Religion, Ethics, Nature in Secondary School Education


Material Information

Religion, Ethics, Nature in Secondary School Education Exploring Religion's Role in Sustainability Trends
Physical Description:
1 online resource (613 p.)
Obrien, Bridgette
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Committee Chair:
Taylor, Bron R
Committee Members:
Wright, Robin
Sanford, Ann Whitney
Monroe, Martha Carrie


Subjects / Keywords:
education -- nature -- religion -- sustainability
Religion -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Religion thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation


The premise of this project is that educational systems in America have not adequately inculcated ecological understandings, nor the values needed to promote environmental sustainability and social equity. Since 2005, however, American Independent secondary schools have attempted to integrate sustainability into their communities and current research supports that sustainability curriculum and practices in secondary schools across the nation are intentionally being promoted (Calder and Burnett 2011; Chapman 2012).  Religion has been indifferent at best to such education, but there are signs that it need not be, and trends may be emerging that support the kind of curriculum and pedagogical approaches in education that are needed to help cultivate more sustainable lifeways.  This research therefore explores efforts by some Independent secondary schools to develop education and act in ways that promote environmental sustainability and social equity.  The project focuses especially on the ways in which values, including religious or spiritual values, are entwined with these efforts and explores the extent to which these greening trends in schools are emerging as part of top down decisions and initiatives (influenced by the religious and ethical beliefs of UN officials), and/or if they are grassroots movements from within the educational arena itself.  The initial chapters provide the historical background and theoretical lenses that I use to illuminate the case studies about specific Independent schools. I conclude the study by analyzing the obstacles and potential of these greening trends in secondary schools in the U.S. and beyond by using these lenses, referred to herein as analytical templates, and case studies.  Based on these specific findings I contend that the sustainability focus in curriculum and practice trends are very important even if they are nascent and small in number. They are influencing not just Independent schools, but public schools as well.  They reflect and promote broader cultural transformations toward spiritualities and ethics that promote environmental sustainability (health and well-being).  They may even provide evidence for the notion, advanced by Daniel Deudney and Bron Taylor that a terrapolitan civil earth religion may be unfolding that could provide an affective, spiritual and ethical basis for the needed transformations.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Bridgette Obrien.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Adviser: Taylor, Bron R.
Electronic Access:

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Applicable rights reserved.
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Material Information

Religion, Ethics, Nature in Secondary School Education Exploring Religion's Role in Sustainability Trends
Physical Description:
1 online resource (613 p.)
Obrien, Bridgette
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Committee Chair:
Taylor, Bron R
Committee Members:
Wright, Robin
Sanford, Ann Whitney
Monroe, Martha Carrie


Subjects / Keywords:
education -- nature -- religion -- sustainability
Religion -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Religion thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation


The premise of this project is that educational systems in America have not adequately inculcated ecological understandings, nor the values needed to promote environmental sustainability and social equity. Since 2005, however, American Independent secondary schools have attempted to integrate sustainability into their communities and current research supports that sustainability curriculum and practices in secondary schools across the nation are intentionally being promoted (Calder and Burnett 2011; Chapman 2012).  Religion has been indifferent at best to such education, but there are signs that it need not be, and trends may be emerging that support the kind of curriculum and pedagogical approaches in education that are needed to help cultivate more sustainable lifeways.  This research therefore explores efforts by some Independent secondary schools to develop education and act in ways that promote environmental sustainability and social equity.  The project focuses especially on the ways in which values, including religious or spiritual values, are entwined with these efforts and explores the extent to which these greening trends in schools are emerging as part of top down decisions and initiatives (influenced by the religious and ethical beliefs of UN officials), and/or if they are grassroots movements from within the educational arena itself.  The initial chapters provide the historical background and theoretical lenses that I use to illuminate the case studies about specific Independent schools. I conclude the study by analyzing the obstacles and potential of these greening trends in secondary schools in the U.S. and beyond by using these lenses, referred to herein as analytical templates, and case studies.  Based on these specific findings I contend that the sustainability focus in curriculum and practice trends are very important even if they are nascent and small in number. They are influencing not just Independent schools, but public schools as well.  They reflect and promote broader cultural transformations toward spiritualities and ethics that promote environmental sustainability (health and well-being).  They may even provide evidence for the notion, advanced by Daniel Deudney and Bron Taylor that a terrapolitan civil earth religion may be unfolding that could provide an affective, spiritual and ethical basis for the needed transformations.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Bridgette Obrien.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Adviser: Taylor, Bron R.
Electronic Access:

Record Information

Source Institution:
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
lcc - LD1780 2013
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3 To my parents, my husband and to all those who hope to change the world


4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This dissertation was only possible because of the assistance of many different people and their support. These people included my supervisor, Bro n Taylor, and committee members: Whitney Sanford, Robin Wright and Martha Monroe. Together, these scholars, the other religion department faculty and the graduate student cohort at the University of Florida made the earning of this degree possible. I would like, therefore, to thank eac h member of this extended community housed in Anderson Hall for the various roles they played in teaching, mentoring, supporting and inspiring me along the way. I am most indebted to Dr. Bron Taylor, who holds the Samuel S. Hill Ethics Chair at the Univers ity of Florida religion department, who is an environmentalist, ethicist, activist and extraordinary scholar and who served as the chair of my dissertation visor, mentor and friend hav e been invaluable to me over the past seven years. He found work for me during my application process to the program, he helped me re engage in graduate level work after a ten year sabbatical from academia, he ruthlessly edited term papers and this disser tation and he patiently supported, guided and challenged me during this project when most everyone else had given up hope that I would ever complete this work. I am also extremely grateful to Dr. Whitney Sanford, mentor, scholar, teacher and friend, who he lped strengthen my understanding of the significance that food issues and school gardens play in the sustainability trends found on secondary school campuses. Her encouragement and enthusiasm for my project over the years has been invaluable. Anthropologi st Dr. Robin Wright helped guide m e toward resources so that I better


5 understood and more accurately articulate d the importance of indigenous people and their perspectives in relationship to this project. I am also thankful to him for graciously stepping o nto my committee in the place of a former committee member who had to withdraw his position in preparatio n for his own retirement. I would also like to thank Dr. Martha Monroe, my outside committee member, for her scrupulous editing and assistance in helpi ng me understand the complex history and evolution of Education for Sustainable Development. My committee has been extremely patient, providing support during the years while I worked a full time job, developed curriculum, got married trained for two Bos ton marathons and relocated my life back to Washington state. Their individual and collective encouragement, guidance and support has been much appreciated over the years. T hank s to Dr. David Hackett and Dr. Anna Peterson, two of my professors and examiner s as well for their instruction and informal advising during the latter part of my course work and the early stages of this project. Additionally, I am grateful to Annie Newman, senior secretary, who assists all of us graduate students during the paperwork process within the larger University system. Her kindness, assistance and attention to detail about the necessary logistics have been invaluable and greatly appreciated. Several student collea gues have helped with advice and assistance in the navigation o f the logistics related to this process. I thank them for that help and for their collaborative work throughout the program. I wish to thank Gayle Lasater, Eleanor Finnegan and Hilit Surowitz for their inspiration, support and assistance I also wish to


6 ex tend my thanks to Josh Jeffries for his work on my bibliography and Meagan Schuver for her formatting and editing assistance In addition to those who have made this project possible, none of this would have happened without the ongoing collaboration and enthusiasm of so many secondary school educators and colleagues. Tom Collins, David Streight, Jim McGary Pete Masteller and the late Carol Eliot have all been invaluable to this project. During my research trips to both California and the East coast, Ji m McGar r y and Tom Collins not only provided me hospitality, but engaged with me in many important conversations about this work These secondary school colleagues inspired me, paved the way for some of the early work in the secondary school arena related to religion and sustainability a nd they readily shared resources that helped me with my research along the way. Moreover, David Streig ht, and his work a s the director of the Center for Spiritual and Ethical Education has been a steadfast pillar of support and provided innumerable opportunities for me to continue developing new relationships amongst colleagues around the nation which fos tered new fieldwork opportunities. Through the gene rosity of these colleagues, I have shared many memorable conversations and experiences, learned a great deal about the myriad of ways that their students engage different aspects of sustainability and hav e found inspiration in their own creative efforts to make a difference in the world through their respective teaching endeavors. Finally, I would also like to acknowledge those who have always supported me in whatever endeavor I engage my family. To my m om, dad and two sisters Colleen and Maureen, who have provided unconditional love and support over the years. They have accepted my absences from family gatherings due to professional conferences or


7 understood when I needed to work right on through the h olidays rather than sharing in the festivities with them. Moreover, they have always offered hospitality and love when I did find time to make it home to Colorado to visit with them and our extended family It is also extremely important to me that I than k John Brian McGoldrick my husband and someone who entered my life during the last stage of this dissertation process. You have done your best this past year to endure my decision t o persevere through writing this dissertation. You have patiently enterta ined yourself without me by your side and have waited to get your wife back to bike, climb run, play tennis and mountaineer alongside you T hank you for understanding how important the completion of this project was to me and for a llowing me the space to chase this dream so that we may share the rest of our lives playing outside -without this haunting me as an unfinished goal. I also wish to thank a few extraordinary friends who have supported me during the final stages of this journey. Dr. Belinda Lar tey, thank you for your inspiration and wise counsel through each and every step of this journey. You encouraged me to chase this dream from the very beginning you mentored me through re learning French during the middle part of my coursework and your own pursuits and accomplishments h ave served as an inspiration to me since the day I met you. Thank you also to Susan Bauska and Zach Hansen for providing insightful set s of eyes as outside reader s occasional edits and unconditional friendship along the way I would also like to thank Marian Schwartz and Donald Sidman, colleagues and friends alike, who have remained steadfast in their support and encouragem ent during these past few years in our shared basement quarters at Annie Wright. Finally, I would lik e to thank Troy Droubay,


8 colleague, friend and seeker of excellence, for the much needed runs, for acknowledging the small threshold crossings throughout this process, and for modeling that excellence is not only attainable, but something that should be ex pected from those we care about most. His friendship and unwavering support provided a source of strength through some of the darkest hours of the writing process and for that I am extremely grateful. This process of w riting acknowledgements is a lovely (but extremely challenging) opportunity to express gratitude for those who have help ed make this project possible. I have a great fear that I am unknowingly and uni n tentionally omitting someone who provided inspiration and assistance along the way. I have no doubt that despite my best intentions there will be errors and they alone are only mine. As my advisor Bron Taylor, has said from the very beginning and the mantra that I shall carry forward with me in pursuit of the next adventure as this one comes to an end


9 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 13 LIST OF TERMS ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 14 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 19 CHAPTER 1 QUESTIONS, METHODS AND PREMISES IN THE STUDY OF GREEN SCHOOL MOVEMENTS ................................ ................................ ....................... 21 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 21 Research Questions: Exploring the Intersection of Religion, Nature, Sustainability and Education ................................ ................................ .............. 23 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 28 Selecting Sites ................................ ................................ ................................ 33 Approaching the Case Studies ................................ ................................ ........ 39 Sust ainability and Religion: Illuminating Key Terms of the Study ........................... 41 ................................ ................................ ...... 42 ............ 43 Analytical Template 3: Religion as Ecological/Social Adaptation ..................... 46 Converging Tributaries: Th e Intersection of Religious Studies with Environmental ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 54 Analytical Template 4: The Land Ethic ................................ ............................ 54 A Brief Background to the Greening of Religion and the Search for a Universal Environmental Ethic ................................ ................................ ..... 59 Analytical Template 5: Approaches to Environmental Ethics: The Greening ................................ ................................ ............... 61 ...... 67 Analytical Template 6: Dark Green Religion (DGR) ................................ ......... 68 Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) ................................ ......................... 73 Eco psychology ................................ ................................ ............................... 75 Bioregionalism ................................ ................................ ................................ 77 Food, farming and sustainable agriculture ................................ ................ 80 Deep ecology ................................ ................................ ............................ 86 Pagans and New Age S pirituality ................................ ................................ .... 88 The Greening of Science ................................ ................................ ................. 90 Analytical Template 7: Global Earth Ethic and Civil Religion Thesis ................ 94 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 98


10 2 PAVING THE WAY: HIST ORICAL FIGURES AND MOVEMENT THAT SET INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS ................................ ................................ ................ 100 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 100 Encounters and Perspectives ................................ ................................ .............. 101 Fram ing the Problem: Establishing a National Identity (1700s) ............................ 108 Religion and Education in the 1700s: Ambivalence Prevails ................................ 114 The 1800s: Nature Religion Provides Fertile Cultural Soil for Nature, Spirituality, and Future Sustainability Ideas ................................ ................................ ........ 121 Religion and Education in the 1800s: Nature Spirituality and Early Educational Reformers ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 131 The Early Reformers and their Religious Inclinations ................................ ........... 133 Consciousness ................................ ................................ ................................ 146 The Most Critical Influences from Religion and Nature the Early 20th Century ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 147 Religion and Education in the Early 20th Century: A Different Kind of Battle 152 1950s and Beyond: Fostering the Seeds of Sustainab ility and Growing Ecological and Religious (Il)literacy ................................ ................................ .. 156 Benchmarks in the Development of the Sustainability Discourse ......................... 157 Religion and Education: Striving Toward Religious and Ecological Literacy ........ 161 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 171 3 THE ORIGINS AND OPERATIVE ETHICAL DIMENSION OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (ESD) ................................ ..................... 172 The Origins of Religion, Ethics and Spirituality in Elite, Global Institutions ........... 173 Religion and its Presence in the International Arena ................................ ............ 185 Origins of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) ................................ ... 187 Origins of Environmental Illiteracy: Deep Roots and the Influences on How Education, Intelligence and Knowledge are Conceived ................................ .... 197 Eco intelligence ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 203 The Implementation of ESD in American Education: Initiatives and Responses to Implement ESD ................................ ................................ ............................ 204 Characteristics of ESD and its Ethical, Moral, and Spiritual Dimensions .............. 210 Tools for Implementing ESD: Earth Charter ................................ ......................... 216 Concerns, Conundrums, and Conclusions ................................ ........................... 224 4 THE GREENING OF INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS AND THEIR PROMOTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES ................................ ................................ ......... 238 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 238 Independent Schools: A Short History ................................ ................................ 239 Independent Schools : What They Are And Why They Are Fertile Arenas for Cultural Innovation ................................ ................................ ........................... 240 Trends in NAIS: Toward t he Intersection of Religion and Sustainability ............... 247


11 Phase 1: Moral and Character Education ................................ ............................ 249 Phase 2: A Renewed Commitment: Fostering a Civic Ethic in the 21st Century .. 260 Part A: A Commitment to Global Education ................................ ................... 262 Part B: Overcoming Religious Illiteracy: S trategies, Tactics and Resources .. 268 Phase 3: Greening Independent School Education The Beginning ..................... 276 The Road to Being Green ................................ ................................ .................... 283 Obstacles/Challenges To Being Green as an NAIS School and The Whisper of Morality ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 290 Implicit Religion in NAIS Greening Patterns an d Cultural Production ................... 291 Stepping Onto (Green) School Grounds: NAIS Schools Leading the Way ........... 294 5 CATHOLIC SCHOOLS ................................ ................................ ........................ 300 Catholic Sch ools and Sustainability: An Overview ................................ ............... 300 Mercy High School (San Francisco, CA) ................................ .............................. 311 San Domenico, CA ................................ ................................ .............................. 323 Newton Country Day School: Boston, MA ................................ ........................... 340 Conclusions About Catholic Schools ................................ ................................ ... 363 6 PROTESTANT (EPISCOPAL) SCHOOLS ................................ ........................... 367 Episcopal Schools and Sustainability: An Overview ................................ ............. 367 Palmer Trinity School ................................ ................................ .......................... 374 Oregon Episcopal School ................................ ................................ .................... 401 ................................ ................................ ................ 416 Conclusions about Sustainability and Independent Episcopal Schools ................ 431 7 QUAKER AND NON DENOMINATIONAL SCHOOLS ................................ ......... 440 Independent School Sustainability Trailblazers: Quak er Schools and Non denominational Schools ................................ ................................ ................... 440 Quaker Schools: Germantown Friends School ................................ .................... 443 Quaker Schools: Westtown ................................ ................................ ................. 454 Non de nominational Schools: Lawrenceville ................................ ........................ 469 History, Religious Foundations and Nascent Green Roots ............................ 470 Leopold and his Legacy at Lawrenceville ................................ ...................... 475 Lawrenceville Today ................................ ................................ ..................... 479 Sustainabili ................................ .. 483 ....... 491 Outside the Classroom Walls ................................ ................................ ........ 498 The Naturalistic Parareligous Examples Outside of the Classroom ............... 507 Conclusions: Trailblazers in Secon dary School Sustainability ............................. 510 8 PROSPECT OR PERIL RELIGION IN ACTION ................................ ................ 513 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 513 Religion Matters: The Role of Explicit and Implicit Religion in Greening Trends .. 514 Potential Perils: Criticisms, Concerns and Future Challenges ............................. 520


12 Reasons for Temper ed Optimism: The Potential Promise of Religion in the UN .. 527 Bi lateral Force of Change and the Greener Common Ground In the Middle ....... 539 Independent Schools and Larger Social Change ................................ ................. 541 Tempered Optimism ................................ ................................ ............................ 545 The Potential Promise of Religion in the Future Independent School Arena ........ 549 The Emergent Ethic and its Future Possibilities for People and the Planet .......... 550 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 560 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 563 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................ 565 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ......................... 609


13 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 1 Characteristics of DGR Types ................................ ................................ ........... 99


14 LIST OF TERMS 21 ST CENTURY CITIZEN Someone who is collaborative, recognizes the value of nature outside of its utilitarian purposes, and utilizes multip le disciplines to problem solve. This is a person who recognizes that complex prob lems need approached from multi perspectives with an attentivene ss to the fact that different stakeholders involved in the issue may have competing interests and that these individuals may even include the land in thei r sphere of moral concern See also global citizen. AASHE Association for the Advancement of Sustain ability in Higher Education ACUPCC Commitment A NTHROPOCENTRIC A view that considers humans as the most important species and purpo ses for human beings. B IOCENTRIC P ERSPECTIVE A view that considers all species to be intrinsically valuable and this value is separate from their usefulness to human beings. See also Ecocentric Perspective (Taylor 2010: 13). B IOPHILA The innate tendency to focus on life and lifelike processes (Kellert and Wilson 1993: 42). B OS MUN Boston Model United Nation C IVIL RELIGION Includes references to the divine that are generic and not specific to just one tradition. Works to help create a shared identity and includes a sacred calling (which is a pre requisite to patriotism). May include ethical obligat ions with a prophetic dimension (Taylor 2010: 196) CRIS Council for Religion in Independent Schools (now CSEE) CSEE Center for Spiritual and Ethical Educatio n (formerly CRIS) D ARK G REEN R ELIGION (DGR) A perception of the ea rth and its living systems as sacred and interconnected. Dark green religion is generally deep ecological, bioentric, or ecocentric, considering all species to be intrinsically valuable, that is valuable apart from their usefulness to human


15 D EEP E COLOGY A philosophy often connected to Bioregionalism and is best spiritual connections to the Earth obligations to protect them, as well as the global environmental movements that bears its name (Taylor and Zimmerman 2005: 456). DESD Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005 2014). D OMINANT PARADIGM T he worldvi ew, informed by Cartesian thought, which emphasizes the instrumental value of nature and draws parallels between machines and the natural world (Merchant 1983 [1980] : 228). E COCENTRIC P ERSPECTIVE A view that considers all species to be intrinsically valu able and this value is separate from their usefulness to human beings. See also Biocentric Perspective (Taylor 2010: 13). E COCITIZEN S decision makers who are able to measure the implications of their actions, not only on their own surroundings, but o n a more global 1999: 15). EE awareness about the environment and associated challenges, develops the necessary skills and expertise to address the challenges, and fosters attitudes, motivations and commitments to make informed decisions and take responsible action ( UNESCO, 1978 at unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0003/000327/0 32763eo.pdf .) E NVIRONMENTAL E THICS A distinctive field of study and has been around since before the 20th century. Similar to Religious Studies this field is complex and comprised of many different voices. The ultimate aim, however, of an environmental ethicist is to delineate what moral responsibilities things that constitute them (Taylor 2005 b : 598). ESD A holistic approach to education about a wide diversity of issues that includes environm ental, economic and social aspects. In the working definition of this concept, culture will be recognized a and this approach to education will assume that when teaching skills, values and kn owledge embedded in ESD, that certain assumptions about sustainability itself will be included in these teachings ( UN Decade of Education for Sustainable De 125) FCUN Friends Committee on Unity with Nature


16 FORE Forum on Religion and Ecology GFS German t own Friends Schools G LOBAL CITIZEN Someone who has some sustainability knowledge and skills to navigate the complex world. Global citizens (or 21st century citizens ) have problem solving skills, values, life and work skills : NAIS Presentation 2007). G REEN S CHOOL A school environmental sustainability, charact erized by efficient use of resources, a healthy environment, an ecological curriculum, a 2012: 4) G REEN TREND This term is used as a synonym with sus tainability trend ny movement that indic ates movement toward raising awareness of issues that surround the demise of the earth at the educational philosophical, institutional physical structural, and communal bioregional levels, and is facilitating institutional commitment to reform in these are ). These trends include curricular shifts that raise awareness about energy consumption, mindfulness about the purchasing of products used on school campuses, social and ecological responsibility as a global citizen and any effort made GWIPL Greater Washington Interfaith Power and Light NAAEE North American Association for Environmental Education NAES National Association of Episcopal Schools NAIS National Association of Independent Schools NCEA National Catholic Educational Association NGO Non governmental Organization NSHS Network of Sacred Heart Schools


17 P ARARELIGION OR QUASI RELIGION In general, these are forms of religion that consider nature sacred and they may be indifferent and longstanding religious traditions (Benthall 2010: 1 21). Parareligion can be used as a more neutral term when discussing perceptions and practices, and corresponding social movements that have some but not all th e characteristics of religions that 11). RSISS Religious Studies in Secondary Schools SEEDS Scholars, Educators, Excellence, Dedication and Success STARS Sustainability Tracking, Assessment, and Rating System S TRONG S USTAINABILITY Recasts attitudes to ward nature and notions of development. It critiques concepts of economic growth, development and the meaning of progress ( Higgitt et al. 2005: 15). S USTAINABILITY e capacity to endure The concept includes considerations about humans and their relationship to the earth and to each other. This concept is conceived and discussed as a point of overlap between the economy, society and the environment and includes the i dea that humans now can assuring that there are ample resources for future generations SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT A term referencing human development that includes the idea that humans now can simultaneously assuring that there are ample resources for future generations. This term was derived from the Brun d tland Report (1987). S USTAINABLY LITERATE A sustainabl y literate person will be equipped with a number of intellectual and practical tools that enable them to take decisions and act in a way that is likely to contribute positively to sustainable development. They will be able to make decisions on specific matters, such as advising on financial inv estments, buying food or rule that is taking environmental, social and economic considerations into account simultaneously, not separately (Selby 2006: 361) TEK Traditional Ecological Kno wledge UNESCO United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization


18 UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Taylor 2005 e : 1680). USD O E U.S. Department of Education V ERY S TRONG S US TAINABILITY state that requires limiting human scale (zero is to work toward developing technology that would help reduce nimum set of ger 1999: 1123) WASPS White Anglo Saxon Protestants W EAK S USTAINABILITY Environmental initiatives that are to be adopted within an orthodox narrative of economic growth, where actions to alleviate environmental problems are seen as the forebears of s ustainable economic development ( Higgit et al. 2005: 15) WWSD World Summit on Sustainable Development Conference held in Joh annesburg, South Africa in 2002 (Taylor 2005 e : 1682).


19 Abstract of Dissertat ion Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy RELIGION, ETHICS, NATURE IN SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION: EXPLORING SUSTAINABILITY TRENDS By August 2013 Chair: Bron Taylor Major: Religion The premise of this project is that educational systems in America have not adequately inculcated ecological understandings n or the values needed to promote envir onmental sustainability and social equity. Since 2005, however, American Independent secondary schools have attempted to integrate sustainability into their communities and current research supports that sustainability curriculum and practices in secondary schools across the nation are intentionally being promoted (Calder and Burnett 2011; Chapman 2012) Religion has been indifferent at best to such education, but there are sig ns that it need not be, and trends may be emerging that support the kind of curr iculum and pedagogical approaches in education that are needed to help cultivate more sustainable lifeways. This research therefore explores efforts by some Independent secondary schools to develop education and act in ways that promote environmental susta inability and social equity. The project focuses especially on the ways in which values, including religious or spiritual values, are entwined with these efforts and explores the extent to which these greening trends in schools are emerging as part of top down decisions and


20 initiatives (influenced by the rel igious and ethical beliefs of UN officials), and/or if they are grassroots movements from within the educational arena itself. The initial chapters provide the historical background and theoretical len ses that I use to illuminate the case studies about specific Independent schools. I conclude the study by analyzing the obstacles and potential of these greening trends in secondary schools in the U.S. and beyond by using these lenses referred to herein a s analytical templates, and case studies. Based on these specif ic findings I contend that the sustainability focus in curriculum and practice trends are very important even if they are nascent and small in number. They are influencing not just Inde pendent schools, but public schools as well. They reflect and promote broader cultural transformations toward spiritual i ties and ethics that promote environmental sustainability (health and well being ). They may even provide evidence for the notion, adva nced by Daniel Deudney and Bron Taylor that a terrapolitan civil earth religion may be unfolding that could provide an affective, spiritual and ethical basis for the needed transformations.


21 CHAPTER 1 QU ESTIONS, METHODS AND PREMISES IN THE STUDY OF GREEN SC HOOL MOVEMENTS Introduction Previous e ducational systems in America have not adequately helped students understand the complexities of ecological issues or helped them adequately understand their own values in the context of sustainability The United Nations, acknowledging this problem, and wanting students to learn how to make different decisions for the future with sustainability in mind, declared 2005 2014 as the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) This declaration pr ompted a new examination of how educational systems promote or hinder the teaching and implementation of sustainability ideas and ways of life that may (or may not) resonate with stated Education for Sustainable Development ( ESD ) goals and characteristics Previous examinations however, occurred throughout the decades in America starting in the 1960 s 1 Since 2005 the effort to integrate sustainability into American Independent secondary schools has been u nderway and there is some current research about how sustainability curriculum and practices in secondary schools across the nation are intentionally being promoted ( Calder and Burnett 2011; Chapman 2012 ) Religion has been indifferent at best to such edu cation, but there are sig ns that it need not be, and trends may be emerging 1 The specific characteristics of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) will be addressed more specifically in later chapters but include: interdisciplinary and holistic learning, values based learning, critical thinking not memorizing, multi media app roaches to learning, participatory decision making and http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0017/001791/179120e.pdf accessed December 12, 2012


22 that support the kind of curriculum and pedagogical approaches in education that are needed to help cultivate more sustainable lifeways. This research explores efforts by some Ind ependent secondary schools to develop education and act in ways that promote environmental sustainability and social equity. It focuses especially on the ways in which values, including religious or spiritual values, are entwined with these efforts It al so explores whether these greening trends in schools are emerging as part of indirect influences from top down decisions and initiatives (influenced by the religious and ethical beliefs of UN officials), or if they are grassroots movements from within the educational arena itself or some combination of both. In this project, greening trends are informed by the criteria use d to define the field of Green S tudies which includes many fields of study including social science, natural science and the humanities Green S tudies ecology, environmental ethics and social justice, while connecting to and revealing them 91). A greening trend in any education institu tion is therefore best understood as any effort made in response to the contemporary ills by making changes at the educational philosophical, institutional physical structural, and communal bioregional levels, and is facilitating institutional commitment to reform in these areas (Bauman 2003: 91). These trends include curricular shifts that raise awareness about energy consumption, and ecological responsibility as a global citizen and any effort made by a school to


23 is committed to developing a culture of environmental sustainability, characterized by e fficient use of resources, a healthy environment, an ecological curriculum, a nutritious food program, and an engaged community (Chapman 2012: 4). The initial chap ters of this project provide the historical background and theoretical lenses that I will use to illuminate the case studies about greening trends in the specific Independent schools that follow I conclude the study by analyzing the obstacles and potential of these greening trends in secondary schools in the U.S. and beyond by using these lenses, referred to herein as analytical templates, and case studies. Research Questions: Exploring the Intersection of Religion, Nature, Sustainability and Education Andres Edwards argued in his book The Sustainability Revolution: Portrait of a Paradigm Shift (2005), that sustainability was more than a buzzword; it was a concept that defined what is needed for our civilization to survive. If it is true that the discussion about sustainability is one of the most important conversations occurring on the planet, then the importance of better understanding what is shaping the conversation and how education and religion are contributing to the unfolding dialogue becomes apparent. Today, and throughout American history, however, the function or purpose of schools rem ains contested. Scholars, such as Anthony Cortese, argue that throughout past decades, American schools have often promoted positive soc ial change (Cortese 1999 b : 1). Both the civil rights and feminist movements, for example, promoted curricular change at professors, and administrators (Bowers 1995: 3) Schools, therefore, could be functioning as important levers promoting the sustainability revolution. As Martha Monroe argued, school


24 individuals to choose behaviors that conserve energy and water, reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, protect and restore wildlife habitat and maintain functional ecosystems in and around towns a nd cities. Individual behaviors have enormous potential to conserve resources 2 Schools could become the place to provide locally relevant and meaningful curriculum and models to encourage and demonstrate good environmental practices. Scholars including David Orr, C.A. Bowers, John Gatto and Gary Snyder, on the dominant (destructive) socio cultural paradigm (Bow ers 1995, 1997; Gatto 1993; Orr 1992, 1994; Snyd er 1990; Sutton 1996). 3 Environmental Studies Professor David Orr, for example, contended that to make ecologically sound decisions people needed to recognize what they do and how they do it. As Orr explained, these actions and beliefs (for most Americans) have been shaped by the Western ideas and values that they 92). These dominant ideas and values (sometimes derived from a given religious tradition) then influence the decisions and actions that co ntinue to accelerate the destruction of the planet on many different levels. The prevailing argument in this literature is that such trends provide continued evidence that human activity threatens our ability to be sustainable or to present without compromising the ability of future generations to 1999 a : 1) are potentially a large part of the environmental problem, which discounts their function as operative levers of positive social change. In short, the function of schools with regard to their role in 2 Application, May, 2004. 3 For the purposes of this proje ct the dominant paradigm will be discussed as the worldview, informed by Cartesian thought which emphasizes the instrumental value of nature and draws parallels between machines and the natural world (Merchant 1983 [1980]: 228).


25 promoting or hindering environmental decline is complex and contested. Exactly how education relates to the sustainability movement includes many different dimensions and most are und er studied. One of the solutions to t his potential problem of school s transmitting dominant values has been suggested reforms to American schools. This suggestion arose precisely because of the belief that schools can operate as important levers for socia l change (Bowers 1995: 3). It is my contention that since this critical literature about schools emerged in regard to their role in the environmental crisis and in accord with growing international concerns about the state of ecological affairs and concer ns about mid 1990 s. On the one hand, this change originated at the International level with the establishment of ESD, which was created not only to help reorient education systems around the globe but also to promote K 6 education for all an appropriately reoriented basic education includes more principles, skills, perspectives, and values related to sustainability than are currently included in most education systems. Hence, it is not only a question of quantity of education, but also one of appropriateness and relevance. ESD encompasses a vision that integrates environment, economy, and society. Reorienting education also requires teaching an d learning knowledge, skills, perspectives, and values that will guide and motivate people to pursue sustainable livelihoods, to participate in a democratic society, and to live in a sustainable manner. 4 On the other hand, change began with grassroots effo Schools The underlying premise of both ESD and other grassroots efforts working to address sustainability issues in schools today, however i s that the outcome of the old way did not achieve sustainability and that something needed to change. Collectively, 4 http://www.esdtoolkit.org/discussion/default.htm accessed February 13, 2012.


26 these two influences on education resulted in a shift in the way that schools envision the purpose or function of education unprecedented and has, in fact, been a con stant throughout the decades in American history This time, however, the shift in education is that some American schools, particularly the Independent schools (but not exclusively) are working to educate and cultivate a global citizenry who is more ecol ogically literate In some cases these newly educated global citizens may even be better described as ecological (or sustainably literate) citizens and the use of these new terms to describe the vision for students in the high school arena is significant because I argue that this provides additional evidence for a growing ecological consciousness or a greening of American culture. For the synonymous I draw upon a speech by Arne Duncan, the U.S. Secretary of Education since 2009, to define 21st century citizens (or global citizens) 5 Global ci tizens are those individuals who are collaborative, recognize the value of nature outside of its utilitarian purposes Duncan suggests nature as a place and way to cultivate a healthier student who does not suffer from obesity or who does not have to deal with asthma because of high levels of air pollution He suggests that 21st century citizens utilize multiple disciplines to problem solve, recognize that complex problems need approached from multi perspectives with an attentiveness to the fact that diff erent stakeholders involved in the issue may have competing interests (Duncan 2012). He also hints that these individuals may include the larger natural world in their 5 U.S. Secretary of Education http://www2.ed.gov/news/staff/bios/duncan.html accessed May 21, 2012.


27 foot prints and his commendation for schools that work with EPA standards to address the issue of both indoor and outdoor air quality). 6 Ecological citizens, ecocitzens or sustainably literate citizens are other terms being used in the educational arena with m ore frequency. According to Liz Duffy, the Headmistress of Lawrenceville, an ecological citizen is someone who has the will help build a healthier, more sustainable world for future generations 7 The use of thes e terms to discuss the purpose of education suggests that perhaps some fledging effort is underway to ensure that schools are no longer part of the ecological and social inequity problems and that educators and administrators took seriously claims of criti cs and visionaries alike. for a long term societal effort to make the environmental and sustainability concerns a (Cortese 1999 b : 1). Cortese also believed (and this is also a stated goal of the E SD as well) that education reform would occur in the formal education system, but that this process would also extend outside the schools with the building of networks and organizations in an ef fort to include a large sector of the general population The newly educated citizenry, emerging from this different approach to education, would then be equipped to make decisions for themselves and the nation and that they would help establish a more su stainable model of living Thus, people could begin to repair some of the 6 at https://www.ed.gov/news/speeches/greening our schools accessed May 26, 2013 7 sustainability educ www.lawrencevill.org/about/news accessed February 23, 2012


28 damage that has already been done to the planet, or at the very least eliminate behaviors, practices, and patterns that exacerbate the current proble ms inherent within this crisis. This new purpose in American education has not unfolded in a vacuum though As this project reveals, the changing purpose and function of education is always entwined with religion and spirituality (among other things) These changes, moreover, must be c in the larger American culture of which education and religion are both a part. With this a ssumption in mind, this project therefore proceeds with an examination of the historical foundations in American education out of which these int entional greening efforts arose; it explores what role people construe religion or spirituality to play in thes e developments and it sets out to assess how significant these developments in the Independent schools are or promise to be. Methodology are variously construct schools I utilized archival research and action research (first hand experiences and accounts) from my own career as an Independent school teacher. The first phase of my research included a broad exploration of the information about practices in the international and national arenas of education policies as they related to sustainability. Then, I began to explore the greening trends in the United States with a particular focus on Independent schoo ls.


29 This initial exploration about sustainability trends in education at the international, global and national level was possible as both an insider and an outsider. My insider perspective was gained from my privileged role as a secondary school educator who has actively worked within the Independent school arena for the past 14 years. I also work within a larger network that includes outr each groups, such as the Center for Spiritual and Ethical Education, which is an organization that helps teachers inte grate Facing the Future This is an organization that works to include sustainability issues into the classroom by offering curriculum, teacher training, webinars and other t eaching resources to educators across the nation. It was, however, also possible for me to study these trends in the Independent school arena as an outsider because I took a five year break from Independent school teaching to be a graduate student during 2004 2009. Both perspectives were therefore quite useful throughout this project as they allowed me to work from multiple points of view I was able to use a historical lens to understand my past experiences in secondary schools and draw upon these experi ences to understand the present patterns of behavior I was observing in my ongoing research The observations and continued refinement of my ideas, resulting from continued experiences as a teacher and consultant in the Independent school arena since I re conclusions. My more formal research efforts were primarily focused on archival research. This process included a close examination of documents including national newspapers about su


30 Independent School Magazines and conference catalogues from several different annual meetings sponsored by the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS), The North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE), and the National Association of Episcopal Schools (NAES). I also utilized course catalogues from different Independent school communities, school newsletters, student newspapers, former (and current) Headm from pastors in religious school communities, blog posts from Independent school materials Finally, I drew upon scholarly journal s and monographs related to education, sustainability and religious studies I also utilized information provided by non profit organizations who work with spiritual and ethical education and/or sustainability issues in Independent secondary schools. The first phase of the research therefore concluded with a compilation and analysis of information about the more general education policy trends as they related to sustainability. This phase of research also gave me a foundation for understanding the variety understanding about where to begin to look for examples of religion in these trends which allowed me to think about how I wanted to focus my next phase of research. One aspect of this initial archival research involved examining environment related, education focused initiatives and resources produced by the United Nations, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Education. I explored what was going on in the U.S. Department of Education in regard to sustainability issues and explored whether there were any plans for revised policies


31 under the Obama Biden administration (2008 2012) that might be worthy of attention in exploring religion and its attention toward sustainability issues. Another aspect of this research included a close reading of primary source materials related to NAIS and about different Independent schools, located throughout the United States. I started exploring a list of schools that recognized sus tainable schools. 8 This project does not include extensive quantitative data about how many Independent secondary schools are undergoing this greening process, nor does it quantitatively account for these trends in the public school arena because although the Independent, religious and charter schools, there is no definitive data about how many schools in any one of these sectors have actually gone green or criteria for that means. There is a definite consensus, however, that this information would be interesting, but it has also been widely admitted that challenges exist in considering the task. In a New York Times article educators were quoted as saying: It is hard to pin down how many private, and charter and traditional public schools nationwide have adopted an environmental theme Many are new; some have a low profile. They do not share uniform standards that define them as green (Navarro and Bhanoo 2010: 2). That i not trying to gather this kind of quantitative data. Randall E. Solomon, the executive 8 http://www.nais.org/Articles/Pages/Environmental Sustainability School Profiles.aspx accessed January 15, 2011


32 director of the New Jersey Sustainable State Institute which guides New Jersey town s for the poor or for the wealthy on (Navarro and Bhanoo 2010: 2). Similarly, the Green Charter Schools Network based out of Madison, reported about 200 green charter schools across the nation The Department of Education reported that 11 new, traditional charter schools now self identify but that there are most likely others who are simply just not formally identifying as such (Navarro and Bhanoo 2010: 2) Finally, Paul (2012) provides some comprehensive data about the profiles of these schools and NAIS produced a progress report about what it has learned recently in regard to such trends in Independent schools (Calder and Burnett 2011). Although there is little definit ive data available about how many schools have gone green the consensus among close observers is that this trend is underway. 9 The particula r schools I focused on were the schools that NAIS had already a or because they were schools that self identified had some kind of sustainability efforts underway This allowed me some insight into the trends and patterns at different schools around the nation which allowed me to develop a tem plate for my research Different schools were green in different ways so I created a template that would investigate each 9 Evidence for the greening trends that are u al arena include Arne common definition of green schools. Collectively, we're seeking to reduce schools' environmental impact and improve their energy efficiency; improve health, in both everyday practices and surroundings; and advance environmental learning https://www.ed.gov/news/speeches/greening our schools accessed May 26, 2012.


33 curricular activities and outreach efforts as these aspects of the schools related to sustainability This tool allowed an examination of how the educators and students at these schools construe religion or spirituality in the individual school communities My research not only included what was going on in the clas sroom and on campus, but also how the schools navigated complex ecological concerns and conceived of boundaries between their campuses and the broader communities in which they were situated. Selecting Sites In the final step of this initial research proce ss I selected the schools that I would use as sites for further inquiry I looked for Independent schools that self identified as Society of Friends (Quaker), Catholic and Episcopal Schools because I wanted the school communities to explicitly acknowledg e their connection a particular religious tradition According to the 2012 2013 data from NAIS reports 7% of NAIS schools were Catholic, 11% were Episcopal, 3% were Quaker and 72% self identified as non denominational. 10 This context is important because although the majority of NAIS schools do not self identify as having a strong religious affiliation, I am arguing that religion is, indeed, a variable in these greening trends which suggests the need to broaden the larger population s notions about religio us phenomenon. With these data in mind, I then selected two or three schools that self identified with each of the specific Christian traditions before also selecting several other schools that self identified as non denominational These sites were chos en somewhat at random, however, I did 10 This data is from Vivian Dandridge, the Senior Director of Member Services at NAIS, who provi ded the information about the religious affiliation of NAIS members. These da ta are from the 2012 13 year and were obtained in the form of an email message to author from Myra McGovern < McGovern@nais.org > Feb. 8, 2013


34 consider how accessible these schools would be to me over the next several years in terms of both location and possible professional connections which would allow me My goal was to see if there were any similarities between the schools that self identified with a particular religious tradition in terms of the ways that they were green or in their rationale behind their greening efforts My interest in the non denomin ation schools was to see how different these schools were from the religiously affiliated mater. I thought it would be interesting to see if this non denominational campus wa s impacted at all by graduating this historic figure who has been a significant influence in the Environmental Ethics and the Religion and Nature disciplines. In contrast, the other non denominational school was the Head Royce School (CA) and I knew nothin g about this community other than it was featured as one of the green schools profiled on the NAIS green school profile list (2006) and that it was located on the other side of the country from Lawrenceville. There is a current practice in academia to wri te about social history and focus on micro studies of communities that traditionally have not been given much attention. In accord with this trend, I finalized a small list of schools and moved into my second phase of research. As I moved forward I did not know in what ways or to what extent any of these schools were green, nor did I know how strong their commitment was to their particular religious traditions. The schools I chose to focus the second phase of my research on included the Catholic schools: Me rcy High School (San Francisco CA ), San Domenico High School


35 (San Anselmo CA ) and Newton Country Day School (Boston MA ). The Quaker schools included Westtown School (Philadelphia PA ) and the Germantown Frien ds School (Philadelphia PA ). I include d an examination of Sidwell Friends School (Washington D.C.) in my research process, but I did not include it in the chapter because the trends and patterns were extremely similar to those found at both Germantown Friends School and Westtown. The Episcopal schools were St. Stevens and St. Agnes School (Washington D.C.), Oregon Episcopal School (Portland OR ), and Palmer Trinity School (Miami FL ) and the non denominational school was Lawrenceville ( Lawrenceville, New Jersey) although I did extensive research about The Head Royce School (Oakland, CA) as well. Some of the data about the Head Royce School is included in this project, but this school does not appear in the case study section. From 2009 2012 I gathered data about and from these school communities In some cases, I visited several of these schools to spend time in their archives; I was on campus for the purpose of attending a conference hosted at the school, and I also visited colleagues who either worked or had a connection to educators at some o f these schools During my visits I spent time observing what was transpiring on the campuses commitment to both their religious traditions and to sustainability efforts I also attended regional and national conferences where educators from some of these communities either presented or where other educators made reference to sustainability trends on these particular campuses Finally, my continued work with the Center for Spiritual and Ethical Education (CSEE), and my professional networks with secondary school


36 colleagues, who are heavily immersed in sustainability work around the nation, also provided me with invaluable information about sustainability trends o n these campuses and in the larger NAIS arena. During this phase of the research process I also deployed the use of particular analytical templates that provided the lenses through which I viewed the different subject matter The templates were der ived f rom common approaches to environmental e thics and spirituality that are well established in the environmental milieu Having these templates in mind allowed me to explore what is present and what was possibly absent in contemporary sustainability approach es in regard to Independent schools. I looked first to see if any of these templates were applicable to the data I was uncovering Once I identified a piece of evidence I scrutinized it more carefully to determine which template best explained some of th e phenomenon that my research revealed. The first two analytical templates provide the lens es for my key variables which were religion and sustainability The next templates provided a means to explore the variety of ways that religion may function as an ecological or social adaptation (or hindrance). The final templates included those that would help me identify religion in these trends and to explore the ability of religion to mobilize ideas and practices about sustainability. To better understand this pot ential relationship I needed lenses that explained the ways in which religion can relate to nature Religious Studies alone, however, did not offer all of the lenses that would be needed for my inves tigation so I also drew on the religion and n at ure f ield, and on contemporary environmental e thics, for these latter analytical templates Situating my work at the juncture between these


37 three disciplines not only allowed for a better understanding about different types of religion but it also provided hi storical context for them from several different perspectives. This interdisciplinary approach was inspired by scholars such as Rebecca Kneale Gould Her influence on this project was not only that she modeled the method of combining historical and socio logical methods in her own work, but she also provided guidance about how to define terms. Gould combined sociology and history, with an emphasis on the participant observation method in her book At Home with Nature (2005 ) and I opted for an emphasis on the historical methods instead due to the nature interdisciplinary approach might indeed be the way to do religious studies because it bridged tradit Religious Studies in America today more complete (Gould 2005: 10). Such interdisciplinary methods are also very much in line with both Education for Sustainable pedag ogical aims and patterns in Independent schools education today. This is important because I ultimately argue this interdisciplinary approach is evidence of something quite positive unfolding in the educational arena and I therefore found it apt to apply a nd utilize such interdisciplinary methods myself. Rebecca Kneele Gould and Bron Taylor also provided important frameworks for aped by historical and social contexts (Gould 2005: 3) This project, therefore, proceeded in accord with defining key terms


38 using a family resemblance approach which left the boundaries of key definitions fluid. Taylor explained that: differences that inhere in different peoples and places, and despite the absence of any clear, essential, universal trait that everyone will agree c 7: 18) Taylor elaborated by noting that the family resemblance approach leaves open discussions even about whether and the extent to which the contestation [of the phenomenon in question] is important, while insisting that the critical thing is to learn va luable things about people, their environments, and their earthly co inhabitants (Taylor 2007: 18). T his project proceeds with a fluid definition of religion that does not consider any specific trait normally associated with it as essential to it This o pened the door to for me to explore where and how both religion and nature and the relationship between I also drew upon Clarence Glacken who modeled an intellectualist or cog nitivist approach to religion in my methodology In Traces on the Rhodian Shore (1967) Glacken demonstrated that humans have speculated (since the early Greek and Roman empires) upon the effects that climate and landscape have upon people who live in dist inctive geographic areas (Glacken 1967: viii) I found his work applicable to this project because it suggests th at the kinds of fundamental assumptions and contested perspectives that are in play in the current debates behind sustainability issues can be traced back to some of the earliest civilizations in the world. Glacken demonstrated that throughout the ages, b eginning


39 during the Greek and Roman empires and up through the 19th century, people grappled with different conceptions of the Universe, the natural world and with how to understand the relationship of the Divine to the natural world. These considerations were combined place in the universe and their actions toward the natural world too. Glacken argued that the variety of interpretations about these concepts became decisi ve variables for determining important shifts in the historical evolutio n of environmental change and ga ve rise to different theories about how religion has come to be and about what purpose it serves For Glacken, religion was a way to interpret the worl d and it provided a strat egy to influence it I drew upon his ideas to suggest that that these same theoretical conundrums are a part of the contemporary discourse about ole in the nature/culture discourse in early American history and education today. Each of the aforementioned scholars thus informed this project in meaningful ways and thus most inform ed this aspect of my work, it is possible to turn to a closer examination of the various analytical templates. Approaching the Case Studies Drawing upon the analytical lenses, the case study chapters (Chapters 5, 6, and 7) explore different Independent secondary schools organized into four primary categories: Catholic schools Episcopal schools Quaker schools and non denominational schools The rationale behind this particular organization for the chapters wa s that they were first arranged chronologically by religious tradition. Second, the Quaker and non denominational schools were combined into a single cha pter


40 because even though they did not share the same explicit religious affiliation, both types of schools exhibited some of the strong est greening trends in the nation. An extensive commitment to sustainability was thus shared by both types of communities and thus my hypothesis was that both kinds of schools might be extremely fertile ground for new cultural production which included a p arareligious element. For each type of school I outline a general discussion that provides insight into the historic relationship between the identified faith tradition and their sustainability efforts. Following this general overview, I investigate the in dividual schools that all self identify as a communities committed to a given faith. In my investigation I highlight the greening trends that are fused to their long standing religious traditions and simultaneously explore examples where there are parareligous dimensions too. The latter part of this investigation was done, in part, because many educators involved in these Independent schools are not adherents to the tr aditional world religions themselves. The case studies therefore aim to identify particular places on these campuses and within these schools where there is a connection between religion and sustainability. I then identify these relationships as examples o Finally, the discussion ahead explores possible evidence of new cultural production which I define as trends or practices that contradict the existing dominant paradigm emerging in t hese schools. After I investigate the individual case studies, I present a summary of the findings for the collective set of schools (categorized under the canopy of a given faith tradition). I discuss the significance of these observations


41 and the implica tions of the role that religion might play in these sustainability trends in the f inal chapter as I consider the scope and findings of this project as a whole and what it might mean for future research directions. Sustainability and Religion: Illuminating Key Terms of the Study Religion is a complex topic to study and on the surface the modern sustainability movement has nothing to do with religion It is assumed, however, that religion is inextricably embedded in a network of relationships that are part of a larger culture of which the sustainability discourse is now a part. Sustainability is about humans and their relationship to the earth and to each other. This concept is conceived and discussed as a point of overlap between the economy, society and th e environment and includes the assuring that there are ample resources for future generations, but religion is not necessarily highlighted as a decisive variable in this d iscourse (Ricketts 2010: 44). 11 Deep historical roots underlie the concept of sustainability and these roots include many different historical perspectives, encapsulate different ideas about how people should best relate to the earth and each other and re ligion is an inextricable variable in these perspectives. This section thus wrestles with sustainability and religion, which are terms central to the study. It acknowledges the difficulty of this task, and clarifies the potential utility of retaining defi nitional flexibility and fluid boundaries in both cases. In the course of the discussion it will become apparent that questions remain about whether religion is to be 11 For a more thorough discussion of the history and the ways in which sustainability can be understood and is taught to high school students please see Facing the Future t ext book titled Exploring Global Issues: Social, Economic and Environmental Interconnections (Skelton et al. 2013: 25 37).


42 viewed as an adaptive survival strategy, a way to change the perceptions of a given grou p, a neutral byproduct of evolution well being. Understanding both the range of theories and depth of those that are most influential to this project help identify the extent that religion informs these gr eening Independent secondary schools. Analytical T As I previously explained, I drew upon the family resemblance approach to define ch allowed me not to put any specific boundaries around the definition This left the definition open to many different characteristics and attributes without definitively claiming that it must have a particular set of characteristics. Acknowledging that the definition remains contested was important to this project because I was nature in schools, which are places where these concepts have not traditionally been iden tified or explored in much depth. Noting that there is no one operative definition of religion it is possible to explore some of the different ways that religion has come to be understood in the world. There are innumerable ways that it has been historic ally discussed or interpreted, but some of the more common typologies include a conventional understanding that categorizes the traditions, the Asian religious traditi ons and the indigenous traditions. Scholars, however, such as Robert Orsi and Sarah Taylor remind us that the complexity of each Orsi noted that religion in scholarship within


43 the Academy has often been inter forms of religion that are thought to be dangerous. The study of lived religion situates all religious creativity within culture and approaches all religion as lived experience, theology no less than lig hting a candle for a troubled loved one, spirituality as well as other, less culturally sanctioned forms of religious expression (Orsi 1997: 172). Orsi also suggested rethinking religion as cultural work, as making and unmaking worlds through various medi ums. The key questions, in his opinion, are about what people do with religious idioms. In a similar reminder about the complexity of any one given religious tradition, Sarah Taylor argued that religious traditions are constantly transforming. Roman Cath 21). Other common ways to understand religion include quasi religions (or parareligion) and/or nature related religions depending on who is drawing the boundaries around which forms. In general, these are forms of religion that consider longstanding religious traditions (Benthall 2010: 12 1). In Returning to Religion (2010), Jonathan Benthall explained that quasi religion or implicit religion has traditionally been understood in a negative context He suggested, however, that parareligion could be used as a more neutral term when discussin g perceptions and practices, and corresponding social movements that have some but not all the characteristics of 11). Analytical T Similarly, I left open the definition of the term sustainability. Although this term is


44 definition agreed upon by all (Ricketts 2010: 53). One of the more commonly agreed upon definitions of sustainability which is endorsed by the United Nations, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and many other scholars and teachers emerged out of the 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development report titled Our Common Future that defined sustainable development (Gottlieb 2008: 163). needs for a good life now without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their 12 Sustainability came to be understood as that which was concerned with the intersecti on of environme ntal, social and economic well being ( Ricketts 2010: 44). David Orr defined flows of the natural world, and a careful study of those patterns and flows to i nform Other scholars, however, such as Mary Evelyn Tucker, Ben A. Minteer, Dale Jamieson criticized the narrow scope of this definition. They argued that the term must be broadened in scope and that religion was a neces include a discourse that permitted deeper discussion of aesthetic, spiritual, religious, cultural, political and moral values Minteer 2008: 192). It will, therefore, f rom this point forward, be assumed that the concept of sustainability has flexible boundaries and that part of the work ahead is to continue an interrogation of preconceptions surrounding this concept. entific at one moment, 12 http://www.un documents.net/our co mmon future.pdf accessed June 18, 2012.


45 enchanted with mystical unities the next, and down in the street fighting for social justice and cute 53). Sustainability, like religion, can thus wear many different hats and wh ich hat it wears depends on context. Critics argue, due to the notion that a singular definition for sustainability does not exist sustainability is understood as a process not an endpoint (Ricketts 2010: 44) Since the concept formally emerged out of the United Nations Commission on Environment Our Common Future Although its elastic definition continues environmentalism with civil rights themes and anti 35). For the purposes of exploring sustai nability in this particular project, it is therefore possible to leave the boundaries fluid, but to recognize that I proceed with which involves a physical aspect and an 540). This definition of sustainability is more in line with scholars such as Mary Evelyn Tucker, Ben A. Minteer, Dale Jamieson and others who have criticized the narrow ions. They each argue that the term must be broadened in scope and that religion is a necessary tool for refining this definition Jamieson explained, for example permits deeper discussion of aesthetic spiritual, religious, cultural, politi cal and moral )


46 The argument that religion and ethics should be a greater part of the sustainability discourse is of particular interest to this project because I argue this broader unders tanding of sustainability may already be integrated into the greening process on secondary school campuses Evidence demonstrate d that religion may perspective will n ot only provide context for the idea that religion has (and continues to be) a part of the debate about how humans should or do relate to the earth, but it will also illuminate how the religion and nature milieu is an inextricable part of historical underpinnings. Analytical Template 3: Religion as Ecological/Social Adaptation There are a wide variety of scholarly views about whether religion is best understood as a hindrance or as an ecological/social adaptation This template therefore lack thereof) to humanity. This set of theoretical contributions offers substantive food trends and provides evidence for the contentions that not only is religion here to stay, but that it may be evolving in ecologically adaptive ways. The foundations for the prospect that religion has and can evolve bega n with the founding fathers of religio us s tudies Primitive Culture (1871), Max Muller Natural Religion The Golden Bough (1922) all established important precedent for both religious studies and the discipline of religion and n ature They not only each embraced the idea that religion arose from natural origins, but they all argued that humanity has evolved, in its capacity to reason This evolutionar y model is in accord with Enlightenment thinkers who believed that humanity has progressed in


47 a forward direction The relevance of these early thinkers was that they posed the conundrum early on questioning and therefore acti ons within the world in which they lived These foundations allow us to better understand how humans have historically defined, described and appropriated religion and science as well as provid e a point of departure for examining the unfolding relations hip between these ideas over time and in specific places. These early thinkers were not the only theorists to use evolutionary explanations to examine Evolution continued as an explanatory tool to bet ter understand the origin, nature, and function of religion. A common way to categorize these more contemporary theorists is into two typologies put forth by Joseph Bulbulia. He put those theorists who believed that religion was not very useful and who e nvisioned it as a kind of evolutionary by product with no intended purpose in one camp. Then, he placed those who believed that religion did have a purpose and that it had adapted over time to help humanity survive in another camp (Bulbulia 2004: 656) F irst, the theorists who, like Muller, who have found the progression of religion not to be very evolutionarily advantageous (despite the fact it has persisted) include Guth rie, Boyer and Attran (Guthrie 1993; Boyer 2001; Attran 2002) Their ideas are briefly worth mentioning because they all considered religion to be a the environ ments in which they live.


48 This project, however, utilized scholars and theorists who look to nature while developing their theories about the purpose of religion and who argue that religion had an evolutionary advantage. A significant contributor to this particular dialogue was Walter Burkert who argued in Creation of the Sacred (1996) that there was indeed a natural foundation for religion Burkett Burkert 1996: 177). He believed humans feared nature because they were once prey themselves People were hyper sensitive and used religion, such as ritual sacrifice, as a way to cope with their anxiety (Burkert 1996: 150). Burkert was also critical of t posed in contrast to nature and cannot be treated as a phenomenon deriving from evolutionary biology (Burker t 1996 : 2). He argued that certain key aspects of religious behavior and culture such as sacrifice, myth and storytelling, social structure, role of guilt, ritual, and language to illuminate the similarities between humans and animals could serve as data to better understand t he origins of religion. In short, Burkert introduced a wide variety of anthropological data and a biological theory that modeled an important interdisciplinary approach to r eligion and na He ultimately viewed religion as somethin g that has always been present and made it clear that religion was not a passing phase in human evolution (Burkert 1996: x) Burkert saw religion as the way humanity navigated the stresses of the world, understood the chaos of the world, and ordered soci ety so as to ensure its survival. He therefore helped introduce a new kind of evolutionary and ecological explanation about the complex relationship between homo sapiens and their


49 habitats. The idea that becomes most interesting to this project is Burkert strategy for survival it thus means that a certain survival fitness of religion ha s to be 13). Another theorist who roots his ideas in t he natural world is the work of E.O. Wilson. Wilson argued that the pragmatic, evolutionary value of religion as an enabling adaptive survival was controversial. In short, Wilson argued that Sociobiology was dedicated to finding the biological origins of animal social behavior at both the genetic and environmental levels He contributed the idea that one could apply an ecological model to the social sciences. Wilson believed religion functioned as a tool that promoted individual and collective fitness an d survival and that religion somehow aided species in the passing along of their genes Later, he contributed the biophilia theory in which he argued that a love of nature may have actually been hardwired into human genes by natural selection hypothesis and this idea has profound implications for understanding some of what is happening in the Independent School arena in regard to current greening trends. Wilson defined biophilia the idea that people possess a genetic inclination, grounded in the quest for individual and collective fitness, to attach physical, emotional, intellectual and moral meaning to nature (Kellert 2005 b : 185). hypothesis boldly asserted the existence of a biologically based, inherent human need to affiliate with life and lifelike process (Keller t and Wilson 1993: 42) As Kellert explained, the biophilia hypothesis proclaimed a human dependence on nature that extends far beyond the simple issue of material and physical sustenance to


50 encompass as well the human craving for aesthetic, intellectual, cognitive, and even spiritual meaning and satisfa ction (Kellert and Wilson 1993: 20) sentiments all evolve from the evolution ary process because this favors individual as well as collective 2005 c : xix) As the forthcoming case studies reveal, there is an increased emphasis on the study of science in these secondary school arenas. This is relevant because one aspect of biophilia theory argued that nature has a scientific value underscored by the knowledge and understanding people derive from the empirical study of nature (Kellert 2005 b : 186) According to Kellert the more we know and understand about the creat ures and environments the more astonished we are by the extraordinary ingenuity of the biophysical enterprise Knowing nature well increases not only our knowledge but it also elevates our ethical regard for nature and o urselves (Kellert 2005 b : 187). As Kellert explained, this hypothesis assumed that this focus on life and lifelike advanta ge and genetic fitness which meant this is likely to increase the possibility for achieving individual meaning and personal fulfillment This biological drive was therefore the self interested basis for a human ethic of care and the conservation of nature which would include protecting the divers ity of life (Kellert and Wilson 1993: 21). This theory also suggested that contact with biodiversity had purpose It could awaken passions encoded in human genes and it could rekindle human appreciation of and re and this theory is applied in the forthcoming


51 outside the classroom. Paul Shepard, often referenced as the father of eco psychology also offered important ideas about the relationship between nature and culture theorists who use the natural world in the development of their theories about religion. Shepard explicitly addressed the biological roots of religious experience in order to promote the reclaiming of what he considered solutions to contemporary dilemmas. These contemporary dilemmas include biological, psychological, and societal problems and Shepard argued ors. He was very optimistic about people reorienting themselves toward new habits, new rituals, and a new awareness He argued that if humans embraced their genetic roots, and remembered that people of the past lived within a sacred geographical and poli tical understanding, that modern people could again develop that deep shared vision of place and knowledge about plants and animals. Shepard explained that today we cannot become hunter/gatherers as a whole society, but we may recover some social princip les, metaphysical insights, and spiritual qualities from their way of life by recon structing it in our own milieux (Shepard 1998: 164) For Shepard, people today are historically connected to ancestors of the past through the human genome and the natural world provide d important context for realizations that might help people reconstruct certain beliefs and rituals of our ancestors. have roots embedded in the n atural world. Religion may serve as a means to navigate given group of people. This idea, that religion was a group adaptive function, was precisely what David S loan Wilson argued in


52 and the Nature of Society (2002) According to Wilson, religion did not have just one function and it could not be defined in a simple, easy way Religion, rather, had many purposes, many goa ls and assumed different functions in different situations in essence, that religion was adaptive For D.S. Wilson, religious groups, like organisms, were products of natural selection. Wilson investigated religious groups as if they themselves were or ganisms. In 1) Cultural evolution, Wilson argued, took place at the group level, and was ther efore applicable to understanding religious units. He argued that moral systems have both an innate psychological component and an open ended cultural component that enable them to adapt to their immediate environments. Wilson examined two key ideas in o rder to test evolutionary theory in relation to religious groups. First, the idea that biological social groups could become so functionally integrated that they become higher level organisms in their own right. Second, that living organisms were themselv es social groups. With this in mind, Wilson attempted to formulate the organismic concept of religious groups as a serious scientific hypothesis. Along with D.S. Wilson I predict that most enduring religions survive on the basis of their secular utility. Their design features include belief systems that, no matter how otherworldly, have the effect of motivating adaptive behaviors in this world (Wilson 2002: 156). D.S. somewhat rev olutionary ponderings about whether human groups in general, and religious groups in particular, acquired more organismic properties that enable them to


53 survive and reproduce in their environments His idea is of particular interest to this work because W ilson suggested that as a form of social adaptation, features of religion that sometimes seem irrational can prove to be functionally adaptive in the future. This possibility invites an exploration about what, if any, adaptive features exist within particu lar religious communities with regard to environmentally friendly behaviors or attitudes. n there was to help control and also shape the environment. One of the theorists who argued that religion might have material benefits to people was Ma rvin Harris (Ros s 2005: 745) Another notable cognitive anthropologist, Roy Rappaport, suggested the idea that religious systems could be either adaptive or maladaptive. He argued, for example, that rituals could be used to regulate population numbers (of people and ani mals) at sustainable levels in given places over time. The significance being ritual helped restrain population growth and it also helped facilitate relationships with neighboring peoples in acceptable ways. Religion was therefore a means by which people successfully navigated the natural world although there was no doubt that the natural world also acted on them too (Rappaport 1979: 97). their natural environment utilized religion, but that nature and culture were actually symbol systems could function in ecologically adaptive ways (Taylor 2005 c : xvi).


54 Though religious rituals may be ra tionally illusory, Rappaport claimed, they may be adaptively true, providing a meaningful context within which long term stability can be maintained (Burhenn 1997: 118 ). The knowledge gleaned through theory of a feedback loop that involve d both nature and culture and the use of ritual in human evolution is particularly relevant in my explorations of what is unfolding on the Independent school campuse s and specifically how schools address (or do not ) some of the most plaguing environmental a nd social problems such as population issues. This analytical template of religion as ecological and or social adaptation, provided models to explain what the possible role of religion is or could be in society For some theorists, religion was a way t o interpret the world and religion provided a strategy to influence it f or others, religion has an ecologically adaptive function, and to others religion operates as a functional tool to maintain social solidarity. The variety of theories about the role r eligion has played (or should play) is something that I consider throughout this forthcoming discussion, but these foundations ultimately allow me to suggest the possibility that religion can (and is possibly already is in these school arenas) evolving in adaptive ways. Converging Tributaries: The Intersection of Religious Studies with Environmental Analytical T emplate 4: The Land Ethic Environmental e thics is a distinctive field of study and has been around since before the 20th century Leopold defined an environmental ethic as a mode of guidance for meeting ecological situations so new or intricate, or involving such deferred reactions, that the path of social expediency is not discernible to the average individual (Leopold 1966 [1949]: 239). Similar to Religious Studies this field is complex and comprised of many different voices The ultimate aim, however, of an envi ronmental ethic ist is to delineate what


55 e things that constitute them ( Taylor 2005 b : 598) Thus, although there is no one single ecocentric perspective is often cited as the ideal benchmark toward which the pursuit of cultivat ing proper human and nature relations strives An ecocentric or biocentric valuable and this value is separate from their usefulness to 2010: 13 ). Before explaining how Leopold came to articulate this idea, it is significant that he was an alum of Lawrenceville a contributions to aspects of the susta inability discourse were among those that were most significant because his ideas were so broadly applied and implemented. Leopold not only put forth radical new ideas about why it was imperative to preserve the natural relationship with the land. Early in his ca reer Leopold noted that perhaps the most serious obstacle impeding the evolution of a land ethic is the fact that our educational and economic system is headed away from, rather than toward, an intense consciousness of land (Leopold 1966 [1949]: 261). T hr oughout his life, Leopold worked as an activist and sought opportunities to share his ideas with others which, in addition to his religious inclinations, are characteristics that ma de him an important figure in the Dark Green Religious movement to be disc ussed later as one analytical lens. Leopold traced the development of his own ecological thinking and environmental ethics in A Sand County Almanac (1949 ). He included tales of his


56 iences he had as a forester and criticized the concept of the land as commodity, which he traced to the Abrahamic trope, for its contributions to environmental degradation ( Leopold 1966 [1949] : viii) nd were profound because he went beyond the mechanics of ecology and spoke on behalf of the humility necessary for humankind to exist in a healthy (and more harmonious) relationship to ch individuals b : 598). his legacy exists for several reasons including his land management policies regarding p redators and his influence on ideas about land preservation. One of most well known statements and beauty of the biotic community provi des insight to his thoughts on land ethics ( Leopold 1966 [1949]: 224) Leopold believed by enlarging the boundaries of community to include plants, soil, and animals humans uding the land itself ( Nash 1982 [1967] : 186) The land ethic thus affirmed the continued existence of a place in a natural state basic concept of ecology, but that land is to be loved and respected is an ext ension of to explain that individuals held a responsibility for the health of the land (Leopold 1966 [1949]: xix) p meaning known only to the


57 Leopold 1966 [1949]: 137). Leopold explained how humans might consider approaching the natural world, its interrelated parts, its long standing existence and events that unfold in this interconnected system from an entirely new perspective without conceiving themselves as conquerors of the land, but rather as plain citizens of it ( Leopold 1966 [1949]: 240). By proposing this perspective, he not o placed an emphasis on an eco mind relationship to the land was eine 2005: 1006). manifestations of this ethic in practice as exemplified in his beliefs about land use. Leopold argued that wilderness should be preserved for recreation, science, and for wildlife. His argument for preservation, on behalf of recreation, included the idea that contact with the wilderness was a n ecessary corrective to the oppression of civilization and that the aesthetic experience of being in nature was i n and of itself important ( Nash 1982 [1967] sanctuaries for the primitiv proportion to the intensity of its experiences, and to the degree to which it differs from and contrasts with workday life ( Leopold 1966 [1949] : 272). Leopold also put forth a revolutionary ar gument that wilderness preservation w as a scientific necessity ( Nash 1982 [1967] : most significantly impacted by Darwinism and Geology, but his own emphasis on science focused on ecology. As Leopold said, the most outstanding scientific discovery


58 of the 20th century was the complexity of the land org anism ( Leopold 1966 [1949]: 190). landscape ( Leopold 1966 [1949]: 189) He highligh ted the horror of the possibilities that humans faced in regard to living without such things as goose music, the stars and wolves ( Leopold 1966 [1949]: ecological perfection because evolution operated with Nash 1982 [1967] : 197). Wilderness preservation was therefore necessary for the ecological Leopold explained that the importance of this ecological integrity was, in part, because scientists did not yet recognize all parts of the land mechanism ( Leopold 1966 [1949] : 190). Leopold valued each and every part of the landscape for its intrinsic value and this would become fundamental to environmentalist and preservationalists efforts in the future. In L had their own worth) just because humans had not even yet understood what these were the biotic co mmunity to survive, its internal processes must balance, else its member Leopold 1966 [1949]: 191). This balance would be difficult to maintain with missing pieces. For Leopold, a philosophical love of the land was obviously broa der than the economic value of necessity, but both an intellectual and emotional process informed his ideas about conservation. This intimate relationship with the natural world and his recognition of its intrinsic value is precisely why so many look to h is ideas as a goal toward which to aspire and his land ethic thus becomes central to a critical analysis of


59 benchmark and his land ethic provides a means to evaluate how close schools get to n members of the I examined schools, in other words, to see if aspects of a biocentric or ecocentric worldview were being tau ght and/or practiced. As the discussion continues, dialogue among different scholars and evidence of his influence within the secondary school educational arena will become evident as well. A Brief Ba ckground to the Greening of Religion and the Search for a Universal Environmental Ethic Some of the more important lenses informing this project are the analyti cal templates that emerge when religious studies informs e nvironmental ethics and when e nvironmental e imagine a larger, global environmental ethic. The following discussion utilizes one of the templates located at the intersection of these disciplines which I reference as t he This phenomenon is important because it offers one approach to analyzing how religion is at play and connected to the perceived environmental crisis which is a useful lens for examining how the greening of religion might appear in and in self identified religiously affiliated schools. The roots of this greening phenomenon can be traced back to several thinkers who connected religion and environmental woes in early American history such as T Christian traditions and his assertion that technological fixes would not work since that was what got


60 p eople into the state of environmental decline in the first place provided reason for scholars and practitioners to re think religion White ultimately urged this re evaluation (White 1967: 1206). In response to criticism of the religious traditions A new field of study, Religio n and Ecology, resulted as an approach to the perceived environmental crisis As Bron Taylor outlined in his article Religious Studies and Environmental Concern (2005), the field of Religion and Ecology began to formally organize with the efforts of a cer tain group of scholars who focused their attention on religions in human and ecosystem interactions (Taylor 2005 d : 1373). As Taylor summarized, the various approaches of the scholarship included mining the world religions to promote attitudes that would c ontribute to more sustainable lifestyles, highlighting cultures that included religions which were considered to be eco friendly, religious innovations which were seen as possible correctives to utilitarian views about ng of religions (Taylor 2005 d : 1373). In response to the criticism made by White, Religion and Ecology scholars argue d that their religion was environmentally sensitive if understood properly or if it was found to be problematic, they would work to refor m it to make it more environmentally sensitive (Taylor 2011: 11). As Taylor described these communities and scholars may also be indifferent or hostile to the accusation that environmental sensitivity even matters in relationship to their religion.


61 The e arliest and most prominent scholarship in Religion and Ecology was done by Mary Evelyn Tucker and John Grimm who founded the Forum on Religion and Ecology (FORE). FORE to help organize a series o World Religions between 1996 and 1998 As a result of this conference John Grim and Mary Evelyn Tucker ( as directors of the Forum) produced a series of publications that engag ed As reexamined in light of the current environmental crisis as they may help us supply bot h creative resources of symbols, rituals and texts as well as inspiring visions for reimaging Analytical Template 5: Approaches to Environmental Ethics: The Greening of the Worl The work of FORE plays a prominent role in some of the greening trends in Independent schools because they have not only sponsored workshops for Independent school teachers, but their work has informed curriculum that is used in Independent s chool classrooms. The connections between FORE and Independent schools will be elaborated upon later, but it is important that after Tucker and Grim retired from Bucknell in 2006, FORE moved the initiative to the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. This is where the organization continues to pursue require multi disciplinary efforts. 13 FORE remains the largest international multi religious project of it s kind. It hosts conferences, produces publications and has an 13 http://fore.research.yale.edu/ accessed May 2012.


62 extensive website and all of these resources are meant to b understanding about the complex nature of current environmental concerns. The significance of this work and its effor ts to include secondary school teachers in this venture is critical because high school teachers are the people working on a daily basis with the citizens and decision makers of the future. 14 Aside from religious studies scholars being involved in creating and understanding the greening of religion, environmental ethicists have also explored religion as a potential source for environmental ethics Among the many scholars who have thus contributed to the fields of both e nvironmental e thics and r eligious s tu dies, the work of J. Baird Callicott and Max Oelschlaeger provide especially rel evant context for this project. Both Callicott and Oelschlaeger have considered religion as a possible resource for thinking about environmental ethics. Building upon their wo rk, this project tested whether religion was indeed being influential in the cultivation of a new kind of In (1994), Callicott surveyed a range of religious traditions (from Judaism and Christianity to Australian aboriginal religions) in search of elements that might promote or facilitate healthy environmental ethics. Callicott turned to religion comprehensive worl dviews and religions 1994: 5) In his accounts of the different religious approaches, Callicott optimistically argued that some religions provided more fertile ground than others for generat ing 14 http://www.rsiss.net/rsissfore.html accessed May 2012


63 environmental ethics. He ultimately concluded, however, that each contained some elements that could undergird a responsible ethical approach to nonhuman nature. In the end he attempted to envision a single cross cultural environmental ethic based on would be broad enough to include multiple religious viewpoints. This is important because he provided the foundation for the claim that each worldview (and their accompanying rel igions) influence, in a significant way, the ways people make sense of the world. He put forth, in other words, the possibility that a religiously based multiplici ty of viewpoints and incorporation of science is important because his work not only reflects important trends in the r eligious s tudies and e nvironmental e thics discourse, but evidence about what is transpiring in Independent schools suggests that he may i ndeed be correct and schools could be (and arguably are already emerging as) the vanguard supporting or hindering the emergence of such an ethic. This project also utilized the ideas of another environmental ethicist, Max Oelschlaeger who contended that r eligion (specifically religious communities) offered the best hope for coping with the environmental crisis. In Caring for Creation (1996) Oelschlaeger argued that positive elements existed in the power for religion, and especially Christianity, to unite religious groups He specifically called for a use of across the spectrum of belief coalesce, despite their differences, around a politically efficacious or at least po tentially useful metaphor of caring for creation. He argued,


64 moreover Oelschlaeger thus argued that religion could promote environmentalism by providing new narratives to oppose the dominant paradigm as well as the soc ial capital, to create change. My project only examined the first part of this claim, to see if religious narratives were providing, in the school setting, a narrative that ran counter to the problematic dominant paradigm. In summary, the discussion ahead demonstrates my attempt to test the thrust of the contentions articulated by both Callicott and Oelschlaeger and my research demonstrat ed that there was indeed evidence suggesting the viability of their theories. FORE presumes that religious traditions play an important role in moral frameworks and that narratives guide human interactions with the environment Working from this particula r premise, Thomas Berry put forth the notion that scientific narratives could actually be grafted onto existing religions or be stand alone religions and both of these possibilities inform this project The grafting of science onto Christianity is seen mo Together they worked to revise the story of evolution to make it a sacred story and the trends was notable and thus worthy of more discussion. To better understand Thomas science onto Christianity it is best to start with his motives Berry discussed the need for developing courtesy toward the Earth and cu 16) He argued,


65 provided powerful reference points and metaphoric expressions such that one could become aware of the magical quality of the univ 16). Building on this feeling of awe he rejoiced in the discovery of Earth as a living being and promoted a kind of re enchantment with the Earth as a living reality as a way to rescue the Earth from the current practices of destruction (Berry 2006: 21). As part of his work, Berry called for a radical reassessment of t he human situation (Berry 2006: 124). He called for a new creation story that combined the best igm could relate to the Earth through a new form of cultural coding (Berry 2006: 133) Berry broke down the ecology movement into three phases; confrontation, transformation and Berry and Swimme both felt that the story of evolution provided a narrative through which all humans can understand their relationship to the natural world. Within this narrative they perceived a tale of human kinship and continuity to the rest of the cosmos. based cosmology and evolutionary narrative should be considered as a way to inspire a reorientation in cultural perceptions and actions has great potential f or contributing to social change. These ideas w ere not only present within some of the curriculum trends in Independent secondary schools, but they also influenced minority reform groups such


66 as the Green Nuns working within the Catholic tradition. This particular tributary, therefore has gained incre ased momentum in many arenas and the emergent collaborative work between high school educators and university scholars around these ideas continues to unfold. 15 In fact these trends suggest evidence that an ecological consciousness may indeed be emerging a s these trends suggest the possibility that the center of the universe or the dominant species, are being disseminated and embraced. As a way to wrap up the discussion a bout the greening of religion lens there are a few reasons why this analytical template proved particularly helpful to this project that this phenomenon has impacted t are framing the sustainability goals on some campuses Also, I proceed with the assumption that narratives provide explanations about ways of living, identify symbols that are important to a given culture and teach about the enduring moral character of the people who are in stories. The role of narratives in this project therefore not only greening trends, but narratives are also emerging out of the Independent schools themselves which I argue reveals evidence for the new cultural production that is underway in these schools about how to be a global (or 21st century) citizen. 15 As part of workshops that are sch eduled to transpire during the s ummers of 2013 and 2014 a Journey of the Universe website for teachers will be created, building on the current curriculum mat erials already prepared at http://www.journeyoftheuniverse.org/curriculum/ This website will share curricula, instru ctional approaches, assessment strategies, informational sources, contact people, and other resources. ( Tom Collins. Proposal Journey of the Universe High School Curriculum Design Initiative, Fall 2012). Proposal shared by Tom Collins < TCollins@lawrenceville.org > e mail message to author, November 6, 2012.


67 A Brief Background to Greening Template s beyon d The early scholarly work sponsored by the Forum and the continued evolution of Religion and Ecology was not immune from challenges and criticisms In an attempt to sis the late Environmental Paradigm Kalland explained how this paradigm focused around the s per ception of nature (Kalland 2005: 1367) He explained how the environmental movement appealed to traditional religious ideas and values rather than ecological science or technology to face environmental problems (Kalland 2005: 1367) Then, he discussed ho w the two primary sources of information for this paradigm come from the Asian traditions and Indigenous traditions, but also highlighted that these traditions were not necessarily benign He offered insights about the benefits and problems that arose whe n certain ideas were pulled from these traditions He elaborated, for example, on the importation of organic holistic worldview, the idea of nature as dynamic, how the notion of karma was adopted and how nature as divine were used in this paradigm. t environmental crisis (Kalland 2005: 1370). The Religi ous Environmental paradigm has been a pervasive influence in much of the work that has emerged in the r eligion and n ature field. It also provided rich crisis and the co nversation has since expanded. Bron Taylor, for example wrote about the evolution and plurality of r eligion and e cology both within and outside of the


68 American Academy of Religion Taylor criticized the Forum for its mining approach and for its neglect of certain religious and spiritual traditions. In doing this he also raised important questions about how the scope of the field had been defined. He challenged the idea that religion was a necessarily decisive variable in possible solutions to environmenta l problems and called for a more inclusive ethos of traditions outside mainstream religions Taylor also wanted scholars to address issues of hybridization of religious traditions in this work (Taylor 2005 d : 1375 76). Over the decades, scholars have not o nly continued to examine the nuances of criticisms of the r eligion and e cology field decreasingly tethered and sometimes en be involved in human and nature relationships (Taylor 2008: 107) This project thus not only draws upon the greening of r eligion phenomenon, but sought out evidence of parareligions role in schools as well Analytical Template 6: Dark Green Religion (DGR) Recalling that Thomas Berry suggested that scientific narratives could actually be grafted onto existing religions or be stand alone religions, Dark Green Religion serves as a good example of the latter part of his claim (Taylor 2010: ix). The or began in some of his earlier work when he offered important insights into additional forms of nature oriented religions (Taylor 2001, 2002). In this previous work, Taylor utilized aspects o


69 religions that were emerging during post 1960s era and who were known for cr eatively exchanging ideology. 16 Looking at earth and nature based spiritual i ties therefore, he argued that although participants in countercultural movements often intentionally avoid the label of religion that they were indeed religious movements. His argument was that in these groups and associations these people were finding ultimate meaning and transform ative power in nature Also, of great significance to his project was that Taylor, like Campbell, agreed that these trends were not being isolated to the counter culture. of religion were more fully developed in his book Dark Green Religion (2010) in which he coined the term D ark G reen R eligion To provide greater clarity about this form of spir ituality Taylor explained: Dark Green Religion perceives the earth and its living systems to be sacred and interconnected. Dark green religion is generally deep ecological, bioentric, or ecocentric, considering all species to be intrinsically valuable, tha 13). Taylor argued that DGR has two maj or forms, gaian and animistic and also suggested that this form of spirituality was far more prevalent than people realize see Table 1 1 16 he drew upon Colin Campbell and his idea about the cultic milieu. Campbell was a British sociologist who wrote "The Cult, the Cultic Milieu and Secularization" and his goal was to draw scholarly attention to ligious or quasi religious collectivity which is and Helne Lw (ed) 2002: 12). The significance of his work is the argument that the cultic milieu fun This made such countercultural groups hard to track and study, but what was were identifiable and that it was a constant feature of society. For Campbell, counter culture is therefore always emerging from and responding to more orthodox societal trends.


