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Music Teacher Identity Development

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Material Information

Title:
Music Teacher Identity Development the Role of Long-Term, Authentic Teaching Experience in the Integration of Multiple Dimensions of Identity
Physical Description:
1 online resource (179 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Goldie, Sandy B
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Music Education, Music
Committee Chair:
Robinson, Russell L
Committee Members:
Hoffer, Charles R
Chobaz, Raymond A
Jones, Linda Lee Ann

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
authentic -- experience -- identity -- music -- pre-service -- socialization -- teacher -- teaching
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Music Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of long-term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) in the formation of a music teacher identity (MTI) as measured by music teacher role commitment (MTRC), music teacher self-efficacy (MTSE), and preference for self-identification as a musician/performer or teacher (PTSI) and to gain an understanding of how differing lengths and types of teaching experience may impact music teacher identity (MTI) among pre-service music teachers.This quantitative study used a cross-sectional survey design to examine differences in music teacher identity among pre-service music teachers (N =520) who had participated for varying lengths of time (never, 1 semester, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 4+ years) in LATE within String Project teacher training programs located in nineteen institutions across the United States. Results were analyzed using descriptive and correlation analysis. A significant positive relationship was found to exist between LATE and levels of MTSE. Participants with three or four years of LATE exhibited significantly higher MTSE than those with those with only a semester or no LATE and there were significant differences in MTSE between both freshmen and seniors based on LATE. Gender was found to be a significant predictor of MTRC and PTSI. Results also appear to indicate that a large gap may exist between how participants prefer to think of themselves (as performers or teachers) and what their career plans are (performing or teaching) following graduation. Analyses of the effects of private lesson teaching, small group teaching, and large group teaching revealed that each impacts MTI differently and that optimum dosages may exist for impacting MTI including teaching private lessons for four or more years, teaching small group classes/rehearsals of 3-10 students for two years,and teaching large group classes/rehearsals of 11 or more students for one year. Results also indicate significant benefits of three years of this teaching experience being structured as authentic teaching with school-aged children. The only dosage of teaching experience shown not to contribute positively to teacher identity was the one semester dosage. Recommendations for music teacher education are provided.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Sandy B Goldie.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local:
Adviser: Robinson, Russell L.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2015-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID:
UFE0045798:00001

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Music Teacher Identity Development the Role of Long-Term, Authentic Teaching Experience in the Integration of Multiple Dimensions of Identity
Physical Description:
1 online resource (179 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Goldie, Sandy B
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Music Education, Music
Committee Chair:
Robinson, Russell L
Committee Members:
Hoffer, Charles R
Chobaz, Raymond A
Jones, Linda Lee Ann

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
authentic -- experience -- identity -- music -- pre-service -- socialization -- teacher -- teaching
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Music Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of long-term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) in the formation of a music teacher identity (MTI) as measured by music teacher role commitment (MTRC), music teacher self-efficacy (MTSE), and preference for self-identification as a musician/performer or teacher (PTSI) and to gain an understanding of how differing lengths and types of teaching experience may impact music teacher identity (MTI) among pre-service music teachers.This quantitative study used a cross-sectional survey design to examine differences in music teacher identity among pre-service music teachers (N =520) who had participated for varying lengths of time (never, 1 semester, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 4+ years) in LATE within String Project teacher training programs located in nineteen institutions across the United States. Results were analyzed using descriptive and correlation analysis. A significant positive relationship was found to exist between LATE and levels of MTSE. Participants with three or four years of LATE exhibited significantly higher MTSE than those with those with only a semester or no LATE and there were significant differences in MTSE between both freshmen and seniors based on LATE. Gender was found to be a significant predictor of MTRC and PTSI. Results also appear to indicate that a large gap may exist between how participants prefer to think of themselves (as performers or teachers) and what their career plans are (performing or teaching) following graduation. Analyses of the effects of private lesson teaching, small group teaching, and large group teaching revealed that each impacts MTI differently and that optimum dosages may exist for impacting MTI including teaching private lessons for four or more years, teaching small group classes/rehearsals of 3-10 students for two years,and teaching large group classes/rehearsals of 11 or more students for one year. Results also indicate significant benefits of three years of this teaching experience being structured as authentic teaching with school-aged children. The only dosage of teaching experience shown not to contribute positively to teacher identity was the one semester dosage. Recommendations for music teacher education are provided.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Sandy B Goldie.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local:
Adviser: Robinson, Russell L.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2015-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID:
UFE0045798:00001


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1 MUSIC TEACHER IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT: THE ROLE OF LONGTERM, AUTHENTIC TEACHING EXPERIENCE IN THE INTEGRATION OF MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS OF IDENTITY By SANDY B. GOLDIE A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNI VERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 2013 Sandy B. Goldie

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3 I n honor of my loving husband whose incredible suppor t made this possible and in loving memory of my mother, Sammy and Gizmo who were so dear to our hearts.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to sincerely thank the members of my committee: Dr. Russell Robinson (chair), Dr. Charles Hoffer, Dr. Linda Jones, and Dr. Raymond Chobaz for their guidance in this project. I would also like to thank Dr. Behar Horenstein, Dr. William Bauer and Dr. Timothy Brophy whose help have been invaluable to me along the way. I am truly indebted to each of the String Project Dire ctors and Music Education Department Heads in each of the institutions where the PMTIS survey was administered for taking the time, effort and energy needed to make this project a success and to help us as a profession understand more about the needs of the preservice teachers in our care. Most of all, I would like to thank my dear husband for his unending support every step of the way without which this could not have been accomplished.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TA BLES ...........................................................................................................................8 LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................10 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................12 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................15 Statement of the Problem ........................................................................................................15 Authentic T eaching Experience in a String Project Program ................................................21 Purpose of the Study ...............................................................................................................22 Research Questions .................................................................................................................23 Hypotheses ..............................................................................................................................23 Limitations and Delimitations ................................................................................................24 Definition of Terms ................................................................................................................24 Significance of the Study ........................................................................................................25 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE .................................................................................................28 Theoretical Framework ...........................................................................................................28 Social Context and Identity .............................................................................................29 Cognitive Complexity/Meaning Making and Identity ....................................................30 Multiple Dimensions of Identity .....................................................................................31 Overview of Pre service Music Teacher Identity Research ...................................................35 Pre service Music Teacher Role Commitment Research ................................................40 Pre service Music Teacher Self Efficacy Research ........................................................43 Recent Debates of Definition ..................................................................................................45 The Influence of Experience on Music Teacher Identity .......................................................46 Field Experiences, Authentic Context Learning Activities & Peer Teaching ................48 Student Teaching .............................................................................................................53 String Project Teaching ...................................................................................................59 Summary .................................................................................................................................63 3 METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES .............................................................................65 Research Method ....................................................................................................................65 Setting .....................................................................................................................................66 Participants .............................................................................................................................67

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6 Data Collection Procedures ....................................................................................................67 Data Collection Instrument .....................................................................................................71 Pilot Testing ............................................................................................................................73 Data Analysis Procedures .......................................................................................................73 4 RESULTS ...............................................................................................................................75 Descriptive Analysis: Characteristics .....................................................................................76 Descriptive Analysis: Teaching Experiences and Music Teacher Self Efficacy ...................77 Descriptive Analysis: Performer/Teacher Self Identification and Role Commitment ...........81 Correlation Analysis ...............................................................................................................88 The Relationship between LATE and the Outcome Variables ...............................................88 Research Question 1: LATE and Music Teacher Role Commitment .............................90 Research Question 2: LATE and Music Teacher Self Efficacy ......................................91 Research Question 3: LATE and Performer/Teacher Self Identification .......................97 Research Question 4: PTSI and MTRC/MTSE ...............................................................99 Research Question 5: Nature of Teaching and Music Teacher Identity ........................100 MTRC and Nature of Teaching Experiences ................................................................102 MTSE and Nature of Experience ..................................................................................103 Post hoc Follow up Tests for MTSE: Private L essons .................................................105 Post hoc Follow up Tests for MTSE: Teaching Small Groups .....................................107 Post hoc Follow up Tests for MTSE: Teaching Large Groups .....................................109 PTSI and Nature of Teaching Experiences ...........................................................................112 Assumption Checks ..............................................................................................................113 Model 1: Music Teacher Self Efficacy on LATE, gender, institution, and year ..........113 Model 2: Performer/Teacher Self Identification on LATE, gender, institution, and year .............................................................................................................................114 Model 3: Music Teacher Role Commitment on LATE, gender, institution, and year ..115 Model 4: Music Teacher Self Efficacy on private lesson, small group, and large group ..........................................................................................................................117 Model 5: Performer/Teacher Self Identification on private lesson, small and large group ..........................................................................................................................118 Model 6: Music Teacher Role Commitment on private lesson, small and large group ..........................................................................................................................119 Summary of Results ..............................................................................................................120 5 DISCUSSION .......................................................................................................................123 Findings and Implications .....................................................................................................124 Research Question 1 ......................................................................................................131 Research Question 2 ......................................................................................................133 Research Question 3 ......................................................................................................136 Research Question 4 ......................................................................................................137 Research Quest ion 5 ......................................................................................................138 Summary of Music Teacher Identity Development ..............................................................139 Recommendations Based on Findings ..................................................................................150 Recommendations for Future Research ................................................................................154

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7 Conclusions ...........................................................................................................................157 APPENDIX A UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IRB APPROVAL ................................................................159 B PMTIS: PRE SERVICE MUSIC TEACHER IDENTITY SURVEY .................................160 C PARTICIPATION REQUEST .............................................................................................165 D QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION ..............................................................................166 E MAP OF STRING PROJECTS AROUND THE COUNTRY .............................................167 LIST OF REFERENC ES .............................................................................................................169 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................179

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 41 Participants by institution ..................................................................................................76 42 Teaching experiences of preservice music teachers .........................................................78 43 Teaching experiences pre service teachers have never had ...............................................78 44 Spearman rank correlation: PTSI and one successful teaching experience .......................80 45 Spearman rank correlation: PTSI and major ity of teaching experiences successful .........80 46 Spearman rank correlation coefficient for PTSI and self reported performance skills .....86 47 Spearman rank correlation coefficient for PTSI and self reported teaching skills ............87 48 ANOVA results for MTRC (Music Teacher Role Commitment) .....................................90 49 ANOVA results for MTSE (Music Teacher Self Efficacy) ..............................................91 410 Mean MTSE scores by dosages of LATE ..........................................................................92 411 Tukey all pairwise comparisons for unequal replications for MTSE and LATE ..............94 412 MTSE means by year in school .........................................................................................95 413 M TSE impact by year in school for LATE vs. NON LATE groups .................................96 414 ANOVA results for PTSI (Performer/Teacher Self Identification) ...................................98 415 Correlation matrix for PTSI, MTRC, MTSE and summary of continuous variables ........99 416 ANOVA results for MTRC and nature of teaching experience .......................................102 417 MTRC follow up tukey all pairwise for unequal reps for private lessons .......................102 418 MTRC means by nature of teaching experience ..............................................................103 419 ANOVA results for MTSE and nature of teaching experience .......................................103 420 Mean MTSE by nature of teaching experience and dosage .............................................104 421 Music teacher self efficacy follow up tukey for private lessons .....................................106 422 Music teacher self efficacy means change over time when teaching private lessons ....106 423 MTSE follow up tukey: teaching small group classes/rehearsals of 3 10 students .........108

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9 424 MTSE mean scores for teaching s mall groups by years of experience ..........................108 425 MTSE follow up Tukey all pairwise for unequal reps for small group teaching ............110 426 MTSE mean scores for teaching large groups by years of experience ...........................111 427 ANOVA results for PTSI and nature of teaching experiences ........................................113 428 Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances MTSE and LATE ....................................114 429 Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances PTSI and LATE .......................................115 430 Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances MTRC and LATE ....................................116 431 Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances MTSE and Teaching Type ......................118 432 Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances PTSI and Teaching Type .........................119 433 Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances MTRC and Teaching Type ......................120

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10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 21 Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity ........................................................................32 22 Reco nceptualized Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity ...........................................34 41 Teaching experiences of preservice music teachers by amount .......................................79 42 Teaching experiences pre service teachers have never had by year in school ..................79 43 Commitment to teaching music as a primary career following graduation .......................84 44 Performer/teacher self identification scale ........................................................................84 45 Alignment of career plans and performer/teacher self identification. ...............................85 46 Change in MTSE from base year by dosages of LATE .....................................................92 47 Change in MTSE with each additional dosages of LATE .................................................92 48 Change in MTSE over years in school ..............................................................................95 49 Music teacher self efficacy of LATE vs. No LATE by year in school .............................97 410 Music teacher self efficacy of LATE vs. No LATE by year in school .............................97 411 Music teacher self efficacy means by teaching types ......................................................104 412 Change in music teacher self efficacy means by teaching types .....................................105 413 Music teacher self efficacy change compared to base year when teaching private lessons ..............................................................................................................................107 414 Music teacher self efficacy change compared to base year when teaching small groups ...............................................................................................................................109 415 Music teacher self efficacy change compared to base year when teaching large groups ...............................................................................................................................111 416 Music teacher self efficacy mean scores for all teaching types .......................................112 417 Model 1 of music teacher self efficacy on LATE, gender, institution, and year .............114 418 Model 2 of performer/teacher self identification on LATE, gender, institution, and year ...................................................................................................................................115 419 Model 3 of music teacher role commitment on LATE, gender, institution, and year .....116

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11 420 Model 4 of music teacher self efficacy on private lesson small group, and large group ................................................................................................................................117 421 Model 5 of performer/teacher self identification on private lesson, small and large group ................................................................................................................................118 422 Model 6 of music teacher role commitment on private lesson, small and large group ...119 51 Alignment of career plans and performer/teacher self identification ..............................127 52 Reconceptualized Model o f Multiple Dimensions of Identity .........................................145

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12 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LATE Long term Authentic Teaching Experience. Teaching experiences lasting a full semes ter or longer in which the individual is the actual teacher or teacher of record responsible for the growth of the student(s) under their leadership. This does not include instances in which the students or the teacher perceive someone else to be ultimatel y in charge of the learning process or instruction and would therefore exclude most traditional "student teaching" or practicum experiences offered as part of the curriculum in undergraduate music teacher education. MDI Multiple Dimensions of Identity. The different aspects or components that make up an individual's view of their self. Certain aspects may be more or less salient to an individual's overall definition of self at different times or in different contexts and are changeable over time. This defin ition is based on the Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity (Jones and McEwen, 2000) and the Reconceptualized Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity (Abes, Jones, and McEwen, 2007). MTI Music Teacher Identity. The degree to which an individual defines perceives, or describes their self as a music teacher. The three constructs that will be used to measure music teacher identity in this study are music teacher role commitment, music teacher self efficacy and the extent to which one prefers to self ident ify as a musician/performer or teacher. Constructs are based on the review of literature on music teacher identity, especially the work of Wagoner (2011) for music teacher efficacy and role commitment and Isbell (2008) for performer/teacher dimensionality. MTRC Music Teacher Role Commitment. The degree to which an individual is willing to take on the role and specific actions associated with teaching music to other individuals. MTSE Music Teacher Self efficacy. An individual's view of their own ability to s uccessfully influence student learning in music and carry out the duties or responsibilities of a music teacher. PMTIS A researcher generated questionnaire developed and validated for the purpose of this study to evaluate the constructs of music teacher r ole commitment, music teacher self efficacy and performer/teacher self identification. PTSI Performer/Teacher Self Identification. The extent to which an individual prefers to think of themselves as a musician/performer, a teacher, or both.

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13 Abstract of D issertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy MUSIC TEACHER IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT: THE ROLE OF LONGTERM, AUTHENTIC TEACHING EXPE RIENCE IN THE INTEGRATION OF MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS OF IDENTITY By Sandy B. Goldie August 2013 Chair: Russell Robinson Major: Music Education The purpose of this study was to examine the role of long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) in the form ation of a music teacher identity (MTI) as measured by music teacher role commitment (MTRC), music teacher self efficacy (MTSE), and preference for selfidentification as a musician/performer or teacher (PTSI) and to gain an understanding of how di ffering lengths and types of teaching experience may impact music teacher identity (MTI) among pre service music teachers This quantitative study used a cross sectional survey design to examine differences in music teacher identity among pre service music teacher s (N =520) who had participated for varying lengths of time (never, 1 semester, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 4+ years) in LATE within String Project teacher training programs located in nineteen institutions across the United States. Results were analyzed using descriptive and correlation analysis A significant positive relationship was found to exist between LATE and levels of MTSE. Participants with three or four years of LATE exhibited significantly higher MTSE than those with those with only a semest er or no LATE and there were significant differences in MTSE between both freshmen and seniors based on LATE. Gender was found to be a significant predictor of MTRC and PTSI. Results also appear to indicate that a large gap may exist between

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14 how participants prefer to think of themselves (as performers or teachers) and what their career plans are (performing or teaching) following graduation Analyses of the effects of private lesson teaching, small group teaching, and large group teaching revealed that each impacts MTI differently and that optimum dosages may exist for impacting MTI including teaching private lessons for f our years, teaching small group classes /rehearsals of 3 10 students for two years, and teaching large group classes /rehearsals of 11 or more students for one year. Results also indicate significant benefits of three years of this teaching experience being structured as authentic teaching with school aged children. The only dosage of teaching experience shown not to contribute positively to teacher identity w as the one semester dosage Recommendations for music teacher education are provided.

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15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem One of the biggest challenges facing the music education profession is the "chronic shortage of qualified and compete nt teachers to staff positions in U.S. schools" (Hancock, 2008, p.130). Organizations like the National Association for Music Education (NAfME) and the National Association for Schools of Music (NASM) report that only half of the demand for new music teach ers annually is being met by new music education graduates (Lindeman, 2004). The attrition rate for all teachers is high and the results of the 2004 2005 Teacher Follow Up Survey conducted by the National Center for Educational Statistics reported in 2007 that the teacher attrition problem had increased by 50% over the previous fifteen years (Heckman, 2007). Approximately 33% of new teachers will leave the profession within three years (Knox, 2005) and approximately 50% will leave within five years (Bureau of Legislative Research, 2006; Ingersoll and Smith, 2002; Killian & Baker, 2006). The National Center for Education Statistics has found the attrition rate for fine arts teachers higher than that of other subjects (Hamann & Gordon, 2000) and Madsen and Hancock (2002) found music teacher attrition rates to be higher than that of other subjects. The shortage of instrumental music teachers is well documented (Hamann, 2002; Hamann, Gillespie & Bergonzi, 2002; Nielson, 2002). This problem is exacerbated by the f act that many music teachers leave the profession early in their careers with many teaching only one or two years (Madsen & Hancock, 2002). There are many different reasons why new music teachers become dissatisfied and leave the music profession early in their careers. Some of these reasons relate directly to the school environment (frustration with students, parents, colleagues and/or administrators) or to other life

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16 goals in general (raising a family, a need/desire for a certain income level) (National Center for Education Statistics, 2007). Scheib (2007) found, though, that job dissatisfaction was at the heart of much of this attrition and that role stress was at the heart of the dissatisfaction. This supported earlier findings of role conflict and role overload as sources of music teacher stress (Scheib, 2003). Hellman (2005) note d that the lack of a strong music teacher identity has been identified as a factor contributing to teacher attrition among music teachers. Others have suggested that the role s tress and tension experienced by novice teachers is often exacerbated by preservice university training (Hellman, 2008; Scheib, 2006; Dolloff, 1999) that does not address the issues of teacher and performer identity and can be viewed as a problem of compe ting dual identities (Scheib, 2007). Since music teacher educators have no ability to impact the stressful contexts into which music teachers are placed, it may be necessary to look at strengthening the individuals themselves by addressing issues of role s tress within undergraduate training. The existence of conflicting or competing dual identities within undergraduate music education majors has been reported by many researchers (Bouij, 2004; Dolloff, 1999; Hargreaves & Marshall 2003; Isbell, 2008; Mark, 1998; Roberts, 2007; Wagoner, 2011; Woodford, 2002). Studies have shown that undergraduate music education majors view themselves first as a performer/musician and second as a teacher (Arostegui, 2004; Bouij, 2004; Freer & Bennett, 2012; Froehlich & L'Roy, 1985; Isbell, 2008; Pellegrino, 2009; Roberts, 1991; Woodford, 2002). This duality of identities begins early in the higher education process as the entrance audition for music education majors is based on musical ability and emphasizes performance skills (Bernard, 2009; Bouij, 2004; Dolloff, 1999; Hargreaves et al., 2003; Roberts, 1991, 1994). Many pre service music teachers have difficulty integrating the teacher and musician/performer aspects of their identity (Isbell, 2008; Pellegrino, 2009; Roberts, 2007; Woodford, 2002) and can be

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17 unsuccessful in transitioning into the music teaching profession. Approximately 50% of new music teachers will leave the profession within five years (Ingersoll, 2003). Although subject matter may be important for all teache r identity construction, the musician teacher is an anomaly in that they are much more attuned to their identity as a musician than an English teacher or history teacher may be with being an author or historian (Mark, 1998; Roberts, 1991). A majority of undergraduate music education students come to higher education already identifying themselves as musicians or performers (Isbell, 2008) and for them teaching music is actually a function of being a musician (Bouij, 2004; Conway, 2002; Isbell, 2008; Mark, 1998; Roberts, 1991, 2007). In essence, music teachers come to teach as a result of already being a performing musician whereas English teachers (for example) may not necessarily come to teaching English as a result of already being a publishing author. The construction of music teacher identity is unique in this respect. Bouij (2004) and Isbell (2008) found that new activities and experiences could influence how music education majors identify themselves and provided an important way to understand identity in musicians who are beginning to assume the role of music teacher. Bouij's work emphasized that an individual's set of role identities are "dynamically and hierarchically ordered and also changeable over time" (Bouij, 2004, p.3) and that an individual's s et of role identities reflects their social experiences. This set is influenced by the support (or lack of support) received from others to determine which roles are considered most salient and which are considered minor roles (Bouij, 2004). This support i s gathered or sought in the midst of experiences. Experiences can be a powerful predictor of commitment to and strength of occupational identity (Bouij, 1998; Conkling, 2004; Isbell, 2008).

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18 In 2011, Wagoner provided a much needed researchbased definition of music teacher identity that includes music teacher self efficacy, role commitment, agency, collectivity, and music teacher comprehensiveness. Because two of these constructs (role commitment and teacher self efficacy) have been studied extensively in connection with retention, teacher preparation, and identity (Bogler & Somech, 2004; Corbell et al., 2010; Day & Qing, 2009; Rots, et al., 2007) and because they were found to account for the largest amount of the variance in music teacher identity, they we re used as the basis for a musi c teacher identity measurement instrument. The creation of this instrument and the ability to quantify aspects of music teacher identity provided a way for future researchers to examine the impact of specific variables on the development of these constructs. What research has not explained up to this point, however, is the process by which music education majors might successfully adopt a music teacher identity as well as measures of specific factors that might promote/influe nce the development of this music teacher identity during undergraduate training. In order to build on the work of Bouij (2004) and Isbell (2008), an investigation into specific types of activities or experiences that may impact the development of a music teacher identity is needed. The relationship between experience and music teacher identity may vary according to the length and/or nature of the specific experiences. A model that explains the integration of multiple dimensions of identity within the gen eral population of college aged students is the Reconceptualized Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity (Abes, Jones, & McEwen, 2007). According this model, the strength and complexity of an individual's meaningmaking filter can influence the degree to which they rely on opinions of others (seeking external validation) or rely on internal beliefs in defining the self. This model represents the interaction of context, meaning making, and identity perceptions and

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19 explains how certain dimensions of an individuals identity may be more or less important to their core sense of self at different times and within different contexts. The university music school is the context within which music education majors function and seek validation for a music teacher id entity (Bouij, 2004; Conway, 2002; Isbell, 2008; Wagoner 2011). Since the musician/performer identity is given higher status within this environment than that of music teacher (Bouij, 1998, 2004; Conway, Eros, Pellegrino, & West, 2010; Pellegrino, 2009; Is bell, 2008; Roberts, 1991, 2004) and music education majors continue to highly value their musicianship as an essential component of who they are (Bernard, 2005; Isbell, 2008; Roberts, 2004), it is important to understand the intersectionality of identity dimensions and how individuals might integrate these dimensions into a core sense of self. An application of the Abes, Jones, and McEwen (2007) model to music teacher identity may increase our understanding of how college music education majors come to int egrate the musician/performer and teacher dimensions of their identity. It may also provide a model for understanding the role of long term authentic teaching experiences in the formation of music teacher identity as these experiences provide a different context within which to make meaning of the world and the self and to validate particular dimensions of identity. Issues of identity affect not only the transition into the music teaching profession, but also effectiveness once there. Having a healthy sen se of self affects the extent to which an individual is able to form positive, healthy, interpersonal relationships (Marcia, 1966), which are important in daily interactions with students, parents, colleagues and administrators. Josselson's (1991) pivotal identity work with women found that those individuals experiencing identity diffusion scored lowest "on all measures of healthy psychological functioning" (p. 140).

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20 Issues of identity may also affect a teacher's ability to use feedback constructively and to reflect on teaching and learning experiences in order to improve practice (Schn, 1987). How big or sma ll the distance is between self perception and others' perception may affect how feedback is received (Isbell, 2008). Even when praised, an insecure t eacher may perceive themselves to be ineffective in an area and take comments to be insincere while an overly confident teacher may see suggestions for improvement as unnecessary or invalid (Isbell, 2008). In addition, teachers who are able to appropriatel y attribute successes/failures with an internal locus of control have a more positive effect on student achievement than those who are not (Ghonsooly & Rezvani, 2011). The degree to which a music teacher identifies with the musician/performer role ident ity or the teacher role identity can affect the extent to which they focus their curriculum and classroom activities primarily on performance skills or on a broader curriculum (Bouij, 2004). The balance of performance skills and other more general musician ship, appreciation, and conceptual understandings of music may be a visible manifestation of this internal conflict. Bouij (2004) found that the role with which a music teacher identifies (musician/performer or teacher) is directly related to becoming a co ntent centered teacher (whose focus is on the music and musical goals) or a pupil centered teacher (whose focus is on students and student achievement) (Bouij, 2004). The feedback music students receive during instruction from content centered music teache rs is likely to be much more direct than that coming from pupil centered teachers (Bouij, 2004). How music teachers self identify may also impact their willingness to teach other subjects and the inclusivity of the music program (Bouij, 2004). An individual who identifies primarily as a violinist or orchestral musician, for example, may be unwilling or unhappy to

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21 teach subjects other than orchestra (like general music, music history, chorus, guitar or keyboard classes) even though their certification says they are qualified to do so and economic conditions within a school district may make it necessary. They may run a topnotch music program with excellent performing ensembles, but may not be welcoming of all students regardless of ability level into the p rogram (Bouij, 2004). Based on the important role that identity may play in music teacher effectiveness, comprehensiveness, longevity in the profession and the gap in research knowledge of the process by which undergraduate music education majors come to e mbrace a music teacher identity, this study intends to examine the role of long term authentic teaching experience in the development of a music teacher identity. Authentic Teaching Experience in a String Project Program The specific type of long term, au thentic teaching experience that will be examined in this study is teaching experience lasting a full semester or longer in which the individual is the actual teacher (teacher of record) responsible for the growth of the student(s) under their leadership. This does not include instances in which the students or the teacher perceive someone else to be ultimately in charge of student success and would therefore exclude most traditional student teaching or practicum experiences offered as part of the curriculu m in undergraduate music teacher education. There is a limited amount of this type of teaching experience available to undergraduate music majors. A work study program called the String Project offers undergraduate string or band education majors long te rm, authentic teaching experience that can last as long as four or five years (or the entire span of their undergraduate music education degree program). String Project programs exist in 44 different universities across the United States and consist of the following: a String Project Director (usually a university string education faculty member), a Master Teacher (experienced K 12 public school teacher who helps provide feedback to teachers and models the

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22 teaching of beginning classes), undergraduate strin g or band education majors (who teach small and large group classes, private lessons and orchestra rehearsals within the program), and community students (who are recruited into the program and are usually in grades three through twelve from public schools without string programs). Parents of the community children pay a small registration fee to the university in order to participate. The undergraduate students who teach in the String Project program s receive a work study stipend from the university that houses the program for their work of teaching and attending weekly meetings These undergraduate teachers are solely responsible for their students learning, progress, and performance on recitals and concerts given at the end of each semester. They are also responsible for recruiting in the public schools, teaching classes and lessons which are held on campus, attending weekly collaborative meetings, maintaining contact with parents, and dressing and acting professionally at all times. The master teacher and director observe teachers and provide feedb ack based on observations. The work done in String Project programs is completely independent of the music education coursework and curriculum and is in no way tied to grades or graduation credits. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to examine the role of long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) in the formation of a music teacher identity as measured by music teacher role commitment (MTRC), music teacher self efficacy (MTSE) and performer/teacher self identification preference (PTSI) as well as to gain an understanding of how differing lengths and types of teaching experience may impact music teacher identity among pre service music teachers

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23 Research Questions The specific research ques tions to be answered in this study are: 1. What is the relationship between long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) and music teacher role commitment (MTRC) among pre service music teachers? 2. What is the relationship between long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) and music teacher self efficacy (MTSE) among pre service music teachers? 3. What is the relationship between long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) and performer/teacher sel f identification preferences among pre service music teachers (PTSI)? 4. What is the relationship between performer/teacher self identification preference (PTSI) and music teacher role commitment (MTRC) and music teacher self efficacy (MTSE) among pre service music teachers? 5. What is the relationship between differ ent natures of teaching experiences (teaching private lessons, teaching small group classes/rehearsals, teaching large group classes/rehearsals) and music teacher identity (as measured by MTRC, MTSE, PTSI) among pre service music teachers? Hypotheses 1. There will be no significant difference between pre service music teachers who participate in a long term authentic teaching experience for varying lengths of time and those who do not in terms of music teacher role commitment. 2. There will be no significant diff erence between preservice music teachers who participate in a long term authentic teaching experience for varying lengths of time and those who do not in terms of music teacher self efficacy. 3. There will be no significant differences between preservice mu sic teachers who participate in a long term authentic teaching experience and those who do not in terms of how they self identify as a musician/performer or teacher. 4. There will be no significant difference between preservice music teachers who self ident ify as a musician/performer and those who self identify as a teacher in terms of music teacher role commitment or music teacher self efficacy. 5. There will be no significant difference between preservice music teachers who teach private lessons, small groups of three to ten students, or large groups of eleven or more students in t erms of music teacher identity development.

