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1 THE ANATOMY OF ROMAN EPIC: A STUDY OF POETIC VIOLENCE By JAMES MOSS LOHMAR A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR O F PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013
2 2013 James Moss Lohmar
3 Meis parentibus sororibusque bellis
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I must first thank my mother, for forcing me to take Latin, and my father, for always talking shop. My sisters, Sarah a nd Elizabeth, have supported me throughout my studies, and their enthusiasm for my progress is always welcome. I have profound respect for Dr. Robert Burgess and Professors Mario Erasmo and James Anderson, without whose enthusiasm and instruction my decisi on to pursue a Ph.D. would have never come about. My gratitude goes to Professor Victoria Pagn and the students of her Lucan seminar during Fall 2009, whence the nascent stages of this project were born. My thanks go to Seth Boutin, Megan Daly and George Hendren, in particular, for their erudition and collegial support in this process. Lindsay Rogers offered me much support in the way of professional and academic advice throughout my graduate studies I have appreciated the criticisms of Professor Gene Wit mer in UF Philosophy, who has offered help in making this project appeal to a non specialist audience. His suggestions of horror bibliography and modern film comparanda have been indispensible. Professor Kostas Kapparis has been a steady mentor in my teach ing and writing since I began Ph.D. work, and his objectivity has kept my argument grounded in the text. Dr. Jim Marks has offered oversight in my research since my M.A. thesis, and I appreciate his editorship always. I am ever thankful for Professor Neil presence on the committee and the copious bibliography and challenging criticisms he offered; his guidance has rooted me better in the contemporary discussion regarding Roman epic. I appreciate my conversations and correspondence with Professor Carole Newlands, who helped me better articulate the grotesque aesthetic experience of reading epic violence. I cannot thank enough Kyle Gervais, who offered stimulating discussion and pertinent bibliography on Internet Body Horror, cognitive film theory, and
5 the amphitheater as the project came to a close. Finally, maximas gratias ago to my director, Professor Jennifer Rea, without whom not a letter of this thesis could have been written. Her patience and candid advice on all matters has made this process smooth and encouraging.
6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF AB BREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTORY: VIOLENCE AND THE BODY OF LITERATURE ...................... 13 Corpus and Textual Violence ................................ ................................ ....... 13 Annales as Material Metaphor ................................ ................................ .... 21 Linchpin: Eliding Real and Textual Violence ................................ ........................... 26 Lessons in Limb Loss: Lucretius and Horace ................................ ......................... 30 From Metaphysics to Metapoetics: Lucretian Word Pictures ................................ .. 33 Violence in Horatian Hexameter ................................ ................................ ............. 38 The Anatomy of Roman Epic ................................ ................................ .................. 42 2 OF VIOLENCE NARRATIVES ............... 44 Violence Narratives and Virgilian Ellipsis ................................ ................................ 46 The Grim Brothers: Hector and Deiphobus ................................ ............................. 49 A Corpus Without A Name ................................ ................................ ...................... 56 Picking Up the Pieces of Polydorus ................................ ................................ ........ 58 Homer, Ennius, an ................................ ......................... 60 Re( )Membering the Corpus ................................ ................................ ................... 63 Forward Looking Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................ 66 3 THE CORPUS IN FLUX: SNIPPETS OF THE METAMORPHOSES ...................... 68 Anatomy of an Exile ................................ ................................ ................................ 69 New Beginnings: Metamorphose s 1 and The Violence of Creation ........................ 75 ................................ ........................ 81 ................................ ................................ ..... 85 Cannibalism as Poetic Blemish: Erysichthon ................................ .......................... 87 Ballroom Blitz: Pantomime in the Perseus Episode ................................ ................ 91 War Stories: The Lapiths and Centaurs ................................ ................................ .. 97 ................................ ................................ ...... 105 Reliving Mettius Fufetius ................................ ................................ ....................... 107 Forms Changed: Ovidian Apotheosis and Grotesque Aesthetics ......................... 109 4 TO WOUND THE TRADITION: LUCAN IN THE EPIC ARENA ............................ 112
7 Senecan Sidelight ................................ ................................ ................................ 115 Corpora Mutata : Ovidian Tellus and Lucanian Fodere ................................ ......... 121 Aestheticized Violence: the Naumachia at Massilia ................................ .............. 127 ................................ ..... 132 Some Virtue: S caeva the Epic Gladiator ................................ ............................... 134 ................................ ................................ ................... 136 Snakes on a Plain: Art Horror in the Libyan Excursus ................................ .......... 140 Horror Business: a Portrait of the Poet at Work ................................ .................... 144 Poetic Suicide and the Metahistorical Moment ................................ ..................... 147 Conclusions: Violent Poetics and the Lucanesque ................................ ............... 151 5 ............................ 155 Reco Saetiger Sus ................................ .......................... 155 Das Auge Isst Mit ................................ ............... 157 Hunting Zombies ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 163 A House of Horrors ................................ ................................ ............................... 165 WORKS CITED ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 167 Primary Texts ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 167 Secondary Texts ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 168 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 177
8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 ...... 101 4 1 Distribution of fodere in the Bellum Civile ................................ ......................... 125 4 2 Synopsis of Libyan Snakebites and their Symptoms ................................ ........ 143
9 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S AJP American Journal of Philology Arist. Poet. Aristotle, Poetica Caes. B Civ. Caesar, Bellum Civile Callim. Aet. Callimachus, Aetia Cic. Att. Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum Cic. Brut. Cicero, Brutus CA Classical Antiquity CJ Classical Journal CP Classical Philology CQ Classical Quarterly CR Classical Review Enn. Ann. Ennius, Annales Eur. Hipp. Euripides, Hippo lytus G&R Greece and Rome GRBS Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies Hermes Hermes, Zeitschrift fr klassische Philologie Hom. Il. Homer, Iliad Hom. Od. Homer, Odyssey Hor. AP Horace, Ars Poetica Hor. Epist. Horace, Epistulae Hor. Sat. Horace, Satir ae or Sermones JRA Journal of Roman Archaeology JRS Journal of Roman Studies LSJ Liddell and Scott, Greek English Lexicon 9 th edn., rev. H Stuart Jones (1925 40); Suppl. by E. A. Barber and others (1968)
10 Luc. BC Lucan, Bellum Civile or Pharsalia Lucr. DRN Lucretius, De rerum natura OCT Oxford Classical Texts Ov. Met. Ovid, Metamorphoses PBSR Papers of the British School at Rome PCPS Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society Petron. Sat. Petronius, Satyrica Pf. R. Pfeiffer Pl. Phdr. Plato, Phaed rus Plut. Vit. Sull. Plutarch, Vita Sullae Quint. Inst. Quintilian, Institutio oratoria Sk. O. Skutsch, ed. 1985. The Annals of Quintus Ennius Oxford Stat. Theb. Statius, Thebais Suet. Ner. Suetonius, Nero Tac. Ann. Tacitus, Annales TAPA Transactions of the American Philological Association Teubner Bibliotheca Scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana TLL Thesaurus Linguae Latinae Varro, Ling. Varro, De lingua Latina Virg. Aen. Virgil, Aeneid Vitr. De arch. Vitruvius, De architectura YClS Yale Classic al Studies
11 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE ANATOMY OF ROMAN EPIC: A STUDY OF POETIC VIOLENCE By J ames Moss Lohmar August 2013 Chair: Jennifer A. Rea Major: Classical Studies The following study evaluates the intertextual function of dismemberment scenes in Latin epic poetry Mimetic violence signals moments of violent allusion on the part of Roman epicists. As a thematic study on the aesthetics of represented violence, my approach situates limb loss within the context of reception and intertextuality. Modern scholarship in the field of Classical Antiquity has preferred to connect such imagery to th e historical circumstance of the amphitheater, philosophical notions of self, or rhetorical flourish. My approach rehabilitates the more gruesome areas of Roman epic as moments of pregnant allusion and discerns competing authorial prerogatives within the g reater body of epic tradition The metaphor of the corpus is central to my study, insofar as it represents a site of violent contestation for Roman poets. The corpus stands in for the genre of epic rk signals a violent allusion narrative aesthetic and raises ethical questions of aesthetics and artistic appropriateness. My study highlights the germane episodes in the development of the
12 audience. In the realm of art horror, one observes aesthetic virtue where formal control yokes the baroque to the macabre. The Roman authors, I s uggest, are instrumental in the development of an aesthetic experience akin to that found in American Psycho or The Texas Chainsaw Massacre My study moves in diachronic fashion through the works of Virgil, Ovid, Lucan, and Statius. I choose this format f or two reasons: (1) as an examination of the history of aesthetics, chronology matters, since in the case of literary violence at Rome, one observes a steady increase in this subject matter from Virgil to Lucan; (2) as a study in reception, Virgil ever lur ks in the epics of his successors, so it is more instructive to ask how his aesthetic preferences were adapted or even perverted by those after him. Virgil betrays reticence toward violence; Ovid revels in the elision of humor and violence; Lucan is instru mental in the grotesque realm of artistic endeavor; Statius imbues his epic with horrific and hellish tones. Critics of Roman epic allusivity will recognize an approach grounded in intertextuality and appropriation studies. My work builds on Stephen Hinds Allusion and Intertext The Metaphysics of Text Critics of art horror will find a kindred palette in the passages I discuss, where amputated hands, quivering tongues, excavated eyes, and decapitated heads gain symbolic freight. This is the stuff of the modern horror genre, and the Roman epicists provide primal experiments in their artful depiction.
13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTORY: VIOLEN CE AND THE BODY OF L ITERATURE Corpus and Textual Violenc e The following study evaluates the intertextual function of violent scenes in Roman epic poetry: mimetic carnage signals moments of violent allusion by epic poets. Modern discussion in the field of classical antiquity has preferred to connect violence in Latin epic to spectacle and viewership, rhetorical flourish, or philosophical anxieties of self. A literary critical approach to epic violence expands the intertextual function of dismemberment scenes and discerns competing authorial prerogatives. This ap proach situates limb loss within the context of aesthetics, poetic composition and reception. In this chapter I set the following goals: 1) To highlight the ancient metaphor of the corpus as a site of violent contestation for Roman epicists; 2) To align the anc ient corpus with the modern theoretical metaphors body of discourse, body of texts, and body of signifiers; 3) To demonstrate, in light of the metaphoric corpus that writing takes on violent 4) And to sketch out the symbolic power of dismemberment with regard to its primary emotional response, horror. Like other critics of violent mimesis concept of diffrance which constructs authorial particularity through an ever reductive process of differentiation. 1 As a means of distinguishing one literary program from 1 The Aristotelian mimesis describes any representational or imitative art (painting, statuary, drama, epic poetry); cf. LSJ s.v. II. See especially Poet. 1447a10 15 and 1448b5 10. For diffrance see esp. Derrida (1981: 70 72). Particularity and diffrance operate in dialectic, the one defined by the other. Chaudhuri argues that i ndividual texts, like verbal units, are defined by the ever reductive process of diffrance and meaning; it fills up that gap with endless new contributory elemen ts, so that diffrance becomes a
14 another, diffrance depends o indicates the disruptive process of individuating objects (or texts) from one another through imaginative means. Meaning, and thus inter pretation, become acts of will or exertions of force ( vis ) on an inherently chaotic nature, which is in turn me diated through human discourse. Embedded in this discourse lie texts, which interact with each other th rough allusive (or intertextual) dia logue. Authorial particularity what one could term an defines locus ) within the textual network relative to those around him. Thus, the violence ( vis ) of the letter s erves to set one author literally apart from another. If Lucretius or Ovid were to read Derrida, they might understand diffrance as litterae Amores thus highlights the literal schism necessary for particularity: arma graui numero uiolentaque bella parabam edere, materia conueniente modis. par erat inferior uersus; risisse Cupido dicitur atque unum surripuisse pedem. ( Am. 1.1.1 4) n weighty meter, with the content befitting the form. The second verse was equal [in measure]; Aeneid : arma uirumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab or is Italiam fato profugus Lauiniaque uenit Aen. 1.1 3) (2010: 45 6). Zizek (2010), Gomel (2003 ), and Norris (2000) accept diffrance as usef ul critical tools when confronting representational violence.
15 del in gradual, systematic fashion. His prosody up to the first caesura closely echoes that of Virgil: the sequence ar ma, ui, o r and c /g sounds. After the first breath, the Amores mirror the Aen eid in form ( graui numero ), content ( ), tempo, and melody (dactyl, dactyl, caesura). But a gap modis ) metes out a different subject ( materia ( || ... ). Whereas little difference init ially exists between the Aeneid and Amores nevertheless the gulf widens as the latter unfold. Within this narrow space Ovid stakes out (de demonstration of diffrance Given tha t definition ( de finis ) constitutes acts of inclusion one step ( unum pedem ) removed ( surripuisse ) from hexametric verse. Letter by letter, syllable by syllable, the Aene id morphs into the Amores Here then Ovid offers a radical exposition of his particularity through a measured, step by step process of diffrance After the Virgilian misdirection in the hexameter, he clinches the elegiac meter at the that is, the cutoff. At the heart of my study lies the metaphor of the corpus which originated in antiquity and is not confined to modern theoretical vocabulary. Prior to Roman authors, Aristotle develops language for literary arrangement. He compares a u nified composition to an animal body:
16 Poet. 1450b.35 1451a.5) Again: to be beautiful, a living creature and every unified thing must not only present a certain o rder in its arrangement of parts, but also be of a certain definite magnitude. Beauty derives from size and order, and is therefore impossible either (1) in a very minute creature, since our perception becomes indistinct as it approaches instantaneity; or (2) in a creature of vast size one, say, 1,000 miles long as in that case, instead of the object being seen all at once, its unity and wholeness are lost to the beholder. Thus, just as beautiful bodies or living creatures must be of some size, but a size t o be taken in by the eye, so a story or plot must be of some length, but of a lengt h to be taken in by the memory. 2 Aristotle elaborates on theoretical language first used by Plato. 3 The as similes underpin a study of poetic dismemberment. An acceptable composition ( ) adheres to the geometry of a well body ( ) and constituent limbs ( Roman rhetoric also includes corporeal metaphors, 4 and Ci cero traduces the text into Latin letters: [ oratio ] in membra quaedam, quae Graeci vocant ( Brut. 162). Thus, wrought composition begets at Rome a metaphorical corpus as opus 5 2 3 Cf. Plato, Phaedr. 264c.1 5: logos must be arranged like an animal with a certain body in proportion to itself, so that it is neither headless nor footless, but that it has a middle and extremities and features composed appropriate to one another and 4 Cf. for instance Cic., Brutus 208, Seneca, Contr. 1.pr.1, Quintilian, Inst. Orat 8.5.27. Most (1992: 406 8, nn 115 & 116) gives a fuller list with bibliography. See also McEwen (2003: 9 30 with nn.). 5 OLD TLL 21. OLD E. Marie Young collects modern comments on the Roman in corpor ation of Greek culture (2008: 2 with nn.).
17 This metaphor holds significance for a study of violence since Aristotle focuses on works that are proportionate and unified Allusive processes fragment previous textual bodies and create new ones through diffrance The mammoth and scintilla illustrate extreme examples of this proce ss: the 1,000 mile long creature (unbounded inclusion/addition); in the opposite direction, the too small creature creates endless distinctions in its descent to instantaneit y (unbounded exclusion/subtraction). The mammoth represents the complete absence of diffrance ; the scintilla, its absolute infinity. I disregard the question of whether Roman authors arrange their corpora in prescription is purposely broad, and 6 The corpus epicists, the corpus provides a conduit for tendentious allusion. Narrative dismemberments operate along this metapoetic pipeline, and they often conflate form with content. The opus : a corpus distributed into workable membra At the beginning of the Ars Poetica Horace makes illegible exposition of the Aristotelian : humano capiti cervicem pictor equinam iungere si velit, et varias inducere plumas undique collatis membris ut turpiter atrum desinat in piscem mulier formosa superne, spectatum admissi risum teneatis, amici? ( AP 1 5) If a painte attach feathers all over to the assembled limbs, so that a shapely woman on top turned into an ugly black fish [at the bottom], would you, my friends, having been allowed to see it, stifle your l aughter? 6 See Shusterman (1999: 299 313) for this terminology and a recent discussion of somaesthetics.
18 caput ) of his epistle, he lays out the various limbs ( membra ) of a poetic corpus In fact he gives a top parts: capiti cervicem Negative example mimes ill arranged art, as Horace foists the experience of the ugly Indeed his grammar violates syntactical decorum: one wonders ho w a human head ut ) in a grotesque mermaid like image. The text, the painting, contains a logical non sequitur. Disproportionate and inappropriate limbs in painting equate to illogical, malformed works of literature. corpus : like the viewer of the ugly painting, the reader cannot be sure what the satirist paints in these lines. corpus contained within the volumen or c odex is subject to textual dismemberment by another writer. A semiotic approach to mimetic carnage inscribes limb loss scenes within the greater body of Roman epic discourse. In this context, the ancient and modern corpus metaphors elide under a hermeneuti c of overlapping penumbrae. Corpus in modern usage is a metaphor for any body of corpus as opus One observes a preference for somatic, and at times violent, metaphors in modern discussions of allusion and intertextuality: 7 7 Grace M. Jantzen points out that violent imagery pervades modern parlance: culture wars ideological battles fights against cancer, weap ons against illiteracy. Even philosophical engagement requires advanced, attacked, defended, embattled (2004: 14 15).
19 [T]he text relates simultaneously to several lines of discourse, interacting with various bodies of circulating texts and, in turn, disgorging itself into multi ividual text thereby becomes a [sic.] sign of the total sphere, relates to a different body of discourse (Chaudhuri 2010: 47 8, my emphasis). The Metaphysics of Text Allusion and Intertext 8 aesthetic comprises the cumulative thrust of his tendentious allusions. 9 stance toward his program, or a body of texts head of discourse, or the body th e (in) from the fissures. One may yoke the ancient corpus intertextual operations (or allusions) transpire within a grid of overlapping corpora (or poetry signals moments of violent intertextuality; where one corpus intersects another; where one corpus dissects another. 10 Violence in art can thus over literalize the metaphoric corpus : the terms corpus body of discourse, and 8 e emphasis in which text, is foregrounded? What about the moment to moment shifts in emphasis and balance which are part of any nexus 142, my emphasis). Chauduri does no t cite Hinds Wide Web as a case in point of textual metaphysics and intertextual hyperlinking (2010: 111). 9 it 10 Most (1992) alights on the metaphorical corpus as a site of violent contention but does not linger. Bartsch (1997) also treats this metaphor but shifts her focus to philosophical questions concerning the symbolic citizen body and body politic.
20 body of texts grow more fre ighted when one treats mimetic carnage. If real violence has its sights trained on the human body, then violent artifice assaults the semiotic body of literature. Violent mimesis implicates reader and writer in violent thought. How true rings C. Lewis Watk Impossible seems the task of a dispassionate approach to traumatic subject matter. For this reason, mimetic carnage proves an unforgiving boilerplate for aesthetic response: a certain pulp app eal. Such imagery explores the threshold between meaning and non meaning, order and chaos; indeed, mimetic carnage throws into high relief the dividing line between these terms. When limb comes to bear: that which sepa rates Me from Not Me, my corpus inside nor outside, neither subject nor object, but that which holds these categories in place. She highlights as abject whatever pours out from the human body: blood, viscera, mucus, or semen. When l imb loss occurs, abject matter ( abiectum ) destabilizes notions of a unified subject. Mutatis mutandis the same holds for the distinctions between order and chaos, meaning and non meaning. Human viscera expose fissures in the illusory screen of order. With every amputation, the symbolic realm is suffused with inchoate matter; chaos spills forth. 11 Regaining purchase in that abyss requires meaning in its gerund form Where the abject lurks between order and chaos, along the fissure stands allegory; put anothe r way, allegory is the vanishing point towards which the activity of meaning is always oriented. 12 Literary criticism 11 Grosz (1990), Bibby ( 12 See Teskey (1996: 2 5) for this formulation of allegory.
21 re in other different from w interpretation here merge: in their quest for meaning, both activities spiral towards a transcendental other, a never essentially chaos; 13 (Teskey 1996: 24). The Roman poets operate within this model: textual dismemberment and narrative incisions ( inter textuality) describe forms of violent allusion that disrupt the space opens for other narrative possibilities. Annales as Material Metaphor incipit of Latin hexameters, 14 and it offers a case study in textual violence. The Ennian corpus stands already dismembered, so that from a 13 Zizek makes a similar point about the inherent lack of value found in a lump of gold. Human language instead attributes value and symbolism to this substance, over which wars are fought and indigenous peoples are exterminated (2010: 58). 14 Lucretius names Ennius the coroneted head of the Roman epic corpus ( DRN 1.118). It is difficult to pinpoint when the opus as corpus Epist. ad Quint. 2.11.4 and Epist. ad Fam. 5.12.4 contain the first instances of corpus corpus in the extant Annales yield no conclusive evidence for a sustained metaphor of the poetic body. A common scholarly maneuver involves looking to Helleni stic Callimachus employs somatic terms when introducing his Aitia Aitia frr. 23 4 Pf.). If, in agreement with Skutsch (1985: 374 & 1967: 6 7) and Hinds (1997: 10 11), one reads dicti studiosus ( Ann. fr. 209 Sk.) as a gloss on the Alexandrian buzz a priori Thus, the direction of influence traverses footholds in Athens and Alexandria before arriving at Rome; as turned opus as corpus This picture descr in the earliest Latin authors. Following Momigliano (1975: 10 11), Sanders M. Goldberg argues that observes Ennius looks first to Homer as his literary model. Stil l, Goldberg overlooks a subtle fact: Ennius gains access to the Iliad and Odyssey through textual means. His reception of Homer is mediated through One could posit a Roman epicist steeped in the Hellenistic milieu. Ennius need not profess adherence to Alexandria when he deploys Alexandrian technique.
