out the medical origin of this and similar musical terminology. 464 Resp. 398e; Arist. Pol. 1340b1 2; ps. Plut. Mus. 16.1136d;) or Lydian. 465 as an intermediate between the other two. 466 Text and tr.: Usher 1985. 467 In the prec e ding section 10 he even says that i f found together in any human artefact, these two fulfi ll all desire of human sensitivity: He holds that music and oratory differ only in degree, not in kind (Comp. 11, in Usher 1985, 77). 468

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260 In order to elicit enjoyment, both literary style ( ) and music need all of the following ingredients: melody, rhythm, variety, and the appropriateness ( ) of the use of the previous three. 469 About melody and rhythm the author notes the the capacity to draw ( and give him enjoyment badly performed ) ones that make people feel weary H e goes on to explain why even the technically uneducated theater audience is able to spontaneously identify : because the aesthetical distinction depends on 470 which nature has bestowed upon all huma n beings 471 and therefore the sense for what makes music (as much as speech) enjoyable are common to The absence of variety at the proper time or of propriety leads to a heavy satiety and a distasteful want of harmony. Our heari ng delights in melodies, is drawn by rhythms, welcomes variety, and desires what is proper with regard to everything. 472 The author does not tell us what sort of melody or music has a positive or negative effect but only exemplifies the aesthetic value of a good or bad performance. 469 T he author calls experience ( ) as w itness for this affirmation, hence follows the method of introspection or induction. 470 could be phrased here as a natural conditioning of human emotion to find harmonious sound patterns agreeable. We will deal in Chapter 5 with some of the psychological questions that arise from this assumption, for the conditioning could also be cultural or linked to expectancies. 471 472

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261 roughness, and smoothness) to particular letters and also syllables and words which they posses by nature and cannot be changed, along with some more formal aspects such as easy or hard pronunciation, length and shortness, etc. Their effective expression should agree with and reinforce the ethos of the expressed co ntent. 473 This observation is made about text, but it is an important predecessor for Aristides in music Confirming the result of a development that Plato tried to stem, Dionysius states that in music the words or speec h ( ) should submit to the melody and not vice versa (illustrated by an example from Euripides where the word accents change according to the melody). 474 The Hellenistic tendency to indulge in form at the expense of content can be sensed here, but as men tioned, Dionysius still holds firm on the principle of appropriateness 475 S tyle and composition (e.g. word choice and order) expressive ) of what is described in words as he sets out to 473 He goes into more detail about this in the following sections of the treatise, illustrating the mimetic function of lingual sound and rh yhthmical patterns with regard to ethos especially in Homer. The harder task is, of course, to show how musical sound through its parameters can reflect ethos, something Dionysius does not explore. He relies on Theophrastus who in his work On Style disting uished words according to beauty and ethos; this reference is included in Fortenbaugh 535, Theophr. fr. 688; no direct text from this work survives. 474 See Anderson 1994, 123 124 about the problem of the historical accurateness in comments of Hellenistic cr itics on classical authors. 475 This is discussed further in Comp. 20; c f. similar Arist. Rh. 3.7.1 pathos, ethos, and content need t o be in agreement; Cic. Orat. 21.70 74

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262 Ody s sey (11. 593 597): all parameters of speech work together in order to reflect in sound the envisioned image. 476 Here the argument could seem somewhat inconsistent, as already observed in eristics However, in order to express negative ethos (e.g. harsh, painful, mean, etc.) within the context of an epic poem or a dramatic action, style or music are requi red to put on these same negative characteristics. Now, such a negative but properly expressed ethos cannot be enjoyable in the original sense (graceful, sweet etc.). Can a piece of literature or music be dignified if it properly expresses the lack of dig nity as prescribed by a story line or context? A solution might be expected along the lines of the Aristotelian catharsis but the author does not move in that direction. When he discusses later ), but they are seen positively within the general tone of the whole and golden mean between the austere and the polished one s receives the greatest praise We are led to assume that what counts is the overall positive impression of balance and reconciled contrasts Dionysius offers some valuable reflections about the concept of enjoyment and beauty in art by spelling out cr melody, rhythm, variety, and propriety. That last principle confirms the idea of the 476 Homer composed his text exactly with such criteria in mind; what we can learn from this analysis is how the ancients ideated on the level of language, which sheds some light on how it might have been conceived for music.

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263 pyramid demanding congruence between form, content, context, and pathos (the emotional reaction caused in the soul) Even though text should adjust to melody in some formal parameters (accent, length of vowels, etc.), the melody as a whole, however, just as in rhythm, needs to reflect the ethos presented by the text. In contrast with Plato, no particular ethos is promoted except for the overall balance and nobility of the final product in order to be enjoyable and beautiful. All humans possess by nature the ability to recognize and feel ethos within music or speech whether it has been effectively conveyed or n ot. Hippocrates It might seem strange to insert Hippocrates (or rather, a piece from the Corpus Hippocraticum) at this point, especially since it interrupts the chronology of the authors presented but there is a little passage in De victu (1.18) 477 which f its neatly into an aspect that we have just dealt with in Dionysius. The unknown author 478 draws a comparison between the delight music where he makes the point that the best harmony 479 comes from the grea test variety while the least variety produces the worst harmony ; so the greatest delight ( ) comes from the greatest changes and varieties. 480 We have here the rare case 477 Text: Jones 1931, 254 257. Barker (GMW 2.458 n. 1) quotes music, but its point is that variety and good tuning are important ingredients for this; I do not see any denial of other (such as educational) functions that music could have since they are just not addressed. 478 Authorship is discussed in Jones 1931, xlv x l v i who at xliii states Pythagorean influence; Boccadoro 2002, 115 116 treats this text as part of the Pythagorean development of an understanding of musical ethos that applies ingredien ts of particular effect just like producing a medication 479 most joined together ; v ( 1.18.5 6) 480 1.18.8 9: Likewise, a meal with everything the same would not give delight either, n or all mixed together in to one. Boccadoro 2002, 116

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264 that it is not music borrowing imagery from other senses, but the reverse happens: the imitates in discerning the sweet and the sharp, the discordant and the concordant, 481 and finds pleasure if well attuned ( ), but pain if not attuned ( ). 482 The idea of pleasing variety is not unknown t o Plato (cf. Leg. 665c) who prob ably wrote almost contemporaneously to the current text but as we have seen, he is very careful in allowing any of this tendency the popularity of which might just well be reflected in this Hippocratic text. Philostratus There is an anecdote in Life of Apollonius of Tyana (5.21) 483 in which he relates how the philosopher questions the aulos player Canus at Rhodes about what his work contains a response typical to the audience oriented approach of professional musicians. Upon denying that he can provide richness or external beauty which Apollonius suggests the listeners might desire H e then says that the aulos makes those who rejoice still merrier, heats up the lover more, and inspires the one who loves expresses the idea in these words: latino in varietate voluptas. La dissonanza il sale della musica: stemperata in giuste dosi nella valore 481 The first two terms, even though very frequent for sounds, do stem originally from taste, but the other 19). 482 ) and ) rather ( ) as usually done. The concept of pain caused by bad tuni ng is also found in Ar. Pr. 919a13 23. 483 Text: Text and tr.: Jones 2005.

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265 religious sacrifice to sing hymns. 484 In the first example, music has the force of healing or mitigating; in the remaining it increases in degree something already present. As the conversation continues, the question is posted about what it is that bestows on the aulos such power. Not its material certainly, but the music, styles, combinations, the variations of the aulos playin g, and the ethos of the harmoniai 485 all th ese resting in themselves as they wish. To this response, Apollonius adds the need of artistic skill (breath, lips, wrist, and fingers) in order to be blessed by the Muse Euterpe. This brief discourse confirms that at the time of Philostratus all different musical parameter s were considered contributing and necessary to elicit a particular effect on the listener just as Aristoxenus taught A bout the effect on the musician himself we read nothing here, but interestingly Plutarch ( An seni 5 = Mor. 786c) quotes probably the ve ry same Canus with the phrase much more than those who hear him and if people knew this they would ask him to pay for his playing instead of him being paid by them. No word is said about the reasons why these effects would come about. Obvious ly, only positive effects are mentioned, as a professional would not want to put his job in danger by displeasing or harming his audience at least not in a way they would be aware of. Musical Ethos Questioned The discussion whether music is good or bad a ccording to the levels two and three of our previous division rests on the supposition that music has an effect on human 484 485

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266 affairs. Despite some yet unresolved problems about the interface between music and the human psyche, the vast majority of writings pre served from antiquity takes the existence of such an effect for granted. Since the eighteenth century AD, there has been a so that claim s that music neither represent s nor express es anything beyond itself and hence has no meaning outside its own realm of aesthetical appreciation. 486 This view ha s a precedent in antiquity and is represented by essentially three preserved texts (apart from a few isolated expressions in other authors such as Theophrastus or Cicero that could be interpreted in similar way s ) T he oldest is short and anonymous, while the other two are adherents of the Epicurean philosophy according to which sense perception is irrational and the acoustic sense does not work in any different way than t he others 487 A review of these texts shows that they challenge nearly everything that has been said by the authors discussed up to this point. The Hibeh Fragment 488 One of the papyri found at the El Hiba in Upper Egypt contains the oldest extant criticism aga inst the ethos theory of music as part of a speech which resembles the style of the reno w ned orator Isocrates (436 338 BC) and is direct ed against an 486 See Chapter 5; the distinction is attributed especially to Leonard Meyer 19 56. 487 E.g. Wil kinson 1938, 178 180. In Plut. Non posse suaviter vivi secdundum Epicurum 13 = Mor. 1095c 1096c, it is said that the Epicureans shun music, which seems to mean more specifically that they enjoyed music performances but abhorred theoretical di scussions about it; see also below Cic. Fin. 1.21.71. Plutarch thinks that theorizing about musical issues is more exciting than the actual music. 488 Text in Grenfell/Hunt 1906 (attributes it to Hippias, contemporary of Socrates); text and comm.: West 1992b 16 23 (I am following his edition which differs from Grenfell/Hunt in some significant readings ) ; tr. and comm.: GMW 1.184 185; discussion in Anderson 1966, 147 152 (includes a tr.); Brancacci 1988 (attributes it to Alcidamas prae Aristoxenian ); Avvezz 1994 (with a good summary of the status disputationis with a detailed comm.) ; Lapini 1994 (discusses some of the assumptions of the previous authors); Neubecker 1994, 19, 131 132

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267 unidentified group of harmonikoi, apparently associated with the Damonian tradition. 489 After ridiculing th eir incompetence 490 in judging music on a more technical level since they declare not to be active musicians themselves (1 13), 491 the author addresses their claim that melodies 492 produce character such as being self and the only negative one T hese characteristics are attributed no longer to harmoniai or rhythms but to the genus ( vile to chromatic, manly to enharmo u nter argument is that some peoples who use the diatonic genus 493 are manlier than those who sing enharmonic in tragedy. He then goes on to point out the hypocrisy of his adversaries in that they criticize the professionals while their o wn performing is pathetically amate urish Pretending to be situated in the science of harmonics, they are not able to articulate anything meaningful wrong rhythm on the ir wo o den seats This comment is typical for oratori al invective, meant to further discredit the harmonikoi in order to make their theory, about which the author (at least in the ex tant text) has rather little to say, appear still less believable. He 489 Wiliamowitz Moellendorff 1921, 66 argues that Damon cannot have been dir ectly the addressee since but Barker (GMW 1.184 n. 3), in agreement with the definitions given in LSJ, interprets the term as students of the theoretical harmonic analysis, cf. also West 1992 similar Anderson 1966, 150 151, Wallace 1991, 44 n. 43, and West 1992, 248. 490 They are accused of judging at random ( ), without clearly defined criteria. 491 At least not professional ones, as they do seem to play to a certain extent, cf. 23 26. 492 the actual tune is meant, not just a pattern. 493 A s West 1992b, 20, to lines 21 rther from the enharmonic in the same direction as chromatic, so that if diatonic does not impair manliness, chromatic sense as defined by later autho rs. About the change from harmonia to genus as the principal carrier of ethos see above n. 118

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2 68 accuses them of not being ashamed of certain melodies to belong to Apollo and Dionysius respectively. 494 Satyr dancing is mentioned at the end of the fragment which accor ding to various conjectures, might have included also something about or the aulos but the text is too corrupt to draw further conclusions. argument is that experience disproves that the ethos of people preferring a s pecific melodic type has been shaped by this type. We will analyze the validity of this reasoning later together with those brought forth by Philodemus and Sextus Empiricus. Even thought the fragment issues no direct statement about good or bad on the ethi cal level, the writer voices strong opinions on the aesthetic al level but seems to discard the possibility of positive or negative musical influence on the character of human beings. Philodemus 495 From this Epicurean philosopher we preserve substantial parts from the fourth book of his work on music in which he gives an account of the doctrine on the utility of music as exposed by the Stoic Diogenes of Babylon (ca. 240 152 BC) and subsequently argues against them. 496 494 West 1992b, 22 defendin g the ethical implications against interpreting the songs as mere visualizations; similar already Anderson 1966, 151 with some interesting further points at 277 n. 10. 495 Text : Kemke 1884; more recent editions of what used to be considered book 1: Rispoli 1 968 (with It. tr. and comm.); of book 4: Neubecker 1986 (with Ger. tr. and comm.); of all: Delattre 2007 (with Fr. tr. and comm.). No English translation of this work exists as of yet (except for a few excerpts in Bychov/Sheppard 2010, 112 116). Delattre h as revolutionized scholarship by demonstrating that all remaining fragments actually belong to the same book 4 (see clxxiv clxxxiii of his introduction) Since Kemke used to be the standard point of reference until recently, I still reference according to his edition (line numbers are mostly the same in what Kemke takes for book 4). For discussion see also Wilkinson 1938 (a succinct treatment of the most im portant questions) ; Wille 1967, 432; Anderson 1966, 153 176; Halliwell 2002, 249 259 (and 280 286). 496 I have not included Diogenes as a separate author since all we know about his music theory is transmitted through Philodemus. Neubecker 1956 contains a th orough comparison of both positions

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269 tr anslated into English and none of the current anthologies on musical texts contain anything substantial from this author I thought it beneficial to present a general summary of the work 497 and in order to address the question of the value of music in it. We hear a philosopher who passionately lashes out against those who attempt to exalt the usefulness of music above philosophy and other sciences. 498 Often times he contents himself with simple denials polemics an d ridicule; 499 other times he contributes arguments of logic, ad hominem, or a reductio ad absurdum. Despite a general line of argumentative development the text is full of repetitions and cross references making the reading at times somewhat tedious The first main part of the preserved text consists in an extensive exposition of and refutes them. Many but not all of the points Diogenes puts forth remind of concepts a lready presented by other authors such as the Pythagoreans, Damon, Plato, and Aristotle. 500 We can only speculate concerning along with a critical evaluation and a schematic synopsis, still helpful despites Delattres new edition, which has brought about changes on the level of details. See also more recently Barker 2001 who especially points at the closeness to [Arist.] Pr. 19.27 with regards to the concepts of ethos, and movement, and at the same time some distance to Aristoxenus who seems to lend himself to be used rather by Philodemus for his own cause even though he is not alway s in agreement with Aristoxenus, cf. 3.76 D109. 497 I am summarizing the main traits of the seriously damaged and incomplete text as pieced together by Delattre from the Herculanean fragments and omitting most of the dubious sections. 498 The antithesis betwee n both disciplines emerges at various places, but most explicitly in 4.33 D147. 499 One needs to be a bit cautious whether the representation of the ideas he proposes as to be rejected are correct, since he tends to push them to an extreme that obvioiusly wi ll appear exaggerated; as an Anderson 1966, 167). 500 For a thorough comparison between what seems to emerge from Philodemus as the position of Diogenes and Philodemus himself with Plato and Aristotle see Anderson 1966, 154 176. We will only (ibid. 172 173 & 284 n. 53, confirming Neubecker 1956) that Dioge nes maintained a theory of everyone will be moved in the same way

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270 simply wished to acclaim music for its manifold service or tried to defend it against people like Ph ilodemus wh o protested against the privileg ed status that music seemed to enjoy in society, education, and even some currents of philosophy. Diogenes of Babylon about the usefulness of music, as presented by Philodemus Music serves pedagogically to establi sh a harmony between the different parts of the soul, like gymnastics does with the body (1.8 D8). Melody and rhythm correspond to modes with their own relation to passions (D9). Music serves for leisure ( ) (1.4 D12) the pursuit and safekeeping of virtue ( ) (1.5 D13) can stimulate through to the exercise of specific virtues such as manliness ( ) and courage moderation ( ) , and order ( ) (D1 4) 501 The joy and pleasure ( ) music provides moves to good things (D16). All people enjoy rhythm and melody without need of instruction (1.7 D17). Music helps children to develop sensitivity (1.8 D 18). Damon is quoted for asserting that music brings f orth virtues and pleasure 502 in children who become more manly, moderate, and just. 503 Music is universal and exerts its influence even before the age of reason (1.15 D25) ; beyond what gymnastics and painting have to offer for what is useful ( ), it aim s at beauty par excell e nce a strongly aesthetical category (1.16 D27). Within the about which modern musi c therapy can shed more light. 501 C f. similar 1.9 D 20 mentioning magnificence ( ) (conjecture), moderation, manliness, cowardice ( ) lack of discipline ( ) ugliness/evil ( ) which music can strengthen, but under the condition that they are already pre existent in the human person this sounds more like that limitation is placed by Philodemus himself and not by Diogenes. See also 1.13 D22 with the 502 503 Cf. 3. 77 (DK 37 B4) D22.7 15/ D100.37 45 B oth places quote virtues similar to those mentioned in P Hib. 1.13.14 n. 145 Delattre restores the virtues in forms of comparatives, not nouns as Kemke has it.

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271 context of a historical review, Diogenes says that laws prohibiting innovation have long mu sical harmony and rhythm use in order to live in a good or (1.12 D32) and train good habits (1.20 D33) Reflections follow about what is natural (innate) or acquired scientifically and subject to education and there is a differe nce beween what causes pleasure ( ) or pain ( ) (1.21 D34) pleasurable means (cf. 1.11 D34.37 45). A melody can change the state of a soul into its opposite or incr ease or decrease its disposition (1.22 D36). Scenarios and negative experiences (apparently excesses: ) in theater music are discussed (1.24 D37). Then he gives a n account of the usages of music: worship, education of children (1.23 D38) love a nd marriage, war, gymnastics, and competitions (1.25 D39), 504 choral and dramatic dances (1.26 D40), and work 505 Music has influence on both soul and body (1.27 D 41 ) ; apparently in this context the famous story about the aulos changing the charac ter of an ado lescent is told (D 42) ; 506 positive and problematic role in human love is discussed, as employed by several musicians (Agathon, Democritus, and Timotheus are mentioned explicitly) (1.28 D43) and then its place in the symposia (1.29 D46), promoti ng friendship and benevolence and bringing about reconciliation (with reference to Terpander and Stesichorus) (1.30 D47) He then 504 Delattre has here a reading significantly different from Rispoli who thinks that the first secti on (in Delattre: love and marriage) deals with general considerations about art. 505 ( Aulos motivation of those who would move the rocks and other things; music makes work easier. 506 This refers to either Pythagoras or Damon, cf. above nn. 125 and 155

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272 explains how different melodies are offered to honor different divinities and that music is useful for the intelligence ; he i s referring here rather to the harmonic theory than to actual musical sound (1.31 D48). 507 A section follows in which the position of Heraclides Ponticus (4 th century BC, Platonic school) 508 about musical ethos is presented: melodies can be fitting or not soft/ effeminate ; the general utility of music for any area of life and or many virtues is re ability to calm pe ople and animals down particularly in (political) upheavals, discord, or disorder whereby he quotes Archilochus that any mortal being is charmed by song (1.32 D49). A paraphrase from Plato follows (Leg. 6 69b 670a ) about erroneous or unfitting ethical at tributions of music within the context of including the problem of determining the ethos of music without text (1.1 D51.15 52.3). Philodemus about the uselessness of music, except for pleasure At this point, ac c ording to Delattre Philodemus begins his refutat 509 After some reflections about the role of music in the State (3.3 D56), negative effects of music are mentioned in the context of the cult 507 Rispoli 1969, 231 and Delattre 200 (Resp. 531a) had not exclude the considering and useful (Resp. 531c) but certainly for the sake of the good and beautiful ( / ), not as a vehicle to become more intelligent. Regardless, in the present argument, intelligence seems to be achieved by means of the reasoning in mathematical speculation about music, Ban gerter/Heath 2004 (against). 508 The attribution of these points to him results from the later reference at D137 and is somewhat reflected in Ath. 624c e. 509 w arrangement is not in every case convincing, but I have refrained from the attempt of an alternative proposal given that this is not the purpose of the present study. Afterwards follows what since Kemke had been called book 4 in unchanged sequence. The f irst part is much less complete than the second.

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273 of Dionysus and ( conjecture) Cybele: exaggeration in greatness, rushed tone and rhythm to the effect of disturbance, terror and irrationality ( 3.6/2 D59.1 12) Then he begins to argue against the traditional evaluation of musical ethos, e.g. that in view of sweetness in voice, 510 tone, melody, and rhythm, what is relaxe d ( or that what is simple and not sweet should be thoughtful ( ) all of this he dismisses as an error of words or homonymy and confusion of terms (3.7 8, 22 D60 61) 511 Music does not instill m od eration ( ) or chastity because the virgin Muses are its patronesses -much more should then the art of weaving be associated with these virtues since the virgins Athena and Artemis are its patronesses (3.10 D63); the case of Agamemnon entrusting his wife to a poet 512 does not prove that music makes a person more virtuous because he could just be a wise r man music does not belong to the discourse about moderation and what is fitting and what not (3.11 D65). Several tradi t ionally assumed functions of m usic are denied or played down: to induce Bacchic trance (3.12 13 D66 67), emotional arousal in war (except for signals and battle cries), assemblies, competitions, funerals, etc. (3.14 15 D 68 69) ; witnesses for his affirmations are dismantled for not proving what he wants them to prove ( 3.19, 16 17 D71 73 ) Philodemus discards claims that dance originates from the 510 which does not seem to fit in the context. 511 According to Anderson 1966, 155 157, this is the argument with the most weight in the whole treatise: tra cking the metaphorical (and then ethical) attribution from an originally technical description of musical the harmoniai from ethnical characteristics. 512 Cf. Hom. Od. 3.266 268; cf. about the point Delattre 2007, 385 n. 3. The argument is dealt with also in Sext. Emp. Mus. 10 & 20 although his point is that the poet should have been able to correct (or perhaps first control) the passions of Clytemnestra, not so much the integrity of the poet, which is usually the way this passage is interpreted.

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274 desire to exercise the body and good manners ( 3.20 D74), but holds instead that it stems from an instinctive excitement, driven by the visual beauty of rhythmic movement ( 3.21 D75) Musical compositions (harmonia, rhythms, etc.) are not arranged, as some claim, according to parts of the soul (stable, emotional enthusiastic, 513 moderate serious) ( 3.23 24 D76 77 .12 ). He rejects t he analogy between music and soul on the one hand and gymnastics as beneficial for the body on the other and he denies the idea that music move s (e.g. softens) the affections better than other things ( 3.25 27 D77 .34 78 .45 ) Music can cure neither the bod y nor the soul, even if it relieves some pain; it does not ba or shape character traits ( 3.28 30, 36 D79 80 ) thus he dismisses Theophrast us deliberation that music might bring about virtue or the opposite ; also the theory that mus ic incites to be without proof ( 3.35, 33 D81) His own thesis is that all music serves relaxation ), denying, then, that music is mimetic ; he finds Theophrast us oul contra d ictory ( 3.32, 37 D82) 514 That exercise and food make the body healthy does not mean that music must make the soul virtuous (or the opposite); irrational things (music) cannot produce a rational moral disposition better than the art of cooking ( 3. 39, 31 D83) 515 If music leads to virtue, as philosophy does, then Philodemus, by being a philosopher should also be a musician 513 Anderson 1966, 158 detects here a school tradition different from Plato or Aristotle according to which gularly attends upon ethical habituation by means 514 These sections are translated as Theophr. fr. 720 and 721a in Fortenbaugh 1992 2.574 577. 515 Halliwell 2002, 251 n. 37 notes a contrary opinion b y another Epikurean, Lucretius, who refers to an effect on the mind: (1390).

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275 which he is not ( 3.48 49 D84); 516 music is not the theoretical science about fitting or unfitting melodies hence it is philosoph y that educates through music ( 3.50 D85 .1 16 ) 517 P reviously drawn restrictions on learning music are questioned ( 3.45 46, 38 D85 .30 86) Music does not necessarily cause virtue ( 3.41 43 D87 .29 88) and does not belong more to a serious context than to enjoym ent ; Philodemus rejects the idea that affections ( ) like manliness ( ) work on virtues like courage ( ) and that brings about virtue and then music and also cannot inflate affections or put them back in order hence, musical contrary to other arts, is i neffecti ve in the education of children ; music serves no better than food and perfume for enjoyment ( ), love ( ), and rejoice ( ) properly in what is good /beautiful therefore there is no need to teach children music, even less than other arts, for i t does not change their affections ( 3.44, 51, 52, 59, 55, 53, 54. 58 D89 9 2 ) ; music does not lead to virtue by the natural enjoyment ( ) it provides ( 3.62 D94 .29 44 ) ; rhythm and melody are not the means to making the impulse towards virtue stronger ( 3.63 D95 .1 20 ). Then follows the refutation of the ability of harmoniai to produce trance, calm after divine ecstasy, or to chase away terrifying thoughts: divine submersion and text not musical elements such as specific instruments, have these effects or lead out of such states no irrational sound can change a terrible or mental illness ( 3.64 66, 57, 67 D95 .29 9 7 .45 ) Specific characteristics are attributed to 516 Anderson 1966, 155 thinks that Philodemus admits here, similar to Plato, that he is no expert on music. The context suggests, h owever, that this is less a humble recognition of a personal limitation than saying that it is not necessary for a philosopher to know music because it does not play a role in determining ethos. 517 (2007, 161: is rather imprecise) can hardly philosophy that edu cates wich music can a vehicle but elsewhere he even denies that music can make the effect of the text stronger (4.10 D124 1 28).

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276 musical patterns with no more reason than to food and drinks which differ in nature ( 3.72, 68 D98). Philodemus then considers poetry as the first form of wis dom and poets as the first people of wis dom ( 3.73 D 101 .35 45 ) Returning to music, he mentions that the enharmonic (genus) is considered beautiful and amazing ( 3.74 D 106); music does not beget progress in education and intelligence just because the poem is monotonous; it is a lie that music is useful for ethos ( 3.78 D 107) Aristoxenus was wrong in saying that vision and hearing are the most divine senses; music prepares a child for courage, but does not incite it to courageous acts ( 3.76 D t accept and cherish beauty because it has been habituated to it by music; 518 legislators about music act acco r ding to other interest s not because some melodies were harmful; understanding what is harmonious or not, or good rhythm, does not contribute to ed ucation or to the virtuous life any more than the understanding of spice or of what smells good ( 3.75 D 112) 519 The rebuttal continues b y asserting that n o music en g enders D15.8 1 2 ) Perception is non rational and in all people the same, just as all agree whether something produces pleasure or the contrary (4.1B 2 D15. 35 116.5) 520 He continues: a ny further judgment differs according to opinion ( ) as can be seen by the diverging judgments about the enharmonic and chromatic genera 521 S ome 522 would call the one august simple 518 This is directed against Pl. Resp. 402d. 519 Here ends what used to be considered the fragments from books 1 and 3. The text following is less fragmentary and hence notably more continuous and consistent. 520 Philodemus does not further prove this thesis, which could be questioned easily. 521 Just like the Hibeh fragment, not the harmonia but the genus is the matter of ethical attr ibution. See about this above n. 118

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277 e un fitting for free men), while others would call the first austere I n other words, the positive or negative in the musical sound, be it genus (as explained), rhythm, or melodic composition (4.2 D 116.5 38 ). M usic despite its many forms ( ), will never produce ethos (4.2 D11 6 38 44 ) or exact knowledge about perception 523 No melody arouses a disposition, 524 nor does any ushing soul nor does it turn the soul away from an impulse towards another, 525 nor does it augment or lessen an existing disposition. 526 Music is neither mimetic nor has it mimetic similarities to ethos ( 4.3 D117 .2 6 27), 527 nor is it 522 opposing view to the Platonists without being able to provide an alternative; the concl uding position, according to her, is the one of Philodemus himself, which is indeed the most convincing solution. 523 Plato rejects in Resp. 522a the concept of for the discipline of music as taught to the guardians in the early stages of education. 524 D117.15: Neubecker 1986, 129 believes that this expression refers to the soul, which is supposed to be brought back into its natural state; this does not convince because, according to the Pythagorean therapy, the soul can be in either state and in need of being changed, but this change occurs according to a melody that carries the desired ethos in its own nature. 525 D117.19 20: 526 D117 .21 These rejected theses are presented already earlier (1.22 D36); cf. Neubecker 1986, 129 and Rispoli 1969, 163 166. 527 likenesses ( ) of showing without doubt all qualities of see Anderson 1966, 164 165: depend on how exactly musical was thought to work. Philodemus might be attacking the idea of 213 ).

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278 capable of display ing 528 ordered/moderate The claim that music can express these traits are reduced ad absurdum by saying that it can a s much as cookery (4.3 D117 .28 35). 529 Next Philodemus undertakes a full scale attack against the usefulness of music in different fields : f irst its role in religious worship where music fails to bring any advantage to the gods or to men unless in some simp le r fashion, occasionally, and relegated only to a few Greek professionals other (unnamed) practices have become much more prominent for worship ( 4.4 5 D118 .2 119 .12 ; cf. 1.23 D38 ) He observes a similar withdraw a nly recited), weddings and funerals (only the text matters), 530 epithalamia (have almost disappeared), and the development of love in general (neither music nor poetry foster s it) (4.5 6 D119 .13 120. 26). The only real contribution of music to competitions is dance adds any beauty or nobility. 531 Against an alleged benefit towards nobility, About this argument see also Wilkinson 1938, 176 who suggests that Philodemus m ay have applied this Laws 669c). 528 See the discussion of this term in Halliwell 2002, 256 emphasizes the distinctio cum ex 529 Anderson 1966, 282 n. 35 gathers older references for cookery (Ar. Ach. 1015; Pl. Resp. 332c; Arist. Pol. 1255b25 26; Eth. Nic. 1153a26), though none of these is an ironical comparison as here. Philodemus brings it up in similar ways quite frequently but it is certainly unwarranted and cannot claim argumentative force without further examination. The discussion so far covers a range of slightly different points: music as possessing ethos, imitating ethos, expressing ethos creating or changing ethos, all rejected. The only real argument is the one about contradictory assertions regarding the ethos of tonal genus. 530 Anderson 1966, 163 notes a contradiction in Philodemus when he speaks about intensified sorrow through threno dies however, the author clearly states that he is talking about an effect of the text, 531 D121.7 8: About ethos and dance in Philodemus see Rispoli 2007.

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279 moderation, and order he suspects that music education could actually become very dangerous and engender intemperance and disorde r in Ba cchic rites (4.7 D121.11 22). 532 to action 533 since it the strength for manual labor (rowing, mowing, etc.) for which it simply adds pleasure and a llevia tes distraction the same applies to the charm stories mentioned earlier T hen Philodemus challenges the affirmation that melody can influence not only the soul but also the body : his question about perform his art more accurately is keenly asked and penetrates the center of the whole issue of musical effectivity (4.8 9 D122 123) 534 may just be due to some delight for the ear or it could be explaine d by the solemn context o r music could even be counterproductive to the text 28). The appreciation of music by the ancients and the common people or its derivation from the Muses should not be an argument for an educated person and les s for a 535 what is profitable is the poetic text which made music admirable; music on its own contributes only delight ( ), for what really matters (4.11 D125). 532 If this argument is not meant ironically (which is quite possible), one would not see why Philodemus does not admit positive but only negative effecs, thus jeopardizing his claim that music is without effect. 533 D121.24 already above 1.27 D41.17 28 including the next argument. 534 He does so on different levels: logic ( one would rather first expect music to influence bodies than the soul), fact (the body is moved to sing: singing does not move the body), and the examples chosen (the one regarding the soul would fit better for the body and vice versa). 535 Philodemus rejects justly the simple argumentum ad verecundiam ; but he then commits a similar fallacy in claimin g that the rejection by later times should overrule the acceptance in earlier times for on what grounds would later times possess a better judgment? Time in itself is no argument either.

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280 Music cannot improve the mental state affected by wine, and Philodemus asks how it could instill virtue and educate young or adult people (4.12 D126). 536 Philodemus moves on to deal with music and love. Reasonable speech or poetry is able to ei ther correct or incite improper or harmful erotic behavior, while melody is : it cannot be classified to fit different sorts of love, is un or to provoke in men and women bad sexual acts or womanishness in blooming adolescents, or to console in unhappy love (the most it does is distract like alcohol or sexual pleasures, or worse: incite in a bad way) (4.13 15 D127 129). Turning to the symposia, Philodemus admits that music has a place ther e but it is not even the best entertainment, especially since the participants are lay musicians; again, the texts and the better poets matter most, not music as such (4.16 17 D130 131 ); and while listening to music can provide enjoyment, 537 melodies and rh ythms do not foster amiab i l ity or friendship ; Philodemus rejects similarly the stories about Thaletas Terpander Stesichorus, and Pindar and their musical peace making because conflicts are caused by ideas which melodies, like eating and being without re ason ( ) cannot influence other than through some amusement ( ) (4.18 20 D132 .1 13 4.27 ) That the multitudes honor the gods through music is rejected since the gods despise the common people because they regard them as ignorant of proper worship w hich is brought about through poems with melody only as an addition 536 He says that adults count as educated if they learned music, but For an explanation of the somewhat difficult but interesting passage see Neubecker 1986, 147 148. 537 He actually vacilates between retracting this statement shortly after attributing the effect of relaxing and cheering up to thoughts only ( D132 .16 19), and then again admitting the possibility for music as well (D132.24 25).

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281 ; much less are particular melodies dedicated to each divinity (4.20 21 D134.28 135.2 3 ). 538 Concerning the more philosophical aspects o f training the intellect music theory has no thing superior to other arts or sciences (4.21 22 D135.23 136.9); Philodemus dismisses that melodies or rhythms possess any ( moral or aesthetic) value ( or ) or convey critical judgment something proper rather to the philosophers (4.22 D136.1 0 27) A n analogy of music with poetry regarding is rejected and regarding invention declared insignificant ; an analogy with linguistics ( ) 539 with regards to acting is admitted for shrewdness and understanding but again not more than in ot her disciplines; at any rate, music must not be considered philosophy (4.22 23 D136.27 137.27). Philodemus now resumes summarizing his (not preserved) rejection of me He refutes in particular that music could promote justice 540 b ecause of the rational nature of a cost benefit judgment and because justice would befit a musician not more than another craftsman, and lastly because music is not by nature in agreement with or against law while following the 538 This last point does not mean that nobody ever assigned specific melodies to the gods (which would just be false, cf. ps. Plut. Mus. 7.1133d about nomoi dedicated to the go ds), but the idea is probably that none of this melodies would intrinsically be connected to a divinity. 539 Neubecker 1986, 171 assumes that the science about language is meant here, not the general Hellenistic concept of Spr ach und Literaturwissenschaft. 540 For a discussion of the different views of between Stoics (for whom it is a teachable moral virtue) and Epicureans (who consider it more a sort of contract) and the implications for the relationship to education and hence to music see Neubecker 1986, 177.

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282 laws of music has nothing to do with the State laws 541 T here is no need then, to learn music for virtue, neither for few nor for all which is proven by those who did not learn music for virtue with Socrates 542 as an implicit witness (4.23 25 D137.27 139.31). Useful are thoughts, not melodies and rhythms which might actually distract from the content of the words (4.26 D140.4 14). The section which Delattre classifies as the conclusion of the work 543 begins with Philodemus defending himself against adversaries who call him uneducated ( ) that music alone (melodies, rhythms, types of instruments and harmoniai) cannot lead 544 or move the passion s because these elements are only a coating around what really matters, the tex t. He quotes Cleanthes 545 saying that music (meters, melodies, rhythms) bestows on speech and he then objects, like earlier that honest ly one would have to say that the effect is at th e most equal for text and melody, but probably less with melody because of pleasure and distraction due to the greater and particular sounds, the unnatural diction, the context of the performance and other causes any sung advice or consolation would just be ridiculous (4.26 28 D140.14. 142.45). The general uselessness of melody and rhythm 541 to Plato in support seems unwarranted; to the contrary, Plato holds views strongly opposed to many of his arguments; cf. Neubecker 1986, 177 178. 542 He learned music only in old age (cf. P l. Euthydemus 272c; Quint. 1.10.12; Val. Max. 8.7.8). 543 It seems to me that there is no noticable break here within a continuous flow of arguments; a formal conclusion comes only at the very end. 544 l music based on the observation that it is hard to determine any ethos without text (Leg. 669e and paraphrased by Philodemus himself earlier). 545 Cleanthes of Assos (331 For t his phrase I follow Kemke and Neube cker against Delattre in considering it a quote from Cleanthes, which seems to me more convincing in view of the overall argument.

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283 independent of the degree of education or professionality is confirmed; all usefulness comes from conceptual content ( ) (4.29 D143). 546 Philodemus now addresses the theory of the harmony of the spheres. He states on things which otherwise idea of r elating virtue or character to these distances is untenable ; there is no reason for music to get involved in astronomy for which it is not required (4.30 31 D144 145) 547 Neither musicians nor listeners nor composers show the bad expressions that certain mel odies allegedly provoke, and ethos changes 548 through mimetic voice or rhythm are no more possible than through perceptions of smell and taste ( that is, not at all ) (4.32 33 D146 147.11). The claim that music is universally ( ) 549 useful is rejected with the argument that other respond to actual need s while music only provides enjoyment naturally Considerations follow (textually corrupt) about the utility of music education, including a refere nce to Damon; for Philodemus, the high esteem for music in Athens and all of Greece does not count since many bad things ( ) receive honor as well (without that examples are given) and philosophy, without receiving prices at 546 This last idea rests on text reconstruction of lines 39 perhaps more probab le, gives a very different sense (confirming a definition of music as music/rhythms 547 This is again at variance to Plato, cf. Resp. 530d: astronomy as counter part ( ) to harmony. 548 Whether the examples Philodemus gives here (see in the table below) possess positive or negative connotation is not fully clear. Neubecker 1986, 192 already in Plato (ther negative (for it affects also t he ) the softening towards compassion positive. 549 The meaning of th is expression can be understood in different ways. functions/applications that we have laid out e arlier; that these functions mostly accompany other activities and enhance them on a predominantly psychological level makes it easy for Philodemus to proclaim the absence of usefulness in view of a particular practical necessity.

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284 competitions, would have to be depreciated. At any rate, the strong praise for music rests on what it accompanies ( i.e. the text) (4.33 34 D147 .11 148.22). About the origin of music Philodemus rejects the widespread tradition of the divine invention and transmission to humanity in f avor of a simple human development I f it came from reason the so did all the other sciences there is no reason to treat music in particular. He refers to stories such as Athena the aulos and concludes: god is no musician. Consequently, music has nothing to do with piety, as gods do not rejoice in musical worship (which then would also justify human sacrifices of the Barbarians) 550 and at the most enjoy it fo r the same reasons as humans do; similarly there are no good reasons (poetic testi monies do not count) why the ancient hero e s should have practiced music (4.34 36 D148.23 150.8). Mus i c i ans are by no means special people, and if a great person ever did perform, it was for enjoyment. According to Democritus, 551 music is more recent (than ot her sciences) 552 and arose not from necessity but out of an already existing abundance; 553 but even if music were old, this might actually mean that music 550 text restauration of D149.26 ( against Kemke/Neubecker who read ; Christian criticism against the thought that gods could be moved, appeased, or awakened by music is also voiced in Arn. Adv. nat. 7.32. About A thena see Chapter 3, n. 229 551 This passage has been included as fragment in DK 68 B144. 552 Cf. similar Lucr. 5.334; 5.1379 1417 recounts the invention of music by imitating the birds within an already developed agricultural se Epicurean perspective is illucidated by Buchheit 1984. 553 As Anderson 1966, 154 & 279 n. 19 points out, Democritus mentions music elsewhere (DK 68 B179), along with grammar and sport, as origin of virtue ( ) and (self )respect/dignity ; ), hence according to him it is not quite useless as Philodemus wants him to have it; Polybius (see above) offers an illustration for this point. Anderson (ibid.) refers to Pl. Res p. 373b where a bulk of musical professionals are considered dispensable for his State but one would have to consider that they represent only one side of the matter; for Plato, the proper type and application of music has very much value as we have seen In general we can observe that Philodemus uses his witnesses in a quite selective way (see on this also Anderson 1966, 165 166). Democritus is quoted by Stobaeus along with

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285 more reasonable and foc used on what is useful (4.36 37 D150.8 151.8). To conclude, Philodemus ) those who, having nothing better to do, take up the toil of learning music instead of going to public performances ; for the small pleasure it brin gs is not worth the effort and keeps people from greater things ; in addition our nature does not suffer music that lasts long Any many other pursuits, includ ing unprofita ble toils, and is valid much more for competitors than for music theorists ( ); musical contributions at symposia are not always appreciated; the exercise of learning music theory, hard to understand, keeps one from ) an Epicurean core virtue He finishes with a justification for the length of his work, given the reputation of those who advance the se ideas and the multitude of people who believe them (4.37 38 D151.8 152.42). The question whe ther music has value This is not the place to review or comment on the whole discussion of the usefulness of music; what we can see in Philodemus is especially the arguments about why music might actually not be responsible for many or any positive or nega tive effects In general, he does not accept the attribution of musical features to ethos, neither in a positive ( fitting ) nor in a negative ( i n convenient harmful ) way he points at contradictory assignments suspects terminological equivocity, and marks a blatant lack of proof for the effectiveness of music towards such dispositions or actions W hat others Plato to have taught that consists in v , , and (DK 68 A 167)

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286 believe music is or does by its own nature is usually confused with the effect of the text (or context) to which musical sound is attached : as a philo sopher, Philodemus is convinced of the strength (and moral value) of ideas, not of sensitive perceptions. Music is not more than an accident to text and can even be counterproductive and distracting from grasping the essential content so rather than disc riminating between specific types of music, Philodemus seems to suggest staying away from it altogether, at least in education Furthermore, Philodemus denies any correspondence between (parts of) the soul and musical characteristics, or between music and the cosmos, thus obliterating the whole Pythagorean Platonic system of world harmony on the grounds that there is no evidence for the interconnectedness between soul (or body), music, and the movement of the celestial bodies. He equally dismisses the ethic al or affective function of The only effect Philodemus admits for music alone is that it provides enjoyment, delight relaxation or le i sure and, for that may reduce some pain or make things easier None of this would be reason enough, though, for a freeman to engage in any serious musical education or practice which should be left to the professionals who alone will spare people the deplorable dilettantism as displayed by would be musicians at the symposia There lies no political relevance in fo llowing musical laws something that Damon and Plato were so concerned about. 554 arguments will shed further light on the question of the influence of music on the human soul or psyche, be it temp orary or lasting, and the origin of the commonly assumed relationship between 554 Anderson 1966, 175 thought, even as th e broader Platonic approach serves to reveal any narrowness on the part of

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287 music and ethos. Philodemus admits that his position goes against a majority, but his conviction of the superiority of philosophy gives him enough confidence to maintain his stan d. Notwithstanding the belligerent tone of his tirade against the promotors of music, the task remains to evaluate to what degree he is objectively right in separating music from ethos. Is all the talk about music moving the soul no more than confused proj ection, a fallacious transfer of causality from reason to sound? One serious psychological anthropology: human ethos, decisions, and actions do not solely depend on reason; he understimates the importance of emotions and semi or subrational dispositions and the influence of music upon them ; as modern psychology confirm s ; 555 similarly the relationship between music and intelligence or understanding is much more complex than the way Philodemus seems to see it ( certainly he has only the limited knowledge of his time, but he himself is also limited by the Epicurean materialistic approach to epistemology ) However, r egardless of the debate about true or fals e assumptions concerning the general utility of music here generally understood as the combination of melody and rhythm, but at times also the study of music theory we are able to distill from his text the following positive or negative effects that music could have mostly according to the positions whic h Philodemus rejects A p ositive would be the c reating of harmony in the soul, the instilling of virtue and ethos ( in particular : manliness, courage, moderation, order, magnificence, justice nobility, earnestness simplicity, purity ), sensitivity (especia lly for beauty) critical judgment and the enhancement of intelligence all of which suggest the employment of music in education with the additional advantage of 555 To some extent this deficiency is quite obvious H e goes against all common sense when he denies that musi

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288 its pleasantness facilitating the acquisition of these positive characteristics F urther positive effects could be the following : physical or psychological healing, the change of one general state of the soul into another (e.g. from excitement to calm and vice versa) or strengthening an existing one, the promotion of friendship and the resolut ion of conflicts or love issues through creating calm, inspiring better artistic performance ( e.g. in painting), adding solemnity divine greatness, or incitement to text, honor to the gods and piety and finally chastity The n egative effects of music wou ld be the the vices of unmanliness, vulgarity, cowardice lack of discipline, intemperance, sexual stimulation rashness, harshness, ugliness Dionysian disturbance, terror, and irrationality distraction from the text, and finally the failure of pursuing true happiness Since Philodemus reje cts the notion of musical value, we do not learn anything from him about how these effects, if they did exist against his own judgment, would come about. For this question we need to turn to other authors. One last insig ht stems from another of his works: 556 He says there tha t human which does not need to be learned. statement supports his ad versity toward music education but stands in some contrast to his general thesis of mus 557 556 De Poematis 2.47, quoted from Anderson 1966, 173; cf. Arist. Pol. 1340b17 18 who speaks of our with harmonies (meaning melodies) and rhythms The five books of this work of Philodemus are p ublished separately in different editions; for a full bibliography (until 2006) see http://www.herculaneum.ox.ac.uk/?q=books (accessed on January 15, 2013). 557 A generally more balanced approach is ta ken by Aristoxenus as his remark in Harm. 31.17 32.9 seems to show despite some exegetical difficulties, cf. Barker 2007, 251 259 and above the section on Aristoxenus.