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24 Limitations and Delimitations 1. Participation in this study was limited to undergraduate music education majors in universities containing String Project music teacher training programs. Students completing post baccalaureate degrees in music education were not included in this study nor were performance majors who may plan to teach or performance majors who were currently teaching in String Project programs. 2. The administration of the PMTIS (pre service music teacher identity survey) at each institution was controlled by the String Project Director and the music education department head. Return rates varied by institution and could have re sulted in an over representation or under representation of any particular institution. In addition, there may be important characteristics of the types of individuals who chose not to participate that go unrepresented in this study. It is possible that the characteristics of this silenced population may vary in regards to role commitment, self efficacy and preference to identify as a teacher from the ones who are represented in this study. 3. Although all students participating in this study were undergraduat e music education majors within the same institutions, one sample from each institution consisted of mainly string education majors participating in a String Project teacher training program. This may have resulted in the underrepresentation of string educ ation majors in the control group. In addition, the number of participants not participating in String Projects at each institution was much larger than the number of those who were. This was accounted for in the statistical procedures used for analyses (especially, the types of post hoc follow up tests used), but should still be considered a limitation of this study. Definition of Terms 1. LONG TERM, AUTHENTIC TEACHING EXPERIENCE (LATE): Teaching experiences lasting a full semester or longer in which the ind ividual is the actual teacher or teacher of record responsible for the growth of the student(s) under their leadership. This does not include instances in which the students or the teacher perceive someone else to be ultimately in charge of the learning pr ocess or instruction and would therefore exclude most traditional "student teaching" or practicum experiences offered as part of the curriculum in undergraduate music teacher education. 2. MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS OF IDENTITY (MDI): The different aspects or compon ents that make up an individual's view of their self. Certain aspects may be more or less salient to an individual's overall definition of self at different times or in different contexts and are changeable over time. This definition is based on the Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity (Jones and McEwen, 2000) and the Reconceptualized Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity (Abes, Jones, and McEwen, 2007). 3. MUSIC TEACHER IDENTITY (MTI): The degree to which an individual defines, perceives, or describes their self as a music teacher. The three constructs that will be used to measure music teacher identity in this study are music teacher role commitment, music teacher self efficacy and the extent to which one prefers to self identify as a

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25 musician/performe r or teacher. Constructs are based on the review of literature on music teacher identity, especially the work of Wagoner (2011) for music teacher efficacy and role commitment and Isbell (2008) for performer/teacher dimensionality of music teacher identity. 4. PRE SERVICE MUSIC TEACHER IDENTITY SURVEY (PMTIS): A researcher generated questionnaire developed and validated for the purpose of this study to evaluate the constructs of music teacher role commitment, music teacher self efficacy and performer/teacher se lf identification preference. 5. MUSIC TEACHER ROLE COMMITMENT (MTRC): The degree to which an individual is willing to take on the role and specific actions associated with teaching music to other individuals. 6. MUSIC TEACHER SELF EFFICACY (MTSE): An individua l's view of their own ability to successfully influence student learning in music and carry out the duties or responsibilities of a music teacher. 7. PERFORMER/TEACHER SELF IDENTIFICATION (PTSI): The extent to which an individual prefers to think of themselve s as a musician/performer, a teacher, or both. 8. STRING PROJECT: A work study program based at a college or university in the United States in which undergraduate and/or graduate string and band education majors teach community children over a sustained peri od of time (multiple semesters) to play string instruments while being given pedagogical feedback and supervision. This program provides "practical hands on training for undergraduate string education majors during their college years, and gives children t he opportunity to study a stringed instrument" (National String Project Consortium, 2012, "About the NSPC," para.2) Significance of the Study Colleges and universities, pre service and in service music teachers, the music teaching profession, and K 12 edu cation could benefit from increased knowledge of the specific factors that influence the development of a music teacher identity. Understanding how long term, authentic teaching experiences affect the development of a music teacher identity within the cont ext of music teacher training would allow music teacher education programs to provide the types of experiences that might promote the embracing or rejecting of a music teacher identity early on in music teacher training. Providing undergraduate music educa tion majors with the necessary information for making appropriate career and college major decisions before the final

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26 semester of their final year when teaching internships generally occur could save both the student and the university time and resources i n addition to contributing to healthy identity development. Understanding how specific experiences might impact the individual music education student may also provide a way to support these individuals within the context of a music school that privileges the musician/performer identity as well as strengthen them for degree completion and the transition into the music teaching profession. Understanding how teaching experience may affect an individual's ability to balance the dimensions of the teacher sel f and the musician self could also strengthen music education students after graduation as inservice music teachers. Within a school context, the music teacher may find very little or no socially constructed support for the musician/performer self, althou gh there is considerable support for the teacher self (Roberts, 2004). This lack of support comes with a high price for the music teacher who is still tied to their identity as a performer (Roberts, 2004). Inservice music teachers continue to balance and integrate the teacher and musician/performer dimensions of identity (Roberts, 2007; Scheib, 2007) and Bernard (2005) found that continued music making experiences are "central to the way that musicianteachers make meaning of who they are and what they do" (p. 13). This balance directly impacts the content and focus of children's daily experiences in music classes across the country as well as who may be welcomed into these programs. K 12 education and the music teaching profession could directly benefit f rom better teacher preparation, increased teacher effectiveness, and reduced attrition rates. Schools and districts could benefit by knowledge that if properly used in pre service music teacher training might help reduce music teacher attrition and save va luable time and financial resources devoted to the constant hiring, training, and induction programs for new teachers. Administrators, school

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27 staff, students, and parents could benefit from positive, interpersonal relationships and interactions with teache rs who have a healthier sense of self and are more secure in who they are. The music teaching and learning process could benefit from having teachers who can more effectively reflect on practice, accept feedback without excessive defensiveness, appropriately attribute success or failure, and operate with an internal locus of control in order to improve instruction and increase student achievement in music.

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28 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The purpose of this study is to examine the role of long term, authentic teaching experience in the integration of multiple dimensions of identity among pre service music teachers and to gain an understanding of how different types and lengths of teaching experience may impact music teacher identity. In order to gain a better understanding of the process by which pre service music teachers might come to embrace a music teacher, this review of literature will first provide a theoretical framework based on the importance of social context, meaning making abilities, and the the ory of multiple dimensions of identity (Abes, Jones & McEwen, 2007). Next, it will examine extent literature on pre service music teacher identity development. It will conclude with a look at the specific types of teaching experiences that have been studie d in relation to pre service music teacher identity: field experience, peer teaching experience, authenticcontext learning activities, student teaching and String Project teaching within a university program. Theoretical Framework The process of identit y development in pre service music teachers may be seen as a process of integrating multiple dimensions of identity (the musician/performer self and the teacher self) into an integrated sense of self as a music teacher. Abes, Jones and McEwen's (2007) theory of multiple dimensions of identity will provide the theoretical framework through which we examine music teacher identity development in this study. This theory posits that the environment (social context) and an individual's meaningmaking ability (cog nitive complexity) play an important role in the integration of multiple dimension of identity. This section will first present literature on the role of social context and meaningmaking in identity development and

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29 conclude with an examination of Abes, Jones and McEwen's (2007) theory of multiple dimensions of identity and how it is relates to pre service music teacher identity development. Social Context and Identity Social context plays an important role in identity development, according to social con structivism. It is within each individual's specific social context that important experiences, relationships, and social interactions occur. Erikson (1968) proposed a development model based on the influence of the external environment and internal dynami cs. Each of his eight stages of development is distinguished by some type of turning point or crisis that must be resolved by balancing the internal self and external environment. According to Erikson, identity formation involves commitment to a sexual orientation, ideological stance, and vocational direction. It is constructed by an individual within a social and historical context and is influenced by others and institutions (Erikson, 1968). The importance of social context in the process of identity development is addressed in the social constructivist theory of Lev Vygotsky (1978). According to his theory, development is inseparable from social and cultural context C ognitive function occurs on two planes (first as an external social interaction between individuals and later as an internal process within the individual). This means that culture plays a large role in the development of the individual who is influenced by modeling of thinking, behaviors, and problem solving strategies of individuals close to them who pass on specific cultural norms and ways of thinking through daily collaborative interactions (Vygotsky, 1978). How an individual thinks is governed largely by the culture in which they grow up. I n essence, a culture teaches an individual what to think and how to think about it. Each culture transmits its own specific beliefs, values and preferred methods of thinking and problem solving to the next generation through social interactions (Vygotsky, 1978).

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30 Cognitive Complexity/MeaningMaking and Identity Identity development is affected by how people think, reason and make meaning of their experiences (Evans, Forney, Guido, Patton & Renn, 2010). Cognitive structural theories help to explain how in different stages of development, certain assumpt ions act as "filters or lenses for determining how people perceive and evaluate experiences and events" (Evans et al., 2010, p.43). As an individual is exposed to new information or experiences that may cause cognitive dissonance, they are forced to either assimilate the new information into their current way of thinking or change their thinking (creating a more complex structure) to accommodate for the new knowledge (Piaget, 1952). Piaget pointed out the significant role of the environment in providing experiences that force individuals to encounter new information to which they must react. Cognitive development is influenced by social interactions within experiences. In turn, identity development is influenced by a person's cognitive development, or set of assumptions through which they make meaning of information gained in these experiences. Baxter Magolda (1992) conducted a five year longitudinal study that used a random sample of 101 male and female college students to study how cognitive complexity (o r ways of knowing) change over time. She found that an initial stage of "absolute knowing" occurs in cognitive development in which all knowledge is seen as certain and can be gained from others. There is a transitional stage in which individuals begin to see that some knowledge is uncertain and that authorities and others may not have all of the answers. Next, there is a stage of "independent knowing" that includes placing value on one's own ideas in addition to considering the ideas of others. Baxter Mago lda found that the final stage, "contextual knowing," was rarely demonstrated by college students. In this stage, not only are one's own views and those of others incorporated in making meaning, but there is also the recognition that the legitimacy of know ledge claims is determined contextually.

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31 Robert Kegan's theory of meaning making (1994) describes how each individual's complexity of meaning making involves a personal path that evolves through certain "orders of consciousness" and involves balancing and r ebalancing the self and others. As one grows, they develop increasingly more complex ways of knowing and the process of development is driven by the tension of two different needs: one to connect to others and the other to differentiate the self from oth ers. How one understands knowledge and experience is directly related to how one understands others and the self. An individual's ability to make meaning undergoes changes that affect how they view the self, their relationship to others and how they unders tand the experiences they have. According to Kegan, there are six forms of meaning making (orders). Beginning orders (12), involve relying on others for determining meanings whereas order 3 involves a coconstructed self that fuses others' expectations an d ideas with one's own ideas of self. "self authoring mind" is order 4 and is the pivotal point in the progression where individuals become "self authored" and in essence "write" their own life by developing an independent selfhood and establishing their own sets of values and ideologies. This order is characterized by independence and self regulation and is crucial for identity development as the balance tips from external to internal definition of the self. Multiple Dimensions of Identity In 2000, Jone s and McEwen presented a conceptual model of multiple dimensions of identity developed through a grounded theory study of ten undergraduate women of diverse racial and cultural backgrounds (Figure 2 1) This model explains how multiple dimensions of ident ity are incorporated into an evolving sense of self. At the center of the model is a core sense of self (a personal identity that includes personal characteristics, attributes, and other factors important to the individual). This core is surrounded by the context in which identity occurs and different significant dimensions of identity are illustrated by intersecting circles surrounding the

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32 core. Different dimensions of identity (race, culture, gender, family, education, sexual orientation, social class, an d religion) are shown to be more or less important to the individual's core sense of who they are by dots drawn on each circle with dots closest to the core considered most important to the individual at that time. Identity development is driven by autonom y, connectedness and decisionmaking. In 2007, Abes, Jones and McEwen reconceptualized this model to include meaning making ability. Figure 2 1. Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity Reprinted with permission of The Johns Hopkins University Press and the American College Personnel Association Jones, S usan R. and Marylu K. McEwen. A C once ptual M odel of Multiple Dimensions of I dentity . Journal of College Student Development 41:4 (2000), p. 409, Figure 1. by the American College Personnel Associ ation College Student Educators International (ACPA), One Dupont Circle, NW at the Center for Higher Education, Washington, DC, 20036.

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33 The Reconceptualized Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity (Abes, Jones, & McEwen, 2007) offers a framework for un derstanding how the complexity of one's meaning making capacity interacts (like a filter) and "depending on complexity, contextual influences pass through to different degrees" (p. 7) in order to influence one's perceptions of the salience of their multiple social identities. This model highlights the interactive nature of context, meaning making, and identity perceptions (Figure 2 2. Context affects an individual's perception of their identity regardless of how simple or complex their ability to make mean ing is (Abes et al., 2007). This reconceptualized model may help to explain music teacher identity development because of what it adds, meaning making and increased importance of context (2007) to the Jones & McEwen (2000) ideas of identity development as a fluid, dynamic, and ongoing process that is influenced by different changing contexts ( Figures 2 1 and 22). By representing the relative importance of each identity dimension to the core identity (center) with the placement of a dot along a continuum of intersecting circles, the Reconceptualized Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity shows how individuals can view themselves differently at different times and within different contexts as they struggle to create an integrated identity. The tension and unresolved conflicts between "their developing internal voices and external influences" (Abes, Jones, & McEwen, 2007, p. 5) characterize the transition in this model from a simple, formulaic way of making meaning (heavily reliant on others) to a more comp lex, foundational (self reliant) way of making meaning. Participants in this study who were in transition from a formulaic to a foundational way of making meaning tended to experience tension between their different identities as they were beginning to cha llenge the expectations of others that caused them difficulty in integrating the multiple dimensions of their identity.

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34 Figure 2 2. Reconceptualiz ed Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity R eprinted with permission of The Johns Hopkins University Press and the American College Personnel Association. Abes, Elisa S., Susan R. Jones, and Marylu K. McEwen. Reconceptualizing the Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity: The Role of Meaning Making Capacity in the Construction of Multiple Identities. Journal of College Student Development 48: 1 (2007) p. 7, Figure 2. by the American College Personnel Association College Student Educators International (ACPA), One Dupont Circle, NW at the Center for Higher Education, Washington, DC, 20036. Although t he Abes, Jones, and McEwen (2007) model has not yet been used as a theoretical framework for explaining the multiple dimensions of identity among pre service music teachers there has been much work to verify the existence of multiple dimensions of identit y in this population (Bernard, 2005; Dolloff, 2007; Isbell, 2008; Roberts, 2007). In 2007,

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35 Roberts (a scholar who has been studying music teacher identity development for more than a decade) wrote that the idea of multiple identities is accepted in the field. The multiple identities (musician/performer self and teacher self) are "positioned in our Self according to the situation in which the identity is required, and perhaps more importantly, supported by Others" (Roberts, 2007, p.3). Both Roberts (2007) and Dolloff (2007) agree that there are times when one identity is brought to the foreground while others fall into the background and these shifts depend on the context of the situation. As undergraduate music education majors struggle with a university con text that privileges the identity of musician/performer (Conway, Eros, Pellegrino & West, 2010; L'Roy, 1983; Roberts, 1991) and an internal voice that may begin to identify more with the role of teacher, the influence of the external context and internal voice may be directly affected by the strength of their meaning making filter in deciding which identity is most salient to them at that particular time. Overview of Preservice Music Teacher Identity Research Music teacher identity d evelopment is a comple x, fluid process that is impacted by an individuals' specific social context that provides exposure to influential experiences as well as influential people (Isbell, 2006). Pre service music teachers seek validation and support for their music teacher iden tity within the social context of the music school (Bouij, 2004; Isbell, 2008; Roberts, 1991). They negotiate a sense of self that includes not only their self perceptions, but also perceptions of identity that are inferred from others (Isbell, 2008). In t he balancing of self views and the views of others, an individual's cognitive complexity (or ability to make meaning of their experiences in a complex way) impacts the degree to which they preference the views of others in establishing an identity for them selves (Abes, Jones and McEwen, 2007). An individual's social context and meaning making ability impact when and how certain dimensions

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36 of their identity may be considered more or less important to them and are central to how they define to themselves and to others who they are (Abes et al., 2007). There are two distinct dimensions of a music teacher identity: the musician/performer self and the teacher self and the conflict that exists between these two competing views of self in preservice music teache rs is well documented in the research literature (Bouij, 2004; Dolloff, 1999; Hargreaves & Marshal, 2003; Mark, 1998; Roberts, 1991,1999, 2004). Roberts (2007) wrote of a "never ending personal war between our musician and teacher identities" (p. 7). Much research has shown that undergraduate music education majors view themselves first as a musician or performer and second as a music teacher (Arostegui, 2004; Freer & Bennett, 2012; Froehlich & L'Roy, 1985; Roberts, 1991; Woodford, 2002). Many pre service music teachers have difficulty integrating the teacher and musician aspects of their identity (Isbell, 2008; Roberts, 2004; Bouij, 2004) and several researchers have suggested that this problem is exacerbated by the fact that music education majors are socialized as musician/performers within the music school and not as teachers (Cox, 1997; L'Roy, 1983; Scheib, 2003; Roberts, 1991; Woodford, 2002). Status in the higher education music world is awarded according to musical ability and faculty "discuss, ran k and value students based on performance attributes and the students know and understand this" (Scheib, 2006, p.7). Most rewards (intrinsic and extrinsic) are tied to performance, not teaching ability (scholarships, accolades, applause and advancement). Musician/performer status is the privileged status among musicians and within higher education music training (Bouij, 1998; Froehlich & L'Roy, 1985; Mark, 1998; Roberts, 1991; Scheib, 2007; Woodford, 2002) and music education majors often feel stigmatized to be labeled as teachers (Conway, Eros, Pellegrino & West, 2010; Lesniak, 2005; L'Roy, 1983; Roberts, 1991).

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37 Froehlich & L'Roy (1985) surveyed 118 choral, string and band undergraduate music education majors and did follow up interviews with thirty nine of them in order to study their career commitment and commitment to specific music education skills and knowledge. They found that 72% of the participants labeled themselves first and foremost as performers and that use of this label to self identity incre ased in frequency from freshman to senior year, indicating participants becoming less committed to music education the longer they remained in the music school. String education majors were less likely to choose music educator as a label than either band or choral majors. For these participants, undergraduate music teacher training did not seem to contribute to an embracing of occupational norms or values associated with being a music educator or commitment to the profession. Roberts (1991) followed 108 music education students from five Canadian Universities over a period of three years and found that identity was largely dependent on social interaction and dependent upon both others and self (p. 30). Most participants identified themselves as either music ian or performer first. They often identified themselves strongly with the instrument they played, constructing their musician identity as synonymous with the role of performer. Performer or musician was found to be the privileged identity status over musi c educator in these university music schools. Freer and Bennett (2012) revealed details of the teacher/musician conflict found to exist in pre service music teachers in two parallel studies of undergraduate music majors in urban universities, one in the United States and one in Australia. Seventy participants were ask to complete three surveys, give written responses and submit drawings over the course of a semester. Results indicated that the musician identity appeared first (before the teacher identity )

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38 and it was the lens or framework through which they determined the relevance of the pedagogical techniques and experiences they had in courses and in fieldwork. Conway, Eros, Pellegrino, and West (2010) studied undergraduate music education students' pe rceptions of tensions experienced during their undergraduate degree by asking thirty four participants to complete questionnaires with open ended questions and twelve participants to undergo interviews and participate in focus groups. This qualitative case study design revealed music education students perceived themselves as "different" from other students in the music school (p. 267) and that they felt that their degree program was stigmatized within their studios and the school as a whole. Several participants maintained that majoring in music education carried a negative stigma, regardless of their demonstrated performance ability. This supports the finding of Lesniak (2007) who found that 30% of the music education majors in their study felt that there was a negative stigma attached to being a music education major. Bouij (2004) used symbolic interactionism and role theory as theoretical framework for studying the problem of socialization of pre service music teachers. The findings are based on undergra duate music education students that were followed starting in their freshman year in 1988 by him and by Bladh (2002). Of the 169 participants who began the study, 48 had their studies interrupted and 21 dropped out of the programs completely. Bouij mainta ins that these numbers demonstrate that something unusual is going on within the education process in addition to formal learning. He states that each of us has a set of role identities for the different social positions that we occupy and that "as social actors we are all constantly involved in negotiating the meaning of reality with one another" (p.3). Prior to college, music teachers and parents influence the musician identity of pre service music teachers and once in the university music school, the most desirable role identity is to be

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39 recognized as a musician (Bouij, 2004). According to Bouij, "there is no doubt that the performer is equipped with the highest status in the student culture" and if the performer status cannot be achieved, participants h ave two ways to "withdraw with some dignity" (p.8): they might claim to be an all around musician (broad comprehensiveness) who can play several instruments well or they might claim to be first and foremost a teacher whose musical ability is the essence of their music teacher competence. This kind of teacher is what Bouij labels a "content centered teacher" (p. 9) and these individuals find it difficult to understand a "pupil centered roleidentity" because they highly value their musicianship. There are many differences between content centered music teachers and pupil centered music teachers. The focus of instruction for a content centered teacher is likely to revolve around accomplishing musical goals whereas the focus of instruction for a pupil centered teacher tends to be on students and student learning with the music being used as a tool in the process (Bouij, 2004). In addition, feedback to students is likely to be much more direct for a content centered music teacher who is focused on accomplishing musical goals than for those focused on students. Bouij found that music teachers who are content centered are often unwilling to teach music courses outside of their performance specialty and that content centered teachers rarely become pupil centered teachers. Bouij warns of pre service music teachers who finish their degree well prepared, but are so focused on themselves and musical outcomes they can produce through their pupils that they may have difficulty developing "a solidarity that includes all pu pils, even those he sees as unmusical" (p. 11).The findings in this study are important to current research into music teacher identity because they contribute to our understanding of the degree of comprehensiveness (narrow or broad) as a component of musi c teacher identity.