22 ) transmission and piecemeal attestation. The Ennian fragments preclude a firm typolog y of poetic dismemberment. 15 Instead they provide an inverted perspective on poetic dismemberment, since their history of transmission is at the same time a history of textual violence. Starting with eighteen libri time and history have pared the Annales d own to just over 600 inchoate attestations. Bibliographical processes and [T]he material form of t history of transmission becomes simultaneously a history of reception (2010: 51 2). oeuvre this final sentence holds true always, as well as its reverse (history of reception > history of transmission). Every quotation that is, every transmission of the Annales is in a sense a reception. Modern collocations of the disparate receptions into our Annales dissociated limbs of a once great corpus 16 As a material metaphor, the Annales 15 One stru Greek tradition yields only circumstantial evidence for his understanding the as Nor can one pedibus in fr. 1 Sk. puns on the metrical feet of Musae of the Annales 57 with n. 6). 16 This sort of violent exercise holds true for most literary criticism: transpose select units of text for argumentative ends. Take for instance the disparate passages that Hinds quotes in Chapter 1 of Allusion and Intertext (1997: 1 15): Milton, Lycidas 6; Keats, Ode to Psyche 2; Catullus 64.1 2; Ovid, Fast. 3.471 6; Catullus 64.130 5, 143 4; Ovid, Am. 2.6.1 2; Ovid, Met. 3.499 501; Virgil, Ecl. 3.78 9; Ovid, Met. 3.351 5; Catullus 62.39, 42 5, 49, 53 6; Lucan 1.685 6; Virgil, Aen. 2.557 8; Servius ad Aen. 2.557; Virgil, Aen. 6.179 82; Ennius, Ann. 175 9 Sk.; Ovid, Met. 14.812 16; Ennius, Ann. 54 5 S k. Poetic appropriation and critical citation thus merge into comparable acts of textual violence. Remove necessary membra ; discard the rest.
23 Sat. 1.4, where he draws an exemplum from the Ennian corpus In a passage disavowing the poetic import of his satire, Horace flouts epic conventions with a line and a half of the Annales Though not a poet, Horace can still perform intertextual dissections: 17 his, eg o quae nunc, olim quae scripsit Lucilius, eripias si tempora certa modosque, et quod prius ordine verbum est posterius facias, praeponens ultima primis, invenias etiam disiecti membra poetae. ( Sat. 1.5.56 62) Lucilius once wrote, the regular meter and measures, and should you disiecti membra poetae adheres as much to the Ennian citation a chiastic form ( prius > posterius :: ultima > primis ) reflects the content of its members; at the same time, the content of its members (first > last :: last > first) mirrors the visual display of the composition. Further, Horace brackets his self reflexive statement with violent metaphors. To rend ( eripere ) the meter from his verses is not akin to decomposing Ennius. Even when dismembered ( disiecti membra poetae ), the gravitas of the Annales sloppy fashion. Still, if this passage mangles Ennius into sermo one observes textual dismemberment in an apposite 17 See Oliensis (1998: 23) and Freudenburg (1993: 147 For the present, I grant Horace that his satire is not poetry, a distinction he makes at Sat. 1.4.43 4 ( ingenium cui sit, cui mens divinior atque os | magna sonaturum, des nominis huius honorem ). Edmunds (2001: 140 3) argues that parody (or satire) is a fertile lo cus for intertextuality studies. He follows This statement is precisely at stake in Sat. 1.4.56 62.
24 direction; that is, one may observe another poet mangling Ennius into (new) poesis The orator and author alike. The satirist here performs an intertextual, or poetic, dismemberment: he extracts ( eripere solvere disicere ) nine Ennian feet from their originary position in epic discourse and sutures them into his Sermones It is significant that Horace makes this remark after accepting the invitation of a certain Crispinus to a poetic agon ( Sat. 1.4.13 Ennius throws a sword stroke of ingenium in this literary contest. Nor is the violence of this process lo [T] he disruption of the versified word order offers a kind of microcosm of civic upheaval, with the inversion of words representing, in miniature hyperbole, the confusion of social ord ines It is no accident that the Ennian verse Horace cites for its exemplary poetic value represents the outbreak of discordant war as a rupt ure of constructed boundaries. The man who accepts the invitation of on in an analogous act of violence (1998: 23 4). threat of such discord helps Horac satire operates in the political literary struggle of social hierarchies. But I expand the distinctions carries the b Ennian verse into his fourth satire, the reader recognizes the dismembered Annales desecration of chopping up the mas ter, injecting bathos into the Second Punic War, incorporating an old appendage into the new sermo The outbreak of the Second Punic
25 War in the Annales initiates for Horace a form of metapoetic conflict: Discordia bombards the conversational register of th e Sermones which at the same time divorce Discordia from its vaunted place in Roman literary history. The outbreak of war sermo in the contest against Crispinus. In a battle of poetic ingenium the most violent blows win. Critics of i self awareness comes to the fore as the author calls attention to his allusion. A case in poin Romulus: (nam memoro memorique animo pia verba notavi) dixisti: rata sit verborum summa t Met. 14.812 16) 18 t powerful Jupiter nodded in assent. In lament for the integrity of the Annales would that Mars had poem. As it is, he quotes one hexameter m authenticates Ovidian prophecy. 19 templa from the citation, yet 18 Note Met. 14.814 = Fasti 2.487. 19 See Conte (1986: 57 literary
26 he appears well aware of the missing verborum summa Previous to Ovid, Varro ( DLL 7.6) supplies the enjambed templa 5: Varro cites these lines first in his section on L atin vocabulary that owes to poets and poetry ( [frr. 54 5 [ DLL 7.5 6]). Skutsch argues that Ovid excludes templa for metrical reasons (1985: 205 ), but following Hinds, the omission and gloss ( verborum summa tuorum ) fulfill a classic Ovidian pun: Ovid omits the capstone of that is, the summa of his verba process of textual violence begun by Var ro: the grammarian transplants 6 metrical feet of the Annales into the DLL for his templum exemplum ; Ovid then cuts away foot and incorporates the now truncated verse into a new body of text. 20 Both quotations strip the Ennian line of its context and the reby render it yet another fallen membrum from his poetic corpus fr. 54 Sk. ( ); fr. 55 Sk. ( templa ) falls victim to the history of (non ) transmission. Linchpin: Eliding Real an d Textual Violence The Annales are today fragmentary, dismembered, disiecti membra poetae Yet, like the severed head of frr. 483 4 Sk. ( oscitat in campis caput a ceruice reuolsum ), the fragments still speak through later receptions. Before returning to En Roman epic discourse, is the apotheosis of Romulus somethi ng guaranteed by Jupiter 20 Fast. 2.487 cites Jupiter again. Ovid (Cupid) performs a similar amputation at Amores 1.1.3 4: par erat inferior versus; risisse Cupido | dicitur atque unum surripuisse pedem.
27 bring real and mimetic violence into sharper focus. Analysis of the macabre aesthetic for such discussion runs the risk of forever operating in the realm of thought exp eriment (1993: 64). Violent subject matter in art must receive sensitive critical treatment, for I, like Martindale, find Filippo War is beautiful because it initiates the dreamt of metallization of the human body. War is beautiful because it enriches a flowering meadow with the fiery orchards of machine guns. War is beautiful because it combines gunfire, the cannonades, the cease fire, the scents, and the stench of putrefaction into symphony (cited in Martindale 2005: 129). Marinetti translates war into words: he enacts verbal conflict on the page, juxtaposing the terms meadow and machine guns ; amidst florid scenery, he orchestrates cacophony of gunfire and cannons, aftermath and decay; he screams War is Beautiful in ascending tricolon. Writing of the Iliad from Nazi occupied France, Simone Weil marks a similar, Iliad wraps in poetry; the reali language fails miserably: as Zizek points out, it is not poetry that is impossible after Auschwitz, but rather prose, for the traumatized witness gains credibility due to inconsistency and gaps in his narrative. Cold, linear description deflates the horrors of concentration camps into non significance. 21 Freud approaches from the opposite direction and points out th distorts and 21 Zizek (2010: 8).
28 fragments the text ( 1952 : 52). Gomel further highlights ellipsis and lacuna as the features of violence narratives that contain the horror and trauma of violent experience. Traumatic events create gaps in meaning, and intellectual activity fails in these extreme moments. With as it ruptures it. Violent art and the macabre aesthetic cast this antinomy in high relief. Real and mimetic violence unleash a deluge of symbolic energy. Once ruptured, the veneer of order cannot fully dam up the subliminal river of chaos. In Freudian terms, amputation instantiates a frisson in the textual subconscious a moment of confrontation between the ego and id. 22 Scenes of limb loss, real or imagined, eject symbolic energy and matter on a visceral plane: each gut wrenching response calls up all others, as meaning spurts in all directions. The Annales sequential iterations and in turn incre ases in symbolic power: Enn. Ann. frr. 483 8 4 Sk. oscitat in campis caput a ceruice reuolsum semianimesque micant oculi lucemque requirunt 23 Lucr. DRN 3.654 5 6 et caput abscisum calido viventeque trunco servat humi vultum vitalem oculosque patentis, don ec reliquias animai reddidit omnis. Virg. Aen. 2.557 5 8 [Priamus] iacet ingens litore truncus, auulsum que umeris caput et sine nomine corpus. Ov. Met. 11.50 5 3 membra iacent diuersa locis; caput Hebre, lyramque excipis, et (mirum!) medio dum labit ur amne, flebile nescioquid queritur lyra, flebile lingua murmurat exanimis, respondent flebile ripae. 22 Oliensis discusses poetry (see esp. 2009 : 61 77). object seepage into the amputated abject. 23 Servius provides this passage, though he compares Virg. Aen. 10.396 (a twitching hand).
29 Luc. BC 8.672 7 5 tunc nervos venasque secat nodosaque frangit ossa diu: nondum artis erat caput ense rotare. at, postquam trunco cervix abscisa reces sit, vindicat hoc Pharius, dextra gestare, satelles. Statius Theb. 8.752 5 6 ora trucesque oculos seseque agnovit in illo, imperat abscisum porgi, laevaque receptum spectat atrox hostile caput gliscitque tepentis lumina torva videns et adhuc dubitantia figi. The caput reuolsum traces a long trajectory through Roman epic. Lucretius revives it to explain the dispersal of the anima head off to Lesbos; Lucan hacks at Po gray matter. Herein lies a paradox, however: the jarring finality of decapitation energizes its later iterations that is, its very finality kick starts its repeatability. Within the nexus of prior decapitatio ns, each severed head refracts previous ones, recalls their horror. When figuring epic violence, epic poets pick the brains of the masters. Horror is the predominant response to mimetic carnage. As far back as Aristotle, critics and poets enjoy the cathar sis that results from horror shows. 24 The representation of limb loss, of chaos, reinforces the assumptions of embodiment, of order. 25 Perhaps mimetic violence keeps readers and writers from turning into violent actors Perhaps Stephen King is correct to say The mythic [horror story] has a dirty job to do. It deliberately appeals to all that is worst in us. It is morbidity unchained, our most base instincts let free, our 24 Critics of art horror consistently begin the pity and fear: see Carroll (1990: 7 8), Freeland (1999: 5 6) Worland (2007: 13 14). 25 Coleman (1990: 44 73) shows that the real violence of the amphitheater performs the same psychological wo rk. The choregraphed punishments in the ludi provide both entertainment and deterrence to the Roman public. She and Lintott (1999: 40 44) point out the ritual aspects of gladiatorial combats and their function in the release of violent urges on the part of the citizens (akin to the Greek pharmakon ).
30 as lift ing a trapdoor in the civilized forebrain and throwing a basket of raw meat to the hungry alligators swimming around in that subterranean river beneath. them down there and me up here (2010: 187). The serial decapitations above glimpse this subterranean terror, while at the same time matter simultaneously. When confronted with th e gruesome areas of Roman epic its cannibals, living dead, fratricide, lopped off arms, quivering tongues, amputated feet, t or n out eyes aesthetic virtue lies in the wit and manner of presentation. Worland, qua film critic, redeems art ontrol when reinventing violence, and always with his predecessors in the crosshairs. Lessons in Limb Loss: Lucretius and Horace Up to now I have on the chaos of nature. To foist language on intrinsically meaningless matter constitutes caput reuolsum now torn from its original corpus illustrates this process of disruption, reinterpretation and reincorporation. In s ubsequent iterations, the head requires DRN thus provides the first sustained dismemberment sc ene in Latin hexameters. Taking up
31 caput reuolsum to caput abscisum the severed head becomes one of a number of amputations: at quod scinditur et partis discedit in ulla s, scilicet aeternam sibi naturam abnuit esse. falciferos memorant currus abscidere membra saepe ita de subito permixta caede calentis, ut tremere in terra videatur ab artubus id quod decidit abscisum, cum mens tamen atque hominis vis mobilitate mali non q uit sentire dolorem; et simul in pugnae studio quod dedita mens est, corpore reliquo pugnam caedesque petessit, nec tenet amissam laevam cum tegmine saepe inter equos abstraxe rotas falcesque rapaces, nec cecidisse alius dextram, cum scandit et instat. ind e alius conatur adempto surgere crure, cum digitos agitat propter moribundus humi pes. et caput abscisum calido viventeque trunco servat humi voltum vitalem oculosque patentis, donec reliquias animai reddidit omnes. ( DRN 3.640 56) But the fact that [the soul] is cleaved and disperses into sundry parts obviously forbids that it is eternal. They recall that scythe bearing chariots, hot with thick slaughter, sever limbs often so suddenly that, whatever has fallen off after being amputated from the [other] l imbs is seen to quiver on the ground, while nevertheless the mind and spirit of the man cannot feel any pain due to the swiftness of the injury and because the mind is at the same time devoted to passion for fighting: with his remaining body he actively se eks fighting and slaughter, nor does he grasp that his left arm is lost with its shield, [nor that] the wheels and rapacious scythes have dragged it off amidst horses; nor does another grasp that his right arm has fallen, while he climbs and strives forwar d. Thence, another attempts to get up with his lower leg removed, while his dying foot wiggles its toes nearby on the ground. And a head, severed from its hot and living trunk, preserves on the ground its living face and open eyes, until it gives up all re mainder of the anima In this initial treatment of violence in Latin hexameters, Lucretius offers a textbook case of epic violence. His systematic dismantling of the human form accounts for all the major appendages: both arms ( laeva dextra ), feet ( pes ), and head ( caput ). The
32 argument that the soul is material, and so mortal. Hands cling to shields, toes and feet twitch on the ground, and faces remain animate for a short time after amputation. But like a vase leaks water ( DRN 3.555 56), the body is eventually drained of its soul. Lucretius here appropriates martial epic for didactic ends. Gone are epic epithets, hometowns, and dramatis personae ; epic violence stripped of e pic drama. Lucretius puts such imagery under the microscope in a sort of laboratory experiment conducted to memorant ) indeed lends the argument a sort of empirical veracity as he reappropriates Homeric Ennian epic into an exposition on Epicurean metaphysics. 26 animate face ( voltum vitalem ) transmutes oscitat caput ) and argues for the materiality, and so mortality, of the Epicurean soul. Death and rebirth, dispersal and reassem bly: these are the constants of the Lucretian universe. Like Ovid after him, Lucretius asserts that such metamorphosis is violent, since it requires a certain death of the previous body: nam quodcumque suis mutatum finibus exit, | continuo hoc mors est ill ius quod fuit ante ( DRN 3.519 20). 27 Pace Ennius, who believes that animae wander the Underworld ( DRN 1.120 make more enlightened use of Latin hexameters. What irony that the first coherent scene of limb loss, violence, and death i n Latin spirit falls by the wayside of literary history. Perhaps, to take Lucretius at his word, Latin still suffers from a patrii sermonis egestas ( DRN 1.832 & 3.260), and wounding 26 Leonard and Smith (1970 ad loc.) compare Quintus Curtius Rufus ( Hist. Alex 4.15.17): amputata uirorum membra humi iacebant et, quia calidis adhuc uolneribus aberat dolor, trunci quoque et debiles quidam arma non omittebant, donec multo sanguine effuse exanimate procumberent 27 These verses become something of a philosophical maxim in the DRN : 3.519 20 = 1.670 71, 1.792 93, and 2.753 54.
33 impediment to his argumentation ( sed tamen ipsam rem facilest exponere verbis DRN 1.833), and the mere existence of his six books (all over 1,000 verses) renders these statements something of a rhetorical jest. Indeed, the Annales fragments already contain evidence of severed hamstrings and spears whizzing through chests, so one assumes the presence of extended violence before Lucretius. Indeed, contra Enn ius, Lucretius disavows animae roaming the Underworld in literature and art ( DRN 3.624 33). Yet, he disproves after life animae with the same epic violence that sends them there in the first place (in Ennius or Homer). 28 His ease of movement between didacti c argumenative and martial narrative registers offers a wholistic picture of the epic genre. His scenes of wounding redirect the aesthetic energy of epic violence for teachable moments, where scenes like the one quoted above become poetic honey on the phil osophical cup. From Metaphysics to Metapoetics: Lucretian Word Pictures Modern critics of the DRN 29 1). Furthermore, Hinds demonstrates that a tmesis like se que gregari sunders the verbal unit into semantic zero degree (1987: 450 28 See m y discussion regarding t with his Deiphobus (below, Chapter 2). 29 In addition to the recent discussions of Martindale and Volk, see earlier Friedlnder (1941) and Snyder ( 1980: 31 51 ).
34 discussed above. The DRN litterae elementa ) behave like the matter ( res primordia rerum ) that makes up the universe, and its poetical figures ( figurae schemata ) grant artful exposition of the vicissitudes of physical matter. poem partially collapses the distinction between signifier (text) and signified (nature), for a t times he foists both upon the eyes: nunc age dicta meo dulci quaesita labore percipe, ne forte haec albis ex alba rearis principiis esse, ante oculos quae candida cernis, 3) Come now, learn these words sought by my sweet task, lest perhaps you believe that these white [areas] stem from white atoms, things you plainly see as white, nor [you think] the black [marks] spawn from black seeds. This self referential exemplum of language: it demonstrates that black letters act like colorless atoms, while it says that colorless atoms make up black letters; form and content are no longer separate categories. Such exemplum as the DRN dictates Epicurean physics, so do Epicurean physics dictate the DRN The vicissitudes of letters and words map onto atomic motion in a one to one correspondence. As Volk Microscop ic atoms constitute macroscopic bodies. To reread the above thought experiment and push the atoms letters words bodies analogy further, one here makes use of hyperbaton (trajection) and anastrophe to illustrate acts of limb loss. 30 The first amputation of membra (642 43) disjoins the subject accusative so that 30 violent my emphasis).
35 falciferos [ memorant ] span five metrical feet. Moreover, Lucretius creates a wor d picture of logical cause and effect: sword and chariot approach ( falciferos currus ), sever limbs ( abscidere membra ), and depart now covered in blood ( subito permixta caede calentis ). In what follows, anastrophe ( tremere ), more hype rbaton ( | decidit abscisum ), and enjambment render the confusion of limb loss in grammatical and visual terms. One must search for a severed appendage ( id ), hidden as it is among other artus which are themselves removed from their relati ve clause. An enjambed decidit abscisum cut off from the previous verse, prolongs its sense break and creates off kilter prosody; Kenney 6). And further, a grammatical pun arises from nec tene t amissam laevam In the first place, amissam || laevam arm from adjective. Like Virgil after him, 31 Lucretius creates an audible hiatus, or spoken y disrupts content. More than this: nec tenet introduces an apparent zeugma, wherein the reader first understands amissam laevam as direct object of the finite verb; not until the next verse does oratio obliqua appear, which takes amissam laevam as direct object of abstraxe So, the initial sense of nec tenet nec t enet in a physical sense: a man does not nec tenet in a cognitive sense: a tenet closer 31 On which see below (Chapter 3).