70 green religions The green religious phenomenon reflects the efforts of r eligious communities and more traditional religiou s traditions (Taylor 2010: 10). T hese are mentioned only as a way to proceed beyond them in his discussion of DGR. To introduce DGR Taylor began with an exploration of its intellectual roots and many manifestations within a variety of venues that included the environmental milieu, the int ernational arena and co ntemporary society (Taylor 2010). As Taylor explained here (and elsewhere) the environmental milieu is a bricolage, an amalgamation, of bits and pieces of nature related ideas and practices drawn from a variety of environmentally en gaged social actors around the world ( Taylor 200 2 2010: 13 ). These diverse tributaries to this new religion are therefore not only necessary to explore for the purposes of better understanding DGR, but they are also present in some of the greening trends serves as a useful analytical template for both identifying and making sense of some of the influences informing these greening trends in the educational arena today. By better understanding DGR itself it will be possib le to identify these phenomena when there is evidence that resembles it in the forthcoming case studies. Dark Green Religion includes a wide array of tributaries including a revival of indigenous traditions, deep ecology, bioregionalism, new a ge religion a nd what is considered by Taylor to be movements that are greening science as well. Taylor concluded his book with a discussion about the promise and peril presented by this sort


71 of religion and provided a way for me to examine the possibilities of this ph enomenon in educational systems with a critical eye toward some of the issues that should be under consideration as future work unfolds in this area of both DGR and its presence in sustainability trends in schools. As Taylor explained DGR is often outsid e of traditional religious organizations, but it resembles religion. It is, in other words, not a kind of religion yet recognized by world parliament of religions even though it is a s widespread as most religions (Taylor 2010: 217). It is a religion that considers nature to be sacred and it has both potentially malevolent and beneficent forms (Taylor 2010: 10). According to Taylor, however, DGR has several, identifiable key characteris tics which include: 1. Nature is Sacred 2. deserve respect and reverence. 3. All life forms share a common ancestor and thus are kin, with corresponding moral responsibilities. 4. H umility about the human place in the grand scheme of things 5. Ecology based metaphysics of interconnection and mutual dependence 6. Deep feelings of belonging and connection to nature 17 Dark Green R el igion, however, is not simple. ins titutions officially devoted to its promotion, nor any officially adopted sacred text (Taylor 2010: 217) Instead, as Taylor explained, although there are no o fficial institutions promoting Dark Green R eligion, there are institutions promoting it and any 17 This data i s from Bron Taylor and his This data was obtained in the form of an email message to author from Bron Taylor < bron@religion.ufl.edu >, March 23, 2013.


72 behaviors that flow from it in its quest to overturn the dominant order and create a sustainable world based upon a reverence for life (Taylor 2010: 195). Prior to a closer look at some of the specific tributaries flowing into and out of DGR that are most schools, a brief overview of its intellectual foundations and some of the different inst itutions working to promote it must be established. Taylor argued that DGR has revered elders who inc lude a wide array of individuals including: Darwin, Carson, Thoreau, Leopold, Muir, Goodall and Lovelock among others (Taylor 2010: 17 39). The revered elders, whose intimate relationship with the natural world and recognition of its intrinsic value help provide evidence for my argument that some of the current greening trends in secondary schools have a deep history. The influences of these DGR elders suggests that the role of religion in education is complex and that both religion and nature are necessa ry variables to closely scrutinize in these new greening trends because these trends may be new manifestations of previously established historic trajectories. In addition to DGR disseminated in a wide variety of ways which includes education, social actors, the arts, political policies, religions, grassroots organizations which are all, collectively, contributing to a cultural change. The Earth Charter movement and current theological reflectio ns in a variety of traditions have both been inspired by aspects of DGR and these also both operate as carriers of this spirituality (Taylor 2010: 217). Th e idea that DGR has a wide variety of influences flowing into and out of it is of particular importan ce to this project because it allowed me to scrutinize high schools and the ways that they


73 might be both influenced by DGR and promoting such spirituality. A closer examination of some of the tributaries that are most relevant to this project will therefor e help establish the aspects of religion that I found most prominent in my research about greening trends in secondary schools. The individual case studies will then reveal the evidence, but a better understanding of deep ecology, bioregionalism, tradition al ecological knowledge (TEK), new age spirituality, paganism, sustainable agricult ure, conservation biology, and e co psychology makes identifying religion in the greening trends easier in the chapters ahead. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) The im sustainability is addressed throughout this project. Prior to a more in depth discussion of indigenous perspectives and their contributions through the lens of Traditional Ecological Knowledg e, it is useful to set the stage by heeding the reminder that John Grim, a leading scholar on indigenous people and ecology, often begins his own work with: a ny discussion of Native American worldviews and ecology should begin with an appreciation for the diverse relationships between various human communities and the land on which particular traditions have been nurtured (Grim 1994 : 41). He also reminds readers that t here is much diversity among Native American worldviews and over five hundred distinct cul tural traditions on the North American continent alone. There are, moreover, also differences between native peoples within any one nativ e community ( Grim 1994 : 41). One way that this voice is recognized is through the contributions of Tradition Ecological K nowledge (TEK). TEK is defined as a cumulative body of knowledge, practice and belief, evolving by adaptive processes and


74 handed down through generations by cultural transmission, about the relationship of living beings (including humans) with one another and with their environment (Berkes 1999: 8). The applications of TEK are interpreted in different ways by different scholars, but many of them offer interesting ways to think about crafting an environmental ethic either with this knowledge in mind or drawing from aspects of it (Shepard 2004; Berkes 1999 through the genome to the foraging ancestors of the past (Shepard 2004: 172). He therefore believed people could journey to the primal world and then help shape, in detail, the present time (Shepard 2004: 173). Berkes explained his own strategy for utilizing TEK best as the cultivation of a knowledge practice belief complex which included ethics and values (Berkes 1 999:14). This claim is of particular interest because Berkes acknowledged that he was educated with the standard machine like view of ecosystems. He noted there was little room for the discussion of ecological ethics and even less of the sacred. He came t o believe, however, that both local knowledge and scientific knowledge was important for resource management (Berkes 1999: 179). Also, of interest to this project critics of certain educational pract ices to day but I found that some Independent schools recognized the value and significance of the local native people and were drawing upon this knowledge in their efforts to gr een their school communities (Orr 1992, 1994; Bowers 1995, 2001; McLaren 1998) The forthcomi ng chapter will help explain why some of the school attention of bioregions is of importance when exploring sustainability issues.


75 es was that it was not only the historical component that was important (in allowing humanity to recover or create of a more sustainable state of being), but these theories also shared a material component. Berkes claimed that a crisis in resources maybe be a necessary ingredient of social learning and Shepard noted that ideation alone always fails (Berkes 1999: also a context within which people can more fully realize their 5). For both thinkers, therefore, the natural world played a significant role in the cultures that evolved as people sorted out their relationships to it and this provides much food for thought for potential education reforms in the future. Eco psychology Paul Shepard also made significant contributions to another important tributary flowing into and out of DGR and this movement also has its theoretical roots in the natural world. Shepard is sometimes referenced as the father of hum an ecology and the greate st contributor to the field of e co psychology as he was the first to provide a destructive environmental behavior (Shepard 1998: 21). Eco psychology and the theorists in it are usually part of other contemporary environmental and sustainability subcultures as well. Eco psychology presents itself in accord with a common epistemology with normative implications found in the en vironmental milieu. Eco psy chology asserts that the human mind does not stand wholly apart from the natural world but is deeply rooted in and tangled up with it; the human psyche is a phenomenon of nature, an aspect of the larger psyche of nature (Fishe r 2005: 557 ).


76 Gregory Bateson for example, shared this perspective into his ideas about the mind as a subsystem of the e argued that an it could not be separated from the surrounding life systems. Similar to the biophilia hypothesis, there are radical consequences to this theory. In this case, the relationship between humans and nature are in the context of mutual dependence. As Kocku Von linked to the survival of for this project is that there is a strong claim by those in this field that psychological well being ultimately involves establishing mature, reciprocal relationships with the natural world. Humans can recover a shared ecological identity if they recover the sense of wonder and d elight that comes with being human in a greater circle of animals, plants, and 2005: 1538). Eco psychology, in other words, thus maintained that the pursuit of human sanity, spiritual fulfillment and environmental recovery are closely r elated (Fisher 2005: 558). The applications of e co psychology to this project involve the increased research in this field about the benefits of nature and also an acknowledgement that there is an increased interest in the field of Environmental Psycholo gy unfolding in the Independent secondary school realm. Richard Louv leads the way in this area with his theory about


77 ature he explained as the lack of opportunities for children to connect with the natural world. This disorder is not an actual medical diagnosis, but adherents to this idea argue that a nature deficit does have some negative consequences. There is growing evidence that chil dren s physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well being are all affected when they do not have the opportunity to connect with nature (Wells 2000; Kaplan 2005; Kellert 2005 a, 2005b ; Louv 2006 about the nature deficit disorder and the nature principle as a part of their rational for increased experiential education Schools also use his ideas to justify other aspects of unfolding greening trends such as the founding of school gardens for students to work in and learn from. 18 The specific benefits of this increased contact with nature remains a fertile area for increased inquiry and research as well. Bioregionalism One of the main tributaries flowing in and out of DGR that also resonates with some of the greening trends in secondary education is Bio regionalism. This is a perspective comprised of groups who recognize the importance of nature on culture. Collectively they are informed by the theory that supposes those who live in a place, and know it, would thus take better care of it (Thayer 2003; Jackson 2003; Thomashow 2003). For the purposes of this project, therefore, bioregionalism will be defined as a framework used to study the complex relationships between human communities, government institutions and the natural world (McGinnis 1999: 4 ) Simply put, 18 Apocalypse No: Something large and hopeful is forming out http://richardlouv.com/blog/APOCALYPSE NO/ accessed February, 13, 2012.


78 bioregionalism is a body of thought and related practice that is derived from living in millennium, bioregionalism off ers the best hope we have for creating an interdependent web of self reliant 1999: 38). Similar to other definitions in this project the definition of bioregionalism is flexible and the bioregionalist philosophy has been infl uenced by many different voices in both the social and ecological movements (Dodge 1981; Bender 2003; McGinnis 1999; Aberly 1999; Taylor 2000). Some of these voices are those that support the spiritual, sacramental, psychological, and biophysical connecti ons between human beings, the human awareness of place and commu nity, and the understanding of n ature as part of a larger circle of animals, plants, and insects. The movement, however, is often understood to be a call for action or activism in support of a renewed civic responsibility and ecological stewardship with respect to communities of place (Taylor 2000; Jordan 2003; McGinnis 1999; Thomashow 2002). There are scientists, poets, nature writings and community activists who support place based economic and political relationships and it will become evident throughout the case studies how much potential this framework has for future education reforms as well. Despite the flexibility of the above definition and the multiplicity of voices influencing this movement it is, however, possible to summarize a few of the characteristics of the b ioregionalist worldview. Doug Aberly cited the follo wing characteristics among all b ioregionalists. First, they share the belief that a social and ecological crisis exists and the root causes of this crisis are the nation state (and industrial capitalism) and their measurement of progress by the acquisition of stuff.


79 Bioregionalists share the vision for sustainability as equitably distributed achievement of ecological and e conomic quality of life. They believe that humans and other species have an intrinsic right to co evolve and that bioregional based cultures should be knowledgeable of past and present indigenous cultural foundations. Bioregionalists also believe that gov ernance is autonomous, democratic and should employ culturally sensitive participat ory decision making. Finally, b ioregionalists believe that humans role in the economy needs to be reintegrated with ecological processes by understanding carrying capacity preservation and restoration of native diversity and ecosystem health (Aberly 1999: 37). Bioregionalists thus argue the most logical scales and places to work toward hat people who are most actively engaged in the ecology, human and nonhuman will act in the best interest of the overall health of the place (Thomashaw 2003: 5). This idea that with right knowledge, proper action follows is not a new argument, but nor is i t an uncontested one. This will therefore be of continued interest as the role and function of education in the sustainability movement gets brought into the discussion. Although Bioregionalism is indeed diverse, one of the common trends amongst bioregio nalists is their opposition to both globalization and indust rialism (Berry 1977; McGinnis 1999; Bender 2003 ). As McGinnis explained bioregionalists remain disheartened by the ceaseless mechanization of human labor, and the general transformation of commun ity based economies into large scale, formal economies which support mass production and overconsumption (McGinnis 1999: 3). This opposition to globalization and industrialism therefore serves as a segway into another


80 tributary that focuses on food product ion and sustainable agriculture Farming and food production are also way s to understand bioregionalism in practice. Food, farming and sustainable a griculture As Whitney Sanford explained, the importance of agriculture in conversations about sustainability is significant for several reasons. She noted that food production is ctly impact the environment, human health and that food has connections with issues related to social equity (Sanford 2012: 6). Scholarship about sustainable agriculture also reveals that industrial agricultural methods are not the only way to grow food. term yields et al. 2000: 103). As Sanford explained, there are people thinking about ot her ways of growing food who can be best described as farmers, scholars, and activists such as consumers about the environmental and social devastation associated with industrial agricult ure illuminate how industrial agriculture Topsoil around the world fo r example, (Chapman et al. 2000: 24). A brief summary of some alternative methods of agriculture is useful for providing context for the forthcoming discussion about the impact of s uch ideas and practices on sustainability trends as they emerge in secondary school communities. Alternative methods of farming and food production


81 designate a set of agricultural practices that are deliberately differentiated from what is considered conve ntional agriculture; they include (but are not limited to) organic agriculture, ecological agriculture, agro ecological restoration, and agroecology (Sanford 2012: 16). One method of alternative agriculture is organic agriculture. As Michael Pollan argued organic gardeners are in the forefront of a serious effort to save the world by superindustrial state, toward a simpler, realer, on to one relationship with the earth itself (P ollan 2006: 142) He explained that an organic garden was initially imagined as a way to model a more oward nature : 143). Organic gardens produced highlight ing the idea that everything was connected to eve rything else and provides an alternative system of production, distribution, and consumption. Organic gardens were, in part, an alternative to capitalistic food production and there was more at stake than just the method of farming (Pollan 2006: 143). As brown foods, foods less processed by industrial food production, became (Pollan 2006: 1 44). This history demonstrates how one way of alternative ag riculture relates to sustainability. It impacted the economy (by undermining the capitalistic machine in terms of distribution efforts) (positively) and connected to social justice issues (facilitated solidarity with minorities) Other alternative agricultural methods include ideas from agroecology and restoration ecology. These methods approach agriculture as something that is


82 They underst and agricultural on different scales with a ongoing dialogue between human and non Similarly, these alternative approaches to between human beings and the land, changing the trope from one of domination to one restoration ecology and agroecol ogical restoration (Sanford 2012: 211). As the forthcomin g case studies reveal these kinds of models are already being ut i lized and engaged on secondary schoo l campuses as students learn about and practice alternative food production practices in their school communities. Sanford also suggested that alternative approaches to agriculture are important because they provide a possible paradigm for helping people i magine how to revise roles within the biotic community (Sanford 2012: 211). She argued that these d and assist in the 2012: 205). Thus, issues related to sustainable agriculture have particular relevance to this project because food, in addition to energy, transportation an d hazardous chemicals, is one type of consumption that Americans should be paying particular attention to as they consider issues related to sustainability (Chapman et al. 2000: 105). As the forthcoming case studies reveal, some secondary school communities provide


83 evid ence that consideration s about food production and consumption have indeed, been taken seriously value of these gardens will become increasingly clear in the discussions about specific schools that do intention ally utilize some of these alternative approaches to industria l a griculture (Stone 2005: 228). As Sanford explained, school gardens and their qualities important for citizenship in human communities and illustrate how these qualities coul The significance of critically engaging approaches to agriculture and food issues also invites a re t hinking about how people percei ve and use land One of the significant outcomes of critical ly examining food production is that it encourages a re examination of American perceptions of and attitudes toward land. As this project unfolds, the nship with land will become clear er Two viewpoints about the na tural world, however, that have prevailed throughout American history inclu de a very romanticized notion about wilderness and/or about an ideal form of pastoral nature. Both of these ideas are problematic One the one hand they offer the conceptual tools to wrestle with the disturbing elements associated with agriculture, such as hunger, fertility and the need for productivity Similarly, they also relationships between humans and the earth might look like (Sanford 2012: 164).


84 Conversations about alternative agricultural methods, and more specifically school gardens or Farm to Table programs, however, necessitate a re evaluation of F arm to S chool programs for example, help students appreciate wher e their food comes from and the rich web of interdependence connecting them to farmers 41). While engaging in agriculture activities, moreover, humans have to use the earth to get their food and they also he in agricultural practices (Sanford 2012: 163). Sanford thus argued that an examination of alternative agriculture In this conversation agricultural land is no longer relegated to the margins of and such conversations offer possibilities for establishing new and more sustainable relationships with the land (San ford 2012: 173). Thus, while size fits all solution exists to land use challenges, Sanford concluded that it is possible to learn from attempts to rethink food production at individual, group and even corporate levels while recognizing that solutions will emerge based on a combination of personal ities, local struc tures and biophysical realities (Sanford 2012: 196). This idea is also purported by Fred Kirschenmann whose vision of food and the agriculture system is derived from his own experiences as a farmer. Kirschenmann explained that rather than that the system needs rethought entirely. Not only is not enough of a change, but that specialization of farming pr actices is also the wrong way to imagine the future of


85 and re thinking school lunch programs and implementing edible school yards in educational communities may just be that next agricultural alternative worth examining as a way into imaging the future of food in the educational arena (Pearsall 2013) A nother benefit to engaging in a conversation about alter native agriculture m ethods is that this lens provides an opportunity to see some of the important ways that Wendell Berry said itual dimensions (Berry 1987: 138). As Sanford noted this kind of spiritual and practical approach greatly contrasts traditional agriculture because in many indigenous practices the people demonstrate both care for and a kind of partnership with the natu ral world (Sanford 2012: 186). Without romanticizing the nature human relations of indigenous peoples, Sanford explained how most indigenous culture or ecosystems draw upon something known as situated knowledge and live within the context of a dialectical relationship. As explained in the discussion about TEK, knowledge emerges from practice and interaction within the context of subject subject relationships (Sanford 2012: 187) Natural phenomena, moreover are represented in kinship terms and this co ntextual knowledge means that these groups know the local flora and fauna through personalized relationships, not through the abstractions that objective science presents (Sanford 2012: 188 ). The significance of this perspective is that in an increased a wareness about how Native Americans related to the land, it becomes increasingly cle ar that the pure, vision of nature without people, that informed the concepts of


86 wi lderness was inaccurate because indeed, the early American landscape has been vastly alte red and was used by indigenous populations but in sustainable ways The perception the Puritans (and others throughout history) who have approached the idea of land as needing improvements because they perceived is therefore revealed a misunderstanding of what early peoples relationship to the land entailed. Acknowledging the relationship and learning from i ndigenous land use practices through their ideas about food production provides a corrective to that historical (mis)und erstanding and offers tools for re thinking conventional agricultural practices in use today (Sanford 2012: 176). Deep e cology Deep Ecology is a philosophy often connected to b ioregionalism and is best understood as that which signifies both its tems and ethical obligations to protect them, as well as the global environmental movements that bears its name (Taylor and Zimmerman 2005: 456). Deep e cology has great signif icance to this project. First, deep e cology is the tributary most cited when referencing biocentrism or ecocentrism. S econd, Bron Taylor argued that deep e cology has become the de facto social philosophy of bioregionalism. Third, because during the 1980 s, this tribu tary became a more integral component of seemed to suggest a spiritual or religious component and egalitarianism among all species (Ricketts 2010: 42). The term and philosophy includes many deeply held spiritual relations and ideas about connectio ns to the natural world (Bender 2003; Gottlieb 2006, 2008; Taylor 2000, 2001, 2010). This p articular connection will be


87 explored within the arenas of Independent schools themselves, but it is noteworthy that even the sustainability literature is citing the spiritual component of this kind of commitment to the Earth. Deep e cology was a term firs t coined by Arne Naess in 1972 and Naess then worked with George Sessions to develop the eight point platform in the book Deep Ecology: Living as if Nature Mattered (1985) written by George Sessions and Bill Duval. One of the interesting aspects of this pa rticular tributary, especially in terms of better understanding the diversit y of ways that DGR may get disseminated by a wide variety of institutions and methods, is that this philosophy arose as a part of academic discourse, but has been appropriated by m any environmentalists, Buddhists, and others who resonate with some of the tenants of this philosophy. Th e significance of this is that u niversities and high schools may play an increased role in the dissemination of other information and ideas related to DGR in the future as well. Deep e cology offers an alternative to and works to undermine the more traditional modern values embedded in Western, capitalistic ideas. These values include economic growth, progress, property rights, consumerism, religious do ctrines involving notions about humanity's domination over nature, and optimism that technology can achieve an optimum human existence which will occur at the expense of all other life (Bender 2003 : 21). Bender and other advo cates of deep e cology thus stre ss that its non dualist positions is what is most significant by emphasiz ing the idea that nature has intrinsic worth. Deep ecology has also grown to encompass deeply held spiritual relations (mostly of non Abrahamic faiths) and acknowledges human connecti on to the natural world. T here are, moreover, aspects of deep e cology that


8 8 emphasize the notion of an ecological self or a transformation of consciousness where one views themselves not as separate and superior to all else, but rather as a small pa rt of the entire cosmos (Taylor and Zimmerman 2005: 456). Pagans and New A ge Spirituality Among the different groups who contribute to or emerge out of DGR are those known for their revitalization of nature religions such as contemporary pagan groups or those wh o adhere to new age spiritualities. Some of these new religious movements seek to recover pre Christian pagan pasts in which humans lived in a perceived harmony with the natural world ( Pike 2004; Shepard 2004) Contemporary pagans include a group of relig There are different paths for contemporary pagan groups (Druids, Heathens, and goddess spirituality groups) and each path gets further divided into local, regional or global affinity groups. There are no hierarchies among these groups and the physicality of nature and the idea that nature is seen as a context for self discovery serves as common ground between all the di fferent pagan paths; these movements often do also intersect with environmentalism (Harvey 2005: 1248). A Neopagan identity also involves a clear rejection of the definition that defines New Agers (Pike 2004: 22). Neopagans focus on reinventing religions of the past, particularly in their efforts to revive ancient pre Christian nature religions, but Neopagans also create new religions by borrowing from Native American cultures t oo (Pike 2004: 20). Rituals are the touchstone of the Neopagan identity and com munity. Neopagans honor the cycles of nature and see themselves as stewards of the earth, but this does not necessarily require social or political activism (Pike 2004: 33).


89 In contrast to the Neopagans, New Agers have distinctive elements that comprise t heir identity too. This movement i 2005: 1193) They believe that humanity is entering into the Age of Aquarius (characterized by a time of balance between men and women, whe re there will be no power obsessions or aggressive behavior. This new era of consciousness is a time when civilization will be in tune with nature) (York 2005: 1193). Unlike Neopagan s, who look to the past as a source o f inspiration, New Agers focus on t consciousness (Pike 2004: 159). New Agers believe that positive thinking i s an effective way to prod uce change and that salvation co me s cultivation of o with a particular focus on channeling, psychic readings, personal healing that draw upon ancient or indigenous cultural practices such as yoga, meditation or affinity with spirit guides (Pike 2004: 24) They feel people have a special re sponsibility to the planet and demonstrate this with their emphasis on holistic thinking For New Agers everyday activities often take on a cosmic significance (Pike 2004: 23) One of the main differences between Neopagans and New Agers, therefore, is t hat New which makes this particular tributary important to t his project. New Agers believe that the well being of themselves is as important as the well being of the world which resonates with some of the ideas emerging on Independent school campuses and in the Eco psychology movement as well (Pike 2004: 157).


90 Neopagan s and New Agers are individual traditions, but they share many characteristics Both movements understand the divine power as a great goddess, the planet (Gaia) or through a variety of polytheistic beliefs. They both have a sense of plays an important role helping the individual in that personal search (Pike 2004: 17). They both emphasize harmony and healing, romanticize ancient and non Christian cultures as possessing th at people have the ability to heal the earth or move it toward a healthier (more natural) state (Pike 2007:105). It was therefore not surprising to me that some of the contemporary educators initiating the greening tr ends have knowingly (or unknowi ngly) incorporat ed aspects from both traditions although the New Age beliefs appeared more prevalent in efforts on campus made toward the preservation of or education about the environment. The Greening of Science Bioregionalists, Deep Ecologists and sus tain able agriculturalists all share a strong aversion to Western science because it is viewed as part of the problematic dominant paradigm. There are however, also individuals and movements who are actually using science to cultivate their spiritualities Th is greening of science tributary is not only important for better understanding aspects of DGR, but it is also important to understand because the greening of science is one of the most overt trends found in greening patterns in Independent schools. The i Taylor 2010: 200). Some of the individuals participating in this


91 process have a lready been discussed such as Berry and Swimme who demonstrated the rise of Gaia spirituality in their promotion of a sacred creation story in the science of evolution. There are also those who might be classified as bioregionalists, but who do ritual work to restore habitats. offered much to think about as I analyzed the greening trends and patterns I observed on certain high school campuses. Jordan began his own work with the premise that humans are losing intimate connections with n ature, but he argued that through the ritual of restoration there was a way back to this interconnectivity. At the deepest level, ritual offers the only means we have of transcending, criticizing, or revising a morality or ethical formulation prescribed by authority or handed down by tradition Most fundamentally, it is the means by which humans generate, recreate, and renew transcendent values such as community, meaning, beauty, love, and the sacred, on which both ethics and morality depend (Jordan 2003 : 5). Ultimately Jordan suggested that people could begin to reconnect with nature by participating in an exploration of the process and study the ecosystems that they were working to restore Eventually, he thought they would begin to see its value as a n experience, the subjective side of process, and ultimately as a performance, an expressive act and a context for the creation of higher values such as meaning, beauty, and community (Jordan 2003: 19). Jordan also recognized that there was an element of public involvement in restoration practices which helped build community. Restoration efforts therefore not only linked human to nature communities, but they could also be a powerful force for joining human to humans in community as well This suggests tha t restoration efforts


92 are a way forward not only to environmental sustainability, but possibly toward social sustainability as well. about restoration ecology he proposed a way to an ethic, a process by which we might create the values on which any system of ethics is based while giving those values a hold on the consciences of individuals or groups of people (Jordan 2013: 4). His work captured my interest because perhaps what is underway in secondary schools is that people participate in greening efforts (recycling, updating their buildings to be LEED certified, starting farm to food programs at their schools and teaching about science in experiential ways that even include res toration efforts in some cases) reflects a way to practice greening of a community. It is possible therefore that the ethic in these communities is yet to follow. In these green schools, I ultimately do argue (similar to Jordan and Orr) that being green is about more than just learning or studying about science, nature or sustainability iss ues Jordan, and Orr alike, argue that there is something else going on in the learning process that engages science worthy of the effo rt, is an applied subject. Its goal is not just a comprehension of how 87). Jor as a way to an ethic thus inspired me to look for this as a possibility in the greening trends and practices unfolding on school campuses. Other individuals who find a spiritual affinity in science were scholars such as Wilson and Kellert who articulated the biophilia hypothesis as I previously discussed. Additional efforts to green science are also reflected however in the ideas of Michael Soule (the fou nder of conservation biology), David Takacs (who wrote about the


93 importance of biodiversity), and Donald Worster W hat each of these theorists share is that they collectively contribute to the new cultural production that is underway in regard nderstanding of science (Worster 1994; Soule 2005; Takacs 1996 ). Of these aforementioned scholars, project. Worster argued that cultural perceptions shaped the way one viewed the natural world and thus shaped what was actually seen. Worster traced the history of ecological ideas in Western culture As he exp lained the origins of the concept of ecology, he discussed the thinkers who have shaped it and showed how ecology has nature. Worster used the different models of ecology, which have existed throughout the ages, to expose a broader set of ideas that have shaped history to suggest that science might instead be the answer His historical discussion was important because it revealed that the history of ecology has existed a l ot long longer than many have assumed. It also illuminated that humans must understand the natural world, and their relationships to it, in a broad context if they were to truly have a perspective on how their own patterns of behavior in the natural world, on what the implications of such behaviors might be and on the origins of such behaviors. Worster also noted that change was real (as demonstrated by all the different ecological models) and that changes themselves vary. Different changes, therefore, imp acted history to varying degrees. This was important to his argument because he noted that we can derive certain lessons from nature about these changes. History, for example, has shown us that the equilibrium model was gone and that the new ecology


94 place d an emphasis on disturbances (Worster1994: 428). This new ecological model will have a significant influence on how humans relate to the natural world in the future, but for now Worster simply acknowledged that until we update our understanding of the cur rent ecolog ical model as whole society, that current affairs are not good. Worster was very clear that we need a different way of living. Drawing upon his work I thought it relevant for this project to examine the ways in which science is being perceived and world is being studied in high school history classes now or in the future. The aforementioned tributaries flowing in and out of DGR are those aspects of this spir ituality that most significantly inform the greening trends in Independent schools. Having established some clarity about them allows for greater understanding in the unfolding discussion about how some greening trends in Independent schools include religi on greening trends is that not only that aspects of DGR are found in Independent school education, but the presence of these viewpoints on certain campuses is also signifi cant because this implies that some Independent schools are then carriers of this spirituality as well. Analytical Template 7 : Global Earth Ethic and Civil Religion Thesis Taylor argued that education was an important place of ferment for new cultural prod uction and that universities are places where sacred narratives were taught in new ways (Taylor 2010: 209 212). These new narratives are the ones in which science is sacred and the transformation of curriculum at universities has especially intensified po st Darwin (Taylor 2005 c : xx). The curriculum, the graduate programs offered and the new discussions underway in the realm of higher education are all indicators that ideas


95 about naturalistic religion are gaining traction, but I argue that this phenomenon is equally true in the high school arena as well. The importance of universities or high schools as institutions working to disseminate new cultural production provide clarity about both Taylor and Daniel s that institutional structures were necessary to accompany the ideas from deep ecology and the practices of b ioregionalism if these tributaries were to have a significant influence on larger cultural change Both Taylor and Deudney agreed that that bioregionalism was fractured and pot entially politically problematic. Deudney (Taylor 2000: 285). Deudney thus coined th for different methods of political association based on loyalty to Earth itself rather than the current adherence to individual nation states. Taylor then explored the possibilities s notions about the creation of a legitimate international governance evolved that would be grounded in a federal republican Earth constitution. possibly include a Gaian Earth religiosity (Taylor 2000: 286). As Taylor has more recently argued, however, a global, civic environmentalist earth religion might already be unfolding (Taylor 2010: 196). To clarify what this planetary earth ethic includes aspects of civil relig ion must be understood. Taylor explained that a civil religion includes the notion of nationalism 196). ces and


96 196). Similarly, by the definition of civil religion, a nation is consecrated through myths, rituals and in modifications to the environment through the construction of monume nts, memorials, parks and other public spaces. The nation includes references to religion that do not which is an important prerequisite to patriotism in a given nation. As Taylor expl ained, civil religion may also include ethical obligations that can have a prophetic dimension. If people do not fulfill their duties then the divine blessing and protection might be withdrawn (Taylor 2010: 196). With these characteristics of civil relig ion in mind, Taylor noted how these D ark G reen R and how this kind of earth nationalism might then give rise to the emergence of a green culture that would replace or moderate sta te and ethnic nationalism (Taylor 2010: 196 incompatible with the form of pol 197). To overcome these constraints an earth religion was necessary as this would help bring about a cultural transformation which is (according to Deudney) the only way to avoid an environmental catastrophe answer to the formation of a legitimate source of authority (Taylor 2010: 187). The basis religion which is republic Earth constitution. It potentially could underpin the social norms and behaviors of restraint that


97 are necessary to achieve a sustainable society by providing a system of meaning that can span generations and foster a sense of transgenerational com munal identity (Deudney 1998 in Taylor 2010: 198). Deudney also suggested that multiple existing processes of environmental governance formation, once underway, could be viewed as a subcommittee meeting of an Earth Constitutional Convention. Included in these processes would be the various UN (Taylor 2010: 198). This possible emergent global ethic with its accompanying Ga ian strengthened international governance is essential to halt and reverse destructive igion in education is (or might) both be informed by and work to inform such a (potentially necessary) governance body (Taylor 2010: 199). especially with the possible pararel igious component, and more evidence suggesting the possibility that this emergent ethic is already underway is found in the Independent policies are indeed necessar y to bring about social change related to creating is precisely one of the catal ytic variables in the emergence of this ethic in particular Independent schools.


98 Conclusion The analytical lenses informing this project provide a glimpse of how rich and dynamic the influences on these greening trends in secondary schools are and they al so provide frameworks for better understanding if and in what ways these trends might be significant. These lenses were informed by establ ished scholars in the fields of religious studies, environmental ethics and religion and n ature whose ideas were not only used for the purpose of strengthening my own arguments, but whose ideas I will critically respond to as the discussion continues in my effort to broaden the conversation about education, religion and sustainability in America The discussion now pro ceeds with a focus on the historical conundrums that exist regarding religion and education against the backdrop of the many complex ways that Americans have approached and understood their own historic relationship with the natural world.


99 Table 1 1 Characteristics of DGR t ypes Animism Gaian earth r eligion Supernaturalism Spiritual Animism Believe that non human life forms have a spirit, soul, consciousness, spiritual intelligence, powers Includes ethical mores specifying the sorts of relationships people should diverse beings Supernatural expression/communication with life forces Gaian Spirituality Organistic realm Believe the b iosphere/cosmos/universe as alive and conscious Believe the natural world h as many interdependent parts An e nergetic living system is fundamental and should be venerated and this c an be called God, Brahman, pantheistic, New Age Naturalism Naturalistic Animism Agnostic of any immaterial dimension Nothing seeking to communicate People can (or at least imagine) develop respectful, beneficial relationships with the non human world Gaian Naturalism Skeptical of supernatural metaphysics Mainstream science for understanding holistic metaphysics In awe of the complexity of the universe Rely on a religious language Belong to the universe

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100 CHAPTER 2 PAVING THE WAY: HISTORICAL FIGURES AND MOVEMENT THAT SET THE SCHOOLS Introduction Scholars have identified the potential culpability or potentiality of education in the ecological crisis debate as a salient issue. However, the role of religion in this debate, as well as in the educational arena also needs to be explored as the role of education (and Today, education in the U.S. is a market commodity, and parents may choose between public schools, charter schools, magnet schools, parochial schools, Independent schools, and h ome schooling, but this was not always the case. In the early days of the American republic, schools were established by the Puritans for the primary purpose of teaching reading so that students could learn to read the Bible and McGuffies reader. There wa s no distinction between private and public schools and schools were o vertly religious (Butler et al. 2000, 2003: 303). Since this project is, in part, an interrogation about if (and if so what kind, and how) religion acts as a motivating force or hinders greening trends in American private schools, this chapter traces the development of religion and nat ure related beliefs and practices in the American republic. It is the intention of this chapter to show the deep cultural roots, and the relevance of this history, to sustainability education in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, starting with the Ri o declaration in 1992. It also, however, sets the stage for a an implicit variable, as an obstacle at times to sustainability studies, and as a curriculum topic.

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101 T he conversation ahead is chronologically structured by century. In each century I alternate between discussing the particular people and the development of religion and nature related beliefs before noting the specific conundrums that arose between religio n and education during each of these distinctive time periods in American history. This structure allows for a deeper understanding of the rich historical context in which greening trends in American Independent schools arose and demonstrates that religion has been an operative variable in the shaping of them all along. Encounter s and Per spectives The early encounters and perceptions between the colonists and the indigenous people of North America is the necessary starting point to adequately understand Am ericans' complex relationship with the land and the indigenous people, and to look from the beginning at the broader context for the emergence of ideas about American education and sustainability. on the indigenous people of North America this chapter will refer to these people by a variety of names including indigenous people, native Americans, and Indians. However, all these names refer to the same group of people, the original inhabitants of the North American continent that were present at the time of colonization, and whose ancestors are still around today. Indians, the indigenous people, were present at the founding of the American republic which created a legacy of treaties between Europeans and Indians. There is a rich cultural c ontribute to international economics, community development, and offer insights about agricultural ways of life (Barreiro 2010: xv). Collectively, these examples illuminate the et that

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102 e relationships with the land. There is still, however, great significance in indigenous has already been addressed in the previous discussion about TEK and indigenous perspectives about alternative agricultural methods (Grim 1994: 42). Scholarship of Ameri can history while inclusive of a re examination of Native Americans, still faces a great challenge as it works to give Native Americans a voice. As the forthcoming discussion reveals, there is a vast network of relationships and many influential variables that must be examined together, in a broad context, in order to appropriately understand the complex and diverse meanings of Native American encounters with the Europeans and political decisions that unfolded over the centuries. The indigenous people of N orth America were not passive agents in American history and they actively responded to their encounter with the Europeans in a wide variety of ways which included the intentional incorporation of certain aspects of the European culture, premeditated decis ions to solidify their own distinctive cultures or, at times, the decision to actively rebel and reject the European influence. As Vine Deloria has argued, many Indian people have refined new traditions that mingle white Indian difference with a more flui d social and cultural hybridity, white Americans have, for the most part, proved unable to follow their lead (Deloria 1998: 189).

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103 As the relationship between the Europeans and native North Americans is considered, the indigenous people have shown their cap acity for growth and change within their worldviews, despite the fragmentation and interruptions of have the capacity for growth and change wit hin their worldviews (Grim 1994: 43). This reminder is particular ly demonstrated in the intimacy of relations between the various indigenous peoples of North America and their bioregions is not a vag to the emergent conversations about education and sustainability issues (Grim 1994: 46). troublesome and the wisdom of indigenous people could help us solve humanki problems in science, engineering, art and in every arena Indigenous (Mohawk 1999). As Moha wk sufficiency is the antithesis of the global 1999 ). His point is that Indians have historical lifeways and perspectives that offer guidance toward ways of living that offer alternatives to conven typically have had to confront the reality that continued human survival relies upon the killing of plants and animals and they have developed rituals to acknowledge that the (Sanford 2012: 208).

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104 With such perspectives in mind, it seems apparent that the introduction of indigenous thought traditions into the ecological dialogue would be of v ital importance in relation to the current degraded state of regional environments around the globe (Grim 1994: 53). Over the course of American history the complex relationships between the Europeans and the indigenous people of North America have been dy namic and constantly in flux. Indigenous people, for example, were perceived by the Europeans as both savages, and at times, as ecologically superior to whites. Indigenous people were both a symbol be eliminated in order for the Europeans to gain control of the land as Europeans colonized the continent. Indigenous people were systematically eliminated from their homelands. More recently, the identities of the indigenous people have been appropriated by environmentalists for the sake of honoring the ecological wisdom that is attributed to them and their worldviews. 1 The significance of highlighting this complex web of dynamic relationships between ritical position in American identity, the impact that these relationships had on emer gent relationships with people and the land, and the ways in which indigenous people have (or have not) been included into the conversations about education and sustainability are significant. identity is 1 For more information about how envir Earthen Spirituality or Cultural Geno cide?: Radical Environmentalism's Appropriation of Native American Spirituality (Taylor 1997 ).

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105 genous people rpretations of during the Boston Tea Party, and used this transparent disguise to embody traits of irit of the 1998: 3). The significance of these different meanings of Indian Other s is that they erased social realities, distorted who the Indians were and misrepresented how European white relations actually unfolded. Europeans also appropriated aspects of Indian culture, such as communalism, politics and environmentalism, without oft en engaging Indians Europeans were binding Indians within their own white cultural constructs or drawing s it is clear that Indian European relations and Indian play itself reflects the characteristically American kind of domination in which the exercise of power was hidden, denied, qualified or mourned. Not surprisingly, Indian play proved a fitting way to negotiate social struggles within white society that required an equally opaque vision of power. (Deloria 1998: 187) This power variable is important to this project because it in fluences the complexity of Indian European relationships which shapes in what ways and to what extent

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106 educational arena today. out alternative agricultural practices has already explained, the ways Americans viewed and currently view land can be feet, included the idea of wilderness. Wilderness but the problem was that people were not included in this vision (Sanford 2012: 178). Some of the implications of this particular und erstanding of nature included the U.S. work of Mark Spence, who used national parks as a microcosm for examining the unequal relations between the United States and the native people, showed this shadow side of the emergent notions of wilderness (Spence 2000: 4). Spence thus argued that the A merican impulse to dominate and master nature (and people) had a significant impact on both social and constructed before it could be preserved, and thus the creation o f wilderness went hand in hand with native dispossession (Spence 2000: 4). This removal of the indigenous people from their land not only had obvious social discourse. T he long term health of the land was negatively impacted because, by

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107 contrast to what emerged as normative land use policies and relationships, indigenous term subsistenc their practices exemplify the metabolic relations described by Marx, in which humans, plants and animals coexist in dialectical and interdependent relationships and in which local knowledge results in protection of the long term health of the land (Sanford 2012: 192). This possibility, however, never had the chance to unfold in the developing nation. Americans had to forcibly remove or get the native people to voluntarily depart from the land. This caused an increased complexity in the relationships that were to unfold also became morally problematic for the Americans (Spence 2000: 101). On the one hand, there was the argument that the native pe ople had a moral right to be on the land that was set aside for National Parks. On the other hand, Americans wanted the Indians off this land and needed to strategize ways to remove them without blatantly disregarding this moral rights claim that they ackn owledged as valid. Spence hoped his work would reveal the degree to which older cultural values continue to shape environmental thinking (Spence 2000: 5). A mindfulness about this piece of history also helps raise awareness and provides a better model fo r future dialogue between natives and non and contemporary) have had (and still have) an ethical quandary about the complex ways in which Indian remains evident in the conversations that native Americans have (or have not) been included in about education and sustainability as well.

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108 The relevance of understanding the complex relationship that Americans have with indigenous peoples on the emergent sustainability discourse in secondary schools will continue to reveal itself in the forthcoming chapters. Schools today acknowledge community also recognizes that indig enous people have both a practical and spiritual relationship to the land. Today, applying a spiritual approach to ecological and political problems is referred to as Ecoism, but as John Mohawk explained, this is really just a cient tribal wisdom This kind of approach also resonates with Leopold, who gained moral guidance from this kind of nature based spirituality. Leopold and indigenous perspectives both approach the world with the idea ight for oneself is right for the other species and for the living earth built on conversation about sustainabil ity in the educational arena would be lacking a significant perspective if this voice was not listened to, incorporated or understood in all of its complexity (Barreiro 2010: xv). Framing the Problem: Establishing a National Identity (1700s) American attit udes toward both religion and nature were intimately connected to toward nature resulted in its appropriation as a political tool, viewing it as a commodity, I am usin g it as an escape from the developing civilization, and it also functioned as a springboard for philosophical inquiry into the nature of the Divine. In each case, nature remained both attractive and distasteful to Americans for a wide variety of reasons, b ut

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109 it is clear that the foundations of nature religion and the early conceptions of how religion was conceived in relationship to early education in America were complex. A wide variety of influences were therefore responsible for shaping the ambivalent a emerged and settled into its identity. Early attitudes about both religion and nature mindedness ab out nature was also characteristic of Americans opinions about the role purpose at this time was to help people understand the many tasks and problems that their new nation faced and to help future generations better understand how to participate in their new government. Before this clarity about what function schools would serve in the early Republic there was much debate surrounding the founding these early deliberati ons. Double mindedness or ambivalence about nature best characterizes the prevailing attitude about the natural world in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. To better understand this ambivalence it is helpful to understand that wilderness was feared and disliked by many of the early settlers and yet it attracted them from Europe the religious and political ideas found in this young nation.

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110 As religious s tudies schol ar Catherine Albanese explained, nature was defined least three different meanings after the Revolutionary War and they were all related to found political will according to unfailing law and corresponding to it the universal law that grounded human rights and d uties within the body politic (Albanese 1990: 50). As Albanese explained how these different definitions of nature evolved, she focused her examples on how these definitions played out in the theoretical frame on which to hang a civil religion of the American republic, and it also provided a grand principl e of obfuscation for patriots in the decades, even centuries, ing nationhood, requires a closer examination of Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson was not only ideals, therefore, not only provides insight into the early Republican identity, but it also

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111 system. itual and national ter for expansion not unlike the vision of those earlier puritans who, dissenting from New England church Jefferson characterized the mentality that would flourish into the 19th century and (Albanese 1990: 70). This attitude would be most vividly i llustrated in the doctrine and manifestation of Manifest Destiny (such as the Louisiana Purchase). Americans were destined to expand throughout the continent and in that process they would settle in new places and thus Nature was, through this process, to be conquered. Americans believed that settling the new land in the west was a way to differentiate themselves from the Old World as they established a superior civilization in their building of something better in this new world. (Albanese 1990: 77). Acc ording to Albanese, during this Revolutionary time, it was clear that one of the dominant themes of nature religion was about conquering and dominating the land and that this was very much tied to the political vision and leadership that was guiding the em erging identity of the Republic. and 1800s time differ. Catherine Albanese demonstrated how politicians in the

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112 emerging Republic drew upon concepts of nature as a political tool. She argued Americans did this to make themselves and their political system distinctive from Europe, and she argued they celebrated the conquering of nature as a way to illustrate the stre ngth of their emerging identity during the later 1700s and early 1800s. Roderick Nash, on the other hand, explained how Romanticism was the first source of secondary to thi s (Nash 1982 [1967]: 66). He argued the concept of wilderness changed under the influence of Romanticism because wilderness provided an escape to men who were fed up with civilization during the 18th and 19th centuries. Nash argued that wilderness offered an escape to scholarly men who were tired of civilization and discussed how primitivism, a component of Romanticism that that man should incorporate primitive appreciation for wilderness by positing the idea the universe had a Divine Source and that there was a sense of the sublime in nat ure. The Deists thus revered nature and its wisdom as they believed it came from a distant creator God and they cultivated an appreciation for nature in their own lives as a result of such beliefs (Nash 2001[1967] [1967]: 47). Romanticism, therefore, helpe d shaped an artistic movement in America argued that despite the efforts of the artists to

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113 Romantic enthusiasm for wilderness never seriously challenged the aversion in the The idea that this kind of ambivalence remained character istic of some of the great environmental heroes of the time, such as the writer, Henry David Thoreau and illustrated the prevailing attitude of ambivalence about nature (bec ause ultimately Thoreau believed that the ideal environment consisted of wilderness and civilization), but he also used Thoreau to demonstrate how this idea of escaping civilization evolved into a new way to understand the ever evolving concept of nature r eligion. The ideas of other Romantics were expanded on by Thoreau who believed that man was physically rooted in the material, but could transcend this condition. This evolution of how nature was perceived and then conveyed to others reshaped the underst anding of nature ideal of the pastoral and that he brought Americans another step close to appreciating wilderness (Nash 2001[1967]: 94). ture religion in America needs additional context because he is also cited as one of the founding fathers of what was previously described as Dark Green Religion (DGR). As Taylor argued, Thoreau was not only also to its promulgation. 2 According to 2 Dark Green Religion which details GR.

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114 cant to the environmental imagination Walden demonstrated how nature could be read and interpreted imaginatively as a sacred text in the new light of developmental science combined with recent forms of critical exegesi s applied to biblical texts (Gatta 2004: 141). included the commonplace facts and organisms expanded on the definition of nature as put forth by other Romantics (Gatta 2 004: 140). Despite these seemingly beneficial provide ample criticism of him too) I think the most interesting question to revisit here is argued that Thoreau had moved beyond this kind of transcendentalism, and that Albanese was wrong to not perceive this. If she [Albanese] is correct and nature was the penultimate for Thoreau, he could hardly be the true intellectual godfather of deep ecological biocentricism, as many claim to day (Taylor 2010: 55). important antecedent to the environmental movement (and eventually the sustainability movement) and that he was also a spiritual elder in the dark green religion movement (Taylor 2010: 58). Religion and Education in the 1700s: Ambivalence Prevails that existed in the early Republic there is context to more clearly underst and the

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115 unfolding relationship between religion and education at this time. Similar to the dueling perspectives about the natural world, there were powerful competing forces that influenced how the purpose of schools was envisioned. Daniel Howe argued tha is the discrepancy between the way the founders envisioned education and the paucity provide a state sponsored secular education that would serve as the foundation for American Republicanism, public education was not readily embraced as an issue that generated significant interest by the and reticence to recognize just how important religion was in the everyday lives of citizens. In fact, Howe showed that public education only became widespread and successful when reformers (in the 1830s) made a place for religion by meshing the values of Reformation with the values of the Enlightenment. As he explained, Christianity not only played a more active role in A merican life than the forefathers ever up and running. Like the other first six presidents, Jefferson supported the idea of a national university and state sponsored education. His support was, in part, due to his vision of government, religious freedom, and public education as believed that it was necessary to move toward the disestablishment of religion and free

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116 nation and ensure the security of self government. As Howe examined the general history of American education ( vision of a state sponsored secular education was not a foundation for American republicanism (Howe 2002: 1). Jefferson made numerous attempts to implement his plans for education in Virginia, but no ne of his ideas really ever got off the ground. Jefferson, for example, tried making education voluntary in 1796, he proposed a bill that made education compulsory in 1817 (which would revoke citizenship from those of either sex who remained illiterate aft er age fifteen), and he tried putting forth a vision of a comprehensive state education system that included grammar schools which would act as feeders for the proposed state university (Howe 2002: 5). He, however, struggled against the religious clergy an d their influence. This caused Jefferson to become isolated and lose support for his efforts to work toward his dream of making secular education the basis of the young republic. im pact on early education is significant. What is of more interest now and what is perhaps less well known, however, is that Jefferson had a strong reverence for the natural world. It may have been his stewardship toward nature influencing his vision in whic responsibility toward the great values of mankind in the teaching of whatever subject on d and that a general liberal foundation was necessary before specialization began. He

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117 also believed that the purpose of general education was to free the people from the coercion in religious matters because there could be no democracy without religious fr eedom (Ulrich 1945: 246). Jefferson was very utilitarian in his approach to education and his ideal programs of study were more closely related to patterns of modern professional life than any other educator at that time dared to dream about. Education, in other words, was to have a some important questions about the role of religion in education and he introduced a heightened emphasis on science in education which world and his own approach to religion inevitably shaped his contributions to early To better understand impacted his approach and philosophy about education it is relevant to note that Jefferson not only drew upon the Puritan ideal of pastoralism, but that he also recognized the sublime in nature (Taylor 20 10: 48). For Jefferson, the natural world was beautiful and especially when it was developed for agrarian purposes as this was a sign of progress and civilization in his mind. But Jefferson also was moved by places of natural beauty like the stone bridge recognition of the sublime in nature that was so influential, but rather, as John Gatta

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118 about land translated into his support for the Lewis and Clark expedition. Although he veiled his request for sup port from the Senate in his stated purposes that this trip expansionism to the far sea (DeVoto 19 81: xxv). The most significant outcome of flora, and fauna. This provided an underst 1981: lx). Jefferson connected people to the earth through agriculture and adventure into unknown territories, and today, in environmental circles and in some Independent school curriculums, the bond of connection to the land is important whether that be in the school garden or heading off into the wilderness. Critics of Jefferson (such as Catherine Albanese), however, might a rgue that education is a part of the problem when examining the role education may play in the nature religion of the soil was a charter for expansion not unlike the vision of those earlier puritans who, dissenting from New England church leaders, had south wilderness tributed to the conquering mentality of the West, at the very least, he inspired a fundamental premise of connection that would be important as the religion and nature conversation expanded in

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119 the years to come. It is arguable, moreover, that his architect the land impacted his decisions about education as seen by the large space he gave in his university to the departments or schools occupied with science or applications of the sciences (Ulrich 1945: 250). I am putting forth a mor e sympathetic interpretation of in American Independent schools today. Whereas Albanese argued that the Jefferson nationhood, I am suggesting that another option exist s. From a different perspective, gentle cultivation (Mazzeo 2005: 1424). He encouraged stewardship the ideas he helped influence, emphasizing a tangible connection between the soil and the American identity, may have influenced some of the nascent roots of ecological stewardship found in bioregionalism and place based educati onal curriculums today. The early forefathers failing to successfully implement their visions for secular higher education was a theme that continued to prevail throughout early American history. As Howe explained, the Federalists and Republicans kept ima ging and working toward the establishment of secular Universities, but it was already a fact that the nine the Reformation (Howe 2002: 12). In other words, Schools in the Northeastern colonies

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120 had been created in response to the Protestant belief that all good Christians should be able to read the Bible for themselves. It is significan t, therefore, that the first legal provisions for free public schools (enacted by Massachusetts in 1647 and Connecticut argument continued, he also showed how much of the innovation in secondary education came from religious impulses (Howe 2002: 16). The goal of education in America during the early Republic was to achieve an education common to all men (recall that women and people of color were excluded for the most part ), which necessitated a kind of common religious instruction (Howe 2002: 21). This common vision, however, was not without its difficulties. As Howe argued, the contested relationship between religion and the state education system was a significant issue for America in its early years. Religion, was therefore, greatly influential In a closer examination of the role religion p layed on the early American education system David L. Barr and Nicholas Peidiscalzi provided additional insights into the historical context in which this relationship began to sort itself out in the American public conscience. In 1647, for example, the M assachusetts Bay Colony adopted an act that called for the establishment of schools to help children develop the 1982: 2). The use of Bible in schools has thus changed from colonial times and

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121 have become so severe that the Bible has often been eliminated from curriculums (Barr and Piediscalzi 1982: 1). officials to debate even today, and some of the specifi c controversies that arise out of an inextricable part of the discourse unfolding in American education. The 1800s: Nature Religion Provides Fertile Cultural Soil for Nat ure, Spirituality, and Future Sustainability Ideas The 19th century was an important time period because the process of refining dynamic relationship between Americans a nd the wilderness. Although Americans were still motivated by competing forces (to embrace the raw wilderness as a part of the New World identity and a desire to prove to Europe that indeed America was capable of being as refined and civilized as the Old W orld), the idea that wilderness was to be spiritual regeneration or renewal, grew in popularity. These ideas provided the roots of the Eco psychology movement, which is an greening trends today. This time period is also significant, however, because tourism to resonated with religious resembling behavior. Fin ally, writers, painters, sportsmen, and politicians began to notice, and in time, articulate, how wilderness provided an important escape from the maladies of industrial civilization. The ways they expressed this reverence for the sanctuary of the wilderne ss thus suggests that they were early

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122 e discussion ahead therefore highlights the emergence and strength of parareligious nature religion in America, thus showing the rich culture soil upon which ESD and grassroots efforts to develop sustainability education can draw from in America today. On e way that Americans sought to create their identity in relationship to the land they settled in the 19th century was that they established a national culture based on the landscape itself, and they cultivated the notion that tourism provided a means of de fining America as a truly distinctive place (Sears 1989: 4). During this time, people wanted to participate in the history of their nation and tourism gave them an opportunity to participate in this identity development. When people visited a tourist spot it was in witnessing an accident) and were initiated into these mysterious places (such as Niagara Falls or Mammoth cave) (Sears 1989: 19). Not only could they partici pate in the unfolding history, but they could also witness the accomplishments of American civilization thus far. John Sears argued that Americans took pride in the special features of their landscape. He also argued that increased commercialism made sacr ed places accessible to all, but highlighted that the importance of the consumer value did not obscure the power of these places more profound meanings (Sears 1989: x). Finally, he argued that the religious meaning of the tourist sites served as a glue fo r America as the mythic and national unity of these places provided common ground in an increasingly economically and religiously pluralistic society (Sears 1989: 7).

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123 To better understand the religious resembling behavior of these tourist experiences Sear s relied on a number of religious studies scholars for his interpretations. Sears concluded, for example, that tourist attractions functioned, like with the historian of religion, Jonathon Smith, however, Sears also demonstrated the ways in which sacred spaces were constructed, in part via commercial development, for the purpose of claimi ng power in that spot. As Sears explained, the sacred spaces were what gave Americans the ability to claim superiority of their culture over that of the participated in a pilgrimage to a sacred spot. This allowed Americans to find something that served as a unifying force for the nation in this activity. Here, Sears drew upon the place intimately associated with the deepest, most cherished, axiomatic values of the Americans were citing tourism and the landscape as an element of cultural superiority the trumped th e Old World. They cultivated this, in part, by developing mythology around the American tourist attractions. Sears therefore illustrated how Shared stories and experi ences helped unify a religiously and economically diverse enough to appeal to people of any persuasion. In a pluralistic society they provided points of mythic and nation

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124 the same experience and where, increasingly as the century progressed, members of all classes could mingle as they would There are differing interpretations, however, about what was most important to Americans in terms of their relationship to the land during this century. Some scholars argued that Americans had the continued need to master nature (as in the early Republic) to continue proving to the Europeans that their civilization was just as good as that of the Old World (Nash1982; Albanese 1990; Sears 1989). Some of these same scholars also demonstrated that Americans believed that the certain wild places did have a ki nd of inherent sacredness to them, even if the sacrality was constructed (Nash 1982 [1967]; Sears 1989). For Sears, however, honoring the diversity of the American populous, and finding ways for everyone to share in being an American was what mattered. Se ars ultimately argued (unlike Nash) that the commoditization of nature had value because visiting these commercially developed sacred spots provided a way for most Americans (except the poor) to have shared experiences. For Nash, however, the land itself and the preservation of it was what counted the most at this time. Key figures in the early land preservation movement were John Audubon and Thoreau who explicitly stated the need to set aside wild places. Ironically, though, the early land that was set a side, such as Yellowstone in 1872 and acres in the [1967]: 108). Despite examples of how architects, writers, sportsmen and politicians began to see the value of land for non

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125 who favored wilderness preservation avoided placing themselves in opposition to The politics of setting aside land were indeed significant, but what was most for this project was how the land was increasingly viewed as a place of necessary solace. community in the fast paced, industrializing and plural society of the times encouraged Although Albanese discussed the use and importance of nature in this healing process for Americans in different ways than Nash or Sears, the idea that nature was be ing used by Americans to remedy their stifled spirits or claustrophobic feelings that development was imposing, is a theme worth noting because this is similar to the argument that proponents of Eco psychology claim and this is informing some of the greeni ng trends The idea that the landscape had merit, as a place of escape and as a place of spiritual renewal, kept growing. Frederick Olmsted, for example, elaborated on the land in this way and he is a significant fig ure to this project because he not only designed [1967]: 106). Similarly, Emerson, whose relationship with nature will be discussed in more depth later in a closer examination of his ideas about education, explained in his work titled Nature: In the wilder ness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages. In the tranquil landscape and especially in the distant line of the horizon,

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126 return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life no disgrace, no calamity (leaving me my eyes), which nature cannot repair (Emerson 2000: 6). In the same way that Emerson celebrated the merits of wilderness, as a place to connect with what was essential and impo rtant, Thoreau celebrated the wilderness as place for epiphany, renewal, and reflection: As I stand over the insect crawling amid the pine needles on the forest floor, and endeavoring to conceal itself from my sight and ask myself why it will cherish those humble thoughts, and hide its head from me who might perhaps, be its benefactor, and impart to its race some cheering information, I am reminded of the greater Benefactor and Intelligence that stands over me the human insect (Thoreau 1962: 349). Emerson and Thoreau had a religious component to their arguments when discussing the merits of the natural world, but their work also resonated with a theme that was emerging in the political arena when it came to decisions that would affect land use. Wilderness was being viewed as a necessary anecdote to the fast paced development in America. The argument to preserve land for this reason was becoming a compelling counter argument for the prevailing utilitarian arguments. As Nash explained, the legal status of thi s preservation argument was illustrated in 1891, when the N ew Y ork Forest (Nash 1982 [1967]: 120). The developing American identity thus involved a plurality in A toward the land. For some, this appreciation meant preservation, for some it remained appreciation only for its bounty & wealth making potential, for some it meant utilization, and for others it meant a combination of these different val ues. Perhaps, a way to best understand the prevailing attitude toward wilderness at this time is to reflect on a

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127 Mauch Chunk (a railroad stop and coal shipping center set against a beautiful backdrop With the exception of a small, vocal contingent of Americans, who would vehemently disagree with the normative relationship that was evolving, most of the nation relished in a developing identity that odied in Americans] seemed wilderness as a place of solace, and spiritual renewal whic h quickly became a viable argument in the political arena as the nation moved forward and carved out its As the century unfolded, Americans continued to discover and tout thei r multitude of resources as they developed and progressed with the building of civilized towns and industries. They simultaneously relished in the vast open spaces and magnitude of the mplified by Niagara Falls). As more time passed and the civilized life replaced the strenuous Americans of the late 19th century realized that many of the forces which had shaped Americans felt the need to re evaluate their identity in this light. One way they re evaluated this relationship with nature was to draw upon the natural world as a source

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128 of thei later, were appropriated and produced for an audience hungry for national icons and for places which symbolized the exotic wonder of a region just beginning to be known and ac helped promote a kind of Dark Green Religion by promoting that nature was sacred and fa cilitating the humility that humans had in nature when they experienced their proper In addition to developing cultural nationalism as a component of their identity, Americans also re evaluated wilderness as it pertained to individual character traits that Jackson Turner helped redefine Americans connection with wilderness in a way that not only solid in a way that would ultimately benefit those arguing for preservation of the wilderness. Turner connected the idea that living in the wilderness would facilitate the developm ent of desirable American traits (Nash 1982 [1967]: 145). He argued that the return to common man that encouraged self Turn

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129 Turner noted that the 1890s marked a watershed event in American history (with countrymen with sac time period (Nash 1982 [1967]: 146). As Americans acknowledged the rapid growth and development in the country, there was a reaction to this trend. In response to the perceived physical, me ntal, and spiritual evils of development, there was a widespread appreciation for wilderness among the general public. Nash characterized this shift in positive, it is imp ortant to note that a great debate about how Americans demonstrated their appreciation toward the natural world was simultaneously unfolding (Nash 1982 [1967]: 143). The increased popularity about nature manifested in a variety of ways that can be attribu who went primitive, gained immense popularity (Nash 1982 [1967]: 142). The formation of the Boy Scouts provided a way for people for people to return to their frontier roots (Nash 1 982 [1967]: 148). Preserving land became a more popular idea, politicians (like Roosevelt) extolled the virtues of the frontiersmen and outdoor recreation increased (Nash 1982 [1967]: 153). To summarize, Americans blamed the Industrial Revolution and civi [1967]: 143). People thought that civilization brought confusion and corruption and were discontent (Nash 1982 [1967]: 144). In reaction, they sought solutions that included [1967]: 147).

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130 The American appreciation for the land continued to be multi faceted and evolved with their own emerging experiences both as observers of the grandeur and controllers who shaped and molded as they settled into their identity and the landscape itself. What became clear at this time, and will become more apparent in the discussion ued, with a parareligious dimension and their experiences with the landscape, especially as tourists, resembled religious like behavior. event occurred in the larger world during the 1800s that would have significant implications far beyond the sciences. Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species restructured the way many people thought not only about processes of reproduction, but His ideas had great influence on the Western perceptions of nature, his ideas about evolution were eventually linked to ideas of social progress and he significantly dominion over the world by arguing that human b eings were simply another type of primate with no special claims or status (Dalton 2005: 454). The controversial nature of his ideas for both science and religion give rise to a lture wars in examining what was unfolding between religion and education during early 19th century

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131 in anticipation of this forthcoming controversy that continues to be d ebated today about Religion and Education in the 1800s: Nature Spirituality and Early Educational Reformers As I previously noted, during the 1700s the early leaders of America (who readily embraced enlightenment ideals) had big plans for education in the young republic, but they were unable to carry them out effectively (Howe 2002: 20). In contrast, during the 1800s, the time when Evangelical revivalism was flourishing in America, th ere was more success at establishing some important educational initiatives in the public sector. As Howe explained, these initiatives were not entirely successful in providing education to all Americans. Certain races, classes, women, and different sectar ian affiliations were often not included in the education system. What became increasingly clear was that civic objectives of the enlightenment with the energy and commit ment of the Horace Mann (and that were embraced by the Whig party) in 1830s (Howe 2002: 20). Horace Mann became the secretary of the Massachusetts S tat e Board of E ducat ion in 1837. He campaigned on behalf of common schools which would be finally become the model for schools that would provide the entire American population a place to receive basic education. During these early days of education, when there was more loc al autonomy among the school districts, schools taught the religion of the local majority which at this time was only those doctrines that all Protestants agreed upon (Howe 2002: 21). Howe demonstrated that during the first half of the 19th century there was a bitter conflict over

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132 rival claims (among Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians and Catholics) for tax support of education, and he documented the important historical moment that occurred in 1818 when Connecticut became the first state to outlaw the u se of public funds for church schools. As Wood stated, this is significant because this decision led to no public funding for religious schools becoming the norm among all states by the 1870s (Wood 1979: 66). Howe noted, however, that the common schools r etained features of non denominational Protestantism for many years to come, which did not go unnoticed (Howe 2002: 22). The contested relationship between religion and the state education system remained a significant issue for America well beyond its ear ly years. One must not dismiss, however, the important fact that it was only when educational reformers (such as Horace Mann) were able to accept a place for religion in publicly supported education (unlike Jefferson) that the school system began to operat e successfully within the developing nation (Howe 2002: 24). As the American republic grew up, ideas about the purpose of American education shifted. Whereas education was once conceived of as a way to help citizens understand the tasks and problems of t he new nation and give students the knowledge the newly arrived immigrants about how to be American and provided opportunities for (Ulrich 1945: 183). Schools, for example, taught them how to arrive on time and work in a factory. As this shift in education unfolded, new thinkers impacted the direction of

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133 American educational trends. Religio n, however, remained a significant variable in the Key educational reformers and philosophers, during the 19th century included many of the pivotal shaping figures in the f institutions. Horace Mann, Johann Friedrick Herbart, Friedrick Froebel, and Ralph Waldo Emerson all helped shape some of what exists in American Independent school education, and I argue they provide early foundation schools too. By examining what each of these thinkers believed, and highlighting how their own religious perspectives and values played out in shaping their understanding of how their ideas about nature, influenced their individual philosophies about the role of education in society. The uncovering of history is particularly pertinent because it demonstrates that education was indeed conceived of, in part, as having a necessary role in cultivating a certain ethic that, from the very beginning, included a kind of gratitude and respect toward the natural world. These early educational philosophers and reformers, moreover, provide a glimpse of how religion, broadly understood, continued to play a role in ideas about education and impacted how educational institutions decided what and how to teach students which included attitudes about the natural w orld. The Early Reformers and their Religious Inclinations By the 1800s common schools in America embodied a shared ideology that included patriotic virtue, responsible character and democratic participation. These qualities were ideally to be developed t hrough intellectual discipline and the nurturing of the moral qualities. As Howe explained, it never would have occurred to Mann (nor his

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134 contemporaries) that such an education program should not include religion (Howe 2002: 24). Horace Mann (1776 1854) w as born in Franklin, Massachusetts to a farming reliance and independence. When he was young, he had only about six weeks of education during any one year. He, however, graduate d from Brown in the class of 1816 and gave the valedictory address on the progressive character of the human race In this address he argued for humanitarian optimism, suggesting the way in which education, philanthropy, and republicanism could all be comb was best known as an American education reformer, but he was also a politician who served as the Secretary of the Massachusetts State Bo ard of Education. He was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1827 to 1833 and served in the state senate from 1834 to 1837. important insights for the project. First, his beliefs highlight that a tension existed between public and private school education in America. Mann believed strongly in a common schoo disliked private schools and articulated the problem of private verses public schools by explaining that the problem of private schools was that they attracted needed money from public school s. The private schools also took the children of the well to do out of

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135 1957: 23). M ann ultimately argued that private schools took the most influential segment of the community away from the common schools. how this impacts the future of human earth relationships is vital as graduates from these Independent school communities may indeed become some of the significant movers and shapers of the future. Second, I believe that Mann wrestled with the role religio n should play in education and in a religiously diverse society in similar ways to how Stephen Prothero a religiously plural society in the late 1990s which put h im ahead of his time for the kinds of considerations he was pondering about the challenges and the importance to moral foundations of a common educational program should be in a religious diverse partisan both in religion and in politics. He was not opposed to religious teaching in the scho ol and he was convinced that there could be no practical morals without religion education which a child receives at school is not imparted to him for the purpose of making him joining this or that denomination, but for the purpose of enabling him to judge for himself according to the dictates of his own reasons and conscience what his

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136 about the role education could play in impacting society provided insight into th e controversy about what role education may (or should) play in the current ecological crisis. He believed in a radical theory of moral instruction tied to ideas of Phrenology. Phrenology was a 19th century theory that assumed the mind was composed of 27 f aculties that governed an individual. It had a behavioristic outlook and maintained that the human character can be modified and that desirable faculties can be cultivated through exercise and the undesirable ones can be inhibited through disuse (Cremin 19 57: 13). Mann, therefore, thought that education could build a good society by teaching publically accepted virtues such as brotherly love, kindness, generosity, amiability and parents would teach private sectarian creeds at home (Cremin 1957: 14). He ar gued for a strong moral education as a part of general education and even 98). Mann saw great potential in the power of education and argued that education ha d never y et been brought with close range of its potential force. He argued that humans have tried many approaches to creating a good society such as monarchies, republics, Draconian codes of law, theological standards, but he claimed that all of these experiments had resulted in disaster. To all doubters, disbelievers, or despairers, human progress, Mann said, there was one experiment which had never yet been tr ied. It was an experiment which even before its inception, offered the highest authority for its ultimate success. Its formula was intelligible to all; and it was as eligible as though written in starry letters on an azure sky. Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it (Cremin 1957: 100).

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137 Mann saw education as a new agency, whose powers were just beginning to be understood and whose energies had been but barely invoked (Cremin 1957: 101). useful for addressing the ecological cr isis in schools significant. He is thus setting the stage for the idea that schools could operate as levers of positive social change. It is, help build a good society and how those ideas resonated with aspects of the religion and nature discourse. Mann, a practicing Unitarian, believed in a non sectarian, liberal Protestantism, which included general optimism and humanistic beliefs (Cremin 195 7: 5). He believed in a kind of natural religion and argued that there were truths that had been given in the Bible and demonstrated in the course of history. I believe in the existence of a great, immutable principle of natural law, or natural ethics, a p rinciple antecedent to all human institutions and incapable of being abrogated by any ordinances of man a principle ordinances of man, -a principle of divine origin, clearly legible in the ways of Providence as those ways are manifested in the order of nat ure and in the history of the race which proves the absolute right of every human being that comes in to the world to an education (Cremin 1957: 63). reverence for the natural world. For instance Mann said to anyone who looks beyond the mere surface of things, it is obvious, that the primary and natural elements or ingredients of all property consist in the riches of the soil, in the treasures of the sea, in the light a nd warmth of the sun, in the fertilizing clouds and streams and dews, in the winds, and in the chemical and vegetative agencies of nature (Cremin 1957: 64). In another example he said aided by machinery, a single manufacturer performs the labor of hundre ds of men. Yet what could he accomplish without the weight of the waters

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138 which God causes ceaselessly to flow; or without those gigantic forces which HE has given to steam (Cremin 1957: 65)? Clearly, Mann was mindful and appreciative of the great laws of n ature and his gratitude for the natural world and for the God who provided humans with access to it. I argue, his specific emphasis on social justice which was deriv ed from this religious view about the world around him and his place in it. exemplified elements of the social and economic justice movement. He believed that educational opportuniti es should not be impacted by class or religious affiliation. As I previously noted, Mann argued that the common school should not teach religion from a sectarian perspective. He saw, however, education as a system which left open all other means of instru ction -the pulpits, the Sunday schools, the Bible classes, the catechisms, of all denominations -to be employed according to the preferences of individual parents. He saw education as a system that taught all that needs to be taught, or that should be ta ught so that each man left with the ability to decide for himself, according to the light of his reason and conscience; and on his responsibility to that Great Being, who, in holding him to an account for the things done in the body (Cremin 1957: 111). Wh ile Mann decidedly upheld the religious rights and freedoms of prospective students he was also clear that money should not be an issue in terms of who had access to education or not. As Mann stated, I know no distinction of rich and poor, of bond and fre e, or between those who, in the imperfect light of this world, are seeking, through different avenues, to reach the gate of heaven. Without money and without price, the common school should throw open its doors, and spread the table of its

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139 bounty, for all the children of the State. Like the sun, it shines, not only upon the good, but upon the evil, that they may become good; and, like the rain, its blessings descent, only upon the just, but upon the unjust, that their injustice may depart from them and be k nown no more (Cremin 1957: 112). Mann, therefore, helped set the stage for several important issues related to this project. He highlighted the tension between public and private schools, he raised questions about the role religion should play (or not) in education with a particular mindfulness about what education meant as it existed in a religiously diverse society. He also expressed optimism about the role education might play in society which suggests education can be a useful leveraging mechanism whic h applies to think project as it explores ways education can (and does) address the ecological crisis. Finally, Mann illuminated how his own religion, which coheres with that we are today calling Dark Green R eligion informed his own views about how educa tion might critically engage thinking students about religion and nature and the world in which they live and his ideas suggest a strong tendency toward both social and economic justice considerations. e compelling insights to the way in which parareligion may have been a variable in conceptions about the purpose of education. He is not, however, the only example of foundational figures in early American education who can be identified as having beliefs that resonate within A contemporary of Mann, Johann Friedrick Herbart was a German philosopher, psycho logist and the founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline. Herbart saw the

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140 content of a liberal education will always depend on the particular patterns of civilization. What is liberal and dynamic in one period may be stiffening (Ulich 1945: 279). Like Mann, Herbart saw great potential in education to transform society by transforming individuals. For Herbart, the final aim of all education was the formation of character and all educational activities were only means to that end, not Character, according to Herbart, could not be achieved merely by experimentation or i nstruction, but only by the constant imbuing of the mind with moral criteria. For Herbart, ethics was anchored in metaphysics and thus education was ultimately related to transcendent values. mind, his own words about the ideal goal of education reveal evidence suggesting a kind of parareligious nature spirituality. Herbart said the ideal goal of education was that: An active and mature man will not be subject to a temptuous fate that urges hi m on to an unknown goal, unaware whether he is driving or being driven. On each level of life he will attempt to attain serenity and reason. He will aim to attune his soul to accord with is environment, and from his vision of the Absolute he will derive hi s faith in the ultimate victory of the good. He will strive to acquire a harmony of mind that will allow him to move freely, but prudently, between the finite and the infinite, between the transient and the permanent. By noble participation in the joys and griefs (sic) of human life he will be led to a fuller appreciation of the pure light of the spirit, and his deeds will reflect the elation of his soul (Ulich 1945: 283) Friedrich Froebal (1782 1852) contributed a new idea to education in the 19th century saying that the totality of the education (as a holistic endeavor) was most important. In his autobiography, Froebel acknowledged that the unity between spirit and nature was conf irmed for him when learned forestry and surveying as a young man (Ulich 1945:

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141 285). Similar to other early religion and nature exemplars, his parareligious nature perspective influenced his ideas about how religion should be integrated into education. I dare not deny that although the definite religious forms of the Church reached my heart readily both by way of emotions and by sincere conviction, and cleansed and quickened me, yet I have always felt great reluctance to speak of these definite religious f orms with others, particularly with pupils and growing into self consciousness, to a pure and unsullied, conscious and free representation of the inner law of Divine Unity and i n teaching him means thereto (Ulrich 1945: 287). Education was, for Froebel, about humans realizing the Divine character of the universe and his part in it and Froebel believed that man needed his senses and emotions as well as his reason. Froebel, theref ore, demanded a thorough study of nature because he believed that from such a study came the ultimate oneness of all life (Ulrich 1945: 290). As Ulrich elaborated, Froebel articulated a Christian form of pantheism. He believed, for example, that influenc e may convince us that it is not empirical exactness alone, but profoundness of intuition and depth of faith which given ever new inspiration to mankind in its struggle for a better life (Ulrich 1945: 291). These ideas greatly impacted his notions about e ducation which resonated with educators today who emphasized the importance of studying science and educating about biodiversity. As future evidence will reveal, some educators today in schools, where greening trends are underway, have a resounding affini that the educators ought to lead students through such situations as this helps students own personal unity and the unity inherent in the d Ralph Waldo Emerson was previously mentioned as someone who valued nature, but now his ideas about nature will be more thoroughly discussed as they

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142 specifically impact his views about the purpose of education. First, for Emerson, nature plants, blight, rain, insects, sun it is a sacred emblem from the first furrow of spring to the last stack which the snow of winter overtakes in the f the unity of Nature the unity in variety 22). Finally, nature was beautiful as it is viewed by humans. [Beauty] is the constitution of all things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal give us a delight in and for themselves; a pleasure arising from outline, color moti on and group ing (Emerson 2000: 8). These three characteristics of nature helped Emerson create his argument about why nature was valuable. For Emerson, it was not only that nature provided a way to refresh people, but it also provided a way for people to connect wit h God. According to symbo 2000: 14). This meant that nature was valuable and it was because it functioned as a kind of spiritual utilitarianism. Unlike the early settlers, who saw nature as a commodity base to use in their development or who viewed nature as something to be feared, Emerson provided a compelling new hypothesis that would greatly impact how one viewed and related to the natural world during the 1800s. Interestingly enough, Gatta criticized Emerson for commodifying sp iritual commodity has more potential than a material commodity because with spiritual utilitarianism there was no inherent potential of destruction for the natural world.

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143 valua ble to the religion and nature conversation that was quite different than Jefferson. Nature was intrinsically valuable at least for human spiritual purposes. In articulating his appreciation for nature, Emerson was thus among a small handful of writers who began to shift Americans fear of nature toward a greater appreciation of it. This appreciation for the natural world went hand in hand with a trend that critiqued civilization. Even though he prioritized the natural world over the civilized world, he never argued that society should be entirely dismissed or devalued. With this in mind, Emerson contributed some specific guidelines for how to experience the natural world. Emerso n believed, most importantly, that people should look at nature with an open mind. First, the looking was important, because the natural world was symbolic. Thus, one really had to look in order to see the Divine. And, part of the way to see this connectio n is to appr oach nature with an open mind. I would argue here that where particular epistemology, and is makin g it explicit reverence, because thoug h always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects attentive eye, each mo ment of the years has its own beauty, and in the same field, it beholds, every hour, a picture which was never seen before and which shal l never be 2000: 10). I think it was significant that Emerson believed that

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144 this kind of experienc and beyond its house a world and beyond its world a heaven, know then that the world and experiencin g nature as it first became popular, Emerson himself was inviting everyone to take the opportunity to experience the glory and value of the natural world. connected the natural world with the divine and sanctified nature as it was (not in an agrarian or cultivated state). He also advocated that nature was something worth experiencing, particularly through attentive observation, and made it explicit that this was experience avail able (and encouraged?) for everyone. Emerson, therefore, had a profound impact on education by incorporating the aforementioned ideas into his ideas start with some strong cr itiques about the current education system of his time. It is ominous, a presumption of crime, that this word Education has so cold, so hopeless a sound. A treatise on education, a convention for education, a lecture, a system, affects us with slight para lysis and a certain yawning of These critiques were also accompanied by some strong opinions about children. d nature. They are still in that organic unity with themselves and the universe, which most adults have forfeited adults and this was going to impact how they were to be taught. Emer son warned that For Emerson it was not the school alone that educated, nor was it the in tellect. Students

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145 concerning the identity of the true and the morally good, therefore, enter into his pedagogy. Give the young person a chance to prove and develop his pers onality through doing something worthwhile. Use his talents and knowledge for a purpose which spurs his moral imagination (Ulrich 1945: 308). Emerson went on to explain that the great object of education should be commensurate with the object of life. It should be a moral one; to teach self trust: to inspire the youthful man with an interest in himself; with a curiosity touching his own nature; to acquaint him with the resources of his mind, and teaching him that there is all his strength, to inflame him w ith a piety toward the Grand Mind in which 1945: 306). What this meant, in a practical sense, was that Emerson thought educators should not convey facts, simply as facts, and he did n ot think that the essence of education was these opinions about education. This was revealed yet again when he said: In whatever you teach, arouse the sense of wonder and reverence for the deeper causes of life. Then indeed facts will become eloquent and transparent; they will become transformed into energy, instead of remaining mere data This energy will force the student to connect and to compare whatever he perceives; he will not only relate facts to each other horizontally but will discover that everything in the world is related to a deeper dimension, until he finally arrives at the realization of laws which permeate the universe. These laws will tell him that there is an order behind the flight of appearance, a principle within the transient, and he will see that he himself, as body and as mind, is a part of this cosmos (Emerson in U lich 1945: 307). The 19th century was therefore a century in which Americans not only refined their national identity, but key reformers, influenced by a parareligous dimension, also n it. Influenced

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146 heavily by Transcendentalism many Americans began to believe that schools had the power to transform individuals and the notion that education could help build a good society became more widespread. Against the backdrop of the rising tensi on also appear the nascent roots of sustainability concerns in American society. The nt sustainability concerns regarding wealth, power, and consumer patterns and I argue century this decision about will impact ideas in and approaches to educational (and h uman and nature relations) in the century to come. Consciousness The post Darwin era, which is one way to characterize the early 20th century, was a significant time in American history not only in terms of landmark events related Wars, a growing skepticism about C hristianity, the Scopes Trial of 1925, the Great Depression, new ideas about wilderness preservation on a national and global scale, new century got underway significan previous ambivalence about nature and the focus of schools shifted from cultivating good people and transforming society to sorting people into different sectors of society based on their socioeconomic status s o that individuals better understood their proper place and role in society.