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40 Pre service Music Teacher Role Commitment Research Role theory is an explanation of how individuals perform different roles in everyday life based on values and norms that are created within specific social contexts (Merton, 1957). In short, identity is performed in much the same way as an actor taking on a role (Ibarra, 1999). Role identity can be considered a hierarchy which depends on how the individual is supported by others in the identity, how committed they are to it and to wh at extent they are intrinsically and extrinsically rewarded for it (Stets & Cast, 2007). Much of the music education research in role identity is based on the work of McCall & Simmons (1978), Carper (1970), and Merton (1957). Although their research is dated, it cannot be ignored because it is used as a foundation in so much of the current research (Bouij, 1998, 2004; L'Roy, 1983; Isbell, 2008; Roberts, 1991). McCall and Simmons (1978) provides a foundational definition of role identity as the character and the role that an individual devises for himself as an occupant of a particular social position. More intuitively, such a role identity is his imaginative view of himself as he likes to think of himself being and acting as an occupant of that position ( p. 65). This definition is used in several key studies of music teacher identity (Bouij, 1998, 2004; Roberts, 1991). Carper (1970) provides four categories of role development that have been used by music teacher identity researchers to provide a way of ex plaining growth in identity development (Isbell, 2006; Paul, Teachout, Sullivan, Kelly, Bauer, & Raiber, 2001). The four categories include: 1) ownership of the occ upational title and identity, 2 ) commitment to prof essional tasks and knowledge, 3) institutional position and reference group identity, and 4) recognition of social position (Carper, 1970). Occupational socialization is the process by which an individual begins to "adopt, develop, and display the actions and role behaviors typical of and unique to a profession" (Merton, 1957 as cited in Isbell 2008, p. 163). Role identity, occupational

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41 identity, and applications of socialization have been heavily researched in regard to pre service music teacher identity (Bouij 1998, 2004; Roberts, 1991; Broyles, 1997; Isbell, 2006, 2007; Paul, 1998; Raiber, Teachout, Killian, Dye, & Vandehey 2007; Yourn, 2000; Scheib, 2007; Conkling, 2004; Mark, 1998). One of the first studies to provide significant information about occupational identity and role commitment in pre service music teachers was conducted by L'Roy (1983) at North Texas State University. This oftencited study surveyed 165 pre service music teachers and conducted thirty eight follow up interviews to reveal information on three topics: the occupationa l norms and values they identify with most strongly, their commitment levels to specific music education knowledge and skills, and their level of career commitment to music teaching. L'Roy (1983) found that music education majors had little commitment t o occupational norms, values, work related skills or body of knowledge of the music education field. When given a list of roles or titles and asked which of these they prefer other people to use in reference to them, "performer" was chosen most frequently. In fact, the longer music education majors were in the program, the more likely they were to identify as a performer. Freshmen and sophomores often chose titles like band director or choir director while upper upper classmen more often chose performer or musician titles. String players showed the strongest commitment to performing over teaching across the undergraduate years. In L'Roy's study (1983), pre service music teachers who had previous teaching experiences of some kind held higher levels of commi tment to becoming a music educator than those with no prior teaching experience. Overall, students showed weak orientations to teacher roles and strong identification with musician roles. L'Roy attributed this lack of commitment to norms, skills and values of the music education profession to the limited number of opportunities

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42 that participants had in undergraduate training to assume the role of music teacher in a meaningful context. L'Roy suggested that a key component in encouraging music teacher identit y development is providing music teaching experiences in the undergraduate curriculum. Austin, Isbell, and Russell (2010) surveyed 454 undergraduate music majors at three NASM (National Association of Schools of Music) accredited schools in the United Sta tes. They collected data via a questionnaire about participants' beliefs about influential people and experiences, occupational roles within music, and career commitment to music. Their results showed that studio teachers were considered to be the stronges t musician and teacher role models and that performance activities were considered extremely important. People and experiences merged to have an influence through multiple different contexts and occupational identity was found to be multi dimensional in na ture. Results revealed evidence of social influence as well as teacher and musician identity impacting career commitment. Evidence was also found of institutional differences and strong program effects that contributed differently to socialization and ther efore occupational identity construction. Wagoner (2011) developed an instrument to measure the constructs of music teacher role commitment and music teacher self efficacy. The development of the Music Teacher Identity Scale ( MTIS) was an important step forward in music teacher identity research because it provided a way to effectively gather specific quantitative data about two constructs of music teacher identity. Music teacher role commitment was defined in this study as the willingness to be involved in teaching activities, expend personal resources of time and energy, expend personal resources of money, attitude/investment toward professional music teaching goals and involvement in professional activities" (p. 194). This definition was based on extens ive review of research literature establishing observable teacher behaviors related to music teacher role

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43 commitment. Wagoner (2011) found willingness to spend time and energy toward music teaching to be highly correlated with music teacher self efficacy w hereas participation in extra professional activities only showed a low moderate correlation with self efficacy. In this study, role commitment and self efficacy accounted for 42.17 percent of the variance of overall music teacher identity among in service music teachers. Pre service Music Teacher Self Efficacy Research In 1977, Albert Bandura published Self Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change, which was his seminal work on self efficacy that has been used in countless studies since. Ban dura describes self efficacy as a person's belief that they have the ability to achieve what they set out to do. His model lists four principal sources for expectations of personal efficacy: performance accomplishments, verbal persuasion, vicarious experie nce, and psychological states. Bandura found that different psychological procedures used in treatment could affect the strength of self efficacy. His findings support a relationship between self efficacy and specific behavioral changes as well as support for the idea that individuals with higher self efficacy expectancies generally are more effective and successful than those with lower self efficacy expectancies. Several researchers have examined self efficacy among pre service music teachers (Jackson, 2008; Schmidt, Zdzinsky & Ballard, 2006; Hargreaves eta al., 2007; Welch et al., 2010). Jackson (2008) examined the perceived effectiveness of pre service experiences and coursework on self efficacy in classroom management of eighty nine music teachers from a large metropolitan school district in the southeastern United States. This study found that music educators perceived being inadequately prepared to face the challenges of classroom management during the early years of teaching (p. 65). When asked wha t coursework or experience would have been most beneficial in leading to confidence in managing behavior in

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44 the early years of teaching, the highest rated response was more time in classrooms with in service teachers, mentors, and students (p. 92). Gener al music teachers tended to feel more prepared than band directors and elementary teachers tended to feel more prepared than either middle school or high school music teachers. Regarding their top concerns, 53% of music teachers indicated that classroom management was their biggest concern, rating it higher than general music knowledge or conducting skill. Results revealed four areas in which music teachers felt l east prepared for teaching: ) not prepared to establish an effective discipline a nd behavior management system, 2 ) not prepared to establish, fund and maintain a ye arly budget for their program, 3 ) not prepared to establish effective recruitment and retention strategies, and 4) not prepared to develop effective consequences for inappropriate behavior (p. 106). According to Jackson, the sinkor swim approach of leaving classroom mana gement to be learned on the job may not be in the best interest of pre service music teachers. Teachers in this study indicated that what they needed most was simply more time on the podium in the classroom. Barnes (1998) evaluated the self efficacy levels of eighteen pre service music teachers participating in the University of South Carolina String Project at three different times over the course of two semesters and compared self efficacy scores with ratings of teaching effectiveness generated by experienced music teachers and the preservice music teachers, themselves, upon watching videotaped of teaching episodes. Barnes found that self efficacy appeared to decline slightly while teaching effectiveness increased slightly. Results revealed that participants were becoming more self aware about teaching and about what factors they could influence or which factors may be beyond their control. Barnes recommended that pre service music training include opportunities to practice effective teaching behaviors and regular self assessment (iii)

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45 and that early positive experiences with teaching may sustain them through the temporary doubts they may encounter along the road to becoming a teacher (Barnes, 1998, p. 106). Recent Debates of Definition Pellegrino's (2009) review of literature discusses a recent debate over definitions in music teacher identity research. Regelski (2007) criticized authors of past pre service music teacher identity literature for failing to adequately define terms, suggesting that researchers understood terms like identity, role, conflict, and musicianteacher to mean different things. There were authors like Rudd (2006) and Jorgensen (2006), however who were already attempting to clarify definitions. For example, Rudd (2006) differentiated between the self and identity with identity being "the self in context" (p. 63) and further stating that identity is "constructed through narratives we tell abou t ourselves in relation to musical events and experiences in different contexts personal, transpersonal, social, and those specifically located in time and place" (p. 63). Jorgensen (2006) defined musical identity as "a complicated construct (that) is so cially as well as individually constructed" (p. 29) as well as being "dynamic and in a state of becoming" (p. 39). Roberts (2007) and Stephens (2007) both agreed that roles are situated within specific contexts and that there may be times when one role com es to the foreground while others recede to the background. The identity that has shifted to the background in a particular context is not devalued, though according to Roberts (2007) and Stephens (2007). Pellegrino (2009) used a review of literature to synthesize existing research and definitions into a definition containing two key ideas about pre service music teacher identity: First, identity can be defined as fluid, dynamic, evolving, situated, layered and constructed individually, socially and cult urally. Second, music teachers are, ideally, integrated people who bring meaningful experiences with them into classrooms (p. 50)

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46 This view appears to be supported by Roberts' (2007) notion that music teacher effectiveness depends on being both a strong te acher and a strong musician, and by his statement that the "personal war we wage with ourselves to maintain a balance with these two identities is crucial to our success in the classroom" (p. 11). Finally, Wagoner's (2011) dissertation, "Defining and Mea suring Music Teacher Identity: A Study of Self Efficacy and Commitment Among Music Teachers" went even further in defining music teacher identity as encompassing five specific constructs: Music teacher identity is one's conception of himself or herself as a music teacher, as affected by five faucets: (a) music teacher self efficacy (i.e., one's sense of his or her ability to affect students in the classroom setting, influence parents, administration and community, and be resilient in the face of adversity) ; (b) music teacher commitment (i.e., one's willingness to expend personal time, money, and energy to teach; and to be involved in professional activities); (c) music teacher agency (i.e., one's power to take charge of a particular situation and produce ch ange); (d) music teacher collectivity (i.e., one's belief in the ability of the team of teachers and administrators within the school to execute courses of action required to produce desired results); and (e) musician teacher comprehensiveness (i.e., the broadness or narrowne ss with which one sees one's self as a musician and as a teacher) (p.122). One thing, that is widely agreed upon is the importance of socialization in pre service music teacher identity formation (Bouij, 2004; Froehlich & L'Roy, 1985; I sbell, 2008; Roberts, 1991; Conway et al., 2010). Who we are and who we become is intimately connected with our environment, significant people and influential experiences (Isbell, 2008). We will next examine the role of experience in preservice music tea cher identity development. The Influence of Experience on Music Teacher Identity Experience has been shown to be very influential in how pre service music teachers view themselves as musicians and as teachers. Dolloff (2006) maintained that identity is c ontinuously being constructed and evolves based on the experiences we have and our relationships to our environment and other people as well as the results of our actions. Bernard (2005) contends that

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47 music teacher identity constantly evolves and is influe nced by experiences and social context. Musical experiences are key to preservice music teachers' initial commitment to the musician/performer identity and to the degree of music education (Bergee & Demorest, 2003; Fink, 1997, Gillespie & Hamman, 1999; Is bell, 2008). Isbell (2008) found that musical experiences were the most influential factor in the strength of occupational identity for pre service music teachers and that influential experiences were more predictive of occupational identity than influenti al people. Isbell (2008) investigated socialization and occupational identity of 578 undergraduate pre service music teachers enrolled in traditional baccalaureate programs from thirty randomly sampled institutions certified by NASM (National Association of Schools of Music). Participants who completed the survey were from differing geographic regions across the United States and included a diverse sample of institutions and individuals. Symbolic interactionism was used as a framework to examine identity development and analyze group differences related to gender, major applied area, teacher and musician role models and field experience. Isbell found that teachers, parents and musical experiences heavily influenced Pre service teachers decisions to choose music education as a career. Isbell's (2008) results indicate that musician and music teacher role models, year in school and field experience may impact occupational identity of pre service music teachers. Although a limited amount of preliminary growth in teacher identity occurs in training, "significant change does not occur until the senior year" (p. 171). Results further revealed pre service music teacher occupational identity can be broken down into three constructs: musician identity, self perceived teacher identity and teacher identity as inferred by others. Participants with field experience scored significantly higher on both self perceived teacher identity and

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48 teacher identity inferred from others than those participants with no field experience In addition, self perceived teacher identity was found to be "the only significant predictor of career confidence related to music teaching" (p. 130). Effect sizes were found to be small, however, and there were no factors studied that accounted for mor e than 10% of occupational identity variance. Isbell suggests that further investigation might reveal if certain amounts or types of field experience could increase pre service music teacher confidence. Field Experiences, AuthenticContext Learning Activ ities & Peer Teaching Teaching experiences allow preservice music teachers to interact with others within the role of teacher and may be influential in helping individuals who identify as musicians/performers add the dimension of teacher to their view of self (Bouij, 1998, 2004; Conkling, 2004; Hargreaves et al., 2007). Several types of experiences have been examined in the pre service music teacher identity literature including field experiences (Conkling, 2004; Frederickson & Pembroke, 2002), peer teaching (Butler, 2001; Paul, 1998), authentic context learning activities (Broyles, 1997; Colemann, 1999; Campbell & Thompson, 2007; Haston & Russell, 2012; Killian & Dye, 2009; Paul, Teachout, Sullivan, Kelly, Bauer & Raiber, 2001) student teaching (Conway, 2002; Draves, 2010; Rideout & Feldman, 2002; Schmidt, 2010), and teaching experiences within a university String Project program (Davis, 2011; Ferguson, 2003; Pryzygocki, 2004; Schmidt, 2005). Conkling (2004) collected the narratives of 100 pre service mu sic teachers who were participating in field experiences in professional development schools over a period of eight years in order to examine how music teacher identities might be shaped differently in professional development partnerships than in traditional music teacher preparation. Three narratives were selected and analyzed in order to understand the social construction of music teacher identity and how it develops through teaching opportunities and cohort groups. She

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49 suggests that identity is shaped a nd reshaped by observations and new teaching experiences in an authentic school context. It is also impacted by prior values and assumptions about music teaching. She highlights the difference between this context, which is one in which a participant like Brian says "at the professional development site, I'm treated like a music teacher" (Conkling, 2004, p. 6) and a traditional music teacher preparation context where "school children are often nameless, faceless abstractions" (p. 13). Although traditional m usic teacher preparation programs do many things well, Conkling maintains that these programs may actually prevent students from imagining themselves as teachers since much of the content and format of classes "is aimed at reminding the student that he is, after all, a student" (p. 6). As pre service music teachers engage with the phenomenon of music teaching in an authentic school context, they not only try to make sense of teaching, but also of themselves as teachers. Haston and Russell (2012) used a mul tiple case study method to examine the effect of ACL (Authentic Context Learning) activities within a professional development school on the teacher occupational identity development of five pre service music teachers who were enrolled in either strings pe dagogy or instrumental methods classes. Four themes were identified from the information obtained through interviews, observations and participant written reflections: "the development of general pedagogical knowledge, knowledge of self, performance/teache r symbiotic outcomes and professional perspectives" (p. 369). The authors developed a conceptual diagram that describes the impact of ACL experiences on teacher occupational identity development. Paul, Teachout, Sullivan, Kelly, Bauer and Raiber (2001) e xamined the effect of the frequency of certain authentic context learning (ACL) activities on thirty pre service instrumental music teacher's initial student teaching performance. Participants from four major

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50 universities participated in the following ACL activities prior to student teaching: early field experience teaching, peer teaching episodes, watching videotapes of their own teaching and watching videotapes of their own teaching with a coaching instructor. Within the first three weeks of student teach ing, participants were evaluated using the Survey of Teaching Effectiveness (Hamann & Baker, 1996) and results revealed a significant correlation between three of these ACL activities and the quality of initial teaching performance. Those who had participa ted in more early field experience, peer teaching and video watching "were significantly better teachers" than those who had not participated in these activities or had only participated in a low number of them (p. 136). There was no correlation between te aching performance and viewing videos with a coach. The authors contend that findings raise two critical questions: (1) Is there a critical number of ACL experiences beyond which preservice instrumental music teachers become significantly more effective? (2) Do other ACL activities exist that might impact initial teaching performance to an even greater degree than the ones studied here? Paul (1998) conducted a two year study of undergraduate instrumental music education majors teaching their peers in an instrumental teaching laboratory at the University of Oklahoma in order to determine its impact on professional teacher role development. The lab combined conducting and secondary methods courses in order to offer students one to three minute "microteachin g" experiences and ten minute "rehearsal" episodes. Impact was measured using Fuller's (1969) stages of concern and Carper's (1970) categories of role development. Car per's four categories include: 1) ownership of oc cupational title and identity, 2) commitment to pro fessional tasks and knowledge, 3) institutional position and reference group identification, and 4) recognition of social position. All participants showed growth in Carper's categories with category two showing the most impact. In addition, all participants moved to the third stage in

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51 Fuller's (1969) scale of teacher concerns, which means they progressed from a teacher centered perspective to one that was more student focused. Paul concluded that the peer teaching experience did contribute to r ole development and that one of the strengths of the program was that it created a community of teachers in this setting where teaching ideas could be shared and practiced. Some limitations of the program cited were a lack of authenticity, anxieties about peer evaluation, and a lack of ownership of student learning. Butler (2001) used both qualitative and quantitative methods to study fifteen pre service music teachers conceptions of teaching effectiveness, microteaching experiences and teaching performa nce. Participants were enrolled in an introductory music education course in which they constructed concept maps of teacher effectiveness before and after two microteaching experiences, participated in interviews and completed self evaluations. Teaching pe rformance was measured by the Survey of Teaching Effectiveness (STE) and criteria based on research of teacher intensity. The cognitive structures of participants did not change significantly in the study according to the quantitative findings and these st ructures did not correlate with their teaching performance. Butler's (2001) qualitative results did provide insights into the way pre service teachers think about teaching and teaching effectiveness. In interviews, participants spoke of how beneficial th ey felt the microteaching experience was and how their thinking was directly affected. After microteaching opportunities, they saw teaching as "more structured and concrete" (p. 267). They perceived peer teaching to be difficult because they perceived the ir peers to be judgmental and teaching in the field setting to be more real world and intimidating. The field setting experience appeared to help students begin developing their identity as a teacher with one student commenting "Well, I learned how to actually be in front of a real class and, like, really

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52 teaching and what it felt like to be the director and be in that spot where everyone is looking at you. It's like you're the teacher, and you have to know the answers..." (p. 267). Qualitative findings suggest a direct impact on participants' thinking and skill development in teaching from the microteaching experiences. Killian and Dye (2009) conducted a longitudinal study of forty three pre service music teachers over three semesters using a reflective pr actice model. Data were collected using surveys at the end of each of each of the three semesters in which undergraduate participated in peer teaching (semester 1), field based teaching (semester two), and student teaching (semester three) as well as the o bservation of teaching videos. The reflective practice model included the following sequence of activities: "plan/teach/archive/reflect"(p. 9). Information obtained from self reflection surveys indicated age and teaching exp erience appeared to affect self evaluation abilities. Participants in the first two semesters mentioned experiencing an increase in teaching confidence and student teachers felt their teaching skills (planning, transitions, and delivery ) had improved. Student teachers mentioned confidenc e less often than first and second semester students. In addition, student teachers scored themselves lower in some categories than in previous semesters which may indicate that student teachers are becoming more realistic in their self assessments. Campb ell and Thompson (2007) used a cross sectional survey design and Fuller and Brown's (1975) three stage development of teacher concerns (self, task, impact) to examine the perceived concerns of 1121 pre service music teachers at four different points in undergraduate training in sixteen institutions across the United States. Surveys were administered to students enrolled in Intro to Music Education, Methods Class, Field Experience Practicum (courses in which 50% of class time is site based), and Student Teac hing. Findings did not show students

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53 levels of concern progressing through Fuller and Brown's (1975) stages throughout the program as predicted, but instead showed participants at all four points of development being concerned about impact. Participants in Field Experience Practicum showed higher levels of concern than those in Intro or Methods classes or enrolled in Student Teaching. All of the concerns hovered around a "moderately concerned" level, which lead the authors to question if students were proce eding through training programs with an "unrealistic optimism about their teaching skills and abilities" (Campbell & Thompson, 2007, p. 173). Campbell and Thompson (2007) had the grouping of students into the four levels of professional development in the programs done by facility facilitators at each institution who administered surveys to participants they identified as being appropriate to each different group. It is unclear to me if the structure and sequence of activities is consistent across all of these institutions. For example, is it possible that some participants might participate in a field experience practicum much earlier in the curriculum at some institutions than others? Could the practicum experiences also be occurring in some institutions within methods or intro classes making it appear that concerns are not changing over time? These are questions worth considering in an attempt to understand why students do not seem to be progressing through the levels of concern as expected in preservic e music teacher training. This study does, however, adequately underscore the need for pre service music teachers to be working with "real" students as early as possible in the curriculum since it is at this point (first experience with students) that thei r level of concern seems to increase and they experience a greater "need to know" (p.173). Student Teaching Student teaching has been shown to be the single most important event in the undergraduate preparation for teaching (Conway, 2002; Isbell, 2006; R ogers, 1995). In the Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning, Rideout and Feldman (2002) define

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54 student teaching as "a specified period when music education students are placed in an elementary or secondary school to work with a master teacher who helps them create and implement lesson plans, assess student learning, and master the administrative tasks that accompany a music teacher" (p.874). This experience can vary greatly from institution to institution, though, in its length, structure and l ocation and researchers have not agreed on which format is most effective (Gallant, 1992). Student teaching experiences generally occur in the last semester of the undergraduate program and fit within the time frame of a semester with varying experiences l asting twelve to fifteen weeks. Conway's (2002) study of the most valuable and least valuable parts of teacher preparation programs confirms the value of the student teaching experience. Responses of participants included "No offense to you guys in methods and stuff, but I don't think I really learned anything about how to be a teacher until I hit student teaching" (Conway, 2002, p. 28). 100% of the participants (beginning music teachers, administrators, and mentors of beginning music teachers) found student teaching the most valuable experience in preparing to teach. Data were collected using interviews, classroom observations, focus group interviews, teacher journaling, and a questionnaire. Field work surfaced in both the most and least valuable categori es. This suggests that the quality and structuring of this activity affects perceptions of its value and that it may only be useful if it is organized so it "allows students to learn something specific from the context" (p. 29). All of the music teachers found the fifteen hours of coursework they took in the college of education to be least valuable to music teaching. One suggestion that surfaced multiple times from teachers and administrators was the length of the student teaching experience and that it w ould be helpful if it were longer than the usual twelve to fifteen weeks.

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55 Conway states that My perception as a teacher educator on this issue was that it is something that should be explored. I believe that many of the issues that I observed beg inning teachers struggling with may have been worked out before the first year if they had been in a field placement for a longer period of time (p. 32). Draves (2010) used a collective case study design to examine how professional identities of ten parti cipants (student teachers and cooperating teachers) were fostered and sustained in the student teaching experience. Data collection included interviews and in depth observations. Draves found that music teacher identity began emerging strongly for the student teachers when they formed relationships with students and cooperating teachers. Split placements affected professional identity development because of its impact on forming key relationships with students and cooperating teachers. The context of placem ent for some participants limited their time together, which shaped their relationships and communications with others and therefore the development of the student teachers' professional identities. Findings suggest that a consistent split placement structured so that student teachers might spend the morning at one school and afternoon at another school for the entire placement may work better for forming relationships and for fostering professional identity. Findings also point out the importance of a good match of student teachers and cooperating teachers for identity development through relationships, which is consistent with earlier research finding (Schmidt, 1994; Schmidt & Knowles, 1994). Draves (2010) suggests that interacting with real students and i nservice teachers earlier in the undergraduate curriculum may foster music teacher identity development. Broyles (1997) provided evidence of music teacher identity development during the student teaching experience. Twelve undergraduate music education m ajors from three universities in Oklahoma as well as twenty public school cooperating teachers and eight university supervisors participated in the study. Using quantitative methodology, Broyles

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56 analyzed data gathered from questionnaires, student teacher j ournals and observation instruments completed by student teachers after watching videotaped samples of their teaching. Broyles examined role development of pre service music teachers using Fuller's (1969) levels of teaching concerns (self, task, student) a nd Carper's role development categories. Role development was present for all student teachers and evidence that student teachers' concerns moved from concern for self and survival to concern for student learning. There was evidence that as students watche d videos of themselves they were more likely to comprehend how others might view them as well as more easily identify their own strengths and weaknesses in order to improve their teaching skill. In the course of the student teachers began to view themselve s more as teachers and less as performers or musicians. This study provides evi dence of the importance of self reflection within the student teaching experience to foster growth in professional role identity. Coleman (1999) examined aspects of reflection during the music student teaching experience using Fuller and Brown's stages of teacher concerns and Van Maanen's levels of reflection. The three female student teachers that he observed over a twelve week period were each enrolled in the same institution and placed with the same cooperating teacher at the same elementary over three consecutive semesters. He investigated connections between the student teaching, the university preparation program, the music classroom culture, and specific interventions des igned to help student teachers reflect on teaching and learning. Interventions included coaching, guided reflection, re teaching and adopt a class activities as well as three teaching and reteaching episodes that were videotaped. Student teachers viewed t he videotapes immediately following the lessons. Unlike the participants in Broyles' (1997) study, the participants in this study did not move past Fuller's survival stage in order to focus on student learning. They continued to experience doubts about the ir content knowledge and to experience

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57 anxiety over evaluations that prevented them from focusing attention on students. This could have been due to factors unique to these particular students, this specific university or this particular classroom context and cooperating teacher. While student teaching experiences have been shown to be the most valuable part of music teacher training (Conway, 2002; Isbell, 2006; Rogers, 1995) and to contribute to professional role development (Broyles, 1997; Draves, 2010), evidence exists that it may not be perceived as adequate preparation for actual teaching (Cannon, 2002; Conway, 2002). Gallant (1992) suggests that student teaching differs substantially from teaching and that some of the lessons learned in student teachi ng may not transfer to professional teaching. Some limitations that exist in the current student teaching experience include length of placements that are inadequate for relationship formation, taskmastery and professional role development (Draves, 2010; Conway, 2002; Canon, 2002) and issues of authenticity of situations in which student teachers are acutely aware that K 12 students may consider them to be a "student" because they are not the "real" teacher (Isbell, 2008). In addition, student teachers the mselves may find it difficult to feel ultimately responsible for student learning and behavior (moving through Fuller's level teacher concerns) as they continue to perceive someone else to be ultimately in charge of learning (the cooperating teacher). Sc hmidt (2010) used qualitative methods for a two year study that examined what six pre service music teachers valued most about their different teaching experiences in undergraduate training and what they claimed to have learned from those experiences. Tea ching experiences included peer teaching, early field experiences, student teaching and self arranged teaching experiences. Using Deweys' theory of experience as a theoretical framework, Schmidt examined d ata collected from written self assessments, teachi ng videos, instructor assessment,

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58 practicum class essay assignments, transcripts of student teaching seminar discussions and individual interviews. The participants in Schmidt's (2010) study attributed different values to and learned different things from the teaching experiences offered as they created continuity and derived their own meanings from these experiences. Several participants valued peer teaching opportunities for the skills in lesson sequencing and planning it allowed them to practice. Consis tent with earlier findings, participants valued student teaching because it allowed them to interact with and evaluate the ideas they had been exposed to in courses and earlier field experiences, ideas they accepted, modified or discounted (Harwood & Wiggi ns, 2001, Leglar & Collay, 2002; Rideout & Feldman, 2002; Snyder, 1996). Participants valued the "hands on" experiences that prepared them for student teaching. The findings support more and earlier field experiences in pre service music teacher training. How these teaching experiences were structured did seem to be important to participants in this study (Schmidt, 2010). Some students experienced frustration in certain field experiences they didn't perceive to be valuable (like prolonged observing after having previously being allowed to teach). All participants except for one actually valued their self arranged teaching experiences for learning about teaching more than those provided by the university. These experiences included teaching private lessons and/or classes in a String Project program or working with a high school marching band. Schmidt noted that these experiences offered more autonomy in decisionmaking, extended contact time, and more opportunities to "experience the effects of their own teaching" (p. 137) than many of the field experiences did. Many of these participants commented that they were able to immediately test out concepts they were learning in methods or practicum classes with real students. Schmidt noted that "teaching independent ly

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59 in authentic situations seemed to be important for them to develop instructional skills and confidence" (p. 141). Unlike participants in other studies who said that methods courses had little to do with the real world (Snyder, 1996, Conkling, 2004), the preservice music teachers in Schmidt's (2010) study seemed to value course based learning as well as experience. This may be because they were able to immediately apply and experiment with the information and then reflect on its meaning to inform future experiences. One thing this study highlights is the need to "untangle the interactions among course based learning and teaching experiences in learning to teach" p.149). The majority of these pre service music teachers valued teaching opportunities in pro grams like their university String Project for learning to teach more than those provided in the university curriculum. This may indicate the need to examine the impact of these types of teaching opportunities more closely for what they can offer pre servi ce music teacher training, especially since other research has shown that even the capstone experience of student teaching may have little effect on pre service music teacher beliefs and practices (Snyder, 1996). This paper will next examine research deali ng with teaching in a university String Project program. String Project Teaching Several researchers have examined the role of university String Projects in community music making and undergraduate music education major teacher training (Schmidt, 2005; Ferguson, 2003; Przygocki, 2004; Davis, 2011). This research has generally been qualitative and descriptive in nature and offers us insight into the benefits, challenges and experiences of those participating in String Project programs. As freshmen, underg raduates typically begin by assisting in a beginning string classes and orchestra rehearsals and interact with community children in the role of teacher for these classes along with the master teacher whom they observe and help. As undergraduates progress through the program they are assigned to teach individual

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60 lessons, small group intermediate classes, and eventually large group classes or orchestras. For all classes and lessons that they teach, they are solely responsible for lesson planning, class manag ement, and all aspects of their students' learning. In essence, they are the teacher of record and although they are observed and given feedback to help improve their teaching, they alone are responsible for student learning and preparing students for reci tals and concerts. Schmidt (2005) conducted a one year qualitative study of the lesson planning of ten pre service music teachers in the Arizona State University String Project At the time of the study, there were approximately 110 fourth through sixth grade school children enrolled in the program. Each preservice teacher was paid an hourly work study wage to teach group classes and lessons which were held on the university campus in the music building. Data collection included written lesson plans of pre service teachers, observation notes, video and audio recordings of lessons, classes, post observation discussions and weekly String Project meetings where teaching and planning were discussed. Schmidt's (2005) indepth look at the lesson planning of t hese pre service teachers for classes and individual lessons that they taught within the String Project revealed that they held differing views from each other and from the supervisor on how to plan for lessons. Five themes that emerged were: (a) concerns about how to begin planning, (b) trouble identifying what children should learn, (c) prominence of decisions made on the fly, (d) comparisons of the written lesson plans to teachers thinking about planning and teaching, and (e) the limited amount of transfer between university coursework experiences and teaching of String Project lessons/classes. Schmidt found that in the beginning, several of the teachers "seemed to view planning for instructionor any advance thinking about teachin g as unnecessary" (p. 18) and that their initial planning was limited by their lack of content knowledge (both content and

