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Consumer Information Processing in the Context of Luxury Golf Resorts

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Material Information

Title:
Consumer Information Processing in the Context of Luxury Golf Resorts Application of Implicit Beliefs
Physical Description:
1 online resource (196 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Kim, Hee Youn
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Health and Human Performance, Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management
Committee Chair:
Ko, Yong Jae
Committee Members:
Stepchenkova, Svetlana O
Sagas, Michael
Pennington, Lori
Ferguson, Mary A

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
appeals -- beliefs -- entity -- frames -- golf -- implicit -- incremental -- information-processing -- involvement -- luxury -- message -- motivation -- resorts
Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
The goal of this study was to apply dual-process model, an information-processing model, to the context of luxury golf resorts by focusing on consumer involvement and their implicit beliefs. In particular, this study examined the efficacy of message appeals and motivational frames on attitude formation toward a luxury golf resort. Two experiments were conducted to examine the key assumption that involvement levels and implicit beliefs have impacts on attitude formation independently or interdependently according to promotional stimuli. The first experiment tested this assumption based on the effect of message appeals. The results indicated that involvement levels and implicit beliefs played significant moderating roles independently. Consistent with the dual-process model, consumers differently utilized rational and emotional appeals according to their involvement levels. Similarly, message appeals were significantly different across the types of implicit beliefs. The second experiment examined the assumption based on the effect of motivational frames. Similar to message appeals, motivational frames included the statement to entice consumers’ involvement in the actual behavior. The finding 13 suggested that involvement levels and implicit beliefs interacted interdependently. In particular, only approach frames showed a significant effect for the highly-involved and entity beliefs groups. In terms of types of involvement, research findings indicated that golf involvement exerted greater impacts on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. The findings indicated that individuals utilize different information processors according to their involvement levels and implicit beliefs. This study provided useful implications for both academic researchers and practitioners in the luxury golf resort industry. Theoretically, this study extended a traditional dual-process model by adapting implicit beliefs, a fundamental and inherent psychological domain of research. Practically, the researcher believes that the findings of this study will help develop highly customized promotional message based on consumers’ different involvement levels and their implicit beliefs. Ultimately, this effort will contribute to clearer understanding of the golf resort market and help develop effective market segmentation.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Hee Youn Kim.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local:
Adviser: Ko, Yong Jae.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2015-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID:
UFE0045810:00001

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Consumer Information Processing in the Context of Luxury Golf Resorts Application of Implicit Beliefs
Physical Description:
1 online resource (196 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Kim, Hee Youn
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Health and Human Performance, Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management
Committee Chair:
Ko, Yong Jae
Committee Members:
Stepchenkova, Svetlana O
Sagas, Michael
Pennington, Lori
Ferguson, Mary A

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
appeals -- beliefs -- entity -- frames -- golf -- implicit -- incremental -- information-processing -- involvement -- luxury -- message -- motivation -- resorts
Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
The goal of this study was to apply dual-process model, an information-processing model, to the context of luxury golf resorts by focusing on consumer involvement and their implicit beliefs. In particular, this study examined the efficacy of message appeals and motivational frames on attitude formation toward a luxury golf resort. Two experiments were conducted to examine the key assumption that involvement levels and implicit beliefs have impacts on attitude formation independently or interdependently according to promotional stimuli. The first experiment tested this assumption based on the effect of message appeals. The results indicated that involvement levels and implicit beliefs played significant moderating roles independently. Consistent with the dual-process model, consumers differently utilized rational and emotional appeals according to their involvement levels. Similarly, message appeals were significantly different across the types of implicit beliefs. The second experiment examined the assumption based on the effect of motivational frames. Similar to message appeals, motivational frames included the statement to entice consumers’ involvement in the actual behavior. The finding 13 suggested that involvement levels and implicit beliefs interacted interdependently. In particular, only approach frames showed a significant effect for the highly-involved and entity beliefs groups. In terms of types of involvement, research findings indicated that golf involvement exerted greater impacts on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. The findings indicated that individuals utilize different information processors according to their involvement levels and implicit beliefs. This study provided useful implications for both academic researchers and practitioners in the luxury golf resort industry. Theoretically, this study extended a traditional dual-process model by adapting implicit beliefs, a fundamental and inherent psychological domain of research. Practically, the researcher believes that the findings of this study will help develop highly customized promotional message based on consumers’ different involvement levels and their implicit beliefs. Ultimately, this effort will contribute to clearer understanding of the golf resort market and help develop effective market segmentation.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Hee Youn Kim.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local:
Adviser: Ko, Yong Jae.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2015-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID:
UFE0045810:00001


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1 CONSUMER INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE CONTEXT OF LUXURY GOLF RESORTS: APPLICATION OF IMPLICIT BELIEFS By HEE YOUN KIM A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF TH E REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 2013 Hee Youn Kim

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3 To the Lord and my parents I am with you and will watch over you wherever you go, And I will bring yo u back to this land. I will not leave you until I have done what I have promised you (Genesis 28:15)

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4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS During my doctoral program, I received tremendous support and help from professors, friends, and family. I would like to express my de epest gratitude to all those who made this dissertation possible First of all, I would like to give special thanks to my advisor, Dr. Yong Jae Ko. He provided invaluable insight and inspiration throughout my dissertation research When I had several diff icult moments, he bolstered my confidence and gave me wise and thoughtful advice. His input, advice and support were invaluable in completing my doctoral program. Additionally h e taught me how to be a good mentor, researcher, and teacher. I will never for get his kindheartedness for the rest of my life. I am also indebted to my dissertation committee members: Dr. Lori Pennington Gray, who helped me from the beginning to the end of completing my dissertation; Dr. Svetlana Stepchenkova, who provided perspecti ve and guidance regarding the underlying issues pertaining to tourism and hospitality; Dr. Mary Ann Ferguson, who shared her expertise and taught me the key methods of experimental study; and Dr. Sagas, who gave me steadfast support and guidance Their out standing insight s greatly improved the quality of my dissertation. I would extend my sincere appreciation to Dr. Ji Hwan Yoon, my master s program advisor at Kyunghee University who always inspired me to fulfill my potential and led me into academia. I a m deeply grateful for all his support and guidance. I also owe Dr. Tae Hee Lee, Dr. Choong Ki Lee, and Dr. Seung Kon Lee, my theses committee members at Kyunghee University, my heartfelt appreciation. T hey are always there whenever I am lost and need help. In addition, I sincerely appreciate Dr. Seung

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5 Bok Lee, my undergraduate advisor at Hongik University for his constant support and help. I am also grateful to my colleagues in the department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management for their friendshi p and assistance; Taeho Kim Akiko Arai Shintaro Sato Yonghwan Chang Wonseok Jang and Akira Asada Dr. Chanmin Park and Dr. Seunghoon Jeong. I am lucky that all of you accompanied me during my journey at UF. I would also like to thank my friends for a ll their help. Sung Soon Yoon and Byung Keon Kim were always supportive and caring, like my big sister and brother. T h ey indeed fed me Korean food whenever I had a hard time. Young Sook Kim and Rev. Jihyun Lee are my friends in Myung Sung Church who often sent me encouraging words from Korea. Jeong Min Kim, one of my best friends from my collegiate study, in addition to my KHU colleague Sangkuk Kang gave me continuous encouragement during my long journey. I am also grateful to In Sook Kwon, who is my frien d as well as my colleague in Korean Air for her kindness and assistance. And, I d like to thank pastors who have always prayed for me Revs. Min seok shon and Sung Joong Kim. Finally, my most profound thanks go out to my parents and my aunt. They always prayed for me and supported me. My mother, Eun Jung Oh, inspired me all with her sincerity and faithfulness. M y father, Myung Ha Kim encouraged me to be and to do whatever I hope to achieve in life, no matter how hard the struggle. There is no adequate wor d to express my gratefulness for my parents for their sacrifice.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ............................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 9 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 11 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 14 Justification of Using Implicit B eliefs ................................ ................................ ....... 19 Current Problems in the Luxury Gol f Resort ................................ ........................... 21 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 22 Delimitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 23 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 23 Organization of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 24 List of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 25 2 REVIEW OF TH E LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ............ 27 Information Processing Model ................................ ................................ ................ 28 Information Processing in Luxury Brand Contexts ................................ ........... 29 Dual Process Model ................................ ................................ ......................... 32 The Moderating Role of Involvement ................................ ................................ 33 Message Appeals: Rational and Emo tional Appeals ................................ .............. 36 Motivational Frames: Approach and Avoidance ................................ ...................... 38 The Implicit Beliefs ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 40 Implicit Beliefs and Information Processing ................................ ...................... 41 Cognitive and affective process ................................ ................................ 44 Motivational process ................................ ................................ .................. 47 The Moderating Role of Implicit Beliefs ................................ ............................ 48 Sport Tourism Cont ext ................................ ................................ ............................ 51 Final Research Model and Propositions ................................ ................................ 53 3 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 1: MESSAGE APPEALS ................................ ............... 56 Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 56 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 65 Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 65 Procedure ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 65 Measurements ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 69

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7 Self Measures of Moderators ................................ ................................ ........... 69 Implicit beliefs ................................ ................................ ............................ 69 Consumer golf and travel involvement ................................ ....................... 70 Stimuli Development ................................ ................................ ........................ 71 Scenario development ................................ ................................ ............... 71 Message appeals ................................ ................................ ....................... 72 Dependent Variables ................................ ................................ ........................ 73 Attitude formation ................................ ................................ ....................... 73 Visit intention ................................ ................................ .............................. 74 Result ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 75 Pilot Test ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 75 Descriptive Statistics of Measurements ................................ ............................ 76 Study participants ................................ ................................ ...................... 76 Implicit beliefs ................................ ................................ ............................ 76 Consumer golf and travel involvement ................................ ....................... 77 Manipulation Checks for Message Appeals ................................ ...................... 77 Depend ent Variables ................................ ................................ ........................ 78 Tests of Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ......................... 79 Hypothesis 1 ................................ ................................ .............................. 79 Hypothes is 2 ................................ ................................ .............................. 79 Hypothesis 3 ................................ ................................ .............................. 81 Hypothesis 4 ................................ ................................ .............................. 82 Hypothesis 5 ................................ ................................ .............................. 86 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 87 4 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 2: MOTIVATIONAL FRAMES ................................ ...... 106 Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 106 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 113 Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 113 Procedure ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 113 Measurements ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 115 Self Measures of Moderators ................................ ................................ ......... 115 Stimuli Development: Motivational Fr ames ................................ .................... 115 Dependent Variables ................................ ................................ ...................... 117 Result ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 117 Pilot Test ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 117 Descriptive Statistics of Measurements ................................ .......................... 118 Study Participants ................................ ................................ .................... 118 I mplicit beliefs ................................ ................................ .......................... 119 Consumer golf and travel involvement ................................ ..................... 119 Manipulation Checks for Motivational Frames ................................ ................ 120 Reliability of Dependent Variables ................................ ................................ .. 121 Tests of Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ....................... 121 Hypothesis 1 ................................ ................................ ............................ 121 Hypothesis 2 ................................ ................................ ............................ 122 Hypothesis 3 ................................ ................................ ............................ 123

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8 Hypothesis 4 ................................ ................................ ............................ 124 Hypothesis 5 ................................ ................................ ............................ 127 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 128 5 GENERAL DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ................................ .................. 145 Moderating Role of Involvement ................................ ................................ ........... 146 Golf and Travel Involvement ................................ ................................ ................. 148 Offs etting Role of Implicit Beliefs ................................ ................................ .......... 150 The Characteristics of Luxury Brand Contexts ................................ ...................... 152 Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 155 Theoretical Implications ................................ ................................ .................. 155 Managerial Implications ................................ ................................ .................. 159 Limitation and Future Research ................................ ................................ ............ 164 Final Comments ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 167 APPENDIX A COVER LETTER ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 169 B MANIPULATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ................................ ................. 170 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 1 ................................ ................................ .................. 170 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 2 ................................ ................................ .................. 171 C QUESTIONNAIRE FOR EXPERIMENT ................................ ............................... 172 D IRB APPROVAL LETTER ................................ ................................ ..................... 178 E ................................ ............ 179 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 180 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 196

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9 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 3 1 Measurements of Experiment 1 ................................ ................................ .......... 91 3 2 Manipulation of Experiment 1 ................................ ................................ ............. 92 3 3 Dependen t Measures ................................ ................................ ......................... 93 3 4 Propositions and Hypotheses for Experiment 1 ................................ .................. 94 3 5 Descriptive Statistics of Study Participants ................................ ......................... 96 3 6 Number of Study Participants by Group ................................ ............................. 97 3 7 Means of Implicit beliefs: Entity and Incremental Belief ................................ ...... 97 3 8 Means of Involvement Level: Consumer Golf and travel involvement ................ 98 3 9 A Manipulation Check of Message Appeals ................................ ....................... 98 3 10 Means of Attitude toward PGA National Resort & Spa ................................ ....... 99 3 11 Univariate Statistics on Means of Attitude toward PGA National Resort & Spa 100 3 12 Three Way ANOVA of Involvement on Means of Attitude toward PGA National Resort & Spa ................................ ................................ ...................... 101 3 13 Slope Analysis of moderators ................................ ................................ ........... 102 3 14 Mediated Multiple Regression Analyses of Attitude toward Visit Intention ........ 102 4 1 Manipulation of Experiment 2 ................................ ................................ ........... 132 4 2 Propositions and Hypotheses for Experiment 2 ................................ ................ 133 4 3 Descriptive Statistics of Study Participants ................................ ....................... 135 4 4 Number of Study Participants by Group ................................ ........................... 136 4 5 Means of Implicit beliefs: Entity and Incremental Belief ................................ .... 136 4 6 Means of Involvement Level: Consumer Golf and travel involvement .............. 137 4 7 A Manipulation Check of Message Appeals ................................ ..................... 137 4 8 Means of Attitude toward PGA National Resort & Spa ................................ ..... 138

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10 4 9 Univariate Statistics on Means of Attitude toward PGA National Resort & Spa 139 4 10 Three Way ANOVA on Means of Attitude toward PGA National Resort & Spa 140 4 11 Slope Analysis of moderators ................................ ................................ ........... 141 4 12 Mediated Multiple Regression Analyses of Attitude toward Visit Intention ........ 141

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11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 2 1 Theoretical Framework and Propositions of the Study ................................ ....... 55 3 1 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 1 ................................ ........... 103 3 2 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 2. ................................ .......... 103 3 3 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 3 ................................ ........... 104 3 4 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 4 under Entity Be lief. ............ 104 3 5 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 4 under Incremental Belief. .. 105 3 6 The Result of Hypothesis 5 ................................ ................................ .............. 105 4 1 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 1 ................................ ........... 142 4 2 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 2. ................................ .......... 142 4 3 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 3 ................................ ........... 143 4 4 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 4 under Entity Belief. ............ 143 4 5 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 4 under Incremental Belief. .. 144 4 6 The Result of Hypothesis 5 ................................ ................................ .............. 144

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12 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy CONSUMER INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE CONTEXT OF LUXURY GOLF RESORTS: APPLICATION OF IMPLICIT BELIEFS By Hee Youn Kim August 2013 Chair: Yong Jae Ko Major: Health and Human Performance The goal of this study was to apply dual process model an information processing model to the context of luxury gol f resorts by focusing on consumer involvement and the ir implicit beliefs. In particular, t his study examined the efficacy of message appeals and motivational frames on attitude formation toward a luxury golf resort. Two experiments were conducted to exami ne the key assumption that involvement levels and implicit beliefs have impacts on attitude formation independently or interdependently according to promotional stimuli The first experiment tested this assumption based on the effect of message appeals. T h e result s indicated that involvement levels and implicit beliefs played significant moderating roles independently. Consistent with the dual process model, consumers differently utilized rational and emotional appeals according to their involvement levels. Similarly, message appeals were significant ly different across the type s of implicit beliefs. The second experiment examined the assumption based on the effect of motivational frames. Similar to message appeals, motivational frames included the statement to entice involvement in the actual behavior. T h e finding

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13 suggested that involvement levels and implicit beliefs interacted interdependently. In particular, only approach frames showed a significant effect for the high ly involved and entity bel iefs group s In terms of types of involvement, research findings indicated that g olf involvement exerted greater impacts on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. The findings indicated that individuals utilize different information processor s according to their involvement levels and implicit beliefs. This study provided useful implications for both academic researchers and practitioners in the luxury golf resort indust ry Theoretically, this study extended a traditional dual process model by a dapting implicit beliefs a fundamental and inherent psychological domain of research Practically, the research er believe s that the findings of this study will help develop highly customized promotional message based on different involvement le vels and their implicit beliefs Ultimately, this effort will contribute to clearer understanding of the golf resort market and help develop effective market segmentation

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14 CHAPTER 1 I NTRODUCTION Since the game of golf was introduced in the 19th ce ntury by the United Kingdom, the number of golf courses in the U.S. has been continuously growing period in building golf courses in anticipation of the potential deman retired (Hueber, 2012). As a result, more than 40% of golf courses in the U.S were built in the 1990s (NGF, 2008). Unfortunately, when the U.S. economy d eclined the golf industry inherited the problem of a large inventory of golf courses becoming economically unsustainable. Meanwhile, due to the economic crisis, disposable income for leisure activities has been significantly decreasing. For example, in 20 09 immediately after the subprime mortgage crisis, real spending on travel and tourism dramatically decreased at an annual rate of 19.7% versus before the crisis (Bureau of Economic Analysis [BEA], 2012]. According to the NGF golf industry overview (2010), for example, the number of golfers declined 5.1% from 2009 to 2010. Also, the number of rounds played per 18 hole golf course decreased by 12% from 36,333 in 2001 to 31,299 in 2011 (Beditz, 2012, from Hueber, 2012). In this business environment, the golf industry, in general, encountered several critical challenges. This challenge is attributed to too many golf courses being built golf courses (Hueber, 2012; Swartz, 2010). Cons equently, managers have to offer lower green fees or discount prices to survive the competition (Swartz, 2010). At the same

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15 time, ironically, the cost of playing a round of golf increased to cover the costs at golf courses (Knauber, 2012); and also, golf c lubs started to highlight value added services and amenities such as concessions and spas to overcome this high level of competition within the golf industry (Tengberg, 2011). This highly competitive market environment inspired the emergence of many luxur y golf courses (Tengberg, 2011). Luxury golf courses are typically defined as private golf courses that offer well designed golf facilities by famous golf players, equipped high quality accommodations, restaurants, guest services (Gottwik, 2005). According to prior studies, the consumers of luxury golf courses estimated to 3.5 million households or more are segmented as highly affluent consumers (McStowe, 2008). Specifically, these consumers play golf ten or more times a year and are not at the mercy of the economic circumstances (Beditz & Kass, 2010). As the number of golf courses has grown, these golfers have tried to seek out places where they can focus on playing golf with privacy and intimacy (Gottwik, 2005; Readman, 2003). Moreover, these golfers are p rofiled as in the prime of their working lives and preparing for retirement; time to enjoy life and their socio economic status is relatively high (Davis, 2005). Thus, Baby B oomers tend to look for luxury and high quality products to increase their pride and to enjoy in their leisure time, simultaneously (Coleman, Hladikova, & Savelyeva, 2006; Petterson & Pegg, 2009). As the results demonstrate, it is not surprising that the n umber of luxury golf resorts in the U.S. and other countries was kick started to meet this high demand for luxury and privacy (Tengberg, 2011).

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16 In terms of luxury, several scholars have asserted that if a product or brand is defined as the luxury, it has to be recognized by (a) high perceived quality, high levels of retail sales, and consumer loyalty (Phau & Prendergast, 2002), (b) scarcity, symbolic interaction, and superior quality (Vickers & Renand, 2003), and (c) relative values and global awareness (Atwal & Williams, 2009). In sum, luxury is operationalized as high quality goods and services with a high price that are positioned for high income customers but not so expensive as to be out of reach (Silverstein & Fiske, 2003). Because of its uniqueness and authority, the market in luxury goods and products has dramatically expanded (Vickers & Renand, 2002). As such, this current market demand for luxury might help explain the fast growing market of luxury golf courses and resorts (Gottwick, 2005). There fore, luxury goods or products associated with golf have become an important area of marketing to practitioners (Vickers & Renand, 2002). Currently, luxury brand and product management received attention from scholars in the fields of marketing. For examp le, previous studies have addressed (a) 2005; Kim, Kim, & An, 2003; Yoo, Donthu, & Lee, 2000), (b) how the firm copes with counterfeits (Nia & Zaichkowsky, 2000; Whilcox, Kim, & Sen, 2009), and (c) how the luxury brand is successfully extended from the original brand (Pitta & Katsanis, 1995; Stegemann, 2011). As these studies have revealed, most studies related to luxury brands and products have focused on brand equity and strategies to induce potential consumers. However, little attention has been paid to how consumers process the decision to purchase the luxury brand or product and which attributes lead consumers to make the purchase decision.

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17 Basically, since the meaning of luxury is associated with high quality or price, consumers perceive high risk in making a decision to buy luxury goods (Chaudhuri, 1998). Because of the high perceived risk of luxury, consumers have to rely on significant amount of information to reach their final purchase (Atwal & Williams, 2009; Desai & Hoyer, 1993). Thus, in the context of luxury brands or products consumption decision, it becomes important for brand marketers to identify socio psychological factors that influence their decision and to develop a clear understanding of how consumers process available information in their final purchase decision. To successfully promote the luxury product s scholars have noted the importance of understanding how consumers who are looking for the luxury products process their information (Atwal & Williams, 2009; Chaudhuri, 1998). In particular, information processing is related to how individuals use information in terms of the total amount of processed information, the pattern of information processing, and the array of attributes or cues (Bettman, Luce, & Payne, 1998). In the fields of marketing and advertising, the information processing model was proposed by applying a dual process model. Dual processing p atterns by focusing on involvement levels (Chaiken, 1980; Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994; Maheswaran & Meyers Levy, 1990; Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983). For example, in the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) proposed by Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann (1983), when consumers are highly involved in a product or issue, they focus on the quality of messages, while those who have low involvement focus on the affective attractiveness of information. A series of information processing studies has demonstrated that wh en consumers process information, their involvement levels play a role in moderating their

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18 information processing strategies, as well as how to modify advertising effects for different involvement levels. While numerous studies have been conducted in rela tion to information processing and related marketing strategies, little research has focused on fundamental psychological factors such as personality and human characteristics that effects information processing. Several investigations suggested that indiv factors and inherent beliefs help in more fully understanding information processing and decision making processes (Haugtvedt & Petty, 1992; Holbrook, Chestnut, Oliva, & Greenleaf, 1984; Rosemary & Seymour, 1999; Shiv & Fedorikhin, 19 99). Since the consumption of luxury products is important to individuals in search of personal expression and social representation, consumers for the luxury product are driven by new needs and desires for experiences and expression of their feeling and t houghts (Dubois & Duquesne, 1993; Vigneron & Johnson, 2004). With regards to luxury products, diagnosing individual experiential factors and inherent beliefs leads to in processing patterns (Atwarl & Williams, 2009; Rosemary & Seymour, 1999). Therefore, more stable and inherent psychological domains need to be examined, in addition to exploring their influence on decision making behaviors, to obtain a clear understanding of consumer information processing (Humph reys & William, 1984). To address these issues, implicit beliefs are proposed, which is an inference that waran, 2009, p. 57). The implicit beliefs categorize two beliefs entity and incremental based on lay beliefs that people

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19 infer to the self and the environment. Specifically, an entity belief accounts for a fixed attribute, while an incremental belief p ortrays a malleable attribute when people process information. Therefore, a person who has entity belief is likely to use static strategies and prefer information which uses central information, whereas a person who has incremental belief uses situational strategies that correspond to peripheral information, including imaginary and experiential content (Park & John, 2010). Thus, this dichotomous approach plays a significant role as a moderator that can generate different types of information processes throu gh corresponding individual general beliefs (Chiu, Hong, & Dweck, 1997). As the importance of luxury golf courses in the overall golf industry has increased information pro cessing in luxury product contexts. Although several studies have noted characteristics and beliefs, in luxury contexts, few empirical investigations have examined their effec ts on information processing. Therefore, the current study investigate d which type of promotional stimuli (i.e., message appeals or motivational frames) are influential for luxury golf resort consumers based on their involvement levels and implicit beliefs as psychological factors. This investigation provides insights into helping marketers and managers develop useful promotional strategies Justification of Using Implicit B el iefs This study attempted to apply the implicit beliefs to traditional information processing theory. The implicit beliefs is a theoretical framework that (a) views behavior as reflecting its correspondent disposition (Nisbett & Ross, 1980), (b) indicates that

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20 relevant traits (Kunda & Nisbett, 1986), and (c) assumes that behavior is consistent across situations (Hong, Chiu, Dweck, Lin, & Wan, 1999). Among various psychologic al factors that can influence information processing, implicit beliefs enable researchers to assess a dichotomous approach of individual beliefs (Dweck, Chiu, & Hong, 1995). Prior marketing studies have consistently indicated that individual psychological factors are significant to characterize and segment consumers. However, most psychological factors, such as personality, self esteem, or confidence were categorized by contain multi approached dimensions. For famous personality theory (John & Srivastava, 1999) has five sub dimensions. Therefore, it has been challenging in segmenting consumers into their psychological dimensions as well as in using as a moderator. However, because the implicit beliefs contain two bipolar dimensions, it is possible to modify the moderating effects on behavioral process (Dweck, 2007). The major advantage of the implicit beliefs is to predict individual behavior based 004). According to Dweck et al. (1995), individual beliefs that reflect how a person thinks about the self or the world are highly interrelated with actual behavior. In previous studies, personal beliefs or traits are scarcely correlated with actual behavi or or final decision making performance (Chiu, Hong, & Dweck, 1997; Haugtvedt & Petty, 1992; Kunda & Nisbett, processing behavior based on their individual psychological domains. This theory pro vides insights into how to predict individual information processing and decision making behavior and how to

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21 provide customized information to targeted consumers by understanding their implicit beliefs (Park & John, 2010). Current Problems in the Luxury Go lf Resort commercial reasons has received attention in both sport management and tourism fields (Hudson & Huds on, 2011). In the field of sport management, this attention has been focused on examining why golf tourists participate in golf as a sport activity. In contrast, tourism researchers r destinations ( Van Raaij & Francken, 1984 ). Although several studies have defined golf tourism and golf tourists, limited research has attempted to explain all types of golf tourism products. Because golf tourism involves a number of related business sect ors such as hospitality, real estate, and media previous research has failed to define golf tourism and golf tourists (Hudson & Hudson, 2011 ). When focusing on luxury golf resort context, it is also needed to examine the unique characteristics of various business sectors. Therefore, the current study can provide contribution to the luxury consumption literature since few studies examined golf from this perspective. Scholars highlighted the importance of luxury market environment (Kim, Kim, & An, 2005) As Prasad and Dev (2000) demonstrated, a key strategy in maintaining brand equity for luxury hospitality and tourism organizations is to differentiate their products from other similar products. Therefore, it is necessary to differentiate luxury go lf resorts from other hospitality and tourism products Additionally, numerous researchers have suggested that luxury product consumers have different information processing strategies and decision making

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22 processes (Atwal & Williams, 2009; Desai & Hoyer, 1993; Phau & Prendergast, 2002; Tsai, 2005; Vickers & Renand, 2003). Due to the high perceived risk associated with luxury products, the consumer is required to process complicated sets of information (Atwal & Williams, 2009). Although a few studies have d iscussed information processing in the luxury context ( Phau & Prendergast, 2002; Vickers & Renand, 2003 ) the explanations remain inconsistent because no empirical studies have been conducted to examine how luxury product consumers process information and which attributes of information they seek in different conditions. Furthermore, Tsai (2005) mentioned that consumers are more likely to be influenced by personal beliefs and emotional factors when they buy the luxury products With regard to information pr ocessing and its behavior these factors require more attention in the luxury context Pu rpose of the Study Accordingly, t h e overall goal of this study wa s to develop a deeper understanding of golf travelers information processing and decision making proce ss. To do so, this study appl ied and extend ed the information processing model to the context of luxury golf resorts by focusing on consumer golf and travel involvement and implicit beliefs In particular, the purposes of this study are to (a) investigate the efficacy of message appeals (i.e., rational vs. emotional) and the efficacy of motivational frames (i.e., approach vs. avoidance) in developing consumer attitude toward luxury golf resorts and ( b ) examine the moderating effect of consumer golf and tra vel involvement (i.e., high vs. low) and their implicit beliefs ( i.e., entity vs. incremental belie fs) in the information process and attitude formation ; and (c) examined the relationship between formatted attitudes and intention to visit the luxury golf r esort to suggest empirical implications

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23 Delimitations The study is subject to the following delimitations: 1. The study participants were delimite d to golfers who have played golf at least once during the survey year To increase generalizability of the exp eriment, this study recruit ed participants by a survey company (Amazon s Mechanical Turk [AMT]). 2. The term luxury golf resort was operationalized as a resort type accommodation containing one or more 18 hole golf courses and that charges $199.99 or more p er day. Since the market price of luxury golf resort was formed minimum $199.99 in major travel agency sites (e.g., Tripadvisor, Priceline, Expedia, etc.), this study also prices minimum $199.99 on the luxury golf resort. 3. The luxury golf resort cited in t his study imitate s an existing golf resort ( PGA National Resort & Spa Palm Beach, FL ) in the U.S. not only to emphasize the reality of advertisements but also to apply real world promotional strategies to the practical implications 4. Tourism and hospital ity products are likely to be influenced by seasonality or weather conditions (Monteson & Singer, 2004). However, this study did not consider such potential situational variables. Limitations The study wa s subject to the following limitations: 1. The demograp hic characteristics of the study sample are not representative of the general golf tourist population. 2. The advertising of golf tourism products developed in this experimental study may be not used as a real advertisement. 3. This study will be conducted ba sed on the field experiment Since f ield testing is less controlled than laboratory testing internal validity (e.g., instrument) might be concerns (Harrison & List, 2004; Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002). Instead of threats of internal validity, external validity (e.g., selection biases and the experimental validity) might be ensured (Lynch, 1983). Therefore, t he result s of data are more varied and larger standard deviation, less precision and accuracy. To minimize this threat and to control various confou nding situations and to increase internal validity during the experiments, participation time and duration will be limited within 30 minutes.