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289 Sextus Empiricus 558 In book 6 of his work Adversus mathematicos, this Skeptic (Pyrrhonist) philosopher and medical doctor from the end of the second cen tury AD Sextus Empiricus takes on the musicians in order to challenge the teaching of music. Even though he never mentions his name, it is probable that he knows and draws from Philodemus who had taken a very similar position 559 His exposition is much short er, less polemical, and adds some points that do not appear in the text that remains from Philodemus. I will not analyze all of the work but only the aspects and sections related to our topic; at the same time, I will assemble the main argument s and their refutation together even though for the most part they are presented separately in the text (arguments: 6 14; refutation: 15 27 ) To begin with a general objection against the ethical impact of a specific melos on the soul : Sextus says that people only asc ribe such an effect to music in their own arousing ( ) for horses but not for men in a theater, or it may also be disturbing ( ) for horses (15) 560 This argument raises the key issue of whether musical et hos is subjective or (at least to some degree) universal and here he claims 558 Text and tr. : Bury 19 61; Greaves 1986 (the probably best critical edition and footnote commentary available) ed (but with reduced footnotes) in Strunk 1998 95 109. In the referenes I follow the numbering of Greaves, which differs from the Bury (Loeb edition). 559 Neubecker 1986, 185 186 revises an earlier opinion of hers (1956, 83) and adopts on the basis of numerous literal similarities the position of dependence; similar the introduction to the translation in Strunk 1998, 94 95. 560 The sense of this could be that the same tune is for some horses exciting, for others disturbing, or it may have this contrary effect at different moments to the same horses. Plutarch mentions the effect on horses see the table below.

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290 that, if anything, it would be conventional, a product of the human mind but not intrinsic to music. v which m oderate human life and restrain the along with the famous anec d o t al example about Pythagoras (6 7). 561 Next he illustrates the alleged i nvigorating function of music in ba ttle (Sparta; under Solon), of turning cowards to manliness, and the opposite of calming anger (Achilles) (8 9). He objects in a similar way as Philodemus, that all music does distract the mind like a drug without actually changing anything, since the mind reverts to the previous state after the melody ceases (16) which seems to allow some space for at least a temporary effect He continues that t he Pythagoras example would attribute to a musician more power over ethos than to a philosopher for Sextus certainly an untenable conclusion (17). He rejects t he war examples and the relief from toil of work, previously not mentioned, distracting effect (18) nation in that he was amorous ( (19) ; 562 with this, Sextus inverts the argument: it is not (certain) music that stimulates love or intemperance as Plato would have it (Resp. 411a 412b), but the possession of such vices attracts to such music an argument made else where (cf. the case of Paris, see p. 41 ). The 563 should not 561 See above nn. 154 and 155 562 Th is interpretation r as Greaves (n. 67) points out well, goes quite counter current Plut. Mus. 39.1145d 40.1145f); quite opposite also AQ 2.10 74.14 18 563 He says she invited the suitors in,

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291 have happened if the music these two women were exposed to had corrected their passions (20) We must note that t his is not more than a straw man argument, as if the mere presence of a singing bard should be an insurance against any possible wrongdoing, or as against any fault that could serve as a proof against any possible (positive) effect of music. A nother argument, that a wise man ( ) resembles a musician, having a that for being learned one should know music, even if one does so only at old age like Socrates (11) is rejected because music is not necessary for as the trustworthy followers of Euripides show (21) In a way, this is an argumentum ad verecundiam (from authority) and says nothing about why music should not contribute to happiness. The point itself aims deeper, though, because Plato did see mu sic in the context of the pursuit of happiness. 564 A further point brought forth by the p r omoters of music is that t he dignity ancient music should not be discredited because of which weakens the mind 565 (12) ; Sextus does not bring forth counter arguments against this. Then i n the context of the discussion of the usefulness of music for poet ry, expressing joy, and worship, music is said to turn the mind towards good things and bring about consolation and relief for the grieving (13 14). Against the consoling effect he writes in paragraph 16 564 Cf. Leg. 660e 661c, see above n. 223 565 considered what might see his n. 49) but I prefer a term that does not associate only with the emotional sphere since ethos also has an intellectual side.

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292 (see above), but since he has said earlier that poet ry, dealing with the mind, is useless or even harmful, 566 equally music, dealing with melody, is produced only to give delight ( ) (22) Some more propositions about the usefulness of musical training are discussed which Philodemus ha s dealt with in a similar way ; 567 then Sextus dismisses the by leading young people Antiope (fr. 187.3 6) (26) This is similar to what Sextus said earlier about Achilles b ut is still an astonishing turn since Sextus had previously denied ethos (16); it reveals a tendency, found in Philodemus as well, 568 maybe induced by the hyperbolic tendency within classical oratory, concerning ethos to nega te any positive effects of music but allow the possibility of negative ones, even at the expense of consistency. The argument that musical concepts are similar to those of philosophy is rejected as obviously false without further reason beyond what has be impossibility of promoting wisdom or virtue; finally: neither the harmon iously furnished 566 E.g. M ath. 1.296 298 (Loeb numbering). 567 Among t hem is this: one is able to enjoy m usic al performances better; Sextus objects: delight, at least for common people, comes more from resolved physical needs, and for enjoying music no knowledge is that one does not need to know cookery for enjoying food; even though experts may grasp better the technicalities, they do not reap more pleasing passion this last argument is certainly quite debatable (23 25). 568 Cf. Mus. 4.7 D121.11 22 with footnote.

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293 cosmos nor harmony in music can provide happiness concurring thus with what Philodemus had said (27). 569 The remainder of his work is dedicated t o deconstruct ing musical science to show as Sextus believes, that there are no such things as sound ( ), note ( ), or rhythm which all lack substance. Within that part, t he only other segment of direct interest for us is when he relates without further discussion the concept of ethos within traditional musical theory (35 36). 570 A ll t hat he brin gs up here he considers void as it crumble s under his denial of substance in music ; still for us the examples he gives provide some helpful illustration. He parallels human and musical kinds of ethos ; human ones are severe 571 contrasted with those easily yielding to some melody creates in the so ul august 572 and refined movements O ur attention is called to the fact that except perha p commonly used for describing musical ethos, but eve n the terms for human characteristics were not chosen from any standard collection maybe Sextus intended 569 The falseness of this concept, according to Sextus, can be shown by manifold proofs, but he does not that the universe has no order whatsoever; he might mean that the order of the universe is not a musical one in the sense of the harmony of the spheres ( rejected also by Aristotle; see n. 107 ), but he might also aim at what Philodemus said (4.30 31 D144 145) that no i nterdependence between that order and the soul (or ethos) can be demonstrated. In ps Plutarch (Mus. 1.1131c), education, including music, ), and its religious practice is p rimary ( ) for mankind (2.1131d). 570 He introduces ethos as a type of 571 Ath. 624d has this as a characteristic for the Dorian harmonia. 572 This ethos is only found in Theon 55.17 and in Phld. Mus. 4.2 D116.

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294 to make it sound unusual and obscure. H owever, h e keenly observes the fact that the adscription of such qualifiers to melody is sort of a hypallage which attributes the effect to the cause of the effect. 573 He identifies these types, as do Philodemus and the author of the Hibeh fragment, with the musical genera of chromatic, enharmonic, and diatonic, but not with harmoniai as earlier authors do. To the enharmonic genus he assigns the shrill ( ) and like a dirge ( ), and the diatonic somewhat harsh ( subdivisions between lax/soft/weak ( (36) The value of these is not fully clear; it seems that the first one (chromatic) is considered positive while the other two ( even though often has among the poets a posi tive connotation it is linked here with mourning ) seem here to be considered rather negative and are listed as such in the table below. In summary, Sextus Empiricus does not seem to discard the effect of music as apodictically as Philodemus, but he denie s likewise its usefulness to the point of suggesting a perver ting influence M usic does not influence ethos in soul or mind but at the most provides distraction; but if there is any ethical effect, contrary to the standardized assignments given by music th eorists, it is rather subjective and changeable. Most of his counter arguments suppose in appeal to common sense or experience; they are hardly conclusive but still open up valid questions such as the possibility of intrinsic musical value and the interface between 573 He means t

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295 music and human psyche which should be responded to by those who would defend the usefulness and ethical relevance of music. Conclusion All three critical texts that we have seen in this section have in common that they rea ct against an apparent inflation of a system that attempt s to classify musical ethos and apply it to all possible life circumstances. 574 aesthetically not pleasing music since any other function of music is denied In thei r outright rejection of musical value beyond pleasure they stand in strict opposition to the great majority of ancient music theorists (and we could safely say, of those of all times). 575 Halliwell comparing and contrasting especially Aristotle and Philode mus concludes that Aristotle builds a theory that attempts to keep touch with the phenomena of aesthetic experience in his culture, whereas Philodemus commits himself to explaining away these phenomena and thereby, I suggest, to losing a sense of the ver y things that make certain sounds into music for their hearers. 576 Driven by philosophical presuppositions, these authors seem to fall short in doing justice to the common experience of the power of music while their own arguments for the most part are not c onclusive. 574 Schfke 1934, 162 suggests that this arose from Sophistic and determine ethos Pythagorean tradition (id. 157) and the Tonkunst Schfke summarizes and comments on all three critical documents (157 173). 575 There are a few other witnesses, so the often quoted comment in Eur. Med. 190 203, see p. 58 n. 106 ) in which the healing power of music is questioned. The inclusion of Democritus to this tradition, as we have seen, is not unproblema tic. 576 2002, 30; his full analysis can be found in 1999 and 2002, 234 259.

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296 Musical Effect and Ethos in the Latin Tradition Not too many Classical Latin authors have elaborated on music. Three names stand out: Cicero, Seneca, and Quintilian ; Varro wrote extensively on music, but little of his work is preserved 577 Some of their contributions to the debate of musical decadence have already been mentioned at the beginning of the current chapter. S ome later writers will be added here who elaborate and take particular interest in the concept of th Cicero has the Epicurean Torquatus expound that studying music (and other such arts) are just keeping one from the ars vivendi to acquire beata vita ( Fin. 1.2 1.7 2 ) a position that reminds of Philodemus. Elsewhere even deafness is declared not to be a great loss, for not hearing a citharod e would not be worse than not hearing a screeching saw or a squeaking of a pig being strang u lated; a happy life and enjoyme nt of literature does not at all depend on songs. 578 This is, of course only Epi c ur us who is quoted and who at another place seems to admit voluptates quae auditu et cantibus percipiuntur (among pleasures of the other senses); the speaker objects that in o rder to console someone in grief a book by Socrates or Plato would be much more appropriate than listening to a wa ter organ, a psalter, or receiving other sensual distractions ( Tusc. 3.18.41 4 3 ; cf. 3.19.46 ). 577 For this section see Wille 1967, 431 459, and 410 All of the cited texts in Latin are accessible in digitalized format at the Library of Latin Texts Series A at http://apps.brepolis.net/BrepolisPortal/default.aspx 578 Tusc. 5.4.116: m ultos beate vixisse sapientes, deinde multo maiorem percipi posse legendis his quam audiendis

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297 On the other hand Cicero entertained friendly relationships with histriones and 579 In his defense of the poet Archias, power to move rocks and animals. 580 W e find him c alling to mind that the Greeks considered music an essential part of education and a condition for excelling in other fields, a thesis for which he enumerates various examples. 581 As far as his own position goes, he admits that musical rendering of text make s it more enjoyable or interesting (De or. 3.44.174) and oratory more efficient. Cicero is familiar with the Pythagorean custom to calm down minds by song and lyre after intense reflection. 582 In an isolated comment, Cicero recognizes the power music has to stir up the mind vigorously 583 At some point he deliberates that without moving and pleasing us art would not have gotten very far; he proposes as proof that sounds and rhythms excite and calm down, gratify or sadden wh ich is true in the first place for words and song, but also for string and wind instruments. As a reason for this he mentions that nothing is more akin to our minds than music. 584 579 In Macrob. Sat. 3.14.11 12; cf. Kaster 2011, 102 n. 120 with references to Ciceronian speeches as evidence. 580 Arch. 8.19: oci respondent, bestiae saepe immanes cantu flectuntur atque 581 Tusc. 1.2.4: Ergo in Graecia musici floruerunt discebantque id omnes nec qui nesciebat satis excultus doctrina I have omitted the examples. 582 Tusc. 4.2.3: Cf. 5.39.113, which suggests the same practice. 583 Div. 1.36.80: saepe vocum gravitate et cantibus ut pellantur animi vehementius See also below in n. 605 584 De or. 3.51.197: N ihil est autem tam cognatum mentibus nostris quam numeri atque voces; quibus et excitamur et in cendimur et lenimur et languescimus et ad hilaritatem et ad tristitiam saepe deducimur; quorum illa summa vis carminibus est aptior et cantibus, non neglecta, ut mihi videtur, a Numa rege

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298 More extensively does he elaborate on music and ethos in De l egibus 585 where he recalls some of Pythagorean and Platonic theory on musical ethos, but with some noteworthy modification. First he points out, for the legislation of his ideal State string and wind instruments should thrive in the theaters under the condition of moderati o 586 for the reason that nothing can influence more easily the delicate and malleable minds of young people than the various sounds of singing, both for the good and for the bad. He admits that it is difficult to describe this in words, but nevertheless co ntinues describing in Pythagorean terms how music can invert the state of the mind (by arousing or tranquilizing) 587 and then mentions the Platonic argument that when Greek cities left aside the traditional styles, both music and ethos became soft ened and perverted by sweetness and corruption. New in Cicero now is that he considers a converse possibility : that the previous severitas was obstructed by other vices so that the spirits and ears gave room for that new musical style. 588 After quoting Plato famous statement: doctissimo maioribusque nostris, ut epularum sollemnium fides ac tib iae Saliorumque versus indicant; 585 Leg. 2.15.38 39: Adsentior enim Platoni, nihil tam facile in animos teneros atque mollis influere quam varios canendi sonos, quorum dici vix potest quanta sit vi sin utramque par tem. Namque et incitat languentes et languefacit excitatos, et tum remittit animos, tum contrahit; ci v itatumque hoc multarum in Graecia interfuit, antiquom v ocum conser v ari modum; quarum mores lapsi ad mollitias pariter sunt inmutaticum cantibus, aut hac d ulcedine corruptelaque depra v ati, ut quidam putant, aut cum se v eritas eorum obalia v itia cecidisset, tum fuit in auribus animisque 586 This norm matches an indication preserved in a fragment from De re publica : tque placide ( Cic. Rep fr. 9 Mueller 1889; fr. 6 Keyes 1928). 587 remittit animos, tum contrahit ) does not reflect the con cept of relaxing and tightening, which shares both the psychological and musical sphere and is common in the tradition of music psychology of the time. 588 Leg. 2.15.38 39:

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299 publicarum, 589 Cicero does not see s o great a danger, but then he states that the stilted modern way of singing and moving would have been punished severely in old Greece, for it co uld suddenly ruin the minds of all citizens with bad desires and ideas. 590 In other words, Cicero does not want to be as apodictic as Plato but has at least a bad feeling about the contemporary practices; he has no actual proof for the ethical impact of musi c but suspects it from the testimonies he has studied from the past. But his ambivalence about cause and effect with regards to music and State affairs is an important contribution to the reflection about the value of music. 591 Platonic and Pythagorean doctrine has lead him to adopt the idea about the harmony of the spheres (this time positively a of which he gives a detailed account in the famous Somnium Scipionis at the end of De re publica (6.18.18 19). He doe s not draw explicit conclusions upon possible connections between cosmic and human (or musical) harmony, but he states that the practice of music derives from represent ing this spheric harmony to which men had later 589 The Latin phrase is ambiguous and would allow for causality in both directions; but as we have seen, Plato (Resp. 424c) had in mind only the case that a change in music brings about a change in the State. Cicero repeats the a rgument in Leg. 3.14.32 (this time paraphrasing Plato thus: an then clearly takes sides for the second option, and more mores degenerate when the principes bec ome perverted, wherefore the ruling class needs to be ordered by law to be a good example 3.13.30). 590 Ibid.: nunc fit ut eadem exululent, cum cer v ices oculosque partier cum modorum flexionibus torqueant. Gra v iter olim ista v indicabat v etus il la Graecia, longe pro v idens quam sensim pernicies illapsa ci v ium in animos malis studiis malisque doctrinis repente totas ci v itates e v erteret is the well an anticlimactic the very nexus between a certain musical style and moral decay. 591 o flicker of personal musical experience or conviction; and nowhere else, even in his philosophical works, does Cicero offer anything except conventional and second did not have a particular in terest in music, but this passage does show a certain familiarity with the topic of musical ethos. Few philosophers at the time who were not music theorists would have been more specific. One has also to keep in mind that Cicero must have expounded more on music in the lost sections of his De re publica; cf. GMW 2.465 n. 42.

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300 become deaf, and that therefore songs an d string instruments form a way to connect back or return to the heavens just as much as others through divina studia 592 The concept of (real) musical harmony does serve him, however, as an example for uniting disparate elements (rhyt hm, tones, and modes) i nto one: this is how the different arts should be seen together. 593 The same image facilitates a simile for the harmonious concord of different classes and groups within the State under the rule of justice 594 or for the soul in its harmonizing function with re gard to the body, an image attributed to Aristoxenus. 595 While Cicero does not enter much into the discussion of what music is good or bad, he goes beyond the Epicurean tenet that the value of music consists only in pleasure. He appreciates music in its ther apeutic function as handed down by the Pythagoreans and lends general support to the Platonic idea of educating young people through music severe State corruption thr ough corrupt music but sees the latter as an expression of moral decline. Corrupt music bears the characteristics of sweetness, softness, and exaggerated body movements whereas good music 592 593 De or. 1.42.187: m fuerunt; This has become a literary topos, which we will find in many other authors as well with different applications. The tradition goes back as far as Heraclitus (DK; cf. Apul. De mundo 21.336 ( stantia initiorum inter se inpares conventus pari nec discordante consensus natura veluti musicam 594 distinctis sonis, quem inmutatum aut discre pantem aures eruditae ferre non possunt, isque concentus ex dissimillimarum vocum moderatione concors tamen efficitur et congruens, sic ex summis et infimis et mediis interiectis ordinibus ut sonis moderata ratione civitas consensu dissimillimorum concinit ; et quae harmonia a musicis dicitur in cantu, ea est in civitate concordia, artissimum atque optimum omni in re ( Rep. 2.47.69, completed from August. De civ. D. 2.21 .1). The idea of justice as ruling the whole is also found in Ptolemy 97.27 33. 595 Tusc. 1.10.19 20, for the discussion see above n. 110

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301 trans mit s severitas and moderatio Lastly, human music derives from the cosmic one and contains a path back to its divine origin. Seneca T he Younger Seneca ma kes a few remarks that relate to the general concept of harmony: i n one of his letters he explains how to properly acquire, sift, and fuse elements of knowledge prop erly into one, as an image for this served the multitude of voices in a choir where the individual ones are hidden and the whole shines forth; and this even more so in the great musical performances of his day where there are more sin gers and instrumentalists than listeners: from all this multitude of diverse musicians, one concord is formed. 596 As he is suggesting means to overcome anger, Seneca calls upon the theory of Pythagoras regarding the capacity of music to infer certain states of mind: the lyre settles perturbed minds, trumpets work as incentives (concitamenta), and certain songs (blandimenta) by which the mind is relaxed. 597 Earlier in the same work he mentions that cert ain song and a swift tune rouse, as well a s the mar t ial sound of trumpets. 598 In a last passage (Ep. 87.12 14), Seneca uses music to prove the thesis: by saying: 596 Ep. 84.9 10: Singulorum illic latent voces, omn ium apparent This passage makes one wonder whether it is not an indication for some sort of polyphony; it is hard to imagine such an apparatus for unison performance, and the image would not be very striking either. Cf. Dia l. 6.18.4 (De consolatione ad Marciam) : produced by the animals and birds of the forest. See also Hor. Epist. 1.12.19 : uid velit et possit rerum concordia discors 597 Dial. 3.9.2 bat; quis autem ignorat lituos et 598 Dial. 3.2.4 antus nos nonnumquam et citata modulatio instigat Martiusque ille tubarum

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302 599 This stands in contrast to random (fortuita) which produces no good. A little virtual skirmish with the Peripatetics leads to the clarification that a good instrument is not sufficient to make a musician but that the art itself, or rather the ability to exercise the art (uti arte), is necessary. 600 These re flections obviously refer to the artistic qualities, talent, dominion of the art and its rules, and not to ethos; good music here means simply the perfection or aesthetic fullness that a musician is expected to bring forth from his art. Apart from the usua l Pythagorean abilities of music to provoke a specific ethos in the soul, Seneca values music as a metaphor for the unity of diverse components and demands from the musician that he realize what is good in his art in order to be truly what he claims to be. Quintilian 601 Quintilian, Roman schoolmaster and rhetorician, perspective and explains the need and reasons for learn ing other disciplines previous to have an understanding of music beyond the common pleasure for the ears (1.10.4) for m usic deserves veneration, 602 is united to poetry and philosophy and thus to the knowledge of even divine things (1.10.9 10 ) ; it is 599 This phrasing shows that for Senec a a bad musician simply is no musician. 600 Cf. Pl. Phd. 85e 86d: the argument is brought forth (and debated) that harmony does not perish with the material of the lyre for being invisible and incorporal. 601 Text and tr.: Russell 2011; presentation of the per tinent texts in Wille 1967, 449 456. 602 Here Quintilian mentions Orpheus and Linus, for the former of whom he recalls the magical wonders of charming animals, rocks, and trees.

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303 based on the ratios on which the universe has been formed ; 603 many prominent figures played instruments, the stirring effect of which plays an important role in battles ( the more vigorous, the more glorious the victory ), 604 also labor like rowing is eased. Quintilian then shows the long tradition of music education since early Roman times an d then discusses the advantages for an orator to be trained in it: the dominion of voice and gesture in order to give a plea the necessary emotional support 605 since even m usical instruments are capable of stirring up various affectio ns that cannot be expressed in words. Above (p. 148 ) rejection of modern style music; what he is really interested is the type which is able to move or calm affections, and for which he relates the familiar story of Pythagoras (just here he composes a whole group of young people) and mentions 603 1.10.12: ec illa modo contenti dissimilium concordia, quam vocant It is clear how Platonic and Ciceronian concepts ar blended together 604 1.10.14: But the Romans were not the only ones excelling in war songs, as Tacitus tells: Tacitus describes the stimulating effect of Germanic war songs in Germ. 3.1(Wille 574 n. 196): r imumque omnium virorum fortium ituri in proelia canunt. Sunt illis haec quoque carmina quorum relatu, quem baritum vocant, accendunt animos futuraeque pugnae fortunam ipso cantu augurantur; terrent enim trepidantve, prout sonuit acies, nec tam vocis ille q uam virtutis concentus videtur. A dfectatur praecipue asperitas soni Wille 1967, 575 notes the alliterations in this passage and surmises that Tacitus is imitating formal patterns of Germanic song texts; this seems to me far feched it might just be onomatopoetic useage for the overall sound. Interesting is their technique to increase reverberation, using the shields as resonance chambers. 605 This is exemplified: tentio vocis, remissio, flexus pertinent ad movendos audientium adfectus, in order to elicit concitatio or misericordia. He continues: (1.10.25). A bit further on we hear the example of Gaius Gracchus who had a musician help him during his speeches to hit the proper pitches (1.10.27 28; also in Gell. 1.11.; Cic. De or. 3.60.225 mentions the fistula player for the purpose of calming or arousing Gracchus with a note this seems to be a different interpretation of the same practice, and even though older, not the more probable one, because a single note/sound (sonus) seems not to be sufficient to elicit a signifi cant emotional effect, especially if different notes should have a quite opposite one; unless the musician and the speaker had agreed on some excited, and a lower one that he should calm down).

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304 ups for infants (1.10.32) Another story goes that a piper, playing in the Phrygian mode, drove a person mad who was sacrificing and then kil led himself ; for having caused this the piper was put to trial (1.10.33) certainly an indication that this mode was still considererd somewhat dangerous. In another context he addresses further the question of musical ethos, seeing it as part of our natu re 9.4.10): 606 how could instruments without words otherwise induce the listener to different emotional states (motus) ? 607 Battle and entreaty, advance and retreat each require their own modes. Again the Pythagorean practice of disp osing the mind with the lyre in the morning and in the evening is mentioned as a tacita vis inherent in rhythms and melody styles (9.4.12 13 ). In all of this Quintilian distinguishes the aspect of pleasure and the intentionally controllable and usable effect of moving the spirit or soul. 608 For the formation of orators, Quintilian takes recourse to the similiarity of speech and song, describing the ethos spoken modulation in the same terms that are usually applied to music. 609 Thus rhetoric borrows from mu sic the arguments for the formal 606 Cf. Wille 1967, 459 and 467. 607 ducerent auditorem. In certaminibus sacris non eadem ratione concitant animos ac remitt unt, non eosdem modos adhibent, cum bellicum est canendum et cum posito genu supplicandum est; nec idem (9.4.10 11) 608 9.4.9: non ad delectationem modo sed at motum quoque animo rum The strife for mere pleasure is criticized in 11.3.60: t sunt quidam qui secundum alia vitae vitia etiam hac ubique audiendi quod aures mulceat voluptate ducantur. these refl ections, overlooking the importance that Quintilian gives to the element of music in the whole development of oratorical technique, but also in terms of character formation. Not being a musician himself, we should not expect from him any novelties on the t opic, but we do find appreciation for it. 609 1.10.24: namque et vo c e et modulation e grandia elate, iucunda dulciter, moderata leniter canit See also e.g. 11.3.61 65 where the relationship betwee n various emotions is discussed and the voice as intermediary in order to express them. Wille 1967, 467 489 dedicates a long section to the musical element within the rhethorical delivery.

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305 qualities in order to provoke excitement or compassion through melody, rhythm, and movements. It would lead us too far astray to analyze this rich arsenal of sonoric expressivity as developed by Quintilian since it treats m usic only as a point of comparison and support for text. Censorinus The only surviving work of Censorinus, a Roman grammarian from the third century AD is De die natali : 610 it is a book about birthday s and, at the same time, an excuse for some academic show manship. After discussing the Pythagorean idea that the human embryo develops differently according to the amount of weeks of pregnancy, i n sections 10 13 he addresses the influence of music on the birth of a person; but before he gets to this, he undertak es an abbreviated general tre a t ise on music: a definition of music; the explanation of tone and intervals; the difference between random sound and concordant harmony (which is achieved only by certain intervals that, combined, produce a soft consonant soun d ); 611 and the legendary discovery of the basic intervals by Pythagoras. He then parallels the stages of embryonic development in their proportions to harmonic interval ratios, engaging in a lot of number speculation. 612 610 Text: Hultsch 1867 (digitalized in the TML at http://www.chmtl.indiana.edu/tml/3rd 5th/CENDIE_TEXT.html ) ; Cholodniak 1889 ; Sallmann 1983; text and Ger. tr.: Brodersen 2012 (I was not able to consult this volume) ; Eng. tr.: Maude 1900, Parker 2007 17 27; comm.: Richter 1965 (for section 10, including a detailed analysis of sources and influence of the whole section on music); Wille 1967, 594 598; Mathiesen 1999, 614 616. 611 10.6: Notice that the idea seems to be simultaneous sound. About the significance of the merely psychological definition of consonance see Richter 1965, 94 98. 612 E.g.: The two types of pregnancy length are based on the numbers 6 and 7 respectively; t his number, multiplied by 35 (which is the sum of fourth, fifth, and octave in a particular measurement) gives the day of birth.

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306 The influence of music on the birthday i s underscored by showing its power in general: it is divine and can move the souls, 613 is pleasing to the gods (evident from theater plays to appease them, sacred tibia, triumph music for Mars, and musical attributes for divinities festivals, etc. ), reveals the divine nature of the human mi nd through song, lightens labor, and dispels fear in war ; Pythagoras imbued himself with divinity through kithara and song before and after sleep; the doctor Asclepiades knew how to heal mentally ill people with symphonia, while his collegue Herophilus claims that the blood pulsates with musical rhythm so if there is harmonia in both corpus and animus, music cannot be foreign to the birthday. Lastly, Censorinus refers to the Pythagorean idea that the whole universe is mad e up by musical ratios, especially the seven planets which regulate the births of humans, which leads him to speak of the harmony of the spheres in a way similar to Cicero; 614 ultimately, the whole universe is 615 Censorinus does not enter into a discussion of good vs. bad music, but he discusses a number of positive functions that music fulfills. Most of these are known from earlier authors, but here they are integrated into a universal system ruled directly by musical harmo ny. 613 certe multum obtinet divinitatis et animis permovendis plurimum valet For the following examples, Parker 2007, 81 in his not es provides multiple references in other authors. 614 13.1: concinant melodian, sed nobis inaudibilem propter vocis magnitudinem, quam capere aurium nostra rum 615 13.5: hunc omnem mundum enarmonion esse ostendit; quare Dorylaus scripsit esse mundum That the universe is ruled by music is implicit by another comment about the wedding numbers in Apul. De dog. Plat. 2.25: Ad hoc ipsorum conubiorum quaeritur tempestiva coniunctio, cuius futuram stabilem fidem credit, si cum harmonia musicae dierum consonent numeri.

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307 Aphthonius Marius Victorinus preserves in his Ars grammatica a work called De arte metrica 616 by an author from about a century earlier, Ap h thonius (or possibly Asmonius). Towards the end (158 1 60 ), the author defends the position of a natural origin of music (here understood in a wider sense, including poetry) given as a special gift to human beings together with the light of life and the sense, then perfected and transmitted through art. The natural impulse for music leads us, like a teacher, to the c orrespondence between 617 Nature precedes art, in language, rhythm, and melody. Here Aphthonius agrees explicitly with Theophrastus who, as we have seen, considers the emotions ( ) and strong impulses to be the cause for the production of music especially the songs within tragic drama. 618 Following these affections help s the musician to be more successful for if they are combined with musical instinct, they achieve a greater power. He presents a s a proof the tragic singers whose chant does not sound mortal and hence are called vates divinely inspired prophet poets with the help of wine 619 Feeling pleasure and relaxation render the musical work more spirited and disposes one to sing in the first 616 Text: Keil 1874, 31 173; digitalized as part of the Corpus Grammaticorum Latinorum: http://kaali.linguist.jussieu.fr/CGL/text.jsp?topic=de arte metrica (cum poemate, compositione, structura, musica)& ref=6,70,11 173,18 accessed on April 4, 2013; discussion: Wille 1967, 601 603; for the name of the author see OCD 121. As far as I can see, no modern language translation of this text exists. 617 159.2 denique ad modulanda eadem sensu quodam animique m otu instruente nos velut magistro ducimur gestusque etiam corporis imagini modulationis congruos incitati adfectibus commodamus. 618 The following account of the three affective sources for music has already been quoted, see n. 433 619 He calls at witness Pl. Phdr. 245a where is said that the Muses cause songs and poetry through adequate ( ) artist but remains unaccomplished ( ). The idea of wine as incentivum stems also from Plato (Leg. 665e 666c, cf. above n. 206 ), but Aphthonius quotes directly Hor. Carm. 3.21.11.

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308 place. While wrath is an impediment for our senses, keenness and ease are added by the heat of love, which is able to convert even an ignorant person into an artist. This passage confirms natural talent as the foundation and pleasure and emotion as incentive for music, which serves as their expression It also sanctions the genius of divine frenzy as an important source of artistic inspiration Thus the author seems to be the furthest away from considering musical functions and the clo sest to a merely aesthetic approach which, in addition, is devoid of any ethical or cosmological speculations. Calcidius The Christian writer Timaeus (17a 53c) and adds an extensive commentary 620 that i s inspired widely by Pythagorean principles. 621 The following ideas from this author are of interest for us : he mentions the harmony of the spheres as a consonance of intervals produced by the speed of planetary movement (73) ; 622 h of the Sirens sitting on planetary circles and their beautiful song (95) 623 The World creator according to harmonic principles (40), and the nature of the soul in general 620 Text: Wrobel 1876 (digitalized in the TML at http://www.chmtl.indiana.edu/tml/3rd 5th/CHALTIM_TEXT.html ). No translation into a modern language seems to exist. Discussion: Switalski 1902 (a study of the sources, considering the text rather a translation from a Gre ek scholar of the second century AD); Wille 1967, 599 601; Mathiesen 1999, 616 617. 621 He deviates from them in some points, such as considering geometry more fundamental for education than harmonics (32, to Pl. Ti. 35b). 622 Pythagoreum dogma est ratione ha rmonica constare mundum caelestiaque distantia congruis et 623 ut in Politia Sirenas singulis insistere circulis dicens, quas rotatas cum circulis unam ciere mel

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309 corresponds to rhythmical and melodical principles (50) 624 C ommenting on Pl. Ti. 47d (at 267), music is pronounced the remedy against the inharmonious (inmodulatus) state that the souls have entered into because of their union with the body. However, Calcidius is now more explicit than Plato about the type of music that should be applied for this therapy: not the one which pleases the crowds and which, made for pleasure excites sometimes to vices, but the one which is never separate from reason and intellect ; melody (modulatio) lends to reason the strength to rul e, and thus restores the from which all other virtues come. Thus it back to its original nature and rendering it the way God the creator had made her 625 theory, but this would not explain the vigor that this music should provide and the modulatio, which does not occur in the study of musical ratios; in a ddition, none of the previous authors seem is in agreement with divine order and reason, detached f rom mere pleasure seeking. 624 sibi probationibus utentem docere animae naturam congruere numer is, concinere etiam modulaminibus 625 voluptatem facta excitat vitia non numquam, sed in illa divina, quae numquam a ratione atque intellegentia separetu r. Hanc enim censet exorbitantes animas a via recta revocare demum ad symphoniam veterem. Optima porro symphonia est in moribus nostris iustitia, virtutum omnium principalis, per quam ceterae quoque v irtutes suum munus atque opus exequuntur: ut ratio quide m dux sit, v igor v ero intimus, qui est iracundiae similis, auxiliatorem se rationi v olens praebeat, porro haec pro v enire sine modulatione non possint, modulatio demum sine symphonia nulla sit, ipsa symphonia sequatur musicam. Procul dubio musica exornat an imam rationabiliter ad antiquam naturam revocans et

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310 Since the cosmos and the soul function according to musical principles, virtue is sustained by music that agrees with these principles. Favonius Favonius of Carthage was a disciple of Augustine and wrote a commentary on Somnium Scipionis, 626 a text much less extensive than that of Macrobius (see below) and also less known. In some sections he follows Calcidius almost literally, especially in his analogy between music and language. After reviewing the Pythagorean musical and cosmic number theory, in the second part he comments the harmony of the spheres (symphonia mundi). Here he offers his own definition of as consonae vocis continua modulatio ( 22.5 15.18 19); us means here 627 and he insists on simultaneous sound by indicating the use of two strings instead of one ( 22.11 15.30 16.4). After establishing the distance intervals between the opened for themselves the r eturn to the sky/heaven; then he adds, similar to Calcidius, that music purifies their souls from the stain of the body and opens through powerful songs a way to the galactic circle gleaming of light. 628 626 Text: Holder 1901 (digitalized in TML at http://www.chmtl.indiana. edu/tml/3rd 5th/FAVDIS_TEXT.html ); van Weddingen 1957; Scarpa 1974, text and tr. (It.): Marcellino 2012 (I am citing this edition with its chapter/section numbering, adding page/line numbers from Holder); discussion: Wille 1967, 630 634. Favonius is a Chr istian, but he is included in the current section because his point relevant to us is fully dependant on the Pythagorean tradition. Marcellino (pp. 25 26), after reviewing the scholarly debate, holds that Favonius and Macrobius may be writing independently based on the same Latin source. 627 It is not clear why Marcellino 2012, 79 translates with instead of the Italian technical term 628 25.5 19.3 6:

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311 Lastly, Favonius explains how this overwhelming cosmic harmony unites in ratios a diversity of intervals; 629 thus harmonic science teaches unity in diversity, converting apparent discordance into concord. 630 He states that the heavenly music evolves in the Dorian mode and that the tuning of instruments should fol low the (whole tone) ratios established in the celestial system 631 possibly aiming at the diatonic genus in order to avoid dissonance. In Favonius we find another representative of the Pythagorean/neo Platonic tradition, endorsing consonant music that is in agreement with the cosmic ratios, so the soul may be reminded of and eventually reunited to its celestial home. Macrobius Having been p robably the praetorian prefect of Italy, 632 the polymath Macrobius has left us two major works in which music plays som e part. A number of pert inent references to music in the Saturnalia have already been cited earlier (p. 150 ). His Commentarii in Somnium Scipionis Somnium, Pythagorean and neo Platonic numerical a nd cosmological astrological speculations together with discussions of other themes such as virtues or the immortality of the soul. In a brief remark within the context of numerological geometrical considerations, 629 25.7 19.19 20: 630 26.4 20.18 21: vocibus cantilena, ut ipsa fiat rata diversitas et concentu m Cf. also 25.8 9 19.26 30: c um idem sunt extrema, quod media, mediumque in se versum extremo rum efficiat quantitatem. Quid quod item notare nos convenit, ad perspiciendam numerorum inter se caritatem ? 631 The inconsistencies and problems of detail that Wille points out do not need to worry us as we are only concerned w ith the general principles. 632 Cf. OCD 906; Mathiesen 1999, 617 61 8 ; for the Commentary: text: Willis 1994; tr.: Stahl 1952 (with an other recent editions see Kaster 2011, xii n. 3; discussion: Wille 1967, 623 630. I will not evidence the cross references to earlier writers, which can be

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312 Macrobius the soul into , and and then states that no philosopher has doubted that the soul consists of musical concords. 633 He does not explain at this point how the concordant intervals of octave, fourth, and fifth which he discusses next, are res harmony. The main section dealing with music are the first four chapters of book 2, He explains the phenomenon with the planets striking the air Now if such a str ike occurs according to defined numbers, the sound is soft and musical (dulcis, musicus) and a calm and agreeable (compositus, consentiens) melody is brought forth; if the strike is an unorganized clash the sound is unfitting/loose and harsh (ineptus, asper) and a chaotic and crude noise offends the ear. But s ince in the heavens everything proceeds according to divine laws and order (ratio), the sounds of the celestial s pheres are bound to be of the harmonious kind. 634 After retelling the legendary discovery and development of interval ratios by Pythagoras, Macrobius turns to explain the Platonic explanation of the World Soul from these ratios, born out of even (considered male) and uneven (considered female) numbers 635 intervals correspond (2.2.17 19), and since the Soul produces the movement of the celestial bodies, their sound is harmonious (2.2.24). Music itself is considere d here as 633 nullus sapientium animam ex symphoniis quoque musicis constitisse dubitavit. 634 Interesting is the definition of such sound which includes movement and reason ( 2.1.7: 635 The gender assignment is already done in 1.6.1. Harmony is, as the Greek philosophers said from the first beginning s, a proportionate composition of unequal elements (2.2.20 22).