36 to the (metrically equivalent) habet a nd away from its generally tactile semantic range. 32 Trajected syntax evinces such grammatical play: amissam laevam first looks backward to tenet before hyperbaton upsets the presumed flow of meaning. In fact, before reading rotas falcesque rapaces the se vered arm could govern abstraxe as a subject accusative. Thus, amissam laevam undergoes grammatical metamorphosis: (1) direct object of tenet (2) subject accusative of abstraxe (3) direct object of abstraxe The object subject object progression guides t he reader through opposites of syntax, which recalibrate the semantic value of nec tenet Lucretius interweaves zeugma and hyperbaton to parallel effect: zeugma disrupts semantics; hyperbaton, pragmatics. Flying limbs signal radical change in the elementa l clinamen ; the microscopic system plays out on the macroscopic level. 33 A major point of contention from antiquity to the present, Lucretius demurs to offer protracted explanation of the Epicurean clinamen ; he accepts its explanatory power prima facie 34 Wa lter Englert collects the account of the swerve might help to explain why different ancie nt accounts of the swerve in Lucretius, Cicero, Philodemus, Plutarch, Plotinus, and elsewhere describe the and modern) recreate the swerve by offering lines of argumenta tion parabolic of the 32 OLD 33 34 On whi ch see Fowler (2002). Critical attention aside, within the verbal economy of the poem, Lucretius does not explain the clinamen with the vigor he does other matters. He leaves further argument to others. In this way, the clinamen opens an ellipsis in the DR N
37 DRN Greenblatt takes an apposite perspective and highlights the accidents of history that brought the DRN down to modern readers (2011). His title, The Swerve limns the happy irony that Lucretian metaphysics can explain the existenc e and preservation of his poem. Susan Mapstone reads the clinamen in light of modern physics vocabulary and notes that non he initial bifurcation, or not perceivable or indeed measurable because of its minimal shift It is only the amplified effect s that verify the existence of the 7, my emphasis). Neither Classicists nor Physicists (nor Republican poets) can observe, much less calculate, the initial bifurcation. 35 Thus, Lucretius perhaps unwittingly creates an ell ipsis in argument, where critical analysis after him falls victim to a certain reductio ad clinamen This 10). Indeed, in the special case of violence narratives, ellipsis is the figure of speech that can capture the horror of chaotic events. The possibility of complete non meaning, of chaos, opens the terrifying possibility that intellectual activity falls short of its goal ; that meaning making cannot regain purchase in the abyss of chaos. 36 These ruptures in meaning leave one still with amputated limbs and violated 35 Though physicists have made strides in this regard with the recent discovery of the Higgs Boson particle. 36 ad
38 violence His thought experim ent operates on (textual) human subjects, so that memorant signals his research and critical analysis of the textual human anatomy. After careful study, he says, the corpus exhibits temporary retention of the anima after sudden limb loss; subjects consiste ntly continue battle with complete disregard for lost arms and legs; some are known to maintain facial expressions some seconds after poetry after Auschwitz (above): Luc retius here offers cold, linear description in Latin hexameters; violence in a vacuum, so to speak. Now stripped of its horror, epic violence in the DRN that one should not fear death the po et offers what would in another poem (say, the Iliad ) spark reflection on mortality. In a neat correlation, Lucretian aesthetics deflate the pathos of a Hector or Patroclus and all the while denigrate the fear of death. For the purposes of this study, such clinical treatment provides a zero degree of horrified response. Only in thought experiment can a writer divorce violence from morality or mortality. Violence in Horatian Hexameter t erminology and mechanics. In the Satires and Epistles his discussions of genre and literary prerogative operate within, and by means of, the systems they seek to explicate or criticize. For instance, at Sat. 2.1.10 11 Trebatius advises Horace: aut si tant us amor scribendi te rapit, aude Or if so much love for writing seizes you, dare to tell the exploits of unconquered Caesar. exhort ation to Horace that the latter compose epic poems comes appropriately
39 freighted with epic diction: Horace must dare ( audere ) to narrate the accomplishments of Augustus, the emperor worthy of an epic epithet ( invictus then, tempora rily dons a persona from the epic genre, and exhorts the satirist warrior to strive for epic themes. Satires and Epistles not as prescriptive documents against which epic is measured, but rather as descr iptive From his satirical vantage point, Horace can launch attacks on the hackneyed verse of contemporary epicists. Though he writes satire, Horace speaks in the same met aphorical terms as other Latin poets; he too writes hexameters, such as they are. His aphoristic style, double entendre and jocularity exist within a poetic discourse common to all writers, and so his perspective at times diametrically opposed to that of the epicists offers a unique foothold from which to discuss metaphors of poetic violence. Consider the following portraits of Lucilius and Horace toiling over their verses: si foret hoc nostrum fato delapsus in aevum, detereret sibi multa, reci deret omne quod ultra perfectum traheretur, et in versu faciendo saepe caput scaberet, vivos et roderet unguis. ( Sat. 1.10.67 71) But [Lucilius], if he were to fall fortuitously into our age, would file away much from himself; he would cut away everythi ng which dragged out beyond completion, and in fashioning verse he would often scratch his head and gnaw the quick of his fingernails. multa quidem nobis facimus mala saepe poetae (ut vineta egomet caedam mea), cum tibi librum sollicito damus aut fesso; cum laedimur, unum Epist. 2.1.219 22)
40 To be sure, we poets often do much harm to ourselves like I myself chop down entire vineyards of my own when we give a book to you, any of our friends dares to find fault with a single verse. In the first passage, Horace imagines Lucilius as a sculptor who chisels ( deterere ) and hews ( recidere ) a statue of himself ( sibi effort and precision in writing are reflected in his chaffed scalp and gnawed fingertips, which in turn call attention to the sometimes bloody, often laborious, task that is poetic composition. The shavings dropped from the Lucilius statue find an analogue in his chewed fingernails )mutilation. This theme returns in the second passage, where Horace deploys the image of slashing whole vineyards from his own work when he submits it to a critical eye. This aspect of the authorial process seeking constructive criticism has the potential to harm the poet ( laedere ), another reminder of the metaphorical danger involved in writing poetry. The poet may also inflict harm on his subject. Horace says that Lucilius strove to flay the egregious characters of the city: primus in hunc operis componere carmina morem, detrahere et pellem, nitidus qua quisque per ora Sat. 2.1.62 5) Lucilius was the first to dare to comp ose songs after this [sc. satirical] custom, and to strip off the skin in which the conspicuous traveled And Horace himself keeps a blade in reserve: sed hic stilus haud petet ultro quemquam animantem et me veluti custodiet ensis vagina tectus; quem cur destringere coner tutus ab infestis latronibus? ( Sat. 2.1.39 2) But this pen will seek nobody alive any longer, and it will protect me like
41 a sword covered in its sheath; why should I try to draw it while safe from hostile crimin als? nitidi capabilities of its own. Yet, the stilus as ensis metaphor applies not just to satirists. Take for instance Furius Bibaculus, the turgidus Alpinus of Sat. 1.10 : turgidus Alpinus iugulat dum Memnona dumque Sat. 1.10.36 7) What signifi cance lies behind the third person singulars iugulat and defingit ? Of course, Furius cannot literally jugulate Memnon any more than he can personally taint the head of the Rhine; rather, just as incompetent Furius metaphorically butchers Memnon in his Aeth iopis so he degrades the grandeur of the Rhine in his Gallic War epic. 37 Ars Poetica closes with an extreme example of the danger attached to bad poetry (and its poets). He likens the bad poet ( poeta vesanus ) to a bear and a blood sucking leech: certe furit, ac velut ursus, obiectos caveae valuit si frangere clatros, indoctum doctumque fugat recitator acerbus; quem vero arripuit, tenet occiditque legendo, non missura cutem, nisi plena cruoris, hirudo. ( AP 472 6) Certainly he is mad; and just li ke a bear if it has managed to break the obstructing bars of his cage, the bitter reader puts to flight unlearned him by reading blood. 37 For the metaphor of poetry as river, cf. Sat. 1.4.11, 1.10.50 & 62; Epist. 2.1.159. Horace laments lutulentus ) river, but grants that the early satirist would sift much from his flow in order to conform to modern tastes ( Ep. 2.1.159).
42 Through the (epic) simile of a loose bear, Horace casts the mad poet as a deadly force intent on its next target. The ablative of means legendo weapon of choice: poetry. When the poet latches on to his victim listener he drains the blood of the unfortunate party. This poet is addicted to the sanguine aspects of recital; indeed, he finds gustatory pleasure in the macabre enterprise. metalitera ry conceits of furor fractured state of mind at Aen. 12.650 Virgil, th e furor of writing epic combat has an analogue in the atrocity of the Italian Trojan conflict (1998: 86 93). So in the AP poeta vesanus works himself into such madness that he ingests the cruor of another; in the fit of anthropophagy the poeta ve sanus sups on the corpus itself; no longer content to maim a Hector or butcher a Memnon, the mad poet must have the corpus cannibalism results from his furor so that this cause and effect relationship glimpses a satirical ta bleau of metapoetic life: under a hailstorm of madness, the poetic task sometimes compels the author to commit heinous acts against the literary milieu. He enters in viscera The Anatomy of Roman Epic This introduction has focused on the violence of the le tter as a necessary component to meaning making and literary composition. As a metahistorical case of textual violence, Annales embody a material metaphor wherein meaning is disrupted and frustrated by the accidents of literary history In a recept Sat. 1.4, the satirist rends Discordia from its originary locus and transplants it into a new
43 DRN as the first coherent hexameter work at Rome updates and invigorates the verbal range and aesthetic potential of Latin epic. His thought experiment becomes poetological didaxis of martial epic ; a certain textbook case in point of epic violence His metapoetic universe in the DRN evinces his argument that texts, like bodies, are mere contingent structures of temporary coherence. As another study in the mechanics of violent appropriation, Horace offers the modern critic generic terminology and exposition of violent intertextuality. His hexameters distinguish themselves from high epic in its own terms; in short, he uses epic conventions to abuse epic conventions. Authors after Horace (especially Ovid, Lucan, and Statius) read his precautions in the AP and make precise allusive gestures to pervert his aesthetic preferences. 38 Still, the mechanics of their macabre appropriat ions make use of the same methods Horace employs. As the building blocks of Latin epic, disiecti membra poetae become raw material for poetic appropriation. allusive maneuv ers that raise ethical and aesthetic questions regarding poetic appropriation and appropriateness. 38 AP 184 88 ), which the preceptor t his prohibition in explicit terms.
44 CHAPTER 2 VIRGIL RETICENCE AND THE GA PS OF VIOLENCE NARRA TIVES Aeneid and largely exp and in writers after him. As a witness to the conflicts of the 50s 30s BCE, Virgil demonstrates an aversion or reticence towards writing violent scenery. 1 He does not refrain completely but violated bodies do not become such points of meditation as they d o in the poems of Ovid, Lucan, or Statius I here point out exemplary violent scenes that post Virgilian authors find attractive and inadequately treated in the Aeneid I also offer here a short recusatio over the death of Turnus: many have discussed this scene, 2 but the political ideological questions it raises are not central to my inquiry into the aesthetics of violent representation in Roman epic I return to Turnus at this for his abrupt death uncorks a torrent of symbolic energy and que stions of narrative closure that later authors raise in their epics 1 Troy: quamquam animus meminisse horret, luctuque refugit, | incipiam ( Aen. 2.12 13). Feeney (1999: 179 83) high Iliad ic violence in the Aeneid Words that denote delay ( moror mora while the gods deliberate. This form of metanarrative puts off Homeric style violence to the later books, 2 Tarrant (2012: 9 30) has the most recent collation of various views and bibliography; as a commentary, however, his synopsis does not offer a strong statement on the political death. Coffee (2009: 98 bal 96) sees the 82) sees the final sword 83) analyzes the cipation in the Iliad Burnell (1987: 186 200) distills the 21) maps the Achilles Patroclus relationship onto that of Aeneas Pallas and reads the killing of Turnus as an explosion of repressed sexual energy that precludes formal closure. I would only add that, from a metapoetic Italian conflict. For Virgil, for Augustus, and for their contempor ary Romans, the rest is (future) history.
45 The previous chapter constructed a hermeneutic for reading violence as a metapoetic device in Roman epic. The textual corpus lies susceptible to violent entary Annales Lucretius and Horace engage the corpus metaphor in distinct ways. The Lucretian corpus exists in a state of constant flux, now assembled, now dispersed. His clinical treatment of violence and bodily deformation reflects his didactic pose an d the orde red universe that he describes. authors butcher great stories; modern poets dissect old ones. On the cusp of a nascent cuse the compositional metaphor in post Republican aesthetic terms. Far from butchering any Memnons, the Augustan vates puts his poetological abilities to skillful use: 3 one may dismember Ennius, provided one does so in good taste. This chapter pushes the poetics of violence further into the realm modello codice ), Virgil challenges the Iliad and Odyssey on their own terms. 4 His Aeneid incorporates the Greek epic tradition into Roma n letters, and often through violent means. The violence of the Aeneid underpins the measure of Roman achievement, so that Hector, Priam, and Deiphobus offer Augustan Rome caveats of past conflict. This chapter discerns points of narrative rupture and lacu nae in the Aeneid where Virgil attempts to heal the wounds of the Roman civil wars. The pathetic appearances of 3 See Newman (1967) for a discussion of the development of vates from Republican to Imperial literature. In short, where Lucretius disavows the dicta vatum ( DRN 1.102 7), the Augustan poets rehabilitate the term to imbue their work with a more elevated, or divinely inspired, patina. Horace and Virgil are instrumental in this movement. 4 See Tarrant (1997: 56 Homerus alterus Cf. Quint (1993: 7 8). Note too that Vir gil employs the very spears that the Trojans used against the Greeks at Troy: suggere tela mihi, non ullum dextera frustra | torserit in Rutulos, steterunt quae in corpore Graium | Iliacis campis ( Aen. 10.333 35). More on this allusion below.
46 Hector, Priam, and Deiphobus offer a range of perspectives on epic violence and its destructive effects on the body of literature. 5 His poem re presents the first attempt at an artistic catharsis, or purging, of previous strife. As will be shown, his is but one effort, and Ovid and Lucan reopen the wounds that Virgil adumbrates for new aesthetic ends. Violence Narratives and Virgilian Ellipsis The Aeneid is an appropriate starting point for intertextual study of epic violence at Rome and not just due to its chronological position Bare statistics are telling here: Virgil averages just over two lines per casualty, while Ovid hovers just below six a nd Lucan above eight. 6 In the wake of the Roman civil wars, reverent, nigh unwilling pose with respect to epic violence creates holes or gaps in his narrative, 7 so that Aeneas (and reader) encounter violated bodies in after the fact states. For au thors after loci for expansion ; in the particular cases of Hector, Priam, and Deiphobus, Virgil omits certain traumatic events in the stories of their deaths To be sure, a first century reader versed in the Homeric epics was familiar with the Greek passages that treat these moments. When Lucan writes his death of Pompey for example he sees much narrative beheading; when Virgil glosses over the moment of decapitation, he op ens a narrative 5 This discus Aeneid Aen. 6 explains how the corpus becomes revivified. As the Aeneid makes clear, violence is indeed destructive and lamen table, but it can also be regenerative and 6 per respectively). 7 but mostly by suggestion rather than
47 Bellum Civile Recent study of trauma narrative and violent storytelling provides helpful framework for understanding the emotional and aesthetic power of narrative omission s Elana Gomel highlights ellipsis as the rhetorical figure that describe s the gaps in violence narratives. At a certain point, language does not cut it: Any reader familiar with what came to light during the Nuremberg Trials is capable of filling the gap with words: torture, starvation, brutality. But these are or shame but by its own i mpossibility. It stops at the point in which language fails to convey the experience of extreme violence. The shocking row of dots in or mars all self narratives of killers. This trope is representation (Gomel 2003: xx). Ellipsis opens a window on Stephen attempts to contain, the inexplicable; it helps one cope with traumatic experience. To my knowledge, trauma theory has not permeated Virgilian studies, but its emphasis on ellipsis creates fertile territory for discussion of violence in the Aeneid Feeney has called attention to delay and deferral as metaliterary moments wherein the reader entertains alternate narrative possibilities; the violence is promised, but late in coming (1999: 179 83). In fact, Aeneas presents a potential lacuna before he begins his story to Dido: he shudders to recall that night and out of grief nearly flees from narrating ( animus meminisse horret, luctuque refugit Aen. 2.12) In similar fashion hesitation to narrate the more violent portions of his exemplary deaths (Hector, Pria m, and Deiphobus) reflects the unwillingness or inability even of the traumatized and reflective of the
48 historical Pompey Aeneas afterall His occlusion of the decapitation act masks the horror of the event ( horror Aen. final sword In a neat paradox, narrative ellipsis leaves out, but at the same time points to, traumatic images The Aeneid participates in this antinomy, within which many critics Before Gomel, David Quint Epic and Empire highlights repetition as the aspect of narratives tha t fulfills the 8 Trauma narrative inhabits an uneasy middle ground which simultaneously creates a return to and a return of prior violence ; it attempts to recreate the event in que stion, but necessarily falls short of a satisfactory account : The victim of an earlier trauma may neurotically reenact his victimization over and over again. Alternatively, he may replay the original traumatic situation in order to create a new version of it, a situation of which he is now master, rather ] an essential d oubleness in repetition that potentially subverts mastery and unsettles any notion of narrative beginnings and ends ( Quint 1993: 51). For Quint, who reads the Aeneid poetry correla tes narrative to power Virgil attempts t the role of foreign other (1993: 45 46) victory at Actium symbolize the tri 8 Beyond the Pleasure Pr inciple Reading for the Plot (1985).
49 narrative projects episodes of suspension and indirection in order that it may overcome them and demonstrate its ultimately How to reconcile the seeming contradiction of ellipsis (erasure) and repetition (reminder)? can further create lacunae and ellip ses of narrative which admit the possibilities of chaos and disorder in order to reconcile and resolve them in the end ; a cer work mastery This effort at control requires a certain amount of fabulist gymnastics and narrative decision making in order to undo the pa st One wishes to recreate the trauma in the interests of mastery, but some parts of that trauma may preclude narration due to their horror and impossibility. ( Aen. 6. 498 99 ) the Aeneid reminds the reader of past conflict as it tries simultaneously to facilitate rehabilitative procedure on the Roman state The wounds are there, lurking beneath a tenuous cover up and everyone knows it. The Grim Brothers: Hector and Deiphobus Virgil mediates his reception of Homer through Ennius and Lucretius. (This is not e derives most directly from the Homer Ennius Lucretius network of influence .) 9 To be sure, Hinds felling scene (which itself alludes to that of Il. 23.114 20 ), where the two Italy/Latin epic (199 7:12 14). Such interventions imbue the Aeneid with a certain 9 Cf. Farrell (1997: 223
50 (Thomas 1988 : 261 73 movements, where Virgil im presses a reverent patina on epic combat. Wary of relives the wounds of previous decades and offers expository admonition to generations to come. At two critical jun ctures in the Aeneid Virgil introduces the mangled, yet vatic, visages of Hector and Deiphobus ( Aen. 2.270 79 and 6.494 99) Fuqua argues that the need to transcend evaluating heroic conduct, and Virgil employs the increasing brutality of their (1982: 239). Fuqua seems to atrocities of the maius opus ( Aeneid 7 12). If anything, the Aeneid grows more violent as the story p rogresses toward its final sword bella, horrida bella at 6.86). Given that the cadavers of Hector and Deiphobus direct the to offer the critic who asks, why do two mutilated characters give Aeneas such important news about his quest? I consider Hector and Deiphobus important, if grotesque, allusive conduits. 10 Consider side by side the grim states of Hector and Deiphobus: 10 I treat Polydorus below, who is also dismembered, but does not appear in somatic fashion.
51 in somnis, ecce, ante oculos maestissimus Hector u isus adesse mihi largosque effundere fletus, raptatus bigis ut quondam, aterque cruento pulu ere perque pedes traiectus lora tumentis squalentem barbam et concretos sanguine crinis u ulneraque illa gerens, quae circum plurima muros accepit patrios. ( Aen. 2.270 3; 277 9) Look! In my sleep most pitiable Hector appeared plainly to be in front of me. And he poured forth great weeping, such as he was when once caught by the chariot; he was black with bloody dust and hi s swollen with blood, and he wore the many wounds he received about walls. atque hic Priamiden laniatum corpore toto Deiphobum videt et lacerum crudeliter ora, ora manu sque ambas, populataque tempora raptis auribus et truncas inhonesto u ulnere naris. uix adeo agnovit pau itantem ac dira tegentem Aen. 6.494 9) And here [Aeneas] saw Deiphobus the son of Priam with his whole body mangled, his terribly lacerat ed face, his face and both his hands too, and his temples blooming with ears stolen, and his nose severed with undignified wound. As such, barely did he recognize [Deiphobus] as the The Hector ima go raptatus bigis ut quondam ), for his hair is blood clotted, his face grisly, and his ankles punctured. In similar fashion, Deiphobus fresh from his bout with Menelaus and Ulysses still lacks the feature s that define him as Deiphobus ( ora, manus, nares ); thus Aeneas struggles to recognize him ( vix agnovit Iliou persis Deiphobus meets the hero at a crossroads in the Underworld, at midday, between the fields of G reek and (future) Roman animae with it preliminary violence toward the Homeric corpus Deiphobus represents that corpus limbless and bare, the tabula rasa Fratantuono also connects the pair of
52 mutilat 11 this g uise: Virgil elects to cast Hector as he was at the time of his mutilation not dressed for his funeral pyre ; Aeneas and reader see Hector after the fact but before his final cleansing ; the Iliad supplies the narrative violence ( Il. 24.14 18) which Virgi l only points to or implies here 12 looming Iliad Beside the Trojan through a deep re re ading of the Iliad The poet here makes a pointed narrative incision: he transplants the Hector of Iliad 24 into Aeneid 2 in order to spur his Iliou persis 13 In the Hector scene, direct terms: Aust in compares Ennius Ann. 6 Sk. ( visus Homerus adesse poeta ) and Lucretius DRN 1.124 26 ( unde sibi exortam semper florentis Homeri | commemorat speciem lacrimas effundere salsas | coepisse ) and concludes that Virgil intends explicit comparison with the Annal es and DRN Thus, in the Hector scene Virgil appropriates Homeric violence through the poet that embodied Homer at Rome (Ennius) In this regard in which Homer appears to Ennius, stands in for the poet of the Iliad himself After his Ennian 11 Fuqua (1982: 235 40). Clarke (1998: 832 41) reaches the same conclu sion, but to my mind this does not teach very much: Aeneas must turn away from past horrors and fac e the journey to future empire. These conclusions fail to recognize the significance of the conduits through which this information is conveyed. Cf. also Hershkowtiz (1998: 87 n. 45). 12 Virgil perhaps takes a liberal reading of Il. 24.19 21 where Apollo protects lacerations. One wonders where illa uulnera came from in the Aeneid 13 90), Block (1981: 211 16), and Steiner (1952: 29 37).
53 corpus exists in a ba ttered state, on some transcende nt al plane ( in somnis ) but ever available for poetic inspiration and appropriation Past and future generations co ngregate in Aeneid 6. In the middle of this book at the intersection of epic past and future, Virgil pares away membra from the epic corpus until it is barely recognizable as such. Just as Hector compels Aeneas into the future at appearance and speech (6.494ff.) fill a narrative gap opened in book 2. There, when ampla domus topple into ruins (2.310 11). The Troj appearance and speech in book 6 fill out what transpires inside that house before it collapses. One could push this further and say that Deiphobus tells what happens while Aeneas dreams of Hector. Where the disfigured Hector represents a moment of Vir gilian incision, the mutilated Deiphobus represents corpus temporal and spatial position in the Underworld lend his limblessness further significance: he and Aeneas stand at a crossroads in the Underworld ( Aen. 6.540), after the latter has seen the shades of Dido, Tydeus, Parthenopaeus, Adrastus, the Greeks who fell at Troy, and other Iliadic heroes; Anchises will soon show Aeneas his future descendants, and so here, at this fork in the road at the interse ction of epic past and future corpus after its dismemberment in the Homerica and before its revival in the Aeneid F or Virgil, the corpses of Hector and Deiphobus become a grotesque pair of allusive conduits.