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24 Organization of the Study Chapter 1 present ed an introduction to this study and discusses the state of the problem in the golf and golf resort industries T his study is justified by demonstrating a discussion of the limitations of traditional consumer behavior studies in the sport and tourism fields. The theoretical framework of information processing and the implicit beliefs in addition to its potential significance for this study has also been provided. In addition, this chapter has defined the purpose, delimitations, and limitations of this study. Chapter 2 discuss ed key concepts of the information processing and d ual process models (i.e., the moderating role of consumer involvement) as well as the conceptualization of information processing in the luxury brand context. Indeed, the roles of advertisement effects, such as message appeals and motivational frames, are discussed to support their effects on information processing. Furthermore, the implicit beliefs are discussed to support psychological concepts in the information processing and dual process models. To conceptualize the role of implicit beliefs in informat ion processing, cognitive and motivational processes are also discussed. In conclusion, the research propositions have been developed based on an extensive literature review. Chapter 3 include d research hypotheses, the study design, procedures, stimuli de velopment, and measurements of Experiment 1. This study was designed to examine the effects of message appeals (i.e., rational versus emotional) in addition to the moderating roles of consumer involvement and the implicit beliefs on attitude formation and visit intention. Chapter 4 contain ed hypotheses, design, procedures, stimuli, and measures of the second experiment, which investigated the effects of motivational frame s (approach

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25 versus avoidance) in addition to the moderating roles of consumer involvem ent and the implicit beliefs in attitude formation and visit intention. Chapter 5 included general discussion and a summary of the findings and practical implications. Future suggestions and limitations will also be discussed. List of Terms Luxury Golf Res ort : a mega sized resort which contains full sized luxury facilities with full service accommodations and amenities as well as features 18 holes golf course (Arnold, 1993) Constructive Consumer Choice Process : an individual select a specific information p rocessing strategy in decision making behavior. A decision making behavior is affected by attitude formed by prior preference (Bettman, Luce, & Payne, 1998) Attitude formation : psychological tendency formed by evaluating a particular object with some degr ee of favor or disfavor in response to persuasive communication (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993) Information Processing : the mechanism that explains how to use persuasive message in multiple information sources (Harkins & Petty, 1981). Dual process model : consum er evaluation of issues, candidates, and products are affected by media advertisement; also, attitude is formed and changed by different information processing routes (Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983). Message Appeals : verbal and visual statements to define specific product attributes, 1988); advertising argument s can prime or activate certain attributes to readers, and guide their interpretations of product information in the ad (Yi, 1990) Rational appeals : persuasive message which conveys one or more reasons indicating why the acquisition of the advertised brand or service is reasonable (Holmes & Crokcer, 1987); logical appeals concerned with the quality of information (Milla r & Millar, 1990). Emotional appeals : persuasive message that can elicit either an immediate feeling which would be directly or vicariously experienced or subsequently provide pleasure associated with purchase or pain form failure to act (Holmes & Croker, 1987).

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26 Motivational Frames : message frames involves whether negative outcomes may or may not be avoided or whether benefits deriving from a goal may or may not be attained (Lee & Aaker, 2004; Rothman & Salovey, 1997). Approach frames : the positive frame d message that people make judgments about perceived gains (Jain, Mathur, & Maheswaran, 2009; Lee & Aaker, 2004) Avoidance frames : the negative framed message that people make judgments to avoid perceived losses (Jain, Mathur, & Maheswaran, 2009; Lee & A aker, 2004). Consumer Involvement : inherent needs, values, and interests (Zaichkowsky 1985 ). In this study consumer golf and travel involvement refers to the degree of interest in playing golf o r travelling and the affective response associated with it (Manfredo, 1989, p.30). Implicit B eliefs : the different individual beliefs about the mutability or immutability of traits and attributes related to the self or their environmental situations in i ndividual decision making performance ( Dweck, Chiu, & Hong, 1995 ). Entity belief : the implicit belief that is conceived attributes or encountered information by fixed and uncontrollable entity (Dweck, Hong, & Chiu, 1993; Jain, Mathur, & Maheswaran, 2009). Incremental belief : the implicit belief that is regarded to attributes and encountered information by malleable and adaptive qualities (Jain, Mathur, & Maheswaran, 2009); the general thought which is believed that the attribute or encountered information is more malleable one that can be controlled through instrumental actions (Dweck, 2007; Park & John, 2010).

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27 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE For several decades, scholar s have studied consumer s process ing and decision making behavior in m arketing, advertising and human behavioral research. While researchers have focused on developing theories related to information processing, the effect of individual perception on information process ing has seldom been studied. When considering a causal relationship between behavior and perception, an individual develops varying beliefs and those beliefs influence actual behavior (Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Weiner, 1985) To understand underlying perceptions the implicit beliefs provides a usef ul framework through which to examine how people interpret and evaluate their encountered information based on their beliefs (Dweck, 2011 ; Jain, Mathur, & Maheswaran, 2009 ). In this chapter, we discuss the information processing and dual process models to understand luxury golf resort consumers decision making processes T his study determine s the unique characteristics of information processing in luxury brand contexts. Moreover, th e study identifie s two promotional stimuli: (a) message appeals (rational vs. emotional), and (b) motivational frames (approach vs. avoidance). Then, we review the implicit beliefs and its effect on the information processing model. To justify promotional stimuli, the topic of implicit processes (e.g., cognitive and motivationa l process es ) is discussed Moreover, to empirically assess the theoretical impact of the implicit beliefs on the information processing model, this study investigates the concept of luxury brand as a context of this study. Based on a review of the literatu re we establish the validity of using the information processing model in relation to implicit beliefs for the luxury golf resort context.

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28 Information Processing Model Over the p ast several decades, cognitive and social psychological studies have develop ed information processing models to demonstrate how consumers evaluate issues and products and then store the information in memory ( Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994 ; Maheswaran & Meyers Levy, 1990; Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983). Since the human ability is limited to process the astronomical amount of sensory information in the world, individuals must select appropriate information using perceptual and structural knowledge (Greenwald & Leavitt, 1984). Information processing models, generally, are a theoretic al attempt to illustrate how information and stimuli are organized by consumer sens es perception s or knowledge as well as how people s attitudes toward an object or issue are formed (Maheswaran & Meyers Levy, 1990). In the realistic approach of inform ation processing, the constructive consumer choice process ( CCCP) theory is introduced to suggest reason s why individuals select a specific information processing strategy in decision making behavior (Bettman, Luce, & Payne, 1998). T h e theory implie s that individuals must heuristically or contingently process a large number of alternatives and abundant information because individual capacity to process abundant information is limited ( Bettman, Johnson, & Payne 1991). T h erefore, individual s are likely to fo cus on information that is personal ly relevan t (i.e., involvement; Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983), prior preference (i.e., interest; Jain & Maheswaran, 2000) or inherent characteristics (i.e., personality; Haugtvedt, Petty, Cacioppo, & Steidlely, 1988 ). Although researchers have expected that recent technological developments (e.g., Internet) would enhance the convenience and cost some have suggest ed that the myriad of information provided by new tech nology actually increases uncertaint y in choice and

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29 decreases the effectiveness of information searches (Bettman, Luce, & Payne 1998; Lurie 2004). To explain a sequence in information processing, a commonly used assumption is that involvement has a moder ating effect to activate processing information (Greenwald & Leavitt, 1984). Involvement refers to personal references that bridge previous experiences and stimuli (Krugman, 1965). Along with increasing the involvement level, information processing enables individuals to scrutinize higher stage analysis (e.g., semantic or syntactic stages) and handle more complicated information, starting from shallow sensory analysis. Therefore involvement is positively affected in formatting or changing attitude toward a product or object. Based on this assumption, researchers developed the dual process model ( Chaiken 1980; Chaiken & Maheswaran 1994; Maheswaran & Meyers Levy, 1990; Petty et al 1983 ). In s equential information processing models, involvement affects pro cessing information in one direction. Meanwhile, the dual process model is assumed to employ a bidirectional persuasion process using different routes of information processing ; also information processing in conditions of both low and high involvement af fects attitude formation or changes in different ways Information Processing in Luxury Brand Contexts The literature has conceptualized the luxury brand according to its function, price and symbolic dimensions (Desai & Hoyer, 1993; Phau & Prendergast, 2002; Vickers & Renand, 2003). In traditional research associated with brand marketing, luxury brands evoke exclusivity, have a well known brand identity and high perceived quality, and retain sales levels and customer loyalty (Phau & Prendergast, 2002). H owever, contemporary consumer behavior studies have brought forth new meaning s for

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30 perception s of luxury brand s Currently, the luxury brand has been defined as products and services that possess higher levels of quality and aspiration than other goods in the same category but are not so expensive as to be out of reach (Silverstein & Fiske, 2003). Within a broader context, luxury brand means trendy brand s or products that lure middle class market consumers to trade up to meet their aspirational need for uni queness (Atwal & Williams, 2009). Several scholars have identified the uniqueness of information processing strategies and the choice decision process in the consumption of luxury brand s (Atwal & Williams, 2009; Desai & Hoyer, 1993). Atwal and Williams ( 2009) suggested that these strategies should offer new and different ways to impress consumers to switch from an other brand because consumers must process complicated sets of information in purchasing decision s for luxury brand s To induce consumers into p urchasing luxury brands, they concluded that luxury brands use imaginative appeals with consumers immersing themselves in an aesthetic experience. Furthermore, these scholars have asserted touch points for luxury brands, which is the time needed to enha nce the consumer s experience consistent with Tsai s argument Tsai (2005) mentioned that brand image, especially luxury brand image, is created by the experience in which consumers participate. In information processing of luxury brands, more complicated and abstracted sets of information are required to enable consumers involved in creating brand image. To enhance consumer s awareness of luxury brand s Atwal and Williams (2009) suggested that it is effective to customiz e the luxury brand image to targe ted luxury consumers using psychological factors. Since targeted consumers of luxury brand s

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31 have preference s based on psychological needs rather than functional needs, information processing strategies of luxury brands must be associated with psychological factors such as personality, motivation or cognitive/affective factors (Han, Nunes, & Dr ze, 2010). For example, Vickers and Renand (2003) defined luxury brand contexts as personal and symbolic value. Compared with functional brand s consumers of luxury brands perceive sufficient value in their luxury brands to compensate for the high price. T h erefore, consumers tend to seek information that is relevant to their perception (Tyana, McKechnie, & Chhuon, 2010). In the context of the luxury brand, psychologic al factors thus become more important to distinguish effective messages and appeals from information processing routes. Sport and tourism research ers have attempted to identify target customers and develop appropriate marketing strategies for meet their ne eds (Lawrence, Kahler, & Contorno, 2009; Shapiro, DeSchriver, & Rascher, 2012; Williams, 2006). R e cent research in a sport context has attempted to develop marketing strategies because customer s who purchase luxury sport brand s have different motivations f rom other brand consumers (Titlebaum & Lawrence, 2010). For example, the top motivations for purchasing luxury sport suites include entertaining and socializing with other consumers or business clients T h erefore, Titlebaum and Lawrence (2010) suggested su ch psychological aspects should be focused to propel luxury sport brand s Similarly, in tourism and hospitality contexts, luxury brands have been examined to distinguish distinctive marketing strategies from other tourism and hospitality products (Williams 2006). Unlike other tourism and hospitality products, luxury brands such as luxury resorts and luxury cruise s are involved in experiential marketing strategies. Because

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32 these kinds of products do not need to reveal their functional aspects, the strategie s rely on consumer s feeling s or previous experiences (Monteson & Singer, 2004). Currently, the unique characteristics of luxury brands and products are most commonly examined to develop marketing strategies. However, few empirical investigations concerni ng the most appropriate messages and advertising appeals have been conducted As the aforementioned studies asserted, we can measure the information processing for luxury brands by applying consumer psychological factors (Atwal & Williams, 2009). Also, T yebjee (1979) argued that involvement has a strong impact on brand choice. Thus, it is important to test the information processing for luxury contexts using individual characteristics and perceptions. Dual Process Model The most widely known dual proces s models are the elaboration likelihood model (ELM ; Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983) for persuasion and the heuristic systematic model (HSM; Chaiken, 1980). These models clarify that attitude toward products and issues can be formed on the basis of effor tful and effortless responses, and also that response s are provoked by different involvement levels (Chaiken, 1980; Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994; Maheswaran & Meyers Levy, 1990; Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983). According to ELM, consumers are persuaded by two different routes, which are central and peripheral routes. I n high involvement condition s people tend to use the central route, while the peripheral route is often used in low involvement condition s The central route contain s direct information re lated to the object or issue, which is described as verbal messages with strong arguments. In contrast, the peripheral routes

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33 also contain an element of information but require less effort to understand the message (Petty & Wegener, 1999). Another dual process model is HSM which was suggested by Ch a iken (1980). Similar to central and peripheral routes in ELM, this model uses terms such as heuristic and systematic processing. When individuals evaluate encountered information, they can fin d similarity be tween their relevant thoughts and the information. This processing route refers to heuristic processing. Since this processing works based on personal relevance, it has to rely on simple r and quicker routes (e.g., attractiveness of message). Meanwhile, sys tematic processing is emphasized in the cognitive effortful process, similar to central routes in ELM. The basic principle of dual process models is that different persuasion routes are affected by whether elaboration of processing information (e.g., perso nal relevance cognitive efforts) is high or low. T h e Moderating Role of Involvement Information processing strategies were posited to explain how people use information for decision making. In particular dual process models emphasize that an individual s behavior in relation to information processing and decision making varies depending on involvement levels ( Chaiken, 1980; Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983). Zaichkowsky (1985) who developed personal involvement scales noted that involvement means an nt (p. 324) and Celci and Olson (1988) specified product involvement as personal relevance toward the product In summary i nvolvement level accounts for the degre e of which individual perceives to be personally relevant (Laurent & Kapferer, 1985).

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34 In terms of dual process models information routes are classified into two types according to the type of message: central (systematic) and peripheral (heuristic) rout es. The central route is manipulated by verbal messages, while the peripheral route is operated by nonverbal messages. Petty and Cacioppo s ( 198 6 ) study indicate d that the attractiveness of pictures plays a crucial role in persuasion especially because it is more effective in lower involvement situations. Also, based on the level of involvement, people use different information routes. In high involvement situations, personal relevance plays a more significant role in information processes (Chaiken, 1980 ; Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983). Individuals pay more attention to the message argument ( what the message aims to convey ) because their judgment is beneficial to decision making. In such high involvement situations, individuals are likely to evaluate information based on its central meaning and their essential personal attributions (Gilin & Paese, 2002). Accordingly, the extent of attitude change depends on evaluating a central cue that contain s essential meaning s (Petty, Wegener, & White, 1998). On t he other hand, individuals tend to recognize that their judgment is trivial in their information process ; therefore, they exert less effort to determine the behavioral consequences (Chaiken, 1980; Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). People in low involvement situatio n s either have less ability to process information or exert lower elaboration ( Petty, Unnava, and Strathman 1991 ). T h erefore, in lower involvement situations, individual s are more likely to evaluate external situations or peripheral messages than the main content (Maheswaran & Meyers Levy 1990).

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35 In the context of tourism studies, involvement levels also play a significant role in determining tourists information processing. G r ossens (2000) applied the dual process model to define the value of vacation products. Since highlighting emotional and experiential information attributes is more effective in promot ing vacation products and tourism destinations, these relevant products can be defined as high involve ment products. Otherwise, in sport or leisu re related studies, involvement levels have often refer red to how much individuals are interested in sport or leisure activities (Havitz & Dimanche, 1997). Different levels of involvement in sport or leisure activities would become a significant predictor of how much participants attached to the destination where the activities are occurred (Bricker & Kerstetter, 2000). For example, Brey and Lehto (2007) investigated the positive relationship between vacation and daily activities. T h e result s indicated that the more individuals are involved in the daily activit y of playing golf, the more they tend to be interested in vacations that consist of the same activity. Similarly, Correia and colleagues (2007) found that involvement levels of golf are negatively affe cted by seeking behavior regarding t ravel information; that is golf tourists who se primary purpose is to play golf tend to employ little information about travel and destination features. On the other hand such information about hotel and amenities aroun d golf courses has a more significant impact on novice golf travelers information processing than golf itself. Therefore, the involvement level in sport, tourism and leisure contexts is another important construct to be explored in predict ing consumption decision s Both theoretical and empirical explanation s attempt to describe the crucial role of involvement in consumer information processing and reveal how information is processed in different domains.

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36 Message Appeals: Rational and Emotional Appeals T he different effects of communication strategies have received attention from numerous researchers in marketing and advertising (Flora & Maibach, 1990). Many of these attempts to induce positive attitudes toward an object involve a message that contains facts and information. For example, when a new automobile is released, various types of communication strategies are used to highlight the car, such as emphasizing engine efficiency or describing exterior design. Thus the aforementioned example shows that there are various ways to create appeal for even a single product. Therefore, message appeals containing one or more persuasive statements play a role in provoking consumer cognitive process (Holmes & Crocker, 1987). Contemporary theories of persuasion have suggested rational appeals for the message conveying the reasons why using the advertised brand or service is in the consumer s best interest (Holmes & Crocker, 1987). Since rational appeals are directly associated with cognitive elaboration in infor mation processing models, it is not surprising that rational appeals influence attitude change (Eagly & Chaiken, 1984; Petty & Cacioppo, 1981; Rosselli, Skelly, & Mackie, 1995). For high involve ment products or highly involved consumers, individual s would retrieve preexisting thoughts to process newly acquired information that contains factual messages. According to ELM, issue related messages are more effective under high involvement conditions than under low involvement condition s (Petty, Cacioppo, & Schu mann, 1983). Since individuals have to pay attention to understand ingested and abstracted information rational appeals, which contain factual arguments, are more suitable for those who are favorably predisposed toward the product or event (Holmes & Crock er, 1987; Perse, 1990; Shiv & Fedorikhin, 1999).

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37 Unlike rational appeals, emotional appeals trigger more emotional or affective responses (Rosselli et al 1995). Such appeals can create a positive affective response, provide quicker perception regarding b enefits and enhance short term communication of the advertising message (Lang, Newhagen, & Reeves, 1996). In general, emotional appeals are frequently used to describe presentational characteristics in advertisement s or messages (Lautman & Percy, 1984) be cause emotional appeals provoke short term emotional experience for recipient s (Flora & Maibach, 1990) These appeals are appropriate for low involvement items, when the audience is neutral or positively predisposed to the product (Holmes & Crocker, 1987). Thus the conceptualization and operationalization of rational and emotional appeals have contributed to diverse fields such as health promotion (Flora & Maibach, 1990) and political news (Newhagen & Reeves, 2006; Perse, 1990) as well as product adverti sing (Holmes & Crocker, 1987; Putrevu & Lord, 1994). In particular, the ELM postulate s that rational and emotional appeals are associated with the involvement levels of consumers and audiences. Petty et al. (1983) found that rational appeals related to pro duct s are best suited for high involvement conditions because logical choice decisions require more complicated information processing. Similarly, Flora and Maibach (1990) used AIDS advertisements to verify the relationship between rational/emotional messa ges and involvement levels in health promotion s that ha ve negative images. T he empirical evidence confirmed that the more recognized, promoted, or involved in AIDS messages, the more influenced by rational appeals than emotional appeals. A series of studie s concerning the interactive effect between involvement and message appeal indicated that rational messages are processed under

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38 higher elaboration conditions. Also, since emotional messages more easily and quickly recall previous experiences, they are more suitable for low involvement conditions. Therefore, the manipulation of message appeals enables the researchers to understand consumer or audience subjective involvement levels (Chaudhuri & Buck, 1995). Motivational F rames: Approach and Avoidance In the fields of health communication and promotion, motivation al frames have often been used to describe the benefits of engaging in a particular behavior (e.g., gain frame) or the costs of failing to engage in the behavior (e.g., loss frame; Sherman, Ma nn, & Updegraff, 2006). Differential effects of gain and loss frames on behaviors are predicted by the view that people make judgments based on perceived risk seeking or risk avers ion (Jain, Mathur, & Maheswaran, 2009; Rothman & Salovey, 1997). Thus, the t ype of motivational frames that will be most effective in a particular situation depends on the psychological aspects of targeted individuals (Mann, Sherman, & Updegraff, 2004). According to several theories related to motivation, individual behavior is regulated by two distinct motivations: approach motivation called the behavioral activation system (BAS; Gray, 1990) and avoidance motivation called the behavioral inhibition system (BIS; Gray, 1990) Usually, people oriented toward approach motivation a re more responsive to cues or frames of reward, whereas people oriented toward avoidance motivation regulate their behavior away from potential threats or punishment (Carver, Sutton, & Scheier, 2000). Similarly, optimal stimulation theory suggest s that ind ividuals behavior mostly depends on their framed motivation and perceived risk because they are likely to select positive situations and avoid negative situations (Moore & Harris, 1996). Such theoretical evidence support s the notion that

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39 individual behavi or is driven by motivation, which provoke s individuals approach to positive situations or avoid ance of negative situations To assess motivational frames for promotional messages, several studies have utilized advertisement messages as stimulations for m otivation Sherman et al. (2006) focused on the congruency effect between an individual s motivation and message frames. People who are oriented toward approach motivation are more likely to be induced by a gain framed message, while avoidance motivation o riented people tend to be stimulated by a loss framed message In addition, Lee and Aaker (2004) found that motivational frames are associated with comparative messages. Approach motivated people evaluate more favorably positive framed advertisement s than negative framed advertisement s Likewise Rothman et al. (2006) indicated that positive frames provoke approach behavior, which promote sunscreen, whereas negative frames precipitate avoidance behavior in relation to the strong effect of UV rays on skin ca ncer. Consistent with these findings, positive/negative frames converge with approach/avoidance frames (Jain et al 2009). To assist information processing models with their findings, Shiv and colleagues (1997) found that negative messages are more effec tive under high levels of elaboration because recipients tend to focus on the content of messages, and then process with a higher level of elaboration. I n relation to involvement, loss framed messages are more persuasive under high involvement conditions, whereas gain framed messages have more impact under low involvement conditions (Maheswaran & Meyers Levy, 1990). The extent to which motivational frames are associated with gain (positive) or loss

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40 (negative) frames postulates that people are differently pe rsuaded by their level of elaboration (Jain, Agrawal, & Maheswaran, 2006; Jain et al 2009). The Implicit B eliefs Individuals develop lay thoughts or knowledge structures regarding the self and the social world to interpret and predict their social w orld (Lickel, Hamilton, & Sherman, 2001). Relying on individual basic and general beliefs, people understand and respond to stimuli or events (Park & John, 2010). However, does every individual display the same responses to similar stimuli and events ? To a nswer this question the implicit beliefs describe s a causal link between encountered situations (e.g., stimuli events) and handling responses through an intervention that change s individual lay thoughts regarding situations and their reactions to ward t he actual behavior (Dweck, 1975) In particular, the implicit beliefs focuse s on identifying normal people s belief s and thoughts within circumscribed domains and on spelling out their influence on, for example, self perception (Chiu, Hong, & Dweck, 1997; Dweck & Leggett, 1988) and perception of others (Levy, Stroesser, & Dweck, 1998) or social context (Dweck, Chiu, & Hong, 1995). The main stream of implicit beliefs is that people may create different belief systems onstraints on the infinite variety of interpretations available for a particular stimulus or event ( Levy, Plarks Hong, Chiu, & Dweck, 2001, p. 157) T he implicit beliefs can explain how people determine other s traits with regard to their basic belief (D weck & Leggett, 1988; Wegener & Petty, 1998) and predict the degree to which people make inferences from limited information ( Gervey, Chiu, H o ng, & Dweck, 1999). The basic terms of the implicit beliefs are mainly explained as an individual s dispositions and a n implicit belief i nvolving fixed or malleable beliefs (Dweck et al

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41 1995). Based on the theoretical explanation and scheme the implicit beliefs have been identified two implicit beliefs: entity and incremental beliefs. A n entity belief indicates th at individual traits such as intelligence and personality have immutable entities, and encountered circumstances and information never change. In contrast, an incremental belief posits that individual traits can be changed and judgments/ evaluations of info rmation are possible to change based on encountered situations (Dweck, 2007). A significant factor that distinguishes the implicit beliefs from other social psychological theories is that the individual decision making process can be represented by a dicho tomous approach of implicit beliefs Also, t he implicit beliefs suggests individuals inherent beliefs and views that people differ in beliefs about the mutability or immutability of traits and attributes related to the self or their environmental (Dweck e t al., 1995) Therefore, diagnosing one s implicit beliefs indicates how he or she behave and think similar situations. Implicit B eliefs and Information Processing To understand the role of implicit beliefs in information processing two major dimensions of lay beliefs explain lay people s different sets of expectations, perceptions, and inferences, including static versus beliefs (Johnson, Garner, Efran, & Overston, 1988; Unger, Draper, & Pendergrass, 1986). F o r example these two approaches t end to predict individual self judgments differently (Dweck, 2000; Dweck & Leggett, 1988). Entity belief people have more fixed and static thoughts toward even themselves, whereas incremental theorists are more likely to display a generous attitude. I n sho rt, entity belief people conceive of inferences as consisting of relatively fixed traits, whereas incremental belief people use more malleable and dynamic qualities of inferences (Erdley & Dweck, 1993; Hong, Chiu, Dweck, & Sacks, 1997).