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313 identical with harmony, concord, order, and reason, of divine origin and perceived as soft and agreeable, while everything else is just obnoxious noise. e nd of the Republic, Macrobius explains the connection between the Muses and the planets with Urania as eighth representing the firmament and Calliope as ninth the excelling synthesis of all the others. 636 emerges further from th e use of music in worship, wherein the structure of strophe and antistrophe represents opposite celestial motions. 637 Funeral songs signify the return of the soul to heaven, the origin of soft/sweet music. 638 Once begun the account of musical applications, Mac robius continues enumerating the manifold effect and use of music by which in this life every soul is captivated 639 both in civilized and barbarian nations. Here re The cause for this is that the soul conveys to the body a memory of the music of which it was aware in heaven 640 that now is an irresistible charm, softening even the hardest heart s ; thus did Orpheus and Antiphon charm an imals and rocks, and barbaric rough people are lead to a sense of enjoyment 636 2.3.1 4 with reference to Hes. Theog. 78 79. 637 He adds (2. 3.5) : 638 2.3.6: 639 2.3 .7: 640 Ibid.: defert memoriam musicae cuius in caelo fu Later (2.3.11) Macrobius gives as a cause that t ex

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314 standard examples for the arousing (especially in war) calming and healing effect (2.3.9). M exercise it as if it were some discipline of art, and when it serves to hunt or tend to animals for the musically woven World Soul gives life to everything Never theless, the music al order of the incorporeal soul can only be perceived by the mind, not by the senses, and such is the case with the astronomical order of the planets (2.3.10 16) In one last comment relevant to our purposes, 641 Macrobius briefly mentions the three harmonic genera: the enharmonic is out of use at his time because of its difficulty; the chromatic suffers because of its notorious softness/weakness (voluptas); hence, the diatonic is the preferred genus, as already in Ptolemy, and it is also the one that is foun musica mundana (world harmony) (2.4.13). Macrobius, then, continues the tradition of seeking a causal connection between the origin of the universe in mathematically describable ratios harmonizing opposites, and thus explains the power of mus ic, mostly in positive terms, by the universal musical principles that govern animals, humans, and the stars. This effect is described as a magic, which appears to be almost irresistible; however, human beings can make use of it according to particular pur poses. Music in its definition implies reason, order, and concord, so that contrary sounds amount to no more than noise. His view would represent a musical universalism where the effect of music is innate to humans given their natural structure, which is i n agreement with the rest of the cosmos. 641 The autor discusses with more detail the qualities of high and low notes but adds nothing new to the general concept s of tense an

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315 Ethos and Cosmos Revisited Aristides Quintilianus 642 could justly be called the Summa of ancient music theory ; Aristides seems to be correct in claiming that no one before him had written such a complete treatise on music (1.2 3.12 14) His teatise also contains the 643 His system is an amalgam of a wide range of previous theories even though t here are very few literal quotations from other authors at least from texts that are preserved. He see ms to have drawn from those whom he considered most competent in each field (Aristoxenus for technicalities, Plato for the parts of the soul, the Pythagoreans for mathematical and cosmological considerations, etc.) which he fuses into a rather original sy nthesis that is not without some philosophical weight The exposition is largely well crafted in structure and style (notwithstanding minor inconsistencies and less well 642 Text: Winnington Ingram 1963 ; Ger. tr.: Schfke 1937; Eng. tr. a nd comm. : Mathies en 1983 ; GMW 2.39 2 535 ; summary and discussion: Zanocelli 1977; Mathiesen 1990, 50 63 (for book 3); id. 1999, 521 582; Barker 2005, 137 171 In these works all necessary information is available about the biographical, philosophical, and stylistic backgrou 93 (who argues in favor of 340 370 AD) and Mathiesen 1983, 10 14 & 1999, 521 424 (suggesting a wider range between the late third or early fourth century). I will cite in the following f ormat: [book].[chapter] [page in Winnington Ingram].[ line on that page]. The translations and paraphrases are taken, at times modified, from Barker, unless indicated otherwise. I will abstain from repeating the numerous cross references to other authors be fore and after Aristides, which may best be consulted in the commentaries by Barker and Mathiesen, except when this is of particular importance. Barker 2005, 158 gives a good summary of those ideas in Aristides that appear to be his most original contribut ions. 643 1.1 1.5; Mathiesen 1983, 71 n. 2 refers to the importance of this term in Platonic philosophy. The idea returns in 1.4 5.10 13 (and therafter passim) Anon. Bell. That same text takes up again ) in the context of melodic composition (3.45 47) where the 104), but the only place where some hint is given is 3.78 (that ascendin g and descending tone movement should be performed spread out in tempo, for an improved perception but this is not really about the melodic flow either), the rest are just definitions of terms regarding scale, interval, melodic and rhythmic figures. Aris tides is more specific, see 1.12 28.8 30.24.

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316 organized segments) with the author careful ly and didactic ally guiding the reader ste p by step to prepare him for what will follow But major achievement consists in his ability to resolve some of the difficulties that had plagued his predecessors with regards to musical ethos and its explanation. We will follow his treatment as far as ethos is concerned and comment on the sections critical for our own endeavor. Importance and u sefulness of music general considerations Aristides begins each of the first two books in an apologetic tone to defend the discipline of music against t hose who despise it or consider it useless apparently another generation of skeptics following Philodemus or Sextus Empiricus, although he does not mention any by name. His whole undertaking is geared to extol music in its universal usefulness beyond oth : 644 the soul through beautiful melodies and the body through comely rhythms; children adults and elderly benefit from it each in their way (bea utiful melodies, oratory, and the understanding of the cosmic harmony). 645 He quotes the (otherwise unk n own) Pythagorean Panaceus sound, but to bring together in a ha 646 In addition, this art procures pleasure and recreation in its own exercise, as much as usefulness for 644 1.1 1.18 Aristides shows how each of other arts depends in one way or another on music, which needs to purify the so ul ( ) as will be shown. Cf. similarly at 2.4 57.23 645 These are three stages of grow ing abstraction and penetration, from the sensory to the cosmic harmony, resembling the ascent o f the soul as described by Plotinus. Barker (GMW 2.400 n. 3) clarifies that the assignment of rhythm to the body here does not mean that rhythm does not impact the soul, since that impact is addressed by Aristides later. 646 1.1 2.18

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317 knowledge, increasing the joy 647 A twofold invocation of a divinity is made: to the m ousaget s Apollo, but then also to the he considers to c all f r atio ( ), u and u nitary r atio ( 648 keeping i t together, despite its diversity, in a harmonic way (1.3 4.5 12). Thus, at the same time, Aristides anticipates with these titles already in an elegant way the final vision of the function and importance of music as a universal underlying principle for al l of creation. The book continues with definitions of music, which we have looked at earlier (p. 104 ). In his distinction between the theoretical and practical part of music, the practical one has a primarily educational scope. 649 What follows is a quite thorough and well structured expos of music theory ( ), mostly inspired by Aristoxenus and interval, / scale, genus, tonos 650 modul ation, melodic composition. 651 We do not 647 For this last phrase (1.2 3.4 6) I am following loosely s rendering. 648 Mathiesen strangely thinks that at 1.3 p. 74 n. 24); it is quite clear that the invocation goes to the creator God as Aristides is undertaking something of much wider scope than poetry for which Apollo is responsible (cf. 1.3 3.25 4.2). The whole passage breathes heavily Platonic and Plotinian spirit. 649 Barker (n. 17 ad loc. 2.6 61.1 3 and the definition of th e Anon. Bell. q uoted above (n. 643 ). 650 This term in Aristides is equivocal and hard to identify in its exact meaning, about which has been much debate. For some explanations see the notes by Barker to chs. 10 11 (GMW 2.421 430 esp. nn. and tropos, none of which Aristides eithe r defines exactly or uses in a precise sense. While Aristotle ( Pol. 1340a40 1340b7 ) and Ptolemy ( Harm. 2.7.58; 3.7.99) have Dorian take the middle position, Aristides assigns this place to Phrygian, with Dorian lower and Lydian higher (1.11 23.1 4). 651 1.5 7.9 13. Nowadays we would add also articulation, reverberation (this is covered by Aristides under see 1.6 10.11) and especially timbre (which would includes instrumentation) ; the first ones were not discussed by the ancient Greeks, while tim bre was occasionally considered (e.g. the Aristotelian

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318 need to recapitulate here the chapters in which he explains each of these parameters, except for a few details W d simultaneously, in the former the notes. Barker 652 Among other things, tones vary according to ethos, and t his in particular through pitch (high low) and genus (1.6 10.13 15); ethos, as in previous authors, also arises from the ta (which are the various scale systems) (1.8 15.20) and the harmoniai, which seem to derive their ethos from the tones 653 Modula tions imply the change of /harmonia of 654 like Ptolemy, Aristeides regards those modulations that occur between concordant intervals (fourth, 655 Among the parameters of melodic composition, it is the distribution of tones which brings about the corresponding ethos (1.12 29.20 21). Their styles ( analog to a literary genre ) are classified into nomic, dithyrambic, De audibilibus, Nicomachus, and Ptolemy); he might aim at timbre when speaking of the different that unison tones have (1. 6 10.5); about this term in other authors see Barker n. 50 ad loc The role of instruments is considered a different segment within the science of music (e.g. according to the classification of music in Anon. Bell. 2.13 and 3.30: harmonics, rhythmics, metrics, instruments, poetics, and mimics; about this catalogue see the dis cussion in Najock 1972, 194 196). 652 1.6 10.1 5; Barker n. 59 ad loc. It is hard to distinguish this effect from what consonant or dissonant intervals are (since Aristides talks about simultaneous tones of different pitch); he seems to describe the effect f rom the perspective of melodic flow and t h e tones therein, rather than the effect an isolated interval would have (see on concordant/discordant intervals 1.8 14.7 11). See also [Ar.] Pr. 19.49 which appears to transport the same idea. 653 1,9 19.6 9 and Bark er n. 116 ad loc. Aristides quotes the Plato assigns to some harmoniai, 654 Also here Aristides uses various terms in semi , and elsewhere, e.g. 1.12 2 9.1, also ). 655 1.11 22.11 18. See above n. 315

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319 and tragic, and also erotic (including wedding son gs), comic, and encomiastic 656 each exhibiting the ethos of the mind ( ). The mentioning of ethos as classification of these styles could appear to stand in some tension to the subsequent distinction between (along with genus, and tonos), when for the a scale is drawn distressing quietude ) ; Aristides clarifies all in line with Aristoxenus, that the effect of therapeutic treatment is primaril y determined by ethos, but harmonia, rhythm, and text (diction). 657 Rhythm sets the function ( ) of harmonia in manifest order and moves the mind in an o rganized way (1.13 31.13 14). Its composition shows the same ethos division as melody and can lead to virtue or vice. Interesting is the idea that harmonia could be considered female and matter (inactive, receptive, a thing made), and rhythm as male and fo rm (active, molding, maker) (1.19 40.14 25 explained in 2.12 77.5 16 ). Gender will later be an important factor to describe musical ethos. After laying out the basics about phonemes and meters Aristides concludes that the well (1.29 52.8 9); the metrical structure may vary, as long as the aesthetical expectations of order are met. 656 1.12 30.1 8. Barker in nn. 146 147 ad loc. 657 1.12 30.11 were mentioned at 1.12 28.1 2, see also GMW 2.402 n. 13 and about the ethos scale GMW 2.430 n. 150 and above under Cleonides our n. 463 and ceived by Aristoxenus.

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320 Music, ethos and pathos education and therapy Aristides prefaces his proof of the educational value of music with an exposition deeply indeb t ed to Plato, about the structure of the human soul as suited to assist the body to live in order ( ) through both attraction to it and understanding, memory (to recal l its beautiful transcendent origin) and sciences (to love the beauty of reason and virtue so as to live a blessed life). For all this, the soul is divided into a rational tended by philosophy in seeking understanding/ and an i rrational part, the latter of which is related to the body and has an appetitive nature, characterized by slack ness and a high spirited nature, showing disproportionate tightening ) ; this irrational part is ruled over by music which from childhood on molds the through harmoniai and renders the body more harmonious by means of rhythms 658 Like Plato and Aristotle, Aristides acknowledges that music is particularly suited for education of the young becau se of the natural pleasure it provides to them before instruction through reason can take place (2.3 55.4 23). 659 He addresses the sceptics who deny that music moves everyone by claiming that all children are by nature ( ) overcome by musical delight and that e ven people not naturally prone to music will over time be captivated by it (2.4 55.28 56.5). 660 The effectivity of music lies in the fact that 658 2.3 55.4 353 659 See a quite similar idea in Cic. De or. 3.44.174, there not about children. The point returns at 2.4 57.19 62.25 ; 660 Aristides compares music here, like at several other places, with the way medicine works.

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321 its mimetic character extends to more than one sense. 661 While Philodemus ha s argued that the emotive effect o f poetry lies only in reason (the word), Aristides holds the opposite: only through melody are the passions always moved and through rhythm conformed to the content, as particularly evident in declamation where emotivity requires the voice to tend towards melody something which the Roman orators Cicero and Quintilian have confirmed, as we have seen B ut Aristides goes so far as to demand a precise and detailed of content, 662 a concept developed already by earlier authors such as Diogenes of Halicarn assus but now brought into its most sophisticated form. According to Aristides, music persuades most effectively ) because its contrary to the other arts, is brought about by the same principles that perform in real life. 663 M usic expresses ethos and pathos the moulding of the voice, and action through rhythms and movement of the body. 664 Like Plato, he suggests that especially children should acquire through these mimeses and likenes ses a familiarity and usage 661 Pa in ting and plastic arts only appeal to sight poetry only to the ear and yet they arouse and astound ( ) the soul, how much more then should music do so. Aristides seems to imply generally a visual concept of rhythm, based on dance drama, c (2.4 56.17 18) 662 Cf. 2.4 56.19 21 for the example of gestures to be adjusted to the content ] 663 1.4 56.27 not there in the Greek but remains abstract in the pronoun 664 1.4 57.4 , The key term is a d loc. presented in musical ; Barker 1999 ( an interesting study, comparing the term to the mainstream underst 2005, 146 The full meaning of this term will emerge in the course of this section. It is important, however, to notice already that text); i

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322 through which they will know and desire that which they will in earnest achieve later on in life ; in other words, they should train themselves emotionally in familiarity with an ethos that they should later display in reality, and this ethos is 2 .4 57.6 10 ; cf. 2.5 58.8 10 ). Without providing concrete examples he asserts that the ancients used mostly music for of its natural power and effe 2 .4. 57.11 14). general usefulness for education, Aristides enumerates other well known applications (beautifying worship, giving splendor to feasts stirring and calming war and travels, easing hardships of work, breaking the sharpness of grief). The causes for music making arise from passions or emotions within the different parts of the soul : in the irrational it is pleasure if one is cheerful (in the appetitive sub part mainly in children ) or pain if one is suffering ( in the spirited sub part mainly in women ) ; in the rational part, if one is under divine impulse and breathing, it is inspiration / ( mainly in old men) ; in young or old age there can be also a mixture between these 665 Such emoti ons (which do not disturb the ) may lead to harmful states of the soul Therefore, i n music, rather than in reason, is found therapy ( ) for each of these which transfers the person, w ithout notice and under compulsion into the proper 665 About this section see also Barker 2005, 138. As will emerge from the later discussion of various races emphasizing particular parts of the soul and still later the duality of male female, the current distribution of age and gender is not absolute. What is said here is that these groups tend to express themselves in music according to the assigned parts of the soul, while the effect that music has on each part is certainly felt by any human being.

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323 state ; 666 in the case of moderate ( ) emotivity, active music making heals, whereas those suffering need to be taught through hearing, b ut always according to the same corresponding style (according to sex and age, as laid out above) (2.4 57.24 58.32) Aristides takes the effect of music and the proper legislation to prove that the ancients did practice music in the d escribed way and decreed melodies, rhythms, and dances fitting to eac h context and that they avoided changes, trying to restrain the movements within souls afflicted by untempered passions and ). 667 People who neglect music (including poetry) appear thoroughly crude and foolish ( wrong use of music results in deformed ethos ; 668 so, he says, the ancients used mainly the melodies fitting for education and only for a restricted time (at festivals?) did they employ Here it is interesting to observe how Aristides blends Republic) w ith the more differen t iated approach to what is Laws) as also promoted by Aristotle, apparently reacting against musical 666 1.5 58.21 At this point Aristides gets closest to a magic conception of music from which he abstains for the rest. 667 Aristides illustrates this idea with the poetic image 13); cf. Pind. Nem. 7.13; Plut. Quaest. conv. 7.5.4 = Mor. 706e. 668 2.6 59.19 (...) Resp. 410c 411e. The point of moral decay of society due to uncu ltured leaders ( ) at the course of Roman history is made in 2.6 62.19 24, followed by more examples from other peoples; cf. Barker n. 50 ad loc. and Pl. Resp. 546e 547a. 32), Aristide s remains always faithful to T his is not merely prescriptive: he seems to think that the intriguing effect of music is actually propor tionate with its connection to content.

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324 purists who interpreted Plato in a very narrow sense and rejected musical enjoyment altogether (the end of the spect rum opposite the Epicureans) 669 The educational value of music is prominent, but the effect of enjoyment at least for common people, is also legitimate along with other uses as mentioned the criterion again is suitablility ( 2.6 60.23) that needs to be rejected (even though Aristides does not tell us wha t characteristics such a melody would show only that they are composed to please the crowd ), but just because abuse is possible does not justify the outright rejection of music; the ultimate goal, however, remains the pursuit of virtue (2.6 60. 10 61.25 ) Examples from Roman history and practice are given Two main dangers linger through such that persons and entire peoples may become subdued to their passions and acquire bad ethos: a lack of music ( ) and education, and bad music/education ( ). Again similar to Plato (Resp. 410c 412a), but now on the level of w hole populations, Aristides hows how those suffering are imbalanced in either the appetitive or spirited part of the so ul (being insensitive/bovine or savage respectively); (which is perverted against nature meanness, badness ) leads in the appetitive part to sluggishness and improper behavior with the bod i es, in the spirited part to lack of order in thinking, drunkenness, excessive inclination to war and wrath. To the contrary, those who have used music properly (such as the Greeks) are blessed with virtue, ever y knowledge and exceeding humanity. In language we could say: without music, hu man beings remain underdeveloped in their emotional world ; bad music induces to 669 This is laid out mainly in 2.6 59.14 61.3 ; see nn. 36 40 by Barker ad loc.

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325 sins of defect or excess; good music provides a balanced and fertile emotive soil for virtue and any other cultural activity. Aristides then asks rhetorically: if entire cities and races can be delighted and changed to the better through music, should it not be capable of educating an individual? Of course, the whole argument depends on accepting the premise that music is truly the cause for these Aristides attempt s to mak e evident the link between the ethos of a person or a people and their upbringing. also more c a pable than anything else of bind ing ) the S tate and o f maintain ing this bond, while music is also responsible for constitutional decline or change. 670 I am adding a diagram to show the division of the soul in its parts. The diagram already contains the male female distinction and its characteristics as they are assigned througho ut the following chapters (including 3.16, on general virtues, and 3.21) The equivalents will be explained further down in the text. Musical ethos its inner workings Aristides now turns to elucidate the question of how music is able to indicat e type of music they prefer He describes psychologically the process of acquiring ethos from music (with first anegative and then a positive example): if bad things ( ) are habitually 670 This section is developed in 2.6 62. 25 being of state and constitution is in Resp. 424c and Leg. 701a that the arguments Sextus brings forth, as we have seen, are hardly conclusive; mostly, a rgument is placed against argument without addressing logically the foundation for each. Secondly, remaining somewhat open the chronological sequence between both texts, neither author seems to be directly responding to the other; neither language, nor arg umental structure, nor the examples are similar. The same can be said about Philodemus.

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326 Figure 3 3. The division of the human soul according to Aristides Quintilianus. p romoted by melody, ) take place, whic h become nature ( strengthened and intensified through enjoyment until the individual and common life will

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327 be turned upside down. 671 Again, in modern terms we could illustrate the point as follows: if someone, say, listens often to music which contains aggressive features, he or she would get used to such a state of mind, adopt aggressive traits in the personal character, and eventually feel driven to aggressive actions. For the good, Aristides recal ls, without giving concrete examples (which instead we have seen especially in pseudo Plutarch and Philodemus), how music contributed to restore civil order and peace between cities and races and is able to replace through common festivities mutual aggress iveness with kindliness ( ) In order to maintain love for order ( and to safeguard friendship music is needed ( i.e. prophylactic ally not just to r edeem problems once they have arisen). Aristides here builds strongly on the analogy, or rather interdependence, between individual and social concord/harmony ( ) as conceived by Plato ( 2 .6 64.9 64.6). Moving on to the various elements that constitu the wide sense, like in Plato) and its education, Aristides lists the or content ( ), diction or verbal expression ( ), the melodic patterns ( ), and rhythm ( ). 672 All these should be suitable Plato as the ethical triangle, with the content as the determining factor for all the others, which are, beginning with diction, a of the content (2.7 65.22 28). But before 671 2.6 63.31 64.9. Barker in n. 59 ad loc. Rep. 424b the main difference is that Plato describes the course of institutional corruption, whereas Aristides clearly depicts the psychological process on the individual level. 672 A little correction is needed to GMW 2.469 n. 67: the ratios mentioned at 2. 7 66.1 ( ) must be the rhythmical proportions as described in 1.18 38.15 39.25 (Schfke 1937, 267 translates correctly with angeordnete [zeitliche] Verhltnisse

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328 treating each of these individually A ristides assigns the duality of male and female to the appetitive and spirited part s of the soul, 673 each equipped with their particular ethos and passions ; for female: too slack ( ) with any possible mixture Since all and auditive perception is guided by preferences (o r the attraction) that emerge from his or her own male female disposition, e.g: women typically would prefer smooth and are possible. The ethical passionate evaluation of the outside realities in their (2.8 66.6 2.9 68.14). This description of the soul constitutes its starting condition, given by nature, but it is subject to be ing infl uenced (improved) by ideas ( ) transmitted through words ( ) in ed ucation until reaching a habitual state This may come about as therapy (rectifying vice/evil), through either a successive diminishing ( an undesired pass ion or its eliminating ( listener; it may also consist in constructive promotion ( 673 He estab lishes duality in Pythagorean and Platonic terms, as a general principle in nature (see GMW 2.470 n. 71), observing the fact that men may also show female traits and women male ones, thus acknowledging that the genders are not strictly exclusive contrarie apply as such to any individual (their sublunar manifestations are not particularly flattering for either sex). Multiple references in other authors to classifications similar to the ones here and in the following can be

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329 conserving ( ) 674 i.e. confirming and maintaining the best habit or through incre mentation ( ( ) to the pinnacle of virtue (2.9 68.14 69.1). In the following, Aristides beginning with showing in a manner similar to Dionysius of Halicarnassus how Homer uses images and rhethorical devices to evoke certain feelings to accompany the narrative I t is interesting that he does not discriminate against the content itself, as Plato does, in o rder to achieve a particular preconceived ethos; the ideas offered are in the service of the story line, not of any extrinsic objective but their analysis and classification according to gender based provide criteria for their conscious use in any gi ven context. 675 The same applies to the second area of diction which is treated in Chapter 11 where he endeavors to classify basic phonemes (letters and syllables) according to gender and ethos. 674 Winington Ingram supplies this to the Greek text (at 68.28) as a posible missing expression, supported as a term for the first subtype, leaving the second main type without label. 675 In Chapter 10 he does give examples (again from Homer) of how ideas/stories can be used to change (Il. 9.186 18 9), a singer (Od. 1.326 327), etc. These strict sense. I wonder whether the se examples, which he interprets quite opposite to Sextus Empiricus (see above n. 562 ), give a hint that Aristides wrote his work before Sextus since he completely ignores that divergence (among many others); it would be surpr ising if he did not know Adversus musicos had it been written previously; that this is not impossible, however, shows the case of Athenaeus (see p. 178 ). On the other hand, the argumentation of Sextus would appear rather po or before the humongous theoretical apparatus accumulated by Aristides. The best assumption probably is that neither of the two As interesting as these elaborate exemplification s are to helping understand his psychologi cal approach we need to skip over the sections not directly concerned with music. At 2.10 73.26 27 he indicates that in ; harmoniai as said at 2.14 80.11 incrementation).

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330 Before m oving on to melody and rhythm, each representing a gen der in particular (see above p. 319 ) but also containing a gender based range on its own (e.g. more female rhythms) Aristides assigns gender to notes and intervals which receive their ethos from the vowels assigned to iden tify the notes ; 676 these now determine, through position and frequency or dominance, the ethos of the scalar and modal system. 677 He is convinced that words in their phonetic composition reflect their gender, and that melodies do so by their composition based on gender (and ethos )specific notes and intervals. This equipment enables the educator (or therapist) to apply the style of melody ( ) according to the diagnosis and the processes of treatment la i d out earlier (diminishing, eliminating, incrementing, etc.); in case of doubt, a trial and error method may be applied responding flexibly (even through modulation) to feedback (2.12 76 .31 2.14 80.22) A famous passage follows where Aristides states that musical ethos depends on a ; between melody, harmoniai, passions of the soul 678 As far as I see, the fame of the passage still has not prompted previous 676 E.g.: is female, is masculine; is intermediate tow ards masculine intermeditate towards feminine; these are assigned to specific places within the scale system and the tetrachord. Intervals bounded by notes of equal gender (m m; f f) acquire that gender; otherwise, they are intermediate. Boccadoro 2002, 194 195 and 228 ethical value to individual notes is an additional argument in favor of the assumption that AQ indeed used ancient material (and not just processed compendia of his own t ime). A more detailed explanation of this 151 & 156 158 (sources). Jan 1860 makes some text critical comments regarding the vowel assignments. 677 Barker tries to explain the terms 136 (to 2.14 80.10): the a mode or a transposition the exact concept remains subject to discussion among the experts. In any case, they are the basis for concrete melodies and confer onto them their ethos 678 2

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331 comentators to detect its full theory. From what he is developing before and after it follows that in his theory the interface b etween music, soul, and ethos consists in the gender ethical codification of letters and, through them, of notes. 679 a hendiadys, for the role of movement in the connection between musical elements and ethos i s conceived differently than what we have seen in p seudo Aristotle; Aristides does not attend to the establishing ethos in music; we could perhaps say: p seudo Aristotle pursued a formal approach of while Aristides choses a material one in which musical elements are substantially charged with ethos and thus capable o f resembling the irrational (passionate) part of t h e human soul on account of that very ethos. In other wo rds, there is a common, pe established ethos that makes both similar, not a mimetic similarity that would make music ethical. We will return to this point in our final evaluation G iven the infinite possibilities of complex ethos traits both in the soul an d in music, musical treatment needs to be individually adjusted. Here, similar to what was said in only Aristides resolves the tension that we observed in Plato and Aristotle between precise prescript ions and restrictions ( Republic ) and the concept of appropriateness to groups ( Laws Politics ) : Aristides clearly distinguishes between a more defined and limited use for pedagogical ethos formation (in earlier years : ) and therapeutic or other us es, which 679 ( 2.14 80.28 29) is heatedly debated (see above nn. 146 150 and 151 ) and also Zanocelli 1977, 77 80 n. 16 and 82 84 n. 129.

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332 require musical ethos to be concocted out of the full range of possibilities according to each individual and circumstance ( ) 680 Aristides continues his analysis, assigning the lower ta (and tropoi, e.g. Dorian) to male, the higher (e.g. higher Phrygian, Lydian) to female, a common and natural concept (given the different voice ranges of men and women), which he further explains, however, by the different sound production and ethical association: vigor and weight ( shrill ) in the case of the female with others being intermediate (e.g. Iastian, Aeolian) 681 Conti those with leaps (transilient) are roughe to these he does not assign gender or any particular or harmonia (2.14 81.7 82.3) 682 We may notice at this point that Aristides completely leaves out any disc ussion of ethos with regards to genus, which had almost replaced the consideration of ethos in 680 2.14 81.4 432 n. 145. The point becomes even clearer when he asserts at 81.7 8 that the lower (e.g. the ), which means t hat their natural ethos connects directly to men and instills, for the same reason, ethos in the context of education; cf. further at 82.1 681 2.14 81.7 13; fo r the sound production Barker quotes ad loc. a number of Peripatetic sources; appears only in the supplement of LSJ 1996. The level of tetrachords can vary, while the tonoi (or tropoi) differ only as much as our adjacent key signatures do. Ari stides here only mentions Dorian by name; for the other assignments see GMW 2.484 nn. 151 152. Schfke 1937, 284 n. 2 expounds nicely on the related fact that men and women used to magadize in octave parallels: und Frauen in der vollkommenen Oktave miteinander harmonieren, liegt in der Urtatsache der Oktavharmonie zugleich der Gegensatz der 682 For the significance of this distinction also in other authors, cf. GMW 2.413 414 nn 93 95.

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333 harmoniai during the time after Aristoxenus. There is only one little paragraph ( appended to book 2 and possibly not even by Aristides himself 683 but an interpolat ion by a reader who noticed the omission), which declares the diatonic genus austere and manly, the chromatic very sweet and mournful (and thus implicitly feminine), and the enharmonic, apparently medial, both stimulant and soothing. 684 In the discussion of rhythms, Aristides unfolds a wide spectrum of represented by the different types (which can be observed even in the way people walk) being the only surviving author offering such treatment. Rhythms are mostly distinguished between the quiet well or dered, and healthy types and on the other side, the agitated disorder ed disturbing ones Some composed rhythms because of their unevenness, enact a multiplicity of body movements and t hus lead the mind astray into not little confusion ; 685 similarly, modu lations between rhythms pull the soul violently in opposite directions, forcing it to accompany every turn and to make itself alike to variation. 686 Finally, also the tempo ( ) of rhythm shows ethos a s divided into 683 At 92.19 30; cf. GMW 2.494; Schfke and Mathiesen do not even bother translating this. I am including the ideas here because I am less concerned with what is authentic in Aristides but what ideas were out there at the time. The ethical descriptions are similar to Anon. Bell. 2.26. A technical description of the genera was given in book 1 at the beginning of Chapter 9; Aristides mentions genus also later in book 3 for some of his cosmological analogies: 3.11 110. 14 111.27. 684 Winnington Ingram 1963, 92 93 (in n. ad loc.) ) is . f the enharmonic genus is in fact medial, as the context and the characterizations by other authors suggest, it might indeed have either effect, depending on which one is activated by the other musical parameters. Barker apparently understands it this way as he does not 685 2.15 83.15 The connection b etween musical influen ce on body and soul is indicated at 2.3 55.3 686 2.15 83.18 We see that, l ike in Plato, variety is thought to leave to an unstable and confused condition.

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334 swift, which is hot and active ( and slow, which is diffusing slack and ; abbreviated rhythms are vehement condensed and stimulating to act ion ( ) while expanded rhythms are supine and flabby ) and the intermediate ones are moderate Mixtures are possible also in the other categories. The only concrete applicat ions that are offered refer to war dances (for short rhythms) and sacred hymns (at 2.15 82.19 22). Aristides does not attempt to group these ethical types clearly by gender, even though the characteristics used often suggest one of the two according to his categorization elsewhere (e.g. at the tempo indications) (2.15 82.4 84.10) It is s triking, however, that the qualifications are m ore easily The lack of gender assignment covers up some inconsistencies, e.g. when Aristides talks the pyrrhic war dance, then these opposites turn out to be both on the manly side. Regarding delivery ( ), he just bri efly states that the body movements and should be watched and imitated by ev similar to Aristotle, he allows them, with some persons of noble and serious character should stay away from them completely (2.16 84.11 19 ). As the last of the musical elements Aristides addresses the instruments and administers clear gender assignments along with ethos to the most common ones (e.g.

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335 salpinx and lyre as male because of low pitch, vigor, and roughness; Phrygian aulos and samb uk 687 as female because of high pitch, mournful, and sordid qualities), allowing again intermediate instruments such as the kithara and assuming that the reader will easily determine by himself the nature of other instruments. At any rate, people cherish and honor those instruments that compare with their natural ethos 85.20). Aristides concludes this section with the advice that for parameters in a suitable way; normally all ought to be of the same ethos, unless the effect would be too extreme for the person to be treated, in which case a mixture may be made never though, with an opposite (e.g. male and female rhythm, which would be unsuitable but with an intermedia te (1.16 85.21 86.7). At this point ( Chapter 17) Aristides sets out to explore further the reasons for the specific captivatin g effect of musical instruments. H e dedicates a whole paragraph to a captatio benevolentiae, as if he himself were not so sure ab out the certainty of what he is going to say, making clear that he reports from other (undisclosed) sources. 688 Unchallengable certainty belongs to the empirical fact that stify. His explanation, for our ears rather odd fantasy but quite compatible with the ancient (meta ) physical conception of world and nature, starts with 687 See GMW 2.488 n. 180 with references to Ath. (e.g.: high 688 Barker, in his notes to chs. 17 19, provides some references to Plato (esp. Phdr. 246a ff), but many details of the account remain without parallel, even though they are close to Pythagorean, neo Platonic, and Stoic though knowledge that previous authors had refrained from putting into writing, see e.g. 2.7 65.15 17. I am condensing his account to the minimum necessary to understand his main point.

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336 towards the earth, picking up on the journey celestial e lements of radiant aether, circles and lines, and vaporous air from all of which on earth a part coagulate s to the constitutive structure of the body with its breath, membranes, sinews, and veins through which the soul pulsates holding everything togethe r G as much as the soul itself, possess certain harmonic qualities (still to be explored in book (or vibration) indeed exists as a natural phenomenon, to musical sound w ith analogous qualities, e.g. the sinews respond to harmoniously plucked chords of the kithara and the and soul respond to wind instruments. Now, since the aetheric elements (sinews, and than the moist ones, which ), it follows that string instruments are preferred over wind instruments (2.17 86.8 2.18 90.18) It is im pressive how Aristides is capable of contriving his time, a consistent vision that combines physico psychological and medical observations that bestow unifying substance on the century old intuitions about mus ical ethos. He crowns his discourse by returning to the known ancient stories such as about musical rivalry between Marsias, Apollo, and Athena, 689 revealing, as it were, their most profound significance. Thus he arrives at a hierarchical sorting of good and bad music that interlaces the results of his analysis with traditional mythological personalities T o begin with the worst, t he Homeric Sirens stand for melody that is bad, 689 For a full collection of references to authors telling these stories see GMW 2.492 n. 202.

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337 harmful, and to be avoided 690 Then, descending from the highest to the lowest, Apol lo, as a man with the kithara, represents the music for the education of the best and the Muse Polhymnia as a woman, the kithara music for pleasure of the crowd; Hermes is associated with the pedagogical type of lyre proper to men, and Erato with the rela xing type appealing to the appetitive (female) part of the soul. Euterpe is responsible for a ulos music promoting both pleasure and goodness, while another (not further specified) 691 t ype, which can bring benefit to those suffering from the toils of work but needs a lot of knowledge and moderation is attached to Athena being a warlike woman and ultimately this form is not recommended for those seeking wisdom as displayed by the stor ies of Athena throwing away the aulos and the punishment of Ma rsyas for esteeming it too high Pythagoras supposed ly considered the aulos as defiling the ears and had them washed after hearing it for it deals with the inferior part of the soul while the lyre c orresponds to the rational part A nd so, since the whole universe follows (as still to b e shown) the same order as the soul by means of only the pure kithara and lyre reach out and cling to the beauties of the aetherial world in its simplicity and mutual concord, likening themselves to it through virtue 692 (2.18 90.18 2.19 92 .18). 690 2.19 90.27 Odysseus does the only right thing: 691 Maybe this refers to the male part of the soul with its aggressive, warlike tendency that needs to be tamed. 692 2.19 92.16 These considerations roughly correspond to what we have seen early about Pythagorean music therapy. Schfk e 1937, 306 n. 2 believes that the lyre is more prone to support reason, due to the fact that it allows singing and playing at the same time.

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338 C osmic order through music conclusion. Nevertheless he adds another whole book to undergird the previous with mathematical and physical principles 693 und thus und ertakes to develop once more, according to the Pythagorean (and to lesser degree the Aristoxenian) tradition, the ratio theory of musical intervals concords, and pro portions. This leads him to engage in number speculation (from Chapter 6 onward). 694 In Chap ter 8 he shows how co ncordant ratios ), understanding ( ), settled condition friendship ( ), even transferring unharmoniousnes s into harmony T he spirited part of the soul is a mean between the appetitive and the rational, thus harmonizing both, 695 similar to different areas of politics where the mean is always the integrating factor for how the world could be organized in such a way and music not thus Aristides rhetorically concludes this section on the arithmetic foundations of music (at 3.8 107.12). 693 He mentions at 3.1 94.5 11 the unreliability of the body and of sense perception (attributing this view in a que stionable way to the Pythagoreans, cf. GMW 2.495 n. 3, and at 3.1 96.26 28 to Plato, cf. Barker n. 12 ad loc). Again at 3.2 97.5 7 he cites Pythagoras praising the greater perfection of intellectual Chapter 7, he contrasts the imprecisions and defects of this world with the purity and perfection in the higher regions and thus explains the inaccuracies in setting up music systems practically in agreement with the mathematically conceived numbers and ratios; numbers and proportions are of similar importance in other disciplines, conferring beauty to paintings and accuracy to medicine ( Chapter 8). 694 Some examples: ) and concord ( ) of the universe, holding all things together through ; to music for being composed by the numbers displaying the three concordant ratios (2+3+4=9), further because the harmonia a nd rotation of the universe render all numbers because of all the different ratios it contains. Some of these number speculations are found in a similar wa y in Theon of Smyrna, as Barker attests in his notes to this chapter. 695 3.8 106.80

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339 None of the beautiful things can be established apart from b eing in with the universe, so music draws its existence and power from the to it and it does so in a very particular way beyond the other arts, because in its composition rsal harmony (3.9 107.13 108.5) 696 Aristides goes into much detail to demonstrate all sorts of analogies between musical and cosmic or natural principles whi ch cannot and need not all be reproduce d here ; I am going to highlight the most ones most relevant t o us without going into the detail ed reasoning behind each of them 697 M usic as an art limits the possible infinity of note pitches, just as the demiurge gives boundary and balanced measure ( ), and thus their beauty, to bodies, souls, and climates (3.10 110.1 9). The concordant intervals of octave, fifth, and fourth correspond to the triadic nature of the beings in the universe: ever living divine (complete octave), lifeless bodies (fourth), and intermediate (mortal animals fifth); similarly, th e three genera correspond to the dimensions of line (enharmonic), depth (diatonic), and plane (chromatic) and for each of these assignments Aristides gives reasons and further subdivisions (3.11 110.10 111.27). He shows how all numbers related to music ha ve particular importance in the universe (3.12 111.28 112.27). 698 The 696 Notice that he speaks here about huma n music, not music as such. A t this point, A ristides adds another invocation of the divinity which as at the beginning (see n. 648 ) I ad loc. ), for, with all respect, Apollo cannot be credited with the creation of all bodies; the god invoked should possess patronage over the subje ct that is treated, in this case: the universe. The clear invocation of 7) is evident as the author thanks him for completing his task, which certainly belongs to this divinity. Thus the invocations thro ughout the work take up the symmetric pattern of AD:DA (A= Apollo, D= demiurge). 697 For a more complete summary, Mathiesen 1983, 42 57 will be helpful. 698 He says, they are sacred and effective (at 112.14 ).

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340 total number of tones in all possible genera is 28, the number of a moon phase, with each 14 rising (waxing) and falling (waning) (3.13 112.28 113.14). Each of the tetrachords (as assemble d in ascending order within the whole system) corresponds to a sense organ and element (from lowest to highest: touch/earth, taste/water, smell/air, hearing/fire, sight/aether) (3.14 113.15 114.28) or also to a virtue (again from lowest to highest: moderat ion ( ) as abstention from illegitimate enjoyment, moderation as right measure in legitimate enjoyment, justice ( ) manliness/courage ( ) against vice and the attachment to the body, understanding ( ) M oderation and justice c orres pond to the appetitive part of the soul manliness/courage to the spirited, and understanding to the rational part, each corresponding to one of the three fifths of the full while the two octaves resemble the division of the soul into two gen eral parts (3.16 115.17 116.12) The contains also the path of the soul from childhood onward to either vice or virtue (3.17 116.13 117.17). 699 Harmonic and rhythmic ratios find equivalencies in pregnancy cycles 700 and body proportions; bodies are beau tiful when they are proportional to concordant intervals, that is, not ignobl y when displaying ness stem virtue and friendship Aristides here cites Pl Resp. 403c) (3.18 117.18 118.28). The four elements, and through them the seasons, are assigned to specific figures and numbers and thus they relate according to the proportions of 699 Barker 2005, 165 168 discusses chs. 14 17 with more detail. 700 Barker (GMW 2.518 nn. 148 155) finds similar calculations in a multiplicity of other sources; one could add what we have seen in Censorinus.

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341 concordant intervals (3.19 118.29 119.20). These intervals also correspond to the universe: fourth to matter, fifth to aether, and the octave to the melodious movement of the plan ets, the harmony of the spheres, whic h he then begins to explain in his own way (3.20 119.21 120.29) 701 Letters, notes, and gods are dispensed to the planets and zodiac regions along with their male, female, or mixed characteristics and to each of these also the appro p riate ( ) musical modes ( ), 702 rhythms, and instruments (3.21 120.30 3.22 123.4) The last four lines in Chapter 22 require comment, which will at the same time help to clarify an important point about all these analogies. Aristides states th at rhythms and instruments will be chosen in a balanced way, fine tuning excess or defect in activity. Barker comments returns to the recommendations for musical education and therapy set o 703 This leads to the question of what Aristides is actually doing in these chapters Even though the idea of the audibility of the spheric harmony (rarely actually realized) might suggest that Aristides is composing (or rather, deciphering) a with the di fferent musical parameters at work t his can obviously not be the case, 701 Part of his explanation is b ase d on Aristotal i an doctrine, but some is original. He states that we cannot may permit it to become at least in part perceptible for those who are p articularly virtuous (at 3.20 120.13 v ) and understanding ( ). N otice that a virtuous life is the condition for being allowed to hear it, not per se for being able to hear it. 702 Barker cla harmoniai not just key transpositions. Helpful diagrams for the various distributions can be consulted in Mathiesen 1983, 43 54 or id. 1999, 563 578. 703 GMW 2.524 n. 187. The relevant passage reads ( 123.19 , that in the Greek edition these lines do not even form a fresh sentence but continue the current one directly after a comma.

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342 assume that they emit the sounds of the lyre or the aulos We ne ed to keep in mind that Aristides had set out to show the superior origin, and through it the great value and dignity, of our earthly music, both in terms of musical practice (with its various functions) and theory. 704 These assignments, then, are rather mea nt to signify a matrix of principles (mostly ratios) that are at work in the cosmos, human nature, and equally in music. The ultimate goal for human nature is to recuperate the perfect order and harmony y and the imperfect conditions on earth T he medium s to re cover this order are music education and therapy, because music possesses in itself the ingredients to match the cosmic order. But s ince human music suffers the same (perceptual) limitations as huma ns themselves, musical science helps us to adjust music and its use to the ideal celestial harmony; the use of such music, then, will also restore the original order within the human body and soul. If this interpretation is correct, then the lines at the e nd of Chapter 22 do not form a (quite abrupt and unexpected) break of topic. All of the distributions of analogy ) (e.g. male letter male tone male planet male divinity male tropos, etc.); having accomplished the discussion of musical parameters, Aristides is now simply reminding us that, as Barker correctly points out, in education and therapy all of these will need to be adjusted according to the particular requirements and circumstances. Music, which is composed according to the interplay of male and female elements as also observable in the physical and cosmic qualities and processes of elements, s enses, seasons, weather, 704 how music presents a paradigm for every age and the whole of life (the reference is to 1.1) For the following, cf. also id., 54.

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343 growth in shape and virtue, planets, and even divinities, will seek the balance reflected in them and use tones, modes, instruments and rhythms in a formula of purity or 705 For t he remaining chapters Aristides first turn s to the musical dimension of the Timaeus and the related writings by Plutarch and Proclus applying the previous number speculations to the zodiac, which contains rhythmic and harmon ic ratios (3.23 123.23 125.20) T hen he deduces from these numbers an astrological influence on the soul insofar as the basic numbers shown in Table 3 2 below. 706 Mathematic geometrical musical proportions conclude the analysis of the balanced relationship between body and soul and illustrate the gender based pol arity 705 A similar point should be made about the analogies of elements, senses, and virtues to tetrachords, which, as Barker 2005, 168 to create a consistent in 3.14 for the elements the least noble ones (earth and water) belongs to the lowest (and therefore male) tetrachords, while in 2.14, lower pitch systems received positive and the higher rather neg ative ethos assignments (cf. especially 82.1 3). Aristides, then, does not intend to say that particular musical pieces, by applying particular tetrachords, would conjure up certain virtues or activate particular senses. Here the relationship between the m principle of a proper hierarchical order, which is governing both spheres. Therefore, the examples of how this order is present in both do not need to be mutually compatible as long as the general point is made. It is also clear that virtues and vices in their relationship are not mathematically quantifiable. While the musical elements analyzed in book 2 indeed aim at a direct ethical effect on the soul for the sake of educati on and therapy, book 3 exemplifies for a good part the fundamental principles of consonance and dissonance and illustrates the scalar nature of opposites in all different realms of the world. 706 I am providing this table as there is no diagram in Mathiesen and it is a good example for the type of classifications that Aristides sets up. The Greek text is corrupt upon introducing the number 7 when he notes that other numbers in the missing section, as the preserved text resumes discussing a double tetraktys with odd and even numbers.