54 corpus activates the atrocity of Achilles corpus activates the treachery of Helen. 14 In each case, Aeneas receives information from a mut ilated figure who has suffered mightily in the previous epic tradition. ascension. 15 Aeneid and the importance of visual consumptio n for Aeneas ( 2005: 159 75 experience reflects that of a first century Roman, who could not help but connect the scenery in say, the fora of Caesar or lineage. s pathetic aspects convey as much, if not more, poetolo gical symbolism as their words. It is significant that almost disrupts the power of sight for Aeneas, who barely ( vix ) recognizes his Troj an brother. With a sort of destabiliz ed Alexandrian footnote ( agnovit ), Virgil nearly ( vix ) century Roman would understand and make the same conne ction we do. Virgil here seems aware of this problem: tendentious allusion has the potential to fail a reader not versed in the tradition before him. Aeneas encounters Hector and Deiphobus in after the fact states. Virgil leaves to the reader iterary knowledge or imagination how those wounds came 14 Cf. Od. 4.276 & 8.517ff. which narrate the treachery of Helen at the Fall of Troy however obliquely. It is unclear if the Cyclic epics (the Iliou persis Od. 8.519 says that Odysseus went with Menelaus to the house of Deiphobus 15 See in particular Galinsky (1998: 140 224 ) and Zanker (1990)
55 to be. 16 In these figures, then, two narrative ellipses arise and release poetic energy for later auth ors. Ovid, Lucan, and Statius take their cues from the occluded mutilations in Virgil and meditate o n the poetic Marius Gratidianus, for example, suffers the same punishments as Deiphobus (and more, plus quam ) in a figurative damnatio memoriae that recalls the atroci ty of the Civil War period 17 As a Roma his dismemberment, so that his presence in BC dismemberment of the epic corpus On the other hand, (now a Trojan Gratidianus perhaps), who reflects a defaced bust, gains pathos from a damnatio memoriae that should never have occurred. Virgil thus injects the violence of Roman visual culture into the Trojan disaster and so marks Deiphobus as an implicit casualty of the civil w ars p revious strife and endows his character with contemporary, Roman symbolism. Conscious of it or not, Virgil creates room for an aesthetic turn at Rome: symbolic, or poetological, violence in epic narrative Neil Coffee observes an economy of suffering in Roman epic and measures the cost of human life in mercantile terms. Often violence erupts because of disrupted hospitium or gift exchanges. 16 Deiphobus narrates his final moments to Aeneas, but cuts his narrative short ( quid moror? Aen. 6.528) when Odysseus and Menelaus burst into his bedroom. Th e closest he comes to narrating the removal of his features is to say that Odysseus exhorted Menelaus to scelerum ( Aen. 6.528 yourself what they did, I do not have to tell 17 Varner (2004: 1 20) sketches out the tradition of damnatio memoriae in Roman portraiture, where the normal procedure involved cutting the nose, scouring the face, or slicing the head into quadrants. See further
56 to Menelaus. His self ce nsorship ( quid moror? Aen. 6.528) and missing appendages open lacunae on his corpus which must be filled by imaginative means. His stolen membra then, are Reflected in membra turned money epic composition em ploys an economy of poetic pain and suffering. One must be willing to do violence to tradition and shoulder the aesthetic burden disiecti membra poetae ) erent pose ex alts the Homeric monuments as it partakes in the necessary r es novae of epic composition after Actium A Corpus Without A Name myriad associations for later readers of the Aeneid In nine dense verses Virgil despatches the king: hoc dicens altaria ad ipsa trementem traxit et in multo lapsantem sanguine nati, implicuitque comam laeua, dextraque coruscum extulit ac lateri capulo tenus abdidit ensem. haec finis Priami fatorum, hic exitus illum sorte tulit Troiam incensam et prolapsa uide ntem Pergama, tot quondam populis terrisque superbum regnatorem Asiae. iacet ingens litore truncus, auulsumque umeris caput et sine nomine corpus. ( Aen. 2.550 8) Saying this, [Neoptolemus] dragged the trembling [Priam] to the very altar while he slipped in the copious blood of his son. And he entwined the hair in his left hand, and with his right he buried the sword in the exit perchance took him as he gazed upon Troy ablaze a nd toppled Pergamum, which once upon a time was the haughty helmsman for so many people and places in Asia. He rests on the shoreline, at once a mighty trunk: a head ripped from its shoulders and a corpse without a name.
57 king, Virgil strips the Iliadic corpus of its titular appendage. es on the shore without a name Priam, Homer, or otherwise. Hinds, who follows Narducci and Servius, sees the ingens truncus eadless corpse on the sands of Egypt (1997: 9). Thus o ne may expand the metapoetic implications of as follows : just as Pompey is the last representative of the Roman republic, so Priam is the last representative of the Troy based poetic thr ead. Both beheadings usher in new narrative epochs; both expand their respective territories of Roman experience; both infuse their respective discourses with fresh signifiers. And within the poetic discourse, the Trojan remainder hereaf ter flee the city w ith their narrative strands (and epics). Virgil picks sine nomine : for Virgil, for the Aeneid when Priam dies the poetic space traversed by Aeneas still lacks signi fication (he has not yet left Troy destruction, among the fallen corpora corpus that of the Aeneadae lacks a name. In this liminal space, w on the beach, the st ory is still the Iliou persis Just as the Homeric and Cyclic heroes hack one another to pieces in their epics, membra in his poetic endeavor. The sad states of Hector and Deiphobus in the Aeneid are hardly surprising considerin participation in previous Greek epic sine nomine ), the king who dies brutally with his city. The paradox recurs whe n Aeneas spies Deiphobus: vix adeo agnovit ( Aen. 6.498). On the one hand, Aeneas is slow to
58 recognize Deiphobus because the latter lacks his defining features, while on the other hand the reader appreciates Deiphobus as Deiphobus because he lacks his defin ing features Deiphobus gains signification and a place in epic memory with the removal of those appendages that define him as Deiphobus 18 corpus has no nomen that is, no nomen is attached to this body whatso ever; the Aeneid then appends corpus lacks its recognizable membra and so his body represents a tabula rasa open to Virgilian arrangement. Both characters lose identity within the narrati ve confi nes yet both characters earn permanence in epic memory through this non recognition. In each case too, the violence that strips them of their identity is occluded. In these exemplary deaths, then, Virgil opens two ellipses, within which his epic successor s find a store of poetic symbolic energy to feed their projects. Picking Up the Pieces of Polydorus The foregoing observations point to a reticent violence on the part of Virgil. In his exemplary mutliations, Virgil deigns to narrate the bloody procedures outright. He is less reluctant when it comes to tree felling. Body violation as an allusive device has an analogue in landscape violation. After Thomas, Hinds points out the ambivalence in Aeneid 6 Yet, three books previous Aeneas makes a similar intervention in Thrace. It was here, he tells Dido, that his fellow Dardanian Polydorus was sent by Priam to seek aid from king Polymestor. Upon hearing of Trojan misfortunes, Polymestor kills P olydorus ( Polydorum 18 Cf. also Lucan BC 2.1 81 85 dux so that Sulla may recognize and appreciate Gratidianus ( BC 2.190 92)
59 obtruncat 3.55) and dismembers him. Aeneas meets his Trojan kin in his new state as a mound of bramble, which bleeds when he breaks off its branches: nam quae prima solo ruptis radicibus arbos uellitur, huic atro liquuntur sanguine gut tae rursus et alterius lentum conuellere uimen insequor et causas penitus temptare latentis; tertia sed postquam maiore hastilia nisu adgredior genibusque aduersae obluctor harenae, ( eloquar an sileam?) gemitus lacrimabilis imo 29, 31 33, 37 40) broken, hither drops flow with black blood and they stain the earth with [hope] to essay the reasons for this hiding within; and again black blood effort, grappling on my knees ag ainst the difficult sand (should I speak or remain silent?), a tearful groan is heard deep inside the mound and a that resurf rysichthon scene 19 sacred space marks him as an outright criminal, Aeneas at least has the excuse of preparations for religious ritual. Still, both Virgil and Ovid elide the metapoetic motifs of tree f elling and blood letting into apposite as they are, lie scattered throughout a tangle of vines and branches ( uirgulta et densis hastilibus horrida 3.24) and initiate intertextual relationships both before and af ter membra recall the Trojan failure at Ilium Deiphobus has lost his membra yet Polydorus act, it 19 exemplum irected towards demonstrating the implications of tree violation
60 is Aeneas who commits the dismemberment here, though unaware at first. Thomas rather jibes Aeneas for his dense reaction and triple effort at brea king off pieces of said of his next act, which indicates that he is totally uncomprehending of the nature of his action (1988: 266) allusive devices: he violates a sacr ed grove that contains a grave which contains a corpse. As another victim of violated hospitium Polydorus warns Aeneas and his Trojans away from Thrace and toward their proper destination in Italy. s, which as they drip blood tell Aeneas of th e failed mission to Polymestor. Like Hector ding of misguided, potentially violent exe rcise. The tangle of traditions and narrative threads presents a poetic labyrinth replete with dead ends, switchbacks, and bloody enco unters. damage he inflicts on hallowed poetic ground I noted earlier that Virgil challenges Homeric and Ennian epic on its own terms and that the Aeneid participates in, and constructs, an epic of empire with Augustan Rome as its narrative telos three books grant the promised violence of martial epic. Aeneid 10 comprises the m ost sustained battlefield imagery of the poem, and its violent scenes engage Homeric, Ennian, and Lucretian modes of epic carnage in a bid for poetic permanence. Virgil
61 announces his rivalry with the Iliad missiles brought from Troy: torserit in Rutulos, steterunt quae in corpore Graium Aen. 10.333 35) will cast none in vai The enjambed and punctuating Iliacis campis direct the reader back to Iliadic combat, and the singular corpore collapses the plural body count of the Greeks into a unified whole that here stands for the corpus of the Trojan War cycle. Aeneas (Virgil) dons the tela mythic political ends. The perfect steterunt makes explicit that these spears have been extracted from the Greek body/ies and will soon stic k in Italian ones (note the future perfect torserit in Rutulos ). 20 steterunt ) and a return of (future perfect torserit ) previous trauma. More and more, the conflict in Italy resembles that at Ilium. So on after, Virgil alludes to Ennius through strong polyptoton: anceps pugna diu, stant obnixa omnia contra: haud aliter Troianae acies aciesque Latinae concurrunt, haeret pede pes densusque uiro uir. ( Aen. 10.359 61) The fight wavers at length; everythin g stands gridlocked on both sides: not otherwise [than raging winds] do the Trojan and Latin battlelines run together; foot steps on foot and man is packed against man. Ann. 584 Sk. ( pes premitur pede et a rmis arma teruntur ), and Harrison compares also Furius Bibaculus Poet. 20 Harrison names torserit
62 Alpinus turgidus discussed above ( pressatur pede pes, mucro mucrone, viro vir ). 21 When he deploys language in terms so close to Ennius, Virgil again invites comparison with his Republican model; and like his earlier allusion to the Annales felling scene, with the archaic Italians. Note that the polyptoton of the final line includes no adjectives or possessives, so that the reader is left to guess whose foot is ablati ve and whose nominative. This choice is not disjunctive, and in the chaos of battle such identification grows impossible. As Quint observes, [T]he war in Latium is one of like against like; the Trojans, in fact, enter into a preexisting conflict of Italian straightforward teleological plot of epic conquest, where a historically destined Rome creates narrative and history by defeating an external en emy who embodies a demonic, non narratable repetition the never say die Turnus who is inspired by the infernal Fury Allecto can now also be read as Rome wrestling with her own inner demons, the demons of a national repetition compulsion (1993: 80). When Virgil sets his epic against Ennius in the same polyptoton employed by his predecessor, he muddles the distinctions between his project and the Annales In the case of the Annales with its catalogue like synopsis of w orld history epic narrative is instead a teleology of (Roman) power. The Aeneid also participates in this c onstruction of history and must do so in the same arena where Ennius stands. Quint is right to 22 and through Ennian polyptoton, Virgil maps the Aeneas Turnus struggle onto his own bo ut 21 Harrison (1991 ad loc.); cf. Macrobius ( Sat. 6.3.5) and Lucan BC 1.5 7. 22 Quint (19 93: 68 Achilles in the Iliad where Turnus becomes (defeated) Aeneas and Aeneas the conqueror.
63 with the author of the Annales other allusions to Ennius, one senses a sort of rivalry forming between the Republican nar rative and that of contemporary Augustan Rome. 30 lines later, Virgil med iates his reception of Ennian violence through Lucretius. He revives the quivering appendages found at Ann. 483 84 Sk. and DRN 3.653: nam tibi, Thymbre, caput Euandrius abstulit ensis; te decisa suum, Laride, dextera quaerit semianimesque micant digiti fer rumque retractant. ( Aen. 10.394 96) sought after you, Larides, its master; and its semi animate fingers twitch and try to reclaim their blade. ht experiment and ultimately Ann. 483 84 Sk. ( oscitat in campis caput a cervice revulsum | semianimesque micant oculi lucemque requirunt. ) In addition to quivering appendages, Virgil directly echoes semianimesque micant ; yet, he replaces En oculi with the less intuitive digiti Like animate head, dying appendages inhabit a paradox: as moribund limbs, their animation wanes into lifelessness, yet their aesthetic potential kickstarts their repeatability. Virgil resparks the poe tic energy left to these images in Ennius and Lucretius, and appropriates them as necessary losses in the story of Roman imperialism. In this context, whatever pathos a quivering foot loses in the DRN is reanimated in the Trojan Italian conflict. Re( )Memb ering the Corpus Virgil deploys a universalizing image of the metaphoric corpus in his Underworld. corpora and his lecture offers a counterpoise to the Lucretian conception o f animae and the Underworld. After seeing the deceased of epic past, Aeneas learns about his future
64 Roman descendants, who appear as animae at the foot of their lookout. He knows how deceased souls soul ), so Anchises instructs on how bodies regain life: principio caelum ac terras camposque liquentis lucentemque globum lunae Titaniaque astra spiritus intus alit, totamque infusa per artus mens agitat mol ( Aen. 6. 724 7) In the first pla ce, Spirit hidden deep nourishes the sky and land and flowing fields and the bright orb of the moon and the Titan stars, and Mind poured through the limbs stirs the whole mass and mixes it self Here one sees the infusion of men s into corpus in visible fashion: the intellect installs itself inside its magnum ( se ) corpus in order to carry out the reconstitution process. moles carries metapoetic implications: the great mass of poetic material comprising various limb s ( artus ) gains renewed vigor when mens is introduced to its already inspirited corpus 23 The poet here constructs a nother transumptive metaphor: the operation of mens corpus moles while at animation of the corpus reflects the operation of mens in the great world body. Considering the currency of Epicurean thought and literature in first century the cast of animae in the Aeneid especially the disfigured Deiphobus is striking when laid against another Epicur ean meditation on the afterlife, DRN 3. 24 In the lines 23 See Fratantuono (2007: 187 89 body and the various philosophical influences it demonstrates 24 See Armstrong (2004: 1 24)
65 immediately preceding his dismemberment thought experiment Lucretius addresses disembodied animae ro aming Hades, but with a view to dispelling their existence there: praeterea si immortalis natura animaist et sentire potest secreta a corpore nostro, quinque, ut opinor, eam faciundum est sensibus auctam. nec ratione alia nosmet proponere nobis possumus in fernas animas Acherunte vagari. pictores itaque et scriptorum saecla priora sic animas intro duxerunt sensibus auctas. at neque sorsum oculi neque nares nec manus ipsa esse potest animae neque sorsum lingua, neque aures; haud igitur per se possunt sentire neque esse. ( DRN 3.624 33) Moreover, if the nature of the soul is immortal and can have sense after it is removed from our body, as I see it, only must it also be co nstituted of sense perception. But by no means can we imagine that souls wander down bel ow in Acheron. Thus painters and previous generations of writers have introduced souls so constituted of sense. But neither eyes (sight) nor nose (smell) nor hand itself (touch) can exist apart from the soul, nor tongue (tas te/speech) nor ears (hearing). T hus [souls] can in no way have sense nor exist by themselves. Against artists and authors, Lucretius disproves the existence of animae in Acheron through a priori reasoning: since the soul resides in the sense organs ( oculi, nares, manus, lingua and aure s decomposition of the anima. pictores et scriptorum saecla priora seems to spark interest: if the anima cannot exist separate of eyes, nose, hands, tongue or e anima doing in the Underworld without its nose, hands, ears or face ( lacerum crudeliter ora | ora )? In the Deiphobus scene, then, Virgilian poetics transcend Epicurean metaphysics, since the corpus (of Homer, Ennius or Lucretius) c an be reanimated again and again. The intertextual process operates in two stages: after the poet dissects and studies the body of epic, he reconstitutes it in his own opus replete with the membra of his tradition. A reader familiar with DRN 3
66 associates Where limb loss sends no animae to Hell in the DRN the Aeneid returns this imagery to the tragic register of Homeric epic. Forward Looking Conclusions If Donatus is to be believed, Virgil wished his unfinished epic to be burned upon his death. 25 One wonders what he would have added to reach completion, but that is no matter, since poets after him foun d plenty of material available for revision, expansion, Metamorphoses presents itself as a sustained response to the Aeneid Bellum Civile ), and Ovid in fact paraphrases the second half of the prior epic in six short verses: perstat, habet deos pars utraque, quodque deorum est instar, habent animos; nec iam dotalia regna, nec sceptrum soceri, nec te, Lavinia virgo, sed vicisse petunt deponendique pudore bella gerunt, tandemque Venus victricia nati arm a videt, Turnusque cadit. ( Met. 14.568 73) [The war] continues, and each side has their gods, and they had animosity, which is the equivalent of gods; and now neither the dowry of a kingdom, nor the scepter of a father in law, nor you, virgin Lavinia, d o they seek, but only to have won; and victorious arms and Turnus falls. maius opus into a rather petty fight with simple victory as the goal ( viciss e petunt ) ; gone are the pious motivations of Virgil and his Aeneas Ovid assimilates the gods to mutual animadversion ( deorum instar = animos ). His coda Turnusque cadit re scene and so deflates the teleological narra tive of the Aeneid into a mere link in a chain of mythohistorical fabulae 25 Don. Vita Virg. 39 106) and Stok (2010: 107 20).
67 vivam Met. 15.879 ). Where Virgil can efface the growing pains of a nascent Principate, Ovid casts in high relief the tensions, gaps, Aeneid. 26 I take my cue here from Quint: The divinely sanctioned historical plan of the Aeneid is meaningless [for Ovid] not only because both Trojans and Latins have gods on their side, but also because the god ostensible causes, just or unjust, that might distinguish the belligerents are swept aside as the war progresses and is fought solely for the sake of domination. One cannot construct a narrati ve out of naked violence, and Ovid does not even try (1993: 82 83). Ovid reads the Aeneid as over Augustan restoration, and in so doing he implicates Virgil in the Augustan deletion through violenc e of recent memory; he appears at a loss as to how a poet could dramatize, or seemingly exalt, the violence of previous generations. To be sure, the purposes of the A ugustan narrative (Quint 1993: 95). Like Lucan after him, Ovid focuses not on the ends (Principate) but rather the means (civil war, bellum civile ) and he highlights the aesthetic ethical issues that internecine conflict raises for the artist. Likewise fo r Lucan, w does violence to a major symbolic and historical event whence flows an overabundance of creative energy. The BC is at pains to remind Neronian Rome that certain niceties of the Augustan narrative are ins tead cover ups and gaps in the historical record. Even so, epic successors. 26 at Trist. 2.533: ille tuae felix Aeneidos auctor
68 CHAPTER 3 THE CORPUS IN FLUX: SNIPPETS OF THE METAMORPHOSES The Metamorphoses plunges Ovid in to a new body of work ( in nova fert animus Met. 1.1 its scenes of violence take on rather sardonic overtones. 1 fascination. 2 Metamorphoses wherein the poem evolves from perishable, embodied text to immortal, disembodied voice (1999: 127 ongruity of clever style with ivialize Ovidian wit as mere ludic innovation violent art: incongruities in form and content refle ct on the aesthetic milieu of Augustan Rome. So that is, Homeric/Virgilian epic becomes an inadequate ars e women sawed in half, 3 broader poetic violence which exhibits both inter and intratextual directions of operation 1 Metamorphoses is like the Aeneid only in its size, its epic style and its ambitious purpose: in most other respects it is its deliberate 10 ) points out the pose with respect to Homeric 2 See for instance Segal (1998), who coin that [the proem] puts on the word corpora (2) gives it something of the titular quality conventionally assig 3 pantomimic readings of the Metamorphoses. Notably, Richlin focuses on female suffering in the Ovidian corpus Ovidian violence expresses not just gender concerns, and I consider the treatment of a textual body, epic poetry.
69 4 Ins tead, I take a broader scope and so shed My approach builds upon that of Richlin violence across a larger data set I trace out three themes of Ovidian v iolence: utality of that found in Virgil and Homer but not in the interests of sentimentality. He, like Lucan, has interest in the aesthetic power of humor and horror, a seemingly incompatible mixture. In this regard, he under which banner Lucan will operate after him. 2) In his post Aeneid Rome Ovid meditates on the literary political and aesthetic anxieties of an Augustan corpus imperii 5 Ovid point s up the plasticity and malleability of such a formulation, and his violent scenes reflect on the aggressive reinterpretation of Greco Roman literature in the Augustan period. He reads the Aeneid as complicit in this re writing of previous mythohistory an d the static and singular in scope 3) Violent scenes often become metatextual moments, wherein Ovid demonstrates his dialogue with previous writers through metaphorical dismemberments of their work. His own work is not immune to textual violence, and his exilic writings submit his previous corpus to intratextual dismemberment, handed command to excise Ovid from contemporary Rome. Anatomy o f an Exile ingenium composed the wrong poetry at the wrong time: carmen et error he insists throughout his stay in Tomis ( Tr. 2.1.107, 3.5.52, 3.6.26). 6 I begin with a 4 Metamorphoses where she highlights Tereus tyran nical monstrosity. She notes a twofold anxiety felt in the Philomela 5 I borrow corpus i mperii from Trist. 2.232. This phrase lends somatic language to what scholars variously on, meld, and combine all previous traditions and to creatively make y 1999: 107). 6 Other instances of his error : Tr. 1.2.99, 1.3.37, 2.1.109, .3.11.34, 4.1.23; Epist. ex Pont. 3.3.7 5.