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147 The Most Critical Influences from Religion and Nature the Early 20th Century There were three significant landmark events in early 20th century America that most significantly in form this project and directly contribute the developing foundations of future sustainability education. First, was the unfolding battle between the preservationalists and the utilitarians, because the values underlying these fights about nature still prev conversations about land management and preservation which I previously introduced as an introduction to a biocentric perspective and the benchmark for all Environmental Ethics today. Th ird, was the introduction and use of economic statistics as they pertained to natural resources to assist in arguments about wilderness preservation which in essence put the idea of full cost accounting on the table for widespread consideration. Full cost accounting is an idea that has been proposed as a way to consider the social, environmental and economic impacts of resource use. It is a more holistic way to discuss impacts and consequences rather than relying solely on the economic considerations. The s ignificance of these events in the Independent school arena will be clear as the conversation unfolds, but for now these will be discussed as significant historical moments in early 20th century history. First, despite the growing appreciation for wildern ess that characterized Initially, the fault lines were not clearly defined, but over time, friends became foes and it became apparent that there were different values at s take in the various relationships Americans wanted with the natural world in which they lived. John Muir exemplified the the purpose of providing a perpetual frontier and keep Americans in contact with

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148 is that of use, to take every part of the land and its resources and put it to that use in Muir and other preservationalists often drew upon imagery that linked the natural world with the spiritual realm or with religious descriptions Muir was deeply influenced about primitive forests being temples and describes trees th Yosemite and the surrounding mountains as a divine text (Sears 1989: 148). When yond all b : 306). As 1989: 136). Such beliefs are evident in the way that tourists viewed and artists doc umented the natural wonders of this place. For example, this provided the kind of awe an d inspiration that preservationalists would draw upon in their efforts to protect such natural areas(Sears 1989: 138). Thus, the transcendent and spiritual dimensions would become increasingly significant in the fight to preserve such beautiful natural ar eas in the decades ahead. Muir was not only an important activist in the preservationalist movement, but he is also ci ted by Taylor as an early example of one who expressed Dark Green R eligion. Other scholars agreed that Muir was extremely influential in making religious grounded

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149 concern s for wild nature a part of modern society (Holmes 2005: 1127). Thus, Muir Wakefield noted, Muir was a radical and among the first to express a biocentric view which exemplifie understa nding of wilderness (Wakefield 1994 was arguably the most vehement voice that Americans had heard yet. He went well beyond his predecess ors, such as Thoreau and Emerson, in his desire to be in the wilderness and in his condemnation of civilization and society. As Muir wrote in Wild Wool: I have been offering samples of mountain wool to my friend, demanding in return that the fineness of th e wildness be fairly recognized and confessed, nature from any other stand point than that of human use is almost impossible (Muir 1911c : 602). In addition to positing forth this bioce ntric view, Muir, heavily critiqued Christian thinking. with a naturalistic spir ituality (Taylor 2010: 65). Muir and his affinity for nature as a spiritual source thus represented one side of the vehement debate about what the purpose of land was and those who believed that nature was to be used for economic development were on the o ther side of this dispute. This established a clear fault line in America that continued into the 21st century; although the preservationalists did make some progress during the early 20th century to protect land. hic that argued humans should see themselves as a plain citizen of the land community and that articulated the notion that

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150 therefore became very important not only t the construction of large scale dam projects in the West during the early 20th century, but also to the foundations of a national wilderness preservation policy that was being crafted (Nash 1982 [1967]: 200). One such victory for the preservationalists was the Echo Park Dam case. This became a landmark case in American preservationalist history because the victory resulted from reformulated arguments, better techniques, new organizations, new leaders and publi c support. This victory illustrated that preservationalistis had made significant strides in their ability to mobilize and defend their rationale for protecting the wild since they had experienced other previous losses. Some of the methods and techniques u sed in the fight against the Echo Park Dam were similar to the ones employed in past resistance efforts, but new ones were also used. What made the most difference in this case was the widespread public support. This support was a result of several differ ent influences. First, in 1935 a new (Nash 1982 [1967]: 207). This organization engaged in widespread publicity efforts to make the general public aware of threatened wilderness areas and reminded people of the aesthetic and spiritual values of wilderness (Nash 1982 [1967]: 216). Second, pu blic interest was also generated through media articles and preservationalists utilized photography exhibits to show people what was at stake. Third, David Brower, one of the important leading s of Hetch Hetchy to illustrate the impact a dam could have on an area (Nash 1982 [1967]: 215). Fourth, the

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151 arguments made in the political arena were stronger and David Brower used statistical data and economic arguments to show how costly the water evapo ration from the reservoir would be (Nash 1982 [1967]: 217). The effectiveness of the economic argument nicely complemented the argument to save wilderness for its intangible qualities that had been the basis of the preservationalist philosophy of the past (Nash 1982 [1967]: 217). This paved the way for a new way to conceive of economics known as full cost accounting and this kind of thinking is a part of sustainability education today. During the 20th century there were new tactics and refined arguments e merging in efforts to protect wilderness systems. Although the debate about what to protect, how much to protect, and what the conditions for use (if any) would be was an encouraging the reality was that ambivalence prevailed throughout the debates (Nash 1992: 223). l ethos which was being absorbed into the American cultural identity, both on the individual level and as a part of the collective whole, was quite significant because it continues to prevail in the current dialogue unfolding about forest policy, resource use and land management issues. The love of wilderness was found among many Americans [not all] civilization prevailed associat ion between wilderness and its spiritual values such as innocence, purity,

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152 cleanliness and morality, progress and civilization continued to trump these values over and over again (Nash 1982 [1967]: 157). Religion and Education in the Early 20th Century: A Different Kind of Battle The relationship between religion and education was impacted by many influences during the early part of the 20th century, but the three that inform this project pes Trial, and the influences of the education reformer John Dewey. First, the U.S. entry into World War I in 1917 triggered a new development in education which was the implementation of vocational classes in high schools (Gordon 1999) This was a resul t of people being rejected from the draft due to their poor health. These people not only had poor health, but there were also illiterate and few of them (accepted or rejected from the war) had very few skills. The war therefore not only inspired the star t of vocational classes in high schools, but this then established a two tiered layer in high schools. The political message that America was communicating in the subtext of this new system was that some people would go to high school and learn a vocation al trade, but not go to college. If a child went to high school, in other words, they would go to college and enter the status. The sorting system in schools (either into vo cational schools or into the elite educated tier) mattered because either way one learned this place in society (see notes for citation). 3 The progressives and muckrakers thus argued that America and its educational institutions made conscious decisions to relegate certain people to a lower 3 http://johntaylorgatto.com/historytour/history6.htm accessed January 12, 2012.

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153 issues which is a part of the sustainabi lity discourse yet to unfold in these educational arenas. In addition to a new function and purpose for education, there was increased into more mainstream society. T his coincided with the rise of Fundamentalism in America during the 1920s where certain religious practitioners were beginning to interpret the Bible literally and believed that aspects of modern life were sins. The tler Act in 1925, which stated that it was unlawful for any teacher to teach any theory that denied the story of the Divine Creation 4 This gave rise to the Scopes Trial which put the Protestant Fundamentalists who were agai nst the teaching of evolution against the more liberal Americans who wanted this scientific theory to be a part of mainstream education (Nord 1995: 50). This trial is thus significant as it reflects the nascent roots of the culture wars and for 30 40 years 151). Moreover, today may religious conservatives do not believe that evolution has taken place at all and in a 1991 Gallop P oll, 47% of Americans did not believe in evolution which has significant implications for how students both study and learn about science which I argue has impacts on these students understanding of the word related to other aspects of science as well (Nor d 1995: 288). 4 https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Butler_Act.html accessed January 14, 2012.

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154 classrooms, the early 20th century was also the time when one of the most influential tional arena. John Dewey, who grew up during the Great Depression is credited with establishing progressive education which can actually be explained in socio biological terms. Progressive education is not actually any one thing. It is rather a movement th at included the idea that the only way to strengthen democracy was through education. Education was a social process and it could not be separated from the total character and tasks of society. It involved engaging in a process of living and was not a prep explained his understanding of education as: the way of nature, of life, to strive to continue in being. Since this continuance can be secured only by constant renewals, life is a self renewing process. What nutrition and reproduction are to the physiological life, education is the social life (Dewey in Ulrich 1945: 323) moral and religious beliefs. For Dewey, humans have an intrinsic moral teleology; people are allowed to attach people have a universe described in the following terms: the community of causes and consequenc es in which we, together with those not born, are enmeshed is the widest and deepest symbol of the mysterious totality of being the imagination calls the universe. It is the embodiment for sense and thought of that encompassing scope of existence the intel lect cannot grasp. It is the matrix within which our ideal aspirations are born and bred. It is the source of the values that the moral imagination projects as directive criteria and as shaping purposes (Dewey 1925: 373). These beliefs directly impacted his ideas about education. For instance Dewey believed that moral discipline ought to be a part and an outcome of school life, not something proceeding from the teacher. When the school has become a microcosm of society then

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155 the child would find himself in concrete social situations which would motivate him more effectively than mere verbal abstractions or extraneous discipline (Ulrich 1945: 318). Schools themselves also had to embody and reflect democratic ideals and operate as a democracy. For Dewey, the educational process had no end beyond itself; it was its own end and the educational process was one of continual reorganizing, reconstructing, transforming (Ulrich 1945: 320). By placing the ideas of action and interest in the center of his educational philosophy, Dewey had decisively challenged the methods and subject matter in American schools up to this time (Ulrich 1945:320). The critiques he made about the departmentalization of the curriculum and the systemic succession of studies that he argued h ad to give way to an elastic program of activities resonated with many of the contemporary critics who articulated a very similar frustration with 21st century schools (Ulrich 1945: 321). In the end, Dewey believed that education should help people achieve satisfaction and happiness, and that it should assist them in avoiding that which materialistic forms of pleasure; the most sublime mental and emotional acts were also inv underway in some of them. Future scholars, arguing in support of teaching about religion, but who also beli scope of his years(C arter 1994: 201).

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156 The early 20th century therefore not only involved battles about land preservation and battles about curriculum in schools, but it was also a time of innovation s and curriculums as well. The latter part of the 20th century, however, provided even more and education would inform the emergent sustainability discourse at this time 1950s and Beyond: Fostering the Seeds of Sustainability and Growing Ecological and Religious (Il)literacy The latter part of the 20th century was filled with pivotal moments that shaped how people were perceiving and relating to both religion and nature This latter part of the 20th century not only involved activists and scholars who open the door for important conversations in the sustainability discourse about population issues, consumption patterns, social justice concerns and appropriate uses of tec hnology, but over these few next decades American education, especially in the Independent schools, became more intentional about developing ecologically and religiously literate students. The courts also were involved in shaping and defining how people bo th used the natural world (or not) and in deciding how religion was going to be taught or practiced (or not) in the educational arena. This latter half of the 20th century, therefore, began with an increased concern about ecological and social justice issu es and ended with a full engagement in the sustainability discourse. It also began with a reverse er for Independent knowledgeable global citizenry and for public schools not to teach religion much at all.

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157 With a closer examination of these particular trends, and a few of t he obstacles that arose along the way, this historical overview will then be complete. Benchmarks in the Development of the Sustainability Discourse One of the landmark events for both the development of Environmental Ethics and Religion and Nature (which are key tributaries flowing into the Sustainability the 1967. In this thesis White blamed much of the environmental crisis on ideas found in Christianity (Taylor 2005 b : 599). White argued that Christianity (and the creation narrative in particular) was influential because it informed our worldview and it includes notions about perpetual progress, linear creation, dominion and exploitation based on anthropocentricism. suggested that other traditions, such as Zen Buddhism, might offer solutions for how to re it suggested that religion was also the solution to them and it was an important catalyst for the greening of religion phenomenon which I previously described as one of this Another important benchmark during the latter part of the 20t h century included scholarly debates about the role of technology and over population initiated by the work of Garrett Hardin. These are, today, still extremely important considerations in the sustainability movement. The nascent roots of these discussions however, were found Boat ethic (1974) that are

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158 both still utilized as readings in many classes that teach about sustainability issues today. 5 the use of technology and education to solve global problems. As he developed his argument he noted that self interested individuals do not promote the common good which has important mmons we all population issues. He argued that aiding the poor intensifies population growth, environmental degradation, and human suffering. Population issues and his ideas in particular remain controversial, but they were extremely important foundations for emerging debates within Environmental Ethics, within the sustainability discourse, and within education. They were followed by other prominent works. Some of the other co ntributors to this immediate dialogue included the work of Paul Ehrlich who wrote The Population Bomb (1968). Ehrlich ultimately argued that the culture would be needed in order to remedy the already devel oping food shortages (Dalton Small is Beautiful r for debates about the scale and appropriateness of certain technologies. These contributors therefore not only began important conversations about population and technology, but they provided foundations for important conversations about consumption iss ues as well. These topics 5 For an example of how Hardin is featured in Sustainability Textbooks s ee The Ethics of Sustainability Textbook at http://www.cce.ufl.edu/wp content/uploads/2012/08/Ethics%20of%20Sustainability%20Textbook.pdf (Kibert et al. 2011:125 130).

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159 are also of particular importance to this project because each of the religious traditions must grapple with them in the context of their own values and ethical systems and the religious responses to these issues are quite varied. One last watershed moment during this extremely fecund time in American history when environmental concern was growing included the publication of Rachel Silent Spring she explicitly conveyed the idea that Americans must assume responsibility for spoiling the earth, but her ideas also reflected a strong parareligious naturalistic spirituality (Gatta 2004:146). This idea of assuming responsibility was not unique to Carson, but her work American public. Carson was a reticient activist who used her writing to challenge certain fundamental assumptions, to raise awareness about environmental pollution, to celebrate the love she had for life itself, and to put forth innovative insights about differences in male and female perception capabilities. The diversity in her personal and professional agendas thus emerged in her work in such a variety of ways that her contri butions to the academic disciplines informing this project and to the general American public at that time were quite profound. Carson challenged established ideas of both fellow scientists and preservationalists. First, it was significant that as a scien tist, she criticized the popular work promoted an evolutionary organic theory, it incl uded an ethical passion and an

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160 affirmation of a spirituality that was inherent in all creatures which was antithetical to the usual evolutionary images (Gatta 2004: 167). It was not, however, only the scientists that she challenged. Carson believed that by many wilderness advocates (Gatta 2004: 166). Carson was not only challenging accepted beliefs, but she was innovatively positin g a nature spirituality into her work that spiritual development of bo th the individual and society 6 Carson advocated that a connection with the natural world might be a way to remedy this kind of destructive pattern found in the modern world. She was therefore putting forward an ethical evaluation of the human nature relations which would be extremely influential in the decades to follow. In addition to these key figure s shaping the important conversations to come, the courts were ruling on some pivotal issues as well. The Wilderness Act, for example, was established in 1964 and that The Wild and Scenic Rivers act passed in 1968 and both of these laws were cause for at least a little celebration (Nash 1982 [1967]: 226). More importantly, for the purposes of this project, there is evidence in these rulings that larger, structural changes were underway in America which are arguable necessary steps to bringing about larger social change around any issue which is to be a continued part of this forthcoming investigation. 6 Bron Taylor, and Nature in North America at the University of Florida 2005

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161 Religion and Education: Striving Toward Religious and Ecological Literacy In the same way that watershed moments unfolded during the latter part of the 20t h century that shaped the future sustainability dialogue, there were also significant r defined by four significant court cases that would gave shape to the future of this relationship in America from that point on. First, McCollum v. Board of Education (1948) ruled that setting aside release time f or religious instruction was unconstitutional in schools even if attendance to the classes was voluntary. Zorach vs. Clausen (1952) stated that religious instruction could not occur on public school grounds. Engel v. Vitale (1962) ruled that state sponsore d prayer was unconstitutional because prayer was a religious act and Abington School District v. Schempp Prayer in schools was unconstitutional (Wood 1979: 70). In addition to cla rifying how religion and schools may not interact, this was also the time when the Supreme Court began to explicitly emphasize that teaching about religion was an integral part of secular education (Wood 1979: 70). As the judges indicated in their various statements the purely secular view of education, which ignores the role of religion in the life of humanity, must come to be viewed as neither academically beliefs may or may not be (Wood 1979: 72). Despite such clear judicial orders, the relationship between religion and education continued to be a dilemma for America. These court cases thus added another dimension to the unfolding history about how religion and education were re lated and

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162 this relationship was now framed in the broader context of church/state relations. the issue of how much and to what extent these court rulings influence what was transpiring in the larger American culture is, indeed, relevant to this project as Independent schools are situated within the larger social arena. American education circles continued to discuss and debate the proper place of education was absolutely necessary. Arguments were made that if schools did not teach about religion they wo convictions of the peopl (Dawson 1957: 277). There were various responses to this challenge which arose directly out of a report from the American Council (1947) that endorsed the factual study of religion as the best solution to integrating religion into public education (Dawson 1957: 277). As a result of this report, for example, the Teacher Education and Religion Committee formed. The Committee worked to integrate religion into history curriculums and put forth the appears in the cultural heritage (Dawson 1957: 178). Religious communities also endorsed this approach to teaching

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163 religion in the schools. A group of inter religious rabbis, priests and ministers, for example, in Chicago argued in a workshop presentation (1954) that it is the responsibility of the schools to provide children with a well rounded education as an integral aspect of their full education within the various subject disciplines and a child must become acquainted with the role of religion and religious institutions in civilizations (Dawson 1957: 279). During the mid 1950s there was then widespread support being demonstr ated for the factual study of religion within the context of tax supported schools (Dawson 1957: 280). Those who opposed this, however, had legitimate concerns because there were certain risks involved in this approach. Dawson cited, for example, the dange r, in a pluralistic culture, of there being violations of the Church/State separation. He also suggested that religious liberties could be jeopardized or that sectarian crusades might unfold in the schools for the purpose of winning converts. Another conce rn Dawson raised was that teachers may be biased or unsophisticated in their teaching about religion which would lead to a misunderstanding of different religions (Dawson 1957: 281). He therefore not only called attention to these very real concerns, but h e also pointed out there were not easy answers to these potential problems As a result of this report in the early 1950s fifteen pilot institutions were implemented in 1953 for the purpose of training teachers in Religion and Teacher Education (Dawson 1957 religion in an objective manner whenever and wherever it is relevant to the learning developed new units to be used i n existing courses and workshops were held to train teachers. Materials were gathered, evaluated and distributed for the benefit of other interested institutions. Future conferences were held and essays were written by

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164 participating teachers (Dawson 1957: 284). What is clear, however, is that despite there being much enthusiasm on the part of participating schools for this project it did not become a popular model throughout the nation. As we shall see, the lack of teaching about religion in the public sch ools continues to be of concern even today in 2013. The religions with their attention on providing a more global education to students and their rationale and motivations for this will be scrutinized in more depth in Chapter 4. There was a certain amount of conviction that teaching about religion was important and necessary back in the 1950s. 7 As the decades wore on, however, it became clear that teaching about religion did n ot become a normative part of the public (or Independent) school curriculums. Some of the explanations for this included political, psychological, legal and religious reasons. Teachers, for example, misunderstood the separation of church and state and the influence in history Teachers were sometimes confused about the difference between teaching about religion and teaching about morality. Since moral positions may not be taught in schools and some educators ma y assume that individual/civic morality rested upon particular religious beliefs the report suggested that they chose to avoid the Teachers thus generally chose to ignor e any reference to religion and they left it to individuals to decide, in light of their own religious beliefs, what the moral positions were 7 This makes logical sense considering that the 1950s was the dec Americans were acting out their fears about communism/atheism by reaffirming their faith. America was making an effort to distinguish itself from the communists/atheists so it is not a surprise that while phrases support of teaching about religion in the schools.

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165 li 1987: 575). This absence of religion in American history textbooks and in public school curriculum in general was thought by many educators, especially in the Independent school arena, to be of concern and this concern arose from a civic agenda (not a theological one) tha t religion needs far greater attention in public life. American understand the influence religion has had in history and students need to know the basic tenets of the w diverse student population). It has also been argued that students need this information to be thoughtful citizens, to vote intelligently, to relate constructively to one another and to hel li 572). In short, the emphasis on why religion needed to be taught and the various obstacles that inhibited its integration into curriculums offers a wealth of information for b etter understanding the complex relationship between religion and education. There is great value in the knowledge that religion was seen as important because it formed the basis of a true democracy, it was viewed as an important component of U.S. citizens hip, it helped foster respect among different people in a religious diverse nation and that without this knowledge, the very basis of American religious liberty might be threatened. This offers insight into some of the variables at play in these ongoing d eliberations in America about how religion and education relate, but this also provides additional context for understanding how religion became such a focus in the Independent school

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166 arena and is therefore to be understood as a variable in its role in the greening trends on some of the Independent schools campuses in the case studies ahead. literacy, educators and parents in the Independent school realm followed the advice of a report about religion being absent from the curriculum and began to demand critical instruction about the role of religion. They put pressure on textbook manufacturers and curriculum designers to include passages and references about religion and world cu 581). In fact, this is what began, in part, the emphasis on global education in the National Independent School arena which I argue gives rise to the gree ning trends on these campuses. The Independent Schools thus opened themselves to new resources that had education Americans about religion. For educators there were a myriad of resources available in the later 1980s and 1990s to better educate themselves about religion in America including Religion and American Education: Rethinking a National Dilemma (1995) written by Warren Nord among many others (Gaddy et al. 1996; Carter 1 994; Barr, and Piediscalzi 1992). Nord, like many other scholars at this time, argued for the teaching of religion in public schools and universities, not to indoctrinate students, but to help them take religious worldviews seriously in their pursuit of k nowledge. Nord focused on what he saw as a paradox. He every coin, school children pledge allegiance to his name, and the President ends his

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167 can educational system ignored religion (Nord 1998: 2). Nord also for salvation and noted the way that people find meaningfulness in their lives depended on knowing God, but that education ignored this v emphasis on spiritual and character development which is particularly relevant to this project. His book also teased out some of the d eep assumptions that have shaped historical ideas, traditions and worldviews that underlie some of the very problems and clashes that manifest behind the scenes in conversat relationship to the planet that are a part of the sustainability discourse today. In addition to administrators and faculty reading and discussing the topic of agerly to the materials and more concrete suggestions about how to diffuse the tension that might aterials for teachers, so that they were better prepared to teach about religion in their classrooms, ation called Finding Common Ground: A First Amendment Guide t o Religion and Public Education (1998) to help educators address issues of religious differences in the public schools. This resource included information about church state law and dealt with re ligious topics

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168 gave educators practical suggestions about resources and approaches for teaching students about the role of religion in the historical, cultural, lite rary and social development of the United States (and other countries too). With this resource in hand and by attending workshops sponsored by The First Amendment Center, public and Independent school teachers learned how to discuss religion in a neutral, objective, balanced and factual manner and then worked to develop lessons that help taught understanding, tolerance and respect for a pluralistic society. This was a very comprehensive resource that provided a lot of information found in the previous lite rature, but it also included many suggested reading lists and passages that could be used in the classroom to teach with which made the information very accessible and quite useful. 8 Another useful resource used by Independent school teachers was Steven A Nation of Religions: The Politics of Pluralism and Multi Relig i ous America (2006) whose audience included academics, educators and a larger sector of the common public. In his book Prothero included a collection of essays that collectively ar identity and the private sphere, but that it was significant in public sphere as well because it pervaded American politics ( Prothero ideas about how religion and education related and his explicit focus on the question of 8 It is interesting for this project to note that this w as one of the primary resources used to train teachers in the Independent school arenas about the appropriate teaching of religion during the late 1990s and beyond.

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169 ened the door for social sustainability considerations in Independent schools. large r social/political questions get worked out (Prothero 2006: 269). As he explained, models/carriers of pluralist democracy. Public schools would serve as a homogenizing force, (Prothero 2006: 271). American public schools, however, face an increasingly difficult challenge in fulfilling this function today because of religious diversity, different o pinions about what should be taught in schools, and local control of school curriculums. As Prothero argued for more inclusive curriculums, he also provided concrete examples for how certain religious groups were taking the initiative to help this process along. He documented, for instance, how Muslims have not only been active in creating their own schools, but also in influencing the public schools. To be more specific, The Council on Islamic Education has committed itself to raising the standards of teac hing religion in schools. Prothero explained that the CIE operates out of a multi culturalist their e way to help initiate curriculum reforms, therefore, this organization worked to convince textbook manufacturers, school districts and teachers to spend more time teaching

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170 about Prothero thus added a dimension of depth to the conversation about how religion and education should fit. He highlighted how religious div ersity was changing the values, rites and institutions of America and how these values, rites and institutions were changing American religions. Similar to other authors, Prothero noted that the relationship between religion and education was indeed an imp ortant concern for the larger nation, but he also nuanced this discussion. Prothero not only gave careful attention to what individual immigrant religious groups wanted from the education system, but he also provided evidence for how they were contributing to it. He provided a model for how to imagine changes that would more comprehensively integrate teachings about religion into the curriculum that could be applied to other curricular changes as well. In addition to this edited volume of collected essays, Prothero also published a book titled Religious Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know (2007). This book was very hands on (offering a quiz, a dictionary of terms and Prothero was once again reiterating what scholars have been saying for over 60 years: suggestion and said that those outside of high schools and college settings needed to take personal responsibility for learning about religion too (Prothero 2007: 148). Prothero did more than articulate the problem, he also tried to provide concrete solutions so that Americans may be better educated about religion. Prot hero suggested

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171 schools and he suggested that a religion course be part of the mandatory curriculum for all colleges (Prothero 2007: 137). Prothero was once again arguing fro m a civic agenda that religion needed far greater attention in public life and I argue that the Independent schools listened and responded thus providing fertile ground for the sustainability trends to emerge. Conclusions The complicated history between religion and education therefore revealed the deep roots of religion and nature in the history of education. This chapter thus extensive since Am erica established itself. More surprising to me, however, was the role of naturalistic parareligion in education as this was a historical discovery that I made during this investigation. With greater context for understanding the ways that naturalistic par areligion influenced education in the past, I argue it remains influential in Prior to a closer examination of the specific schools the next chapter more closely examines the particular origins of Education fo r Sustainability (ESD) and its operative ethical dimension. ESD is informed, in part, by Environmental Education which has its roots in a social movement here in the latter part of the 20th century which will be explained in greater detail ahead.

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172 CHAPTER 3 THE ORIGINS AND OPERATIVE ETHICAL DIMENSION OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (ESD) Education is the most powerful weapon you can use to change the world Nelson Mandela Having established the historical foundations out of which convers ations about the purpose or function of education arose with particular attention to the way that religion is inextricably linked to education in America, it becomes more evident how tinue investigating especially in the context of its role as a mechanism for social changes related to sustainability issues. But, if where and how religion manifests as a variable in these education trends is yet to be explored. One of the main inquiries this project investigates is whether sustainability trends in Independent schools are emerging, in part, because of top down decisions and initiati ves. This chapter demonstrates that since its beginnings in 1945 many leaders and initiatives at the United Nations have drawn significantly on religious, moral and cultural resources in their quest to promote peace and well being globally. This chapter al so argues that as environmental concern has intensified, Education for Sustainability has become a higher priority, and that this often has at least a parareligious dimension. Noting the influence of Education for Sustainable Development on different Amer ican educational organizations and arenas (such as higher education, the U.S. Department of Education, the U.S. Partnership for Sustainable Education and Independent schools) also provide glimpses into a new form of cultural production related to the culti vation of an ecological citizenry that is underway in the American educational arena. The role of religion, in other words, originating at the global level and in global institutions, might

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173 serve as a kind of example demonstrating that its influences on la rger cultural changes then later be elaborated upon in Chapter 8 during a closer s crutiny of the perils and promise of religion and socio cultural change emerging within the educational arena. The Origins of Religion, Ethics and Spirituality in Elite, Global Institutions b eing has its origins in a series of international conferences that were held in 1913 and 1931 to save certain natural areas and different species of birds (Nash 1982 [1967]: 358). Similarly, in 1933 an institute on global nature protection met to discuss the protection of African flora and fauna and in 1940 a Pan American union met to identify and establish nature reserves around the world (Nash 1982 [1967]: 361). After World War II, a renewed effort and favorable climate for global nature protection atte mpts unfolded simultaneously with the intentional establishment of several different global organizations such as the UN, United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), an d the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). The UN is an international organization founded in 1945 when 51 countries among nations, and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights 1 1 http://www.un.org/en/aboutun/index.shtml/ accessed December 12, 2 012

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174 spirituality and influences from religion were present from the very start. This is readily s: WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINES to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and t o promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom 2 progress, the call for better standards of life and the declaration to remain neutral in all situations (Lyon 2007: 85). The ethics in this preamble combined with the rationale behind the foundation of the organization, which was a collective moral impetus to create peace and security" collectively, reveal that ethics and morality played a role in this organization from its start. 3 Ethical motives and an ethical dimension were also a part o f these other new international organizations (such as UNESCO, the IUCN, and the WWF) as well. With all these organizations, however, there remained the difficult reality that none of them 2 http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/preamble.shtml/ accessed March 23, 2012. 3 http://www.un.org/en/aboutun/history/ accessed October 22, 2012

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175 strategies to protect the natural world evolved (Nash 1982 [1967]: 364). UNESCO, for example, created cultural and natural heritage sites which were places of particular lments of a transcendent coevolutionary destiny for humankind, sacred centers to which all of the employed by this organization included the creation of biosphere reserves These were created to help protect areas in specific countries that would allow for sustainable plants and animals within natural ecosystems for the safeguard of gen etic diversity now lasting ngel 2005: 193). The stage has thus been set in the international arena for how components of the sustainability discourse (economic, social and environmental interests) were a part of the larger, unfolding global conversation (as seen in the economic ap peal of the natural world that revolutionized how nature was imported and exported around the world after World War II). This also sets the stage for how ethics and religion were going to be a significant part of the ideas informing and tools used in the o rigins and implementation of the vision that was ultimately promoted by United Nations for how educational and an educational toolkit, known collectively as Education for Sustainable sustainability issues.

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176 For the sake of clarifying terminology, it is important to note that Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) may be described in many ways including the terms Sustainability Education (SE) and/or Education for Sustainability ( EfS). The use of these different terms is not only due to language and cultural differences around the world, but because the work of Education for Sustainable Development (in both name and the content) must be locally relevant and culturally appropriate. Thus, although not all scholars agree on the use of these terms as interchangeable they are often used as synonyms. It would, however, be remiss not to acknowledge that the terms may indeed be differentiated. 4 For the purposes of this project, and in a ccord with other scholarship, this project will use the term Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) used most frequently at the international level and within UN do 2002). In the discussion ahead, ESD will be used to reference a holistic approach to education about a wide diversity of issues that includes environmental, economic and social aspects. In the working definition of this concept, culture will be recognized a education will assume that when teaching skills, values and knowledge embedded in ESD, that certain assumptions about sustainability itself will be i ncluded in these teachings. 5 4 For example, the United Nations toolkit (a resource provided for teachers and educators) make s an important distinction between these term s. The toolkit explains that the difference between education about sustainable development and education for sustainable develop ment is notable. Education about sustainable development is an awareness lesson or theor etical discussion. Education for sustai nable development is the use of education as a tool to achieve sustainability. For more on this please see htt p://www.esdtoolkit.org/discussion/default.htm accessed November 7, 2012 5 UN Decade of Education for Sustainable De velopment: The First Two Years, 2007, p.125

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17 7 Prior to a closer look at ESD as a particular mechanism for addressing sustainability concerns by the United Nations, it is necessary to note several other ways that spirituality, ethics, and the influences of religion relate to the global arena, and speci fically the United Nations, out of which ESD arose. The UN for example has a general is the a moral power working on behalf of the people of the world and as an organization suited to specifically address issues related to international ethics. The secretary g 2007: 11). Analysis of the UN secretary general often emphasizes the moral authority of th e office. Interviews, for example, carried out at the UN for the report Religion and were often very important: We were surprised by many powerful, personal testimoni es in response, motivating force, even for individuals who have taken a secular turn in their UN work (Kille 2007: 14). The report noted that the impact of religious values at th e UN extends all the way to the look, therefore, at two significant secreta ry generals, Dag Hammerskjold and Kofi Annan, illuminates not only the kind of moral authority that exists in this designated institutional office, but also how these two men serve as exemplars for the potential

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178 ways that the religion variable has manifes ted through the UN and positively impacted the global community. Before proceeding with a closer analysis of each of these secretary generals and a look at how their personal religious and moral values impacted them as individual office holders, it is ne cessary to clarify how religion and ethics relate in the context of this conversation about the secretary general. An ethical framework can be defined as the combination of personal values that establish the beliefs, forms of reasoning and interpretations of the world that guide an individual when making judgments about proper behavior in specific contexts (Kille 2007: 20). Religious values, however, are also a potentially important part of a secretary ethical framework. The religious traditio n, however, in which a secretary general was raised is only part of the religious dimension of the ethical framework (Kille 2007: 21). Having acknowledged that both ethical frameworks and the religious values in them are significant, it is possible to exa mine these men a bit more closely for insights into how religion, ethics and spirituality may be shaping policies at the highest levels and thus impacting larger systemic, social change. Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjld (29 July 1905 18 September 196 1) was a Swedish diplomat and author whose religiosity can best be described as a mix of influences from both Lutheranism and medieval Catholic mysticism. He served as the secretary general to the UN from April 1953 until September 1961. He won the Nobel Peace Prize (after he died) and his personal ethical values and his moral code influenced both his interpretation of the UN charter, the role of the office of the secretary general, his international political agenda and his method of administration

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179 (Lyon 2007: 90). 6 was dynamic religion and ethics she concluded that his moral code included a commitment to the prevention of violenc e, political equality, neutrality, justice and a commitment to self sacrifice and service. Her conclusions deduced that these commitments came from his upbringing in Luth eranism as well as certain influences from a kind of medieval Catholic mysticism (Lyon 2007: 84). The combination of these influences impacted his role as secretary general in anic, but (Lyon 2007: 86). He was a public servant to the UN charter and he let that commitment be his moral compass. During the Suez Canal crisis Hammarskjold read a speech that they are embodied, and the aims which they are to safeguard are holier than the his religious values and ethical code impacted his role as secretary general were exemplified by the perspective he took in regard to his decisions (drawing upon ideals from Lutheranism he took the long view), and his very persistent approach (the Protest ant work ethic) and optimism (emanating from his strong moral compass) about the role of the UN. In short, 6 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1961/ and note that since 1974 the Noble Peace Prize can no longer be awarded posthumously.

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180 neutral integrity, the promotion of equality and the pursuit Analysts, however, concur that he never used his faith to validate an agenda in the public arena. Hammarskjold himself referred to the secretary to the UN charter for guidance and cited it as both a legal framework and an ethical mandate (Lyon 2007: 86). The outcome of this analysis for this project is that Hammarskjold (more than anyone) gave the UN a kind of moral authority which attracted an int ernational mandate to pursue peace and justice. There is little doubt that he was a brilliant administrator or that his legacy set a moral tone for the UN. His ethical principles, moreover, may have produced his activism (Lyon 2007: 92). Two examples of s uch activism were exemplified in his pursuit of a peaceful resolution of the U.S. and Chinese crisis of 1954 and in his work to prevent violent conflicts during the Suez Canal conflict in 1956. 7 His moral reasoning interacted with the normative framework of an organization and can influence the decision making process (Lyon 2007: 1). Dag Hammarskjold was not, however, the only secretary general to demonstrate a strong moral, ethical dimension to the ir leadership; Kofi Annan provides equally fertile ground for analysis about how religious and ethical values may play a significant role in governance at the highest levels. Kofi Annan, the seventh secretary general of the United Nations, served the UN from 1997 to 2006 and was the first to emerge from the ranks of United Nations staff. 7 For additional details about these particular crisis situations and his work to remedy them peacefully Alyna J. Lyon (p.79 95).

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181 Similar to Dag Hammarskjold, Kofi Annan also received numerous honorary degrees and many other national and international prizes, medals and honors including the 2001 No bel Prize for Peace, which he was awarded jointly with the Organization. 8 Like Hammarskjold, Annan had an interesting religious background and was not directly impacted by the sole adherence to any singular faith tradition. He grew up in Ghana and both si Fante and Ashanti. His youth was spent in a tribal world and he became a practicing Christian in Ghana while attending a prestigious, Christian boarding school founded by the Methodist church under British colonial rule (Kille 2007: 303). These multiple anchored his inner code with the political pressures on the office which he referred to as the external code (Kille 2007: 301). As scholars have highlighted with Hammarskjold, they have also concurred that general Secretary General, for example, was a comprehensive program of reform aimed at revitalizing the United Nations and making the international system more effective. He was a constant advocate for human rights, the rule of law, the Millennium Development G oals, Africa, and sought to bring the Organization closer to the global public by forging ties with civil society, the private sector and other partners. 9 One key example of how Mr. Annan used his values to revitalize the UN was his initiative, in 2005, f or member states to establish two new intergovernmental bodies: the 8 General Kofi Annan http://www.un.org/sg/formersg/annan.shtml accessed June 2012. 9 Ibid.

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182 Peace Building Commission and the Human Rights Council. Both of these were established under Resolutions 60/80 and 1645 and continue to operate in the global arena today. 10 Annan also play ed a central role in the creation of the Global Fund to ever counter rimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against largest effort to promote corporate social responsibility. 11 These initiatives reflected his compassion to help people and also demonstrated his efforts to use the power of the UN institution for global society greater good. Although Annan regularly deflected questions about himself, and although religion was a highly personal matter for him, others readily identified him as an in dividual with spiritual status. This status is reflected in the religious or parareligious images used to describe his stature through the eyes of Both Hammarskjold and Annan exemplify secretary generals who drew upon their ethical, spiritual and religious backgrounds to guide their work in the UN and in executing their role as moral authorities for the world. As Lyon contend ed the position of the UN secretary general is an excellent case study because these leaders must contend with diverse ethical expectations on a daily basis, but they are given meager tools by which to navigate the global community away from war, genocide, poverty and famine (Lyon 2007: 80). 10 http://www.un.org/en/peacebuilding/mandate.shtml accessed J une 14, 2013. 11 General Kofi Annan http://www.un.org/sg/formersg/annan.shtml accessed June 2012.

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183 They both used a global platform to exercise a subtle influence by contributing to the international dialogue on various issues through public addresses, press conferences, annual reports. This ability to influence the world on multiple levels also demonstrated how the power of the secretary general has visibly grown. This is, therefore, precisely one of the reasons these examples are so pertinent to the current project; leadership that is infused with ethics, religion a nd spirituality may be a source of great hope in the role this institution is to play in the cultivation of future sustainable paradigms for the world at large. In addition to making the case that ethics, spirituality and religion were an integral part of this organization from the outset and that the role of the secretary general is a position within the institution for this relationship to subtly influence the world at large, there is increasing evidence that the UN and religious non governmental organiz ations United Nations. As Matthew Wiener explained there is a developing partnership 2010: 29 interactions with the UN for the purpose of fulfilling their own religious or spiritual missions. This unfolding relationship is therefore one of the primary ways that religion officially works to impact the work of the UN (Weiner 2010: 293). As Azza Karim albeit in a nd ad hoc and Crosscurrents demonstrated in 2010,

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184 ye ars ago, to describe a new strategy of how religion and the UN could interact (Karam 2010: 464). Karam elaborated on the nature of this unfolding relationship by explaining that in order to understand this relationship it is first necessary to explore ar guments for why and how religion is a feature of human development. He explained that religion is a social service and thus a social actor that predates the existence of every modern institution of governance. Social service (as we know it today) and relig ion have an ethos for political engagement. Both social service and religion therefore can promote both war and peace building (Karam 2010: 464). For Weiner and Karam, as well as the other contributing scholars and religious voices contributing to this analysis, there was a growing pragmatic awareness of (and interest in) the role religion can/might play in still under constr uction. Bron Taylor observed and documented the ongoing process of this construction in his accounts of the Earth Summit (which ran parallel to United conference in 1992). As Taylor explained, the Earth Summit was an exclusively NGO event that coexisted with the UN Conference on Economics and Development. What was most notable to him was that religious voices were woven throughout these presentations promoting environmental su stainability and social justice (Taylor 2005 e : e : 1681). This conference (UNCED), for example, was followed by the World Sum mit on Sustainable Development

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185 (WSSD) in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2002 where Taylor again observed that there s opening ceremony assumed an evolutionary understanding which implied a reverence for life and envisioned a parareligious utopian hope for the re harmonization of all life on Earth. The significance of these major developments in Earth related spiritual ities (which extend beyond the sphere of institutional religions) is not only relevant to the kind of non e : 1683). Ac cording to forms of religion as well) are helping to facilitate environmental values and ideas upon nation states (Taylor 2005 e : 1683). This trend in the international arena has significant implications and resonates strongly with the trends that are unfolding in the Independent school arenas related to new cultural production, which will become increasingly evident as the discussion progresses. Religion and its Presence in the International Arena Delving into a deeper analysis of how the ESD initiative arose within the international arena helps explain the final way that religion is connected to the UN which is simply that religion cannot be separated from international p olitics a realm of which the United Nations is obviously a part. Building on previous notions and increased recognition of the importance of religion and ethics in international relations, Jonathan our views is not new or in

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186 fully or properly fathomed without point, moreover, has already been made in part because it has already been observed that a connection between the spirituality, eth ics, religion in the UN existed by noting the attention given to religious leaders by policymakers and the media (such as the role of the Dalai Lama, Pope, Bishop Desmond Tutu) as exemplified during the (World Summit on Sustainable Development (WWSD) and i n the UN ongoing work with different Having established that religion and spiritual values are a part of international affairs it is possible to briefly summarize the way that religion impacts international politics to further pursue an e xamination of the significance of this relationship when more closely scrutinizing how educational trends related to sustainability ultimately fit actions and examining this from a sociologist of religion perspective, for example, Weltanschauung (worldview, frame of reference, value orientation, meaning system) is often based in religion. As a notable anthropologist and religious scholar, Clifford gions include a belief system and most people find religion 2001: 60). This means that belief systems can influence the outlook and behavior of policy makers and that re politician to make a decision that runs directly counter to some belief, moral or value that is widely

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187 those who write policy about both education and the environment at every level of our The other significant way that religion impacts international polit ics is that it is used as a source of legitimacy for politicians and their policies (Fox 2001: 65). In other international relations is significant because many case studies about international events contribute to and develop the paradigms used to understand international politics and we may be missing something of importance i f this particular variable is neglected (Fox 2001: 73). Having thus identified some of the different ways that ethics, implications of this relationship, in its vari about sustainability and ideas about how education may be incorporated into possible solutions help set the stage for an examinatio secondary schools as one of the UN initiatives influences the work being done toward the promotion of peace and global welfare for al l. Origins of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Concern about the dire state of ecological and social affairs and the need to change the way education unfolds has become a topic of focus for people at the international, national and local level s for quite some time. The ways this concern has manifested has taken different forms over the decades, but there has been a consensus

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188 amongst many that a paradigm shift needs to occur and the way humans relate to each other and the way humans relate to th e environment needs to be re imagined. declaration naming 2005 2014 the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. This declaration invited governments around the world to integrate ESD into national education strategies and action plans at all appropriate levels. 12 Exploring the origins and significance of this decade and ESD is intriguing as they provide another avenue to explore the earlier conundrum about the primary p schools. As ESD developed it became evident that questions about whether schools including its environmental woes continued to be a part of an ongoing debate. Did some schools, in other words, socialize and educate about the dominant political culture or were some schools educating students to ask critical questions which may create a counter narrative to the dominate paradigm? As Peter McLaren explained, education itself should be inte ESD, therefore, provides one set of responses to these very questions. By exploring acteristics additional insights are gained into what role morality, ethics and religion may be playing in the larger global community as the UN works toward facilitating a method for structuring solutions to larger global issues that provides norms which i 12 http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/extras/desd.html?panel=1#top accessed June 5, 2012.

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189 the e nvironmental crisis in the 1960 s which emerged along with a concept known as Environmental Education (EE). For the purposes of this proje ct the working definition of EE will be the one that was formally defined as a part of the Tbilisi Declaration (1978) which stated that EE was environment and associated challe nges, develops the necessary skills and expertise to address the challenges, and fosters attitudes, motivations and commitments to make informed decisions and take responsible action. 13 Current literature published by the North American Association of Envir onmental Educators (NAAEE) elaborates on this definition by explaining that learning about the environment can happen in many different venues (classrooms, zoos, parks, etc) and involves many subjects earth science, biology, chemistry, social studies, even math and language arts because understanding how the environment works, and keeping it healthy, involves knowledge and skills from many disciplines. 14 This interest in EE first emerged in the global community at the UN conference on Human Development whi ch occurred in Stockholm in 1972. At that gathering the global community authorized the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and launched the International Environmental Education Programme. That programme began a series of meetings in various regi ons around the world during the upcoming years. These meetings culminated in the International Workshop on Environmental Education (a joint program of UNESCO and UNEP) which occurred in Belgrade in 1975, the results of which were presented to government d elegates at Tbilisi in 1977. This 13 UNESCO, Tbilisi Declaration, 1978. This can be found at unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0003/000327/032763eo.pdf accessed May 24, 2012. 14 http://www.naaee.net/what is ee accessed May 6, 2012.

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190 Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education was organized by IEEP, UNESCO and UNEP to help participating nations adopt national policies that would promote environmental education in their own countries. After the 1977 conference, other developments unfolded within the international arena which would be important benchmarks in the development of ESD. As an outgrowth of the 1982 Environmental Conference, for example, in 1983 the United Nations commissioned a gr oup known as the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) to respond to a realization that economic and social development relied in part on sustaining environmental resources. The UN ackno wledged that environmental problems were global in nature and should therefore be addressed by an international commission. In 1987 the Commission, led by Chairman Gro Harlem Brundtland, released their report as the Brundtland report. The Brundtland report defined a concept we know today as sustainable development. This definition, also promoted by the International Union for the that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to 15 and poverty alleviation must consider environmental preservation in order to su stain well 15 http://worldinbalance.net/intagreements/1987 brundtland.php (accessed May 2, 2011).

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191 General Assembly in 1987, the parallel concept of education to support sustainable 16 The history of ESD continued with another major international conference known as (and previously mentioned) the Earth Summit that took place. In 1992, the UN convened a Conference on Environment and Develop in Rio de Janeiro. The purpose of this conference was to develop agreements that helped to prot ect and preserve the environment and natural resources. Representatives from 172 governments, 2,400 non governmental organization representatives, and nearly 10,000 journalists attended the conference. Members of the conference acknowledged that environmen tal impacts should factor into economic policies. 17 As a result of this conference and the negotiations that transpired a document known as Agenda 21 emerged. Agenda 21 was meant to be a blueprint helping nations begin to make sustainable development a real ity. For the purposes of this argument, it is important that Agenda 21 included a statement that one of the important roles for EE was to stimulate social change toward a more sustainable society (Archer 2002: 6). This is significant because the initial t houghts concerning ESD were thus captured in Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, "Promoting Education, Public Awareness, and Training Chapter 36 of Agenda 21 identified four major thrusts that would begin the work of ESD: (1) improve basic education, (2) reorient existing education to address sustainable development, (3) develop public understanding, awareness, and (4) 16 Rosalyn McKeown ( http://www.esdtoolkit.org/discussion/default.htm accessed June 12, 2012 17 Development http://www.un.org/geninfo/bp/enviro.html accessed May 2, 2011

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192 training. 18 These thrusts will be addressed in more detail as the ethical dimension of ESD is explored because that is where values are explicit. In addition to the emergence of Agenda 21, there was also a civil society initiative (an initiative that stems from citizens, rather than governments) to provide a way to implement ESD and provide a vision for a sustainable future. This civil initiative was known as the Earth Charter and was thus formed to reorient educational goals with respect to Chapter 36 of Agenda 21. As a result, many organizations, educators and individuals began to adopt the original goals of ESD into their own practices after severa l efforts to refine this document it was officially launched in 2000 by the Earth Charter Commission (Calder and Clugston 2003: 36). 19 This document is of particular interest to this work as it has been used in schools, by businesses, governments and conti nues to function as a symbol and voice for how the natural world should be viewed and protected in the international arena. It thus becomes of central importance to the forthcoming discussion about how the ways in which values, ethics and morality can aris e from dedicated individuals, become accepted on the international stage, and then trickle down from that larger global arena implement ESD principles in the classroom. Havin g recognized the international context that gave rise to EE and the particular conferences that defined and addressed what is now known as sustainable 18 (ESD Section, UNESCO). DEDS Progress (Los Angeles: Sage Public ations) 2007. Vol 1 p. 117 126 ). 19 http://www.earthcharterinaction.org/content/pages/What is the Earth Charter%3F.html accessed July 8, 2012.

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193 development and ESD it is important that while some argue that EE and ESD co evolved, others find it nece ssary to distinguish EE from ESD. As Martha Monroe stated, been calling EE since the 1970 2012: 44). She explained that EE, as defined by Dr. William B. Stapp (the major author of the founding documents of EE, Chair of the IEEP Program and architect of the process leading to the Tbilisi Declaration) was very interdisciplinary and included social, political, economic and ecological concerns from the very beginning. This particular interdisciplinary perspectiv 1970 s (Monroe 2012: 44). As Monroe explained there were a number of reasons why 45). These included the fac t that there were prevailing natura l resource concerns in the 1970 s which focused attention on problems, to the exclusion of urban and social concerns. There was also a belief that EE needed to prepare citizens to confront industry and government. Later, a conservative backlash to EE meant that educators study (Monroe 2012: 45). Hence, this context provides some insights into why, in the 1990 s, some scholars bega too narrow of a platform on which to establish educational agendas for a new global In an effort to better understand the specific criticisms lau nched against EE, recall that it grew out of social movements emerging in the U.S and Australia during the 1960 s. The focus of EE at this time was on environmental literacy and developing knowledge and awareness of environmental issues (Lynch 2001: 19). T he criticism

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194 made against EE in the U.S. then was that the ideas that were part of it emerged from the western, scientific worldview. According to critics, the problem with the western worldview is that it presumes that reductionist science is viewed as su perior and technological machines are universally effective as tools of an empire. Moreover, these tools are thought to transcend the limits of local knowledge. Others agreed and argued omination of nature practical terms, what this meant was that EE in the United States was incapable of meeting the stated objectives put forth by the global community in its articulation of the environmental framework because education in North America was tied to the political ng the dominant culture. Therefore, there was a gap between what EE was supposed to be and what it actually was in the schools. In short, EE was criticized for focusing only on scientific analysis and not on actual cultural change. Other critics argued a concern on behalf of those who used natural resources for Chapter 2 as a part of North A therefore EE and Northern environmentalism alike were criticized as being a narrow, bourgeois view that precluded certain voices and particularly the environmental aspirations of those who struggle against unequal relations and systems of oppression.

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195 Although northern environmentalism calls for a change in attitude toward the natural world, it appears to rarely addr ess the need to change systems of production or distribution (Guha and Martinez Alier 2000: 18). The perceived restrictions of EE (by some scholars and those who locate themselves in the environmental justice camp) therefore existed in the belief that EE w as too closely associated with nature based environmentalism. The move toward ESD wove in economic and social themes into education while maintaining the emphasis on the environment (Monroe and Fien 2005: 203). The significance of mentioning EE is that s cholars, such as Martha Monroe and John Fien, have highlighted how EE might continue to play an important role in ESD. gages with ESD (Monroe and Fien 2005: 205). As Monroe and Fien explained, ESD in many countries is similar to and is building on the strong foundation of EE programs (Monroe and Fien 2005: 204). For the purposes of this project, both EE and ESD are relevan t to the sustainability onroe 2012: 46). EE nature study, conservation education, and outdoor education and its emph asis on the includes the idea that education that should also promote social change and economic

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196 unity level, which is what is most important when noting the distinctive differences between how these two concepts are practiced (Monroe and Fien 2005: 205). In short, although EE is an integral component to ESD, it did not achieve strong connections bet ween the environment, society and economic issues. Therefore, moving ahead with a closer scrutiny of ESD, what is particularly important for the present discussion is that the Declaration for the DESD (2005 2014) stated that education was of central impor tance to the idea of sustainability and that there was a delegates participating in these events moved into a conversation about how, as with all UN projects, each country would define its own sustainability and education priorities and actions. This meant that there was to be a great diversity in the implementation of the DESD at the local, national and regional levels. Moreover, in the international implementation scheme of ESD it is significant that a large number of stakeholders have to work together to facilitate educational change. This suggests a need for various stakeholders work to build brid ges between different global initiatives to promote the 118). With this brief history of both EE and ESD we not only see the possible ways that EE and ESD co evolved, but we c an now more readily scrutinize how they influence is referred to as ecological illiteracy (which has a moral dimension). This exploration

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197 also adds additional insight into the previously raised question about the purpose and function of schools in America. Origins of Environmental Illiteracy: Deep Roots and the Influences on How Education, Intelligence and Knowledge are Conceived In his early work, David Orr, a prominent s cholar about the topic of ecological ecological illiteracy. It is a complex problem with many different dimensions and it is caused, in part, by flaws in the education system. illustrated by the following two quotations: We are shut up in schools and college recitation rooms for ten or fifteen years, and come out at least with a bellyful of words and do not know a thing. We cannot use our hands, or our legs, or eyes or our arms. We do not know an edible roots in the woods. We cannot tell our course by the stars, not the hour of the day by the sun (Emerson in Or r 1994: 18). flunk life (Walker Percy in Orr 1992: xi). Both Emerson and Perry call to question not only what the purpose of education is, but they also raise questions about w hat kind of knowledge is actually valuable. They suggest that historically the education system was missing something. Orr suggested that the real problem was a disconnect between the disciplines and a disconnect between the intellect, hands and heart (Or r 1992: 137). One definition of ecological relationship to other species. It is about not knowing that this disconnect exists, not being aware of the consequences of this d isconnect and it is about not understanding the origins of this problem (Orr 1992: 151).

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198 The deep roots of ecological illiteracy are found in ideas that gave rise to certain notions about education that are embedded in the dominant Western paradigm. Orr attributed these influential ideas to three men: Francis Bacon, Galileo and Descartes. between government and business. Galileo contributed the idea that intellect and analyti cal thought were separate from and superior to creativity, humor and wholeness. Finally, Descartes contributed his ideas about the radical separation of self and object (Orr 1994: 8). These ideas were not only handmaidens to the Industrial Revolution and capitalism and have greatly enhanced many lives, but there was also a cost to these ideas and the progress they inspired. In other words, these ideas not only helped construct the mindset of many people in American today, but they also helped shape peopl responsible for shaping certain notions about the education system and assumptions about how people relate to one another and the earth. The ideas and values that preclude hum ans from seeing themselves as a part of larger whole or that have people viewing nature as valuable only in terms of its economic gain influence decisions and actions that continue to accelerate the destruction of the planet on many different levels. Ant hony Cortese helped explain some of the problems often characterized as part of those operating solely from the perspective of the dominant paradigm. He outlined four beliefs that characterize the problems of human mindset that contribute to the ecological crisis. First, he said humans believe that they are both separate from and the dominant species of nature. Second, he suggested people believe that resources

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199 are free and inexhaustible and that technological fixes are available to solve most problems. Th ird, people assume that nature has an infinite capacity to assimilate human waste. Finally, people believe that material acquisition and accumulation is the most important determinant of success (Cortese1999a: 6). These are, therefore, components of an e cologically illiterate mindset and they provide some insight into the viewpoint in which modern day education, intelligence and knowledge have been operating. David Orr added another dimension to this explanation of ecological illiteracy which has import and physically anemic. He attributed this not only to the influence of television, but also to a failing education system (Orr 1992: 134). Education in the modern world was designed to further the conquest of nature and the industrialization of the planet. It tended to produce unbalanced, undermined people tailored to fit the modern economy (Orr 1992: 87). is about the terms/conditions of human survival, and yet we still educate at all levels as n system both the content of the curriculum and the process of education must change and such independent secondary school arenas and not only is ESD playing a role, but moral and character education, especially in the Independent school communities, play important roles in these greening trends, too. Prior to unpacking the role ethics, spirituality and morality are playing it is first necessary to better understand the original criticisms launched against education as a complicit mechanism in ecological illiteracy. Scholars launched four main critiques at

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200 general, contemporary curriculum s. First, they critique curriculums for being discipline schools do not teach the basics abo ut the earth and how it works. Important knowledge is simply absent from the curriculum. Orr referred to this as the sin of omission (which is, interestingly enough, the same argument that scholars were making about the lack of religion in educational aren as, too) (Orr 1992: 85). Third, curriculums are flawed because there is a pervasive anthropocentrism throughout them. By failing to include ecological perspectives, students are taught that ecology is unimportant for history, politics, economics, and in so ciety. This magnifies the roles of humans and their ideas, art, institutions relative to soil, water, climate, wildlife, resources, geography, energy, diseases and ecosystem stability (Orr 1994: 24). Finally, modern curriculums teach little about citizens hip and responsibility and a great deal about individuality and rights (Orr 1994: 32). Similarly, scholars argued that it is not only what is being taught that is problematic, but also how it is being taught that contributes to the phenomenon of ecologica l illiteracy. To begin with, the importance of place is overlooked in modern makes knowl edge abstract and disconnected from a tangible experience, or from the real problems and the places where people live and work. Secondly, education is believed to be mostly an indoor activity (Orr 1992: 87). Orr elaborated on this criticism by pointing o ut that not only is education not happening outside the classroom, but that

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201 there were actually less opportunities to experience nature because people live in increasingly urban environments (Orr 1992: 89). Finally, a criticism prevails about the student c enter learning model which is the primary methodology used by modern education systems. The student centered model (although it has merit in that it has replaced teacher centered learning), it has replaced other methods of learning, like trans generational communication, even though this other model has been a vital method of education in traditional cultures (Bowers 1995: 135). Conceivably, if one recognizes the elders of a culture as carriers of essential knowledge about things such and values then inter active learning between the old and young would be an important method of learning in the educational process as it was reformed. An example of this might be an indigenous elder teaching a younger person about proper etiquette toward the natural world. The reveal its own personality because it can present itself on its own terms and not only as an object to be use d by the people for their own purposes (Sanford 2012: 188). Curriculum content and teaching methodologies were only part of what was viewed as problematic. Another aspect of the education system that contributes to ecological illiteracy was how society d explained, the aim of education is not the ability to score well on tests, to do well in Trivial Pursuit, or even to quote the right classic on the appropriate pedagogical occasion. The aim of education is lif e lived to its fullest (Orr 1992: 99). In the words of J Glenn Gray, the purpose of liberal education has to do with fact that his self is fully implicated in those being s around him, human and nonhuman

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202 down approach to knowledge so characteristic of modern consciousness, a deep knowledge o f nature and consequences of cultural practices is derived only over generations of experience with would mandate a reform in how knowledge is currently understood by the existing educational system. The definition of intelligence is equally problematic because intelligence, as it is 20 John Dewey defined intelligence in the transactions between individuals and th e problematic aspects of their social environment, but this was mostly ignored. Instead a myth developed that intelligence is a mental process that occurs in the brain (Bowers 2005: 13). Varying definitions of intelligence, however, have been put forth by different thinkers as they imagine how intelligence might be defined in a way that would better facilitate ecological literacy. According to Mary Midgely, a scholar of environmental ethics, real intelligence might be closer to wisdom (Orr 1994: 50). Davi d Orr claimed that it was impossible to define intelligence, but that it was possible to describe certain characteristics of it. He characterized intelligent people as those who are good at separating cause from effect. 20 http://www.naaee. net/what is ee accessed May 16, According to NAAEE this is someone who knows that there daily choices affect the environment, knows how those choices can help or harm the environment, and what they need to do individually or as part of a community to keep the environment healthy and sustain its resources, so that people enjoy a good quality of life for themselves and their children.

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203 He said that intelligent people have a measure of intelligence. A final morality. Truly intelligent behavior is thus consonant with moderation, loyalty, justice, compassion and truthfulness because these a re fundamental to living well (Orr 1994: 50). Eco intelligence With these varying definitions in mind, some scholars and educators have begun to talk about a concept referred to as ecological intelligence. Ecological intelligence introduces new criteria fo r what it means to be intelligent and incorporates in the idea that students learn best from experiences (Bowers 2005: 132). Ecological intelligence introduces new patterns in thinking. Fritjof Capra suggested that students would understand relationships i n terms of eight principal characteristic of ecosystems. He believed that these relationships are also the basic principles of learning. They are: interdependence, sustainability, ecological cycles, energy flows, partnerships, flexibility diversity and co evolution (in Bowers 2005: 132). New patterns in thinking would allow students to learn to question the model of pre ecological intelligence, to think out the matter of collective intelligence for themselves and to develop the kind of first hand knowledge of nature from which real intelligence grows (Orr 1994: 52). Clearly, the education system has been viewed as problematic for a wide variety

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204 above come from key thin kers whose scholarship resides in the religion and nature milieu. According to Cortese the current education system has helped bring us to the crossroads that we currently face by endeavoring to educate our young in a manner which has reinforced an enviro nmentally ignorant and/or insensitive mindset (Cortese 1999a: 6). Moreover, although formal education currently appears both very powerful in terms of conserving the deepest and largely unconsciously held patterns of modern cultures it could be argued at the same time that it is one of the few public forums we have for developing a critical understanding of the crisis we are now in (Bowers 1995: 3). Recognizing the problems of the system was however the first step toward beginning the process of reforming education. Having identified the problems, Cortese explained, it is now necessary to envision and articulate the desired future (Cortese 1999a: 2). The Implementation of ESD in American Education: Initiatives and Responses to Implement ESD UNESCO is the larger global organization responsible for nurturing and supporting the implementation of ESD into action, but before the mechanisms by which ESD gets implemented into American education are explored it is important to clarify some of the specifics of the ESD framework in more detail. By definition it has been umbrella for many forms of education that already exist, and new ones that remain to be created 21 ESD promotes ef forts to rethink educational programs and systems (both methods and content) that currently support unsustainable societies. ESD affects all 21 http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading the inte rnational agenda/education for sustainable development/education for sustainable development/ accessed December 28, 2012.

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205 components of education: legislation, policy, finance, curriculum, instruction, learning, assessment, etc. ESD call s for lifelong learning and recognizes the fact that the educational needs of people change over their lifetime. Many individuals and organizations around the world already implement ESD. A teacher, for example, may weave sustainability themes into his or her geography class by using participatory which are denied to them, or a public health worker may train people to draw water from clean sources. In other words, there are ma ny programs using an ESD approach to learning which is critical for achieving the goal of sustainability. 22 ESD is thus a complex concept with many facets. It is holistic in its approach and in the diversity of the issues covered. ESD is about learning skills, values and knowledge that fall under the canopy of ESD 23 ESD is therefore implemented in each countr y in different ways and one of the ways it has been integrated into American education is through an organization called the U.S. Partnership for Education for Sustainable Development. This organization was founded after the United Nations launched the Dec ade for Education for Sustainable Development (2005 24 This organization is a convener, catalyst and communicato 22 http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading the international agenda/education for sustainable development/education for sustainable development/ accessed Decembe r 28, 2012. 23 Please see the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable De velopment: The First Two Years (2007), p.123 125 for more discussion about the strategies for establishing an ESD framework for different nations. 24 http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/about us/how we work/mission/ accessed December 27, 2012.

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206 organizations and educational institutions in the United States as registered partners and collaborators (Calder 2009: 7). This organ ization is important, but in an effort to trace the implementation of ESD environments. Higher educational institutions were the initial leaders in this critical endeavor to connect education most directly with 21st century national and global challenges. The trends in American schools (at all levels and of varying types) have started to model more environmentally responsible behavior, committing to green buildings and energy conservation, reducing waste and recycling, purchasing more environmentally sound products, choosing more sustainable transportation, landscaping and food services (Calder and Burnett 2011; Chapman 2012). Some have begun to reexamine what they teach and how they are preparing young people to be problem solvers and engaged citizens in support of a more healthy and sustainable world (Chapman 2012). Research documenting how higher education institutions, however, went green (and the successes and constructive criticisms of these efforts) is more prolific and these data offer some important insights into the patterns and trends related to the spiritual and ethical dimension of ESD. (Wheeler and Byrne 2003: 28). Given the educational and research capacity, the external par tnerships, and the position of higher education as an influential voice in

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207 society, there is ample opportunity for higher education to help shift societal norms toward a healthier environmental, social, and economic stability (Rowe 2007: 324). Peggy Barle on university campus sustainability, for example, has demonstrated that when students made even minor changes in their behavior they saw themselves as environmental actors and this altered self understanding promoted additional changes in practic e (Barlett 2004). Evidence for widespread University sustainability exists nationwide. Organizations such as the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE) provide evidence for how campuses are changing, sustainability coordinator positions continue to emerge and college towns themselves are becoming more sustainable. 25 In the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher membership by campuses of 2.3% which put the total number of U.S. and Canadian members at 858 by the end of 2011. In an analysis of these data and comparing it with past years this trend would continue. 26 In addition to a growing number of universities and colleges becoming members of AASHE, some campuses choose to focus on a particular area of sustainability such as climate change through programs such as the American College and University 27 This organization works t o 25 AASHE Mission, Vision and Goals http://www.aashe.org/about/aashe mission vision goals accessed March 2013. 26 found at http://www.aashe.org/files/2011_annualreport_aashe.pdf p.4. accessed 23 March 2013. 27 http://www.presidentsclimatecommitment.org/about/commitment accessed 23 March 2013.

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208 member campuses, 673 campuses signed the commitment and 419 of the schools had submitted action plans. 28 Moreover, college towns like Worcester, MA where Holy Cross is loca ted or Oberlin, OH, home of Oberlin College, are making efforts to be more sustainable. Holy Cross took put forth an initiative on campus that extended out into the bottle working toward efforts to implement more greenbelts, take seriously sustainable design, consider using renewable energy resources and modeling what a college town in the futu re might be (Welsh 2009). What is important for my research, however, is that higher education has also involved itself with outreach to K 12 sustainability educators. Collaborations between colleges and universities, NGOs and school districts where susta inability education has now taken root are unfolding throughout the United States. Colleges and Universities work with these other organizations and districts as a way to both research and foster best practices in sustainability education. These partnersh ips continue to be nurtured and promote effective outcomes (Wheeler and Byrne 2003: 29). The aim of such collaborative work is to enhance student performance and to also weave sustainability education into the school curriculum. Teachers at the K 12 schoo ls (public and private) and their students are regularly invited to participate in conferences and exchanges that address sustainability challenges (Wheeler and Byrne 2003: 28). The vision and reality is that partnerships between higher education and K 28 http://www.presidentsclimatecommitment.org/reporting/annual report/2010 p. 2, accessed 23 March 2013 http://secondnature.org/news/fifteen inactive institutions removed american college university presidents climate commitment (1 July 2010) accessed 23 March 2013.

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209 12 sustainability education leaders are capable of accomplishing a transition to a better future (Wheeler and Byrne 2003: 29). Collaborative projects, for example, where secondary schools have benefitted from the resources and experiences with sustainabilit y in higher education are seen in a project such as The Green Education Foundation (GEF) which promotes a K 12 sustainability curriculum and offers certification programs for educators. 29 GEF's al stewards within the context of their own lives. GEF offers the Green Energy Challenge, Green Thumb Challenge and Green Building Program as part of its sustainability education efforts. 30 Additional collaborative projects involving secondary schools incl ude the Green Ribbon School Program, which is operated by the U.S. Department of Education. This award program mandates that these schools have quantified achievement toward reaching the goals of three Green Ribbon Pillars and Elements (environmental impac t and energy efficiency, healthy school environments, environmental and sustainability education) and the varying projects that they participate in emerge from collaboration with the U.S. Green Building Council Center for Green Schools, the Earth Day Netwo rk, the National Wildlife Federation and the Campaign for Environmental Literacy. 31 Many other examples exist such as Green Teacher Publications, The Green School Alliance coalition and profession development opportunities such as the Teacher Institute on 29 http://gefinstitute.org/about/for educators.html accessed May 13, 2013. 30 http://www.sustainschools.org/about us/ accessed July 24, 2012 31 Education Green Ribbon Schools at http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC0QFjAA&url=http %3A%2F%2Fwww.eirc.org%2Fwebsite%2Fwp content%2Fuploads%2F2011%2F12%2Fintroduction presentation.ppt&ei=pzy1UayrOMLli AKyioDYDA&usg=AFQjCNHJODPFwbJcK29xB4tFK9uQFChagQ&si g2=Sz4s0XrzJWRKtSpwtN24Xw&bvm=bv.47534661,d.cGE accessed June 21, 2012.

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210 Science and Sustainability (TISS) which help train teachers to create greener schools (Smith and Harris 2011: 22). The importance of these different examples of partnerships is manifold. These partnerships include collaboration between higher education an d secondary school educators through the certification programs they offer, higher education offers models for implementing sustainability that can be mirrored in secondary schools, professors design curriculum collaboratively with secondary school educato rs and all of these examples demonstrate that sustainability efforts have been unfolding throughout the U.S. in different levels of the educational arena. These trends also demonstrate that transition of ESD from higher education to high schools is part of the process by which ESD has become a significant trend (and not a sidelight) in Characteristics of ESD and its Ethical, Moral, and Spiritual Dimensions To better understand some of the particulars of ESD and its ethical, moral and spi and to note that there is an ethical dimension to sustainable development itself that ESD is (and needs to continue) to build off. This ethical dimension can be imple mented in a cultural and economic conditions of each locality 32 Furthermore, ESD increases civil capacity by enhancing and improving society, through a combination of form al, non formal and informal education. The core characteristics of ESD thus include: is based on the principles and values that underlie sustainable development 32 http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading the international agenda/education for sustainable development/education for sustainable development/ accessed May 31, 2012.

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211 deals with the well being of all four dimensions of sustainability environment, society and economy uses a variety of pedagogical techniques that promote participatory learning and higher order thinking skills promotes lifelong learning is locally relevant and culturally appropriate is based on local needs, perceptions and conditions, but acknowl edges that fulfilling local needs often has international effects and consequences accommodates the evolving nature of the concept of sustainability addresses content, taking into account context, global issues and local priorities; builds civil capacity f or community based decision making, social tolerance, environmental stewardship, an adaptable workforce, and a good quality of life is interdisciplinary and no single discipline can claim ESD for itself; all disciplines can contribute to ESD. 33 Collectivel y all of these characteristics and are important to understanding the scope of ESD, but the two that are most relevant to the current discussion is the idea that ESD is values driven (because it shares the values, principles underpinning sustainability and sustainable development) and the idea that is builds civil capacity for community based decision making, social tolerance, environmental stewardship, an adaptable workforce, and a good quality of life. In addition to values being embedded in the characte ristics and thrusts of ESD, there is also an ethical dimension to the motivations behind the vision of ESD. social change that seeks to foster through education, train ing and public awareness 33 http://www.unesco.org/new/en/ education/themes/leading the international agenda/education for sustainable development/education for sustainable development/ accessed May 31, 2012.

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212 the values, behavior and lifestyles required for a sustainable future. 34 This means that ESD involves learning how to make decisions that balance and integrate the long term future of the economy, the natural environment and the well being of all communities, near and far, now and in the future. And, the goal of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development is to have this vision of education integrated into education plans at all levels and all sectors of education in al l countries. ESD (and the DESD), in other words, operates out of a set of assumptions that IF people better understand the world in which they live, and face the future with hope and confidence, then they can play a role in addressing the complex and inte rdependent problems that threaten the future. In addition to these essential core characteristics there is an ethical dimension to a reasonable and proper attention to all aspects of human life including ethical and sustainability addresses and sustainable development must consider includes poverty, wasteful consumption, environmental degradation, u rban decay, population growth, gender inequality, health, conflict and the violation of human rights. 35 The significance of these themes has to do the motivations behind them. As UNESCO describes on the every person and the world because such an education promotes development that is environmentally sound, 34 Future, at http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/extras/desd.html?panel=1#top/ accessed November 3, 2012. 35 g for a Sustainable Future, at http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/extras/desd.html?panel=1#top/ accessed November 3, 2012.

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213 socially equitable, culturally sensitive and economically just 36 Moreover, the vision is rkforce as well as handle a crisis, be resilient, become responsible citizens, adapt to change, recognize and solve local problems with global roots, meet other cultures with respect, and create a peaceful and sustainable society 37 The motivations behind these themes are therefore shaping the 21st century global citizen and defining the vision of what the world might look like if ESD were indeed successful. As this project demonstrates, this notion of educating, for the purpose of cultivating 21st centu ry citizens, is precisely the goal of many private secondary schools in America today. What is also important about this vision for this decade is that it was support for the Ear th Charter (a valuable educational tool for the implementation of ESD which will be discussed a bit later). The support and recognition of the Earth Charter as an important ethical framework for sustainable development was noteworthy at this time. 38 The vis ion and the tools used to implement it, therefore, serve as additional evidence for how values and ethics are embedded in this particular education reform (originating at the highest level institution) that is currently underway. The values and principles of ESD must now be addressed to clarify what the ethical dimension of ESD entails. The ESD framework is based upon the 27 principles 36 http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading the international agenda/education for sustainable development/education for sustainable development/ accessed May 31, 2012.. 37 http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading the international agenda/education for sustainable development/education for sustainable development/ accessed May 31, 2012. 38 UN Decade of Edu cation for Sustainable D evelopment: The First Two Years (2007) p.118.

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214 of sustainability found in the Rio Declaration on the Environment and Development which resulted from the 1992 conference in which the delegates reaffirmed and built off the principles related to human development established in Stockholm. 39 This environmental management and development because their full participation is therefore essential to achieve sustainable terdependent and 40 The relevance of these principles will be elaborated in the discussion about how spirituality and ethics are being transmitted along with ESD into educational areas. In addition to these foundational principles, however, i t is equally important to note the values embedded in and promoted by ESD. The specific values that an ESD program should promote is still a matter of discussion. However, it is agreed that understanding values is an essential part of understanding an indi worldview and those of others and that the values of an ESD program are inherent in the concept sustainable development. Thus, the ways in which countries decide how to approach sustainable development are closely linked to the values held by the people. Because these values define how personal decisions are made, as well as how national values of the society you live in, and the values of others around the world is a central 39 The Rio Declaration http://www.unep.org/documents.multilingual/default.asp?do cumentid=78&articleid=1163 accessed June 2, 2012. Also see http://www.unesco.org/education/nfsunesco/pdf/RIO_E.PDF for the actual declaration. 40 at http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading the international agenda/ education for sustainable development/education for sustainable development/ accessed May 31, 2012.

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215 41 In other words, each country, cultural group and individual must learn the skills of recognizing their own values and assessing these values in the context of sustainability. Also, in additio n to the knowledge about culturally specific values, the first 4 main principles the Earth Charter provide an overview to ethical vision found within ESD. These include: 1. respect earth and life in all of its diversity 2. care for the community of life with und erstanding, compassion and love 3. build democratic societies that are just, participatory, sustainable and peaceful 4. As the foundation is built for understanding the many ways that ethics, v alues and spirituality are an integral part of ESD, it is necessary to explore some of the reasons behind implementing ESD. Each of these reasons is value laden and significant. First, in accord with other scholars, I argue that ESD helps create an optimi stic vision and develops the capacity for actions that are consistent with those Bi jur 2000: ix). In fact, people do not function in very environmentally responsible ways pres erving the environment. His later research found that people who had spent time in the wilderness and had experienced transformative experiences had a strong concern for the environment and desire to preserve it in the hope of having such experiences again (Kaplan 2000: 496; R. Kaplan & S. Kaplan 1989). Second, the argument is often 41 http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading the international agenda/education for sustainable development/sustainable development/values sd/ accessed December 30, 2012.

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216 upon a single premise: that the individual is a member of a community of interdepend ethics prompted him also to co operate (perhaps in order that there may be a place to compete for). S imply put, teaching about sustainability is just the right thing to do. Third, people have argued that education will have to change dramatically in the 21st century to serve its historic purpose in society. The idea is that education must evolve to serve young people in their struggle to grow and mature intellectually, morally, and spiritually by guiding their learning that occurs mostly outside the classroom (Wheeler and Byrne 2003: 274). With these reasons in mind for pursuing the implementation of ESD t he trends and patterns in the implementation of ESD in North America can be explored Tools for Implementing ESD: Earth Charter The Earth Charter is one of the specific tools used to implement ESD and this deserves special consideration because of its eth ical dimension and its practical uses in education. According to the Earth Charter Commission, an independent international body that promotes the principles outlined in the Earth Charter, the Earth Charter is a declaration of fundamental ethical princip les for building a just, sustainable and peaceful global society in the 21st century. It seeks to inspire in all people a new sense of global interdependence and shared responsibility for the well being of the whole human family, the greater community of life, and future generations. It is a vision of hope and a call to action. 42 42 http://www.earthcharterinaction.or g/content/pages/What is the Earth Charter%3F.html accessed May 2, 2012

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217 At its origin, many significant conversations transpired about both values and spirituality and how they might be incorporated into this document. Maurice Strong, a leader of the Charter idea while serving as the secretary general of the 1992 Earth S ummit in Rio de Janerio (Taylor 2005 d : 1378). In the early conversations about this idea he not only expressed a strong interest in promoting an environmental ethic, but this discussion led to important ideas that played out in the greening of religion movements and environmental ethics conversations and continue to influence global environmental politics (Taylor 2005 d : 1378). After the conference, for example, Strong discussed the promotion of the Charter with references to Gaian spirituality (Taylor, Maclean, Eaton 2005: 1682). The Earth Charter is particularly relevant as it not only inspired many important conversations about global governance and environmental issues, but it also was the result of a worldwide effort and dialogue between many different faiths. The origin of the ty of intellectual involved in the drafting process included scientists, lawyers from around the world and a wide variety of religious leaders. They drafted, revised, debated the potential contributions to it and then sent it out into the world for more feedback prior to revising it again. 43 The collaborative process was extremely important. There is much evidence of spiritual animism and naturalistic religion in the final doc ument, and the purpose of the document, in the end, was to articulate shared goals and visions as citizens of the 43 http://www.earthcharterinaction.org/content/pages /The Drafting Process.html/ accessed May 12, 2012.

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218 Earth. The document aims for the global community to collectively work to improve and sustain the environment while also paying attention to t he interrelated issues of human rights, poverty, gender equality, economic justice and democracy (Rockefeller 2005: 517). The Earth Charter is a declaration of ethical principles for building a fair, sustainable and peaceful global society in the 21st cen tury. It serves as a base of ethical principles that inspired the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development and could potentially promote an integrated approach to global issues. 44 As several different experts offer in explanation about the Earth educational tool because it provides a useful framework for discussing such topics as ideas and values of the new scientific worldview being shaped by discoveries in traditions, but it is an especially significant product of the global ethics movement. The Earth Charter recognizes the important role of religio n, values and ethics in achieving sustainability and reflects a consensus on basic values that is taking form in the rapidly developing global civil society (Rockefeller 2005: 516). The promise of Earth Charter is that it provides an integrated ethical v ision of sustainable development, building on a broadly participatory global consultation. It can assist in articulating a new framework for economic and social policies not primarily oriented toward short term economic gain, but toward the full flourishi ng of life (Calder 44 http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading the international agenda/education for sustainable development/sustainable development/values sd/ accessed June 23, 2012.

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219 and Clugston 2005: 9). And, as my research demonstrates, the values embedded within this tool resonate with ideas found in the realm of religion and nature too. The values of the Charter are the very core values of the global ethic that arises from a reverence for compassion (Boff 2006: 43 in McGrady 2008: 165). More importantly, the values collectively foster both ecocentric and ecojustice perspecti ves. As Rick Clugston replaces our narrow and short term anthropocentrisms with a framework which draws 2010: 160). He elaborated by explaining that the Earth Charter promotes an Ecocentrism which challenges a human centred approach to ethics, economics, religion and culture. Ecocentrism lies behind the moral sentiment named by Albert edged urgent challenge: to achieve environmental sustainability on the one hand and a fairer, more equitable distribution of resources and life opportunities in the human community on the other (Clugston 2010: 161). The Earth Charter and its perspective become a fascinating tool for implementing ESD because it not only forces people to ask hard ethical questions and teaches students to question existing norms, but also provides a specific set of tasks to accomp lish to help make the world more sustainable. document of primary significance to this project. The Earth Charter, for example, emerged as a new sacred text, earth focused spir ituality emerged at margins of the WWSD conference. 45 First, the tone of the Earth Charter is optimistic in nature. It 45 As Bron Taylor argued, during the WWSD conference African traditional religions were honored, Jane Goodall and Vanda Shiva spoke about the disconnection wit h nature, and about how reconnecting with nature was a fundamental. This demonstrated certain Earth related spirituality and Taylor cited an

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220 presents sustainability ideals in the form of a declaration. The preamble outlines the global society founded on respect for important because it conveys the idea that this is a way to a kind of social transformation that is, indeed, possible. Third, the content of the charter highlights some of the basic values of sustainability: respec t for life, protection of the environment, social justice and democracy. It emphasizes environmental conservation, protection for future generations, advocates for biodiversity and includes the precautionary principle (Edwards 2005: 45). The emphasis on biodiversity and the idea that one of main objectives of the (Edwards 2005: 41) is quite significant. In other words, embedded in the different aspects of the charter a re values (as well as the underlying values for ESD), which have heart of the Earth Charter is an ethic of respect and care for all life forms and the greater community of life, of which humanity is a part. The idea is that the respect for all life is important because all beings are interdependent and all life forms have value regardless of their worth to people. The sense of ethical responsibility begins with an attitude of respect for others and finds expression in active caring, which involves the advertisement by a Japanese p ower industry in The International Herald Tribune under the headline Be Grateful to Mother E and then defended its use of nuclear power as other evidence that Earth related spirituality was evolving (Taylor 2005e:1682).