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61 pedagogical). Their teaching experiences were making them aware of the need to develop pedagogical and pedagogical content knowledge. Schmidt found that di fferences in learning styles impacted teacher views of planning with those who preferred "structured learning and linear thinking themselves" writing detailed plans while those with a more "randomabstract dominant learning style" did not writing much voluntarily (pp. 19 20). She also found that, disappointingly, the 45 hours of instruction six of the participants had received in her String Technique class seemed to have little effect on their actual teaching in the project and was discouraged how little ha d transferred to their teaching of children. Ferguson (2003) used a multiple case study method to examine the relationship between pre service music teacher experiences in a university String Project and their understanding of themselves as teachers. Par ticipants were interviewed and observed and finding s reveal ed that their perceptions of themselves were influenced by previous teaching and performing experience and family background. She found that their ongoing teaching experiences in the project allowe d them to gather information they used in their personalized journeys towards becoming teachers. Participants used the information gained from experiences in unique and individual ways to guide behavior and to develop an awareness of themselves as teachers The findings highlight the importance of recognizing individual differences of pre service teachers in developing appropriate learning situations. Przygocki (2004) examined the wide variety of teaching techniques that pre service music teachers in the University of Wyoming String Project are exposed to and participate in while being a part of beginning string classes for third graders. Pre service music teachers get first hand knowledge and skill s of using Kodly rhythm syllables, Orff and Kodaly's use of singing and simple folk music to start, Gordon's principles of audition and sequencing, and

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62 Suzuki's emphasis on correct technique from the start. Pre service music teachers participate in helping beginning students master the basic technical setup of the instrument and right and left hands, develop pitch, pulse and rhythm skills, and obtain basic music reading skills. Davis' (2011) qualitative case study of the University of South Carolina String Project explores how participants (undergraduates, com munity members, faculty and the institution) perceive their experiences in and with the program. Davis collected data for one year as she observed, interacted, conducted semi structured interviews, videotaped and had participants keep journals. Music makin g benefits were noted for the community and the school music programs. The faculty and institution found it to be an important way to provide effective pre service music teacher training while upholding the university's mission statement to serve the commu nity. Davis found that undergraduate teachers in the program experienced development in teacher identity and valued the mentoring relationships that developed with their students, their colleagues and with master teachers and supervisors. Benefits also included learning to balance the challenging demands of their teaching, musical and academic schedules. Many of the preservice music teachers represented their experiences as true preparation for the "real world" (p.210). Davis noted that On a weekly basis these undergraduates were planning lessons, watching them unfold, adapting them to the needs of the class in the moment, witnessing their own contribution to a students progress, planning long range performance goals, conducting sma ll and large ensembles and communicating with parents (p. 210). Davis (2011) also noted that the undergraduates seemed to feel a genuine responsibility to the students they were teaching in lessons and classes. Teachers saw and experienced first hand what happened if they did not prepare their students for recitals/concerts and their students experienced failure. Teaching in the USC String Project "offered undergraduates real life responsibility with real life consequences" (p. 212). Some participants in the program believed

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63 that they had an advantage over students enrolled in other music programs because of how often they could interact with students. One participant (Olivia) said confidently "student teaching now I feel completely comfortable" (p. 209). Another student (Jess ica) explained that she felt the USC String Project gave her confidence to face the real world: I'm glad that I have that experience so that when I am about to go up on the podium, I know exactly what I am doing, instead of being really nervous about it. I 'll be, like, "Oh, I've done this before. I can do this" (p. 210). Another participant expressed that he could not imagine going into student teaching without having gone through the program. Olivia and other participants' frequent interaction with students seemed to increase their sense of self efficacy for teaching (p. 209). Davis suggested that if "the intensity of fieldwork hours afforded undergraduates could be linked to increased self efficacy and effectiveness, it would have extensive implications f or music teacher education programs"(p. 237). She also suggested that a comparative study be done between USC String Project undergraduates and those of a standard music education program to see if the immersion in fieldwork has a significant impact on ide ntity construction. Summary Much of the literature on pre service music teacher identity development suggests that it is a process of integrating, balancing or conflating two different dimensions of the self: the musician/performer self and the teacher self (Bouij, 1998, 2004; Conway, 2002; Roberts, 1991, 2004, 2007, Stephens, 2007, Wagoner, 2011) and that this process may be greatly influenced by socialization occurring within the university context (Bouij, 2004; Conkling, 2004; Isbell, 2008; Roberts, 2007). Several types of teaching experiences that occur within pre service music teacher training have been examined including field experiences, peer teaching experiences, authenticcontext learning activities, student teaching, and teaching within a unive rsity String Project program. Findings of these studies support the view that specific teaching experiences may

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64 impact identity development in pre service music teachers by changing the way they see themselves as they transition from an identity based sole ly on being a musician or performer to being a music teacher. Much of the research that has been done in the area of pre service music teacher identity has been qualitative in nature using small sample sizes, which can limit its generalizability and therefore its usefulness in curriculum reform that can apply to undergraduate programs across the country. As of yet, there has not been a study that is quantitative in nature using a large, nationwide sample to examine how the specific length and nature of tea ching experiences may contribute differently to pre service music teacher identity development. It remains unclear if there are certain lengths of teaching experience (twelve weeks, one year, two years, four years) that are vastly more beneficial than other amounts or if there comes a point where more experience fails to yield significant benefit to the pre service music teacher. There is a gap in the research when it comes to comparing identity development and role commitment of those enrolled only in traditional undergraduate baccalaureate programs to those who also receive other types of long term authentic teaching experiences. The intent of the present study is to fill this gap by using quantitative methodology and a large sample size ( N = 520) of pre se rvice music teachers to examine the impact of differing lengths of teaching experience on the development of a music teacher identity and to compare that development to individuals who only participate in traditional training without long term authentic te aching experience.

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65 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES The purpose of this study was to examine the role of long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) in the formation of a music teacher identity as measured by music teacher role commitment (MTRC), music teacher self efficacy (M TSE) and performer/teacher self identification preference (PTSI) as well as to gain an understanding of how differing lengths and types of teaching experience may impact music teacher identity among pre service music teachers This chapter contains a description of the methodology and procedures used in the study. It begins with an explanation of the research method and continues with a description of the research setting, participants, data collection procedures, the measurem ent instrument and the pilot testing procedure. It concludes with an explanation of data analysis procedures. Research Method This study employs a crosssectional survey design. Creswell (2012) states that survey designs are useful "to identify trends in attitudes, opinion, behaviors, or characteristics of a large group of people" (p. 21). In this study, a researcher generated survey called the PMTIS, Pre service Music Teacher Identity Survey (see Appendix B), was administered to participants ( N = 520) who were enrolled in music education degree programs in nineteen universities across the United States in the s pring of 2013. The survey included questions about self perceptions of identity, role commitment to music teaching, the extent to which music education majors prefer to identify themselves as a musician/performer or a teacher, and what types and lengths of teaching experiences individuals had. The survey was administered to music education students who had and had not participated in long term, authen tic teaching experiences within a String Project teacher training program at their school.

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66 Descriptive analysis as well as correlation analyses were performed on the survey results using the R statistical computing software (R Core Team, 2012) in order to determine how participants with different dosages of long term authentic teaching experience (none, one semester, one year, two years, three years, four or more years) may or may not differ in their music teacher identity development (as measured by music teacher role commitment, music teacher self efficacy, and performer/teacher self identification preference). Additional correlation analysis was done in order to determine if the specific length or nature of any of the different types of teaching activities (teaching private lessons, teaching small group class/rehearsals of three to ten students, teaching large group classes/rehearsals of eleven of more students) were significantly related to music teacher identity development and if so what might the opti mal dosages of those activities might be. Setting This study took place in nineteen undergraduate music education programs in NASM (National Association of Schools of Music) accredited schools of music across the United States whose institutions offer w ork study experience in a String Project program. These nineteen institutions make up 43.2% of the total number ( N = 44) of institutions with String Project programs in existence (See, Appendix E) in the United States as of January of 2013 ( National String Project Consortium, 2012) and 48.7% of the String Projects that met the criteria for inclusion in this study (employed three or more undergraduate teachers, currently offered instruction to school aged children, and had been in existence long enough for al l dosages of LATE to be present). These institutions represent all four geographic census regions designated by the U.S. Census Bureau: Northeast, Midwest, South, and West ( U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). They also represent a variety of types of higher educati on institutions (state universities, liberal

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67 arts colleges, community colleges, conservatories of music, public and private institutions). They were located in a variety of settings: urban, rural and suburban. Participants The participants in this study w ere preservice music teachers ( N = 520) enrolled in traditional undergraduate baccalaureate music education degree programs in schools of music a cross the United States in the s pring of 2013. All participants had declared music education their current unde rgraduate degree major (either music education only or a double major of music education/performance or music education/something else). Participants represented all years of undergraduate study (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior, secondyear senior, and those who chose the designation of "other" and were investigated to be sure they were undergraduates), a variety of applied majors within music education (choral, band, string, keyboard/other), and were both male and female. Of the participants, some were also teaching in a String Project work study program housed at their university, which was affiliated with the music school, but in no way related to the degree program or its class or graduation requirements. All participants were experiencing the same u ndergraduate degree training requirements, but those teaching within the String Project were also participating in long term authentic teaching experiences (LATE). Participants from each university were divided into groups based on the amount of LATE they had participated in (none, one semester, one year, two years, three years, and four or more years). This created six groups of participants who were from nineteen institutions, of two genders, and of six different years in school (freshmansecond year seni or). Data Collection Procedures Prior to collecting any data, permission was obtained from the University of Florida Internal Review Board through the approval of an UFIRB2Social Behavioral Research Protocol Submission Form (UFIRB#2012U 1180), which w as approved on November 7, 2012 (see

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68 Appendix A). After obtaining permission from the university's internal review board and the doctoral committee, the researcher contacted the director of every String Project program in the United States in existence in the Spring of 2013 according to the National String Project Consortium's website ( N = 44) with a request to participate in the study (see Appendix C). Multiple participation requests by e mail and phone were made in order to recruit the largest number of pa rticipants possible. Responses were obtained from all but four institutions (91%). Of the String Project programs who did not participate, three were too young to participate (not all dosages of LATE could be measured), one employed no undergraduates, two were too small to get a meaningful sample size (only one or two teachers), one was no longer meeting due to budgetary and scheduling concerns, one had internal institutional review board procedures too lengthy to be completed within the time frame of this study, and four did not respond. Following contact with String Project directors ( N = 44), the music education department heads for each institution whose String Project had agreed to participate were contacted ( N = 23). Twenty three String Project direct ors had agreed to administer the PMTIS to their undergraduate teachers either in paper format at a weekly meeting or electronically through the emailing of a link to the online version of the survey created using the Qualtrics software. Twenty two music education department heads agreed to administer the PMTIS to their entire undergraduate music education populations (either in paper or electronic format). The results of two institutions could not be used due to inconsistent administration procedures. One which did not include freshmen in the administration and had a return rate of only five surveys and another who would only post a link to the survey on the music education Facebook page and did not conform to the paper or electronic administration proced ures used by all other institutions.

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69 Data collection at each institution was controlled by the String Project Director (who administered the PMTIS to String Project teachers) and the music education department head who administered the PMTIS to all other music education majors at the institution. Administrators were given three options for administration: 1 ) pencil and paper administration of the PMTIS (during a weekly String Project teacher meeting for String Project participants or during methods/theory classes for non String Project participants), 2) e mail distribution of the electronic link to the online version of the PMTIS sent to students by the administrator, or 3) e mail distribution of the electronic link to the on line version of the PMTIS se nt to students by the researcher upon being provided with participant e mail addresses. Administrators opting for paper and pencil administration were mailed a packet with sufficient copies of the PMTIS (see Appendix B) to be distributed to participants. This packet contained a self addressed envelope/box with prepaid postage for returning completed questionnaires as well as administration directions. String Project directors were asked to distribute surveys to the undergraduates who teach in their progra ms during one of their regularly scheduled weekly meetings. Music education area head professors were asked to have all undergraduate music education majors within their institutions (other than those who already completed the survey in a string project me eting) fill out the questionnaire in their music education classes. Any institution whose freshmen or sophomores do not yet participate in music education courses, were asked to also administer the survey in required theory/sight singing courses as well. Those administrators opting for electronic administration were sent a participant message to forward to students that included the link to the online survey. Survey completion reminders were sent out five days prior to the survey closing deadline, then at three days, at one day and

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70 concluded with a final reminder on the deadline day stating that the survey would close at midnight. In any institution where an electronic listserve of all music education majors was not available to the administrator, particip ants were reached by the forwarding of the participant e mail message through methods class instructors and all performing ensemble directors. Once surveys were returned, the results were discarded for any student who was not an undergraduate music educat ion major (based on the answers for questions 18 and 20 of the PMTIS, see appendix B). Administrators choos ing administration option three provided e mail addresses to the researcher who followed the same email contact procedures as listed above. All part icipants were asked to sign an informed consent agreement prior to participating in the survey (see Appendix B). To ensure that no participant completed the survey more than once, administrators were asked to remind students that they should only complet e the survey if they had not done so already as part of any other class or meeting. As a further precaution, the first question on the PMTIS following the informed consent was "Have you previously completed this survey as part of any other class or meeting ?" with response options "yes (please, stop here and submit your survey)" or "no (Thank you for participating! Please, continue.)"(PMTIS, Appendix B). The online survey version of the PMTIS autorouted students answering yes to the end of the survey and did not allow them to complete it again. This safeguard was shown to be working reliably in the analysis of both the online and paper formats since a portion of the returned PMTIS surveys had a yes response, but no further completion of the questionnaire. Assuming that administration procedures were working reliably at each institution (every music education major was being reached with the survey), one would expect String Project participants to have been contacted by both administrators, which appeared to have occurred. These duplicate surveys were not used in

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71 analysis, but were kept as evidence of reliability of administration procedures. Further, one might also expect that there could be graduate students or performance majors who were employed in String Projects who may have also completed the survey (despite administrator instructions to administer to undergraduate music education majors). For this reason, prior to statistical analysis, every returned PMTIS was examined to be sure that only those comple ted by undergraduate music education majors were used. The culling process was based on inappropriate answers for any of the following questions on the PMTIS (1no informed consent, 2survey already taken, 18declared college major not music education, 20 current year in school not undergraduate), see Appendix B. Of the total number of PMTIS surveys originally returned ( N = 643), the culling process resulted in 554 usable surveys. Of the total usable surveys ( N = 554), an additional thirty four incomplete s urveys were discarded because participants had not answered enough questions to measure the three outcome variables: MTRC (music teacher role commitment), MTSE (music teacher self efficacy), and PTSI (performer/teacher self identification preference). This resulted in a final sample size of N = 520. Data Collection Instrument The PMTIS ( Pre service Music Teacher Identity Survey) is a researcher generated questionnaire that was created, pilot tested and validated in the Spring of 2013 for the purposes of t his study. Some questions used in the survey are based on the Music Teacher Identity Scale (MTIS) created by Wagoner (2011) to examine in service music teacher identity as measured by two constructs: music teacher commitment and music teacher self efficacy Wagoner used descriptive statistics, Chronbach's coefficient alpha, item total corrected correlation, and inter item correlation to assess the degree of reliability of the MTIS. She employed a Factorial Analysis of Variance to examine construct validity of the instrument and to determine differences among the constructs of music teacher commit ment and self efficacy by year of

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72 .81. The reliability of the construct of music teacher self is suggested that self efficacy items were highly usable for a follow up study if revised (questions 3, 9, 10, and 11 of the PMTIS were based on these), but music teacher commitment items were less reliable and so were reworded or discarded. Items inappropriate for pre service teachers were discarded. Additional questions were added to the PMTIS based on the dimensionality of identity findings of Isbell (2008) (questions 4, 5, 6, 7), indicators of performer/teacher orientation based on Bouij (2004)(questi ons 14, 15, 16, 17), and indicators of multiple dimensions of identity influencing meaning making abilities based on Abes, Jones, and McEwen (2007) (questions 6 and 21). Questions were also added to gain other demographic information (questions 18, 19, 20) and to determine teaching experience (questions 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28). For a detailed list of PMTIS questions used to answer each of the research questions and to measure each of the three constructs used to define music teacher identity in this study (MTRC, MTSE, PTSI), see Appendix D. Major elements of PMTIS design, formatting, order of questions, length of questionnaire to increase response rates, and administration procedures were based on the researched best practices suggestions found in Dillma n (2007). Prior to pilot testing, a preliminary version of the PMTIS was sent to five subject matter experts with an average of twenty years teaching experience at the higher education level in the field of music education who provided feedback on content validity of the PMTIS. In addition, feedback was obtained about the clarity of questions, directions and formatting of the PMTIS from supervisory dissertation committee members as well as by administration to undergraduate

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73 and graduate students at the Uni versity of Florida ( N = 18) prior to pilot testing. Items were revised or discarded based on these suggestions. Pilot Testing The PMTIS was pilot tested in February of 2013 with undergraduate music education majors ( N = 41) from Valdosta State University and included both music education majors who were currently teaching in a String Project ( N = 11) as well as music education majors who were not ( N = 30). Feedback was solicited from survey administrators and participants regarding survey formatting, clarity of directions and questions, ease and length of administration procedures, and any other suggestions that would improve the process or the instrument itself. Suggestions were used to improve the administration procedure and to clarify questions used in th e PMTIS prior to full administration. Follow up discussions with administrators were designed to see if the administration procedure was resulting in all participants being reliably reached for participation and if the electronic version of the survey was working reliably. Analysis of the results revealed that the PMTIS could be used to answer each of the research questions, duplicate surveys could be reliably located and discarded, and that after discarding questions shown to have low factor loading scores during confirmatory factor analysis for the three outcome variables (questions 15 and 17 for PTSI and question 18 for MTRC), the PMTIS could be service music teacher identit y. Data Analysis Procedures Once data had been collected using the PMTIS, the Qualtrics online survey program was used to merge the data from the paper surveys and online surveys, cull all responses that were not from undergraduate music education majors or were too incomplete to be usable (resulting in a sample size of N = 520), and create csv files that could be analyzed by the R statistical

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74 computing software (R Core Team, 2012). Following scale reversals for questions 14 and 18, data was analyzed using descriptive as well as correlation analysis to answer all five research questions. Descriptive statistics were used to describe trends in the data and analyze participant characteristics. According to Creswell (2012), descriptive statistics can help "in dicate general tendencies in the data or how one score relates to all others" (p. 182). Following that, a 6 (LATE) x 2 (gender) x 19 (institutions) x 6 (year in school) between subjects ANOVA was used to examine the relationship between different dosages of LATE (long term, authentic teaching experience) and the three outcome variables of MTRC (music teacher role commitment), MTSE (music teacher self efficacy), and PTSI (performer/teacher self identification preference). Post hoc follow up tests were chosen based on their ability to work well with unbalanced group sizes (Tukey all pairwise comparisons for unequal replications) and used to investigate further any main effects in order to determine where any significant interactions were. An additional 6 (p rivate lesson teaching) x 6 (small group teaching) x 6 (large group teaching) between subjects ANOVA was used to determine the relationship between different types and lengths of teaching experiences and music teacher identity development (as measured by M TRC, MTSE, and PTSI) among the pre service teachers. Post hoc follow up tests were done to further investigate the significant main effects found. The results of the statistical analysis will be shared in Chapter 4 as well as a discussion of the implicatio ns of the findings in Chapter 5.

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75 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this study is to examine the role of long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) in the formation of a music teacher identity as measured by music teacher role commitment (MTRC), music teacher self efficacy (M TSE) and performer/teacher self identification preference (PTSI) as well as to gain an understanding of how differing lengths and types of teaching experience may impact music teacher identity among pre service music teachers Data was collected from 520 pre service music teachers enrolled in music education degree programs at nineteen institutions across the United States in which String Project teach er training programs exist ( Table 4 1) Results were analyzed using the R statistic al computing software (R Core Team, 2012). Descriptive analysis as well as correlation analyses were used to answer the following five research questions that guided this study and will serve as the organizational structure for this chapter as test results for each question will be presented in turn following the results of the descriptive analysis. 1. What is the relationship between long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) and music teacher role commitment (MTRC) among pre service music teachers? 2. What is the relationship between long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) and music teacher self efficacy (MTSE) among pre service music teachers? 3. What is the relationship between long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) and performer/teacher sel f identification preferences (PTSI) among preservice music teachers? 4. What is the relationship between performer/teach er self identification preference (PTSI) and music teacher role commitment MTRC) and music teacher self efficacy (MTSE) among pre service music teachers? 5. What is the relationship between different natures of teaching experiences (teaching private lessons, teaching small group classes/rehearsals, teaching large group classes/rehearsals) and music teacher identity (as measured by MTRC, MTSE, P TSI) among pre service music teachers?

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76 Table 4 1. Participants by i nstitution Institution Participants Arizona State 21 Baylor University 38 Central Washington University 47 Illinois State University 82 Indiana University of Pennsylvania 47 Lawrence University 21 Marywood University 10 University of Georgia 11 The Hartt School University of Hartford 24 Temple University 21 University of Massachusetts, Lowell 8 University of Nebraska, Kearney 22 University of Oklahoma 24 University of South Ca rolina 28 University of Texas, Austin 25 University of Texas, San Antonio 36 University of Wyoming 19 Virginia Tech 18 Weber State University 18 Descriptive Analysis: Characteristics Participants ( N = 520) were pre service music teachers who were enrolled in music education degree programs during the spring semester of 2013 ( Table 4 1 ) All music education majors within each of the nineteen institutions were contacted to participate. These nineteen institutions make up 43.2% of the total number ( N = 44) of institutions with String Project programs in existence in the United States as of January of 2013 (NSPC website) and 48.7% of the String Projects that met the criteria for inclusion in this study (employed three or more undergraduate teachers, curre ntly offered instruction to school aged children, and had been in existence long enough for all dosages of LATE to be present). These institutions represent all four geographic census regions in the United States and a variety of types of higher education institutions (state universities, liberal arts colleges, community colleges, conservatories of music,

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77 public and private institutions, and were located in a variety of settings: urban, rural and suburban). All participants (100%) had declared music educa tion their college major (music education only 80.8%, music education/ performance 14.0%, music education/something else 5.2%). Participants were 42% male and 54% female (2% did not report gender). They were 60.4% upper classmen (144 juniors, 114 seni ors, 56 second year seniors), 33.5% lower classmen (75 freshmen, 99 sophomores), 2.5% "other" (whose text responses were analyzed to assure they were undergraduates) and 3.7% (who did not provide their year in school). 22.4% of the participants were curren tly teaching in or had previously taught in their University's String Project program (27 for one semester, 26 for one year, 24 for two years, 17 for three years, and 18 for four or more years). When asked about their primary instrument/applied area: 25.3% were instrumental/string players, 60.2% were instrumental/band, 11.5% were vocal/choral, and 2.9% were other (harp, piano/keyboard). Descriptive Analysis: Teaching Experiences and Music Teacher Self Efficacy The pre service teachers in this study had par ticipated in a variety of different types and lengths of teaching experiences. Of the participants who answered the questions about their specific teaching experiences ( N = 493), 77% had taught private lessons, 81% had taught small group classes/rehearsals of three to ten students, and 68% had taught large groups classes/rehearsals of eleven or more students for varying leng ths of time ( Table 4 2) Some participants did not have teaching experience: 23% had never taught a private lesson, 18% had never taught a small group class/rehearsal and 32% had never taught a large group class/rehearsal. There were 45 pre service teachers (8.7%) who had never taught a group of any size (including 16 who were juniors or seniors) and 38 pre service teachers (7.3%) who had no teaching experience of any kind (including 12 who were juniors or seniors), see details for lack

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78 of teaching experience by year in Table 4 3. Most (75%) reported having field experiences observing music teachers in K 12 schools, just over half (58.1%) r eported having field experiences teaching children in K 12 schools, and a few (.2%) reported being currently or previously involved in official student teaching/final internship placement(s) in K 12 schools. For more detai ls on teaching experiences ( Tables 42 and 43 and Figures 41 and 42) Roughly a third (34.81%) of the participants felt that the amount of teaching experience offered as part of their degree program to prepare them to teach music in the K 12 classroom was not enough. Table 4 2. Teaching experiences of preservice music teachers Occasionally (< 1 year) 1 year 2 years 3 years 4+ years Private Lessons 172 61 54 33 61 Small Groups 182 82 50 42 46 Large Groups 159 70 45 34 27 LATE 27 26 24 17 18 Table 4 3. Teaching experiences preserv ice teachers have never had Total freshman sophomore junior senior sec.senior other Private Lessons 112 25 29 35 18 4 1 Small Groups 91 23 34 22 9 1 2 Large Groups 158 35 45 44 27 6 1 LATE 389 61 77 117 86 43 5 Groups of any kind 45 12 16 13 3 0 1 T eaching of Any Kind 38 11 14 10 2 0 1 Almost all participants reported having had at least one successful teaching experience (92.3%). Some (1.8%) of the pre service teachers reported that they had never had a successful teaching experience and some (5.9 %) were unsure if their teaching was successful or not. Many of the participants (79.1%) agreed that the majority of their teaching experiences had been successful (55.9% agreed, 23.2% strongly agreed), but some (3.2%) reported that the majority of their e xperiences had not been successful and others (17.7%) were unsure if they had been successful or not.

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79 Figure 4 1. Teaching experiences of preservice music teachers by amount Figure 4 2. Teaching experiences pre service teachers have never had by year in school In order to see if there might be any significant relationship between having successful teaching experiences and the extent to which music education majors prefer to identify

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80 themselves as teachers or performers (PTSI score), a Spearman rank correlation was run. Emerging preliminary findings suggest a significant, but weak, positive relationship between PTSI (performer/teacher selfidentification) scores and having at least one successful teaching experience (rS = .107, p = .016) ( Table 4 4) as well as with having the majority of your teaching experiences be successful (rS = .139, p = .002) ( Table 4 5). This suggests that possibly the more successful the teaching experiences are perceived to be, the higher the identification as a teacher and the less successful, the lower the teacher identification. This relationship was, however, a very weak one and would warrant future study. Table 4 4. Spearman rank correlation : PTSI and one successful teaching experience Value Asymp. Std. Error a Approx. T b Approx. Sig. Ordinal by Ordinal Kendall's tau b .092 .040 2.316 .021 Kendall's tau c .078 .033 2.316 .021 Gamma .136 .058 2.316 .021 Spearman Correlation .107 .046 2.411 .016 c Interval by Interval Pearson's R .141 .052 3.189 .002 c N of Valid C ases 507 a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. c. Based on normal approximation. Table 4 5. Spearman rank correlation : PTSI and majority of teaching experiences successful Val ue Asymp. Std. Error a Approx. T b Approx. Sig. Ordinal by Ordinal Kendall's tau b .117 .037 3.189 .001 Kendall's tau c .103 .032 3.189 .001 Gamma .166 .051 3.189 .001 Spearman Correlation .139 .044 3.150 .002 c Interval by Interval Pearson's R .164 048 3.731 .000 c N of Valid Cases 503 a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. c. Based on normal approximation.