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344 between them (1.24 125.21 128.27). With this, all things are in place to return to the topic of musical therapy, now within its full scope of meaning. Table 3 2 Benefits for soul and body in AQ 3.24 127.1 12 Number Soul Body Explanation 1 understan ding ( ) / is / (simple) 2 manliness/courage ( ) strength ( ) / (impulse/shifting) from one part to the other 3 moderation ( ) beauty of parts/colors 4 justice ( ) health (concrd) between parts 7 ? ? ? Given the divine nature of music, melodic composition takes its natural origin in 707 as a way to overcome the ignorance, forgetfulness ( ), disorder, vehement emotion, ) which it suffers since its union with the body. This negative state is sedated ( ) through mimetic melody and dance either performed directly (for people with a savage nature) or rathe r through listening and hearing (for people with a more educated and ordered nature); thus the Bacchic rites have their cathartic function here. 708 Just as Apollo, the sun god, orders matter with his plectrum, so the melody made up of solmisazed notes (based on the vowels with the ) for the soul. Rhythm, Aristides briefly adds, is composed out of arsis (destructive) and thesis (constructive). He draws no further conclusions from this (3.25 128.128.28 130.24) The work ends with a 707 Little does it seem to matters here that Aristides said earlier that this occurs usually just ( 2.4 58.1 5). 708 This idea certainly recall understanding it (see nn. 399 and 400 ). If we take what Aristides remarked earlier about the proper dosis of element s for musical therapy, this homoeopathic strategy is indicated by the mimetic nature of the procedure (see n. 575 ).

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345 reflec tion on fate, which can, in things not essential for the course of the universe, undergo modification just as a melody may continue the way it started or modulate differently (3.26 130.25 132.30), and lastly with the affirmation that music (here understood as the com pound of science as laid out in his own work) is the initiation 709 which, as Plato had taught, is the ultimate path for the soul away from the body and the changing world in to the sublu nar realm (3.27 133.1 134.11). Evaluation Mathiesen says that for many neo Pythagorean (and neo Platonic) authors music 710 Aristides has probably advanced the furthest in this direction. For the modern reader, much of what Aristides writes in the second half of his work is hard to swallow. T he accuracy or consistency of all these analogies often p rovided by previous authors in various mutually exclusive, ways is in many ways questionable, and we might be tempted to simply dismiss them. Among several present day scholars his elaborations evoke more pity than admiration 711 We might find the analo gi es at times forced, and 709 This is a somewhat sursprising turn, not prepared for in the introduction even though fully in line with 710 Mathiesen 1990, 42 with reference to authors such as Archytas, Theophrastus, Thrasyllus, Harmonics. 711 E. g. Hagel 405 and 406 ); Anderson 1966, 155 thing that Aristotle and concept of the harmony of the spheres (see above n. 107 ). One cannot deny, however, that also Aristo tle, in many of his physical writings, was relying on ancient theories about the cosmos and elements that do not hold any longer in modern science. Even hard core scientists such as Ptolemy and later Kepler and Newton had no scruples against entertaining s

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346 from the point of view of modern scientific knowledge and method in many cases they simply cannot be upheld. On the other hand, the ancient philosophers were no less than our physicists in search of an integrated explanation of the universe and were eager to draw connections of all kind s In order to appreciate Aristides correctly, we need to evaluate the significance of his system within the mindset and scientific tenets of his own time and the explicatory force of musical ethos wit hin such a framework Afterwards, i n a separate step we will consider some of his reflections that may be of lasting value. What then can we draw from this long expos for the value of music? Unfortunately, Aristides does not provide a final synthesis in which he would pull all strings together. I believe the points relevant for us can be consolidated as follows : 1. O rder and beauty in the universe rest on the harmony ( concordant musical ratios) between elements which are by themselves ethically determined. 712 all realities. Earthly music then, derives its ethos not through mimetic adoption from exterior ethos reflecting movements but possesses it a priori as its intrinsic stru cture. Musical is simply the adjustment of particular parameters to fit 2. Musical ethos can be described by a duality of characteristics and mixed combinations thereof, as reflected in nature and human nature (mal e female). 3. All parameters in music are ethically relevant: content, diction (if there is text), tone, intervals, genus, style, melody, rhythm modulation, instruments, and delivery; full psych ological effect. Reversely (human) music is expected to reflect the 4. Music is the best means to bestow order and harmony onto the irrational part of the soul. Its effect is subconscious an d automatic. Its main goal is to achieve virtue, either in pedagogy (establishing it) or therapy (restoring it). 712 according to our earlier terminological clarification, does not

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347 5. All musical elements should be adjusted to each other in a balanced way s o as to reach the ethos required by context and purpose (worship, work war, education, 6. Both homoepathic and allopathic therapy find applications (even though not too clearly specified and explained). 713 Discordant relationships (ratios) are rendered harmonious thr ough a mean that is concordant with both extremes. 7. People reveal their character by the ethos of the music they prefer for the soul may express its state through specific musical ethos 8. The noble st (and for education only) way of using music is to listen to (not style ; performing music, also of other styles, is acceptable for common people when pleasure is sought relief from toil, etc. ). Hence, whether music is good, depends on the propriety of eth os with regard to the audience in achieving a particular objective. 9. Good music, being in agreement with the cosmic and natural order, serves to bring enjoyment, harmony, and order into human realities, bestows stability to the State, and, in the best case, disposes to virtue, humanity, and philosophy. 10. Bad music (e.g. too much variety) perverts the soul to confusion, disorder, and vice, but already the lack of music creates imbalance in the soul. Bad music, especially through habituation, brings about the co rruption of individual and communal life. Metaphysics of ethos. We are here at the high point of a development that began with the Pythagoreans, according to which all areas of life have been submitted to the interpretative key of harmonic analysis, the ba lanced order between opposite forces. 714 Aware of the audacity of doing so, I venture Neither Aristides himself claim s such a thing nor has there been any acknowledgment for it But I believe that Aristides Quintilianus is the only ancient music philosopher who leads the century old arithmetic psychological, and 713 The most probable meaning is this: allopathic treatment stren gt h ens the passions of the soul that are overpowered by the excessive dominion of others, whereas homoepathic elements are indicated in cases when the first method would have driven the soul too much to the other extreme; cf. Barker 2005, 140 141. 714 Or, as Boccadoro 2002, 13 puts it:

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348 cosmological theories to its ultimate consequence which rests mainly on two pillars: one is the duality of male femal e which, according to Aristides, pervades all realities; the other is the already known principle of harmony. I f the universe has been created out of elements that received in the very creative act an intrinsic quality charged with ethos i.e. characteris tics that establish a polarity or duality between the building blocks of all creation, and if these elements and their derivatives relate to each other in musically describable ratios that again posses in themselves eth os then the dilemma of explaining th e possibility of ethos in music is turned upside down because the presence of harmonic principles in everything becomes the answer to the question why there is ethos in the world at all. 715 Universal gender assignments are the condition on which the constru ction of an equally universal harmonic principle can be built. For this to be effective, Aristides transcends the level of imagery, analogy, and metaphor 716 which seemed still to be prevalent in Ptolemy, and dares to take for real and explain down to the sm allest units of physical and spiritual nature the idea that musical ethos rules everything. Only if the elements out of which the universe is made really 715 Mathiesen 1999, 544, gets clo is not simple imitation of things but rather is an imitation of life itself, capable of raising the soul once again to the harmonia of the universe. This is why it is the most powerf ul art that, in a way, the other elements in the world are imitating music and not the other way around; he also not that the or 2.18 ( (...) ), a Pythagorean tenet which Aristides brings as a confirmation for what he just said before, that the art of music reveals the rat (...) 17; cf. also 2.19 92.3 5). 716 In this aspect Zanocelli 1977, 82 85 misses the point when, in his just endeavor to show how Aristides goes beyond Plato, characte senso analogico If this were so, we would be back at square one asking ourselves: how is it that music can symbolize ethically relevant movements and then become itse lf ethically effective? Aristides, I believe, would respond: because music is not a symbol of ethos, but is essentially ethical.

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349 can they relate harmonically; and since they are the same on es that are composing body and soul, they are able to interact, resonate, between the The power of music on the human soul is then, as it were, astrology an 717 A full treatment of this thesis is certainly not possible in the context of an author survey Nevertheless, since, as far as I see, it has not been yet formulated in this way, in order to explain it at least incipiently I see the need to clarify four points First, as we have already hinted at (p. 342 f) there is a d principle 718 which is necessarily in harmony and keep s the all pervading ethos polarity of elements i n constant balance, 719 and the sublunar earthly music which is subdue d to the changing contingencies of this realm and lacks the perfection that only harmonic science, by discovering the underlying mathematical ratios can fathom. Human music participates i n the cosmic one, but to different degrees. The key concept here with which Aristides begins his work, w hatever music contributes to establish on earth and in human being s especially in their soul, that harmony which the cosmos exhibits, he different parts of the human soul respond to music 717 718 rstood, appears to be such a thing only in a metaphorical way, as our definition of music departs from the sonoric phenomenon human beings are familiar with, for Aristides the celestial music is actually the princeps analogatum (cf. 3.7 105.18 22 vs. 3.9 107 15 20). 719 reconciled and non e of the poles is intrinsically bad. Aristides shows no signs of adhering to gnostic enters the sublunar sphere. With respect to this, notice that the ratios, not to the

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350 that is of their kind (whithin the whole scale of mixtures that either natural character or the movements of the passions may bring forth ) properly chosen music is able to prov oke in the soul (and through instruments also in the body distribution ) the desired ethical state by making those areas resonate that need to be streng t hen e d also a c onfused passions are prone to produce bad attitudes (vices) which lea d to evil behavior and actions. Previous authors already envisioned that music, by somehow resembling and expressing good behavior forms or restores order in the soul. N ew in Aristides is that the very fabric of the soul is not only metaphorically analogous but ontologically identical with the ethos elements that compose the universe, and the principle of this correspondence is music. 720 Human se principles and thus forms the natural path between ideal and psychic ethos. Its power lies in the significance of its elementary components, and its value, for the good or the bad, lies in the propriety to bring about cosmic harmony in human beings One prelude to philosophy as in Plato. Upon reading Aristides, one will need to carefully discern which of these three uses of music he means by : universal (the rational principle of harm ony), earthly/human (sonoric practical, including the art, sometimes in a wide sense including poetry and dance, sometimes in a narrow sense), and scientific. 721 720 C f 721 Martianus Capella summarizes these functions of music (there onia at 9.922 924, for the science then 9.930ff.

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351 Secondly, by shifting the vantage point from movement and its ratios, prevalent e.g. in pseudo A ristotle and Ptolemy as basis to explain the perception of order and ethos, to a more ontological conception (characteristics inherent to the elements that constitute the world, conceived as the male female duality), with Aristides ethos becomes an intrins ic factor of all beings which is the condition for their ability to relate in a harmonious, that is, musical way while th at relationship as such is one of proportion and reason. 722 Still, this does not mean, as we have seen, that all connections that Aristides draws, are to be taken in an ontological sense In book 2 (chs. 12ff), he does literally mean a direct ethos coloring of language and music on the one hand and the parts of the soul on the other. In contrast, h is comparison of senses, elements, vi rtues, etc. to tetrachords in book 3 (which are comparable to ones in Ptolemy, cf. above at n. 323 ) 723 rather serve to illustrate the common ruling principle of polarity as expressed in a scalar order but they are not 722 Barker 2005, 174 vaguely conceived though he does not state it as explicitly as Ptolemy (at 3.3 92.27 93.4), took it for granted that the demiurge applied the same mathematical reasoning that he also exposes in his treatise. Barker admits expectation of mathematical precision than emotions, ultimately ethos, are not mathematically quantifiable (see already above at n. 705 ). I confess 190). 723 Barker favors Ptolemy for his clearer scientific method and the more mathematical approach to establish the parallelisms between co seem to me much more convincing than those of Aristides. that there is r this statement are only similar lists in other authors (the principles behind which remain obscure) and the statement that their numeric matching with notes of the intervals could hardly be a coincidence. I believe, both could be held for Aristides as we the species of concord and of virtue correspond because they are alternative manifestations of the same formal property 322 ), then I would respond: yes, they correspond well on the level of analogy; this link.

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352 intended to establish a nexus of causality or direct mutual influence between these categories (cf. above n. 705 ). Thirdly, it is important to distinguish differen t levels of At 2.4 56.27 57.6, Aristides describes music quoad nos as mimetic ally similar to previous authors, since, at this point, he has not yet introduced the ontological dimension of ethos; human music (i.e. when the composer seeks to make his music matc h the content here the actions precede musical (as explained in book 2), and also musical 19) O n the cosmic level, however, the opposite is true: it is the universal harmony, from which earthly realities are imitated. 724 performing harmony through ratios. The complete order, then consists i n the following : celestial harmony governs the perfect realm of the (supralunar) universe; this, through the World Soul, governs the sublunar movements and actions; these are resembled by human music, which, for being music, is able to be re identified (an d purified) with the celestial harmony by means of the science of music (or harmonics) and, through the art of music, it is able also to restore harmony in human souls and affairs. Male female. Fourthly it is important to notice a differentiated use of ge nder terms in Aristides something which he does not make very explicit but we can trace The assignment of gender to vowels and other realities is old, 725 and so is the traditional, 724 3.7 104.4 : the universe is a clear model of music, i.e. it is modeled according to music: it corresponds to male and female notes and their mutual relationship (ratio). 725 Barker 2005, 156 gives evidence of some earlier concepti ons of gender classifications; cf. above n. 151

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35 3 726 tendency to interpret male characterist ics as more positive than female ones It calls the attention however, that many of the descriptions also less than complimentary ( e.g. 2.6 62.25 63.24; 2.8 67.3 68.13 cf. n. 673 ), and after all, human beings of either sex possess poth parts. But especially when Aristides assigns gender to elements and p ethos quite positively tinted, at 3.21 121.28 122.7). 727 As already mentioned, in the cosmic sphere there is no imperfection, and both genders possess equal validity and importan ce in establishing harmony. In the human soul, suffering change and limitation, the irrational parts of the soul need to be tuned so that the best possible ethos is achieved for which again both parts are required and have their positive value; they be come negative if one of them is excessive. In music therapy, each gender is emphasized according to context and need. This being said there seems to be in Aristides a n unre conciled conflation of conflicting gender qualifications, one prompted by the cosmo logical metaphysical vision of untainted harmony and its resulting ideal for the human soul, the other by traditional stereotypes, reflected for instance, in the clear preference to the male as in the f the best. But independent from these considerations, a more fundamental question arises: o n what grounds are the genders assigned to specific notes as the foundation for the other melodic elements ? 726 Barker 2005, 155. 727 This may be one of the reasons why Aristides does not consistently assign a gender to all phenomena (e.g. he omits it completely for rhythm at 3.25 130.16 24). Jupiter is associated with Phrygian in Plin. HN 2.84 (with Saturn sounding in Dorian) and (according to a text emendation) in Mart. Cap. 2.196.

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354 Barker has highlighted a certain arbitrariness since Ari stides derives the from a solmization system. 728 Do e s it make sense to claim hearing a male or female tone (especially if it were without singing it to a particular vowel)? An answer to this question might be f ou the c ontroversial gender association and instead reason in more general terms of duality. If we summon the various characteristics under different labels (such as being tense and relaxed two terms which Aristides actually uses when he introduces the general divison of the irrational part of the soul in 2.2 54.23 26), we might find actually find confirmed that these principles are applicable to many realities in the world B ut even for individual tones? This would depend on how much we would be willin g to subscribe to a theory that holds ethos for either specific pitch levels absolutely or, at least, to pitches in relationship to each other (intervals). We need to leave this discuss ion for a later moment, but w ith regard to the value judgments of they would only apply to musical parameters in dependence of the pedagogical or therapeutical functions, which Aristides has described. For intrinsically good or bad music independent from context Aristides does not offer any example. While he mentions musical styles such as treated in pseudo Plutarch or Athenaeus. work. We already mentioned earlier that he passes over the ethical value of genus. Furthermore, he take s no stand on the legitimacy of pure instrumental music (although most of his exposition seems to be based on the archaic combination of song, music, 728 Barker 2005, 159.

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355 and dance). 729 Then, h as Plato did. And w e would have expected him to elaborate more about the congruency between text and me lody (not just between text and diction), for he analyzes how vowels and tones correspon d, and that only for the artificial case of solmization, but not how words or sentences and melody/rhythm would. T he last omission especially, could be taken as an indication that his theory is out of touch with the actual musical reality something hard to imagine for someone so passionate about the benefits of music, including the practical ones It seems, then, that he decides to remain on the level of principles and leave to the reader the task of applying them to existing musical pieces and performan ces. Conclusion. material that we find in earlier authors, probably the result of long centuries of discussion and dispute about the original theses as stated by Damon, Plato, and Aristotl e. On the other hand, as mentioned, we cannot deny that a detailed analysis of his work reveals a lot of problems This has led scholars like Barker, who honestly intends to treat Aristides with benevolence to judge that his firm and vague 730 Without pretending to be that 731 of Aristides, I believe he still deserves more credit first for his achievement of reach ing a uni que 729 Zanocelli 1977, 82 84 with n. 130 argues that l servizio di un testo diventa but he seems to confuse text which is the ethical AQ 2.7 65.24 25). Even though Aristides does not say this explicitly, we should be able to deduce from the equivalency between the ethical value of the elements of diction ( ) letters, and those of music, tones, that melody is able to create as much as text, which, then, should also work without text. 730 Barker 2005 162. 731 Barker 2005, 171.

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356 synthesis of the ancient view on musical ethos, and second for his fascinating idea of giving musical ethos an ontological foundation that offers a consistent explanation for the actual effectiveness of music, 732 certainly within the limits of a quite pa rticular cosmology. But since we cannot really accept a multitude of theories and assumptions such as a perfect planetary world with its divinities and World Soul the ensoulment of the body as described and the ancient physics of elements, the question r emains how much value his system can have for our own questions on musical ethos. Without anticipating the points of general evaluation of all authors visited, the following points may be kept as valid contributions : Musical e thos, and with it the question of musical might be founded on a universal principle of duality within nature which would explain both the influence of music on the human psyche and the musical expressivity of emotion. For this, the question needs to be answer ed whether it makes sense to a ttribute a musically describable ethos to constitutive elements in the world and their relations towards each other. Musical value needs to be judged in view of the specific function (or purpose) that its ethos elicits on the human being, namely whether it promotes concordance and harmony or not. Musical ethos needs to be judged from the compound of all parameters in their combination. The effect of music on the hyman psyche is complex; therapy needs to proceed with care and testing so as to ascertain the p with his or her particular ethos, join into harmony which wi 732 elements might find explanation through this as well.

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357 entertainment: it re unites to the world of the past and, ultimately, makes present anew the harmony as it was conceived by the Ainur. Mart ianus Capella T he ninth and last book of Marti a De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii 733 a literary rendering of ancient scientific knowledge in the context of an allegorical wedding feast, The more technical second part (on melody and rhythm) c losely but not without changes, follows the footsteps of Aristides Quintilianus (and in some sections Cleonides and even Aristoxenus) whereas the first part on the power of music is probably drawing from the lost musical works of Varr o and a number of other sources (e.g. Theophrastus) Musical ethos is dealt with only sporadically and without offering any theoretical reflections. however, can be observed I will give only a brief overview of those descripti ons that relate to points seen earlier on. The poetic opening of the whole work invokes who promotes dissona nexa (1.1) the concept of the unifying function of harmony is present from the outset A little later on, as Mercurius is seeking for Apollo and finds him at the Parnassus, he is surrounded by a remarkable upper branches of the tall tre es and the lower ones uttering a shaking ; together with the intermediates this carmen resounds in a divine harmony framed by the concords of octave, fifth, and fourth. Apollo himself, the 733 Text: Dick 1969 (book 9 is digitalized at http://www.hs augsburg.de/~harsch/Chronologia/Lspost05/Martianus/mar_nu09.html ) ; Willis 1983; tr.: Stahl 1977; comm. (on the sections on music): Wille 1967, 634 655; Stahl 1971, 53 54 (on the so urces), 20 2 227 ; Mathiesen 1999, 622 629 (with a useful concordance between Mart. Cap. and AQ on pp. 627 628).

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358 sun god, is its origin for he is also responsible for the equally crafted harmony of the spheres 734 ( 1.11 12). This spheric harmony is mentioned again shortly after (at 1.26 27) as Apollo ascends with his chariot and the Muses, carried by a white shining and melodious bird (swan); the mus ic of the planets and seven spheres is described as exceedingly sweet, 735 with each of the Muses sitting on one of them. As the story goes on, each of the major divinities receives an instrument as attribute (1.66 67). In the context of marriage number specu lations, the perfect number 3 (corresponding to Mercury ) is exalted with reference to the three symphoniae (intervals), the number 4 (belonging to Philology ) as containing the basis for all other symphoniae or concords (cf. again 7.733) and thus for all so ngs hence the union of both numbers suggests a happy marriage between th e two spouses; other number associations follow, combining musical with non musical realities, and even gender, as odd numbers are male and even ones female. All culminates with the octave, and the fullness of harmony is reached (2.105 108). Difference (in character) and similarity (in perfection) are the foundation for harmonic union. As Philology dresses for the marriage, the Muses intone a whole concert outside her door, accompanie d by pipes, strings, and organ; these instruments give way to a final a capella chorus of the Muses which surpasses the charms of all instruments, each 734 N ec mirum, quod Apollinis silva ita rata modificatione congrueret, cum caeli quoque orbes idem (1.12). For another m usical description of nature sounds in a later author see Clem. Al. Strom. 6.3.33. 735 concinebant ac sono ultra solitum dulciore, quippe Musas adventare praesenserant. These spheres are revisited as Philology passes through them on her way to heaven (160 209).

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359 common chant (2.117 127). 736 The preference for vocal music over instruments despite their bombast is still present, and its variety brings the greatest charm. Only the the booms of percussion overpowers the ongoing song of the Muses (2.132 13 3). In the following, music is frequently mentioned in different moments of the account (e.g. 2.145; 2.209 ) which we do not need to report in detail. 737 Just one instance be highlighted: at her arrival in heaven, Philology enters an assembly of ancient celeb rities ; the Muses again are constantly singing but ; there is also a group of Greeks which produced a rather dissonant sound, fortunately not to be 738 It is the only moment, as far as I see, tioned in the work; how these musical renegades found access here, remains mysterious. In book 9, then, Harmonia is called upon to enliven the heavenly audience stunned by the erudite exposition of Astronomy that just concluded cantibu 899). 739 Her arrival in company of the most outstanding musicians from of old, creates an outburst of a plenitudo cuncticinae voluptatis (905). Martianus pulls all the registers of vocabulary and style to describe the musical swee tness and charm invading the illustrious gathering. Orpheus, Amphion, 736 2.117: Q ac tunc ille omnis chorus canoris vocibus dulcique modulatu praevertit omnes organicas suavitat 2.127: 737 See for references Wille 1967, 638. 738 Musarum carmina c These cannot be Linus, Homer, Vergil, Orpheus, and Aristoxenus who were mentioned earlier (2.212), as Wille (ibid.) suggests. 739 Some critical remarks (taken up again at 921) about the status of humanity whom she had abandoned for their may be a literary topos or indeed a hint at the decline of true poetic and musical spirit at the time of Martianus Capella; similar remarks in Boethius (Mus. 1.1 181.8 14) could support th e latter, with which we return about a thousand years later to the starting point of the current chapter: the complaint about decadent music.

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360 and Arion besing their own achievements of musical magic over plants, animals, and rocks praising Harmony for her inspiration (907 908). In the following, each new musical performance s urpasses the previous in sweetness. As Harmony brandishes her musical shield (faintly echoing those of Heracles, Achilles, and Aeneas), a concentus emerges that makes all other music appear dissonant and fall silent in awe before such 740 She then addresses Jupiter and other great divinities and promises that her song will gratify and deduce, stimulate and soothe her audience. 741 These are principally the effects of music that recur in the following passage (and in her song): enjoyme nt, enchantment, and calming (913 919). After she finishes, some conversation arises about the industria needed to produce a song that would liquefy the innermost enclosures of the mind. 742 The remainder of the book consists of a long speech of Harmony in w hich she first celebrates the importance and benefits from harmony (in effect identical with music) (921 929) and then expounds on music theory (930 995). The following comments are of interest for our investigation: Harmony assign s tones t o the c elestial spheres, governs the souls descending to earth and, being the sister of Arithmetic, administers ratios on these realities and confers tempered proportion (congruentia) to things. 743 As a consequence of this, the Pythagoreans applied their musical th erapy and deduced the 740 910: C divi superio 741 913: uisque cunctos allubescentes tonis deducet, urget atque ciebit locis stimulosque rursum lene 742 920: t in tam dulcem eb landitamque mollitiem intima mentium liquescat affectio. 743 922: enique numeros cogitabilium motionum totiusque voluntatis impulsus ipsa rerum dispensans congruentiam temperabam

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361 connection between bodies and souls. 744 She introduces instruments, provides musical worship of humans towards the gods and rouses the spirits in war or sport to win victories (924 925). Several stories of musical therapy follow, both f or mind and body, and also of animals charmed by songs so they can be hunted; some of these accounts sound quite f antastic and are not found in other extant texts ( e.g. moon eclipses or the recovery of drifting islands through tibia tunes). The section fin ishes with examples of naturally produced musical sound by the sea or by a rock when stricken (926 929). No other explanation for these alleged phenomena is offered except for the general power of music. About the technical section should be mentioned that the principle of what is appropriate takes a similar importance as in Aristides Quintilianus, here in terms such as legitimus (930 ), (931), etc. A few ethical attributions are given, such as the softening (mollesco) of deep notes (932), the affectio cf. 960 ), active or passive tones (940), 745 and the general difference between concords and dissonances in tones and intervals (947; 949 950 ). Like Aristides, Martianus considers eth os as one of the various tone categories, depending on pitch, but he does not go into further details (947). 746 Some of the genera receive ethical description (959) 747 The classification of melodies (into 744 923: entes cum corporibus adhaerere nexum foedus animarum. membris quoque latentes interserere numeros non contempsi 745 This distinction is not fully clear to me; it reads: faciunt intentio vel remissio, patiuntur acumen et gravitas 746 S ecundum morem dicitu r, id est ; 747 C hromatis tres, quarum prima quae mollis ac soluta, secunda quae hemiolia est, tertia quae est toniaea; duae, mollis una, altera robusta. et modos quidem accipit a id est toni parte quarta

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362 tragic, dit h yrambic, nomic, erotic, etc.), again along the lines of Aristides, implies ethos as well (965) (reprehendo) is stated for the Ionic type of meter (984); t he iambus is used for disparaging (detraho), pouring out the venom of insult ( maledictum) and spite (livor) (988) All other characterizations are of more technical nature. The male female distinction appears only two times: once in the context of modulation, (964), and later in the general distinction of melody as female and rhythm as male (995). The reader is supposed to be familiar with the ethos of each gender. In summary, Martianus Capella presents a largely positive concept of music, panegyrizing it exuberantly for all that the sceptics had denied. The thoroughly positive approach is certainly suggested by the setting in heaven and serves to illustrate the beauties of divine musical entertainment. The only condition set for music to be good is, similar to Aristides, propriety and, at times, the aesthetical demand for an artistically satisfying composition (e.g. the rejection of an incondita compositio of rhythm in 975) or performance (as seen above with regards to the band of Greeks). Despite his scholarly ambitions, Martianus does not engage in any philosophical speculations, and the topic of education through music is not on his horizon either. But the personification of music through Harmony, on t he level of allegorically rehashed mythology, actually guarantees the unified functionality of musical principles towards the end of antiquity, like a Deus ex machina in the drama of so many unsatisfactory attempts to get to the bottom of musical ethos.

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363 Bo ethius Boethius brings us back from the lofty realms of divine celebration to the dire task of philosophical reflection. He is often considered a hinge between antiquity and the Middle Ages; his book De musica 748 stands fully in the ancient tradition and con tains no reference to Christianity. From the outset he leaves no doubt that his interest is entirely academic: the reflection on the nature of sense perception and truth (1.1 179.1 8 ). Hardly any other music theorist has expressed more bluntly how inferior he considers (poets) for n one of them really understand by reason what music is about nec quicquam afferunt al musicus is the one who judges rhythms, melodies, and compositions according to science and reason (1.34 225. 11 15 ). 749 The interest has certainly shifted from ethos to science if we compare this statement with Plato according to whom the true musical pers on is someone perfectly tuned in virtue (Resp. 412a). The great bulk of De musica will be the mathematical foundation of music in ratios to determine tones, intervals, tetrachords, 748 Text: Friedlein 1867 (digitalized in the TML at http://www.chmtl.indiana.edu/tml/6th 8th/BOEMUS1_TEXT.html ); Strunk 1998, 137 143 (excerpts from 1.1; 1.2; 1.34); tr.: Bower 1989; comm.: Wille 1967, 656 700; Mathiesen 1999, 629 636; Darmstdter 1996, 122 164. I am citing by [book].[chapter] [page number Friedlein].[line number Friedlein]. De musica is conserved only down to th e fifth book and is unmistakably incomplete; whether Boethius did not finish it or the end is just lost remains undecided (cf. Bower 1989, xxxviii who suspects a total of seven books and suggests that it had been completed). 749 I sque est musicus, cui adest facultas secundum speculationem rationemve propositam ac musicae convenientem de modis ac rythmis deque generibus cantilenarum ac de permixtionibus ac de omnibus, de quibus posterius explicandum est, ac de poetarum carminibus iudicandi. Before (224. 6 7 ) he has already exclaimed: est scientia musicae in cogni tione rationis quam in opere efficiendi atque actu! Notice that this does not mean a disregard of audible music, for the theory is in the onsiders just the action of making or composing music as inferior.

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364 discern con sonances and dissonances, etc., drawing especially from the Pyth agoreans, Aristoxenus, Nicomachus, and Ptolemy. 750 Nevertheless, Boethius admits the special status of music among the sciences, not only pursuing truth but also concerned with ethos 751 Music and its ethical effect are universal as a part of human nature and extending to all ages and endeavors. 752 The (Ti. 35b) of the musically harmonized World S oul : its convenientia (harmonical arrangement) makes us be attracted to order in sound that is similar to our own, fo r likeness is loved, unlikeness hated. 753 This last phrase is an axiom on which much of what follows rests. It is explicated by the fact that lasciviousness in music can both attract and create a lascivious soul musical ethos occurs as an expression, but a lso as the cause of ethos in the soul, attested by the modal categories according to national characteristics (Phrygian, Lydian, etc.) as well 750 Bower 1989 indicates many parallels in his notes to the translation but misses some for Iamblichus (e.g. when he states c is found in no other source VP 25.113, see above n. 126 ) or Aristides Quintilianus (whom he refers to only for minor and highly technical issues). 751 1.1 179.20 23: The term (and later is to be understood according since Boethius speaks about the conventional characteristics and psychological effects of music and not only about morality in the strict sense of good or bad actions. 752 1.1 179.23 180.3: is, quam remitti dulcibus modis, adstringi contrariis, idque non sese in singulis vel studiis vel aetatibus tenet, verum per cuncta diffunditur studia et infantes ac iuvenes nec non etiam senes ita naturaliter affectu quodam spontaneo modis musicis adiungu ntur, ut nulla omnino sit aetas, quae a cantilenae dulcis delectatione seiuncta sit ; see similarly 1.1 186.15 17. 753 1.1 180.5 10: quod in sonis apte convenienterque coniun ctum est, eoque delectamur, nos quoque ipsos eadem similitudine compactos esse cognoscimus. Amica est enim similitudo, dissimilitudo odiosa atque In the TML, is properly read instead of in Friedlein, cf. Bower 1989, 2 n. 6. Boet hius does not explain here the relationship between the World Soul and the individual human soul (which he synonymously calls or their correspondence in terms of harmonic structure is body as Aristides Quintilianus describes it, but he acknowledges the fact of souls with a deformed ethos, 22.

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365 (1.1 180.12 22). That these are not to be considered as neutral in value becomes clear from the confirmation of P must not be changed lest it lead to the corruption of morals in the State. Boethius suggests a process of first suffering immodest music, then gradually abandoning until fully losing honesty and rightness in favor of savagery and inhumanity. 754 But as bad as He has no doubt that the style of melody and rhythm affects and shapes the mind a ccordingly, 755 as can be observed comparing the ethos of certain peoples and the music they enjoy. Like the critics almost a millennium earlier, Boethius originally mod est and moderate music with simpler instruments, while now, full of mixture, variation, and disgrace, almost nothing from the previous gravitas and virtue is preserved (1.1 181.8 16). Whether Boethius is his surv ey on traditional ethics of music or describing with authentic concern the status quo may find an answer in the strong criticism of pagan musical practices uttered by other Christian authors of his time. 756 stipulatio n for musical education of children, exposing them only to vigorous/healthy 754 1.1 180.22 29: permutetur. Negat enim esse ullam tantam morum in re publica labem quam paulatim de pudenti ac modesta musica invertere. Statim enim idem quoque audientium animos pati paulatimque discedere nullumque honesti ac recti retinere vestigium, si vel per lasciviores modos inverecundum aliquid, vel per 755 1.1 181.2 5: rint, dubitari non potest, Cf. again at 181.16 20: the smallest change, sinking through the ears into the mind, may elicit first unadvertedly, a great difference 756 On the other hand, Boe thius only cites the standard examples from ancient times (e.g. Sparta and her 184.7); Bower 1989, 3 n. 11 leaves the question open whether or not he is commenting directly on actual music.

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366 (valens) and simple modi; he demands for music optime morata pudenterque coniuncta : (1.1 181.22 23). These characteristics are well in line with the ones discerned by Plato and most other authors down to Aristides Quintilianus. Boethius also repeats the well known stories about music therapy performed by Pythagoras on a young drunkard, by Terpander Arion and Ismenias on illness stricken cities, by Empedocles on a violently infuriated adolescent, and by the Pythagoreans to relax and purify themselves at night and in the morning, for they knew about the inner connection between body and soul through music (1.1 1 84.7 186.8) 757 This brings him back to emphasize that the same ratios compose body, soul, and melodic modulatio. Further examples of infants, who react positively to soft tunes but adverse ly to harsh ones, or of mourners, especially women, who in sorrow tur n to song, or of the spontaneous impulse to express something in the mind without any aesthetic pretension s 758 or of the use in war to arouse or calm down, are brought fourth to show how music naturally rules our mind and body to such a degree that we are u nable to sever that bond. Having reviewed the power of music on the human person in body and soul, in order to seek an answer for its cause s, Boethius now zoom s out to the glob al panorama 757 1.1 186.2 4: S cientes quod tota nostrae animae corporisque compago musica coaptatione coniuncta for the following see also shortly after at 9 13: N on potest dubitari, quin nostrae animae et corporis status eisdem quodammodo proportionibus videatur esse compo situs, quibus armonicas modulationes 758 1.1 187.3 7: C um aliquis cantilenam libentius auribus atque animo capit, ad illud etiam non sponte convertitur, ut motum quoque aliquem similem auditae cantilena e corpus effingat; et quod omnino aliquod melos auditum sibi memor animus ipse decerpat Wille 1967, 660 remarks that Boethius here recognizes nicht nur der musikalische Eindruck, sondern auch der musikalische Ausdruck fr die Verbundenheit von Musik For the following at 8 10: i ta nobis musicam naturaliter esse coniunctam, ut music. Psychology is exploring whether there actually are human beings who are entirely indifferent to it.

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367 of music, comprised of the cosmic, human, and instrumental version o f it (the notorious musica mundana, humana, instrumentalis). He briefly sketches out each of them. In a view not unlike Aristides Quintilianus (but not directly resembling his train of thought), Boethius reduces the coordinated planetary motions, the harmo nic union of the four different elements, and the consonance of the four seasons to musical principles where all excesses are avoided for the sake of a harmonious whole. 759 Human music consists in the harmonious union between incorporal reason and body and b etween the parts of the soul and those of the body respectively. Instrumental music is the production of sound through tension, breath, water, or percussion vocal music, strangely, is not considered 760 Wherever harmony is produced, music is at work. Calli ng all these theory even though Boethius, at least in the preserved sections of his work, does not enter into such considerations Boethius gives the impression that the core concept of his musical theory is concordantia or consonantia, which we cou ld also translate as and the latter term is also the first word of the chapter beginning the discussion of musical principles. Th us th e technical details laid out in the following books mostly revolve around establishing a balanced proportion 759 1.2 188.1 5 21: totum sibi sit consentaneum atque conveniens: in mundi musica pervidemus nihil ita esse nimium posse, ut alterum propria nimietate di ssolvat Notice that the analogy is not drawn between music and cosmos, but between cosmic and instrumental music. The same applies to the musica humana: the human being is harmonized not similar to music but as music. 760 Boethius c ould have pointed out th e possibility of paralleling tension (string instruments) with fire, breath (wind instruments) with air, and percussion (drums, etc.) with earth, to match up, alongside the water (for the organ), with the four elements. In the surviving parts of his work, Boethius only treats the musica instrumentalis; contrary to his announcements, we do not hear from him anything further about the other two.

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368 between different factors. 761 In the course of the following chapters and books, value judgments or ethos appear occasionally, as in Martianus Capella. Since his methodological approach is, as in Ptolemy, based on both reason and empirical data 762 consonance and d issonance are not only defined by particular proportion but also as a sonoric reality. 763 In the discussion of the genera, f or diatonic the characteristics for chromatic the description and for enharmonic are provided (1.21 212.26 213.2). Boethius refers repeat edly to the shperic harmony, so in 1.20 where seven ; 764 the lowest string is (206.13). The assignment of two disjunct tetrachords to planets is given in 761 Thus his definition: dissimilium inter se vocum in unum redacta concordia (1.3 191.3 4; cf 1.8 195.6 8: Consonantia est acuti soni gravisque mixture suaviter uniformiterque auribus accidens Similar definitions are found in multiple authors; to quote one who is not usually associated with music theory, Apuleius, in De mundo 20: M usica, qua e de longis et brevibus, acutis et gravioribus sonis constat, tam diversis et dissonis vocibus, harmoniam consonam reddit based on the cosmic principle (ibid. 19; cf. on this expression also Seneca as quoted above in n. 596 description of the World Soul creating harmony, Apuleius finds the following words in De dog. Pl. 1.9: Sed illam, fontem animarum omnium caelestem animam, optimam et sapientissimam virtute esse genetricem, subservire etiam fabricatori deo et praesto esse ad omnia inventa eius pronuntiat. Verum substantiam mentis huius numeris et modis confici congeminatis ac multiplicatis augmentis increm entisque per se et extrinsecus partis; et hinc fieri ut musice mundus et canore moveatur. Also here the concept of music seems to apply directly, not just metaphorically. 762 See e.g. 5.2 352.4 6: rmonica est facultas differentias acutorum et gravium sono rum sensu ac ratione perpendens. S Both sense and reason require each other to achieve the full truth (see all of 5.2 and 5.3). At 1.9 195.16 196.15 Boethius attributes this middle gr ound to the Pythagoreans, which is not fully justified (contrast with 5.3 354.26 355.16; cf. Bower 1989, 17 n. 68 and Wille 1967, 666). 763 For consonance see the citation at 8 above in n. 761 ; for dissonance right aft er at 8 10: These definitions are found similarly in Nicomachus Enchiridion 12 262.1 2 and 5 6, but without the criterion of auditory pleasure or t he lack thereof. The importance of similarity for consonances is stated and mathematically demonstrated in 1.29 221.3 10 tias formant, multa 764 The previous four string arrangement had the four elements as example, ensuring perfect harmony: 1.20 206.4 6: Notice that imitatio of one part of music ensures consonantia of another.

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369 1.27, comparing the order of Nicomachus with the one by Cicero. That consonan t intervals produce a tone that is suavis, while dissonant ones lack this quality, is stated in 3.1 302. 5. 765 No further references to musical ethos occur. Early Christian Contributions on Musical Ethos A survey of ancie nt authors on musical ethos would not be complete without mentioning six Christian writers who have dedicated important sections to the reflection on music. Patristic literature is generally rich i n references to music of different kind s be they in a dire ct or an allegorical or symbolic way. Helpful studies on this subject already exist. 766 The task here is to highlight the most outstanding contributions and the general trends existing in the first centuries of early Christianity. Three Greek and three Latin authors stand out in a more significant way; after reviewing them, a systematic synopsis will follow. Clement of Alexandria The N ew Song Maybe the first Christian author to take up the topic of music extensively, within the context of the dialogue between classical culture and emerging Christianity, is Clement of Alexandria. His renowned work Exhortation to the Greeks (or in Latin Protrepticus) 767 begins by recalling 765 Bow ; cf. the same at 5.7 357.13 14; 5.11 361.16 8 11 and at 5.11 361.10 18 where he points out that dis cordant pitches may still join well together for melody. 766 Wille 1967, 367 405 offers a full treatment of early Christian music, in relationship to pagan tradition, with abundant original source material; see also Quasten 1930/1973/1983; McKinnon 1987; Fol ey 1996 (about the actual musical praxis among the early Christians); Stapert 2007 (with bibliography, much based on McKinnon). A short survey offers Dring 1958. 767 Text: Marcovich 1995; text and tr.: Butterworth 1919; The Migne text (PG) is available digi talized at http://khazarzar.skeptik.net/pgm/PG_Migne/Clement%20of%20Alexandria_PG%2008 09/Protrepticus.pdf

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370 some of the myths told about the magic power of music as used by Amphion, Arion, and Orpheus. 768 A fourth story about Eunomus serves him to disprove the others. Eunomus, singing at a gathering at Delphi on occasion of a snake slain by Apollo, turned out to be challenged by cicadas whose spontaneo us song was better than the nomoi of Eunomus. 769 jumps onto the instrument and chirps from there together with Eunomus to finish the song. The point is not what attracted the cicada rather it joined in (1.1.2). 770 The idea that animals should be enchanted (1.2.1). The pagan religious and dramatic performances of music are, so says Clement, full of sung neither in the Phrygian, Lydian, or Dorian mode 771 (accessed on April 20, 2013). My para graph numbering follows Marcovich. Comm.: Stapert 2007, 42 59. The other two works are the Paedagogus and the Stromata (or Stromateis). 768 For Amphion he hints at the story according to which he gets saved by dolphins attracted by his song, for Arion to the building of the city walls of Thebes, and for Orpheus for his power over plants and animals; see above p. 60 f. 769 , T he judgment of greater valuer might be motivated by the fact that they were an aesthetic element involved. 770 The argument seem s to aim in two different directions before revealing that it actually goes for a third: first, the point seems to be the superiority of the music of nature over human artistry and this may be due to the fact that it reveres the true God; second, it seem supply the missing string; but eventually, the previous all serves to show that the cicada acted not in sequel. 771 Clement elsewhere (Strom. 6.11.88) cites Aristoxenus that the enharmonic genus fits best the Dorian harmony and the diatonic the Phrygian; he characteriz es the Dorian as All this seems a bit unmotivated after mentioning David as an example for melodiously ( ) singing, playing, and prophesizing God.