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221 prevention of harm and the promotion of we ll 2005: 517). Moreover, these embedded ethics are important because the Earth Charter is grounded in a vision with all life is strengthened when we live with rever ence for the mystery of being, (Rockefeller 2005: 517). Taylor argued that during the drafting process, the benchmark draft of this document which was offered up in 1997 for refinement provides the clearest collective statement of dark green religion yet produced; it could even be considered an attempted draft of a new sacred text for a proffered terrapolitan earth religion (Taylor 2010: 203). This draft underwent significan t changes, but the parareligious elements of the initial draft that included many of the themes found in DGR were still echoed in the biocentric and subtly pantheistic nature of the April 1999 version (Taylor 2010: 204). The significance of the Earth Cha rter to this project is that it is used in schools, its ideas are being implemented into civil society and its values are being cultivated as a kind of guide to a sustainable way of living. It is also significant that the Charter is consensus statement on the meaning of sustainability contrasts the partial adoption of global education and sustainability in previous decades that was less uniform or credible (Hoepper 2007: 27). Moreover, the latent forms of d preserve the traditional knowledge and spiritual wisdom in all cultures

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222 ways that DGR may be influencing the educational arena. 46 In addition to the Earth Charter as a tool for implementing ESD into schools, was launched by the Earth Charter Task for on Religion, Spirituality and Ethics. The purpose of Spiritual Dimensions of Sustainab le Development Project is to bring together a global alliance of religious, spiritual and ethical organizations to deepen the understanding, public awareness and practical application of the ethical and spiritual foundations of sustainable development. 47 T fundamental to the mission of the Earth Charter Initiative. The work and ideas (inclusive of the values and principles) of this particular project therefore have been used and in tegrated into efforts to get ESD into education. These efforts range from lectures given of principles as a lens of analysis for evaluating how well their own school is suc ceeding at accomplishing sustainability or how it can do better. 48 46 Please see h at http://www.earthcharterinaction.org/content/pages/Read the Charter.html/ accessed May 12, 2012 ples 47 http://www.earthcharterinaction.org/invent/details.php?id=898/ accessed September 5, 2012. 48 Students might read about the importance of Indigenous p consultation process or they might engage in an activity from Facing the Future which offers curriculum resources for Exploring Global Issues

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223 In summary, there is a direct connection between religion, values, culture and sustainability and that this relationship is being transmitted into educational arenas through educators who make ESD a priority. Students are being exposed to the role other ESD themes suggests that the religion variable is integral to the kind of transformation that may be underw ay with a nascent form of a more definitive earth citizenry emerging from 21 st century. In this educational process, students are participating in a kind of new cultural production as they engage these issues first hand. As the UNESCO website states: reli gion is a major force in the world today. It seems that all people in all cultures have a set of beliefs that go beyond both the self and the natural world. We use these beliefs to help explain reasons for human existence and to guide personal religions an d behavior. 49 In other words, if our cultural influences, embedded with particular values and beliefs from religion, are an inextricable part of the complex notion of sustainability, then CO explains, this sustainability and what is needed are new, or re discovered, norms and values that can guide our actions towards sustainable ways of caring for other people a nd the natural world Thus, achieving sustainability will need to be motivated by a shift in values and without change of this kind, even the most enlightened legislation, the cleanest 49 Educating for a Sustainable Future: A Transdisciplinary Vision for C oncerted Action, www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/mods/thme_c/mod10.html?panel=1#top accessed May 26, 2012.

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224 technology, the most sophisticated research will not succeed. 50 As the project proceeds it will become increasingly clear how the religious, spiritual and ethical dimensions involved in the greening of secondary school education may indeed playing a pivotal role in bringing about the deep change required to achieve the vision of sustainability. Concerns, Conundrums, and Conclusions The discussion thus far has not only acknowledged that ESD arose from a moral concern by the global community about the state of environmental affairs and that both the United Nations and ESD have ethical dimensions, but it has also acknowledged that an assumption behind ESD is that humanity must dramatically change its present course of environmental, social and economic development in order to ensure a healthy and secure world for future generatio ns (Calder and Clugston 2005: 7). The unfolding discussion, moreover, also highlighted that a contingent of scholars believe that the content and methods of most education and training and the messages in mass media are currently socializing us to live un sustainably (Orr 1992, 1994; Bowers 1995, 1997; Calder and Clugston 2005). In response to these identifiable problems about the ways humans interact with the natural world and concerns about the role education may play in these larger problems, both the gl obal community and educators within it have begun to envision and articulate a different kind of future and the ESD framework has emerged as one potential part of this new vision. ESD is therefore one alternative to education as usual and it offers one (o f many) possible avenues for reimagining a more sustainable future 50 UNESCO (1997) Educating for a Sustainable Future: A Transdisciplinary Visi on for Concerted Action, paragraph 103, at www.unesco.org/educa tion/tlsf/mods/thme_c/mod10.html?panel=1#top accessed May 26, 2012.

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225 future chapters reveal, sustainability related pedagogies throughout the United States which therefore suggests the potential of how individuals within and ideas emerging from global, elite institutions and the ir moral authority may help facilitate larger systemic change. It is now, however, necessary to conclude the discussion about ESD by drawing attention to some of the concerns and criticisms of it. This not only allows for a deeper understanding of what ESD is, but it also provides broader context for understanding how its influence in the specific arena of American independent school communities may more readily nurture form of an emergent global ethic. There are several different criticisms and concerns about ESD. First, in previous descriptions about the ESD framework it has been m ade clear that it is not any one, definitive or absolute thing and this becomes a source of some criticism against it. First, contradicted and contested, and caricatured as a large, diverse and rapidly expanding field of enquiry populated by heterogeneous discourses, multiple approaches and a Jickling has argued, ESD, is a muddled phrase bec ause people assume that education and environmental education are actually concrete entities instead of abstractions and people think these abstractions are nouns (Jickling 1994 ). Jickling explained that the

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226 problem with this is that the rhetoric can be ea sily manipulated. Second, it has been argued that ESD facilitates a lot of rhetoric about environmental, economic and social concerns, but little action has resulted to address these concerns. As Wals has noted there are no singular answers to the role th at ESD has played thus far in the world and the state of the world is actually more severe than in 1992 with more people using more resources (Jickling and Wals 2012). Third, there are critics from the far right who oppose Agenda 21, ESD, the Earth Charte r and related initiatives because they view 178). Scholars in support of Agenda 21 claim that the anti Agenda 21 campaign makes preposterous claims including that lo cal land use planning is part of a plot to put the United Nations in control of local and regional planning decisions, rob individuals of their freedoms, and undermine property rights (Brown 2013: 4 ). One manifestation of this critique against Agenda 21 i s the Cornwall Declaration which was developed by the Interfaith Council for Environmental Stewardship (ICES), a group of prominent Jewish and Christian leaders, to promote care for the earth. This document acknowledged the need to help protect the earth, policies and ideas being proposed by major environmental groups and their allies in Christian perspective. 51 Other criticisms include the idea tha t ESD can be taught as a kind of indoctrination if educators try to teach children sustainable development. In other words, 51 romote Balanced E nvir http://www.prnewswire.com/news releases/religious leaders come together to promote balanced environmental policies 72646507.html accessed March 15, 2013. For more information on this topic please see information abou t Cal Beisner who is a spokesperson for the Cornwall Alliance for the stewardship of Creation at http://ecalvin beisner.com/

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227 ut sustainable development is undermining the very goals of its intent to promote engaged problem solving from a wide variety of perspectives and ESD simply becomes the new agenda item (Jickling 1992). Finally, one of the more challenging criticisms to add ress about ESD is the notion of development) never goes away. Additional context for these concerns, however, may help mitigate the skepticism that might arise about the ESD framework upon their initial introduction. First, although critics cite the vagueness of the ESD framework as problematic, I argue this is not only criticisms that we re initially cited about Environmental Education as the first global attempt to address environmental concerns in the education arena. Its framework offers all educational stakeholders an opportunity to join an international conversation and to create and implement a new vision (Calder and Clugston 2005: 7). The vagueness is thus a necessary part of the framework to ensure that it could be used internationally and to guarantee that it would include the collaborative efforts of many different stakeholders. The flexibility is also necessary for it to be relevant in different contexts and to be applicable in the context of local knowledge of specific communities. This particular s greatest strengths in its role to inspire larger systemic change later in the discussion, but of greater importance to the discussion at hand is that the flexibility of the framework helped facilitate a shift from the way that Environmental Education has been practiced

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228 as a narrow version of its definitional vision in America (Monroe 2012: 46). The practices and stricter boundaries that were perceived as part of Environmental Education as i t gained popularity in the 1970 s ignored the reality that environ mental issues impact all races and all socio economic groups differently. By encouraging conservation, for example, important and valuable changes in urban environments were webs? In other words, Environmental Education curriculums, as they developed in the cont ext of American during the 1970 s, negated class and race issues (among other important criticisms of the hegemonic social and worldview which are, in part, responsible for a way to incorporate social concerns in ways that are able to materialize even though EE had put forth a similar vision decades ago (Monroe 2012: 44). Another strength found in the fl exibility of the ESD framework is that it shifts the purpose and function of education about sustainability issues from simply teaching about environmental literacy and developing knowledge and awareness of environmental issues. ESD and EE now both promote the cultivation of an environmental problems, evaluate their own role in these problems, and most h 2001: 19). The flexible framework of ESD, however, and its interdisciplinary pedagogy have ensured that now both Environmental Educators and ESD educators are more invested in er, to engaged action and the accompanying responsibility of promoting responsible

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229 environmental behavior was made possible by ESD. The flexibility of the ESD framework thus offers many advantages and these arguably override the concerns of the critics wh o argue its vagueness is a problem. One of the most difficult criticisms to respond to is that ESD is embedded in the idea of the unquestioned growth principle (Selby 2006: 355). As Selby explained, conservatio argued that devel the ability of ESD paradigm to facilitate a larger critique of education itself may be one of its greatest strengths. Moreover, the inherent growth criticism may be addressed by like to suggest that perhaps Arne Duncan, the U.S. Secretary of Education since 2009, knew som in other words, could provide the very means for critiquing a problematic system while simultaneou sly co creating a new one with more sustainable lifeways as a byproduct. As Aiden Davison suggested, it may be that ESD is the necessary lens to critique and thus transform education itself in order to actually achieve sustainability: Education has been pr esented as the handmaiden of sustainability since its first steps on the international stage. Education has been delegated the task of clarifying this relationship and of aligning ethical aspirations and pragmatic objectives. Education has been delegated prime responsibility for raising

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230 awareness, shifting attitudes, and changing voluntary behavior and in the contexts spanning private life, school life, vocational life, economic life, social life and cultural life (Davison 2009: 64). In an effort to better understand the growth principle as a part of sustainability it is necessary to acknowledge that there is a spectrum of sustainability, which ranges from weak to strong. The growth principle is associated with weak sustainability and this is best understoo orthodox narrative of economic growth, where actions to alleviate environmental al. 2005: 15). Th is implies that sound environmental practices can improve efficiency and therefore drive further grown and the environmental technology itself becomes a lucrative growth area. In contrast, however, to the more popular weak sustainability is strong sustain ability. Strong sustainability challenges the prevailing optimism that technological advance or improved efficiency which is endorsed as the basis for future on recastin g attitudes to nature and notions of development. It critiques concepts of economic growth, development and the meaning of progress and this is the kind of secondary scho ols (Higgitt et al. 2005: 15). The ideal would be, however, to include state and the goal of this is to work toward developing technology that would help reduce the

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231 begin to more ov ertly address population dynamics and the idea that there must be fewer consumers if sustainability is to be achieved. As a way to build a case against the criticism that the inherent growth principle is a flaw of ESD, it is necessary to note that one of the interrogation of education itself. One of the primary aims of ESD is to reorient existing education at all levels. This re visioning of education includes a clear focus on the development of the knowledge, skills, perspectives and values related to sustainability and implies a review of existing curricula in terms of their objectives and content to develop transdisciplinary understandings of social, economic and environmental sustainability. It also requires a revi ew of recommended and mandated approaches to teaching, learning and assessment so that lifelong learning skills are fostered. These include skills for creative and critical thinking, oral and written communication, collaboration and cooperation, conflict m anagement, decision making, problem solving and planning, using appropriate ICTs, and practical citizenship. 52 The real merit of this interrogation that the ESD framework demands is its ability to force educators to ask important questions about education as they implement the ESD pedagogy. The ESD pedagogy, like all critical pedagogies, expects that people have a responsibility not only for how an individual acts in society but also in a system in which to participate (McLaren 1998: 167). In short, ESD is a process of learning how to make decisions that consider the long term future of the economy, ecology and equity of all communities (Calder and 52 Please see on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable D evelopment: Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future website at http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/extras/desd.html?panel=1#top/ accessed November 3, 2012.

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232 Clugston 2005: 7). In other words, if a wide range of distinctive philosophical responses are explored to answe being presented, then each response offers its own challenge to the learner about how to live ethically and responsibly on the planet. The inclusion of each response not only problematizes (and thereby extends the concepts of sustainable development and sustainability) but it also calls to question all other responses as well. relationship with the planet would result in m any explanations. The kinds of responses, for example, found in the religion and nature discourse might include ideas from the following areas: 1) animal liberation philosophies which claim that animals have rights and offer a philosophical basis for this claim; 2) bioregionalist philosophies which call for humans to live simply within the place they have inhabited since birth or if they have moved re inhabited; 3) ecofeminist philosophies which identify the problem as patriarchy rather than anthropocentris m and argue that the oppression and exploitation of women, minorities and nature are mutually reinforcing as well as intersecting in their dynamics; 4) perspectives grounded in conservation biology; and 5) deep ecology which argues for a more egalitarian relationship between humans and the natural world (Selby 2006: 359). In short, this multi perspective methodology and the process of exposing students to many diverse ideas about human earth relationships. This methodology then provides counter evidence f or the critics who say that ESD and the current pursuit of sustainability is only about the scientists, economists, engineers leading the way in pursuit of sustainability in the form of a techno economic agenda.

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233 The critical analysis of issues that the ES D framework promotes arguably also helps address the idea that inherent growth cannot be overcome in this framework. Through the ESD pedagogy, as students develop better critical thinking skills, a deeper understanding of science and sustainability, and a greater awareness of ecosystems and energy efficiency they are going to be more likely to graduate ready to innovate and collaborate in working toward a sustainable, clean energy economy. U.S. Secretary of Education argued that students at green schools responsible citizens, are more ready to participate in the civic life of their communities, values driving the desire or decisio ns to limit growth (found within the ethical dimension nature. The moral dimension of ESD thus also provides important evidence against the critics who argue that ESD is inher ently flawed. The moral dimensions of ESD have already been established and cited in the motivation for its creation, in its goals, themes and in some of the particular tools (especially the Earth Charter) and in the various partnerships it has establishe d, but how this moral dimension gets transmitted through ESD is yet to be explored. First, some view ESD (especially as it manifests in the Earth Charter) as an example of combining ethics education with experiential education. The merit of this is that Hoepper 2007: 29). Answers to the challenge about how to bridge the gap between ideas and practices emerge in a wide variety of scholarly discussions, including those relat ed to

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234 ESD. One possibility includes the idea about the existence of a transcendent moral force in the human condition. This moral force is sometimes expressed in the form of a set of universal and unalienable values. In such explanations, it is the values held by individuals and the ethics legitimated by society that generate the personal commitment and political will necessary to translate the ideal of sustainability into reality, and that acts as a moral compass, by which to guide learning by doing along chools are not integrating enchantment, mystery, reverence, wonder and the o ceanic and spiritual sense of connectedness we feel when we climb a mountain, or weave the waters of a difficult 53 sensibility to our sustainability aspirations, we can add radically new, and liberating dimensions to our epistemology; dimensions that, given their current abandonment in this indeed may exactly what is transpiring in Americ 361). 53 In addition to the previously mentioned definition of a sustainably literate person as defined by NAAEE, a sustain ability literate person can be defined as someone who is equipped with a number of intellectual and practical tools that enable them to take decisions and act in a way that is likely to contribute positively to sustainable development. They will be able to make decisions o n specific matters, such as advising on financial investments, bu y rule that is taking environmental, social and economic considerations into account simultaneously, not separate ly (Selby 2006: 361)

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235 Criticisms of ESD are important as they not only mandate a closer scrutiny of what ESD is, but they ensure a critical examination of this framework and its potential. Challenges are going to exist to any argument an d this argument is complex. Moreover, many minute variables, so many intuitive interactions, so many conflicting agendas and lained, there is a good reason that humans have argued about education for thousands of years! In exploring the criticisms against ESD, however, it has been possible to offer alternatives to them. Rather than the ESD framework being too vague, it has open ed up inherent growth principle, there are aspects of strong sustainability withi n this paradigm that offer similar critiques to ideas found in deep ecology which ask people to think deeply about the human nature relationship and to renounce the anthropocentrism of much of our thought and behaviors in favor of biospherical egalitariani sm (Selby 2006: 359). In other words, instead of following emerging agendas of ESD which have presented sustainability as a predetermined theoretical end to be reached through the use of neutral practical means, perhaps it would be more prudent to underst and education for sustainability as an agenda for the reinvigoration of skills of practical moral reasoning. In short, perhaps one of the greatest benefits of ESD is that it has already brought education itself into question (Davison 2009: 63). In conclusion, the very purpose and nature of learning through the ESD paradigm

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236 educational woes. The problem is exemplified in the words of the former U.S. President, critical reflection about education. This has resulted in America no longer simply d efining academic success almost exclusively in terms of capital accumulation and the logic of the marketplace. Where education was at one time critiqued because it has I ndependent school arenas may now be fostering a global ethic and notions of an earth citizenry (McLaren1998: 6). The belief is that that these new global citizens will have an operative framework to help deal with 21st century issues (McFarlane and Ogazon 2011: 87). This new ethic largely celebrates the human intelligence toward a new sensibility that seeks to replace dominion over nature with a more fulfilling relationship between humanity and the natural world. This movement away from simple stewardship, and toward a sense of kinship with life -what the biologist E. O. Wilson calls biophilia -is a source of creativity and deep learning. 54 Finally, the chapters ahead s indeed underway and that it is in part due to the influences of the kind of world after World War II. As Stephen Rockefeller argued, part of what is going on is a sponse to the acute environmental degradation, social fragmentation, international 54 Architecture for the Twenty First Century at http://www.mcdonough.com/speaking writing/toward a sustaining architecture for the twenty first century/ accessed May 26, 2012 for more about how creativity and deep learning might emerge in the future.

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237 recognition of these things have resulted in the convergence of a variety of social, scie ntific, international, ethical and religious movements all pointing to a need to school arenas.

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238 CHAPTER 4 THE GREENING OF INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS AND THEIR PROMOTION OF ENV IRONMENTAL VALUES Introduction The previous chapters made evident that there is a long history in American education of religion, values and ethics as being important variables and that there is also an operative ethical dimension to ESD It has also bee n argued that there is a sustainability revolution underway and that this larger social trend is more than just the latest fad (Edwards 2005: 6) These ideas continue to support my contention that the greening trends in Independent schools provide add itional evidence for this claim. In the Independent school world, however, greening trends did not just suddenly emerge out of nowhere as new focus area for these communities. Independent schools were, in part, responding to the influences of larger elite, institutions such as the United Nations (UN), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the U.S. Department of Education (USDoE) These greening trends are also a result of grassroots efforts by distinctive Independent school communities in their ow n attempts to make a difference in the world. Whether Independent schools are responding to particular influences of the larger, elite institutions or generating momentum to green their own communities as a result of smaller, grassroots efforts (or both) it is clear that religion is a variable that needs attention in order to better understand what green school identities include, how their foundations were shaped within this distinctive educational arena and what potential they may have as possible vang uards for other types of American high schools to be more sustainable. This may be possible, moreover, because of Independent schools own religious approaches resembling like characteristics particularly within

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239 their foundational narratives, rituals/cerem onies, moral codes and c ommitment to altruism (Benthall 2010). Independent Schools: A Short History The distinction between public and private schools was not as clear (as it is which was of such importance during the second half of the nineteenth century and throughout the twentieth century, was not an issue in 2001). Schools were often the products of combined efforts of church and civil author ities. No single pattern or prototype existed in education in the different colonies. The government, in other words, had no de facto monopoly in the operation of schools anywhere in America. Some schools were free, some were supported by a combination of financial sources, and some relied solely on tuition. Over time, however, the distinction between public and private schools emerged. For the purposes of this investigation, private schools (also known as Independent schools or non state schools) will be defined as those schools that are not administered by local, state or national governments. Private schools do not enroll everyone who might want to attend as they retain the right to select their students. This practice exists because private schools are funded (in whole or in part) by charging tuition This is different from public schools where the schools rely on mandatory taxation through public funding Finally, different than both private and public schools are parochial schools Parochial schools are owned, governed, and financed by religious institutions such as a diocese or parish, but they are not a part of this investigation (Kane 1992 d : 7 ).

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240 through an examination o f an organization called the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS). NAIS is a non profit organization of approximately 1,400 independent schools and associations in the United States. Its purpose as an n schools that are self determining in mission and program, free from government control, and governed by independent boards. 1 Independent Schools : What They Are And Why They Are Fertile Arenas for Cultural Innovation P ublic schools were established to serve the broad democratic interest of society as a whole and to contribute to the economic welfare of a nation. Public schools are accountable to state and federal authorities as a way to ensure that the interests of society are being served (Schiller 19 92: 301). In a free society, however, parents and guardians have the right to send their children to schools that are not controlled by the state (Ravitch 1992: 25). Independent schools thus offer a unique opportunity for employing an alternative model of education (Barbieri 1992: 40). misunderstanding of these institutions and much of the misinformation is derived from aura of exclusivity and elitism and many people believe that only children of well to do Anglo d : 5). An Independent school is most simply defined by any school governed by a board trustees (Barbieri 1992: 28). Independent schools, however, are diverse and can vary significantly in their 1 NAIS http://www.nais.org/Articles/Pages/About NAIS.aspx?src=utility accessed October 12, 2012.

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241 educational missions. Some Independent school missions are traditional and some are innovative. Some Independent schools are boarding schools, some are day schools and some are both. Some Independent schools are highly academic and selective and Independent schools are inexpensive, some have sliding scales of tuition, some are prohibitively cost ly, some have the stability of generations and some have only graduated a small number of classes. Finally, some Independent schools have large financial endowments and extensive resources whereas others only have income from tuition and they have a very m odest space for their campus (Kane 1992 d : 7). Historically, many Independent schools were affiliated with Catholic, Episcopal and Quaker denominations and they operated through the idea of responsible governance. This helps explain how schools within the National Association of 1992: 28). However again, there is variety in the way that Independent schools adhere to their religious roots and the ways that organized religion and spiritual practices are woven into the different Independent school communities. These dramatic differences between Independent schools are one of the reasons that make Independent schools arenas for creative, cultural production. Each school is not only influenced and impacted by larger social forces, but they are also small enough fo r innovative voices to succeed in bringing about effective changes. In my mind, Independent schools participating in the greening process are microcosms. Each school, undergoing the greening process, provides an important example of how a

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242 onse to larger structural influences can be interpreted (or not). Similarly, each school is itself a fertile breeding ground for new cultural production that may be catalytic for larger social change from the ground up due to grassroots efforts emergent o ut of its own community. Particularly pertinent to this study is this potential cultural production (related to sustainability and the facilitation of a new kind of relationship with the natural world) because it may include a kind of parareligious elemen t. This parareligion may be seen in the way schools themselves are inclusive of a me ta structure and elements that religious s tudies scholars use to define or describe religion. Independent schools thus serve as particularly fascinating arenas for inquir y in this project not only because religion (to varying degrees and in various forms) is operative in the g reening trends unfolding in helping to facilitate the success of sustainability trends in these communities. If this is indeed the case, then what is unfolding in these Independent schools may have much al change in the future. Even though there are many differences among Independent schools they tend to share some key traits. Some additional details about a few of these commonalities provide a better understanding about why Independent school arenas are particularly fertile ground for exploring religion and the role it may be playing in the unfolding sustainability trends. Independent schools share: optimism about youth, the belief in a governance, self support, self s elected students and

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243 faculty, small class size, and self defined curriculum (Kane 1992 d : 1). It has also been argued that there is an element of personalization and push in Independent school communities that is effective in motivating those un special s tudents in the middle who would not receive extra attention in a comprehensive public school (Kane 1992 d : 12). There are multiple reasons why Independent school arenas are such fertile arenas for sustainability trends. In short, the small size of these communities, the flexibility of the Independent school curriculums and the Independent school culture are what make these arenas such interesting places for research. First, the small size is of interest because smaller learning communities can cultivate relationships between students, students and teachers, schools and the communities they inhabit Independent school communities are far more likely to be useful in strengthening relationships between humans and the places that we inhabit and the more than human world (Kane 1992 d : 6). Small schools offer far more potential to facilitate community commitment to social and ecological justice if the school is promoting thes e ideas within its values and practices. Second, because there is no external authorization necessary the flexibility in the curriculum allows for certain types of innovation amongst faculty and students alike (Barbieri 1992: 40). 2 Each Independent scho self defined and is designed based on particular values. These values are usually clearly articulated by the 2 http://www.nais.org/Articles/Pages/NAIS Commission on Accreditation Criteria for Effective Independent School Accre ditation.aspx accessed January 7, 2013 for more information about what kind of external authorization body oversees Independent Schools.

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244 degrees) 3 The space for innovation is cre ated, in part, because teachers are free to experiment with curriculum and ideas. As Bullard noted, excellent teachers are the ones who feel a responsibility to deflect the work back to the students so that their ideas and revelations become the intellectu al currency of each day's work (Bullard 1992: 162) These teachers do everything to creatively orchestrate the central ambiguity of an issue and do nothing to render students passive. Teachers are keenly aware of the value of "negative capability" where t hey never tell or give answers to the students nor regard themselves as intellectual authoritarians (Bullard 1992: 162). In addition to the space given in the classroom for innovation, there is room within the larger curriculum structure for creativity a nd freedom. For instance, one of the factors that intellectually stimulates an Independent school faculty is the continuous assessment and discussion of curriculum that transpires within Independent schools. The autonomy of the individual teacher to sele ct texts, alone or in consultation within a department, is thus a distinctive characteristic that Independent schools have over public schools. I argue that this allows for grassroots changes to transpire as curriculum is evaluated and re examined on a re gular basis. It is also important that despite the curriculum flexibility in each Independent school there is the reality that all of these schools are college preparatory which does create some cohesiveness in the curriculum (Kane 1992 d : 9). 4 3 T provide a cle a r set of guidelines to analyze whether or not the practices within the community align with their stated values. It is also important to note that once again despite the distinctiveness of each there is still a kind of cohes iveness among different schools. For example, the schools more directly affiliated with a religious denomination may all articulate sim ilar (if not identical) values as guided by the Episcopal chur ch, Catholic Jesuits or Quakers. 4 The shared goal of these schools being about preparing students for college is particularly relevant to this project because it will be demonstrated that sustainability has become a sig nificant interest and

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245 Finally, in addition to the freedom to teach with flexibility and the creative freedom to revamp curriculum often, in each Independent school curriculum there is also a built in, over riding goal focusing on character and moral development. As Kane explained, cha racter or moral development is nurtured through academics, including d : 10) 5 This moral component to In dependent school curriculums is important because it is foundational to the greening trends in these schools that are currently being explored, but it is also a useful segway into the third reason that Independent school arenas made particularly interestin g research sites T he common unifying element of Independent schools including a an emphasis on moral and character development in their curriculums gives rise, in part, to a particular kind of Independent school culture. This Independent school culture not only influences students interactions and the values, beliefs and assumptions they hold, but a closer look at it also reveals how the culture of a school shapes individuals and group behavior (Kane 1992 d : 121). Cultures evolve from human experience; by constantly reflecting on experiences and concern on university campuses. Therefore, it is not surprising that seco ndary schools feel compelled to be attentive to this issue as well. Education is a business, secondary schools are aiming to prepare their students for colleges and thus the flexibility of any Independent school is always guided, in part, with a mindfulnes s toward what colleges/universities find appealing or desirable on the transcript. 5 Moral and Spiritual development is not synonymous with development of religious beliefs or conversion to a particular faith. It is a term that applies to something fundam ental in the human condition which is not necessarily experienced through the physical sense and/or expressed through everyday language. It has to do with the universal search for individual identity; without responses to challenging experiences and with t he search for meaning and purpose in life and for values by which to live. There are many aspects of spiritual development. These include beliefs, a sense of awe, wonder and mystery, experiencing feelings of transcendence search for meaning and purpose, se lf knowledge, relationships, creativity and feelings and emotions (Palmer 1988: 147).

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246 239). Those working in Independent schools have a shared framework and language for identifying cultural patterns within their unique communities (Deal 1992: 239). Most Independent schools have remained relatively unencumbered by the dictates of the external political environment and they have been allowed to develop a clear and these things more by ritual and tradition than by rules and regulations (Kane 1992 a : 121). This ritualization or sanctification through tradition is particular relevant because Independent schools thus emphasize the symb olic aspects of human organizations. powerful influence on members of the school community more by tradition and belief than by rules and regulations and these shared traditions and beliefs may bond people together and increase their commitment to the school (Kane 1992 a : 124). This is particularly pertinent because Independent schools display significantly stronger communal ties among their members, including shared values and a belief concerning what the school stands for and what should be learned; they share visions of what students should become; they share distinctive activities to bond people to each other and to the traditions of the school; and they share an ethos of caring more than other school communities (Deal 1992: 236). The cultural bond includes the shared purposes, values, traditions and history that promote harmonious behavior and a sense of community. They are the internal links that draw participants together through shared meaning.

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247 bo nds include rules, roles, functions, penalties and formal authority that specify and regulate the behavior of individuals in organizations. They presume reluctance and dissent, rat her than commitment and accord (Deal 1992: 237). With the distinctive char acteristics of Independent schools established, a closer look at Independent school culture behind us and a sense of the religious resembling behaviors in these institutions it is possible to look more closely at the content issues and topics these schools focused on in recent decades. Trends in NAIS: Toward the Intersection of Religion and Sustainability The structure and function of an Independent school community is undoubtedly important to this project, but the steps leading up to the intersection of religion and sustainability in these schools is equally informative to understanding how they started During the latter half of the 20th century and into the 21st century NAIS schools focused on some key issues including an emphasis on the i mportance of moral and character education, diversity issues, global education and religious literacy. Each of these focus areas has b een an important stepping stone in the unfolding sustainability trends in Independent school communities. As the followin g discussion demonstrates, sustainability education with its overlapping areas of economic, social and environmental concerns, is imbued with many of the key elements that were integrated into Independent schools through an intentional focus on previous ar ethical codes shape human human and human nature relationships, students learning how and why how interconnected the worl nobler purpose than just getting into college only exists in these arenas today because

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248 of a series of progressive steps made over the past few decades. In these various stages, foundations were NAIS schools be came increasingly serious about the ir commitments to all the aforementioned considerations they began to emphasize the importance of applying these ideas outside the classroom Thi s focus on social justice, for example, allowed for additional contemplation about how education might work more constructively to impr ove the world. Such considerations for divergent viewpoints also invited reflection about how the faculty and students on these campuses lived and as a result, sustainability slowly emerged on center stage in the Independent school arena. Clarifying the contributions these focus areas made to these greening trends along the way not only provides a better understanding about the foundations of the sustainability movement in NAIS schools, but it also offers some insights into the different ways that religion, global citizenry, moral education and sustainability are inextricabl y intertwined. It suggests, moreover, how Independent schools and their extended networks have helped strengthen the relationship and influence of religion, spirituality and ecology/nature in these school communities. It also illuminates the different way s in which religion and spirituality continues to impact Independent schools as they get/got (more) green. 6 6 For example, NAIS schools work within e xtended networks and partner with non profit affiliates such as the Center for Spiritual and Ethical Education (CSEE), Religious Studies in Secondary Schools (RSISS), The Forum on Religion and Ecology, the North American Association of Environmental Education (NAAEE), and The National Association of Episcopal Schools (NAES).

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249 Phase 1 : Moral and Character Education I previously demonstrated that the earliest conversations and theorizing about the purpose and function of education suggested that moral and character education was important (for both Hobart and Dewey among others) and that it is present as a common element in many NAIS schools. If this is indeed true, then a closer examination demonstrates that moral and ch aracter education thus emphasizes to students that values do, indeed, exist and are important in any given Independent school community. abstracts) and applicable to their own lives. Moral and character education also explicitly addresses the ethical code of a community and outlines the consequences for breaking it which may be contrasted or compared to other ethical codes by which other people live. Knowledge abou t the environment and other ways of thinking and understanding the causal relationships in the world is also a part of moral education because it helps students to evaluate the consequences of their actions (Raulo 2000: 511). Finally, moral and character e ducation also communicates to students that their education does have a purpose beyond just learning for the sake of passing an exam in the classroom. Independent schools have given much attention to moral and character education over the past decades F or evidence of this one needs to only take a quick glance at the kinds of articles that have appeared in the NAIS publication Independent School Magazine related to this topic (over a 10 year period) or explore the work of one of NAIS primary affiliate org anizations which is the Center for Spiritual and Ethical Education (CSEE). In the past decade a small list (but by no means an exhaustive one) of articles about this topic published by Independent School Magazine includes:

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250 ulture nity in d for the (Heischman 2002). In addition to articles abou t this topic, Independent school communities have focused on moral and character education in advisory, chapel services (if they have them) and in their honor council work over the past decade. 7 Moral and character education and its primary contributions t o sustainability education are rooted in the idea that schools can be the unifying metaphor that form the basis of moral and spiritual work. The idea of a school is grounded in relationship. The evident with the observation that rituals, ceremonies, and common language in a given school community helps create a distinctive school culture. In the simplicity of relationships, moreover, that are formed in this culture and the demanding nature of fa miliarity in intimate space between community members, there is ground for a deeper understanding of ourselves and what we care about ( Kessler 2002 ). As Kessler argued, s chools, in other words, have the ability to create authentic communities These commu nities then become the fertile ground for students to take ideas, knowledge, and values forward into applications that will benefit the world at large as good citizens of the world which is an idea that will get developed further with the focus on global education. Character and moral education is therefore most simply understood as how 7 http://csee.org/programs/moral development.html accessed Oct. 13, 2012 for information about the kinds of resources schools have available to them for chapel and advisory programs that foc us on moral development.

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251 Education (CSEE) explains moral and character education is about educating students wi th the knowledge and skills for good behavior, compassion and empathy and spiritual education works to help schools create a conducive climate for 8 Different schools do this in different ways, but there are some commonalities a bout why schools find moral and character education so important. One of the primary reasons behind moral and character education relates back to understood since th an educated citizenry is necessary for a functioning democracy and laws, rules, and regulations are required to maintain basic social order civic virtue forms the cornerstone of a safe and healthy campus envir onment, and ultimately leads to the sustainability of civil society (Macioci 2013). As previously mentioned, a number of key scholars who were foundational in addressed th e problems/challenges with modern education in their hopes of inspiring education reforms that will allow for more eco literate students (Bowers 1995, 1997; Orr 1992, 1994). It may not be a surprise, therefore, that their ideas resonate with those educators who are staunch advocates about the importance of making moral and character education a priority in Independent school areas. Fran Norris Scoble, for example, explained some of the systemic problems with the way schools operate, but she also surmised how 8 http://www.csee.org/programs/moral development.html accessed October 13, 2012.

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252 education offered an alternative to some of these potential problems that critics have commonly identified in education (Scoble 2002: 42). In the Winter 2013 issue of Independent School Magazine, for e xample, Bob Macioci claimed that Independent schools have always known that school environments are fertile with opportunities to cultivate common values and virtues that go beyond the minimum expectations of behavior. Today in particular, we encourage students to think beyond themselves to become involved in service to their communities, to support and learn from the diversity of a globally minded (if not global) student body, and to treat each other as they expec t to be treated (Macioci 2013). To el aborate with additional evidence for this claim, Independent schools have often been thought capable of cultivating humility not arrogance. Orr, Bowers and Scoble have all critiqued education because sometimes schools can foster arrogance. Scoble promote an epistemology of absolutism which she argued is problematic (Scoble 2002: 42). As a result of this epistemology, arrogance becomes a by product of success rather t han humility. Scoble further explained too much. She argued, however, that if (and when) Independent schools foster an that the cultivation of humility is more possible (Scoble 2002: 44). With this epistemological approach teachers would be attuned to the students they teach and seek to know their spiritual dimensions. Students would not worry about being right, but would rather define success as appreciating the little things such a souffl rising, a new shoe fitting and really just recognizing the importance of the ordinary. As Scoble explained, small successes deserve recognition and attention because they are the

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253 essential components of growth and genuine accomplish ment. This approach, moreover, would make students better people because education would foster humility not arrogance. The significance of this new epistemology and the fostering of humility is important to this project because this is both a virtue and one of the key characteristics of D ark G reen R eligion Taylor noted that early exemplars of the DGR expressed this (such as Leopold, Carson, Thoreau, Einstein) and it is therefore interesting that this is being touted as a new ideal for reforming educatio n which may (or may not) be of significance as the emphasis on moral and character education in these schools continues to be developed and refined. education is that education can be made more meaningful to students. Some criticize schools for fostering indifference, or disengagement with the ideas that students are fully present and to pay atte ntion 45). Historically, Independent school education embraced the idea that the purpose of education was not to conv ey conventional wisdom and objective knowledge, but rather to provoke new ways of seeing ( Orr 1992, 1994; Bowers 1995; McLaren 1999). A cience teacher who awakened my spirit. He (Kessler 2002 ) Expanding on this idea about what education should be about, Scoble

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254 t have to know much or be informed, but he or she does have to have been exposed vulnerable to the 44). What students aningful. Parker Palmer explained this point best when he noted that good teaching means to ground the work of teaching in authentic connections to the self, to others, and to our own deep values, instead of settling for the comfort of objective technique and methods that distance us 2002: 42) teachers have the potential to be a powerful, soul enhancing in fluence because of the clarity of our values and the intimacy of our communities. The relationship between the individuals and our communities is reciprocal: people simultaneously shape institutions and are, in turn, shaped by them (Scoble 2002: 46). Thi s deeper meaning of something noble In Independent schools this notion has been tied to the idea and the importance of cultivating a good citizenry. In an interview with Martha Nussbaum (a research advisor at the World Institute for Development Economics Research, Helsinki) ar norm of citizenship (Brosnan 2000) 9 For Nussbaum, the ability to see oneself as a citizen not only of some local region but of a complex inte rlocking world is important awareness should impact our daily choices as consumers, as users of energy, and in our awareness of the influence we have on people in distant plac 2000). 9 t the University of Chicago for more about her work and ideas at http://philosophy.uchicago.edu/faculty/nussbaum.html accessed October 12, 2012

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255 Nussbaum argued that moral and character education should include teaching students the ability to imagine what it might be like to be in the shoes of someone different from oneself, to imagine the world from that person's perspective (Brosnan 2000). She referenced the Stoics saying that we learn that all human beings have a boundless and equal dignity, no matter where they are born, no matter what their class, race, sex, or status From that idea of equality derives our most important moral a nd social obligations (Bros nan 2000). These moral and social obligations are going to be further developed by the NAIS emphasis on Global Education and sustainability education alike. In addition to the community service and service learning outgrowth that has arisen in part from the moral and character education emphasis, NAIS schools focus on the spiritual and moral development where the goal is to further the moral and spiritual growth of students by helping schools establish a spiritual climate conducive to spiritual growth not necessarily bound to any one given religious tradition. As a part of this moral and spiritual emphasis, educators help students search for meaning and purpose, provide experiences that honor the big questions, provide silence and a respite from the tyran ny of busyness and noise for reflection, calm or an avenue of stillness, the urge for transcendence; transcendence includes not only the mystical realm, but also secular experiences (Kessler 2002). This time and space for reflection in chapels, advisory, and even in classrooms themselves, offer an alternative to the rigid structuring of school with their schedules, calendars, and meetings which leave little time for reflection and the necessity of quiet reflecting is something that different thinkers in t he religion and n ature subfield argue is land. Some critics of schools claim for example, that the business of school has a dulling effect on soul. Deep awakening is more likely to occur through silence and quiet. When students know there is a time in school life where they may give voice to the

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256 great comfort and joy they find in their relationship to God or to nature, this freedom of expression itself nourishes their spirits (Kessler 2002). It is therefore suggested that in a pluralistic society, educators should provide a forum that honors the ways individual students nourish their spirits. Independent schools can offer activities that allow students to experience de ep connection. In the search for themselves, in a love of the questions, in the deep yearning to truly know, students let life, what is sacred in their own lives, and wha t allows them to bring their most sacred gifts 2002). by an affiliate organization known today as the Center for Ethical and Spiritual Education (CSEE) which has been working with schools in various capacities since the late 1880 s. 10 active forum for ethical growth and spiritual development in schools. It also offers various e vents, resources and consulting services about moral education, the world religions and ethics and this organization has been at the forefront of highlighting the importance of the connections between religion, spirituality, ecology and the environment an d getting this knowledge integrated into Independent school curriculums and into best practices for daily life on Independent school campuses. 11 Intentional work on character and moral development in NAIS schools is therefore often facilitated though the 10 http://www.csee.org/about/ accessed October 23, 2012 for more about the h istory of CSEE 11 http://www.csee.org/about/ accessed October 23, 2012 for e xamples of ent school communities that include workshops & c onferences event listings and teaching resources.

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257 schools everywhere 12 CSEE offers workshops, professional collaboration, publications and a variety of other resources, and much their work in this realm includ es fertile ground for hints of religion and n purpose in this focus arena (as they have others that I previously mentioned) is to help educators cultivate students who are altrui stic, empathic, and who have strong consciences and moral reasoning skills. 13 example, there are several dimensions of the spiritual life that lie at the very heart of every person Pa interconnected, overlapping dimensions including: values, beliefs, transformative experiences, self knowledge / self worth awe and mystery, relationship, meaning and purpose. A few examples of activities that CSEE trains educators in, to be used both meditation or prayer, and facilitating solo time in nature. 14 The activity that invites educators to constr at the awe and mystery of the universe, and asks students about the relationships and intentional actions that exist in identifying and creating sacred spaces. The idea is for 12 ht tp://www.csee.org/programs/moral development.html accessed October 23, 2012. 13 http://www.csee.org/resources/character_education_re sources.html accessed October 23, 2012. 14 http://www.csee.org/projects/pathmaps/awe&mystery.html accessed April 13, 2012. through identifying and creating sacred spaces. Suitable for lower, middle, and upper school students.

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258 students to look at the forces at work in This fundamental sense of the mystery of life is inspired by the natural art music, and other achievements are both reflections of the spirit and gateways to the divine. 15 Some students, for example, during these activities reflect and connect deeply to s park near my house where there is an absolutely enormous tree I go and sit down with it because it 2002) This deep connection to nature is one of the primary characteristics of what Taylor has defined as DGR. This glim pse of it, as other insights will reveal, begins to build the case that perhaps evidence of naturalistic parareligion is more prolific than once realized in the daily interactions and experiences of students in these Independent school communities. CSEE u ses a variety of other activities as resources for schools that want to work with students on spiritual and moral development One such example is group meditation and prayer. This is an exercise that helps children to become part of creating a safe envir onment where they can share with each other those things that are important to them, those things that are close to their hearts. 16 Another activity used is facilitating solo time in nature, which gives students an opportunity to reflect and be by themselv es in the outdoors. The curriculum suggests this is most useful if it is done multiple times over the course of a semester rather than a one time occurrence. 15 Ibid. 16 Pathmaps: Gr oup Meditation and Prayer http://www.csee.org/products/121 ), accessed April 12, 2012.

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259 Finally, a nature visualization activity is offered as a part of CSEE moral development curricul um. This kind of exercise encourages a curriculum where educators could follow up with a discussion about human beings and their relationship natural world remaining pure? To what extent is it there for people to use? What is the proper balance? If we have gone overboard, what can we do to try to make up for our transgressions? Is it important for our health to spend time in natural environments? If so, why ? 17 In addition spiritual growth in Independent schools, it is possible that there is merit in a school mapping the spiritual development of adolescents who may or may not have a religious tradition or other beliefs about the nature of spirituality. As Kessler argued the search for meaning and purpose, longing for silence and solitude, urge for transcendence, hunger for joy and delight, the creative drive, the call for initiation, common thread is deep connec tion (through deep connection to the self, students encounter a strength and richness within that is the basis for developing the autonomy central to the adolescent journey (Kessler 2002). By naming this human need that spans all cultures, educators can help students constructively channel this urge and challenge themselves in ways that reach for this peak experience, which becomes a common thread of deep connection. The relationships that are shared through this kind of deep connection include profound c aring, resonant with meaning and involve feelings of particular belonging and of bein g truly seen or known (Kessler 2002). 17 http://www.csee.org/projects/pa thmaps/relationships.html accessed April 13, 2012.

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260 and spiritual growth manifests in many different way s. It may be in a community service or service learning programs that address issues such as poverty and hunger, or residence facility for people living with AIDS. Or, it may be integrated into the curriculum by teaching virtue or morality and giving students reflection time in courses for the processing of what it means to be a good person with the knowledge they are acquiring and what applications it may have. This emphasis moreover, on educating the whole person and working toward the goal of having appropriate knowledge and skills of good sustainability. Phase 2 : A Renewed Commitment: Fosteri ng a Civic Ethic in the 21st Century In addition to the emphasis on moral and character education, another important trend in NAIS schools that contributes to the current greening trends in Independent schools is teaching about global citizenry or globalis m which includes religious literacy. This trend began in the mid 19 90 s and continues today in NAIS schools. 18 This particular focus in NAIS schools provided a deeper awareness for the complexity and ongoing changes in the world today. It demonstrates the understanding of the interconnectedness of the world and its people. It has also 18 According to Michael Brosnan, world citizen s need know ledge of history and society, b ut people who know many facts about lives other than their own are still not fully equipped for citizenship. W orld c itizens must not simply amass knowledge, but they must also cultivate a capacity for sympathetic imagination that will enable them to comprehend the motives and choices of people different from themselves. World citizens must not as forbiddingl y alien and other, but as sharing many problems and possibilities However, ifferences of religion, gender, race, class, and national origin make the task of understanding harder, since these differences shape not only the practical choi ces people face but also their "insides," their desires, thoughts, and ways of 2000).

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261 provided important foundations for students to embark upon community outreach opportunities or to engage in social justice work which are all characteri stics of the greening efforts we see in Independent school communities and these characteristics of education also fall under the canopy of Education for Sustainable Development. it is possible to find evidence of the global education trend in NAIS Independent School Magazine articles, conference and workshop offerings, keynote speeches and in the work of affiliate groups. These sources also reveal that global citizenry includes a n Independent School Magazines published over the past 20 years, for example, I found (Harris a Culture of Innovation i Critically 2010), Su stainability of Educators Engaged in aking 2004). In addition to the emphasis on the scholarly production of literature there were also curriculum alterations, assemblies, conference pres entations and professional development opportunities for NAIS educators emerging around this topic. Also, NAIS schools began to participate in new programs, such as The NAIS 20/20 Challenge Program and The Global Academy These programs began to connect N AIS schools with other schools across the globe 19 As with the focus on moral and character, the 19 http://www.nais.org/Articles/Pages/Challenge 20 20 -Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's).aspx accessed April 2012 for more information about this NAIS

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262 affiliate groups were also doing important work with NAIS schools supporting these endeavors to ensure that Global Education was getting into the schools The se groups will be discussed in a bit more detail later as their primary work was to ensure that Part A: A Commitment to Global Education Many scholars contend that globalizat ion is the defining feature of the late 20th century and, since it represents a structural change that cannot be reversed or legislated away, a focus on it should be central to contemporary curricula 20 The necessity of global education became apparent, on c e again, after September 11, 2001 and the U.S. government even issued a statement in 2003 claiming that America had a serious deficit in global competence and that this was now a national liability although the interest in global education was already well underway. 21 The trend to develop global curriculums, however, was committed to with increased fervor in the Independent school arena. The American Council on Education, for example, outlined what the implications of globalization were for University curriculums and in 1995 this organiza tion committed rooted understanding of other as colleges and university curriculums were revamped to prepare stu dents with better Challenge 20/20 program This is an Internet based international education program tha t partners scho ols from the United States with schools from other countries Together, these schools work together o n one of the 20 global problems. 20 For example, in March 2013 Facing the Future released a new high school textbook titled Exploring Global Issues: Social, Economic and Environmental Interconnections and chapter 21 is a focused study about Globalization. 21 http://www.abc.net.au/news/2003 11 19/us expert panel decries americas ignorance of/1511410 accessed February 24, 2012.

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263 foreign language competency, better understandings of other cultures, an increased NAIS conferences bring important people together to di s cuss the future of educ ation. Fareed Zakaria is o ne of the 21 most important people of the 21st century an editor of Newsweek International and television analyst who covered the global beat changing role in the world Zankaria stated at an NAIS conferen ce in 1995, that the most important thing schools can do is to make people aware that understanding the world is very much part of the requirement of being an educated person. Zakaria explained in his keynote address that by the time student s get to colle you can only switch on the light in the early school years. And, he suggested that if America n schools were to make a dedicated effort to graduating Americans who are aware of the world, intereste d in it, engaged in i t and offer a specific set of measurements in which we will achieve this it will have a transforming affect on this country. And, politically, it er 2005 ). Global education has thus be come a clear focus in 21st century Independent school education and the past two decades demonstrate both its increased importance and prominen ce in K 12 education education that prepares young peop le to understand and interact within a culturally diverse and globally interconnected world 22 More specifically, in the context of NAIS schools it is an education that includes the study of world cultures and religions, world literature, the interrelatedness of world history, global issues, global 22 Merry Merryfie ld at http://www.outreachworld.org/article.asp?articleid=77 accessed February 23, 2012. She is a professor at Ohio State University who co authored a social studies book titled Teaching G lobal Perspectives in the Social Studies (2004).

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264 economic, technological, environmental, and political systems, non state global actors, and cross cultural communication skills (Knighten 2004). As global education was implemented into NAIS sch ools, students were taught to see the world through multiple perspectives of diverse people, to understand stereotypes of the other t o recognize local and global connections, and to understand how national borders are arguably becoming less relevant. Glo bal education, in other words, purposefully challenged ethnocentrism, national chauvinism and cultural relativism and it did this through cross cultural experiential learning (Knighten 2004). Interconnectedness of the complex world, and realization that t hese world problems cannot be dealt with unilaterally are foundational elements of sustainability education Through a deeper understanding of what global education is and how it was implemented in Independent schools it is possible to see how sustainable education prepares students to think about these foundational elements It also becomes clear that ethics/religion play a significant role in these foundational elements as well. Integral to ESD is the idea that the world is interconnected t hrough globalization and that global education helps student recognize this reality. This is particularly important because in the NAIS focus on moral and character education it was acknowledged that Independent schools teach students of obligations to their xactly are our neighbors (Harth 2010)? As Kwame Appiah, a Princeton University professor of philosophy argue d technological changes in recent years have rendered strangers in distant lands into

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265 neighbors as real to us as those in our local communities. Thus, for better or worse, what happens in one country increasingly ripples across the plan et and affects people in other countries. Such interconnectedness and interdependence are now manifest in a host of essential fields, especially in areas related to economics, the environment and human health, with important moral implications for all res ide nts of our shared planet (Harth 2010). This exchange of information, where local interactions generate global trends and global trends are being adapted for a local context capture the essence of the term gloc alization 23 This concept is pivotal in sus tainability education where students are increasingly aware of how connected they are to other peoples all across the planet They also learn through this awareness about the great responsibility that comes with that increased connectedness and their incr eased capacity to help or hurt others (Harth 2010). Independent school classes, through their desire for global education, became increasingly interdisciplinary. world issue ice learning and experiential opportunities building the key components for what Independent school education now offered (Harth 2010). This is important because this moves beyond the previous discussion about how moral and character education worked to Global education, in this context, is still educating the whole person, but it added in the skill of preparing students to adapt to the sea of changes in our evolving and complex world community. Students were t au ght that world problems such as environmental degradation, pandemics, extensive poverty or political instability are 23

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266 large and cannot be addressed in just one way Students were also taught to develop skills such as collaboration, creativity, and awarene ss about multiple points of view. They were also taught how to deal with some of the ongoing problems and challenges they would face as adults. Simultaneously, as students were made aware of these new kills and topics, they were also taught to have a heal thy respect for themselves and others because th e curriculum taught them that they would they to work with others to solve common problems or to eventually realize shared objectives (Harth 2010). Global literacy and core knowledge in the curriculum about different cultures, languages, stereotypes, historical injustices and how to address each in creative ways are additional key aspects of global education. In a closer examination of the NAIS global education mat erials, however, there is something even more important than the skills or knowledge that global education teaches. This vital component to global literacy r and influence how people live (Harth 2000). There is, in other words, a moral dimension to global education. This becomes particularly relevant because as part of their attitudinal repertoire, our young citizens must develop an ethical compass that ena bles them to see beyond themselves, to recognize their connections and obligations to their, and to chart a responsible course of action that will serve them, their families, and their communities including their schools, this neighborhoods, their towns an d cities, their countries, their states, their regions, their countries and their shared planet (Harth 2000). Toward this end NAIS created an institute for student leaders that included moral and ethical leadership, a one day colloquium and global education summit held by NAIS; online resources, an allegiance with the Center for International Education in

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267 Washington DC; and involvement with c olleges and universities. 24 Finding compelling ways for students to therefore want to put their knowledge and skills into action and the notion of preparing students to be leaders within changing circumstances became the focus of NAIS and its schools. NAI S wanted students to appreciate the local constraints and seize opportunities to work with others. It aimed for students to identify and actualize strategic steps forward as they rallied with others to important causes. The goal was to make education more meaningful help students become more valuable citizens of the world. This moral component and skill set is therefore, in my opinion, resonate of the identifying characteristics of eco citizenry that Education for Sustainable Development is working toward. The moral dimension of global ed ucation is important and school s to act on behalf of others and/or the larger world is potentially interesting as this impulse may reflect a parareligious dimension that 44). meeting in Orlando, FL Paul Miller, the head of NAIS global initiatives, stated that the purpose of an Independent sch ool education was the road to global citizenship. NAIS schools were going to incorporate global education into their school communities to create global citizens, leaders and social entrepreneurs. A social entrepreneur is someone not content just to give a fish, or teach how to fish, but is someone who will not rest until s/he has revo lutionized the fishing industry. 25 What is particularly relevant, 24 at http://www.nais.org/Articles/Pages/Independent Schools and Global Education.aspx accessed February 23, 2012. This was presented at a 2007 meeting in Orlando, F L by Paul Miller who wa s the senior director at NAIS of global initiatives. 25 at http://www.nais.org/Articles/Pages/Independent Schools and Global Education.aspx accessed February 23, 2012.

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268 however, is the weaving in of global perspectives into the Independent schools curriculums and how this resul ted in a sub movement of global education, which I am sub movement is an important part of understanding how religion and ecology/nature have been historically connect ed in the Independent school arenas and how this relationship has/is playing out in the current greening trends. Part B: Overcoming Religious Illiteracy: Strategies, Tactics and Resources September 11th, 2001 was not only a catalyst for a renewed fervor t o educate about the larger global world, but it was also a specific call to arms to help Americans overcome their religious illiteracy. This historic event generated increased interest in an Independent schools as well as in colleges and universities. Peter Cobb, the former director of CSEE (who many Independent schools were presumptively, prescriptive ly and exclusively Christian (Cobb 2003: 14). 26 Cobb elaborated on this pluralism noting that We live in a culture characterized by growing and vital religious plura lism, religious skepticism, religious resurgence, and religious ambivalence, people by those who are deeply committed to a particular faith tradition and regard it as exclusive, folks who are religious gypsies, people who are champions of ecumenical and in ter faith efforts, folks who describe themselves as spiritual but not religious, and folks who are secular This culture penetrates and permeates our schools (Cobb 2003: 13). 26 Cobb also noted that even if the Christian profile of the school was undeclared and implicit, it was an operational reality in terms of the religious background of most teachers and famili es, trustees and administrators (Cobb 2003: 14 ).

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269 The culture of Independent schools has gone through and continues to go throug h dynamic and substantive transformations Independent schools, moreover, were faced with new predicaments as they tried to negotiate the reality of religious difference in the context of an overarching secular culture Predicaments that present ed powerful educational opportunities This particular moment in NAIS history not only provide d a chance to educate about religi ous diversity, but as Cobb noted it articulate the ethos of schools in ways that permitted ne The study of religion was also important for students to learn about the value of religious liberty and learn about the roles of religion in the past. Learning about religion helped promote cross cultural understanding which is essential to democracy and world peace (Cobb 2003: 16). Important civic virtues include: equality, equity and tolerance, respect and responsibility H istorical and present behavior cannot be understood apart from the response of human beings to how they react and address what they consider transcendent, sacred and holy (Cobb 2003: 19). The importance of well b eing (as Independent school community demographics had more religious diversity in their communities with this trend of unfolding pluralism) but also from a civic standpoint where students needed to better understand the worldview of their neighbors in the age of an increasing global and connected world. Having connected how vital religious literacy was to the unfolding global education trends and recalling how the phenomenon of greening of mainstream religion

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270 n as culpable in the ecological crisis back in 1967), it is now possible to understand how collectively the convergence of these two trends provided a new focus area for Independent schoo ls. Beginning in the late 1990 s Independent schools shifted their at understood in the current ecological crisis. This new focus emerged in the secondary school arena in 1999 and this was facilitated in great part through the work of the two NAIS affiliate organizations: RSIS S (Religious Studies in Secondary Schools) and later through more work by the previously discussed Center for Spiritual and Ethical Education (CSEE) who would contribute to the NAIS arena in similar ways that it did before, but with a different focus area than on moral and character education. RSISS is a coalition of public and private secondary school teachers working in conjunction with the Center for Spiritual and Ethical Education. They are committed to the idea that education is not complete without the academic study of the world's religious traditions and the ethical values, literatures, and cultures so inextricably linked to them. 27 The organization grew out of the efforts of Tom Collins in the mid 1990s to gather colleagues from across the country to study important religious texts. The purpose of these gatherings was to give secondary school teachers a better understanding of the religions they were teaching, to help teachers be more effective in increasingly religiously plural society and to put secondary school teachers into dialogue with colleagues throughout North America. Collins worked with Tom Pike, the head of school at St. Francis High School in Louisville, Kentucky, to put together a se ries of workshops to study important 27 http://www.rsiss.net/aboutrsiss.html accessed July 14, 2012.

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271 religious texts with nationally recognized scholars of religion. In 2000, Tom Collins and David Streight, whose term as executive director of CSEE began in 2004, formalized the coalition and gained 501 (c) 3 status as a tax exempt educational association in 2001. 28 The significance of RSISS is that in addition to sponsoring workshops, providing resources such as syllabi, and providing sample student work about the accurate l educators, RSISS began important work with the Forum on Religion and Ecology (FORE) and helped educate teachers about generous grant from the Germeshausen Foundation teachers from RSISS were able to join university colleagues and work with the Forum on Religion and Ecology on developing new curriculum related to religion and the environment. RSISS and FORE began their formal w ork together at a workshop for secondar y school e Bucknell University (Lewisburg, PA) in June 2000. There were follow up workshops at Bucknell University again in June 2001 and in June 2003. The description for these wo religious literacy, but also the growing interest in human earth centered relationships. This focus remained momentum. The RSISS workshop informational flyer read (emphasis in italics is mine): Increasingly in the private school setting, as well as in world history classes in public schools, students are being introduced to basic religious ideas, teachings, 28 http://www.rsiss .net/aboutrsiss.html accessed July 13, 2012. Please also see Center for Spiritual and Ethical Education http://www.csee.org/authors/61 for more information.

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272 per with the contemporary, living character of religions, it is apparent that these diverse traditions also struggle to address the major issues of our time. One question that dema nds international attention but that has hardly entered into the to ecology. Yet, embedded within these diverse religions are amazing perspectives on human earth relations that have been transmitted in many of these traditions for centuries. This workshop for secondary school teachers prepared in the Center for the Study of World Religions "Religion s of the World and Ecology" conference publications series. 29 It is worth mentioning that the language in this flyer expressed much optimism about religion and was decidedly not scholarly in its tone. The significance of this o ptimism, however, is that wha t wa s underway with this group of high school teachers and their university counterparts is a religious movement, forming f rom another reform movement in r eligious studies which was the greening of religion phenomenon. The work that would emerge from these workshops was thus dramatically innovative. These workshops with the Forum not only allowed secondary school teachers to gain knowledge about the world r eligions, but it also allowed them to work on interdisciplinary lesson plans which is key component of both global education and sustainability education. The Forum on Religion and Ecology was at the forefront of this emerging interdisciplinary dialogue, working to demonstrate the intersection of religious studies with academic and activist discourses on the environment by highlighting the important roles religious traditions play in constructing moral frameworks and orienting narratives regarding human in teractions with the environment. 30 29 http://fore.research.yale.edu/events/archived/2000/teachers.html accessed July 14, 2012. 30 Religion and Ecology: 2003 Workshop for Secondary School Teachers at Bucknell Universi http://www.rsiss.net/ecology/FOREseminar2003.html accessed July 14, 2012.

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273 Teachers in attendance at these workshops explored various ways in which selected religious traditions can develop dialogue opportunities with other key disciplines such as science, ethics economics and public policy wh ich are already engaging environmental problems from their disciplinary perspectives. I would argue that this ongoing work between FORE secondary school educators, and others is contributing to what Edwards argue d is a shift toward a new paradigm. Edwards argu ed that the sustainability r evolution (and its new paradigm) has no single ideology Instead, it is a collection of values centered around healthy ecosystems, economic viability and social justice and includes issues that cross national boundaries, so cioeconomic sectors and political systems touching every facet of society and is driven by life affirming values that influence policies and initiatives at the local, regional, national and international levels (Edwards 2005: 8). This unfolding paradigm s hift is a result of some of the preliminary work between integrated into the Independent S chool area. The Forum works with teachers on how to to secondary schools. The Universe Story project is a part of FORE in collaboration with the ecological sciences, they are helping to identify the ethical dimensions by which the religions of the world can respond to the growing environmen tal crisis 31 In addition, inspired by the work of Thomas Berry and Brian Swimme, the Forum created a film called Journey of the Universe. This film provides an integrated framework for understanding the story of the universe and the Earth from the perspec tives of science and a specific understanding of 31 http://fore.research.yale.edu/about us accessed July 14, 2012.

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274 religion that this film is promoting. 32 profound relatedness to and depend ence on the larger Earth community and work is currently underway to develop accompanying curriculum to this film for secondary school educators. 33 The Universe Story is taught in different classes (and to different degrees) on various Independent school c ampuses, but this is a perfect example of the way in which supposedly non sectarians embrace religiosity and actually promote a kind of sacred religious story. An integrated framework which include d a greater aware ness of how religion gives shape to worldview and human actions was also supported by workshops and resources provided by CSEE. Professional development opportunities were offered each summer beginning in 2001 and are still ongoing by CSEE to public and I ndependent School teachers around the nation at This Institute features instruction from University scholars and talented secondary school teachers, discussion and resource sharing with co lleagues from around North America. Teachers of religions and history leave this institute with increased knowledge, new ideas for what to do in the classroom, and great lists of both resources and contacts and at least one day of the five day workshop is devoted to teaching about how to incorporate the world 34 32 http://fore.research.yale.edu/information/about/index.html July 14, 2012. 33 Tom Collins. Proposal Journey of the Universe High Schoo l Curriculum Design Initiative, Fall 2012). Proposal shared by Tom Collins < TCollins@lawrenceville.org > e mail message to author, November 6, 2012. 34 http://www.csee.org/events/11_world_religions accessed February 25, 2012.

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275 At this Institute in 2007 which took place in San Anselmo, CA two workshops n Chicago there was a Studies classroom 35 David Streight, the head of CSEE also sponsored a special climate problems will never be addressed adequately unless we get the issues into our curricula 36 With the support of RSISS and CSEE it is therefore evident that serious attention was given to provide assistance to NAIS schools for professional developm ent religions and ecology/nature in their history, English, science and religion classes. These foundations and the role they play in the current greening focus of Indep endent schools help provide context for evidence in later chapters that e xamine specific case and in Independent school campuses around the nation This subset area of interest in literac y about the global education efforts ) demonstrates how new cultural production might get fac ilitated in the Independent school arena. Th e evidence and these efforts to connect religion and a mindfulness toward the Earth will b e increasingly 35 http://www.csee.org/events/09_worldreligions accessed October 15, 2012. 36 The Center For Spiritual and Ethical Education, at http://ww w.csee.org/events/greening_curriculum/ accessed October 15, 2012.

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276 significant as we better understand how NAIS work ed to cultivate more religiously and ecologically aware citizens across the nation. Phase 3 : Greening Independent School Education The Beginning There is not a universal model of E ducation for S ustainable D evelopment (ESD). Within a broad range of agreement, there will always be nuanced differences according to local contexts, priorities and approaches 37 ESD, in other words, is not a particular program or project, but rather an umbr ella for many forms of education that already exist, and new ones that remain to be created. ESD promotes efforts to rethink educational programs and systems (both methods and contents) that currently support nents of education: legislation, policy, finance, curriculum, instruction, learning, assessment, etc. ESD calls for lifelong learning and recognizes the fact that the educational needs of people change over their lifetime 38 It is thus pertinent to this pr oject to see how this concept has been interpreted and integrated into the Independent school arena. There is evidence that between 1995 and 2012 sustainability became a priority and interest in NAIS schools as this was the next area of focus for this org anization. leadership conferences, it has been the primary theme (or at least a major thread of workshop and keynote speaker topics) at National Independent school conference s, there have been many articles published about this topic in Independent School Magazine, NAIS has created and hired new positions in its organization related to 37 http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading the international agenda/education for sustainable development/education for sustainable development/ accessed May 31, 2012. 38 Ibid.

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277 Indep endent school arena have been developed, and collaborative efforts with other organizations ( Facing the Future Center for Spiritual and Ethical Education U.S. Partnership) around this topic have flourished. 39 By briefly outlining some of the history beh it is possible to supplement the aforementioned trend that was transpiring as religious literacy got combined with concerns about the environment. This overview will thus reveal the variety of ways that the religion may be playing out in these greening t rends in Independent school communities. It was possible to trace NAIS developments about when and why sustainability conference speeches, conference programs and reading thro ugh issues of Independent School Magazine The year was 2005 when the sustainability discourse became part of the normative discourse in NAIS However, the RSISS summer workshops for teachers held at Bucknell, which religions and the role they played in understanding human earth relationships, were important precursors to these greening trends. Seven years prior to this topic becoming the new focus of Independent school agendas, Independent school teachers were alrea dy reading, working with University professors 39 Please see 2005 a ) at http://www.nais.org/Magazines Newsletters/ISMagazine/Pages/Developing Sustainable Schools.aspx,accessed February 24, 2012. Other articles include (Summer 2008) at http://www.nais.org/Magazines Newsletters/ISMagazine/Pages/Free environmental resources from NAIS.aspx accessed February 24, 2012, at http://www.nais.org/Magazines Newsletters/ISMagazine/Pages/Go Green 2c Save Green.aspx accessed February 24, 2012, and Summit on Environmental Sustain ability in Independent Schools at http://www.nais.org/Articles/Pages/EnviroSummit2013.aspx accessed May 3, 2013.

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278 ecology Syllabi were developed, attention to human earth relationships as they arose out of given religious worldviews were integrated into world religion clas ses, history classes, English classes and interdisciplinary projects were developed and taken back to a handful of Independent schools. In addition to these early conversations and early curriculum development, there were two conferences held in 1999 and 2001 where a group of educators from urban schools met in Vermont to explore ways to integrate issues of the environment into ls should be, curricular and institutionally, in terms of these three critical topics (Stephens 2002: 6). At the end of the conference this working group issued a mandate for all NAIS schools which included the idea that work connecting education, ethics a nd the environment was important and urgent. The group suggested that NAIS should make a commitment to set up some standards for Environmental Education (note language here as NAIS had not yet begun to integrate ESD into the conversation); to have all sch statements. The curriculum needed to be designed to connect students with the landscape, to teach about environment in an interdisciplinary manner and it should include a long term experiential project. Institutionally, schools were also asked to commit to environmental responsibility in building, food and maintenance practices (Stephens 2002: 7). These mandates are particularly interesting becaus e they began to clarify what

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279 ed changes. The group made explicit that graduate with feelings of hope, optimism 2002: 7). The discussions about how Independe nt schools should incorporate sustainability into their communities continued and more specific guidelines were provided by Wynn Calder and Rick Clugston who were co leaders of an organization called University Leaders for a Sustainable Future. In 2002 the y published an article commitment to creating a sustainable future (Calder 2002). 40 Briefly, the six areas where were structure and planning, curriculum that reflect ed sustainability interdisciplinary classes professional development opportunities and hiring cri teria that reflect ed sustainability expertise, campus operations (water, energy) would be addressed, activities on campus such as orientations and scholarships would focus on sustainability and local, regional and global outreach efforts The work of Wy nn Calder is particularly notable here because he was one of the pioneers in NAIS work with education for sustainability, becoming in 2003 the primary consultant on sustainability with NAIS. In this role he developed and chaired the annual 40 Dimensions of Independent Sch ool Life" (2002) was based on an article by Clugston and Calder (1999) titled Critical Dimensions of Sustainability in Higher Education at http://ulsf.org/pdf/Critical_dimensions_SHE.pdf accessed May 15, 2013.

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280 NAIS Summer Inst itute for Leadership in Sustainability from 2005 through 2009. In 2003 he became the director of Sustainable Schools, LLC and work ed with K 12 schools, colleges and universities to build environmental literacy and sustainability into strategic planning, te aching and institutional practice. Calder is also a co founder of the U.S. Partnership for Education for Sustainable Development. H is other positions include member ship in the expert advisory group of the Green Schools Alliance, advisory council of the Clo ud Institute for Sustainability Education, senior council of the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education. 41 It is also significant that he attended Germantown Friends School, taught history for several years at Milton Academy and earned a degree from Harvard Divinity School. 42 Having established these preliminary foundations for sustainability education in the Independent school world it is possible to locate ourselves in 2005 where three key events unfolded that will be impor tant for connecting the role of religion to Independent Sustainability Education, which has been impacting Independent school trends for eight years now. As a result o f this, the National Association of Independent Schools chose sustainability as its theme, and committed to keeping sustainability at the forefront of the consciousness in Independent schools. primary topic at the NAIS annual conference in 2005 (held in San Diego CA ). In the opening keynote address, Pat Bassett (head of NAIS), explicitly stated that the conference theme 41 http://www.sustainschools.org/about us accessed May 4, 2012. 42 http://www.sustai nschools.org/about us#w accessed May 4, 2012.

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281 challenge in the new century is to take an idea that seems abstrac t, sustainable development 43 This was important because it provided evidence that NAIS was indeed being attentive to what was unfolding at the UN level in regard to ESD and being responsive to its influences. Another reason this keynote address was significant was that Bassett expla ined how school world to include five key components that not only addressed sustainability as a larger concept, but also addressed sustainability as it pertained to the sur vival of the because it began to refine the UN definition of ESD in the Independent school context which will be important as this project co ntinues. Finally, of particular interest are they were wasting their time with those 43 Pat Basett (2005) at http://www.nais.org/Magazines Newsletters/ISMagazine/Pages/Developing Sustainable Schools.aspx accessed May 13, 2012.

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282 their kids ended up in a world worth living in 44 Also of interest is that Jared Diamond was a keynote speaker at the conference. Diamond is famous for arguing that different environmental systems aroun d the world have played a significant factor in the success or failure of different civilizations over the course of history. He has suggested, moreover, that religion has often been maladaptive, as it was in the case of Iceland. As Diamond explained, the early peoples of Iceland practiced paganism and worshipped fertility gods, sky gods and war gods (Diamond 2005: 191). Bassett, however, draws upon his ideas to address skeptics in the Independent school community about making the shift to being a sustain able school. Bassett quotes Diamond as saying: Most of us parents set as the highest goal of our personal financial planning to secure our children's future, by drawing up a will, buying life insurance, sending our kids to good schools, investing carefully and perhaps setting up a trust. But you are wasting those efforts and you are throwing away all of that money if you don't also invest to ensure that your kids end up in a world worth living in (Bassett 2005a). moral undertone and value laden statements suggests that the ethical impulse was at least of part of what motivated this early greening process in the NAIS school arena. In addition to the formal declaration by the United Nations and the national NAIS con that unfolded this particular year was that CSEE wanted to join in the NAIS and UN efforts to promote education for sustainability, but were not sure of how best to begin the process. Ultimately, they decided to host a small working conference of educators with expertise and experience in education for environmental sustainability to create a 44 Ibid.

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283 do support of the Forum on Religion and Ecology, but it now exists as a free PDF download. 45 The booklet explores why being reverent stewards of our Earth makes financial social, ethical, and spiritual sense and helps CSEE promote its vision for moral and the world around them 46 These events are all significant because the moral authori ty of the UN mandate is being acknowledged and responded to by Independent schools, NAIS is expanding the definition of sustainability to be incorporated into the Independent school arena in a nuanced way, early curriculum development that connects the wor The Road to Being Green Guided by Wynn Calde in his opening remarks at the 20 05 NAIS conference the five core ways that NAIS would commit to sustainability would be financial, environmental, global, programmatic and demographic (Bassett 2005b). He elaborated on the details of this commitment in an 45 This Green Guide for schools can be found at http://www.csee.org/files/ECSBook.pdf accessed May 3, 2012. 46 http://www.csee.org/projects/environmental.html accessed May 3, 2012.

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284 article in Independent School Mag azine later that year. In this article he explained that financial sustainability included the commitment for schools to become more efficient and less costly. He mentioned that environmental sustainability included schools asteful. He noted that global sustainability included schools becoming more networked internationally and less parochial in outlook. He identified programmatic sustainability as becoming more focused on the skills and values of the 21st century marketplace approach to teaching and learning. Finally, demographic sustainability included becoming more inclusive and representative of the school age populat ion (Bassett 2005 a ). Since that time, evidence for Indepen dent Schools making a commitment to of sustainability councils/committees, strategic plans, green building efforts, school gardens, restoration of local land, the developme nt of alternative energy sources (solar farms), service projects and resource purchasing plans R eligion, ethics and spirituality have been an integral part of these efforts. There are, however, also other reasons behind Independent schools making the dec The reasons behind why Independent schools are going green (or should go green) according to NAIS president Pat Bassett or NAIS Sustainability consultant Wynn Calder or even the U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan vary widely, but it is clear unfolding greening trends in the Independent school arena. There are, however, some variations between the rationale at the national level and NAIS. At the N ational level

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285 (and also agreed upon by NAIS) the following reasons are used to explain this trend. First, it is important to provide a well rounded education. As Arne Dunca n the U.S. ucation plays a central role in providing children with a well rounded education, helping prepare them for the jobs of the future 47 Second, green schools are looking out for the best interest in terms of student health and the health of the country. Gree n schools are giving students and educators what they need to maximize learning and minimize risks like asthma and other respiratory illnesses, ensuring that no child is burdened by pollution in or around their school. 48 Third, green schools help provide adequate preparation for emerging green and global economy and green schools can help save money for schools. "Schools that take a green approach cut costs on their utility bills, foster healthy and productive classrooms, and prepare students to thrive in the 21st century economy," said Nancy Sutley, Chair of the White House Council on Environmental Quality. 49 Independent schools added three additional reasons to the U.S. Department of e these additional First, NAIS believes that environmental sustainability is in the news and in the culture. 47 Obama Administration Nam es 78 Schools in 29 States and D.C. as First Ever U.S. Department of Education Green http ://www.ed.gov/news/press releases/obama administration names 78 schools 29 states and dc first ever us department accessed May 3, 2012. 48 Ibid. 49 Ibid.

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286 attention to it so NAIS should make it a priority too (Calder 2009). Second, NAIS arg stake. The headmaster at St. Paul explained that In New Orleans, preserving the wetlands is something they can teach students to be proactive about. The school and city wer e destroyed by Katrina, but by rebuilding the school and the local environment it allows this particular school to rebuild and literally surviv e after being destroyed (Calder l environment plays a role in the ability for a school to survive in a given area and are an rvival of the schools do not change along the five proposed sustainability criteria they will, in fact, hem elitist unapproachable, inaccessible financially and socially, taking care of ourselves at the expense of t 2005 b ). He refined this argument later in the more detailed explanation about the NAIS commitment to environmental sustainability. onsumerism. Like businesses Independent schools may be called to demonstrate in their missions and actions their commitment to social responsibility and environmental sustainability Finally, NAIS makes the value laden claim that Independent schools have a

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287 The challenges we face as a society in the 21st century climate change among them are momentous and that education has a profound responsibility to address them. Thus small steps are not enough (Mal colm McKenzie in Calder 2009). the kinds of issues this generation will have to face: complex, multifaceted and relevant make the connection between the classro om 2009). Ethics, religion and spirituality (as will become more evident in a closer look at some specific case studies) and nature are all therefore variables in the rationale for the In The prolific greening of Independent school campuses and curriculum unfolded in Independent schools all over the nation since this time. There are many examples of schools greening, there are partnerships between green schools (Green School Alliance), there are competitions held annually between schools known as The Green Cup Challenge. 50 There are also professional development opportunities, there are outside organizations that will help campuses track their ecological footprints, there are conference workshops. 51 There are also new textbooks and curriculum about gions The textbook by Facing the Future titled Exploring Global Issues: Social, Economic and Environmental Interconnections (2013), for example, has an entire section in its /sa id 50 http://www.nais.org/Magazines Newsletters/ISMagazine/Pages/The Green Cup Challenge So Fresh and So Green.aspx accessed June 10, 2012. 51 CSEE Greening the Curriculum Conference: Inspiration, Vision, and Direction in Environmental Education at http://www.csee.org/events/greening_curriculum accessed June 14, 2012.

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288 includes test questions (and responses) about th ese religion s and sustainability issues. 52 Recently both NAIS and an Independent consultant, Paul Champman of Inverness Associates, took a step back to get a big picture perspective on what some of these trends are as the greening of Independent schools continues. In the past year two important resources have become available which provide important insights into the curr ent state of affairs about greening trends in Independent s chool education. The (2012) report opened ended questions and qualitative observations conducted between April/June 2011. Both resources way of life (Calder and Burnett 2011). The details and particulars of each trend are community specific, but in genera l sustainability is being incorporated into mission statements and is increasingly a part of board planning, campus operations are taking sustainability into consideration and inter and intra school competitions have been found very effective in reducing n atural resource use and engaging school communities in stewardship practices (Calder and 52 For a specific example of how sustainability an please see Facing the Future t ext book titled Exploring Global Issues: Social, Economic and Environmental Interconnections (2013) Chapter 2: Sustainability p.33 34

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289 Burnett 2011: 1) Recycling and waste reduction are major consideration s in many Independent school c ommunities (including e waste recycling), gardens have been instituted and many schools are addressing food issues by partnering with local farmers and offering more vegetables, less meat and reducing high fructose corn syrup. Schools, moreover, are addressing transportation issues by promoting carpooling, using bio diesel on campu s. C ommunity service and outreach projects are growing and the curriculums of Independent School communities include interdisciplinary efforts, place based learning, experiential learning opportunitie s (Calder and Burnett 2011: 3) In s awareness and practice of sustainability and environmental stewardship at Independent This progress report and the trends it documented were not only corroborated in my own research, as the forthcoming c ase studies shall reveal, but they also shed some additional light on what I discovered in terms of an increased presence of natu ralistic religion. The report noted that most of the schoo ls were including sustainability in their science classes and this is one of the places where I noted an increased use of where naturalistic religion appeared on the cam puses that I explored was in the increase of experiential education opportunities and in the outreach efforts that these schools were making. This suggests a greater awareness of the need (and benefit) of contact time in the natural world and the necessity of collaborative work with other disciplines and organizations.

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290 What was also notable, both in this report and my own research was that there is an inherent belief among NA I S schools that education is, indeed, an important tool for leveraging culture cha nge (Calder and Burnett 2011: 8). Having foreshadowed some of what is to come, it is therefore possible to now explore where the ethics, spirituality and religion variable might be evident in this big picture overview before delving into some particular under the previously discussed analytical templates. Obstacles/Challenges To Being Green a s a n NAIS School a nd The Whisper of Morality Becoming green or being green is not alw ays easy. Although it is happening in a mean that challenges and obstacles do not exist. NAIS has taken these challenges and obstacles seriously. They have published mu ltiple documents explaining how to bring sustainability into communities, they provide resources for schools who are just starting out t some of the most common obstacles are and how to begin to overcome them (Calder 2008). There are, howe ver, three particular approaches to solutions to some of the common obstacles that ar e most interesting to this project because they are imbued with m oral undertones. First, for the common obstacle which involves a lack of institutional commitment or mandate to shift the school toward sustainability it is : 1). Later in the document it is suggested the people in the community work t o relay that sustainability is ab out people and the planet. Calder

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291 suggested that people consider that people depend on the environment for survival and well being, thus the onl y choice is to protect it (Calder 2008: 4). The feeling conveyed by N AIS, in other words, is that there is an ethical imperative to address sustainability. Second, I would argue that narrative, which is a defining characteristic of any religion, is invoked as a tool for bringing about changes toward sustainability. As some s [their] mis make a clear connection between this information and [their] 2008: 2). Schools, in other words, should use narrative to weave sustainability in to the fabric, values and history of the school which will not only be notable in the case facilitating these green trends in the future. Finally, if the school sees imple menting sustainability as an inherent stress ( involved in the paradigm shift to sustainability ) then the suggested solution is to emphasize the long term benefits for the school the relevance to education in the 21st century, enhanced student learning and staff productivity and satisfaction and moral vision. The solution enjoins readers to 2008: 4). Implicit Religion in NAIS Greening Patterns and Cultural Production The re are some important implications for sustainability education in these foundation trends to the greening phenomenon unfolding in NAIS schools today. Clearly, moral, character and spiritual development, global education, respect for diversity and teaching

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292 Royce, an Independent K 12 school in Oakland, California, spent one year focused on weaving diversity into the curriculum. The next year, they did the same with globalism. The following year, they integrated sustainability into every grade level and subject matter in this school of nearly 1,000 students, faculty, and staff. 53 As this school demonstrated, the stepping stones were necessary to integra te all of these previous focus areas together in what is now sustainability education and this shift in focus has now happened throughout the wi der NAIS community. Along with these different stepping stones, however, one of the overarching goals of each of these different focus areas has been that Independent schools imagine education to be something more noble than just learning for the sake of passing an 21st century citizens. This goal, interestingly enough involves religion. First, as Peter Cobb explained we need our schools to be places where religion is acknowledged and respected as part of history, our present and our future, so that our students will be equipped to speak and act as informed and responsive world citizens (Cobb 2003: 20). r words, was very much operative in creating an early vision of this global citizen. The vision of this citizen both involved and has evolved from greater knowledge of the world religions and the worldviews they help create. Implicit religion, however, wa s also present in this vision. 53 http://www.ecoliteracy.org/essays/what comes after diversity globalism and sustainabili ty accessed May 14, 2012.