70 scene from the exilic poetry, for it provides a point of entry to larger issues o f violence in the Ovidian corpus In Trist. 3.9 Ovid offers an extreme example of the dangers ( fertur Absyrtus, exiled Ovid feels himself torn to pieces and cast overboard: protinus ignari nec quicquam tale timentis innocuum rigido perforat ense latus, atque ita diuellit diuulsaque membra per agros dissipat in multis inueniendia locis neu pater ignoret, scopulo proponit in alto pallentesque manus sanguineumque caput, ut genitor luctuque nouo tardetur et, artus dum legit extinctos, triste moretur iter. inde Tomis dictus locus hic, quia fertur in illo membra soror fratris consecuisse sui. ( Trist. 3.9.25 34) while he ignorantly feared nothing of the sort, and she thus tore him to shreds and cast the shredded limbs about the fields where they would be found in many places. And lest h er father miss anything, and in order that he be held up from this fresh grief and delay his wretched journey while he gathered the dead limbs, she displayed his pallid hands and bloody head on a high cliff. Thus this place is called Tomis, since, it is sa Though traveling in opposite directions, Absyrtus and Ovid convene at Tomis. This exemplum fills a narrative gap in the Metamorphoses : there, Absyrtus never appears, so his dismemberment is omitted; here, f ive couplets narrate his dismemberment. Ovid revisits a fable with violent potential in the Metamorphoses and carves out figurative space in the Tristia 7 Caesar > caedere ) lurking beneath M corpus ( diuellit 7 Chaudhuri (2010: 57, 68 69, 83 increases the Tristia
71 diuulsaque membra ). 8 body of work to the Imperial knife that bodily displacement entails literary dismemberment. Like Cicero, the great litterateur exemplary dismemberment puts his poetic limbs on monitory display ( proponit manus ). One can now read only his scattered moribund appendages (artus legit extinctos ). And Augustus, qua Medea, appears cold, plotting, and sinister. Moreover, this is not the first time Ovid has portrayed Medea. T he Metamorphoses she never appears dismembering her brother, occupi es the main narrative register for the first half of book 7 ( Met. 7.1 424) In that span, she performs a reverse procedure than that on Absyrtus, when she rejuvenates and his body rounded out, and his limbs spring bac adiectoque cauae supplentur corpore rugae, | membraque luxuriant Met. 7.291 92). What irony that the poet who created this witch should die at her hands. In this way, then, Ovid casts himself as a victim of his previous heroine, who fragments his corpus through intratextual dismemberment. What is self directed, or intratextual, dismemberment in the Tristia has seeds in the Metamorphoses violence, which radiates into myriad literary Stephen Wheeler (1999: 27). Like the Aeneid the Metamorphoses attempts a teleological narrative of Greco Roman myth and history; yet, unlike the Aeneid the Metamorphoses advertises grander scope ( a ) and a more 8 corpora ) is being weakened in exile; his limbs ( artus ossa membra ) are bei Trist. fortuna as another self as
72 individual telos ( vivam ). Ovid thus offers a couternpoise to what he sees as a politically over determined narrative constructed by the Aeneid The Metamorphoses is by no means apolitical, but rather it deploys at ti mes satirical permutations of the constructs and procedures conjured by Virgil a generation before Ovid is not as vociferous in his critique of Caesarism as Lucan after him, but one can see points of rupture and personal disagreement with what the poet se es as farcical or plastic reinterpretations of previous mythohistory. After Barchiesi (1997), John Miller ods especially J upiter and Apollo illustrate an ironic and multivalent perspective on models of power in Augustan Metamorphoses In the Metamorphoses d ivine inter actions leading to violence can reflect on contemporary pillars of authority in unflattering ways. For instance, Marsyas appears only while Apollo flays him; there is no treatment of their musical contest. In a macabre refocusing of Apolline (Augustan) aes 9 As a corollary, Elizabeth Marie Young highlights position in the poem, bridging as he does the Greek and Roman stories (2008: 6 8). 10 sparagmos at the hands 9 perhaps appears among the domus Augusta (E. Simon, LIMC Carole Newlands (2013) points out that in an alternate version of the Marsyas myth, Marsyas somehow survives the ordeal with A pollo and escapes to Italy, where he becomes a culture hero of liberty. It seems his presence at the domus Augusta signifies his position as bringer of freedom to Italy. 10 beginning of book written poetry (2008: 9 11).
73 poetological (and Daphne) dismemberment disrupt s his singing; requires a certain amount of bloodshed for poet and prince. 11 sparagmos metaphor, the idea of Greco Roman literature as an organic whole, an intact body (or corpus ) that incorporates the depths of Greek antiquity into the paradoxes riddling such formulations; writing consistently in this scene surfaces as a wound; the marks that Ovid scrawls on Orphe points of historical and conceptual rupture that must be effaced to achieve the Augustan idea of synthesis ( Young 2008: 1 2). corpus transformative project proves corr osive to an Augustan corpor ation. As a metamorphic vates corpus carries metapoetic implications: like the Augustan cultural synthesis, whence sprout other na rrative possibilities, other ways of telling the story. 12 where body violation throws into high relief the often risible assumptions of a Greco 11 Dyson (1999: 281 as an 85). Segal (1972: 473 94) gives a good serving music. 12 Rea (2007: 7 14), following Gowing (2005), discusses history and memory as contested fields, where See also Heath (1996: 353 70) who draws characterization as a failed Hercules
74 Roman cultural synthesis under Augus tus. The Metamorphoses serving, seemingly impossible, narrative spectrum (from Chaos tempora ) points up the malleability of a Roman corpus imperii 13 a corpus distributed into artus ( Aen. 6.724 2 7), the Aeneid constructs an overdetermined and over unified picture of Roman predestination. Ovid flaunts this synthetic corpus in favor of grotesque poetic scenery; violence and suffering become 14 In shor t, Ovid seeks to destabilize the static Aeneid loci for subversive interpret subjects, wherein th e Prince is signifier of himself: If: (1) When the Prince speaks, the subject listens; (2) When the Prince does not speak, the subject (still) listens; Then: (1) (2) When the Prince wants an opinion existence activates his signifier, speech in his presence ( per voces vel litteras ) is conditioned by/for his response. Miller observes parallel dynamics in the 13 sphragis ) on the chaos of previous myth and histor y, and after corpus See Wheeler (1999: 31 Augustan corpus imperii 14 See Martin dale (1993: 61
75 Metamorphoses where the all too human Jupit er and Apollo reflect poorly on perhaps another divine numen the apotheosis of Hercules ( Met. 9.243 58); no argument there Ovid constructs a parallel power structure within his poem: as opif ex rerum his gods carry out his bidding, if even for violent tasks. Ovid thus acts as master of his poetic universe in the same way Augustus presumes to lord over the Roman Empire. Yet, as Ovid comes to find out in 8 CE, Au political aesthetic prerogatives take precedence, so that the Metamorphoses becomes a failed experiment in power negotiations with his Emperor reader. 15 oes to die. If asked how to treat the body of literature under Augustus, then, Ovid might New Beginnings: Metamorphoses 1 and The Violence of Creation ive in nova fert animus mutatas dicere formas | corpora Met. 1.1 2 ). Wheeler points out that the proem enacts corpus into a new hexametric one (1999 : 16 20). 16 epic corpus attempts to interweave all previous corpora 15 uch, Augustus becomes a poor reader/interpreter of 16 Cf. also Keith (2002: 237 form itself, since they have metamorphosed his poetry from referential commentary on the literary aims of the Metamorphoses forma and corpora which in stylistic discussion can refer
76 from Greco Roman literature. 17 John Henderson and Joseph Farrell underscore the import of somatic metaphors not only in the poem but also in critical writing about it: his poetic material and to impose upo n it particular bodily shapes. Mind belongs to the singer; bodies are the substance of his poem. Indeed, [Ovid suggests] that the poem itself is a substantial thing, a kind of body, something that grows and changes through the application of poetic intelligence to inert matter, like the mythic bodies that are its subject (Farrell 1999: 128). Ovid in the Metamorphoses [flaunts] hi s collapse of epic decorum into an ego trip for the artiste own fame as the bequest of his metamorphic writing (H enderson 1998: 166). animus compels him to narrate the formation, dissolution, and reformation of past corpora He gains access to these stories and myths through textual means (his phys ical materia ), and he must traduce them into the Metamorphoses through textual means; plural corpora (his morph into a new unified, singular whole. The poet and his poem sift, reshape, and remake the various bodies of texts that house Greco Roman mythohistory. 18 Metamorphoses 1 creates, destroys, and recreates human bodies. Symbolized in the second generation corpora of Pyrrha and Deucalion, the pristine epic corpus experiences a schism, or literal distin a distinction first from Chaos then from the primeval elements. Ovid douses the pre Deucalion narrative in bloodshed as he probes the cosmologies of previous writers. The poem makes two 17 Cf. Keith (2002: 238 Empedocles, Ennius, Lucretius, Ennius, and Lucretius so prominently in his proem, Ovid signals that the Metamorphoses will combine the traditions of heroic and didactic epos in a comprehensive culmination of the genre. 18 Metamorphoses omnivorous poem that digests and incorporates within it self a virtual library of Greek and Roman
77 initial approaches to the epic corpus on the body of tradition. 19 What was a singular body ( unum corpus Met. 1.18) becomes plural; from here bodies multiply exponentially. At the outset, Ovid highlights corporeal nature ( nova corpora ), and after a period of Chaos his first act of differentiation slices through the confused members of that chaos, epic tradition. 20 Still amidst the incipient disorder, his poetic elements cannot take full shape: nulli sua forma manebat obstabatque aliis aliud, quia corpore in uno frigida pugnabant cali dis, umentia siccis, mollia cum duris, sine pondere habentia pondus. hanc deus et melior litem natura diremit nam caelo terras et terris abscidit undas et liquidum spisso secreuit ab aere caelum; ( Met. 1.17 23) Nothing retained its own shape, and one t hing obscured another, since within a single body cold fought with hot, wet with dry, soft with hard, and the weighty with the weightless. But God or a better nature divided this strife. For he severed earth from sky and water from earth, and he distingui shed the blue canopy from our dry atmosphere. The inchoate elements, though members of a single corpus preclude the formation of recognizable limbs ( nec bracchia ere in its radical form, 21 for Ovid attempts to distinguish one part of Chaos from another (how different is one half of chaos from the other?); the universe has one face ( unus erat toto naturae uultus in orbe Met. 1.6). 19 read poetologically as the announcement of his poetic 108). 20 The Hesiodic Theogony 53) for a similar discussion s at 21 allegory, and so meaning, enact force ( vis ) on nature, which inherently lacks meaning. Meaning, in its gerund form,
78 Division of these warring parts ( pu gnabant ) requires violent language ( diremit abscidit ), and the cosmological amputations proceed until unique members grow distinct: sic ubi dispositam quisquis fuit ille deorum congeriem secuit sectam que in membra Met. 1.32 33) Thus some god Here corpus gains initial limbs ( membra ) through a process of segmentation ( secuit sectamque ). From this mass of limbs sprout the first human figures ( rudis et sine imagine tellus | induit igno tas hominum conuersa figuras 1.87 88). With the advent of the Iron Age, men turn their weapons against Mother Earth ( itum est in viscera terrae 1.138), and eventually against one another ( pugnat utroque socer a genero 1.142 45). Af ter such segmentation, terra can only grow saturated with blood ( caede madentes 1.149). salvation. 22 The sons of Terra make a bloody mess of the cosmos: obruta mole sua cum c orpora dira iacerent, perfusam multo natorum sanguine Terram immaduisse ferunt calidumque animasse cruorem et, ne nulla suae stirpis monimenta manerent, in faciem vertisse hominum. sed et illa propago contemptrix superum saeuaeque auidissima caedis et viol enta fuit; scires e sanguine natos. ( Met. 1.156 62) While their dread bodies were lying heaped in a mass, they say, Earth was soaked and dripped in the copious blood of her sons; [then] she reanimated this warm gore and, lest any reminders of her offspr ing remain, she turned them into human form. But even that progeny hated the Gods and was quite hungry for wicked slaughter and was indeed violent; one could tell they were born of blood. 22 See Hardie (1983: 311 Aeneid Buchheit (1966) draws ou
79 ferunt ) highlights his retrospection over previous epic Gigantomachia. Now downcast and bleeding, this mass of bodies poetic materia ; his incarnation grants this corpus a new veneer ( uultus ), but one still infected with violence and bloodshed ( uiolenta fuit; scires e sanguine natos ). coda could also in that humans retain impious leftovers ( monimenta ) from their Giant relatives and continue to manifest their wickedness ( contemptrix superum saevaeq ue auidissima caedis ). Fratantuono reads these cosmogonic birth pains as an allegorical replaying of the civil war period and the nascent stages of the Principate (2011: 6) Indeed, the Bellum Civile seems to argue for a similar poem, and the Metamorphoses unum corpus ) and unified face ( unus uultus ) at war with itself may signal the historical circumstance of Romans killing y gains further political significance: the Roman civil war has universal consequences that taint any author writing in their wake, even (or especially) for Virgil and Ovid The bloody mound of bodies, then, map onto the unfortunate losers of the civil war period. Though they were giants, they still could not topple the gods. cosmogony stands as a programmatic treatment of the epic corpus : a stylized jaunt through world mythohistory that focuses not on stability ( pace the imperial istic Aeneid ) but on change, mutation, and the violent consequences of those processes. I suggest that the Gigantomachy carries metapoetic symbolism. Represented by the mound of slain bodies, Ovid digs through the corpora of previous epic tradition as he c onstructs his own narrative of Greco Roman mythology. After slaughtering the Giants,
80 Jupiter makes a programmatic statement for the Metamorphoses One can hear Ovid distill the problem of composing poetry with such a large supply of corpora in existence w hen Jupiter complains thus : nam quamquam ferus hostis erat, tamen illud ab uno cuncta prius temptanda, sed immedicabile corpus ense recidendum est, ne pars sincera trahatur. ( Met. 1. 185 86; 188; 190 91) For although that enemy [the Giants] was barbarous, at least that incurable body must be cut out wi th the knife, lest the healthy section be infected too. One may read this passage as poetological commentary: when dealing with one corpus one source of violence ( ex una origine bellum ), Jupiter (and Ovid) can maneuver easy enough. But when the violence of Man metastasizes and with it his epics, diseased bodies undergo exponential growth; too many corpora overwhelm both Jupiter and poet. father of gods and men may feel overwhelmed with such a number of corpora lying about, and perhaps the author does too, but the fact of this multitude still does not stop Ovid from moving the poem forward. The earliest parts of ancient myth are easily dispensed with, stemming as they do from unum corpus ( the Hesiodic corpus perhaps); yet, once Man enters the world ( natus homo est 1.78), his strife and violence grow epidemic. 23 opifex rerum Ovid must choose which corpora to include and 23 Hardie (1983: 311 13) discusses the proliferation of Gigantomachy imagery in the Hellenistic period, where the successors of Alexander adopted the imagery to legitimize and allegorize their conquest o ver barbarian enemes. Modern critics lament the loss of Gigantomachy epics from this time, which, if visual culture is any indication, were diffuse.
81 which to exclude, which to essay ( tem ptanda ) and which to cut out ( recidendum ). In this way, Ovid assimilates himself to Jupiter but as ever, this correlation shifts, waxes, and wanes throughout the Metamorphoses To be sure, if read as an allegory of the civil war nd Gigantomachy cast Augustus also into the role of Jupiter, the eventual victor of the New World Order. Within this doublet (Ovid/Augustus = Jupiter), then, Ovid becomes something of an Augustus in the narrative construction of his poem. He thus equates i mperial power to power over epic narrative. The violence of Metamorphoses 1 treats on a topical level the necessary ruptures in the primeval corpus Amidst these growing pains, the opifex rerum demiurge, or ar tiste narrator stakes his initial claim within the body of literature. After the birth of man Ovid embarks on human affairs, and in his anthropomorphic stories, the object (Martinda le 1993: 64). Marsyas is programmatic in this regard. Some see a pseudo scientific anatomy lesson taking place. 24 Almost as a footnote to the slaughter of the Niobids that is, as a sidelight exemplum the demiurge narrates th only a one word mention of his tibia contest against Apollo. 25 He focalizes the scene first through the mouth and body of Marsyas: clamanti cutis est summos derepta per artus nec quidquam nisi uulnus erat; cruor undique manat detectique patent nerui trepidaeque sine ulla pelle micant uenae; salientia uiscera possis 24 See Martindale (1993: 64) who follows Galinsky (1975) in this in this reading. 25 Anderson describes Marsy
82 et perlucentes numerare in pectore fibras. ( Met. 6.385 91) Ow! It hurts, ow! The lute is not worth that And while he screams his skin is torn off to the ends of his limbs, and he was nothing but a wound; everywhere blood flows and his now uncovered muscles lie open to view and his quivering vei ns writhe without any skin; one could see his guts leaping and one could tally the pellucid sinews in his chest. window to his mythos ; the exclusion of the musical contest grows all the more glaring. er still: the Marsyas scene pits Apollo vates against Marsyas vates in a form of grotesque poetic surgery; vates on vates violence, as it were. Under the knife of a victorious poet g poetic corpus and runs through a ch ecklist of organs: cutis, artus, cruor, nerui, pellis, uenae, uiscera, pectus, fibrae Newlands points out that nerui and fibrae carry further metapoetic implications, insofar as these terms refer to the strings of the lyre (2013) In this regard, Ap ollo s trums not just his guitar Such equation of music/poetry to human tissue becomes a point of meditation in the poem, and in this correlation Ovid is most influential in the development of the grotesque aesthetic exp erience. Pulsating uiscera in stylized fashion confound simple aesthetic response, since they attract and repel the audience at the same time In this scene Apollo seems a bit too meticulous in his dissection of the body, too cold in his fascination, and t oo un uiscera
83 glee at portraying such grotesque rie. Forebear challenging Apollo (Augustus), for this Emperor God can skin whomever he wishes. 26 The same might be said of the Metamorphoses generally, however: the poem makes precise narrative incisions and casts characters aside as quickly as it grabs hol d of them. 27 reinterpretation of the Greco Roman corpus grants Ovid leave to do the same. Like his Emperor God, who appropriates the previous mythohistory for his own political ends, the Augustan Apollonian vates is in the end an unapol ogetic flayer of other poets, an apathetic voyeur of their uiscera Gentili points out that Titian, himself a close reader of the Metamorphoses implicates himself in the violence of his Punishment of Marsyas when he includes his self portrait as the conte mplative Midas to the right of the upside down Marsyas (1994: 47 ) Midas (Titian) looks on in calm study while a dog laps up Ovid ( and Titian after him) finds irony in the grotesque subject matter he writes. As a fellow artist, he finds that to depict Marsyas sparks a wellspring of creative imagination. Marsyas thus serves as a cruci ble of the ambiguous nature of Ovidian ars : that to create the most imitative depiction of human pain and suffering, one must tap the most prof ound source of artistic talent 26 See Miller (2009: 1 mbol of the Odes 288 97). 27 Barchiesi (2001: 29 31) of Heroides ). Hymn to Demeter ; this is deliberate, some might say gratuitous, violence.
84 Ovid expands on the exposure of human uiscera in the first part of book 9, where Hercules receives the robe of Nessus ( Met. 9.98 229). If Marsyas only cries out that it hurts to lose his skin ( a! piget, a! ), Hercules waxes on about his suffering for thirty lines ( Met. 9.174 204). Still, like Marsyas, Hercules dies by the removal of hi s epidermis. In fact, Ovid uses the same language to describe the flayings of Marsyas and Hercules: nec mora, letiferam conatur scindere uestem; qua trahitur trahit illa cutem, foedumque relatu, aut haeret membris frustra temptata reuelli aut laceros artu s et grandia detegit ossa. ipse cruor, gelido ceu quondam lammina candens tincta lacu, stridit coquiturque ardente ueneno. nec modus est, sorbent auidae praecordia flammae caeruleusque fluit toto de corpore sudor ambustique sonant nerui, caecaque medullis Met. 9.166 75) Without delay [Hercules] tries to strip off the death dealing garment; but where it is pull ed, it pulls off the skin, and foul to tell it either clings to his limbs when in vain it is tried to be torn away or it lays bare his torn appendages and immense bones. The blood itself hissed, like gleaming hot metal once dipped in cold water, and it is cooked with the burning poison. Nor is there respite: the greedy flames engulf him and a bluish sweat flowed over his entire body and his roasted muscles crackle and with his marrow made liquid from the dark goo he lifts his hands to the As with Marsyas, so with Hercules, the skin is dragged off ( trahere ) and thus exposes tomy. Yet, where Marsyas only appears as a victim of divine offer a prcis of his famous labors: 28 he rehearses Busiris (9.183), Antaeus (9.184), Geryon and Cerberus (9. 185), the Cretan bull (9.186), the Stymphalian birds (9.187), 28 Hercules perhaps received no epic devoted to his career (as Jim Marks points out per litteras ), and this hand, Heath (1996: 357 58), following Norden (1957), H. Lloyd Jones (1967), Clark (1979), and Robertson (1980), Frogs and [Apollodorus] 2.5.12 may reflect the existence of Herculean epic alongside th e other oral tradition of the Trojan War cycle.
85 the golden horned deer of Diana (9.188), the golden apples (9.189 90), the Arcadian boar (9.191), the Hydra (9.192 93), the Thracian horses (9.194 95), the Nemean lion (9.197 98), and his visit to Atlas (9.198). And he offers his rsum while his skin melts off and his internal organs grow visible. Moreover, this condensed catalogue comprises Metamorphoses Ovid here concentrates the grand cycl e of Herculean myth into a short list spouted out by a dying one is left with the story of a tortured soul susceptible to atheistic notions ( qui credere possint | esse deos? 9.203 mythic exploits: these are the stuff of his corpus Like Marsyas, the Herculean b ody and text here converge. Up to this point I have traced issues of Ovidian violence that question or challenge the attempted unity of aesthetic experience in early Augustan Rome. As an Absyrtus, Jupiter, or Apollo, Ovid meditates on t he artistic representation of violence which seems to be a point of anxiety in the years immediately following the conflicts of pains of a nascent Principate, Ovid offers reminder s of the carnage that brought that regime into being He maps this imagery onto his own literary operations which he corpus Romanum before him, Ovid dismembers the epic tradition (and eventually himself, in exile) as he creates new art. Symbolized in the humans sprung from the bloody Giant corpora new generations (of epic and Empire ) are born of blood ( e sanguine natos ).