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81 Participants were also asked about their confidence levels how c onfident they were that they could teach music and manage student behavior in the K 12 classroom. A majority (73.7%) of the participants agreed (54.5%) or strongly agreed (19.2%) with the statement "I feel confident I can successfully teach music in the K 12 classroom." 24.3% were either unsure they felt confident (18%) or disagreed (7.5%) or strongly disagreed (0.9%) with the statement. When asked about their confidence in their ability to successfully manage student behavior, 67.1% of participants agreed (51.7%) or strongly agreed (15.4%) with the statement "I feel confident I can successfully manage student behavior in the K 12 classroom." 32.7% were either unsure they could manage student behavior or were not confident they could. There were 24.4% partic ipants who marked "unsure" of being confident in managing behavior. This question had one of the largest amounts of "unsure" response of any on the survey, indicating that managing student behavior was something participants were least certain about when i t comes to teaching music. Descriptive Analysis: Performer/Teacher Self Identification and Role Commitment Pre service teachers were also asked about their primary teaching goals and teaching preferences. 13.2 % described their primary goal in teaching mu sic to be performance related (6.4% to teach students to perform at a high level of musical excellence and 6.8% to build a music program that is widely recognized for excellence). Just under half (46.3%) said their primary goal in teaching music was "teach ing students to understand and appreciate music." This was the most popular response chosen. Some participants (28.5%) said that "providing students with a positive experience" was their primary goal and 12.0% chose to write in their own individual respons e in a blank provided for "other." It is important to note that for this question, participants were asked to select only one response that most closely describes their primary goal in teaching music. It is possible (and likely) that participants conside red many of the other choices listed (if not all) also important in

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82 teaching music. The question was asked in this way in order to indicate which side of the performer/teacher identification scale individuals were leaning towards as indicated by their teaching goals/actions and based on the research of Bouij (2004). Findings indicate that 13.2% have teaching goals that reflect a performer self identification, 74.8% that reflect a teacher self identification, and 12% could not preference one goal over the ot hers or had a completely different goal in teaching. A detailed analysis of the textual responses in the category "other" revealed that the majority of the responses combined two or more of the previously listed goals into one primary goal and seldom gener ated a completely different goal in teaching music. This may suggest that pre service teachers are fairly aligned in their primary goals in teaching music (having students perform at a high level of excellence, building programs recognized for excellence, providing students with positive experiences, and teaching students to understand and appreciate music). Results may also indicate that for some individuals, it is impossible to preference one goal over the other(s) and for them, it is the balancing of a n umber of goals of primary importance that guides their music teaching. This same concept should be recognized in the results for PMTIS questions 16 and 14. Question 16 asks pre service teachers if they feel it is more important to focus on musical/artistic excellence in teaching music (18.8% said yes) or on student learning/achievement (81.2% said yes). The answers may suggest a leani ng towards a musician/performer identity (18.8%) or a teacher identity (81.2%) (see indicators in Bouij, 2004), but they do not necessarily suggest that individuals cannot consider both to be important or that they are mutually exclusive in all cases. For Question 14, 9% of participants agreed or strongly agreed with the statement "In teaching music, I prefer to focus more on performance skills than on broad musical concepts," and 50.3% disagreed or strongly disagreed with this statement. 40.6% were unsure, possibly suggesting that

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83 either they had not done enough music teaching to know what they prefer to focus on or that they simply did not understand the question. This question, therefore, was not used in further analysis to measure the construct of PTSI (performer/teacher self identification). Music education majors were also asked to rate (on a scale of 1 10) how certain they were that their primary career following graduation would be as a music te acher. The mean response given was 7.97 ( M =7.97, SD = 1.999), ( Figure 4 3 contains participant response frequencies ) When asked to rate (on a scale of 1 10, with 1 being performe r and 10 being a teacher) how they prefer to think of themselves, however, the mean response given was 6.46 ( M = 6.46, SD =1.615), ( Figure 4 4 contains response frequencies ) The results appear to indicate that there may be considerable discrepancy between h ow music education majors prefer to think of themselves (as performers or teachers) and what they plan to do as a career following graduation (perform or teach music) (Figure 4 5) W hile 78.8% of the music education majors said they would definitely teach music as a primary career following graduation (score of 9 or 10), only 18.3% preferred to identify themselves as a 9 or 10 on the teacher perfor mer/teacher identity scale ( Figure 45) Following graduation, 7.9% intended performing to be their primary ca reer (1 4), 12.31% were not sure if they intended to teach (56), and 78.8% intended music teaching to be their primary career (7 10). These results will be discussed further in Chapter 5 along with identity research showing that the degree of misalignment between the Ideal Self (how we prefer to think of ourselves) and the Real Self (what we have accepted as reality or truth) can significantly impact the level of psychological distress or wellbeing we as individuals experience in daily life.

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84 Following graduation, will your primary career be as a musician/performer, or will your primary career be as a music teacher? Indicate your response on the following 110 scale: I will definitely I am not I will definitely be a Perfo rmer. sure yet. be a Teacher. Figure 4 3. Commitment to teaching music as a primary career following graduation I prefer to think of myself as: A Performer Equally a Performer A Teacher (not a teacher) and a Teacher. (not a performer) Figure 4 4. Performer/t eacher self identification scale 0 100 200 300 400 500 Commitment to Teaching Music as a Primary Career Following Graduation 1 (.1%) 2 (1%) 3 (1.9%) 4 (5%) 5 (6.2%) 6 (6.2%) 7 (13.3%) 8 (18.3%) 9 (18.8%) 10 (29%)

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85 A B Figure 4 5. Alignment of career plans and performer/teacher self identification A) bar graph of data, B) line graph of data If individuals prefer to think of themselves as musicians/performers, yet are committed to the role of being a music teacher following graduation, one might ask why that is the case and question if it is related to the level of music performance skills or music teaching skills

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86 individuals perceive they have. In order to understand if there might be any significant relationship between the self perceived level of performance skills and the level of self identification as a music teacher (as measured by the PTSI scale), a Spearman rank correlation was r un. The Spearman correlation coefficient revealed that PTSI scores were significantly associated with self reported levels of performance skills (rS = .222, p = .000) ( Table 4 6) Emerging preliminary findings suggest there may be a negative, weak, relationship between performance skills and identification as a teacher scores, meaning that these variables may move in opposite directions (the higher the self reported performance skill level, the lower the teacher identification score, and the lower the self reported performance skill, the higher the identification as a teacher score). Table 4 6. Spearman rank correlation coefficient for PTSI and self reported performance skills Value Asymp. Std. Error a Approx. T b Approx. Sig. Ordinal by Ordinal Kendall's tau b .190 .037 5.039 .000 Kendall's tau c .165 .033 5.039 .000 Gamma .270 .052 5.039 .000 Spearman Correlation .222 .043 5.135 .000 c Interval by Interval Pearson's R .236 .045 5.482 .000 c N of Valid Cases 513 a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. c. Based on normal approximation. In order to find out if there was any significant relationship between level of teaching skills (self reported) and the level of self i dentification as a music teacher, another Spearman rank correlation was run and the correlation coefficient revealed that teacher identification scores on the PTSI scale were significantly associated with self reported levels of teaching skill (rS = .293, p = .000) ( Table 4 7) There was a positive, weak relationship between teaching skills and self identification preference as a teacher. Generally, the higher the self reported teaching skills, the higher the identification as a teacher. The lower the teaching skill score, the lower the identification as a teacher. This variable related to teacher identification in the opposite way than

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87 the variable of performance skills. In essence, higher self reported teaching skills and lower self reported performance s kills were significantly related to self identification as a teacher (and not a performer). When examined in conjunction with the findings regarding the misalignment of self views and career plans, this may indicate that teaching is being used as a "fall back" position from performing for many individuals in this study, but that having self perceived high levels of teaching skills actually strengthened the music teacher identity. Table 4 7. Spearman rank correlation coefficient for PTSI and self reported t eaching skills Value Asymp. Std. Error a Approx. T b Approx. Sig. P value Ordinal by Ordinal Kendall's tau b .248 .035 6.967 .000 Kendall's tau c .224 .032 6.967 .000 Gamma .339 .047 6.967 .000 Spearman Correlation .293 .041 6.928 .000 c Interval by Interval Pearson's R .303 .043 7.187 .000 c N of Valid Cases 512 a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. c. Based on normal approximation. Primary and secondary socialization were f ound in other studies to be powerful influences on role commitment and occupational identity of music teachers (Isbell, 2008; Bouij 2004), so participants were asked questions about other factors that might influence their commitment to music teaching and the extent to which they prefer to identify themselves as musicians/performers or teachers. Participants rated the opinions of others (friends, family members and instructors) in choosing a career as a music teacher or performer, as very important (20.4%), important (42.9%), somewhat important (32.6%), or not important (4.5%). Some participants felt that music education was considered a less desirable career than music performance at their school (15.5%), but 72.4% did not agree. This appears to indicate a decline in the high degree of stigmatization that music education majors reported feeling in other studies at being labeled teachers (Conway et al., 2010; Froehlich and L'Roy, 1985; L'Roy, 1983;

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88 Lesniak, 2007; Roberts, 1991). It could be possible, though, that schools with String Project programs present quite different socialization contexts than schools without String Projects. It may be the case that music education programs enjoy more support (in funding, resources and recognition) and music education m ajors feel more validated and supported in a music teacher identity in these environments than those schools that do not have such programs. This would merit future study. Correlation Analysis In order to understand the complex relationship between speci fic teaching experiences and music teacher identity development (as measured by MTRC, MTSE and PTSI), a series of correlation analyses were done. All analyses relate to the following three outcome variables: MTRC (music teacher role commitment), MTSE (mus ic teacher self efficacy) and PTSI (performer/teacher selfidentification preference). Results are discussed as they pertain to each of the five research questions for this study. First, the relationship between LATE (long term authentic teaching experience) and the three outcome variables is discussed (research questions 13). Second, the interaction between the three outcome variables is discussed (research question 4). Third, the relationship between different natures or types of teaching experiences like teaching private lessons, teaching small groups, or teaching large groups and the outcome variables is discussed (research question 5). The chapter closes with a discussion of assumption checks for the statistical tests and a summary of the findings. Th e Relationship b etween LATE and the Outcome Variables In order to examine the relationship between different dosages of LATE (long term, authentic teaching experience) and the three outcome variables of MTRC (music teacher role commitment), MTSE (music te acher self efficacy), and PTSI (performer/teacher self identification), a 6 (LATE) x 2 (gender) x 19 (institutions) x 6 (year in school) between subjects

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89 ANOVA was used. This test was chosen because based on the literature and theories reviewed in Chapter 2, it is possible that any result seen on the three outcome variables could also have been impacted by other factors such as gender, year in school, and institution (social context in which experiences and identity formation occurs). Because the goal was t o examine the impact of several different dosages of LATE (one semester, one year, two years, three years, and four or more years) on the three outcome variables (MTRC, MTSE, PTSI) as well as understand the impact of gender, year and school, and instituti on simultaneously, the Four way fixed effects ANOVA was chosen which used 6 (LATE) x 2 (gender) x 19 (institutions) x 6 (year in school) as the between subjects variables and MTRC, MTSE, and PTSI as the outcome variables. The four way fixed effects ANOVA was chosen over ANCOVA and other tests for several reasons. First, because of the nature of several of the variables (discrete versus continuous) ANOVA was chosen over ANCOVA since covariates should ideally be continuous variables (which several of these are not like gender, for example) and there should be at least .2 correlation between the outcome variables and the covariates (which could not be established to be true for all of the variables according to earlier tests). Second, this ANOVA is ideally suited for use with unequal group sizes because computations are done using unweighted means by the R statistical software (R Core Team, 2012). In this case, the ANOVA operates as if each cell had the same number of subjects, meaning that no mean gets more w eight than another (Howell, 2010). Third, due to the nature of the first three research questions and the complexity of the interaction between the different variables and on music teacher identity (as measured by MTRC, MTSE, and PTSI), the four way fixed effects model was chosen because of its ability to give a more holistic picture of the simultaneous impact of all variables and their dosages on music teacher identity, thereby clarifying the impact of what is truly attributable to LATE.

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90 Research Question 1: LATE and Music Teacher Role Commitment Research Q uestion 1 was "What is the relationship between long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) and music teacher role commitment (MTRC) among preservice music teachers?" In order to answer this questi on, MTRC scores were used as one of the dependent variables in a 6 (LATE) x 2 (gender) x 19 (institutions) x 6 (year) between subjects ANOVA. Results showed the only significant predictor of MTRC for the participants in this study to be gender. Gender was shown to impact role commitment to music teaching more than authentic teaching experience (LATE), inst itution, or year in school ( Table 4 8). Mean MTRC scores on a scale of 1 10 for females ( M = 8.16, N = 282) were higher than those for males ( M = 7.7, N = 216) and were significant at the p < .05 level [ F (5,468) = 6.897, p = .00892]. Findings suggest that females are more committed to the role of music teacher and teaching music upon graduation than males. LATE did not appear to be a significant predictor of MTRC or to have any significant main effect on MTRC; therefore, the null hypothesis for research question one was accepted as true. These results appear to confirm findings of other widely accepted general identity theories showing significant differe nces in the way that men and women form identity (Evans et al., 2010; Hodgson & Fischer, 1979; Marcia,1966; Josselson, 1991). Implications of these findings will be discussed further in Chapter 5. Table 4 8. ANOVA results for MTRC (Music Teacher Role Commi tment) Effect Df Sum Sq Mean Sq F Value Pr (>F) LATE 5 19.0 3.807 0.993 0.42138 Gender 1 26.4 26.437 6.897 0.00892 Institution 1 9 98.7 5.482 1.430 0.11220 Year 5 25.0 5.008 1.307 0.25986 Residuals 468 1794.0 3.833 Total 487 *Gender significan t at p<.05 level

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91 Research Question 2: LATE and Music Teacher Self Efficacy Research Q uestion 2 was "What is the relationship between long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) and music teacher self efficacy (MTSE) among pre service music teachers?" To answer this, MTSE scores served as one of the dependent variables in a 6 (LATE) x 2 (gender) x 19 (institutions) x 6 (ye ar) between subjects ANOVA ( Table 4 9 ) Significant main effects were found for both LATE [ F (5,466) = 5.182, p = .0001] and for year in school [ F ( 5,466) = 4.755, p = .0003] ( Table 4 9) Table 4 9. ANOVA resu lts for MTSE ( Music Teacher Self Efficacy ) Source Sum of Squares df Mean Square F p LATE 95.4 5 19.085 5.182 0.000122 Gender 0.8 1 0.817 0.222 0.637941 Institution 98.4 18 5.469 1.485 0.090239 Year in School 87.6 5 17.512 4.755 0.000301 Error 1716.2 466 3.683 Total 495 LATE and Year in school significant at p<.05 level Mean MTSE scores appear to increase overall with dosages of LATE (one semester, one year, two years, three years, four or more years) (Table 4 10) After experiencing a slight initial dip down in MTSE with one semester of LATE (perhaps as individuals adjust to the realities of teaching), MTSE rises with one year, two y ear and three year dosages of LATE and remains at this highest level at four or more years of LATE, (Figure 46. The largest amount of growth occurs at three years of LATE with also a spike in efficacy after one year of LATE. More than three years of LATE does not continue to raise MTSE. This may suggest that the optimum dosage of LATE for impacting music teacher self efficacy is three years of LATE, while the least effective dosage is one semester of L ATE ( Table 4 10, Figure 46, and Figure 47 )

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92 Table 410. Mean MTSE scores by dosages of LATE Dosage of LATE N Mean MTSE Change by year (value added) Change from base year (value added) No LATE 386 11.2 1 semester 27 10.3 .9 .9 1 year 25 11.6 1.3 +.4 2 years 24 11 .6 .2 3 years 17 12.6 1.7 1.4 4 + years 17 12.6 0 1.4 Figure 4 6. Change in MTSE from base year by dosages of LATE Figure 4 7. Change in MTSE w ith each additional dosages of LATE

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93 Since the analysis of MTSE (music teacher self efficacy) mean scores used as the dependent variable in the 6 (LATE) x 2 (gender) x 19 (institutions) x 6 (year) between subjects ANOVA showed a significant main effect for LATE [ F (5,466) = 5.182, p =.0001], post hoc follow up analysis was done to investigate this main effect. A Tukey all pairwise compari sons for unequal replications were run in order to determine where the significant interactions were. This test compares all of the possible pairs of means, comparing means of each treatment group to that of every other treatment group in order to find whi ch ones are significantly different from one another. The following dosages of LATE were examined: never, one semester, one year, two years, three years, and four or more years of LATE Using the Tukey all pairwise comparisons for unequal replications, m akes it possible to account for the unequal sample sizes by including within the calculation the estimated standard deviation for each pair wise comparison (Salkind, 2007) that is adjusted for by the R statistical software (R Core Team, 2012). By using the Tukey Kramer method, it identifies if any if any difference between means is greater than the expected standard error. The confidence coefficient that is used for equal group sizes is exactly 1, while the one used for unequal group sizes is greater than 1. The disparity between the group size of the "never" dosage of LATE and the other dosages was the primary reason for using this Type of Tukey or other types of follow up tests. The Tukey revealed that MTSE scores were significantly higher for those with three years of LATE when compared to those with no LATE or one semester of LATE. MTSE scores were also significantly higher for those with four years of LATE when compared to those with no LATE or one semester of LATE ( Table 4 11)

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94 Table 4 11. Tukey all pairwise comparisons for unequal replications for MTSE and LATE Mean Diff erence 1 WR UPR P Adjusted 1sem ester never 0.910.96 2.00415 0.18224 0.16375 1 year never 0.35275 0.78058 1.48607 0.94867 2 years never 0.20725 1.36254 0.94803 0.99565 3 years never 1.43980 0.07889 2.80072 0.03103* 4+ years never 1.43980 0.07889 2.80072 0.03103* 1 year 1 semester 1.26370 0.26052 2.78792 0.16810 2 years 1 semester 0.70370 0.83691 2.24432 0.78111 3 years 1 semester 2.35076 0.65049 4.05103 0.00123* 4+ years 1semester 2.35076 0.65049 4.05103 0.00123* 2 years 1 year 0.56000 2.12935 1.00935 0.91079 3 years 1 year 1.08706 0.63929 2.81340 0.46547 4+ years 1 year 1.08706 0.63929 2.81340 0.46547 3 years 2 years 1.64706 0.09378 3.38790 0.07566 4+ y ears 2 years 1.64706 0.09378 3.38790 0.07566 4+years 3 years 0.00000 .1.88360 1.88360 1.00000 *significant at p<.05 level The analysis of MTSE (music teacher self efficacy) mean scores used as the dependent variable in the 6 (LATE) x 2 (gender) x 19 ( institutions) x 6 (year) between subjects ANOVA also showed a significant main effect for year in school [ F (5,466) = 4.755, p = .0003]. Mean MTSE scores of the full sample ( N = 520) showed a general increase by year in school and experienced the greatest po sitive growth from junior to senior year (+.6) after having experienced a dip down, similar to the early dip ( .2) down shown in the LATE results. This dip in efficacy may be due to the fact that during the junior or sophomore year in the music education degree program, participants typically begin to encounter more field experiences. The change in MTSE over time can be characterized as follows: an initial slight increase from freshman to sophomore year, slight decrease from sophomore to junior year, and the biggest increase from junior to senior year with further increases into the second year senior year. The trajectory is overall positive from freshman to second year senior, but most growth occurs from year three to year four ( Table 4 12 and Figure 4 8)

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95 Table 4 12. MTSE means by year in school Year in School N Mean MTSE Change by year (value added) Change from base year (value added) F reshman 74 11 S ophomore 99 11.2 +.2 0.2 J unior 143 11 .2 0 S enior 113 11.6 +.6 0.6 Se cond year senior 54 12.1 + .5 1.1 Since both LATE and year in school were shown to exhibit significant main effects on MTSE, the null hypothesis was rejected and post hoc f ollow up tests were done in order to investigate further if there might be any significant interactions betw een year and school and LATE for MTSE. A series of Welch's T Tests were used to look for significant differences in means of LATE versus NON LATE participants in MTSE by each year in school ( Table 4 13 ) This follow up test was chosen because it works wel l for comparing groups of different sizes and because the goal was to make a targeted comparison of two means at each level of schooling (LATE vs. NON LATE for each of the years in school), unlike the earlier follow up tests that needed to make multiple co mparisons simultaneously. Figure 4 8. Change in MTSE over years in school

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96 The follow up t tests revealed that MTSE scores were significantly higher for seniors who had participated in LATE ( M = 12.36, SD = 1.95) than for seniors who had not participa ted in LATE ( M = 11.47, SD = 2.11); t (49.6) = 2.05, p = .046. There was also a significant difference in the MTSE scores for freshmen who participated in LATE ( M = 9.57, SD = 2.50) and freshmen who had not participated in LATE ( M = 11.11, SD = 2.14); t (17.7) = 2.13, p = .046. Scores for freshman LATE participants were actually lower than NON LATE. These results are logical based on the earlier discussion of the initial dip in efficacy that occurs with first teaching experiences for all music education major s (compare Figures 4 7 and 48). For the LATE group this occurs earlier (at the one semester dosage, typically when members are freshmen), but for other music education majors this occurs around the junior year upon exposure to field experience. For a comp arison of MTSE mean scores of LATE versus NON LATE participants by year in school ( Table 4 13 as well as Figures 4 9 and 410) Table 4 13. MTS E impact by year in school for LATE vs. NONLATE g roups Year LATE MTSE Mean MTSE SD T Test P Value Freshma n no 1 1.11667 2.147854 2.13 0.047* Freshma n yes 9.57 2.502746 Sophomore no 10.94805 1.753914 1.18 0.249 Sophomore yes 11.45455 1.792239 Junior no 11.01709 1.925254 0.24 0.808 Junior yes 11.11539 1.84015 Senior no 11.47059 2.113383 20.5 0.046* Senio r yes 12.35714 1.94773 SecSenior no 12 1.864454 1.09 0.285 SecSenior yes 12.5 1.243163 Other no 9.8 1.30384 1.44 0.177 Other yes 11.25 2.31455

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97 Figure 4 9. Music teacher self efficacy of LATE vs. No LATE by year in school Figure 4 10. Mus ic teacher self efficacy of LATE vs. No LATE by year in school Research Question 3: LATE and Performer/Teacher Self Identification Research Q uestion 3 was What is the relationship between long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) and performer/teac her self identification preferences (PTSI) among pre-

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98 service music teachers?" In order to answer this questio n, PTSI (performer/teacher self identification) scores were used as one of the dependent variables in a 6 (LATE) x 2 (gender) x 19 (institutions) x 6 (year) between subjects ANOVA. Results showed that the only significant predictor of PTSI was gender. Gender was shown to impact the extent to which participants preferred to identify themselves as a musician/performer or music teacher more than authent ic teaching experience (LATE), institution, or year in school ( Table 4 14 ) Mean PTSI scores on a scale of 1 10 for females ( M = 6.59, N = 283) were higher than those for males ( M = 6.3, N = 217) and were significant for PTSI at the p < .05 level [ F (5,470) = 4.141, p = .0424]. Findings suggest that females are more likely to prefer to identify themselves as music teachers (not performers) whereas males are more likely to prefer to identify themselves as musicians/performers (not teachers). LATE did not appear to be a significant predictor of PTSI or to have any significant main effect on PTSI; therefore, the null hypothesis for research question three was accepted as true. These results appear to confirm research findings of several of widely accepted general identity theories that have shown that there are significant differences in the way that men and women form identity (Evans et al., 2010; Hodgson & Fischer, 1979; Marcia, 1966; Josselson, 1991) These findings will be discussed further in Chapter 5. Table 4 14. ANOVA results for PTSI (Performer/Teacher Self Identification) df Sum Sq Mean Sq F Value Pr (>F) LATE 5 13.1 2.164 1.050 0.3873 Gender 1 10.3 10.305 4.141 0.0424* Institution 19 66.4 3.686 1.481 0.0915 Year 5 19.1 3.824 1.537 0.1768 Resid uals 470 1169.6 2.488 Total 499 *Gender significant at p<.05 level

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99 Research Question 4: PTSI and MTRC/MTSE Research Q uestion 4 was What is the relationship between performer/teacher self identification preference (PTSI) and music teacher role commitment (MTRC) and music teacher self efficacy (MTSE) among preservice music teachers?" To answer this, PTSI, MTRC, and MTSE scores were used as dependent variables in a 6 (LATE) x 2 (gender) x 19 (institutions) x 6 (year) between subjects ANOVA, which generated a correlation matrix showing the degree of correlation between each of the outcome variables ( Table 4 15 ) A moderately strong positive relationship was found to exist between MTRC and PTSI ( r = .563, p = < .05) meaning as music teacher role co mmitment increases, preference for self identification as a teacher generally increases and as it decreases, preference for self identification as a teacher generally decreases. A weak positive significant relationship was found to exist between MTSE scor es and both PTSI ( r = .251, p = < .05), and MTRC ( r = .283, p = < .05) As music teacher self efficacy increases so do music teacher role commitment and preference for self identification as a music teacher. Commitment and teacher identification appear to decre ase as self efficacy decreases ( Table 4 15 ) Table 4 15. Correlation matrix for PTSI, MTRC, MTSE and summary of continuous variables Variables Available Missing M in M ax M ean V ar STD MTRC 518 2 1 10 7.969112 3.995176 1.998794 MTSE 505 15 4 15 11.22772 4.168278 2.041636 PTSI 515 5 1 10 6.460194 2.606875 1.614582 PTSI MTSE MTRC PTSI 1 0.251 0.563 MTSE 0.251 1 0.283 MTRC 0.563 0.283 1

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100 Research Question 5: Nature of Teaching and Music Teacher Identity Research Q uestion 5 was "What is the r elationship between different natures of teaching experiences (teaching private lessons, teaching small group classes/rehearsals, teaching large group classes/rehearsals) and music teacher identity (as measured by MTRC, MTSE, PTSI) among pre service music teachers?" In order to answer this question, a ThreeWay 6 (private lesson teaching) x 6 (small group teaching) x 6 (large group teaching) between subjects ANOVA was conducted using music teacher role commitment (MTRC), music teacher self efficacy (MTSE), and performer/teacher self identification preference (PTSI) as the dependent variables. The specific conditions examined were: teaching private lessons, teaching small group classes/rehearsals of three to ten students and teaching large group classes/rehearsals of eleven or more students. For each of the three teaching conditions, participants were asked to report the "length of time you have participated on a consistent basis as the person responsible for student learning" by choosing from the following options: never, occasionally/less than a year, one year, two years, three years, four or more years (PMTIS, Appendix B, questions 2427). This allowed different dosages of each treatment to be determined and allowed for a better understanding of which types of teaching experiences were most significantly related to MTRC, MTSE and PTSI, but also if some dosages were more or less effective in the development of a music teacher identity than others. The nature of the relationship between different types of te aching experiences and the three outcome variables could not be adequately tested within the four way fixed effects ANOVA used to measure LATE due to the overlap of the nature of these two variables. Because LATE (long term authentic teaching experiences) includes experiences structured as teaching private lessons, teaching small group classes/rehearsals or teaching large group classes/rehearsals, the effect and true nature of the relationship between LATE, type of teaching

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101 experiences, and the three outcom e variables could not be adequately separated and assessed within a single test. For example, let's say "Sue" has three years of LATE (long term authentic teaching experience) and she also reported having two years of private lesson teaching experience and one year small group teaching experience. Teaching private lessons and teaching small groups is description of what she did during LATE. So, if we say her outcome is due to private teaching and not LATE, then this adjusts our means in such a way that findings for LATE are distorted. It was therefore determined that the best course for understanding each of these would be to examine them independently using separate tests. It is also important to acknowledge that there are valid teaching experiences that might be impacting MTRC, MTSE, and PTSI that occur both inside and outside of String Project teaching (defined as LATE in this study) that should not be ignored. Many pre service music teachers have had the experience of teaching private lessons (even as early as high school) and this experience may or may not have been within a String Project program. The nature of this teaching task is basically the same regardless of where it occurred, however, and should not violate the assumption of homogeneity of regr ession slopes as long as it is examined in a separate ANOVA from LATE. This assumption was confirmed to be true by running Levene's test for homogeneity of variance for each of the three outcome variables (MTRC, MTSE, PTSI) for each of the ANOVAS, which re vealed that this assumption was not violated. Further details of these tests will be presented later in the chapter. For this three way between subjects ANOVA, the teaching experience of all participants ( N = 520) was examined. Significant main effects we re found between teaching types and outcome variables. Results will be discussed by outcome variable in the following order: MTRC and nature of experience, MTSE and nature of experience, PTSI and nature of experience.