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293 The schools were explicit that "learning about many things does not produce 294). Marcus Aurelius insisted, for example, that to become world citizens we must not simply amass knowledge, we mus t also cultivate in ourselves a capacity for sympathetic imagination that will enable us to comprehend the motives and choices of people different from ourselves, seeing them not as forbiddingly alien and other, but as sharing many problems and possibiliti es with us. Differences of religion, gender, race, class, and national origin make the task of understanding harder, since these differences shape not only the practical choices people face but also their "insides," their desires, thoughts, and ways o f loo king at the world (Brosnan 2000) The transformation of people on the inside is what is most interesting to this vision of global citizen. It seems, in part, that the cultivation of this global citizenry involved an internal transformation of being in the world with a strong ethical dimension. This parareligous dimension, therefore, is included in cultivation of a global citizen on these campuses too. This idea, h owever, that a more subtle form of parareligion or dark green religion could be emerging in the foundations undergirding sustainability education is Honor the fact that religious understanding and practice is virtually always found within a political and cultural context. Honor the fact that many adults and children are now pursing spiritual paths not aligned with traditional happening and this is where the new cultural produc tion in Independent schools may be underway. Schools that have gone green still have, as their primary goal, the cultivation literate and aware of diversity and engag ed in the civic arena), however, might be things, but who is also more aware of the larger natural world in which they live). To

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294 better understand if such a shift is actu ally underway and if there truly is a strong naturalistic parareligious component to this new cultural production it is necessary to explore what some of these greening trends look like on the school s grounds. Stepping Onto (Green) School Grounds: NAIS Schools Leading the Way NAIS schools currently lead s the green movement in American education. In April 2012, the U.S. Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan, announced the selection of eleven NAIS schools to receive the first Green Ribbon School Award. The G reen Ribbon School Award is a product of a new federal recognition program and the 2012 award recipients (the first annual awards) were given to 78 very diverse (public, private, rural, urban) schools. The awards were given out by the U.S. department of Ed ucation, the Obama Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency. According to the environments through reducing environmental impact, promoting health, and ensuring a high quality environmental and outdoor education to prepare students with the 21st century skills and sustainability concepts needed in the growing global economy. 54 The eleven NAIS schools were among a group of 78 schools nationwide who won, but they were selected from an initial group of over 350 schools that submitted applications to their state education departments. As Paul Chapman, the head of Inverness Associates ( a private consulting group that works to support schools in sustainab ility, NAIS schools in the finalist group is a testament to their commitment to environmental 54 http://www.ed.gov/news/press releases/duncan announces plans green ribb on schools award accessed May 15, 2012.

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295 sustainability 55 While religion was not explicitly cited in this public discourse, nor was it Independent schools, it would be remiss not to call attention to religion and its role (to varying degrees and in its different forms) as an influential variable in these greening trends on Independent school campuses. T he following evidence is meant as simply provide a glimpse of how inity for the natural delve into the particularities of how each of these Independent schools is green, nor do they deal with particular religious traditions or even the sp ecific schools involved in my specific case studies. Rather this evidence highlights the values, ethics, moral rationale to illuminate the diversity of ways that religion is present in the initial reasons for these greening trends. It also introduce some preliminary evidence that such greening trends, are indeed, well underway and that there may be a naturalistic parareligious element to them. The first examples include evidence that DGR is motivating different Headmasters to green their campuses Their motivation is derived from the idea that nature is awesome and that has a sacred dimension to it Malcolm McKenzie (the head of the Hotchkiss School in Lakeville, CT) claimed to have felt a powerful attraction to the in the rolling hills of northwest Connecticut. He 2012: 56) 55 http://www.invernessassociates.org/news/nais schools leading green mov ement accessed May 26, 2013.

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296 to the clarion calls of this centur environmental degradation and global interconnectedness Hotchkiss has taken bold steps to build four LEED certified buildings, a biomass heating plant, a farm where students connect with the land and learn a bout food, and has set a goal for the school to be carbon neutral by 2020 (Chapman 2012: 57). A nother example of how an awe and reverence for nature has motivated a is the Cate School located in Carpinteria, CA found a reverence for the natural world, and stewardship of the environmental and natural resources was one of the basic tenets of to tran sform 500 acres into green campus and which impacted the school infrastructure and operations (Chapman 2012: 119) Continuing this tradition, Ben Williams (the reverence (Chapman 2012: 121). commitment to sustainability in demonstrable ways and clearly the Cate school has thought deeply and systemically about how to create a healthy, green school In addition to a re verence, awe and respect motivating greening trends, there is are clearly being influenced by some kind of green religion that posits the idea that environmentally frien dly behavior is a religious obligation and is most often described

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297 well being is strengthened by service to others and to the community Th e school is striving to raise students whose values lead them to understand the consequences of their actions and who know how to make choices with a long term vision and is striving to nurture a culture of environmental stewardship (Chapman 2012: 79). Th e Princeton day school sponsored a high school eco won the Green Schools Alliance Green Cup Challenge in 2011, and has been undergoing significant food reforms. Thus, the school is acting in accord with its st ated environmental ideas. In another example of a school working to become more environmentally friendly because of ethical obligation is the Willow School in Gladstone, NJ. They are also working to create academic excellence and build a school that is a ttuned to nature we interact with our h uman and natural resources where individuals first ways in which they are responsible not only for themselves but for their environmental as well (Chapman 2012: 80). This school was also recognized by CSEE as a first place recipient in their 2011 community service recognition program looks for schools doing exemplary work to care for the earth and / or to educate about it. CSEE recognized the Willow School as one of those rare and bea utiful schools whose work for environmental stewardship has clear roots right in the mission statement. In addition to academic excellence and the joy of learning, Willow is committed to having students experience the wonder of the natural

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298 world. The schoo l's environmental stewardship program is entwined with its virtues program, which intentionally encompasses ethical relationships: relationships among human beings, and relationships between human beings and the natural world. The goal of the school is to develop in children a sense of personal stewardship and love for the earth. 56 The echoes of stewardship as a motivating force toward campus greening efforts are found in Independent schools in the Midwest too. At the Mary Institute and Saint Louis Country Day School (MICDS) in St. Louis, Missouri, Lisa Lyle, who became the (Chapman 2012: 93). Today, MICDS makes it a priority to educate students and encourage adults to be conscientious remain committed to ensuring our create the best possible learning environment for current and future students t he MICDS when making choices about new construction Lisa L yle explained simply that Finally, on the west coast the Midland School in Los Olivos, CA makes the claim y if one were to anthropomorphize a school The school was founded on principles of sustainability and these roots go deep into its past. T 56 http://www.csee.org/awards accessed March 4, 2012.

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299 the value of a lifetime of learning, self reliance, simplicity, responsibility to co mmunity and the environment and love for the outdoors. Its philoso phy of sustainability states: a simple, self reliant lifestyle, close to nature, teaches us to develop our inner s students t o be good stewards of the earth (Chapman 2012: 128) environmentally based curriculum with in a college preparatory program, emphasizing (Chapman 2012: 129). This chapter thus suggests that NAIS leadership uses ESD wisely. Schools know ESD is popular, visionary and ap propriate, but at the same time these schools have also been engaged in their own form of cultural production. These distinctive communities also have religion resembling characteristics which make them particularly fertile arenas to innovate and sanctify new ideas. The focus of NAIS schools has been varied over the previous decades, but each focus area was an important stepping stone to assist in the foundation building necessary for the current greening trends to emerge. Now that they have, it is possible that they are involved in the creation of ne w form of naturalistic parareligion and thus the next few chapters will more specifically explore what is going on in these green schools who are religiously affiliated and what is the Independent school arena.

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300 CHAPTER 5 CATHOLIC SCHOOLS Catholic Schools and Sustainability: An O verview Bishops Say Dealing with Global Warming a Moral Imperative Boston Globe, June 16, 2001 (Gottlieb 2003: 491). Member schools of NAIS are diverse and if they self identify with a particular religious affiliation they are also usually a part of another educational network related to their faith tradition too. Catholic Schools who are members of NAIS, for example, ar e also usually members of the National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) or smaller networks of Catholic schools such as the Network of Sacred Heart Schools (NSHS). These religiously affiliated school networks are potentially interesting to this work because the trends unfolding in the NAIS arena may be informing these affiliate organizations or the reverse may also be true. By exploring some specific Catholic schools, and the sustainability trends unfolding on these campuses, it is possible to examin e whether these schools are also prototypes or exemplars for other affiliated schools within their religious school networks. These case studies, therefore, help provide insight into (or at least raise questions about) the larger trends within the Catholic school arenas. They may also help provide information about which of the smaller networks might be more open to sustainability trends and allow for insights into why that might be the case. Finally, these case studies provide an avenue for exploring the s pecific relationships between religiously affiliated school networks and the larger network of Independent schools that are linked through an affiliation with the Catholic tradition.

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301 The National Catholic Educators Association (NCEA) began in 1904 and is the largest private professional education organization in the world. It represents 200,000 Catholic educators and helps serve 7.6 million students in Catholic elementary and secondary schools through religious education programs, in seminaries, and in co lleges and universities. The mission of t his organization states: Rooted in the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) is a professional membership organization that provides leadership, direction, and service to fulf ill the evangelizing, catechizing, and teaching mission of the Church. 1 This umbrella organization encompasses a wide array of Catholic secondary schools and some of them are NAIS members, but that does not mean that all Catholic schools are the same nor that they are all exemplifying sustainability trends in a similar fashion, if indeed, they are doing so at all. Since religion is being defined using the family resemblance approach it is best to begin with a closer look at Catholicism, as it is underst ood and practiced by particular Catholic schools. Catholi cism is a broad term for multiple interpretations of beliefs, practices and understandings of this tradition and these tributaries have changed over time and in different historical and regional con texts. Sarah Taylor helped provide language for this complexity by describing Catholicism as polythetic (a s opposed to monothetic) and transformation and incorporation. As Taylor explained, th e nature of polythetic religions the face of diversity and 2007: 21). 1 http://www.ncea.org/about/index.asp accessed December 3, 2013.

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302 tho Catholicism that fall under its canopy (Taylor 2007: 21). Under the canopy of Catholicism today one finds traditionalists, liberals, evangelicals, cultural Catholics, and popular folk Catholics although these categories are not the only ones. 2 The primary difference, however, between these different groups of Catholics is the extent to which they obey the old Church hierarchy or embrace modernity and this criteria is what distinguishes the Catholic schools themselves from each other as well. With a wide diversity of influences from Catholicism, Catholic schools are one example of how Independent, religiously affiliated schools work to incorporate sustainability into their communities. Some Catholic schools, for example, include sustainability as an extension of what is known as mission based sustainability. Some schools are inspired by Catholic Social teaching which has strong connections to the Earth Charter. Some are inspired by ideas of liberation theology found within the Catholic traditio n. Some schools are inspired by their Dominican heritage and other schools are inspired by the Sacred Heart framework which includes social awareness and other Christian virtues. Although the precise source of inspiration varies for the different school co mmunities there is a series of tributaries found within Catholicism issues which gath ered momentum in th ese communities during the 1990 s. 2 http://withchrist.org/catholic.htm accessed December 3, 2013 for more information about the differe nt kinds of Catholics

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303 Prior to delving into some of the specific motivations for the greening of Catholic attitude toward sustainability iss (French 2005: 328). In the Hebrew origins of early Christianity it is evident that Lynn White criticized Christianity f or because he argued that Christianity was the most anthropocentric religion of all. As White explained, Christians interpret their creation story in the following way: item in th Christianity, according to White and other critics of this tradition, promoted the anthropocentric notion that humans were superior over the natural world and that it was created solely for their benefit and use. Over time, the hierarchy between humans and the rest of creation became so dominant that balance was lost and t he traditional understanding of humanity as a part of creation became attenuated (French 2005: 328). Even with a strong anthropocentric ethical focus, however, Catholic theology places a strong creation centered frame at the center of its tradition and us es this for understanding human life. Medieval theologians, monks, and mystics all gave 2005: 329).

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304 One of t he more famous Catholic saints who inspired Catholics to embrace sustainability, was Francis of Assisi. He is known for his life work and writings and they to a life of poverty, preaching to the birds and animals and founding the Franciscan order (French 2005:329). He was also who White cited as a source of inspiration for an alternative approach to the prevailing an thropocentric view adhered to many Christi ans. There are other examples of how Catholic theologians, monks and mystics gave shape to some of the contemporary Catholic perspectives and approaches to sustainability. One of the most important figures, in recent times, who shaped the ways that sustai nability is exhibited in Catholic secondary schools today, is Pope John Paul II. In 1990, Pope John Paul II made a strong statement of concern about emerging which cle was an important shift away from the emphasis on dominion, which had been characteristic of the Catholic rhetoric for centuries. Since that time, moreover, some conferences they promulgated an array of important pastoral letters on ecological concerns. The US Cat holic Conference of Bishops in 1991, for example, produced a statement titled Renewing the Earth that addressed environmental ethics in light of Catholic social teaching. This provided fertile ground for the growth and development of

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305 sacramental universe, respect for life and the collective planetary good, valuing and recognition of the web of life and made a commitment to solidarity with the poor to, among other things, r educe consumption and practic e voluntary simplicity (Taylor 2007: 45). kind of ecological consciousness into the Catholic arena. Rosemary Radford Ruether, Thomas Berry, and M atthew Fox are among those Catholics who seek to ground Creation centered spirituality was their movement. Thomas Berry was particularly important because, as I previo usly mentioned, he is a pivotal figure in the work known remarkable spiritual gift of a new and inspirational creation story that vividly discloses the grandeur, complexity and be important for context, however, to know that all three of these figures were criticized by conservative Catholics for deviating from the faith. s within different Cath olic groups, such as the Green S isters, but his work also impacted high school curriculums. The Green S isters include a growing number of Roman Catholic vowed religious women have committed themselves to addressing the most pressing environmental concerns confronting both human and nonhuman life communities (Taylor 2007: 1). c ultural transformation and the Green S isters have taken up the dual mission of both t new story into action (Taylor 2007: 7) More

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306 specifically, they find ways to stay committed to Roman Catholicism but also find new ways to live with, and within, its traditions. The Green Sisters model sustai nability by incorporating more eco friendly practices into daily life, they also strive to create a more ideally sustainable or renewable religious life in both its external and internal dimensions The North American Green sisters provide a really unique approach to transforming and conserving the religious practices and symbols in their re inhabitation of the Catholic tradition and in everyday life. This, however, is accompanied simultaneously with their mystical embrace of both cosmic unity and multiplic ity (Taylor 2007: 21). They, therefore, exemplify how a group, within a larger religious tradition, can begin to reshape the religious tradition, but they are not working alone to green Catholicism. Particular monastic traditions, such as the larger Domin ican order of which many of these Green sisters are a part, were also important influences in shaping the view of nature, for example, is based on the idea that this ord er was founded to combat a heresy advocating that the natural world was evil (Splain 2005: 1406). Dominican St. Thomas Acquinas, one of the greatest medieval philosophers and theologians said that God is most fully revealed, not through one species only, b ut through the whole (Splain 2005: 1406). The Dominicans are actively involved in education and schools and San Domenico in California reveals some of the ways this monastic influence is Earthlinks

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307 economically poor, to each other and nature through hikes, garden projects and school 1407). Earthlinks also revealed an important aspect of sustainability that is present in Catholic schools, which is the emphasis on the connection between social justice and ecological sustainability. The trend in Catho lic schools that are becoming green revealed a strong emphasis on social justice in their communities, and less attention on environmental sustainability, but in Catholicism there is precedent for a strong connection between these two issues. To clarify th is connection one must understand that social justice has deep roots in an aspect of Catholicism known as Liberation those who suffered from economic, political or so cial injustice. It had great momentum in Latin America beginning in 1968, but was noted to be slowly and certainly declining 465). Liberation theology, however, was explicitly conn ected to the ecological crisis by figures in the Catholic Church such as Leonardo Boff. Boff is a former Franciscan friar who has been was silenced by the Catholic Church and is marginalized by the mainstreams of the Catholic tradition. He was then almos t silenced again in 1992 and ultimately decided to leave the Church (Cox: 1988). 3 Like the Green Sisters, however, he pushed the boundaries of Catholicism and it was most revolutionary. 3 For m ore on Boff and the silencing of him by t The Silencing of Leonardo Boff: The Vatican and the Future of World Christianity (1988).

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308 the oppressed and outcast because it convinced them their cause was connected to God and history and inscribed in the heart of the message and practices of Jesus model to help build a new paradigm of which eco spirituality (a universal religion) was a part (Boff 2003: xiii). Boff argued, moreover, that it is not just the poor who need hostages to a of the preeminent thinkers in making the connection that conventional ecology needed to be developed and understood in its related social context (MaCl ean and Lorentzen 2005: 208). The significance of his work for what is transpiring in Catholic schools is that Catholics, like Boff, draw upon the spiritual storehouse of Christianity and are inspired ctively forge a society that offers greater opportunity for life, jus 107). The Catholic ecological sustainability as well if their sustainability efforts are looked at more holistically and if one draws upon the ideas of social ecology to help frame what is going on in these communities. As Boff argued, elements of a liberation theology that protect the poor and the Earth include Chri In addition to particular saints or theologians inspiring particular attitudes about the natural world, some saints have played a more significant role in shaping Catholic education. The Society of Sacred Heart, for example, was founded in France by St.

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309 Madeleine Sophie Barat and brought to the United States by St. Rose Duchesne. Today, these Catholic schools are known as t he Network of Sacred Heart Schools but many of them are members of NAIS. All Sacred Heart Schools share five key values : to educate to a personal and active faith in God, educate to a deep respect for intellectual values, educate to a social awareness whic h impels to action, educate to the building of community as a Christian value, and to educate to a personal growth in an atmosphere of wise freedom. 4 These values will be the foundation upon which some of the sustainability goals are derived in individual Catholic school communities as the Newton Coun try Day School in Boston demonstrates Real and significant challenges exist within the Catholic tradition that could potentially impede achievements towa rd a more sustainable society Overpopulation and popula tion control is one of the most significant global problems in the 21st century and Catholicism is known for preventing the use of birth control They celebrate big families and believe that humans have had a positive social and evolutionary role in human history (Cobb 2000: 500). This issue, however, has not been disregarded by Catholics, environmentalists or politicians. In 1990 a series of conferences that included scientists and religious leaders a conference was held in 1995 on consumption, population and the environment (Barbour 2000 b : 386). Also, in 1994 the United States developed a task force called the Population and Consumption Task Force to examine these i ssues and religion was a 4 http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/606746/ISvars/default/Goals_and_Criteria_of_Sacred_Heart_Sch ools.htm/ accessed November 3, 2012.

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310 variable in those conversations (Martin Schramm 2000: 439). E ven though this issue has been discussed, there is little evidence that the current pro natalist perspective of the Catholic Church is being adequately addressed despite historical precedent for some kinds of population control being acceptable by prominent Catholic thinkers such as Thomas Acquinas. 5 The Cathol ic tradition does, however, has a variety of sources of inspiration for Catholic Schools to draw upon in their efforts to incorporate sustainabili ty into their communities trends and no matter which Catholic school or church community is being examined, there is one aspect common to all of them, and that is their emphasis on inter generational responsibility. This particular commonality also connects their sustainability efforts with ESD which includes an attentiveness to future generations as one of its preeminent consi derations Over the centuries, Catholic rituals, sacraments, their liturgical calendar and theology join individuals into a greater intergenerational narrative (French 2005: 332). In exploring particular Catholic schools it is therefore important to remember that they are all a part of a much larger community that spans across many generations. This may be one source of optimism for what is observed in these particular communities because often sustainability teachings and practices include imagining what values and ethics fu ture generations may be practicing by modeling and behavior in children. 5 T he Catholi c bishops might suffer from amnesia. The first systematic ethics on abortion was done by St. Antonininus, Archbishop of Florence and a Dominican. He approved of early abortions to save the life of the woman and of any pregnancy that was deemed medically da ngerous. Everyone accepted this limited pro choice position and Antoninus was canonized a saint. Thomas Acquinas also held that early fetuses (before 3 months) were not humanly ensouled and were not candidates for baptism (Maguire 2000: 421).

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311 Mercy High School (San Francisco, CA) Mercy High School was founded in 1952 by the Sisters of Mercy and enrolls 400 young women each year. Many of the students at Mercy are first generation Americans and the school has international students as well. Mercy embraces ethnic, social, religious, and economic diversity. Students are supported and chall enged to achieve their personal best and they are also encouraged to build a strong community. The faculty is influenced by the specific values and philosophy of the Sisters of Mercy. 6 Sustainability is visible in the social fabric of the Mercy High S cho ol community in both its mission statement and in its stated values. First, the mission of the school ng fundamental skills and knowledge, but also encouraging the development of values that will guide 7 esteem, intellectual integrity, independent thought, respect for huma n rights, compassion for others, dedication to teach, courage to act, and respect for the goods of the Earth. 8 provide students with an education that includes the cultivation o f skills for a lifetime (an part of social, economic and environmental sustainability. It is also present in the 6 2012 Profile : Philosophy http://www.mercyhs.org/about/school profile/ accessed January 4, 201 2 7 http://www.mercyhs.org/about/mission accessed January 4, 2012 8 Ibid.

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312 spiritual foundations and vision of the school as well. P 9 works to close the gap between what is idealized throug h the faith tradition as good behavior and the actual behavior of the students during their educational experience at We believe that the message of Jesus can be taught only when deed matches word. Therefore, our goal in education is not simply academics, but an overall service of compassion, respect, and justice. 10 The fact that religion is the binding glue between the values and the actions of the students on campus is significant as the religion then provides a kind sanctioning power for the proper actions or deeds that a student strives to do. In a small community, if the values include a commitment to sustainability these then become sanctioned and reified more noticeably and more often due to the small scale of the community in which all members exist. There is also evidence that sustainability matters at Mercy High School both inside and outside the classrooms. First, inside the classroom there is much evidence for sustainability and this begins with a des cription inside the course catalogue which for the sustenance and enjoyment of future generations 11 There is more evidence, nability in the English, religion and 9 tudent life/campus ministry accessed January 4, 2012. 10 http://www.mercyhs.org/about/course catalogue accessed January 4, 2012. 11 Ibid.

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313 science department courses as well. This discussion highlights a few of the most revealing examples which are sufficient to demonstrate the depth of the greening trends found in the curriculum at Mercy High School. The and individual religion classes (9th is getting greener. First, the religion department states providing a common foundation on wh ich to build, we introduce our students to the traditions and values that undergird the Catholic Christian experience across time and cultures ( RS Department Scope and Sequence 2011 12: 8). le enough to be used in each local arena and simultaneously in many different nations around the world. Second, individual classes in the religion department include teaching about civil rights, social injustices, ecological justice, interdependence with creation, values of religious, multi eligious S tudies Scope and Sequence 2011 12: 8). One of the best examples of sustainability being taught in the classroom is an interdisciplinary senior elective course (that meets both English and Religiou s Studies requirements) titled laying the groundwork in Ecological Theology, Catholic Social Teaching (which derives from Scripture, Catholic social doctrine and Catholic Church documents), and North American Indigenous traditions, we [the class] literally explore the ground, i.e.: the

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314 crucial intersection of human culture and nature, visit ing and learning at important and interesting locations in the San Francisco Bay Area 12 gical framework to better understand aspects of human earth relations and the larger world 13 The course is designed in such a way that there is evidence of both the greening of religion phenomenon and some hints of naturalistic religion too. First, the cl ass aims to Second, the course aims to remedy the increased negative impact which en vironmental social ecology) as well. The class explores the possibility that humans are facing a possible ecocide and suggests that people must respond to this knowledge as a crisis. the earth in gratitude for the gift that sustains human existence and to honor the life that must come after which demonstrated the greening of religion p henomenon where religion was being used as a reason to work on behalf of the earth. 14 The course also explicitly addresses aspects of social, economic and environmental sustainability in its content and it is interdisciplinary, experiential, and focused lea rning about the local area which resonated with important aspects of ESD. Students, for example, took field 12 2012 http://www.mercyhs.org/images/academics/pdfs/coursecatalogue.pdf accessed January 4, 2012. Please see p.22. 13 Information taken from Jim McGar r y 14 Ibid.

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315 journals with them on the required field trips and had specific writing assignments based on the readings to meet the English component of the cour se. 15 The field trips were to local nature sites such as San Bruno Mountain and Mount Davidson which helped them better understand the specific course topics such as land justice, food justice, water justice, climate justice and species justice which clear ly all fall under the sustainability canopy as does the pedagogical method of getting the student s out of the classroom to learn. 16 The field trips included a journaling activity in which students include their observations of the local flora, fauna, geolog y, hydrology, cultural history of the area 17 students had to research and create a project that engaged the community based on one of the course units. Finally, each journal entry asked students to record their menu for lunch that they brought with them and had to note whether the food was local, organic, pesticide free/worker safe and humane treatment of animals, and healthy which has a myriad of connections not only in the content, pedagogy but the ethical dimension to the sustainability discourse. The Environmental Justice class was unique in the multitude of ways that it met so many of the ESD goals and pedagogical aims, however it was not the only class where sus tainability was being taught in the religion department. The 11th grade 15 Course re adings include key figures in the religion and nature discipline such as Thomas Berry, Winona La Duke, Dave Egg ers. Information taken from Jim McGar r y 16 Information taken from Jim McGar r y 2012: 1). 17 Ibid, 2.

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316 nati 12: 5). It was not, however, just the Religion Department where evidence of sustainability in the curriculum existed. The science and social science departments also demonstrated attention to both social and environmental sustainability in the curriculum. First, the science department and its goods. It also emphasized the role of women scientists and encouraged students to pursue careers in the sciences, and prepare them to meet the challenges of empowerment of women. The ESD goals are to help people better understand what society expects of implications for environmental sustainability. 18 If women, for example, aspire to be scientists rather than reproductive machines this is one, innovative way to begin addressing the overpopu lation issue. It may not be an overt intention of this curriculum, but the potential of a Catholic school intentionally teaching about gender issues does hold some possibility for ecological sustainability if it helps address the overpopulation problem. I ndividual science classes also demonstrated more specific evidence of sustainability. The 9th grade Integrated Physical Science class, for example, introduced students to the basics physics, chemistry and environmental issues. In this course, 18 http://www.mercyhs.org/images/academics/pdfs/co ursecatalogue.pdf accessed January 12, 2012. For more on ESD themes related to gender see http://www.esdproj.org/site/Pag eServer?pagename=Themes_Gender accessed January 12, 2012.

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317 students inve stigated various aspects of the earth, including modern day environmental issues such as pollution and global warming. 19 Social science classes such as world history or contemporary world issues included strong connections to ESD as well. Student participa tion in problem solving seminars where they discovered the historical roots of contemporary complex issues, which is an important skill in the ESD framework. 20 The world issues course was ultimately designed to raise the consciousness of students to the n etwork of injustice, oppression, and exploitation, which is an obstacle to the Christian task of building a global community. Modern social issues such as human rights violations, poverty, hunger, discrimination, racism, sexism, violence, war, environmenta l sustainability, international trade dilemmas, and business and economic of how humans are to act. Clearly, religion was the lens being used to view many of these sus tainability issues and I observed an interactive lesson in which students went out on the street (outside the school) and were led though an activity about migrant workers from a Christian point of view. The lesson not only addressed social inequities, but hunger issues and represented and kinesthetic approach to teaching which was very much in line with ESD as well. Outside of the classroom, there were multiple examples of greening trends in the daily life of the Mercy High School community. First, the sc hool has a Green Team who 19 http://www.mercyhs.org/images/academics/pdfs/coursecatalogue.pdf ., accessed Janua ry 24, 2012. p.24. 20 http://www.mercyhs.org/images/academics/pdfs/coursecatalogue.pdf accessed January 24, 2012. p.28.

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318 and in our civic community 21 They go on hikes, canoe trips and work on habitat restoration activities that were coordinated through local and regional groups. They also worked to maintain and extend the schools recycling and composting programs. Finally, they maintained (after previous students worked to develop) the native plant garden dedicated to the Ohlone people that lived here for thousand s of years. The group was environmentally responsible school 22 was significant. Their dedica tion reflected an implicit suggestion of reverence for the people who once lived on the ground that they now attended school. This dedication provided a unique connection to this project because as I previously demonstrated Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) is a tributary flowing both into and out of Dark Green Religion. Its presence here thus suggests a slight parareligious dimension in this This is significant because although TEK can be subversive of Catholic beliefs, as it involves respect for the religious/spiritual beliefs of indigenous and other non Catholic peoples, but it also suggests that scholars like Fiedriek Berkes might be correct in that TEK might have real had merit in thinking about how to cultivate a new suggestions about an adaptive management system, informed by TEK wisdom, may hold great promise for a viable strategy that would help the ethic be implement ed in 21 http://www.mercyhs.org/student life/clubs/green team 22 Ibid.

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319 both a school community (that already recognizes the value and virtue of the native ideas that students might be increasingly aware of as they learn more about the Ohlone Intercession was also an example of how sustainability is incorporated into to provide students with experiential le arning opportunities and get them into the greater community. The program is facilitated by Mercy faculty and staff who designed courses based on their own interests and expertise. Student participation was required and it was a graduation requirement wh ich meant that some financial aid was made available to help with costs of some of the different courses. 23 Many of the intercession courses that had elements of sustainability also had aspects of parareligion. The Bay Area Outdoor Adventures course, for example, sought stress of school and discover the simple pleasures of gliding peacefully through a quiet cove, the complex demands of responding to a rock wall, and enjoy walking some of the most scenic trails in the Bay Area 24 This suggested that the outdoors had a kind of regenerative power and that connections with natural world would help ease the stress of regular school life. This not only provided evidence of eco psychology in practice, but 23 http://www.mercyhs.org/student li fe/intersession accessed January 24, 2012. 24 http://www.mercyhs.org/student life/intersession/local courses accessed January 24, 2012.

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320 also the experiences were all local so they were in accord with ESD because students were getting to know their local arena in a more intimate way. Another similar intercession experience that got students outdoors, but also and outdoorsmen. The parareligious element was present in the clai the local landscape and students also engaged in a recovery project of the local steelhead and Coho salmon and helped with an ongoing watershed restoration project involving erosion control, tree planting and removal of invasive plant li fe in the Russian experience awaited them in the natural environment into which th ey would venture. 25 The way this opportunity is presented sounds like a small pilgrimage and the way the experience is structured could include some important transformative experiences. There is a strong potential for naturalistic parareligion to unfold i n these experiences because often during these kinds of activities the intimate contact with the wild brings people into contact with their wild selves. Outdoor education instructors and scholars who study this kind of experience have noted that when the wild self is experienced that (Davis 2005: 1750). These experiences can thus help facilitate ego transcendence and an opening to spirit. In accord with other enviro nmentalists who go to nature for this 25 http://www.mercyhs.org/student life/intersession/overnight courses accessed January 24, 2012.

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321 reason, student may then experience the unexpected healing, vitality or joy that could result (Davis 2005: 1750). Transformation of oneself is a recurring theme in these courses and another border town of Laredo, Texas. During this time students were immersed in the realities of the US Mexico bor 26 Students spent several days meeting with human rights workers, hearing the stories of recent immigrants and those who are preparing to cross the border, exploring the issue of human trafficking from the perspective of both victims and their advocates, and learning about the negative environmental impact of US efforts to control the border. The students experience was not only hands on education and inclusive of direct service opportunities with chi ldren and families, but they were encouraged to try to empathize and experience the struggle of people living and working on both sides of the border and find out how they can all make a real difference in the world, both now and in our future careers. Thi s resonated strongly with the ESD goals of learning skills that would prepare them for a lifetime and also worked to develop empathy which is a good example of the kinds of moral and character education that Independent schools often include in their curri culum. The possibility of developing that empathy, to eventually encompass the nonhuman world, through these kinds of experiences is contested, but I argue this is good example of the ways in which social ecology may be operative on 26 http://www.mercyhs.org/student life/intersession/overnight courses accessed January 24, 2012.

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322 these Catholic school c ampuses and thus there is some significance to this project to note sustainability efforts in this school from a more holistic perspective. These intercession courses were just a few examples that incorporated aspects of sustainability. There was a course that took students to Rancho San Lucas and the Salinas Valley where they spent time at Alba Organic Farm and visited with the people, walked the farms and learned about the relationship between land and labor in this area that author John Steinbeck called 27 There were courses that made bracelets from beads and then sold them to donate money to charities and there were intercession courses that helped students understand the idea of local food and taught them how to prepare gourmet meals with it. The experient ial aspect, the various curricular connections to aspects of social and economic sustainability and the strong ethical dimensions as well as the connections to greening trends were unfolding in this Catholic school arena. In my search for sustainability trends I did find it interesting that Mercy High School had made few attempts at greening the campus buildings or changing the infrastructure of the school. It did have, however, a well established recycling and compost program. It also had a small garden which was used to supply the kitchen with seasonal vegetable and it did have outdoor classroom that the community used regularly. Many of the interesting greening trends at Mercy H igh School were found in 27 http://www.mercyhs.org/studentlife/pdfs/intersessionpdfs/Gazette.pdf accessed January 24, 2012.

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323 Christian foundations of community and its values of respect, compassion and a desire ctices. Mercy aimed to help students transform themselves and the world around them, which suggested at least small hints that a new kind of new cultural production was underway. Also of significance were the implicit connections the students had made t o some aspects of TEK which hold some promise as the school continues to develop its emphasis on different sustainability practices. There were, however, also other Catholic school communities around the nation that provide additional insight into how Cath olicism may be helping to facilitate sustainability issues on campuses and how new parareligious production may also be underway. San Domenico, CA San Domenico, a kindergarten through 12th grade Catholic school in California, is a leader among independent schools who have made sustainability a priority and there were innumerable examples of greening trends throughout this community that not only resonated with ESD goals, but that also suggested that religion was playing a strong role in the motivations behi its roots to Mother Mary Goemaere who moved from Paris to Monterey to open the first independent and first Cathol ic school in California. The school eventually moved to its current location in San Anselmo in 1965 and enrolls 125 girls from the Bay Area and around the world. 28 28 http://www.sandomenico.org/page.cfm?p=2157/ accessed December 6, 2012.

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324 The mission, stated values and vision of San Domenico are built around the Dominican ideals. serving pre stated ESD cur San Domenico hopes that its s process of learning truth is never complete it is a life long pursuit 29 upholding the values of study, reflection, ser vice and community. These values arose Dominic founded the Dominican Order proclaiming the essential goodness of all creation. San Domenico drew upon this tradition and h oped that same openness to study and learning through all facets of life on campus the arts and athletics, academics and religious studies, service and social interactions, as well as through our appreciation of all God's creation closely surrounding us ea ch day. 30 Also, San Domenico wanted its students to explore and develop the unique gifts of each individual in mind, heart, body, and spirit. The community celebrated diversity, recognized God's presence in people and in all of creation, and hoped student s recognized what it meant to be human in a global community and respond with integrity 29 http://www.sandomenico.org/page.cfm?p=2463/ accessed November 20, 2012. 30 Ibid.

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325 to the needs and challenges of our time. 31 With this mission, vision and values in mind, as a foundation for the greening trends at the school, it will become apparent t hat the commitment to sustainability. One of the best ways to get an overview of the vast array of greening trends unfolding in the San Domenico community is to reference a newspaper article that appeared in The Marin Independent Journal in February 2012. The article was written by David Behrs who is the head of the San Domenico School. In it, Behrs revealed that his own childhood was filled with experiences that shaped h conscious These experiences rang ed from being outside with his Boy S cout troop, picking up road side trash in high school with a girl he had a crush on, recycling aluminum cans as a part of his high school science club and noting th at his own father might have been influenced by what I am referencing as quasi religion. For example, and live the simple life potentially living off the land and become on e (Behrs 2012). Behrs thus reflected that his own commitment to ecological literacy was shaped early in his life. Today, Behrs believes that developing eco literate students is one of his most important roles as an educator. Behrs explained (Behrs 2012). Eco literate students need to acquire critical thinking skills through analysis, individual and groups problem solving and planning and they need to acquire the ability to take 31 Ibid.

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326 action to improve the environment and communit not only in accord with many of the ESD goals (collaborative learning, local commitment, problem solving skills) but he was also involved in developing innovative curriculums that inspired students to be informed community citizens on green issues. The students learned to be change agents in building a better world and a healthier planet which is precisely the kind of cultural change that is so exciting to note as we identify the new kinds of cultural production and education reform that was evident In a more careful examination of the San Domenico community it was possible to obse rve more specific greening trends both inside and outside the classroom. A unique characteristic of the curriculum at this school, however, we that it was shaped by its four Eco literacy goals which were each tied to a specific Dominican value or teaching. The first Eco natural systems and their connection to them from a social, spiritual, cultural, and health perspective. 32 This goal was tied to the Dominican pillar of study that was implemented in the classroom by approaching issues and situations from a systems perspective which involved understanding the fundamental ecologic al principles, thinking critically, solving problems creatively, and applying knowledge and actions. It also involved assessing the impacts and ethical effects of human technologies and actions, as well as envisioning the long de cisions. These goals not only comported with ESD goals, but they also resonated 32 Ecoliteracy Goals at San Domenico: http://www.sandomenico.org/page.cfm?p=2711 accessed January 28, 2012.

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327 strongly with the very suggestions that David Orr has made about the necessary changes to education if the goal was to create a more ecoliterate citizenry. The second goal was to provide students with a sense of place. This goal aimed to provide students the time and space to work and learn outdoors, allowing them to develop reverence, respect, stewardship for the land, and a sense of place at San Domenico, and in the natural wo rld. This goal was tied specifically to the Dominican ourselves and in all of creation 33 It was implemented by teaching students to feel concern, empathy, and res pect for other people and living things, experience wonder and awe toward nature, revere the Earth and all living things, feel a strong bond with and deep appreciation of place, and to feel kinship with the natural world and invoke that feeling in others. This goal had clear connections to bioregional thought and to aspects of DGR, which emphasizes the metaphysics of interconnection and includes a reverence and awe of the natural world. and students were taught to think critically, analytically, and contextually using real life, hands on, integrated projects to solve real world problems and understand concepts. 34 The school ognize what it means to be human in a global community and respond with integrity to the needs and challenge s implemented by creating and using tools, objects, and 33 Ecoliteracy Goals at San Domenico: http://www.sandomenico.org/page.cfm?p=2711 accessed January 28, 2012. 34 Ecoliteracy Goals at San Domenico: at http://www.sandomenico.org/page.cfm?p=2711 accessed January 28, 2012.

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328 procedures required by sustainable communities, learning to t urn convictions into practical and effective action, and assess and adjust uses of energy and resources. meant that San Domenico worked to create a learning environment which hono red the importance of, and deep desire in children for ritual and celebration, in order to better understand and feel connected to the sacred in nature and in their community. They e and develop the unique gifts of each individual in mind, heart, body, and spirit This goal for all people, seeing from and appreciating multiple perspectives and wo rking with and value others with different backgrounds, motivations, and intentions. 35 These ecoliteracy goals and the connections to the Dominican faith tradition, not only revealed many connections to ESD, but they also revealed strong evidence that natu re based parareligion was also present in the San Domenico community. Prior to looking more closely at some of the greening trends and the role of religion in the classroom at San Domenico, it was interesting that ecoliteracy was such a priority at this s chool that in Feb. 2011 the entire faculty participated in an ecoliteracy retreat. This faculty retreat helped teachers imagine how these goals would be mapping and vision planning 36 During the retreat the faculty broke into different groups that considered how students could impact their world and become part of the 35 Ecoliteracy G oals at San Domenico: Creating C ommunit y Through C elebration at http://www.sandomenico.org/page.cfm?p= 2711 accessed January 28, 2012. 36 at http://www.sandomenico.org/cf_news/view.cfm?newsid=114 accessed January 28, 2012.

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329 solution. Furthermore, they were asked to consider the importance of teaching compassion and the connection between nature and spirituality. Faculty also contemplated the notion that relationships were at the core of nature and were asked to place an emphasis on action, inquiry, and problem solving type curriculum. The goal was to continue refining the themes that pioneer eco literacy and identify areas that could be strengthened. This was not only an extremely overt example of how religion was being intertwined with sustainability trends, but the fact that time was set aside for the faculty to work together on these goals (rather than just having the administration state them without time to imagine how they might be implemented) demonstrated how important the administration felt it was to bring these ideas and practices into the San Domenico community. It w as clear that sustainability and religion were a significant part of San w at Mercy High S chool there were particular classes in the high school curriculum that offered evidence for this relationship too. San Domenico, for example, offers several courses that included aspects of social sustainability. 37 O ne of these courses was titled Social Justice where current social justice topics were studied through the lens of Catholic Social Teaching and the United Nations Declarati on of Human Rights. At the beginning of the course students studied the foundational principles of human dignity, solidarity, the common good, and the proper role of government. Then, the course focused on selected issues, such as the 37 2014 Cours http://www.sandomenico.org/uploaded/downloads/Upper/2013 14CourseCatalog.pdf p.26 for a nother ainability in the classroom San Domenico offers a religion course titled Ethics: Gender Inequality and Violence Against Women is a study of this ervasive human rights violations and teaches about the oppression of girls and women worldwide. S tudents as Gloria Steinem, Elaine Pagels, Carol Gilligan, and Cheryl WuDunn.

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330 food system, the wor developing world, in more depth during the latter part of the course. 38 This class not only drew upon Catholicism in its teachings, but it had clear connections to ESD with both content and skills as s tudents worked on real world problem solving, worked collaboratively and engaged with local examples of these social justice issues in their community which sometimes had environmental impacts as exemplified by the food topic in this curriculum. A second e xample of how sustainability and religion were incorporated into the classroom was in the AP environmental science class. This class was taught in an interdisciplinary fashion, included hands on labs, fieldtrips and requires collaborative presentations and independent research. The course taught students that environmental science included dynamic subject matter that was constantly evolving along with the changes that unfold in regard to scientific understanding, technological advances, and the resulting p olitical shifts. Students used geology, ecology, basic chemistry, and Earth science to investigate the Earth's resources thematically (energy, water, air, soil/land, forests, wildlife/wilderness), their management, issues caused by waste and human populati on pressures. The class asked students to explore foundational concepts and the interconnections between many of the problems as well as think about solutions. This again revealed connections with ESD goals and curriculum and also suggested hints of natura listic parareligion because it recognized and appreciated the complexities of the natural world and placed an emphasis on the challenges and included optimism about potential solutions. This suggested an 38 http://www.sandomenico.org/uploaded/downloads/Upper/sandomenico2012 13courseshs.pdf accessed January 23, 2012. P.25.

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331 attentiveness to the ethical dimension of human and earth relationships that need attention in the modern 21st century world. 39 curriculum, which demonstrated greening trends inside the classroom, there were many aspects of daily coup), beehives, and service learning program offer students many ways to engage sustainability o utside the classroom. First, the various clubs at San Domenico offered insights into the overlap of ethics, religion and sustainability outside the classroom. The collaboration sk ills and dealt with topics that were not only related to different aspects of sustainability, but that also had a clear ethical dimension. This club, which had students participating in larger regional conferences each year, therefore offered students oppo rtunities to prepare and present debates about containing the spread of contagious diseases, empowering women in the Middle East, increasing access to much needed healthcare in Africa, and responding to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. 40 Other clubs t hat included aspects of sustainability were the Social Justice Club needs and spread awareness. Student members maintained several Kiva microcredit loans to empower women a round the globe, coordinated a campus wide annual hunger 39 http://www.sandomenico.org/uploaded/downloads/Upper/sandomenico2012 13courseshs.pdf accessed January 25, 2012. p.29 40 http://www.sandomenico.org/page.cfm?p=2182/ accessed December 1, 2012.

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332 banquet, host speaker and film events, and publish the monthly Aeqvitas newsletter on social and economic just ice, the club also partnered with an array of local organizations and one of these included the group called Teens Turning Green, which allowed them to focus on ecological justice as well. 41 Similarly, the Green Team worked on increasing awareness and par ticipation in sustainable practices on the San Domenico campus with an emphasis on ecological sustainability. 42 Members helped out in the school's organic Garden of Hope, worked on projects that helped improve the cleaning products used on campus to help k eep the staff, students, and environment healthy and every year this group was integral in the This conference occurred either in the fall or they planned an Earth Day Summit in the spring. This con ference related to sustainability. The Garden of Hope offered one of the most overt examples of how sustainability and religion were inextricably intertwined on San D Hope was not only a sacred place, but it was also a place of learning for students and it served as a model of sustainability for a larger community than just the school itself. As Sanford argued, one possible approach to un derstanding agricultures possible contributions to conversations about sustainability is understanding that agriculture is 41 Ibid. 42 Ibid.

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333 inherently relational and dialectical because it is, by definition, human manipulation of the earth to produce food. As Sanford discu ssed, a garden is a dialogue between gardener and earth, both parties have a sort of agency, the dialogue is not static, but continuously shifting according to human and nonhuman circumstances (Sanford 2012: 12). In fact, this garden was such an innovati ve example of what schools can do with their sustainability efforts that it has been featured in articles in the Marin Independent Journal, The Marin Magazine, Red Oribit, Terra Magazine and a magazine called Fast Forward. The garden was one acre and the plants were planted, tended and harvested by students. Produce included vegetables, berries (raspberry and blackberries), fruit trees, plants for butterflies and hummingbirds, and herbs. Students used the garden produce for projects and for learned how to also used the produce in lunches. Also, there was an outdoor kitchen in the garden which included a pizza over, stove top, sink, tile floor and this served as a laboratory. This garden exemplified the point of the garden and the lessons taught from it stem from a belief that involving students in the life cycle of the food they eat (from the garden to their table) helped them gain a deeper understanding of from where their food comes. It taught them important information about nutrition and about aspects of sustainable agriculture. 43 The garden also allowed for interdisciplinary teaching and students often drew upon history, 43 http://www.sand omenico.org/cf_news/view.cfm?newsid=25 accessed January 29, 2012. This compost project spreads horse manure on all of the landscaping and the Garden of Hope. This is part of San Domenico's own compost pilot project, generated from the hor se manure at the Riding Stables. Their on campus composting program is a responsible en vironmental business practice that helps the school minimize waste and has helped the school generate an economic savings of over $750

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334 art, math, science and religiou s studies in projects that related to food and this space. Other NAIS schools have gardens like this, but this one operates on a much larger projects. The significance of this garden (and others like it) is that it demonstrates how schools can educate for sustainability not only by what they teach in class, but also how they serve as models of sustainability. In this case, the garden is redirecting the drift toward central ization, industrialization standardization and globalization and moving conscious toward diversification, human scale systems, biological and cultural diversity and community based economics (Barlow and Stone 2005: 233) The religious component to this gar den was also important because it not only had direct connections to Catholicism, but it had a connection to parareligion as well. The ss these critical issues of our time in concrete ways people cared for our Earth and develop right relationships with all living things, then children and grandchildren w ould have a healthy place to live. The school believed that the Garden of Hope and its environment were an important focal point on campus for nurturing that message. 44 Another explicit way that the garden was connected to Catholicism was that students we Book of Genesis, Adam (whose name means clay), was sculpted out of the soil of the 44 http://www.sandomenico.org/page.cfm?p=2541/ accessed December 12, 2012.

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335 earth an d awoke with the breath of life She explained that this story spoke to the San Domenico community and offered a commonality between the school and the entire elaborate d that the molecules that make up our bodies originate in the earth, then plants draw them up from the soil and people then make bread with those plants. In the course of a meal people take in these same molecules to form their own bodies. 45 The students were therefore asked to reflect in this Garden of Hope about the spirit in all things. In addition to this overtly religious connection to Catholicism, there may be parareligious elements as well. This was exemplified in a quotation by Richard Louv found Passion is lifted from the earth itself by the muddy hands of the young; it travels along grass st and spiritual in their hearts which suggested a deep sense of kinship between humans and the natural world. Sustainability efforts around food and a religious dimension to t hem not only campus outreach efforts as well. Members of the San Domenico community, for example, were chosen (and participated) in the Eco Top Chef Marin Competition. Students w ere chosen based on the content of their application and specific interest in food justice and sustainability and they went on field trips to a local farm, a local 45 Middle Sc http://www.sandomenico.org/page.cf m?p=2857 accessed December 28, 2012.

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336 competiti on included preparing a three part meal around one secret ingredient that was for cost. 46 This exemplified the widespread nature of food, sustainability and its ethical dimension throughout the daily life of the San Domenico community. The physical structure of San Domenico also reflected a commitment to program. In 2009 San Domenico became the leading school in Marin County in terms of its efforts to save energy with its installation of solar panels on the roofs of several of its buildings on campus. As the former head of school explained, We are excited to be running our school on el ectricity generated at our involved in making sustainable lifestyle choices at home and in the community, we look forward to continuing their education in eco responsibility and, ov erall, in a sustainable environment. 47 Development, Sheldon Kimber, stated "their commitment to this project has been inspiring and they set a high bar for schools across the country t 48 The campus, moreover, had an extensive recycling program that included cardboard, paper, plastic, glass, aluminum and technology equipment which demonstrated the multilateral 46 http://www.sandomenico.org/page.cfm?p=2547 / accessed December 6, 2012. 47 Largest School Solar I nstallation in Marin County http://www.sandomenico.org/page.cfm?p=2538 accessed December 28, 2012. 48 http:// www.sandomenico.org/page.cfm?p=2537 / accessed November 30, 2012.

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337 approach that this community was taking to its commitment to sustain ability both inside and outside the classroom. 49 One of the last ways that greening trends are unfolding in the San Domenico community was in its local and international outreach efforts. Some of the best examples of local outreach efforts involving susta participation in the EcoFair in Marin county and the grassroots Cool the Earth programs. Flint, not only spoke on a panel at this confer program, but she handed out sachets of lavender from the Garden of Hope. Also, many commitment to sustainab ility by describing the campus r ainwater catchment system and its work with through beehive installation, which was done to help restore colony collapse disorder. Second, students participated each April in the grass roots program called Cool the Earth, which motivated students to act in ways that reduce their carbon footprint. These two local commitments to engage in the community have particular significance because these projects both contained hints of parareligion. The honey bee project, for example, used bees because they were inte resting to study for information about innovation. The project managers argued that there was much to be learned by observing the social behavior of honeybees. Some believe, moreover, that the honey from bees is a way cure different ailments such as respir atory problems, sore throat, cough, cold and even diabetic ulcers. Bees were seen as both fascinating and 49 Ibid.

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338 significant in terms of their role in nature which suggested they had utilitarian, scientific, and aesthetic value according to the biophilia analysis about why nature is valuable. Also, the Cool The Earth website quoted John Muir, one of the founding fathers of DGR which suggests a loyalty or allegiance to this particular saint. The quotation stated: Climb the mountains and get their good tidings. Na ture's peace will flow into you as sunshine flows into trees. The winds will blow their own freshness into you, and the storms their energy, while cares will drop off like autumn leaves. 50 This organization not only quotes one of the founding fathers of D GR, but aims to suggesting that such actions are worth protecting. In addition to local outreach efforts that illustra sustainability in the local community there are international examples as well. Two San Domenico students, for example, represented the United States in China as winners of Qing. They made a video about low carbon l iving and wrote an essay. They were then flown to Chong Qing for a week and toured and learned about energy saving and emission reduction as part of this cultural exchange. The hope was that there would be greater int ernational collaboration among students caring about sustainability issues around the globe in the future. 51 In a s imilar effort to generate cross cultural opportunities underway around sustainability issues, the sch ool sent three juniors to the 50 uture http://www.sandomenico.org/cf_news/view.cfm?newsid=122 accessed December 4, 2012. 51 http://www.sandomenico.org/cf_news/view.cfm?newsid=157/ acce ssed December 3, 2012.

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339 World Parliament of Religions conference in Australia in 2009. These students joined Difference Hearing each other, Healing the Earth The rationale behind sending the critical issues of our times." The school hoped that these students could be among future leaders who would continue to gather and work inter religious understanding and cooperation at this large international event. 52 San Domenico is clearly a leader among NAIS schools in the work it has done to make its entire community committed to sustainability and the examples above are not exhaustive of all the ways that the school is working to be green, or of the ways in which religion was inspiring these efforts. It has, however, been demonstrated that inside and outside the classroom, in the physical structures, in the profession development opportunities, in the local and international outreach efforts that San Domencio is a school that has taken sustainability seriously since 19 94. There is little doubt, moreover, that the Dominican heritage significantly influenced the rationale behind this commitment to sustainability nor that new cultural production is underway. As the school articulated its rationale for taking students to th e change both in terms of how it is educating students and in how it is modeling wha t is 52 http://www.sandomenico.org/page.cfm?p=1766/ accessed December 19, 2012.

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340 possible in terms of sustainability for other schools. There are, however, across the country, other examples of Catholic Schools becoming more sustainable as well. Newton Country Day School: Boston, MA Newton Country Day School was founded in 1880 and is an Independent, college preparatory school for girls. It enrolls girls from 5th through 12th grades and it is strongly rooted in the Roman Catholic tradition. As the school promotional material explained, the origins of the school can be traced bac k to 1879. The story is that a Mother Superior Archbishop John Williams that a Sacred Heart School for girls would flourish in the city. Thus, on April 5, 1880, the inaugural class (which included eight girls) was welcomed to a school located in the South End of Boston. Over the next 46 years in which the school was in this particular location it became the center of many cultural and outreach programs. These outreach program s included hosting famous writers, scientists, historians, and artists from around the globe who came to give guest lectures. Alumnae also gathered to transcribe books into Braille, to raise funds for ambulances needed in World War I, and to make garments the church during these decades. Also, during the early There were also language classes, sewing classes and religion classes offered for immigrants and their families The school, however, like many other early private schools, had outgrown its original facilities by the 1920 s so in 1925 they relocated to a 53 53 http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/606709/ISvars/default/Our_History.htm/ accessed August 15, 2012.

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341 ably to the vision set forth in the goals of Sacred Heart Schools. Newton Country Day has a distinctive identity of its own, but it is united in spirit and purpose with the larger international community of Schools that are a part of the Sacred Heart netwo rk. This network includes twenty two full member schools in the United States, but there is also a network of Sacred Heart schools in forty one countries around the world. The international character of Sacred Heart education helps foster an important glob al world. The Network provides a means for mutual support and development among the schools and the schools within it share the intellectual, spiritual and other resourc es that help further the mission of the Society of the Sacred Heart. 54 Particularly relevant to this project is that all Sacred Heart schools believe in educating the whole child, and in preparing students to live fully and wisely. This goal is very much aligned with other NAIS schools and the mission of ESD. At the core of the Sacred Heart education are Five Goals which are principles that express the intentions year tradition. The five goals, include a commitment to educa te to a personal and active faith in God, to educate to a deep respect for intellectual values, to educate to a social awareness which impels to action, to build community as a Christian value, and to educate about personal growth in an atmosphere of wise freedom. 55 54 http://sofie.org/about us/history/ accessed July 16, 2012. 55 http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/606709 /ISvars/default/Our_History.htm/ accessed August 15, 2012.

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342 The school used these goals whether planning a community service project, tackling an academic challenge, or supporting one another. Newton students and faculty, thus framed their choices and actions in accordance with the Five Goals. When faced with challenges, the goals provided the language and focus to understand and prevail. These goals got incorporated into each Sacred Heart school community and the hope of Newton Country Day School was not only that students measured their actions in the l ight of the Five Goals, but also that they kept doing this over time so this practice internal well of wisdom and strength from which they draw throughout their lives 56 I t was clear, therefore, that not only was Newton Country day very intentionally cultivating a global citizenry, but that they were emphasizing, through their religious ong term. This resonated strongly with the ESD vision of teaching skills and values that will be part of long term solutions. This is, however, just the first example of how religion was going to inform aspects of what was unfolding on this campus. Under standing philosophy, culture, everyday life on campus, and sustainability trends. Also, as this particular case study progresses, examples provided will reflect a more holist ic view of sustainability, rather than a more specific focus on environmental sustainability as this was not a strong priority for this particular school. The presence of a naturalistic parareligous variable is also no more than a mere on this particular campus either. 56 http://www.newtoncountr yday.org/RelId/606746/ISvars/default/Goals_and_Criteria_of_Sacred_Heart_Sch ools.htm/ accessed November 3, 2012.

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343 The mission statement of the school reflected the trend of other NAIS schools to the school and in the world and to promote the hope, zeal, compassion and commitment necessary to 57 The mission also concluded with strong value laden claims. The aim of the school was to help form balanced and sel f assured women who possess the courage and confidence to respond generously, competently, and responsibly to the demands of their lives and to the needs of the world 58 Guided by this mission, the vision of the school the school tried to help students exp transformative power of God's love for each of them and make them secure in that 59 The role of religion cannot be ignored in the sustainability trends on campus, especially because the Catholic religious influence was one that the school drew upon to help students develop a deep and enduring capacity for scholarly engagement and social justice. In the ways that sustainability was being addressed in this community (and other Sacred Heart Secondary Schools as well) Catholicism was be ing used to help create build just and enriching relationships in a diverse community, but these were not emerging in a Leopoldian fashion The vision that was present throughout the community and most clearly articulated by Sister Barbara Rogers, the He admistresses, 57 http://www.newtoncou ntryday.org/RelId/606743/ISvars/default/Mission_Statement.htm/ accessed October 5, 2012. 58 Ibid. 59 http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/606425/ISvars/default/ABOUT_NEWTON.htm/ accessed October 11, 2012.

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344 in a response to a question about the vision she had for the graduates of the school included the following: What is the hope for each of our graduates? It is that each one is thoroughly convinced that she is loved by God lavishly and complet ely. That experience is so foundational to her being that she acts with boldness and passion to foster and be a model of generosity, fidelity and good works. Using the marvelous gifts showered on her she makes the kingdom of God present though her relation ships, civic and work commitments. 60 Newton Country Day, therefore, embraced the differences in the community and celebrated the fundamental unity of the human family and the dignity of the human person. The school educated students to have an awareness of economic, political, and social problems. Students were also made aware of their responsibility to work for a more just and peaceful world in both the classroom and through programs in community service which was precisely in line with ESD goals, but in t his community, the drive to fulfill that particular mission was clearly informed by its Catholic roots. 61 In a closer examination of the spiritual life at Newton Country Day it is noteworthy that it does, indeed, more strongly affirm the Roman Catholic tra dition than the two previous schools. Like all Sacred Heart schools, and made clear by the mission statement, they did also welcome students and faculty of all faiths. This belief was motivated by Madeleine Sophie Barat who founded the Society of the Sacr ed Heart. She recognized that in the midst of change only one reality remains constant: that each person is loved by God. It was her dream that schools be founded throughout the world 60 http:// www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/606749/ISvars/default/Headmistress_Monthly_Letter.htm/ accessed October 12, 2012. 61 http://www.newtonco untryday.org/RelId/606743/ISvars/default/Mission_Statement.htm/ accessed October 5, 2012.

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345 that would ground girls in certainty and provide them with a rigorous pr ogram of study and thus her vision was for the religious education of the Sacred He art schools to foster 62 The ways that spiritual or religious life unfolded on campus included many different opportunities to practice or engage with religion at varying levels. Each week for example, students gathered in the chapel for a prayer service. The liturgies for these services, written reflections and prayers, music selections were all done by students. Also, students led the prayers. The school hoped that through this particip atory process 63 The larger school community also came together for Mass on holy days and special feasts throughout the year, either in the chapel or in the Trinity Chapel at Boston College. Masses were p lanned by Campus Ministers and students, including Eucharistic Ministers, and featured the gifts of many of our singers, dancers, and readers. The whole school community also contributed to the Advent Vespers service, a culmination of fall efforts in music dance, and oratory in a solemn, sacred observance and celebration of the Advent season. 64 The value of community, the encouragement to engage in personal prayer and public worship, a strong emphasis on ethics, and 62 http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/606446/ISv ars/default/SPIRITUAL_LIFE.htm/ accessed October 3, 2012. 63 http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/607467/ISvars/default/Liturgies.htm/ accessed Octob er 4, 2012. 64 Ibid.

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346 community service were some of the ways t personal relationship with God. This was significant because it not only demonstrated also that the commitment to this evolving tra dition (Catholicism) and its values informed some of the sustainability trends on campus as well. Similar to other NAIS schools, some of the sustainability trends at Newton Country Day were found inside the classrooms. An overt example of this was seen in service opportunities, included in the discussion about sustainability trends unfolding injustice. It also wanted them to make commitments to the service of others by weaving social justice issues into the curriculum at every grade level and throughout the different disciplines. The social justice component was clearly much more prevalent in this curriculum. Its three major goals were to explore the theological and spiritual tradi tions of Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism; to appreciate and respect diversity and religious pluralism; and to identify intelligent questions about faith in each tradition. 65 The social justice theme (or social sustainability) was even more prevalent in a cour se titled present day society and the response to Christ's call to build the kingdom of God. They did this through an examination of current events, journalism, contemporary th eological 65 http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/606888/ISvars/default/Upper_School.htm/ accessed October 10, 2012.

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347 writing, and social theory and the aim of the course is to awaken a critical awareness of the place of religion in contemporary society. The social justice elements were present in the reading material and units, but this course also included a 4 0 hour community service requirement which must be completed between the end of 10th Grade and the end of 11th Grade. In addition to the religious studies courses, that had little evidence of the environment plank in ESD, there were other humanities cours es that helped facilitate for example, included both interdisciplinary and experiential pedagogical methods. The class took field trips, encouraged students to refle ct on knowledge about world events course ultimately required students to develop an understanding of human rights issues through research, discussion, written and oral p resentation, and debates. Newton recognized that rights have often been clearly defined in the ideal, but rarely achieved in reality. The class, therefore, builds on student interest and used contemporary world events to help students gain self confidenc e about their role in the world. This confidence arose from specific research, exploring case studies in depth, utilizing information from various media sources, analyzing events, and presenting information to their classmates and sometimes to the larger s chool community, and there was evidence that students sometimes chose environmentally related topics for this course as part of their personal research endeavors. 66 66 Ibid.

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3 48 The science curriculum at Newton Country Day reflected the schools incorporation of sustainability goals in terms of content, pedagogy, and its goals in the biology, chemistry, physics, anatomy and physiology, and environmental studies classes. In the environmental science class, for example, students focused on the relationships among l iving things and the Earth. They were introduced to the concepts of ecosystems, natural cycles, resource allocation and usage, and human impact on natural systems. They explored these concepts through case studies, laboratory investigations, fieldwork, and projects. They were encouraged to explore and propose solutions for environmental issues in their home community, their state, their country, and around the world. The school also offered Advanced Placement courses in biology, chemistry and environmental science that focused more on independent learning, field and laboratory techniques of data collection and analysis which deepens students understanding of the laws of the universe, the human body, biochemical systems, ecosystems and they explore remediati on strategies. 67 There was, however, little evidence of the greening of science phenomenon going on in these courses. In addition to the religious studies, humanities and science courses, nascent hints of sustainability were being taught or modeled in Newt implications because the modern learning experience has been transformed by new technologies. Like other schools, Newton was early to embrace L earning with Laptops for its Upper School students and the school was well into its second decade as a 67 School Academics : Science http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/606909/ISvars/default/Upper_School_Curriculum.htm accessed October 6, 2012.

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349 school that supports laptops and other online technologies. At Newton students and faculty utilized technology across the curriculum to explore new world s. It was not uncommon for students to use their laptops across the disciplines, to organize and analyze data, to create or manipulate images, and to work collaboratively and even with students across the world on projects. What was significant about this at Newton was School guided this agenda because it worked to shape leaders who had wisdom, i ntegrity, and perspective. 68 Since technology is an issue that environmentalists concern themselves with (in terms of e waste or the mining of the resources used in semi conductors or computer chips) it was interesting to think about the future of this kin use of technology. during the senior year. Not every project could be said to have component s of ESD, but some could. All students for example, assemble d a portfolio of interdisciplinary wr iting samples drawn from their upper s chool coursework. The purpose of the portfolio was not simply to assess students on the quality of their writing, but r ather to assess their sense of themselves as developing writers. The significance of this Independent Study Project and its connection to religion and sustainability trends is multifaceted. First, it demonstrated that Newton did not confine learning to a c lassroom, but saw learning as 68 Upper School http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/606431/ISvars/default/ACADEMICS.htm accessed October 6, 2012.

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350 an ongoing process. This vision of education comported with the definition of sustainability itself which takes the long view or perspective. The Senior Project actually began in 1972 and was designed to help the students to help students critically think, reflect on experiences outside the classroom, gain responsibility and broader their relationships. As part of this project students had to do an internship during their senior in many different professional arenas such as medical laboratories, hospitals, dental practices, schools, social service agencies, radio and television stations, business enterprises, legal firms, at zoos, and for professional sports teams. This kind of real world experience was precisely the kind of application that ESD aimed to teach so that all students are ready for the complex, changing world in which they must engage. Finally, the intent of this project was designed with that sense of responsibility and ethics to do something with their education which was rooted in the very theological foundations of the Catholic tradition that informed the larger ethos of the school. This project thus exemplified the significant way that religion, sustainability, e arenas. I would argue that with an increased set of opportunities for students in the environmental career fields, this project could even be enhanced if the goal was to better embody the principles of ESD more intentionally. 69 In order to demonstrate some of the ways that these Independent senior projects could bring all of these converging variables together and to better understand how 69 http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/606912/ISvars/default/Senior_Independent_Study.htm/ accessed October 12, 2012.

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351 deeply engaged a student might go with fu rther understanding sustainability issues, citizens it is possible to explore one of the particular projects. Reflecting back on his project, a senior who graduated in 2009, wrote about his experiences in an essay titled development and community development in rapidly evolving India. The student region is Tibetan Buddhism. It is located over 11,000 feet in the Himalayas it has remained relatively untouched for centuries. On this trip he learned about and participated in local, small scale initiatives that offer sustainable alternatives to enormous, centralized projects. He also chose to take a deep look at Buddhism and its teachings on environmental ethics as a part of this project too During his time in Ladakh he spent time in the town of Phey at a board ing school exams, which were necessary to pursue higher education. Students were not aware of the availability of imported textbooks from Delhi and Britain. The student explained that 70 He was able to experience, firsthand, the effects development can have on the environment and culture and the great benefits it can bring to a community. 70 Pulaski M. http://www.newtoncountryday.org/default.aspx?RelID=609658&issearch=sustainability/ accessed October 11, 2012.

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352 Another example of a senior project that reflected a convergence of sustainability, religion, and education, was the work of several seniors who learned Sprout Creek Farm. 71 Sprout Creek Farm is a working farm that also serves as an educational center. They sell the meats and chees es they produce, but they also work and thus encourage responsibility for the future of our environment 72 Interestingly, the ms in spiritual development, using the agricultural resources of the farm as both an important place to teach and they saw the farm as a kind of sanctuary with resources there to discuss both nature and spiritual issues. This senior project therefore reson ated with some of the intentional decisions the intentional living model which suggested to me that it is not simply one isolated group of Catholics pushing the boundaries of what traditionally has been understood as Catholicism. In addition to what was happening inside the classroom walls, environmental, classroom too. Manifestations of sustainability education come in the form of extracurricular activities, school projects, retreats, class trips and some campus operations. First, similar to many other NAIS schools, there were many different clubs or extracurricular opportunities availabl e to students and the kinds of activities offered are 71 http://www.newtoncountryday.org/default.aspx?RelID=610050&issearch=sustainability/ accessed November 14, 2012. 72 http://www.sproutcreekfarm.org/ accessed December 1, 2012.

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353 commitment to social sustainabi lity include Amnesty International, Bread for the World, Campus Ministry, Model UN, the Service Committee, the Economics Committee and the Environmental Education committee. organiza tion. The students worked to raise awareness in the community about human rights abuses, participate in local and state wide actions, and attend regional conferences. Social sustainability was also reflected in the Bread for the World which is a larger, no n profit organization that is comprised of a at home and abroad. By changing policies, programs and conditions that allow hunger and poverty to persist, we provide help and oppor tunity far beyond communities where we live. 73 The Campus Ministry group, who coordinated weekly chapel services, liturgies, and retreats were also involved in bringing awareness to the community about social justice topics and the Model UN group included students who worked on solutions to global problems and served as delegates to conferences where students from around the world simulated the workings of the actual United Nations. Members of the committee attended several conferences every year, including Harvard Model UN in December and Boston Model UN in February. In 2013, the group was planning a trip to the UN Building in New York City. Finally, the Service Committee offered students 73 http://www.bread.org/ accessed January 3, 2013.

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354 opportunities to volunteer their time and talents, as well as to educ ate the school about social issues, such as hunger and homelessness. 74 The participants and achievements of the model UN club provided a particularly relevant example of how this extracurricular activity engages students in the Newton community with import ant aspects of sustainability and global citizenry. The Newton Country Day Model United Nations team went to the Boston Model United Nation (BosMUN) and actually set new school records on many levels. The February 2008 delegation broke participation and el ite committee selection records set earlier at the 2007 Yale and BosMUN Conferences, respectively. A record 44 students attended the seventh annual international conference, a three day collaborative event sponsored by MIT and Boston University. Sixteen me mbers were selected to Crisis Committees and Specialized Agencies. 75 Students were thus gaining knowledge about real world issues, learning skills related to diplomacy and conflict resolution and collaborati vely engaging in the larger world. There is an element of economic justice in social sustainability issues so some of the groups mentioned above also dealt indirectly with poverty and financial inequities, but this aspect of sustainability was more directly addressed in the Economics Committee. This ex tracurricular opportunity enabled students to participate in the major on experience. Students operated a snack bar for profit; learned about the impact of 74 http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/607663/ISvars/default/Extracurriculars_and_Committees.htm/ accessed October 3, 2012. 75 http://www.newtoncountryday.org/default.aspx?RelID=609310&issearch=sustainable/ accessed November 13, 2012.

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355 natural disasters on the world economy and how the world economy affected local areas. They studied how corporations work, learned about the stock market and created business plans for new products, but they did all of this in the context of the larger sion. This particular opportunity to engage aspects of economic sustainability, however, was somewhat distinctive to Newton in the sense that it was not found on many other NAIS school campuses. 76 I did not find any evidence of topics like full cost accoun ting or other considerations that might have moved this group outside of the dominant, capitalistic paradigm though. Finally, similar to many NAIS schools environmental sustainability was exemplified in the work of the Environmental Education Committee. This extracurricular opportunity enabled students to serve as leaders in the school community. The committee, like other environmental groups, promoted environmental action through both awareness and conservation. Students organize environmentally themed f ield trips and they oversaw the Upper School recycling efforts. Part of their work was to gather and post current statistics and information concerning local and world events. They also sought out local community events, advertised them, and encouraged oth ers to participate in them too, which is evidence of engagement in the local community outside of the campus. 77 In addition to the specific course work engaging students in the classroom or the extracurricul ar activities in which students chose to particip ate there were class trips and retreat opportunities at Newton Country Day which also introduced aspects of 76 and Committees : Environmental Education Committee http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/607663/ISvars/default/Extracurriculars_and_Committees.htm/ accessed October 3, 2012. 77 Ibid

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356 sustainability to students. The class of 2012, for example, took a trip to (as all 9th graders have done for the past 13 years) to a 400 acre penin sula to a place calle d the Chewonki in Montweag Bay MA Chewonki Chewonki three day program was to bring participants to a new plac e so that they could be inwardly challenge to grow individually. The goal was to cultivate self responsibility and to work on developing trust with their peers. This particular retreat became significant to this project because another goal of the retreat was to engage the natural world and to develop a new respect for sustainable practices and preservation. The goals of the trip were thus to build self confidence, community, and a greater understanding and appreciation of the interrelationships that exis t between humans and nature. 78 This trip and the emphasis on both understanding and appreciating the natural world and the kinds of self growth in the outdoors that were being intentionally cultivated resonated strongly with aspects of naturalistic pararel igion. There i s a strong resonance here with deep e about the expanded Self and also a kind of reverence or woo being cultivated as students were asked to consider the awe inspiring surroundings of this particular place. It might even be argu ed that there is a hint of bioregionalism because this particular understand their local bioregion. It may also be significant that the school chooses to emphasize the me 78 http://www.newtoncountryday.org/default.aspx?RelID=609814&issearch=sustainability/ accessed December 8, 2012.

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357 significance because noting this suggested the school recognized that there is value in the local, indigenous knowledge of the Penobscot people and of the place which they once inhabited for these 9th graders, and their experiences together in that particular location. 79 holistic sustainability were being woven into community life in a wide variety of ways. One of the more interesting examples of this effort was exemplified in their community service projects and social justice work because it reflects the closing of the gap between values and practices that sometimes prevails in communities that establish strong e thical visions, but then fail to act accordingly. The commitment to service at Newton Country Day to those in need was woven into the fabric of the school and this throughout The students developed a strong sense of their own power to make positive change and the school believed that students had much to learn from those they served. The school al active service to others in the school and beyond. 80 One final example an effort to connect all aspect of sustainability into school life is exemplified in a class project that Newton students have participated in called The Food Project The Food Project involved a local agricultural and educational 79 http://www.native languages.org/penobscot.htm accessed December 8, 2012 for more information. 80 at http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/632405/ISvars/default/Hesed_Program.htm accessed December elated to engaged community service.

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358 organization. The farm included 31 acres devoted to producing 25,000 pounds of organically grown food each year. The organiza tion worked with schools to create personal and social change through Sustainable Agriculture. It produced 150 varieties of vegetables and they intentionally grew the food in a way that nourishes the land (environmental) so that they could then nourish the marginalized people (social) and this then nourished the Newton community because its students were helping work on the farm (spiritual). 81 This project taught students the amount of food they could provide to those in need, and the ethical underpinnings of this kind of experiential learning are self evident. Also, students learned much about sustainability in the sense that they got to understand, first hand, how farm land gets bought up for development in the current industry and the actual value of a l ocal sustainable food system. Students were taught in parallel about the global economy and politics of food, which are important issues in any curriculum teaching about sustainability and global issues. 82 Newton Country Day provided some evidence for ways that the greening of religion is underway within this community and also provided a small amount of sustainability trends. Upon a deeper look, however, into the gui ding values of Newton there are more indicators of strong environmental values in this community and 81 http://www.newtoncountryday.org/default.aspx?RelID=609110&issearch=sustainable/ accessed October 22, 2012. 82 http://www.newtoncountryday.org/default.aspx?RelID=609521&issearch=sustainable/ accessed October 22, 2012.

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359 relationship within the larger network of Sacred Heart Schools, for e xample, was clearly exemplified through the five goals. These five goals, however, were interpreted with examination of how Newton Country interpreted them revealed a great d eal about how these interpretations guide a particular Catholic School community in a direction that is open to teaching about and practicing sustainability because of some parareligious and traditional religious beliefs provide important foundations for s ustainability. The first of the five goals for Sacred Heart schools was to commit themselves to educate to a personal and active faith in God. Newton aimed to form, in its students, the attitudes of the heart of Jesus. This attitude was expressed in the v alues of respect, compassion, forgiveness and generosity. The entire school program at Newton affirmed that there was meaning and value in life and fosters a sense of hope in the individual and in the school community. This hope was something that was very characteristic of 83 to educate about a deep respect for intellectual values. More specifically, Newton developed and implemented a curriculum based on continued educational research and it was consta ntly evaluating what the new research was saying about education. This had significant implications because it meant Newton was, indeed, intentionally incorporating the UN ESD curriculum and values into its school. It was significant then that Sacred Heart Network already has a strong relationship with the United Nations. 83 R t http://richardlouv.com/blog/APOCALYPSE NO/ accessed October 30, 2012.

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360 Sacred Heart at the UN provides resources and information about the Sacred Heart presence at the UN as a non governmental organization (NGO), associated with the Department of Public Infor mation (DPI) of the United Nations. 84 The resonating commonalities between Newton Country Day, as a Sacred Heart school, and ESD may not be that unlikely since the two networks are clearly in relationship with one another already and the top down influence of the UN might indeed be finding c ommon ground with some of the grassroots effort in this Catholic community. research, however, also suggested that the trends of NAIS related to sustainability, being introduced to Heads of school and teachers alike through professional conferences and publications, are being intentionally incorporated into the Newton embrace and model its own goal to p rovide a rigorous education that incorporated all forms of critical thinking to its students. Like other NAIS schools, Newton hoped to inspire a life long love of learning to its students which also resonated strongly with ESD goals. Finally, under this g oal, Newton aimed to develop an appreciation for aesthetic values. This kind of appreciation of the natural world is a distinctive value in naturalistic relationship to God, to self, to others, and to all creation which necessitated a kind of inclusive ethic of moral concern and evidence was seen on the 9th grade class trip and in the senior projects previously described. Thus, the embedded environmental values 84 http://sacredheartattheun.org/ accessed August 10, 2012.

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361 and appreciation f or creation and its aesthetic beauty, along with an openness to new educational research was significant in this community as these specific interpretations of this second Sacred Heart goal provide key foundational elements for much of what is necessary fo r a 21st century, global, ecological citizen to flourish. The third goal of the Schools of the Sacred Heart was that they educated to a social awareness which incited the Newton community to action. Evidence clearly showed that Newton educated about the importance of a critical consciousness that led its total community to analyze and reflect on the values of society and to act for justice and its work to instill a life long commitment to service. The religious impulse helped Newton prepare and inspire st udents to be active, informed, and responsible citizens locally, nationally, and globally. This global citizenry was then the foundation of eventually developing ecocitizens, because under this particular goal, Newton also stated that the school found it important to teach respect for all of creation and prepare The fourth goal included the building of community as a Christian value. Newton had classes, extracurricular activities and retreats that taught th e principles of nonviolence, conflict resolution, and peacemaking. Newton also made a deliberate effort to recruit students and employ faculty and staff of diverse races, ethnicities, and backgrounds. The financial aid program effectively supported socioec onomic diversity and participated in national and international networks. Again, the practical ways in which the community was modeling sustainability goals and implementing opportunities for students to learn explicitly, through engaged, experiential lear ning and by being

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362 participants in such an intentional community all suggest strong similarities with the larger ESD goals, values and curriculum vision. Finally, the fifth goal of the Sacred Heart Schools was to educate students toward personal growth in an atmosphere of wise freedom. Resonating with ESD goals, Newton School policies and practices promoted self discipline, responsible decision knowledge and developed self confidence as they learned to deal realistically with their gifts and limitations. All members of the Newton school community took personal responsibility for balance in their lives and for their health and well being which was very much an agenda with New Age groups and parareligi ous movements of the 21st century as well. 85 Sacred Heart goals and evidence of how these interpretations were articulated and implemented on its campus, that indeed, a new cultural production could be underway. Newton has cultivated an arena in which notions of global citizenry were underway and there is potential for this to someday become more along the lines with the vision of the necessary condition for the cultivation of an ecocitizen. For now, global citizens were being shaped and the role of religion was an influential factor in shaping process of these global citizens through many different aspects of influence on students generated within this community. 85 http://www.newtoncou ntryday.org/RelId/606746/ISvars/default/Goals_and_Criteria_of_Sacred_Heart_Sch ools.htm/ accessed December 9, 2012.

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363 Conclusion s About Catholic Schools Mercy High School, San Domenico, and Newton Country Day provided a small sample of Catholic schools that were teaching about and becoming more sustainable in the United States, and they offered some insights into some of the potent ial motivations for greening trends in a wider array of Independent, Catholic Schools around the nation. Although there was great diversity in each of these particular Catholic school communities it was evident that where efforts were being made to become sustainable with evidence that aspects of ESD were indeed being integrated into these communities. Also, some of the motivation s behind these trends could be linked to the Catholic values and teachings. Catholicism and aspects of parareligion were, in part inspiring the ethos behind the move toward sustainability in these communities and informed some of the teachings about and the practices of the different schools. In an attempt to summarize some of the sustainability efforts on the Catholic school campu ses several reoccurring themes that originate within the Catholic tradition their words. This could be interpreted as significant in considering the application this message has to sustainability efforts because the message is that one should not only the spirits could be nourished through the work of transforming oppressed peoples and communities. Recalling the potential connections between social justice work and environme

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364 green theology) these trends might also suggest some movement in a more sustainable direction for these schools. ences to the patron saints within the Catholic tradition who inspired the idea that humans need to live in a non destructive relationship with creation such as St. Francis or Thomas Acquinas in their liturgies on their retreats ( Warner 2010 ). These schools also drew upon the Catholic perspective that humans have a purpose in creation. Catholics were taught, in destructive relationship keeping them alive, allowing them to reproduce and to evolve (Boff 2006: 23). The use of Catholic theology in the secondary school arenas to guide and shape sustainability efforts in these communities was also reflective of a larger phenomenon in the Catholic tradition. In the National Catholic Register in 2007, an article noted the unfolding relationship between Catholicism and environmenta l issues. This article documented that Catholic activism on environmental issues has grown at the level of the diocese and in different parishes as well as within specific religious orders. The article cited different congregations greening their facilit ies, the official networks emerging among the religious clergy, the emergent pastoral letters about emissions and "We [Catholics] have to be in this debate," he said, "because if we're not, somebody else is going to define it. Mr. Grazer said he believed common cause is possible, at

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365 least on specific issues such as combating greenhouse g ases. The key, he said, is to "chunk things down," putting broader philosophical disagr eements to the side (Allen 2007: comport with some of the patterns in the larger Catho lic tradition as well. In addition to the evidence present about how the greening of Catholicism was inspiring Catholic schools to become more sustainable and how these patterns emerged both inside and outside the classroom, evidence also arose demonstrat ing how parareligion might be present on these campuses as well. There were hints of with Tr aditional Ecological Knowledge emerged in two different school communities. Religion was clearly influencing the kind of education about sustainability that students were receiving in these Catholic communities, but the presence of a naturalistic pararelig ion was not strong and the sustainability trends tended to be less extensive than what emerges in some of the forthcoming school communities. Considering the sparse evidence in these communities as a collective whole there is only a little reason for caut ious optimism about the ways in which Catholicism may provide a kind of spiritual storehouse for many diverse tributaries offering potential contributions to a more sustainable society in the future. The reasons for skepticism need further addressed about Catholicism and its abilities to help reorient the ways in which humans relate with the natural world. There are a number of criticisms that could be made of the Catholic Church and Catholic theology such as its entrenched hierarchical structure, its ant hropocentric worldview, its

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366 patriarchal tendencies and its pro natalist perspective. This last criticism is, in my opinion, the most problematic as there was no evidence that the Catholic schools were addressing this issue at all in any capacity. In short, since the Roman Catholic Church has a long history of being energized by those who challenge and extend its boundaries the identifiable trends, nascent and underdeveloped as they are, on these Catholic school campuses may not be precisely what one would i magine when they think of a traditional, Catholic school secondary education (Taylor 2007: 21). The greening trends, the cultivation of and educating toward a more informed and skilled ecological citizenry, may be demonstrative of a more liberal Catholicis m that historically draws upon new interpretations of established Catholic doctrines and tries to make sense of them in a modern context. These schools, however, are still embedded in a larger cultural arena in America. The tension between dominant cultur al patterns and worldviews with this new worldview emerging will be explored more later, but meanwhile it necessary to examine the Protestant schools for more evidence of how other religiously affiliated secondary schools may help shape an emergent ecologi cal citizenry with an accompanying naturalistic parareligious dimension.