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42 T he notion of inf ormation processing refers to different cognitive systems to employ processing strateg ies where there is ample information (Chaiken, 1980). To understand individual difference factors in information processing one must recognize that individual basic beli efs concerning individual attributes and persuasion are linked (Eagly, 1981; Haugtvedt & Petty, 1992). T h erefore, the implicit beliefs illustrate how entity and incremental beliefs about human nature and social contexts relate to personal relevance in key aspects of evaluating information Generally, the entity view is more likely than the incremental view to provoke central and static endorsement, perceived homogeneity effects of objects more susceptibility to the ultimate attribution error, and greater (Levy Plaks, Hong, Chiu, & Dweck 2001, p. 158). In contrast, the incremental view suggests dynamically changed traits when individuals determine information or predict other s traits. To foreshadow implicit beliefs an important implicat ion of the malleability of the dichotomous approach is that implicit beliefs can potentially be used to process and interpret information in an inter personal (i.e., the self traits and self esteem) or intrapersonal conte x t (other s traits and the social co ntext) to reduce conflict and resolve interventions. In line with this theoretical frame, this work on implicit beliefs is also used to understand consumer behavior and help to develop marketing strategies. F i rst, the theoretical frame can teach marketers which aspects should be emphasized based on different implicit beliefs People who have entity beliefs are more likely to seek central information on products such as brand names, popularity, and ingredients Also, when they decide to purchase, entity be lief people tend to make a rapid and rigid decision (Dweck, 2007). On the other hand, people who have incremental beliefs focus on

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43 peripheral information and favor products that foster various aspects such as promotional stimuli or product design (Dweck, 2 007). For example Sultan (2008) indicated that the incremental beliefs group s tend to more favorably evaluate the product image when they see an imaginary advertisement of the product, whereas the entity beliefs groups never change their attitude toward p roduct regardless of advertisement effects. However, the entity beliefs groups can change their attitude when the price is frustrated These findings show that incremental people are more sensitive on peripheral information such as advertisement effects, w hile entity people focus on central information such as quality or price of products when they judge products. Second, the implicit beliefs show how to customize a product s appeal and messages for entity belief people or incremental belief people. In info rmation processing implicit beliefs especially information based on his or her traits (Dweck, Chiu, & Hong, 1995; Mukhopadhyay & Yeung, 2010). According to different implicit beliefs, it is feasible to predict one s information processing routes. For example, Park and John (2010) found that a promotion stimulus that contains challengeable and self developed messages is more suitable for those who have incremental belief s than the entity beliefs group Therefore, i ndividuals with different implicit beliefs judge products by different focuses and respon d to different messages that match their beliefs. Also, based on beliefs, people tend to process information and react to stimuli preferentially Through understanding two different implicit beliefs, we can comprehend

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44 and predict how to process encountered information and how to reach a final decision (Poon & Koehler, 2006; Schneider, 1973). Cognitive and affective p rocess One of the most basic human abilit ies is cognition, which indicates a group of mental processes that is transformed reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered and used (Neisser, 1967, p. 4). In social science, especially, cognitive process refers to the information processing o f an individual psychological function (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2009). The individual cognitive process reveals how individuals generate, integrate, and then use information in making decisions. In the cognitive process, implicit beliefs suggest s that lay people have malleable (versus fixed) attributes in evaluating one s ability or the respective environment (Dweck & Leggett, 1988). The theory classifies as incremental people those who use malleable attributes in understanding information with various asp ects of dispositions, such as situations, social norms, or current atmospheres (Hong, 1994). In contrast, entity people might focus on the most central or significant information in diagnosing stimuli or events (Dweck, Chiu, & Hong, 1995). Affective (or e motional) messages or appeals also become stimuli in cognitive process es Since the first process occurs relatively automatically, affective reactions are likely to be provoked in consumer decision making. Then, cognitive appraisals are elicited, which are more deliberat e and controlled than the first process (Shiv & Fedorikhin, 1999). Other consumer information processing models (e.g., Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Heuristic/Systemic Model (HSM), and Characterization C orrection M odel) also reveal tha t affect and cognition process es are based on similar valences; however, affective and cognitive reactions differ. Consistent with the finding s

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45 of Shiv and Fedorikhin s (1999) first experiment, affective reactions rather than cognitions tend to have a grea ter impact on choice decision because the consumer tend s to generate alternative information when fac ing affective stimuli. Another example is Rosselli, Skelly and Mackie s (1995) finding indicating that affective messages or appeals play a significant ro le in message acceptance. Since affective appeals might produce attitude change mediated by various contents and symbols, it is more effective to use affective process es to persuade consumer s As a series of studies has demonstrated affective process es wi th emotional stimuli need high levels of help in assess ing co elaboration in information processing, and also information can be processed based on various sources of information (Flora & Maibach, 1993; Rosselli et al 1995 ; Shiv & Fedorikhin, 1999 ) Rel evant to implicit beliefs, cognitive and affective processes play a role producing different motivation toward actual behavior (Dweck & Legget, 1988). Associated patterns of cognition and affect lead to the motivation that an individual is pursuing and cre ate a framework for interpreting and responding to information that they encounter. Although cognitive and affective processes in implicit beliefs are not directly related to decision making behavior, these processes can suggest basic frameworks to interpr et information and to make decisions. Cognitive processes in information processing provide focal insights of how individual interpret their encountered information relevant their beliefs (Dweck & Elliot, 1983). T he entity belief emphasizes static strateg ies that can readily evaluate information because a parsimonious and central framework exists through which to assess the final evaluation of persuasion In contrast the incremental belief uses

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46 comprehensive information processing strategies to explain t he final persuasive information. When the cognitive process is defined as a human appraisal system for encountered information, emotional stimuli is also processed based on a similar valence. On the other hand, affective processes in information processin g are the first expression toward encountered situations leading to associated patterns of cognitive processes, motivation, and behavior (Weiner, 2011). Similar with cognitive processes, entity people focus on the central evidence of encountered informatio n or situations, whereas incremental people are influenced by their emotional expression (Igou, 2004). However, s ince the affective process relies on incremental beliefs rather than entity beliefs responses of each process will differ. Ben Artzi and Mikul incer (1996) suggested that implicit beliefs possess more malleable and fleeting attributes in affective process es than in cognitive process es Accordingly, incremental people tend to use more malleable information processing strategies influenced by emoti on and affective processes in r egulating the self or determining the direction of further decisions (Igou, 2004). Thus the nature of affective process es is led by malleable attributes and incremental beliefs As aforementioned studies have suggested, an aff ective or emotional process must go through malleable routes, which include more situational sources of information, whereas entity people perceive information in a more central way through cognitive or rational signals (Hong, Chiu, Dweck, & Sacks 1997). However, these cognitive and affective processes provide evidence in interpreting information and a patterns creating motivation toward actual decision making behavior (Dweck & Leggett,

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47 1988). Since information processing strategies individual uses deal wi th their motivation to make a decision (Hong et al., 1997) and involvement levels in encountered information and issues (Chaiken, 1980), cognitive and affective processes of implicit beliefs are less relevant in information processing and decision making b ehavior (Dweck & Leggett, 1988). Motivational p rocess Achievement motivation is a ubiquitous feature of daily life (Elliot & Church, 1997). For several decades, theorists have defined motivation as the specific psychological framework for how individuals interpret, experience, and act in their achievement pursuits (Dweck, 1986; Nicholls, 1984). Moreover, they identified two distinct achievement motivations as different functions of valence: A pproach motivation refers to behavior that is prompted by a posi tive or desirable event, whereas avoidance motivation refers to behavior that is directed by a negative or undesirable event or possibility (Elliot, 1999). Moreover Dweck (2000) suggested that since approach motivated persons have high competent perceptio ns, they try to demonstrate their competence relative to other. In contrast, avoidance motivated persons tend to avoid demonstrating their low normative ability because they have low perceived competence Many achievement motivation theorists have identif ied that these two concepts of motivations are associated with a divergent pattern of affect, cognition, and behavior. Aforementioned, decision making behavior consists of a hierarchical process, and behavior is more connected with motivation towards achie ving a goal (Dweck & Leggett, 1988). Contrary to cognitive and affective processes, since motivational processes rely on individuals judgment toward the self and their environment (Jain, Mathur, & Maheswaran, 2009), information processing strategies are s elected by individual s

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48 motivational processes. T h erefore, the theory influences how individuals judge the self, others, and the product and exert a powerful influence on information processing (Jain et al., 2009). When entity and incremental people eng age in experiences consistent with their motivation, people with incremental beliefs tend to report that they feel confident after engaging in effortful learning or self development (Dweck & Bempechat, 1983). Since they might recognize the self in a positi ve way through self development, incremental people set challeng ing goals and maintain high self efficacy (Elliot & Dweck, 1988). T h erefore, incremental people employ avoidance motivation to overcome and develop their ability. In information process es inc remental people integrate contextual information and reply to complex message frames because they tend to be sensitive to the context and later their evaluation on the basis of contextual information (Chiu, Hong, & Dweck, 1997; Jain et al., 2009). In con trast, people with entity beliefs emphasize show ing their ability and reflect ing their basic capabilities (Schunk, 1995). Since they are confident in their basic ability, entity people use a combined construct of motivation that includes approach and avoid ance tendencies (Elliot, 1999). Both motivations interact when entity people face positive and negative situations so as to position the self on positive qualities When they experience information processing entity people are more evaluative regarding th e outcomes or the object itself; thus, they focus on the information content instead of messages or appeals that can provoke decision making behavior (Jain et al 2009). The M oderating R ole of Implicit B eliefs Recent marketing literature has investiga ted how consumers change their attitude toward brand s or products based on their initial impression from previous

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49 experiences (Aaker, 1999; Aaker & Keller, 1990; Flaherty & Pappas, 2000; Sultan, 2008; Yorkton, Nunes, & Matta, 2010). Among various factors t hat affect attitude change, implicit beliefs are applied to a wide range of personality traits using a dichotomous approach : entity versus incremental beliefs (Dweck, Chiu & Hong, 1995). Contrary to other moderators that influence consumer information pro cessing, implicit beliefs enables the researcher to assess individual psychological notions (Yorkton et al 2010) and to apply consumer inherent beliefs (Park & John, 2010). Implicit beliefs which is categorized by entity and incremental beliefs, play s a moderating role when people make decisions or evaluate encountered information (Park & John, 2010). As aforementioned, entity people tend to focus on originality or centrality, whereas incremental people focus on the information regarding situational f actors (Jain Mathur, & Maheswaran, 2009). This result is consistent with the assumption that entity people believe in the immutability of the general world order and are characterized by a focus on central contents of information ( Hong, Chiu, Dweck, & Sac ks 1997 ). Therefore, entity people are willing to focus on the main quality of suggested products rather than the appeal or frame of promotional stimuli (Jain & Maheswaran, 2000). However, since incremental people focus more on promotional stimuli promot ional stimuli such as message appeals and motivational frames are more sensitive and effective for incremental people to process information (Jain et al., 2009). Moreover, t h e dichotomous view of implicit beliefs provide s insights into the types of appe al that are most effective for adverting brand s based on consumer psychological reflection (Park, 2011). In terms of advertising appeals and frames entity people tend to seek opportunities to signal their desired positive qualities using a static

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50 inform ation processing strategy Thus, they respond best to advertis ements appealing a more central information processor that contains informative and straightforward appeal s rather than garnishing products with imaginary effects In contrast, we predict that i ncremental people will respond more favorably to advertising that incorporates various aspects of messages and appeal s Thus, they will respond best to advertising that uses a n imaginary appeal which emphasizes an opportunity to assess a hidden meaning of the advertised product (Park & John, 2010) Th ese empirical evidence s revealed how implicit beliefs, which means whether people are deemed to have entity or incremental attributes, affect s consumer inferences about the malleability of accepting an advert ising effect Based on the pr ior experiences and initial impression, consumers differentiate in evaluati ng the extended brand (Maoz & Tybout, 2002). Especially in the condition of a high quality product such as a luxury brand, it was more effective to dif ferentiate between entity and incremental people. However, the findings based on implicit beliefs remain inconsistent with regard to defining the moderating role of information processing. The most recent research has suggested that implicit beliefs play a similar role as involvement level in dividing consumers perception s When promotional stimuli such as message appeals or motivational frames are demonstrated, entity people tend to be insensitive because these effects are contextual cues rather than inf ormative contents. In contrast incremental people alter their evaluation based on contextual cues because they believe in the malleability of their environment and the self ( Poon & Koehler 2006 ). Thus, target evaluations should not differ by promotional stimuli for entity people; however, incremental people should incorporate contextual cues and convert their

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51 evaluation under different promotional stimuli As several empirical studies have indicated that implicit beliefs reflects how consumers accept and recognize the advertising effect in their information processing rather than which information processing route they select (Jain et al., 2009; Park & John, 2010). T h erefore, implicit beliefs play a moderating role to represent consumer s perceptions and p sychological views toward suggested information of products. Sport Tourism Context A luxury golf resort is one example of golf tourism contexts. Golf tourism falls under the umbrella of s port tourism which means all forms of involvement in sport activi ties, participated in casually or in an organized way, which necessitate travel away from home and work locality (Standeven & De Knop, 1999, p.12). The key points of this sport activit ies the oriented, and playful nature (Hinch & ay hich consists of completion, improvement, or coordination of body activities (Gibson, 1998). Naturally, individual acts with a certain purpose, and to find out the underlying p urpose of and partly as

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52 Sport tourism, like other tourism products, contains unique characteristics including intangibility inseparability between production and consumption, and heterogeneity ( Mattila, 2001; Zeit haml, Parasuraman, & Berry, 1985 ) Intangibility means that individuals cannot experience the product before purchasing it. Inseparability implies that production and consumption occur concurrently Lastly, heterogeneity denotes that each individual has di fferent perceived values, expectation, and experience regarding tourism products. Potentially, an individual who purchases tourism products has to be able to afford high perceived risks and variability in their decision making (Tarn, 2005). To reduce perce ived risks, consumers of tourism products tend to rely on as much information as possible In particular golf tourism involves a number of related business sectors such as hospitality, real estates, and media (Hudson & Hudson, 2011). In prior golf touris m studies, scholars found that these relevant sectors play significant roles in attracting golf tourists to a destination (Herstein & Jaffe, 2008) However, they also found that with increas ed levels of golf tourist involvement, these secondary products be come less important in promoting golf tourism products. For example, Correia and her colleagues (2007) found that there is a negative relationship between interests of golf and travel information that is golf tourists who have a primary purpose regarding g olf tend to use little information about travel and destination features. On the other hand such information about hotel s and amenities near golf courses has a more significant impact on novice golf travelers information processing than golf itself. Ther efore, it is concluded that golf involvement level is another important construct to be explored in predict ing consumption decision s regarding golf tourism products.

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53 In contrast to other tourism product s sport tourism products involve a set of motivations that assume the fulfillment of needs in information processing and decision making process es spectating and participating in sport tourism (Smith & Stewart, 2007). In other words, people te nd to buy sport tourism products in order to meet their motivations regarding sport activities. For example, even though people choose a destination for sport likely to concentrate on the activities rather than on the place itself. Motivations of participating in sport tourism are key factors not only in Consequently sport tourism including golf tourism is included in a broad definition of sport or tourism experiences. To investigate information processing and decision making process es in the context of luxury golf resorts, it is necessary to consider both perspect ives, including sport and tourism perspectives. Due to potential perceived risks of luxury golf resorts, travelers need a large amount of information to reach their final decision. Particularly, in the sport tourism context, motivational constructs involve d in sport activities play a significant role in identifying a traveler s needs and desires. W hen examining golf travelers information processing, it is conceivable that psychological factors contained within the concept of motivational responses should b e defined within the applicable contexts of both sport and tourism contexts. Final Research Model and Propositions Based on a review of the literature, this study proposes a dual process model that is modified and applied to luxury golf resort contexts by adding implicit beliefs and

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54 consumer involvement levels (golf and travel). The proposed dual process model suggests that (a ) message appeals (rational versus emotional) and motivational frames ( approach versus avoidance) are defined as treatments of advert isements (b) consumer involvement levels concerning golf and travel (high versus low) function to define a consumer s current status and (c ) implicit beliefs (entity versus incremental) plays a significant role in understand ing how consumers perceive adv ertised luxury golf resorts based on stimulated messages and appeals and in understanding their involvement levels. Consequently, a modified dual process model represents theoretical steps in attitude and visit intention for luxury golf resorts. Based o n these suggestions, five propositions were tested as follows (Figure 2 1): 1. Promotional stimuli (e.g., message appeals and motivational frames) have a different impact on attitude formation by characteristics of luxury products 2 Consumer involvemen t levels (i.e., golf and travel) play a moderating role between promotional stimuli and attitude formation. 3 Implicit beliefs play an offset ting moderating role between promotional stimuli and attitude formation. 4. An interaction effect exists between c onsumer involvement levels and implicit beliefs; furthermore, this interactive effect also moderates between promotional stimuli and attitude formation. 5 Attitude toward the luxury golf resort plays a mediating role between information processing and vi sit intention.

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55 Figure 2 1 Theoretical Framework and Propositions of the Study

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56 CHAPTER 3 EXPERI ME NTAL STUDY 1: MESSAGE APPEALS The purpose of Experiment 1 wa s to examine the effects of message appeals (rational versus emotional) the moderating ro le of involvement in these effects and the offset ting moderating role of the implicit beliefs (entity versus incremental). I n particular, involvement was operationalized as golf and travel involvement (high versus low) message appeal was operationalized as textual information presence ( rational versus emotional) and the implicit beliefs was measured as individual implicit beliefs (entity versus incremental). The dependent variables of these effects were operationalized in two domains: attitude formation and visit intention for the suggested luxury golf resort. Hypotheses Hypotheses were developed based on the aforementioned propositions and extensive literature review. The hypotheses comprise d f ive parts ( see Table 3 4 and Figure 3 1) : Proposition 1: Me ssage appeals have a different impact on attitude formation by characteristics of luxury products Previous studies in marketing and business have suggested that the processing of a service s from the processing of in formation from other functional product s. In particular h ospitality and tourism products like hotels or resorts have unique characteristics such as intangibility, inseparability between production and consumption, and heterogeneity ( Mattila 2001; Wu & Li ang, 2009; Zeithaml, Parasuraman, & Berry 1985 ). Such characteristics imply aspects that individuals cannot experience about the product and also that the service oriented product must be consumed and produced simultaneously. T h erefore, consumers perceive greater risks in making these purchase decision s than in deciding about other

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57 products; thus they need sensory inter activity between the advertisement in terms of of their beliefs and attitudes (Kempf, 1999). In this regard, Mattila (2001) argued that emotional appeals are more successful in promoting hospitality products than rational appeals. Because hotel and resort consumers are wi lling to focus on the interaction between physical environment and personal service, the first hand emotional experiences may play a prominent role in determining a customer s value perceptions of hotels and resorts (Mattila, 1999). Particularly the luxur y context of hospitality products have to be provided more intensive emotional experience to customers because of their potential higher risks than other types of hospitality products. In other words, emotionally laden messages create more positive attitud es toward luxury service oriented products because ad generated feelings enable consumers to be involved in the product (Brown, Holmer, & Inman, 1998). Based on th is empirical evidence the following hypothes is was developed ( see Figure 3 2) : H1: T he eff ect of emotional appeal s on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort is greater than that of rational appeal s Proposition 2 : Consumer involvement levels (i.e., golf and travel) play a moderating role between message appeals and attitude formation Prior persuasion studies have suggested that involvement play s a significant role in moderat ing information processing, attitude formation, and decision making behavior (Chaiken, 1980; Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983). In the dual process model, indivi duals make decision s based on personal relevance (i.e., involvement) of the products. The dual process model ha s verified that people tend to use the central processing route to generat e rational, logical thoughts and cognitive responses under high involve ment conditions; meanwhile, people tend to use peripheral routes focusing on emotional, simple process es and affective responses when they are less involved

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58 the product or issue (Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994). As such, i ndividuals may focus on the messag e ar gument which is what the message aims to convey when they are highly involved in the products or issues (Gilin & Paese, 2002) In contrast, since p eople in low involvement situation s do not need to exert an effort to interpret information, they tend to pa y more attention to situational and peripheral messages than to main contents ( Petty, Unnava, & Strathman 1991 ) T h erefore, the following hypothes is was developed ( see Figure 3 3) : H2: A two way interaction effect on attitude formation exists between the type of message appeal and consumer involvement level regarding both golf and trave l. H2a: Under the high involvement condition, the effect of the rational appeal is greater than that of the emotional appeal H2b: Under the low involvement condition, the effect of the emotional appeal is greater under the low involvement condition According to previous sport and leisure research, involvement levels in sport indicated the degree to which individuals are interested in leisure or sport activities ( Brey & Lehto, 2007 ; Beaton, Funk, Ridinger, & Jordan, 2011; Havitz & Dimmanche, 1997). Similarly, in tourism research, destination involvement refers to how much individuals are interested in the destination and predicts how much they are willing to visit there ( Fesenmaier & Johnson, 1989; Josiam, Smeaton, Clements, 1999). Thus, to examine golf involvement levels tourism (e.g., golf resorts), it is necessary to consider both aspects sports involvement and destination involvement because sport tourism involvement c ontains two different objects of involvement ( Smith & Stewart, 2007 ). Gibson (2003) also suggested that it is feasible to segment sport tourists in accordance to which aspect people are more interested in between sport tourism destinations.

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59 With respects to the relationship between sport and tourism involvement, traditional leisure research suggested involvement levels in sport or recreational activities have strong relationship with the destination when the specialized activity (e.g., skiing, white water, and golf) is acknowledged to be influential on the participant s functional attachment to a specific setting or destination (Filo, Chen, King, & Funk, 2011; Kyle, Graefe, Manning, & Bacon, 2003). For example, Bricker and Kerstetter (2000) examined the rel ationship between level of specialization and place attachment of whitewater recreationists. In their study, if an individual is highly involved in whitewater activities, he or she is tends to be strongly attached to a destination that has whitewater recre ational settings (Bricker & Kerstetter, 2000). Conversely, destination involvement is less influential on sport tourists interests in a sport activity (Filo et al., 2011). Consistent with these results, McGehee, Yoon, and (2003) study revealed that there is statistically less significant relationship between involvement in road running and travel behavior. However, involvement levels in road running significantly influence the participation rate of road races. They assumed that travel involvemen t has less impact in predicting sport related travel behavior since travel behavior is influenced by a number of constraints such as family obligations rather than motivation for the activity. As these examinations have suggested, when someone is highly in volved in the activity, he or she might be more interested in the destination which contains similar settings (Bricker & Kerstetter, 2000; Kyle et al., 2003). However, since destination involvement is less reliant on the activity individual are less likel y to be interested in the activity, when they are interested in the destination itself (McGehee et al., 2003). T h erefore, when someone is highly involved in the specialized activity,

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60 they might focus on any type of information related to the destination th at contains specific settings for the activity (Hudson & Hudson, 2011). As such a result, the following hypothesis was anticipated: H2 1 : The moderating effect of golf involvement is greater than that of travel involvement between message appeals and attit ude formation toward the luxury golf resort. Proposition 3 : Implicit beliefs play an offset ting moderating role between message appeals and attitude formation. Implicit beliefs represent lay people s beliefs concern ing the mutability or immutability of t raits or the environment (Dweck, Chiu, & Hong, 1995). In addition, implicit beliefs, which is categorized by entity and incremental beliefs plays a moderating role when people make decisions or evaluate encountered information (Jain, Mathur, & Maheswaran, 2009; Levy, Stroessner, & Dweck, 1998; Park & John, 2010; Sultan, 2008). However, individuals needed motivations which are associated with hierarchical patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior, to process information and make decision (Dweck & Leggett 1988). Motivations toward decision making b ehavior are formed based on cognitive and affective responses; consequently, how someone process information and use a certain information routes depends not on cognitive and affective processes but his or her m otivation for achieving final goals (Julius, 1986). Additionally, marketing research indicates that motivation plays a significant role in determining advertisement processing and product judgments (Maheswaran & Sternthal, 1990). When people are highly motivated in information processing for decision making, they are likely to focus on the information content rather than message appeals (Maheswaran & Sternthal, 1990). Moreover, personal beliefs or thoughts have less significant effects on the effectivene ss of the rational and emotional message

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61 appeals because these psychological variables play more significant roles in motivating people to process information toward decision making than in determining the way to process information (Goodwin & Etgar, 1980) T herefore, implicit beliefs, which explain individual motivation toward information processing and decision making behavior, have a weak relationship with message appeals. Based on the literature, the following hypothesis was formulated ( see Figure 3 4): P revious studies suggested that entity people use a static information processor generated by central information whereas incremental people rely on a situational processor defined as peripheral information such as promotional stimuli or endorsements ( Igou, 2004; Hong, Chiu, Dweck, & Sacks, 1997; Levy, Plaks, Hong, Chiu, & Dweck, 2001 ). Because incremental people tend to integrate various situations and different circumstances in determining information, their information processing may be associated wi th various contents besides central information. Incremental people are likely to be interested in message appeals of advertisements and process information using flexible routes (Dweck, 2007). For entity people, in contrast, advertising appeals have less effect on forming their attitude toward the product. Entity people are willing to focus on centrality or main contexts of suggested information than the appeals of advertisements (Jain et al., 2009). T h erefore, the hypothesis was developed: H3: No signific ant interaction effect on attitude formation exists between t he type of message appeal and implicit beliefs. H3a: Regardless of implicit beliefs, the effect of rational appeals has no significant different impact on attitude formation toward the luxury go lf resort.

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62 H3b: Regardless of implicit beliefs, the effect of emotional appeals has no significant different impact on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. Proposition 4: An interaction effect exists between consumer involvement level and imp licit beliefs ; furthermore, this effect also moderates between message appeal and attitude formation. According to marketing and advertising studies, an individual behavior related to information processing relies on personal inferences and beliefs ( Chai ken, 1980; Hong, Chiu, Dweck, Lin, & Wan, 1999 ; Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983) Especially, consumer s involvement levels play a dominant role in determining different ways to process the information ( Chaiken, 1980; Pett y et al., 1983 ). Moreover, impli cit beliefs influences on how much individuals focus on the message appeals (Jain et al 2009; Poon & Keohler, 2006). With respect to the relationship between involvement and implicit beliefs, Humphreys and Revelle (1984) demonstrated that personal belie fs or inherent personality in combination with stimulated factors (e.g., advertisements or promotion of issues) significantly affect the motivational constructs of arousal and interests. Consumers first make a judgment based on their personally held belief s or characteristics, and then their involvement levels affect different ways of information processing (Mitchell, 1979). In a word, consumer involvement mediates personal beliefs and information processing. Consequently, consumer involvement levels can be influenced by implicit beliefs when individuals perceive which routes are utilized for effective information processing. Based on this, the following hypothesis was developed ( see Figure 3 5) : H4: No three way interaction effect exists among type of messa ge appeal, consumer involvement level and implicit beliefs.

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63 H4a: The moderating effect of involvement levels is greater than that of implicit beliefs between message appeals and attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort As aforementioned entit y people tend to focus on originality or centrality, whereas incremental people focus on the information regarding situational factors ( Jain et al 2009 ; Poon & Keohler, 2006) This result is consistent with the assumption that e ntity people believe in th e immutability of the general world order and are characterized by a focus on central contents of information (Hong, Chiu, & Dweck, 1997). W h en entity people process advertisements and judge products, they are willing to focus on the main quality of sugges ted products rather than the appeal of promotional stimuli (Jain & Maheswaran, 2000; Jain et al., 2009) Since personal beliefs or characteristics should influence more on attitude formation more than consumer involvement levels (Humphreys & Revelle, 1984; Mitchell, 1979), there is no effect of involvement levels for entity people. Accordingly, the following hypotheses were developed: For those who have entity beliefs, H4 1 : Under t he high involvement condition, there is no significant difference in attit ude formation toward the luxury golf resort between rational and emotional appeals H4 2 : Under the low involvement condition, there is no significant difference in attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort between rational and emotional appeals On the other hand i ncremental people focus less on the quality of products but pay attention to message appeals that are emphasized in the advertisement (Hong et al., 1997; Jain et al., 2009) Message appeals are more sensitive and effective for increm ental people to process information. Therefore, under the high involvement situations, people are likely to use high elaboration processing generated by logical

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64 thoughts (Flora & Maibach, 1990; Petty et al., 1983). Similar to the low involvement conditions people tend to use peripheral processing routes generated by emotional appeals (Flora & Maibach, 1990; Petty et al., 1983). T h erefore, incremental people are influenced by message appeals, especially emotional appeals under low involvement condition. Con sequently, the following hypotheses were developed: For those who have entity beliefs, H4 3 : Under the high involvement condition, rational appeals have a greater impact on attitude toward the luxury golf resort than emotional appeals H4 4 : Under the low involvement condition, emotional appeals have a greater impact on attitude toward the luxury golf resort than rational appeals Proposition 5: Attitude toward the luxury golf resort plays a med iating role between information processing and visit intentio n. Finally numerous scholars have verified that a positively formatted attitude toward the product directly influence s actual consumption behavior regardless of consumer involvement levels (Chang & Wildt, 1994; Holmes & Crocker, 1987; Till & Busler, 2000 ). In a study related to golf and tourism, a positive attitude toward golf resorts or destination positively influence s golfer satisfaction; furthermore, their visit intention might differ according to satisfaction levels (Petrick 1999 ; 2000; Petrick & Backman, 2002). Therefore, with an increasing ly positive attitude toward the luxury golf resort, visit intention also increase s B ased on this literature, the final hypothesis was developed: H5: Attitude toward the luxury golf resort positively influence s the intention to visit the luxury golf resort.