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102 MTRC and Nature of Teaching Experiences MTRC scores (music teacher role commitment) served as one of the dependent variables in a 6 (private lesson teaching) x 6 (small group teaching) x 6 (large group teaching) between subjects ANOVA. Significant main effects were found for teaching private lessons [ F (5,475) = 2.927, p = .0129] ( Table 4 16) Post hoc follow up tests were run to further investigate this effect. A Tukey all pairwise comparisons for unequal replications revealed that MTRC scores were significantly higher for those who had taught private lessons for four or more years compared to those who had taught pri vate lessons for two years ( Table 4 17 : Tukey results and Table 4 18: listing of mean scores by dosage and teaching type ) Table 4 16. ANOVA results for MTRC and nature of teach ing experience d f Sum Sq Mean Sq F Value Pr (>F) Private Lessons 5 56.7 11.333 2.927 0.0129* Small Groups 5 606 1. 314 0.339 0.8889 Large Groups 5 35.8 7.155 1. 0.1021 Residuals 475 1838.8 3.871 Teaching Private Lesson significant at p<.05 level Table 4 17. MTRC follow up tukey all pairwise for unequal reps for private lessons Diff 1 WR UPR P Adj occ never 0.19241 0.87676 0.49195 0.96665 1 year never 0.41726 1.31795 0.48343 0.77074 2 years never 0.83763 1.77034 0.09507 0.10683 3 years never 0.04302 1.15812 1.07208 1.00000 4+ years never 0.47263 0.42324 1.0 0000 0.65829 1 year occ 0.22485 1.06960 0.61990 0.97370 2 years occ 0.64522 1.5240 0.23358 0.28855 3 years occ r 0.14939 0.921.04 1.21981 0.99869 4+ years occ 0.66504 0.17457 1.50465 0.21000 2 years 1 year 0.42037 1.47640 0.63566 0.86486 3 years 1 year 0.37424 0.84589 1 .59437 0.95173 4 + years 1 year 0.88989 0.13375 1.91353 0.12983 3 years 2 years 0.79461 0.44934 2.03856 0.44878 4+ years 2 years 1.3102 6 0.25834 2.36218 0.00536* 4+ years 3 years 0.51565 0.70093 1.73222 0.83057 *significant at p<.05 level

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103 Table 4 18. MTRC means by nature of teaching experience Teaching Private Lessons (significant) n ever o ccasionally 1 y ear 2 y ears 3 y ears 4+ y ears Mean 8.13 7.94 7.72 7.3 8.09 8.61 N 112.00 171.00 60.00 54.00 33.00 61.00 Teaching Small Group Classes/Rehearsals of 3 10 Students never occasionally 1 year 2 years 3 years 4+ years Mean 7.88 7.92 8.15 8.08 7.85 8.11 N 91.00 181.00 82.00 50.00 42.0 0 46.00 Teaching Large Group Classes/Rehearsals of 11+ Students never occasionally 1 year 2 years 3 years 4+ years Mean 7.7 8.1 8.26 8.21 7.7 1 8.14 N 157.00 158.00 70.00 45.00 34.00 27.00 MTSE and Nature of Experience MTSE scores (music teacher s elf efficacy) served as one of the dependent variables in a 6 (private lesson teaching) x 6 (small group teaching) x 6 (large group te aching) between subjects ANOVA ( Table 4 19) Significant main effects were found for teaching private lessons [ F (5,488) = 7.607, p = .00006], teaching small group classes/rehearsals of three to ten students [ F (5,488) = 3.724, p = .00257] and teaching large group classes/rehearsals of eleven or more students [ F (5,488) = 5.900, p = 00003] ( Table 4 19 ) In order to investigate effects further, post hoc follow up tests were done for each of these main effects and will discussed following a look at overall trends in the mean scores. Table 4 19. ANOVA r esults for MTSE and nature of teaching experience d f Sum Sq Mean Sq F Value Pr (>F) Private Lesson Teaching 5 133.9 26.77 7.607 0.00006* Small Group Teaching 5 65.5 13.11 3.724 0.00257* Large Group Teaching 5 103.8 20.76 5.900 0.00003* Residuals 473 1664.8 3.52 *All experience types are significant for MTSE (private lesson p = 00006, small group: p = .00257, and large group; p = .00003) at .01 level. A look at mean scores for MTSE reveal that overall scores increased with the amount of experience ( Table 4 20 ) MTSE scores were highest at 4+ years for private lesson teachin g (12.3)

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104 and 4+ years of large group teaching (11.9). For small group teaching, they were highest at two years of teaching experience (11.8) and then appear to decline. Large group teaching appears to be more effective for developing MTSE than small group teaching at beginning and end, but MTSE scores are higher for small group teaching than large group at the two and three year marks ( Figures 4 11 and 412) Table 4 20. Mean MTSE by nature of teaching experience and dosage Nature of Teaching Never Occasion ally/ < 1 year 1 year 2 years 3 years 4+ years Private lessons 10.7 11 .0 11.2 11.8 11.7 12.3 Small group 10.8 11.1 11.6 11.8 11.5 11.5 Large group 10.8 11.3 11.7 11.4 11.4 11.9 Figure 4 11. M usic t eacher self efficacy means by teaching types

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105 F igure 4 12. Change in music teacher self efficacy means by teaching types Post hoc Follow up Tests for MTSE: Private Lessons MTSE was used as one of the dependent variable in a 6 (private lesson teaching) x 6 (small group teaching) x 6 (large group teachi ng) between subjects ANOVA which showed significant main effects for teaching private lessons [ F (5,488) = 7.607, p = .00006]. This effect was further investigated by post hoc analyses using Tukey all pairwise comparisons for unequal replications. The Tukey revealed that MTSE scores were significantly higher for those who had taught private lessons for at least two years when compared to those who had never taught private lessons. MTSE scores were also significantly higher for those who had taught private le ssons for four or more years compared to those who had never taught private lessons or had done so occasionally or for one year ( Table 4 21)

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106 Table 4 21. Music teacher self efficacy follow up tukey for private lessons Diff 1 WR UPR P Adj occ never 0.297 30 0.35701 0.95163 0.78498 1 year never 0.53063 0.32956 1.39082 0.48941 2 years never 1. 13063 0.23996 2.02130 0.00419 3 years never 1.02457 0.03981 2.08895 0.06686 4+ years never 1.58063 0.72044 2.44082 0.00000* 1 year occ 0.23333 0.57217 1.0388 3 0.96209 2 years occ 0.83333 0.00464 1.67131 0.05224 3 years occ r 0.72727 0.29342 1.74796 0.32189 4+ years occ 1.28333 0.47783 2.08883 0.00010* 2 years 1 year 0.60000 0.40696 1.60696 0.52912 3 years 1 year 0.49394 0.66950 1.65738 0.82958 4+ years 1 year 1.05000 0.06989 2.03011 0.02767* 3 years 2 years 0.10606 1.29221 1.08009 0.99985 4+ years 2 years 0.45000 0.55696 1.45696 0.79660 4+ years 3 years 0.55606 0.60738 1.71950 0.74644 *significant at p <.05 level A closer look at the means reveals details of how the process of developing MTSE may unfold over the years of experience when teaching private lessons. MTSE s cores appear to increase with experience teaching private lessons. The largest amounts of gain in self efficacy compa red to the base year (value added) appear to occur at teaching private lessons for two years (+1.1) and at teaching private lessons f or four or more years (+1.6) ( Table 4 22 and Figure 413) Table 4 22. Music teacher self efficacy means change over time when teaching private lessons Teaching Private Lessons N Mean Change by Year (value added) Change from Base Year (value added) never 111 10.7 Occasionally (<1 yr) 171 11 .3 .3 1 year 60 11.2 .2 .5 2 years 54 11.8 .6 1.1 3 years 33 11.7 .1 1 4+ years 60 12.3 .6 1.6

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107 Figure 4 13. M usic teacher self efficacy change compared to base year when teaching private lessons Post hoc Follow up Tests for MTSE: Teaching Small Groups Since the 6 (private lesson teaching) x 6 (small group teaching) x 6 (la rge group teaching) between subjects ANOVA showed significant main effects for teaching small group classes/rehearsals of three to ten students [ F (5,488) = 3.724, p = .00257] in addition to teaching private lessons and large groups, this effect was further investigated by post hoc analyses using Tukey all pairwise comparisons for unequal replications. The Tukey revealed that MTSE scores were significantly higher for those who had taught small group classes/rehearsals of three to ten students for two years c ompared to those who had never taught smal l group classes/rehearsals ( Table 4 23 )

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108 Table 4 23. MTSE follow up tukey: teaching small group classes/rehearsals of 3 10 students Diff 1 WR UPR P Adj occ never 0.28524 0.40716 0.97764 0.84689 1 year never 0 .77214 0.05004 1.59432 0.07967 2 years never 0.99270 0.04583 1.93957 0.03364* 3 years never 0.70420 0.29897 1.70737 0.33886 4+ years never 0.75199 0.22812 1.73210 0.24175 1 year occ 0.48690 0.23073 1.20454 0.37817 2 years occ 0.70746 0.15020 1. 56512 0.17256 3 years occ r 0.41896 0.50048 1.33840 0.78289 4+ years occ 0.46675 0.42747 1.36097 0.66859 2 years 1 year 0.22056 0.74492 1.18604 0.98670 3 years 1 year 0.06794 1.08869 0.95281 0.99997 4+ years 1 year 0.02015 1.01824 0.944 94 1.00000 3 years 2 years 0.28850 1.41212 0.83512 0.97755 4+ years 2 years 0.24071 1.34379 0.86236 0.98920 4+ years 3 years 0.04779 1.10397 1.19955 1.00000 *significant at p <.05 level A closer look at MTSE mean scores reveals details of how th e process of developing MTSE may occur over years of experience when teaching small group classes/rehearsals of three to ten students. MTSE scores appear to increase over the first two years of experience, but do not continue to rise after year two, they d ecline. This suggests that the effect of small group teaching on MTSE is maximize d at two years of experience ( Table 4 24 and Figure 414) Table 4 24. MTSE mean scores for teaching small groups by years of experience Teaching Small Groups (3 10 Studen ts) N Mean Change by Year (value added) Change from Base year (value added) never 90 10.8 Occasionally (<1 yr) 181 11.1 .3 .3 1 year 81 11.6 .5 .8 2 years 50 11.8 .1 1.0 3 years 42 11.5 .3 .7 4+ years 45 11.5 0 .7

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109 Figure 4 14. Music teacher self efficacy change compared to base year when teaching small groups Post hoc Follow up Tests for MTSE: Teaching Large Groups Since the 6 (private lesson teaching) x 6 (small group teaching) x 6 (large group teaching) between subjects ANOVA showed signif icant main effects for teaching large group classes/rehearsals [ F (5,488) = 5.900, p = 00003] in addition to teaching private lessons and small group classes/rehearsals, this effect was further investigated by post hoc analyses using Tukey all pairwise com parisons for unequal replications. The Tukey revealed that MTSE scores were significantly higher for those pre service teachers who had taught large group classes/rehearsals of eleven or more students for at least one year compared to those who had never t aught large group classes/rehearsal ( Table 4 25)

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110 Table 4 25. MTSE follow up Tukey all pairwise for unequal reps for small group teaching Diff 1 WR UPR P Adj occ never 0.49374 0.11122 1.09870 0.18201 1 year never 0.92982 0.15369 1.70596 0.00862* 2 y ears never 0.62662 0.28175 1.53499 0.35893 3 years never 0.60612 0.42247 1.63472 0.54163 4+ years never 1.11479 0.00417 2.23375 0.05150 1 year occ 0.43608 0.33781 1.20997 0.59073 2 years occ 0.13288 0.77357 1.03933 0.99834 3 years occ r 0.11 238 0.91452 1.13928 0.99960 4+ years occ 0.62105 0.49636 1.73845 0.60534 2 years 1 year 0.30320 1.33182 0.72542 0.95917 3 years 1 year 0.32370 1.45989 0.81249 0.96469 4+ years 1 year 0.18497 1.03364 1.40357 0.99804 3 years 2 years 0.02050 1.25082 1.20982 1.00000 4+ years 2 years 0.48817 0.81864 1.79498 0.89352 4+ years 3 years 0.50867 0.88440 1.90173 0.90245 *significant at p<.05 level A closer look at the MTSE mean scores reveals details of how the development process for MTSE ma y occur over years of experience when teaching large group classes/rehearsals. MTSE increases for the first year of teaching, but then declines slightly at year two and three with the biggest growth occurring at four or more years of teaching large group c lasses/rehearsals ( Table 4 26 and Figure 415) This development pattern looks considerably different than that for teaching small group classes, suggesting that there may be increased difficulty in dealing with the larger groups, but over years of experie nce it can lead to higher mean MTSE scores (11.9 compared to 11.5). It is also worth noting that four or more years of

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111 private lesson teaching experience resulted in higher mean efficacy scores (12.3) than either small group teaching (11.5) or large group teaching (11.9). Table 4 26. MTSE mean scores for teaching large groups by years of experience Teaching Experience with Large Groups N Mean Change by Year (value added) Change from Base Year (value added) never 156 10.8 Occasionally (<1 yr) 159 11.3 0 .5 0 .5 1 year 69 11.7 0 .4 0 .9 2 years 45 11.4 0 .3 0 .6 3 years 33 11.4 0 0 .6 4+ years 27 11.9 0 .5 1.1 Figure 4 15. Music teacher self efficacy change compared to base year when teaching large groups To summarize, all three teaching types (privat e teaching, small group teaching, large group teaching) were found to have a significant main effect on MTSE (music teacher self efficacy) scores. Post hoc follow up tests (Tukey) revealed that some dosages are more effective than others in for impacting M TSE. For teaching private lessons, the optimum dosage appears to be four or more years of private lesson teaching (but, there is also a significant effect at two

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112 years). For small group teaching, the optimum dosage appears to be two years, with no further positive relationship after that amount of experience. For large group teaching, the largest effect was seen at the one year dosage, but MTSE does continue to rise if teaching large groups persi sts for four or more years ( Figure 4 16) MTSE mean scores wer e higher for those teaching private lessons for four or more years than for any dosage of teaching small or large group classes/rehearsals. For a comparison of MT SE for all three teaching types (Figure 416 ) Figure 4 16. M usic teacher se lf efficacy mean scores for all teaching types PTSI and Nature of Teaching Experiences PTSI scores (performer/teacher self identification) served as the third dependent variable in a 5 (private lesson) x 5 (small group) x 5 (large group) between subjects ANOVA ( Table 4 27) No significant main effects were found for teaching private lessons, teaching small groups of three to ten students or for teaching large groups of eleven or more students.

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113 Table 4 27. ANOVA results for PTSI and nature of teaching experiences df Sum Sq Mean Sq F Value Pr (>F) Private Lessons 5 2.1 0.4141 0.161 0.977 Small Groups 5 4.8 0.9675 0.373 0.867 Large Groups 5 7.3 1.4506 0.559 0.732 Residuals 477 1238.6 2.5966 Total 492 Assumption Checks For each of the ANOVAS used during the sta tistical analyses for this study, assumption checks were done to ensure that two main as sumptions were not violated: 1) normality of residuals and 2) homogeneity of variance. To check for normality of residuals for each ANOVA, Q Q plots of residuals were c reated to chart the theoretical quantities of normally distributed residuals against the sample quantities found for each of the three outcome variables: MTRC, MTSE and PTSI. This created 6 models that are represented in Figures4 17 through 422. To check for homogeneity of variance, Levene's Test for Homogeneity of Variance was run to be sure that variances were equal (not significant at alpha = .05 level). This check was done for each of the three outcome variables for each of the ANOVAS ( Tables 4 28 thr ough 433 ) Model 1: Music Teacher Self E fficacy on LATE, gender, institution, and year Groups in the MTSE 6 (LATE) x 2 (gender) x 18 (institution) x 6 (year) ANOVA study met the assumption of homogeneity of variance as measured by the Levene test [ F (237,258) = 0.6933, p = 0.9979]. The Levene statistic psignificance, meaning equal variances of groups. The Normal Q Q Plot graph for this model did not indicate a serious violation of normally distributed r esiduals since the points in each plot appear to follow the diagonal lines, indicating that they are normally distributed.

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114 Figure 4 17. Model 1 of music teacher self efficacy on LATE, gender, institution, and year Table 4 28. Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances MTSE and LATE Dependent Variable: MTSE F df1 df2 Sig. 0.6933 237 258 0.9979 Model 2: Performer/Teacher Self Identification on LATE, gender, institution, and year Groups in the PTSI 6 (LATE) x 2 (gender) x 19 (institution) x 6 (yea r) ANOVA study met the assumption of homogeneity of variance as measured by the Levene test [ F (239,260) = .0.8736, p = 0.856]. The Levene statistic p-

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115 significance, meaning equal variances of groups. The N ormal Q Q Plot graph for this model did not indicate a serious violation of normally distributed residuals. Figure 4 18. Model 2 of performer/teacher self identification on LATE, gender, institution, and year Table 4 29. Levene's Test of Equality of Err or Variances PTSI and LATE Dependent Variable: PTSI F df1 df2 Sig. 0.8736 239 260 0.856 Model 3: Music Teacher Role Commitment on LATE, gender, institution, and year Groups in the MTRC 6 (LATE) x 2 (gender) x 19 (institution) x 6 (year) ANOVA study met the assumption of homogeneity of variance as measured by the Levene test [ F (238,259) =

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116 0.9905, p = 0.5293]. The Levene statistic psignificance, meaning equal variances of groups. The Normal Q Q Plo t graph, however, did not appear very normal as points plotted at the top began to fall way from the diagonal line and should be considered a limitation since these numbers may not be normally distributed. Figure 4 19. Model 3 of music teacher role commi tment on LATE, gender, institution, and year Table 4 30. Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances MTRC and LATE Dependent Variable: MTRC F df1 df2 Sig. 0.9905 238 259 0.5293

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117 Model 4: Music Teacher Self E fficacy on private lesson, small group, an d large group Groups in the MTSE 6 (private lesson teaching) x 6 (small group teaching) x 6 (large group teaching) between subjects ANOVA study met the assumption of homogeneity of variance as measured by the Levene test [ F (117,371) = 0.9727, p = 0.5627]. The Levene statistic pvalue Normal Q Q Plot graph for this model did not seem to have normally distributed residuals and should be considered a limitation of the study. Figure 420. Model 4 of music teacher self efficacy on private lesson, small group, and large group

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118 Table 4 31. Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances MTSE and Teaching Type Dependent Variable: MTSE F df1 df2 Sig. 0.9727 117 371 0.5627 Model 5: Perform er/Teacher Self Identification on private lesson, small and large group Groups in the MTRC 6 (private lesson teaching) x 6 (small group teaching) x 6 (large group teaching) between subjects ANOVA met the assumption of homogeneity of variance as measured b y the Levene test [ (118,374) = 0.963, p = 0.5393]. The Levene statistic pvalue Normal Q Q Plot graph did not appear very normal should be considered a limitation. Figure 4 21. Model 5 of performer/teacher self identification on private lesson, small and large group

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119 Table 4 32. Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances PTSI and Teaching Type Dependent Variable: PTSI F df1 df2 Sig. 0.963 118 374 0.5893 M odel 6: Music Teacher Role Commitment on private lesson, small and large group Groups in the MTRC 6 (private lesson teaching) x 6 (small group teaching) x 6 (large group teaching) between subjects ANOVA met the assumption of homogeneity of variance as measured by the Levene test [ F (118,372) = 0.9659, p = 0.5814] since the Levene statistic pNormal Q Q Plot graph did not appear completely normal and should be consi dered a limitation. Figure 4 22. Model 6 of music teacher role commitment on private lesson, small and large group

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120 Table 4 33. Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances MTRC and Teaching Type Dependent Variable: MTRC F df1 df2 Sig. 0.9659 118 372 0.5814 The ANOVAS in this study met all assumptions of homogeneity of variance as measured by the Levene's Test. Distribution of residuals did not look normal for all outcomes and should be considered a limitation. Researchers have found, though, that the ANOVA is a test that is robust and not very sensitive to slight to moderate deviations from normality, especially if the sample size is large enough (which in this case, is N = 520) (Harwell et al. 1992, Lix et al., 1996). Researchers ran simulation st udies with a variety of nonnormal distributions showing that false positive rates were not very affected by violation of this assumption (Harwell et al. 1992, Lix et al., 1996). One explanation for this was that when you consider a large number of random samples, means are likely to be normally distributed even when the population is not normal (Lix et al., 1996). Summary of Results Descriptive analysis as well as correlation analysis were used in this study to examine the relationship between teaching e xperiences and music teacher identity as measured by three outcome variables: MTRC (music teacher role commitment), MTSE (music teacher self efficacy) and PTSI (performer/teacher self identification). Results showed MTSE to be significantly positively corr elated with different dosages of LATE as well as year in school (freshman second year senior). Pre service teachers with three or more years of long term authentic teaching experience had significantly higher music teacher self efficacy scores than those w ith those without that experience or those who only had one semester of it. Significant

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121 difference were also found between freshmen and seniors who had experienced LATE and those who had not. MTRC and PTSI, however, were found to be significantly correlate d with gender (being female), but not with LATE. Teaching private lessons, teaching small group classes/rehearsals of three to ten students, and teaching large group classes/rehearsals of eleven or more students were found to relate to the outcome variab les d ifferently. Both MTRC and MTSE showed significant relationships with the nature of the teaching experience, but PTSI did not. MTRC was positively correlated with teaching private lessons and results indicate the optimum dosage of teaching private less ons may be four or more years (there was also a significant relationship at two years). MTSE was positively correlated with all three teaching conditions. Results appear to indicate that the following dosages may be optimum for developing music teacher sel f efficacy: teaching private lessons for four or more years, teaching small groups of three to ten students for two years, and teaching large groups of eleven or more students for one year. Results also revealed that other things might be significantly r elated to the extent to which music education majors prefer to identify themselves as performers or teachers. Having at least one positive teaching experience was significantly positively correlated with PTSI as was having the majority of teaching experiences be successful (more strongly correlated). The more successful participants felt their teaching experiences were, generally the higher their teacher identification scores were on the PTSI scale. Conversely, the less successful individuals perceived their teaching experiences, the lower the level of teacher identification. In addition, self reported performance skills were negatively correlated with self identification as a teacher (PTSI). The higher the self perceived performance skills, the lower the preferred identification as a teacher, showing that teaching may be acting as a fallback position from performing. Self -

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122 reported teaching skills, however, were positively correlated with self identification as a teacher (PTSI). Having higher selfperceived teaching skills appeared to strengthen the likelihood of self identification as a teacher, a finding that was supported by the positive correlations found to exist between the amount of music teacher self efficacy and the amount of music teacher role com mitment and preference for self identification as teacher. These findings will be further discussed in Chapter 5 as well as the implications for music teacher education.

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123 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to examine the role of long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) in the formation of a music teacher identity as measured by music teacher role commitment (MTRC), music teacher self efficacy (MTSE) and performer/teacher self identification preference (PTSI) as well as to gain an unde rstanding of how differing lengths and types of experience may impact music teacher identity among pre service music teachers A primary reason for undertaking this study was to understand more about the process by which undergraduate music education major s might successfully adopt a music teacher identity and be effectively strengthened for the transition into the music teaching profession. The goal was to isolate and examine how one specific socialization factor (teaching experience during undergraduate t raining) might impact how the process of forming a music teacher identity unfolds over the years of undergraduate music teacher training. Further, it was hoped that this examination might lead to specific knowledge of optimum lengths and/or types of teachi ng experiences that could be offered in the undergraduate curriculum to strengthen music teacher self efficacy, music teacher role commitment and teacher self identification preference among pre service teachers. This chapter summarizes the major findings of the study and discusses the implications of those findings. It begins with a discussion of descriptive analysis findings, continues with a discussion of correlation analysis findings for each of the five research questions that guided this study, then proceeds with specific recommendations for music teacher education and future research. It closes with a summary and final conclusions of the study.

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124 The research questions that guided this study were: 1. What is the relationship between long term, authenti c teaching experience (LATE) and music teacher role commitment (MTRC) among pre service music teachers? 2. What is the relationship between long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) and music teacher self efficacy (MTSE) among pre service music teachers ? 3. What is the relationship between long term, authentic teaching experience (LATE) and performer/teacher self identification preferences (PTSI) among preservice music teachers? 4. What is the relationship between performer/teacher self identification prefere nce (PTSI) and music teacher role commitment MTRC) and music teacher self efficacy (MTSE) among pre service music teachers? 5. What is the relationship between different natures of teaching experiences (teaching private lessons, teaching small group classes/r ehearsals, teaching large group classes/rehearsals) and music teacher identity (as measured by MTRC, MTSE, PTSI) among pre service music teachers? Findings and Implications The results of this quantitative cross sectional study were obtained by administer ing a researcher generated questionnaire called the PMTIS ( Pre service Music Teacher Identity Survey) to undergraduate music education majors ( N = 520) in nineteen higher education institutions across the country. The questionnaire was developed based on an extensive review of the literature (see Chapter 2), and then validated through pilot testing with undergraduate music education majors from Valdosta State University and feedback from subject matter experts in the s pring of 2013 (see Chapter 3). The PMTIS was administered to music education majors across the country in institutions with String Project programs. The director of every String Project program in the United Stated ( N = 44) in existence in the s pring of 2013 was contacted to have their students participate as was the department head of music education within each of those institutions. The results of the PMTIS were analyzed and reported ( Chapter 4) using descriptive

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125 analysis as well as cor relation analysis (a series of ANOVAS with post hoc follow up Tukeys and T Tests). Descriptive analysis revealed participants ( N = 520) to be a highly representative sample of music education majors from all parts of the United States. They were from a variety of institution types (colleges, universities, conserva tories) that were housed in a variety of settings (urban, rural, and suburban). Both males and females participated and all performance mediums were represented (string, band, choral and keyboard/other). All participants were undergraduate music education majors and the sample included all years of undergraduate training (freshmansecond year senior). Participants had a variety of teaching experiences at the time of the study. Just over a fifth of the participants were currently teaching in or had previously taught in their university's String Project teacher training program. 77% had taught private lessons, 81% had taught small group classes/rehearsals of three to ten students, and 68% had taught large group classes/rehearsals of eleven or more students. Surprisingly, over a fifth had never taught a private lesson, almost a fifth had never taught a small group class/rehearsal and around a third had never taught a large group class/rehearsal. Just under a tenth had never taught a group of any size and just under a tenth had no teaching experience of any kind (surprisingly, some of these were juniors and seniors in the program). Most participants reported having field experiences observing music teachers in K 12 schools. Just over half reported having fiel d experiences teaching children in K 12 schools. A few reported being currently or previously involved in official student teaching/final internship placement(s) in K 12 schools. Roughly a third of the participants felt that the amount of teaching

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126 experien ce offered as part of their degree program to prepare them to teach music in the K 12 classroom was not enough. Almost all participants reported having had at least one successful teaching experience and many of the participants agreed that the majority o f their teaching experiences had been successful. Participants with at least one successful teaching experience had significantly higher scores on the teacher identification scale as did those who reported that the majority of their teaching experiences we re successful. In general, t he more successful the teaching experiences were perceived to be, the higher the identification as a teacher and the less successful, the lower the teacher identification. This was a significant, but weak positive relationship. A majority of the participants felt confident they could successfully teaching music in K 12 schools, but fewer were confident that they could successfully manage student behavior (just over half). When asked about teaching goals, just over a tenth repor ted their primary goal in teaching music to be performance related (teaching students to perform at a high level of musical excellence or building a music program that is widely recognized for excellence) and just under half said their primary goal in teac hing music was to teach students to understand and appreciate music. Others just wanted to give students a positive experience. Analysis of text responses revealed that pre service teachers were fairly aligned in their primary goals for teaching music (hav ing students perform at a high level of excellence, building programs recognized for excellence, providing students with positive experiences, and teaching students to understand and appreciate music). Results also indicated that for some individuals, it w as impossible to preference one goal over the other(s) and for them, it was the balancing of a number of goals of primary importance that guided their music teaching.