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367 CHAPTER 6 PROTESTANT (EPISCOPAL) SCHOOLS Episcopal Schools and Sustainability: An Overview Having explored how the religion in Catholic schools impacts unfolding sustainabil movement in America, it should not be a surprise that Episcopalians are one of the Christian denominations for which sustainability is becoming a larger issue. Similar to th e trends found in the Catholic tradition, the greening of Protestant thought also exploded between 1970 and 1990 when the secular environmental movement in United States gained momentum (Fowler 1995: 1). Also, similar to Catholicism, Protestantism remains a large, sprawling, and wonderfully diverse entity. There is no single eco theology or set of political beliefs among Protestants, but this divergent notion of what it means to be Protestant brings a certain vitality to Protestant environmentalism and Pro testantism in general. This broad continuum has less impact on what is transpiring in the Protestant NAIS schools than it does in the larger political realm of secular environmental politics, but for the sake of clarity about this diversity, it is useful to understand some of the distinctive perspectives found along this continuum. One the one hand there are liberal Protestants who identify the Bible as an important part of their faith, as a document that is inspired by God but that is also a historical an d cultural work, and who do not contend that this is the full truth of God. On the other end of the continuum are the Evangelicals who place greater stress on the Bible as the world of God and who sometimes believe the Bible is the complete inerrant world of God (Fowler 1995: 3). Despite this broad canopy, there are some identifiable characteristics of Protestant environmentalism shared by the diversity of practitioners and these

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368 characteristics are not insignificant as they also sometimes reveal themselves on NAIS Protestant school campuses. other Christian traditions, Protestants believe tha Different than standard Christian ideals, however, they believe that Christianity is a universe (Fowler 1995: 7). The idea of acting (and c hanging) found in Protestant environmentalism comes from the assumption that the urgency of the need for action is real. As Robert Fowler, a leading scholar about the greening trends in Protestantism explained, implicit in this assumption is a considerab le faith in what action can accomplish. Few believe that action can magically solve all ecological problems but many insist that action is possible, is valuable and can make all the difference. Change is not going to be easy, but most Protestant environmen talists express confidence that humans have the potential to act wisely to assist cre ation (Fowler 1995: 142). This often appears in the form of specific proposals for ecological action and the larger today. This is apparent not only in newspaper articles that provide evidence about Lutheran, Episcopalian or Methodist congregations cutting energy costs, building solar panels, carpooling or biking to church, but it will also become apparent on the NAIS Protestant school campuses (Fowler 1995: 143). Another distinctive characteristic of Protestant environmentalism is the role of hope. In the language of Protestant environmentalism no matter how grim the crisis analysis is, nor how stern the injunctions to action are, there is almost always an

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369 invocat ion of the hope that rests with the faith in God. Faith may not guarantee anything to Protestant views (Fowler 1995: 7). However, this hope is going to reveal itsel f in the forthcoming discussion in regard to specific examples in the Protestant schools, and also later in the implications of these greening trends. It is fist necessary to gain a deeper understanding of how both the influence of green Episcopalism impac ts NAIS schools and also explore where new forms of religious production might also be underway on these Episcopal school campuses. In an Episcopal Life Monthly newsletter (April 2008), there were numerous mentions of environmentally friendly ideals and actions and the presiding bishop, Katharine Jefferts Schori, wrote an excellent article for the newsletter that talked about In her article she asked some thought provo king questions and chronicled the emergent trend known as creation care which now has a place in Christian thinking. For example, all our earthly lives. We are not respe cting the dignity of our fellow creatures if our 1 With sustainability as a general interest to Episcopalians it is not hard to fathom that this topic has made its way into Episcopal school communities. Revere nd Daniel Heischman, the executive director of the National Association of Episcopal Schools, terns and 1 Episcopalian Presiding Bishop on the Environment, April 13, 2008. http://jesusandtheorangutan.wordpress.com/2008/04/13/episcopalianbisop/ accessed July 1, 2012.

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370 information given to Heads of schools from NAIS (Borgeson 2008). Additional evidence of this trend is seen in Episcopal schools adopting sustainability as a core value in their mission statements, integrating it into their curriculums and beginni ng sustainability initiatives on their campuses. 2 Heischman, moreover, used the Episcopalian identity to help explain these trends. He suggested that by believing that an Episcopal identity includes the idea of everyone being welcome at the table then pe ople might be surprised at what can unfold. He explained how some schools are just beginning to address sustainability in some aspect of school life, but others are making progress in coordinating sustainability in facilities, curriculum, and chapel. What is important, said Heischman, is that "there is often a realization that we as an Episcopal school have a niche in this area This niche exists because Episcopal schools are uniquely positioned to approach environmental education holisti cally. Heischman explained, "we have the opportunity to link sustainability with a spiritual worldview and teach the moral and spiritual dimensions along with science Merry Sorrells, who began her work as the new Head of school after h urricane Katrina hit Louisanna in 2005, provided additional insight into this niche. She wrote in a letter to the St. Paul School Community that said "examining the direction of our schools' ethical compass and pointing it squarely toward sustainability an d an expanded world view is critical to securing our children's future (Borgenson 2008). Sorrells and others in the larger network of Episcopal schools believe that "teaching our children to think critically, ethically, globally and with an eye 2 Sustainability in Episcopal Schools, http://jesusandtheorangutan.wordpress.com/2008/04/13/sustainability in episcopal schools/ accessed July 7, 2012.

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371 toward future sustainability is not a passing educational fad In summary, integrating students' physical environment, curriculum, and an ethic of sustainability is a work in progress not just at one or two Episcopal schools, but at many Episco pal schools throughout the nation. The National Association of Episcopal Schools (NAES) is the overarching organization that acts as an umbrella community for these schools and a closer examination of it allows for a better understanding of how sustainabil ity is related to the voluntary membership organization that supports, serves, and advocates for the vital work and ministry of 1,200 Episcopal schools, early childhood ed ucation programs, and 3 It was chartered in 1965, with historic roots dating back to the 1930s, and it is the only pre collegiate educational association that is both national in scope and that has an Episcopal in character. 4 The primary purpose of NAES is to promote Episcopal education and strengthen Episcopal schools through different services, resources, conferences, and networking opportunities related to, Episcopal school identity, leaders hip, governance, and spiritual and professional development of school leaders. 5 Perhaps the most important part of what this organization does is its work to advance Episcopal education and foster chool develop the very 3 http://www.episcopalschools.org/about naes/ accessed Januar y 3, 2013. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid.

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372 studies and formation, service and service learning, equity and justice, and school life and culture. Interestingly, these are the very traits that Heischman cited as a core reasons that Episcopal schools are particularly well equipped to carry the sustainability trend forward. The core elements of an Episcopal school identity (according to NAES) are tegrates spiritual formation into all 6 Episcopal schools are embodiments of the Christian faith and are communities that honor, celebrate and worship God as the center of life. They were created to be models of God Christ in all persons, regardless of origin, background, ability, or religion. Episcopal of every human being 7 T hese principles, therefore, are the basis of an Episcopal people including students who are religiously, culturally, and economically diverse. In fact, the intentional pluralism of most Episcopal schools is one of the hallmarks of the NAES mission. 8 Some of the ways Episcopal schools practice these principles and ideals were expressed through school worship, community life, religious formation and study and social justice efforts. 6 http://www.episcopalschools.org/episcopal schools/episcopal identity/ accessed May 23, 2012. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid.

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373 Christian love that guides and challenges all who attend our schools to build lives of genuine meaning, 9 These particular principles, therefore, are the foundation out of which Episcopal schools began to address sustainability issues. In 2010, for example, during the NAES awards one of the schools receiv ed money for its sustainability projects. 10 Episcopal schools also draw upon the resources offered by the Episcopal Church for celebrations. Mike Schut, for example, the Episcopal Church Economic and Environmental Affairs officer, noted that in 2001 Earth Day occurred within Holy Week. To fully honor Earth Day he argued sustainable, compa ssionate economy and way of life. 11 day we mark the crucifixion of Christ, God in the flesh, might we suggest that when Earth is degraded, when species go extinct, that another part of God's body experiences yet another sort of crucifixion that another way of seeing and Finally, in addition to offering money through grants to fund ecological projects, and resources for Earth day celebrations, NAES conferences feature workshops for Heads of Sch ools about Sustainability. At the NAES conference in Tampa, FL in 2008 9 Ibid. 10 For example, Bishop Noland Episcopal School in Louisiana received a grant in support of its http://www.episcopalschools.org/news/news/news archive/2010/06/30/naes awards 2010 outreach fund grants to 13 member schools/ accessed August 3, 2012. 11 http://www.episcopalschools.org/news/news/news archive /2011/04/04/episcopal church offers resources for earth day april 22 2011/ accessed August 3 2012.

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374 Sean Murphy), the school chaplain (The Rev. Julian C. Lentz III) and the sustainability programs aimed to understand the complexities of social and natural systems helped students learn to make decisions that care for and serve the local and global community. 12 The growing trend of sustainability in Episcopal schools may be directly connected to the Episcopal School identity. It is, therefore, possible to explore three specific Episcopal schools for a closer look at the role religion might play in their sustainability efforts which allows for a later comparison with the trends underway in the aforementioned Catholic schools as well. Palmer Trinity School Palmer Trinity School, located in Miami, FL, was established in 1991 as the result of two schools (The Palmer School and Trinity Episcopal School) merging. As the two schools worked to become a single community, Hurricane Andrew hit in 1992 and devastated the campus. The hurricane blew off roofs, broke windows, took trees down and flooded sports fields. However, since the merger, and the rebuilding in the aftermath of the hurricane, the campus has continued to grow literally and metaphorically. Today, Palmer Trinity has around 600 studen ts on campus and the hurricane 12 http://www.episcopalschools.org/forms/uploadFiles/6FF3000002F3.filename.Biennial2008Brochure.pdf#s earch="environmental/ accessed October 4, 2012.

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375 13 Eviden ce of intentional efforts provided important glimpses into this commu commitments. The mission of the school stated (my emphasis): Palmer Trinity School is committed to the moral, spiritual, intellectual, physical and creative growth of all members of our school community. Our de dication to excellence and respect for diversity inspire students to seek enlightenment and lead lives of honor, integrity, and social responsibility Our vision is to be one of the finest Episcopal day schools in the nation. 14 Particularly revealing with ideal 21st century citizen, but also resonated with an aspect of sustainability and an emphasis on social responsibility. Finally, this mission statement made clear the ealed some important aspects of this In 2002, the Board approved a five year strategic plan that focused on three enhance, and expand, all of which will be done with the interests of everyone in the school and local community at heart, and all of which will be carried out with responsibility t o the environmental beauty and preservation of the land, to the master plan design, to fiscal and fundraising integrity, and 13 http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=52057/ accessed September 12, 2012. 14 Ibid.

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376 to the preservation and nurture of the soul of Palmer Trinity School and its students. 15 This vision for the future further emphas heritage (in its goal to build its Episcopal identity) and sustainability goals (with its commitment to stewardship and attention on both the school and the local community). This vision, however, was also int of which will be carried out with responsibility to the environmental beauty and the implicit ethic of conservati (such as Leopold) in the Religion and Nature milieu. Second, this statement also suggested that a kind of awe and recognition of the natural world is a part of the motivation behind this commitment. Th is recognition and awe of nature resonated with aspects of Dark Green Religion. Third, the vision included the idea that the community n of itself. Palmer Trinity, therefore, not only had a defined, world religious tradition (Episcopalianism) fully integrated into its community, sustainability commit ments too. In further pursuit of additional evidence about the role religion may play in this 16 Although not to 15 Ibid. 16 Diversity, Balance, at http://www.palmertrinity.org/mission accessed November 13, 2012.

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377 commitment to these different values included the following explanation: age vision, initiative, and leadership in serving each other nd ethnicities while 17 These values, in conjunction with the stated purpose of the school which was to ural world, and encourage the highest community educates the whole person and with a strong moral and ethical dimension of the education experience. 18 committed to developing, fostering, and nurturing spiritual and moral growth on both personal and commun ity levels. The values and practices of the Judeo Christian tradition are celebrated in a spirit of inclusiveness that teaches respect for all of the various religious traditions of the world. 19 This philosophy was then imparted in practice through a varie ty of ways. First, Palmer Trinity made clear that the pattern of regular worship did differentiate itself, as an Episcopal school, from other non religiously affiliated independent schools. However, although attendance was required for students their parti cipation is voluntary. Examples of religious practice on campus included services that occurred twice a week (which 17 http://www.palmertrinity.org/mission/ accessed September 10 2012. 18 http://www.palmertrinity.org/welcome accessed September 10, 2012. 19 http://www.pal mertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=52057/ accessed September 10 2012.

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378 frequently emphasized topics related to ethics) and a monthly worship service. Services encouraged spiritual formation in each individual an 20 All convocations and services were coordinated by the School Chaplain, but also involved students, faculty and guest speakers. Finally, spiritual practices at Palmer Trinity inclu ded a number of outreach projects that aimed to give hands with those less fortunate. It was clear that the Episcopal expressions of faith did not exclude any members of the community and they provided a di versity of activities for its community members. aspects of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). First, the collaborative approach to spiritual learning and the et hical dimension of the teachings reflected the kind of collaborative learning methods and ethical dimensions advocated by ESD. efforts to take learning outside the class room and apply it into the real world. One of the ways that Palmer Trinity committed itself to sustainability efforts was through its curriculum and pedagogy, but religion was inextricably linked to both the motivations behind and the execution of these c ommitments. The ethical dimension of to evoke from them the highest expressions of pe rsonal integrity, tolerance, and social 20 http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=52057/ accessed September 10 2012

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379 having a higher purpose than just providing students with knowledge and skills to get them into a good college. This academic philoso phy, moreover, explained how the individual scholars, while expecting them to participate in and contribute to the life of the its obligation to provide for the spiritual development of its students by upholding Judeo Christian principles and ethical traditions and by encouraging students to engage in personal sacrifice in service to other 21 In addition to holding the students to high academic and high personal standards, the students were taught about ethics both inside and outside the classroom. Finally, un iversity level and inspired to make positive contributions to our interdependent and century citizens and included the skills of problem solving, collaboration and knowledge about sustainability issues. 22 Even in the philosophy behind the academic program there were both religious dimensions and a commitment to aspects of sustainability. The courses offered on campus also demonstrated a commitment to aspects of sustainability and illuminated the role of the religion (either directly or indirectly) on these greening trends found in the classroom. Under the canopy of sustainability, for example, the environment was one of the three core domains. The environment was best studied in the science classroom, which may be motivated to teach as it does as a 21 http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=164809 accessed September 10 2012. 22 Ibid.

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380 result of implicit, parareligious motivations. The science department overview had understandi students. 23 the theoretical b 24 This deep appreciation and the emphasis on the necessity of early encounters with nature suggested that aspects of biophilia may be implicit in the science the creatures and environments the more astonished we are by the extraordinary ingenuity of the biophysical enterprise. Knowing nature well increases not only our knowledge but b : 187). In the a sense of mystery and awe about the universe. 25 There was also a c and its applications to the real world also resonated with ESD goals of providing an education that will help create skilled and knowledgeable citizens. The science department philosophy, for exam ple, also stated that it tried to break the trend of rote 23 http://www.palmertrinity.org/us/curriculum September 12, 2012. 24 http://www.p almertrinity.org/ftpimages/241/download/PTSCurrGuide2012 13.pdf accessed Nov. 13, 2012. 25 Pl at http://www.palmertrinity.org/ftpimages/241/download/PTSCurrGuide2012 13.pdf accessed Nov. 13, 2012.

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381 26 of an educated citizen i s that of the voter who must cast informed votes pertaining to an increasing number of scientific issues, or that of a specialist in one of the well 27 The way science was therefore envisioned and taught a t Palmer Trinity suggested influences from both the religion and nature milieu, and from ESD ideals. A closer look, however, at individual science courses themselves will help make this evidence more compelling. The specific science courses at Palmer Trin ity of particular interest to this project include A dvance d Placement Environmental Science, Marine Environments of South Florida, Meteorology, and O ceanography. The AP environmental science course, for example, reflected implicit aspects of Dark Green R e ligion with its emphasis on the importance of understanding interrelationships as seen in the course description which environmental s cience is constructed to provide students with the scientific principles, concepts, and methodologies requi red to understand the 28 The course also included the interdisciplinary aspects and practical application of nterdisciplinary study of earth processes and their link to human 26 http://www.palmertrinity.org/us/curriculum September 12 2012. 27 Ibid. 28 Environmental Science at http://www.palmertrinity.org/us/curriculum?rc=0 accessed September 12, 2012.

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382 analyze environmental problems both natural and anthropogenic, to evaluate the relative risks associa ted with these problems, and to examine alternative solutions for resolving and/or preventing them 29 Students were then expected to apply their knowledge of biology, chemistry, physics, and in some cases history and English to decipher the information and even make their own decisions regarding our environmental future. statements found on the course syllabus. The introduction stated that the goals of environmental science w ere to learn how nature worked, how the environment affected us, how we affected the environment, how to solve environmental problems, and how to solutions occur at the inter section of natural systems and the human systems that 30 invites students to practice critical thinking and to apply new ideas when looking at local and global environment issues. This approach is essential if we are to work toward sustainable solutions in our environment. Throughout the course we present sustainability as an ultimate goal for both preserving nature and improving the lives of people everywhere. 31 In addit ion to the AP environmental s cience course, Palme r Trinity offered an advanced environmental s cience class. This course also demonstrated clear connections to both the religion and nature milieu and to ESD. The topics of the course 29 Ibid. 30 Leo 2012,".p.1 31 Ibid.

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383 included a focus on fi ve key issues: population, water resources, energy resources, global climate change, and the use of resources on the Palmer Trinity campus. 32 Also, the emphasis in the course was placed on critical thinking, analysis of environmental data, application of en vironmental principals to real life problems, and current environmental issues with readings from a textbook, and excerpts from significant figures in the Religion and Nature discourse such writers as Aldo Leopold, Bill McKibben, Wendell Berry, David Quamm an, and Bill Bryson. These authors were writers and thinkers who include the founders and saints of this naturalistic parareligion (Taylor 2010: 31). In addition, current en vironmental issues were addressed through articles from sources such as the New York Times Washington Post National Geographic and Scientific American The ideas emerging from this required literature and contemporary to the planet and the ethical, spiritual dimensions of moreover, explored in the course fall under the canopy of sustainability and the course was clearly taught in an inter disciplinary fashion with its use of contemporary journals and news sources. There seemed, therefore, to be an inextricable relationship between sustainability evidenc 32 Pl at http://www.palmertrinity.org/ftpimages/241/download/PTSCurrGuide2012 13.pdf accessed November 4 2012.

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384 d eliberately take actions to take care of the sea, and make sure these systems continue 33 This suggested that humans must do something about the current state of affairs, and it also implicitly suggested that l earning about the sea in classes might be an important foundation to such ethical actions. Courses such as the Marine Elements of South Florida related to education for sustainable development with its emphasis on the local environment, giving students an intimate understanding of the natural processes that exist in this particular environment (one key facet of the sustainability discourse) and by teaching in an experiential way (comports with the ESD pedagogy) with an attention on the future, practical ap plications of this knowledge (a goal of ESD). 34 The course description (excerpted below) with added emphasis on key phrases reads: The objective of the semester course is to provide students with a deeper understanding of the marine ecosystems of South Flo rida. An appreciation of this unique environment enables our students to make wise decisions in the future. The course covers beach dune systems, mangroves swamps, sea grass meadows, hard bottom communities, coral reefs, the Gulf of Mexico, the Florida C urrent, plankton, and nekton. Most topics are covered from an interdisciplinary perspective The course introduces students to native marine ecosystems through a series of coordinated lectures that provide background information on the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes affecting each environment. This is complemented by field trips and laboratory exercises that focus on sampling, hypothesis testing, calculating biodiversity indexes and studying benthic and planktonic 33 at http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=164875 accessed November 4 2012. 34 In addition to this course on the marine elements of South Florida it is also noteworthy that Pal mer Trinity has The Coral Lab. This is a center for education, training, and research in marine biology. An essential part of our mission is to provide students with hands on experience by conducting research both in the la boratory and out in the field. Pl http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=164875 accessed November 4 2012 for more.

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385 organisms. The fiel d trips are geared towards observing nature and natural phenomena, noticing patterns in the surroundings, recognizing plants, animals, and other parts of the natural environment, and learning characteristics, names, categories, and data about species found in the community where we live 35 The connections this course has to the religion and nature milieu may be derived from both the previously mentioned biophilia theory and aspects of bioregionalism. First, eory of biophilia may be applied and nature that underscores the empirical stud y of nature. He also discussed other values including aesthetic value (the courses appreciation of this unique environment), humanistic value (as seen in the objective of the course which is to provide students with a deeper understanding of the marine eco systems of South Florida), and naturalistic value of nature (seen in the course focus on beach dune systems, mangroves swamps, sea grass meadows, hard bottom communities, coral reefs, the Gulf of Mexico, the Florida Current, plankton, and nekton) (Kellert 2005 b : 186). According to Kellert, aesthetic value underscores the physical attraction and beauty of nature. Humanistic value reflects strong affection and emotional attachment to the natural world. Naturalistic value emphasizes an interest in close and direct contact with the natural world. From the values connected to the biological inclination to affiliate with nature, Kellert posits a richness of the human reliance on the natural world for physical, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual sustenance and security. As Kellert elaborated, an ethical regard for nature is derived not just from feelings of moral 35 Marin e En http://www.palmertrinity.org/us/curriculum?rc=0 accessed November 4, 2012.

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386 concern and compassion (or from a recognition of ensuring human material well being), but from a broader recognition of how nature shapes the huma n body mind and spirit (Kellert 2005 b : 187). This class may thus accentuate values of nature as explained by the biophilia theory. In addition to possible connections to the biophilia theory, this class also resonated with some ideas found in bioregional ism. According to bioregionalists, a key reason for moving in a bioregional direction is to improve interactions between humans and nature, and to strive for a place in which natural and human communities are sustainable (Klyza 1999: 82). As Kirkpatrick necessary anecdote: imagine a society divided into territories and communities where the love of place is an inevitable byproduct of a life mindful of natural systems and most general sense, bioregionalism offers a rationale for why place needs to be incorporated into education and this will be discussed in more depth later. For now, it is important that this was precisely what was happening with the Marine Elements of So uth Florida course where the field trips were geared towards observing nature and natural phenomena. Students were being taught to notice patterns in the surroundings and to recognize plants, animals, and other parts of the natural environment. They were learning the characteristics, names, categories, and data about species found in the community where they lived. In addition to the Environmental Science classes and the Marine Life of South Florida course, other science classes practiced similar pedagogi es, shared the aims of ESD, and connected to the religion and nature milieu. For example, like other science

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387 upon many four major disciplines of science: geological, physi cal, chemical, and 36 The Meteorology course included experiential teaching in which students take the knowledge gained and apply it to their lives beyond the classroom. The Me teorology lessons, discussions, and experiments, with opportunities to observe atmospheric 37 Co urses also included connections to religion and nature. The Oceanography class, a close study of many different integral parts of this environment, which arguably also reflect the scientific value of biophilia, suggested the importance of the interactions between these different components and reflects the dynamic geological features, including; ocean basins, plate tectonic activity, beaches, reefs, and shallow and deep 38 Reflecting the trends of other NAIS schools, Palmer Trinity also offered (and required) a wide variety of Religious Studie s classes and these offerings exemplified the aforementioned patterns in American education that unfolded throughout the 1980s and 1990s. As the scholarly literature highlighted, schools responded to the idea that a 36 http://www.palmertrinity.org/us/curriculum?rc=0 accessed Nov. 14, 2012. 37 http://www.palmertrinity.org/ftpimages/241/download/PTSCurrGuide2012 13.pdf accessed November 4, 2012 38 Ibid.

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388 global education needed to intentionall y include the teaching about religion in its curriculum offerings if the goal of education was in part to create a competent voting populace and empathic citizenry. Palmer Trinity, therefore, required that students take two semesters of Religious Studies courses. The goal of this requirement was to help 39 The school articulated that 40 Also, similar to the science courses, these classes are interdisciplinary in nature which resonates with stated ESD pedagogy goals. For investigation and critical textual study in order to enab intimate connections with politics, economics, gender roles, racial dynamics, and the 41 In the Religious Studies department there are many different courses offered, but for the purposes of this project the cour ses that best reflect the relationship between religion and sustainability are the classes titled The Universe Story and Topics in World Ecology, Peace and Justice, and The Universe Story. First, The Universe Story (taught through an interdisciplinary met hodology) revolves around two core questions: (1) Why do we act toward the natural world the way we do? And (2) Why in the face of clear scientific data about global warming, the sixth extinctions, and the collapse of the oceans, etc. do we continue to liv the connections between science, religion, anthropology, and deep history. Moreover, 39 http://www.palmertrinity.or g/us/curriculum accessed November 16, 2012. 40 Ibid. 41 Ibid.

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389 relevance of this course is tha t the universe story is indebted to Thomas Berry, Brian Swimme, and Mary Evelyn Tucker who are saints of certain tributary in DGR connected to the Tielhardian tradition (Tucker 2005: 164; Taylor 2010: 93). This provided additional evidence for a naturalis curriculum. A practical outgrowth of the Universe Story is the Topics in World Ecology course, which evolved into the Ecology of Food course. The Topics in World Ecology course included research on global top ics in Ecology (population, water issues, peak oil, farming, food distribution, and hunger), students watched cooking techniques from Alton into a deeper context. Stude nts learned about all aspects of food, including its history and evolving social context, health and nutritional aspects, and about industrial agriculture and ecologically sustainable food systems. As the course evolved into the Ecology of Food course, it became more experiential. Students learned how to f global sustainability 42 The significance of these courses is multifaceted. First, students not only gained prac tical knowledge and skills about how to grow herbs, w]e are blessed with a green campus with open space, an extended growing season that coincides with our school year, and many local, place 42 jlentz@palmertrinity.org May 25, 2012.

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390 based learning opportunities for day trips to rural, suburban, and 24 urban farms and 43 The clear influence of ESD with the emphasis on local, place based learning, experiential aspects and the lifelong applications are therefore evident. The religion variable is also visible in the motivations behind this course in the stated goals. The instructor stated, fo ecological importance of plants and our relationship to food in our lives; they learn the importance of living locally while thinking globally. All stu learning. 44 Thus, once aga in we find resonance with ideas from deep e cology within their coursework that cultivated self awareness and a more intimate understanding of interconnections people have with the universe. A few other classes demonstrated the significance of Palmer Trinit offerings to this project. The connections to ESD and the role of the religion variable in the classroom at Palmer Trinity were also present in classes such as Peace and Justice and in interdisciplinary courses such as American Studies. The Pe ace and Justice class is an obvious example of overt attention to issues of social justice, a primary realm of ESD interest. This course, for example, examined the concepts of peace and justice, focuses on their expression through mass movements of the 20 th and 21st centuries, Anti Colonial Movement, non violence in the Modern Civil Rights Movement, nuclear nonproliferation campaigns. Attention was, however, also given to t hemes such as religion (and democracy, gender, and race) and addressed the way religion in forms 43 Ibid. 44 Ibid.

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391 peace advocacy movements 45 These course topics also necessitated that students grappled with how ethical issues such as how people have treated each other and/ or how people related to the environment in which they lived. The American Studies course blended the core curricula of a typical U.S. History and American Literature course into a single course. This course explored the cultural, historical, literary, a nd artistic heritage of the United States, but both religion and attention to sustainability were embedded in it. The course included attention to the role of environment and ecology, religion and science, agrarianism, urbanism, heroes, race, class, gende r, imperialism, industrialism, consumerism, and sexuality, among other topics. In addition to religion and the obvious attention it focused on the environment, the course also has important connections to ESD because of its interdisciplinary nature. Palm i nterdisciplinary learning fosters higher order cognition and cultivates critical thinking skills by compelling students to transcend the 46 This kind of acade mic rigor, collaborative teaching and learning styles, and carefully integrated curricula not only reflected the kind of education that David Orr, Chet Bowers, and other eco literacy proponents suggested, but it also reflected the pedagogical goals of ESD. The philosophy behind the interdisciplinary initiative also cited educational thinkers (such as John Dewey) in the rationale for making education more than a commodity 45 Please Upper School Curricu lum Religion Course Peace and Social Justice http://www.palmertrinity.org/ftpimages/241/download/PTSCurrGuide2012 13.pdf accessed November 4, 2012 46 http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=165096 accessed November 4, 2012.

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392 which began to demonstrate the idea that these greening trends, were in part, extensi ons of earlier foundations established decades ago. At Palmer Trinity, the interdisciplinary initiative had historical roots. The school acknowledged that interdisciplinary education in the United States went back to the early pragmatist thinkers such as John Dewey, Jane Addams, and W.E.B. du Bois. These pragmatists influenced a stream of thought and practice that regarded knowledge, not as a commodity, but as the interweaving of received tradition, personal experience, an imagination bent toward underst anding, and the will to make the world a more humane place. 47 Thus, in addition to seeing earlier foundation thoughts about education, that can be traced back to John Dewy himself, we saw that at Palmer Trinity, interdisciplinary education promoted a diffe rent way of learning that suggests a strong ethical component to the operative ethos behind curricular decisions. In addition to greening trends and the presence of religion inside the classroom at Palmer Trinity, there was evidence outside the classroom a nd in everyday student life of these trends as well. There were innumerable ways that Palmer Trinity has gone green and the school had constructed a sustainability mission statement to help guide these initiatives. 48 have a special role and special responsibility in confronting the challenges of climate change and environmental wide programs. These programs were orchestrated by a group cal 47 http://www .palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=165096 accessed November 4, 2012. 48 http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=158216&rc=0 acc essed November 18, 2012 for specific sustainability projects at Palmer Trinity School.

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393 and this group worked with the students, teachers, and staff on the different programs. 49 mission statement, which included Palmer Trinity students to seek enlightenment and lead lives of honor, integrity, and social 50 This implied an ethical component to education, originating in religious foundations, and it made explicit that students not only could do something about making the world a better place, but that they also had a responsibility to do so. Some of the greening trends, originating from an et hical mandate about what the sponsored by the school to help provide such opportunities. These initiatives included students making a sustainability pledge, student partici pation in the sustainability challenge, student participation in the carbon footprint reduction program, and community efforts to reduce plastic water bottle waste. 51 possible t Trinity have enormous power to institute change in their classrooms and campus they can do to reduce their individual impacts, to show support for Palmer's campus wide commitment, and they were invited to use the pledge as a way to help remind 49 Ibid. 50 http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=37626& rc=0 accessed November 18, 2012. 51 http://www.palmertrinity.org/sustainability/challenge?rc=0 accessed November 18, 2012.

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394 themselves to develop good eco friendly habits. 52 The school also offered the Sustainability Challenge which was a friendly competition (and benchmarking tool) for the recycling program. 53 Over a six month period, the school reported recycling and trash data, which were then ranked according to which grade collected the largest amount of total recyclables an d had the highest percent of student and teacher pledges. against other grades and they used this data to rally their peers to reduce and recycle more. The winning grad e received a trip to the beach paid by the sustainability group. 54 Second, the school provided opportunities for individuals to go green by making a commitment to minimize plastic waste. They did this by providing a Bottle less Water Purification Systems which provided healthier and more sustainable alternatives to traditional bottled water. The Bottle less water purification system eliminated the waste and environmental degradation associated with transporting, delivering and the disposal of plastic wa ter bottles. Second, the campus offered preferred parking program for fuel efficient vehicles (vehicles must be 30 mpg or higher) that allowed members of the PTS community with fuel efficient vehicles to park in specially designated places on campus. Thi rd, Palmer Trinity was committed to a Carbon Footprint Reduction program. This was a part of their commitment as a member of the Green Schools Alliance (GSA), that 52 Ibid. 53 http://www.palmertrinity.org/sustainability/challenge accessed November 18, 2012. The sustainability challenge includes five Overall Goals for Sustainability C hallenge. 1) Have a fair and friendly recycling competition.2) Increase recycling participation by students and staff. 3) Heighten awareness of the school's waste management and recycling programs. 4) Lower waste generated on campus by reducing, reusing, and recycling. 5) Organize this event successfully so it can be repeated and possibly expanded. 54 http://www.palmertrinity.org/sustainability/challenge?rc=0 accessed November 18, 2012.

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395 I mentioned earlier who is a larger group of schools united to take action on climate chang e and the environment. The campus was clearly committed to reducing its carbon footprint over time and this included addressing issues of growth. In addition to these opportunities on campus, Palmer Trinity also encouraged students to participate in outreach efforts that included other schools and organizations. Palmer Trinity, for example, hosted an annual sustainability fair (in May) where student projects about topics related to renewable energy or ideas about how to reduce greenhouse gas emissio ns were on display. Students, for example, calculated their carbon footprints using an online calculator. They then had to identify a sustainability problem and either developed an action plan for helping to solve the problem or they created an invention to solve the problem. Other projects included addressing the process of industrialized paper making and re thinking it and its adverse effects on the environment. The raw material used to make paper, wood pulp, comes from trees and paper production accou nts for about one third of the trees cut down each year. Thus, through a hands on activity, 11th grade students became familiar with the basics of the papermaking process by using used paper to make a new piece of paper. The students researched paper rec ycling methods and arrived at a group consensus as to the methodology that they would follow. 55 In addition to the many opportunities, that Palmer Trinity provided for its community to act ethically and carry out their commitment to social responsibility (an embedded thread of their Episcopalian tradition) there were also elements of parareligion int 55 th http://www.palmertrinity.org/sustainability /fair?rc=0 accessed November 18, 2012.

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396 Trinity participated, for instance, in an event called The Fairchild Challenge. This event was part of a multidisciplinary, environmental education outreach program and advertised itsel students to appreciate the beauty and value of nature, develop critical thinking skills, understand the need for biodiversity and conservation, tap into community resources, become ac 56 them, The Fairchild Challenge invited them to learn, to investigate environmental issues, to devise imaginative and effective responses to issues and to take action, at any level, to address them. In the 2010 2011 Fairchild Challenge for high schools, students at Palmer Trinity won an award for a photography project in the art category and re search categories. roof and green walls. This event had connections to the Religion and N ature milieu because as these projects demonstrate there is evidence of the biophilia theory in this project. Students, for example, emphasized the aesthetic valuation of nature in their demonstrated the scientific valuation of nature through acknowledging their need for biodiversity and conversation which helped them problem solve with the solutions of green roofs and walls (Kellert 2005 b : 186). 56 http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=158215&rc=0 accessed November 18, 2 012.

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397 This event also appealed, moreove conservation was not enough. He argue d that humans needed to create nature 57 In addition to co nservation, Louv argued it a necessity to restore or create natural habitats on farms and ranches, in cities, neighborhoods, commercial buildings, yards, and on roofs and that was precisely what Palmer garden, and their efforts to restore and preserve the local mangrove forests. Their garden produced food and herbs, which were given to the kitchen to use in cooking. This was not only an example of the school creating nature, but it was also a connection between the cultivation of food and the Religion and Nature milieu. Wendell Berry, for example, argued that food production should be a cultural partnership between humans and the land (not a military dictatorship). He argued for a return to an older vision of America (a kind of Jeffersonian ideal) where as many people as possible should share in the ownership of the land and while this small scale garden may not be exactly what Berry had in mind, there were definitely more stakeholders invested in the process of food growing by having this garden on 57 http://richardlouv.com/blog/seven reasons for a new nature movement/ (May 23, 2011), accessed May 15 2012.

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398 campus and tended to by students (Berry 1977). A connection between a garden like this and its significance may be indicative of th e vision called for by Norma Wirzba as well. She argued for a marriage of land and culture that builds on the acknowledgement that we are biological and social beings who are dependent upon healthy habitats and communities. (Wirzba 2003 : 4 ). There are, therefore, multiple ways that school gardens may be inspired by a kind of ethical impulse that creates new cultural production toward a different relationship between students, their food, and the land out of which it is grown. The second way that Palmer Trinity created nature was in the butterfly garden established in the spring of 2011. This garden aimed to delight visitors and more importantly, it allowed them to learn about ways to improve butterfly populations and understand conservation issues. 58 Pa lmer Trinity planted host plants to provide nectar sources for butterflies and food for their caterpillars so that the community could enjoy watching them grow and transform into adult butterflies. This butterfly garden provided some of the necessary reso urces to foster populations of local butterflies and provided a learning environment for students. ilson and conservation ethic. 59 The third way that Palmer Trinity created nature was through restoration work that created new habitats along the Florida coastline for man groves. 58 http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=158216/ accessed September 14, 2012. 59 http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=158216/ accessed September 14, 2012.

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399 This project began as a local, eco art project to educate people in South Florida about providing a home for birds and wild animals, cleaning our coastal waters, and fighting 60 The restoration project began with student volunteers collecting mangrove propagules in the coastal areas. These propagules were then planted and exhibited in plastic water filled cups around the school. Students nurtured them into seedlings and eventually planted them along coastal areas. Restoration work of this kind was not only an example of ESD in action with the emphasis on local, practical knowledge extended into meaningful action, but it also is particularly strong con nections to the religion and nature milieu. Restoration work may be situated in the realm of bioregionalism and connected to religious ritual, and both connections are discussed in the work of scholars such as Michael McGinnis and Bill Jordan. These scho again, a connection many bioregionalist feel has been severed by modernism, as was discussed previously in m 1999). The final significant connection to the religion and nature milieu found on Palmer religion nature movement and an exemplar of DGR. The explicit mention of this great was also cited by other Independent school communities in their efforts to become more 60 http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=158215/ accessed September 20, 2012.

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400 sustainable land ethic, A thing is right, when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise (Leopold 1949: 195). 61 name on the Palmer Trinity campus demonstrated the vast influence he has had on so much of what is transpiring across Independent School campuses because as Taylor explained, among the saints in DGR, Leopold is one of the holiest ones (Taylor 2010: 31 35). Palmer Trinity also considered the economic aspects of sustainability. Economic how schools can engage their entire community around implementing innovative and econ omically 62 An term considerations of present day actions. Palmer Trinity acknowledged this long term consideration in part of its vision statement. 61 http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx ?t=107949/ accessed September 13, 2012. 62 http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=107949/ accessed September 13, 2012.

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401 The long term existence of our school and our environment is vital. We hope Palmer Trinity School becomes a beacon for ideas and inspiration and that you will join us in making sustainable living a priority. 63 In these su stainability efforts, it was also clear that the Episcopalian tradition strongly influenced aspects of school life that connected social responsibility and these religious values helped shape the idea that individuals did have a moral responsibility to act The Episcopalian heritage also inspired curriculum that taught about the different world religions and the connections they each had to the environment. There was also ample evidence of parareligion on campus as well. Inside the classroom, this was ap parent in the language that instructors used to describe their courses, in their explanations behind their rationale of them and in the lessons themselves. Outside the classroom, the role of parareligion was visible in the construction of nature and in th e outreach efforts of Palmer Trinity to host and participate in sustainability fairs. This was just one Independent school community and such patterns and trends were not unique to South Florida. It is therefore possible to continue gathering evidence fo r the role religion may Independent, Episcopal secondary schools in other parts of the country as well. Oregon Episcopal School Across the country from Palmer Trinity Schoo l, located in the hills of Southwest Portland, lies another Independent school called Oregon Episcopal School (OES). Florida, OES had a very distinctive campus reflecti ng the natural wonders of the Pacific Northwest. OES had a 59 acre campus nestled amongst the woodlands and wetlands 63 http://www.palmertrinity.org/podium/default.aspx?t=158216/ accessed September 12, 2012.

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402 of Oregon. The school had approximately 840 students enrolled in grades Pre K curriculum that is dedicated to scholarship and an enriched academic environment focused on "learning by doing (a clear connection to ESD pedagogy) that strives to help each individual reach his or her fullest potential. 64 Moreover similar to Palmer Trinity, OES had a strong Episcopal tradition and heritage (it is the oldest Episcopal school west of the Rockies) and both explicit religious and parareligious influences will be evident as they are intermingled with some of the docume nted greening trends just as they were at Palmer Trinity. This strong Episcopal foundation had important impacts for the discussion ahead. First, in the spirit of the s 65 This emphasis on moral or character development, as a part of the larger ith trends in other Independent schools who also chose to parareligion may be emerging as well. At Oregon Episcopal School, for example, the availability of a chaplain during times of difficulty to help members of the community as they explore the sacred in 66 This language (explore a sacred in our midst) 64 http://www.oes.edu/about/introduction.html/ accessed, June 14, 2012. 65 http://www.oes.edu/about/episcopal.html/ accessed June 12, 2012. 66 http://www.oes.edu/about/episcopal.html/ accessed June 12, 2012.

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403 suggested a kind of panentheism where God may be viewed as interpenetrating part of nature and timelessly extending beyond it, which is interesting because even though the setting is an Episcopal school, such language suggested that some elements of spirituality may fall outside the boundaries of explicit religion. Second, the Episcopal tradition and its openness to other faith traditions was a major faiths, and encouragement of individuals to discover their own spiritual path. OES included an nd in diversity of topics covered during chapel services. 67 This openness and recognition that understanding all Finally, the Episcopalian heritage at OES cultivated a de connection the wider world and encouraged a commitment to service learning as an integral part of the educational experience. This service commitment was rooted in the Episcopalian tradition and encouraged community members peace among all people and respect the dignity of every human being (an interpretation ideas of a just society throughout the life of the school. With these Episcopal foundations established, it is possible to explore the larger mission and philosophy of the school. Then, it is possible to explore the specific greening trends unfolding in 67 Chapel services are designed with the recognition that students represent a wide variety of faiths but that we also shar e some core values like peace, justice and compassion. OES honors both the Episcopal tradition and the need for students to explore their own spiritual path.The school chaplains, who are Episcopal priests and lay ministers, are available to help students d eepen their spiritual lives. The at http://www.oes.edu/about/episcopal.html/ accessed June 1 2, 2012.

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404 ore closely how the religion variable played out in them. In addition to understanding the strong Episcopal foundations at OES, it is possible to glean deeper insights into this community by examining both its mission statement and strategic plan. First, students with promise for higher education and lifelong learning and to enhance their intellectual, physical, social, emotional, spiritual, and artistic growth so that they may realize their power for good 68 This mission both the local and global communities and providing students with a skill set that will prepare them for the lives ahead of them. The mission also included a hope that This awakening not only has potential parareligious undertones, but it also resonated the future should not necessarily be envisioned as a post apocalyptic dystopia which is how it is often portrayed by those with an interest in sustainability issues. Oregon Episcopal strategic plan, for example, included two important commitments to sustainability. First, in its prog sustainability curriculum and establish sustainable practices in operations and 68 http://www.oes.edu/about/mission.html/ accessed June 5, 2012.

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405 69 towards facilities tha t are flexible, green, connected, and configured to support development of essential competencies. 70 This exemplified an institutional commitment to change with sustainability in mind. These institutional commitments to sustainability were not just found in the words of the strategic plan, but they were also manifest in the and energy efficient lighting. These structural commitments to sustainability were born out of a brainstorming session where Jon von Behren, the director of facilities management at OES, invited interested students, faculty, staff, parents, and board members to meet to coordinate efforts at the pre kind ergarten through 12th grade day sustainability after he attended a National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) conference in 2005. Von Behren explained that upon his return to OES, he made a list of the things to dream about and then they divided them into five task forces, which included school operations, transportation, energy use, construction, and ecoscaping. The green building committee began drafting a sustainability charter and all the lighting was changed in the athletic facility, which increased the energy efficiency and saved the school about $500 per month. Paper use was reduced throughout the school and the green roof on the new middle school addition was used in student science research. 69 http://www.oes.edu/about/strategicplanforweb.pdf slide #5 accessed June 5, 2012. 70 http://www.oes.edu/about/strategicplanforweb.pdf slide #8 accessed June 5, 2012.

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406 Van Behren also pointed out that students were at the heart of things. 71 These sustainability efforts, after these initial ones, have not ceased either. OES has been named an Oregon Green School (along with almost 200 other sc hools in the state) which means it is a member of a nonprofit organization that was formed in 1997 who helps Oregon schools set up and maintain effective, permanent waste reduction and resource efficiency programs that improve school environments and commu nities. 72 were important, but what was more significant was the motivations behind this Good (1572 1631). OES believed that Every single person must take responsibility for lifting the community, be it their school community, their immediate family, or communities in the world beyond. To that end, every student must participate in service, both to the school and to organizations outside the school. We want our students to island. 73 Sustainabil ity was therefore not only guided by a strong ethical impulse, but the idea interconnection which is an important concept in DGR and many contemporary forms of nature religion. A of interdependence (mutual influence and reciprocal dependence) are found in the 71 Phina Green Education: Episcopal Schools Move Toward Sustainability, at http://library.episcopalchurch.org/article/green education episcopal schools move toward sustainability 0 accessed October 4, 2012. 72 Ib id. 73 http://www.oes.edu/about/power for good.html/ accessed July 30, 2012.

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407 drawing upon this no tion to explain their rationale behind the need to develop their sustainability initiatives. Sustainability and the religion variable were visible in other ways at OES as well. In similar ways that courses at Palmer Trinity revealed, there were many connections between sustainability and religion (both explicit and quasi) unfolding in the OES curriculum. In the OES science department there was evidence that supported the claim about "Episcopal schools had the opportunity to link sustainability with a spiritual 74 What was therefore interesting to this project was that OES also offered many courses that not only reflected sustainability in the course content, but they were a lso taught using a pedagogical approach (that was collaborative, interdisciplinary and geared toward developing student skills that would help them be successful in the real world) which included practices and skills that were also advocated by ESD. Scien ce courses at OES that demonstrated this emphasis on sustainability, spirituality, and ESD included courses such as Environmental Geography, Natural History, Marine Ecology, and Cosmology. Collectively, these courses emphasized a nders of the natural world, an appreciation of and for the importance of biodiversity, they included an awareness that there was an ethical component necessary to properly understand human relationships with the natural world and they all resonated with as pects of the religion and nature milieu in ways that 74 Phina Green Education: Episcopal Schools Move Toward Sustainability, at http://library.episcopalchurch.org/article/green education episcopal schools move toward sustainability 0 accessed October 4, 2012..

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408 courses at Palmer Trinity did too. Courses such as Environmental Geography xplored human nature relationships by introducing students to the science of geology as it relates to human activities on the planet by teaching about how geologic processes and hazards influenced human activities. 75 Another course that included the study of human relationships with the natural world and brought attention to the ethical dimension of these relationships was the Natural History course. This course studied the basic biology, behavior, ecology, and identification of common organisms around th belief of this elective is that increasing urbanization and loss of wildlife make natural 76 The course was designed to familiarize students with species, native and forei gn, from all kingdoms of life that share, often unrecognized, our local environment. In addition, the marine biology course, which was a lab and field based class, focused on the fundamentals of ecology, invertebrate diversity and physiology, and sustaina ble practices involving interactions with the marine environment. 77 Nature was underscores the knowledge and understanding people derive from the empirical study of 2005 b :186). Scientific value also offered the possibility that by observing and comprehending natural diversity there were countless opportunities for 75 http://www.oes.edu/us/departments/science.html/ accessed December 21, 2012. 76 http://www.oes .edu/us/departments/science.html#natural accessed December 21, 2012. 77 http://www.oes.edu/us/departments/science.html/ accessed December 21, 2012.

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409 acquiring knowledge, developing understanding and honing evaluative aptitudes. It e xplained earlier that biophilia theory argues that the more we know and understand the creatures and environments, the more astonished we are by the extraordinary ingenuity of the biophysical enterprise. Knowing nature well not only increases our knowledg e, but it also elevates our ethical regard for nature and ourselves (Kellert 2005 b :187). In addition to courses that examine human nature relationships and study natural processes in depth, there were courses such as Cosmology, The Good Life and Religion a nd Social Justice that gave OES students the chance to not only understand the natural laws and processes of the universe, but also allowed students to ask some The Co understood stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters, dark matter, and dark energy. 78 The ackn owledgement in this course that there are parts of cosmology that are not understood is the kind of humility expressed by notable figures in the religion and nature scientists a confrontation with the universe, but not a humility that prevents us from seeking the 79 As I previously noted in my overview of D GR, Taylor identified humility as a key element of this naturalistic parareligion, which 78 http://www.oes.edu/us/departments/science.html/ accessed December 21, 2012. 79 Carl Sagan http://www.csicop.org/si/show/sciences_vast_cosmic_perspective_eludes_religion accessed June 5, 2012.

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410 content of this course itself. rovided opportunities for this course focuses on the central question about what it means to try to live a good life, or a life of goodness. The course started with th e ancients, like Aristotle and Confucius, and examines different approaches to what makes humans both good and happy. The course examined philosophical approaches like Stoicism and Epicureanism, teachings of the ethical religions, asceticism and monastici sm, and more modern utopian experiments. What was important, however, in terms of possible connections to ESD pedagogy, where knowledge is to be taken out into the real world, was the requirement that each student reflected on and wrote about his or her o wn philosophy of the good life. The aim of this activity was to connect their reflections with the mission statement. Students therefore may realize their power for good as citizens of local and world communities and then act accordingly with the assista nce of the reflections they had 80 This dimension of social responsibility and ethical action was also seen in the their 81 It raised questions of justice, freedom, equality, economic development, individualism, and human rights and asked students to reflect upon their commitment to social justice as global citizens and leaders. As a part of this 80 http://www.oes.edu/about/mission.html/ accessed June 5, 2012. 81 https://sites.google.com/a/go.oes.edu/us course offerings/2012 2013/religion courses accessed June 5, 2012.

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411 course, students developed a philosophy of service that translates their knowledge into action as change agents. 82 Inside the classroom there were, therefore, many different courses at OES that were, motivated in part by a kind of religious or ethical impulse, or that connected spiritual awareness. Many of these courses, moreover, included connections to ESD skills or content as well. It was not, however, just in the mission, strategic plan, buildings or in the classrooms that OES exhibited its role as a participant in the unfolding green revolution. Other examples of the inextricable relationship between sustainability and the religion variable w ere also found in spirit days (dressing in green emailing re enrollment contracts outreach activities such as award winning service projects, Winterim experiences, and activ ities related to food security originating with the student group known as the Green Team. 83 W Winterim experiences, for example, included an exploration of food in Portland. Students learned how food was grown and processed, how it was distributed and prepared, and what some of the issues are concerning food today. As a part of this week, students visited a local organic farm, talked to food service professionals about 82 Ibid. 83 Enrollment for 2011 http://www.oes.edu/us/subpages/feb2 2011.html accessed June 5, and financial sustainability.

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412 their work, did service at the Food Bank, and helped prepare a meal at a soup kitchen. Students visited local food carts and talked with their owners, checked out some ethnic food stores, shopped for, and prepared a meal using local products. Thus, in addition to exploring issues around sustainability and healthy food choices, students engaged in a firsthand experience that allowed them to ask and learn about hunger in Oregon and about how their own food choices affected the wider community. 84 unique. In a blog post (Apri was discussed in two different ways. First, the idea was suggested that food may be a way to practice being an Episcopalian. The food we eat, the energy we use, the goods and foods we buy, th e ways in which we travel, are all opportunities choices and decisions to be for others, both human and other. Our Christian commitment is for this that we might live that more abundant life, and that we might do it in a way that is for the whole wo rld. 85 locally grown food in their cafeterias, as well as composting systems and school dis so many opportunities for learning about science, communities, God, nutritional eating, and the enjoyment of being outside. 86 As on many Independent school campuses, food was ju st one way that sustainability interests were being cultivated and I argue that he 84 http://www.oes.edu/us/winterim/all_day.html/ accessed January 1, 2013 85 http://jesusandtheorangutan.wordpress.com/2008/04/13/episcopalianbisop/ accessed May 30, 2012. 86 Ibid.

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413 intentionality behind the purchasing or growing of food and the act of food consumption and preparation were reflecting a religion resembling behavior in the form of a ritual inclusive of community participation in these endeavors. In addition to an attentiveness toward food issues though, there were many other projects unfolding at OES as well. He was, moreover, deeply committed to his Jewish identity. For example, before enrolling at Colorado College, Jake took a gap year. He visited Israel with a program Na tional Park. Then he did service work in Asia with his parents a doctor and a health educator and his 12 year old sister. 87 Thus, it should not come as a surprise that during his two grou p focus on many different environmental and social justice projects. A myriad of different sustainability efforts flourished under the guidance of The Green Team who a student group was trying to enhance sustainability at OES. The Green Team focused on m any different projects such as setting up a recycling center in the Great Hall, conducting a Styrofoam recycling drive, and creating a Google map to help OES families find carpooling partners. The team also had a bulletin board in the Great Hall that disp lays charts showing campus use of water, electricity, natural gas, and paper. The goal was to educate themselves and others about the use of resources 87 http://www.oes.edu/about/seniors/sullivan10.html/ accessed October 29, 2012.

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414 to stimulate ideas about how to reduce consumption. 88 As Jake Sullivan said, however, it was important to remember that sustainability work was a kind of social justice work 89 Other notable examples of sustainability trends on campus may be found in outreach activities and service work. First, OES students received awards at a sustainability science fair in Houston (2012) titled ISWEEEP the International Sustainable World (Energy, Engineering, Envi ronment) Project Olympiad. OES sent two teams and one individual project to the conference and all received awards. 90 While these awards were impressive (and clearly the student projects about energy efficiency and alternative fuel sources options and its related environmental impacts have an ethical dimension to them), a more interesting example of the relationship between sustainability and religion at OES was found in a developing ritual act that In 1986, the OES com munity suffered a significant tragedy when nine members of the community (seven students and two adults) died in a blizzard while on Mt Hood during an outdoor education trip. 91 In commemoration of this loss the community 88 Ibid. 89 Ibid. 90 http://www.oes.edu/newsletter/2010 11/33may13.html/ accessed January 3, 2013. 91 http://wwwk12.atmos.washington.edu/k12/modules/n w_wx_watch/mt_hood_disast.html/ accessed November 3, 2012.

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415 chapel for a commemorative service. This intergenerational gathering begins with them el service before heading off into the community and dedicating themselves to environmental projects in the gardens, woods and wetlands of community who supported OES during the time of this tragedy ( Craig 2011). The each individual person possesses. Th Craig 2011 ). In addition to giving back during this day of service, the act of commemorating the tragic loss on Mt. Hood is also an important ritual. 92 This ritual act is of particula r interest to this project because rituals are a way to create and this may indeed be a kind of cultural production emerging each year during this commemorative service day. This ritual gathering and environmental service emerging within the larger Portla nd community is significant because it suggests an extension of these Independent schools may beyond the campus itself. If we look to a theoretical perspective tha t might offer some insight into the significance of this we could cite Roy Rappaport who argued that unity engagement in Portland might therefore be fledging evidence of new cultural production underway at OES that contributes to a greening of American culture. 92 http://www.oes.edu/newsletter/2010 11/33may13.html/ accessed Januar y 3, 2013.

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416 The multitude of sustainability trends at OES were clearly informed by and inclusive of the re ligion variable in similar ways to those, which we saw at Palmer Trinity. Just as Palmer Trinity promoted culture change by developing school wide outreach and education campaigns, programs, and incentives and worked to provide people across the school wi th information, tools, and inspiration for the challenge at hand to make Palmer Trinity sustainable for the long term, OES was doing something ideas, and cultures so that they could advance knowledge, create solutions, and enhance meaning which in the end, arguably resulted in the emergence of a form of new cultural production. This new culture involved notions about what it meant to be a true earth citizen because earth citiz power. 93 St. Stephen s and St. Agnes The third Episcopal school that was working toward greening its campus and curriculum was S t. Stephen s & St. Agnes School (SSASA) and it reflected some similar trends to both Palmer Trinity and Oregon Episcopal School in that religion was a variable in some of its greening efforts. This campus, however, seemed less engaged in new cultura l production than the other two Episcopal campuses. To help set the stage for this case study it is necessary to know that SSASA is a college preparatory school in the Diocese of Virginia that educates students from across Northern Virginia, Maryland, and Washington, D.C. from grades pre kindergarten through grade 12. The 93 http://www.oes.edu/about/mission.html/ accessed June 5, 2012.

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417 school enrolls approximately 1140 students with 445 in the upper school. Moreover, SSASA was similar to Palmer Trinity, which existed as the result of the merging between two schools. St. Agnes was founded in 1924 and the St. Stephen's School was Founded in 1944 and the two schools merged in 1991. 94 overtones were woven into the daily experience of life at thi s school. The mission statement, for example, stated that SSSAS aims to help our students succeed in a complex and changing world, we seek to inspire a passion for learning, an enthusiasm for athletic and artistic endeavor, a striving for excellence, a c elebration of diversity, and a commitment to service. Our mission is to pursue goodness as well as knowledge and to honor the unique value of each of our members as a child of God in a caring community. 95 he desire to create a Christian 96 These v alues were fostered, in part through weekly chapel services and similar to Palmer Trinity and OES, chapel was a time for student worship and reflection and was open to people from all faith traditions. 97 It was clear, as it was on the other two Episcopal s chool campuses, that education of the whole student, with a particular emphasis on the importance of service toward others was important. Evidence of sustainability (and particularly the social 94 http://www.sssas.o rg/podium/default.aspx?t=124893/ accessed August 7, 2012. 95 http://www.sssas.org/mission/ accessed August 16, 2012. 96 Ibid. 97 http://www.sssas.org/podium/default.aspx?t=129368/ accessed August 10, 2012.

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418 justice and environmental components of it) will therefore be found both inside and outside the classroom in this community with these examples of sustainability, guided in Sustainability was important enough on SSSAS campus that they have developed a special sustain ability mission statement and committee. This statement changing world that th 98 In the following examples of this commitment to su stainability on the SSS and characteristics of ESD wi ll be present. Similar to Palmer Trinity and OES, SSSAS efforts these efforts not only included the cultivation of stewardship ideals which manifested in a religious obligation to care for the earth (originating from a recognition that humans are dependen t on the environment), but the school also worked to cultivate two Episcopal schools, aspects of ESD were present in that SSSAS worked to include multiple stakeholder s, made efforts to encourage collaborative work amongst community members, emphasized the importance of interdisciplinary teaching, worked to engage students locally while recognizing the global significance of the sustainability work done on their campus and prepare students for skills in life. 99 98 http://www.sssas.org/podium /default.aspx?t=126052/ accessed August 11, 2012. 99 For example, SSSAS a passion for learning about the local, regional, and global environment and a striving for excellence in the very important and interdisciplinary study that is susta inability Please see http://www.sssas.org/podium/default.aspx?t=126052/ accessed August 11, 2012.

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419 Similar to other schools, sustainability was intentionally woven into the curriculum on SSSAS campus and the rationale for doing this was clearly originating from both explicit and implicit religious influences. First, as part of their educational goals, SSSAS 100 This was a clear statement that reflected what is sometimes known as creation care. Cre ation Care is part of the work sponsored by creation. 101 ecosystems and the life therein and a comm itment to service to our fellow humans and 102 This goal not only has a kind of DGR suggested a metaphysics of interconnection with a recognition that humans need the earth to survive. classroom) which included the idea t hat each student needs educated and had a voice and responsibility in the larger story of which they were a part on campus and in the world. This philosophy (and its connections to sustainability efforts in particular) has interesting implications later i n this discussion about how the use of narrative on these campuses has significant implications for the cultivation of an environmental ethic 100 http://www.sssas.org/podium/default.aspx?t=126052/ accessed August 11, 2012. 101 Please see more about the Evangelical Environmental Network and their Creation Care efforts at http://creationcare.or g/ accessed May21, 2012 102 http://www.sssas.org/podium/default.aspx?t=126052/ accessed August 11, 2012.

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420 connected to religious worldview. 103 For now, it is worth noting that the use of narrative to teach morals and valu es is a religion resembling behavior. More specifically, similar to Palmer Trinity and OES, the science department at SSSAS, was one place where sustainability efforts and religion were inextricably linked in the classroom. Classes such as Environmental Science, Marine Biology, Biology, Physics, Field Studies, Astronomy and Bioethics shared connections with the other connections to values found in conservation biology and in Th curriculum was that courses included questions about the usefulness of technology in y mentioned, a concern of both deep ecologists and bioregionalists who raise important questions about the role of technology in human earth relations. The other Episcopal schools did not address this topic as explicitly, but Quaker and non denominational schools will engage this topic even more. There was evidence throughout the science department that religion, ethics and sustainability interests were present and there was a strong overlap with ESD goals throughout the science curriculum as students were 104 Second, there were hints of the metaphysics of interconnection and the fostering of as demonstrated by 103 For more on how storytelling creates the world, teaches lesso ns and therefore instructs one on how to live in the world see (Basso 1996; Sandford 2012). 104 http://www.sssas.org/podium/default.aspx?t=126052/ accessed August 11, 201 2.

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421 questions, give consideration to other points of view, and never settle for the easy 105 atural theory too. 106 Specific examples of the inextricable overlap between sustainability and religion included examples from courses that suggested evidence of the im plicit suggestion that nature was to be respected, appreciated and there were strong indicators that nature had value. The AP Environmental Science classes, for example, explored principles that governed how ecosystems function and asked students to apply those principles to various problems that dealt with sustainability (such as human population growth, deforestation, biodiversity, global warming, ozone depletion, air and water pollution and renewable and non renewable energy resources). 107 The Marine Bio logy class, moreover, not only implemented field trips to local parks and waterways, but it also included clear connections to aspects of Darwinian thought (and the accompanying bout the 105 http://www.sssas.org/upper/ accessed August 21, 2012. 106 http://www.sssas.org/upper/ accessed August 21, 2012. 107 & St. Agnes School: Living Our Mission: 2012 http://issuu.com/sssas/docs/2012 2013_us_course_guide/13?mode=a_p/ accessed September 22, 2012.

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422 108 slightly more explicit statement about the awe that is to be found in the univ erse, was information to interpret for themselves the remarkable connection between molecular gained a better appreciation (per the course description) and understanding of the variety and complexity of life around them. 109 Other examples of sustainability and religion existed in the Astronomy, Bioethics, and Field Study courses as well. First, awe and appreciation of the larger universe and important questions related to sustainability (such as what are the necessary conditions 110 In addition, in this class, students studied how Earth became such a hospitable planet, explored why it was the on one in the solar system where complex life could survive and learned about the possibility that some form of life either existed or still e xists on worlds besides this one. important questions about dilemmas related to the use of new technologies related to 108 http://issuu.com/sssas/docs/2012 2013_us_course_guide/13?mode=a_p/ accessed S eptember 22, 2012. 109 http://www.sssas.org/upper/ accessed August 21, 2012. 110 http://issuu.com/sssas/docs/2012 2013_us_course_guide/13?mode=a_p/ accessed September 22, 2012.

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423 topics such as human reproduction, but it also raised impo rtant questions related to animal rights and the ethics of human experimentation on animals. 111 Population studies and animal rights are both topics dealt with explicitly by key figures in the religion and nature milieu and sustainability discourse, as I pr eviously mentioned when The Population Bomb (1968). Animal rights issues have been The Case for Animal Rights (1983) and both topics include many possible connections to the eth ical realm. The Field Studies classes were also important evidence for this project. They not only illuminated the use of experiential learning (with weekly off campus trips to local locations and all day field trips to a more distant locations) but the courses emphasized knowledge about local flora and fauna and their interrelationships in the various wetland communities found between the Atlantic Ocean and the Virginia Piedmont area. Thus, to varying degrees on the different Episcopal school campuses, there existed evidence for suggesting that a parareligion existed in the science classes as well. A form of naturalistic parareligion, moreover, was possibly playing a role, in part, of an relationship to the planet might look like. There were, however, courses outside the science department that reflected connections to sustainability and t he role of religion and ethics in this discourse as well. 111 For example, in this course students consider medical, scientific, and technological factors that result in troubling dilemmas for individuals and societies. They discuss topics such as health care issues, AIDS, human/animal experimentation, organ transplantation, reproductive technologies (RU 486, in vitro fertilization, cloning), genetics (human geno me project, gene therapy, genetic engineering), and euthanasia. Please see more at http://issuu.com/sssas/docs/20 12 2013_us_course_guide/13?e=1786195/3212519 accessed September 22, 2012.

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424 These courses included Ethics courses, Leadership courses, courses about National Security Issues, and American History. The Ethics courses were taught at multiple grade levels. During the sophom ore year, the course focused on asking students to assess their current beliefs as they were introduced to a survey of ethical frameworks, education of the mind and spirit, s tudents were asked to situate themselves within one or more of these ethical traditions. Then, students worked to clarify the cause and effect of principles and decisions in their own lives and in the lives of others. During the senior year, the students explored the ethical foundations necessary for developing responsible behavior and investigated the particular challenges that have arisen for faith and religion in modernity. These modern challenges to faith (originating with rational scientific thought ) included sustainability issues such as the appropriate role of technology, economic consumerism, and cultural secularization. As a part of the course, students also grappled with spiritual conflicts over religious convictions; and sustainability and env ironmental concerns. 112 The idea that there great are challenges to living an ethical life in the modern world was a continued motif in SSSAS Leadership course. The class focuses around a new global 113 Students not only studied leaders in religion, politics, business, sports, and entertainment and worked to 112 http ://issuu.com/sssas/docs/2012 2013_us_course_guide/13?mode=a_p/ accessed September 22, 2012. 113 http://issuu.com/sssas/docs/2012 2013_us_course_guide/12?mode=embed&viewMode=magazine/ accessed August 25, 2012.

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425 understand how leadership was motivated by specific passions and commitment s, but they learned that various roles required different personal characteristics and approaches depending on social context. They also learned how to assess their own leadership styles and to imagine and work toward the qualities they wanted to develop to become future leaders in a complex and changing world. 114 This course therefore was not only inclusive of topics that studied important aspects of sustainability (social responsibility) but it drew upon pedagogical tools from ESD (specifically learning sk ills that will have practical applications in life) and necessarily included an ethical dimension. I argue that this kind of course if providing students with opportunities and skills that will ultimately be required of them as 21st century citizens as we ll because there is a sense of civic responsibility embedded in this curriculum. Issues of sustainability and ethics were also found in history courses on campus. regional challenges that defied traditional modes of military and diplomatic thinking, but they also learned about genocide, climate change and natural disasters, potential pandemics, resource scarcity, and fundamentalist extremism. The social and environ mental aspects of sustainability were thus specifically addressed and there was understanding of key factors and players driving the national security machinery. In the AP U. S. History course, moreover, students learned about a wide time span (from pre Columbian societies through the post Cold War period) and this survey incorporated 114 2013 Upper School http://issuu.com/sssas/docs/2012 2013_us_course_guide/12?mode=embed&viewMode=magazine/ accessed August 24, 2012.

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426 many themes, such as identity, diversity, culture, demographics, economics, the environment, globalism, reform, religion, politics, and citizenship. 115 The content of this course therefore also addressed a wide variety of issues that fell unto the sustainability canopy and some of them were explicitly addressing religion and ethics. Since St. Steve n classroom because the school hoped to inspire students with a passion for lifelong learning and prepare them for 116 In addition to faculty being encouraged to provide students with opportunities in their academic courses to conduct research on campus concerning local environmental issues, sustainability issues were also found throughout example, an environmental sustainability committee, a campus garden, a school wide conservation challenge program, and an annual sustainability conference that out and connect to other local schools and other aspects of the community. Each of these examples also had either an explicit or campus as well. ustainability committee included faculty, administrators, staff (from all three campuses), and student representatives. 117 The committee had six different subcommittees and multiple goals and their goals included both religious connections or an ethical dim ension and resonated with aspects of 115 http://www.sssas.org/upper/ accessed August 21, 2012. 116 http://www.sssas.org/upper/ accessed August 21, 2012. 117 http://www.sssas.org/sustainability/ accessed August 11, 2012.

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427 ESD. 118 More specifically, their goals included the promotion of environmental awareness on campus, the maintenance of biodiversity and wildlife habitat, the restoration of damaged ecosystems, the prevention of pollution, the safe management of hazardous waste, and they work to safeguard the beauty of the landscape in the outdoor environment directly under the care of the school. 119 These goals implicitly suggested that nature has value and matters (with their attention to biodiversity and the maintenance of wildlife habitats), there was the potential ritual aspect present in their ditional to these goals having an ethical dimension or a religious connection, they also exemplified ideas found within ESD such as the importance of including multiple stakeholders, working collaboratively, working toward skills that have practical applic ations and including those of future Since the sustainability goals originated from a school wide community to ensure that sustainability was unfolding in the curriculum and in activities of student led gro ups, each division of the school assumed different responsibilities on campus. In the Upper School, the student environmental club took charge of many of these efforts and they included attention to energy issues, waste issues, and food issues. Upper sch ool students got involved with energy issues through their participation in the annual competition known as the Green Cup Challenge. They joined other schools from across the nation in an attempt to reduce energy during the winter months and the larger go al 118 The committee is broken down into six subcommittees, which include: Buildings and Energy, Curriculum, Food, Procurement, Waste and Consumption, and Water. 119 http://www.sssas.org/podium/default.aspx?t=126092/ accessed August 11, 2012.

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428 is to reduce energy consumption by 7 percent. Second, SSSAS recycled paper, plastic, glass, aluminum, and techno trash at all campuses. 120 Third, the 9 th through 11th grade advisories planted and maintained the Perkins courtyard. This was located in the center of the Upper School and was an organic vegetable garden, native plant area, and spiritual, meditative space. Food harvested from the vegetable garden was thus served in the dining halls of all three Episcopal school campuses that I examined. 121 The hand because of its connections to the religion and nature discourse. Wendell Berry, for example, feared that in modern food production methods humans have decreased their conn ections to the land. He argued that in this disconnect, many relationships are conservation movement was divided and doomed because it was either vacation oriented ( suc h as the perspective of those who belong to organizations such as the Sierra Club) or crisis oriented; but that people were failing to take into consideration issues of daily living (Berry 1977) Small gardens, however, on school campuses around the nation such as here at SSSAS connected students to the land and their food and they assisted in food growing efforts that help supply food for their larger school communities. This was similar to efforts at Palmer Trinity, which suggest that such small scale ga rdening efforts across school campuses can, interestingly enough, 120 http:/ /www.sssas.org/podium/default.aspx?t=126081/ accessed August 11, 2012. 121 http://www.sssas.org/podium/default.aspx?t=126081/ accessed August 11, 2012.

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429 sustainability trends, there are two other more overt examples of religion and sustainability at SSSAS worth noting. membership to Interfaith Power and Light (GWIPL). This is an organization that is making a religious response to climate change and they have local partners all over the supporting them in saving energy, re bidding their ele ctricity contracts, purchasing clean power, and shifting other aspects of their institutional purchasing and practices to 122 Like other Episcopal schools, SSSAS works with this organization to save power and they also used the curriculum from Interfaith Power and light to help engage their students in environmental activism. They confidently by highlighting this partnership on their we bsite in an effort to make clear how important this sustainability commitment is to both their faith and sustainability missions and goals. 123 A second example of a clear relationship between sustainability and religion was each efforts and required community service. The to people 122 eat er http://gwipl.org/ accessed May 22, 2012. 123 http://www.sssas.org/podium/default.aspx?t=126081/ accessed August 11, 2012.

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430 124 This conference had clear connections to explicit religion (in the conferences motivations) and implicit religion was made evident by coverage This article, written by Christy Goodman, explained how students took sustainability ideas outside the classroom, organized and r an this conference, and ultimately facilitated a regional gathering for the purposes of changing the way people live and promoting environmental awareness. 125 This event occurred at SSSAS Upper School campus in Alexandria and approximately 150 (middle schoo l and high school) students from over 26 schools in Virginia, D.C., and Maryland attended in 2011 and in 2012, they had delegates from schools in Asia so their efforts were growing into the international area. 126 At the conference, students spent the day of learning from keynote speakers, discussing and planning for environmental sustainability in their schools. The entire event attempted to model sustainability, which meant they included local and organic foods for snack/lunch and the students made it a wa ste free conference, which included the compostable serviceware. 127 The event also has support from local and national figures such as a 124 http://www.sssas.org/upper/ accessed August 21, 2012. 125 http://www.sssas.org/podium/default.aspx?t=126/ accessed July 29, 2012. 126 http://www.sssas.org/podium/default.aspx?t=126114/ acce ssed August 11, 2012. 127 http://www.sssas.org/podium/default.aspx?t=126114/ accessed August 11, 2012.

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431 local proclamation and attendance by Alexandria Mayor William D. Euille and a letter of support from Al Gore. The 2012 conference featured Chris Jordan, an internationally acclaimed artist and cultural activist based in Seattle, as the keynote speaker. His work asked people published wo rldwide. Jordan is an extremely popular speaker on the subjects of mass 128 With both local and national support, the desire of the students to take their commitment to sustainability f orward, SSSAS was leading the way with this unique event (the only one of its kind in the larger Washington D.C. area). This was clearly a reflection of the educate in such heritage that includes a strong sense of social responsibility. 129 Conclusions about Sustainability a nd Independent Episcopal Schools In recent decades, environmentalism has secured a place among the leadership, formal institutions, publications, and intellectual centers of Protestantism (Fowler 1995: 13). There has been a sharp rise in the amount of att ention given to environmental education at Protestant colleges and thus I would argue the aforementioned trends documented in different Episcopal high schools similarly reflect this movement to establish an increased amount of engagement between establishe d Protestantism and 128 http://www.sssas.org/podium/default.aspx?t=126114/ accessed August 11, 2012. 129 http://www.sssas.org/sustainability/ accessed August 11, 2012.

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432 ecological concerns (Fowler 1995: 140). Similar to other religious traditions there are many examples of work by Protestants with the National Council of Churches, Eco Justice Groups and stands have been taken by many mainline Protesta nt denominations and evangelicals working to support the ecological movement (Fowler 1995: 18). In addition to the individual Protestant denominations who work to tackle environmental issues, a close scrutiny of three Episcopal schools located around the nation (Palmer Trinity, OES, and St. Stephens and St. Agnes) has demonstrated that 130 As the unfolding sustainability trends on th ese three campuses demonstrated (and other Episcopal Schools reflecting similar trends) it was not only clear that aspects of ESD (both in terms of the content studied and pedagogical practices) were evident in these trends, but that Episcopal schools are mirroring patterns found in larger Episcopalian environmentalism. Perhaps these school communities are even moving a beyond the larger institutional trends as they suggest how grassroots efforts on these campus provide fertile arenas for new cultural produ ction. One of the identifiable trends in both Protestant Environmentalism and the Independent school communities was that community members work collaboratively within and outside of their immediate communities to cultivate sustainability. Episcopal Schoo sustainability efforts in schools require looking at the physical, intellectual and spiritual 130 Phina Borgeson. http://archive.episcopalchurch.org/79425_96310_ENG_HTM.htm/ accessed September 22, 2012.

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43 3 131 Co llaborative work, therefore, between all school constituents, local connections with community organizations and practical skill development are just a few examples of what is underway on these campuses. This trend directly relates to another shared patter n between Protestant churches and the Independent schools, which is that they both focus on community life with strong elements of social justice as a way to provide a meaningful framework for a purposeful life. The different schools all demonstrated that sustainability in education (combined with their Episcopalian foundations) help provide important inspiration the with some aspects of Protestant theology that make clear that all life is sacred and (Stammer 1999:1). Building on this idea of Episcopa l schools are working to provide a framework for a meaningful life, it is significant that Episcopal schools tend to raise questions of ultimate meaning in all of their curricula -from the first grade study of this world to AP Biology (Nazro 2002: 69). T his means that Episcopal schools are making a commitment, like the larger Episcopal Church, to being involved in and helping shape society. Asking and answering questions about ultimate meaning and providing some guidance for the purpose of human life sugg ests that Episcopal schools are helping to transform society rather than seeking to be rescued from it (Nazro 2002: 69). My 131 Phina Borgeson. http://archive.episcopalchurch.org/79425_96310_ENG_HTM.htm/ accessed September 22, 2012.

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434 evidence also indicates that there was a much more intentional effort, and a stronger of naturalistic parareligion in these schools when compared to the Catholic schools too. religious study into the very fabric of daily school life it becomes apparent that this is the context where the idea of a covenant emerges in these schools. This covenant is readily seen in how the emergent eco narratives are translated into action in these small school arenas. The values related to community and social justice in the mission statements and stated vision for the scho ols, for example, help guide students in their relationship with teachers, family and friends. This covenant relationship reminds students to be mindful of responsibility, accountability, trust, and integrity. It also urges students to find fulfillment in action, to learn how to make compromises and sacrifices and to learn to be cooperative in the name of community (Nazro 2002: 68). Episcopal schools, in other all who at tend our schools to build lives of genuine meaning, purpose and service in the 132 These values of Christian love and a meaningful existence were thus clearly seen as motivating factors in sustainability efforts and as one Episcop al chaplain stated, "I understand that part of my role as chaplain is to keep the community aware of our responsibility to the natural world, not just from a social or scientific point of view, but 133 A more implicit parareligious impulse, however, is also seen 132 www.episcopalschools.og/episcopal schools/episcopal identit y accessed September 21, 2012. 133 Phina Borgeson. http://archive.episcopalchurch.org/79425_96310_ENG_HTM.htm/ a ccessed September 22, 2012.

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435 of the universe through the teaching of cosmology or astronomy, growing their own food, restoring natura l habitats, reducing campus waste or hosting annual sustainability conferences. As Roger Gottleib, an expert on religious environmentalism noted, the role of quite inte resting and not a little ironic that new ecotheoigies often start not be discussing God, faith, tradition or the holy, but with reference to information provided by biologists, reciprocal feedback loop going on in schools and in the larger Protestant institutions. Schools are arenas introducing new narratives about the universe and humans place in it and science is causing some of the leading theologians to reexamine some of the most fundamental tenets of their faith (Gottleib 2006: 20). The idea that resources exist in both religion and science will be further explored, but the Episcopal schools are demonstrating a certain irony where instead of the idolatry of science being att acked (Fowler 1995: 5). Expanding on the significance of religious diversity under the canopy of Protestantism it is also important to note that Episcopalian schools do not see their close connection with the Episcopal Church as limiting in terms of what they think or it broadens our involvement in the lives of our families and in s ociety in general. The key (Nazro 2002: 69). I would be remiss, however, not to acknowledge that there are

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436 concerns and criticisms questioning the significance of these gree ning trends in Episcopal schools and the larger greening Protestant movement as well. One of the first challenges that must be noted is that the diversity present in both Protestant environmentalism and Episcopal schools can not only be understood as a re vitalizing force, but the diversity can also serve as an energy drain. The evidence about the emergent naturalistic forms of religion present on campuses and evoked through a deep experience in nature can be critiqued as insubstantial and critics view thi 87). The critics contrast this to deeply discovering the sensual in themselves and being awakened to the beauty of God in nature. Ot her criticisms emerge around green values and critics emphasize that even though it is important to celebrate that God created nature, that God is not to be conflated with nature. The skeptics are suspicious of emergent elements of pantheism and do not wi sh to compromise their understanding of God as distinctive from the natural world (Fowler 1995: 87). Another reason for skepticism about the greening trends found in these schools and their effectiveness to be working toward larger social change is made i n regard to ica was from the n American

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437 established institution raises questions about how Protestants address important issues such as consumption an d population patterns. In the past decades, these global larger issues may not have been addressed, but as Protestant environmentalism continues to evolve there is evidence indicating that Protestants do address larger cultural forces and deal directly with issues of both population and consumption. First, Protestants deal with population issues in ways Catholics have not although they still speak in a relatively muted voice. Many Protestants are, however, willing to argue that there are too many people on Earth and acknowledge that over population is overwhelming the environment and inhibiting some efforts to achieve social justice (Fowler 1995: 143). They are, however, not working very hard to help diffuse the population time bomb as one of their main agenda items. In contrast to their less aggressive efforts related to population, they are more directly addressing the issue of consumption. The Protestants have been criticized for consciously donating a few dollars here and there for conservation causes and they might see the need to manage wilderness resources wisely so that future generations could enjoy them (Gottleib 2006: 34). Protestants, however, are increasingly turning a critical and reflective lens back upon themselves and speaking out a nd working against economic growth (Fowler 1995: 148). Evidence for this exists in the reality that in addition to issuing position statements and participation in international meetings there is increased evidence that Protestants are also working to addr ess a change of behavior in their everyday lives. Beginning in 1999, for example a number of

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438 Southern California denominations met and called for additional study and actions, ranging from making church buildings more energy efficient, overcoming "self cen tered greed" and leading simpler lives that put less strain on the Earth's resources (Stammer 1999: 1). Protestant church leaders also began to admit that religious institutions have bought into the predominant consumer culture for too long and that this needs to change. "We are called to an asceticism of simplicity. We need to think about things we buy and eat and consume. Do we need everything that we buy?" asked one member of the conference of Episcopal diocese meeting to discuss such issues (Stammar 19 91:4). Additional evidence that Protestants are acting on the greening beliefs is found in a study about the structure of religious environmentalism where Protestants (tied with Jews) were second (after interfaith numbers) for being one of the religious traditions with the largest number of practitioners affiliated with non profit environmental organizations (such as organizations working to combat climate change) (Ellingson decl ared Protestants were prepared to authorize increased spending for the environment and were in favor of strong government enforcement of environmental standards which shows that political support amongst religious Protestants has grown beyond individual, t oken donations toward environmental efforts (Fowler 1995: 25). Despite these challenges and criticisms what these case studies reveal is that Episcopalian school communities demonstrate evidence that religion indeed plays an operative role in the unfoldin facilitation of a new kind of cultural production is definitely of interest, but it will soo n be

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439 apparent that Quaker school communities have much to reveal about this relationship between religion and sustainability trends in schools as well.