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65 Methods Design A 2 ( message appeals: rational or emotional ) X 2 ( implicit beliefs: entity or incremental) X 2 ( golf and travel involvement : high or low ) between subject s experimental design was employed. Self measures of implicit beliefs and golf/travel involvement were developed based on prior studies (see Table 3 1). I n addition two advertisement stimuli for message appeals with a manipulation check were developed referr ing to existing advertisement s for lu xury golf resorts and different manipulation conditions were developed based on prior studies ( see Table 3 2 ). In addition, dependent variables were also developed ( see Table 3 3 ). Procedure Sampling method. Participants were recruited in several golf cou rses and hotels located nearby golf courses in the state of Florida. This experiment was conducted out of the laboratory setting, using a pencil and paper survey. In the survey forms, the purpose of the study and the specific protocol of the experiment wer e introduced. A convenience sampling method was used without bias concerning socio economic factors such as gender, occupation, and age. To calculate an appropriate sample size, this study utilized G Power 3.1.3 developed by Faul, Erdfelder, Buchner, and L ang (2009). For the current study, the G power suggested a minimum sample size of 157 respondents with middle effect size (. 35 power, and five numerator degrees of freedom. In this study, the implicit beliefs and golf/travel involvement were measured through self measures instead of manipulation. When an experimental study utilizes self measures the actual effect power might decrease (Faul et al., 2009). To avoid decreasing the actual effect power, this

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66 exper iment recruited a la r ger sample size. Therefore, 165 respondents were recruited for experiment one To recruit a proper size of sample and to increase generalizability of the field experiments, this study utilized Amazon s Mechanical Turk [AMT] ( www.MTurk.com ), which is a novel open online marketplace for completing survey enforcement. AMT contains the major elements required conducting research, and integrated participant compensation system, a large participant pool, and a streamlined process of study design, participant recruitment, and data collection (Buhrmester, Kwang, & Gosling, 2011, p.3). Compared to laboratory based experiments AMT have several advantages such as easy access to large, stable, and diverse sub ject pool with low cost and faster iteration (Mason & Suri, 2012). In terms of psychometric standards, Buhrmester et al. (2011) have verified that the data from AMT are as reliable as those from traditional methods. Specifically, since AMT conduct experime nts based on a huge amount of sample size, the reliability of self measured questions are higher than traditional experiment methods (Rand, 2012). Therefore, this study will utilize AMT in recruiting samples. As Buhrmester et al. (2011) mentioned, since pa rticipants are affected by compensation rate and task length, this study will be limited 50 cents per a task as compensation and 15 minutes as task length. To recruit samples with the purpose of the study, ATM samples were also limited to consumers of golf related products (e.g., golf apparel, golf accessories or golf goods). Data collection procedure. This survey questionnaire comprised seven sections: ( a) g eneral instructions and an informed consent form approved by the institutional review board (IRB) of the University of Florida ( b) a brief written scenario

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67 and filtering question s concerning consumption of luxury golf resorts, ( c) rational or emotional appeal manipulations (d) dependent variables and manipulation checks (e) self measures of golf an d travel involvement and implicit beliefs (f) descriptive questions about respondent characteristics and (g ) debriefing. The first page explain ed that the study aim ed to understand the effects of consumer involvement and implicit beliefs on information p rocessing for the luxury golf resort contexts In the instruction s participants were asked to read a scenario concerning consumption of the luxury golf resort which contain ed a description of delimiting luxury golf resorts. Furthermore, participants wer e asked not to return to the previous pages in the middle of survey. Finally, participants were asked to answer a filter question such as Have you ever stayed in luxury golf resorts (price is over $200 per day) ? In the next page the target advertisemen t had two versions of rational and emotional appeals. In the advertisement with rational appeal the information displayed interpretive structures (e.g., concepts and schemas; Yi, 1990). In the advertisement with emotional appeal the information presented imagery and emotional structures (e.g., feelings and senses; Holmes & Croker 1987 ). The product and advertising information with both message appeals were familiar ly designed for the study samples. Then, participants will be asked to answer the dependent variable and manipulation check questions. In particular, participants were asked about their post attitude toward the luxury golf resort and their visit intention. After participants answer general questions about perusing the advertisement, they will m ove to the following page which listed general questions related to golf and travel involvement and implicit beliefs. At the end of the survey, participants were asked

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68 to answer personal descriptive questions such as gender, income, education level, and t he address of their current residence. At completion of the survey, participants were asked to keep the study confidential, debriefed, and thanked for their participation. Analysis procedure. The data was analyzed using the statistical software SPSS 18.0. First, descriptive analyses including central tendency (i.e., mean, median) and normality (i.e., kurtosis, skewness) were conducted along with variability tests (i.e., standard deviation variance ). Second, to test the hypotheses, this study utilized analy sis of variance (ANOVA). Before statistical analysis, respondents were divided into an implicit belief set (entity/incremental) and a golf and travel involvement set (high/low) based on their answers to the general questions by mean split method. Median sp lit method was more useful to reduce statistical errors than mean split method (Bem, 1977; Lubinski & Humphreys, 1990). Also, to confirm divided groups, cluster analysis was utilized. To analyze data, a 2 x 2 x 2 univariate ANOVA was used to determine the effect of message appeals on continuous dependent variables (i.e., attitude formation, visit intention) and the moderating effects of golf/travel involvement and implicit beliefs. Third, this study utilized equivalence tests using independent t tests to c onfirm null hypotheses. S everal hypothe ses were stated null hypotheses as there is no significant difference in attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort between treatments. To confirm no statistical significant differences between treatments, equ ivalent tests were utilized (Tryon, 2001). Finally, this study employed multiple hierarchical linear regression models (MHLMs) to confirm the moderating effect of involvement and implicit beliefs between message appeal and dependent variables (Ramanathan & Williams, 2007) as

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69 well as the mediating effects of attitude formation among message appeals, moderators (i.e., golf and travel involvement and implicit beliefs) and visit intention Furthermore, to confirm the moderating effect, this research employed s lopes analysis using continuous measures of independent variables ( involvement and implicit beliefs; Labroo & Mukhopadhyay, 2009). These three analyses enable the researcher to interpret two way and three way interaction effects in the presence of moderati ng (or mediating) variables as well as to compare sizes of moderating effects (Dawson & Richter, 2006). Measurements T h is section was presented measurement and developed stimuli, which were used in Experiment 1. For Experiment 1, two (2) moderators were o perated as self measured methods and message appeals were manipulated as advertisement stimuli. Self Measures of Moderators Implicit beliefs To examine implicit beliefs this study utilize d the six item scale of implicit beliefs modified in prior studies ( Dweck, 2000; Park & John, 2010 ). The eight items were employ ed as self measure methods. Self report measures are often used to assess psychological perception s such as personality and intellectual ability (Haugtvedt & Petty, 1992). Each question wa s a se lf report measure that ask ed about cognitive belief s Four questions addressed participants entity beliefs: Everyone is a certain kind of person, and there is not much that anyone can do to really change that Something basic about a pers on cannot really be changed ; The important parts of who se people are cannot really be changed ; and People cannot really change their deepest attributes. An additional four questions were asked about participants incremental beliefs: People can chan ge even their most basic qualities Everyone can

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70 significantly change his or her basic characteristics ; People can substantially change the kind of person they are ; and No matter what kind of person someone is, they can always change. The scale rang e s from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree), and the questions regarding incremental beliefs were reverse coded. T h erefore, lower scores on this scale represent ed belief s were divided based on th eir ratings on the eight items. To ensure the basic criteria to regarding implicit beliefs this study employ ed the mean split method. According to the result of mean split, participants who scored below four (4) were classified as t he incremental beliefs group and those who scored above four (4) were classified as the entity beliefs group Consumer golf and travel involvement To measure participants golf involvement levels and travel, this study utilize d two types involvement scal e s ( Zaichkowsky, 1985; McGehee, Yoon, & Cardenas, 2003 ). The first type involved the three 7 point semantic scale s employed in Zaichkowsky s (1985) study important unimportant interesting boring and relevant irrelevant These three questions were preceded by the phrase: To me, golf ( travel ) is T h e other types of involvement questions related to frequency of participation in golf (or travel) duration of participation in golf (or travel) and golf skill. Concerning golf involvement, partic ipants were asked to complete t hree questions: How many times do you play golf per month? How many years have you played golf? and What is your average score for 18 holes? Concerning travel involvement, participants will be asked to complete two que stions: How many times do you travel out of your town ( for pleasure and business ) per year ? and How many days do you stay when travel, o n average? Also, a single question was asked to measure involvement level of golf

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71 travel : How many times do you t ravel out of town for playing golf per year ? This scale uses a multiple choice scale and an open ended measure To classify respondents into high and low involvement groups, this study used median split method. Also, K mean clustering analysis was utilize d to confirm the mean and median of each involvement group. Stimuli Development Scenario d evelopment In the experiment a luxury golf resort was the target product. The resort include s luxury hotels and golf facilities (18 hole designer course). As Gottwik (2005) indicated, luxury golf courses emphasize the design of resort facilities. More specifically, guest rooms have become increasingly more spacious and furnished with luxury furniture As for golf courses, the resort i s equipped with high quality facil ities including club houses and was designed by famous golf ers (e.g., Arnold Pa l mer Jack Nicklaus ). Consequently, this type of golf resort might target luxury customers who are very price quality conscious and highly educated as quality attributes (Gott wik, 2005). As several researchers have pointed out the characteristics of luxury consumers demand that luxury golf resorts provide a good impression, meet diversified consumer needs, and pay more attention to providing a significant premium service becau se value is more precious than the object itself for luxury customers (Wu & Liang, 2009). Furthermore, contrary to business consumers, luxury golf resort consumers tend to visit the resort on vacation. Therefore, Gottwik (2005, p. 71) suggested that luxury golf resorts have to provide relaxation relating to the highest standard of service in unique surroundings and most comfortable accommodations.

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72 Based on these definitions of luxury golf resorts a scenario was developed to describe the role of survey respondents. Accordingly, a scenario was utilized to delimit a condition in a luxury golf resort and involve respondents in the survey. T he scenario created follows: After finishing a big project in your company, you decide to take a vacation to play golf in the upcoming month. Considering your specified time, you find information about PGA National Resort & Spa in Golf Digest The travel itinerary is included: For a cost of $5,000, you are eligible to s tay 4 nights and 5 days in a deluxe room and to pla y 3 rounds of golf ; b reakfasts and d inners are provided You have asked a travel agency to send relevant information and have received a flier that includes the advertising message described in the next section. Message a ppeals The message appeal includ ing rational and emotional appeals was developed using textual information. Specifically, the rational appeal was manipulated by factual information to stimulate that strengthen the ability to assess the merits of buying the product (Puto & Wells, 1984; Yi, 1990) Several common attributes for luxury golf resorts are quality of accommodations condition of golf facilities convenience and other attractions ( Gottwik, 2005; Hudson & Hudson, 2011 ). Based on these criteria, one i nitial phrase and five statements were developed for the rational appeal as follow s : PGA National Resort Complete with 5 Golf Courses (initial phrase) Par 72 championship courses, Measurin g 7048 yards from the black tees 6373 yards from the blue tees 59 84 yards from the white tees and 5145 yards from the red tees. The championship courses, redesigned by Jack Nicklaus in 1989 and 2002, and now home of The Honda Classic. Five stars, Golf Resort located within 10 miles from Palm Beach International Airport FL.

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73 Each guestroom features a private patio, pillow top mattresses, and a separate living room. Blowing Rocks Preserve and Juno Beach Park located within 5 miles For the affective frame, the same number of statements was created containing significant i nformation with an affective tone. Affective tones are characterized by adjectives that indicate a more or less emotional quality ( Yi, 1990 ). The statement s for the affective frame follow: Transport yourself to a vibrant golf locale at PGA Golf Resort ( ini tial phrase) Put your handicap to the test on our championship golf course s Open but undulating fairways present ample opportunity for creative sho t making while inviting players to take a chance if they dare. Luxur ious and gorgeous golf resort is closely located in International airport, FL Comfortable room f u rnished with a secret patio, fleec e bed s heets and a spacious living room M ak e a fantastic getaway or plan an unforgettable travel within breathtaking beaches T hese statements and a copy were als o manipulated with the same pictorial information. Combined wit h a phrase, five statements and a picture for each treatment were designate d as the rational (or emotional) appeal Manipulation check. To assess the manipulation of message appeals ( rational v ersus emotional), a single item 7 point semantic differential scale from Rosselli, Skelly, and Mackie s (1995) study was modified and used for each advertisement. The single item describe d rational emotional Dependent Variables Attitude f ormation Att itude formation toward a product will be first measured for the luxury golf resort that participants were exposed to in the advertisement. The scales of attitude

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74 formation were modified from MacKenzie & Lutz s (1989) study Attitude formation will be measu red by the mean of four seven point semantic scales anchored by the adjectives: pleasant uncomfortable and favorable unfavorable. Moreover, this experiment examined perceived values of the luxury golf resort as attitude formation. In addit ion to attitude toward the luxury golf resort, this experiment examined perceived values, referred to Wiedmann et al s (2009) and Summers, Belleau and Xu s (2006) studies. As aforementioned, since the perceived risk of purchasing luxury products is higher than other products, p erceived values such as prestige and uniqueness strongly affect attitude formation toward the luxury products (Wiedmann, Hennings, & Siebels, 2009), Attitude related to perceived values was measured by three seven point Likert scales anchored by the adjectives: Visiting PGA Golf Resort is prestigious PGA Golf Resort is distinctive and PGA Golf Resort offers a reasonable price Before measuring attitude toward the golf tourism product, all questions were preceded by the question To me, PGA Golf Resort seems to be The same semantic scales were product. Visit i ntention After participants complete d the answers regarding attitude toward the luxury golf resort they we re asked to indicate the future intention to travel to PGA Golf Resort. Two measures assessed participants visit intention. F i rst, subjects rated their future intention by three items, 7 point semantic differential scale from Lutz (1977). Second, subjects rated the probability of their intention to travel on an 11 point numeric scale anchored by 0% and 100%.

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75 Result This section present s the result of statistical analyses to test the developed hypotheses in the following order: 1) Pilot Test, 2) Descriptive statistics of Measurements 3) Manipulation Checks for Message Appeals, and 3) Tests of Hypotheses. Pilot Test To confirm the validity of measurements and manipulations, a pilot test was conducted using a small number of sample ( n = 22). First, ANOVA ind icated a significant difference of emotionality (versus rationality) between two message appeals: M Rational Appeals = 3.64 ( SD = 1.50) versus M Emotional Appeals = 6.18 ( SD = .60), F (1 20) = 27.22, p < .001. In the main experiment, the manipulation chec k of message appeals was repeated with a larger number of samples. Second, subjects were divided into entity and the incremental beliefs group s based on their responses of implicit beliefs: entity belief, n = 12 (54.5%), M = 5.07 ( SD = .51 ) and incrementa l belief n = 10 (45.5%), M = 2.45 ( SD =1.19). To analyze implicit beliefs, the questions related to incremental beliefs (Q2, Q4, Q6, and Q8) were reversely coded. Then, participants who scored below mean score was classified as the incremental belief group and those who scored above mean score was classified as the entity beliefs group. This alignment procedure of self measures was repeated with a larger sample size in the main experiment Also, the reliability scores were .958 for the implicit beliefs. The refore, this scale is verified to be reliable.

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76 Descriptive Statistics of Measurements Study p articipants A total of 236 subjects were participated in this study. Participants took an average of 5 minutes and 4 seconds to finish the total experiment proced ure from manipulation to measurement. Respondents who were exposed rational appeals took longer to finish the survey compared to those who were exposed emotional appeals ( M Rational Appeals = 5 m 29 s and M Emotional Appeals = 5 m 14 s ). T o control various con founding situations respondents who have never played golf before and spent more than 30 minutes on the survey were excluded from the analyzed data. After data cleaning and filtering out ineligibles, a total of 200 responses were usable for the further a nalysis. As Table 3 5 indicated, a total sample consisted of 122 ( 61.0 %) males and 78 ( 39.0 %) females, the age of respondents were ranged from 19 to 92 years old and the average age was 34.91 years old ( SD = 12.20 ). The majority of participants consisted of Caucasian ( n = 111 55.5 %), followed by 34.5 % ( n = 69) Asian, 3.5 % ( n = 7) African American 3.0 % ( n = 6) Hispanic 3.0 % ( n = 6) Native American, and .5 % ( n = 1) others. A lmost half of the sample responded their highest level of education was College ( n = 107 53.5 %), followed by Graduate school ( n = 53 26.5 %) High School ( n = 23 8.5 %) and Community College ( n = 17 8.5 %) In addition, 15.0 % of respondents reply their total household income was ranged from $ 30,000 to $ 3 9,999, and also the average hou sehold income was approximately $ 64,500 Implicit beliefs Respondents were classified into entity and incremental belief groups based on their responses of implicit beliefs using median split and K mean clustering analysis (T able 3 7). After reverse coding of incremental belief related questions, t h e overall

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77 mean score of implicit beliefs was M = 3.85 ( SD = 1.19 ) Among the sample, 90 participants ( 45.0 %) recorded below mean score and they were classified as the entity beliefs group For the entity beliefs group the mean of implicit beliefs was M = 4.90 ( SD = 69 ) Additionally, 110 participants ( 55.0 %) and those recorded above mean score and they were classified as the incremental belief group For the incremental beliefs group the mean of implicit belief s was M = 2.99 ( SD = 74 ). Also, the reliability scores (Cronbach ) were = 890 Therefore, the scale of the implicit beliefs is reliable. Consumer golf and travel involvement First, subjects were divided into two groups as their golf involvement levels using median split and K mean clustering analysis (Table 3 6 and 3 8). In low golf involvement group, 124 subjects ( 62.0 %) were included ( M PII of Golf (Personal Involvement Inventory) = 4.22 M Times of Golf = 1.73 M Year = 4.10 M Score = 97.97 ) In hi gh golf involvement group 76 subjects ( 38.0% ) were included ( M PII of Golf = 6.11 M Times of Golf = 8.50 M Year = 13.63 M Score = 86.53 ). Second, in the same sample, subjects were divided into high and low involvement groups regarding travel (Table 3 6 and 3 8). In low travel involvement group 126 s ubjects ( 63.0 %) were included ( M PII of Travel = 6. 02 M Time of Travel = 4.94 M Time of Golf Travel = 1.05 and M Stay Days = 4.44 ) In high travel involvement 74 subjects ( 37.0 %) were included ( M PII of Travel = 6. 35 M Time of Travel = 15.77 M Time of Golf Travel = 8.84 and M Stay Days = 11.11 ). Manipulation Checks for Message Appeals The effect of the message appeal manipulation was measured using a single item modified from a scale developed by Ros selli, Skelly, and Mackie (1995). This manipulation check question was asked rationality or emotionality of two advertisements

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78 containing different message appeals. Participants exposed to emotional appeals were expected to rate this question higher than t hose exposed to rational appeals. As Table 3 9 indicated, respondents exposed to emotional appeals rated the question as significantly higher ( M = 5.05 ) than those exposed to rational appeals ( M = 3.27 ). Also, the statistical difference between rational and emotional appeals was significant ( t ( 182.663 ) = 1.78 p < .001). Dependent Variables To further purify multi item constructs of attitude toward the luxury golf resort and visit intention exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the principle compone nts and reliability test were employed. In terms of attitude toward the luxury golf resort, 5 items fell into the same factor, and factor loadings of the items ranged from .7 9 to 9 1. To ated and 909 was obtained for attitude toward the luxury golf resort that was above the .70 benchmark (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). In addition to the scale reliability, the scale validity was assessed using the Kaiser Meyer s test. As a result, the KMO value was .8 38 and the chi square ( 2 ) In terms of visit intention, 4 items were categorized into one factor, and factor loadings ranged from 87 to 96 T h e scale of visit intention was reliable, as alpha coefficient was 934 Moreover the scale was valid as KMO value was .8 59 and the chi square ( 2 ) Moreover, these dependent variables were calculated by weighted mean scores because the number of participants in several cells of each moderatin g group (i.e., golf and travel involvement and implicit beliefs) was less than 20 25 (Wade, 1977). When there are differences between the number of actual participants and designed sample

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79 sizes, weighted mean scores provide more robust mean scores than nor mal mean scores (Wade, 1977) Tests of Hypotheses To test hypotheses of Experiment 1, this study utilized analysis of variance (ANOVA), mainly. However, it was doubt that the sample of this study represented actual consumers of luxury golf resorts. To red uce control representativeness of the study sample, household income level was utilized as a covariate variable. Hypothesis 1 To test Hypothesis 1, a between subject test with two message appeals (rational versus. emotional) for attitude toward the luxu ry golf resort was performed. As shown in Figure 1, emotional appeal s were a greater impact on attitude formation than rational appeals (M Rational Appeals = 5.23 versus. M Emotional Appeals = 5.28 ), and the main effect of message appeals was not significa nt ( F (1, 183 ) = 3.515 p = 062 ). Thus, H1 was not supported. Hypothesis 2 A 2 (golf and travel involvement: high vs. low) x 2 (message appeals: rational vs. emotional) between subjects ANOVA was conducted to test the difference in the attitude toward the luxury golf resort. To accurately analyze the interaction and main effects between golf and travel involvement and message appeals, involvement levels were used as covariate variables. For example, when analyzing the effect of golf involvement, travel inv olvement is used as a covariate variable. The main effect of golf involvement level was not significant, F (1, 183 ) = 1.969 p = 219 indicating that subjects who were low involved in golf r esponded with a n equally favorable attitude toward the luxury go lf resort than those who were highly involved in

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80 golf ( M low golf involvement = 5.31 versus M high golf involvement = 5.16 ) The main effect of travel involvement level was also not significant, F (1, 183 ) = 2.926 p = 088 This result indicated that subj ects who were highly involved in travel r esponded with a n equally favorable attitude toward the luxury golf resort than those who were l ow involved in travel ( M low travel involvement = 5.22 versus M high travel involvement = 5.30 ) The main effect of mess age appeals was not significant; participants responded equally well to both message appeals ( M Rational = 5.23 versus M Emotional = 5.28 F (1, 183 ) = 3.515 p = 062 ) The main prediction of H2 that is the interaction between golf involvement levels and message appeals was significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 63.774 p < .001) Therefore, H2 was supported in terms of golf involvement. Given golf involvement, subjects who were highly involved in golf responded more favorably to rational than emotional appeals ( M Rat ional = 5.84 versus M Emotional = 4. 60 F (1, 183 ) = 49.688 p < .0 0 1 ), whereas subjects who were low involved in golf responded more favorably to emotional than rational appeals ( M Rational = 4.91 versus M Emotional = 5.76 F (1, 183 ) = 48.391 p < .0 0 1 ). T h erefore, H2a and H2b were supported for golf involvement. Meanwhile, the interaction between travel involvement levels and message appeals was not significant F (1, 183 ) = 1.612 p = 205 ). Therefore, H2 was not supported in travel involvement. Follow u p univariate analyses indicated that in the high travel involvement condition, the attitude toward the luxury golf resort was significantly different between rational and emotional appeals ( M Rational = 5.62 versus M Emotional = 4. 96 F (1, 1 83 ) = 9.142 p < 01 ) Under low travel involvement conditions, subjects responded favorable to emotional than informational appeals on the attitude

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81 toward the advertisement ( M Rational = 4.99 versus M E motional = 5.45 F (1, 1 83 ) = 17.180 p < .001 ) Thus, H2 a and H2b were supported. To test H2 1 and compare moderating effects between golf involvement levels and travel, slope analyses were employed. In the result of slope analyses, as Table 3 1 3 indicated, the beta value of golf involvement was greater than that of tra vel involvement. More specifically, in rational appeals, the beta value of golf involvement was greater than that of travel involvement (( golf involvement = 3.162 and travel involvement = 2.585, t (198) = 5.267, p < .001 ), and also, in emotional appeal s the beta value of golf involvement was greater than that of travel involvement ( golf involvement = 3.467 and travel involvement = 2.258, t (198) = 11.037, p < 001 ). Therefore, H2 1 was supported. Hypothesis 3 A 2 (implicit beliefs: entity vs. increme ntal) x 2 (message appeals: rational vs. emotional) between subject ANOVA allowed an examination of attitude toward the luxury golf resort. Also, since the hypothesis was expected that there would be no significant difference between message appeals, an eq uivalence test was conducted to test the statistical similarity between two message appeals. The interaction between implicit beliefs and message appeals was significant key prediction of H 3 regarding the main effect of implicit beliefs was significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 17.370 p < 0 01 ) T h erefore, H3 was not supported. The main effect of implicit belief was also significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 10.199 p < 0 1 ). Especially, entity subjects responded with a less favorable attitude toward the luxury golf resort than i ncremental subjects ( M Entity = 5.14 versus M Incremental = 5.35 ). In particular, the effect of rational appeals has statistically significant difference across implicit belief groups ( M Entity = 4. 88 versus M Incremental = 5.56, F (1, 183 ) =

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82 11.487 p < 0 01 ) whereas the effect of emotional appeals has no significant difference across implicit belief groups ( M Entity = 5.44 versus M Incremental = 5.16, F (1, 183 ) = 1.740 p = 189 ) T h erefore, H3a was not supported, whereas H3b was supported. In terms of effects of implicit beliefs, for the entity beliefs group, emotional appeals had a significant ly more impact on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort than rational appeals ( M Rational = 5.44 versus M Emotional = 4.88 F (1, 1 83 ) = 12.785 p < .0 0 1 ). For the incremental beliefs group rational appeals had a significant ly more impact on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort than emotional appeals ( M Rational = 5.56 versus M Emotional = 5.16 F (1, 1 83 ) = 6.041 p < .0 5). Hypothesis 4 To examine H4, a 2 (golf and travel involvement: high vs. low) x 2 (implicit beliefs: entity vs. incremental) x 2 (message appeals: rational vs. emotional) between subject ANOVA on attitude toward the luxury golf resort was performed. The main prediction of H4 was a three way interaction among golf and travel involvement, implicit beliefs, and message appeals. In addition, the moderating effect of implicit beliefs is greater than that of golf involvement levels and travel. The results are shown in Table 3 12 Figure 3 4 Figure 3 5 F i rst, the main effect of golf involvement levels was not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 1.969 p = 162) indicating that subjects who were low involved in golf r esponded with a slightly more favorable attitude toward the luxury golf re sort than those who were highly involved in golf ( M low golf involvement = 5.31 versus M high golf involvement = 5.16 ) The main effect of travel involvement level was also not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 2.926 p = 088 ), indicating that subjects who were h ighly involved in travel r esponded with a slightly more favorable attitude toward the luxury golf resort than those who were l ow involved

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83 in travel ( M low travel involvement = 5.22 versus M high travel involvement = 5.30 ) The main effect of implicit belie fs was also significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 10.199 p < 01), indicating that entity subjects responded with a less favorable attitude toward the luxury golf resort than incremental subjects ( M Entity = 5.14 versus M Incremental = 5.35 ). The main effect of messa ge appeals was not significant; participants responded equally well to both message appeals ( M Rational = 5.23 versus M Emotional = 5.28 F (1, 183 ) = 3.515 p = 062 ) Second, the key prediction of H4 was a three way interaction for golf involvement was n ot significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 2.346 p = 127 ) and also, a three way interaction for travel involvement was not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = .016 p = 899 ). T h erefore, H4 was supported. More specifically, under golf involvement, the two way interaction effec ts between entity beliefs and message appeals ( F (1, 183 ) = 36.849 p < 001 ) and between incremental beliefs and message appeals ( F (1, 183 ) = 21.725 p < 001 ) were significant. In addition, under travel involvement the two way interaction between entit y beliefs and message appeals ( F (1, 183 ) = 21.608 p < 001 ) and between incremental beliefs and message appeals ( F (1, 183 ) = 6.806 p < 01 ) were significant as well. Given golf involvement, in low involvement condition, the two way interaction between implicit beliefs and message appeals was significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 18.043, p < 001 ), whereas, high involvement condition, the two way interaction between implicit beliefs and message appeals was not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = .654 p = 420) With respect of travel involvement levels, in low involvement condition, the two way interaction between implicit beliefs and message appeals was significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 17.914 p < 001), whereas in high involvement condition, the two way interaction

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84 between impli cit beliefs and message appeals was not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 1.659 p = 199 ). Third follow up univariate analyses shown following results. The first follow up univariate analyses were conducted for involvement conditions in golf. In particular, for the entity beliefs group, the hypothesis indicated that there would be no significant difference between message appeals. To test statistically significant no differences, an equivalence test was performed. I n high involvement condition in golf, there was significant differences of attitudes toward the luxury golf resort between rational and emotional appeals indicating rational appeals were significantly highly scored than emotional appeals ( M Rational = 5.60 versus M Emotional = 4.48 F (1, 183 ) = 15.02 5 p < 001 ), and also, in low involvement condition in golf, there was significant differences of attitudes toward the luxury golf resort between rational and emotional appeals indicating that emotional appeals were significantly highly scored than rati onal appeals ( M Rational = 4.47 versus M Emotional = 5.94 F (1, 183 ) = 56.645 p < 001 ) T h erefore, in terms of golf involvement, H4 1 and H4 2 were not supported. For the incremental beliefs group, i n high involvement condition in golf there was sign ificant differences indicating that rational appeals were significantly highly scored than emotional appeals ( M Rational = 6.11 versus M Emotional = 4.65 F (1, 183 ) = 27.837 p < 001), whereas, in low involvement condition in golf, there was not signifi cant differences indicating rational and emotional appeals were equally scored ( M Rational = 5.31 versus M Emotional = 5.61 F (1, 183 ) = 4.038 p < 05). T h erefore, H4 3 and H4 4 were supported in terms of golf involvement.