86 Modern scholarship notes violent, yet preci se, allusive technique: Alessandro Barchiesi describes the Ovidian allusion fabric of Greco Roman myth (2001: 29 31) So in Heroides 3, he injects 154 verses into m Achilles in Iliad 1. In choosing such a pregnant moment in the Homeric narrative, Ovid makes a precise allusive gesture toward the Iliad scene. Having made this incision, he monologue. In the same way do Marsyas and H ercules appear in the Metamorphoses : main event of their flaying; both men enter as their respective mythoi turn to their loss of skin. Their flayings symbolize on the n equates writing poetry to flaying a man. Within the visible innards of both characters, Ovid peels back layers of their fables to reveal what most interests him: human pain aestheticized. As I have noted, these images presage the grotesque palette that Lucan assumes in the Neronian period. As an aesthetic experience built around conflicting messages (humor and horror, fascination and revulsion) the grotesque proves abrasive to the autocratic cultural progr am of Augustanism ; in short, telos and metamorphosis are incompatible notions and Ovid finds a prurient sort of interest in this dichotomy 29 ons to epic violence. Erysichthon a nd Hippolytus instantiate Ovidian violence in intra and intratextual directions respectively: Erysichthon enacts metatextual cannibalism wherein the sacrilege eats himself out of the narrativ e while Hippolytus gains a place in Roman epic memory through his gruesome dismemberment in the Greek tradition. 29 Metamorphoses
87 Moreover, aesthetic contributions to the repertoire of epic violence ; here one observes violence (nearly) gone out of control, where O vid betrays anxieties over mastery of tradition and the escalation of epic carnage Cannibalism as Poetic Blemish: Erysichthon After the Calydonian boar hunt, Theseus returns to Athens, but not before meeting the river god Achelous one of a number of metam orphic narrators in the poem. When Theseus meets him, the river has flooded the surrounding area, and so this bulky storyteller able to morph into any form already reflects his rather ross books 8 and 9 (8.547 to 9. 94). At the close of book 8, his story of Erysichthon offers an quercus results in self cannibalism of his corpus 30 fames and pursuant self i ngestion reify pontus terra and aer 30 Cannibalism in Latin letters is unsurprisingly rare, but it does appear, and it appears at rather notable moments: the closing image of the AP ( hirudo 476); 30 Erysichthon closes Met. 8; Erictho enjoys necrophagy ( BC. 6.542 3); Tydeus closes Theb. 8 i n a fit of cannibalism; Juvenal devotes an entire satire to the topic ( Sat. 15). After Kristeva (1982), one could argue that the cannibal resides in the abyss of abjection: man eaters consume the body; they swallow what separates Me from Not me; they viola te food taboos and the limits of my subject at the same time Man eaters are un plottable on the grid of human experience, since they consume t he vehicle of that experience. Erysichthon then, who increases his body by eating it, i nhabits a fundamental para dox. Modern anthropology classifies Donner Party and Uruguay Rugby team. Gustatory cannibalism (sometimes called Ritual cannibalism) applies to c ases of w illing anthropophagy. Totem and Taboo (trans. 1950) offers a stimulating discussion of cannibalism and taboo. See Jahoda (1999) for an introduction to the history of man eaters; Arens (1979) shows that most, if not all, historical accounts of canni balism are fictional tools to denote the Other. He notes that the word cannibal itself is bound up in the process of denoting the Other, since according to Columbus via informers, the Caribs (> Sp. Canibs ) ate men. Arens finds no eyewitness account of gust atory anthropophagy in the literature. His observations on the cannibal as Other accord with my thesis since the cannibal as Other is also embedded in Latin discourse.
88 Erysichthon tallies simultaneous transgressions against the body of literature a nd literary landscape: he chops down not a mere ingens quercus, but rather a tree that is itself a grove ( una nemus ); his story thus begins on hallowed poetic ground. Erysichthon in fact fells two trunks: when a bystander intercedes he king without missing a stroke decapitates him ( Thessalus inque virum convertit ab arbore ferrum | detruncat que caput repetitaque rorbora caedit 968 9). Inside a chiastic, five word line, Ovid commingles both beheadings and two metaphors: as Erysichthon truncates the intercessor, so he fells the sacred oak. In the aftermath of both decapitations, a bleeding tree trunk and headless cadaver make an impious pair. Fames appropriately enough, inhabits desolate earth: agro | unguibus et r aras vellentem dentibus herbas (799 801). H er starved habitat on the outskirts of the known world ( extremis Scythiae glacialis in oris 788) finds an analogue in her emaciated body, so here one glimpses the barren recesses of poetic language. In this desic cated territory, want of sustenance of inspiration forces one to claw the sterile soil. To be sure, Fames corpus down to its skeletal frame: hirtus erat crinis, caua lumina, pallor in ore, labra incana situ, scabrae rubigine fauces, dura cutis, per quam spectari uiscera possent; ossa sub incuruis exstabant arida lumbis, uentris erat pro uentre locus; pendere putares pectus et a spinae tantummodo crate teneri; auxerat articulos macies genuumque tumebat orbis et immodico prodibant tube re tali. ( Met. 8.801 8) Her hair was unkempt, her eyes hollow, there was yellow in her face, her lips hoary with decay, her jaws crabbed with smut, tough was her skin through which her guts could be seen; her dry bones protruded under her curved hips, h er belly was actually a place for a belly; one would think that her chest hung and was sustained just from the lattice
89 of her backbone; her frailty had puffed up her joints, and the balls of her knees swelled and bulged with such unnatural swelling. This is a body in need of life support. Fames uiscera surgical misfortune, her body flags a brutal poetic fact: at the end of the day, the corpus is a sack of guts an opus subject to grotesque inspection. Through prolepsis, one could overlay her appearance onto Erysichthon after he succumbs to Famine, since Ovid is precise about how she infuses herself within his body: she wisps into his fauc es pectus ora and uacuae uenae (819 20). Fames epic corpus and her effects on Erysichthon compel the import of victuals from every corner ( pontus terra aer ). The logic is clear: a jejune corpus foists desperation on its author. One can be lead to cannibalize his own material, for once he runs out of materia without, Erysichthon turns within: uis tamen illa mali postquam consumpserat omnem materiam deerantque graui noua pabula morbo, ipse suos artus lacero diueller e morsu coepit et infelix minuendo corpus alebat. ( Met. 8.875 8) new fodder fell short of the grave disease, [Erysichthon] himself began to rend his own limbs with tearing bite, and the wretch nourished his body by lessening it. Erysichthon is not polite: he tears at his limbs in feral manner ( lacero morsu ). The final body by ingesting it ( minuendo corpus alebat is corpus the direct object of minuendo, alebat or both? Corpus consumes corpus and the image collapses in on itself. This paradox, I suggest, opens a fissure or narrative opus throug h which Erysichthon falls out of the poem; now too voracious
90 for even himself (for the poem), the profaner eats his way out of the story when he eats his own flesh. As a blemish on epic decorum, his grotesque meal urges a swift exit from the Metamorphoses lost a horn ( cornu ) during a wrest ling match with Hercules, Achelo signifies a textual deformity in the Metamorphoses river god truncates his account of Erysichthon in order to draw attention to his deformity. He concludes the tale thus: corporis, o iuuenis, numero finita potestas. nam modo qui nunc sum uideor, modo flector in anguem, armenti modo dux uires in cornua sumo cornua, dum potui. nunc pars caret altera telo Met. 8.879 84) was limited in numbe r. Indeed, as I am now, I seem so at one point, at another I am bent into a snake, at another I don the strength i n horns of strength in horns, that is, while I was able. Now one part of my forehead is without a point, as you yourself s followed his words. In the space of three words, Achelo us moves from a narrative about others ( externis ) to one about himself ( mihi spans the tomus break of books 8 and 9: his lament closes book 8 and opens book 9 ( gem itus 9.1). Thus, just as the river interjection severs the narrative thread of Erysichthon (and with it book 8), 31 so his lopped off horn ( causa truncae frontis ) acts as the point of contact for the first tale of book 9 (his struggle with Hercules fo prompts the aetiology of Achelo And as a metamorphic vates himself, 31 Indeed, his gemitus in 884 picks up from the caesura appropriately enough.
91 Ache lous acts as a local stand in for the Metamorphoses generally: he can shape shift into any animal, but as a bull he lacks a horn; his marred forehead thus reflects the This is an break of Met. 8/9. Achelous, qua Ovid, separ ates these tomes ( temn ), which, as the continuity of the Metamorphoses The hole opened by Erysichthon, mirrored by the hole s a midpoi nt caesura in the poem of continuous change. Ballroom Blitz: Pantomime in the Perseus Episode violence: the Perseus and Lapiths scenes. It is noteworthy that both of these fights br pantomime comes to the fore. By infusing farce into these dinner brawls, Ovid further shows his interest in weaving together seemingly incompatible generic conventions : a celebration of nuptial love bespoiled and wrecked by epic violence. Symbolized in the shattered mixing bowl that fells Erytus ( Met. 5.79 84 below), Ovid brings the destruction of epic combat home for dinner. After slaying Medusa and despoiling her head, Perseus rescues Andromeda from a sea monster and wins her as his bride. 32 At his and her celebratory banquet ( Met. 5.1 250), the cuckolded Phineus seeks vengeance for losing Andromeda, and an Odyssey 22 like battle ensues throughout the dining hall. In thi s scene, Ovid engages 32 The Per seus saga is not well documented outside of Ovid. [Apollodorus] 2.43 44 mentions briefly the rivalry of Phineus and his petrifaction. See Keith (2002: 105 22) for the Homeric and Virgilian models 72) discuss es the gendered landscape over which Perseus gains mobile and visual mastery. Frantantuono (2011: 123 31) perhaps too neatly connects the Perseus Andromeda Phineus triangle to the Aeneid Lavinia Turnus.
92 two metaliterary currents: the violence played out on the corpora crystallizes their bo dies into marble statues that is, Phineus and his cronies become monuments ( monimenta trip for the artiste Dying Gaul or Ludovisi Group statues, 33 Ovid, qua artifex their moment of agony. Their faces and bodies grow rigid at the traumatized instant, so that pain and suffering become the telos igurative stone cutting. Like Pygmalion, who molds the life like Galat ea, Ovid can fashion lasting and indeed life like images of pain and death. 34 on the action of heroic epi intensifying both the brutality of Homer and the sentimentality of Virgil by limiting his war narrat ive to 250 But it is in this Homeric Virgilian alloy, I suggest, that battle narrative rather wades into the territory of the Roman pantomime, on which model Rich lin grounds her suggestive reading of sexual violence. When Ovid intensifies compatibility of this mixture; the macabre and humorous here converge in a delicate balanc ing act To be sure, 250 lines devoted to the slaughter of Phineus and his cronies manifest s a disproportionate emphasis on 33 Terracotta relief panels depicting Perseus and Athena with Medusa also appeared in the Porticus of the Area Apollinis (cf. Coarelli 2007: 144 and Miller 2009: 187). 34 Interestingly, Galatea turns from marble into flesh, whereas Phineus and his followers undergo t he like features of each marble incarnation. corpus erat! ( Met. 10.289). Cf. Heath (1996).
93 bloodshed in the Perseus story. A thorough analysis of the Perseus and Lapiths episode s contributions to four named characters (forty three if one includes the men turned to stone). Every named death receives a patronymi c, except for Astreus, whose father is apparently unknown. turn to stone ( bis centum restabant corpora pugnae | Gorgone bis centum riguerunt corpora visa Met. 5.208 9). As t he scene unfolds, it grows unclear on whose side certain men fight: for instance, Ovid never states why Clymenus kills Hodites or Hypseus kills Prothenor; they simply deaths is that of the singer Lampetid es: tu quoque, Lampetide, non hos adhibendus ad usus, sed qui, pacis opus, citharam cum uoce moueres; iussus eras celebrare dapes festumque canendo. quem procul adstantem plectrumque imbelle tenentem et laeuo mucronem tempore fixit; concidit et digitis morientibus ille retemptat fila lyrae, casuque ferit miserabile carmen. ( Met. 5.111 18) Even you, Lampetides, invited not for this purpose, but the one who strums the guitar with vocal accompaniment, the labor of peace; you had been commanded to celebrate the feast and occasion by singing. But Paetalus, laughing at him while he stood apart and held his planted his sword in the [s [Lampetides] strums the lyre strings with dying fingers and beats out a lamentable song with his fall. here appears to be the mere presence of a singer who cultivates the peaceful life ( pacis o pus O. 22.330 60), Paetalus murders the entertainment because he is the entertainment. His
94 sharp address to Lampetides ( Priam just before he exec utes the Trojan king ( Aen. 2.547 50). Ovid compounds dixit ) and stabs ( fixit ) at consecutive line ends. The rhyming prosody lends jingoistic tenor to an otherwise brutal murder. And finally, Lampetide s plays accompaniment to his own death as he strums a miserabile carmen with dying fingers. result of accidental strumming by a dying man, or is Lampetides self aware enough to accompany his own exit? Ovi d offers classic equivocation, since retemptat hints at conscious composition on the part of Lampetides, while casu hints at accidental and dissonant melody as he falls to the floor. The ambiguity reflects the double edged pose of the poem generally, insof ar as Ovid deploys mixed and often conflicting messages uiscera miserabile carmen raises the question posed at the beginning of this chapter: is this ars or not? In any case, struggle for survival in the intensified Homeric Virgilian world of the Metamorphoses 35 This holds true for another non combatant in the dinner hall, Emathion. The devout and pious old man ( aequi cultor timidusque deorum 5.100) cannot fight due to his years ( prohibent anni bellare ), so he must war with words ( loquendo | pugnat 5.101 2). As he condemns the fighters for their violence on this occasion ( scelerataque devovet arma 5.10 2), a certain Chromis decapitates him: 35 M etamorphoses it is usually the man of action who gains his objective
95 huic Chromis amplexo tremulis altaria palmis decutit ense caput, quod protinus incidit arae atque ibi semianimi uerba exsecrantia lingua edidit et medios animam exspirauit in ignes. ( Met. 5.103 6). [Emathion] had e mbraced the altar with trembling hands when Chromis sheared away his head with a sword. Forthwith [the head] fell upon the altar, and there it issued forth condemning words with its half dead tongue, and it eventually gave up the ghost amidst the flames. If Paetalus speaks like Pyrrhus, Chromis kills like him. Reflective of the supplicating Priam, the aged Emathion clings to the altaria only to lose his caput Again it remains unclear for whom or why Chromis kills the old man; presumably he acts on behalf of speaks out against violence. To be sure, his semianimis lingua continues to excoriate the brutes as flames engulf it. With the deaths of Emathion and Lampetides, then, Ovid epic violence can temporarily erase the pacis opus A common feature of epic combats is what one may call t In such passages, the poet e count with a list of names in the accusative case. Perseus, of course, must receive such credentials: inde Semiramio Polydegmona sanguine cretum Caucasiumque Abarin Sperchionidenque Lycetum intonsumque comas Helicen Phlegy anque Clytumque sternit et exstructos morientum calcat aceruos. ( Met. 5.85 89) Then, [Perseus] lays low Polydegmon, sprung from the blood of long haired Helices, and Phlegyas, and Clytus; and he tramples on the piled up heap of dead.
96 Although Perseus slays six named characters here, Ovid hints at their anonymity when he juxtaposes the near anagrams LYCETUM and CLYTUMquE at consecutive line ends; Lycetus or Clytus, or whatever it does not really matter who; what matters is that Perseus creates a heap of dead men ( hexameters construct an aceruus of sorts in this pile up of accusatives: cretum | Caucasiumque Abarin Sperchionidenque Lycetum | intonsumque comas Helicen Phlegyanque Clytum numbers eleven words in accusative case across three lines, all punctuated by an enjambed sternit and aceruos in final position. The heap of dead is quite visible. Amidst this accusative mouthful, Lyc catalogue an air of humorous bombast: Horace prohibits six syllable words from the ars poetica ( AP 97); still, he never dealt with the sesquipedalian Sperchionidae (que) pects of this modern critic struggles to draw a clear picture of what pantomime looked like, but motus c orporis ) and everyday life. 36 37 Ovid peppers these violent piths Centaurs fight (see below). Granted, epic battle scenes require motus corporis on the part of its players; still, no Homeric or Virgilian battle scenes include death by mixing bowl. Grand epic thus intrudes on dinner and drinks: 36 Panayotak is (1995: xiv with nn.). 37 See also Richlin (1991: 174 76) who highlights the special ambivalence sexual violence held in the context of the Roman pantomime, which were a fixture of Roman visual culture from the Republic through Imperial eras.
97 at non Actoriden Eryt um, cui lata bipennis telum erat, hamato Perseus petit ense, sed altis exstantem signis multaeque in pondere massae ingentem manibus tollit cratera duabus infligitque viro; rutilum uomit ille cruorem et resupinus humum moribundo uertice pulsat. ( Met. 5.79 84) Perseus does not pursue with curved sword Erytus, who carried a two pronged spear, but rather he lifts with both hands a giant mixing bowl of heavy weight, bedecked in deep relief, and he flung it at the man; [Erytus] spews forth red blood and falli ng backward strikes the ground with dying neck. This unconventional weapon reappaears in the Lapiths and Centaurs scene ( Met. 12.235 40). In fact, the novelty of such weapons grows commonplace in the latter episode, where every piece of furniture becomes a killing tool. Here in book 5, apart from an ingens crater Perseus | stipite, qui media positus fumabat in ara, | perculit et fractis confudit in ossibus ora Met. 5.56 58). Through the use of mu ndane, household items, the elevated register of Homeric Virgilian battle narrative falls to ludic, almost bathetic, tenor. Not once does a character in Homer or Virgil take a decorative bowl to the mouth and cough up teeth and gray matter. Conspicuously a ware of his ars the artiste narrator here highlights his flippant treatment of epic violence. Any device can become deadly in the hands of a master, even the kitchen sink. War Stories: The Lapiths and Centaurs Metamorphoses 12 stages a parodic treatment o f epic combat that contains the Perseus and Lapiths scenes offer prolonged study of the violated corpus After the opifex rerum brings the narrative to Troy, he situates Achilles at table with the other Greek generals; at this point the leaders regale the Iliadic hero with stories of past
98 combat. In this section, Ovidian wit raises quid enim loque retur Achilles, | aut quid apud magnum potius loqueretur Achillem? Met. 12.162 63). As a case of poetological irony, these reflexive treatment of grandiose war epic. For answer, the long winded (and nearly 400 year old) Nes tor recalls the fight be tween the Centaurs and Lapiths for just over 420 lines. 38 shares with his counterpart in the Iliad and Odyssey is a propensity for speaking. When the Iliad proposes embassy to Ac hilles, his proxy Phoenix offers a story of reconciliation and forgiveness; in the Metamorphoses Nestor is more than happy to war codger who remembers rote casu alty statistics, but laments not recalling all their wounds ( uulnera non memini, numerum nomenque notaui Met. 12.461). Even the language of cities toppled finds its way into his speech: captaeque erat urbis imago ( Met. 12.225). 39 s in the Metamorphoses rhetorical emphasis in Iliad 9. In this metapoetic scene, then, a poetically aged narrator entertains a poetically seasoned soldier with a classic tale of violence. Put another way, Metamorphoses 12 stages a ludic ep yllion after the Homeric Virgilian fashion, in which 38 The initia l treatment is at Il. 1.247 84 and Hippodamia became canonical. Cf. Diodorus Siculus 4.70.304. See also Fratantuono (2011: 343 47 with nn.) for a cursory discussion of the significance of discussion of the Perseus scene, however, he does not hand down moral judgement on any of the actors. Rather he points out that such a violent scene can raise themes present throughout the Metamorphoses esp ecially nuptial love spoiled by drink and desire. 39 like Ellsworth (1980: 25 26) explai ns the
99 the consummate Homeric storyteller (Nestor) entertains the consummate Homeric fighter (Achilles) with a description of violence and bloodshed. Correspondences between the Perseus scene and the Lapiths a nd Centaurs scene appear early and often. Ovid recycles at least nine names from the Perseus episode: Celadon, Rhoetus, Melaneus, Phorbas, Chromis, Clanis, Dorylas, Ampyx and H odites reappear as characters. Certain death scenes appear in both. For instance Eurytus, Rhoetus and Charaxus echo a number of eponymous counterparts in the Perseus episode: forte fuit iuxta signis exstantibus asper antiquus crater, quem uastum uastior ipse sustulit Aegides aduersaque misit in ora; sanguinis ille globos pariter cere brumque merumque uulnere et ore uomens madida resupinus harena calcitrat. ( Met. 12.235 40) There happened to be an old rough hewn mixing bowl nearby with figures in high relief, which, though massive, more massive Theseus lifted by himself and cast int chunks of blood and brain and wine equally from his mouth and kicked as he is laid out on the wet sand. Ecce rapit mediis flagrentem Rhoetus ab aris pruniceum torrem dextraque a parte Charaxi tempora perfringit f uluo protecta capillo. correpti rapida, ueluti seges arida, flamma arserunt crines, et uulnere sanguis inustus terribilem stridore sonum dedit, ut dare ferrum igne rubens plerumque solet, quod forcipe curua cum faber eduxit lacubus demittit; at illud strid et et in tepida submersum sibilat unda. saucius hirsutis auidum de crinibus ignem excutit inque umeros limen tellure reuulsum tollit, onus plaustri, quod ne permittat in hostem, ipsa facit grauitas; semicremoque nouat repetitum stipite uulnus terque quat erque graui iuncturas uerticis ictu rupit, et in liquido sederunt ossa cerebro. ( Met. 12.271 81; 286 88)
100 Look! Rhoetus grabbed a plumwood torch from the middle of the altar and bashed Charaxus on the right temple, which was protected by his blonde hair. His sullied locks blazed in the avid flame (just like dry grass) and in the wound unburnt blood gave a horrific sizzling sound, as red hot iron customarily does after smeltering when the smithy has removed it with his curved forceps and plunged it into a pool; still the metal hisses and squeals when dipped in tepid water. Now wounded, [Charaxus] brushes the hungry fire out of his hairy locks and rips up and lifts the threshold from the earth to his shoulders (a toil for the gym), the weight of which ought renews and revisits the headwound with the half burnt stick, thrice and four times, and he shatters the ligaments in the neck with heavy blow and the skull sank into the viscous brain. With details such as these one wonders what additional uulnera Nestor forgets at Met. 12.461 above). Eurytus the Centaur is nigh synonymous with Erytus in the Perseus scene ( Met. 5.79 84 above), who, like Eurytus, vomits the contents of his skull: both their craters b ear relief sculpture ( exstantem signis, exstantibus signis ); both bowls carry heavy mass ( multaeque in pondere massae vastum ); both victims spit blood ( rutilum uomit cruorem sanguinis globos uomens ); both twitch on the floor ( resupinus humum pulsat resu pinus harena | calcitrat bowl (above), one may lament the loss of two perfectly fine craters, to say nothing of the shattered artifice. Eurytus shares further characteristics with the Odyssey us, whose wine explodes ove r his face after taking an arrow in the throat ( O. 22.8 20): both with blood. Yet, whereas Antino frontman, Eur Antino Odyssey Metamorphoses
101 cerebrum shares correspondences with Athis in book 5 ( Met. 5.56 58, above): both youths receive detailed attention to their good looks, especially their hair ( ); both youths receive flaming torches to the head which ruin their beauty ( fractis confudit in o ssibus ora iuncturas uerticis | rupit ). Like Eurytus and Erytus, Charaxus and Athis fall to crushing blows from unconventional weapons. Yet in the Lapiths scene, mixing bowls and torches grow banal compared to mounted antlers for eye gouging (Exadius), a chandelier for face smashing (Amycus), or an altar, orthostate, and pine tree for crushing (Gryneus, Rhoetus and Demoleon). A statistical comparison of wounding in the Metamorphoses to the other major narrative. Glenn sparagmos in Seneca, Euripides and Ovid, but nd Centaurs cr eate a telling distribution (Table 3 1). 40 Table 3 Cuts Amputations Punctures Crushing Bl ows Self Inflicted or Nonspecific Lines/Casualty Perseus 1 1 14 3 17 5.1 Lapiths 3 1 16 17 15 6.4 Sum 4 (5%) 2 (2%) 30 (34%) 20 (23%) 32 (36%) 5.8 number of unfortunates in the poem die from self inflicted wounds or by sheer accident. Violent happenst modus operandi 40 Most (1992: 398) with fn. 39. Statistics based on Il. 4 8, 10 12, 16, 20 22; Aen. 7, 9 12; BC 3 6 9; Pun. 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12 15, 17; Theb. 2, 3, 7 inflicted majority of Homeric Virgilian wounds are minor or lethal; that is, if one does not perish from a wound, one per voces ).