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440 CHAPTER 7 QUAKER AND NON DENOMINATIONAL SCHOOLS Independent School Sustainability Trailblazer s: Quaker Schools and Non denominational Schools Quaker schools located throughout the nation exhibit strong greening trends, but several of the leading schools in the NAIS sustainability movement self identify as non denominational. Non denominational s chools were usually founded with religious roots, but they no longer have explicit relationships or definitive ties with any one given religious traditions. Yet, they are extremely fertile ground for new cultural production which includes a parareligious element. This chapter thus examines two Quaker and one non denominational school as a way to investigate the extensive ways that sustainability is unfolding in these communities and to better understand the role of the religion in these trends. Quaker and non denominational schools, moreover, may not actually be as different as they seem based on this one variable (their distinctive chools as they continue to evolve under both the influences of ESD and as a result of grassroots work within these fertile, educational arenas. Before delving into the particular Quaker schools it is necessary to provide some historical context for the Qu just like the Catholics and Protestants, not only have a unique background in which their interests in sustainability issues arose, but they also have their own distinctive overarching organizat ions. In fact, unique to Quaker schools, not only do they have an organization that oversees the broader issues of Quaker education in the United States

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441 (called the Friends Council on Education), but they al so have a particular canopy organization that fo cuses on sustainability and Quaker School educational efforts. Prior to a closer examination of these organizations, a brief history about the Religious Society of Friends is useful to better understanding why Quaker schools might be taking the lead in th e NAIS sustainability movement. The Religious Society of founder of this tradition George Fox Fox preached that Quakers should leave all creatures as they found th em that creation was to be viewed with awe resources are a gift from God (Baugh 2005: 674). Contemporary Quakers focus on the questions about the fitn ess of humanity to occupy the Earth and they require that humans live harmoniously with other life. Quakers assume the goodness of creation, support the unity, interrelatedness and community of humanity with nature. They view the universe as an interconne cted community of being in which the inward dwelling of the material laws governing the universe are closely related (Baugh 2005: 674). In addition to the larger g roup of practitioners who have a close relationship with the natural world, there were Quaker individuals who acknowledge d that the eco crisis was a crisis of spirit and imagination. Key figures in the Quaker tradition provide important insights into this Bartrum and John Woolman, each had epiphanies about killing non human nature with a rare insistence that nonhu

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442 Bartrum found his spirituality in intuited by someone who had an open heart as is facilitated by Quaker practices and there is little doubt about sacredness and art The distinctive connections between Quaker beliefs and sustainability beliefs and practices will become more clear in the individual school communities, but first there are a large numbe r of organizations that connect Quakers to sustainability issues and specifically focus on environmental work such as Friends Committee on Unity with Nature (FCUN), The Quaker Environmental Action Network, Right Sharing of World Resources Quaker schools have also formed networks around ecological issues such as the Friends Environmental Education Network (Baugh 2005: 674). Despite the name of the organization, The Friends Environmental Education network, which suggests a focus on environmental education only, also focuses on a broader set of sustainability issues. The organization was founded in 1999 at the Sidwell Friends School in Washington D.C. small groups believed that environmental stewardship needed to be a fundamental component of Quaker

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443 education. 1 The purpose of the organization, which is derived from Quaker beliefs and e natural spiritual health 2 The organization focuses on peace, justice, simplicity, stewardship and service and the member schools all incorporate in these areas of focus into their individual communities in their own unique ways. It is, therefore, not a surprise that that the Quake r schools are amongst the leaders of sustainability efforts in the NAIS community. Q uaker Schools : Germant own Friends School The Germantown Friends School began in 1845 and is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the place where some of the early Quakers in the new world settled back in 1690. The school was originally a log m eeting h ouse that was built on the site of Germantown Friends School, and was most likely even visited by William Penn himself. 3 Today the school enrolls about 850 students from kind ergarten to 12th grade and the values and philosophy, but it is also a site of new cultural production with its focus on developing a good, global (ecological) citiz enry. 1 http://www.sidwell.edu/feen/feen home/about feen/index.aspx accessed February 3, 2012. 2 https://www.friendscouncil.org/InfoID/3497/RedirectPath/Add1/FolderID/883/SessionID/%7BD06DEA71 8DF9 4A82 89E2 FC5A7D93BBF7%7D/InfoGroup/Main/InfoType/Article/PageVars/Library/InfoManage/Zoom.htm accessed February 3, 2012. 3 http://www.germantownfriends.org/about gfs/a quaker school/our quaker foundations/index.aspx/ accessed February 4 2012.

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444 As in other religiously affiliated Independent schools, Germantown Friends S chool mission, stated values and philosophy offer evidence of how important the truth, challenge the intellect, honor differences, embrace the city, and nurture each 4 This emphasis on body, mind and spirit has important implications for the kind of educational experience that students have on this campus child has the capacity to learn, to build strong relationships, to be a good citizen, to be the best and it will become clear that environmental citizenship is a par t of what the school has in mind when it is cultivating this good citizenry. aspects of ESD. The purpose behind the Quaker meeting or worship practice, for example, is to come tog ether to listen and reflect in a noisy world. Students experience the intimacy and power of community which supports them both in and outside of the classroom. Germantown Friends School clearly emphasizes to its students that they are not simply learning f education to make our world a better place 5 Thus, similar to goals of ESD, the Germantown Friends S chool wants learning to be part of a lifelong process and the 4 http://www.germantownfriends.org/about gfs/our mission and philosophy/index.aspx/ accessed July 30, 2012. 5 http://www.germantownfriends.org/about gfs/index.aspx/ accessed July 20, 2012.

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445 part of a lifelong process, and as we guide and encourage our students in their personal growth, we try to cultivate and support in them principles that Friends have long considered to have las ting value 6 Some of the values of the school, moreover, are simplicity, self discipline, the resolution of differences without violence, and respect for diverse heritages and experiences which also resonate strongly with the values implicit in ESD. In b oth the Quaker tradition and in ESD the goal is thus to develop responsible well as good values which make the students good citizens of the larger world in which th ey live. make responsible choices is emphasized both inside and outside the classroom. The to understand their strengths and limitations, learning to integrate their own aspirations with the claims and values of others 7 They want students to understand the value of what they learn and how to distinguish the genuine from the artificial, the es sential from the peripheral. In this teaching about how to act responsibly, the school believes that 6 http://www.germantownfriends.org/about gfs/a quaker school/index.aspx/ accessed July 20, 2012. 7 http://www.germantownfriends. org/about gfs/our mission and philosophy/index.aspx/ accessed July 23, 2012.

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446 to all their communities will grow from a responsible role in this one. 8 This idea of students engaging in a deep, critical questioning of themselves (and necessarily of human relationships to the natural world) and the emphasis placed ng themselves outwards and impact the larger community reso nates strongly with aspects of deep e cology. While this transformation of consciousness is not stemming from experiences in wild nature in the c ase of these students, nor it is a complete transformation in the sense that students are necessarily seeing the intrinsic value of the natural world, they still can begin to see themselves in relationship to a larger whole This increased understanding in volves a shift in direction toward a metaphysics of interconnection. This which they live. This therefore resonates with deep e cology in the sense that Deep Ecologis ts believe a transformation in consciousness is a necessary step toward living more harmoniously with the natural world (Tay lor and Zimmerman 2005: 456). In other ans in the world is central to d e ep e cology and since this view involves an understanding of world that merges object observations with values, this may be a step in that direction for these students. Having established that the Quaker values and traditions are playing a role in the rationale behind the idea tha t sustainability is an important part of the German Town Friends school community, and that it is an integral part of daily life and a concern on their campus it is possible to look more closely at specific examples of these greening 8 http://www.germantownfriends.org/about gfs/our mission and philosophy/index.aspx/ accessed July 30, 2012.

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447 trends inside the cla ssroom. The curriculum itself is based around the Quaker values and each year the school community explores two Quaker testimonies. 9 These are incorporated into the curriculum and are an integral part of what students learn about as ad actively, to write clearly and persuasively, to listen thoughtfully, to think critically and compassionately, and to act responsibly in a changing world 10 The model at this school is that the academic conversation transpiring on campus (which also reso nates strongly with the ESD curriculum goals) is for teachers and Through this intellectual community the teachers and students are engaging in what Quaker educator, Parker Palmer, 1997 in Scoble 2002 : 42 ). As in some of the Episcopal and Catholic schools, the science department offers some examples of how the religious tradition m ay be influencing the greening tr ends inside the classroom. The environmental s cience class, for example, includes studying sustainability topics such as human population, renewable and non renewable resources environmental quality and pollution and societ y and decision making processes. The course also requires students to examine both local and global issues and makes use of local resources such as the Wissahickun Creek and Delaware 9 There are six primary Quaker Testimonies (simplicity, peace, integrity, community, equality and stewardship. Each year the school focuses on two of them. Please see http://www.germantownfriends.org/academics/upper school/index.aspx/ accessed June 22, 2012. 10 http://www.germantownfriends.org/academics/index.aspx/ accessed August 2, 2012.

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448 Rivers. 11 The topics of this course not only relate to topics suggested by the ESD curriculum, but there is a clear ethical component to these topics and the pedagogy of the course, similar to ESD pedagogical approaches, also includes an experiential component and collaborative group work. T at t he German Town Friends School also include s a strong ethical dimension issues related to medicine and life sciences, vaccine policies, and examine practices related to human and animal experimentation 12 The course mandates the use of critical reasoning and respect for (and between) students discussing controversial issues from a variety of perspectives In this particular example there is a strong connection to the tributary of religion and nature known as animal rights. Religious attitudes and ethical stances toward nonhuman animals provides a particularly powerful lens through which to view the larger network of relationships that humans share, or hope to share, with the natural world and these convers ations suggests hints of the quasi religious variable unfolding in the classroom on this campus. The German Town Friends School also participates in an innovative new program (along with seven other Independent schools around the nation) called The Global Academy Online which is a non profit organization. This organization offers classes online from all over the world and their mission is to replicate actual classrooms in online classrooms. The courses are intellectually rigorous, taught by gifted teachers 11 http://www.germantownfriends.org/data/files/gallery/ContentGallery/course_catalog__final201213.pdf accessed April 23, 2013. See p.33. 12 http://www.germantownfriends.org/data/files/gallery/ContentGallery/course_catalog__final201213.pdf accessed April 23, 2013. See p.34.

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449 and their goal is to foster new and effective ways of learning. The intent is also to promote a larger global awareness and help facilitate understanding by creating these diverse, global, online communities. 13 Global Online courses are small by public sc hool standards (limited to 18 students per class) and students work independently and collaboratively on projects. They use Skype, the Internet and phones to learn and this technological aspect of this kind of pedagogy and the idea that these courses help foster classroom identities (representing truly global perspectives by tapping into geographical, cultural and ethnic diversities made possible by a rich online environment) are particularly significant to this project as they suggest the shaping of a new kind of learning experience beyond traditional classroom walls. This in and of itself is a new kind of cultural production in the realm of education. In addition to sustainability being addressed inside the classroom, there are green projects and practices outside the classroom that provide evidence that German Town Friends School is prioritizing the cultivation of an ecological citizen outside the classroom as well. Similar to the Episcopal and Catholic school communities there are a wide array of student clubs that include evidence of different aspects of sustainability. The Environmental Action Club (EAC), for example, works to make the community more environmentally friendly by instituting a compost system, spreading awareness and reducing the s 14 goal is to raise awareness about water related issues and the second is to work with another school, in a water stressed part of the world, and then raise money to provide 13 http://www.germantownfriends.org/academics/academic departments/global online academy/index.aspx/ accessed January 9, 2013. 14 http://www.germantownfriends.org/academics/upper school/clubs activities/index.aspx/ accessed August 7, 2012.

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450 the area in n eed with what a well or indoor plumbing. In contrast to certain clubs emphasis on environmental sustainability, the Human Rights Group works toward social sustainability by educating and raising awareness in the community regarding human rights and human rights abuses locally, nationally and internationally. In order to gain a better sense of how these sustainability trends are unfolding more specifically from the work of these student groups it is possible to explore the green programs or practices that exist on campus. The Environmental Action Club, for example, sponsors film viewings (such as Food Inc. ) to increase awareness of the environmental issues involved in producing food or electricity. They also sell healthy snacks and CFL light bulbs at the a nnual campus events and they gather volunteers for trail maintenance efforts in the local community. The club also organizes Awareness Campa igns about recycling protocol, advocate for composting efforts and sponsor 15 The group has also initiated a "These Came From Trees" sticker campaign on paper towel dispensers, toilet paper dispensers, and printers to help raise additional awareness. Finally, every September new students get the chance to purchase a Nalgene water bottle for $3. This offer is made possible by the Parents Association who support the student led initiative to eliminate disposable water bottles from campus. 16 There is significant evidence outside the classroom that students ar e being educated and encouraged to change the way they relate to the planet on this campus. 15 http://www.germantownfriends.org/campus life/whats green at gfs/index.aspx accessed August 7, 2012. 16 http://www.germantownfriends.org/campus life/whats green at gfs/index.aspx/ accessed May 3, 2012.

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451 In a way similar to some of the Episcopal and Catholic school communities who either had gardens or who worked to address the politics of food on campus, German To to become more sustainable. First, students plant and maintain an herb garden on site. Second, the school is addresses environmental, social and economic sustainability in a wide variety of ways through their green conscience about food. For example, t he school purchases its produce from the Common Market in Philadelphia which is a farm to school initiative of T he Food Trust 17 They offer daily vegetarian meals, they eliminated Styrofoam, replaced plastic stirrers with wood stirrers, they eliminated plastic water bottles on campus even during catered events and they ensure pitchers of water are available as alternatives instea d. There is an overwhelming amount of evidence for the ways in which this school is practically sustainable and the above examples are not an exhaustive list. 18 Food is not the only arena of campus where sustainability is practiced outside the classroom. The school also has a native plant garden, is involved in collaborative restoration work with non profits, works with water issues in conjunction with an organization called Project Flow and is also recently working on an electronic recycling campaign. Fi rst, P roject FLOW is a project that origin ated from a grant through the EE explore water as artists, scientists, historians, and social activists 19 The program 17 http://thef oodtrust.org/ accessed April 23, 2012. 18 http://www.germantownfriends.org /campus life/whats green at gfs/index.aspx, accessed May 2, 2012 19 http://www.germantownfriends.org/campus life/p roject flow leadership academy/index.aspx/ accessed June 16, 2012.

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452 began in 200 9 and offers six week summer programs for rising 9th graders in Philadelphia. Last year, students in the program created collaborative projects to inform the public about local and global water issues; these included a documentary, an online water testing database, an art show, a brochure, and an elementary school workbook. 20 One of the most visible accomplishments of this program is the native plant garden that was installed by Project Flow in the summer of 2011. In this garden, the school diverts its rai n water from the canopy through a rain barrel. Then, it goes through a graded channel so that the water more naturally percolates through the soil, rather than running off the grass. The group also planted about 175 native plants. Also, in addition to redu cing storm water runoff, the garden also provides aesthetic pleasure to the community and space for butterflies, bees, and birds. 21 This project once again resonates with both the scientific and aesthetic valuation of nature as discussed in the biophilia t heory and is similar to what was present on previously discussed campuses. In addition to this native plant garden the students work toward sustainability by engaging in restoration work. Recently, the school campus became certified as wildlife habitat. I n order to do this the Environmental Action Committee (EAC) worked closely with members of the National Wildlife Federation to make this happen. And, while this project was a joint effort, it was not only high school students, but elementary school student 20 Ibid. 21 http:// www.germantownfriends.org/campus life/whats green at gfs/campus environmental projects/index.aspx?view=revision/ accessed June 12, 2012.

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453 Force project. 22 This project has particular significance in terms of its connections to ESD because it is not only collaborative work among a school and an environmental organizat ion, but it is thinking about broadening the sphere of ethical concern to include the land and its animal inhabitants. Finally, by noting the involvement of the 4th graders there is evidence that German Town Friends School is cultivating an ecological citi zenry throughout the school community and not isolating these efforts to just the high school of a more holistic community model working toward sustainability through out the community at large. Finally, it is important that the aforementioned evidence is not all inclusive of the various greening efforts underway at German Town Friends School. There is a faculty stewardship committee, there are efforts being made towar d energy conservation, there is the current electronics recycling campaign underway in conjunction with a local Philadelphia company called E force Compliance (As the EAC advisor, Ian Van Wert, use of raw materials and landfills 23 What is clear through the examples presented is that German Town Friends and much of the motivation behind these efforts is the Quaker values of simplicity, equity and social responsibility. 24 It will become evident, moreover, that this significant 22 http://www.germantownfriends.org/news/article/index.aspx?linkid=143&moduleid=167,52,74/ accessed May 5, 2012. 23 http://www.germantownfriends.org/news/article/index.aspx?linkid=1358&moduleid=167,76/ accessed June 5, 2012. 24 Ibid.

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454 effort to cultivate good global citizens is not isolated to German Town Friends School because other Quaker Schools such as West Town a nd Sidwell Friends, among other Quaker schools in America, are reflecting similar goals and trends on their campuses as well. Quaker Schools: Westtown Westtown School, located in Chester Country, Pennsylvania is a Quaker, co educational, day and boarding school founded in 1799 that enrolls serves over eight hundred students in prekindergarten through twelfth grades. 25 Similar to German Town Friends School this school has a long tradition of providing a rigorous college preparatory education for young peopl e, deriving its fundamental values from the Quaker faith. As the oldest continuously operating coeducational boarding school in the nation, Westtown has grown with the times, and when Westtown celebrated its Bicentennial in 1999, over five thousand were i n attendance to mark the end of the school's second century and the beginning of its third. Despite the long history, it continues to fulfill its original mission of providing a haven in which a child's education and moral development are valued equally, Westtown today works to nurture students and prepare them, not only to meet day to day challenges, but also to change the wor l d. 26 Thus, like most of the NAIS schools, the emphasis of the education at Westtown is on the whole person (physical, spi ritual and emotional) and it is apparent that a good, ecological 25 http://w ww.westtown.edu/about westtown/index.aspx/ accessed June 15, 2012. 26 Ibid.

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455 citizen is a part of what the school is aiming to cultivate through its educational experience. Unlike the relative diversity that was apparent across the different Catholic and Episcopal s chools, the Quaker schools are much more similar in their vast array of greening trends. The mission, values and vision at Westtown are almost identical to those of German Town Friends School. The mission states that the community is of a better world 27 prepare stu dents for world preparation requires a keen mind, an intelligent heart and the conscience to act. 28 Thus, similar to German Town Friends School, Westtown wants students to make a commitment to use what the y have learned to make a difference for others. As the them, not only to meet day to day challenges, but also to change the world 29 s character development and community. thus students are taught to values of personal integrity, spiritual growth, religious awareness, simplicity, equality, social respo nsibility, justice and peace making. Second, the emphasis on community means that students are taught to be partners in shaping 27 http://www.westtown.edu/about westtown/mission/westtown school mission statement/index.aspx/ accessed June 15, 2012. 28 http://www.westtown.edu/about westtown/index. aspx/ accessed June 15, 2012. 29 Ibid.

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456 community expectations and experiences. The school supports students as they grow toward greater responsibility and independence 30 Clearly, there are important implications for all aspects of sustainability and it will become clear how environmental, economic and social concerns are woven throughout Westtown. uenced by wards a way of life 31 Thus, as was evident at the German Town Friends School, the Quaker influence is significant in the greening trends on campus and the commitment to sustai nability is even more explicitly stated at Westtown. Westtown not only seeks to inspire and prepare our graduates to be stewards and leaders of a better world, but they also seek to engage students in the challenges of creating environmental sustainabilit y, the most critical global mandate of our time 32 The following examples therefore demonstrate not only that greening trends are unfolding both inside and outside the classroom at Westtown, but they also reveal the ways in which students are being shaped to be future leaders and ecological citizens. 30 http://www.westtown.edu/about westtown/mission/vision statement/index.aspx/ accessed June 16, 2012. 31 http://www.westtown.edu/about westtown/quaker education/what is quakerism/index.aspx/ accessed May 29, 2012. 32 http://www.westtown.edu/our program/sustainability/sustainability/index.aspx/ accessed August 6, 2012.

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457 First, Westtown has a clear sustainability mission statement and the community our institutional practices Second, they cit e the principles of the Religious Society of sustains ecological systems and that makes environmental awareness and responsible environmental action core values 33 Th e sustainability mission states that: and educational impact now and in the future so that in meeting the needs e prosperity of the institution and the larger world. We will pay particular attention in our operations to sustainable land use and management, construction and renovation of facilities, and energy and resource consumption, giving priority to practices th at can teach sustainability. Ultimately, our goal is to create an environmentally literate and responsible community of students, faculty, staff, and families whose daily actions reflect care for the earth and its biodiversity. 34 This sustainability missio n statement influences the community in many different ways. It is therefore possible to explore some of the community in more depth by looking at the curriculum and what is transpiring in terms of greening trends inside the classroom. The academic progra meet the future and help make that future better 35 Global 33 http://www.westtown.edu/our program/sustainability/sustainability/index.aspx/ accessed August 6, 2012. 34 http://www.westtown.edu/our program/sustainability/sustainability/index.aspx/ accessed August 6, 2012. 35 http://www.westtown.edu/our program/upper 9 12/index.aspx accessed August 6, 2012.

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458 Connected World 36 To further clarify what this means it is important to note that the world view Thus, similar to other NAIS schools and in accord confines 37 Moreover while Westtown aims to teach young people to think and aims to empower them to behave as stewards and leaders of a better world in ways that are courageous and compassionate they set forth certain competencies to guide the curriculum and some of these co mpetencies have clear connections to sustainability. 38 The competencies that help shape the curriculum that have the most overt connections to sustainability are ethical and cultural, leadership and collaboration, scientific and analytical literacy and i nformational literacy. As each competency is unpacked it will become increasingly clear how these goals might shape aspects of an ecological citizen. First, the ethical and cultural competency includes the idea of civic responsibility. This goal not only c ultivates students to act responsibly as local and global citizens with the interests of the larger community in mind, but it also encourages aspects of this particular comp etency include the use of systems thinking. System thinking requires students to recognize ways in which different aspects influence one another within a whole, analyzing how parts coalesce to produce an overall outcome. It 36 http://www.westtown.edu/about westtown/global competencies/index.aspx accessed August 7, 2012. 37 Ibid. 38 Ibid.

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459 also encourages culture crossin g so that students have authentic experiences of immersion in other cultures locally, nationally and internationally, and in the residential program. 39 Other aspects of this goal include attention to ethical issues where students learn to raise questions of right and wrong and seek answers that are consistent with their developing moral codes, an emphasis on sustainability, a service program where students serve, and through service, recognize they help themselves as well as others as well as an emphasis o n world religions and world languages. These last two criteria help students appreciate the varied ways in which people around the world experience God in themselves and others and understand how religion is an important motivator of peoples around the wor ld and ensures they are proficient in another language. It is clear that this competency includes many overlapping areas with ESD and is inclusive of a strong ethical dimension. The use of local and global scale is, for example, an ESD tool. The intercult ural appreciation which includes attention on introduction and use of systems thinking also provides strong evidence of new cultural production that resonates with the religion and nature milieu because it resonates with solving tasks set in a prescribed physical and soci al environment which impel the participant to the mastery of these tasks and which in turn serves to reorganize the meaning and direction eaching (Neill 2008) 39 http://www.westtown.edu/about westtown/global competencies/index.aspx accessed August 7, 2012. For more on systems thinking please see (Bateson 1980).

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460 an emphasis on leadership and collaboration. Again, this reflects a strong connection to both ESD and is inclusive of definitive ethical dimension. One aspec t of this leadership developed skills rooted in frequent practice and multiple settings 40 It also emphasizes collaboration in which students experience collaborative problem solving through regular work on diverse teams solving authentic problems in conventional and innovative ways. Students are required to learn how to be project managers which includes managing collaborative projects, incorporating group input and feedback and using interpersonal and problem solving skills to inspire others and leverage their strengths to reach a common goal and as they exercise leadership, students are expected to develop flexibility and adaptability, initiative and self direction, producti vity and accountability. These pedagogical approaches thus resonate strongly with ESD criteria about collaborating, creative problem solving, and include the ethical dimensions ls that an ecological citizen would have. connect to aspects of ESD and include a strong ethical dimension are the scientific and analytical literacy and informational literacy compe tencies. The scientific and analytical literacy includes designing and conducting experiments, analysis, the interpretation and synthesize data (inclusive of alternative viewpoints), problem solving about real world problems and the use of interdisciplinar y approaches. The informational literacy 40 at http://www.westtown.edu/about westtown/global competencies/index.aspx/ accessed November 3, 2012.

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461 competency includes good research skills, the proper selection, evaluation and use a variety of appropriate tools (such audio, video, multimedia choices) and media literacy. This means that students are critical co nsumers as they decode and understand media that infuse our lives and culture. Students are also taught to be mindful of the ethical use of technology which means they understand and act on ethical and legal issues surrounding access and use of media and i nformation technologies. 41 Thus, with the aforementioned competencies (which are not an inclusive list), guiding the curriculum it not hard to fathom that many of the particular courses on bility. Classes, for example, such as Research Ecology and Environmental Science, World Religions, mersed in a green curriculum inside their classrooms. And, prior to looking at the specifics of how the Research Ecology course helps demonstrate this it is necessary to describe e made a commitment to respecting and maintaining the campus with sustainability in mind, but there are clear connections to the religio n and nature discourse in the approach the community takes to its land stewardship practices. For example, in recognition of the importance of our fields, forest, and watershed to the intellectual and spiritual growth of the school community, the school wi ll engage in responsible stewardship for these resources and actively 41 http://www.westtown.edu/about westtown/global competencies/index.aspx/ accessed November 3, 2012.

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462 encourage practices and programs which increase knowledge and appreciation. 42 as an extraordinary r esource 43 Finally, the school incorporates the Quaker value of well maintained, and in keeping with a concern for simplicity 44 Not only is there the recognition tha t the land is therefore important for spiritual growth, but there is a dimension of awe and reverence in the acknowledgement that the grounds are extraordinary. These examples then suggest hints of parareligion latent behind some of the aspects of the unfo educational approaches and practices. Combining this knowledge about how Westtown approaches its own land with prior knowledge about the competencies guiding the curriculum it is therefore po ssible to see additional evidence for sustainability and it s religious motivations in the Research Ec ology and Environmental Science class. This class requires students to develop and execute individual research projects. nd the varied nature of the habitats found on the 600 acres there are innumerable research opportunities for student projects. Students, for example, test the soil near the mini farm, they study the relationships between different forms of wildlife near t 42 http://w ww.westtown.edu/about westtown/mission/vision statement/index.aspx/ accessed June 16, 2012. 43 http://www.westtown.edu/abo ut westtown/mission/vision statement/index.aspx June 16, 2012. 44 Ibid.

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463 lakes and streams, or look at seed dispers al mechanisms in the woods. 45 Students are landscape, putting together individual p and through experiences with nature they better understand certain topics that fall under the canopy of sustainability. This is significant because students then get to apply their individual knowledge tow ard the preservation and upkeep of their campus. This kind of their Quaker values and ideals. 46 The Research Ecology class is not the only example in the curriculum where religion, ethics and sustainability overlap inside the classroom, nor where evidence of connections to ESD exists. Other classes that illuminate this inextricable overlap between religion and sustainability (and resonate with ESD goals o r content) are courses such as E nvironmental Issues, Biology, Peace and Justice, Ethics and Business, Liberation Theology and Religion and Social Change. The Environmental politics, economics an energy, resources, pollution, overpopulation and the loss of biodiversity. Students are portunities for class activism 47 45 http://westtowngreen.com/2012/05/30/westtowns 600 acre campus becomes the textbook 2/#more 6/ accessed October 18, 2012. 46 http://www.westtown.edu/our program/upper 9 12/curriculum guide 2009/index.aspx accessed December 2010. See p.18 47 Ibid.

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464 The Peace and Justice class taught about intolerance and focused on issues of religion, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. What is significant about this course is that part of the course examines international issues and the role of the UN in s olving world conflicts. This class also has a strong experiential component through fieldtrips project that engages them in creating meaningful change (at the local, stat e, national or international lev 48 The Ethics and Business class explores the relationship between money, labor, found in both religious and s ecular organization T he Liberation Theology class examines religion as a vehicle for social and political resistance and change in the modern world. It seeks to expose the student to religion in practice, specifically, in the face of poverty, corruption, and socio economic oppression 49 The ethical dimension is therefore woven into the various science, business and religious studies classes and this is also evidence for how aspects of sustainability were addressed. With a clearer understanding of the e to explore what is going on outside the classroom in an effort better understand how this school is working to cultivate an e cological citizenry in the many opportunities it provides for student during their educational experience. and some of the most overt examples of the school taking environmental sustainability 48 Ibid, 19. 49 Ibid, 52.

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465 seriously are in their campus operations. Westtown fo cuses on environmental sustainability through both conservation and innovation and the school sets measurable goals and launches initiatives to reach them. Some of the places these greening trends are most evident are in their policies about energy and in its electrical, oil, and natural gas consumption. As part of their commitment to sustainability, the school strives to efficiently manage an d reduce their consumption of energy. 50 Evidence that these efforts were successful has emerged most recently when Westtown hit the million pound mark in November of 2009. At that time the schools had reduced their CO2 emissions by 1,038,240 pounds since t he previous January and this was the direct result of conservation efforts that began after a thorough campus energy audit by Practical Energy Solutions of West Chester. 51 effort School became an energy producer in November of 2008 when they made a decision to work with Chesapeake Solar to install the panels. The panels cover the entire front roof of the new complex and generate from 50,000 to 55,000 kWh hours of electricity each year and this also helps the school reduce air pollution. 52 50 http://www.westtown.edu/our program/sustainability/mission policies/index.aspx/ accessed May 28, 2012. 51 Energy Management Policy http://www.westtown.edu/news/detail.aspx?linkid=2014&moduleid=268 accessed May 28, 2012. 52 http://community.westtown.edu/Page.aspx?pid=362/ accessed June 1, 2012.

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466 which was created to stop all unnec essary idling of any motor vehicle on school property. and the community to harmful exhaust fumes, conserve fuel, reduce greenhouse emissions, and prolong engine life. The policy was also designed to exceed standards of the P ennsylvania state no idling law put into place February 6, 2009. policy includes such guidelines as drivers turning off engines, asking drivers not to restart them until it was time to depart from loading zones in front of schools, no idling of s es while waiting for students to depart or return from field trips, and no idling of service or delivery vehicles on school grounds. 53 The school, therefore, has put into place some systemati c practices that reflect their commitment to environmental sustainability which means the students at Westtown taught that this is part of what it means to be a member of the Westtown community. The daily life at Westtown has put into place structures that help the individual students practices are being nurtured and cultivated by their at tendance at this school. The students are therefore being shaped in new ways by their educational experiences as more ecologically literate students both in terms of the necessary skills to think and act with others in a global world, but also in terms of practical, everyday living activities. Westtown also systematizes economic sustainability. First, economic sustainability goes hand in hand with environmental sustainability as exemplified in the 53 http://www.westtown.edu/our program/sustainability/miss ion policies/index.aspx/ accessed July 2, 2012.

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467 reduced their carbon footprint and they have cut costs by over $76,000. Second, the school has a sustainability committee which is comprised of trustees, faculty members, students, and parents. This committee not only focuses on financial conservation eff orts with the administrative decision making, but they committee works with funding from The Next Generation Endowment Fund, and the John Baird Sustainability Fund. 54 The committee takes into consideration the rate of return of sustainability investments. I f that return equals or exceeds that of the endowment, they consider using endowment to fund to partially fund the opportunity. This is significant because it means that money is both saved by and invested in sustainability efforts made by the Westtown co mmunity and demonstrates that they are incorporating more aspects of sustainability into more aspects of their entire community than many of the other schools examined thus far. Finally, social sustainability is also a focus outside the classroom and is e 1970s and works to bring Westtown students in closer contact with the outside community. 55 The program involves putting students in contact with local social service agencies. Students not only learn how human societies interact with the natural world, but they also learn that the world doesn't end at the edge of campus. They learn that students gain a better understanding of academic content by applying skills and knowledge to benefit society. For example, student learning projects might focus on 54 Strategic Plan 2004 http://www.westtown.edu/about_westtown/documents/strategic_plan.pdf accessed Oct 15, 2010. 55 http://www.westtown.edu/our program/upper 9 12/experiential education/service network/index.aspx/ accessed June 24 2012.

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468 homelessness, environmental destruction, prison reform, or the Arab Israeli crisis. Westtown believe s that service learning, as a part of the academic curriculum, is one of the most effective means of teaching students about the connection between what they learn in the classroom and the world around them. 56 Westtown is a significant example of how the Q uaker values and ideology are create an environmentally literate and responsible community. They made a serious are for the earth and its strategies, and curriculum decisions in the context of their sustainability mission. 57 The 600 acre campus is also a place where they put this knowled ge into action and work to protect the diversity of species they study and learn about through restoration projects among other things. There is, therefore, an inextricable connection between the greening of religion and the new cultural production involve d in the cultivation of an ecological citizen unfolding on this NAIS campus. While Westtown continues to search for innovative ways to involve students (and other constituents of the school) in its sustainability mission it is also leading by example. Thi s school begins to reveal how a paradigm shift may indeed begin to occur as there is little doubt that this community is a harbinger of change both in terms of educational practices. Finally, Westtown demonstrates how greening a campus can actually be fisc ally wise -which is of particular interest to any NAIS schools. Fiscal 56 http://www.westtown.edu/our program/upper 9 12/experiential education/service network/index.aspx/ acce ssed June 24, 2012. 57 http://www.westtown.edu/about westtown/welcome/mission/environmental mission/index.aspx June 24, 2012.

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469 concerns, similar to concerns of any business, are an issue in these schools who face the very modern reality that they must also be constantly aware of the financial challenges of the 21st century as they innovate and market their schools to the next generation of students (who are sometimes, necessarily, viewed as these school customers). N on denominational Schools : Lawrenceville I t is necessary to note that non denominational scho ols are also among the leading NAIS schools in becoming more green after h aving explored the ways in which Quaker schools are demonstrating strong sustainability trends,. Schools such as the Head Royce School in C alifornia and Lawrenceville in New Jersey are just two of these examples. This project examined Lawrenceville as the prot o ype for these schools that not identifying with one given religious community. Lawrenceville not only because it is exhibits a commitment to sustainability in all aspects of i ts community and throughout its campus, but it also demonstrates how the religion variable has been pervasive in this community over the decades despite the school self identifying as a non denominational. Although Lawrenceville has received much press and attention for its sustainability efforts in chapters of books, in local media coverage and at NAIS conferences, the role of the religion in these sustainability efforts has been ignored. This project, therefore, seeks to explore religion and its influence on this exemplary community and I argue that this campus is one of the best examples of how extensive and significant new cultural production is within the Independent school arenas as one searches for evidence about how education might matter in ethics a nd human and nature relationships in the future.

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470 History, Religious Foundations and Nascent Green Roots the early life of the school and there is also much evidence to co simultaneous adherence to influences from its historic past and its notable innovativeness is not surprising as Lawrenceville prides itself on precisel y these two key nts 58 The current Headmistress, Liz Duffy, therefore, has not only continued traditions that foster than ever to human and nature relationships and the quasi religion variable is also an influence to be noted on this campus today. The history of Lawrenceville beg an operative religion variable which is present from the start. The first Head m aster of the school was Rev. Isaac V an Arsdale Brown (1810 1834) and the role religion played in his influence on shaping Lawrenceville is not insignificant because he was strongly influenced by the Rev. Robert Finley During his junior year of college one of his closes friends said it became clear that God had visited Finley in and impressed his mind deeply with a sense of th e importance of religion (Brown 1819: 16). Finley therefore, was ordained as a Presbyterian minister and began to manifest that peculiar talent for the government and instruction of youth which he afterwards exercised and displayed, 58 http://www.lawrenceville.org/about/history/index.aspx/ accessed July 23, 2012.

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471 in several stations, in a manner so highly reputable to himself and useful to the public ( Brown 1819: 17). Finle y had a plan for instructing youth in the knowledge of the Bible through classes at the school and he began this is 1815, but what is interesting is that there is also evidence of the natural world being significant in his rhetoric as well (Brown 1819: 60) Finley thought that if the young would have their attention directed to the most important truths; it would lead the way, by easy stages, to almost daily conversations on religious subjects: it would finish the minds of the young with such a fund of kno wledge as might prevent their becoming victims of enthusiasm and error. It would be advantageous to ministers themselves: it would excite their zeal, and the zeal of their people, and with the blessing of God and the aids of his spirit, may be instrumental in conjunction with other means, of hastening the time when the knowledge of God and his word shall cover the earth, as the waters do the sea (Brown 1819: 61 n ). In addition to Finley of the natural world in his vision, he also imagined the teac hing about religion in a similar way to educators emphasizing the important o f religious literacy today. Finley in other words, was interested in teaching about religion, not in instructing people by using biblical sacred scriptures Finley believed that teaching religion the scripture annexed, but be added to it, and make a leading feature in the course of 1819: 62n ) In his vision of religion being a p art of the curriculum t here is also evidence that Finley had strong social justice interests. He was working within government of N ew J ersey to form a subordinate col onization society for the state of N ew Jersey so to enable them (the colour people of NJ) to that condition to which they are entitled by the laws of God and nature, it appears desirable, and even necessary, to separate them from their former masters, and place them in some favorable situation by themselves, perhaps in Africa, the land of thei r fathers (Brown 1819: 103 n ).

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472 Finley the then novel foreign language study and routine exercise of the 1820s. 59 Finley influence on Lawrenceville was thus rooted in his id ea that teaching about religion was important and his rhetoric not only includes references to natural world, but he has strong inclinations about social justice and diversity issues. The school continued to develop and one of the more significant moments in its evolution occurred in 1883 when the school was transformed and renamed under the that it established its housing system and intense school spirit, but it is also significant to understanding its early green roots because the changes that transpired on campus were influenced by the landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted who was hired to build a park like campus which he did by planting over 371 trees. 60 Olmstead not only designed Central Park, but he is known in the Religion and Nature sub discipline as key figure and he is known for his design which is now a Nation al Historic landmark. 61 T he school identity continued to be shaped by the new grounds, and until 1968 when the first chaplain was hired, the religion variable remained operative because the role of the Headmaster was also the role of the chaplain. In the a rchives of sermons delivered at Lawrenceville by different Headmasters a few of them become particularly 59 http://www.lawrenceville.org/about/history/index.aspx/ accessed July 23, 2012. 60 http://www.lawrenceville.org/academics/bunn library/stephan archives/frederick law olmsted and the trees of lawrenceville/index.aspx/ accessed July 24, 2012. 61 http://www.lawrenceville.org/about/history/index.aspx/ accessed July 23, 2012.

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473 relevant for better understanding the religion variable and its connection to nature that for example, Headmaster James McKenzie (1883 1889) delivered a sermon that addressed a very pressing issue at this time which involved the question about the Sunday Laws and whether or not the Sunday Rest be Maintained by Legislation. This sermon is of p articular interest because McKenzie shares some insights into his perspective about Nature in it. For example, according to McKenzie: human rest no less than human labor is under the reign and compulsion of law. Nature, which imposes the necessity of toil, also by a mandate universal in its extent and uniform in its operation requires of all men, savage or civilized, the taking of rest i n sleep during a part of every day of twenty four hours. The means of bodily sustenance and nutrition by food and drink vary indifferent parts of the habitable earth, and the conditions human well being in other respects depend upon place and circumstance but the law of nightly rest is everywhere the same (M ackenzie in Butler 1893 : 171) to the idea of a weekly day of rest, an idea so universal that it has been said that every d ackenzie in Butler 1893 to show that there is anything in the laws of Nature or in the constitutions of man wh ich requires abstinence from work on Sunday, or any other day of weekly rest, as a ackenzie in Butler 1893 : 187) However, he does mora l obligation not natural law (M ackenzie in Butler 1893 unpublished : 206). This sermon not only suggests an intentional exploration of the relationship between the natural world and ethics of living in it, but it also suggests that a holistic approach to

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474 li community. are even stronger hints of McKenzie exploring and ultimately connecting religi on, nature can be doubted that the immortality of manhood is often a direct consequence of earlier immora 62 affairs must be traced to the exceptional character of the activities of our highly civilized nations by that which is gross, physical, industrial, the next will be s 63 n, must be first introduced into its schools This utterance, true of everything, is especially true of religion 64 He elaborated that boys lack reflectiveness, meditation and experience, they, on the other hand have those prime qualities of religious sus ceptiveness their sense of awe, subjection to authority, obedience, comparative innocence, tenderness of conscience, ready penitence, and most encouraging of all 65 McKenzie concludes 62 James C. Mackenzie, "Sanctification of Spirit, Mind and Body" sermon preached at Edit h Memorial Chapel, Dec. 15, 1895, James C. Mackenzie Papers, Box 9, folder 29, The Lawrenceville School Stephan Archives.p.3. 63 Ibid. 64 Ibid, 4. 65 Ibid.

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475 that the large boarding schools are the greatest single influenc e for good in the national life. 66 but what is more fascinating is his next statement where he includes a connection to the natural world. McKenzie stated Happily, the se schools are for the most part located in the country among the trees, fields, ponds, streams, flowers, and the birds which almost unconsciously lift young life up to the god of nature. Removed from the distractions and dissipation of city life, nine ten ths of all the waking thoughts and wor ks are services for God and man. 67 the universe and n e best of reasons 68 was to be cultivated through religion in the natural setting in which successfully educational institut ions were embedded was particularly striking though especially considering who was going to arrive at the school in 1904. Leopold and his L egacy at Lawrenceville Leopold and his legacy as a renowned ecologist, conservationist and influential figure in land He was motivated to transfer into the Lawrenceville School in 1904 (half way through his junior year) because he wanted to pursue a career in forestry. It was his hope that in attending L 66 Ibid, 5. 67 Ibid. 68 Ibid, 7.

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476 School of Forestry which had been re cently established (Laubach 2007 : 2). During his time as student at Lawrenceville, Leopold wrote 175 letters and scholars surmise this was most like ly out of duty as he was the oldest child and most likely wanted to keep his parents informed of his life away from home. that surrounded Lawrenceville. He took regular hikes and o ften wrote about his observations in his letters which included details about specific plants and animals (Laubach 2007 : 2). The 15 months Leopold spent at Lawrenceville provided him with the opportunity to develop his ability to observe, write, and speak about his passion for nature and the outdoors. The insights he gained by traveling and observing both nature and human land as he came to be called by students and teachers alike at Lawrenceville. Lawrenceville, in other words, was formative and critical to his success as an ecologist and author (Laubach 2007 : 5). he provided an unparalleled look at the biodiversity of central New Jersey and he participated in some early efforts related to land restoration. His legacy in land management included ideas about alternate uses of forest service land. Rather than simply using it for timber harvesting, Leopold saw economic potential of leaving some land as recreational areas. He saw this opportunity as a way for later generations to s tudy and enjoy the wilderness that might otherwise have been put to more intensive human uses (Laubach 2007 : 3). By the late 1930s, Leopold also became a spokesperson against predator control and other management practices that were

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477 contributing to an expl osive growth in populations of game species. He understood (as shown in his letters, field notes, and wildlife journals) the importance of a healthy, intact ecosystem for outdoor laboratory (Laubach 2007 : 3). Moreover, restoration ecology was a related int erest of Leopolds. This was a new field involved restoring land that had been degraded by overly intensive agriculture or other human uses to its original pre settlement vegetation state (Laubach 2007 : 4). Leopold went on from Lawrenceville to a distingui shed career in several related the result of years of developing his ability as an observer of nature, beginning as a child and continuing as a student at Lawrenceville. No t only were his skills practical from the standpoint of establishing a career (observational and analytical) that developed at Lawrenceville, but they allowed him to contemplate the relationship between humans and their environment with fuller understandin g of the ecological complexity of their relationship (Laubach 2007 curriculum and sustainability initiatives. It is also important to note that his legacy lives on in an Aldo Leopold Award, Aldo Leopold Chair and Aldo Leopold fellowship at the is presented to an alum in carried on in this fellowship as seen by a La

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478 to educate everyone, especially the freshmen, about proper waste disposal and Lawrenceville, like an Independent school in America, has under gone significant changes since its establishment, but some of the key highlights for Lawrenceville include the introduction of the Harkness method of education (1936), the acceptance and arrival of female students (1987), and an increased emphasis on diver sity. As the diversity of its students in gender, geography, faith, race and socio acets of the global community and an appreciation for and understanding of multiculturalism 69 In pedagogical mission, and the religion variable was operative from its origi n. The school has been shaped by its designer (Olmstead), the influences of its early leaders, and the legacy of its alumnus Aldo Leopold which combined together have influenced a unique educational opportunity for students and the local community. This c ommunity, in other words, was shaped by these D ark G reen R themselves as a kind of beacon of spiritual light. Each of these figures, in other words, has left their mark on this community and they teach through their lega cy. The evidence of this is seen in the strong greening trends unfolding at Lawrenceville which includes the students continued learning about themselves and the world with an increased appreciation for the natural world in the footsteps of these elders. 70 69 http://www.lawrenceville.org/about/history/index.aspx/ accessed July 23, 2012. 70 http://www.lawrenceville.org/about/green campus initiative/index.aspx/ accessed August 2, 2012.

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479 Lawrenceville Today Having identified some of the religious influences and historical foundations of is a leader among NAIS arena in the sustainability movement today Today, Lawrenceville has committed to a Green Campus Initiative which means it is taking a holistic approach to campus sustainability. The initiative focuses on energy, materials, land and water use and also incorporates methods that promote ecological literacy, sustainability education and it involves the broader community outside the school in these efforts. 71 The current Headmistress, Liz Duffy, began her job overseeing the ents a new generation of head leadership in our schools. Lawrenceville is a leader in many of the areas of sustainability that NAIS advocates, so Liz will be a source of counsel and It is important, however, that this Green Campus steadfast commitment to the two key characteristics of the school. Duffy explained and how proud she was that students to be responsible leaders through an emphasis on newer initiatives: 2 educational vision for students at Lawrenceville was further clarified in a convocation address that she gave her first year as Headmistress in 2003. In this speech d 71 Ibid.

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480 them and she asked them to reflect on the difficult process of transformation (Duffy 2003 a : speeches as well. Think about how experiences [at Lawrenceville and the opportuniti es this educational experience has offered] have broadened your understanding of the world, of each other, and of yourself. In order to thrive in the global world in which you will all live and work, you will need to be able to have honest and open convers ations and debates, to interact comfortably with people from backgrounds different from your own, and to harness the wisdom, insights and hard work of many people to achieve lasting solutions to the complex issues that will confront your generation (Duffy 2008: 3). What was most striking about her speech es hat challenge your assumpt ). Duffy not only explicitly stated that she hoped each student left Lawrenceville with deeper self awareness, but there was certainly a spiritual and ethical dimension to her words as she hinted t o graduates that she hoped they were now better people and better equipped global citizens as a result of being in the Lawrenceville community as they headed off into the larger global arena. al vision in mind, it is now possible to explore some of the ways that Lawrenceville helps shape students, both inside and outside the classroom, with its curriculum and green campus commitments The multiple opportunities offered on this campus in both realms undoubtedly help cultivate students of both themselves and the world in which they live. It is also important to explore the religion variable (and its presence or absence) on campus as well. In 1968, Bruce McClennan was the Headmaster and he decided to no longer require daily chapel

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481 attend ance This remains the case today and yet Lawrenceville sees itself as a leader days of the daily and mandatory Protestant serves are over, but the chapel building is 2005: 19). The Lawrenceville In 2013 Rev. Sue Anne Morrow serve d a t aught various religious courses as well as organize d different programs and events in the multi faith chapel. Students must attend a chapel service at least twice a term (six times a year total), but the kind of service that stud service one Sunday might be followed by a Unitarian the next, which might be followed by a service in the African American church tradition the next 2005: 19) The chapel space also provide s for Catholic, Jewish, Buddhist and Hindu services and the unique opportunity for any student to see the m all students up. I love energizing them or confusing them. I like orienting them and then disorienting them. A classroom is the center of the community. Asking questions, tomorrow. Her goal is to elevate a kind of equality amongst the multi faith perspectives

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482 and create a common ground in the chapel space for all the different faith traditions literacy that faith and religious belief is not regarded as unim portant. There are, moreover, other examples that religion and ethics play a role in the Lawrenceville community as well despite its non denominational stance. The mission of Lawrenceville is a good starting place for a glimpse into the many ways that eth ics, morality and religion are involved in the greening trends transpiring in inspire and educate promising young people from diverse backgrounds for responsible leadership, personal fulfillment and enthusiasti c participation in the world. We help students develop high standards of character and scholarship, a passion for learning, an appreciation for diversity, a global perspective, and strong commitments to personal, community and environmental responsibility. 72 transforming a person and the larger world, it illuminates a respect for diversity, it suggests that personal fulfillment is a significant part of the high school education expe rience and it states that a global mindedness and a certain amount of responsibility to the larger world is extremely important. This mission, therefore, sets the stage for more specific examples about how these values and goals get implemented in specific green trends unfolding in the Lawrenceville community and throughout the daily life at the school. 72 http://www.lawrenceville.org/about/history/our mission/index.aspx/ accessed July 24, 2012.

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483 connections to the Religi on and Nature milieu Lawrenceville also provide s an insightful glimpse in to the way that non denominational campuses may still be significant sites of new cultural production even though the overt influence of a particular religious tradition is not one of the driving forces behind its sustainability trends. In fact, what is transpiring independ ent high schools. It also suggests that parareligion may be emerging in these kinds of arenas because sustainability becomes more of a focus than an adherence to and traditions. Across the curriculum at Lawrenceville there are indications that education is responding to the need to address larger global issues in interdisciplinary ways and classes emphasize that learning is oriented more toward developing the kind of skills and knowledge that has practical, real world applications than ever before. The following evidence will illuminate the holistic curricula found on campus and focus on the environmental dimensions that are most important to this discussion about sustainability, especially those that have a parareligo us dimension. These examples are not, by any means exhaustive classroom both in terms of pedagogical trends and content related issues. The most explicit examples that sustainability is a priority curriculum include the presence of courses that deal directly with this particular topic. Lawrenceville offers a Sustainability Seminar, for example, which is a course about food and about designing social change. The sustainability sem

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484 approach to explore concepts of sustainable development in association with campu s centered research / projects 73 This course not only works to bridg e the gap between readings and the complex reality of current issues, but it also asks students to think creatively to solve real world problems that exist on the Lawrenceville campus. Students work collaboratively in teams to design, implement and manage various su stainability projects on campus. 74 The courses about food and designing social change are also explicit examples of how integrated sustainability is in to the Lawrenceville curriculum and the se courses also resonate strongly with the pedagogical methods put forth by ESD. The course about food deals with issues related to food security (its availability and access) and teaches about food as a complex and challenging public health issue. It addresses population issues by examining the reality that one billion people are under nourished and it also addresses the obesity issue by studying how and why a billion are overweight. This course also helps students understand the process of food production farm, community gardens in Trenton and local o rganizations that address issues of food security and hunger. Students complete this course having investigated the impacts of food choices on a personal, societal and environmental level 75 This course clearly engages students in the dialogue about releva nt sustainability issues, but also requires them to learn and actively apply what their learning in practical extensions of 73 http://www.lawrenceville.org/data/files/gallery /ContentGallery/Course_Catalog_for_20122013.pdf accessed May 4, 2012. See p.64 74 Ibid. 75 Ibid, 65.

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485 the school and local communities while they also become more aware of their own personal choices and the resulting ramifications The Design of Social Change course is yet another explicit example of the overt ways that Lawrenceville addresses sustainability in its classrooms. This course teaches thinking is a user oriented process which takes advantage of conce pts found in art and engineering, and is used to develop solutions that have the potential to impact individuals, communities, and societies 76 In this class students take on the role of design thinkers who solve problems through a discrete process that in clude deep observation, imagination, prototyping, and iteration. The course is interdisciplinary as it focuses on the intersection of art and engineering and students study the foundational concepts of both fields while considering design thinking as the d omain where the two disciplines overlap. Similar to the other sustainability courses on campus, students learn how to solve problems through design and work on projects relevant to their community and they engage in discourse on the potential of solving re al world problems with an interdisciplinary approach. Student projects have ranged from improving campus dining services and the way Lawrenceville recycles to final projec t is designed by small student groups, whose goals are to implement designed solutions to make a short or long term impact on their community. 77 Sustainability is not just addressed in such explicit examples of courses about sustainability at Lawrenceville though. It is also found in the more traditional courses 76 Ibid, 69. 77 Ibid.

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486 offered at most Independent secondary schools throughout the nation. The breadth of financial endowment, thus th e evidence of ways that courses include content related to independent school campuses where both faculty numbers and finances limit the kinds of courses offered. Lawrence ville offers courses that connect to social sustainability issues related to social diversity, gender and helps cultivate notions about global citizenship. Typical to ot her schools, for example, Lawrenceville teaches a world religions quest for meaning and universal part of all cultures, the study of world religions is essential to t he ed ucation of world citizens 78 Students explore the essential teachings, practices and living worldviews of Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam while encountering a core Language of Understanding through a case studies approach and nurture the essential deep thinking skills of complex idea, worldview and thick description. 79 introduces students to ideas and cultural patterns that began to emerge in the fifteenth century that challenged traditional authorities and ways of thinking that have shaped the modern 78 Ibid, 52. 79 Ibid.

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487 of ideas about free will, community, freedom, and citizenship by exploring the works of several historically significant authors whose avowed goal was to awaken the complace nt and challenge previously held assumptions. 80 An advanced research seminar also combines foundational aspects of global citizenship with economics. In this course produce individual research focusing on the capitalism, urbanization, and philanthropy of t he Gilded Age, both inside and outside the gates of Lawrenceville. whether that is the state or i ndividuals, to act responsibly 81 Economic sustainability is also add ressed in some typical course offerings such as basic and honors economic courses. The basic economics course introduces general economic concepts and how they apply to everyday life. Students will look at how markets operate to reconcile supply and demand the role of interest groups and government in forming economic policies, the importance of advertising and brand image, and the diversity of financial markets. Special attention is devoted to the causes and possible remedies for economic cycles as well a s the consequences of increased global ization and international trade. 82 There is no doubt that the economics courses raise issues of social and environmental sustainability, but the courses that more directly address aspects of the environment include more traditional science classes such as the Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics class, ecology courses, biology, chemistry and environmental science classes. The Atmosphere and Ocean course, for example, teaches students about three 80 Ibid, 21. 81 Ibid, 22. 82 Ibid, 20.

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488 areas of physical geography: cli matology, physical oceanography and meteorology. This provides a unique opportunity for students to start with a few simple fundamental ideas in science, gradually add new threads and weave ideas together to explain and predict the larger story climate and weather. 83 Basic and honors level biology and chemistry classes not only teach about the natural world, but they also teach about the applications of this knowledge. The biology class, for example, teaches about different levels of structural co mplexity from the subcellular to the biosphere, but the different biological themes are also discussed and assessed in th e context of authentic problems. 84 and medicine whereas in the basic C hemistry class students explore fundamental questions by looking at interactions between matter and energy on both a microscopic and macroscopic level continued development of skills related to disciplinary understanding, including evaluating claims and evidence, and the role of unce rtainty in scientific kno wledge. 85 Finally, the particulars of the natural world and are also introduced to students through the Honors Environmental Science and an Honors Ecology course. The honors environmental science class requires students to use scientific principles, content and methodologies to study the interrelationships of the natural world and learn to identify and analyze environmental problems, such as population issues, pollution, energy and 83 Ibid, 59. 84 Ibid, 61. 85 Ibid, 58.

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489 climate change. Critical thinking skills will be applied to evaluate risks an d consequences associated with these problems and to examine solutions for resolution and prevention of such problems 86 The Honors Ecology class is also focused on students developing practical application skills as it teaches them about the structure and dynamics of local ecological systems, exploring how organisms interact with their environment. A large portion of class and lab time will be spent in nearby forests, fields, marshes and streams learning to identify and explain patterns observed in nature 87 Students are also introduced to the natural environment and its complexities through research in Field Ecology courses where they eventually travel to the Peruvian Amazon. In the first term of this course, students will read and discuss the primary litera ture in order to develop understanding of ecological principles and concepts as they operate in the tropical rainforest, and in order to gain exposure to some of the methodology used to conduct research in ecology in the Amazon. 88 Lawrenceville does not jus t teach about sustainability through classes that individually address one aspect of sustainability. Many courses also reflect some strong connections to ESD in terms of pedagogical approach. Several of the above courses have already demonstrated an inter disciplinary approach, applications to the real world, the complexity of the current world, the collaborative approach to learning, but there are other examples of these pedagogical approaches as well that are worth mentioning to demonstrate just how exten sively the issue of sustainability is addressed, both directly 86 Ibid, 64. 87 Ibid, 61. 88 Ibid, 62.

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490 most explicitly exemplified through an Interdisciplinary capstone course that explores Health Care wit h a particular focus on the Affordable Care Act. The course examines health care debates, the legislative process, the role of corporations and finances, the world. Our broad q uestions will include: What can we expect from our government and fellow citizens? Who pays for it? How do we make sense of all the competing positions and research? What are the i ssues that should be discussed? 89 In addition to the interdisciplinary focus, courses at Lawrenceville aim to make students aware not only about local, but also global issues and also to be more aware in France focuses on the legal controver sy in France surrounding Muslim women wearing of the headscarf and/or veil in public community spaces (schools). The course begins by examining global migration in the 20th century, French colonialism in North Africa, the Algerian wars of independence and, general European attitudes towards Muslim immigrants, and suggest multiple motives for specific French laws regarding female clothing. 90 the content of the courses mentioned thu s far and the pedagogies used to teach them resonate strongly with ESD. This glimpse is just a partial view into how extensively 89 Ibid, 28. 90 Ibid, 56.

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491 The Naturalistic Parareligious Dimension Having explored the myriad of ways that Lawrenceville, a non denominational school since the 1960s, is teaching about its various commitments to sustainability it is important we explore the presence of naturalistic parareli gion in these greening trends. First, inside the classroom there is its indisputable presence. Some of the more obvious examples in the curriculum that hint of this naturalistic parareligious religious dimension, include courses suc h as Religion and Ecolog y Heresy: Philosophy, Religion, & Science Ethics and Bioethics courses. Each of these courses, in some way, directly exposes students to questions and ideas about the relationship between the religion variable and the natural world. The Religion and E cology course, for example, explores human perception of the natural world and invites students to explore the many influences that shape notions human nature interactions are shaped by cultural constructions, cosmology, and ethics, but they also learn that science can describe the relationships but not necessarily prescribe meaning to these ecological verities. The course also explores what makes a place sacred, and what is a how geography, nature, and ecology itself influence the development of religious thought and practice. F inally, the course asks students to think about the potential role of religions in managing the global e nvironmental crisis as it grows. 91 91 Ibid, 55.

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492 In a similar vein Lawrenceville offers a course called Heresy: Philosophy, Religion, & Science which explores the ear telescope? What happened to teleology in science? How did the Reformation affect/effect the development of science as we know it ? What is quantum mechanics and does it prove God exists? Have Religion and Science always been in conflict? These questions are used to guide students through the interdisciplinary inquiry into the nature of knowledge and relationship of Philosophy, Reli gion, and Science. This course asks students to read numerous primary sources, recreate some of the most important scientific experiments, and discus s how believing leads to seeing. 92 Finally, similar to other campuses where naturalistic parareligion is pre sent in the classroom, Lawrenceville also teaches a course about the Universe Story At Lawrenceville, The Universe Story teaches students about how paradigm changing scientific discoveries of the past one hundred and fifty years have radically changed our understanding of the origins and development of the universe and the biological life within it 93 The Journey of Universe is spea rheaded by Mary Evelyn Tucker Tucker is an integral figure working with the United Nations in a myriad of different ways connecting religion, environmental concerns and education. For the first time in human history we are able to posit a complete scien tific cosmology, an epic of evolution, that tells the important story of emerging life and growing complexity. As the course syllabi explains 92 Ibid, 55. 93 Ibid, 56.

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493 This story, like the great mythic narratives of our ancestors can and should help us live in better accordance wi th the reality of the truths it shows us. Yet, we continue to live the toxic stories of endless resources and an objectification of nature. These stories have led us to the horrors of mass extinction and to the reality of climate change. The course examine s new scientific cosmology, and paradigms that compete with their story for our allegiance. 94 The course then asks students to examine the natural world around them and consider environmental challenges, various ecological restoration projects, and climat e change. It involves i ntensive reading, Harkness discussion, individual and group research, multi disciplinary and inter disciplinary thinking, and outdoor experience which are all integral parts of the learning. 95 This course is not only gaining populari ty amongst the students, but momentum is building around a form of new cultural production because Lawrenceville is to host a series of upcoming workshops for secondary school teachers (in 2013 and 2014) around this course in the hopes of helping developin g curriculum for the movie The Journey of the Universe. In their grant request which is interesting because it highlights Leopold to rationalize why this campus was well s uited for such workshops. An excerpt from this grant proposal reads: We feel Lawrenceville School will make an effective organizer and host for these incipient Journey of the Universe conferences and workshops because we have a longstanding commitment to interdisciplinary studies and have been working in an ongoing manner with Veronica Boix Mansilla of the Harvard Project Zero Interdisciplinary Studies Project; we are equally 94 was received i n the form of an email message to author from < pmasteller@palmertrinity.org >, June 1, 2012. 95 http://www.lawrenceville.org/data/files/gallery/ContentGallery/Course_Catalog_for_20122013.pdf accessed May 4, 2012. See p.55

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494 committed to sustainability education and have been diligently striving to live u p to the legacy of our most famous alum, conservationist Aldo Leopold; we are rethinking and redesigning important aspects of our curriculum and asking challenging questions about what is of most enduring worth from a Lawrenceville high school education. 96 Therefore, similar to the ways that secondary teachers met back in 2000 and 2001 and helped create curriculum around the greening of religions phenomenon for Independent school classrooms, I argue this could be the beginning of that kind of curriculum wi th a stronger emphasis on the naturalistic parareligious dimension. In addition to very explicit examples of how religion and nature are interwoven into the curriculum, there are several different courses about ethics offered which demonstrate that the ethical dimension, throughout sustainability efforts, is often usually present. The Science Department offers a Bioethics course which asks students to combine their understanding of the science underlying these questions with an understanding of the practice of ethics Students develop positions on pressing issues such as what medical procedures should be carried out on the terminally ill, ending the life of a fetus carrying a lethal genetic disease or whether or not gene thera who should get to decide and the questions of who should pay? 97 Ethics courses also deal with issues about human behavior and human to human and human to nature relationships. The Social Ethics and Genocide course studies the Holocaust from a variety of angles and by utiliz ing many methods explores the nature 96 Tom Collins. Proposal Journey of the Universe High School Curricul um Design Initiative, Fall 2012 Proposal shared by To m Collins < TCollins@lawrenceville.org > e mail message to author, November 6, 2012. 97 http://www.lawrenceville.org/data/files/gallery/ContentGallery/Course_Catalog_for_20122013.pdf accessed May 4, 2012. See p.63

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495 of human behavior and experience response 98 Similarly, the general Ethics class asks and explores ethical d ecision making that affects all levels of society from family life to the larger global community. Students are exposed to basic ethical frameworks provided by global secular and religious systems. Students will be exposed to a multicultural approach to va rious universalist (Utilitarian, Rights Ethics, Virtue Ethics for example) and relativist theories and apply their reasoning skills in class discussions and/or debates. 99 Other courses that suggest there is a strong resonance with the Religion and Nature mi lieu include courses that introduce key figures in this sub discipline to students and courses that expose them questions about their place as human beings in the larger world. A course titled Makers of the Modern Mind for example address itself the hist ory of ideas at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the twentieth. The course has focused on Darwin, Marx, Freud, and Nietzsche and studies the emergence of the modern consciousness as repre sented by Dostoyevsky and Kafka. 100 Also, speaking abou t the emergence of the modern consciousness, tracing the appearance of our earliest ances tors to the emergence of our own species. Evolutionary theory, behavioral ecology, genetics, and functional morphology, in combination with hands on examination of fossil materials, are used to reconstruct how and why humans evolved. Emphasis is placed on developing a broader biological 98 Ibid, 52. 99 Ibid, 54. 100 Ibid, 56.

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496 framework for the study of human adaptation and evolution. Cognitive biology also emerges in a class titled The Biological Roots of Human Behavior course This course considers a broad evolutionary context and explores how b ehavior can be informed by evolutionary theory and comparative evidence. Behavior is traced from its evolutionary function as adaptation, through its physiological basis and associated psychological mechanisms, to its expression. Students will develop and conduct their own research projects on human behavior. 101 Another genre of course types that resonate with aspects of Religion and Nature are courses that expose students directly (or helps guide them) to better understanding the nature of deeper spiritual expe riences that are possible. The Va rieties of Religious Experience course, for example, is an entryway into religion, exposes students to memorable figures from diverse faiths and offers windows into the spiritual lives and explores landmark religious d ocuments that shed light on critical social and religious issues bo th within and across traditions. 102 Finally, one last connection to Religion and Nature is seen an English course titled Utopian Imagination in Literature & Film This course introduces stud ents to the thematic, formal, and practical dimensions of utopian literature from the British and American traditions. The course surveys utopian fiction and a host of questions related to human nature, social organization, and historical change. This cour se not only asks the same kinds of questions about human nature, human nature relations and the ethics guiding them, but suggests that attention on utopic or dystopic visions around the Earth 101 Ibid, 58. 102 Ib id, 57.

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497 might be under greater consideration by the larger cultural mili eu than ever before. 103 It is also significant that texts used in this course include a feminist utopian novel (such as (1986) or an ecotopian manifesto (like Ernest Ecotopia (1975) 104 The examples inside the classroom of how students are exposed to new ideas about themselves, the world in which they live, the ethical frameworks that influence their relationships with one another and with the natural world and the forces in history that have shaped the world in which they live is profound. Students are being trained in global diversity a nd scientific complexity) and communicating, both implicitly and explicitly, that sustainability matters in the ways they understand themselves, live in and understand the world. It is not, however, just inside the classroom where students are getting thi s message in the Lawrenceville community. Outside the classroom has an equally rich set of examples about how sustainability matters to this community and how understand the gree ning trends unfolding on independent, secondary school campuses. 103 Examples of such questions might be : Are humans naturally individualistic or naturally collaborative? What kind of society would enable us to become our best selves? And how might we transform an imperfect world into a (more) perfect one? Please see Course Catalogue for the 2012 2013 School http://www.lawrenceville.org/data/files/gallery/ContentGallery/Course_Catalog_for_20122013.pdf accessed May 4, 2012. p.57. 104 Ibid, 15.

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498 Outside the Classroom Walls Outside the classroom, similar to some of the other schools explored, there are innumerable places that sustainability is unfolding at Lawrenceville. The larger c ampus energy from the solar farm, extracurricular organizations, sustainability councils, outdoor education opportunities, school food and community outreach are just a few of the realms where evidence that the school is going green emerge. The extensiveness of its efforts to transform itself into a green school) thus this project will proceed by highlighting the most pertinent examples where the quasi religion variable is either potentially latent or already visible in an effort to better demonstrate how these non denominational schools are rich and dynamic arenas for the cultivation of an earth citizenry. local community to brainstorm about sustainability issues which resulte d in a full vision she hired a full time sustainability director (Stone 2005: 142). This position, held by Sam Kosoff, oversees all aspects of sustainability on campus and he also co chairs a sustainability board comprised of board members, students, faculty, and local citizens. This board helps with policy and establishes benchmarks to help measure progress (Stone 2005: 142). The initiative has resulted in a wide varie ty of sustainability efforts and outside

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499 monitor and track their own consumption patterns using the STARS (sustainability tracking, assessment and rating system) system d eveloped by the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE), but they have also worked to green their buildings, reduce their energy use, manage the stream on the 700 acre campus and attend to their solar farm. In regard t o the green buildings and energy intensive methods and address energy efficiency and aspects of energy use in a responsible, practical and cost effective way 105 This focus has resulted in upgrading windows and insulation and exploring the most innovative new technologies available as energy alternatives. One of the best more fuel e 5). The results were so en couraging that the decision was made to use a biodiesel/petrol diesel to power the schools maintenance equipment. At the start of this program only 5% biodiesel was used in the mixture, but long term plans include increasing up to 80% The biodiesel fue the potential to produce 100 gallons of fuel each month. It is also of interest that more waste cooking oil is generated on campus than the school was able to convert to 105 http://www.lawrenceville.org/about/green campus initiative/green building energy efficiency and renewables/index.aspx/ accessed August 5, 2012.

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500 biodiesel so the excess was donated to Cherry Grove Organic Farm (in Lawrenceville) 5). Another way that Lawrenceville has made an impressive commitment to renewable energy is with the development of its solar farm an d they have also intentionally included 900,000 honeybees (nourished by a particular wild flower) around the perimeter of the farm. The farm includes over 24,000 solar panels and together these generate 90% of the energy needed to run the school. When exce ss energy is produced, the school imports it to the local electrical company which then credits the school. 106 The solar project is part of the school's Green Campus holistic approach to sustainability and will provides teachers and students "data to help bu ild a healthier, more sustainable world" (Bard 2012). In the legacy of Leopold it comes as no surprise that land restoration and water management issues are also significant priorities for Lawrenceville. In 2007, for example, a lot of work was done on th e school pond. The fish were removed, the pond was drained, dredged and its spillway repaired. After summer break the students returned and were greeted by an unsightly mud puddle, but this is when science teacher Jim Serach, the Aldo Leopold Science chair saw a teaching opportunity. He wanted to have students help him create an ecosystem? Serach used discretionary funds that accompanied his chair appointment and purchased indigenous plants. As a part of this project Serach had his students plant them w ith the goal of producing cleaning mechanisms that help filter out the sit and impurities in the runoff water that flows into the pond. This project was worked on by the AP Environmental 106 http://www.lawrenceville.org/about/green campus initiative/solar farm/index.aspx/ accessed July 22, 2012.

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501 Science and AP Biology classes and the pond was transformed dramatic ally over the this project as a way to engage students in a challenge. Leopold initially saw this challenge as a challenge to bring people in closer harmony with natu re and in this spirit learned that ecological problems can be fixed, that ecosystems can be restored and as if to prove his point, animal life in the pond has promptly reemerge 6). Food purchasing and dealing with food waste is yet another important aspect to Gary Giberson, the head of dining services, b ecame aware of the Slow Food Movement could not. In an innovative attempt to pro blem solve he created his own company and (Stone 2005: 143). However, it is not just the purchasing of healthy, local food that produce zero dining hall waste. This goal is a challenge because an average lunch on campus produces around 260 lbs of plate scrapings. However, the school purchased an vessel digester which is a food waste m 2009: 5). From a sustainability point of view this is particularly exciting because the in vessel digester created a closed loop and another benefit of this new s ystem is that in order to regulate the moisture content

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502 and create the correct consistency for the mulch, the digester also consumes the 20 09: 5). In addition to all of the fantastic on campus and physical plant sustainability efforts, there is much evidence that the extracurricular clubs and outreach efforts at Lawrenceville include a commitment to sustainability as well. Similar to other i ndependent schools there is a vast array of options for students to get involved, but organizations that students can participate in. In terms of sustainability there is Amnesty International, Butterflies and Bees, City Harvest, Environmental Club, the Environmental Services Club, Drinking Water for India Club, Model UN Lives Saving Lives, Politics and Economics in Latin America, Alliance of Black Cultures, Muslim Student Organization, Hindu Student Organization, and Jewish Student organization just to mention a few. 107 Similar to other schools these clubs represent at least one facet of sustainability (social, environmental, economic) and provide students with innumerable opportunities to get involved in making a difference or in support of one another and a particular cause or set of values. In addition to these on campus opportunities Lawrenceville also collaborates with other schools and with the local community around sustainability initiatives. Lawrenceville participat es each year in the Green Cup challenge, initiat es forums, host s sustainability symposiums, and Lawrenceville with the other eight large boarding schools have just produced a video about sustainability i n independent schools. First, 107 http://www.lawrenceville.org/campus life/student life/clubs and organizations/index.aspx/ accessed July 27, 2012.

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503 collaborative group of citizens, municipal offices, businesses non profits and faith groups that work to create an eco The idea of dialogue within the community gained momentum and in 2010 Lawrenceville was on full display for local residents, educators, parents and alumni as the sch ool presented its Aldo Leopold symposium on sustainability documenting the many ways the school has remained at the forefront of the modern green movement. bicential. The school showcased its biofuel production center, the pond recovery project, dining services, and also highlighted the co founding of the green cup challenge now an annual competition with more than 100 participating schools to reduce energy consumption an Lawrenceville worked with the either other large boarding schools on the East Coast to Secondary Schools Collaborate on Sustainability 108 commitment to social and economic sustainability is seen in its participation of a program called SEEDS. The acronym SEEDS stands for scholars, educators, excellence, dedication and success. This is a program in NJ that provides opportunities for economically disadvantaged youth who might not otherwise be able to afford private school. The program includes di fferent phases where students receive academic 108 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L2zreuzmBJo&feature=plcp accessed May 3, 2013.

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504 enrichment in summer following 7th grade, students take SSAT and attend Sat urday classes in summer of 8th grade year and then they attend workshops that prepare them live and attend Lawrenc eville (Duffy 2003 a : commitment to address economic disparities and to constructively move forward on building a stronger social fabric within the local community. In addition to the greening of the curriculum, the campus wide facilities efforts to go green and the extension and outreach examples of incorporating sustainability into their community, Lawrenceville addresses the issue of technology in some rather innovative ways as well. Most independent schools are quite progressive with t he Lawrenceville is clearly open to exploring the latest technologies for the purposes of alternative energy methods and solutions to dealing with its high volume of food w aste. The potential dark side of technology is also something Lawrenceville is mindful of though. ded (Allegra 2011: 30). What is particularly interesting about this perspective abou t technology is that questions are asked on campus about the outcome of the world if the findings about deep thought are true. The dean of residential life Brian Daniell argued that deep f education is happiness. It is for me, anyway, and happiness comes from self reflection. When you

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505 way to address this issue and facilitate some alone time for student s and faculty alike, Lawrenceville set up an experiment (similar one done at other schools). The school sponsored a day where everyone unplugged in the hope that some quiet time, could be fully enjoyed. The school hoped that experiments like this might he lp students to self regulate and to optimally use technology in their lives (Allegra 2011: 31). This resonates r a transformation of self. One of the more exciting and distinctive ways that Lawrenceville facilitates both an infrastructure and opportunities for students to engage in and experience sustainability is by having students visit The Island School for a t erm. The Island School (located in the Bahamas) was founded in 1998 with the goal of conserving the wild population of marine life by providing alternative food sources to fishing and jobs for the people of South Eleuthera. In addition to strong support fr om The Lawrenceville School, The Island School project depended on the generous donation of 18 acres of land gifted from the Cape Eleuthera Resort & Yacht Club. Students come from over 250 schools across North America to work on projects related to both ma rine biology and sustainable development. The school is both a living model and quite optimistic about the programs and opportunities it offers. Our community at Cape Eleuthera is modeling a shift toward a more livable future. For all who come to live and learn at Cape Eleuthera, there is an opportunity to discover that people can make a difference that we can begin to turn the tide and effect positive change in the way we live. 109 109 http://www.islandschool.org/w elcome/our story/ accessed August 22, 2012.

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506 The program at the Island School is place based and experiential so it inte ntionally immerses students into the natural and cultural landscape of the Bahamas. All of the courses have a field component to them. In the applied scientific research course, for example, students conduct primary research for a wide spectrum of investig ations, including fisheries, sustainable energy and food production systems, and cultural resources. The Humanities classes require many cultural immersion experiences and weekly service learning projects in collaboration with Bahamian students at Deep Cre ek Middle School. Physical and outdoor education programs are also a part of the curriculum. Students spend five mornings each week training for either a half marathon or four mile open Wat er Diver certification. What is particularly interesting about this school, and the experience that Lawrenceville students have when they attend it, is that ultimately, the rigorous schedule and programs, create a transformative experience for our students who gain deep understandings of leadership, sustainability, community, and sense of place because they engage with every aspect of life on the islands. From morning beach runs, to kayaking in the ocean to studying local marine wildlife, to stud ying ecos ystems the students engage with the place in which they are bound for the duration of their time at school. 110 This transformative experience is described by students who have experienced hing through a 17) environmental awareness is further exemplified in her exclamation that 110 http://www.islandschool.org/programs/semester curriculum/ accessed August 24, 2012.

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507 campus revolves around sustainability and the whole experience just insti lls in you as 17). Students who return not only are campus, but they also help others understand the ability they have to d o something that 17). Student experiences such as these a long with Lawrenceville and the Island much insight into what is transpiring in some of the independent school arenas in regard to a shift in culture and values. Collectively the myriad of examples help demonstrate that schools are putting forth the notion that [t] rue sustainability begins wi th individual lifestyles and requires a commitment from every member of the community to embrace the challenge of personal change. It requires every person to live out the principles of sustainability on environmental, social, and economic levels Ultima tely, students learn that sustainability is a collective endeavor that demands flexibility in thought, attitude, and behavior. More importantly, they learn the value of sacrifice not for ascetic purposes, but out of humility, respect, and fairness for the rest of the living world and future generations 111 The Naturalistic Parareligous Examples Outside of the Classroom The examples of how sustainability is being facilitated throughout the Lawrenceville community and into the daily lives of students is far from an exhaustive list, but there is ample evidence in these examples to conclude that the presence of the quasi religion variable i s indeed present in this community. The Lawrenceville campus 111 http://www.islandschool.org/programs/semester curriculum/ accessed August 24, 2012.

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508 is facilitating a new kind of cultural production and this i s emerging in an innovative educational paradigm. The school models how small scale changes and intentional actions can have significant impacts. It is demonstrating how the more fractured existence of schools and local communities can be bridge with coll aborative work and how time away from technology can provide invaluable opportunities for deeper self reflection. Lawrenceville also helps facilitate the kinds of personal transformation that students might experience at the Island School and/or throughout their years at Lawrenceville. These experiences resonate strongly with notions about how changing oneself is the best way in which to transform the world which is echoed throughout the larger environmental milieu. In the everyday life of the school there are connections to the Slow Food Movement (buy local, take time to enjoy food preparation, eat healthy and share meals) and this also facilitates the values of building a good local economy (as opposed to supporting larger corporate food production). Also the school provides opportunities for students to not only reflect on the importance of connecting with each other in meaningful ways through chapel services from diverse religious traditions or through extracurricular clubs, but also to help students cu ltivate a stronger relationship with the land in restoration projects in their science classes. Biodiversity for example, is taught Students are not only learning about it, but they learn how to calculate biodiversity indexes, they use these to plant new species of plants and observe the changes over time in species in a given area. 112 112 < skosoff@lawrenceville.org >, May 9, 2012.

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509 The collaborative approach, the myriad of examples of the interconnected web that aspects o f Lawrenceville shares within its own community and to the local community, the opportunities for personal transformation, and the cultivation of respect for diversity all indicate that quasi religion is embedded into the practices unfolding on this campus and in its immediate connections with other aspects of the local community. it quotes important figures in the Religion and Nature milieu such as Albert Einstein, Barry Lopez and Thomas Berry. 113 For example, a feature quotation by Einstein was and space. He experiences himself, his thoughts and feelings as something delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us. Our task must be to free our selves from this prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty. 114 All human professions, institutions, and activities must be integral with the earth as the primary self nourishing, self governing and self fulfilling community. To integrate our human activities within this context is our way into the future. The quotations chosen include notions about humans being part of the larger univ erse, nature. 113 http://www.islandschool.org/programs/semester curriculum/ accessed August 29, 2012. 114 Ibid.

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510 Conclusions: Trailblazers in Secondary School Sustainability In contrast to the Episcopal and Catholic communities the Quaker and non denominational schools e merge as some the strongest examples of Independent schools making sustainability a priority and within the greening trends found on their campuses R eligion, of some kind, is part of the motivation for this commitment. Not only are the Quaker and certain non denominational schools the best evidence of schools vocalizing their concerns about sustainability as an issue, but they are also working to model and demonstrate changes on their campuses in ways that actively address sustainability issues both inside and outside their classrooms. The Quaker the best way to understand what sustai nability actually is all about. As an article in the living the testimony of stewardship and leading by example in building, renovating and retrofitting to create sustai nable school environments Non denominational schools have also made a strong commitment to greening by establishing a very public commitment to a Green Initiative that informs every aspect of their decision making process. This was not only seen in their classrooms and on the school grounds, but in their community infrastructure and in their relationships with the local community in which they exist. 115 115 Although Lawrenceville was the only non denominational school studied in depth the Head Royce School in CA provides additional evidence for how non denominational schools have made a campus commitment to sustainability and this commitment i nforms every aspect of their campus life as well.