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85 With respect of travel involv ement levels, entity subjects i n high involvement condition in travel showed no significant differences of attitudes toward the luxury golf resort between rational and emotional appeals ( M Rational = 5.19 versus M Emotional = 4.81 F (1, 183 ) = 1.765 p = 186 ), whereas entity s ubjects in low involvement condition in travel scored significantly higher for emotional than rational appeals ( M Rational = 4.69 versus M Emotional = 5.85 F (1, 183 ) = 35.898 p < 001). Therefore, in terms of travel involvement, H 4 1 was supported, whereas H4 2 w as not supported. For the incremental beliefs group, subjects in high involvement condition in travel s cored significantly higher for rational than emotional appeals on attitude toward the luxury golf resort ( M Rational = 6.06 versus M Emotional = 5.08 F (1, 183 ) = 9.206 p < 01 ), whereas subjects in low involvement condition were not significant differences between rational and emotional appeals ( M Rational = 5.26 versus M Emotional = 5.20 F (1, 183 ) = .233 p = 630 ). Therefore, in terms of travel involvement, H4 3 was supported, but H4 4 was not supported Last, to compare moderating effects between implicit beliefs and golf involvement levels and travel, slope analyses were employed. A s Table 3 1 3 indicated, beta va lues of implicit beliefs were smaller than those of golf and travel involvement. More specifically, in rational appeals, a beta value of implicit beliefs was significantly smaller than that of golf involvement ( implicit beliefs = 2.664 vs. golf involvement = 3.162, t (198) = 4.546 p < .001 ) and slightly bigger than that of travel involvement ( travel involvement = 2. 585, t (198) = 0.721 p = 472 ). I n emotional appeals, a beta value of implicit beliefs were smaller than those of golf and travel involvement ( implicit beliefs = 1.723 vs. golf

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86 involvement = 3.467, t (198) = 15.920 p < .001 ; and travel involvement = 2. 258, t (198) = 4.884 p < .001 ). T h erefore, H4 a was supported. Hypothesis 5 To test H5 w hich is the relationship between attitude toward the luxury golf resort and visit intention a simple linear regression analysis was employed. The linear regression analysis revealed that the relationship between attitude and visit intention to the luxury golf resort was positive and significant ( = .252 p < .001). T h erefore, H5 was supported. The further m ultiple hierarchical linear regression models ( MHLMs ) were used to test mediating effects of attitude toward the luxury golf resort on visit intention The first regression analyses were condu cted with message appeals, implicit beliefs, and golf and travel involvement as independent variables and attitude toward the luxury golf resort as a dependent variable. As Table 3 15 shown, the effect of message appeals was not significant ( = .108 p = 128 ) with dummy regression which is that rational appeals were coded as 0 and emotional appeals were coded as 1. The effect of implicit beliefs was also not significant ( =. 108 p = 129 ) In addition, the effect of golf involvement was statisticall y significant ( =. 159 p < .05) while the effect of travel involvement on attitude toward the luxury golf resort was significant ( =. 278 p < .0 01 ) at = .05 To test the medicating effect, significance level on simple regression analyses between indep endent variable s and attitude toward the luxury golf resort should be ensured. As such, this study is accepted to continuously test mediating regression analyses for golf and travel involvement The second regression was conducted between golf involvement and visit intention as dependent variable. The effect of golf involvement on visit intention was

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87 statistically significant ( =. 683 p < .0 01 ). The last test was multiple regressions conducted between interaction terms and visit intention as a dependent variable. The effects of golf involvement ( =. 660 p < .0 01 ) and attitude toward the luxury golf resort ( =. 147 p < .0 1 ) we re statistically significant. Baron and Kenny (1986) who developed the three steps of multiple regression analyses suggested that if the second beta value of an independent variable is bigger than the third be ta value, the mediating effect wa s sig nificant The result shown the second beta was .683 and the third b eta was .660 Therefore, we conclude d that the medi ating effect of attitude toward the luxury golf resort was significant and this effect was partially mediated. W h ile attitude toward the luxury g olf resort was mediated between golf involvement and visit intention, the effect of travel involvement on visit intention was not significant ( =. 132 p = 062 ) In the last regression analysis, the effect of travel involvement ( =. 068 p = 346 ) was not significant, whereas attitude toward the luxury golf resort was significant ( =. 233 p < .0 1 ) Therefore, the mediating effect of attitude toward the luxury golf resort was not significant in terms of travel involvement. Discussion The main objectives of Experiment 1 were to assess (1) the greater impact of emotional appeals on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort, (2) the moderating role of the involvement condition in golf and travel, (3) the greater impact of message appeals in the condi tion of incremental beliefs, and (4) the offsetting moderating role of implicit beliefs. Our findings suggested that golf involvement levels and implicit beliefs played moderating roles, but travel involvement levels did not. The result of hypotheses testi ng showed that golf involvement levels had the greatest impact on attitude

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88 formation toward the luxury golf resort. However, as expected, there was no three way interaction among involvement levels, implicit beliefs, and message appeals. The hypothesis 1 result indicated that emotional appeals were a slightly greater impact on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. The result was consistent with the hypothesis; however, there is no significant difference with rational appeals at = .05. Since the main effect of message appeals was not significant, it was proved that hypothesis 1 was not effective for the luxury brand context. Regarding consumer involvement levels, the effect of rational appeals was greater under high involvemen t conditions, while the effect of emotional appeals was greater under low involvement conditions. It was hypothesized that higher involved participants were more likely to prefer rational appeals, and lower involvement participants would tend to prefer emo tional appeals. C o nsistent with this hypothesis, the result showed that the effect of involvement levels was significant on message appeals in terms of either golf involvement levels or travel. However, the interaction effect between travel involvement lev els and message appeals did not reach significance. Connected with this result, the moderating effect of travel involvement levels was significantly smaller than golf involvement levels. Thus, golf related factors (e.g., involvement) were more effective in enhanc ing participants positive attitudes formation in the context of golf resorts. In the usage of message appeals as a manipulat or it was hypothesized that there was no interaction effect between message appeals and implicit beliefs. Contrary to h ypothesis 3, the interaction effect reached significance. In particular, participants who have entity beliefs were more likely to focus on emotional appeals, while those who

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89 have incremental beliefs tend ed to focus on rational appeals. Moreover, the effect of rational appeals was significantly different across implicit belief groups, while the effect of emotional appeals was consistent between entity and incremental beliefs. In the context of luxury golf resorts, implicit beliefs played a moderating role be tween message appeals and attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. While two way interaction effects were significant, a three way interaction effect among message appeals, implicit beliefs and involvement levels in both golf and travel did not exist. This assumption was unique compared to traditional dual process models because consumer inherent beliefs were added in this theoretical framework. When processing message appeals consisting of rational and emotional information implicit beliefs w ere not associated with consumers involvement levels. In terms of processing message appeals, implicit beliefs and consumers involvement levels respectively affect ed attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. We conducted Experiment 1 to confir m the effect of message appeals on attitude formation toward the luxury resort, in addition to the moderating effects of implicit beliefs and consumers involvement levels. Message appeals consist of rational and emotional appeals, which are associated wit h hierarchical patterns of generating motivation. T h erefore, this experiment attempted to examine the initial phase of consumers information processing and attitude formation. In the next study, we replicate and extend our finding. In Experiment 2, we em ployed motivational frames, which represent consumer motivation in processing information. This allow ed us to explore whether implicit beliefs are related to involvement levels and to examine the effect of

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90 motivational frames on consumers information pr ocessing and attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort.

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91 Table 3 1 Measurements of Experiment 1 Source Methods of Measurement Measures Implicit beliefs a (Dweck, 2000; Park & John, 2010) Measurement 1. Entity Belief Everyone i s a certain kind of person, and there is not much that anyone can do to really change that. Something basic about a person cannot really be changed. The important parts of who se people are cannot really be changed. 2. Incremental Belief People can ch ange even their most basic qualities. Everyone can significantly change his or her basic characteristics. People can substantially change the kind of person they are. Consumer Involvement of Golf and Travel b/c (Zaichkowsky, 1985; McGehee et al., 2003 ) Measurement 1. Semantic Scale b Important Unimportant Interesting Boring Relevant Irrelevant 2. Multiple choice & Open ended Scale Frequency of playing golf C Duration of playing golf C Average golf score d Frequency of golf travel C Frequency of pleasure and business travel C Average stay days in pleasure or business travel C a. 7 point Likert scale b 7 point semantic scale c. Multiple choice scale d. Open ended scale

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92 Table 3 2 Manipulation of Experiment 1 Source Methods of Measurement M easures Message Appeals Rational Stimulus PGA National Resort c omplete with 5 Golf Course s Par 72 championship courses, Measuring 7048 yards from the black tees 6373 yards from the blue tees 5984 yards from the white tees and 5145 yards from the red tees. T h e championship courses, redesigned by Jack Nicklaus in 1989 and 2002, and not home of The Honda Classic. F i ve stars, Grand Resort hotel is located within 10 miles from P alm Beach International Airport, FL Each guestroom features a private pat io, pillow top mattresses, and a separate living room. Blowing Rocks Preserve and Juno Beach Park located within 5 miles Emotional Stimulus Transport yourself to a vibrant golf locale Put your handicap to the test on our championship golf course s. Open and Undulating fairways present ample opportunity for creative shot making while inviting players to take a chance if they dare Luxur ious and gorgeous golf resort is closely located in International airport, FL Comfortable room f ur nished with secret patio, fleec e bed sheet s, and a spacious living room M ak e a fantastic getaway or plan an unforgettable travel within breathtaking beaches. Message Appeals a (Roselli et al, 1995) Manipulation Check The information of the PGA Golf Resort Rational Emotional a 7 point semantic scale

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93 Table 3 3 Dependent Measures Source Methods of Measurement Measures Attitude Formation Measurement a (Holmes & Crocker, 1987; Mackenzie & Lutz, 1989) To me, PGA Golf Resorts is Good Bad Pleasan t Uncomfortable Favorable Unfavorable Desirable Undesirable Measurement b (Wiedmann et al., 2009; Summer et al., 2006) I think that Visiting PGA Golf Resort is prestigious. PGA Golf Resort is distinctive. PGA Golf Resort offers a reasonable p rice. Visit Intention (Lutz, 1977) Measurement a The future intention to travel to PGA Golf Resort is Possible Impossible Likely Unlikely Probable Improbable Measurement c The probability that you would travel to PGA Golf Resort is: 0 % 100% a. 7 point semantic scale b. 7 point Likert scale b 11 point Likert scale

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94 Table 3 4 Propositions and Hypotheses for Experiment 1 P1: Message appeals have impacts on attitude formation. Result H1: T he effect of emotional appeal s on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort is greater than that of rational appeal s No Significant Difference P2: Consumer involvement levels (i.e., golf and travel) play a moderating role between message appeals and attitude formation. Result H2: A two way interaction effect on attitude formation exists between the type of message appeal and consumer involvement level regarding both golf and travel Golf: Significant Interaction Travel: No Significant Interaction H2 a : Under the high involve ment condition, the effect of the rational appeal is greater than that of the emotional appeal Golf: Accept Travel: Accept H2b: Under the low involvement condition, the effect of the emotional appeal is greater under the low involvement condition Golf Accept Travel: Accept H2 1 : The moderating effect of golf involvement is greater than that of travel involvement between message appeals and attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort Accept P3: Implicit beliefs play an offsetting moderating role between message appeals and attitude formation. Result H3: No significant interaction effect on attitude formation exists between the type of message appeal and implicit beliefs Significant Interaction H3 a : Regardless of implicit beliefs, the effect of rational appeals has no significant different impact on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort Significant Difference H3 b : Regardless of implicit beliefs, the effect of emotional appeals has no significant different impact on attitude formati on toward the luxury golf resort Accept

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95 Table 3 4. Continued P4: An interaction effect exists between consumer involvement level and implicit beliefs; furthermore, this effect also moderates between message appeal and attitude formation. Result H4 : No three way interaction effect on attitude formation exists among type of message appeal, consumer involvement level, and implicit beliefs. Golf: No Significant Interaction Travel: No Significant Interaction H4 a : T he moderating effect of i nvolvement levels is greater than that of implicit self theory between message appeals and attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. Golf: Accept Travel: Partially Accept For those who have entity belief, Golf: Significant Difference Travel: Accept H4 1: Under the high involvement condition, there is no significant difference in attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort between rational and emotional appeals. H4 2 : Under the low involvement condition, there is no significant difference in att itude formation toward the luxury golf resort between rational and emotional appeals. Golf: Significant Difference Travel: Significant Difference For those who have incremental belief, Golf: Accept Travel: Accept H4 3 : Under the high involvement co ndition, rational appeals have a greater impact on attitude toward the luxury golf resort than emotional appeals H4 4: Under the low involvement condition, emotional appeals have a greater impact on attitude toward the luxury golf resort than rational a ppeals. Golf: Reject Travel: Reject P5: Attitude toward the luxury golf resort plays a mediating role between information processing and visit intention. Result H5: Attitude toward the luxury golf resort positively influences the intention to visit the l uxury golf resort Accept

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96 Table 3 5 Descriptive Statistics of Study Participants ( N = 200 ) Variables Frequency Percent Gender Male 122 61.0 Female 78 39.0 Age Average age 34.91(SD = 12.20) Ethnicity Caucasian 111 55.5 Asian 69 34.5 African American 7 3.5 Hispanic 6 3.0 Native American 6 3.0 Others 1 0.5 Education Level College 107 53.5 Graduate School 53 26.5 Community College 17 11.5 High School 23 8.5 Household Income U nder $9,999 16 8.0 $10,000 $29,999 43 21.5 $30,000 $49,999 46 23.0 $50,000 $69,999 29 14.5 $70,000 $89,999 26 13.0 $90,000 $109,999 15 7.5 $110,000 $129,999 8 4.0 $130,000 $149,999 6 3.0 $150,000 $169,999 4 2.0 $170,000 $189,999 3 1.5 $190,000 $199,999 0 0.0 More than $200,000 4 2.0 Experience of Visitation in Luxury Golf Resort Yes 65 32.5 No 135 67.5 Total 200 100.0

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97 Table 3 6 Number of Study Participants by Group ( N = 200 ) Rational Appeals Emotional Appeals Entity Belief Incremental B elief Entity Belief Incremental Belief Golf involvement Low 31 35 27 31 High 18 16 14 28 Travel involvement Low 30 32 25 39 High 19 19 16 20 Table 3 7 Means of Implicit beliefs : Entity and Incremental Belief Entity Belief Incre mental Belief Frequency ( N = 200) 90 (45.0%) 110 Implicit Beliefs a Mean 4.90 (.69) 2.99 (.74) Statistics t ( 198 ) =18.663, p < .001; Cronbach s = .890 Note Mean scores represent the average rating on seven point scales anchored from 1 (Str ongly Disagree) to 7 (Strongly Agree). Standard deviations are in parentheses. a. Incremental belief related questions were reversely coded.

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98 Table 3 8 Means of Involvement Level: Consumer Golf and travel involvement Low Involvement High Inv olvement Total Mean Golf involvement n = 124 n = 76 N = 200 PII a of Golf 4.22 (1.57) 6.11 (.74) 4.94 (1.60) Times of Golf 1.73 (2.49) 8.50 (7.57) 4.31 (6.02) Years of Golf 4.10 (5.11) 13.63 (13.36) 7.72 (10.24) Average Scores 97.97 (22.80) 86.53 (22.99) 92.97 (23.51) Travel involvement n =1 26 n = 74 N = 200 PII a of Travel 6.02 (1.01) 6.35 (.75) 6.14 (.93) Times of Travel 4.94 (4.48) 15.77 (7.07) 8.95 (7.64) Times of Golf Travel 1.05 (1.66) 8.84 (8.17) 3.93 (6.36) Days of Stay 4.44 (2.44) 11.11 (8 .50) 6.91 (6.37) Note. Mean scores of PII represent the average rating on seven point scales anchored from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7 (Strongly Agree). Standard deviations are in parentheses. a. PII = Personal Involvement Inventory Table 3 9 A Manipulat ion Check of Message Appeals Rational Appeals Emotional Appeals Mean 3.27 ( 1.78 ) 5.0 5 ( 1.32 ) Statistics t (182.663 ) = 1.78 p < .001 Note Mean scores represent the average rating on a seven point scale anchored from 1 (Rational) to 7 (Emotional). Stan dard deviations are in parentheses.

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99 Table 3 10 Means of Attitude a toward PGA National Resort & Spa Rational Appeals Emotional Appeals Entity Belief Incremental Belief Mean of INV Entity Belief Incremental Belief Mean of INV Golf involvement Low Involvement 4.47 (.68) 5.31 (.93) 4.91 (.92) 5.94 (.71) 5.61 (.99) 5.76 (.87) High Involvement 5.60 (.72) 6.11 (.81) 5.84 (.79) 4.48 (.36) 4.65 (.70) 4.60 (.61) Travel involvement Low Involvement 4.69 (.91) 5.26 (.94) 5.45 (.92) 5 .85 (.79) 5.20 (.93) 5.45 (.93) High Involvement 5.19 (.75) 6.06 (.79) 5.62 (.83) 4.81 (.77) 5.08 (1.10) 4.96 (.96) M ean of Implicit beliefs 4.88 (.88) 5.56 (.96) 5.44 (.92) 5.16 (.98) Mean of Message Appeals 5.23 (.98) 5.28 (.96) Note Mea n scores represent the weighted average rating on three seven point semantic scales anchored from 1 (Negative Meaning) to 7 (Positive Meaning) and two seven point Likert scales anchored from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7 (Strongly Agree). Standard deviations are in parentheses. a. Cronbach s alpha (5 items) = 909

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100 Table 3 11 Univariate Statistics on Means of Attitude toward PGA National Resort & Spa Source SS df MS F a Sig. Implicit beliefs (I) 5.681 1 5.681 10.199 .001** Golf involvement ( G) 1.097 1 1.097 1.969 .162 Travel involvement (T) 1.630 1 1.630 2.926 .088 Message Appeals (M) 1.958 1 1.958 3.515 .062 I x G .417 1 .417 .749 .387 I x T 2.544 1 2.544 4.567 .034* I x M 9.675 1 9.675 17.370 <.001*** G x M 35.522 1 35.522 63 .774 <.001*** T x M .898 1 .898 1.612 .205 I x G x M 1.307 1 1.307 2.346 .127 I x T x M .009 1 .009 .016 .899 I at M Rational 6.398 1 6.398 11.487 <.001*** G at M Rational 11.741 1 11.741 21.079 <.001*** T at M Rational 2.690 1 2.690 4.829 .029* I x G at M Rational 1.466 1 1.466 2.632 .106 I x T at M Rational 1.455 1 1.455 2.612 .108 I at M Emotional .969 1 .969 1.740 .189 G at M Emotional 19.650 1 19.650 35.278 <.001*** T at M Emotional .073 1 .073 .131 .718 I x G at M Emotional .097 1 .097 .174 .677 I x T at M Emotional 1.172 1 1.172 2.104 .148 G at I Entity .064 1 .064 .115 .734 T at I Entity .048 1 .048 .086 .769 M at I Entity 7.121 1 7.121 12.785 <.001*** G x M at I Entity 20.525 1 20.525 36.849 <. 001*** T x M at I Entity 12.033 1 12.033 21.603 <.001*** G at I Incremental 1.707 1 1.707 3.065 .082 T at I Incremental 4.713 1 4.713 8.461 .004** M at I Incremental 3.365 1 3.365 6.041 .015* G x M at I Incremental 12.101 1 12.101 21.725 <.001*** T x M at I Incremental 3.791 1 3.791 6.806 .009** Error 101.970 183 .557 p < .05; ** p < .01; and *** p < .001 a. F score was manually calculated using the three way ANOVA Error term

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101 Table 3 12 Three Way ANOVA of Involvement on Means of Attitude toward PGA National Resort & Spa Source SS df MS F a Sig. I x G x M 1.307 1 1.307 2.346 .127 I x T x M .009 1 .009 .016 .899 I at G low 3.680 1 3.680 6.607 .011* M at G low 26.954 1 26.954 48.391 <.001*** I x M at G low 10. 050 1 10.050 18.043 <.001*** I at M Rational at G low 13.861 1 13.861 24.885 <.001*** I at M Emotional at G low .436 1 .436 .783 .377 M at I Entity and G low 31.551 1 31.551 56.645 <.001*** M at I Incremental and G low 2.249 1 2.249 4.038 .046* I at G High 2.080 1 2.080 3.734 .055 M at G High 27.676 1 27.676 49.688 <.001*** I x M at G High .364 1 .364 .654 .420 I at M Rational at G High 2.332 1 2.332 4.187 .042* I at M Emotional at G High .393 1 .393 .706 .402 M at I Enti ty and G High 8.369 1 8.369 15.025 <.001*** M at I Incremental and G High 15.505 1 15.505 27.837 <.001*** I at T low .014 1 .014 .025 .874 M at T low 9.569 1 9.569 17.180 <.001*** I x M at T low 9.978 1 9.978 17.914 <.001*** I at M Rat ional at T low 7.188 1 7.188 12.905 <.001*** I at M Emotional at T low 1.225 1 1.225 2.199 .140 M at I Entity and T low 19.995 1 19.995 35.898 <.001*** M at I Incremental and T low .130 1 .130 .233 .630 I at T High 8.349 1 8.349 14.989 <.001*** M at T High 5.092 1 5.092 9.142 .003** I x M at T High .924 1 .924 1.659 .199 I at M Rational at T High 7.103 1 7.103 12.752 <.001*** I at M Emotional at T High .957 1 .957 1.718 .191 M at I Entity and T High .983 1 .983 1.765 .186 M at I Incremental and T High 5.128 1 5.128 9.206 .003** Error 101.970 183 .557 p < .05; ** p < .01; and *** p < .001 a. F score was manually calculated using the three way ANOVA Error term

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102 Table 3 13 Slope Analysis of moderators Message Appeals Golf involvement Travel involvement Implicit beliefs Rational Appeals 3.162 2.585 2.664 t (198) = 5.267, p < .001 Emotional Appeals 3.467 2.258 1.723 t (198) = 11.037, p < 001 Note. Scores represent beta values. Table 3 14 Mediated Multiple Regression Analyses of Attitude toward Visit Intention Adjustment Variables R 2 F ( df ) Independent Variable: Message Appeals (M) a M Attitude (A) .108 .012 2.333(198) M Visit Intention (V) .128 .016 3.297(198) M + A Visit Intention (V) .325 .074 7.848(197)** .540(A)*** Independent Variable: Implicit beliefs (I) b I Attitude (A) .108 .005 1.063(198) I Visit Intention (V) .077 .014 2.899(198) I + A Visit Intention (V) .050 .017 1.727(197) .247(A)*** Independent Variable: Golf involvement (G) c G Attitude (A) .159* .025 5.135(198)* G Visit Intention (V) .683*** .467 173.185(198)*** G + A Visit Intention (V) .660***. .488 93.762(197)*** .147(A)** Independent Variable: Travel invol vement (T) c T Attitude (A) .278*** .077 16.560(198)*** T Visit Intention (V) .132 .018 3.535(198) T + A Visit Intention (V) .068 .068 7.157(197)** .233(A)*** p < .05; ** p < .01; and *** p < .001 a. In dummy regression analysis, Rationa l Appeals were coded as 0 and Emotional Appeals were coded as 1. Entity was coded as 0 and Incremental was coded as 1. b. Incremental related questions were reversely coded b. Simple regression was conducted using PII involvement scale.

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103 F (1, 183 ) = 3.515 p = 062 Figure 3 1 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 1 Interaction: F (1, 183 ) = 63.774 p < 001*** Low: F (1,18 3 ) = 48.391 p < 001*** High: F (1,18 3 ) = 49.688 p < 001*** A Interaction: F (1,18 3 ) = 1.612 p = 205 Low: F (1,18 3 ) = 17.180 p < 001*** High: F (1,18 3 ) = 9.142 p = 00 3 ** B Figure 3 2. Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 2. A) Under Golf involvement B) Under Travel involvement

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104 Interaction: F (1,18 3 ) = 17.370 p < 001*** Ration al : F (1,18 3 ) = 11.487 p < 001*** Emotional : F (1,18 3 ) = 1.740 p = 189 Entity: F (1,18 3 ) = 12.785 p < 001*** Incremental: F (1,18 3 ) = 6.041, p = 0 15 Figure 3 3 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 3 Three way: F (1,18 3 ) = 2. 346 p = 12 7 Two way: F (1,18 3 ) = 36.849 p < .0 01*** Low: F (1,18 3 ) = 56.645 p < .0 01*** High: F (1,18 3 ) = 15.025 p < .0 01*** A Three way: F (1,183) = 2. 346 p = 12 7 Two way: F (1,183) = 21.725 p < .0 01*** Low: F (1,183) = 4.038 p = 046* High: F (1, 18 3 ) = 27.837 p < .0 01*** B Figure 3 4 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 4 under Golf Involvement A) Under Entity Belief B) Under Incremental Belief.

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105 Three way: F (1,18 3 ) = 016 p = 299 Two way: F (1,18 3 ) = 21.608 p < .0 01*** Low: F (1,18 3 ) = 35.898 p < .0 01*** High: F (1,18 3 ) = 1.765 p = 1 86 A Three way: F (1,18 3 ) = 016 p = 299 Two way: F (1,18 3 ) = 6.806 p = 003** Low: F (1,18 3 ) = 233 p = 630 High: F (1,18 3 ) = 9.206 p = .0 0 3 ** B Figure 3 5 Attitude to ward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 4 under Travel Involvement A) Under Entity B) Under Incremental Figure 3 6 T h e Result of Hypothesis 5 = .252 t (198) = 3.665, p <.0 01

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106 CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 2: MOTIVATIONAL FRAMES The purpose of Experiment 2 was to examine the effects of motivational frames ( approach versus avoidance) the moderating role of involvement in these effects and the offset ting moderating role of the implicit beliefs (entity versus incremental) under a low involvement condition. I n particular, involvement was operationalized as golf and travel involvement (high versus low) the motivational frame was operationalized as a copy of the advertisement ( approach versus avoidance) and the implicit beliefs was measured as individual implicit beliefs (entity versus inc remental). The dependent variables of these effects were operationalized in two domains: attitude formation and visit intention for the suggested luxury golf resort. Hypotheses Hypotheses were developed based on the five propositions supported by the lit erature review. The hypotheses comprised five parts ( Table 4 2 and Figure 4 1 ): Proposition 1: Motivational frames have a different impact on attitude formation by characteristics of luxury products In terms of message s or frame s of the advertisement ne gative messages or frames are more persuasive in high levels of elaboration (Maheswaran & Meyers Levy, 1990). In the model of persuasion generally, positive frames precipitate approach behavior, whereas negative frames provoke avoidance behavior (Rothman, Bartels, Wlaschin, & Salovey, 2006). Because motivational frames play a role in activating an individual s behavior, more approached motivated consumers prefer positive frames to negative frames (Lee & Aaker, 2004). In contrast, since negative frames gene rate scrutiny of message processing and high elaboration conditions to processing

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107 information, avoidance motivated consumers prefer negative frames (Jain, Mathur, & Maheswaran, 2009; Maheswaran & Meyers Levy, 1990 ). D u e to the unique characteristics of se rvice oriented products, including intangibility inseparability, and heterogeneity, the context of luxury golf resorts have been categorized as a hedonic product ( Mattila 2001; Wu & Liang, 2009 ). The c onsumer behavior literature indicate s that consumers need high elaborat ed efforts to process information regarding he donic criteria of products (Adval, 2001). In product judgments hedonic products require a more complicated process than functional products ( Stafford & Day 1 995 ) T h erefore, the condition of high elaboration is suitable for information processing of hedonic products Consistent with their findings, Chang (2006) also found that negative ly framed ad vertisements generate more favorable attitudes toward hedonic products. Based on an extensive rev iew of the literature, the following hypothesis was developed (Figure 4 2): H1: The effect of an avoidance frame on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort is greater than that of an approach frame Proposition 2: Consumer involvement levels (i.e. golf and travel) play a moderating role between motivational frame and attitude formation. Insight on the involvement issue in the dual process model, there is a significant interaction between consumer involvement and positive /negative frames ( Maheswara n & Meyers Levy 1990 ). U nder low involvement conditions, people are not willing to scrutinize frames diligently in the ir information processing (Chaiken, 1980; Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983). S i nce people are likely to form attitudes on the basis of s imple inferences derived from peripheral cues, the information is processed based on the valence of peripheral cues in low involvement conditions (Maheswaran & Meyers Levy 1990 ; Petty et al 1983). On the other hand since in high involvement conditions

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108 individuals can afford to process information or issue s with high levels of scrutiny messages and information should be processed in detail. When individuals process negative frames, they have to exert more effort; thus, n egative ly framed messages have m ore influence on attitude formation toward products or issues under high involvement conditions (Maheswaran & Meyers Levy, 1990). On the basis of the preceding theorizing, the following hypothes e s w ere formulated (Figure 4 3): H2: A two way interaction eff ect on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort exists between the type of motivational frame and consumer involvement level reg arding both golf and travel H2a: Under the high involvement condition, the effect of avoidance frames is greater than t hat of approach frames H2b: Under the low involvement condition, the effect of approach frames is greater than that of avoidance frames Previous sport tourism research has verified that there are no significant differences between sport involvement and travel involvement (McGehee, Yoon, & Cardenas, 2003). T h eir result identified that travel involvement has less impact on segment recreational road runners. However, participants interests and involvement in sport activities trigger closer connections to t he destination in which the setting is offered for the activity (Bricker & Kerstetter, 2000; Filo, Chen, King, & Funk, 2011). In comparison to sport involvement, travel involvement is less reliant on sport settings. Therefore, the following hypothesis is d eveloped similarly to Experiment 1: H2 1 : The moderating effect of golf involvement is greater than that of travel involvement between motivational frames and attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. Proposition 3: Implicit beliefs play an offset ting moderating role between motivational frames and attitude formation.