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371 (Od. 4 .221) the power to sooth e it is the sweet and tru thful medicine of persuasion 772 (1.2.4). In contrast, the three aforementioned musical eminences were not men but to idolatry and enslavement (1.3 1). Clement then praises heavenly song o ( ) and regain life (1.3.2 1.4.4). 773 Now, this Song has brought about order and harmony within the universe, tuning 774 ocean and land are balanced out, fire and air softened, as if blending ( ) the Dorian with the Lydian mode ; likewise the temperatures are sounding way the extreme notes of the whole H e even harmonized the e ntire extens ion of the universe, contemptuous of the lifeless instruments of lyre and kithara (1.5.2 1.5.3). He is also responsible for the harmony this many voiced instrument. 775 Demon 772 773 5, which parallels these ideas in Biblical language. 774 (Strom. 6.11.88). 775 1.5.3: , , , , Butterworth 1919, 12 13 n. c similar metaphors in Ps 57 (56).8 9 (singing and playing strings before God) and 1 Cor 6.19 (man as a

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372 King Saul (1 Sm 16.23) 776 God created man according to his own image as a good/beautiful and spirited instrument, being God himself an all harmonious, well tuned, and holy instrument, transcosmic wisdom, and heavenly logos 777 But there is also this new instrument and song, the W ord of God, the Lord, who is opening the eyes of the blind, the ears of the deaf, bringing those erring back to righteousness, ending perdition, defeating death, reconciling with the Father; this and much more, in one word, salvation ( ), whose name 1.7.1). He continues praising the redemptive deeds of Christ, occasionally returning to musical terms e.g. that his works are of multiple melodic forms ( ) and that he has mercy through lamenting and encourages through (1.8.3) but then the imagery fades out The rest of the work is a sustained contr asting of pagan myth and practices with the Christian truth. Orpheus is mentioned a few more times as a witness for the shameful pagan mysteries (e.g. at 2.21.1) and later as if he had perceived the error as such and some notion of the truth (at 7.74.3 5), all of which is based on text only without reference to music. At the end of Chapter 9, however, the ultimate goal of human life, temple of the Holy Spirit). The idea is taken up again in Strom. . literally repeated in Euseb. De laudibus Constantini o ratio in eius tricennialibus habita 14.5. 776 dedicated to idols; the difference must lie in the intention rather than in the music itself; the demons flee fr 4. 777 , wisdom.

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373 ugh good works, to oneness ( ) in the divine harmony, following the one chorus master and teacher, the Word (meaning Christ), so 778 It is evident that Clement is not only well familiar with the cosmic psychological tra ditions but can also suppose a particular receptivity of his audience for such a topic, so much so that he chooses it as the hook to draw the reader into the Christian view of the world. His interest does not lie in discussing music itself, but he envision s with great ease a Christian version of a harmonically conceived cosmos, attributing to Christ, the Word ( ) of the Father, the function which Martianus will assign to the impersonated Harmony, as the great harmonizer of the universe and of human realities. simile of God as a perfect musical instrument and man, created in his ima ge ( ), being a good one, too, on which the divine Word plays for the Father and for whom he as the New Song, devises harmoniously his salvation. Harmony consists, again, in the proper balance of contrary elements, exemplified in nature. Human music i s met with a tinge of disdain but it is able to free from evil and sickness. Clement does not have good words for the supersti t ious pagan festivities but abstains from commenting on the musical part of it. He leaves us with music as a fitting m etaphor for the Christian God and the beautiful order he possesses in H imself and which he bestows on creation and man in particular. The importance of these passages should not be underestimated for they reveal another instan ce with respect to musical ethos. I believe that 778 9.88.

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374 musica humana above 779 He even went beyond all previous thought, because in the Christian view the princeps an alogatum within creation is now no longer the planetary cosmos, but the human being who is directly created according according to Christian theology, is fully accomplished in the God man, Jesus Christ. 780 It is t he eternal Word incarnate whose harmonious perfection is the prototype for the ultimate fulfillment of every redeemed human being, and which has also bestowed on the cosmos through the Holy Spirit a harmony that becomes the New Song, leading fallen humanity to its destination. Th us, th e Christian Trinitarian belief transforms the cosmocentric theory of musical harmony into an anthropocentric one; 781 at the same time, man acquires his harmonic perfection 779 2007, 58. As we have seen, Boethius was the one who coined the famous Latin tripartition of music. 780 Cf. also Paulinus of Nola, Carm. 20.32 50: / q ui docuit miram sibimet concurrere pacem / d isparis harmoniae quondam, quam corpus in unum / c ontulit assumens hominem, qui miscuit almum / i nfusa virtute Deum, ut duo conderet in se, / d istantesque procul naturas redderet unum Ille igitur vere nobis est musicus auctor, / i lle David verus, citharam qui corporis hujus / r estituit putri dudum compage i acentem, / e t tacitam ruptis antiquo c rimine chordis / a ssumendo suum Dominus reparavit in usum, / c onsertisque Deo mortalibus, omnia rerum / i n speciem primae fecit revirescere formae, / u t nova cuncta forent, cunctis abeunte veterno; Ambrosius Hexameron 2.1.1: maneat enim ei prophetici praerogativa sermonis, ut potuimus, absolvimus; in quo conditum c a elum, terram creatam, aquarum exundantiam, circumfusum aerem, discretionem factam lucis atque tenebrarum Dei omnipotentis, et Domini I esu Christi, Spiritus quoque sancti operatione cognovimus. Quis ergo non miretur dissimilibus membris disparem mundum in corpus unum assurgere, et insolubili concordiae caritatisque lege in societatem et connexionem sui tam distantia convenire, ut quae discreta natura sunt, in unitati s et pacis vinculum velut individua compactione ; 3.1.3 5; 3.4.18; 3.5.21; 6.9.54 55. Nevertheless, other Christian authors still rely on the ancient analogical view to explain especially the harmonic union of diverse components, e.g. Claud ianus Mam ertus De statu a nim ae 1.8 and 1.21 (composition of the human body). Lactant De opificio 16.3, rejects the Aristoxenian comparison between the lyre and the human person. 781 speaking, the Christian view is as theocentric as the previous was regarding God or the demiurge as the first creator of harmony. But if God created the world to make it suit to the human beings, and if the principle of reconcile d poles is an anthropological constant (e.g. body spirit/soul) and especially inherent in Jesus Christ (God man) as the proto was designed, then cosmic harmony derives from its human divine cre ator and not human harmony from a more perfect cosmic one as its shadowy representation. The factual imperfections on the level of human harmony, in Christian view, are of exclusively moral origin (original sin), not due to an ontological difference or a m Platonics saw it.

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375 not primarily by mimesis of cosmic processes 782 wherefore at least for a while they become less relevant but through reaching out to the mediator between divine and human harmony, which is Christ. Consequently, positive ethos in music is now centered on whatever leads to union with God through Christ and is that is, the new life in Christ as Augustine will explain further. The Christian rejection of certain musical practices, rather than displaying a primitive sectarian, reactionary, or antagonistic attitude, is deeply rooted in the fundamental dogma of the new faith. Musical ethos in Christian education Only with this in mind can we properly estimate what Clement writes i n the second book of his Paedagogus 783 where the contrast between pagan music and Christian culture becomes even more pointed. H e dedicates Chapter 4 to the description of pagan festivals or banquets in opposition to the Christian way of celebrating. In a aulos, except for shepherding purposes, f or its intoxicating and ef f eminating effect, inducing to blind licentiousness thought and a reflection of harmony and music. 782 Cf. St apert 2007, 59, referring to what is quoted above from Protr. 9 This symphony is a Christian musica humana, of which even the music of the spheres is but an echo, and of which the best of our musica instrumentalis is also an echo. Similar Darmstdt er 1996, 42: l lt nicht rnehr zwingend den Anspru c h Spiegel zu sein, urn harrnonische Abl ufe und Bewegungen von der kosrnologisch metaphysis c hen Ebene auf die Ebene des Lebewesens, dessen Seele und K rper zu reflektieren. Si e ist vielrnehr in ei ner vern i ttelnden Position zwis c hen Menschen und dem Wort Gottes, das si e erst verst ndlich, erklingend macht 75 (she unfortunately goes too far by imposing on Augustine an anachronistic concept of individual autonomy, of free choice of etho s, esp. pp. 70 73). 783 Text: PG 8.440 446 (digitalized at http://khazarzar.skeptik.net/pgm/PG_Migne/Clement%20of%20Alexandria_PG%2008 09/Paedagogus. pdf ); Marcovich 2002; tr. at http://news.newadvent.org/fathers/02092.htm (accessed on April 20, 2013).

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376 784 In an allegorical way, he applies the instrument al praise of Ps 150,3 5 to the human body, mouth, and tongue, which is a peaceful instrument, not like the real ones used for war ; 785 those should be left only At the same time, Clement does explicitly allow the use of kithara and lyre 786 It seems that he also takes up Pythagorean lore when he recommends going to sleep with a song on the lips not for therapeutical but latreutic al purpose s Retu rning to banquets, he describes the custom of singing skolia, harmonies (songs) that are chromatic, and lead ing to weaknes ) and austere character. 787 With a sleight of hand trick Clement employs the 784 The description is fairly detailed, referring to aulos, uncivilized amusement ( ), etc. The charming of animals is fine, but humans should not rhythms of wailing are corrupt ing minds and morals: ( 2.4.41. 3 4 ). 785 He names for various peoples (Etruscans, Arcadians, Sicilians, Cretans, Spartans, etc.) a specific war instrument, curiously all those mentioned in the psalm. 786 2.4. David; all the Psalm verses mentioning these instruments, along wit h Col 3.16, justify this permission, in 787

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377 ancient criticism of both aesthetic and moral deviatio ns, seen as intrinsically connected, now equa t ing the Platonic educational ideal with the true Christian music and the corruption to pagan customs at large. One last time in antiquity, music forms part of a systematic pedagogical program. 788 He admonishes th e Greek catechumens not to pass by musical education like the Sirens, not plugging their ears with unlearnedness in rhythm and melody, but to use it to strengthen the soul for setting in order ethos and for moderation, e.g. during banquets to subdue by so ng the desires and to praise God in gratitude. 789 To praise God in everything, even musically, is part of the new life of a Christian: during the daily labor, at sea, before and during meals, before going to bed, during the night, and all of this in a cheerf 790 Just as previously fits the in line with the conventional ethos of the chromatic genus. Similar characteristics of music to be avoided are mentioned in Strom. superfl uous throwing them to a confusing variety between mournful ( ), licentious ( ), luxurious ( ), filled with Bacchic frenzy ( ) and mad ( ) 788 T he chapt ers before and after deal with eating, drinking, clothing, speaking, etc. as befitting for a 789 Strom. 6.11.89 90 790 Cf. Stromata 7.7. 35, 49; Tert. Apol. 39.16.21 (description of a modest Christian banquet). Id. De uxore 2.6.1 2 & 2.8.8: the contrast between what a pagan husband will sing for his wife and what a Christian couple will sing for each other i, et mutuo pro v ocant, quis melius ). As we can see, both content and aesthetics are involved.

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378 791 Clement now states that there is music that fits to the new life in Christ, and other music, that does not. Interestingly, the suitable and unsuitable type of music, in both cases, is essentially the same. P Christian ethos appear to be widely compatible. This cannot be explained by the assumption that Clement simply copied these judgments from previous sources; the coincidence of other authors, many not dependent on Clement, with the same jud gment could prove the point historically. Even more important is, though, that the ideal of Christian virtue, according to the human figure of Christ, demands for a Christian the very same characteristics of harmony and balance that the classical authors h ad in mind when describing what human ethos should be promoted by the proper musical ethos. 792 Basil of Caesarea Basil of Caesarea like Clement not a music scholar but a bishop and theologian, has nevertheless dedicated a major section on music to introduce his Homilies on the P salms. 793 He does not intend speak about music as such but in a noteworthy way 791 Stapert 2007, 54. Clement asserts in Strom. 6.17.149 150 that the Christian philosopher imitates the Lord (Christ) and thus reaches the fulln 792 This is not supposed to mean that I consider all details of Pla tonic or other ideals of human and musical ethos equivalent to Christian anthropology and morals; there are actually significant differences. the parts and t he whole, etc., so prominent in the various theoretical designs, are what has attracted Christian thinkers throughout history to draw from ancient ideals and import them into Christianity. 793 Homilia in Psalmum Primum 1 2. Text: PG 33.209 213; tr.: Strunk 1 998, 121 123. A very similar praise of the psalms is found in Ambrosius In Psalmum primum enarratio 1 12 (PL 14.963 970) and in Nicetas of Remesiana (cf. below n. 895 ).

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379 attributes many of the effects, including instilling ethos, which music usually possesses, to the psalms. First he lists some general blessings that the psa lms provide, without directly distinguishing whether they flow from the text or the music: healing ancient wounds of souls and relief for new ones, attending sickness, preserving health and providing remedy for whatever ill but all this by leading the so ul in a harmonious and well resoned (or measured) way ( ). But because of the human recalcitrancy towards virtue and the proclivity to pleasure, the Holy Spirit has known how to combine truth with the enjoyment of melody, 794 like a good doctor who administers bitter medicine with honey, instilling the benefit almost without notice. This is especially true for the young, in order to educate their souls. 795 The famous Pythagorean story about c alming a rampant youth with a soothing aulos tune reappears in different dress, for now it is the charming force of the psalms which provide remedy for wild passion. 796 Thus the psalms generally bestow tranquility on the soul, bring peace, restrain unrest an d passions, moderate, foster friendships, union, reconciliation, and especially love, for who can be enemies, he asks, having sung together in one voice before God; then all people are united into one symphonic choir. 797 794 795 , 796 , 797 ; ,

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380 The benefits do not yet end here. Psa lms drive demons and fear away, provide safety, respite in toil, 798 consolation, beauty, gladness in feasts, proper grief and tears for hardened hearts. One can learn from them the four cardinal virtues of itting spiritual motions in view of the redemption brought by Christ. Finally, the reason for the choice of the as the proper instrument to sing these texts to and to give the collection its name is not arbitrary; we will review the reason in the context of Augustine (see below n. 841 ), but Basil adds that it raises up to heaven lest the enjoyment may drag down to the carnal passions 799 Basil ends with a note o n Platonic taste: a well tuned soul has an easier path to heaven 800 And this tuning, so much is clear now, is best achieved by forming the souls of the young and s virtuous through singing and praying the psalms which have therapeutic and pedago gical potential 798 That psalms were actually sung by Christian farmers is testified in Hieron. Ep. 46.12; for a wider range of use see ps. Chrysostomus, De paenitentia et in lectionem de Davide et de uxore Uriae (PG 64.12 13): 799 Here, symbolism and psychological effect are unconvincingly connected how should the physical arrangment o f sound production have anything to do with moderating an inappropriate longing for pleasure? 800

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381 John Chrysostom Educated in the thoroughly pagan city of Antioch, John Chrysostom was eventually bishop of Constantinople and became another of the four Great Greek Fathers of the Church. He contributes to our topic a reflection, similar t o the one of Basil but not literally depending on him and with some particularities, at the beginning of his Expositio in Psalmos, to Ps 41 (1 3) 801 After a general introduction, John also begins with the idea that God responded to human decadence and slown ess in spiritual things by combining prophecy with melody, since nothing has so many positive effects than chains reach out to the future life in heaven, giving wings to the mind; for this, melody needs to be modulated and well structured. 802 Then he enumerates how chant is able to lull infants to sleep lighten the hardships of journey and work (he mentions in particular peasants, saliors, and women on their own or ), for such enjoyment innate in our mind But there are also lascivious songs, introduced by the demons, which bring about all sorts of evil, softening and weakening the soul also holiness ( ) Through their words they induce philosophy purify the soul and allow the Holy Spirit to 801 Text: PG 55.155 159; tr.: Strunk 1998, 123 126; Stapert 2007, 109 130, in his ch apter on Chrysostom, only refers briefly to this text but cites many other passages. I will include some of them as references at the end of the section on Early Christian Contributions. 802 (...) (...) , , , , ,

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382 fly upon it speedily For this, the singing has to be with understanding ( cf. Eph 5.18 19, a passage frequently quoted in such contexts) not understanding the music al structure but attending to the meaning of the text. John Chrysostom in particular deals with the customs at meals. Already Quintilian had complained about the fact that lice ntiousness at banquets in the home are prone to upset all positive ethical effect in the young people that they may have received through musical education at school (cf. above n. 95 ). In order to avoid drunken ness, gluttony, immoderation and a lazy mind, psalms and other sacred hymns should be taught to women and children and sung as a protection once psalmody comes in, it will turn away all these unwonted things 803 David and his kithara in reality represent Christ (in Christian faith, the new David), and where he is, there are peace, charity, and all good things Thus the power of the psalter has its source in the same person from which Clement drew the origin of harmony in creation. A bit differently from what we will see in Augustine, John is not seem much sonorous due to age or lack o soul an alert mind, a contrite heart, sound reason ing and a purified 804 thus one can confidently stand beside David. No musical instrument is needed, but we should ourselves become a k 805 Such music 803 804 , , 805 ,

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383 806 St. Paul is the main witness for such a practice, having never c eased to praise God through song even in captivity. We find here, then, another mixture of previous ideas with the new Christian approach to life: the general benefits of music, especially its enjoyment, suggest its use to d ispose our mind harmoniously for God and to ward off the dangers of lust and immorality, unworthy for someone who wants to be united to the God of love. Augustin e 807 beauty and af fection. 808 Throughout antiquity, music is often seen as being particularly apt to branch out into and mediate between both fields. It does not astonish then, that for Augustine music holds an important, if not privileged place in his life. Intense oratoric al training made him a master of language and sound, and in the course of his formation he studied the traditional canon of music theory (cf. Conf. 4.16.30) 806 , 807 Some general works worth consulting about Augustine and music are: Edelstein 1929; Marrou 1938/1981; Wille 1967, 603 623; La Croix 1988; Darmstdter 1996, 40 121 (even though with a number of shortcomings). Many texts in English translation are available in digitalized format at http://news.newadvent.org/fat hers/index.html 808 This notion occurs frequently in his Confessions; for De musica see e.g. 6.11.29:

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384 Aequalitas Music as a path to God At about the time of his baptism (387 AD), he sets out to elab orate a (never finished) compendium of the liberal arts, of which only De musica 809 is extant with the last (sixth) book being reworked significantly (before 409 AD) It is written in the form of a didactic dialogue, between teacher and student, and almost exclusively deals with rhythm and numbers; in book 1 there are some general considerations on music, and then book 6 opens up a vision of how to reach through music theory and reason harmony in body and soul, as a path leading ultimately to God I f the stu dy of music was previously a propedeutic discipline leading up to philosophy, it now becomes an introduction to theology It is not possible here to do justice to the intricate course of argument that Augu s tine develops in this work; nor will I be able to discuss all passages within the extensive Corpus Augustinianum that touch upon music, be they directly or indirectly involving the question of musical ethos; the study by Darmstdter 1996 provides a more complete treatment. I will only comment on a few cen tral passages and ideas in order to At the beginning of De musica, this discipline is still associated with the Muses, 810 but the definition, as found in other authors (cf. p. 105 ), is of a more technical nature: 809 Text: PL 32.1081 1194 (digitalized in the TML at http://www.chmtl.indiana.edu/tml/3rd 5th/AUGDEM1_TEXT.html ); text, tr., comm.: Hentschel 2002 (books 1 & 6, Ger.); Jacobsson 2002 (book 6, Eng.); tr.: Taliaferro 1939 (Eng.); comm.: Wille 1967, 603 623 ; Bren nan 1988; Mathiesen 1999, 619 except for the Confessions, I am citing from the PL. About the problems of the reworking and dating book 6 see Jacobsson 2002, xv xxviii. 810 1.1.1: i quae Musica nominatur if is a genitivus obiectivus, it simply means that the Muses have full power over song; if it is a genitivus subiectivus, it would mean that the Muses are omnipotent through song; however, the context does not suggest a statement on the power of music.

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385 (1.2.2), which is explained as the proper measuring 811 Here and elsewhere, 812 Augustine sees in the rationality of science the true value of music as a discipline The adverb corresponds roughly to what Plato had called there is some order or measure in it, but for being good, it also needs to be 813 And for being scientia, music is not simply the impulsive utter ing of musical sound as in animals, or the thoughtless enjoyment or music production just to please the crowds 814 or to use music for relaxation and recovery relaxandi ac reparandi animi gratia m all of these are very much legitimate, as long as one seizes music for it and is not 811 That may also have a wider meaning emerges from De magistro 1.1: in cantu modulationem quamdam esse soni; q uae quoniam verbis et addi et detrahi potest, aliud est loqui, aliud est cantare? Nam et tibiis et cithara cantatur, et aves cantant, et nos interdum sine verbis Music is, accordin g to this passage, what adds enjoyment to words; this is further developed in De ordine 2.11.33: aures [pertinent], quando rationabilem concentum dicimus, cantumque numerosum rationabiliter esse compositum; suavitas vocatur proprio iam nomine The rational part within the voluptas, which the senses provide (e.g. is found In 6.10.25, a fuller explanation for is pr ovided: with a stronger emphasis on the aesthetic aspect. 812 E.g. Mus. 2.1.1 813 An example is given i n 1.3.4: res severitatem desiderat, non bene utique numerosa modulatione utitur; id est ea motione quae i am bona ex eo quia numerosa est, dici potest, male ille, id est incongruen ter utitur. Brennan 1988, 271 272 argues that 814 Augustine dedicates quite some space (1.5.10 1.6.12) to discuss the status of the theater musician. First it seems that the musician is improved by the reaction of the audience: saepe tibicinem nugatorios sonos efferentem rursumque plaudat bene canenti et prorsus quanto suavius canitur, tanto amplius et studiosius moveatur now, since this judgment comes not from know ledge but from a natural sensus audiendi (to which Augustine does not give much credit), the musician who adapts to the feedback simply through imitatio, perception, and memory, just as the wild animals, in doing so for the purpose of or he betrays true science if he music, which is inspired by the knowledge of musical science. Another slap against the turba is given at 6.1.1.

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386 seized by it instead 815 but for science, one needs to understand by reason the underlying principles, while for the pr actical exercise of the ars the principle of imitatio (corresponding to ) 816 suffices (1.4.5 7). In what follows, Augustine pursues the principle of proper measurement by means of numeric proportions, applying Pythagorean principles such as that wh ich is measured is preferred to wh ich is without measure or limit (1.9.15). These considerations center around the first three numbers which show a particular harmony in their quality of showing unity in multiplicity (1.12.22 23), to which then the number 4 i s added as the sum out of the previous three (1.12.2 3 2 6). At the end of book 1 it is made clear that the science is not meant to be detached from the senses; similar to the Aristoxenian tradition, the investigation should be limited to the area which can be meaningfully even with some enjoyment and pleasure perceived and confirmed (1.13.27 28). 817 Also in the following books of mere technical nature, aesthetic al criteria of being congruens, concinnus, or suavis continue to confirm 815 1.4.5: ab ea vero capi vel interdum turpe atque At another place (Contra Iulianum D ebuisti sane homo ecclesiasticus ecclesiastica musica potius quam P ythagorica commoneri, quid D a v idica cithara egerit in S aule, quando malo spiritu v exabatur, e t tangente citharam sancto ab illa molestia respirabat: ne ideo bonum aliquid existimes concupiscentiam carnis, quia nonnunquam musicis One should actual music 816 About the status of this concept in Augustine see Sallman 1990, even though some of his points have been advanced and clarified better by recent scholarship. 817 The scientifically proper movements (of musical rhythm) carry their beauty in themselves in seipsis finem decoris delectationisve conservant but it is more convenient and without error to regard those temporal dimensions that are suited to please us de his brevibus intervallorum spatiis, quae in cantando saltandoque nos mulcent, quantum ratio nos duxerit, disseramus It would not make sense co nsidering meters that would last an hour or two between arsis and thesis; and are not unimportant and actually help, since nsibus vel his rebus, quae a nobis sentiuntur, vestigia quaedam posuerit, nonne oportet eadem vestigia prius

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387 the established rules a bout rhythm and meter. 818 That his theory is not exclusively designed for music with text becomes clear from passages like the one in the context of rests (silence). 819 The properly placed silence actually contributes to the beauty of the melody. 820 In book 6, a fter finishing his discussion of meter, rhythm, and verse, Augustine takes a very different tone. He regards his own previous discourse as nugacitas and puerilia aimed to lead the young or people of any age through reason from carnal sens es to love for the unchangeable God (6.1.1) T o show this path, Augustine first applies his great talent for psychological introspection to analyze some elements of acoustical perception Our senses possess the natural capacity approbandi et improban to judge sound, and for this it is necessary that the sense itself ha ve numerus 821 (6.2.3) Sound exists in that which sounds, in the sound perception, in the 818 E.g. 2.14.26; 2.9.16 3.7.16; etc. The requirement of aesthetically good music is also emphasized, with a strong moral import, in the noli male. Non vult offendi aures suas. Bene canta, frater. S i alicui bono auditori musico, quando tibi dicitur: canta ut placeas ei, sine aliqua instructione musicae artis ca ntare trepidas, ne displiceas artifici; quia quod in te imperitus non agnoscit, artifex reprehendit ; quis offerat D eo bene cantare, sic iudicanti de cantore, sic examinanti omnia, sic audienti? Q uando potes afferre tam elegans artificium cantandi, ut tam p erfectis auribus in nullo displiceas? Ecce veluti modum cantandi dat tibi; noli quaerere verba, quasi 819 4.14.24: nullum 820 This is said in De Genesi ad litteram 25: moderatisque intervallis, quamvis vocum privations sint, bene tamen ordinantur ab iis qui c antare sciunt, 821 see his introduction p. xxix xxx), y Jacobsson, which seems to me more proper in most contexts of book 6); the common base for both meanings could be The criterion of convenientia occurs repeatedly, e.g. again at 6.9.24.

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388 producer of sound, in the so und production, in memory, 822 and in the ability of the sense to judgment and this last one is that which makes us enjoy the proper sound but this enjoyment itself needs to be subject to another judgment through reason (6.9.23 24 ). 823 Only here we are reach ing the level of true science, and reason is now capable of discern ing the causes for the enjoyme nt felt: (6. 10 aequalitas ( evenness ) 824 lest out of error, something that is inaequalis is enjoyed as much as something that is aequalis although even such imitation is somehow beautiful as it is still seeking aequalitas (6. 10 .28) Corporal realities contain aequalitas only imper fectly, while perfect aequalitas is found in the eternal movements Augustinus s peaks about a natural capacity to produce (even good) music without understanding in De ordine 2.19.49, but reason makes it much better. 822 Augustine reminds elsewhere that the importance of memory for music was conceived by the poets in considering the Mus es as daughters of Memoria (De ordine 2.14.41). The mythological origin of music is rejected in De doctrina christiana 2.17.27 (cf. Clem. Al. Protr. 2.31.2 4; both Strunk 1998, 144 n. 2 and Halporn 2003, 216 n. 206, commenting on Cassiod. Inst. 2.5.1, say that Clement does not link the Muses to music; but this is what the text says: Metgaclo, daughter of King Macar of Lesbos, taught her Mysian maid they succe eded so well that they were honored in bronze statu es as the Muses). About the role of memory when actually singing, see Conf. 11.28.38; Mayer Baer 1953 shows how the aspect of time is an important factor in conceiving music in a measured way, through numb ers. 823 Enjoyment (voluptas) was previously explained as the convenientia between the action of the soul in the body and the influences that come from outside through the senses (whereby each of the senses is assigned to one of the elements) (6.5.9 10). But since our perception has been designed in proportion to the human place in the universe, it is perishable (6.7.19). Only the interior judgment over any kind of movment, including rhythm, points then at God conveni ( 6. 8.20). The soul is in many ways distracted from this path to God through exposure to sensual pleasure (6.13.39). 824 The examples, again given from metric theory, show that he means an even proportion between parts. See also 6.13 .38: quodam Augustine emphasizes that it is impossible to love something ugly/bad (deformis /foedus); the really love only minus pulchra. Augustine gives concrete examples of aequalitas in the human body, in sense perception (what is not too bright or shrill, etc.) again, convenientia and congruentia determine what the Greeks describ ed in terms of harmony or moderation, the proper mean or measure. The concept of imitatio is negative, similar to the Platonic devaluation of the image in contrast to the original.

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389 of the celestial bodies 825 The soul should find its enjoyment in those immutable rational numera, the origin of which is ultimately God (6.12.36). reality re ceives now explicitly ethical value : the virtues (e.g. prudence, charity ) correspond to striving toward what is eternal and purify the soul while curiosity and pride lead to remain distracted with the shadows of true aequalitas (6.13.39 6.14.44) 826 It must remain clear, however, that the use of earthly numera (and we may say music in general) 827 can be positive and helpful for both body and soul, as long as the soul does not stain itself by an amor inferioris pulchritudinis, thinking that it could reach beat itude through the enjoyment of creatures (6.14.45 46 and again in 6.15.49 50 ). The ideal consists in a mind firmly set on God and clear truth, which allows perceiving and enjoying the corporal numera without interior disturbance. 828 The work ends with anothe r reflection on the first four numbers, according to which the world is ordered and 825 On these movments depends also the proper order on earth, and this order is described, good Pythagorean, in musical terms: (6.11.29). Augustine adds that we often miss the order and beauty in these things because we do not possess the vision of the whole, given our limitation due to original sin (6.11.30); but the beauty of the rational numera open our eyes to this reality. 826 This idea is taken up again and systematically developed for all the cardinal virtues at 6 .15.49 16.55. 827 It remains somewhat open why Augustine reduces this whole discussion to rhythm and says very little about melody, instruments, etc., as other music theorists do; one reason might be the conceptual closeness between rhythm and number (both to show the principles of order and aequalitas; we might presume, however, that much of what is said, especially when general principles and effects of perception are discussed, coud justly be applied, mutatis mutandis, to music at large. There i s an indication that he intended to write 6 further books De melo (Ep. 101.3). His history as a rhetor may have motivation might have been the intuition that rhythm is the common denominator or unifying factor within 196). 828 6.15.49: facie ad faciem numeros, quibus agimus corpora, nulla inquietudine sentiemus, nisi forte credendum est animam cum de h is quae per ipsam bona sunt, gaudere possit, de h is ex quibus ipsa bona est, non posse gaudere.

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390 has aequalitas and proportion in its four physical dimensions and elements, all governed by the heavenly numera 58). 829 From these arguments we can extr act for our investigation the following points: While Augustine, like Clement of Alexandria, pursues a clearly protreptic objective, using music as a vehicle to connect pagans with the truth of Christianity, his approach almost completely lacks reference t o myth 830 or the alleged power of sonoric music, although he does acknowledge the existence and good use of the latter. For Augustine, goodness in music lies in its structural ability to reveal the aequalitas a harmonic balance between parts of a whole, tha t pervades the world and exercises a natural attraction both on the body (through the senses) and on the soul (from the body, which is problematic, see he never calls God but God rules everything through this principle, which, at the same time, produces beauty. 831 Apart from merely utilitarian applications of music (e.g. to help relax after work), audible music is good when it aids, and not distracts, the soul to be virtuo us and reach out to God; much more conducive to achieving this is, however, is the science of music, which provides through the analysis of the numera, an understanding and correct judgment about which music is justly to be enjoyed a strongly Platonic c onception. For our corporal nature might be wrong in judging something as aequus and enjoyable what in truth is not. A p rototype for the 829 A good analysis of the relationshi p between number (as a pure synthesis of unity and multiplicity) and beauty in book 6 offers Schmitt 1990; similar Radice 1992 with a wider philosophical scope. 830 Augustine relates the s tory of Amphion quod citharae suavitate lapides mulserit et adtraxeri in De civ. D. 18.13 as an example for the tales that circulated in Greece during the time of Judges in the OT. 831 Conf. 3.6.10: omnium pulchra opera tua ; cf. also 4.13.20 (notice there and at other places, e.g. 4.14.23; 4.15.27, the combination of (the title of a lost early work of his) beauty and appropriateness go together); 4.16.27.

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391 corruption of music is, as in multiple previous authors, the music produced only to please the uneducated crowd, especi ally in the theaters. 832 The key term for good music, then, in Augustine is a e qualitas with synonyms such as congruentia, etc. The principle of propriety is also important when both body and soul are described as receiving numera: the body from the senses, t he soul from divine wisdom, which is superior, wherefor e the numera coming from the body are not fitting for the soul, at least not those (6.4.7). 833 That audible music nevertheless receives acknowledgement and eve n praise elsewhere, as we have seen, reveals that Augustin e is of two minds on the question of music should actually be pursued or not. In De musica he constantly vacillates between acceptance and denial. Dangers and benefits from musical de lights This ambivalence is even more strikingly illustrated in a passage from the Confessiones 834 (10. 3 3.49 50) written about ten years later The context is the 832 Augustine contrasts also in his preaching the new Christian liturgical praise with the pagan musical customs, e.g. Serm. 34.3.6 (commenting on the phrase Ps 149.1 2): Vos estote quod dicatis. Laus ipsius estis, si bene vivatis. Laus en im non est in synagogis Iudaeorum, non est in insania Paganorum, non est in erroribus haereticorum, non est in plausibus theatrorum. Quaeritis ubi sit? Vos attendite, vos estote. Laus eius in Ecclesia sanctorum. Quaeris unde gaudeas quando cantas? Laete tur Israel in eo qui fecit eum. Cf. also De doctrina christiana 2.18. 833 As Augustine develops the relationship between body and soul (6.4.7 6.5.14), neo Platonic influence can strongly be felt in the relatively low appreciationof the body and in that the soul should turn away from concupiscentia over God (e.g. 6.5.13). Augustine later sees the need to clarify (Retract. 1.11.2), in view of the Christian belief in the resurrection and glorification of the body, that only in the present life the soul ought to avoid bodily incitement (illecebra) or bad enjoyment (delectatio turpis), which would keep the soul from grasping the intelligibilia and from the con templatio sapientiae; this problem will no longer exist in the future life; cf. also Retract. 1.11.3. 834 Text: Verheijen 1981 (digitalized at http://www.hs augsbu rg.de/~Harsch/Chronologia/Lspost05/Augustinus/aug_co00.html ); text and tr.: Watts 1912; text http://www.stoa.org/hippo/index.html ); tr.: Strunk 1998, 132 133 (only 10.33), a host of translations of the whole work is available. I am citing from the Verheijen text.

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392 discussion of the various senses and their tempting power. Augustine admits how much the deligh ts (voluptates) of the ears have enta n gled and subjugated him in the past 835 but God has freed him not fully, since he still succumbs to the soft and skillful singing s 836 They receive a place of dignity and are congruens in his heart, but he has scrupl e s about whether he gives them too much honor when moved more than when just spoken, stirred by a mysterious familiarity between the various spiritual a ffections and their correspondent in voice and song. 837 The problem is that the delectatio carnis does not always me e kly submit to reason but tries to rush ahead and lead it. Then, again, he repents for being too strict in removing the soft/sweet songs of Da (Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria had prescribed a fairly recitative Psalm performance), as he recalls the great utility of being moved to tears by song when he recovered his faith. 838 So he goes back 835 Also in Mus. 1.5.10, the response of the student to whether he had listened to actors in the theater is an autobiographica l hint (cf. Hentschel 2002, 169 n. 20; Conf. 3.2.2). 836 837 sui diversitate habere proprios modos in voce atque cantu, quorum 838 fidei meae, et nunc ipsum cum moveor non c antu, sed rebus quae cantantur, cum liquida voce et Notice the aesthetical qualifications necessary for this effect to take place especially modul a very similar description is given already earlier at 9.6.14: Quantum flevi in hymnis et canticis tuis suave sonantis ecclesiae tuae vocibus commotus acriter! Voces illae influebant auribus meis et eliquabatur veritas in cor meum et exaestuabat inde affectus pietatis, et currebant lacrimae, et bene mihi erat cum eis. The general positive practice of liturgical chant is mentioned frequently (e.g. in Milan, Conf. 9.7.15: tionis the chapter further describes how Bishop Ambrose introduced chant so that the people, gathered day and night in the church in the midst of the Ar ian persecution, a custom which spread henceforth throughout the whole world. See also Enarratio II in Ps 18.1 qui in ecclesia divina eloquia cantare didicimus, simul etiam instare debemus esse quod scriptum est

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393 and fo conclusion is to allow the musical practice in church while the concern remains that song may move him more than the res, would prefer not to hear song and ultimately he sees the problem in himself mihi and his incapacity to come to terms with that question. The beneficial, heart and tear moving capacity of music towards piety is seen as evident; nothing is bad in music itself (as long as i t serves the soul to experience more deeply the message of the text 839 music in a wrong, idolatrous way a bad value at the fourth corner of the ethical pyramid puts the whole system in danger. n that it has been given to the human race by God. 840 The ten strings of the psalterium may be due to a (Ps E p. 55.18.34: de hac re tam utili ad movendum pie animum et accendendum divinae dilectionis affectum varia consuetudo est et pleraque in Africa ecclesiae membra pigriora sunt, ita ut donatistae no s reprehendant, quod sobrie psallimus in ecclesia divina cantica prophetarum, cum ipsi ebrietates suas ad canticum psalmorum humano ingenio compositorum quasi ad there is also much Biblical support for this, e .g. Col. 3.16. Augustine even exhorts his church not to be outmatched by heretics: ut Donatistae nos reprehendant, quod sobrie psallimus in ecclesia divina cantica prophetarum, cum ipsi ebrietates suas ad canticum psalmoru m humano ingenio compositorum qusi ad tubas exhortationis 55.18.34). 839 Cf. De doctrina christiana 4.20.41 about the stylistic deficiencies in the Latin Vulgate of Holy Scripture : musica disciplina, ubi numerus iste plenissime discitu r, usque adeo non defuit prophetis nostris, ut vir doctissimus Hieronymus quorundam etiam metra commemoraret, in hebraea dumtaxat lingua; sed ut 840 Cf. Mus. 6.17.57: summo atque aeterno principatu numerorum et Ep. 166.5.13: modulandi ad admonitionem magnae rei etiam mortalibus rationales habentibus animas dei largitate concessa e st. Unde si homo faciendi artifex carminis novit, quas quibus moras vocibus tribuat, ut illud, quod canitur, decedentibus ac succedentibus sonis pulcherrimeque currat et transeat, quanto magis deus, cuius sapientia, per quam fecit omnia, longe omnibus arti Seneca the (Ben. 4.6.5): calamo tantum cantare et agreste atque inconditum carmen ad aliquam tamen observationem modulari

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394 law or due to the sacred significance of the number (cf. the Ten Commandments; De doctrina christiana 2.16.26). 841 music (cf. above n. 822 ), music is good if it seizes us to understand Holy Scripture or spiritual things (De doctrina christiana 2.18.28). Music of luxury needs to be distinguished from the music of the wise ma n nos musicam sapientis a musica christiana 4.7.19, commenting on Am 6.5). The example of exuberant musical performances at pagan festivities, there serves to en courage to follow ing instead the call to the eternal feast, from which redemptive work for the faithful, Enarratio in Ps 41. 9). In his commentary on the Psalms, Augustine, naturally, speaks of music often. At one point (Enarratio in Ps 27.1) he explains what hymns are: interesting is what the singing adds to a praise without song: 842 Cheerfulness, therefore, is one docuit, sed tot artes, tot vocum varietates, tot sonos alios spiritu nostro, alios externo cantus edituros Also the enjoyment of beauty is 22.24.5). 841 This is a normal association in allegorical exegesis; cf. Enarratio I i (about the psalm verse that says Another example frequently used is the analo gy of the difference between psalterium and cithara, the former having the sound produced at the upper part, the latter at the lower part, signifying heaven and earth, both of which should give praise to God (in Enarratio II in Ps; Enarrationes in Pss 42.5, 80.5, 150.6). 842 Beautiful is also the continuation: Cf. Serm. 34.1.1: Canticum, res est hilaritatis; et si dili See also Isid. Etym. 6.19.17 who almost literally repeats Augustine: eo quod sit carmen laetitiae et laudis. Proprie autem hymni sunt continentes laudem Dei. Si ergo sit laus et non sit Dei, non est hymnus: si sit et laus et Dei laus, et non cantetur, non est hymnus. Si ergo et in

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395 of the effects that song adds to the liturgical celebration. In a similar vein, Augustine says that music expresses what words ca nnot. 843 The concept of concordance out of diversity which is not prominent in De musica, becomes central in the Enarratio in Ps 150.7: the saints in heaven will be on e like the union of different string instruments 844 The idea returns in one of his sermons where he explains the beauty of the re surrected body and the arrangement (harmonia) of its members through the variety of kithara strings that produces a beautiful melody if all were tuned the same way, this could not happen. 845 Lastly, the image of harmony serves to illustrate the well ordere d city, similar to t he proportionate and balanced pursue 846 Augustine does not present a full fledged theory of musical metaphysics beyond the idea that aequalitas is a principle present in all of creation. The value of music is mostly limited to worship. Augustine does show a greater appreciation for the aesthetical dimension than many other ancient authors but at the same time warns of 843 Enarratio in Ps. 94.3: re, et tamen voce testari, quot intus conceptum est et verbis explicari non potest: hoc est iubilare. expressa exundantes laetitia, cui lingua dicendo non sufficit, quemadmodum iubilent, ut per illam vocem indicetu r animi affectus verbis explicare non valentis quod corde concipitur The ultimate point is, however, not so much about feelings or laetitia saecularis, but heaven : iubilant, nos de gaudio caelesti iubilare non debemus, qu 844 ut diversitate concordissima consonent, sicut ordinantur in organo. Habebunt enim etiam tunc sancti Dei differentias suas consonantes, non dissonantes, id est, consentientes, non dissentientes; sicut fit suavi He adds the reference to 1 Cor 15.41 42: 845 Serm. 243.4.4: a. Diversa distensio diversos edit sonos; sed diversi soni ratione coniuncti, pariunt, non videntibus pulchritudinem, sed audientibus 846 De civ. D. 17.14: compactam The musical image morphs into a quite different one, the unity of the book of Psalms, arranged by David from a great diversity, which is not meaningless.