102 Take for instance Dictys, who stumbles off a cliff ( delapsus acumine montis Met. 12.337) and impales himself on a tree ( pondere corporis ornum | ingentem fregit suaque induit ilia fract ae Met. 12.339 40). Characters such as Hippolytus, Actaeon, and Dictys find themselves in the wrong place at the wrong time, far from the epic battlefield, but epi cs: Homer, 2.1; Virgil 2.2; Lucan, 8.4, Silius 3.1, and Statius 2.9. The nearly 400% faul ty memory ( uulnera non memini ). This sort of negative Alexandrian footnote (Nestor e Perhaps all the uulnera are unimportant, Ovid seem s to say; o ne gets the picture. If, after Elana Gomel (2003: xv xxi), narrative violence opens gaps of meaning and comprehe uulnera non memini reveals the violent recesses of a poetic mind at work. Modern criminology relies on narrative renders wi detailed scene building would raise eyebrows in a modern interrogation room. But Nestor is not under criminal investigation. His presence at (and participation in) the brawl renders his eye witness testimony credible on the surface, and he has empirical data to support his account. But his detailed im agery and rhetorical precision as co nstructed by Ovidian narrative undercut
103 gets the feeling that this is neither the first nor last time Nestor has told this story. His inability to narrate stems not from fragmentary recollection of a traumatic experience; it stems from insufficient capacity to remember a multitude of mimetic uu lnera To be sure he seems apologetic for this shortcoming. As Margaret Musgrove epic narration and epic narrators and to suggest alternative perspectives on the canon When the Metamorphoses inverts his rhetorical stance in the Iliad he inverts the Homeric Virgilian modello codice Aeneid in pa rticular and its attendant narrative gaps o creates for Ovid a memoria Crushing blows comprise over one third of Ovidian wounding in the Perseus and Lapiths scenes. In the grand register of mar immania membra ( Met. 12.501) present a perfect analogue to the hyperbolic uulnera that crush skulls and upon wound ( uulnusque in uulnere fecit Met. 12.493). But when the Centaurs (and imperfossus Met. 12.496), traditional uulnera have no effect. Thus Ovid introduces another metaliterary motif, tree felling, to corpus : fort e trabem nactus ualidum coniecit in hostem exemplumque fuit; paruoque in tempore nudus arboris Othrys erat, nec habebat Pelion umbras. obrutus immani cumulo sub pondere Caeneus aestuat arboreo congestaque robora duris fert umeris; sed enim postquam super o ra caputque creuit onus neque habet quas ducat spiritus auras, deficit interdum, modo se super aera frustra
104 Met. 12.511 19) [Monychus] strove with might and cast a tree upon the able enemy and that was the example; in a short while Othrys was bereft of her trees, and Pelion had no shade. Impeded by the huge pile Caeneus rages under the wooded weight and lifts the piled trunks with difficult arms; but in fact the mass grew on top of his face and head and he d oes not have air to lead breath, and in time he falters while he tries to lift Silua 41 As the wounds and bloodshed between Lapi ths and Centaurs compiles, Ovid congests the scene with harvested trees. Where chopped down trees ignite memorial services in Ennius and Virgil ( Ann. 175 79 Sk. & Aen. 6.179 82), in the Metamorphoses they become improvisational instruments of violence. The Aeneid harvests materia from archaic Roman epic (Ennius) for religious piety while the Metamorphoses shear Pelion for new and violent aesthetic ends. as weapons elide two metapoetic devices: corpus and silua violation here merge into similar images of epic wounding ( silua premat fauces, et erit pro uulnere pondus Met. withstand the burdensome mass of battle narrative, a mass symbolized by wooden weight ( pondus arboreum e for destruction shears Pelion of its umbra The Perseus and Lapiths scenes demonstrate the stark incongruity of form and content observed by Richlin. Set within domestic, indoor spaces, these battles show epic, but in the end such imagery ( uulnera non memini ). The domestic settings also call up the milieu of Roman 41 OLD silua
105 pantomime, where objects from everyday life gain added signif icance as instruments of death. The interweaving of opposed aesthetic spheres creates a reading experience that Horsfall 32). Reflected in the ornate mix ing bowls crashing down on skulls, Ovid makes collide epic strife and amatory nuptials. One may object that the Aeneid does the same, but Aeneas and Turnus wage a declared war across an epic eir fight outside. The grand violence of martial epic thus seems out of place inside the home. In these hyperbolic and incongruous conflicts, then, Ovid showcases his aesthetic and poetic innovation regarding hexametric violence. 42 ry Loss The remainder of this chapter considers two deaths by chariot: Hippolytus and Mettius Fufetius. In these scenes, Ovid submits the epic corpus to horrific treatment, but for opposing ends: Hippolytus must be atomized for his Roman metempsychosis to take Rome. Hippolytus, qua Virb i us, appears nonchalant about his previous bodily corpus after his Both regarding epic composition in the Augustan period. Both scenes further explore the effaced v iolence that brought the Augustan Principate to life. 42 To take two to these scenes: Galinsky (1975: 126 Lapiths and Centaurs scenes. Fraenkel (1945: 102) simply remarks that the Lapiths and Centaurs scenes argument I offer here.
106 horrific metamorphosis into Virbius, the original Rex Nemorensis Like the conspicuous tibi a contest, Ovid excludes any mention of the Hippolytus of the wreck bu t the Metamorphoses holds specifically Roman significance as the first priest of Diana at Nemi. Moreover, since Hippolytus, qua Virbius, relates his own dismemberment, the first person mode replays the atrocity in highly self reflexive terms; h is systematic recounting of the crash stands in stark contrast to the violent reality of the event narrated: excutior curru, lorisque tenentibus artus uiscera uiua trahi, neruos in stipe teneri, membra rapi partim partimque reprensa relinqui, ossa grauem d are fracta sonum fessamque uideres exhalari animam nullasque in corpore partes, noscere quas partes: unumque erat omnia uulnus. ( Met. 15.524 29) I am thrown hard from the chariot, and you could see my living flesh being dragged by the reins which held m y limbs, and my sinews held fast on a stake, and part of my limbs ripped away while part are caught and left behind, and my broken bones gave a heavy sound and my tired soul exhaled and there were no parts on my body which you could recognize as parts: for everything was a single wound. yet unlike Marsyas, who vocalizes his pain in the face of his exposed viscera ( a! piget! ), suffering. Despite his metamorphosis into a single wound ( unum uulnus ), his recollection of the event does not affect his muscular memory. On the contrary, he appears more than willing to narrate his ordeal as a case in point of Pythagorean metempsychosis. His punishment in Greek tragedy propels him
107 in the Roman corpus that mishap; look lf exemplum of metempsychosis cannot fully efface the arduous path he took to Nemi; to be sure, in terms of Augustan mythological appropriation, Hippolytus must be dismembered in order to take up residence in Italy. Hippolytus Virbius seems brainwashed of his prior trauma in Euripides. Augustus to erase atrocity in the interests of religious to say. Here then the Metamorphoses offers another vignette of the facile overhaul of Greco Roman myth in Augustan Rome : Roman Diana receives her first priest from appears detached from the violence which brought him to Italy. Reliving Mettius Fufetius In closing, I consider another sc sparagmos sparagmos Metamorphoses exhibits intratextual, boomerang like qualities. forced departure casts him as Mettius Fufetius, an exemplum of dread punishment. Like Hippolytus, Mettius dies behind a chariot; and like Hippolytus, Ovid begins in first person voice (cf. excutior above): divi dor haud aliter, quam si mea membra relinquam, et pars abrumpi corpore visa suo est. sic doluit Mettus tum in contraria versos ultores habuit proditionis equos. ( Trist. 1.3.73 76) I am separated, not otherwise than if I left my limbs behind and part o f my body seemed to be ripped from itself. Thus Mettius suffered when he held the horses turned in opposite directions, the avengers of his treachery.
108 as feels himself divided ( dividor ), as if leaving part of his body behind. Indeed, as Trist. 1.1 corpus must remain in Rome. corpus imperii His bodily and literary schism takes on violent overtones with the Mettius Fufetius exemplum who, according to Livy, is the first and only person in Roman history to suffer drawing and quartering ( Ab urb. 1.28). Apparently, such a spectacle was too identification with Mettius Fufetius implicitly aligns Augustus with King Tullus Hostilius, who, because of his brutal punishment of Mettius, gains the epithet ferox Thus, as the unwitting Mettius or Absyr tus, Ovid and his corpus fall victim to exemplary punishment: his exile poetry, qua dismemberment, offers words of lamentation and warning. displacement as dismemberment, he still feel s somehow attached to his previous corpus especially the Metamorphoses In Trist. 1.7 he offers an apologia for the state of his poem of shape shifting bodies ( ca rmina mutatas hominum dicentia formas 1.7.13) lacks the final touches and should have been burned before its release. In fact, he imagines the poem as a sacrifice of his own entrails: haec ego discedens, sicut bene multa meorum, ipse mea posui maestus in sic ego non meritos mecum peritura libellos Trist. 1.7.15 16, 19 20) Upon leaving I myself with my own hand sadly placed this [poem] upon serving books
109 auto evisceration Bellum Civile Ovid expresses anxiety that exile truncated the editing of his epic: it lacks th e summa manus (1.7.28). Even so, a few copies escaped out into the world (1.7.23 24), over which the poet has no control. Metamorphoses compels him to append a brief disclaimer for the poem, wherein he apologizes for its rough stat e: quidquid in his igitur vitii rude carmen habebit, | emendaturus, si licuisset, erat 40). Which uitia sec imagination; the indefinite quidquid perhaps invites a co conspiring reader. Taken at face value, this after the fact forward in elegiac couplets would create a metrical and temporal rift in the hexametric Metamorphoses 43 The poem beginning with pr imordial chaos would now begin in the future ( habebit ) in Forms Changed: Ovidian Apotheosis and Grotesque Aesthetics the Metamorphoses Coupled with h is epic corpus his exilic corpus points up the tragic Metamorphoses to transcend the bodily confines of his perishable text is destabilized in exile, where he betrays an anxiety that he will no longer have the final word. In the Metamorphoses Ovid is in complete control of his art and narrative. In 8 CE, he learns the hard lesson in Trist. 2 he avers that he angered Jupiter Ovid ironizes still, since he has in a way fallen victim to the caprices of a Jupiter 43 Amores where Ovid says the w ork has benefited from condensing into three books ( levior demptis poena duobus erit Am. pr. 4).
110 created by the Metamorphoses Authorial autonomy may liberate Ovid at the end of his epic, but apparently his this so rt of self literar y Himmelfahrt in his epic ( vivam ) comes crashing to the ground in Tomis, where he returns to the Metamorphoses His self alignment with Mettius and Absyrtus creates a textualized surrogacy, in which Ovid casts himse lf as a victim of the capricious gods he created in the Metamorphoses On the shore of the Black Sea, his uiuam surely seemed doubtful; for modern readers, his uiuam is without doubt. Ovid lives today in part because of the aesthetic experiment conducted i n his Metamorphoses He may have felt himself dead in exile, but his scene building and panache resonate today in an era saturated with visual media. I have noted throughout this chapter man experience. The grotesque experience helps meld together the disparate responses to Ovidian ars in his violent scenes Ovid presents a syzygy of the violent and the beautiful; the one sustains t he other, and vice versa. Ovidian violence inhabits a feedback loop energized by paradox: uiscera embody the ambivalent responses provoked by the poem. Ovid creates an aesthetic experience that sits co mfortably between the poles of politically subversive and artistically disinterested. To be sure this spectrum typifies modern receptions of the Ovidian persona To map them onto the extremes of another perspective, Ovidian violence aligns with feminist r eadings th us: subversive/ironic violence makes him a feminist sympathizer, while disinterested/ludic violence makes him a patriarchic misogynist. If one reads Ovid as a
111 power within C1 CE Rome, the poet appears as a literary munerarius orchestrating a macabre, yet artistic, epic ludus The aesthetic experience of a poem like the Metamorphoses accounts for both limits of the paradox at the same time. To forget about one undercuts at least half the symbolic power of the other. Granted many voyeuristic Schadenfreude of the amphitheater or the tongue in cheek wit of a political ironist? Ovid prefers not to make this choice disjunctive. miserabile carmen Ovid disrupts any assumptions about form and genre for in a way, the Metamorphoses both is, and is not, epos talent that Augustus found so troubling.
112 CHAPTER 4 TO WOUND THE TRADITI ON: LUCAN IN THE EPI C ARENA This chapter traces out the metapoetic process of textual dismemberment in Bellum Civile ( BC ) His p oem presents the most sustained meditat ion on violent poetic imagery in Roman epic and to date a focused account of his hexametric carnage is lacking His worse than Civil War ( Bella plus quam civilia 1.1) turns the epic corpus against itself ( in sua vic trici conversum viscera dextra 1.3) in a form o f authorial auto evisceration. Modern readers agree that the BC face of epic decorum, whence it derives a certain grotesque appeal. 1 Responses to the poem cluster outr 2 The Wunderkind revulsion and fascination; humo r and horror; order and chaos. The poet dramatizes his struggle with lite rary tradition and proclaims his story of poetic suicide. 3 on the epic corpus and his penchant for violence offer a stark contrast between Augustan and post Augustan literary anxieties regarding violence and the epic tradition. As a post Ov awareness announces a vitriolic and contrarian 1 Martindale (1993: 68). Elsewhere Martindale highlights the BC radoxical ic violence and tragedy reminds the reader that all texts are just texts. Bartsch (1997: 35 40 with nn.) argues for the BC inclusion in the realm of the grotesque. xiii) document s have found abrasive (see also 1 12). Cf. Ahl (1976: 58 61). 2 e 3 slaughter, bo th tradition his pietas demands that he respect, and the requirement of innovation, whose price is the nefas
113 pose with respect to the aesthetic preferences of his literary milieu and the tradition before him The BC often conjures amphitheatrical imagery: as if viewing gladiatorial ludi an internal audience watches the spectacle of civil war. 4 Spectacle and Engagement (1997) documents amphitheatrical echoes throughout the poem and observes a strong dissonance between the voyeurism of the aren a and the pathos of civil war in the face o f such tragedy made spectacle. These seemingly incompatible reader responses implicate the audience in marveling at the death of the Republic and so heighten the epic to the plane of a metapoetic amphitheater: within the epic arena, armed with only his carmen Lucan mus t fight for his (poetic) life. From the outset, he aligns his poem st ernly against th e Ennian Virgilian war epics; his syntax pits standard against standard ( obvia signa | signis 1.6 7), eagle against eagle ( pares aquilas 1.7), and spear against spear ( pila minantia pilis 1.7). 5 His poem sets his standard, his eagle, and his spear against that of his fellow epicists; all for common ruin ( in commune nefas 1.6). BC crisis of self and agency in the stifle d experience of Neronian Rome. She situates Lu the senatorial body, the 4 Such internal audiences appear early and often: Sulla is the spectator sceleris in the civil war epyllion (2.208); Vulteius and his men perform thei r mass suicide in front of Pompeian onlookers (4.529); the aristeia (6.167 assa ssination in Egypt (8.591 92). Erasmo (2005a) observes heightened theatricality in Senecan tragedy, wherein actors require an inte rnal audience within the play. Bartsch (1994) highlights theatricality in the everyday experience of Neronian Rome, where citizens become actors in their own right, who must perform for their actor Emperor. 5 Cf. Ennius, Ann. views his as a response not only to Virgilian/Augustan epic, but also Ennian/Republican epic.
114 c itizen body, the military body come forfeiture of libertas the autocratic Emperor impinges on the integrity and free will of the Stoic civis 6 aesthetics of his age, a detonation of the inherited Roman epic. Like Ovid, Lucan exposes the inadequacies of the imperialistic Aeneid Where Ovid chips away at the v eneer of the Augustan and fills them with abject matter: human viscera and amputated limbs corrode the Augustan corpor ation promulgated in the Aeneid 7 My approach falls more in line with Hen derson and Masters, who read metapoetic processes in the BC as vignettes of Deforestation becomes a metaphor for the plundering of poetic material from another source, and inasmuch as [deforestation] is itself continually a topos that comes from another source, we see that it enacts on the plane of epic action what it represents on the plane of literary activity desecration pre dece (Masters 1992: 27, my emphasis). lunder, despoil and desecrate. The citizen corpus the epic corpus neither remain intact while the bulky bodied Nero reigns ( sentiet axis onus 1.57). Like the fossor vinctus at BC 7.402, Lucan finds solace in song; he writes to 6 Bartsch (1997: 12 47). Cf. also Most (1992: 405 6) who collate s further Stoic i deas of self. Both readers point out the disturbing anxiety that a human being may be, in the end, a bucket of blood. Cf. Clive 1). 7 Cf. Martindale (1993: destruction of Rome and the loss of liberty required, not good taste, but rather deformation of taste and of Augustan corpus (especially in the Orpheus story). observation that Lucan expands images that Virgil condenses and condenses those that he expands (cf. pp. 118 28 on Phemenoe and the Sibyl).
115 mollify the horrors of a putrid Rome and tyrant prince. 8 Philosophical concerns find letting and amputations, Lucan fi nds self and agency in poetry. corpus : in the viscera of Rome (1.3). Senecan Sidelight can tragedy shows a marked increase in fascination with the macabre. 9 Most opens his discussion with the sparagmos tracing it from Euripides to Ovid to Seneca: Hipp. 1234 39) Then all was confused; axl e rods and linchpins leaping in the air, while he the wretch entangled in the reins, was dragged along having been trapped in the twisted bridle, and he was pounded on the head by the rocks excutior curru, lorisque t enentibus artus uiscera uiui trahi, neruos in stipe teneri, membra rapi partim partimque reprensa relinqui, ossa grauem dare fracta sonum fessamque uideres exhalari animam nullasque in corpore partes, noscere quas partes: unumque erat omnia uulnus. ( Met. 1 5.524 29) I am thrown hard from the chariot, and you could see my living flesh dragged along by the reins which held my limbs while my sinews were held fast on a stake, and in part my limbs are snatched away, in part 8 fossor vinctus twice: Trist. 4.1.5 6 and P. 1.6.31 2. Note too that mollification through song is a conceit as old as the Homerica : Il. 6.354 358, Od. 3.203 4 and 24.200 2. 9 Augustan poetry, which Most connects to rhetorical topoi of declamations. Before Most, Segal (1984: 311 25) and Jakobi (1988: 83 89) connect these Hippolytus scenes in Ovid an d Seneca.
116 they are caught and left behind, and my broken bones made a loud noise and my tired soul was breathed out and no parts were left on my body which you could recognize as parts: for everything was a single wound. ent. a closer model for Seneca than Euripides reduces Hippolytus to a single wound ( ) and limbs ( nullasque in corpore partes | noscere quas partes ). dismemberment of Hippolytus ( Phaed. 1093 1114), Most remarks that the charioteer m izing spheres of influence for this spike in literary violence: the historical circumstance of the amphitheater, Stoic notions of self and personhood, and rhetorical declamatory training. As will be shown, a rhetorical relief his unique narrative aesthetic. So to read this Hippolytus nexus as metapoetic commentary: w hen Euripides and Ovid finish off their Hippolytus es his corpus is left d ismembered; Seneca then must piece him back together. The literary corpus becomes a fertile site of violent meditation for Neronian modus operandi Uncle and nephew share certain aesthetic stances toward the body of literature. corpus If Seneca (after Euripides and Ovid) can dismember the Hippolytus mythos he can also make a clumsy reassembly: THESEUS: Huc, huc, reliquia s uehite cari corporis
117 pondusque et artus temere congestos date. d isiecta genitor, membra laceri corporis in ordinem dispone et errantes loco restitue partes : fortis hic dextrae locus, hic laeua frenis docta moderandis manus ponenda: laeui lateris agnosco notas. quam magna lacrimis pars adhuc nostris abest! durate trepidae lugubri officio manus, fletusque largos sistite, arentes genae, dum membra nato genitor adnumerat suo corpusque fingit hoc quid est forma carens et turpe, multo u ulnere abruptum undique? quae pars tui sit dubito; sed pars est tui: hic, hic repone, non suo, at uacuo loco. ( Phaed. 1247 49, 1256 68) d limbs now piled out of order. Is this Hippolytus ? distribute the dissected limbs of his shredded body into order and return the errant parts to their place: this is the spot for his right hand, and here his left should be placed, skilled at steering the reigns: I recognize the marks of yo ur left shank. How great a part of you is still absent from my tears! Now, trembling hands, steady in your painful task; and parched s limbs and fashions his body. What is this ugly thing lackin g shape and torn on ev ery side with numerous wounds? but it is a part of you still: here, put it here, not in its proper spot, but an Seneca signals an intertextual relationship with Euripides and Ovid wh en Theseus mass ( agnosco notas ). 10 Tragic irony as parts ( nullasque in corpore partes | noscere quas partes indeed. Considering the treatment of Hippolyt us in Euripides and Ovid little wonder that corpus In fact, Seneca (Theseus) must reshape that which lacks shape ( forma carens ); only traces, marks and lim bs 10 See Hinds (1993: 8 10) for agnoscere as an intertextual Further, notae 15]).