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109 W h en people are exposed to different advertising frames, they might use different information processors. Contrary to message appeals, motivational frames contain the information to m otivate people to participate in the activity ( Sherman, Mann, & Updegraff, 2006 ). In marketing research the motivation frames in terms of gain and loss have often been used in marketing strategies to enhance consumers message persuasion (Maheswara & Meye rs Levy, 1990; Shiv, Edell, & Payne, 1997). Therefore, motivation frames have a direct impact on encouraging people to purchase the product. As previously mentioned, implicit beliefs represent lay people general beliefs regarding the mutability and immuta bility of attributes and encountered information (Dweck, Chiu, & Hong, 1995). T h e theory provides a useful framework for people to evaluate information associated with motivational responses that imply what he or she is interested in (Dweck & Leggett, 1988 ; Poon & Koehler, 2006). Therefore, the theory influences how individuals judge the self, others, and the product and exert a powerful influence on information processing (Jain, Mathur & Maheswaran, 2009). E ntity people are insensitive to advertising messa ges and frames because they are likely to generate outcome related thoughts similar to Experiment 1 In contrast, incremental people are more sensitive to advertising stimuli because they tend to ward situation related thoughts (Flatherty & Pappas, 2000 ; H ong, Chiu, Dweck, & Sacks, 1997; Jain et al., 2009) R egarding the effect of incremental beliefs on information processing, incremental people focus on the situation and exert more effort to process information in detail (Jain et al., 2009). When presented with different motivational frames, they might focus on advertiser s tactics and manipulative advertiser intents. Recent research has demonstrated that approach and avoidance frames lead to cognitions about advertising,

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110 such that avoidance framed advertis ements are evaluated less favorably as generated by tactics related thoughts because people might be challenged to understand advertisement tactics (Shiv, Edell, & Payne, 1997). C o nsistent with this research, Jain and Posavac (2004) found that avoidance fr ames are defined more as counterarguments and involve less supported arguments than approach frames. Negatively framed messages are considered less believable and lead to less favorable attitudes toward the advertisement products. T h erefore, the effect of approach frames might be observed only for incremental people. Based on the foregoing literature, the following hypothesis was developed (Figure 4 4): H3: A two way interaction effect on attitude formation exists between the type of motivational frame and implicit beliefs H3a: For those who have entity belief, there is no significant difference in attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort between approach and avoidance frames. H3b: For those who have incremental belief, the effect of approach fram e is greater than that of avoidance frame. Proposition 4: An interaction effect exists between consumer involvement level and implicit beliefs ; furthermore, this effect also moderates between motivational frame and attitude formation. According to Hong an d her colleagues (1997), decision making behavior should be associated with motivations toward the final goal in implicit beliefs. Specifically, these motivations can be relied upon differently in order to process information based on personal beliefs and relevance regarding the information at hand. Similarly, Jain and Maheswaran (2000) illustrated that information consisten t with preferences or interests leads to message elaboration and involvement levels. Therefore, the role of motivation is significant i n determining individual implicit belief

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111 Consumer involvement is also defined as a state of interest, motivation or arousal, in turn effort is a function of the level of involvement 216). This state exists in a process. It is driv en by hierarchical processes associated with cognitive and affective responses, and then motivational responses (Leavitt, Greenwald & Obermiller, 1981). As these studies indicated, the terms of involvement account for the degree to which people are interes ted in the products. T h erefore, the relationship between involvement and motivation exists, and also these two terms connote a similar meaning, which is the degree to which people are interested in the products or activity (Kyle, Absher, Hammitt, & Cavin, 2006). Based on this theoretical evidence, the following hypothesis was developed: H4: A three way interaction effect on attitude formation exists among type of motivational frame consumer involvement level and implicit beliefs H4a: T he moderating eff ect of implicit beliefs is greater than that of involvement levels between motivational frames and attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort When consumers engage in a high involvement condition, they engage in extensive elaboration and greater scr uti nize the encountered information they encountered ( Petty et al 1983; Plaks et al 2005). Both e ntity and incremental people are interested in the information that is related to their personal relevance and process the message with different informat ion processing strategies. M ore specifically, since entity people believe in the immutability of suggested information, they might focus on the expected outcome of the motivational frame. As Skowronski and Carlson (1987) suggested, positive information is more straightforward in diagnosing an outcome. Therefore, entity people will focus on approach frames that are more direct to predict outcomes. In contrast, incremental people tend to focus less on outcomes and more on

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112 information that emphasizes the adver tising intents or tactics (Hong et al 1997). A l so, since they have more elaborated process es and induce greater message scrutiny, negative ly framed messages are more effective for incremental people (Jain et al 2009). Under low involvement conditions, motivational frames are ineffective in provoking message scrutiny (Jain et al 2009; Plaks et al 2005). When people engage in low levels of involvement people are more likely to choose easier ways to predict outcome s because they are less motivated to evaluate information (Jain et al., 2009; Plaks et al., 2005) Therefore, under low involvement, entity people focus on the outcome of the advertised product, and thus they will reach the same conclusion for both frames. In contrast, a s H ypothesis 3 indica tes this effect of motivational frame s is effective only to incremental people I ncremental people tend to use less scrutin ized ways to process information, and positive and approached frames are more persuasive (Maheswaran & Meyers Levy, 1990). Therefore under low involvement conditions, only incremental people respond to approach motivational frames to process information more easily in a manner similar to Hypothesis 3. Based on these evidences, the following hypotheses have been suggested: For those wh o have entity belief, H4 1: Under t he high involvement condition approach frames have a greater impact on attitude toward the luxury golf resort than avoidance frames H4 2: Under the low involvement condition there are no significant differences in att itude formation toward the luxury golf resort between approach and avoidance frames. For those who have incremental belief,

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113 H4 3: Under the high involvement condition avoidance frames have a greater impact on attitude toward the luxury golf resort than a pproach frames. H4 4: Under the low involvement condition approach frames have a greater on attitude toward the luxury golf resort than avoidance frames Proposition 5: Attitude toward luxury golf resorts plays a mediating role between information proces sing and visit intention. Finally the same hypothesis in Experiment 1 was employed This hypothesis related to the mediating effect of attitude toward the luxury golf resort on visit intention : H5: Attitude toward the luxury golf resort is positively in fluence the intention to visit to the luxury golf resort. Methods Design A 2 ( motivational frames: approach or avoidance ) x 2 ( implicit beliefs : entity or incremental) X 2 ( golf and travel involvement : high or low ) between subject s experimental design was employed. Each experimental condition was divided into three sets: approach and avoidance frames, entity or incremental beliefs, and high and low golf involvement levels and travel Self measures of implicit beliefs and consumer involvement used the same measurement as in Experiment 1 (Table 3 1). T wo motivational advertisements with different manipulation conditions were developed based on prior studies and existing advertisements of luxury golf resorts (Table 4 1). In addition, the same dependent variabl e s were also developed (Table 3 3 ). Procedure Sampling method. To enhance internal validity and to avoid a carry over effect (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002), participants were recruited heterogeneously for Experiment 1. With the exception of the identity of participants, the other procedures

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114 and confiden tiality of this study were similar to Experiment 1 A group of 165 participants were expected to be recruited for this experiment. This experiment was conducted using the same criteria as Experiment 1 Fur thermore, this experiment employed Amazon s Mechanical Turk, similar to Experiment 1. Data collection procedure. This survey comprised seven sections: ( a) an informed consent form and instructions (approved by IRB), (b) a brief written scenario regarding travel to the luxury resort and filter questions, (c) manipulation of approach and avoidance frame s ( d) dependent variables and manipulation checks (e ) self measures of implicit belief and involvement levels of golf and travel, (f ) questions of responden t characteristics and (g ) debriefing. The written scenario and self measures of implicit personalit y and involvement were not changed However, the manipulation of motivational frame s differ ed from Experiment 1. Two advertisement s were randomly assigned. The motivational frame was presented as a copy of the advertising article. T h e advertising article was developed based on an existing advertisement of the luxury golf resort. Within the advertising article, approach and avoidance frames were manipulated i n the main copy of the article. Therefore, the advertising article did not play a manipulating role in this experiment Moreover these stimuli were fabricated but relevant to general advertisements of the golf resort Then, participants were asked to comp lete several questions to check manipulation of stimuli When participants complete d the manipulation checks of motivational frames they were asked to answer dependent questions and self measured questions (i.e.,

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115 implicit beliefs, involvement levels, and demographics ) in the same manner as in Experiment 1. Analysis procedure. Most statistical procedures in Experiment 2 were similar to those in Experiment 1 Similar to Experiment 1 respondents were divided into two set s (entity/incremental and high/low g olf and travel involvement ) to measure the effect of motivational frames Then, similar statistical analyses were conducted Measurements T h is section was described measurement s and developed stimuli, which were used in Experiment 2. Same manners with Exp eriment 1, two (2) moderators were operated as self measured methods and motivational frames were manipulated as advertisement stimuli. Self Measures of Moderators C onsumer golf involvement levels and travel and implicit beliefs were measured using the s ame scales from Experiment 1. In measuring implicit beliefs, participants were divided into two sets entity and incremental belief groups. Also, measuring golf and travel involvement enable us to classify participants into high and low involvement group s. To classify participants by their implicit person beliefs and involvement, this study used median split and K mean clustering analysis. e Stimuli Development : Motivational Frames In Experiment 2, the stimulus consist ed of the advertising article and the copy The advertising article used both approach and avoidance stimuli and the copy with approach and avoidance frame s was added to the advertising article Therefore, t he copy represent ed motivational frame s.

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116 According to several theories of motivation approach and avoidance motivational frames are framed differently regarding the targeted product or issue (Sherman, Mann, & Updegraff, 2006). In the approach frame condition, the statements indicated benefits gained due to reducing potential disadvantage s. In contrast, in the avoidance frame condition, the statements revealed benefits lost due to failure to reduce disadvantages (Jain, Mathur, & Maheswaran, 2009). To empirically assess motivational frames, this experiment utilize d positive ly (or negative ly ) framed messages (Maheswaran & Meyers Levy, 1990; Rothman, Bartels, Wlaschin, & Salovey, 2006). Consistent with the finding of studies related to motivational frames, approach motivated consumers prefer positive frames while avoidance motivation is causal ly related to negative messages (Lee & Aaker, 2004; Rothman et al 2006). To motivate the targeted customers of the luxury golf resort, the motivational frame was developed by focusing on value. F or customers of luxury oriented products, value and presti ge are more effective because these factors are attributed to spending more money and time rather than objects (Gottwik, 2005; Wu & Liang, 2009). Therefore, this study develop ed approach and avoidance frames in the aspect of consumer s Based on the theoretical issue, the approach frame for the luxury golf resort was developed as follows: Take a great chance to improve your prestige Also, the avoidance frame was developed based on the theoretical evidence : Do not miss a great chance to improv e your prestige

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117 These two levels of motivational frames were added to the advertising article r egarding the luxury golf resort context. T h e article was adapted from an existing golf promotion advertisement ( http://www.arizonagrandresort.com/arizona resort presskit.php ). Manipulation check. To assess the manipulation of motivational frames, a two item 7 point semantic scale, modified from Lee and Aaker (2005) and Maheswaran and Meyers Levy (1990) was used in each stimulus Two 7 point semantic scales w ere included: Preventing to miss a chance to improve my prestige Pr omoting to take a chance to improve my prestige and the Negative implication of PGA Golf Resort the Positive implication of PGA Golf Resort preceded by the statement as Regarding t h is information of PGA Golf Resort I feel the message contains Dependent Variables Dependent variable measures were the same as in Experiment 1 (Table 3 3). Questions about a ttitude formation and future intention to visit the luxury golf resort were used to test the hypotheses. The same scale and items from Experiment 1 were used in Experiment 2. Result This part present s the result of statistical analyses to test the developed hypotheses in the following order: 1) Pilot Test, 2) Descriptive statistics of M easurements 3) Manipulation Checks for Motivational Frames, and 3) Tests of Hypotheses. Pilot Test In Experiment 2, pilot test was conducted using a small number of sample ( n = 20) to confirm the validity of measurements and manipulations. First, t test was

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118 conducted to verify the statistical difference of promotion/prevention between two motivational frames: M Approach Frames = 6.00 ( SD = 1.33) versus M Avoidance Frames = 2.50 ( SD = 1.90), F (1, 18) = 22.73, p < .001. Therefore, these stimuli were valid to manipulate motivational frames. Additionally, there is no significant difference in positivity/negativity between two motivational frames: M Approach Frames = 5.70 ( SD = 1.06) versus M Avoidance Frames = 4.80 ( SD = 2.25), F (1, 18) = 1.31, p =.268. T h er efore, this question of positive/negative was not available to identify two motivational stimuli. Second, subjects were divided into entity and incremental belief groups based on their responses of implicit beliefs: entity belief, n = 8 (40%), M = 5.13 ( SD = .77 ) and incremental belief n = 12 (60%), M = 2.91 ( SD =.59). The reliability scores were .855 for the implicit beliefs. Descriptive Statistics of Measurements Study Participants A total of 215 subjects were participated in this study. It took partici pants an average of 5 minutes and 39 seconds to finish the total experiment procedure from manipulation to measurement. Respondents who were exposed avoidance frames took longer to finish their responses than those who were exposed approach frames ( M Appro ach Frames = 4 m 29 s and M Avoidance Frames = 6 m 49 s ). Responses from tho se who also participated in Experiment 1 were excluded from the final study and also, respondents who spent more than 30 minutes on the survey were excluded from the analyzed data t o control various confounding situations After data cleaning and filtering out ineligibles as noted above, a total of 200 responses were usable for the further analysis. As Table 4 3 indicated, a total sample consisted of 124 ( 62.0 %) males and 76 ( 38.0 %) females, the age of respondents were

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119 ranged from 18 to 72 years old and the average age was 32.15 years old ( SD = 10.90 ). The majority of participants consisted of Caucasian ( n = 127 63.5 %), followed by 23.0 % ( n = 46) Asian 4.5 % ( n = 9) Hispanic 4.0 % ( n = 8) African American, 1.5 % ( n = 3) Native American and.3. 5 % ( n = 7) others. A lmost half of the sample responded their highest level of education was College ( n = 92 46.0 %), followed by Graduate school ( n = 44 22.0 %) High School ( n = 36 18.0 %) and C ommunity College ( n = 28 14.0 %) In addition, 13.5 % of respondents reply their total household income was ranged from $ 2 0,000 to $ 2 9,999, and also the average household income was approximately $ 61,800 Implicit beliefs Respondents were classified into entity and incremental belief groups based on their responses of implicit beliefs (Table 4 5). The mean of implicit beliefs was M = 3.77 ( SD = 1.29 ) Among respondents, 89 subjects ( 44.5 %) were classified as the entity belief group ( M = 4.90 ; SD = 8 0 ) wh ereas 111 participants ( 55.5 %) were classified as the incremental belief group ( M = 2.86 ; SD = 79 ) Moreover, the reliability scores (Cronbach ) were = 899 Therefore, the scale of the implicit beliefs is reliable in Experiment 2. Consumer golf and travel involvement First, subjects were re divided into two groups as their golf involvement levels (Table 4 4 and 4 6). In terms of golf involve ment, 110 subjects ( 55.0 %) were included in low golf involvement groups ( M PII of Golf (Personal Involvement Inventory) = 3. 5 3, M Times of Golf = 92 M Year = 2.79 M Score = 97.66 ), whereas 90 subjects ( 45.0 %) were included in high golf involvement group s ( M PII of Golf = 5.90 M Times of Golf = 6.73 M Year = 1 0. 96 M Score = 88.56 ).

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120 Second, in the same sample, subjects were re divided into two involvement groups based on their travel involvement levels (see Table 4 4 and 4 6). In terms of travel involv ement 131 subjects ( 65.5 %) were included in high travel involvement groups ( M PII of Travel = 5.97 M Time of Travel = 3 89 M Time of Golf Travel =. 82 and M Stay Days = 4.58 ), while 69 subjects ( 34.5 %) were included in high travel involvement groups ( M PII of Travel = 6.32 M Time of Travel = 16.58 M Time of Golf Travel = 7.43, and M Stay Days = 9.25 ). Manipulation Checks for Motivational Frames Two items were used to confirm manipulation of motivational frames. A set of manipulation check questions we re asked for each of two advertisements regarding two aspects: promotion/prevention frames and positive /negative frames. In terms of promotion/prevention frames, participants exposed to approach frames were expected to rate this item higher than those expo sed to avoidance frames. In terms of positive/negative frames, participants were expected to perceive that either approach frames or avoidance frames were positive. As intended, respondents exposed to approach frames rated the question regarding promotion /prevention frames significantly higher ( M = 6.11 ) than those exposed to avoidance frames ( M = 4.29 ). Also, the statistical difference between approach and avoidance frames was significant ( t ( 171.194 ) = 6.482 p < .001). Contrary to the result of pilot st udy, there was significant difference on the question regarding positive/negative frames ( t ( 177.127 ) = 3.140 p < .01), and also, approach frames were rated significantly higher than avoidance frames as Table 4 7 indicated ( M Approach = 6.46 and M Avoidanc e = 5. 99 ). Both manipulation check questions are not relevant (Cronbach s = 368 )

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121 Reliability of Dependent Variables To confirm reliability and validity of attitude toward the luxury golf resort and visit intention exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the principle components and reliability test were employed. For attitude toward the luxury golf resort, factor loadings of the items ranged from 83 to 92 within a single factor. As calculated and 932 the scale was rel iable. Also, the result of KMO was 845 and the chi square ( 2 ) Therefore, the scale of attitude toward the luxury golf resort is valid. In terms of visit intention, factor loadings ranged from 91 to 97 within a single factor. T h e scale of visit intention was reliable, as was 947 Moreover, the scale was valid as KMO value was .8 60 and the chi square ( 2 ) Tests of Hypotheses Since household income influenced the results of this study, household incom e level was used as a covariate variable. Hypothesis 1 To test Hypothesis 1, a between subject test with two message appeals (approach versus. avoidance) for attitude toward the luxury golf resort was conducted as Table 4 9 indicated. Two motivational fra mes did not differ in attitude toward the luxury golf resort ( F (1, 183 ) = 8.622 p < .0 1 ). As shown in Figure 4 1, the effect of a pproach frames was greater than that of a voidance frames on attitude toward the luxury golf resort ( M Approach Frames = 5.78 versus. M Avoidance Frames = 5.50 ). There is a significant different between two motivational frames, but the result was reversed. Thus, H1 was not supported

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122 Hypothesis 2 A 2 (golf and travel involvement: high vs. low) x 2 ( motivational frames: approach v s. avoidance) between subjects ANOVA was performed to test the difference in the attitude toward the luxury golf resort. The main effect of golf involvement level was not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = .267 p = 606 ) indicating that participants responded equ ally well regardless of their golf involvement levels ( M high golf involvement = 5.66 versus M low golf involvement = 5.63 ) The main effect of travel involvement level was not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = .623 p = 431 ), indicating that subjects who were hi ghly involved in travel r esponded with a slightly less favorable attitude toward the luxury golf resort than those who were l ow involved in travel ( M high travel involvement = 5.61 versus M low travel involvement = 5.66 ) However, t he main effect of motiva tional frames was significant; the effect of approach frames were significantly greater than that of avoidance frames ( M Approach = 5.78 versus. M Avoidance = 5.50 F (1, 183 ) = 8.622 p < .0 1 ) The main prediction of H2 that is the interaction between go lf involvement levels and motivational frames was not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = .566 p = .453 ) Follow up univariate analyses indicated that in the high golf involvement condition, the attitude toward the luxury golf resort was significantly different bet ween approach and avoidance appeals ( M Approach = 5. 89 versus M Avoidance = 5.43 F (1, 1 83 ) = 9.117 p < .0 1 ) Under low golf involvement conditions, subjects responded equally well between approach and avoidance frames on the attitude toward the advertis ement ( M Approach = 5.69 versus M Avoidance = 5.55 F (1, 1 83 ) = .982 p = 323 ). Meanwhile, the interaction between travel involvement levels and motivational frames was not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = .975 p = 325 ). In terms of travel involvement, subje cts who were highly involved in travel responded more favorably to approach than

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123 a voidance frames ( M Approach = 5.91 versus M Avoidance = 5.36 F (1, 1 83 ) = 7.496 p < .0 1 ) Under low involvement condition in travel, there is no significant difference betw een approach and avoidance frames ( M Approach = 5.72 v ersus M Avoidance = 5.58 F (1, 1 83 ) = 1.318 p = 252 ). Thus, H2 was not supported. H2a has significant differences but results were reverse in terms of both golf and travel involvement. H2b was not su pported. In the result of slope analyses, the beta value of golf involvement was greater than that of travel involvement. More specifically, in approach frames the beta value of golf involvement was greater than that of travel involvement (( golf invol vement = 1.522 and travel involvement = 1.486 ) However, the difference of beta values was not significant ( t (198) = .329, p = .743). I n avoidance frames, the beta value of golf involvement was significantly smaller than that of travel involvement ( gol f involvement = 1.148 and travel involvement = 1.551; t (198) = 3.679, p < .001 ). Therefore, H2 1 was not supported. Hypothesis 3 A 2 (implicit beliefs: entity vs. incremental) x 2 (motivational frames: approach vs. avoidance) between subject ANOVA was ex amined to test the difference of attitude toward the luxury golf resort. T h e main effect of implicit beliefs was not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = .037 p = 847 ), indicating that entity subject formed a slightly more favorable attitude toward the luxury golf resort than incremental subjects ( M Entity = 5.66 versus M Incremental = 5.62 ). The key prediction of H3 that is the interaction between implicit beliefs and motivational frames was not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 1.837 p = 177 ). Thus, H3 was supported A n equivalence test indicated that entity subjects responded more favorabl y to approach than avoidance frames on the attitude toward the advertisement ( M Approach

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124 = 5.97 versus M Avoidance = 5.40 F (1, 183 ) = 8.844 p < .0 1 ) F or Incremental subjects a fo llow up analysis indicated that there is no difference of the attitude toward the luxury golf resort between approach and avoidance frames ( M Approach = 5.65 versus M Avoidance = 5.59 F (1, 183 ) = 1.271 p = 261 ) Thus, H3 a and H3b were not supported, an d also, the results of these hypotheses were reverse. Hypothesis 4 To examine H4, a 2 (golf and travel involvement: high vs. low) x 2 (implicit beliefs: entity vs. incremental) x 2 (motivational frames: approach vs. avoidance) between subject ANOVA on at titude toward the luxury golf resort was conducted. The main prediction of H4 was a three way interaction among golf and travel involvement, implicit beliefs, and motivational frames. Also, to test the hypothesis H4 2 which was expected that there would be no significant difference between motivational frames, an equivalence test was conducted. The results are shown in Table 4 10 and Figure 4 4 and 4 5 F i rst of all, the main effect of golf involvement levels was not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = .267 p = 606 ) indicating that subjects responded equally well on attitude toward the luxury golf resort regardless of their golf involvement levels ( M high golf involvement = 5.66 versus M low golf involvement = 5.63 ) The main effect of travel involvement level was also not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = .623 p = 431 ), indicating that subjects who were low involved in travel r esponded with a slightly more favorable attitude toward the luxury golf resort than those who were highly involved in travel ( M high travel involv ement = 5.61 versus M low travel involvement = 5.66 ) The main effect of implicit beliefs was also not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = .037 p = 847 ), indicating that entity subjects responded with a slightly more favorable attitude toward the luxury golf resor t than incremental subjects ( M Entity = 5.66 versus M

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125 Incremental = 5.62 ). The main effect of motivational frames was significant; participants who were exposed approach frames scored more favorabl y on attitude toward the luxury golf resort than those who were exposed avoidance frames ( M Approach = 5.78 versus M Avoidance = 5.50 F (1, 183 ) = 8.622 p < 01 ) Second, the crucial prediction of H4 in terms of golf involvement levels was three way interaction was significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 9.595 p < 01 ) A three way interaction for travel involvement levels was also significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 5.046 p < 05 ). T h erefore, H4 was supported. More specifically, for entity subjects the two way interaction effect between golf involvement and motivational frames was significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 5.220 p < 05 ), while the two way interaction effect between travel involvement and motivational frames was not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = .495 p = 482 ). However, for incremental subjects, the two way interaction between golf in volvement and message appeals was not significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 2.560 p = 111 ), and the two way interaction between travel involvement and motivational frames was significant as well ( F (1, 183 ) = 5.826 p < 05 ). Given golf involvement levels, in high i nvolvement condition, the two way interaction between implicit beliefs and motivational frames was significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 9.467 p < 01 ), whereas, in low involvement condition, the two way interaction between implicit beliefs and message appeals was no t significant ( F (1, 183 ) = .131 p = 718 ). With respect of travel involvement levels, in high involvement condition, the two way interaction between implicit beliefs and message appeals was significant ( F (1, 183 ) = .036 p = 850 ), whereas, in low invol vement condition, the two way interaction between implicit beliefs and message appeals was significant ( F (1, 183 ) = 4.241 p < 0 5 ).

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126 Third, follow up univariate analyses revealed following results. In high involvement condition in golf, for entity subject s approach frames had a greater impact on attitude the luxury golf resort than avoidance frames ( M Approach = 6.02 versus M Avoidance = 4.80 F (1, 183 ) = 14.548 p < .001 ), whereas in low involvement condition there is no significant difference between approach and a voidance frames ( M Approach = 5.93 versus M Avoidance = 5.82 F (1, 183 ) = .374, p = 541 ). Therefore, in terms of golf involvement H4 1 and H4 2 were supported. For the incremental beliefs group in high involvement condition in golf, sub jects were no significant differences of attitudes toward the luxury golf resort between approach and avoidance frames ( M Approach = 5.81 versus M Avoidance = 5.92 F (1, 183 ) = .020 p = .888 ) Also, incremental subjects in low involvement condition in go lf rated equally well on attitude toward the luxury golf resort ( M Approach = 5.52 versus M Avoidance = 5.26 F (1, 183 ) = .1.118 p = .292 ) Therefore, in terms of golf involvement, H4 3 and H4 4 were not supported. With respect of travel involvement lev els, under hi gh involvement condition in travel, entity subjects were no significant differences of attitudes toward the luxury golf resort between approach and avoidance frames ( M Approach = 5.72 versus M Avoidance = 5.14 F (1, 183 ) = 2.420 p = .121 ), w hereas subjects under low involvement condition in travel scored significantly higher for approach than avoidance frames on attitude toward the luxury golf resort ( M Approach = 6.08 versus M Avoidance = 5.54 F (1, 183 ) = 5.321 p < 05 ). Therefore, in ter ms of travel involvement, H4 1 and H4 2 was not supported. For the incremental beliefs group subjects who were highly involved in travel showed significant differences in attitudes toward the luxury golf resort between

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127 approach and avoidance frames ( F (1, 183 ) = 4.857 p < 05 ) indicating that approach frames had more significantly greater impact than avoidance frames ( M Approach = 6.03 versus M Avoidance = 5.53). Therefore, the result of H4 3 was opposite to the hypothesis. Also, subject who were low involved in travel scored equally well between approach and avoidance frames on attitude toward the luxury golf resort ( M Approach = 5.47 versus M Avoidance = 5.63 F (1, 183 ) = .569 p = 452 ) Therefore, in terms of travel involvement, H4 3 and H4 4 were not supported. Last, to compare moderating effects among implicit belief and golf involvement levels and travel, slope analyses were employed as the same manner of Experiment 1. In the result of slope analyses, beta values of implicit beliefs were bigger than those of golf and travel involvement. More specifically, in approach frames beta values of implicit beliefs were significantly greater than those of golf involvement ( implicit beliefs = 2.096 vs. golf involvement = 1.522, t (198) = 5.240 p < .00 1 ) and travel involvement ( travel involvement = 1.486, t (198) = 5.569 p < .001 ). However, in avoidance frames beta values of implicit beliefs were significantly greater than those of golf involvement ( implicit beliefs = 1.445 vs. golf involvement = 1.148, t (198) = 2.711 p < .0 1 ), whereas smaller than travel involvement ( travel involvement = 1.551, t (198) = .968 p = 334 ). T h erefore, H4 a was supported for golf involvement whereas it was not supported for travel involvement Hypothesis 5 A simple linear regression analysis was employed to test H5 which is the relationship between attitude toward the luxury golf resort and visit intention. The linear regression revealed that the effect of attitude toward the luxury golf resort was not significant o n visit intention ( = .105 p = 139 ). Therefore, H5 was not supported.