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396 the sinful attach ment to it that is possible if it obscures the primate of Biblical text and the affection for God. Even though he recognizes the emotional power of music its he neither identifies special ethical qualities linked to musical features (maybe because he never developed a melodic theory), nor does he suggest character (ethos) formation through music. Both musical theory and practice have their true meaning in discovering God in aequalitas. Judgment about the objective value of m usic, beyond the natural instinct for what is good or not, propriety of music pertains to a person trained in musical science. Cassiodorus A compendium of musical lore In the attempt to preserve the treasures of antiquity from the waves of distruction due to the barbarian invasions in Italy, Cassiodorus synthesizes in his Institutiones 847 important chapters of ancient knowledge for the purpose of education in his monastery school, the Vivarium. T he second book therein dedicated to the liberal arts, contains as its fifth chapter a short treatise on music. As sources he himself mentions and recommends for further study Censorinus, Alypius, Euclid, Ptolemy, Albinus, Gaudentius, Apuleius, and Augustine, but the influence of Aristides Quintilianus can also be noti ced. His own text combines technical material (definitions and types of instruments, consonances, and modes) with general reflections on music and its power. H e states that music pervades all human life through our actions if we fulfill the ndments, precepts, and rules, insofar as our words or interior 847 Text: PL 70.1208 121; Mynors 1937, 142 150 (available digitalized at http://www.hs augsburg.de/~Harsch/Chronologia/Lspost06/Cassiodorus/cas_v000.html ; t r.: Strunk 1998, 143 148 ; Halporn 2003, 216 223; comm.: Will e 1967, 70 4 70 8; Mathiesen 1990, 49; 1999, 636 640. On h ttp://web.archive.org/web/20060814230416/http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/jod/texts/cassbook/toc.html

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397 impulses 848 are associated in musical rhythms to the powers of harmony Virtuous actions are musical because music is scientia bene modulandi; if we act wrongly, we do not have music in us. Cassi both heaven and earth and all that happens in them by divine dispensation ( 2). This sounds more Augustinian than Pythagorean, and this becomes even more evident from the nex t paragraph with the analogy between ten strings and the Decalogue or the psalterium and the book of Psalms, which both contain 849 Virtue and vice are not arranged according to good or bad music, but a cc ording to music and not music, and this is because music intrinsically carries the order and harmon y of the well created cosmos ( 3). Nevertheless, within musical science, it is investigated whether rhythm or meters is used well or badly: or ( 5) On the other side, for only a positive effect instruments is supposed: metallic percussion produces and the string instruments ( 6). Cassi odorus only treats consonances (symphoniae defined as ), no dissonance s ( 7). For the modes, finally, he does not indicate particular but only in general repeats the traditional assertion (with ref erence to Varro) that they are extremely useful to calm stirred minds and to attract wild animals, snakes, birds, and 848 intrinsecus venarum pulsibus blood veins and that the pulse rhythm is related to our ge neral ethical and medical condition has also been present in AQ 2.15 82.25.27 and 2.17 89.10 n. 199. 849 Cf. August. De doctrina christiana 2.16.26 and above n. 841 I wonder why Halporn 2002, 222 n. 226 Mus.) as there seems to be quite some evidence for an influence.

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398 d olphins to hear their melody ( 8). 850 He brushes aside the fabulosa about Orpheus and the Sirens Saul of psychological healing is ascribed to Asclepiades and many other miracles due to music reported. 851 Cassiodorus then returns to the initial idea of the harmonic movements of heaven and that nothing in heaven and on earth o ccurring convenienter is without the discipline of music, i.e., of its r ational harmonic arrangement ( 9). 852 He summarizes the advantages for the knowledge (cognitio) of music, both practical and theoretical, in that they lift our sense s upward and charm our ears with soft melody ( 10) 853 Ethical, pratical, spiritual, and aesthetical benefits of music are considered; the only major aspects missing from older tradition, as already seen in Augustine, are character formation and the discernment of intrinsically go od or bad music. The blessings of music K ing Theod o ric, a letter to Boethius in Theod o is pre served (in Variarum libri 2.40) 854 in which he asks the great music scholar to dispatch a citharoede for the court 850 T antae utilitatis virtus ostensa est ut excitatos animos sedaret, ipsas quoque bestias, necnon et 851 eripuit, novoque modo per auditum sanitatem contulit regi, quam medici n on poterant herbarum potestatibus operari? Asclepiades quoque, medicus maiorum attestatione doctissimus, freneticum quendam per symphoniam naturae suae reddidisse memoratur. M ulta sunt autem, quae in aegris hominibus per hanc disciplinam leguntur facta mir 852 complectar, quicquid in supernis sive terrenis rebus convenienter secundum Auctoris sui dispositionem geritur, ab hac disciplina non refertur ex 853 854 Text: PL 69.576 573; tr. Barnish 1992, 38 43

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399 of the Franks. T his context appears to be an excuse 855 to engage in a general praise of music. Cassi odorus begins with a fai r ly complete list of ethical benefits that music can possibly have, though without giving examp les: 856 through music harmony reigns in the heavenly spheres, in nature, in human thought, speech, and movement (2) ; she changes the mind/heart and expels all other thoughts a conception very close to modern aesthetic feeling: inverts harmful emotions to the opposite, arouses or calms, renews chastity, overcomes tediousness and the passiones animi (3); she charms and leads the soul where the word cannot hold it exercising dominion over the other se n ses A precise assignment of ethos to each of the (here five) tonoi follows: Dorian promotes pudicitia and castitas, Phrygian pugnas and furor, Aeolian tranquilizes, Iastian sharpens the spirit and quenches longing for heavenly things and Lydian restores and refreshes weary spirits (4). Each tonos has three types, so there are a total of fifteen (5) and the Octave is praised as the wisest human achievement, containing all other music universum melos habere posuisset, haec adunatio mira Cassiodorus adds, first without the usual Christian reservations, the power music gave to Orpheus 855 At the end, Cassiodorus calls this little treatise a voluptuosa digressio, then gives Boethius his instructions: "Please name the citharoedus we have requested from you; he will be another Orpheus, taming the hard hearts of these foreigners [ gentiles ] with sweet music" ( Var. 2.40.17). But this precisely calls into question the digressiveness of the whole letter. For the theme of the discussion of music has been its capacity to impart peace to the soul, to represent the peace of cel estial harmony; and it is precisely peace that is the goal of the gift itself. In fact, no more competent and learned case could have been made for the 856 I am citing here only the introduction (the exam ples are included in the tables below): praestantius, quae caeli machinam sonora dulcedine modulatur et naturae convenientiam ubique dispersam virtutis suae gratia comprehendit? Q uicquid enim in conceptum alicuius modificationis existit, ab harmoniae con c inentia non recedit (I follow the decision of Barnish 1992, 38 n. 22 to accept the reading instead of subject is certain ly a female personification and not male, as Barnish renders it.

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400 over animals, preferring his song over their natural action or habitat and reconciling aeus (in Elysium cf. Verg. Aen. 6.667 ) 857 (7). He then mentions examples of how rhythmical, metrical speech can have 9). Next comes the story of the Sirens whose noxa dulcedo only Odysseus escaped (10). In order to esc ape like him, Cassiodorus presents the Psalter, 858 lapso caelo, composed by David for the welfare of the soul, to heal the wounds of the mind, and to receive divine grace, just as he freed Saul from the D evil an d commanded the spirits with his cithara (11). 859 This instrument receives praise for being the most efficient and in a truly Isidorian way Cassiodorus explains the name 860 the reason for this lies in and the chords translates into a vis convenientiae that also makes a res insensualis (the soul) ring along with the music (12). Cassiodorus here reaches close to what Aristides Quintilianus had developed, but without mounting a detailed philosophical theory about how exactly this connection could be explained. He simply states that human beings in their social life are unable to reach the same unity as the balanced interplay between the chords. In an almost Plotinian image, Cassiodorus d escribes the combination between diversities that with seem even to include an in itself not so enjoyable 857 Hence, the musician receives the greatest reward in the afterlife: 858 The Latin can m ean both the Biblical book of Psalms and the instrument Cassiodorus plays here with this double meaning. 859 Elsewhere, Cassiodorus says that also the good spirits (angels) enjoy music: Expositio in Psalterium Ps 145 m mortalium permulcet auditum, sed etiam intellectum 860 And indeed, Isidore does not fall short on going that way, even though less spiritually: Chordas autem dictas a corde, quia sicut pulsus est cordis in pectore ita pulsus chordae (Etym. 3.22.6).

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401 element (13). 861 The kithara, so beneficial, should be of heavenly origin, having its own star constellation (14), 862 but the harmonia caeli canno t be expressed properly by human speech, only accessible to reason but not to the ears. The ancients held that blessedness in heaven consists in an unceasing enjoyment of that same music (15); however, Cassiodorus here makes clear that the true beatitude consists not in sounds but in the beatific vision of God (16). He concludes the letter by hoping that the citharoede, whom he expects Boethius to send, will, simil ar to what Orpheus did tame the wild hearts of the barbarians (17). Cassiodorus undertakes in literary language a masterful blend between the traditional conception of the power of music and Christian dogma substituting, like Augustine, the neo Platonic harmonic first principle by God who created the world in this way. That the predominantly positive value of music is not just rhetorically induced by the purpose of the letter emerges from the tone in his th eoretical work, which we have already discussed. The only negative remark on music comes a t the beginning of paragraph 5, where Cassiodorus interjects a brief complaint about the bad musical practice of his time : lectens honestum remedium turpe fecit esse commentum The remark is somewhat unmotivated and seems out of place. But it confirms that it is more the usage tha t creates the negative 861 I bi enim quicquid excellenter, quicquid ponderatim, quicquid rauce, quicquid purissime aliasque distantias sonat, quasi in unum ornatum constat esse collectum, et ut diadema oculis varia luce gemmarum, sic cithara diversitate 862 Cf. Gregorius Nazianzenus Oratio 14 De pauperum amore 23 rse resembles a lyre).

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402 effect than the music itself. Other passages in Cassio d e on behalf of Theod o ric reveal his knowledge about pagan musical performances (e.g. Var. 1.31.4 & 4.51.6 11 : singing, instruments and dancing in the theater; 5.42.1: organ), always with positive characterizations as dulcis, delecto, mellifluus, etc. In h is commentary on the Psalms, like in Augustine, music is treated frequently, but more in a symbolic and catechetical manner; ethically relevant sections receive their meaning only through symbolism. 863 Again like Augustine, the iubilus of the voice expresses a degree of joy that words are unable to articulate. 864 Isidor e The last individual Christian author, and the last author of antiquity who writes about music, is Isidore Bishop of Seville. He dedicates a number of chapters of book 3 in his Etymologiae 865 to the subject. His definitions of music are more original, 866 b ut for 863 E.g. Expositio in Psalterium Ps 80, vers icul us 2: Tympanum est, quod tenso corio quasi supra duas Domino tribulation quatitur, ad supern damus tympanum dum eleemosynas facimus, cum ieiuniis corpus affigimus, cum vitia saeculi cum suo nihilominus auctore despicimus. Addidit, psalterium iucundum cum cithara. Admonet etiam et haec duo iucund issime copulari: ut et verba Dei quae in psalterio continentur, et cithara quae humanos actus significare cognoscitur, in unam societatem debeant convenire: quia utrumque melos sibimet copulatum Cf. to Ps 150, verse 4. Notice tha t here, different from Augustine (ad loc.), the organum is interpreted as the organ (and not as another string instrument), and that the organ, elsewhere despised as a pagan theater instrument, receives here a very positive treatment: flatu fol ium vox copiosissima destinatur; et ut eam modulatio decora componat, linguis quibusdam ligneis ab interiore parte construitur, quas disciplinabiliter magistrorum digiti reprimentes, grandisonam efficiunt 864 Expositio in Psalteri um Ps 46, versus 5: cf. Isid. Etym. 6.19.10: 865 Text.: PL 82.163 169; Lindsay 1911 (I am quoting from this edition); Mar tn 2006 ; tr.: Strunk 1998, 149 155 ; comm.: Wille 1967, 709 715; Mathiesen 1999, 640 641 866 (Praefatio to book 3); "M (15. 1) His etymological explanation for the ( s. (depending on the reading; Lindsay has both verbs with basically the same meaning searc h for the power of song not a very probable etymology, but the true one is at any rate uncertain (cf. OCD 1002).

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403 the rest his introductory chapter is basically a conflation of Cassiod. Mus. 1 and August. De ordine 2.14. Significant is his emphasis on memory as an essential ingredient for music (15.1 2) After some remarks regarding the origin of music 867 he describes the uses of music as a sign of education, in sacred rites, festivals, worship, weddings, funerals, and banquets (16.1 3). Music is the necessary p erfection of every discipline because of the harmonious composition and movement of the universe, its moving and changing influence on affections and emotions, its stimulating and encouraging power in war and work (rowing), its soothing effect in toils, an d the healing of the spirit is illustrated again with David and Saul. The attraction to animals, snakes, birds, and dolphins and the rhythm of the pulse are taken up again from previous authors as well (17.1 3). The division of music is identical to Cassio dorus, mentioning also for rhythm the task to discern (18.1). I t is i nteresting that he attributes the proper meaning of the word only to the human voice; its attribution to non human realities (animals, instrumen ts, nature) is abusivus (20.1 2). Harmony he describes as whereas sonis, sive in voce, sive in flatu, sive in pu More explicitly than Augustine and 867 who explicitly refers to Gen 4.21 where Jubal is mentioned, if not as the repertor musicae artis, as Isidore claims, but as (Vulga te). Isidore says later in 22.2:

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404 868 (20.2 4) 869 New in comparison to previous authors is a clear ethical characteriza tion of re human and non human sounds), and the first one is a bit surprising: one remaining classifications resemble loosely those of the Aristotelian De audibilibus and the ones by Cicero and Quintilian in their works on oratory, 870 such as the vox subtilis, which belongs to children, women, the sick, and chord instruments; anoth er category are for men ; others are and even these do not seem to have positive connotations; more pleasing s eem to be and especially the 871 (20.10 14). We notice that some male female distinction is latent here. For the various instruments, Isidore adds the occasions when they are used, e.g. the trumpet (tuba) for war and festivals the aulos (tibia) originally only for funerals, then also for sacred rites (21.3 4). In addition to some fanciful etymologies, 872 he draws a cosmic connection to the seven kithara strings. 873 868 dat. Cu i us contraria est 869 Here he attempts to give the etymology for Haec et melos a suavitate et melle dicta. 870 For a review of the latter see Wille 1967, 474 487. 871 To this he specifies: ta, ut in sublime sufficiat; clara, ut aures adinpleat; suavis, ut animos audientium blandiat. 872 E.g.: eius, (22. 4 ). 873 22.5: Similarly, at 22.7 he relates the ten stringed Hebrew psalterium to the Ten Commandments, just

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405 The lyre by Orpheus is occasion to recall its magic power over animals, rocks, and forests, and it received the honor to be raised to the stars (22. 2 9). The sistrum (a rattle) symphonia (a sort of drum) receives particular praise: i (22.14). The chapter finishes with a (somewhat faulty) explanation of musical numbers and the calculation of the harmonic mean, 874 followed by the wher efore without this perfection and without concord in the microcosmos the human being cannot exist (23.1 2). 875 I sidore provides sketchy fragments from previous authors, a mosaic of earlier ideas and stories with little more originality than Cassiodorus, bu t apparently drawing from a wider range of sources. Music, again, is mostly defined by the purposes connected to it but when it is described as possessing ethos, this ethos is not put to service of anything in particular moral exhortation is more based on symbolism. The lack of criticism against pagan musical customs might indicate that they had widely ceased to exist by his time; for the rest, ancient and Christian applications are juxtaposed with much ease. For Isidore, t ap pertain to the as Augus tine already did (cf. n. 841 ). A particularly Christian explanation for is offered in Etym. 6.19.5: aras starent et ita ps allerent. Alii chorum dixerunt a concordia, quae in caritate consistit; quia, si caritatem 874 See Strunk 1998, 155 n. 17 and Boethius Mus. 2.17. 875 ulorum, ita et in microcosmo in tantum praeter vocem valet, ut sine ipsius perfectione etiam homo symphoniis carens non constet. Eiusdem

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406 aesthetical level, to be the result of not following the norms to achieve a harmonious melody or a well formed rhythm. Christian Music Practice and Criticism In the six authors discussed individually, the advanced theoretical ethical concept ions of non Christian writers echo evermore faintly and bec ome reduced to stereotypes that, at a first glance, seem to bear neither much practical experience nor relevance. The treatises do not separate clearly either musical science from musical practice, non sonoric realities. Since the long tradition of music philosophy has employed so much effort in linking them together, they continue to be treated as one, almost without refle ction on the underlying problems. For the judgment of musical practice, i t has been said that To a Church Father, everyday musical reality was two things: the pagan musical practice that surrounded the Christian population on every side and the singing of psalms and hymns in church. The former was the subject of scathing denunciation because of its immoral associations, and the latter was generally approved as a beneficial, if sometimes suspect, practice. 876 I believe some further differentiation should be m ade First, it is striking that our texts have presented little that is negative about music as such. Clement in view of his pedagocial purposes, is most outspoken in adopting the ancient concept that en ervating and confused musical style leads to lascivi ousness and bad ethos ; this type is also criticized by other authors For the rest, however, t he traditional benefits of music are repeated again and again and are not questioned, except for the credibility of myths and stories about magical power. Augusti 876 James McKinnon in Strun k 1998, 114.

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407 (and others) to the emotional impact of music is solely motivated by the concern that it of aesthetic appreciation and the perception of music as essentially harmonious 877 and positive finds further confirmation through the fact that music in its positive value, readily serves for parenetic purposes, through allegories and symbolisms, in homilies and commentaries. It i s no little influence of Ambrose, bishop of Milan (ca. 340 397 AD) who consciously used the power of music to promote and celebrate the faith. 878 Multiple passages from the fathers of the Church refle ct the belief in the influence of music to move stony hearts and lead to conversion. 879 Song is seen as an instrument to foster unity across the social strata ; even the chant of girls and women is welcome something not approved by everyone 880 As seen before Christian chant is not restricted to liturgical celebrations but recommended in all sorts of circumstances. 881 The enjoyment of music is seen as an aid for education, disposing the student to more easily assimilate the learning 877 For an interesting study on the idea of harmony in pagan and Christian antiquity and its ramifications into the Renaissance, see Spitzer 1963. 878 Cf. Ambrosius Sermo contra Auxentium de basilicis tradendis 34: carminib us deceptum populum ferunt. Plane nec hoc abnuo. Grande carmen istud est, quo nihil This quote hints at the thought that music is even more powerful when its content is related to God. 879 E.g. Ambrosius Explanatio psalmorum 1.9.6: videmus flere p raeduros, flecti inmisericordes; Cassian Conlationes 1.17.2: psalmorum, ut adsidua nob cf Isid. De ecclesiasticis officiis 1.5.1: facilius animi ad compunctionem flectantur ; id. Etym. 7.12.24: 880 Cf. Ambrosius Explanatio psalmorum 1.9.3 5; at the end: Against women singing: Hieron. Dialogus contra Pelagianos 1.25 881 E.g. Cyprian Ad Donatum 16 (meals); Tert. Apol. 39.18 (after meals at nightfall); August. Enarratio in Ps 123.2 (in love, desire, tribulation, hope); Clement above n. 790

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408 content, which, as we have s een, is particularly well combined in the case of the psalms. 882 Secondly, regarding musical context, criticism mainly address those situations that are problematic because they are co n nected with pagan faith or behavior incompatible with Christian beliefs. 883 Augustine, as we have seen, rejects musical elements at pagan festivities inasfar as they are 41 .9). 884 Certainly, other authors have also noticed disturbing musical effects along the lines of earlier ethical judgment, but the main point here is again that such music might dispose one to pagan cult or morals 885 Here, the aspect of enjoyment or pleasure 882 In addition to what Basil and othe rs say about this, cf. also e.g. Ambrosius Explanatio psalmorum 1.10.1: For a positive appreciation of musical enjoyment see also August. De civ. D. 22.24.3: Industria humana ] ad delectandos animos quos elocutionis ornatus, quam diversorum carminum copiam; ad mulcendas aures quot organa musica, quos cantilenae modos excogitaverit ; id. Ep. 26. 2 : ipsa cantantio, etiam cum ad eam membra non movet, cui plena caritatis modulatione cantatur (i.e., enjoyment for the one who sings even when the one who hears it is not moved by it). 883 Stapert 2007, 132 136 gives a brief overview of the functions of music in pagan ritual during the first centu ries of Christianity; the rituals attacked by Christian authors were for the most part the ecstatic rites of the Eastern mystery religions that had found much popularity. Stapert continues (137 148) illustrating the use of music for entertainment (at theat ers, arenas, baths, streets, and houses) and the reaction of both non Christian and Christian authors. 884 He adds: see also the detail ed critical description of a musical performance in Arn. Adv. nat. 2.42.2 3: et fistulatorias hic artes, ut inflandis bucculas distenderent tibiis, cantionibus ut praeiren t obscenis, numerositer et scabillorum concrepationibus sonores, quibus animarum alia lasciviens multitudo incompositos corporum dissolveretur in motus, saltitaret cantaret, orbes saltatorios verteret et ad ultimum clunibus et coxendicibus sublev atis lumborum crispitudine fluctuaret? Idcirco animas misit, ut in maribus exsoleti, in feminis fierent meretrices sambucistriae psaltriae, venalia ut prosternerent corpora, vilitatem sui populo publicarent, in lupanaribus promptae, in fornicibus obviae, n ihil pati rennuentes et ad That this repudiation is not directed so much at music as such but at the immoral context can be deduced from more positive passages such as id. 2.23.2 where cithara and tibia appear in a l ist of positive human achivements. See also Ioannes Chrysostomus Homilia XII in 1 Cor 10 but unfortunately he does not tell us what makes a particular ha rmony evil. Many other authors could be cited, e.g. Ambr. De Helia et ieiunio 15.55. 885 E.g. Lactant. Epitome 57.6: mentis furore perturbent, compositis certe orationibus numerosisque carm inibus aut argutis Wille 1967, 371 372 points out that there was also

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409 appears rather negative. Tertullian (ca. 160 ca. 240 AD) wrote a treatise De spectaculis in which he d enounces permissive attitudes in this regard 886 in a way similar to Cyprian of Carthage (ca. 200 258 AD). 887 Thirdly, the stipulations for music in worship are strongly motivated by the ethos appropriate to express the Christian faith, wherein Bacchic orgies have no place. 888 Since salvation has already arrived through Christ, there is no need to placate or magically persuade a divinity. Here, Christian criticism approaches and even surpasses sceptic reservations (especially of Philodemus) as can be seen especi ally in Arnobius (ca. 300 AD) 889 Isidore describes the aesthetic qualities expected of Christian liturgical chant: clear, soft, melodious, fluent, high pitched, simple, not rough, hoarse, dissonant, or theatric al all in all, qualities suited to the holy r eligion so as to arouse the minds some reservation among pagan authors against their cultic music, cf. Apul. De deo Soc. 14.148 149. For a full treatment of Christian contention against pagan music, see Wille 1967, 388 397 and, from a different angle and in a more simplified presentation, Stapert 2007, 84 91 & 131 148. 886 Stapert 2007, 66 71 comments on the main points. Pleasure seeking overlooks the corruptive elements in the world despite being created well by God (2.7: ; it weakens the ability to defend the faith up to martyrdom (1.5 6) and it makes even more peopl e turn away from Christianity than the threat of death (2.3). Pagan spectacles, do not leave room to think of God (25.3). The primary concern, of course, is also here avoiding idolatry (passim) and immorality (e.g. 10.3 9, wit h explicit reference to music). At the end, Tertullian points out that Christians have enough to offer in terms of doctrine, eruditon, songs, true stories rather than legends, characterized by simplicitates (29.4). 887 The text in question might not be authe ntic: De spectaculis ( the text is mostly directed against the argument that David danced he did not dance in an indecent way and eccentric musical performances; the human voice is considered superior to the instruments ); see also De zelo et livore 2: soni dulcioris auditu solvat et molliat christianum vigorem 888 Cf. Ioannes Chrysostomus Homilia XLII in Acta Apostolorum 3, wi th reference to marriage feasts 889 Cf. Adv. nat.; 7.36.5 6: lis et theatralibus ludis persuasum habetis deos et delectari et adfici iras que aliquando conceptas eorum satisfactione molliri: nos inconveniens ducimus, quinimmo incredibile iudicamus, eos qui gradibus mille genus omne virtutum perfectionis transierint summitate in voluptatibus habere atque in deliciis [esse] res eas quas homo sapiens rideat et quae non aliis videantur continere aliquid gratiae quam infantibus On the other hand, Ambrose says at some poi nt (Explanatio psalmorum 1.5.1) that God is reconciled by song:

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410 and facilitate compunction. 890 Jerome (ca. 347 420 AD) takes here a rather extreme stand. He is aware of the ethical (here understood as moral) power of music, which is effective on the body. 891 But then he says that the one w ho contemplates the cosmic harmony and order, he sings a spiritual song. 892 He allows no doubt that he interprets and (from Eph 5.19) in the narrow sense, that is, without voice 893 Niceta s bishop of Remesiana (ca. 400 A D), responds sharply against (nonnulli) (multi) supporters. In his pamphlet De psalmodiae bono 894 he argues that the Pauline 890 Isid. De ecclesiasticis officiis 2.12.2: oportet, i ta ut oblectamento dulcedinis animos incitet auditorum. Vox enim eius non aspera, vel rauca, vel dissonans, sed canora erit, suavis, liquida, atque acuta, habens sonum, et melodiam sanctae religioni congruentem, non quae tragica exclamet arte, sed quae chr istianam simplicitatem et in ipsa modulatione demonstret, nec quae musico gestu vel theatrali arte redoleat, sed quae compunctionem magis 891 Hieron. Commentarii in epistolam ad Ephesios 3.5 (versiculum 19): cum Lactant. Div. inst. 6.21.9: Isid. De ecclesiasticis officiis 1.5.2. 892 This sounds as if Jerome were promoting a spiritual contemplation of what the (neo )Pla tonic tradition suggested as praeambulum for philosophy, the rational penetration of harmonic reality, leading to the higher realm of truth; now it leads to a higher way of musical worship. Jerome does not specify whether he means a study of harmonic theor y De musica. 893 In the following, Jerome wants to ecclesia theatrales For silent prayer from the heart. And if the latter is assured, no m si deprived of music: spir itus malus qui erat in Saule eiiciatur ab his qui sdimiliter ab eo possidentur, et non introducatur in eos Jerome voices his negative opinion of music also in Ep. 54.13.1: saltrias et istius modi chorum diaboli quasi mortifera 79.9: 894 Text: Turner 1923 (who proposes to more properly name the work De utilitate hymnorum); tr.: Strunk 1998, 12 8 131 (excerpts). Nicetas never mentions Jerome by name. As we have seen, Augustine fluctuates between both positions, e.g. Ep. 140.44; Enarratio in Ps 147.5:

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411 and thus he strongly endorses sin ging 895 T here was then, a strong reaction against outlawing and completely spiritualizing or allegorizing simple, conscious, concordant, not dissonant or distracting throu gh tragic ec centricities ; for the active promoters of liturgical chant, aesthetic beauty matters as well. 896 am in conspectu Dei, If the faithful sing well and please themselves and those who hear them, 897 895 We do not need to r eview in detail his arguments, which are, at least concerning Eph 5.19, not exceedingly strong (e.g. since St. Paul uses the term he must mean no silent singing because of the etymology Most of his argument consists of citing Biblica l personalities who supposedly made use of song: Moses, Abraham, Deborah, David (with the surprising comment: illius tanta virtus erat, sed quo figura crucis Christi quae in lingo et extension nervorum mystice gerebatur, ipsaque passio qu Zachariah, Elizabeth (in an Sunday, and eventually the Lord Jesus himself (Mt 26.30, Mk 14.26). Not in all of these cases does the Biblical text compel to assume actual singing. In a section not translated in Strunk (5 8), Nicetas provides a long list of useful positive effects that the psalms should have, very similar to what we have seen in Basil, but ev en more elaborate with more examples; many of the benefits, of course, are again due to the text rather than the music, but others are clearly musical, e.g.: God provides man with a medicine dulcis esset gustu per cantionem et efficax ad curanda vuln era per virtutem. Suaviter enim auditor dum canitur, penetrat animum dum delectate, facile retinetur dum frequentius psallitur, et quod legis austeritas (5). 896 13: etiam vel melodia condecens sanctae religioni canatur; non quae tragicas difficultates exclamet, sed quae christianam simplicitatem in ipsa etiam modulatione demonstret; non quae aliquid theatrale redoleat, sed quae conpunctionem magis audientibus faciat. Sed et vox nostra non dissona Out of the ordinary is that Nicetas considers the kithara here in a negative way: extrinsecus protrahens qua The reason might be that the kithara of the three young men, glorifyin g God in the furnace (Dan 3.51 52). Their hymn is still used in the Liturgia Horarum of the Catholic Church during the Laudes for many Sundays and all feasts and solemnities. 897 Contrary practice is exposed to reproach, e.g. August. De ordine 1.8.22.

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412 From this overview it can be clear ly seen that Christianity has n ot brought about a general demise of musical culture. 898 Condemning the extravagances of overly arousing and im m orally provocative performances is as old as these very practices, and we have encountered many pre Christian authors speaking in similar terms. T here is a range an anachronistic term be allowed in this context, in which there is the suggestion that music be discontinue d altogether because of dangers, and the general exhortation to use (good) music fairly m uch everywhere; most authors stand somewhere in the middle and acknowledge its usefulness for education, 899 relaxation, work, healing, and worship The value of pleasure and the excitement of the passions are seen ambivalent ly and judgments are often depend ent upon the situation and purpose. 900 But a ll of the authors share the conviction that music does have affective power and induces ethos in the human soul. The intense and frequent reaction to this fact cannot have be e n prompted only by the classical educat ion of most of the prominent Christian writers and their familiarity with earlier criticism ; even if it inspire s them, their texts are much more original than many of the musical handbooks of Hellenistic times, which often limit ed themselves to the copy ing or paraphrasing of previous authors. Christian pastors ma k e their own observations and at le a st in the case of Augustine also experiences and respond to concrete needs as 898 Aber 185 and Darmstdter 1996, 28 29. None of them, however, has penetrated sufficiently the theological foundation for the Christian view on music. 899 This usefuln ess might be exterior, such as to foster discipline, unity, motivate through enjoyment, or help with memorization; or interior, by disposing the soul by means of a favorable ethos. 900 Stapert 2007, 86 91 analyzes well how the perspective changes between rej ecting harmful arousal and provoking beneficial emotion without which love is not possible; in this way the ideal Christian ethos differs from the Stoic ideal of apathy (cf. August. De civ. D. 14.9.6).

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413 they notice how the use of pagan customs incompatible with Christian faith and life ha ve a negative impact on their flock. What the Christian authors do not provide is a systematic theory of musical ethos especially in terms of its precise psychological functioning. Augustine is reaching the closest, given his talent for deep intro spection, but in the end he too does not go further than to elucidate the perceptive process. Consequently, the criteria for discern ing good from bad music remain mostly based on the accompanying text or context mostly to con tent and context. Few texts endorse particular modes, coincide with the judgment of previous authors. Since most instruments used by pagan rites are accounted for in Scripture and in the psalms, they cannot be outrightly rejected unless to the price of allegorizing the corresponding passages. 901 Music without text is hardly considered. If there is an intrinsicly bad ethos, then it is the soft, weak, istraction, corruption and liscentiousness. The parallelism between pre Christian and Christian is striking; the patristic writers sing with (neo )Platonic and Stoic moralists in the same choir manly and virtuous tunes to kithara or lyre, filled with disgust over the excesses of passion and obscenity in decadent part ies or festival music. But tak ing their ethos descriptions out of context soon leads to a conundrum, since terms such as dulcis or (and their Greek 901 Since most criticism addresses pagan rituals, banque ts, or feasts like weddings, the instruments involved and rejected are primarily percussion and the aulos/tibia (e.g. Arn. Adv. nat. 6.26.1 2) for greater musical pomp the Christians had not much use anyway as long as they were outlawed, and it was certain ly not contemplated for liturgy. McKinnon 1987, 3 4 states that the omission of instruments for Christian music has not been an explicit doctrine.

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414 equivalents) are found both in texts describing positive and negative effects of music. 902 This difficulty has alread y been noticeable in the different evaluation by classical poetic writers and music theorists. The concept of etc. changes connotation with the situation it is applied to. 903 For positive ethos, t he general rule is that music should convey harmony, peace, healing, and balance In the context of worship, music must be capable of lifting the soul up to God in prayer. But since for a true Christian his or her whole life should be like music played harmoniouisly before God, often no real distinction bet ween sacred and non sacred music is made, as we saw in the suggestion s to sing psalms even at dinner table. Thus a Christ centered, incarnational theology maintains the dignity of music, by which the image of God praises the Creator through the very harmon y, which the Creator, flowing from his own being, instilled into the world; and the double nature, human and divine, of Christ accounts for the duality of sonoric and spiritual music, which for a Christian musician are but like two different registers on t he same organ. Conclusion A fter completing this historical journey, in order to gain a complete picture of what is considered good and bad in music by ancient authors, it would be desirable to add, in a next step, a systematic review organized by musical p arameters: tone, pitch, melody, scales, modes/ harmoniai/tonoi harmony, rhythm, instruments/timbre, tempo, volume, 902 Confessions with Valerius Cemenelensis (or Vale rianus of Cimiez, bishop, ca. 460 AD) Homilia 6.5: viam muniri, atque ex hoc fomenta adulteriis ministrari: cum hic agili plectro tinnientis citharae sonos expedit, ille docile digito laborantis organi blandim 903 See e.g. Ambrosius Hexameron quos non mortiferi cantus, et acroamata scenicorum quae mentem emolliant ad amores, sed concentus Ecclesiae, et consona circa Dei laudes populi vox et pia vita delectet

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415 form, the relationship between music and text, and perhaps also dance. Such an analysis would provide a sort of cross section; much of the pr evious would be repeated in a different order, but some helpful aspects would also be added (e.g. a complete table of comparing the ethos of each of these parameters according to the various authors). Since the now concluded chapter has already reached a s ize that does not allow adding much more, I will need to renounce, at least for now, the development of musical ethos by parameters. A good part of it will already be accessible in schematic form through the synoptic tables that are compiled in the C hapter 4 At any rate, we should at this point be in sufficient condition to move on to a systematic reflection on our main question, which will follow in Chapter 5

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416 CHAPTER 4 SYNOPTIC TABLES OF R EFERENCES The following tables collect references to musical effect and ethos as gathered from the texts discussed in the C hapter 3 until Aristides Quintilianus (with cursory references to some of the remaining authors ). They allow a synthetic overview of all functions and effects of music mentioned. Some ter minological issues will be discussed in a number of footnotes. There are a total of four tables: two for good or positive value, and two for negative value. For each value, there is a table organized by function and effect, and a second which is grouping t ogether similar vocabulary across the functions. I have tried to arrange the entries in each section as much as possible in a logical order, juxtapositioning similar concepts and thus moving forward. Within the same concept, entries are in chronological or der. I have also sought to combine as many similar references as possible so as to reduce space. The references in each field are given in an order first of language (Greek, Latin) and secondly, within each of these, of approximate chronology. A semicolon in one column sep a rates entries parallel to equal separations in other columns. Many of the source references are simplified (e.g. only codex column /line numbers instead of book/chapter numbers, if both exist) Aristides Quintilianus is referenced only by the page and line numbers according to Winnington Ingram. Notice that some authors are cited with effects that they deny; however they are witnesses for the fact that others affirm these effects wherefore they are included Since it is not always clear whether an author means an effect of music ( or of one or

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417 more of its elements ) or a simple characterization of music, 1 many of such characterizations have been included to give a fuller picture of the range of terms used. Frenzy or ecstasy are marked in th judgment or the context suggests one, for in the religious context frenzy is widely accepted and not seen negative in itself, not even by Plato. The ambiguous effect of music is clear in Iambl. Myst 3.9.3 11: music can either lead into or out of an ecstatic state. Object 4 1. Synoptic tables of references to musical effect and ethos (.docx file 188 kb) 1 person who plays or hears this melody; this sort of hypallage is very frequent (cf. the ob servation of Sext. Emp. Mus. 36 on this point).

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418 CH A PTER 5 THE VALUE OF MUSIC IN SYSTEMA TIC ANALYSIS Having covered much ancient ground, we have identified a great variety of positions, which differ to a minor or major degree o n how music can be good or bad, based on the effects music can have. I t is now necessary to bring the sometimes conf using conglomerate of aspects and arguments proposed by the ancient authors into some sort of order. For this purpose, I am now undertaking the task of develop ing a systematic proposal for a theory of musical ethos, incorporating some of the debate among c ontemporary music philosopher s in order to provide a framework for evaluating of the arguments brought forth in antiquity. I n a first section, I will offer considerations of philosophical and psychological nature, and in a second section some contributions from Music Therapy, as applicable to our questions, will be briefly presented Philosophical and Psychological Considerations Basic Questions Music Some problems arise from an unclear idea about the locus ( ) of music, ontologically speaking. We have encountered (1) actually sounding music, (2) music proportions, and (4) the natural cosmic music. According to our earlier definitions of music, music (a) covers clearly cases (1), music (b) covers (4), but (2) and (3) have an uncertain status. Now, it is important to notice that music, at any rate, only exists in the mind of a rational sensitive being, usually the human person. Only when the mind organizes the perceived them with the help of the memory into a particularly defined structure (melody/harmony),

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419 do we have music. 1 There is certainly an exclusive group of sounds with particular physical characteristics 2 that has traditionally been considered to be eligible for music. But it is the mind that converts sound to music or interprets it as such Therefore, between actually perceived and remembered or even only imagined music, the difference is only of degree. This is important for ethos theory, because the effect of music does is not restricted to the moment when something is being played or sung. 3 Also t he intensity of the effect depends on many other factors besides the physical instance of hearing musical so und 4 As a result, m usic (2) as of above belongs clearly to the definition of music (a), while (3) should belong to music (b) because here we are on a purely rational level which does not involve any acoustical reality, neither heard nor remembered, nor im agined. Of course, it is still meaningful to say that we make music or listen to music with reference to the sound patterns that are going to be process ed as such, but for understanding properly the relationship between music and ethos we need to be aware that music, strictly speaking, is always a mental (or spiritual) reality. 5 1 See e.g. Scruton 2009, 4 7 and later in the book. 2 For a further description of these we refer to the theory of physical acoustics and music perception. The question of why these and not other sound patter but exceeds the scope of this study. Also, there is the need for explaning why certain intervals are considered harmonious and others not. We know that the rations between their frequencies are simple i ntegers, but we would like to know why that matters. 3 It does not help, therefore, when scholars (e.g. Darmst dter 1996, 12 perceived music. 4 Some examples may illustrate this: when we are not consciously attentive to music we hear, th at music might have a lesser impact on us than a strong musically colored dream. That means that perceived music is not even necessarily the most psychologically influential one. Furthermore, we know that geniuses such as Mozart and Beeth oven (evident through his deafness) were able to imagine whole compositions and write them down without previously trying them out or hearing them (cf. Wigram/Pedersen/Bonde 2002, 53 54). Actually any creative music production (improvisation, composition) effect of music will be discussed in the next section. 5 This is not to deny that a human being probably has to first physically hear something and learn the process

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420 Ethos The same question needs to be answered about the musical ethos: does it lie in the music itself or in the human mind, or in a human society, or in other living or ev en not living things as well, and what does ultimately constitute it? We defined ethos nd behavior reside in the whole of the human person, involving all the areas of body emotions, intellect, and will. Here we cannot say that ethos exists only in the mind, because even if it is recognized as such only by an intelligent interpretation of be ing and even without conscious recognition. 6 On the other hand, describing, classifying, identifying, and ultimately evaluating (judging) ethos is a product of the human mind. Human and non human ethos W hy should ethos be limited to the human person or perhaps more precisely, to rational beings ? At least the moral side of ethos requires understanding and free will, something which, at least according to a widespread consensus, is proper to intelligent beings. A human action is different from an instinct driven impulse or reaction of an animal. On the other side, a nimals do show ; and even plants, for their color, scent, or other qualities are also sometimes attributed tc.). analysis of perception in book 6 of De musica. But music as such resides in the mind and cannot exist without it. 6 For instance, if someone is ambitious, his att itude and actions can become relevant for his surroundings withether or not anyone, even he himself, thinks about it or processes it in his mind.

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421 Whether calling these anthropomorphic metaphors depends more on how wide one is willing to circumscribe the field of application for the term, but the existence of non rational beings s eems to make some sense. But how far can we go there? Do stones have ethos? Electrons? I propose, as is done in music, to distinguish ethos (a), as applicable to human beings only, and ethos (b), which would cover characteristics of non human beings that w e consider in some way analogous to human ethos. 7 Ethos formation. In general, I believe we can say that the ethos of a person consists in the individual mixture of virtues (e.g. fortitude, patience) vices (sloth, gluttony) and other character traits or habits that can, depending on the situation, turn out positive or negative or remain neu tral (e.g. cheerfulness, vigorousness ). Since ethos involves the whole person, a complex combination of intellect, emotivity and physical conditions takes place upon s haping ethos. It is the task of psychology to elucidate the exact processes of ethos formation. For our purposes and for anyone interested in education it is important to find out what role music can play in this process. Then, ethos can also mean the nature or characteristic of a temporary state of disposition (e.g. if someone is downcast or cheerful in a particular situation). The part of music in such a case might seem more obvious as we all somehow experience how music can reinforce or change an interior state. Nevertheless, the challenges of 7 Of course, the type of characteristic should be appropriate; e.g. it would indeed be only metaphorical to sp but a stone can be hard, motionless, etc. We can see that not any random quality would fall under ethos (b) (e.g. not the measurable size or chemical composition), but those that a human being discovers as equivalent to his or her own ethos.

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422 understanding the inner workings of this connection are not much smaller than for shaping habitual ethos through music. Ethos and et hics. It is the task of p hilosophical Ethics to study how value judgments on ethos are built. Ethos is an interior disposition about which the individual who possesses the ethos can know through feelings and self observation ; other people get to know someo express es it by means of signs (e.g. facial expressions, posture), behavior (e.g. manners, way of walking, speaking), or concrete actions (e.g. yelling at someone, engaging in war, reconciling) T he value of ethos is us ually measured by the positive or negative effects and consequences that these expressions have on other human beings. This is where the psychological effect of music becom es socially relevant (while may be morally relevant already for the individual inasmu ch as the individual is concerned about his or her own character). Ethos and music. But we first need to clarify whether music actually can have ethos. Music certainly cannot have ethos (a), but it could have ethos (b), that is, the human mind seems to be able to establish a relationship (similarity) between the characteristics found in the sound patterns interpreted as music and the characteristics observed in the expression of human ethos. I believe it would be foolish to deny that there is a connection. The evolving method of music therapy alone provides sufficient evidence that interior dispositions and, as a consequence, their expressions can be influenced by music, and that the musical characteristics are directly relevant for a particular change. Stil l, we need to understand better what this relationship consists of and how it works. It should remain clear that the primary use of ethos is (a) and that characteristics attributed to music derive from human ethos. If an element o r piece of

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423 music is descri sound as equivalent to energetic human behavior. The study of this equivalency is the task of m usic psychology and the practice of music therapy should also provide valuable informati on. Collective ethos. One more question needs to be tackled: can a group of people possess ethos? T he Greeks defined the characteristics of modes and based on ethni c groups (Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, etc.), not just in a historical, but in an ethical way whereby sometimes the characteristics assumed to be prevalent in certain tribes or exercised (or at times their lack of musical exercise) is seen as the (or one) cause of their ethos. Hence, human ethos may shape the ethos of music, or musical ethos may shape human ethos, both on the level of an individual and of a society as a group, when practicing the same sort of music together. In view of the excesses of racisim in re cent (and actually not only recent) history the idea of a national or tribal ethos has become quite politically incorrect, and above all, such talk will always suffer from undue simplification and generalization (no individual will ever perfectly blend wi th an assumed group ethos), but I would like to consider the following: if it is correct to speak of a culture in terms of a system of values, beliefs, social standards, customs, etc., shared by a specific group of people, why should this not be caused by a closer familiarity due to a genetic pool or common educational traditions and result in the expression of traits that are found in this group more marked or frequent than in others? With all caution against prejudice and stigmatizing 8 there might be som e truth in distinguishing some 8 Of course, belonging to a group of people, nation, etc. may not only be of disadvantage (as in the case of racism) but of advantage (in the case of national pride or esteem by others for positive qualities).