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511 The fact that Quaker schools are arguably among some the most vivid examp les of how religiously affiliated secondary schools are becoming more sustainable is not necessarily a surprise if one reflects back on the foundations of Quakerism. Since this tradition arose from within (although in protest against) the Church of England one might argue it has a revolutionary trend embedded in its various nature. 116 In addition to this revolutionary spirit one of the central tenants to the Religious Society of Friends is that peace as a series of committed actions. The tradition supports b oth peace and nonviolence. Quakers were pacifists and refused to resist assaults by the government or other religious groups in early America and thus this makes Quakerism part of the historic peace focused tradition (Butler et al. 2003: 86). It is no grea t leap, therefore, to jump from an emphasis on pacifism and peacemaking to limiting violence against other organisms or other aspects of caretaking for the Earth which has had violence brought against it. Quaker schools working within an older private ed ucation system and within a framework of the dominant cultural paradigm, are working toward changing both systems which is a seemingly natural extension for the Quaker tradition. Their strong commitment to the Quaker values is noticeably influential in th ese revolutionary efforts in the independent school arena. Quakers are clearly committed to respecting and relationship with God the Truth which can be revealed. These ideas help encourage the Quaker idea that faith should be evident in daily actions and a way of life and the connection between the Quaker stewardship ideals and the kind of whole person 116 http://www.westtown.edu/about westtown/quaker education/what is quakerism/index .aspx/ accessed May 29, 2012.

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512 education that these schools are facilitating on their campuses suggest that th e inextricable mix between religion and education in the realm of current greening trends is worth further exploration, but the greening trends and the role religion becomes a bit more complex when non denominational schools are brought into consideration as well. 117 All of school communities (Episcopal, Catholic, Quaker and non denominational) reveal some evidence in their missions, values, curricula, student life and larger strategic institutional goals that suggest green religion (to varying degrees) is motivating their sustainability efforts on campus. There were hints, moreover, of naturalistic parareligion in all communities although anthropocentric motivations (rather than biocentric or ecocentric motivations) tended to be the more common rationalizat ion behind their respective sustainability efforts. them it is necessary to more carefully reflect on where these changes originate and what is motivating them. These refle ctions include further exploration about the role that ESD and the United Nations plays in imparting a framework for an emergent global citizenry. They also explore how Independent schools might be trying to emulate (or create of their own volition) simila r conditions for the cultivation of a global citizenry on a microcosmic scale. The idea of civic responsibility will also be addressed as a characteristic of a 21st century citizen. Various conclusions about these sustainability trends and the role of reli gion in them will be discussed in the next chapter as I explore the scope and findings of this project as a whole and the significance of them. 117 Ibid.

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513 CHAPTER 8 PROSPECT OR PERIL RELIGION IN ACTION Today, nature is essential to my life and my well being. Ari Chapman 2012: 166 Introduction Through this research I found that religion, and especially naturalistic spirituality has deep roots not only in the history of education, but also in pedagogical initiatives found in ESD whic h originated from concerns of the global community The presence of naturalistic religion in education, in other words, has been there since the beginning of early conceptio ns about education, but it has been an unappreciated and sometimes latent In addition to this historical discovery, the aforementioned Independent sch ools provided specific examples from within some of th for how religion ca n assist in the crafting of a greener culture. Evidence in these communities also revealed, howe ver, that naturalistic religion was also responsible, in part, for thes e current greening trends The motivations for these greening trends originated from diff erent sources, the pace of c hange to implement them has varied and the impacts of instituting them did not manifest in uniform w ays, but one visible conclusion emergin g across the different campuses was the hint of a nascent Earth ethic (or an evolving glo bal ethic that is more inclusive of the larger natural world than ever before) with elements of an accompanying that naturalistic forms of religion hold the most promis planet. Future ideas related to education reform, therefore, might seriously consider the role and impact of religion in this process.

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514 This chapter examine education and suggests religion offer s both reasons for doubt and optimism about its promise in regard to larger social changes. It then proposes possible directions for future research before concluding with some reflections about how these nascent greening efforts, inclusive of an emergent global ethic, might indeed demonstrate that -who question whether education has really progressed beyon d the rhetoric of Belgrade, Tbilisi, Brundtland and Rio that indeed it has and that it is moving (at least in small steps here in the short term) in a positive direction toward contributing to more sustainable lifeways. Religion Matters: The Role of Expli cit and Implicit Religion in Greening Trends This project ultimately revealed that the influence of religion (in both its explicit Independent secondary schools to teach ab out sustainability and to become more green themselves. 1 It also demonstrated evidence that helped validate particular theories in Environmental Ethics, Religious Studies and in the Religion and Nature discourse in relationship to education. Independent sc hools engaged in the greening process were arenas where many diverse tributaries related to different aspects of religion converged. This ultimately meant that religion was present in these school communities in a wide variety of ways. 1 Perhaps the sustainability impulses are a reflection of a broader cultural greening as would be expected per Durkheim. Groups, when interacting, create their own culture and attach powerful emotions to it. r el igion played an extremely important role in about society and social stability things, that is to say things set apart and forbidden b eliefs and practices which unite into one single

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515 The role that explic it or mainstream religions (Episcopalianism, Catholicism an d Quakerism) played, provided some evidence for the viability of both Callicott and environmental ethic. As previ ously noted, Callicott argued that each world religious tradition contains some elements that can undergird a responsible ethical approach to nonhuman nature and the Episcopal, Catholic and Quaker schools have demonstrated that they have something to contr ibute in their various (religiously rooted) rationales behind their sustainability efforts and teachings on their campuses. foundation for the claim that each worldview (and their accompanying religions) ultimate vision included a single cross cultural environmental ethic, based on Aldo iences, which would be inspired by aspects of the different Christian traditions, might thus be demonstrative of how Independent schools could be important arenas for new cultural production and thus responsible for constructing the emergence of such an ethic (Callicott 1994). I said the emergence (and not the ethic yet) because Callicott ultimately argued that an evolutionary point of view demanded ecocentricism, which wa s not yet appearing on these campuses. The argument, however, could be made that what was going on at the schools was headed in an ecocentric direction. Evidence for this included the greening of the sciences (and the existence of nature spirituality in t hese courses) and it was not

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516 uncommon for Leopold to be cited and recognized by schools as an important figure ethic was not yet prevailing, there was certainly an incr eased awareness that the natural world was deserving of consideration. There was evidence that nature was valued both inside and outside the classroom for reasons other than its utilitarian purposes which indicated at least a slight movement away from stro ng anthropocentricism which was, in mater, Lawrenceville, was showing signs of heading toward a more biocentric perspective with Headmistresses speeches mentioning interc onnectivity between the community, the campus and the local city and students own expressed deep feeling of connection to nature, especially after their time at the Island School in the Bahamas. The role that explicit religion played in these sustainabil ity trends also provided providing new narratives to oppose the dominant paradigm and indeed, religious and scientific narratives in the school setting, were offering glim pses of what these alternative narratives might look like. In accord with such notions about the role of narratives, Oeschlaeger believed that in societies where individualism was highly valued that religious discourse was perhaps the most promising way t o expand our cultural conversation to include non market values such as sustainability (Gardner 2006: 6). Evidence of these shifting values (away from individual power acquisition and toward community or toward intangible worth instead of things being dee med significant due to their monetary value) originated from both the explicit and implicit types of religion found in the different greening trends. For instance, explicit religion was shaping new

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517 narratives in the different school communities in both the ir mission statements, in their promotional literature and in their rationale for greening their campuses and narratives were found in 2 normative la nguage for making sense of morality through narratives of a global human narratives about sustainability can either include fear of a future (both endangered and/or dangero stewardship of the earth through the development and use of a techno economic path that keeps people alive or these narratives can also present sustainability as a personally and collect ethical, spiritual and metaphysical (Davison 2009: 64). The moral narratives, however, emerging in particular Independent school communities are examples of how theoretical ends are being t ranslated into action. Religion, therefore, as it was articulated within the moral narratives unfolding on distinctive, Independent school campuses and within ESD was indeed a variable in these greening trends. Explicit religion, in these narratives, was were being utilized to help students address the plight of the planet and to help those on it who live in less ideal social and economic situations. The narratives shaped a vision 2 consideration accountable not only for helping students get into the colleges and universities that best fit their needs and interest, but also for preparing them to succeed in college and beyond, so that they become caring b : 17).

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518 about education that had to do with its purpose helping students become better human beings. Specific curriculum being taught in Independent schools also showed that conventional religions were being taught about and connected with sustainabilit y issues. The courses at Mercy high school, San Domenico, Lawrenceville, Palmer Trinity, Newton, the textbook titled Exploring Global Issues: Social, Economic and Environmental Interconnections (2013) and Greening of Curriculum conferences sponsored by CSEE religions were be ing classrooms. While the evidence about the role that explicit religion was playing in the unfoldi ng sustainability trends offered some validity to both Callicott and contentions it i s also important to note that Bron Taylor suggested that such a focus, devoted solely on world religions (explicit religion) and the ideas of religion, was p the nature related spiritual i ties did not recognize the hybrid religions, failed to examine the margins of traditions, or notice how the environment [both natural and cultural] shaped religion ( Taylor 2005 d : 1375 religion would not have occurred to the extent it has in the absence of Dark Green Religious forms (Taylor 2010 : 217 ). He thus argued that the increasing enviro nmental school campuses (Taylor 2010: 217).

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519 It became clear throughout these ca mpuses, that it was not only the explicitly defined conventional religious traditions that were playing a key role in the documented greening trends because implicit religion was also noticeable. Not only did many of these campuses that have a strong affil iation with an established world religion, but there was evidence that parareligion, and especially nature spirituality, was also operative in the greening trends across the different campuses. Parareligion was found, in part, in the greening of science un the greening of religion which was illustrated best in the language used to rationalize the formation of sustainability committees and the projects that these committees chose to devote their attention towa rd. Implicit religion was also present in campus outreach efforts (such as hosting conferences) which resulted in news coverage that described these event s as local restoration work that incl uded possible ritual components; cam pus gardens aimed to connect students to the land; the scientific, naturalistic and aesthetic value of nature was embraced ; and aspects of deep ecology and bioregionalism that were present throughout the curriculum and the daily lives of students at these schools. This suggests evidence of the biophilia hypothesis and even spiritual satisf action (Kellert and Wilson 1993: 20). In addition to schools demonstrating a gre ater attention and appreciation of schools also taught some kind of science course that, to courses and the subtext of them resonated strongl y with the science

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520 represented in the Journey of the Universe These science classes thus offered students a new way of looking at the world in which they lived and provided a new framework for integrating emerging possibilities about env ironment ethics into high schools. There was also a religious dimension to what is going on in these science classes and especially in the Independent schools that had embraced the Universe S The Universe St ory as advanced by Thomas Berry and his progeny. In addition to these examples in the classroom, key figures from the religion and nature milieu (such as Aldo Leopold, John Muir and John Dewey) were also cited by different schools as sources of inspirati on for what they were doing in regard to education and sustainability outside the classroom. Implicit religion was thus visible in different places on the various campuses, but its presence was indisputable. What is unfolding on these Independent school c ampuses not only provided some evidence that both explicit and implicit religion was influencing these greening trends, but this evidence also suggested that Taylor was correct in that nature spirituality has escaped the counter cultural milieu and could b e found in more mainstream places. Parareligion was then both flowing into larger global arena and Independent schools, but both of these venues were important sites of cultural production for aspects of naturalistic spirituality as well. Prior to a closer examination of this new cultural production it is, however, valuable to explore the different perils and Potential Perils: Criticisms, Concerns and Future Challenges There are always at least two sides to any good argument and the argument at hand is no exception. Potential criticisms against my claims may be categorized into

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521 three different areas of concern; concerns about the role of the religion variable, concerns about education or schools and larger philosophical concerns about the concept of Education for Sustainable Development. First, critics might raise the concern that Callicott and Oeschlaeger drew only upon the ideas of the world religions in the crafting of their environmental ethic, that they chose the traditions that worked best for their arguments and that they did not approach their research with social scientific data. Although much of my argument is based on the notion that the religious narratives (and science narratives) in th ese school communities help shape values and scrutinize these campuses with a broader lens and more flexible definition about what constitutes religion (Taylor 2005 c 2010; Benthall 2010). In my own investigative work to uncover elements of religion in these greening trends I included outreach efforts by these schools, curriculum, extracurricular clubs, their gardens, restoration work on campus and the act of teaching in outdoor spaces therefore argue that my methods included a close ex amination of both ideas and one form or looking for it in just one place during my investigation. I did not, however, draw upon social scientific evidence which Taylor accurately assess whether it is possible for such a phenomenon [greening of religion] to

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522 Although the challenges of this potential endeavor wer e addressed, at the beginning of this project, as others have contemplated or begun such an enterprise with difficulty. Another difficulty or somewhat obvious challenge that skeptics might raise about the role religion could play in constructively working to make the world a better place is that conflict has (and does) exist between people with differing religious perspectives. There are the more obvious historical examples between religious groups where conflicts manifested in actual battles as seen durin g the Crusades when the Christians and Muslims fought. There are the theological conflicts such as those that arose between the Catholics and Protestants during the Reformation. Then, there are the more subtle conflicts as Bron Taylor has noted (in DGR) w here some people view environmentalism as morally and spiritually and politically dangerous and where environmentalists view conventionally religious people as obstacles to what they think is needed. These people tend to be very suspicious of the United Na tions as well (Taylor 2010: 178). To muddy the water further, some of skeptics are Catholic, and the Protestant skeptics tend not to be in the Episcopal or Quaker churches. In short, the skeptics accurately note that religion often divides people and this is counter evidence for the greening trends and the common ground that different religious groups are finding in their ecumenical efforts to be stewards of the earth despite their distinctive religious motivations for doing so. Another criticism that cou ld be made about the role religion plays in Independent school sustainability trends is that religion has a shadow side. Critics of the monotheistic traditions, for example, sometimes argue that they are inherently anthropocentric and that there is an elem ent of human exceptionalism built into any environmental ethic that

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523 may be derived from them. This is not only morally problematic, but can result in other problems such as a false faith in both humans and their capabilities. An example of this is how some people believe that technology is a means by which to fix all problems (Orr 1992: 24) 3 confidence in their ability to solve all problems, to design even better devices to patch up any uni attitude behind the scenes, the assumption that humans can handle it, that humans know enough, are powerful enough and quick enough to make it all work that is the problem and it c an be argued that this is not only derived from the western, enlightenment ideas about faith in progress, science and technology, but that it is also the result of notions about humans being a superior form of creation. her words, the role of technology cannot be ignored. Religious ethics and good, but moral practices are sometimes trumped by many people have faith in so religion may not prevail against such a fascination or nature relations are deeply threatened by socioeconomic incarnation of the human specie s within its earth matrix (Ruether 2000: 612 613). Scholarship, however, within and about the monothesistic traditions has illustrated that such claims are over simplified understandings of what a monotheistic religious tradition may have to offer in terms of thin 3 Please see more a bout the debate surrounding what role technology, appropriate technology or lack of technology plays in the ecological crisis (Lewis 1992: 117 124).

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524 to human earth ethics. In fact, the use of an anthropocentric ethic might have merit in motivating people toward the larger causes of working to create more sustainable lifeways which was already explored previously i n the idea that schools drawing upon this are using it as a motivational force for a kind of resistance. As Taylor argued, anthropocenticism can thus have some value and be of interest to a resistance movement trying to introduce new cultural trends again s t a dominant worldview (Taylor 1995 : 335 ). The most problematic criticism, however, that tempers any optimism about the role that religion, in any form, is having on sustainability trends in the Independent school arena, relates to the reality that these s chools (and the community members found within them) are entrenched in a larger worldview. The world today does include some challenging problems such a growing world population, problematic consumption habits, and climate change. It is true that these ch allenges do exist and might not be easily swayed by religious ethics nor that any religion can operate as a successful counterforce -no matter where and how this counterforce is being cultivated. I acknowledged and briefly addressed that individual religi ous traditions deal with one or the other of these larger problems. Catholicism is often singled out for its perspectives about population control and the wealth of the Protestant church is no mystery. Topics such as consumption, however, can be addressed through religious narratives (such as Biblical narratives in the case of the Catholic and Protestant schools) that offer a vision of the good life that is less resource consumptive. Religious narratives can also speak of true fulfillment being found in spi ritual growth, personal relationships and community life rather than the purchasing of items. Religious communities, or school communities

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525 with an affiliation with a religious tradition, can therefore be life affirming and offer a positive alternative imag e of the good life. These communities can work to recover the Puritan virtues of frugality and simplicity a bit more and this, along with these topics starting places for add ressing some of these larger global issues (Barbour 2000 a : 32). Speaking of consumerism and materialism it would be remiss not to mention matters of money as this connects to yet another potential concern of the skeptics. The next few criticisms, therefore, are related to financial issues related to the education process or to the Independent schools themselves. First, there is the issue of funding at both the highest level (UNESCO). There are significant challenges to funding UNESCO which is the lead agency for implementing ESD yet the demand is high for support at the local, regional and national initiatives in many parts of the wo rld (Calder 2005: 5). This funding issue may or may not be an issue when cons idering the impact on getting ESD into t he Independent School arenas, but they face a different set of financial considerations which does impact the direction of sustainability education in the future. Independent schools, for example, have to convince parents, alumni and corporations and foun rthy of increased support (Kane 1992 b : 391). In the face of financial challenges, sustainability may be a hard sell to financial supporters of the community, or it may be precisely the perfect marketing too l. The jury is out on which way this tide is going in the larger NAIS school world, but financial concerns are certainly a consideration not only for sustainability, but also when thinking about education for and about sustainability as well.

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526 Another cri ticism that might be made about implementation of ESD into schools is that ESD needs to be interdisciplinary with a focus on real complex problems. Many still (correctly) assert the reality that school tends still to be discipline based with an emphasis on abstract, the oretical problems (Palmer 1988: 159). Higgitt argued, for example, that one of the primary barriers that threaten more success of implementing UN Resolution 57/254 into curriculum is the disciplinary boundaries and notions of academic process and reward structures, in addition to a mindset focused on industrial model of progress ( Higgitt et al. 2005: 16). I think, however, that Independent schools are doing an increasingly better job of stating that their missions are about cultivating global citizens and facilitating goodness in people and incorporating interdisciplinary projects and classes into their cu rriculums. Data show school course reflect a fundamental concern for sustainability and focus on interdisciplin ary decision making and problem solving and Clugston 2005 : 1). Some of the ways, moreover, that ESD may be incorporated into the school is through activities outside the classroom. Independent schools, in other words, may be criticized le ss because education is not happening in the classroom. Since the founding of the first academies in the eighteenth century a dual focus of Independent schools has been educating the minds and building the morals of the young (Kane 1992 b : 391). Independent s chools require (and implement) a vision of learning that attempts to give provide both formal and informal learning opportu nities throughout the school calendar This allows students to learn ESD skills or ideas outside the formal classroom which helps min imize the discipline specific classroom setting. In many of the Independent

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527 and region (food, water, energy and the endpoint of waste); they also learned about the (Calder and Clugston 2005 : 1). Finally, critics argue that even if ESD is influential and has a moral, ethical component there is still of spectrum of weak to strong sustainability and there ar e concerns about ESD being theoretical, abstract, mere rhetoric and embedded with notions of growth. I previously addressed these concerns, however, in Chapter 3 and I argue they are being tempered by some of the recent trends unfolding in the Independent school arena. After a closer look at some of the promises of these trends it aforementioned concerns. Reasons for Tempered Optimism: The Potential Promise of Religion in t he UN There are potential reasons for optimism about how religion, and its relationship with and to education, may offer much promise in the larger global arena for social change. In Chapter 3 I noted how religion, ethics and spirituality play a role at th e longside the UN and that spirituality and ethics were important factors in the motivations behind and in the inclusion of i history. Religion has also been shown to have significant variance whether one explores Catholicism, Protestantism, Quakerism or a naturalistic form of religion. Collectively these facts demonstrate that there is complex, yet collaborative relationship between religion, ethics and governance and the outcome of this relationship models a new mechanism for creating larger civil, government and societal change.

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528 In this work, mor eover, religi on is an important part of this unfolding collaboration and one of the most promising aspects of an emergent global ethic. This means the UN plays a significant role in the context of global change with it s collaborating partners such d religious organizations and I previously demonstrated how it directly impacts ideas and some aspects of the American education system with the development of ESD. While some may argue that the UN can be viewed as rather helpless in the face of global pr oblems other scholars have written to express their problems 4 for addressing major global issues (such as the ecological crisis) is well founded. Reasons for this optimism are visible in recent UN activities related to demonstrating how spirituality, ethics an d religion played a significant role in this international institution at the time of its origins and by showing how the influence of ESD is found in Independent schools it is possible to argue that what is transpiring in these schools demonstrate that thi s relationship between the UN and various forms of religion, spirituality and ethics matters. The moral authority of the UN, in other words, may not have yet orchestrated effective response to environmental problems, but they have been more effective in s preading what they deem worthy in terms of innovative new pedagogies that come from the global arena and will influence greening s chool trends in the future. The ESD pedagogy (in its local curriculums) might thus assist in the 4 For more discussion on recent scholarship about how p artnerships emerge across the boundaries of governments, business, and global civil society p lease see (Boehle 2010: 36 ).

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529 cultivation of a more educate d populace about the particular values, knowledge, and skills needed to create a more sustainable society. One of the specific reasons for increased optimism is the continued collaboration (and possible strengthening) of the relationship between religion a nd the UN. This could precipitate great possibility for this institution to impact positive future global changes and these changes could be focused on the existing sustainability concerns. There is, for example, the possibility that the UN may, the very least, engage with that spiritual recognize the ones of ). This in 1960 when she founded an organization known as the Temple of Understanding which is oldest global interfaith organization in the U.S. The Temple has chapters in the U.S., India and Australia (with its headquarters in New York) and has collaborated with the UN in innovative ways since 1968. 5 It has, for example, sponsored six spiritual summit conferences producing a worldwide network of spiritual leaders all devoted to principles of th mot (Wiel 2001:1) Since 1997, for example, they have sponsored the interfaith prayer service at the annual opening of the UN general assembly session. They also work with adults and you th to develop respect for religious diversity. In their programs the participants use their peers as resources to explore opinions and ideas from various perspectives in a forum that encourages open interfaith debate and discussion. The goal of these 5 http://templeofunderstandin g.org/who we are/international chapters/ accessed March 18, 2012.

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530 prog nurture young leaders for a new culture of peace and justice 6 As Benjamin Weil link peop le and communities all over the world and the Temple of Understanding is 1 1 ). The spiritual element of this reality is essential and undeniable and the tangible care for human beings is that divine force that links us toget work on youth and education, using technology to connect youth all over the globe. In addition to the work done by the Temple of Understanding, individual religious groups h concerns. It was previously noted that the Quakers have organizations such as Friends Environmental Education Network (FEEN) that work to help teach students how they stand, preserve, and restore the natural processes, resources and beauty so 7 Quakers also take seriously the idea that their voice should be represented at the United Nations and this is best exemplified in the organization known as Quaker United Nations Office (QUNO) which serves to represent the Quaker presence in this international organization. They, like other religious groups, often collaborate at this international level around p rojects related to sustainability concerns. 8 The Episcopal 6 http://templeofunderstanding.org/programs/youth programs/ accessed November 5, 2012. 7 Frie http://www.friendscouncil.org/Library/InfoManage/Guide.asp?Fold erID=883&SessionID={BF229D1F 0DA7 4BE2 8848 1E25960CE32D}&SP=2/ accessed October 3, 2012 8 http://www.quno.org/ accessed December 6, 2012.

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531 Diocese also worked closely with the Interfaith Partnership for the Environment and the United Nations Environmental Program to produce a book titled Earth and Faith: A book for Reflection and Act standing relationship with the UN related to protecting the environment which has continued to intensify over time, especially as the UN has increased its involvement with NGO groups (Dahl 2005 : 153). This is sig interconnectedness and reciprocity, but the preservation of the ecological balance of the Earth is a major priority f 2005: 153). This demonstrates the kind of positive contributions that religion can make to the work of the UN. Then, such ideas get transmitted into schools through chapel services and/or through the use of books suc h as (1995) where different school communities for their contributions to a more peaceful Earth community. 9 The Temple y be perceived by other religion s groups as non believers for their reverence of nature, but these are not the only examples of religious working alongside the UN. The World Council of Churches (WC C), whose headquarters is in Geneva, also does much work justice is implemented through its Ecumentical Water Network, the Caring for Creation and 9 School chapels using A Source Book for have been happening since Religions Institute which have been occurring since 2002 and CSEE has a repository for such resources http://www.csee.org/resources/world_religions.html accessed March 15, 2012. See Chapter 4 for more details on the relationship bet ween CSEE and NAIS.

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532 Climate Justice project and the Pover ty, Wealth and Ecology Project 10 They sponsored, for example, a youth meeting for Eco Justice in 2011 with Evangelical Lutheran group from Brazil in anticipation of Rio+20 and a meeting in Crete (September 2012) between scientists, philosophers and theol ogians to discuss and explore sustainability in terms of economic and environmental sustainability. 11 The collective efforts of such collaborative are then noteworthy and th e action they inspire is among youth and adults alike. Furthermore, it is worthwhi role may have been overlooked by policy makers and academics in the past. This is especially interesting to this project because education itself is a part of the explanation for the dismissal of religio n as something that matters. Religion has always been a part of education, as argued in Chapter 2, but to what extent and the exact nature of that relationship has changed over time. As I previously explained, the study of religion has been left out of pu blic (and sometimes Independent school) curricula for several different reasons, but one of the primary reasons that religion often gets overlooked as a key variable in education or politics is because of socialization (Fox 20 01: 58). Many social scientist s believe in classical liberalism which advocates a separation of church and state; children have grown up studying the U.S. political system, learning government could not legally endorse any religion (Fox 2001: 57). Despite this, 10 Susan Kim Rio+20 disappointment impassions youth to pursue local eco justice http://water.oiko umene.org/en/whatwedo/news events/rio 20 disappointment impassions youth to pursue local eco justice (2013) accessed May 14, 2013. 11 WCC Conference Probes Sustainability C rises http://www.oikoumene.org/en/news/news management/eng/a/article/1634/wcc conference probes sus.html accessed May 14, 2013.

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533 however, religion rema ined a part of many soc ial/political problems and scholars ignore it, even though it is increasingly recognized as a known variable There are, therefore, multiple reasons to be optimistic about the existing and increased collaboration between the religio n, the United Nations and education and the way this collaborative partnership could continue to inspire positive changes in the larger global arena and in global governance bodies. On a smaller scale, however, there is additional reason for optimism becau se greening trends in religion (and in schools affiliated with a given religious tradition) demonstrate that the greening of American culture is underway and that this cultural change is not just isolated to one sector of society, but is rather the result of a shift in ideas from many different sectors of society. The greening of American culture, according to religious s tudies scholar Sarah Taylor, has five core characteristics. First, it includes an aesthetic appreciation of the natural world that can be associated with iconic figures such as photographers like Ansel Adams or painters such as Thomas Cole. Second, it includes an admiration for the awesome complexity and functional interconnected workings of nature, the life community or ecosystem especiall y as represented as the web of life. This is best understood as the green cultural imagination most readily associated with figures such ented in the experiential narratives ranging from John Edwards to John Muir, Chief Seattle to Aldo Leopold. Fo urth, it includes an experience with nature, especially wild places with a capacity to soothe and heal. Nature invigorates and revitalizes and the absence of such regular doses of nature as tonic is

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534 thought to result in a weakened character in both individual and nation. Finally, it is characterized by a civic sense of those who strive to live the simple life as exemplified in the iconic examples s asceticism (Taylor 2007 : 44). The significance of these trends is that they resonate strongly with greening trends beginning to emerge in the more conventional world religions. As Taylor argued, these five co re characteristics of green culture in America share affinities with the Catholic imagination and where there is an visible in the cr eated gifts of nature and the aesthetic appreciation of an inspirited nature flesh and the Catholic ethic of sacred reverence for all life create more ideal exchange points between Roman Catholicism and 2007: 45). There are several reasons for optimism here about the role of green religion and its impact on larger social change. First, religious institutions such as the Catholic, Prote stant and Quaker traditions can assist in transforming both the internal beliefs and external practices of their practitioners. Second, as I previously argued, the new greening trends within these traditional religions provide a kind of creative tension t hat result in a productive, creative energy that can emerge into aspects of society. Taylor noted that if the tension in these areas becomes too intense, as perhaps with a major punitive action taken by a Church hierarchy, it might tip the scales in the o ther directions and negatively affect the movement (Taylor 2007: 272).

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535 This project, however, demonstrates, in accord with other scholars, that greening movements do not need to be on the defensive. This defensive position can arise from the dominant cul tural biases about these greening movements in religion being associated with nature worship, paganism and New Age traditions. Evidence does exist that greener tributaries within any of these major world religious traditions are historically rooted in trad itions of the Church and within broader aspects of American hist ory. These greening trends are part of a larger, historical tradition that has been underway for decad es in America. It is important to acknowledge that they are not that unique or aberrant (T aylor 2007: 271). This cre ative tension and energy is an important influence in these traditions and also larger American society (not to mention in American education) and thus the role of religion, as a changing entity and influence in society, cannot be ignored. Infusing more intentional spirituality int o the UN is a possible reason that the religion variable holds promise at the global level. Other reasons include that there are green developments within individual religious traditions that suggest at least some individuals or small groups within the wor issues some consideration. Religious traditions are also constantly evolving as a result of creative tension within traditions and new hybrids of traditional religions could hold promise in terms of transforming individuals and institutions. These are not, however, the only ways to strengthen the relationship between ethics, spirituality, religion and the groups and their work, in t intensified in the global arena. Scholars have documented this kind of increased

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536 collaboration between the UN and the world religions and this relationship could be even more strategically d eveloped in the future (Gardner 2006; Gottlieb 2006 ; Boehle 2010 ). The rationale behind this would be that global change is going to require large scale multi stakeholder partnerships and that alliance building between the UN with other parts of the wider world commun ity (especially religious and spiritual individuals) are going to be a necessary part of this necessary, structural framework. This multi stake partnership and alliance building is also already evident in the international implementation scheme that was a part of the strategic plan surrounding ESD. It is significant, in other words, that a large number of stakeholders have to work together to facilitate a collective ownership of the Decade and dissemination of ESD. This kind of collaboration mandates that various stakeholders work to build bridges between different global initiatives to promote the vision of the decade which I argue provides a model for the kind of infrastructure that illuminates the potential for the future role of UN programs and educatio n to help bring about larger social change (Calder and Clugston 2003: 118). This model and the promise of it is thus best explained as one that has the material infrastructure and the ethical and spiritual resources of religious and spiritual traditions a s a part of it available to address interconnected and global issues like justice, human rights, peace and sustainability (Boehle 2010: 398). realize the elements of a democra tic compact. For this, the contribution of religious words, would undergo a transformation to change the organization from a heavily

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537 government oriented global institution toward a much more open and inclusive institution (Boehle 2010: 390). With wider participation in global governance, better the UN General Assembly argued for this change. between grassroots movements, non profit organizations, religious communities, spiritual organizations and, supported by religious and spiritual leaders could have an the previous suggestion, there is also historical precedent for this kind of work. Whether it be Jubilee 2000 or the UNESCO movement decade for a culture of peace, non violence for the children of the NGOS, religious actors work with UN agencies holds much potential for making a crucial difference in the world (Boehle, 2010: 398 ) Stronger participation of civil society in the UN will make space for science. Civil society organizations (who help shape the contours of the world in the 21st century) use their power to attract others to their position by using culture, values and ideas ( Nye 2004). The UN help gives potential legitimacy and credibility to religious voices, civil voices calling for social cohesion and multi religious coexistence. The UN would gain ideas, strategies, and collaborative efforts to respond to problems that we have already established as arising from a mix of the secular and r eligious anyway (Karam 2010: 471). The trend that problems are complex and require innovative

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538 order to go somewhere else, we must th ink in a different way 12 Such new thinking, therefore, might involve a greater, collaborative effort between ethics, spirituality, religion and the UN. This may, therefore, emerge in a variety of different ways, but one of the possibilities is that such s trengthened collaboration could give rise to a new global, civil ethic with possible impacts on strategies dealing with the environmental the worship of power, the r ule of brute force or the culture o f violence (Hodges and Hays 2005: vii) but rather, located in a place where religious values at the UN are stressed in the promotion of a new global ethic. This global ethic would be an example eally do collaborate to support a UN that effectively maintains a is that where and when positive elements of faith both f orm and inform values and between religion and the UN, are therefore, impacting the formation and efficiency of social capital. In turn, these relationships contribute to th e evolution of human contribute to changing the manner in which development as a whole is conceptualized, Karam 2010: 473). This holds particula r promise for education informed by ESD as well because if the positive elements of religion continue 12 http://thinkexist.com/quotation/the_thinking_that_we_are_has_brought_us_to_where/254777.html accessed May 3, 2012.

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539 to trickle down into schools and if the reproductive tendencies of education can be used g of the environment then greater cultural change toward more sustainable lifeways may be more likely (Karol and Gale 2005 : 8). This may, however, not be such a utopic pipe dream as this where the new cultural production unfolding on Independent schools be comes particularly interesting to consider. Bi l ateral Force of Change and the Greener Common Ground In the Middle Prior to my final reflections ab out where education might go if educators took seriously the idea that religion (and particularly nature spi rituality) had something of significance to offer future curriculums and additional education reform efforts involving sustainability, it is important to address one of the primary questions that this project explored which was about where these changes in the Independent school arenas were coming from. Any educator who is involved in teaching sustainability issues ensures that students know there are many change agents in the world including individuals, communities and larger structural institutions. A sking questions, moreover, about the role that elite organizations may play in bringing about change is always a part of classroom lessons aimed at better understanding successful achievements and/or obstacles to sustainability. A project about sustainabil ity and education, therefore, necessarily had to include an inquiry about the role of the United Nations in changing educational trends, and thus I specifically examined the role that religion, ethics and spirituality played in the origins and disseminatio n of ideas ab out ESD This part of my work provided much insight into how and in ways religion was influencing ideas at the level of these elite institutions and throughout the project it was demonstrated how ESD,

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540 and the ethical component of it, impacted secondary schools. I have argued that religion, ethics and spirituality were indeed an important part of the sustainability discourse at the United Nations as ideas about ESD were discussed a nd drafted. As the cas e studies involving specific Independent school campuses also revealed there was some example, was there extensive evidence for schools using pedagogical tools articulated by ESD (such as collabor ation, local and global scales, teaching skills for life and the ability to problem solve) but topics that are a priority in the ESD curriculum (such as climate change, population issues, poverty, and consumption) were also taught in Independent school cla ssrooms. Not only did Independent schools also explicitly acknowledge their courses were designed to address UN Millennium Goals (showing that the UN was indeed impacting what was transpiring in the classroom), but some schools directly cited the UN langu age about their sustainability efforts being a response to the UN Implicit in the curriculums and school life on these campuses was additional evidence that the UN was influential in what was unfolding. Many schools, for example, had model UN clubs and sustainability issues were addressed during mock assembly gatherings. This allowed for the dissemination of ideas not only generated within the UN, but also for an understanding of the UN as an operative governance body. The mission statements of the schools also often included references to the importance of educating a global citizenry. Clearly, in addition to the direct and indirect implementation of ESD ideas and practices on these campuses, the

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541 schools were also emu lating the values found in this global institution with their throughout the different school communities. Grassroots efforts, led by students, Headmasters, and teachers to address environmental or social sustainability flourish in part because of the Independent schools environment in which these individuals do their work. Independent schools, therefore, are l ocated at the ground level of this social change, and they are helping to create change from the bottom up. They are distinctive communities and this makes them particularly fertile arenas for the new cultural production unfolding in them. Independent Sch ools and Larger Social Change schools might serve as exemplars for other private and public schools in the nation seeking to emulate what is transpiring on the ground in these emergen t green schools. these emerging greening trends, it is possible explore how American Independent schools can (and do already) function within a feedback loop with larger society and thus are potentially operative levers of larger, positive social change (Gardner 2006: 72) Independent schools can never be politically neutral and thus th ese schools are necessarily either actively involved in the replication of culture or they are actively

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542 questioning it. 13 different ways, but that the cultural production in process during the cultivation of 21st century citizens and the shaping of an emergent global ethic, is an example of how they are a ctively questioning it. The prototype of the 21st century student (citizen) is an individual who is collaborative, recognizes the value of nature outside of its utilitarian purposes, utilizes multiple disciplines to problem solve, recognizes that complex problems need approached from multi perspectives with an attentiveness to the fact that different stakeholders involved in the issue may have competing interests and these individuals may even include the land in their sphere of moral concern. 14 I also ar gue that aspects of education, found in the Independent school arena, nature is only to be considered for its economic and utilitarian purposes. Independent schools broaden economic success, and because they are being held up as exemplars and sanctioned these schools are embedded. demonstrate how Independent schools are resisting the dominant beliefs about human nature r elations and human human relations and show evidence that they are already 13 David Orr for example, notes that the pursuit of knowledge is not always free from the influence of 1992: 156). 14 Remarks of U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan to the Green School National Network Conference, https://www.ed.gov/news/speeches/greening our schools accessed May 26, 2013.

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543 operating as beacons of hope for the broader educational arena when it comes to implementing greening trends into education. First, Taylor argued that one of the characteristics of effective ecological resistance movements is the use of anthropocentric concerns as a motivational force for action. It should therefore come as little surprise in a close examination of the cultivation of a 21st century student that anthropocentric concer ns are often at the heart of why Independent schools want students to understand sustainability issues matter. Schools convey to students that it is their interests at stake. Schools also make students more aware that their world is violent and unjust or that their world is experiencing environmental problems. The schools also teach students that their world is beautiful, awe inspiring, and that they have a responsibility toward it. The sustainability discourse on these campuses is clearly built, in part around anthropocentric concerns. This is in part because the monotheistic religious traditions of which many of these schools draw upon and resonate with as a result of their historical, religious foundations. In extrapolating anthropocentric reasons work as motivating factors in ecological resistance movements then it is possible to argue that the cultivation of a 21st century individual (and the broader skill set and understanding of the natural world that comes along with thi s prototype) is a kind of resistance movement. Cultivating global citizens (or even earth citizens) is an act of resistance, not only in the ways that education is taught or what is taught about, but also in the resulting as a member of the global or earth community. As a result of the education students receive in the Independent school arena, students understand their present relationships with one anothe r and the earth differently.

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544 There is evidence of new cultural produ ction underway, motivated in part then by anthropocentric concerns. In the broader training of these global citizens efforts are modeled on campus to show and teach them how to make the world a better place for themselves (humans). This itself is an act of resistance because it negates the more in previous decades when referencing or teaching about the state of the world. It might be, therefore, that an anthropocentric argu ment is an effective way to appeal to people when trying to rally support around a sustainability cause. Of course, there are limits to an anthropocentric environmental ethic. If one cannot perceive of the usefulness of an organism, and does not have a st rong Leopoldian ethic, is easy not to care about all types of organisms. This anthropocentric influence is only a part of what is motivating schools to be more green and only one force in the cultivation of the emergent global citizenry. What is of particu lar interest here though is the act of resistance that is underway in these school communities and, as we shall soon, see, the religious and international governance body sanctioning of it. Taylor also argued that in ecological resistance movements there w ere aspects of ritual involved. The two examples of ritual being present in this cultural production have been identified. One was in the ritual nature of the calendar year of an onies and in traditions that sanction ideas and create shared experiences that help bond the community. Also, the examples of ritual work being done with local restoration efforts on different campuses was noted as part of the educational process. The res istance effort of cultivating 21st century citizens and the accompanying emergent global ethic may

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545 itself then be being consecrated by the cultural creation underway in this distinctive communities that share aspects of a larger cultural phenomenon about t his 21st century vision of education and its purpose. Finally, Taylor noted that there are rarely examples where any lasting accomplishments are achieved through resistance efforts unless they have the endorsement of the state which legitimizes them. I wou ld extrapolate this idea and say that greening trends, and the cultural production underway in the making of 21st century citizens in Independent schools, is already being emulated in the larger, public school (and thus political) arena and that the U.S. g overnment is sanctioning the work of Independent schools and their sustainability efforts. Interestingly enough, what the government is sanctioning is the culture of these Independent schools and the communities in which this greening culture is emerging. Tempered Optimism In 2012, eight years into this decade, there is much agreement among scholars that ESD stands on firm ground and that it has a lasting place in mainstream education. A growing cadre of progressive K 12 educators, for instance, believe tha t sustainability education has a central role in developing students sense of responsibility about the future and they are joining forces with leaders in the movement at the university levels scale systemic reform ef forts sweeping our nation and the vision and goals of the emerging field of sustainability education ( Wheeler and Byrn 2003: 24 ) brought a range of issue specific interest groups together under a sin gle banner, it enjoys support at the highest levels (Selby 2006 : 354)

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546 Despite there being little question about the role that the United Nations and ESD (with its accompanying ethical dimension) is playing in the origins of these greening trends, it sho uld also be readily apparent that grassroots efforts, inspired in part by religion (in its various forms), are equally (if not more) important in initiating these text bo sustainability or otherwise includes gaining background knowledge on important issues, building skills needed to create change, and believing that you can change things 15 In his speech at the Green School National Network Conference (February of movement is helping not only to change the culture of schools in our communities for the better but also the culture in our Department 16 Duncan went on to elaborate that the number of schools beginning the greening process (public and private) was growing exponentially. He stated the following: nationwide less than 19,000 students took the AP Environmental Science exam in 2001. In 2011, that number had jumped five fold, to nearly 100,000 students. That's amazing momentum in the right direction and I'm convinced those numbers will continue to grow exp onentially in the 21st century. 17 What is important is that Independent schools are providing models for each other as well as the larger public school arena and that their efforts (which are inclusive of at least mild resistance against the dominant paradigm) are being publicly legitimated by 15 www.facingthefuture.org/ accessed November 23, 2012. 16 Remarks of U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan to the Green School National Network Conference, https://www.ed.gov/news/speeches/greening our schools accessed May 26, 2013. 17 Ibid.

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547 recognized powers such as the U.S government. Moreover, notions of developing a 21st century citizen now include being ecologically literate whether in the privat e or public education sectors. The previous chapters included many examples of individuals believing that they could (and shou ld) initiate changes on the different Independent school campuses and individuals. He recalled that 75 signatories, ranging from the Alliance to Save Energy to the Zero Footprint Challenge, to associations for national school boards, principals, and teachers sent a letter requesting a new initiative from the US Department of Education. health, and edu cation and we appreciated your passionate and thoughtful advocacy 18 Additional evidence that such top down change continues to occur, both in Independent schools in the larger public school sector with the influence of grassroots efforts, was found in Arn Ribbon Award Program. He not only talked about the growth and success of this government partnerships that represents a significant departure from the federa suggests that institutional change may be resulting in changing the way institutions work, but as a result of demands from the bottom up. For example: The Green Ribbon award program was launched without new authority or new money. We didn't have to wait for a dysfunctional Congress to act. And thanks chiefly to your hard work and support, we didn't have to hire new staff for the program. To create this ambitious program, you didn't ask us to reinvent the 18 Ibid.

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548 wheel. Instead, we brought together existing, often under used public and private sector standards and resources in one coherent program. 19 Although ethics, religion and spirituality are not directly addressed or cited by Duncan as he endorsed the moment not impossible to imagine that there is a kind of ethical impulse driving this trend and the provides evidence for this. T he definition of a Green S chool that Arne Duncan and the US Department of Education use for the federal program that awards schools (including the 11 NAIS schools who won awards in 2012) with the Green Ribbon School Award is (emphasis is mine): winning sc environments through reducing environmental impact, promoting health, and ensuring a high quality environmental and outdoor education to prepare students with the 21st century skills and sustaina bility concepts needed in the growing global economy. 20 The definition of a green school in the Independent school arena is similar, but not identical to the definition used by the new federal recognition program. Recall that for Independent schools, the definition of a green school is one that (emphasis mine): is committed to developing a cultural of environmental sustainability, characterized by efficient use of resources, a healthy environment, an ecological curriculum, a nutritious food program and an engaged community (Chapman 2012: 4). The variance is important because community is broader rather than the emphasis on the outdoor education component at 19 Ibid. 20 http://www.ed.gov/news/press releases/duncan announces plans green ribbon schools award accessed March 12, 2012.

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549 the federal level is therefore what makes the Independent school definition notably distinct. This distinction becomes important because engaged community is one of the characteristics of green sch ools where the religion is most influential. It is my contention that Independent schools no longer simply teach about rising sea levels or holes in the ozone, but rather they help to educate students about the many interactions between humans and the ear th including ideas about what it means allow one to behave morally, to create and to act and to work together in harmony with hool communities are the places where the nascent prototype of an earth citizen is being cultivated. Independent schools are educating to build character that gives individuals strength to take responsibility for their own lives and to make a commitment to a society and care for the environment. This means that religion in these communities does, indeed, matter. The Potential Promise of Religion in the Future Independent School Arena Similar to others in New Religious movements Independent school administ n of being in the world (Pike 2004: alternative to the society the criticize, to live the teachings of their religions, and to make 152). It is also characteristic fo r these communities to be tailored toward a hoped 4: 154).

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550 Cultural production toward a vision of a more sustainable future is visible in Independe greening trends as these schools reaffirm their distinctive commitments to cultivating 21st century citizens. By definition, global citizens have a greater understanding of others and of the complexity of the world which include a greater awareness of the natural world (Miller 2009). It is my contention that Independent schools are engaged in the process of cultivating 21st century citizens who may be t he precursor prototype to a sus tainable citizen. In these arenas students are taught to embody aspects of a global citizenship and this is demonstrated in both their mindsets and in their daily practices (Preston 2007: 8). The preceding evidence for such cultural production, and the ro le of religion in it, offers insight into how education, focused on developing 21st century citizens (inclusive of sustainability knowledge and skills to navigate the complex world) thus exemplifies a closing of the gap between sustainability values and pr actices which is an ongoing conundrum in the realms of environmental ethics, religious studies and education alike. These trends, and this new cultural production may then evidence the notion, advanced by Daniel Deudney and Bron Taylor that a terrapolitan civil earth religion may be unfolding that could provide an affective/spiritual/ethical basis for the needed transformations and there are great benefits to this possibility for both individuals and the planet. The Emergent Ethic and its Future Possibiliti es for People and the Planet Each of the schools I examined introduced curriculum, were engaged in campus greening commitments, participated in social outreach opportunities and in some way were working to contribute to what I argue is a shift toward a mor e eco centric culture.

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551 An eco centric culture respects different mythic, artistic, ritualized and religious expressions of the human spirit while increasingly recognizing them as expressions of shared human experience. An eco centric culture moves toward b eing one world, one global community and this imperative should not gloss over cultural differences; indeed the multicultural character of global citizenship is a point of enrichment and in this global community there is a continued effort to organize and balance both local and global interests (Preston 2007: 8). The attentiveness to diverse perspectives, the importance of toggling back and forth between local and global scales, the idea that all humans share a kind of global commons are all facets of ESD. Combining these ideas with the NAIS essential competencies for a 21st century student (which already exist on these NAIS campuses) there is a new prototype of student emerging. The intention of educators is for students not just to become global citizen s, but the new vision is that students are learning how to be eco citizens. An eco and decision makers who are able to measure the implications of their actions, not only 15). I would resp onsibly at an individ ual and collective level toward environmental, population and awareness of the natural world are some o f the reasons for hope (Guttman 1999: 16). In both the Independent school arena and the larger, global arena an emergent ethic might thus be underway. The emergence of this new, global ethic has immense

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552 possibilities for addressing the ecological crisis, possibly moving people toward a more sustainable wo rld and education may play a pivotal role in the dissemination of this new ethic, which I argue, is already underway. First, the new civil ethic itself is imbued with planet. As Robert Thurman described: The key of civility, everyone will grant, lies in all inter actors sharing a commonality of identity, a sense of kinship and mutuality of interest. Family familiarity, tribal membership, national affiliation, racial affinity, and religious community these all have shown themselves capable of anchoring such a commonality of identity in groups of people. This sense of common identity enables them, occasionally and temporarily, to overcome the root egocentrism that makes all human relationships unstable and unreliable, even the most intimate. The problem then is how to create a global commonality of identity that could anchor a deeply internalize sense of world n will naturally wish to act within the forms of a true civility with other Eartheans, will naturally strive to treat each other in altruistically tinged that is kindly ways. There is the emergence of a reliably humane gl obal ethic (Hodges and Hay s 2005: viii). The environment would also (or already does) play a significant role in a global ethic too. Many feel, for example, that any global ethic must recognize that all sentient beings have rights. Taylor has already noted that this is underway. Th e Bolivian government, for example, granted constitutional rights upon the natural environment in

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553 December of 2008. 21 Others point out that this idea of interconnectedness and the he concept of sustainable development. The discussion groups involved in conversation about the prospects for a global ethic agreed that there is broad support for including environmental issues in the global ethic ( Hodges and Hays 2005: 93). The partici pants of these discussion groups also agreed that for the UN to have more power, the people of the world must come to a new understanding of sovereignty, certain fundamental things. People must come to feel that the nations have lost the right to represent them in those areas where they feel the UN can do a better job. These areas would include: 1) the preservation of the environment, land, forests, oceans, fresh water bodies, atmosphere and food and energy resources, and 2) preservation of their individual human rights against the coercive activities of their local elites and government (Hodges and Hays 2005: 39). These ideas, as the Independent school curr iculums and practices revealed, are being cultivated in the Independent school arena as well. In a continued examination of other potential sources for hope and evidence im agined (and are already possibly unfolding) one can look to the work of Bron Taylor to see more evidence of this in the global arena. As Taylor has both argued and demonstrated 21 http://www.religiondispatches.org/archive/atheologies/4522/debate_over_m ars_of_pagan_socialism/ April 20, 2011.

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554 religios ity increasingly press an environmental agenda upon nation states and international institutions ( Taylor 2005 e : 1683 ). connected and this includes his theory and evidenc e that a kind of dark green religion (DGR) may accompany this emergent global ethic. Taylor documented a significant the WSSD in South Africa in 2002. At this confere nce he noted the emergent pilgrimage to (and celebration of) the site where humanity began and he suggested this showed the kinship of all humanity and interconnection to of all life. He also argued that the UN remony assumed an evolutionary understanding, implied a reverence for life and envisioned a parareligious utopian hope for the re harmonization of all life on Earth. developments in Eart h related spiritualities beyond the sphere of institutional religions. sectarian global civic Earth religion e : 1683) the earth so that when we are ancestors we will also inhabit a healthy world This understanding between the well being of humans currently alive, their ancestors and the earthly environment may be a new, religious ecological hybrid (Taylor 2010: 185). Thus, as Taylor arg ued, a naturalist parareligion known as dark green religion (DGR) may one that is much more mid and long term than short term (Taylor 2010: 199 ). I argue, however, tha t in addition to the pararelgious production unfoldin g at the UN, Independent school s ideas about and approaches to sustainability are both

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555 reflecting and promoting broader cultural transformations toward spiritualities and ethics that promote sustainability (inclusive of health and well being) as well. There was strong evidence for the individual health benefits (mental, physical, emotional) of these greening trends, and a cultivation of ecological consciousness (or connectedness with nature) developing in these environmental spiritualities. This is significant for individuals and the planet as well. Naturalist parareligion, in other words, h olds promise because religion is often about transformative power and about physical and spiritual healing and well being. T he ways that people in the larger green movement understand such healing is often dependent on biologically intact environmental sy stems. The greening trends in schools, moreover, promote the importance of such environmental systems or even try to create them on their campuses. This suggests evidence of religion resembling beliefs and practices similar to those found within the larger environmental milieu. Prior to understanding the real promise of these developing environmental spiritualities, however, it is necessary to explore some of the benefits of students connecting with nature. These benefits include many ideas found among ed ucators advocating for more ESD (and/o r EE) in schools. Many educator s advocate for increased opportunities for students to connect with (and I will argue to learn about) the natural world. While contact time with nature is mostly geared toward facilitatin g greater environmental sustainability (which is only one part of the sustainability discourse), the benefits of this increased contact time with nature have potential relevance to the larger sustainability discourse including the social and economic compo nents of it. As Stephen human, physical, mental, and even spiritual well being relies on

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556 experiencing healthy and diverse natural systems existing trends already underway it seems prudent to reflec we know that Independent school education, was indeed currently headed i n the right direction (Kellert 2005 a : 3 ). The natural environment has the potential to be both attractive and restorative and it is generally agreed upon that childhood is considered the time when exposure to nature is most essential ( Kaplan and Kaplan 1989; Kaplan 2000; Kellert 2005 a ). Howard Frumkin, a professor and the chair of the environmental and occupational health department in School of Public Heal th at Emory, spent time researching the He argued that environmental exposures may have positive health effects and could help prevent and treat illnesses and came to believe that people felt restored and healthier in a beauti ful landscape. stated that humans are attracted to other living organisms and that this contact with natural world may benefit their health. Frumkin (like E.O. Wilson and Kaplan and Kaplan ) argued that humans were genetically hard wired to prefer certain types of Noting t his perspective and referencing some the research about the benefits of nature, it is important to consider the consequences that result when children are denied opportunities to connect with the natural world. This phenomenon is what Richard Louv referre disorder. He clarified that this term was a way to look at an issue and stated that this

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557 was not a diagnosable medical problem (Louv 2006: 10 ). This does not, however, mean that the nature deficit does not have some negative c onsequences. There was being were all affected when they did not have the opportunity to connect with nature. deficit. Studies showed, for example, that more sedentary living habits were linked to increased rates of disease, stress and obesity. According to information released by the Center for Disease C n the ages of two and five increased by 36% from 1989 1999 and two out of ten children are clinically Louv 2006: 47 ). Other research has also shown that there was increased aggression when children are in high density environments and that childho od asthma was increasingly more common as a result of increased air pollution in urban environments (Wolhill 1985 : 103). was also affected. Researchers have found that c hildren with ADD have a more difficult time focusing when they did not have contact with nature. Karen Patterson reported that natural settings provided tangible mental health benefits. She noted that children were able to concentrate better when they had contact with natural surroundings. They also had better test scores (as a result of better concentration and because they had a greater ability to resist impulse) when they had natural views from home and/or school (Patterson 2004). Similar findings have also been reported by Cornell researchers who 1). More evidence also concluded that when children,

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558 who were relocated to greener lo cations, were compared with others, they tended to have the highest levels of cognitive functioning after they moved to green spaces ( Brody 2010 related to their exposure and interactions with the natural world. be affected by their opportunities to connect (or lack thereof) with nature. A 2003 survey, for example, showed that American bled in five years and that the steepest increase in these prescriptions was among pre school age children (Louv 2006: 48). Although little research has been done on the impact of new technologies on ults. Louv, for example, cited a controversial study from 1998 which found that people who spent even a few hours on the Internet each week suffered higher levels of depression and loneliness than people who used t he Net infrequently (Louv 2006: 65). Adole scent frustration, moreover, was increasingly noticeable because the landscape around them (and within their own minds) was not providing them with the tools to get around the world beyond the suburbs and because TV was bombarding them with so much stuff t hat all that could feel was frustration (DeGraff 2005: 37). One can use these data to contemplate solutions to these emotional ills. Louv Walt Whitman once s the open air, and to eat and 32). Similarly, U.S.

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559 healthier habits of nutrition and exercise make for happier, healthier, more attentive, and more productive students 22 He continued that this common sense notion is now being born out by a growing body of academic research linking high quality physical activity and nutritio n to better student performance. 23 Building on that idea many school staff believe the natural world is an excellent stage upon which students may not only learn about self discovery and risk taking, but also the workings of the natural world. Through these experiences they can thus begin to cultivate certain habits of interacti on. Attentiveness, for instance, is an essential tool for learning about natural processes. 24 Whether it is just a small increase in contact time with the natural world, or a changing school culture that incorporates the natural world into the daily life o n campus, there are arguable merits that students might be benefitting from as they engage with the natural world on an increased basis due to th ese unfolding greening trends. Based on my specific findings I contend that these trends are very important eve n if they are still small and nascent. There are green developments within these more traditional religious traditions, but little evidence from any kind of larger systemic study of the trends exists. My own research about these Independent school communit ies is, moreover, primarily anecdotal. Evidence emerging from these 22 Remarks of U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan to the Green School National Network Conference, https://www.ed.gov/news/speeches/greening our schools accessed May 26, 2013. 23 Ibid. 24 at http://www.wilderdom.com/experiential/tenELOBprinciples.html accessed March 14, 2010.

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560 Independent schools are going green and religion has something to do this it. These efforts are small and new, but they are encouraging as they may foreshadow more dramatic and broader cultural transformations in the future. Future Research Looking ahead, future pedagogical innovation should take environmental psychology and naturalistic forms of religion as a lever for social change combined with the possible salutary role of naturalistic religion suggests that these two variables have a powerful ability to assist in efforts toward larger cultural change, but in what ways and to what extent remain understudied. Donald Worster argued that nature has shown us (or rather eroded away for us) the idea that the conquest of nature is possible. Nature has demonstrated that humans are dependent on it and still vulnerable to it (Worster 1994: 430). He argued that a kind of awe and respect for nature might emerge from this recognition. Those who doubt, moreover, the idea that nature has something to teach us (and/or questions whether or not there is something inherent within it t o be respected) might consider the statement written by scientists who infused a sense of the cosmos with a vision of the sacred because they too acknowledge there is something to be learned and revered in nature. Independent s econdary school teachers are not only recognizing this, but are sharing it with students too. More information is needed though not only about how teachers are doing this, but also about how students then use this knowle dge in their own lives both now and in the future. In reflecting ecological paradigms and the role of green science in education as it is occurring both

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561 inside and outside the c lassroom. Holistic efforts toward sustainability are underway in schools, and the greening of science is one of the particular examples of these trends. These trends hold promise for how a transformation in education might continue, but more specific infor mation about this transformation could be of assistance to better understanding the ways in which these trends actually matter in terms of the longer term impacts Future research could then explore these greening trends in more depth, not only to better understand the extent to which they are initiating (or just reflecting) larger cultural change, but also to better understand if a conscious (or unconscious) spiritual adaption is underway as a part of this process. My interest this particular question for future research is inspired by David Sloan Wilson Wilson argued that fictional beliefs can be more powerful and decisive in behavior than factual beliefs (Wilson 2003: 627). He argued that factual or fictional ideas get transmitted through evolution. In examining this evolution process and one of its key components, which is natural selection, Wilson suggested that rational thought is no longer the gold standard, but rather adaptation is the measure by which the effectiveness of natural selection should now be measured. He noted, however, that adaptation was a relative concept and that natural selection was a multi level process. His point was that sometimes it was possible for a group to become so functionally integrated that they become a higher level o rganism in their own right (Wilson 2003: 628). With the potential of a species to functionally integrate in such a way that evolution resulted in a higher level organism, the value of understanding the shifting ecological models is extremely important espe cially if certain ones are being taught or

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562 choose the values from past models or from nature itself to develop a worldview (after a thorough historical examination of the way we perceiv e nature), then all of the different models, even if they form a kind of cacophony at times, are important because they reveal a deeper vision of how nature operates. What might happen if students understood s in this way? Future research could examine how science was being taught and explore how students understanding of science, if imbued with a kind of awe or mystery, was reshaping the way they understood and interacted with the world. I am therefore curio us adaptive behaviors and co evolve with the natural world if current/future students aspired to elevate themselves to a higher level organism exemplified by developing a different relationship with the landscapes in which they inhabit. This idea of a self conscious evolution also has great significance for environmental ethics too. If there really are decisive moments of novelty (that arise with someone like Thoreau) i n which gestalt shifts occur and ecological theories unfold, then we already understand how ecological models have undoubtedly impacted environmental ethics in the past. We can thus rationally assume that innovative thinkers, and their ideas that accompan y changing models, can inspire a new kind of ecological ethic over time and future research could explore the possibilities of this process. This brings me back to the work of Taylor, who demonstrated that certain radical ideas can incubate and be fed back into society in such a way that eventually emerge in

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563 the mainstream cultures. What kinds of ideas might therefore result if humans were able to elevate themselves to another level of thinking, through a conscientious self reflection and religious producti on at a relatively young age such that the youth established a new kind of ecological model which took history in a new direction as they matured and entered the larger world as engaged (eco) citizens? And, what if this is already, in part, underway? Concl usions Independent schools are intentionally approaching and including sustainability efforts and goals into their institutions. They are changing, in part, from influences trickling down from the larger elite institutions and from the grassroots efforts e merging on their own distinctive campuses and religion, ethics and spirituality are an important part of this cul tural change that is underway with committees of teachers, staff, parents, students and alums. This shows the potential of an Independent schoo l education It also demonstrates the importance that the previously documented trends in NAIS schools with their focus on diversity, moral/character education, religious literacy and sustainability education because all were vital for a student to know a bout growing up in the world today. Students who are aware of the world around them and the impl ications of their actions in it help support the notion that Independent schools do actually work to expand the pool of well prepared leaders in government, bus iness and other professions (Simons 1992: 274). The process of educating such leaders with a strong sense of social responsibility, provides additional hope that Independent schools truly Simons 1992: 2 74).

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564 This hope, derived in part from the kinds of grassroots change I have contemporary social issues (as reflected in current greening trends) and the focus on developing stude graduate, but there is some reason to be encouraged by the role of the religion as it is woven into these communities (both structurally and in the software of these communities) and their grassroots efforts to inspire cultural change. The students in these communities are developing and acting upon an ethical and moral dimension that is good for them, as people and that are good for the nation (and possibly the planet) too. Some also suggest this is also a benefit for the survival of Independent schools themselves as well. As Robert Coles, a professor of psychiatry and medical humanities at Harvard explained in an interview with Pearl Kane: If we can teach in a way that more and more students begin to think more and country. If the Independent schools of this country can give the important moral questions a forum and an incarnation, they would do a lot, I th in k, to justify their existence (Kan e 1992 c : 299).

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565 LIST OF REFERENCES The Lawrentian 69.1: 19. The Lawrentian 71.2: 5. < http://stephanarchives.org/doing research/collections/> The Lawrentian 72.3: 5 an interview with 32 33. The Lawrentian 72.3: 6. The Lawrentian 73.2: 5. The Lawrentian 73.1: 5. 2010 Annual Report for Uni : Climate Leadership for America 2013. < http://www.presidentsclimatecommitment.org/reporting/annual report/2010 > The Lawrentian 74.1: 4. Sustainability in Higher Education, accessed March 23, 2013. < http://www.aashe.org/files/2011_annualreport_aashe.pd f > accessed March 4, 2012. < http://www.csee.org/awards > Independent School Mag azine 70.3 < http://www.nais.org/Magazines Newsletters/ISMagazine/Pages/Is your school prepared for the future.aspx > 2013 Course Catal < http://www.sandomenico.org/uploaded/downloads/Upper/sandomenico2012 13courseshs.pdf > 2013 Course Cat 2012. < http://www.mercyhs.org/about/course catalogue >

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566 Step < http://issuu.com/sssas/docs/2012 2013_us_course_guide/13?mode=a_p/ > the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, accessed March 23, 2013. < http://www.aashe.org/about/aashe mission vision goals > Vincent McGinnis (ed.) Bioregionalism (New York: Routledge): 13 42. < http://www.sidwell.edu/feen/feen home/about feen/index.aspx > < http://www. episcopalschools.org/about naes/ > 11, 2012. < http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/6 06425/ISvars/default/ABOUT_NEWTO N.htm> 2012. http://fore.research.yale.edu/ tion, accessed October 23, 2012. < http://www.csee.org/about/ > < http://fore.research .yale.edu/about us > < http://www.germantownfriends.org/about gfs/index.aspx/ > Green Schools Alliance Accessed Se ptember 16, 2008. < www.greenschoolsalliance.org/about/index.html >. July 24 2012 < http://www.sustainschools.org/about us > t, accessed October 6, 2012. < http://www.newtoncountryday.org/RelId/606431/ISvars/default/ACADEMICS.ht m/ > ember 6, 2012. < http://www.sandomenico.org/page.cfm?p=2157/ >

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568 2012. < http://www.csee.org/projects/pathmaps/awe&mystery.html > Bailey, Albert Ed Journal of the National Association of Biblical Instructors 3.1: 25 28. Barbieri, Richard. 1992. in Pearl Rock Kane (ed.) Independent Schools, Independent Th inkers (San Fra ncisco: Jossey Bass Publishers): 27 41. Barbour, Ian G 2000 a in Audrey R. Chapman, et al. (eds.) Consumption, Population and Sustainability: Perspectives from Science and Religion (Washington D.C.: Island Press): 23 36. 2000 b Hessel and Rosemary Radford Ruether (eds.) Christianity & Ecology: Seeking the Well Being of Earth and Humans (Cambridge: Harvard University Press): 385 401. The Journal: Transforming Education through Technology May 7, 2012. Accessed May 26, 2013. < http://thejournal.com/articles/2012/05/07/lawrenceville school builds 30acre solar farm.aspx > Barreiro, Jose. 2010. Thinking in Indian: A John Mohawk Reader. (Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing). Someone Else to Do It: A Tale of Sustainability on Campus: Stories and Strategies for Change (Boston: MIT Press): 67 90. Independent School Magazine 61.2: 7 10. 2005 a Independent School Magazine 64:3. Accessed May 18, 2010 < http://www.nais.org/Magazines Newsletters/ISMagazine/Pages/Developing Sustainable Schools.aspx > 2005 b ls. Bassett, Libby, John T. Brinkman, and Kusumita P. Pedersen. 2000. Earth and F aith: a book of reflection for action (New York: United Nations Environment Programme, New York Office).

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570 Boff The Earth Charter Initiative Accessed May 19, 2012. < www.earthcharterinaction.org/invent/images/uploads/6%20Manuscrip_Leonard o%20Boff.pdf > Episcopal News Service April 7, 2008. Accessed October 4, 2012. < http://library.episcopalch urch.org/article/green education episcopal schools move toward sustainability 0 > Bowers, C.A. 1995. Educating for an Ecologically Sustainable Culture: Rethinking Moral Education, Creativity, Intelligence, and other Modern Orthodoxies (Albany: State Univers ity of New York Press). 1997. The Culture of Denial: Why the Environmental Movement Needs a Strategy for Reforming Universities and Public School (Albany: State University of New York Press). a Modern to a more Bioreginally Bioregionalism (New York: Routledge). Education Research at Harvard University Center for the Environment. < http://fore.research.yale.edu/education/research/ > 2001. Educating for eco justice and community (Athens: University of Georgia Press). ch to Planetary Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association 36.1: 45 58. Boyer, Pascal. 2001. Religion Explained: The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Though t (New York: Basic Books). B The History Teacher 29.2: 195 216. http://www.bread.org/ > Independent School Magazine 67.1. < http://www.nais.org/Magazines Newsletters/ISMagazine/Pages/Just Teaching The Development and Sustainability of Educators Engaged in Social Justice dup.aspx >

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571 Brody New York Times Health November 29, 2010. < http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/30/health/30brody.html?_r=0 > ivating Humanity in Schools: An Interview with Martha Independent School Magazine 59.3. Accessed May 26, 2013. < http://www.nais.org/Mag azines Newsletters/ISMagazine/Pages/Cultivating Humanity in Schools.aspx > Audrey R. Chapman, et al. (eds.) Consumption, Population and Sustainability : Perspectives from Scienc e and Religion (Washington D.C.: Island Press): 97 107. Law School Legal Studies Research Paper No. 13 34. Brown, Isaac V. 1819. Memoirs of Rev. Robert Finley, D.D. (New Brunswick: Terhune and Letson). Bulbulia, Joseph. The Cognitive and Evolutionary Psychology of R Biology and Philosophy 19 : 655 686. (ed.) Independent Schools, Independent Thinkers (San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers): 152 172. Method & Theory in the Study of Religion 9.2: 111 126. Burkert, Walter. 1996. Creation of the Sacred: Tracks of Biology in Early Religions (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press). < https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Butler_Act.html > Butler, Jon, Grant Wacker, and Randall Herbert Balmer. 2003. Religion in American life: a short history (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Butler, William Allen. 1893. Sunday Laws: Should the Sunday rest be Maintained by Legislation?: The Ground and Limitation of Such Interference. A paper read before the International Congress on Sunday Rest, Chicago, September, 1893. (Bo ston: James H. Earle).

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572 2012. < http://www.ge rmantownfriends.org/campus life/whats green at gfs/campus environmental projects/index.aspx?view=revision/ > Calder, Wynn. 2002. f Independent School Life" .< http://www.nais.org >, accessed March 18, 2008. 2005 A Progress The Declaration 7.2:1 8. 2008. Sustainabilit y in Independent Schoo Accessed May 4, 2012. < http://www.sustainschools.org/images/Obstacles&Solutions2009.pdf > 2009. Sustai nable Schools, NAIS Leadership Series: No. 2, July 2009. National Association of Independent Schools. Calder, Wynn and Richard M. Clugston. 1999. Critical Dimensions of Sustainability in Higher Education at http://ulsf.org/pdf/Critical_dimensions _SHE.pdf accessed May 15, 2013. Planning for Higher Education 31.3: 30 44. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 29.1: 7 12. National Association of Independent Schools N/A (2011): 1 9. National Association of Independent Schools W eb. 15 Dec. 2012. < http://sustainschools.org/wp content/uploads/2013/04/StateofSustainabilityIndepSchls.pdf > of the Sacred Heart, accessed October 22, 2012. < http://www.newtoncountryday.org/default.aspx?RelID=609110&issearch=sustai nable/ > Callenbach, Ernest. 1975. Ecoto pia (Berkeley: Bantam Tree Books). Callicott, J. Baird. 1997. Earth's Insights: a Multicultural S urv ey of Ecological Ethics from the Mediterranean Basin to the Australian O utback (Berkeley and LA : University of California Press). and Helne Lw (eds.) The Cultic Milieu: Oppositional Subcultures in the Age of Globalization (Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press): 12 25.

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573 Higher Edu cation, November 6, 2011. Accessed May 26, 2013. < http://chronicle.com/article/A College Town Imagines a New/129650/ > Carper, James C. 2001. "The Changing Landscape of U.S. Ed Kappa Delta Pi Record 37.3: 106 111. Carson, Rachel. 1962. Silent Spring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company). Carter, Stephen L. 1994. The Culture of Disbelief: How American Law and Politics Trivialize Religious Devotion (New York: Doubleday Dell Publishing). 2012. < http://www.csee.org/produc ts/128 > Schools. September 26, 2012. Accessed May 26, 2013. < http://www.nais.org/Articles/Pages/Challenge 20 20 --Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's).aspx > Chapman, Paul. 2012. Greening America's schools: the environmental sustainability movement in K 12 education (Washington, DC: National Association of Independent Schools). < http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/preamble.shtml/ > mental Ethics as Environmental Etiquette: Toward an Ethics Environmental Ethics 21: 115 134. accessed December 8, 2012. < http://www.newtoncountryday.org/default.aspx?RelID=609814&issearch=sustai nability/ > Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature 1 (London: Thoem mes Continuum): 1569 1571. < http://www.mercyhs.org/about/school profile/ > Clover, Darlene E. (ed). 2004. Global P erspectives in Environmental Adult Education (New York: Peter Lang Publishing).

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603 Thayer, Robert L. 2003. LifePlace: Bioregional Thought and Practice (Berkeley: University of California Press). Thiele, Leslie Paul. Environmentalism for the New Mil lennium (Oxford, 1999) Thomashow, Mitchell. Bringing the Biosphere Home (MIT Press, 2002) Cultural Organization, accessed June 2012. < http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading the international agenda/education for sustainable development/three terms one goal/ > Th Independent School Magazine 64.3. Accessed May 26, 2013. < http://www.nais.org/Magazines Newsletters/ISMagazine/Pages/The Global Schoolhouse Education for Global Citizenship.aspx > Tucker Worldviews 12: 115 128. Tucker, Mary Evelyn, and John Grim. 1994. Worldviews and Ecology: Religion, Philosophy, and the E nvironment (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books). Islam and Ecology (Cambridge, Harvard University Press): xi xxxv. Tylor, Edward B. 1920. Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Language, Art, and Custom (London: John Murray). Ulich, Robert. 1945. History of Educational Thou ght (New York: American Book Company). UN < http://www.un.org/en/sustain ability/ > < http://www.un.org/en/aboutun/index.shtml/ > modified May 23, 1997. Accessed May 2, 2011. < http://www.un.org/geninfo/bp/enviro.html > for a Sustainable Future (U NESCO), accessed November 3, 2012. < http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/extras/desd.html?panel=2#top >

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605 Independent Schools, Independent Thinkers (San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers): 248 257. : Physical Environment 16, 2012. < http://www.westtown.edu/about westtown/mission/vision statement/index.aspx/ > BioScience 60.7: 539 545. Muir's Early Indian Views : Ross Wak efield, Muir's Early Indian Newsletter, v.5, no.1, Winter 1994 95. < http: //www.sierraclub.org/john_muir_exhibit/john_muir_newsletter/wakefield_ind ian_views.aspx > U.S. Catholic 75.4: 25. < htt p://www.uscatholic.org/church/2010/09/st francis patron ecology > Centre, September 27, 2012, last modified 2013, accessed May 26, 2013. < http://www.oikoumene.org/en/press centre/news/wcc conference probes sustainability crises > UN Chronicle Spring 2000: 11. Weiner Cross Currents 60.3: 292 296. < http://www.westtown.edu/ about westtown/index.aspx/ > Environment and Behavior 32.6: 775 795. Telegram & Gazette March 9, 2009. Accessed May 13, 2013 from < http://search.proquest.com/docview/269038076?accountid=10920 > < http://www.westtown.edu/about westtown/mission/westtown school mission statement/index.aspx/ > Green Scene at Westtown May 30, 2012. Accessed October 18, 2012. < http://westtowngreen.com/2012/05/30/westtowns 600 acre campus becomes the textbook 2/#more 6/ >

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606 Accessed July 1, 2012. < http://community.westtown.edu/Page.aspx?pid=362/ > modified 2013. Accessed May 14, 2012. < http://www.ecoliteracy.org/essays/what c omes after diversity globalism and sustainability > July 8, 2012 < http://www.earth charterinaction.org/content/pages/What is the Earth Charter%3F.html > Education, accessed May 26, 2013. < http://www.naaee.net/what is ee > modified 2008. Accessed July 24, 2012. < http://www.friendscouncil.org/FolderID/640/SessionID/{DEC8F027 003D 40FD BFF7 4E5C7A016B8A}/PageVars/Library/InfoManage/Guide.htm > Accessed October 12, 2012. < http://www.nais.org/Articles/Pages/About NAIS.aspx?src=utility > Development, accessed June 5, 2 012. < http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/extras/desd.html?panel=1#top > < http://www.westtown.edu/about westtown/quaker education/what is quakerism/index.aspx/ > < http://www.westtown.edu/our program/upper 9 12/experiential education/service network/index.aspx/ > Wheeler Kei 12 Sustainability Education: Its Status Planning for Higher Education 31.3: 23 29. Wheeler, Keith, and Anne Perraca Bijur. 2000. Education for a Sustainable Future: a Paradigm of Hope for the 21st C entury (New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers). Science 155: 1203 1207. Whitman, Walt. 2005. Leaves of Grass (New York: Bantuum Books).

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607 < http://withchrist.org/catholic.htm > < http://thefoodtrust.org/about > Green Teacher: Education for the Planet Accessed September 16, 2008. < www.greenteacher.com.whoweare.html >. Independent School Magazine 63.3. < http://www.nais.org/Magazines Newsletters/ISMagazine/Pages/Making Global Connections.aspx > March 10, 2008. Accessed May 26, 2012. < www.wilderdom.com > Williams, E.I.F. 1937. Horace Mann: Educational Statesman (New York: The Macmillan C ompany). Wilson, David Sloan. 2002. Darwin's Cathedral: Evolution, Religion, and the Nature of Society (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press). Wilson, Edward Osbourne. 1975. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Pres s of Harva rd University Press). 1984. Biophilia: The Human Bond With Other Species (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press). Wirzba, Norman. 2003. The essential agrarian reader: the future of culture, community, and the land (Lexington: University Press of Kentu cky). Witham, Larry. 2002. Where Darwin meets the Bible: creationists and evolutionists in America (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Wohlwill, Joachim and Willem van Vliet (ed). 1985. Habitats for Children: The Impacts of Density. (Hillsdale: Lawrence Erl baum Associates). Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science Vol. 446 The Uneasy Boundary: Church and State. (Nov., 1979): 63 77. ture : Cool Earth Accessed December 3, 2012. < http://www.sandomenico.org/cf_news/view.cfm?newsid=122 > San Domenico School, accessed December 19, 2012. < http://www.sandomenico.org/page.cfm?p=1766/ >

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608 Worster, Donald. 1994. Nature's economy: a history of ecological ideas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2 nd edn). Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature 1 (London: Thoemmes Continuum): 1193 1197. T he History Teacher 28.2: 265 271. November 5, 2012. < http://templeofunderstanding.org/programs/youth program s/ > Zimmerman, Jonathan. 2002. Whose America? Culture Wars in the Public Schools (Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press).

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609 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH you want to see in the understand human relations hips with the natural world. 1 At the time, unbeknownst to her, there was a growing interest in the world religions and the environment unfolding in the scholarly world. 2 However, in her own insular world, at the Univer sity of Puget Sound in the 1990 s, she was just a young college student from the mountains of Colorado, with a passion for the Earth, who fell in love with the Pacific Northwest. She used her free time to engage in formal protests aimed at stopping the clear cutting of old growth forests and she spent time lying down in front of cars on the Seattle ferry dock trying to get people to boycott Alaska while the U.S. government endorsed the aerial killing of Alaskan wolves. It was at that time, November 1993, when she also wrote a term paper f or a Zen Buddhism course titled Hope for a Sustainable Environment: Zen and Deep Ecology. Her unfolding interest in religion and environmental interactions was t hen further cultivated during her experiences in two remote Himalayan villages that transpired after a study abroad semester in the Fall 1994 when she decided to spend an additional six 1 This quotation is not actually something Gandhi said. See Brian Morton. Were Never http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/30/opinion/falser words were never spoken.html?_r=0 accessed May 3, 2013. As Morton explained, e could change ourselves, the tendencies in the world would also change. As a man changes his own nature, so does the attitude of the world change towards the closest verifiable statement to this actual quotat ion. 2 See more specific discussion of the co nferences at Harvard ( Taylor 2005d: 1373 1378).

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610 months in Nepal living with Bonpo monks as part of a self designed research project. As a part of her project she was given government permission to travel and live in a restricted area of Nepal on the Ti betan Plateau. She lived at 22, 000 feet in the life and she explored how much they had been influenced by the Tibetan Buddhist tr adition found in the larger Dolpo region. Her experiences included morning visits with the monks to local mountains and rivers to feed the spirits that resided in these places and her intrigue about how different religions and worldviews shaped human behav ior grew. By the end of her college experience she had found a topic that she was increasingly passionate about (religion and environmental ethics) and this passion generated her senior thesis titled The Shu gendo: Exploring The Potential of a Cosmogonic E cology As a part of this research she explored the ways in which the yamabushi (Japanese mountain ascetics) related to the natural world and suggested what might be learned from their approach and relationship with the mountains for developing environment al practices in Japan. Moreover, she followed this academic passion to graduate school at Columbia University where she earned a M.A. degree in the Religious Studies Department through writing to two different thesis projects titled Sacred Geography and S ustainable Development in India and Exploring the Ideas of Keiji Nishitani A Case Study in Cross Cultural Hermeneuti cs which used environmental concerns as a way to better understand how cross cultural hermeneutics influenced the way the environmental cri sis was being perceived and discussed. Thus, her studies and experiences, as an undergraduate and as a young graduate student, fused her interests

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611 in the world religions with her passion for the natural world and this became an important foundation for her career in secondary school teaching. After graduate school (in 1996) she began her teaching career in Tacoma, WA and her vision as an educator has always included the desire to enhance the education of students so that they may be knowledgeable and effec tive leaders in our nation and the world. During the last fourteen years she has developed a wide variety of courses covering a broad range of topics and time periods from antiquity to today. These courses include compar ative world religions classes, A si an philosophy classes, ancient world h is tory classes and classes about religion, nature and ethics and r North America She has taught courses at both the high school and undergraduate level, but her teaching has alwa ys found a way to inc orporate the natural world or issues that would now fall under the canopy of sustainability issues. Her current job at Annie Wright Schools, for example, includes the teachin g of a 9th grade course titled Global Issues: A journey though global and ecologic al issues from past to pr esent This course is the result of a grant from an organization called Facing the Future This empower them to think critically, develop a global pers pective and participate in positive 3 This grant own vision for the potentiality of education. She work s with her students and colleagues alike to make manifest the idea that wh at transpires inside the classroom walls is only meaningful if there are real world applications of that knowledge and those experiences. 3 http://www.facingthefuture.org/AboutUs/Mission/tabid/99/Default.aspx accessed May 3, 2013.

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612 Therefore, the topic of that this dissertation, which explored how the ethics of a connection between humans and the n atural world are taught and intentionally practiced in secondary schools, is a continuation of a particular life path. Throughout her life, sustainability, in all its multidimensionality, is more than a catch phras e it informs all l ifestyle, pedagogy and curricular focus. Moreover, throughout her lif e and in her teaching career Bridgette has worked to facilitate global awareness by establishing networks and partnership beyond national boundaries. All of her classes emphasize active participation in experiential aspects of whatever students are studying and the courses include critical readings of texts from many different points of view. own continued international experiences also allow her additional insight about how problem. Thus, this interest in the international arena and the relationship between the microcos mic reality in her classroom in relationship to the larger global governance structures is part of her motivation for exploring what role the efforts of the United secondary sch ools. passion and for most of her professional career, she has been an active scholar and teacher who creatively seeks new ways to better understand the diversity and complexity of the world in which she lives. She was excited to research if and how students were being empowered to become more thoughtful global citizens. She was curious if schools were helping to work toward making the world a more sustainable place for all species. She also hopes her work adds some value into the

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613 lives of her students as she pursues the path toward responsible citizenry with them. She believes such a path is an imperative for herself as a member of this world community and she is open to continued collaboration with those who she may not readily i dentify as potential collaborators at first glance. Bridgette is a learner at heart, a teacher by nature and she relishes in opportunities to work with students in making connections to ideas, to their own dreams, and to their potenti al to make change in t he world.