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128 Multiple hierarchical linear regression models (MHLMs) was used to test the statistical effect of attitude on visit intention and mediating effects of attitude toward the luxury golf resort. The first regression analyses were conducted with motivational frames implicit beliefs and golf and travel involvement as independent variables and attitude toward the luxury golf resort as a dependent variable. As Table 4 1 2 shown, the effect of motivational fram es was not significant ( = .138 p = .05 2 ). The effect of implicit beliefs was also not significant ( = 009 p = 897 ). In addition, the effect of golf involvement was not significant ( =. 054 p = 451 ), while the effect of travel involvement on attitude toward the luxury gol f resort was statistically significant ( =. 304 p < .0 01 ) at = .05. Therefore, the further regression analyses were conducted for travel involvement The second regression was conducted between travel involvement as independent and visit intention as d ependent variable. The effect of golf involvement on visit intention was not significant ( =. 079 p = 265 ). The last test was multiple regressions conducted between interaction terms and visit intention as a dependent variable. The effects of travel invo lvement ( =. 052 p = 484 ) and attitude toward the luxury golf resort ( =. 089 p = 231 ) were not significant. Therefore, the mediating effect of attitude toward the luxury golf resort between golf involvement and visit intention was not significant Di scussion Experiment 2 was conducted based on five assumptions: (1) whether avoidance frames had more significant effects than approach frames in the context of luxury golf resorts, (2) whether golf involvement levels and travel moderates the motivational

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129 frames, (3) whether implicit beliefs play a moderating role in the motivational frames, (4) whether there was an offsetting moderating role of implicit beliefs between motivational frames and golf involvement levels and travel, and (5) whether attitude for mation toward the luxury golf resort mediated to visit intention. In contrast to the result of Experiment 1, the moderating effects of involvement levels and implicit beliefs were not present in the motivational frames. However, as it was hypothesized, thr ee way interaction was significant among involvement levels, implicit beliefs, and motivational frames. In other words, implicit beliefs played an offsetting role and significantly affected attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort when the moderati ng role of involvement levels was significant. It was hypothesized that the effect of avoidance frames was greater than that of approach frames. However, t he result of the first hypothesis suggested that approach frames had a more significant impact on a ttitude formation toward the luxury golf resort than avoidance frames This finding confirmed that approach frames which provided th o rough information were more effective than avoidance frames in the context of luxury products. Regarding the moderating r oles of involvement levels and implicit beliefs, there was no significant interaction in the moderated conditions of both involvement levels and implicit beliefs. However, under high involved conditions in golf and travel, significant differences were pres ent and the effect of approach frames more significantly affected attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. This result contradicted the expected hypotheses H2a and H2b. In addition, travel involvement levels were greater

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130 or more significant effect s in the condition of motivational frames, contrary to Experiment 1. In terms of the moderating effect of implicit beliefs, a significant difference existed for the entity belief group, whereas no difference was present for the incremental belief group. The original hypothesis was that the incremental belief group was more sensitive to motivational frames and had a more significant effect on attitude formation Against hypothesis 3, the entity belief group responded more favorably to approach frames than avoidance frames. In the context of luxury golf resorts, entity beliefs significantly affected responses to motivational frames; and approach frames had greater impacts on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. In Experiment 2, a three way int eraction among motivational frames, implicit beliefs, and involvement levels in both golf and travel was present. C ompared to two way interaction effects in h ypotheses 2 and 3, the result of a three way interaction effect meant that implicit beliefs were i nfluenced on attitude formation with involvement levels. Under the condition of motivational frames, implicit belief s and involvement levels interacted with each other. Additionally, the entity belief group felt most positively about the luxury golf resort under high involvement condition in golf. In the case of travel involvement level, the difference between approach and avoidance frames was not present. In addition, for the incremental belief group, there was no significant difference between motivationa l frames. Consistent with hypothesis 3, approach frames and entity beliefs most significantly affected positive attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. The result of the final hypothesis test indicated that attitudes toward the luxury golf re sort would not significantly influence visit intention under motivational frames.

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131 Because motivational frames were associated with the mood of advertisements rather than the quality of information, participants may needed more information and had to consid er other factors (e.g., distances and time constraints) when making a decision to visit the luxury golf resort. Although hypothesis 5 was not supported under motivational frames, overall results indicated that implicit beliefs interacted with involvement l evels and played an offsetting role between involvement levels. T h erefore, it is concluded that a three way interaction was present and the offsetting effect of implicit beliefs existed under a high golf involvement condition

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132 Table 4 1 Manipulation of Experiment 2 Source Methods of Measurement Measures Motivational frames Approach Stimulus Take a great chance to improve your prestige Avoidance Stimulus Do not miss a great chance to improve your prestige Motivational f rame a (Jain et al) Manipulation Check This advertisement of PGA Golf Resort concerns Promoting to take a chance to improve my prestige Preventing to miss a chance to improve my prestige Regarding t h is information of PGA Golf Resort, I feel the m essage stressed The negative implication of PGA Golf Resort The positive implication of PGA Golf Resort a 7 point bipolar scale

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133 Table 4 2. Propositions and Hypotheses for Experiment 2 P1: Motivational frames have impacts on attitude formation. Result H1: T he effect of an avoidance frame on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort is greater than that of an approach frame Significant Difference but Reverse P2: Consumer involvement levels (i.e., golf and travel) play a moderating role between motivational frames and attitude formation Result H2: A two way interaction effect on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort exists between the type of motivational frame and consumer involvement level regarding b oth golf and travel Golf: No Significant Interaction Travel: No Significant Interaction H2a: Under the high involvement condition, t he effect of avoidance frames is greater than that of approach frames Golf: Significant Difference but Reverse Trave l: Significant Difference but Reverse H2b: Under the low involvement condition, t he effect of approach frames is greater than that of avoidance frames Golf: No Significant Difference Travel: No Significant Difference H2 1 : The moderating effect of go lf involvement is greater than that of travel involvement between motivational frames and attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. Reject P3: Implicit beliefs play an offsetting moderating role between motivational frames and attitude formation Result H3: A two way interaction effect on attitude formation exists between the type of motivational frame and implicit beliefs. No Significant Interaction H3 a : For those who have entity belief, there is no significant difference in attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort between approach and avoidance frames. Significant Difference H3b: For those who have incremental belief, the effect of approach frame is greater than that of avoidance frame. No Significant Difference

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134 Table 4 2 Continued P4: An interaction effect exists between consumer involvement level and implicit beliefs; furthermore, this effect also moderates between motivational frames and attitude formation Result H4: A three way interaction effect on attitude formation exists a mong type of motivational frame, consumer involvement level and implicit beliefs. Golf: Significant Interaction Travel: Significant Interaction H4a: T he moderating effect of implicit beliefs is greater than that of involvement levels between message a ppeals and attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort Golf: Accept Travel: Reject For those who have entity belief, Golf: Accept Travel: No Significant Difference H4 1: Under the high involvement condition approach frames have a greater impact o n attitude toward the luxury golf resort than avoidance frames H4 2 : Under the low involvement condition there are no significant differences in attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort between approach and avoidance frames. Golf: Accept Tr avel: Significant Difference For those who have incremental belief, Golf: No Significant Difference Travel: No Significant Difference H4 3 : Under the high involvement condition avoidance frames have a greater impact on attitude toward the luxury golf resort than approach frames. H4 4: Under the low involvement condition approach frames have a greater on attitude toward the luxury golf resort than avoidance frames Golf: No Significant Difference Travel: No Significant Difference P5: Attitude tow ard the luxury golf resort plays a mediating role between information processing and visit intention. Result H5: Attitude toward the luxury golf resort positively influence s the intention to visit the luxury golf resort Reject

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135 Table 4 3. Descriptive Sta tistics of Study Participants ( N = 200 ) Variables Frequency Percent Gender Male 124 62.0 Female 76 38.0 Age Average age 32.15 ( SD = 10.90) Ethnicity Caucasian 127 63.5 Asian 46 23.0 Hispanic 9 4.5 African American 8 4.0 Native Amer ican 3 1.5 Others 7 3.5 Education Level High School 36 18.0 Community College 28 14.0 College 92 46.0 Graduate School 44 22.0 Household Income U nder $9,999 12 6.0 $10,000 $29,999 47 23.5 $30,000 $49,999 46 23.0 $50,000 $69,99 9 43 21.5 $70,000 $89,999 21 10.5 $90,000 $109,999 13 6.5 $110,000 $129,999 5 2.5 $130,000 $149,999 4 2.0 $150,000 $169,999 1 .5 $170,000 $189,999 2 1.0 $190,000 $199,999 0 0.0 More than $200,000 6 3.0 Experience of Visitatio n in Luxury Golf Resort Yes 53 26.5 No 147 73.5 Total 200 100.0

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136 Table 4 4. Number of Study Participants by Group ( N = 200 ) Approach Frames Avoidance Frames Entity Incremental Entity Incremental Golf involvement Low 24 32 28 26 Hig h 17 27 20 26 Travel involvement Low 29 40 31 31 High 12 19 17 21 Table 4 5. Means of Implicit beliefs : Entity and Incremental Belief Entity Belief Incremental Belief Frequency ( N = 200) 89 111 Implicit Beliefs a Mean 4.90 (. 8 0 ) 2.86 ( .79 ) Statistics t ( 198 ) = 17.964 p < .001; Cronbach s = .899 Note Mean scores represent the average rating on seven point scales anchored from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7 (Strongly Agree). Standard deviations are in parentheses. a. Incremental belief related questions were reversely coded

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137 Table 4 6. Means of Involvement Level: Consumer Golf and travel involvement Low Involvement High Involvement Total Mean Golf involvement n =110 n =90 N = 200 PII a of Golf 3.53 (1.64) 5.90 (.81) 4.60 (1.78) Times of Golf .92 (1.20) 6.73 (6.35) 3.53 (5.22) Years of Golf 2.79 (4.15) 10.96 (7.67) 6.46 (7.23) Average Scores 97.66 (39.25) 88.56 (84.99) 92.44 (69.23) Travel involvement n =131 n =69 N = 200 PII a of Travel 5.97 (1.21) 6.32 (1.03) 6.09 (1.10) Times of Travel 3.89 (2.59) 16.58 (6.78) 8.27 (7.52) Times of Golf Travel .82 (1.76) 7.43 (6.72) 3.11 (5.23) Days of Stay 4.58 (3.37) 9.25 (7.44) 6.19 (5.59) Note. Mean scores of PII represent the average rating on seven point scale s anchored from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7 (Strongly Agree). Standard deviations are in parentheses. a. PII = Personal Involvement Inventory Table 4 7. A Manipulation Check of Message Appeals Approach Frames Avoidance Frames Prevention/Promotion Mean 6 .11 (1.54) 4.29 (2.345) Statistics t ( 171.194 ) =6.482, p < .001 Negative/Positive Frames Mean 6.46 (.86) 5.99 (1.23) Statistics t ( 177.127 ) =3.140, p =.002 Note Mean scores represent the average rating on two seven point scale anchored from 1 (Preventio n Framed) to 7 (Promotion Framed) and from 1 (Negative Framed) to 7 (Positive Framed). Standard deviations are in parentheses.

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138 Table 4 8. Means of Attitude a toward PGA National Resort & Spa Approach Frames Avoidance Frames Entity Belief Incremental Be lief Mean of INV Entity Belief Incremental Belief Mean of INV Golf involvement Low Involvement 5.93 (.78) 5.52 (1.13) 5.69 (1.01) 5.82 (.95) 5.26 (1.06) 5.55 (1.03) High Involvement 6.02 (1.18) 5.81 (.96) 5.89 (1.05) 4.80 (.92) 5.92 (.83) 5.43 (1. 03) Travel involvement Low Involvement 6.08 (.86) 5.47 (1.06) 5.72 (1.02) 5.54 (1.15) 5.63 (.96) 5.58 (1.05) High Involvement 5.72 (1.15) 6.03 (.96) 5.91 (1.03) 5.14 (.84) 5.53 (1.08) 5.36 (.99) M ean of Implicit beliefs 5.97 (.96) 5.65 (1.06) 5.40 (1.06) 5.59 (1.00) Mean of Message Appeals 5.78 (1.03) 5.50 (1.03) Note Mean scores represent the average rating on three seven point semantic scales anchored from 1 (Negative Meaning) to 7 (Positive Meaning) and two seven po int Likert scales anchored from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7 (Strongly Agree). Standard deviations are in parentheses. a. Cronbach s alpha (5 items) = 932

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139 Table 4 9. Univariate Statistics on Means of Attitude toward PGA National Resort & Spa Source SS df MS F a Sig. Implicit beliefs (I) .035 1 .035 .037 .847 Golf involvement (G) .253 1 .253 .267 .606 Travel involvement (T) .590 1 .590 .623 .431 Motivational Frames (M) 8.165 1 8.165 8.622 .004** I x G 9.386 1 9.386 9.911 .002** I x T .161 1 .161 .170 .680 I x M 1.740 1 1.740 1.837 .177 G x M .536 1 .536 .566 .453 T x M .923 1 .923 .975 .325 I x G x M 9.086 1 9.086 9.595 .002** I x T x M 4.779 1 4.779 5.046 .026* I at M Approach 1.091 1 1.091 1.152 .284 G at M App roach .788 1 .788 .832 .363 T at M Approach .008 1 .008 .008 .929 I x G at M Approach .072 1 .072 .076 .783 I x T at M Approach 3.434 1 3.434 3.626 .058 I at M Avoidance .686 1 .686 .724 .396 G at M Avoidance .041 1 .041 .043 .836 T at M Avoidance 1.666 1 1.666 1.759 .186 I x G at M Avoidance 15.857 1 15.857 16.744 <.001*** I x T at M Avoidance 1.542 1 1.542 1.628 .203 G at I Entity 2.865 1 2.865 3.025 .083 T at I Entity .697 1 .697 .736 .392 M at I Entity 8.375 1 8.375 8.844 .003** G x M at I Entity 4.943 1 4.943 5.220 .023* T x M at I Entity .469 1 .469 .495 .482 G at I Incremental 7.769 1 7.769 8.204 .004** T at I Incremental .063 1 .063 .067 .796 M at I Incremental 1.204 1 1.204 1.271 .261 G x M at I Incremental 2.424 1 2.424 2.560 .111 T x M at I Incremental 5.517 1 5.517 5.826 .017* Error 173.217 183 .947 p < .05; ** p < .01; and *** p < .001 a. F score was manually calculated using the three way ANOVA Error term

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140 Table 4 10. Three Way ANOVA on Means of Attitude toward PGA National Resort & Spa Source SS df MS F a Sig. I x G x M 9.086 1 9.086 9.595 .002** I x T x M 4.779 1 4.779 5.046 .026* I at G low 6.150 1 6.150 6.494 .012* M at G low .930 1 .930 .982 .323 I x M at G low .124 1 .124 .131 .718 I at M Approach at G low 2.310 1 2.310 2.439 .120 I at M Avoidance at G low 3.428 1 3.428 3.620 .058 M at I Entity and G low .354 1 .354 .374 .541 M at I Incremental and G low 1.059 1 1.059 1.118 .292 I at G High 3.948 1 3.948 4.169 .043* M at G High 8.634 1 8.634 9.117 .003** I x M at G High 8.965 1 8.965 9.467 .002** I at M Approach at G High .497 1 .497 .525 .469 I at M Avoidance at G High 12.956 1 12.956 13.681 <.001*** M at I E ntity and G High 13.777 1 13.777 14.548 <.001*** M at I Incremental and G High .019 1 .019 .020 .888 I at T low 1.968 1 1.968 2.078 .151 M at T low 1.248 1 1.248 1.318 .252 I x M at T low 4.016 1 4.016 4.241 .041* I at M Approach at T low 6.300 1 6.300 6.653 .011* I at M Avoidance at T low .240 1 .240 .253 .615 M at I Entity and T low 5.039 1 5.039 5.321 .022* M at I Incremental and T low .539 1 .539 .569 .452 I at T High 1.818 1 1.818 1.920 .167 M at T High 7.080 1 7.080 7.476 .007** I x M at T High .034 1 .034 .036 .850 I at M Approach at T High .569 1 .569 .601 .439 I at M Avoidance at T High 1.347 1 1.347 1.422 .235 M at I Entity and T High 2.292 1 2.292 2.420 .121 M at I Incremental and T High 4 .600 1 4.600 4.857 .029* Error 173.217 183 .947 p < .05; ** p < .01; and *** p < .001 a. F score was manually calculated using the three way ANOVA Error term

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141 Table 4 1 1 Slope Analysis of moderators Motivational Frames Golf involvement Tr avel involvement Implicit beliefs Approach Frames 1.522 1.486 2.096 t (198) = .329, p = .743 Avoidance Frames 1.148 1.551 1.445 t (198) = 3.679, p < .001 Note. Scores represent beta values. Table 4 1 2 Mediated Multiple Regression Analyses of Attitude toward Visit Intention Adjustment Variables R 2 F ( df ) Independent Variable: Motivational Frames (M) a M Attitude (A) .138 .019 3.831(198) M Visit Intention (V) .065 .004 .827(198) M + A Visit Intention (V) .080 .017 1.743(197) .116(A) Independent Variable: Implicit beliefs (I) b I Attitude (A) 009 .000 .013(198) I Visit Intention (V) 213 ** .045 9.418 (198)*** I + A Visit Intention (V) 214 ** .057 5.938 (198)*** .10 7 (A) Independent Variable: Gol f involvement (G) c G Attitude (A) .054 .003 .570(198) G Visit Intention (V) .617*** .381 121.667(198)*** G + A Visit Intention (V) .613*** .386 61.872(197)*** .072(A) Independent Variable: Travel involvement (T) c T Attitude (A) .304*** .093 20.218(198)*** T Visit Intention (V) .079 .006 1.250(198) T + A Visit Intention (V) .052 .013 1.347(197) .089 p < .05; ** p < .01; and *** p < .001 a. In dummy regression analysis, Rational Appeals were coded as 0 and Emotional Appeals were coded as 1. Entity was coded as 0 and Incremental was coded as 1. b. Simple regression was conducted using Incremental related Questions. b. Simple regression was conducted using PII involvement scale.

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142 F (1,18 3 ) = 8.622 p = 0 04* Figure 4 1 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 1 Interaction: F (1,183) = 566 p = 453 Approach: F (1,183) = .832 p = 363 Avoidance: F (1,183) = .043 p = 836 Low: F (1,183) = .982 p = 323 High: F (1,183) = 9.117 p = 0 03* A Interaction: F (1,183) = 975 p = 325 Approach: F (1,183) = .008 p = 929 Avoidance: F (1,183) = .1.759 p = 186 Low: F (1,183) = 1.318 p = 252 High: F (1,183) = 7.476 p = 0 07* B Figure 4 2 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 2. A ) Under Golf involvement B) Under Travel involvement

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143 Interaction: F (1,183) = 1.837 p = 177 Approach: F (1,183) = 1.152 p = 284 Avoidance: F (1,183) = .724 p = 396 Entity: F (1,183) = 8.844 p = .0 03 ** Incremental: F (1,183) = .1.271 p = 261 Figure 4 3 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 3 Three way: F (1,183) = 9.595 p = 002 ** Two way: F (1,183) = 5.220 p = 023 Low: F (1,183) = 374 p = 541 High: F (1,183) = 1 4.548 p < .0 01*** A Three way: F (1,183) = 9.595 p = 002 ** Two way: F (1,183) = 2.560 p = 111 Low: F (1,183) = 1.118 p = 292 High: F (1,183) = 020 p = 888 B Figure 4 4 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 4 under Golf Involvement. A) Under Entity Beliefs B) Under Incremental Beli efs

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144 Three way: F (1,183) = 5.046 p = .0 26 Two way: F (1,183) = .495 p = 482 Low: F (1,183) = 5.321 p = 0 22 High: F (1,183) = 2. 420, p = 121 A Three way: F (1,183) = 5.046 p = .0 26 Two way: F (1,183) = 5.826 p = 0 17* Low: F (1,183) = .569 p = 4 52 High: F (1,183) = 4.857 p = 029* B Figure 4 5 Attitude toward PGA Golf Resort for Hypothesis 4 under Travel Involvement A) Under Entity Beliefs B) Under Incremental Beliefs Figure 4 6 T h e Result of Hypothesis 5 = .105 t (198) = 1.486 p = .139

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145 CHAPTER 5 GENERAL DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The goal of this study was to investigate the information processing model in the context of luxury golf resorts by focusing on consumer golf involvement levels and travel and their implicit beliefs. This study is distin guished from other consumer behavior research in that implicit beliefs, which are an inherent psychological factor that reflect how an individual thinks about the self or the world, were applied to traditional information processing theory (e.g., the elabo ration likelihood model). The applied theoretical framework enabled processing behavior based on their individual psychological domains. To achie ve the goal of the study, this analysis utilized three major constructs: (1) promotional stimuli (e.g., message appeals and motivational frames), (2) consumer golf involvement levels and travel, and (3) implicit beliefs. With intensive literature related to these constructs, five assumptions were developed : (1) prom otional stimuli ha ve impact on attitude formation (2) consumer involvemen t levels play a moderating role (3) implicit beliefs play an offsetting moderating role w ith consumer involvement levels (4) three constructs (i.e., promotional stimuli consumer i nvolvement levels, and implic it beliefs) interact with each other and (5) attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort positively influence s visit intention. Based on these assumption and theoretical frameworks, two experiments were conducted to test different promotional stimuli The first experiment was related to message appeals consisting of rational and emotional appeals. The second experiment was related to motivational frames consisting of avoidance and approach frames. These two promotional sti muli represented hierarchical patterns of information processing behavior. In particular, message appeals

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146 provided various explanations about the luxury golf resort with rational and emotional appeals, whereas motivational frames embodied the mood of adver tisement rather than the i nformation itself. The result of Experiment 1 suggested that two moderators involvement levels and implicit beliefs separately affected attitude formation in the condition of message appeals. In Experiment 2, a three way inte raction was p resent and two moderators interacted between motivational frames and attitude formation. In other words, participants were more likely to rely on their intrinsic psychological factors (e.g., implicit beliefs) than extrinsic psychological fact ors (e.g., involvement) in the stage of actual decision making performance associated with information processing behavior. Moderating Role of Involvement In the field of marketing and adverti si ng in formation processing was proposed to explain how individ uals use information based on their belonging abilities. In particular, a dual process model explained consumers information processing patterns by focusing on involvement levels. Under the dichotomous approach of involvement, the main theme of the dual p rocess model suggested that involvement levels moderate different information processing routes, which are central and peripheral routes. I n the traditional dual process model, it was assumed that individual s utilize central routes in the high involvement condition, while peripheral routes were utilized in low involvement condition. T h is research referred to this traditional dual process model in the context of luxury golf resorts. Since luxury golf resort s were defined as high involve ment products, it was assumed that the effect of central routes would be more distinguished from the effect of peripheral routes. Accordingly, the moderating role of involvement levels is

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147 present in this study; in particular, this moderating effect was stronger when participant s were highly involved in golf and travel than in low involve ment conditions. The moderating effect of involvement was supported by the results of the first experiment which de monstrated the simple interaction effect with message appeals in both high and low involvement conditions. As the traditional dual process model suggested, the rational appeals had greater impacts on attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort in the high involvement condition compared to the low involvement condition. However, the interaction effect between message appeals and travel involvement was not present. In the three way interaction, the hypotheses were significant only in high involvement conditions regardless of the type of implicit beliefs. T h ese results were in line with the assumption that the moderating effect of involvement was carried out in the condition of message appeals; in particular this effect was distinct in high involve ment condition s When manipulated by message appeals, involvement levels solely affec ted attitude formation rather than interacted with other moderators. In contrast, the moderating effect of involvement levels was not present in the second experiment Compared to the first experiment, the simple interaction with motivational frames w as not present, while the three way interaction effect with motivational frames and implicit beliefs existed. Interestingly, high ly involved participants were likely to have more positive attitudes toward the luxury golf resort than low involved participan ts. Although only a three way interaction effect was present and the results of the first and second experiment s were inconsistent, it was concluded that involvement levels play a moderating role in this study.