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424 general sort of ethos that distinguish es Germans from Mexicans or inhabitants of Texas from those of California always allowing individuals the right to develop their own ethos, within or without the culture from which they have emerged. All of this is subject to the study of the sociological and anthropological sciences. It is important, because if ethos is, at least in part, a social reality and of social relevance, then music, as far as it has to do with ethos, shares thi s relevance. This is why Plato, Cicero, and other philosophers have dedicated entire chapters of their political vision to discuss music. Factors Modifying the Impact of Music Something which leaves reading about musical ethos in ancient and even modern te xts deeply dissatisfactory is abstract generalizations, as if the effect of music on a human being occurred in a vacuum or were a one dimensional phenomenon. For instance, questions are raised such as: what effect does the kithara have in contrast to an au los? Or: how does one feel listening to a piece in the Phrygian mode or in E flat the kithara soothes, while the aulos arouses, etc., we will not get very far and hardly c ome to any agreement about whether this is true or not. The reason for this is that before giving any answer with regard to any intrinsic ethical value of music, we need to be aware of the complexity of a musical event. For this I am proposing the followin g distinctions, which all in one way or another modify the the impact music has in a given moment (both in intensity and quality). 9 There are three general dimension s : the music event itself, the recipient (i.e. the person exposed to music, either listen ing or performing), and the environment. 9 A review of influencing facto rs is also given in Chapter 5 of the OHME, esp. pp. 86 91.

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425 Music event Here we first need to consider the performance : its quality on the side of the musician(s) (i.e. the aesthetic value that the performance possesses), the medium (as the impact is different in a life conc ert, a recording CD, tape, in good or bad or just mentally remembered or imagined), and the setting: e.g. whether it is background music in a restaurant or the main focus of attention. Then, on the level of the music piece ancient theoris ts have offered a lot of qualifications for individual parameters (rhythm, intervals, modes, genera, instruments) and attribute ethos to them we will still discuss this further below. But if there is such an ethos, it is part of the exterior music event. We have also seen, in Aristoxenus, Ptolemy, and other authors, that it is not enough to talk about these parameters in an isolated way, but that the ethos of the piece is the result of a combination of all these together as a whole. Lastly, the music even t is always characterized by an acoustical environment that provides a certain amount of volume, resonance, reverberation, etc.; part of this is also whether the musicians are close or far from the listener (or identical with him or her). All these element as music and filtered through his or her own disposition, which we need to consider next. Recipient Here it helps to distinguish above all the degrees of personal involvement of the r ecipient and subjective circumstances that add to it. On the physical level of the body it matters, of course, if a person is fully capacitated in its perceptive processing, or actively performing (or listening in a very engaged way) or in a rather passiv e state. Dancing, either as part of performing or as following along with what one listens to,

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426 would have its place here as well, for it adds intensity to the experience. As we have seen, the early Greek generations considered dance as an integral part of a complete music event. On the level of emotion music will work differently according to the initial state of the individual: being awake or tired, happy or sad alters the reaction to specific musical input. Then, the general sensitivity to music varies a mong humans and will influence the degree to which music will impress. Then there are previous experiences, provide an emotional resonance chamber that will ring with some music in one way and with other music in another this level can hardly ever be deciphered completely, but it still exists. Notice that these are only the emotional dispositions which music e n counters at the point of acting upon a human being; the genera l relationship between music and emotion is a different issue. On the level of the intellect it is significant whether a person is listening to music consciously or not; this depends, in part, on the attention which the music event itself calls for, but a lso on the effort one makes to be attentive; often times, music is not intended to be in the foreground, such as in movies or advertisement videos, but also in dramatic stage works with music accompaniment (in modern times: operas; the balance between the dominance of music and dramatic action/text varies); even if someone is control. On the level of intellect, there is the very important factor of lyrics or text (or ano religious or social import, and to what degree the music relates to this extra musica l

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427 content. In general we can observe that the stronger the relation and agreement between music and content is, the greater the impact. This is the point of the ethical triangle that we have observed in the Greek theories since Plato. To this can be added the factor of whether the individual is aware of and understands this agreement or not; understanding may also involve the structure and texture of the musical piece (as those knowledgable in music theory claim to enjoy music more for their appreciation of the compository or performatory intricacies). Then, the intellect is involved by responding to the newness of a piece. This variable can be filled quite differently: for some, as the ancients have pointed out, newness is particularly attractive, and surpr ise effects usually work only for the first time; 10 for some, repetition of the same becomes boring quic k ly; but it is also common that certain pieces are so enthralling that one does not get tired of listening to them over and over again without losing muc h of the emotional impact. Whether newness is relevant or not depends apparently on many other factors as well. 11 Finally, there are also certain expectancies that the recipient may have for the effect of music which may be as varied as the functions musi c can possibly have; the more they will be fulfilled and an intended purpose is achieved, especially on the emotional level, the greater satisfaction music will provide. The last area of the human person, the will is rather little considered in this conte xt, but it is of no little importance for on the one hand the will has the chance to 10 Of course, one can forget the surprise factor or even try to forget it so as to experience it again like the first time; that certainly will not work very often. Another factor, then, will be the time elapsing between repetitions of the same piece. 11 Tanner 1985, 230 231 presents theories that describe the need for a piece to be successful among those widely knowledgeable in music theory and history, to find a balance between fulfilling and not fu lfilling expectations of a particular musical idiom (depending on period, composer, etc.).

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428 accept or reject the exposure to music, at least under normal circumstances; 12 on the other hand the will is for a good part free, regardless of the situation, to consent or not to the emotional impact a music piece may have: one can force oneself to neutralize arousal or oppose a soothing relaxation. Voluntary withstanding may reduce significantly the effect that music would otherwise have if one submitted to it without re sistance. The impression of music on the recipient further depends on circumstances linked to each individual: previous conditioning towards both ethos and music through education or other influences; then there is a particular life situation or context, b eyond the emotional state, of which the social setting where the music takes place is worth explicit mentioning, here in its relevance for the individual. All these factors on the side of the recipient are interacting in a complex framework that is differe nt from person to person and will even change in many ways throughout variation (such as previous conditioning or the receptivity to certain content), other elements may make the effect of music in a given situation quite un predictable. Environment Apart from the music event as such and the disposition on the side of the recipient, a more general nature, which may or may not influence a given musical experience. There is the culture in which the individual is located, with its value system and moral code, religious beliefs 12 There is, of course, the case that someone unwillingly is submitted to exposure to music, be it due to a played in the staircases, thus eliminating an escape), or even as a means of torture in prisons.

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429 and other customs ( ), and then there is the social aspect, the fact of being tog ether and the reason for it (music itself: a concert, or another sort of celebration, or funeral, etc.). Listening to the same song privately or at a philharmonic concert hall, or in a ry different feeling of being in company of others who, by means of their feedback (applause, w eeping, cheering, booing, or even rioting), will provoke or reinforce emotional reactions which might not be so strong or, in some cases, even not be there at all or very different. The diagram below illustrates and summarizes these factors as laid out in the text. The Impact of Music on the Human Person We are now in a position to discuss the impact music may have, within the conditions provided by the factors just explained. Music can have an impact on the body, the intellect, and on the emotions. We will disregard here possible physiological effects such as direct damage on the hearing organ or on the brain, which could be caused, for example, by excessive volume. 13 These fall entirely into the area of biology and medicine and have little import on ethos ( for instance, for the moral responsibility of avoiding injury, if possible). Therefore, we will concentrate on the influence of music on the intellect and on the emotions. 13 No such harm is reported under normal circumstances from other musical elements (melody, harmony, rhythm, ins truments, etc.); of course, the psychological consequences from extremely long exposure to a dissonant chord, a long piercing tone, a never ending repeated ostinato, etc. could eventually result in physiological damage as well, just as a nervous breakdown, etc. This would belong into the category of (cf. on the latter Garofalo in OHME 747 749. Of course there can be many other bodily side effects: a change of the heartbeat, a stimulation of the brain, etc., and everything that reaches the body through psychosomatic connections

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430 Figure 5 1. Factors modifying the impact of music.

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431 Music and intellect M usic al so und can engage the intellect in three principal ways: first by requiring it to process the sound as music by analyzing its structure and characteristics (ethos) and submitting it to the memory and to the sphere of the emotions. This task i s of purely cogn itive nature and the final stage of the perceptive process 14 This is what is usually meant by understanding music. 15 S econdly through relating the musical features to s ymbolism, the situation in which the music occurs), and to a specific desired function that the music is expected to fulfill T hirdly, through judging whether this function is fulfilled or not this will be the evaluation and result in experiencing music in a positive or negative way. 16 Here we need to keep in mind the whole range of possible functions music can have, one of which (and maybe the most important one) is the arousal of emotions. In the midst of processing of music, the intellect will receive f eedback from the emotions and relate it to existing expectations: if the emotions are aroused as expected and desired, then the judgment will be positive; otherwise, it will be negative. The judgment may also include whether the perceived music suits the r elated content or not, 17 or whether music meets the expected aesthetical standards. The intellect, 14 I am describing here the ordinary setting of liste ning to music; self performance, remembering or imaginging/dreaming will follow the same process with some minor modifications. 15 See the essays by Tanner 1985 and Budd 1985, 2008, 2009, and Scruton 2009 (among others) These characteristics can be of technical nature (depending on the degree of corresponding knowledge the individual has), or of ethical nature, but the latter is then already directly linked to the se cond task. 16 In more technical language, this description is somewhat contained in the following definition offered in Music may be described as an aesthetic, sensory based language consisting of s pectrally and temporallyhighly complex auditory patterns that perceptually engages cognitive, emotional, and motor functions in the brain. 17 Tanner 1985, 225 gives examples of compositions that he considers a not seem to f it the text

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432 therefore, establishes musical value in terms of appropriateness a term so frequently used by the ancient writers. Music and emotion Emotion. Much has been w ritten to explain the connection between music and emotion. 18 I am not trying to exhaust the topic here (which would require a completely view in it. I will also need to skip over discussing the arduous question of what emotions actually are; I propose as a working definition that they are feelings (i.e. transient neuro physiological states, including specific brain activity, the effusion of hormones, and other bodily proc esses ) that arise in response to a conscious or sub conscious, real or imaginary stimulus provided by the senses (and interpreted through the mind) or by the mind only Emotions can be of very different kind and often times involve memories of past experie nces, beliefs, mental interpretations of perceived data, etc.; they can be clear or diffuse, deep or shallow, transient or lasting, simple or mixed. Musical emotions. First we should distinguish two directions: emotion may be put into music, and emotion ma y emanate out of music ; 19 music may cause emotion and be caused by emotion. Some times musicians express their emotions through music, and 18 For a general overview see Juslin/Sloboda 2010, especially Davies (pp. 15 43). The introduction to the important distinctions: affect (a most general term), feeling (subjective experience of emotion), and mood (lasting affective state, without a clear object). Ball 2010, 254 321 offers a good discussion for a wider audience. Interesting is also the summary of cues correlated with specific (ordinary) emotions in musical expression by Juslin in OHMP 382. 19 I am writing may because it is certainly possible to compose, perform, or listen to music without the least trace emotion, depending on the factors laid out above.

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433 some people enter into some emotional state by listening to music. 20 Again, all of this happens within the human mind: p articular sonoric features interpreted as music, are in what the ancients called the soul, nowadays the emotional center or system. 21 As much as our mind construes specific sound as music, it also triggers the emotional reaction. 22 This reactio n will depend on how specific musical features are registered in the mental emotional complex. The second question is: w hat sort of emotions is aroused by music? It has been claimed that music does not arouse emotions. 23 Putting it in these terms is at leas t misleading. It is true perceived sound waves are not sad because they have no feelings; but not even their interpretation in our mind is sad, because conceptual musical features possess no feelings either; it further cannot mean that the one who hears this music is saddened by 20 For either event it is secondary whether, in the first case there is an actual audience for the musician, and in the second, whether the musician has had (or intended to express) the same emotions that the listener feels. 21 John C. Eccles (e. g. in 1984 ) that the intellectual and emotional capacities of the human person do not reside in the physiological dimension (brain, nervous system, etc.) only. 22 Levinson 2006, 197 de scribes this process as a hear that emotion rather than another, or none at all in the music, that is, by appeal to our disposition to aurally construe the music as an instance of personal expression, perceiving the human appearances in the musical ones, in effect 23 For instance, Peter Kivy 1989 1990 and 1999 argues at length that music does not arouse emotions, but that it can be expressive of them, i.e. that we hear them in the music and tha t we are moved not by deeply moved, emotionally stimulated to a very high degree by the beauty of music; by, in other words, how wonderful the music is. T continues by saying that it is basically one of the many nameless emotions and that the many different lt. I believe that is getting close to the musical emotions that I am proposing, except that I disagree that the intentional object is only the beauty of music. I believe that, in addition to the appreciation of structure as structure, there is content to it, namely, ethical content (characteristics, according to our definition of ethos above). I will say a bit Music ing, whether it be feeling, attitude, psychic state, a

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434 it, because there is no proper stimulus and hence no reason for sadness (there is no disappointed hope or the like) and the fewest people will actually feel literally sad because of 24 There are two problems with this phrase: first, it attributes emotion to something which is not capable of having an emotion or which simply does not have it; secondly, and this is my main argument, it tries to describe an emotion felt because of certain music with a term borrowed from emotions felt in very different circumstances, for lack of a better expression. Psychological studies are indicating that music stimulates in us kind s of emotions that are ordinary ones of anger, fear, love, sadness, joy, etc. 25 What we feel when listening to music sometimes get s close to these but it is hardly ever quite that. 26 Therefore, I dis agree ordinary emotions. If we can say that music produces its own emotions, we seem to avoid the objections 27 M usic philosophy would benefit from a careful review of research in the area of m usic psychology 24 This is agreed upon by most music philosophers, but a study by Krumhansl (reported in Patel 2008, 316) seems to in are aroused by music in a (mostly) consistent and measurable fashion, although one might criticize that the bodily reactions are too generic for allowing a differentiation of emotion as suggested here and by Scherer 2004. 25 This proposal, although little discussed in the philosophical debate, is certainly not new; Patel 2008, 317 cites Herbert Spencer (1857), Susanne Langer (1942), D. Raffman (1993), and Klaus Scherer (2004). For a review of empirical groun dwork undertaken in this field see Juslin/Liljestrm/Vstfjll/Lundquist in OHME 605 Exploring how various musical emotions come about through the interaction of multiple psychological mechanisms is an exciting endeavour that has just begun 26 One needs to remember that we are speaking of music without external content own emotional force; the compo ser usually chooses those musical features whose emotive code is the most familiar to the ethos of the extra musical content. 27 These objections are summarized in Kivy 1989, 155 157: 1) Why should we voluntarily submit to music that, supposedly, instills u npleasant emotion such as anguish or melancholy? Well, we do not submit to

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435 Musical and other emotions. But if music arouses its own emotions, how can these be in any way linked to other emotions and human ethos and become subject to a value judgment? Here we can build on some of the i nsights that the ancient authors have offered. I believe it corresponds to reality and common experience that human life in its various dimensions is characterized by a certain polarity: on the physical level being asleep awake, hungry/thirsty satisfied, h ealthy sick, etc.; on the psychological level: happy sad, tense relaxed, etc.; on the intellectual level: focused distracted, credulous skeptical, free constrained, etc. 28 If there is any truth to the Platonic conception of the bipartition in the irrational part of the soul 29 (i.e. on the psychological level), we could fan out the spectrum of emotions between these two poles, however they would be labeled. 30 Emotions, depending on the type of object that triggers them, occupy various layers. Music provides one layer extending over the same range of these emotions because musical emotions are different; wheter we feel pleasure or not with regard to musical emotions depends on other factors as we still need to discuss. 2) Music does not trigger the exterior or interior reactions that we would expect from ordinary emotions. Again, we react to musical emotions not like to those resulting from other objects perceived in their positive or negative consequences. 3) Emotions are direct ed towards objects, while music does not provide such. The response is that music itself and its ethos are the object to stir up the corresponding emotion. 4) Mere emotional associations to music are only accidental. This is true but not related to our poi nt. A useful schematic presentation of the various schools of thought about the relationship between music and emotion can be found in Hodges/Sebald 2011, 19 21, a summaric discussion in Patel 2008, 305 319 and Sloboda/Juslin in OHME 2010, 79 91. 28 I am pu rposefully using examples of differen t kind s o n each level to indicate that a full taxonomy would need to consider a complex network of layers and categories, and also overlaps between the levels and gradual shadings between the poles. 29 These are not alwa ys defined in the same way, but in the Platonic tradition these parts are mostly and not depend on how exactly the emotional sphere is divided up; it is easier to explain the principle with a polar system. 30 It is impossible to engage here into an attempt to describe these poles. Among the ancients, Aristides Quintilianus has gone the fur emotions might be able to be grouped by poles and intermediates is suffici ent.

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436 self at all, using a different set of colors than other objects ; through the same shading, however, the different layers can relate to each other. So some musi cal emotions could be identified in the same general latter. The human mind codifies musical features with musical emotions. If, for instance, a melody rises to high pitch or accelerates with a strongly marked rhythm, the parameters of tenseness and velocity have their own emotions load on the level of music, but at times are identified by the mind as similar to tenseness and velocity in other life contexts and may ev en elicit similar bodily reactions (such as the increase of heartbeat simila r to a non musical excitement); nevertheless, such a conscious or sub conscious connection to extra musical emotions is not necessary and will often times not take place 31 I believ e that the Aristoxenian approach is right in assuming that all musical parameters together constitute the ethos of music. At the same time, as a musical piece develops, the interplay of all parameters through the extension of time establishes such a comple x texture of ethos 32 that it is impossible even to label a musical piece with one 31 expressivity by choosing those musical features that correspond to musical emotions within the same oes not need that piece, deduce the emotional state of the composer or performer intellectually (if he thinks about it), and then he may or may not re convert t does so or not will again depend on all the factors modifying the impact of music as laid out above. 32 We need to remember that ethos and emotion are not the same, and neither are musical etho s and musical emotion. Musical ethos consists of the characteristics that musical parameters and pieces possess in a given music event, both on the level of (rationally analyzable) form and emotivity.

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437 linguistic Of the mim sis theory it is true that the emotional complex will still be located somewhere with in the emotional spectrum of the soul 33 and thus may be relate d to (or be analogous to) emotions that bear significance for human ethos. But most music theorists nowadays agree that music does not directly imitate or represent any non musical movements act ions or sounds except in special cases (i.e. when program music strives to imitate a railroad, birds, rushing waters, etc.) M ost music does not rely on such imitation and does not need to. Still, there is a more subtle way in which music relates to non musical realities, as we will see further on. 34 When listening or performing a piece, music plays on the clavier of musical 35 It is important to understand that this is not an un necessary doubling up in describing our emotional world. Usually, our intellect issues a judgment about a perceived object and the projected consequences how that object might affect the perceiver, thus stimulating an emotional reaction. 36 In the case of mu sic, there are no consequences. 37 It is 33 I am talking about the general impression that a musi cal piece leaves in us after hearing it, with all the particularities melted into one the changing characteristics will make the emotions fluctuate and oscillate throughout the sp ectrum. We should also be aware that such spectrum is not necessarily twodimensional but could be multidimensional. 34 Music is at its lowest stage simply imitation of nature. But soon it become s of nature in a broader sense, not just imitation of the 35 59. When the authors ontrary to popular belief, mus ic cannot express emotions with any degree of success, but rather creates moods to which we respond at an emotional level emotions but on the level of practical therapy, recourse to these seems to be unavoidable in order to somehow communicate about the different general categories of musical emotions. 36 There are, of course, many other sources for emotions, mo stly from within the human being: memories, dreams, processes in our subconscious, bodily states (e.g. illness), hormone imbalances, etc. Most of

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438 therefore necessary it is a fact that we do feel something. 38 That there are no consequences to music might be one of the reasons why music is particula rly suited to provide pleasure and enjoyment. Music and pleasure. And this is the next clarification needed: the difference between emotion and pleasure. As far as I see, nobody denies that music has the capacity to cause pleasure ( / voluptas/delectatio). But what does that mean in view of the emotions? Ordinary basic human emotions are usually classified as pleas ant and un pleas ant is pleasant is unpleasant ). This is a valid rule of t hum b but is also a simplification because there are situations in which sadness might actually bring about a certain pleasure (e.g. in the case of compassion as a deep feeling of love for another person who is sad ). We mi e sad in a given moment or inversely, we would not feel pleasure these are unpredictable and hard to control. In the context of music we limit ourselves to compare with emotio ns that arise from other sorts of perception (visual) or conception (thoughts). 37 Of course, one can always construe situations in which some threat or the like may emanate from music, but then it is the situation and not the (ethos of) music that triggers the emotion. Sudden volume changes in music may elicit a shock but the judgment here comes from the fact that the unexpected loud noise is instinctively associated with previous experiences of noises that could mean a threat; so the shock comes from the suddenness of something loud with its extra musical connotation. As an aside, music (and nothin g else). That does not mean that music, objectively speaking, does not have consequences; it certainly does, through all the effects it may have on the different levels. 38 Kivy 1999 criticises various suggestions to explain this fact (Davis, Levinson), but at the same time he admits that his own theory, that of only hearing (ordinary) emotions in the music, does not completely satisfy and contrasts with the persistent assertion of many people that the do feel what they hear and not just feel the pleasure of hearing something expressive of (ordinary) emotions (similar already id. 1989). All the discussion is due to the assumption that music deals with ordinary emotions. I hope my proposal of specifically musical emotions provides a way out of this dilemma.

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439 f not appropriate. Pleasure and pain therefore, cannot simply be identif ied with the two ends of the emotional spectrum in the case that an emotion does not comply with a specific expectation or moral obligation (because our emotions might not cooperate in producing the psychological state that we are judging appropriate). The y often emerge from a synthesis of an emotion (or a mixture of emotions) and a rational judgment ; at any rate, the emotions continue being the Still other factors may come into play. In the c ase of music, pleasure ordinarily requires a favorable constellation of the aforementioned factors which precede or accompany a musical experience, but especially that the music on all levels (art, purpose, morals). 39 Any deficiency will result in less pleasure or even On the other hand, it does not ause pleasure is subjective while a value judgment may also be based on objective factors, including ethos. Value judgments o n musical ethos Good and bad emotions. But before we get to ethos, we need to ask: can emotions be good or bad? In themselves, emot ions are just interior reactions to an object and its possible consequences for the individual as presented by the intellect, speak of wanted or unwanted emotions, enjoy able and painful ones, those that support 39 For instance, Huron 2001, 56 57 shows that s uccessful parsing of the musical texture is a condition for music enjoyment, which applies especially to polyphony for being more complex

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440 the judgment of the will and those that do not. It seems that the value of emotions depends on the situation and on their relationship to what the intellect has established as good or bad. Since emotions arise spon taneously and often in an uncontrolled way, bad emotions are those which are a t odds with the intellect (convictions, goals, values, moral imperatives, etc.), while positive ones cooperate with it. Even though emotions have ethos (a characteristic) without a direct moral dimension, they receive moral relevance when they move the human person to interior d ispositions or exterior actions compulsive emotions). For musical emo tions the same is true: in themselves they have ethos, but not morally defined; their moral relevance arises according to the strenghtend by the musical emotions. I wil those which move towards negative human ethos or action. Constit u t ing musical ethos. At this point then, we need to address the question of how we can distinguish good and bad musical ethos. As we have seen, it is the intellect which judges music according to the degree to which music fulfills the functions expected of it. We have also seen that music can arouse emotions, which ma y already active for other reasons, and by doing so, it might also mitigate emotions opposite to the ones strengthened. Since emotions form part of human ethos, 40 the m usical parameters interpreted by the mind as analogous to a given human ethos will 40 Frequently felt emotions can lead to a habitual emotional state or specific habitual dispositions of the intellect may provoke habitually a certain set of emotions.

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441 then also engage in the emotional side of that ethos. Consequently, the judgment about musical ethos will correspond to the judgment about the human ethos. That is why many ancient authors were quick expressing their preference for some over others according to their preferences for specific forms of human ethos (e.g. simplicity, manliness, or nobility over complexity, laxi ty, or vulgarity). These preferences are prompted by ideas about how a human person should be for his or her own fulfillment (perfection) and within society. Emotions that support a desired ethos are welcome, those that go contrary to it, are to be overcom e. Thus, musical emotions that relate to other emotions supportive of a desired ethos establish ethically good music, while those that go contrary to that ethos, constitute bad music. 41 Here we are facing t he problem that a piece of music, as we have said, is a very complex entity with regard to emotions ; attributing to a whole piece a clear ethos will be in many cases impossible, not only because we mostly have no adequate vocabulary for specifically musical emotions (what do I feel when listening to a give n fugue by Bach?), but also because the amount and complexity of musical features occurring even in short and simple pieces mudd i es the waters. But does this mean that in the end no ethical value can be established because we cannot formulate it? No, becau se of the interface between musical and other emotions. As soon as the prevalence of certain musical emotions awaken s or strengthen s on the on human ethos, they c an be identified as helpful or harmful with respect to ethos. 41 Again, this is very generically spoken. With Aristides Quintilianus we must assume many shadings between good and ba d as the distinction is not always clear.

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442 The harmonic triangle. I t is interesting to observe that ancient authors give music overall a primarily positive value. 42 The list of positive musical characteristics is much longer than the one for the negative, and so is the list of positive effects of music. If we review the reasons why music is positive poetic witnesses mention the pleasure felt, sweetness, softness, clarity and nobility ; for the theor eti cians the dominating criteria are that music should bring about enjoyment/pleasure, order, health, promote virtue (especially manliness, moderation, nobility), be linked to reason, and it must be aesthetically well done. The most frequent negative characteristics in poetic texts highlight aspe ct s of mourning, dread, harshness, discordance, and aesthetical repulsiveness; among the theoricians, music is bad because it stirs up weak attitudes or immoral behavior, makes sick, leads to madness and lack of self control, and it ma y be aesthetically di spleasing. As a common denominator among almost all writers we can identify three criteria. The first is that of harmony and balance Many negative characteristics stem from excess in the one or the other direction (technical ones: volume, pitch, timbre; b ut also ethical ones: effects of relaxation, etc.). The second is that of appropriateness : the ethos of music should match the ethos of extra musical content (if there is any), the (desired/aspired) ethos of the soul, and the context (cf. our ethical pyram id). These two criteria are related, for in order to achive the ideal ethos in a human being (or society) which the ancients usually saw in the equilibrium of polar tencencies the means (with music a prominent one among them ) must be appropriate to the r equirements of each situation. Aristides Quintilianus has developed a sophisticated theory about how this can be carried out through education and therapy. 42 That this is not a particularity of ancient authors is reported by Sloboda/Juslin in OHME 87 89.

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443 The third criterion is that of enjoyment Plato and some of his followers were very reserved about i t, but he nevertheless admitted that it plays a role he just wanted to avoid it becoming a heuristic criterion for judging music in its objective value; but I do not see evidence for Plato denying that good music should also be enjoyable. The omnipresent semantic field of / dulcis as the preferred characteristic for good music is simply a metaphorical way of saying that music is enjoyable, for lack of more music specific vocabulary. These characteristics are only rejected in specific contexts, when it would mean too swee t/soft/relaxed, but not in themselves. We could relate these three criteria in the following way: enjoyment, as the emotional way of responding to good music, is sentence about the integrity of the ethical pyramid whi ch is ensuring appropriateness and the fact that both emotion and intellect are in agreement elicits harmony. Or put in different terms: harmony is the overarching ideal of both enjoyable and appropriate music. Music is enjoyable when it corresponds to or produces the interior harmony between intellect, emotions, and the body (as far as the body is involved) in the human being; and music is appropriate when there is a harmony within the ethical pyramid (that is, all of its ends are in agreement with each o ther). For music to be enjoyable, the intellect is involved through providing the value judgment; for music to be appropriate the emotions are envolved through expressing satisfaction. We could call this a llustrate this:

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444 Figure 5 2. Intrinsically good or bad music? Another central question to address in this section is whether it makes sense to speak of intrinsically piece or parameter or style, regardless of the context or content possibly attached to them, posse s ses positive or negative ethos and thus by its nature exercises always a negative impact on the soul, leading it to a negative positive interior disposition (emotions, ethos) or even harmful or beneficial exterior actions. 43 It is clear that already depends on a given value system within a particular culture. The ideal held towards which human beings should stri v e through education 43 T he case of badness for artistic reasons was discussed earlier (p. 139 ) : music is a rtistically bad if it does not sufficiently comply with the established rules. Intrinsically bad music on that level would be music that will never comply with any possible artistic rule for music. It seems impossible to establish such a thing, since these rules are in flux and I do not see how we can preclude that something unacceptable here and today will never be acceptable elsewhere and in the future. HARMONY ENJOYMENT union between intellect, emotions, body APPROPRIATE NESS integrity of the ethical pyramid (content soul expression context)

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445 def ines the stimuli the human being should be exposed to; if music has educational value, then any music that necessarily fosters or obstructs development towards the ideal would be, within that cultural system, intrinsically good or bad. Can anything univers ally valid be said here? Conditions for intrinsic value. This opens various sub questions: Is there anything universal in the way our mind processes sound as music and attributes ethos to it? Is there anything universal in judging certain human dispositio ns or actions as and human ethos? To begin with the second question: we cannot resolve it here, as the debate in Ethics whether intrinsically evil actions exist is ongoin g and lies beyond our scope. 44 About the last question, we already mentioned that the will may suspend the effect of music on the person, and many other factors may mitigate (if not change) the impact as well. I believe no human being will ever be coerced t o an emotional state or exterior behavior or action as long as he or she has free will. But what would happen if let us say, the will does not get involved? Also here, further study will be required, but a good part of the answer hinges on the solution to the first question, which we will briefly take up now. Ethnomusicology is attempting to respond to the question of musical As to be expected, what is universal are more than any thing else general parameters or 44 For the most part it is the debate between deontological and teleological (or consequentional) ethica l systems. If there are no actions that are always evil, then no musical emotion could be intrinsically bad because there can always be a circumstance under which the action it supports is not evil. But if there intrinsically evil actions exist, we still h ave not proven that intrinsically bad music exists, because of the other two questions that need to be resolved.

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446 45 On the psychological level we would first need to understand why and how exactly the mind associates a specific ethos to a specific musica l phenomenon whether this happens in all humans in the same way, and whether the ethical coloring of sound is innate or acquired through custom S tudies on born could be of high value analyzing spontaneou s reactions to different kinds of music without any previous conditioning but it is always difficult to perform experiments that are not exposed to methodological challenge. 46 Some theories complicate things by seeing the need to provide an explanation w ithin the framework of human evolution, that is, to discover an evolutionary advantage that the emotional charge of music should have implicated. 47 It seems that we are not yet in conditions to clarify the point in a conclusive fashion 48 45 E.g Cross in OHMP, 4 12; Stevens/Byron in OHMP, 14 20, and Clayton in OHMP, 35 42. Stevens/Byron (p. 18 20) point out especially the importa nce of expectancies and the interplay between tension and relaxation. See Patel 2008, 91 93 summarizing some (but not fully conclusive) evidence for the particular function of the fifth interval. 46 Ps. Aristotle already mentioned the newly born ( see n. 421 ). For modern studies s ee e.g. Trehub/Hannon/Schachner in OHME 645 668. Ball 2010, 177 quotes several tests with infants made to assess the existence of innate interval preferences. He criticizes the validity of apparent prefe rences as tampered by possible previous exposure to music. But it is not evident that exposure determines pleasure or preference. While we might often prefer what we are used to, it does not follow that we only and always prefer what we are used to. Does s omeone like apples more than pears because it was the first fruit he ever ate? Could a first impression not also have been repugnant for some reason? It is obvious that few people enjoy the stench of blood althtough it was the first smell they perceived wh en newly born. 182). See on this topic also the corresponding chapters in Patel 2008 with a helpful summary chart on p. 379 with supposedly innate biases relevant to musi c, with a following discussion of the evidence. 47 So e.g. Kivy 1989, 3 13; Budd 1985, 52 76 discusses and refutes theory, based on a Darwinistic interpretation of musical emotion originally based on sexual arousal mechanisms. Evolution base d interpretation will always remain highly hypothetical and concerting sound cannot hope for any archaeological proof. 48 such as whether the affective states that music appears to elicit arise through empathic proc esses, as Davies (2001) suggests, or arise directly in response to objective properties of musical structures have not been the sustained focus of experimental

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447 Consonance vs. diss onance. One reflection may help paving the way a bit : ancient authors have frequently discussed the dichotomy between consonance and dissonance (especially for tones, and intervals). Both terms are often used with positive or negative connotation. 49 But is a dissonance always bad? Listening to a minor or major second or to the augmented fourth (tritonus) is usually (always?) considered dissonant and associated with negative musical emotions. But Plotinus explained that dissonances are in a way necessary to b ring about harmony. Since harmony is a successful combination of diverse (but not unrelated) elements, often of polar nature, it presupposes the combination between consonance and dissonance. And thus, in fact, we experience music: a piece without any sort of dissonance in it would usually appear consonance and dissonance (as representatives of the general duality of relaxation and tension). 50 But why then should dissonance be bad at all? I t seem that dissonance is harmonic theory (a more complex ratio between the frequencies of the tones composing the intervals) 51 This type is linked to specific mu sical emotions, but the wider context of 49 The difference between harmonic and melodic intervals is decisive here; a seco nd interval is dis sonant if two tones sound simultaneously, but for a melodic step the concept of dissonance does not apply. For me it has been a bit puzzling how the Greek theorists transition without notice from the harmonically relevant interval theory (meaning: simultaneous tones) to the melodically relevant tetrachord theory (intervals that determine the ethos of harmoniai/ scales and hence of melodies). If it is true that the ancients did not know any polyphony beyond magadizing or bagpipe like drone a ccompaniment, the emphasis on consonant and dissonant intervals is not fully clear few musicians will have been tempted to magadize in second intervals. 50 ith 19 51 However, Patel 2008, 17 against the notion that the primary force in shaping musical scales is the pursuit of intervals with simple, small number ratios O utside of Western culture, the dream of Pythagoras is not in accord with the facts The lack of standardization between instruments may simply mean that listeners de velop rather broad interval standards Western cultures may not disagree with the Pythagorean ratios but merely

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448 musical development neutralizes these emotions, by themselves perhaps rather on the not be there (and hence, sometimes it is said that dissonant sound is no music at all). Here one might think of even a single tone in a wrong pitch, or an unpleasant timbre. While in the first meaning, the context de livers dissonance from its ethical negativity, in the secon d meaning the context constitutes or is at least an important factor of this negativity. It is soun d at the wrong place (or time). Now, for intrinsically bad music we would have to assume a kind th at could in no context be judged positively. 52 Does such music exist? The first meaning of feature is not balanced out by a consonant one and harmony is not established. The neg negative emotions with all the consequences linked to them; at best it would remain neutral if suspended or mitigated by extra musical factors. Admitting this case presupposes a ccepting the rule of harmony in the described way; modern artistic concepts exist that reject harmony as a necessary criterion for a positive value in art. the mind could be formed in such a way that it does not process any music as not reach the ideal. The mathematical approach of the Greeks will have contributed to a finer formation of the ear. There is evidence t hat humans, in contrast to animals, prefer in general sounds that are defined as consonant, cf. Patel 2008, 397 399; lower pitch music (vs. higher pitched speech) is associated with more positive valence (p. 350). If West 1992, 42 44 & 276 shows that the G is in its psychologica l effect closely related to speech. 52 I ntrinsically good music is of less interest because no moral obligation follows from that; however, if there is intrinsically bad music, legislature as proposed by Plato would be justified to ban it.

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449 possessing negative ethos. 53 Whether this is possible remains a question to be answered by music psychology. If it turns out that all human beings are bound to feel sical parameters (and, perhaps, even about essentially the same ones), a case for intrinsically bad music could be made. 54 With regard to the since it is a contingent musical or extra musical context that determines the negat The Central Place of Harmony I am adding this last part to the current section because I want to do give some consideration musica l harmony on the level of the universe. But for doing that, we need to take one more step in the analysis of the process that leads from music to ethos. From what has been said so far, it could seem that we are getting far enough without the need for furth er speculation: the locus for music and ethos is the mind which generates the translation from specific sound into what we call music and attributes ethos to it according to a code that may be formed throu gh habituation, education, etc. Once musical ethos is established and the response to it through musical emotions accounted ut 53 Ball 2010, 178 suggests a tautology in the attempt of explaining dissonance/consonance by (dis)pleasure, assuming that dissonance by definition is unpleasant and what is unpleasant turns out to be dissonant. While such a circle may occur in some authors, it is important to distinguish both terms well: dissonance and consonance refer to a particular sensory experience, which is based on a specific physical reality that is mathematically describable, while (dis)pleasure is the emotional reaction to that experience, a reacti on which is not wholly determined (since, as we have seen and Ball himself admits, one may well experience pleasure hearing a dissonance in a given context). Ball concedes that there seems to be a predisposition to perceiving certain sounds as consonant or dissonant, but he claims that the preference of consonance is not sufficiently demonstrated. 54 Of particular interest is the fact that even naive listeners have an intuitive sense of consonance as being the degree to whi ch simultaneous notes sound pleasant, harmonious, or euphonious.

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450 two aspects of this explanation remain to be resolved : what are the criteria for the sound to be eligible for music (and how were they established and for what reason?), and on what grounds is ethos attributed to particular musical features? The first question, as mentioned earlier (n. 2 ) cannot be addres sed here. Regarding the second question, t he ancient authors, with few exceptions, mostly limit themselves to asserting the connection between music and ethos as a fact. We have seen that Plato and other authors considered it as natu re 263 ), and the Pythagorean tradition sought to elucidate this nature by exploring mathematical proportions. The mediating element was seen in especially of movement, or i n the assumption that music and ethos are inherent in all cosmic realities (Aristides Quintilianus). I will first go a bit deeper into the former hypothesis and then look into the latter. The process of creating musical ethos and emotion I s there a reasona ble way to assume that the human mind naturally processes specific musical phenomena and translates them it into the emotional sphere ? Anderson thinks the very existence of such liken esses [i.e. t o emotional states and ethical attitudes in the soul] 55 The Epicurean skeptics already pointed at what they interpreted as contradictory ethos attributions in order to prove such conn ection s as nonexistent However, there could be other explanations for any discrepancies. 56 M usic psychology is investigating whether musical 55 Anderson 1966, 128. 56 Cf. Wilkinson 1938, 177 178 who cites various modern time musicologists with conflicting descriptions but these do not have to be interpreted as contradictory. Also, as Wilkinson himself mentions, the Greeks applied the labels for specific genera and harmoniai to different realities; thus changing descriptions do not necessari ly prove different perceptions but may just reflect the very changes that have occurred. The

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451 principles such as voice perception or whether they arise fr om culture 57 As a working hypothesis, I am proposing the following explanation, which clarifies that the relationship between music, ethos, and emotion is accounted for on various levels: basic innate dispositions (universal and indi vidual) associations, conditioning experiences, expectations (rational and irrational), and judgments from the intellect. Universal basic innate dispositions include the capacity to sort musical from non musical sound, to feel musical emotions at all, to perceive and remember contrasts such as high low pitch, volume changes, etc., and a desire for a harmonious final state of satisfaction 58 I ndividual dispositions include personal character traits which lead to an attraction towards particular kinds of In its early stages, a human being registers basic dual patterns governing the world ( great small, up down, slow fast, loud soft, short long, smooth rough etc.), some of which (all of the ones mentioned) are found in music, others not (e.g. cold hot, h ungry satisfied, ali v e dead, etc.) ; the individual then begins to associate these with emotions, based on experiences, and will sometimes associate emotionally non musical experiences with musical patterns. 59 harmonia is not conclusive either, for various solutions have been suggested which wou ld not require renouncing the existence of musical ethos experienced on a universal level. About the d according to the physical reality and according to the result of human (psychological) processing, cf. Wil le 2001 14. 57 Huron 2001, 55. The author points out for this particular case that the relevance of these rules is relative to the goals pursued by the composer (id. 56). 58 Other connections might be innate as well, but in g eneral it is difficult to separat e that which is learned or acquired from what is natural. If certain modes, intervals, etc. elicit particular associations, even if they are very common and conventional now, where lies their origin, i.e.: what suggested each particular association? Why we re they apt to prompt such a lasting and universal association while other conventions like language sounds change so much? 59 then emotionally, then spiritually; or small steps with smoothness and

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452 These experiences predispose the individual to f eel certain emotions in contexts similar to previous ones but also to preferences (which include a value judgment) this is, of course, only to a limited degree, as few people would have preferences of key (e.g. D major over F major), but perhaps they do prefer one instrument over another, due to individual dispositions and emotive associations. 60 On a higher level there are added expectations 61 and other rational judgments which in part stem from a deeper understanding of music and its structure, in part from beliefs rules, or values, etc. 62 A musical emotion is a mixture of all these (and probably still more) factors so that we get out of music what we (or another human being by influencing/educating) ha ve laid into it ; the fundamental elements are base d on nature (and therefore universal), but their combination is freely composed and therefore each time a unique experience. We will never be able to spell out and analyze all the factors that unconsciously compose the emotional coloring of singular musica l elements or, even less, more complex structures because it is impossible to trace all the history of forming emotional and rational associations. It does not surprise, then, that we cannot have words to describe these musical emotions: first, because we really do not know what they consist of (except perhaps for some general dominating hue), and second because words are abstract bounces with joy; or abrupt changes with repulsive violence; interval characteristics may arise according to the simplicity within the hearing experience based on the frequency proporti ons; rhythm may be coded with ethos and become emotionally charged. One needs to keep in mind, however, that the conceptualization of musical patterns may occu r in different ways; Greek music is a good example, since 60 See e.g. Wigram/Pedersen/Bonde 2002, 57 58. 61 It seems that there are some universal expectations as well, such as pitch proximity and reversal (after high should follow lower) and the interplay of tension and relaxation (see Stevens/Byron in OHMP 19 20 and Cross/Tolbert in OHMP 31). 62 By this I mean, for example, the belligerent mentality of the Spartan people, which prompted the positive valuation of specific types of ethos and the music expressing it.

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453 forms to denote a group of objects within the same species, but it seems that each musical emotion is its own species. But since they are still moving within the general emotional landscape of the soul (or psyche), we often as described, identify a ons for which we do have words. 63 The central point here is that musical ethos and emotion develop out of basic polar experiences within the world, which, on their own, are capable of carrying ethos (slowness may mean fear, or boredom, or tiredness; upward movement may mean excitement, seeking help, pride, etc.). 64 In that sense, music is some sort of mi of qualities and and usually without direct reference to extra musical objects, but emerging from a mostly sub conscious draws from this storage what applies to a particular musical event and blends it, along with other factors, 65 into a musical experience with a particular ethos and emotional color. If this hypothes i s could further be substantiated, it might perhaps be call e d for it holds that human beings naturally attribute 63 Patel 2008, 313 315 reports that also non Western musical traditions, such as India, and Java, are familiar with ethical qualities within music, and ev en cross cultural identification of ethos, at least in common affective or expressive categories, seems to be possible. Scherer 2004 suggests a promising an 64 See, for instance, the experiments made on lullabies (Patel 2008, 344) show the u ascending contours dominate in infant directed speech used to culturally? It is hard to imagine some sort of conditioning. Pa tel continues citing studies how close music and language are in their acoustic cues for specific emotion (see especially the table on p. 346 where the cues are spelled out by basic emotions). 65 factors piece, appreciated by means of whatever level of understanding as Kivy describes it, is certainly an important part of the way music is judged and emotionally processed. It should also be clear that, since our cognitive emotional disposition is constantly changing, we will never make an identical music experience even when listening to or performing the same piece (cf. Wigram/Pedersen/Bonde 2002, 57).