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127 Results appear to indicate that there may be considerable discrepancy between how music education majors prefer to think of themselves (as performers or teachers) and what they plan to do as a career following graduatio n (perform or teach music) ( Figure 5 1) W hile the majority of the music education majors said they would definitely teach m usic as a primary career following graduation (score of 9 or 10 on PTSI scale), fewer than a fifth preferred to identify themselves as a teacher identification level of 9 or 10 on the PTSI scale. Following graduation, a little less than a tenth intended pe rforming to be their primary career, a little more than a tenth were not sure if they intended to teach, and just over three quarters intended music teaching to be their primary career. Figure 5 1. Alignment of career plans and performer/teacher self ide ntification Self perceived performance skills and teaching skills were both found to be significantly related to the level of performer/teacher identification. Emerging preliminary findings suggest there may be a weak, negative relationship between perfor mance skills and identification as a

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128 teacher, but a significant weak, positive relationship between teaching skills and identification as a teacher. Findings appear to suggest that the higher the self reported performance skill level, the lower the teacher identification score, and the lower the self reported performance skill, the higher the teacher identification score. The opposite was true for self perceived teaching skill. The higher the self reported teaching skills were, the higher the level of ident ification as a teacher and the lower the teaching self reported teaching skills, the lower the level of identification as a teacher. In essence, higher self reported teaching skills and lower self reported performance skills were significantly related to s elf identification as a teacher (and not as a performer). When examined in conjunction with the findings regarding the misalignment of self views and career plans, this appears to indicate that teaching is acting as a "fall back" position from performing. Ideally, a participant might be a performer but for one reason or another, this appears to them not to be possible, so in reality they will teach. This apparent gap between how pre service teacher prefer to think of themselves and their career plans fol lowing graduation is troublesome. In psychology, the gap between the Real Self (who you are in real life) and the Ideal Self (who you want to be) is called incongruity (Rogers, 1959). Individuals experiencing incongruity may feel dissatisfied with their li ves or even consider themselves failures. Further, any experience inconsistent with the structure of the self (core sense of who you are) could be perceived as a threat and the more of these perceptions that occur, the more rigidly the self structure tries to preserve itself (Rogers, 1959). Several factors may cause music teaching to be perceived as a threat to the musician/performer identity. First, within the context of K 12 education, musician is an identity for which there is virtually no significant external validation and it is difficult to maintain any identity for which there is no external validation (Roberts, 1991). Second, for the first time in

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129 many years (for many since before high school), the musician/teacher finds that they are no longer sur rounded by musicians and that within this new context, musician is no longer the privileged identity status as it was in higher education and the years leading up to it. Third, in this new context, the musician/teacher's new peers (teachers and administrators) not only fail to support/validate the musician identity, but in many ways actively marginalize the identity since within this context, music and other courses considered to be outside of the "basics" that are required for graduation (like English, Ma th and Science) can be seen as or treated as less important subjects. In the daily scheduling, planning, and interactions within the school, teachers who teach music and other subjects which don't count for graduation or as part of the school's grade as measured by standardized testing may be perceived as and treated as "not real teachers" based on their subject matter. In addition, the value of music (and the musician identity) may be further unintentionally marginalized by students and parents who do not and could not value the same high level of musical competence that the individual music teacher spent more than a decade of their life trying to achieve, a musical competence which for a large amount of that time served to define who they were. It is wit hin this context, that music teachers who identify strongly as performers might struggle, finding that the very act of teaching music serves to undermine their sense of self because the daily act of teaching is perceived as a threat to the Ideal Self (the performer). Incongruent individuals who have to work hard to maintain/protect their self concept are often on the defensive as they struggle against the difficult task of living a life in which there is a constant threat to self. These individuals are not functioning ideally and could be considered to be malfunctioning and if this incongruence is excessive, the continuous struggle may lead to a

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130 psychological state of distress, even one that would be typically described as neurotic (Rogers, 1959). In the c ase of music teachers with a performer identity, it may become necessary for reasons of self preservation to distance the self from the teaching and leave the profession entirely. It is imperative for healthy psychological functioning that the Real Self and Ideal Self are somewhat congruent and that music teachers entering the profession prefer to think of themselves as music teachers, and not primarily performers. Successful transition into the music teaching profession may depend on the extent to which higher education is successful in helping pre service teachers more strongly identify as teachers prior to graduation. Helping music education majors become teachers who perform rather than performers who teach may only be possible within the context of higher education and not in the early years of inservice teaching. This is due to the specific factors that converge within the K 12 context to produce a scenario in which teaching may be perceived as a threat to the Ideal Self. Within undergraduate traini ng, the individual should be open to the experiences that promote teacher identity development without the external factors existing in K 12 schools that serve to marginalize the performer identity to the extent that a rigid defense of this dimension of identity occurs. In this study, participants who reported having successful teaching experiences during undergraduate training had significantly higher levels of identification as a teacher (not performer) than those who didn't. They also had significantly higher levels of music teacher self efficacy and music teacher role commitment, being more confident that they could and would successfully teach music in the K 12 schools following graduation. In addition, the more highly participants rated their teachin g skills, the higher their level of teacher identification. These findings imply that repeated successful teaching experiences that help pre service teachers

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131 improve teaching skills and gain confidence in teaching may be helpful in nurturing a music teache r identity. The five research questions guiding this study were specifically designed to provide more information about how these teaching experiences might be structured. Those findings are discussed next. Research Question 1 Correlation analysis was us ed to answer the five research questions that guided this study and to gain a better understanding of the relationship between specific types and lengths of teaching experiences and music teacher identity (as measured by music teacher role commitment (MTRC ), music teacher self efficacy (MTSE) and performer/teacher self identification preference (PTSI). The pu rpose of Research Question 1 was to determine the nature of the relationship between long term authentic teaching experience (LATE) and music teacher r ole commitment (MTRC) among pre service teachers. Results showed that LATE was not a significant predictor of MTRC and that the only significant predictor of MTRC for the pre service teachers in this study was gender. Gender was shown to impact role comm itment to music teaching more than authentic teaching experience (LATE), institution, or year in school. Females had significantly higher teacher identification scores (on the PTSI scale) than males, suggesting that females are more committed to the role o f music teacher and teaching music upon graduation than males, who appear to be more committed to performer roles. Since LATE did not appear to be a significant predictor of MTRC or to have any significant main effect on MTRC, the null hypothesis for resea rch question one was accepted as true. These gender findings are consistent with the findings of several other studies. General identity theories show significant differences in the way that college men and women achieve identity (Evans et al., 2010; Hodgson and Fischer, 1979; Josselson, 1991; Marcia, 1991). Identity

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132 development for male college students appears to occur through addressing issues of competence and knowledge (choosing a career, securing a stable future), while female college students appear to find their identity by relating to others which enables them to experience higher levels of intimacy (Evans et al., 2010; Hodgson and Fischer, 1979). Several other research studies have reported on gender and music teaching commitment. Gender differ ences in occupational commitment were found by Wagoner (2011) as well as others (Gill et al., 2009; Ibarra, 1999). Although, Isbell (2008) did not find gender differences among pre service music teachers, Wagoner (2011) did find a significant twoway inter action for gender by identity with men and women on music teacher commitment for in service music teachers. The findings of this study are consistent with Wagoner's findings for inservice music teachers (2011) that MTRC, but not MTSE was sensitive to gend er and that females were more committed than males. They were also consistent with her findings that MTRC did not change over the time measured. Gender norms are subject to powerful socialization factors at play in society and it appears that those may be at play here. As students in school, participants become easily aware that teaching is a femaledominated profession simply by the number of male teachers they did not encounter during their years in school. In addition, males continue to dominate class ical professional performance organizations and according to Bennett (2008) "despite an increase in participation at all levels of the music profession, women continue to experience fewer opportunities to forge careers in music and are less likely than men to apply for leadership positions" (p. 89). Bennett also found that female musicians were more likely to teach and men more likely to maintain performance positions, which are consistent with the career plans of the participants in this study. These gende red behavioral patterns may not be wholly inconsistent

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133 with identity formation patterns for men and women considering that teaching may be considered more of a relational career (care and nurturing) while performing may considered more of a competencebase d career. Research Question 2 The purpose of Research Question 2 was to determine the relationship between long term authentic teaching experience (LATE) and music teacher self efficacy (MTSE) among pre service music teachers. LATE was found to have a sig nificant main effect on music teacher self efficacy (MTSE), as did year in school. Since there was a significant difference in MTSE between participants who did and did not participate in LATE for various lengths of time, the null hypothesis was rejected. MTSE appears to increase with increased dosages of LATE, rising after one year, two years, and three years of experience. At the fourth year, the amount of MTSE levels off, remaining at the same point as the three year dosage. There was, however, a sligh t decrease in self efficacy after the initial teaching experience dosage of one semester, perhaps as students adjusted to the realities of teaching. After this initial experience, though, MTSE rose with each dosage. It appears that the largest amount grow th in MTSE occurs at three years of LATE and MTSE scores were statistically significantly higher for those with three or four years of LATE when compared to those with no LATE or only one semester of LATE. This implies that the optimum dosage of LATE for i mpacting music teacher self efficacy is three years and that the least effective dosage is one semester. Year in school (freshman second year senior) also showed a significant main effect for MTSE. MTSE appeared to increase by year in school and experienced the greatest positive growth from junior to senior year after having experienced a dip down in the sophomore year, similar to the early dip down shown in the LATE results. This dip occurred at the point when

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134 music education majors typically begin to enc ounter more field experiences in the curriculum. The change in MTSE over years in school can be characterized as follows: an initial slight increase from freshman to sophomore year, slight decrease from sophomore to junior year, and the biggest increase fr om junior to senior year with further increases into the second year senior year. The trajectory is overall positive from freshman to second year senior, but most growth occurs from year three to four. There was a significant interaction between LATE and year in school for MTSE. Seniors who had participated in LATE experienced significantly higher MTSE than seniors who had not participated. There was also a significant difference between freshmen with and without LATE. Freshmen without LATE actually had higher MTSE scores than those who were participating in LATE, perhaps suggesting a falsely inflated sense of confidence in music teaching ability for those who had not yet had teaching experiences. MTSE scores for NON LATE participants showed a decrease lat er in the curriculum (sophomore junior year), when LATE participants were already experiencing a rise in MTSE. By senior year, those with authentic teaching experience had significantly higher scores for music teacher self efficacy. It appears that all par ticipants experience an initial dip in efficacy with first teaching experiences. For the LATE group this occurs earlier (at the one semester dosage, typically when members are freshmen), but for other music education majors, this happens around the junior year upon exposure to field experiences. Given that the highest rise in self efficacy occurred with three and four years of teaching experience, findings imply that it is best to start teaching experiences as early as possible in the curriculum (preferably during the freshman year). Self efficacy findings are consistent with both Ferguson (2003) and Davis (2011) findings of increased self efficacy with teaching experience. They are also consistent with

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135 Wagoner's (2011) findings that among inservice music teachers, self efficacy increased with each increased dosage of teaching experience and that significant increases occurred between one to five years. The decreases in self efficacy found to occur with only short (one semester) dosages of teaching experience are consistent with findings of Hearson (1983) and Ferguson (2003) who found that some field experience and/or student teaching had only a marginal effect or negative effect. They are also consistent with Covert and Clifton's (1983) examination of the effects of extending the practicum for student teachers, which found that only after a lengthy practicum (more than twenty weeks) does the reality of the job overcome the idealized view. One implication of these findings is that the worst possible dosage of teaching experience may be the standard one semester dosage used in most universities for their final student teaching/internship experiences. Findings of this study as well as others suggest that at least a year is needed before the negative impact on self efficacy turns around and becomes positive. Current practices may send young teachers into their first year of teaching with lower self efficacy for teaching than if they had not experienced a practicum. While it is best for teachers to have a realis tic view of their teaching abilities and not be over confident in their abilities, it is certainly not ideal for teachers to enter the field feeling under confident in their ability to teach music for this may impact their expectations of what they can rea listically achieve and ultimately have a negative effect on both their effectiveness and student achievement. By encountering lengthy teaching experiences early in undergraduate training (as is done in String Project programs), it is possible to give stu dents a realistic view of their teaching skills soon enough to be useful. The initial dip in confidence pre service teachers may experience as they adjust their views of their teaching skills can cause a greater "need to know" the information being present ed in methods and skills classes since it is immediately useful (and not so

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136 theoretical in nature) while still allowing enough time to experience success and a rise in efficacy within undergraduate training. Allowing pre service teachers to immediately t ry out new teaching methods could help pre service teachers improve their teaching skills and possibly help them build confidence as they successfully solve musical problems. It may also improve the likelihood that pre service teachers will actually use th e methods and theories they learned in college because they have personal experiences with them. With experience, students may incorporate the new ideas into their script for what a music teacher is and does rather than continuing to rely on the definition of music teacher they created based on their own experiences as a student in school which leads to simply teaching the way they were taught. Allowing students to gain a deeper understanding of subject matter through active learning is one of the basic ten ets of a learner centered teaching approach. Learner centered teaching implies that one can't teach another person directly, only facilitate another's learning and that what the student does is more important than what the teacher does for effective learni ng (Weimer, 2013; Rogers, 1969). It is also consistent with John Dewey's experiential learning theory (Dewey, 1938). This type of experience should be included in the curriculum, not just because it helps improve music teacher self efficacy, but also becau se it is educationally sound and based on best practices research. Research Question 3 The purpose of Research Question 3 was to determine the relationship between long term authentic teaching experience (LATE) and the extent to which preservice music t eachers prefer to identify themselves as musicians/performers or teachers (PTSI). No significant effect was found for LATE on PTSI and the null hypothesis was accepted. Results showed the only significant predictor of PTSI to be gender. Gender was shown to impact the extent to which

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137 participants preferred to identify themselves as a musician/performer or music teacher more than authentic teaching experience (LATE), institution, or year in school. Findings suggest that females are more likely to prefer to identify themselves as music teachers whereas males are more likely to prefer to identify themselves as musicians/performers. These findings are consistent with the explanations for the role of gender in music teacher identity development as related to MTR C (music teacher role commitment) discussed under research question one. Findings also suggest a strong connection between MTRC and PTSI, a connection that MTSE does not appear to share. MTRC and PTSI were both impacted by the same variables in the same or der of influence: 1) gender (most influential an d statistically significant), 2) institution, 3) year in school, 4) LATE. Music teacher self efficacy influences, however, were exactly opposite: 1) LATE (most influential a nd statistically significant) 2) ye ar in school (statistically significant), 3) institution and 4) gender. This may suggest that although all of these constructs used to define music teacher identity (see chapter one), appear to be impacted by socialization ( see Chapter two), it may be that some aspects of identity are more susceptible to social norms within an individual's immediate and larger social contexts while others are more impacted by specific experiences and relationships within that social context. Research Question 4 The purpos e of Research Question 4 was to determine the relationship between self perceived identity as a musician/performer or teacher (PTSI) and music teacher role commitment (MTRC) and music teacher self efficacy (MTSE) among preservice music teachers. A moderat ely strong positive relationship was found to exist bet ween MTRC and PTSI. Generally, as music teacher role commitment increases, preference for self identification as a teacher increases and as it decreases, preference for self identification as a teacher appears to be less likely. A weak positive significant relationship was found to exist between MTSE scores and

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138 both PTSI and MTRC. Generally, as music teacher self efficacy increases so do music teacher role commitment and preference for self identification as a music teacher. Commitment and teacher identification appear to decrease as self efficacy decreases. The findings for research questions one through four may suggest that it is only after some amount of music teacher self efficacy develops, that a high degree of role commitment or self identification as a teacher occurs. That could imply that the process may unfold something like this: 1 ) A person experiences a task they discover they are successful at and enjoy doing and they become confident that they can carry the task out well (MTSE). This confidence might result from their own observations that they were successful at the task (perhaps, more successful than others) and/or from positive regard from others based on success, 2) The person repeatedl y participates in that task to the extent they feel comfortable committing to participating in that task for a considerable time in the future (MTRC), 3) Within this process, the thoughts, feelings, and emotions experienced in the repeated carrying out of the task may resonate so strongly within the individual that they feel a strong identification with the task and consider it an important part of who they are (PTSI). Research Question 5 The purpose of Research Question 5 was to determine the relationshi p between different natures of teaching experiences (teaching private lessons, teaching small group classes/rehearsals of three to ten students, teaching large group classes/rehearsals of eleven or more students) and music teacher identity (as measured by MTRC, MTSE, PTSI) among pre service music teachers. Significant differences in music teacher identity were found based on the type and length of teaching experience and so the null hypothesis was rejected. All three teaching types (private teaching, small group teaching, large group teaching) were found to have a significant main effect on MTSE (music teacher self efficacy) scores. Findings that teaching experience can

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139 contribute positively to teacher identity are consistent with other research (Bouij, 1998, 2004; Broyles, 1997; Conway 2004, Isbell, 2008). Post hoc follow up tests revealed that some dosages were more effective than others in their relationship with MTSE. For teaching private lessons, the optimum dosage appears to be four or more years of p rivate lesson teaching (but, there is also a significant effect at two years). For small group teaching, the optimum dosage appears to be two years, with no further positive relationship after that amount of experience. For large group teaching, the larges t effect was seen at the one year dosage, but MTSE does continue to rise if teaching large groups persists to four or more years. Surprisingly, MTSE mean scores were higher for those teaching private lessons for four or more years than for any dosage of te aching small or large group classes/rehearsals. These finding have several important implications for music teacher education which will be discussed in depth following the summary of the process of music teacher identity development. Summary of Music Teacher Identity Development One of the primary reasons this study was undertaken was to understand how the process of music teacher identity development unfolds over time: specifically, to examine the years of undergraduate training, but also to understand how this fits within the context of what comes before it and what comes after it. Any explanation for what occurs during the undergraduate years, should fit consistently with the picture of development presented by other researchers in the wealth of literature reviewed in Chapter 2. Any theory used to explain the results, should ideally account for music teacher identity development across the lifespan, not just the four or five years of undergraduate training. For this reason, the theoretical framework chos en for this study was Abes, Jones, and McEwen's 2007 Reconceptualized Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity

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140 While many music teacher identity researchers have acknowledged the distinct dimensionality of music teacher identity (Bouij, 1998, 2004: Roberts, 1991, 2000, 2007; Stephens, 2007), none has presented a model which can accurately explain not only what relationships are perceived to exist between these dimensions of identity and others, but also how individuals come to perceive them as they do. Details of this theory as it relates to music teacher identity development are explained below in the summary of music teacher identity development as it unfolds across the undergraduate years and fits with other established music teacher identity research regarding primary socialization factors upon entering college and in service teaching upon leaving college. Undergraduate music education majors enter higher education self identifying primarily as musicians/performers (Bouij, 1998, 2004; Conway, 2002; Isbell, 2008; L'Roy, 1983; Roberts, 1998, 2000, 2007). This identity has been strongly solidified by individual choices and powerful primary socialization factors prior to college (Conway, 2002; Isbell, 2008; L'Roy, 1983). These factors include but are no t limited to important experiences, relationships, role models and social contexts involving music as well as significant validation from others (and often a higher regard for themselves) based on their performance abilities (Bouij, 1998, 2004; Conway; 2002; Isbell, 2008; L'Roy 1983; Roberts, 1991, 2000). The decision to become a music teacher (between the ages of eighteen and twenty) has usually been made long after the decision to have a music related career, which is often decided by age fourteen (L'Roy, 1983; Bergee and Demorest, 2003) and teaching music is actually a function of being a musician (Roberts, 1991, 2004, 2007). The construction of music teacher identity is unique in its duality of identity with two distinct dimensions: the musician/perfo rmer and the teacher identity (Bouij, 1998, 2004; Conway, 2002; Isbell, 2008; Mark 1998; Roberts, 1991, 2004, 2007, Wagoner, 2011).

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141 Undergraduates enter the music school and are accepted by others there based on their performance abilities. For the next fo ur to five years their social context is this environment in which the performer identity is privileged through social recognition, scholarships, accolades, and a high degree of peer and faculty regard based on performing skills (Bouij 1998, 2004; Conway, 2002; L'Roy, 1983; Roberts, 1991, 2000, 2007). This is a context within which music education majors may sometimes feel stigmatized to be labeled as music teachers (Conkling, 2004; L'Roy, 1983; Roberts, 1991). A large part of undergraduate music teacher training continues to focus on the performance skills that were the basis of admission and that are central to the preference for self identification as a performer. These experiences include required ensemble participation and performances, applied lessons, large amounts of individual practice, and recital and jury performances (Bouij, 1998, 2004; Isbell, 2008; Roberts, 1991, 2000, 2007). Music education majors even report performance experiences among the top reasons for remaining in music education and i n one study "performing in ensembles was rated the most positive influence on the decision to continue studying music education" (Isbell, 2008, p.147). It is within this context, though, that the transition from music performer and music student to music t eacher begins. Secondary socialization occurs during college and includes the same types of socialization factors that occurred in primary socialization: experiences, relationships, regard for role models, social context and feedback/validation from peers, faculty, and others (Conway, 2002; Isbell, 2008; Wagoner, 2011). Specific teaching activities (Bouij, 1998, 2004; Conkling, 2004) as wel l as using self videotaping (Broyles, 1997), portfolios (Mitchell, 1997), questionnaires and interviews (Ferguson, 2003; Berg, 2004), and individual journaling about teaching and teaching

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142 experiences (Conway 2004) were found to aid music education students in the process of viewing themselves as teachers (Haston and Hourigan, 2007). Although studies have found that music education faculty and other role models are very important for occupational identity (Conrady, 2008; Isbell, 2008) as a music teacher, they were not found to be as influential as experience (Isbell, 2008). Furthermore, nothing experienced during primary s ocialization (before college) or during secondary socialization in college was found to be as influential as teaching experience during undergraduate training (Isbell). Isbell found that individuals with field experiences teaching "had a stronger sense of teacher identity (both self perceived and perceived from others) than those with no field experience" (Isbell, 2008, p.172). This study (Goldie, 2013) finds that how these teaching experiences are structured and how long they persist may directly impact the degree to which they are useful in promoting music teacher identity development (see summary of findings above). Findings suggest that it matters if the experiences are positive (perceived to have been successful) and if they lasted long enough (a mini mum of one year because shorter lengths can result in declines in efficacy and commitment to teaching as realities of teaching set in). It also matters if experiences are authentic (the person is actually the teacher of record responsible for student learningnot just placed in a scenario where they are playing the role of teacher) and if experiences are structured in beneficial ways (private teaching and large group teaching were found to be ultimately more beneficial than small group teaching). Further, this study finds that some dosages of specific teaching experiences appear to be more beneficial than others and that optimal dosages for helping pre service teachers more successfully adopt a music teacher identity may be: private lessons teaching for four years, small group teaching with three to ten students for two years, and

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143 large group teaching of eleven or more students for one year. Of these, at least three years should be authentic teaching experience with school aged children. An important part of the transition from music student to music teacher may be the point when an individual must reject the one dimensional identity of performer only (the privileged identity) in order to embrace the teacher identity (less privileged identity status within their social context and possibly the larger society). D'Augelli (1994) claimed that there are some aspects of our identity that are so central to who we perceive ourselves to be that other identities cannot be embraced (or integrated) into the identity wit hout to a certain extent exiting the previous identity first. For example, the formation of sexual identity for many individuals may require first the rejecting of the highly privileged and socially accepted heterosexual identity (this is what I am not) be fore the individual can embrace a marginalized, less socially accepted homosexual identity (this is what I am) (D'Augelli, 1994). For pre service teachers who have spent several years prior to higher education embracing the performer only identity as the essence of who they are and have had that identity supported through multiple experiences in which they performed that identity role and had it validated by others, a similar process may be needed. For pre service teachers, the two identity dimensions of m usician/performer and teacher must be integrated into a new core sense of self that is acceptable to the person without significant loss of esteem for the self. The Reconceptualized Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity (Abes, Jones, & McEwen, 2007) can be used to explain how these dimensions of identity as well as others are incorporated into a core sense of self. Occupational identity as a music teacher does not exist in a vacuum and the identity of the whole person cannot be understood apart from ot her important aspects of identity that define

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144 for individuals who they are. These other dimensions include things like gender, race, social class, religion, and sexual orientation. The self perceptions of a female, heterosexual, African American music tea cher from a low socio economic background may be quite different than identity perceptions and conflicts of a white, homosexual, Jewish music teacher from an affluent background. Individuals bring with them to music teaching all of the other important soci al, racial, religious and cultural identifications they have. Gender was found to be a significant factor in this study for both music teacher role commitment and self identification as a performer or teacher. This suggests that gender is an important dime nsion of identity that impacts a core sense of self in many important ways and it (as well as other dimensions) should not be ignored. The Reconceptualized Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity (Abes, Jones, & McEwen, 2007) offers a framework for under standing music teacher identity development by illustrating how individuals come to integrate the multiple different dimensions of their identity into a core sense of self. The model highlights the interactive nature of context, meaning making abilities an d identity perceptions. It shows identity to be a "fluid, dynamic, and ongoing process that is influenced by different changing contexts" (Abes et al., 2007, p.7) There are three parts to the model: 1. a depiction of self perception of identity dimensions, 2. a meaning making filter, and 3. contextual influences that may or may not be allowed to pass through to inf luence the self perception ( Figure 5 2) At the center of the "self perceptions" part of the model is a core sense of self (a personal identity that includes personal attributes, characteristics, and factors considered important to the individual). Surrounding this core are intersecting circles representing the different dimensions of identity that might be important to a person (race, gender, soci al class, religion, sexual orientation, or occupation). Dots located on these circles indicate how important a particular

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145 dimension is to the person by how closely it is placed to the core. The closer the dimension's dot is to the core, the more important it is to the individual's core sense of self who they are at that particular moment in time (Abes, et al., 2007). Figure 5 2. Reconceptualized Model Of Multiple Dimensions of Identity R eprinted with permission of The Johns Hopkins University Press and the American College Personnel Association. Abes, Elisa S., Susan R. Jones, and Marylu K. McEwen. Reconceptualizing the Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity: The Role of Meaning Making Capacity in the Construction of Multiple Identities. Journal of College Student Development 48: 1 (2007) p. 7, Figure 2. by the American College Personnel Association College Student Educators International (ACPA), One Dupont Circle, NW at the Center for Higher E ducation, Washington, DC, 20036. It is important to note that in this model the individual does not give up one identity dimension for another, but instead is integrating these dimensions into a core sense of self. Some

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146 identity dimensions may be seen as more central to how the individual defines themse lves at that particular moment in time than others, though. This offers insight into how individuals who are both musicians and teachers as well as having other important personal, religious and cultural identifications might view themselves differently at different times and within different contexts based on the centrality of the different dimensions to the core sense of self. Contextual influences (like peers, family, social norms, e tc.) can only influence the self perceptions on the other side of the model to the degree that they are allowed to pass through the meaning making filter. This filter is the level of cognitive complexity a person has and reflects if the person makes sense of the world around them in a relatively simple way (formulaic meaning making in which all knowledge and truth is seen as absolute, external and to be gained from others), in a transitional way (knowledge and truth can be gained from others, but also comes from the self through knowledge gained from experiences), or in a com plex way (foundational meaning making in which the individual has a self determined belief system that recognizes, but not preferences knowledge/ truth gained from others) (Baxter Magolda, 1991). The balancing of "self" and "others" is a central process recognized in virtually all identity theories and it is impacted by an individual's cognitive complexity because this impacts the degree to which the opinions of others are preferenced in forming self views (Evans et al., 2010). For a pre service teacher exhibiting formulaic meaning making (heavily reliant on others), socialization factors are powerful and social norms, stereotypes, opinions of peers, family and faculty will likely have a very strong impact on self perceptions. For pre service teachers wit h a more complex, foundational (self authored) way of making meaning, these influences are filtered more heavily and do not pass through to influence self perceptions as