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148 Additionally, since involvement levels were more associated with individuals extrinsic psychological factors rather than implicit beliefs which affected different methods of information processing, it was less affected by individual inherent or intrinsic characteristics such as personality or beli efs when determining routes of information processing (Mitchell, 1979). Meanwhile, involvement levels were strongly influenced by inherent characteristics under motivational constructs for the decision making behavior (Humphreys & Revelle, 1984). Based on this assumption we hypothesized that the interaction effect between involvement levels and implicit beliefs would be present only under the condition of motivational frames. The results of two experiments supported this assumption, and also verified the r elationship between extrinsic psychological factors (e.g., involvement) and intrinsic psychological factors (e.g., personality or beliefs). In sum, involvement was a significant factor in moderating m essage appeals and motivational frames within consumers information processing; under the condition of motivational frames, involvement existed in the three way interaction associated with implicit beliefs. Golf and Travel Involvement This study utilized two types of involvement levels golf involvement a nd travel involvement. Compared to other marketing and advertising studies, involvement levels in the sport and tourism fields indicated the degree of interests in sport activities and tourism destination s ( Fesenmaier & Johnson, 1989 ; Havitz & Dimmanche, 1 997 ). Because of the distinct characteristics of sport tourism studies, this study should consider both objects of involvement levels. W i th respect to the relationship between sport s and tourism involvement, traditional leisure studies have suggested that sport involvement ha s greater impacts on

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149 positive attitude formation toward the sport related destination using the concept of place attachment (Bricker & Kerstetter, 2000; Kyle, Graefe, Manning, & Bacon, 2003 ) A series of place attachment s ha s indicated that sport activities were strongly related to the destination that offered specific sport settings. Meanwhile, the interests regarding destinations have little impact on increasing sport interests and involvement. Based on the evidence from prior studies this study hypothesized that the moderating effect of golf involvement would be greater than that of travel involvement. The result s of the first experiment yielded support for the suggested hypothesis. On the basis of slope analysis result, golf invol vement had a more significant effect than travel involvement on positive attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. Consistent with McGehee, Yoon, and Cardenas s (2003) study, involvement in sport s w as significantly related to the interest in sport related destination s Accordingly, it was concluded that participants tended to be more influenced by golf involvement than travel involvement when evaluating information regarding the luxury golf resort. The result s of the second experiment contradicted those of the first experiment T he moderating effect of golf involvement was not significantly greater under approach frames, and was smaller than travel involvement under avoidance frames. A number of marginal factors including inherent characteristics an d personal constraints influenced on generating motivation. As aforementioned, the moderating effect of involvement in the second experiment was weaker than that of the first experiment because of the interaction effect with implicit beliefs. Under motiva tional frames that contained motivational constructs arousing actual behavior, the effect of golf involvement as a main factor in information processing regarding golf related destinations became

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150 relatively weaker. Instead, the effect of travel involvement became stronger because the interest in destinations or travel was related more significantly to marginal factors when golf tourists evaluate d information about golf resorts. In sum, these findings indicated that golf involvement was a more significant factor than travel involvement on positive attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort. However, under motivational frames, the effect became weaker than under message appeals. Message appeals aimed to provide information itself, whereas motivational frames were designed to convey the statement of inciting actual behavior. Therefore participants needed more information to move forward to the actual behavior, and various factors had to be associated under motivational frames. Consequently the effect o f golf involvement was stronger than travel involvement in the stage in which participants evaluate information rather than when motivated by information. Offsetting Role of Implicit Beliefs O verall the experiments of this study applied implicit beliefs as individual inherent factors of the traditional dual process model. The concept of implicit beliefs focused on identifying normal people s general thoughts about the malleability of one s traits, information, and behavioral patterns, especially in the fa ce of challenge and failure situations (Dweck, 2005; Park & John, 2010). T h is theoretical concept suggested two different types of implicit beliefs entity and incremental beliefs. Entity beliefs represented that individuals ha ve static and fixed thought s Meanwhile, incremental beliefs implied that people demonstrated dynamic and fluctuated attitude s These different beliefs were counted toward information processing behavior. In terms of evaluating information, people with entity belief s utilize d insensi tive processors which generated outcome related thoughts, while people which incremental belief s tend to pay

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151 more attention to the effects of information ( e.g. promotional stimuli ) rather than information contents itself to process information in detail ( Jain, Mathur & Maheswaran, 2009). However, this assumption was supported only in the condition of motivational frames. In information processing behavior, since individuals inherent beliefs depended on their motivations related to achieving final goals ra ther than cognitive and affective processes, implicit beliefs were generated only under motivational constructs. Consequently, it was hypothesized that implicit beliefs moderated motivational frames, but had an insignificant relationship with message appea ls. Contrary to our expectation s the first experiment indicated that implicit beliefs play a moderating role in the condition of message appeals. I t was hypothesized that there was not interaction effects between implicit beliefs and message appeals ; in addition there were no differences between the types of message appeals regardless of implicit beliefs. T h e findings showed that a significant interaction was present. Indeed, only emotional appeals equally affected attitude formation for the entity and i ncremental belief groups. In relation to involvement levels, interaction effects were present only among the entity beliefs group rather than the incremental belief s group. These results were totally opposite the assumption from previous studies. Most mark eting research examined the moderating effect of implicit beliefs in the context of general products such as toothpaste (Jain, Mathur, & Maheswaran, 2009) or food items (Labroo & Mukhopadhyay, 2009). Since this study utilized the context of luxury products results of this study were different with previous studies. Similar to the first experiment, the results of the second experiment also contradicted the assumption ; i mplicit beliefs did not play a moderating role in the

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152 condition of motivational fram es. However, the interaction effect of implicit beliefs was generated when associated with involvement levels. These effects were significant only for the entity belief s group. Both experiments indicated that implicit beliefs moderated message appeals in addition to motivational frames when associated with involvement levels. Contrary to the assumption, the entity belief s group was more sensitive in its responses to promotional stimuli such as message appeals and motivational frames. These inconsistent re sults were led from the specific characteristics of luxury products which were used as the context of this study. Park and John (2010) found that the entity beliefs group was responsive toward Victoria s Secret products which were characterized as high i nvolvement good looking feminine and glamorous. Consistent with their study, since this study utilized high involvement products compared to other studies related to implicit beliefs, members of the entity beliefs group who were highly involved in the products tended to more intensively respond to promotional stimuli T he findings of Park and John s study explain ed why the simple moderating effect was significant in message appeals, but not in motivational frames. Because a luxury golf resort wa s categorized as a high ly involved product, motivational constructs were necessary to process information related to the luxury golf resort. Thus, the findings of this study represent that implicit beliefs generated different moderating roles in the contex t of high involvement products compared to other low involvement contexts. S pecific characteristics of luxury products will be discussed in the next part. The Characteristics of Luxury Brand Contexts The concept of luxury brand and products has been define d as high involvement products that belonged to higher levels of quality and specific targets as well as high ly

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153 arranged prices (Silverstein & Fiske, 2003) In particular because of the higher price of luxury products, consumers tend to pay more attention on provided information to minimize risks during consumption. M ore information is needed to consume and purchase higher involvement products like luxury brand products. Similar to other luxury brand product s luxury golf resorts are involved in various a spects of information. Monteson and Singer (2004) suggested that the use of sensory cues stimulating consumers emotion s is more effective in promoting luxury products. Similarly, Mattila (1999) found that the luxury context of hospitality products such as luxury hotel or resorts should arouse an intensive emotional experience to consumers. In line with these previous studies, the finding s of this study revealed that the effect of emotional appeals was slightly greater than that of rational appeals, but thi s difference was not significant. Interestingly, the second experiment finding indicated that approach frames were significantly effective on positive attitude formation toward luxury golf resort s It was originally hypothesized that avoidance frames whi ch were conceptualized as a high elaboration condition had a greater impact than approach frames because a more complicate process and cue s were utilized in the information processing of hedonic or luxury products (Stafford & Day, 1995). Contrary to this hypothesis, approach frames employed more direct and effortless cues that were operative for the context of luxury golf resorts. The results from both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 implied that low elaboration routes with effortless and sensory cues contai ning direct information were appropriate for the context of luxury golf resorts

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154 Meanwhile, since the price cues were closely related to consumer levels, consumers involvement levels should be considered in the luxury brand context. A t radit ional dual process model suggested that highly involved consumers tend to focus on central routes, while low involved consumers are likely to consider peripheral routes. Similarly, Zaichkowsky (1988) found that highly involved individuals emphasized other attributes along with the main attributes such as price or quality in evaluating alternatives to products. Consistent with these studies, the result of Experiment 1 demonstrated that rational appeals were proper for highly involved participants in either g olf or travel. For motivational frames in Experiment 2, statistical significance was present only under high involvement conditions; in addition, the effect of approach frames was greater than that of avoidance frames in both golf and travel involvement. R egardless of other studies related to motivational frames, it was concluded that approach frames represent direct central routes containing sensory and effortless cues. The most interesting results were related to the relationship with implicit beliefs. O riginally, it was hypothesized that the entity beliefs group was not affected by promotional stimuli such as message appeals and motivational frames. In contrast to this hypothesis, there were significant differences between message appeals (i.e., rational and emotional) or motivational frames (i.e., approach and avoidance) only for the entity beliefs group. Meanwhile, for the incremental beliefs group no significant differences were present across the two experiments. These results completely contradicted previous studies. Although the entity beliefs group utilized a rigid and static process in evaluating encountered information, the level of loyalty of this group might increase once they become interested in the product and information (Kammrath &

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155 Dweck, 2006). C onsumers are more likely to focus on suggested information because of the high risks of luxury products. Therefore, the entity beliefs group processed information more progressively. In contrast, the incremental beliefs group ha s to consider other situation al factors which were not suggested in the advertisement in the information processing of luxury products. Because their decisions are open to change according to a number of unpredicted factors such as personal circumstances or family situations it was difficult to make decisions based on limited information for the incremental beliefs group. In the current study, implicit beliefs also enable us to predict consumers information processing behavior; especially, entity beliefs were more effective to distinguish the effect of promotional messages in the context of luxury golf resorts Implications Theoretical Implications The two experiments replicated previous literature in the fields of marketing, advertising, and psychology. Mainly, the dual process model was employed to examine information processing strategies that golf tourists utilize in evaluat ing information regarding the luxury golf resort. T he t raditional dual process model has explained that consumers demonstrate different informatio n processing patterns according to their involvement levels. Involvement levels referred to relevance (Zaichkowsky, 1985) or a function of situational and interpersonal determinants (Richins & Bloch, 1986). I nvolvement accou nted for more situational and extrinsic responses toward the product than implicit beliefs While a number of studies have been published using involvement levels, little research has focused on fundamental psychological factors such as personality and beliefs that

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156 consumers inherently possess Consequently, the concept of implicit beliefs was applied to the traditional dual process model to examine consumers most stable and inherent psychological domains as well as to test the effect of these inherent domains on information processing. A crucial contribution of this dissertation was implicit beliefs, which influence processing behavior and were applied to the traditional dual process model. The theoretical fram ework of this study hereby tested two types of aspects : extrinsic psychological (i.e., involvement) and intrinsic psychological (i.e., implicit beliefs) factors. Our findings demonstrated that implicit beliefs could play a nother significant moderating role in the dual process model along with involvement levels For example, the first experiment found that involvement levels and implicit beliefs were generated separately in processing message appeals. Meanwhile, these two factors were found to have an inter action effect in the second experiment. This finding implied that the interaction effect was more animated under the stage of motivation frames. Since motivational frames represent the promotional stimuli of provoking individuals to engage in the behavior, our results attested that the link between involvement levels and implicit beliefs grew into powerful motivational constructs. T h erefore, it was recognized that individual s were influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic psychological factors in the stage of motivation. In this study, we introduced the idea of motivational constructs into the traditional dual process model. Most studies of the dual process and information processing models have discussed the experimental difference between rational and e motional appeals which represent cognitive and affective processes. To understand

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1 57 behavior fully it should be tested and examined according to three hierarchical patterns cognition, affect, and motivation (Dweck & Leggett, 1988). Recall from our p revious discussion that information processing was associated with decision making behavior. Our two experiments contributed to the traditional dual process models in that they extend the range of research to motivational and behavioral constructs. The r esults of these studies showed that implicit beliefs performed an offsetting moderating role in traditional dual process models. Recently, researchers for the dual process model have attempted to seek other factors that can influence the model apart from i nvolvement levels (Cheng, 2003). The finding showed that implicit beliefs were activated under the high involvement condition, but there was no significant effect under the low involvement condition. In other word s implicit beliefs, especially entity beli efs generated a response only in high ly involved participants. Thus, a beliefs about his or her personality were an important determinant of how that consumer evaluated encountered information. Our findings also contributed to resear ch on implicit beliefs, which focused on the individual immutability of processing information. While most psychological studies related to implicit beliefs have discussed how individual s responded in the face of failure and challenge, this dissertation at processing behavior toward encountered information within the framework of consumption behavior. For example, the entity beliefs group preferred emotional appeals to rational appeals, while the incremental beliefs group paid more attention to rational appeals. Also, the entity beliefs group focused on approach frames, whereas the incremental beliefs groups had no preferences on motivational frames. The results of these two

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158 experiment results suggested that the concept of implicit belief s was a significant factor that moderated message appeals and motivational frames in addition to the predicted processing of positive attitude formation. In short, since individuals with different implicit beliefs are looking for different messages or frames that s implicit beliefs enables us to understand their information processing strategies, and further more their final purchase decisions (Dweck, 2005). More importantly, it was found that promotional stimuli (e.g., message appeals and motivational frames) and extrinsic psychological factors (e.g., involvement) can exert a positive influence for only the entity beliefs group. The consistent findings of prior studies are that the entity beliefs group was more likely to care about the status of products such as popularity, the appearance of competence and brand names (Dweck, 2005; Park & John, 2010). Because luxury brand products must sustain high levels of awareness and credibility those who progressively processed information related the luxury products were defined as loyal customers (Phau & Prendergast, 2000). From our finding s it was concluded that the entity beliefs group might demonstrate higher levels of loyalty than the in cremental beliefs group and also the further consumption behavior research should be conducted focusing on entity beliefs. All of these finding s indicated that individuals engage in different information processing search according to their senses of i ntrinsic and extrinsic psychological factors. Because of the limited capacity for processing abundant information, they use the most effective rules in information processing based on these factors. This research confirmed that these factors that individua ls possess enabled us to predict how they

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159 make decisions. Consequently, the overall findings and result s could be explained by constructive consumer choice process theory (CCCP; Bettman, Luce, & Payne, 1998). Managerial Implications The findings of this dissertation suggested that individuals focus on different appeals of information (e.g., rational and emotional appeals) and/or different frame s of information (e.g., approach and avoidance frames) from advertisements of the luxury golf resort depending on their golf involvement levels and travel in addition to implicit beliefs. These findings will help marketers and public managers of luxury golf resorts to develop effective marketing and publication strategies in accordance with their advertising goals an d targeted customers. First, from the result s of the first experiment, emotional appeals can be used for public consumers because it was more effective in evoking positive attitude formation. In contrast, rational appeals gain more attention for high ly in volved consumers. These examples showed how marketers customized advertisement types and which information should receive focus Moreover, the finding s of the first experiment showed that there was no interaction effect between involvement levels and impli cit beliefs on message appeals. In other words, involvement levels and implicit beliefs separately influence attitude formation. As this result implied, message appeals would be useful when we recognize and control only a single factor that targeted consum ers demonstrate Compared to the first experiment motivational frames showed a significant effect only on approach frames in the second experiment Regardless of consumers involvement and implicit beliefs, approach frames were more effective for positi ve attitude formation Indeed, in the condition of motivational frames, involvement levels

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160 and implicit beliefs interacted with each other. This result implied that motivational frames would be effective when we control and recognize consumer s intrinsic a nd extrinsic psychological factors which influence their positive attitude formation. For example, it would be effective to provide information along with motivational frames for loyal and patronized customers who se personal information was secured Beyond this simple conclusion, it should be not neglected that attitude formation was less related to visit intention to the luxury golf resort in the second experiment The use of motivational frames can only have an influence on positive attitude formation but less influence on visit intention. Since motivational frames have less effect on enticing consumers to visit the luxury golf resort it should be considerate to use motivational frames for those who already exhibit a positive attitude. For example, those who are highly involved in golf already have positive attitude s toward the luxury golf resort because they felt attachment to the place that offers a golf related setting ( Filo, Chen, King, & Funk, 2011 ). Therefore, for this type of consumers, information must be provided to evoke visit intention. If the advertisement is targeted to high involvement consumers in golf, motivational frames are limited to use in advertisement. It was found that information processing occurred in both high and low involveme nt situations, and also these different involvement levels help ed to segment customers. Consistent with various studies related to dual process, high ly involved consumers were likely to focus on rational appeals, whereas low involved ones tend to pay more attention to emotional appeals. Since this study examined consumer involvement levels using self measured questions and not manipulators, the segmentation of this study can represent actual consumers situations. In the

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161 segmentation work, the frequency and duration in years of playing golf were more weighted than other golf related questions. T h erefore, high ly involved participants can represent patronized consumers while low involved ones indicate novice or infrequent consumers. The most interesting resu lt of this study is that golf involvement is more effective on positive attitude formation toward the luxury golf resort than travel involvement The effect of golf involvement was greater in Experiment 1, while that of travel involvement was more signific ant in Experiment 2. This result showed that golf involvement could influence both positive attitude formation and visit intention toward the luxury golf resort, but travel involvement barely affect ed attitude formation. As aforementioned evidence of motiv ational frames, information related to travel involvement is not appropriate for those who are willing to visit the luxury golf resort. Since golf involvement is more operative to evoke potential visitors, it was suggested that a public marketing channel r elated to golf such as golf TV or golf magazines be used to promote the luxury golf resort. In terms of implicit beliefs, the finding s help us to segment consumers into loyal or general consumers. According to prior literature, people with entity belief s tend to consider the main qualities of products, and it was hard to change their attitude s once they evaluate d products positively Therefore, the entity beliefs group attempted to process information progressively to gain more information rather than the incremental beliefs group Because of their rigid thoughts, there is less variance to predict intentions and future behavior among those in the entity beliefs group. Similar with high ly involved consumers, the entity beliefs group also represent s loyal c onsumers to whom marketers

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162 should pay more attention, while the incremental beliefs group is categorized as general consumers. Based on the suggested results and findings, several examples are suggested. Marketers and advertisement providers should be c oncern ed with which channel is most effective for advertising the luxury golf resort. Recent hospitality and sport management articles indicated that there are various marketing channels such as website s brochures, and other forms of social media to promo te the luxury golf resort. The result s recommend that the advertisement should be issued o n a golf related channel such as golf TV or golf magazine regardless of the type of channels. In addition, marketers should design advertisements by focusing on golf related information. As these results showed, advertisement for the luxury golf resort might include information describing golf courses facilities and sizes of golf courses rather than demonstrating room interior or suggesting attractions near the resort. Finally, marketing and advertising strategies should differ depending on their targeted consumers. The public relation strategies for sport hospitality industries should consider to attract new customers as well as to keep the loyalty of existing ones ( Herstein & Jaffe, 2008). For example, if the brochure is issued to high ly involved loyal consumers, it should include golf related information by focusing on rational appeals. Since these types of consumers are willing to read even a large amount of inform ation, marketers and advertisement providers try to describe golf facilities as specific ally as available space allows. Along with rational appeals, approach frames should be included. Since marketers have already secured the personal information of loyal consumers and patrons to provide customized service, they can easily access and

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163 manage consumers involvement levels and their implicit beliefs As the result s showed, motivational frames were most effective when involvement levels and implicit beliefs int eracted. T h erefore, brochures for patronized consumers should contain golf related information with rational appeals along with approach frames. As aforementioned, however, motivational frames either approach or avoidance frames are not recommended fo r use on advertisements targeted to golf related marketing channels such as golf magazine or golf TV. Since these types of marketing channels were targeted to the public particularly, high ly involved consumers in golf advertisement providers could not access and manage their psychological factors. Indeed, high ly involved consumers might have a more positive attitude toward the luxury golf resort than the general public would Therefore, it is recommended that golf related information with rational appea ls only should be provided when advertising to golf related marketing channels. Otherwise, for public media channel s that target non loyal and novice consumers, approach frames might be proper to evoke a positive attitude toward the luxury golf resort. Plu s, such information that consisted of emotional appeals let consumers know about a resort and helped them decide to visit there. The result revealed that emotional appeals were more appealing to low involved participants, and they generated positive attitu de s regardless of whether participants have entity or incremental beliefs. To minimize the variance of uncontrolled consumer psychological factors, advertisement s with information consisting of emotional appeals and framed by approach phrase s are recomme nded for consumers with low golf involvement or novice golfers through public media. Consistent with previous findings, emotional appeals with

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164 psychological approaches make the golf resort privileged and potentially resonate luxury golf tourists (Levere, 2011). Importantly, the information for public media should include both aspects of golf and travel. Overall, these study results suggest that type of information and frames should be customized depending on consumers involvement levels and implicit belie fs and that the most effective and efficient strategies should be developed based on advertising goals and targeted consumers. Limitation and Future Research Our findings suggest several directions for future studies First, study participant dem ographics are not representative of potential consumers of luxury golf resorts. This study attempted to recruit general populations through Amazon Mechanical Turk rather than using student samples. However, the sample was limited in order to measure the ef fect of information processing for those who actually visit such luxury golf resorts. As our descriptive analysis results indicated, income levels were fairly lower than we expected. Our targeted consumers of luxury golf resorts might have higher income le vels than those of the general golf population. To overcome this problem, this study utilized household income levels as a covariate variable. However, t o obtain more accurate results for providing significant implications to luxury golf resort industries, this study could filter participants according to their income levels or their previous experiences while visiting luxury golf resorts. Second, this study started with the questions of why information processing had rarely been tested with inherent psyc hological factors; thus we applied the implicit belief theory to information processing models. However, both theories have been seldom conducted in the context of hedonic/ high involve ment products. For dual process models, Mattila (1999) found that emot ional and experiential domains were perceived

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165 more favorably in the evaluation of luxury brand hotel services. Jun and Holland (2012) also suggested that there were insignificant results regarding the effortless effects in the hotel and hospitality context s because participants were already highly involved in the se products. These two studies implied that it was important to consider specific characteristics in luxury tourism and hospitality contexts For the implicit belief theory, Park and John (2010) onc e tested the effect of implicit beliefs regarding women s underwear and fountain pens, and their study results were similar to those of this study. Compared to other studies related to implicit beliefs, the entity beliefs group was more consistent with pro ducts and evaluate d more favorably the higher involve ment product. However, a series of these studies failed to distinguish participants involvement levels from the characteristics of hedonic/high involved products. To avoid the confusion of high involve m ent products, this study employed self measured methods to examine participants involvement levels. Because other studies employed manipulations to measure involvement levels, they might confuse product involvement and consumer involvement levels. Thus, f urther research should consider self measured methods for involvement levels in the context of hedonic/high involved products in developing experimental designs. Third, one could use other dependent variables such as visit intention in the framework of t his study. In this dissertation, we focused on only the effect on attitude formation but other aspects may be consequential for generating visit intention. Given the result s of the second experiment, H ypothesis 5 was not supported that attitude formation and visit intention demonstrated a weak statistical connection. Because motivational frames were often used to evoke one s actual behavior rather than attitude

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166 formation, we conjectured that the result s of this experiment were statistically insignificant Future study should focus on both aspects attitude formation and visit intention to obtain accurate implications regarding the effect of motivational frames. Jain, Mathur, and Maheswaran (2009) employed various dependent variables such as attitude towa rd advertisements and products, and behavioral intention to examine the interaction effect of implicit beliefs and motivational frames, and the result s varied according to the type of contexts. Their study will be helpful in developing research frameworks to measure the effect of motivational frames for luxury/hedonic products. Future studies should consider that visit intention will be included in the framework. Fourth future research could incorporate different ways to capture participants implicit be liefs. In our studies, we used self measured methods that asked respondents to evaluate their implicit beliefs. The main advantage of self measured methods is the ease of assess ing respondents psychological perceptions such as personality or beliefs. In s pite of this advantage, this method was seldom used in experimental research due to the difficulty of random assign ment In experiment research, it was recommended that at least 20 25 respondents should be assigned in each cell. However, it was difficult t o anticipate how many respondents were assigned into entity and the incremental belief s group s like in this study. Moreover, there is a risk that respondents are skewed on either entity or incremental belief s group s according to the context of the study. T o reduce the potential salience MacCallu, Browne, & Sugawara, 1996 ) this study calculated pretest power and recruited a bigger sample size than the result s of the power analysis suggested. However, it is still perilous especially in the experimental d esign for luxury/hedonic products, which required specific sample

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167 characteristics. Thus, it would be interesting to incorporate new measures for implicit beliefs, such as manipulations in the experimental procedure. Finally future study could include so me other key moderators besides consumer involvement and implicit beliefs. As aforementioned, this study attempted to examine golf travelers information processing using intrinsic psychological factors (i.e., implicit beliefs) as well as extrinsic psychol ogical factors (i.e., consumer involvement). In terms of psychological factors, one could consider perceived risks or values as a moderator instead of implicit beliefs. Since consumers perceived relative financial risks or values regarding luxury brands or products, perceived risks or values could influence the processing of information or making purchase decision s (Simcock, Sudbury & Wright, 2006). Moreover, in terms of consumer involvement, one should incorporate different concepts of involvement levels. In the field of marketing, the meaning of involvement is subdivided into two subcategories which are consumer involvement and product or issue involvement. Consumer involvement denotes the degree of personal relevance of a consumer in a product, while prod uct or issue involvement indicates an amount of arousal and interest driven by a product category (Mittal & Lee, 1988). T h erefore, to more clearly understand information processing and decision making process of luxury golf resorts consumers future studie s could consider utilizing product involvement instead of consumer involvement. Final Comments T his study attempted to investigate consumers information processing by focusing on their involvement levels and implicit beliefs. The proposed framew ork incorporated intrinsic and extrinsic psychological factors which influence attitude

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168 formation among consumers toward the luxury golf resort. Overall, the study results showed that consumers utilize different information processor according to their inv olvement levels and implicit beliefs. This study also found that consumer s inherent psychological factors could play a n important moderating role in the dynamic relationship s existing in the traditional information processing model. Thus, it is hoped that this study inspires other academic research related to the consumer psychology, particularly their information processing.

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169 APPENDIX A COVER LETTER Protocol Title: Information processing for the luxury golf resort context Purpose of the research study : This study examines how golf tourists will evaluate information regarding the luxury golf resort context What you will be asked to do in this study: In this study, we will present you product information. Your task is to examine the product information according to your implicit beliefs and involvement levels of golf and travel. Time required: 10 to 15 minutes Risks and Benefits: You do not anticipate any discomfort arising out of this study. You are free to withdraw from further participation at any sta ge of the study. You may refuse to answer any question you wish. This study is not expected to yield any immediate benefit associated with participating. Compensation: You will receive one ( 1) dollar per participation Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be assigned a code number, so your name will not be linked to your responses. Voluntary participation: Your participation in the study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty f or not participating. Rights to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence. Whom to contact is you have questions about the study: Hee Youn Kim, M. S., Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, 300 FLG PO Box 118208. Gainesville, FL 32611, Email: elara1004@ ufl.edu Dr. Yong Jae K o Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, 186C FLG PO Box 118208. Gainesville, FL 32611, Email: yongko@hhp.ufl.edu Whom to contact about your rights in the study: UFIRB02 Office, PO Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250, Phone: (352) 392 0433 The research is approved by University of Florida Institutional Review Board (IRB02). UFIRB # 2013 U 0412 Agreement: I have read t he procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure

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170 APPENDIX B MANIPULATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL STUDY EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 1 Rational Appeal Emotional Appeal

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171 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 2 Approach Motivational frame Avoidance Motivational frame

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172 APPENDIX C QUESTIONNAIRE FOR EXPERIMENT Please read the following scenario very carefully and image that you are in this situation. You should read this scenario within three (1) minutes. Also, you are not allowed to return to the prev ious page, if you move to the next page. Have you ever stayed in luxury golf resorts (Price is over $200 per day) ? A Yes, ______________ times B No After finishing a big project in your company, you decide to take a vacation to play golf in the upcoming month. Considering your specified time, you find information about PGA Nati onal Resort & Spa in Golf Digest The travel itinerary is included: For a cost of $5,000, you are eligible to s tay 4 nights and 5 days in a deluxe room and to play 3 rounds of golf ; b reakfasts and d inners are provided You have asked a travel agency to send relevant information and have received a flier that includes the advertising message described in the next section

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173 PART I : Please indicate your general beliefs and thoughts. Strongly Disagree Neutral Strongly Agree 1 Everyone is a certain kind of person, and there is not much th at anyone can do to really change that. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 People can change even their most basic qualities. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 Something basic about a person cannot really be changed. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 Everyone can significantly change his or her basic charac teristics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 The important parts of whose people are cannot really be changed 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 People can substantially change the kind of person they are 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 People can t really change their deepest attributes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 No matter what kind of person someone is, they can always change very much. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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174 PART I I : Please circle the number below that best d escribes the way you feel about the ADVERTISEMENT. (For Message Appeals) 1. The information of PGA G olf Resort was Rational 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Emotional (For Motivational frames) 1. This advertisement of PGA Golf Resort Preventing to miss a chance to improve my prestige 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Promoting to take a chance to improve my prestige 2 Reg arding t h is information of PGA Golf Resort, I feel the message contains the NEGATIVE implication of PGA Golf Resort 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 the POSITIVE implication of PGA Golf Resort

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175 PART II I: Please circle the number below that best d escribes the way you feel about PGA GOLF RESORT 1 1 To me, PGA Golf Resort seems to be Bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Good Uncomfortable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pleasant Unfavorable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Favorable 1 2. I think that Strongly Disagree Neutral Strongly Agree 1 Visiting PGA Golf R esort is prestigious. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 PGA Golf Resort is distinctive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. My future intention to travel to PGA Golf Resort is Impossible 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Possible Unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Likely Improbable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Probable 3. The pro bability that you would travel to PGA Golf Resort is 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

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176 PART I V ( 1 ) : Please indicate your thoughts about GOLF. 2 1. To me, Golf Unimportant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Important Boring 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Interesting I rrelevant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Relevant 2 2. How MANY TIMES do you play golf per MONTH? 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Time(s) 2 3. How MANY YEARS have you played golf? _______________ Years 2 4. What is your average score for 18 holes? Av erage score _______________ PART I V ( 2 ) : Please indicate your thoughts about TRAVEL. 3 1. To me, Travel Unimportant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Important Boring 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Interesting Irrelevant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Relevant 3 2. How many times do you TRAVEL out of your town per year? (For Pleasure & Business) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Time(s) 3 3. How many times have you been out of town for playing GOLF per year? 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Time(s) 3 4. How many DAYS do you st ay when TRAVEL (For Pleasure & Business) on average? 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Day(s)

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177 PART V : Please either check the appropriate box or fill in the blank for the items below. 1. I am ? A Male B Female 2. I am _______________ y ears old 3. My ethnic background? A Native American C Caucasian E Asian B Hispanic D African American F Other______________ 4. Your h ighest level of education is ? A High school B Community college C College D Graduate school 5. What was your approximate total household income last year? 1 Under $9,999 2 $10,000 $19,999 3 $20,000 $29,999 4 $30,000 $39,999 5 $40,000 $49,999 6 $50,000 $59,999 7 $60,000 $69,999 8 $ 70,000 $79,999 9 $80,000 $89,999 10 $90,000 $99,999 11 $100,000 $109,999 12 $110,000 $119,999 13 $120,000 $129,999 14 $130,000 $139,999 15 $140,000 $149,999 16 $150,000 $159,999 17 $160,000 $169,999 18 $170,000 $179,999 19 $180,000 $189,999 20 $190,000 $199,999 21 More than $200,000

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178 APPENDIX D IRB APPROVAL LETTER

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179 APPENDIX E C OPYRIGHT HELD BY LETTERS OF CONSENT

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196 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Hee Youn Kim earned a doctorate degree in the Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management at the University of Florida in August 2013 and majored in sport management. She received her Master of Science in Tourism Management at Kyunghee University in 2009. During doctoral and master programs, she involved several research projects tourism and sport marketing Her primary research interests are sport tourism and hospitality management particularly focused on management (e.g., golf and ski resort development). For he r distinguished academic achievements and passion she was honored with Lockhart Dissertation Fellowship and Emerging Women Scholar Award the Global Marketing Conference in 2012. Along with her education al background, Hee Youn worked for Korean Air, a large scale airline company, as a flight attendant. D u ring 10 years of work experience s she mostly served customers in the First and Business class es and taught several classes on food and beverage and ser vice manners. Based on her expertise and industry experience s she had a passion regarding tourism and hospitality management. Furthermore, she delivered lectures on tourism and hospitality management for several colleges in Korea as an instructor or a pro fessor. Her academic journey started in 1997, and Hee Youn earned Bachelor of Arts majored in Korean Literature and Linguistics Education at Hongik University in 2001.