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454 meaning and value to music and its components, in contrast to the formal theories as proposed by Kivy who accepts an emotional response only for the form al beauty of a musical piece. 66 The prominence of music through harmony experience; these patterns may receive ethos, and this ethos may carry over into music But why does t his actually matter so much? Could we not say something similar about pictures or poems? Somehow, music seems to have always enjoyed a prominent place. When Plato declares it the most powerful influence on the human soul (e.g. Resp. 401d), especially for t he young, it is important to notice that his statement is widely shared by modern neuro physiological and psychological studies. 67 68 Interesting is also that the brain of those who pract ice music differs significantly from those who do not. 69 Patel, a 66 Still, I would agree with Kivy that, for instance, we can only affirm to hear t of the actual musical emotion and the (not actual, only insinuated) emotion of sadness accounts for the fact that I do not really feel sad, and there is nothing that would make music in itself sad. 67 arouses the human brain on a sensory, motor, perceptive cognitive and emotional level simultaneously and stimulates and integrates neuronal p athways in a music specific way; and later (p. 529 music communicates arousal, motivation, emotion and meaning thro ugh the perception of its intrinsic symbol structure of musical elements as well as through emotional responses that have become connected to it through an associative learning process the most intense emotional means of communication the i nfluence of music (a very complex stimulus) on consciousness is very powerful compared to other environmental stimuli Jourdain 1997 (passing through the different musical parameter s), Levitin 2006, and Ball 2010, 240 253. 68 Thaut 2005, 116. 69 Cf. Gaser/Schlaug 2003, Schlaug in OHMP 197 207, and Thaut 2005. Plato and Aristotle would have been surprised to learn about the many advantages it brings to intensely learn to play an instrum ent; this might have helped to overcome social reserves that suggested limiting active musical eduction to a minimum, mostly for purposes of understanding better the workings of music. Also certain results in music therapy require active participation, see e.g. Bailey/Davidson 2003.

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455 prominent scholar in the field of research on music and brain, gives music a relevance of Promethean dimensions: Music may be a human invention, but if so, it resembles the ability to make an d control fire: It is something we invented that transforms human life. Indeed, it is more remarkable than fire making in some ways, because not change the brain. It is thus em change the nature of ourselves. 70 A multiplicity of ways of music changing our lives, although far from complete, can be gathered from the applications of music therapy still to be touch ed upon in the next section In view of all this, the temptation might arise to see in music, as some of the ancients did, the underlying principle for everything else. This would include inverting the direction of dependence in order to say that instead of assuming that the mind a it to musical patterns On the level of psychological development this does not seem to hold, because an unborn or infant child can hardly be thought to construct its mi nd solely from musical experiences. On the other hand, it seems that our world is organized according to polar forc es that require proper balance and harmony From the early dawn of Greek philosophy, harmony is perceived as the union of opposing but somewh at related entities; it is the proper arrangements of forces and elements in nature proper meaning the avoidance of excesses and thus illness or other harms. The proper measure or mean becomes a leading criterion on all levels: metaphysics, physics, et hics, medicine, society, and art. 71 When Aristides Quintilianus takes th e path of assigning to the constitutive elements of nature male or female characteristics or at 70 Patel 2008, 412. 71 See above the section beginning on p. 204

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456 least some sort of polar ethical qualities, he attempts to bring all previous speculation about harmonic principles ruling the universe into one great vision. After all, t he Greeks were among the first to show a profound desire to give a unified explanation to all physical and metaphysical realities and nothing other is the purs uit of a Gran d Unified Theory for quantum mechanics and astrophysics. The doctrine about the Harmony of the Spheres is but one of the fruits from the idea that musical mechanisms might be responsible for cosmic order on all levels a vision that has not lost its fascin ation. 72 But if audible music is nothing other than a perceivable form of a more universal principle of harmony, and if music exists in our mind anyhow in various ways, of which directly perceived sound is only one, then it is little more than a game of wor ds sonoric harmony; thus, wherever there is world must be left open at this point, but as far as human life is concerned, its relevance has been well perceived by Greek and Roman philosophers and can help us also today in a time not short of extremism in many different forms. 72 knowledge in terms of being an acoust ical phenomenon should not obscure the fact that there are fascinating mathematical correlations at work. Ratios of planetary motion, unfortunately, do not seem to dulcis sonus, as shown in the attempt by Willie Ruff and John Rodger s at Yale http://www.willieruff.com/kepler.html accessed on May 8, 2013). The result is rather so bering, from an aesthetic point of view. But since we are told that only those can hear it upon whom the gods bestow this grace in accordance with personal virtue, maybe we simply all seem to fall short on this end.

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457 Contributions from Musi c Therapy Origins In Greek culture, a healing influence of sound is founded on three different sources: cosmic, mythological, and magical. Ancient peoples are quite keen on the psychosomatic reality of human nature: they have observed how mind and body for m a unit and sustain each other. 73 This takes place within the conception of a framework of cosmic order within which the different forces need to be kept in balance, and the human person is only a part of this, governed by the same universal principles. 74 As we have seen, the Pythagoreans have developed a complex theory about the numeric proportions in the universe, which is reflected in music, and so for them the very music becomes an instrument to instill this order again where it has been disturbed. The Muses are conceived as a mythological representation of that order; therefore their images are placed on t o mbstones so as to invoke their aide in purifying the soul of the deceased to make it fit to join the immortal and eternal harmony in heaven. 75 Christi an authors, as much as music therapists today, readily mention the Old Testament example of David playing his kithara for Saul. 76 These ideas are carried on throughout 73 For this idea and how it is pursued th roughout Greek culture, see Jaeger 1945, especially his analysis of the Corpus Hippocraticum with its ideal of balance and proportion in order to maintain health 74 be found to rest on a correspondence between two things: the ordered fitting together of musical sounds, and order in the universe (kosmos). The former not only symbolizes the latter but embodies it and actively any case the concept is fairly universal in Greek culture. The analogy between cosmos and music is also present in the Corpus Hippocraticum, e.g. in De victu 1.8 (see above p. 290 ) 75 Cf. Wille 1967, 523. 76 In 1 Sam 16.14 23; see our references above in the section on Christian authors and the compilation of quotations in Wille 1967, 703 n. 1139 What is usually not mentioned is lasti 12; 19.1, 9 10). For other examples of uneffectiveness see Quint 1.4.7 and Stat. Silv. 2.1.5 12. Rouget 1985, 154 158 analyzes the text and discards the idea of a musical therapy (o

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458 antiquity 77 and transmitted into the Middle Ages through Ren ai ssance figures such as Marci lio Ficino (1433 1499) who attempted to combine Platonic philosophy (including its music theory) with Christian dogmas by formulating guidelines for a holistic health doctrine, music t he most effective means to obtain this balance, harmony and unit. 78 Famous musicians for example Schubert and Beethoven are reported to have employed psychotherapeutic treatment by composing and playing pieces precisely for that purpose. 79 However, i t woul d take until the twentieth century before music therapy would slowly develop into a discipline no longer de nigr ated as charlatanism. 80 David Aldridge (for an approach to therapy through musical creativity) and Oliver Sacks (for neurology) are on ly two of ma ny pioneers who paved the way to transform trial and error approaches into a more and more evidence based methodology. 81 has grown substantially through research and clinical experience since 1950, and today is recognized in the medical commu 82 presence, which means that he restores in Saul, in attenuated form, the state of inspired prophet that he d to music at all), is an interesting view but would require more discussion. 77 For a more complete account of musical healing in antiquity see e.g. Meinecke 1948; Wille 1962 and id. 1967, 443 446. 78 Wigram/Pedersen/Bonde 2002, 27. 79 Examples are given in 241, not without explicit reference to Hom. Od. 19.519 cent to the quoted by Solomon, p. 236). Goldberg Variationen as referenced in Chapter 2 n. 112 80 In terms of official acknowledgement, there is still a way to go. I am told that in Germany, for instance, music therapy is still not an ordinary treatm ent for which medical insurance would pay. 81 For a comprehensive overview on music therapy research see Wheeler 2005 and her chapter in OHMP 515 525. 82 Hurt Thaut in OHMP 504. A good general historical overview provide Davis/Gfeller/Thaut 2008, 17 39.

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459 Music Therapy and the Question of Good and Bad Music The prevalently positive notion of music, which we have observed in ancient authors, resurfaces in the fact that music seems to be able to find constructive applic ation in a multitude of pathological conditions. Clinical practice of music therapy can be found mainly in the following areas: rehabilitation (sensorimotor, speech and language, memory and attention training), pain therapy, behavior treatment, psychoanaly sis, psychiatry (mostly thought, personality, communication, and anxiety Within each of these areas there is contained an impressive number of particular uses. 83 Music t herapy (in close connection to findings from m usic psychology ) is able to provide valuable information regarding questions that arose in the discussion of the ancient authors. A number of points have been mentioned in the footnotes throughout the current c hapter. Some others are : 84 The profound capacity of music to influence emotions, emotional states (moods), and human behavior is evidently confirmed. 85 Musical mood than other non musical tech 86 Music serves as an analogy or metaphor for extra musical experiences and thus provides an emotional connection (with capacity of change) towards them. 87 83 As a summaric description of music therapy in relationship to emotion might serve the following Music therapy, as a powerful tool impacting affective behaviour processes, offers a specialized set of clinical techniques aimed at restoring and emotional communication verbally and non verbally. 84 The references are just exemplary and could be multiplied by m any other sources. 85 Cf. the summary by Thaut/Wheeler in OHME 832. 86 Hurt Thaut in OHMP 506 507, citing studies.

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460 he core of and ethical import. 88 The dominating method in music therapy follows the allopathic principle. 89 Text and content are significant for the emotional impact of music whic h is boosted by extra musical meaning 90 Emotions are an essential part of cognitive processing. 91 Hence, music is able to provide certain learning advantages. 92 Music allows identifying the ethos of a person. 93 A lot of potential lies in the empirical materia l accumulated over time in this discipline i n order to gain criteria for what type of music might be beneficial and what not A certain disadvantage, probably due to the fact that music therapy is still aiming to accrue more recognition, lies in the fact t hat much of the literature emphasizes merely the positive effectiveness of the employment of music in medical or psychological 87 See the corresponding section in Wigram/Pedersen/Bonde 2002, 97 111. 88 We may have reason to contemplate if polyphony what it is that excites, moves, and gives order to our feelings, thoughts, and sense of movement when we engage in music. 89 Wigram/Pedersen/Bonde 2002, 110 explain the method as follows: on the vegetative level (sense of music must be selected that matches the mood of the client in the beginning, and then gradually induces the inten ded mood music must be selected that contrasts the mood of the client and thus gradually (re)attunes the 90 Most research shows tha t the effects of music are greater when the music has more meaning for the listener 91 See n. 86 92 Thaut 2005 exemplifies this for the area of rhythm. Of course, here the whole discussion on the famous be of interest; hard core evidence for the music of Mozart in particular is rather slim; by the scientific community, the effect is considered rather a legend. Some evidence for epilepsy patients is reported (see http://www.epilepsy.org.uk/info/treatment/mozart effect accessed on May 11, 2013); the debate is ongoing (for a basic overview of the debate see Ball 2010, 240 253). See also the concept of by Hallam in OHME 807 808. 93 Aldridge 1996, 33 Music is the ideal medium to discover how people are composed and how they come into the world as whole beings both to create and sustain identity

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461 treatment. The focus of research demonstrates that music helps and how, but not so much why a particular type of music helps. F re quent ly the music is used according to that it is preferred or liked by the patient obviously with the idea a positive outcome on the treatment 94 Test results are organized acco rding to the objective, not a ccording to the type of remedy In addition, certain therapy goals do not depend on emotion s and hence do not need to consider them much. 95 What would be desired is a systematic study of the reasons for the appropriateness of sp ecific music in a given setting so as to identify better those musical parameters which are helpful or not. 96 On a r elated note is the question to what degree the positive effect that music has on someone is dependent on personal preferences, or whether the re are parameters that are (at least for a good part) universal and independent of such preferences. Certainly a lot of information could be extracted from the existing studies and methods; a systematic review of these would be fruitful to gather objectiv e data on the positive or negative influence of music 97 T he still require s more attention. One problem is that tests about finding out what causes damage are not so easy to perform with human beings, precisely to avoid inflicting harm on the testees; still, with some dedication to the matter, 94 E.g. in 1988 This depends, of co urse, on the nature of the diagnosis. The allopathic method will not necessarily indicate a specific musical style. 95 Cf. Thaut/Wheeler in OHME 821 Emotion has always played an important role in effect, although scientifically based models for the role of music evoked emotions in music therapy have been absent. 96 That means concretely: what effects can be observed from specific rhythms, melodic qualities, instruments, musical styles, etc.? 97 For instanc e, Trappe 2009 states the general healing power of classical music and declares positive effects of heavy metal or techno is practically non existent; he cites no studies for this but does refer to studies that show the efficiency of particular styles acco rding to specific needs of patients.

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462 especially when analyzing the causes of existing pathological conditions, more information may be expected for the future. Oliver Sacks mentions possible hazards from music in the neurologica l field: There seems to be in us a peculiar sensitivity to music, a sensitivity that can all too easily slip out of control, become excessive, become a susceptibility or a vulnerability. Too muchness lies continually in wait, whether this takes the form of music induced seizures. 98 Questions of particular interest in order to elucidate points from our previous discussion are the following: 1. How can we describe the emotional effect and, related, the et hos of individual musical parameters and their various forms independent from other musical and extra musical factors? Can the ancient ethos attributions to these parameters be confirmed (e.g. the different effect of kithara and aulos, of various rhythms, modes, etc.)? To what degree are these attributions due to convention, custom, and eduction, and is there anything universal in them? 99 2. As a particularly important sub category of the previous point: w hat are the psychological reasons for the ethical effect of musical modes (i.e. the sequence between full and half tone (or even smaller) steps within the scale? And a re there any grounds for assuming a different ethos for scales on different pitch levels (without mode changes)? 100 3. What role s do variation and new ness play? 101 4. How does musical timbre affect the emotions? 102 98 Sacks 2006, 2532. 99 A starting point is the analysis of the relationship between musical parameters or structures and the (perceived) musical expression; results of corresponding studies are presented by Gabrielsson i n OHMP 141 100 Powell 2010, 175 many musicians, me included. I have no good explanation to offer but cannot deny the subjective experience which is not bound to simply higher or lower but to the involvement of more or fewer flats or sharps. 101 We have reviewed the different takes of Plato (restrictive, but not absolute) and Diogenes of Halicarnassus and Philostratus ( among others, in favor) on variety and change. One will need to distinguish levels of change (just tunes, or patterns, or ethos, or whole styles) and the interplay of sameness and variation; here, the study of musical expectancy, as brought forth by Huron 2006, can give much light.

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463 5. What is the psychological difference between simple and complex musical parameters? I ndication s exist that, under certain conditions, the raw emotions are easierly aroused by simple patterns. 103 6. What are the psychological effects of other qualities of modern day popular music such as electronic sound, the employment of extreme low or high frequency pitches, etc.? One last question, which would exceed the field of music therapy but could still draw fr om results found there, is the one we set out with and which was among the first to prompt the philosophy of musical ethos (in Damon and Plato) : Is there any evidence for actual changes in culture and society due to changes in musical law or style? 104 Since it is hard to substantiate any of the historical examples ancient authors provided to prove the case, the most fruitful object of analysis would be the cultural changes that occurred during the twentieth century. Some authors have argued strongly in favor of the theory that the both the political and sexual revolution s were significantly sustained, if not initiatied, by consciously changing musical styles and by applying parameters with 102 The issue of timbre as such is little discussed by ancient authors but the choice of instruments is related to it (for it affects the overtone series). Ball 2010, 228 239 gives an overview of the issue and notes that timbre is the major distinctive feature of pop music; hence that parameter deserves greater attention nowadays. 103 involvement (dance) and augmented by increased volume. Ball 2010, 263 264 makes the point and justly adds the caveat that emotionality should not be the (sole) measure for aesthetic quality or greatness of music (or goodness, we may add). It is striking how much of modern popular music works with very simple r hythmical and melodic patterns and, especially, with extensive repetition of the same; this fact calls for further analysis and evaluation. Here an important point of comparison would be all that the which means the eclipse of reason and the total submission to an emotional state basically a return to music as magic; cf. Rouget 1985. There is much debate about under what conditions and to what consequences does music have effects similar to drugs (cf e.g. Dorell 2005, Salimpoor / Benovoy / Larcher / Dagher / Zatorre 2011). 104 The point here is not the one which Plato, at least in part, might have had in mind, that trespassing musical laws may lead to an attitude of lawlessness out of lack of respect for exist ing traditions, but that a change of musical causes changes in social Republic, an important factor is that he assumes that the ideal State will have developed its ideal music, deviating from which for him then can only mean deterior ation (cf. above p. 209 ). The idea is also based in the conception that there is an ideal tuning of the individual soul, but this, of course, would not indicate generalized musical features on the interpersonal level of soci ety; in that sense, the proper therapeutic ethos and the general State ethos might become rivals, something that Plato does not really resolve.

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464 purposely induced effects. 105 Enough witnesses and documents exist to sho w that there was an explicit intention of manipulating moral convictions and behavior and that these changes did actually occur. However, apart from the deficiency of any monocausal explanation, much research is still needed to dist inguish causes from consequences and to understand better the part which music has really played in these changes and what conclusions could be drawn for possible statements about good or bad music in our present time. One factor that seems to stand out is the one most emphasized throughout antiquity: the ideal of the harmonized soul, of the well balanced individual; that spiritual and bodily health consists in a proper proportion and order between the various (polar) constituents of the person. These princ iples seem to govern the methods of music therapy as well. 106 We might expect that harmony understood in this w ay, could be a general criterion to distinguish good from bad music. 105 E.g. Kimball 2000 Jones 1994 even traces this process back to Richard Wagner and follows it through to the 19 60s. It would be worth studying, on the psychological level (and not only on the level of individual Tristan, on the musical level, indeed elicits any of those effects Wagner intended to prom ote through it. That Nietzsche and perhaps a whole generation became enthralled by it might have happened through various factors. The same analysis would be needed for what Jones later writes about the effects of Jazz, the Beatles, and others. 106 E.g. Hans er in OHME 849 As a music therapist, my job is to use music in pursuit of the health and well being of my clients. complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely emotional status as well therefore, i t could encompass anything that an individual strives for in the process of becoming more whole, balanced, and positive in mind, body and spirit

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465 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION The study of Greek and Roman music traditions and theo ries reveals a complex and multi faceted panorama, one so rich in human understanding that even our own advanced worldview if somewhat numbed by acoustical overcharge can gain much insight by venturing into it The Greeks deserve praise for their pione er ing work in developing science as a rational, empirically backed penetration of reality. This rationality found expression in the attempt to define the world by means of the abstraction of numbers and mathematical principles; the discovery of music being essentially governed by numeric proportions was tempting enough to suggest music as a, or even the, cosmic principle. Thus the status of music developed from an archaic magical experience and interpretation of its almost coercive power into a force that c an be understood and used. Observing the impact that music has on human behavior and hence on their common life Greek philosophers designed ways to employ it for influencing the human interior (soul) according to a preconceived ideal state (form) namely of harmony and balance either establishing it through education or redeeming deviations through therapy. This required evaluating the effects of individual musical parameters such as tone, pitch, melody, rhythm, and timbre (mostly through the choice of in tstruments and the use of the human voice ) and the relationship between music, text (content), context, and the soul. The qualities responsible for those effects received interrelation between musical elements and human dispositions, educational or therapeutic purposes called for the criterion of appropriateness.

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466 Modern human sciences have confirmed many of the intuitions of ancient thinkers and have give n them a more evid ence based and more systematic theoretical and practical form. Neurophysiological experiments show the particular influence that music has on the human brain with significant repercussion s for all areas of the human person: body (e specially in its motor a nd neural functions), psyche (the import on emotions and moods ), and intellect ( e.g. the development and support of rational processing). Music therapy discovers ever more applications in areas as diverse as llowing principles very a kin to those which soul, for a sophisticated, individual treatment to recover the necessary balance for health and proper behavior. Now, an importa nt corollary to the great benefit of using appropriate music is the great damage that would be caused by i nappropriate music. This side of the coin has not received sufficient attention yet as the research efforts in music therapy concentrate on the const ructive part. The Greeks became quickly aware of this danger, symbolized very early in the deceitful song of the Sirens and suspected in the morally corruptive influence of modernizing musical trends. However much credibility the historical cases of expe rience contributed by Plato and others give to the point, the principle of possible hazard deserves consideration Any human invention and artifact, in itself positive and advantageous, bears the possibility of abuse. In the case of music, the ancients pos sessed perhaps a greater sense for the moral relevance because for them the concepts of beauty and goodness (and even truth) were intimately united. That is shown by the ambivalence of their vocabulary, at least in the Greek language, where terms

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467 such as or always evoke both aesthetic and moral connotations. The modern view of aesthetics has often judged this fused conception negatively as if the ancients had not possessed a true appreciation of beauty since they constantly related artistic per formance to moral, political, religious, educational, or whatever other purposes. Besides the objection that we can hardly deny that such purposes are very much present in the artistic world of our time the complete purposelessness of artistic enjoyment may be no more than a fiction I believe we are not doing justice to the cultural achievements in antiquity if we deny that t he Greeks and Romans possessed a very deep appreciation for what is beautiful, in and of itself This already emerges from the va st employment of aesthetical vocabulary (as we have demonstrated in the case of music. The fact that Plato and others forcefully warned of a mere pleasure centered approach to music consumption shows that an ethos centered vision of music was not mainstrea m at his time. But t he ancient philosophers were aware of a fact that only today can we support with scientific evidence: that the exposure to music is never without any effect. Making and listening to music always has consequences and leaves traces in our brain, in our emotional world, in our ethical disposition and, hence in our way of feeling, t hinking, and acting, for the good and also for the bad. Music, an event s On the emotional level, the effects of music often occur unconsciously and can only be detected by a careful study of symptoms. Such studies should be able to provide more objective criteria for disce rning positive and negative influences. Now, i f inappropriate music is perilous to our nature and ethos, it does not seem unreasonable to take measures to protect ourself and

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468 others from what could be pernicious, especially in education, as formulated in t he Impact of Music, Music Lyrics, and Music Videos on Children and 1 Plato would not have hesitate d long in to some degree in the ideologically driven employment of particular musical styles and features, but more evidence from past and present studies on the impact of music needs to be harvested before conclusions can be drawn. Unless an agreement is reach ed based on objec tive data, about criteria for music to be appropriate or not and under what conditions it will be difficult to take any concrete measures. The task of pursuing the subject further becomes then all the more paramount beyond the archaeology of music theory as meritorious as this already is on its own account My hope is that the present study has at least helped to outline the panorama in which the ethos of music is located and to present in a systematic way the factors involved, which need to be considere d when evaluating music. Much of what I have exposed above begs further confirmation (or modification) from the empirical sciences. But I have been trying to get at the root of the difficult but necessary questions about what constitutes ethos in music. In deed, I will have accomplished much if a clearer idea about what good and bad music is ha s come forth by thoroughly discussing the predecessors and from systematically building on their wor k towards an integrated system. 1 Council on Communications and Media 2009, at http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/124/5/1488 (accessed on May 10, 2013). See also Kilpatrick 1992, 172 189 and Dunla p 2007, 52 53: in our culture have a knee jerk reaction against any suggestion of responsibility for us to monitor what goes on in the minds and hearts of our impressionable children? Certain types of music, even if the words seem positive or at least neutral, can be detrimental just by the nature of

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469 The distinction between good and ba d music lies in much more than taste. The ancients can teach us that music al practice is not ethically indifferent and that true enjoyment of music true beauty, must go along with good ethos which needs to be judged by rational criteria. Furthermore, the many ancient writers perceived the power of music even as a cosmic reality. If harmony, emblematically experienced in music, is a constitutive element of the universe and, as an ideal, to be striven for in a world that in many ways has fallen out of balan ce, then, I believe, we should seek to shun music that reinforces discord in our soul and in our societies, and we should embrace in concord th ose sounds that echo from the original song of the Ainur

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470 LIST OF REFERENCES 1) General works of reference Aspiot es, Nikolaos Stam. 2006. Prosopographia musica Graeca : Personenlexikon mit Daten zu 2350 (heidnischen) Musikern Kulturwissenschaften. Berlin: Frank & Timme. Beardsley, Monroe C. 1975. Aesthetics From Classical Greece to the Present: a Short History : Unive rsity of Alabama Press. Bowman, Wayne D. and Frega, Ana Luca. 2012. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy in Music Education Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Christensen, Thomas Street. 2002. The Cambridge History of Western Music Theory The Ca mbridge history of music. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Catholic Church 1997. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2nd ed. Vatican City and Washington, D.C.: Libreria Editrice Vaticana and United States Catholic Conference. Cirlot, Juan Eduardo. 2002. A Dictionary of Symbols Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications. Dassmann, Ernst, and Kremer, Christian Josef. 2000. Reallexikon fr Antike und Christentum: Sachwrterbuch zur Auseinandersetzung des Christentums mit der antiken Welt. Register de r Bnde I bis XV Stuttgart: Hiersemann. Davies, Stephen, Higgins, Kathleen Marie, and Hopkins, Robert. 2009. A Companion to Aesthetics 2nd ed. Malden, M A : Wiley Blackwell. Easterling, P. E., and Knox, Bernard. 1985. Greek Literature The Cambridge Hist ory of Classical Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Finscher, Ludwig. 1994. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: allgemeine Enzyklopdie der Musik 2., neubearbeitete Ausg. / ed. 10 vols. Kassel; New York: Brenreiter. Glare, P. G. W. 1982. Oxford Latin Dictionary Oxford and New York: Clarendon Press and Oxford University Press. Hallam, Susan, Cross, Ian, and Thaut, Michael. 2009. The Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Horn, Chr istoph, and Rapp, Christof. 2002. Wrterbuch der antiken Philosophie Beck'sche Reihe. Mnchen: C.H. Beck.

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471 Hornblower, Simon, and Spawforth, Antony. 2003. The Oxford Classical Dictionary 3rd ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Juslin, Patrik N., and Sloboda, John A. 2010. Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, and Applications Series in Affective Science. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Klauser, Theodor, ed. 1950ff. Reallexikon fr Antike und Christentum; Sachwrterbu ch zur Auseinandersetzung des Christentums mit der antiken Welt Stuttgart: Hiersemann. Lesky, Albin. 1966. A History of Greek Literature New York: Crowell. 1971. Geschichte der griechischen Literatur 3., neu bearb. und erw. Aufl. ed. Bern and Mnch en: Francke. Levinson, Jerrold. 2003. The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Lewis, Charlton Thomas. 1889. A Latin Dictionary for Schools New York: Harper & Brothers. Liddell, Henry George, Scott, Robert, Jones, H enry Stuart, et al. 1996. A Greek English Lexicon (with a revised supplement) Oxford and New York: Clarendon Press and Oxford University Press. Lippman, Edward A. 1992. A History of Western Musical Aesthetics Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. The Ne w Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2010. Chicago, London, New Delhi, Paris, Seoul, Sydney, Taipei, and Tokyo: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. The New Oxford History of Music. 1968. London and New York: Oxford University Press. Ritter, Joachim, Grnder, Karlfried, Gabriel, Gottfried, et al. 1971. Historisches Wrterbuch der Philosophie Vllig neubearbeitete Ausg. des Wrterbuchs der philosophischen Begriffe von Rudolf Eisler. ed. 13 vols. Basel: Schwabe. Sachs, Curt. 1940. The History of Musical Instruments New Yo rk: W. W. Norton & company. Sachs, Curt, and Schnberg, Bessie. 1965. World History of the Dance The Norton library. New York: Norton. Sadie, Stanley, and Tyrrell, John. 2001. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians 2nd ed. 29 vols. New York: Gro ve.

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472 Schfke, Rudolf. 1934. Geschichte der Musiksthetik in Umrissen Berlin Schneberg: Max Hesses Verlag. Scoditti, Francesco. 2010. Musicae latinae glossarium 1. ed. Roma: Aracne. Slonimsky, Nicolas. 1953. Lexicon of Musical Invective: Critical Assaults on Composers Since Beethoven's Time New York: Coleman Ross. Steinmayer, Otto Christoph. 1985. A Glossary of Terms Referring to Music in Greek Literature Before 400 B.C. Yale: Yale University. Wetmore, Monroe Nichols. 1930. Index verborum Vergilianus 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press. Zoltai, Dnes. 1970. Ethos und Affekt: Geschichte der philosophischen Musiksthetik von den Anfngen bis zu Hegel Budapest: Akadmiai Kiad. 2) Primary texts of classical authors Apollodorus. 1921. The Library Translat ed by James George Frazer. London: Harvard University Press. Aristophanes. 1998 2002. Aristophanes Translated by Jarlath Henderson. 4 vols, Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, M.A. and London: Havard University Press. Aristotle. 1936. "On Things Heard (De audibilibus)." In Aristotle: Minor Works 49 79. Cambridge, M.A. and London: Harvard University Press. 1944. Politics Translated by H. Rackham, Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press. 1953. Problems Translated by W. S Hett. 2 vols, Loeb Classical Library. London and Cambridge, M.A.: W. Heinemann and Harvard University Press. 1956. On the Art of Poetry With a Supplement On Music Translated by S. H. Butcher. Indianapolis, New York: The Liberal Arts Press, Inc. 2011. Problems Translated by Robert Mayhew. New ed. 2 vols, Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press. Aristotle, Longinus, and Demetrius. 1995. Aristotle: Poetics; Longinus: On the Sublime; Demetrius: On Style Translated by Ste phen Halliwell, W. Hamilton Fyfe, D. A. Russell, et al., Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press. Aristoxenus and da Rios, Rosetta, ed. 1954. Aristoxeni Elementa Harmonica Roma: Typis Publicae Officinae Polygraphicae.

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473 Aristoxenus and Macran, Henry Stewart, ed. 2004. [Aristoxenou harmonika stoicheia] = The harmonics of Aristoxenus Chicago, I.L. and Mansfield Centre, C.T.: Powell's Bookstore and Martino Pub. Aristoxenus and Pearson, Lionel Ignacius Cusack, ed. 1990. Elementa Rhythm ica: The Fragment of Book II and the Additional Evidence for Aristoxenean Rhythmic Theory Oxford and New York: Clarendon Press and Oxford University Press. Athenaeus. 1950. The Deipnosophists Translated by Charles Burton Gulick. 7 vols, Loeb Classical Li brary. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press. 2006. The Learned Banqueters Translated by S. Douglas Olson. 8 vols, Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press. Augustine. 1992. Confessions Translated by James Joseph O'Donne ll. 3 vols. Oxford and New York: Clarendon Press and Oxford University Press. Augustine, Skutella, Martin, and Verheijen, Luc, eds. 1981. Sancti Augustini Confessionum libri XIII Turnholti: Brepols. Augustinus, Aurelius. 1841. "De Musica." In Sancti Aurel ii Augustini Hipponensis Episcopi Opera Omnia edited by J. P. Migne, 1081 1194. Paris: Typi Catholici Migne. 1912. St. Augustine's Confessions Translated by William Watts. Edited by Loeb Classical Library. 2 vols. London and New York: William Heinem ann and Harvard University Press. 1939. St. Augustine On Music. Books I VI Translated by R. Catesby Taliaferro. Annapolis: The St. John's Bookstore. 2002. De musica : Bcher I und VI : vom sthetischen Urteil zur metaphysischen Erkenntnis : late inisch deutsch Translated by Frank Hentschel. Hamburg: Felix Meiner. Barker, Andrew. 1984/1989. Greek Musical Writings 2 vols. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Boethius. 1989. Fundamentals of Music Translated by Calvin M. Bower and Cl aude V. Palisca. New Haven: Yale University Press. Boethius and Friedlein, Gottfried, ed. 1867/1966. Anicii Manlii Torquati Severini Boetii De institutione arithmetica libri duo, De institutione musica libri quinque. Accedit geometria quae fertur Boetii L eipzig: Teubner. Calcidius. 2003. Commentario al Timeo di Platone: testo latino a fronte Translated by Claudio Moreschini, Lara Nicolini, and Ilaria Ramelli. Milano: Bompiani.

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474 Cassiodoro. 2005. Variae Translated by Lorenzo Viscido. Cosenza, Italy: Pelleg rini Editore. Cassiodorus. 2003. Institutions of Divine and Secular Learning and On the Soul Translated by James W. Halporn and Mark Vessey. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. Cassiodorus and Mynors, Roger A. B., ed. 1937. Cassiodori Senatoris Institu tiones Oxford: Clarendon Press. Cassiodorus, Magnus Aurelius and Barnish, Sam J. B., ed. 1992. Selected Variae of Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator ...: Being Documents of the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths in Italy ... Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. Censorinus. 2007. The Birthday Book Translated by Holt N. Parker. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2012. ber den Geburtstag Translated by Kai Broderson. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Censorinus and Cholodniak, Ivan (ed.). 18 89. De die natali St. Petersburg: Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences. Censorinus and Hultsch, Friedrich Otto, ed. 1867. Censorini De die natali liber Leipzig: Teubner. Censorinus and Maude, William, ed. 1900. De die natale ("The natal day") 2 pts. in 1 vols. New York: The Cambridge Encyclopedia Co. Censorinus and Sallmann, Nicolaus, ed. 1983. Censorini de die natali liber ad Q. Caerellium Leipzig: Teubner. Chalcidius and Wrobel, Johann, ed. 1876. Timaeus, interprete Chalcidio, cum eiusdem commentario Leipzig: Teubner. Cicero, Marcus Tullius. 1928. De re publica; De legibus Translated by S. J. Babbage, Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, M.A. and London: Harvard University Press. 1942/1948. De Oratore Translated by H. Rackham and E. W. Sutton. 2 vols, Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, M.A. and London: Harvard University Press. Cicero, Marcus Tullius and Mueller, C. F. W., ed. 1889. M. Tullius Cicero. Librorum de Re Publica Sex Leipzig: Teubner. Clement. 1919. Clement of Alexandria Translated by George William Butterworth, Loeb Classical Library. London: W. Heinemann.

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475 Clement and Marcovich, Miroslav, ed. 1995. Clementis Alexandrini Protrepticus Leiden and New York: E.J. Brill. Clement, Marcovich, Miroslav, and Winden, J. C. M. van, eds. 2002. Cl ementis Alexandrini Paedagogus Leiden and Boston: Brill. Clement and Dindorf, Karl Wilhelm, ed. 1869. Stromatum V VIII. Scripta minora. Fragmenta 3 vols. Vol. 3, Clementis Alexandrini Opera. Oxford: Clarendon. Cleonides. 1981. H: Critical Edition, Translation, and Commentary (Ph.D. dissertation) Translated by Jon Solomon. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina. Diels, Hermann and Kranz, Walther. 1951. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, griechisch und deutsch 6. verb. Aufl. ed 3 vols. Berlin: Weidmann. Empiricus, Sextus. 1949. Against the Professors Translated by Robert Gregg Bury, Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press. 1986. [Pros mousikous] = Against the musicians (adversus musicos) Transla ted by Denise Davidson Greaves. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Eresus, Theophrastus of and Fortenbaugh, William W. 1992. Theophrastus of Eresus: Sources for His Life, Writings, Thought, and Influence: Sources on rhetoric and poetics (texts 666 713) Vol. 8. Leiden and New York: E.J. Brill. Favonius, Eulogius. 2012. Favonii Eulogii Disputatio de Somnio Scipionis Translated by Giuseppe Marcellino, Storie e testi. Napoli: M. D'Auria. Favonius, Eulogius and Holder, Alfred, ed. 1901. Favoni Eulogii Disp utatio de Somnio Scipionis Leipzig: Teubner. Favonius, Eulogius and Scarpa, Luigi, ed. 1974. Favonii Eulogii Disputatio de Somnio Scipionis Edizione critica, traduzione e note / ed. Padova: s.n. Favonius, Eulogius and Weddingen, Roger E. van, ed. 1957. D isputatio de Somnio Scipionis Collection Latomus. Bruxelles: Latomus revue d'etudes latines. Greek Lyric 1982. Translated by David A. Campbell. 5 vols, Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press and W. Heinemann. Godwin, Joscelyn. 1993. The Harmony of the Spheres: a Sourcebook of the Pythagorean Tradition in Music Rochester, V.T.: Inner Traditions International. Grenfell, Bernard Pyne, Hunt, Arthur Surrige, and Turner, Eric Gardner, eds. 1906. The Hibeh Papyri 2 vols, Egypt Explor ation Fund Graeco Roman Branch [Memoirs, 7]. London and Boston: Egypt Exploration Fund.

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476 Halicarnassus, Dionysius or. 1985. The Critical Essays Translated by Stephen Usher. 2 vols, Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press. Hesiod a nd Homer. 1936. Hesiod, Homeric Hymns, Epic Cycle, Homerica Translated by Hugh G. Evelyn White, Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press. Hippocrates. 1931. Hippocrates Translated by W. H. S. Jones. Vol. 4, Loeb Classical Library Cambridge, M.A. and London: Harvard University Press. Homer. 1962. The Iliad Translated by Richmond Alexander Lattimore. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1967. The Odyssey of Homer Translated by Richmond Alexander Lattimore. New York,: Harper & Row. 1998. The Odyssey Translated by A. T. Murray and George E. Dimock. 2 vols, Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press. 2003. Iliad Translated by A. T. Murray and William F. Wyatt. 2nd ed. 2 vols, Loeb Classical Li brary. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press. Iamblichus. 1818. Life of Pythagoras, or Pythagoric Life Translated by Thomas Taylor. London: J. M. Watkins. 1821. Iamblichus on the Mysteries of the Egyptians, Chaldeans, and Assyrians Translated by Thomas Taylor. Chiswick: C. Whittingham. 1911. Theurgia, or, The Egyptian mysteries : reply of Abammon, the teacher, to the letter of Porphyry to Anebo, together with solutions of the questions therein contained Translated by Alexander Wilder. New Y ork: Metaphysical Pub. Co. Iamblichus, Clarke, Emma C., Dillon, John M., et al. 2003. De mysteriis Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. Iamblichus, Deubner, Ludwig, and Klein, Ulrich, eds. 1975. Iamblichi De vita Pythagorica liber Stuttgart: Teubner. Iamblichus, Pistelli, Ermenegildo, and Klein, Ulrich, eds. 1975. Iamblichi In Nicomachi Arithmeticam introductionem liber Ed. addendis et corrigendis adiunctis / ed. Stuttgart: Teubner. Isidor, Martn, Jos Carlos, and Braulio, Redemptus, eds. 2006. Scri pta de vita Isidori Hispalensis episcopi Turnhout: Brepols. Isidore and Lindsay, W. M., ed. 1911. Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi Etymologiarvm sive originvm libri XX 1st ed. Oxford and New York: Clarendon Press and Oxford University Press.

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477 Jan, Karl von, e d., Aristotle, Euclid, et al. 1895 (reprints 1962, 2010). Musici scriptores graeci. Aristoteles, Euclides, Nicomachus, Bacchius, Gaudentius, Alypius et melodiarum veterum quidquid exstat Leipzig: Teubner. Keil, Heinrich and Hagan, Hermann. 1857. Grammatic i latini ex recensione Henrici Keilii 7 vols. Leipzig: Teubner. Kepler, Johannes, Aiton, E. J., Duncan, A. M., et al. 1997. The Harmony of the World Philadelphia, P.A.: American Philosophical Society. Kepler, Johannes and Fludd, Robert, ed. 1619. Harmoni ces mvndi libri v. qvorvm primus geometricvs Linz, Austria: G. Tampachii. Lippman, Edward A. 1986. Musical Aesthetics: a Historical Reader 3 vols, Aesthetics in music. New York: Pendragon Press. Macrobius, Ambrosius Aurelius Theodosius. 1952. Commentary on the Dream of Scipio Translated by William Harris Stahl. New York: Columbia University Press. 2011. Saturnalia Translated by Robert A. Kaster. 3 vols, Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press. Macrobius, Ambrosius Aurelius Theodosius and Willis, James Alfred, ed. 1994. Ambrosii Theodosii Macrobii Commentarii in Somnium Scipionis 3rd ed. Leipzig and Stuttgart: Teubner. Martianus, Capella. 1977. The Marriage of Philology and Mercury Translated by William Harris Stahl, Richa rd Johnson, and E. L. Burge, Martianus Capella and the Seven Liberal Arts. New York: Columbia University Press. Martianus, Capella and Dick, Adolf, ed. 1925. Martianus Capella Leipzig: Teubner. Martianus, Capella and Willis, James, ed. 1983. Martianus Cap ella 1. Aufl. ed. Leipzig: Teubner. Najock, Dietmar and Bellermann, Friedrich, eds. 1972. Drei anonyme griechische Traktate ber die Musik : eine kommentierte Neuausg. d. Bellermannschen Anonymus Kassel: Brenreiter Verlag. 1975. Anonyma de musica s cripta Bellermanniana 1. ed. Leipzig: Teubner. Niceta and Turner, Cuthbert, ed. 1932. "Niceta of Remesiana II. Introduction and Text of De Psalmodiae bono The Journal of Theological Studies 24, no. 95: 225 252. Nicomachus. 1994. The Manual of Harmonics of Nicomachus the Pythagorean Translated by Flora R. Levin. Grand Rapids, M.I.: Phanes Press.

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503 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Born 1968 in Dssel dorf, Germany, Andreas Kramarz spent all h is school years in Aachen where he also began his university studies in philosophy G erman l anguage and l iterature (Germanistik), and Catholic t heology at the Rheinisch Westflische Technische Hochschule in 1987. He continued these studies in Mnster at the Westflische Wilhelms Universitt, including one year of specialized t heology studies at the Dormition Abbey in Jerusalem/Israel with a scholarship from the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. In 1992, he graduated with the Diplom ( equivalen t to a M aster of A r t s [ M. A. ] ) in the U nited S tates ) in theology and in 1993 with the Erstes Staatsexamen (also equivalent to a M .A. ) in German l anguage and l iterature and e ducational s ciences. After graduation, f or about one year he worked as an assistant nurse in the palliative care hospice Ha us Hrn in Aachen. From 1996 1997 he enjoyed the opportunity to deepen in the study of humanities in Salamanca, Spain. Subsequently he moved to Rome Italy, in order to conclude his philosophy studies at the Athenaeum Pontificium Regina Apostolorum with the Licenza (equivalent to a M.A.) in 1999. Since then he ha s been working at the Legion of Christ College of Humanities in Cheshire, Connecticut U nited States first as teacher and from 2009 onward also as dean of studies. In 2003 he was ordained a priest. Since Summer 2008 he have been enrolled at the University of Florida, Gainesville, in the doctoral program in c lassical s tudies During the final year of writing this dissertation, he was awarded the Langadas Graduate Fellowship. H e received his Doctor of Philosoph y from the University of Florida in the summer of 2013.