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147 strongly. The majority of the participants in this study appear to exhibit transitiona l meaning making with few at the foundational meaning making level. Pre service music teachers beginning to identity as teachers struggle to resolve the conflicts they experience within the context of higher education that privileges the musician/performe r identity and their own internal voice that begins to identify with the role of teacher. How strong thi s conflict is and how much self perceptions are impacted depend on how powerful the specific socialization factors (experiences, people, etc.) are and t he level of meaning making abilities (degree to which they preference the opinions of others in their definition of self). Pre service teachers may also struggle in the transition into K 12 teaching where the privileged identity (the only one for which s ignificant validation occurs) becomes the teacher identity when they still wish to also be seen as a musician (which now becomes the marginalized identity). In this case, the interactive process between context, meaning making and self perception begins anew causing one of these identity perceptions to come closer to the core sense of self or become equidistant to it. This may partially explain why the transition into music teaching is such a difficult one for many pre service teachers. Madsen and Hancock 's (2002) study on music teacher attrition found that music teachers were leaving the profession at an alarming rate and when they followed up with the music teacher participants in their study six years later, more than a third had already left the profes sion citing lack of support as a major concern. Music teachers who identify primarily as performers may find this transition especially difficult because what they are doing in daily life (teaching) doesn't align completely with who they see themselves bei ng (a performer). If this gap between their Real Self (who they see themselves being) and their Ideal Self (who they wish they were)

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148 becomes too large (incongruence), they will experience considerable psychological distress and may even consider themselves failures (Rogers, 1959). Successful transition into the music teaching profession may depend on the extent to which higher education is successful in helping pre service teachers more strongly identify as teachers prior to graduation. Helping music educ ation majors become teachers who perform rather than performers who teach may only be possible within the context of higher education and not in the early years of inservice teaching due to specific factors at play within the context of K 12 education. This makes it crucial to offer wellstructured, impactful dosages of teaching experience during undergraduate training that might help pre service teachers successfully adopt a teacher identity dimension into their core sense of self prior to graduation. Within these teaching experiences, participants may at first not feel like a real teacher, but more like someone playing the role of teacher (Ibarra, 1999). In fact, new teachers are often given the advice in the profession to "fake it until you make it." This basically acknowledges that in the beginning you may not feel like a real teacher at first, but successfully repeating the actions of music teaching will allow you begin to see yourself as a real teacher, not just someone playing the role of teacher Butler (1990) maintained that "identity is performance" where "repetition creates a sense of self including a core sense of personal values, however fluid that sense of self may be" (Abes et al., p.15). Because of the intersectionality of the different identity dimensions that are integrated into (not eliminated from) a core sense of self, it is neither necessary nor ideal to eliminate the performer identity for a music teacher. To ask someone to give up a musician identity that has been and may continue to be central to how they view and esteem themselves is both impractical and unnecessary for successful music teaching. What is important is that the teaching and

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149 performing identity dimensions are integrated in such a way and at such a time as they do not create excessive threat each to the other's existence. Because identity is fluid, ever changing and based on specific contexts, it will be normal for the closeness of each dimension to at times come forward closer to the core while at other times recede back in importance. This may further explain the finding of Madsen and Hancock (2002) that music teachers continue to leave the profession after the early years (in smaller numbers), but some (mostly men) return later in life. The women who left tended not to return. These findings are consistent with the multiple dimensions of identity theory that suggests that different identities dimensions become more or less important over time, but are not eliminated (Abes et al., 2010). Gender related identity d ifferences that appear in preservice identity development (noted by this study) and others continue into the inservice teaching years (Madsen and Hancock, 2002; Wagoner 2011). The fact that women leave the profession and do not return suggests that there is more at play than leaving to raise children or care for family. It suggests that there are strong reasons for not returning that are related to the job of music teaching itself. For women, the powerful socialization at play in K 12 schools that serves to marginalize parts of their identity (music is not a "real" subject and you are not a "real" teacher) and affect their relationships with significant others, may carry a heavier burden than it does for men who do not seek to resolve issues of identity ba sed on relationships and intimacy with others as women do. Other researchers have found that continued music making inside and outside of the classroom can be an important aspect of music teacher identity development as it continues to unfold across the years of in service music teaching (Bernard, 2005; Pellegrino, 2009). In fact, it may be that those music teachers who are happiest and most fulfilled in music teaching are those

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150 who continue meaningful music making of some type while teaching so that the teaching identity is continually supported, not threatened. This scenario is consistent with the model of multiple dimensions of identity as identity fluidly changes over a lifetime. Meaningful music making can help sustain a passion for the subject matte r (music) that originally lead to teaching in the first place and rejuvenate enthusiasm that can be shared again with students. Music teaching can be a draining experience for the most committed teachers who tend to give all they have to the profession, ma king it crucial that they find some way to rejuvenate themselves so that they might fill their own cup in such a way that it overflows again enough to be shared again with others. In these cases, it might be completely natural and healthy for the musician/performer identity to come periodically closer to the central core whereas during the transition into the profession it was necessary for the teacher identity to be of central importance in self definition Recommendations Based on Findings Based on the f indings of this research and the research of others, I would make the following recommendations for music teacher education: Recommendation #1. A more equal balance of teaching and performing experiences/requirements should be included in the curriculum. Performance requirements are present across almost every year of the curriculum in almost all schools, but teaching experiences are not. Teaching experiences often start much later in the curriculum which serves to reinforce the already strong performer i dentity dimension while not allowing the teacher identity dimension time to develop adequately prior to graduation. Recommendation # 2. Careful attention should be paid to how teaching experiences are structured so that they may be offered in such a way th at students can be successful. Because self perceived success in teaching was significantly related to identity development, supervising teachers should take care to make sure they are placing pre service teachers in teaching situations

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151 where they can be s uccessful. First in small, easily manageable dosages of teaching where there are not excessively difficult external difficulties to manage (such as extremely disruptive student behavior, etc. ) and later in longer, more difficult teaching scenarios. This mig ht include peer teaching in which other participants are at first coached to be completely cooperative, and later to be later less cooperative in regards to expectations for participation, mastery of content, and on task behavior. It is important, however that as early as possible peer teaching be exchanged for actual authentic teaching with school aged children. Participants are acutely aware in these situations that they are playing the role of teacher in these scenarios (they are not the real teacher an d the peers are not the real students) and this makes their usefulness in helping individuals to see themselves as real teachers, therefore limited. Recommendation # 3. Authentic teaching experiences with school aged children should begin as early as poss ible in the curriculum and persist throughout the years of undergraduate training. Authentic experiences allow pre service teachers to actually be the teacher responsible for student learning, not just play the role of teacher. It is practically impossible (and possibly delusional) to think of yourself as a teacher if you are not one. So, simply stated we must give pre service teachers ample opportunity to be teachers if we want them to be able to think of themselves as teachers. These experiences should be paired with significant feedback from qualified instructors who can help individuals improve their teaching skills to the extent that they become confident in their teaching success and feel comfortable committing to teaching music. Recommendation # 4. B ecause recommendation three would be virtually impossible to implement in the already full music education curriculum as it currently exists at most universities, I suggest that it be accomplished through partner programs like the String Project described in this study where pre service teachers teach community children for a small

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152 registration fee. Once the initial program is setup through a grant to the university, it becomes self sustaining. The existence of a partner "string, band and choral project" c an contribute to music teacher identity development by helping undergraduate teachers increase their self efficacy for music teaching and improve their teaching skills in addition to helping universities fulfill their expressed mission statements relating to community outreach. These types of programs can also influence the musical lives of the community by offering opportunities to children who may not have other access to music instruction. It also supports and enriches existing school music programs and provides a strong rationale for the need for programs where they are missing based on the demand. In the end, it also benefits universities within those communities that years later will have a much larger sample of musically literate and proficient indivi duals who have been instructed by well trained teachers from which to draw future college music and music education majors. Recommendation # 5. Teacher identity development should be purposefully fostered in the curriculum by implementing those dosages of specific types of teaching that contribute most significantly to it. These include one year of large group teaching of eleven or more students, two years of small group teaching of three to ten students, and four years of private lesson teaching. Of thes e experiences, at least three years of it should be authentic teaching experiences in which the pre service teacher is the teacher of record solely responsible for student growth (not simply playing the role of teacher). Recommendation # 6. The final stu dent teaching experience should be restructured, especially in music education programs where significant teaching experiences do not occur before it. In most schools this internship is structured as a one semester dosage of teaching, which has been found to be the least effective dosage possible for contributing to teacher identity

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153 development (and may even be detrimental to high levels of music teacher self efficacy). I recommend this be restructured as either a one year large group teaching experience or a two year small group teaching experience. Recommendation # 7. Private lesson teaching should be used more heavily in undergraduate music teacher training. This was shown to be the most effective type of teaching to contribute to music teacher identity development (surprisingly more effective than teaching groups). Requiring pre service teachers to teach private lessons throughout the degree program would require little effort or resources on the part of the university, but may yield significant increases in music teacher self efficacy and role commitment. Requiring each student to recruit a student(s) that can walk through the years of undergraduate experience with them, performing yearly recitals that demonstrate the effects of the teaching skills should possibly be considered as worthy a degree requirement as the preservice teachers own performance of recitals/juries. It may not be completely inappropriate to have teaching recitals replace some of these performing recitals. Requiring teachers to teach private lessons to at least one person per semester could even be accomplished in many semesters through skills classes in which students could pass along newly gained information to others. While music teacher self efficacy might be fostered after a relatively shorter amount of time, it may take longer before a person becomes fully committed to teaching music and to a teacher identity dimension. Private lesson teaching may be the most practical way to provide the longterm experiences necessary to help pr e service teachers develop a music teacher identity. Recommendation # 8. The nature of the feedback given to young teachers about their teaching experiences should be carefully considered. Positive, constructive feedback can help teachers build teaching skills while remaining confident in abilities. An awareness of teacher

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154 identity is important, though. For example, a pre service teacher with a weak teacher identity who receives an overwhelmingly negative review of a teaching experience (or extremely low grade) may experience significant self doubts about continuing to teach, whereas someone with a strong teacher identity may be able to receive the same feedback and be extremely motivated by it. While insincere praise is not helpful and could undermine the teacher student relationship, intentionally choosing to point out positive things that did go well in the lesson may be important in couching necessarily negative feedback for some pre service teachers depending where they are in their development. Recom mendations for Future Research Future research could help us understand more about the complex nature of music teacher identity as it unfolds during undergraduate training, but also over a lifetime. Further research into gender related identity patterns d uring pre service training, might help us understand if there are any significant ways in which males and females might be best supported in the process of adopting a music teacher identity. In addition, targeted future research into each of the other soci alization factors that have been shown to be influential in college student identity development could yield useful information about methods teacher educators could use to promote this development. By better understanding the influence of role models, spe cific relationships, institution specific contextual factors, group membership in the profession's organizations like CNAfME implementation of recognition/awards systems designed to support and validate the teacher identity within the music school, journaling and reflection about teaching experience and about being a teacher, and the effects of specific mentoring activities from peers, music faculty and inservice music teachers may provide the necessary knowledge we need to effectively promote identity d evelopment among pre service teachers.

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155 One limitation of this study is that it presents a single snapshot in time of the identity development of pre service teachers when identity is a process that unfolds over time. Future longitudinal studies that follow a cohort of String Project teachers (and non String Project teachers) from admission to the undergraduate program, through the early years of teaching and into the in service years might help us better understand how music teacher self efficacy, music t eacher role commitment and identification as a performer/teacher of specific teachers impacted their effectiveness and longevity in the profession over time. Another limitation of this study was that the primarily quantitative nature of it could have limited the scope of the findings for such a complex and personalized topic as identity. Qualitative studies in which student teachers and/or first and second year teachers who are transitioning into the profession share in detail their thoughts and feelings about teaching, performing, and the context within which they are operating may provide powerful information about this difficult transition and reveal ways that it can be made easier. An additional limitation of this study is that not all String Projects in reality are model examples of the theoretical model of the training program that allows students four or five years of experience teaching in a variety of private lesson, small group and large group scenarios. Due to many external factors such as university and community support, leadership quality and many other factors, these programs can have major differences in the experiences they offer preservice teachers. Future studies might isolate three or four of the strongest, most successful, most wellru n String Projects that most closely resemble the theoretical model and study their impacts on the following: music teacher identity, music teacher effectiveness in the early years of teaching, and music teacher longevity in the profession.

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156 Future research into specific institutional effects that may promote or inhibit pre service music teacher identity development could provide useful information for reforming the context in which pre service teachers accept or reject a music teacher identity (size of the music/music education program, nature of the institution (college, university, conservatory), presence or absence of String Project programs, and closeness of ties to professional development schools, etc.). Comparative case studies using qualitative meth ods may provide a much deeper understanding of how students experience these contexts than is possible using other methods. Certainly, there may be more than a lifetime of research work remaining if all of these aspects of teacher identity are to be explo red fully. As a profession, though, we may have an obligation to try to understand this developmental process fully because it so significantly impacts not only the success of pre service training, but also the transition into the music teaching profession and effectiveness once there. Identity (how we view ourselves) impacts all interpersonal relationships. Having a healthy sense of self affects the ability to form positive, healthy, interpersonal, interdependent relationships (Marcia, 1991) important in s uccessful daily interactions with students, parents, colleagues and administrators. It impacts the ability to take and use feedback constructively and to reflect on teaching and learning experiences appropriately in order to improve practice (Schn, 1987). It may impact the attribution of student success (internal locus of control verses external locus of control) and research has shown that teachers who are able to appropriately attribute successes/failures with an internal locus of control have a more pos itive effect on student achievement than those who are not (Ghonsooly & Rezvani, 2011). Given the importance of identity in a lifetime of successful music teaching, then surely a lifetime of research for a better understanding of it is not too much to ask.

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157 Conclusions Based on the findings of this resear ch and the research of others, I assert that the very foundation on which building and accepting a music teacher identity rests, is the repeated, successful teaching experience. Self identification with pa rticular dimensions of our identity lies in having made sense of positive, successful, powerfully transformative experiences that seem to validate that dimension of our identity for us and that we then perceive to be central to who we are. In essence, we come to define who we are or who we want to be based on the sum total of all of the experiences we have had in a lifetime and what meaning we have assigned those experiences. This becomes our story, our narrative. It is within these experiences that we encounter all other socialization factors social norms and stereotypes, interactions and relationships with others, characteristics of role models we admire, success or failure based on our actions and abilities that allow self assessment knowledge necessary to know what we can realistically do or be, as well as feedback/validation or lack of it from significant others. Experience is the vehicle through which we gain identity based on self knowledge as well as identity as it is inferred from others. Given the importance of identity to successful music teaching (Ghonsooly & Rezvani, 2011; Schn, 1987), the shortage of music teachers that persists (Madsen and Hancock, 2002), and the alarming number of the teachers who continue to leave the profession due to rol e related stress (Scheib, 2006) and lack of support (Madsen and Hancock, 2002), it is important that higher education do something to address music teacher identity development and strengthen teachers that are entering the profession. As music teacher educ ators, we cannot control the external circumstances into which young teachers will be placed following graduation, but what we can do is strengthen the individuals in our care in such a way that they might survive and thrive in the circumstances as they cu rrently exist. By offering substantial, wellstructured,

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158 quality teaching experiences throughout undergraduate training, we can support these young teachers as they experience these conflicts and struggle to integrate their teaching identity with their per forming identity into a healthy core sense of self. By structuring these teaching experiences in such a way that that they promote maximum development of music teacher self efficacy, music teacher role commitment and a preference for self identification as a teacher, we can strengthen young teachers to the extent that they may successfully transition into a life long career of fulfilling music teaching.

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159 UF APPENDIX A UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IRB APPROVAL Institutional Review Board PO B o x 112250 UNIVERSITY of FLORIDA Gainesville, FL 326112250 352392 0433 (Phone) 352392 9234 (Fax) irb2@ufl.edu DATE: November 15, 2012 T O: FROM: Sandy Goldie 2147 River Blvd. Apt. 1 Jacksonville, FL 32204 Ira S. Fischler, Ph D, Chair University of Florida Institutiona l Review Board 02 SUBJECT: Approva l of Protocol #2012U 1180 TITLE: Music Teacher Identity Development: The Role of Longterm, Authentic Teaching Experi ences in the Integration of Multiple Dimensions of Identity SPONSOR: None I am pleased to advise you that the University of Florida Institutional Review Board has recommended approval of this protocol. Based on its review, the UFIRB determined that this research presents no more than minimal risk to participants, and based on 45 CFR 46.117(c), An IRB may waive the requirement for the investigator to obtain a signed consent form for some or all subjects if it finds either: (1) That the only record linking the subject and the research would be the consent document and the principal risk would be potential harm resulting from a breach of confidentiality. Each subject will be asked whether the subject wants documentation linking the subject with the research, and the subject's wishes will govern; or (2) That the research presents no more than minimal risk of harm to subjects and involves no procedures for which written consent is normally required outside of the research con text The IRB authorizes you to administer the informed consent process as specified in the protocol. If you wish to make any changes to this protocol, including the need to increase the number of participants authorized, you must disclose your plans before you implement them so that the Board can assess their impact on your protocol. In addition, you must report to the Board any unexpected complications that affect your participants. Thi s approval is valid through November 5, 2013. If you have not completed the study by this dat e please telephone our office (3920433), and we will discuss the renewal process with you. Additionally, should you complete the study before the e xpiration date, please submit the study closure report to our office. The form can be located at http://irb.ufl.edu.irb02/Continuing_Review.html. It is important that you keep your department chair informed about the status of this research protocol. ISF: dl

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160 APPENDIX B PMTIS: PRE SERVICE MUSIC TEACHER IDENTITY SURVEY PMTIS Informed Consent Protocol Title: Music Teacher Identity Development: The Role of Long term, Authentic Teaching Experiences in the Integration of Multiple Dimensions of Ide ntity Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to examine the role of longterm, authentic teaching experiences for undergraduate music education majors in the formation of a music teacher identity through the resolution of conflicting dual identities of the musician/performer self and the teacher self. What you will be asked to do in the study: You will be asked to complete a brief survey regardin g aspects of identity and how you view yourself as a musician, performer and/or teacher. It will take approximately 5 10 minutes to complete. Risks and Benefits: Thank you for participating in this survey. There are no risks to you for participating in the study. The results of this study will help us to improve music teacher education programs in order to help music teachers be more successful and effective in the early years of teaching. There will be no compensation for completion of this survey. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the full extent provided by law. All electronic study data will be collected through an online surveycollection program called Qualtrics. Qualtrics is a secure site with SAS 70 certification for rigoro us privacy standards. Any data that you provide through this program will be encrypted for security purposes using Secure Socket Layers (SSL). Only the study investigators will have access to the data on Qualtrics. To protect your privacy, all participants IP addresses will be masked by Qualtrics and will be unavailable to, and unidentifiable by, investigators or others. Qualtrics privacy policy can be obtained at http://www.qualtrics.com/privacy s tatement Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Sandy Goldie, Graduate Student, University of Florida School of Music, POB 117900, Gainesville, Florida 32611, phone (770) 2868396. Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, Universi ty of Florida, Gainesville, FL 326112250; phone 3920433. 1. Agreement: Yes, I have read the consent agreement and I voluntarily agree to participate in the study. No, I do not agree to participate in the study.

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161 PMTIS Pre service Music Teacher Identity Survey on Longterm Authentic Teaching Experiences 1. Agreement to participate (on page 1). 2. Have you previously completed this survey as a part of any other class or meeting? Place an X in the box to mark your response. Yes (Please sto p here & submit your survey.) No (Thank you for participating! Please, continue.) 3. I feel that the amount of teaching experience my degree program offers to prepare me to teach music in the K 12 classroom is: Not enough The right amount Too much 4. Following graduation, will your primary career be as a musician/performer, or will your primary career be as a music teacher? Indicate your response on the following 1 10 scale: I will definitely I am not I will def initely be a Performer. sure yet. be a Teacher. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5. I prefer to think of myself as: A Performer Equally a Performer A Teacher (not a teacher) and a Teacher. (not a performer) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6. In choosing a career as a teacher or performer, I feel that the opinions of my friends, family members, and instructors are: Not important Somewhat important Important Very important 7. At my school, music education is considered a less desirable career than music performance. Strongly disagree Disagree Unsure Agree Strongly agree

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162 8. I would rate my music performance skills as: Very low Low Adequate High Very high 9. I would rate my music teachin g skills as: Very low Low Adequate High Very high 10. I feel confident I can successfully teach music in the K 12 classroom. Strongly disagree Disagree Unsure Agree Strongly agree 11. I feel confident I can successfully manage student behavior in the K 12 classroom. Strongly disagree Disagree Unsure Agree Strongly agree 12. I have had at least one successful music teaching experience. Strongly disagree Disagree Unsu re Agree Strongly agree 13. The majority of my music teaching experiences have been successful. Strongly disagree Disagree Unsure Agree Strongly agree 14. In teaching music, I prefer to focus more on performance skills than on broad musical concepts. Strongly disagree Disagree Unsure Agree Strongly agree 15. In teaching music, I feel it is more important for my students to gain an appreciation/ understanding of music than to give a high quality performance. Strongly disagree Disagree Unsure Agree Strongly agree 16. In teach ing music, I feel it is more important to focus on: Musical/artistic excellence Student learning/achievement

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163 17. In teaching music, my primary goal is best described as (select one ): Training stu dents to perform at a high level of excellence. Building a music program that is widely recognized for excellence. Providing students with a positive experience. Teaching students to understand and appreciate music. Other:________________________ 18. My declared college major is: Music Education Double Major (Music Education and Performance) Music Performance Other:_______________________ 19. My primary instrument is: _______________________________ 20. My current year in school is: Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 2nd year Senior Other_______________________ 21. My gender is: Male Female 22. I am currently employed or have been previously employed as a teac her in the official String Project program at my school: Never 1 full semester 1 full year 2 years 3 years 4+ years 23. I am currently participating in or have previously participated in (select all that apply): Field experiences observing music teachers in K 12 schools Field experiences teaching children in K 12 schools Official Student Teaching/Final Internship Placement(s) in K 12 schools N one of the above Other:________________________

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164 Teaching Experience: For each of the following please indicate the length of time you have participated on a consistent basis as the perso n responsible for student learning. 24. Teaching private lessons: Never Occasionally/less than a year 1 year 2 years 3 years 4+ years 25. Teaching small group classes/rehearsals (3 10 students): Never Occasionally/less than a year 1 year 2 years 3 years 4+ years 26. Teaching large group classes/rehearsals (11 or more students): Never Occasionally/less than a year 1 year 2 years 3 years 4+ years 27. Other (Please indicate the nature and length of this teaching experience): ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 28. Optional: please share any additional comments below about your teachi ng experiences or thoughts on being a music teacher and/or performer that you feel are relevant. (or feel free to email them to me at sandygoldie1@gmail.com): ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Thank you for your time and participation! ~ Sandy Goldie, Doctoral Candidate, University of Florida

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165 APPENDIX C PARTICIPATION REQUEST Hello, Dr. __________, My name is Sandy Gol die and I am a doctoral candidate at the University of Florida. I am writing to ask if you would be willing to administer a short survey to your undergraduate music education majors as part of a study on music teacher identity development. I am already w orking with (insert name) on administering this survey to String Project Teachers. This study examines how differing lengths of long term authentic teaching experience may or may not impact the extent to which undergraduate music education majors prefer to identify themselves as either performers/musicians or teachers. This is a nationwide survey of music education majors in universities across the country who currently offer String Project programs. I am examining how self identification as a teacher, rol e commitment to music teaching, and music teacher self efficacy might differ among undergraduate music education majors who do and do not participate in longterm, authentic teaching experiences during undergraduate teacher training. Many music education programs have already agreed to participate and I hope you will, too! Would you be willing to distribute a short survey to your music education majors? We have 3 administration options: 1. I could send you enough paper copies to distribute to all of your students in methods classes (or in whatever way you feel is easiest to reach all of your music education majors). 2. I could send you a link to the survey, which you could forward to your students. 3. I could send students the survey electronically. I wo uld just need e mail addresses. Addresses would be kept completely confidential and not shared with anyone else including other participants in the study. This research would be used to help us better prepare future music teachers for effectiveness and lo ngevity in the profession by understanding how differing lengths of teaching experience (1 semester, 1 year, 2 years, 4 years) and differing types (student teaching vs. longterm, authentic teaching in which the individual is the actual teacher of record w ho is responsible for student growth) may impact identity development, role commitment to music teaching, and self efficacy for teaching differently. Identity affects all interpersonal relationships (with students, parents, colleagues, and administrators), impacts the extent to which an individual is able to take and use feedback constructively, affects attribution of student success (internal vs. external locus of control), impacts the content of the music curriculum individuals choose to teach (narrow foc us on performance skills, or broad music curriculum), and may affect longevity in the profession. Your participation in this important research study would help me (and more importantly, our profession) gain a deeper understanding of music teacher ident ity development and could help improve music teacher education. I hope you will help! Please, contact me at your earliest convenience for more information or to get started! All Best regards, Sandy Goldie University of Florida Strings Instructor and Doctoral Candidate, Music Education sandygoldie1@gmail.com

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166 APPENDIX D QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION Question Construction by Specific Research Question and Outcome Variable: Research Questions: 1. LATE + PTSI (performer teacher self identification)? 2. LATE + MTRC (music teacher role commitment)? 3. LATE + MTSE (music teacher self efficacy)? 4. PTSI (performer teacher selfidentification) + MTRC and MTSE? 5. PTSI, MTRC, MTSE + Nature of Teaching? R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 Demographics Agreement/Appropriate LATE: #22 28 #22 28 #22 28 #3 #4 #18 degree major 1 informed consent #5 #4 #3 #4 #5 #19 applied major area 2 have not previously taken #12 #12 #11 #5 #9 11 #20 year #13 #13 #12 #8 #24 #21 gender #14 17 #13 #9 #25 #10 #26 #11 #27 #14 17 3 Outcome Variables (MTRC, MTSE, PTSI) Self identification = 0.8*(question5)+ 0.2*(q14+q15+q16+q17). We also need to do a scale reversal for question 14 so that "strongly disagree" (response 1) gets the highest score. On question 17, we want to discard an swers for "other" or at least be sure they do not get more points than "teaching students to understand and appreciate music," which is response 4. Music Teacher Role Commitment= 0.8*(question4)+ 0.2*(q18). Use scale reversal for q18 as described above. P lease, do not use q20 as it has not been shown to be a reliable indicator. Music Teacher Self Efficacy: add values of q9,q10,q11. Self identification as Teacher/Performer Music Teacher Role Commitment Music Teacher Self Efficacy LATE Nature of Teaching Experiences #5 Major indicator #4 Major indicator #9 #22 shows dosages #23 #14 (minor indicator) #18 #10 #24 #15 (minor indicator) #20 #11 #25 #16 (minor indicator) #3 (minor indicator not used) #26 #17 (minor indicator) #12 (minor indic ator not used) #27 #13 (minor indicator not used) #28 #12,#13 (positive or negative)

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167 APPENDIX E MAP OF STRING PROJECTS AROUND THE COUNTRY

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168 Retrieved from the National String Project Consortium Website http://stringprojects.org/string proj ects/

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179 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Sandy Goldie teaches undergraduate string pedagogy cou r ses at the University of Florida. She received her Master of Arts in Music Education from the University of Georgia and her Bachelor of Music with an emphasis on Music E ducation and Performance from the University of South Carolina. She has presented scholarly research at conferences at both the state level (South Carolina Music Educators Association, 2012) and at the national level (American String Teachers Association N ational Conference, 2012 and 2013) and was recently awarded the David Wilmot Prize for Excellence in Music Education at the University of Florida. Mrs. Goldie is an active advocate for music education at the local, state and national levels and have assum ed leadership positions in the American String Teachers Association (former president of SC Chapter), South Carolina Music Educators Association (executive board member, orchestra division), the American Viola Society (former president elect of SC chapter) and Glynn County Arts Advisory Committee. Over the past seventeen years, she has enjoyed the opportunity of working with students at the elementary, middle, and high school levels in the public schools and as a guest conductor/clinician (recently conducting the SC AllState Orchestra). Her public school orchestras have performed at festivals throughout the United States (consistently receiving superior ratings each year from 19962010) as well touring in Italy (Rome, Venice, Florence and Cremona). She i s an experienced adjudicator of orchestra festivals in the Southeastern United States. She has extensive experience working with student teachers and mentoring new teachers into the profession as well extensive experience as a professional violist performi ng with many symphonies in the Southeastern United States. Her greatest loves are her family, her dog (Murray), and the joy of sharing the excitement of teaching and playing orchestral music with her students.