118 remain ( reliquiae, notae, membra ); parts are still missing, left behind in the bramble ( 1102 3). Like Horace, the belated Seneca apeless, scattered members ( disiecta membra laceri corporis ). His autopsy refashions a bricol age of dissociated appendages. Nephew Lucan, then, also makes meat of literary tradition. BC averages over eight lines per casualty. 11 No secret that Lucan dilutes more carnage across larger poetic space, but his macabre imagery is a s calculated as it is caustic. His ci vil war epyllion introduces programmatic imagery for the BC (2.68 232), and here Marius by piece dismemberment, falls prey to the Pax Sullana mythos Lucan cleaves limbs from the poetic corpus in order to start anew: artus aequataque vulnera membris vidimus et toto quamvis in corpore caeso nil animae letale datum, moremque nefandae dirum saevitiae, pereuntis parcere morti. avulsae cecide re manus exectaque lingua palpitat et muto vacuum ferit aera motu. hic aures alius spiramina naris aduncae amputat, ille cavis evolvit sedibus orbes ultimaque effodit spectatis lumina membris (2.177 85) wounds for every appendage and no death permitted to his soul, though his entire body was lacerated; [and we saw] a dread custom of unspeakable savagery: they kept the dying man from dying. His hands were torn off and fell away, and his tongue was cut out and quivered an d beat the air in mute motion. One amputates his ears, another the cavities of his hooked 11 See Most (1992: 398): Homer, 2.1; Virgil, 2.2; Lucan, 8.4; Silius I talicus, 3.1; Statius, 2.9.
119 nose, another rolls his eyes out of their empty sockets and digs out his final sight own dismemberment ( spectatis membris ) only after they tear out his eyes ( effodere ). spectator narrator, no one can avert his gaze. 12 This eye gouging gives rise to a classic effod ere normally leads to enables him to see the ho rror and atrophy of civil war. Moreover, the assailants take from Gratidianus all parts that define him as such ( manus lingua aures naris lumina ) Just in order that Sulla may recognize and enjoy it ( | agnoscendus erat 2.190 3). 13 bus, Gratidianus acts as reminder and harbinger of past and future conflict; 14 and like Deiphobus, who lacks his ora, manus and nares Gratidianus gains epic recognition when stripped of his nose, eyes, hands and tongue. Both corpses wear badges of epic bel la ; both pare the epic corpus down to its tabula rasa ; both evoke the cultural artifact of damnatio memoriae Moreover, by nsion, their chief himself). Yet, where the ; 12 See Leigh (1997) for the spectator Leigh also De Clem. 1.12.1 2 and Plut., Sull. 30.3, wh ere Sulla holds a meeting of the Senate and asks his audience to ignore the screams 13 The irony of recognition through unrecognizability re occurs at the dea th of Pompey. Cf. Erasmo (2005: 344) and Mayer (1981: 67, n. 2). The scenes connection to damnatio memoriae also limns the inherent 14 See Chapter 2 for the signific
120 he and the reader watch the scene unfold side by side Lucan has no shame in producing the event. As a Roman Deiphobus, therefo fills a narrative gap opened in Aeneid 6. Ever the anti Virgil, however, Lucan exceeds the Aeneid count dead bodies: vix caede peracta procumbunt, dubiaqu e labant cervice ; sed illos magna premit strages peraguntque cadavera partem caedis : viva graves elidunt corpora trunci intrepidus tanti sedit securus ab alto spectator sceleris: miseri tot milia vulgi non timuit iussisse mori. congesta recepit omnia Tyr rhenus Sullana cadavera gurges. in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi. praecipites haesere rates, et strage cruenta interruptus aquam fluxit prior amnis in aequor, ad molem stetit unda sequens. iam sanguinis alti vis sibi fecit iter campumque effusa per omnem praecipitique ruens Tiberina in flumina rivo haerentis adiuvit aquas; nec iam alveus amnem nec retinet ripae, redditque cadavera campo. (2.203 18) With the slaughter concluded, the [victors] hardly tumble forward, but teeter with tottering ne ck; the great carnage crushes them and the corpses drive out part of the grue: heavy headless trunks wipe out living bodies. Safe and fearless, [Sulla] the spectator of so much crime sits on high; he did not shy from ordering so many t housands of the masse s to die. The Tyrrhenian swell, now blocked up, took in all the cadavers. The first ones fell into the river itself, the rest on top fell upon other bodies. Boats heading downstream stopped and stuck, and where the river cinched with bloodied waste previou sly poured its water into the sea, the coming flow st opped at the mass [of bodies]. Then the force of the thick bloodshed made a path for itself and poured out all over the with forward moving water; neither the river bottom nor the banks held the water back, and it returned the cadavers to the Campus. Body language redounds in this preliminary massacre. Alongside the spectator sceleris eye view of the carnage f bellum civile
121 The BC copic looks at epic bloodshed. Note too that Lucan constipates one metaliterary trope (river as poetry) with another (poetry as body). 15 Lucan comes late to this fight, for Sulla, wh o exists in a pre Caesarian narrative The pile up of bodies and slaughter ( ) foreshadows the sce nery of the coming war epic and in a way offers a vignette of the flying limbs and bodies that appear throughout the poem Like any good civil war, corpses are the stuff of the BC Reflective of aristeia at Dyrrhachium (6.169 259), the BC slashes through heaps of corpora dispatches them as q uick as it grabs hold of them. The epic corpus and its constituent membra 16 In his epyllion then, Lucan rehashes the horrors of the Pax Sullana and elevates them as programm atic themes for his narrative aesthetic. Symbolized in the mutilated Gratidianus and congested Tiber, the BC floods the epic narrative with slaughter and announces a new, macabre artistry. Corpora Mutata : Ovidian Tellus and Lucanian Fodere f desecration and plundering often appear with words that denote stabbing, digging, and scrutinizing (the fod / foss and scrut semantic fields). Th eir frequency of occurrence lends them thematic qualities in the same way that Masters observes metapoetic c ommentary in moles and agger. 17 Immersed in Imperial 15 Rivers as poetry has a long history as far back as Callimachus (Wimmel 1960). See also Masters (1992: 68 70 & 169 72). 16 Ferrum 17 Masters (1992: 20 2 5). Fod / foss occurs 23 times; scrut occurs 9 times. By way of comparison, the Aeneid has 20 occurrences of fod / foss and none for scrut The Aeneid is 1,836 lines longer than the Bellum Civile so that the frequency of these roots calculates to one ev ery 495 lines for Virgil and one every 252 lines for Lucan.
122 self Metamorphoses epic narrates all of world his muddled corpora to mea tempora where the Greco Roman myth os perpetuatin ars upon the reader. After the Metamorphoses the BC reminds the reader that all texts are only texts, and that where previous epics construct a pattern of history, the BC deconstructs it along with its tropes, sequences and pro cedures (Martindale 1993: 48). corpus imperii ( Trist. 2.232) shatters in the BC 18 where fragmentation well d escribes the bod In fac offer Lucan a ripe point of entry for his poem. 19 Tellus herself something of an author ( tellus elementaque grandia traxit Met. 1.29) dons unfamiliar human figures and begets the Ages of Man. 20 Aft Tertia post illam successit aenea proles, saevior ingeniis et ad horrida promptior arma, non scelerata tamen; de duro est ultima ferro. protinus inrupit venae peioris in aevum omne n efas: fugere pudor verumque fidesque; in quorum subiere locum fraudesque dolusque insidiaeque et vis et amor sceleratus habendi. nec tantum segetes alimentaque debita dives poscebatur humus, sed itum est in viscera terrae, quasque recondiderat Stygiisque admoverat umbris, effodiuntur opes, inritamenta malorum. 18 Cf. also Seneca De Clem. 1.5.1: puto, quam necessaria sit clementia your body, 19 20 sic modo quae fuerat rudis et sine imagine tellus | induit ignotas hominum conversa figuras ( Met. 1.87 8).
123 iamque nocens ferrum ferroque nocentius aurum prodierat, prodit bellum, quod pugnat utroque, sanguineaque manu crepitantia concutit arma. vivitur ex rapto: non hospes ab hospite tutus, non socer a g enero, fratrum quoque gratia rara est; inminet exitio vir coniugis, illa mariti, lurida terribiles miscent aconita novercae, filius ante diem patrios inquirit in annos: victa iacet pietas, et virgo caede madentis ultima caelestum terras Astraea reliquit. ( Met. 1.125 31; 137 50) The third after [silver] to come was the bronze progeny, more wild in nature and ready for terrible weapons but not sinful in any case. The final age was from tough iron. Forthwith all nefas burst into the lesser veined age; sham e and truth and trust fled, and in their place came fraud and grief and threats and violence and the criminal love of having idden and removed to the Stygian shades, is dug out wealth that instigator of evil. And now she had produced injurious iron, and gold more noxious even than iron; she produced war, which fights on either side and strikes c langing arms with bloody hand. On e lives of off rapine. Guest is not safe from host, nor father from son in law; also, kind ness between brothers is rare. A husband threatens destruction for his wife, [and] she [final ] years prematurely; duty lies vanquished, and virginal Justice finally left the blood soaked earth for the heavens. When viewed from a distance, this passage sketches out a poetic program for the BC Ovid introduces the ultima proles with a violent met aphor: it bursts into ( inrupit ) an age already constituted of inferior alloy and so initiates human transgression from hereon. vena metaphor cleverly points to the veins found in lesser metals (such as iron, ferrum ), but it also foreshadows the vio lation of human tissue (veins in the anatomical sense) that accompanies the appearance of war ( bellum ). proto Lucanian: ad horrida promptior arma ; omne nefas ; itum est in viscera ; nocens ferrum ferroque nocentius aurum ; bellu m sanguineaque manu crepitantia concutit arma This vocabulary energizes the BC In fact, a certain bellum civile
124 Iron Age: hospitality no longer obtains ( hospes ab hospite ); fathers in law fight with sons in law ( socer a genero ); br others do not act kindly towards one another; spouses exitia ; sons are disloyal to fathers. Lucan employs this scenery in his Sullan excursus: slaves kill masters (2.148 inheritance; sons kill fathe rs (2.149 50); bro thers murder brothers (2.151). The Iron BC 1.359 86: his vow to murder his entire family ( frater, parentes, coniugis ) casts him in typically Lucanian fashion into the role of Ovi par excellence Lucan also borrows Ov the Fall of Man that violation of Mother Earth leads to greed and violence when he cites opes nimias opes springs from Tellus at Met. 1.140). These reso borders ( tum longos iungere fines agrorum BC 1.167). Where excavation, or evisceration, of Tellus in Ovid produces war ( fod iuntur ), the re Lucan finds a nexus of imagery and language ( fodere ) with which to construct his BC ; he only must dig it out. Fodere and scrutari complement each othe Probing, digging, mining, scrutinizing, and stabbing indeed reflect Luca the epic corpus The fod / foss and scrut signifiers prod the literary landscape ( terra, tellus ) as much as the poetic corpus and each violation is an analogue for the other. 3) where Bartsch remarks Indeed: ille quod exiguum restabat sanguinis urbi hausit; dumque nimis iam putria membra recidit excessit medicina modum, nimiumque secuta est, qua morbi duxere, manus.
125 Wh at little blood remained in the city [Sulla] drank; and while he cut away the limbs now too diseased, his treatment exceeded the mean, and his hand followed too far where the disease led. sting him as a surgeon who, though meticulous, consciously harms the patient. gone wrong conce ntrates the language of excess plus quam, excedere modum, nimium on the membra of Rome. In this way, Sulla also reflects Ovidian Iron Age Man: Sul la eviscerates the urbs that bore him, while Iron Age Man eviscerates the Tellus that bore him. bloody operation on Roman soil collapses the vocabulary of digging stabbing probi ng into one event that violates body and landscape. Disfigurement of tellus / terra deployment of the fod / foss root in scenes of corporeal violence. It is significant that fod / foss occurs in most of Luca 1). Table 4 1 Distribution of fodere in the Bellum Civile Book Context 2 Sullan excursus ( effodere 185 ). 3 Massilia ( perfodere 660). Father sli ts his own throat over dying son Massilia ( confodere 744). 4 fodere 511). 6 perfodere 253). Erictho buries men alive ( infodere 530). Erictho digs m effodere 542). 7 Caesar vows suicide in the face of surrender Pharsalus ( fodere 309). 8 Achillas stabs Pompey for the first time ( perfodere 619).
126 BC 6.530), this table collates the instan ces in which fodere and its compounds assault human bodies. 21 infodere is significant here because it occurs twelve lines before her eye excavation and in the same metrical position. Burial and excavation are opposite processes ( infodere vs. effod ere ), and their proximity here lends the echo a programmatic tenor especially when one recalls that Lucan refers to her as vates 22 She can fill the landscape with living limbs ( adhuc sua membra regentes | infodit busto ), just as she can dig eyes from thei r sockets ( effodisse orbes ). The similar prosody yokes the actions into apposite and indeed opposite assaults on the body of literature and literary landscape. which, as I noted earlier, rings programmatic for the poem as a whole. One may object that fodere is not a distinct mode of poetic violence in the BC which is filled with myriad stabbings, amputations, and crushing blows, but it is important to note, like Masters d Stoic cosmos conspires fodere imagery exists within this hal l of mirrors; all his violent scenes echo one or another, and the frequency and persistence of fodere in these ( fodere ) plays out in miniature the evisceration in the BC 21 The remaining instances assault the civil war landscape, and they often appear in conjunction with heavy narrative aesthetic (see especially 1992: 20 22 For w and my comments on Erictho below.
127 with spear tips ( perfosso pectore ) contains the excess ( plus quam ( fodere ) in the face of surrender opens the happy possib ility that Caes a very different shape. ( perfodere ) into Pompey sitting prominently in first position at BC 8.619 probes the (in) glorious death and reopens the na Taken together, and viewed as a whole, Lucanian fodere fodere does: the opes of tradition lie buried in uiscera of the epic corpus and Lucan prefers a heavy handed Aestheticized Violence: the Naumachia at Massilia out of mole cance in by making Massilia far more important than it really was just like Caesar Here too Lucan writes the most prolonged meditation on epic combat, and the nove lty of his treatment gladiatorial naumachia Whereas Gratidianus experiences a five line, checklist dismemberment, Massilia stages limb loss opera. The condensed catalogue of Gratidia loss expands and multiplies at Massilia, where one finds aestheticized One nameless soldier, fighting alongside his twin brother, meets a brutal death among the ships: Stant gemini fratres, fecundae gloria matris, quos eadem variis genuerunt viscera fatis: quorum alter mixtis obliquo pectine remis ausus Romanae Graia de puppe carinae
128 iniectare manum ; sed eam gravis insuper ictus amputat ; illa tamen nisu, quo prenderat, haesit deriguitque tenens stri ctis immortua nervis. crevit in adversis virtus: plus nobilis irae truncus habet fortique instaurat proelia laeva rapturusque suam procumbit in aequora dextram haec quoque cum toto manus est abscisa lacerto. iam clipeo telisque carens, non conditus ima pu ppe sed expositus fraternaque pectore nudo arma tegens, crebra confixus cuspide perstat telaque multorum leto casura suorum emerita iam morte tenet. tum vulnere multo effugientem animam lassos collegit in artus membraque contendit toto, quicumque manebat, sanguine et hostilem defectis robore nervis insiluit solo nociturus pondere puppem. strage virum cumulata ratis multoque cruore plena per obliquum crebros latus accipit ictus et, postquam ruptis pelagus compagibus hausit, ad summos repleta foros descendit in undas vicinum involvens contorto vertice pontum. aequora discedunt mersa diducta carina inque locum puppis cecidit mare. multaque ponto praebuit ille dies varii miracula fati. ( BC 3.603 4, 609 34) There stand twin brothers, the fruit of their ferti le mother, whom the tilted context of the crisscrossed oars, dared to cast his hand to a Roman bow from his Greek boat; but a heavy blow from above severs it off; it clung there anyway where it held due to its effort, and it grew rigid in death, still graspin g with the sinews constricted. His courage grew in adversity: his noble trunk has more anger and strives on into the fray with a strong left hand and leans acros s the water to grab his right. This hand also is chopped off along with his entire arm. Now, without shield well earned, and though pierced with thick spears, he carries on and receives missiles that would have fallen to the death of many of his comrades. Then, under many a wound he gathers his faltering spirit into his wearied legs and casts his limbs altogether those that remained and he leapt in order to harm the enemy ship with bloodshed, with his bulk and defeated sinews, with his weight alone. The ship is full with the piled carnage of men and copious blood and takes thick strikes along its facing side and, after it drank the sea with its ruptured hull, it sinks into the waves filling up to its top gangways, rolling the ne arby water with swirling eddy. The sea parts and opens for the submerged boat and it
129 falls into t he ocean. That day offered many spectacles of different death to the sea. naumachia indeed offers the re ader many spectacles of death. Though linked through the same viscera though offshoots of the same corpus civil war severs this fraternal bond ( discrevit mors saeva viros 6.605). This brother in fact falls victim to laeva ) and right ( dextra ) hands at c onsecutive line ends (615 16). The chaotic scenery through formal control continues: his enjambed hand ( iniectare manum ), clinging to the enemy ship, in the following line receives an enjambed amputation ( amputat with a second foot caesura (612). 23 dismemberment thought experiment ( DRN 3.640 56), where men continue battle des pite lopped off arms and legs. There too chaotic and violent content masks formal control; there too left and right hands fall in the same line position and punctuate their verses at the caesurae ( laevam dextram DRN a mputations injuring no less than seven different men concentrate on the body of frater or miles nor even a corpus now a truncus takes the brunt of the BC edifices, yet in t his passage slaughter comprises the freight that sinks the ship ( strage ). This echo of the Sullan massacre (above) fascination of Lucanian poetics. 23 The severed hand has a long history in the historiographic and declamatory tradition, where it first unt of the battle of Marathon and the mural of the Stoa Poikile (see Herod. Hist. 6.107 117 with Reader [1996: 34 35]).
130 As an expansion of Gratidianus, who stands in for the limbless epic corpus this BC offers a hyperbolic view of poetic violence. Indeed, the ludi suggests insufficient trauma in the realities of th e amphitheater or naumachia Such verbal fireworks have garnered numerous hostile critics, who decry rhetoricizing and baroque within the broade r epic tradition. In terms of line numbers devoted to sheer the zenith (or nadir, for his harsher critics) of violent art in Classical Latin epic His violence betrays the workings of a lively, and perhaps irate, poetic im agination, which holds immediate appeal for modern readers immersed in horror films, violent video games, and unfortunate holds significance, inasmuch as Lucan discharges so much mimetic carnage onto the page that one cannot but help observe an attempt at catharsis taking place In light of the above scene and what follows, his need to banish from memory the violence at Pharsalus grows all the more ironic ( BC 7. 617ff.), since he displays no s uch shame in the Massilia scene or the more significant decapitation of Pompey. From the above thirty line spectacle Lucan moves into a co ndensed casualty of civil war. A grappling hook sticks a certain Lycidas and he dangles out over the water: mersus foret ille profundo, sed prohibent socii suspensaque crura retentant. scinditur avulsus, nec, sicut vulnere, sanguis emicuit; lentus ruptis cadit undique venis, discursusque animae diversa in membra meantis interceptus aquis. nullius vita perempti est tanta dimi ssa via. pars ultima trunci tradidit in letum vacuos vitalibus artus; at tumidus qua pulmo iacet, qua viscera fervent, haeserunt ibi fata diu, luctataque multum
131 hac cum parte viri vix omnia membra tulerunt. (3.636 46) He would have been drowned in the sea but his allies keep him and hold onto his swinging legs. He is torn and ripped in half, and blood spurted out but not as if from a traditional wound; it falls out slowly from the ruptured veins in all directions, and the stream of life wanders into hi s dissociated li mbs and is taken by the water. The life of no one slain flowed out by so wide a path. The bottom part of his trunk handed his empty and lifeless limbs over to death; but where his puffy lungs lie, where his guts are warm, there his fate clu ng at length and, after struggling for a while with this part of the man, it took all his limbs with difficulty. socii had let him be; in civil war, in the BC everyo ne and everything are a threat. When Lucan cleaves the scinditur avulsus corpus that spills abject matter into the ocean. With some limbs dead and others living, his liminal state reflects the blurred distinctions between subject and object in the BC 24 His legs cease to be part of his person, his subject. His erupted viscera dangling over the waves, are now abject. Never before has the epic corpus received such explosive treatment ( nullius vita perempti | est tanta dimissa via ). ess shades into poetological commentary. pause and focus recreates at the narrative level and slow transition from life to death ; would that he could stay like this forever, Lucan seems to wish L ike the BC generally, civil war offers a prolonged ( diu ) look at the viscera of Rome and her epics ; like the corpus imperii and its body of literature, moribund appendages ( vacuos vitalibus artus ) slip away, and vital organs struggle on as best they can ( t membra ). In the case of Lycidas, then, Lucan offers but one tableau of his treatment of 24 See Bartsch (1997: 10 29) for the blurring of subject object relations in this scene and others
132 the epic corpus : a sudden and unclean rending in two; a violent schism that may well inspire nausea in the reader. In BC protest terary auto evisceration. Beset on all sides by Pompeian soldiers, Vulteius (like Scaeva) knows the value of an audience, especially whe n one dies for Caesar: digna meo certaque fide per vulnera nostra viscera non unus iam dudum transigit ensis. collaudat cunctos, sed eum cui vulnera prima debebat g rato moriens interficit ictu. concurrunt alii totumque in partibus unis bellorum fecere nefas. sic semine Cadmi emicuit Dircaea cohors ceciditque suorum vulneribus, dirum Thebanis fratribus omen; Phasidos et campis insomni dente create terrigenae
133 spoke no more and not just one sword already stabbed his innards. He praises all of them, and while he dies he kills with thankful wound the man to whom was owed first blood. The rest charge together and they created the entire crime of wa Born men, created from the unsleeping tooth, filled trenches so vast with kindre d blood in anger inspired by magic spells, and Medea herself trembled at the first crime committed by her untried herbs. Equally they fell and fall by death he strikes with dying hand. Nor is a wound owed to a driven sword: blade is struck by chest and throats attack hilt. While brothers charge brothers in bloody gamble and sons their fathers, still swords drove on not all with wavering hands, but with their entire force. For those dealing strikes in unison i t was not their duty to strike a second time. Now, half dead they dragged their slipping guts to the wide gangways and dumped the copious slaughter into the sea. As conquerors they are happy to gaze upon the hated sun and to see their own with haughty visa ge and to feel imminent death. Now the [Pompeians] see the raft heaped with bloody gore, and the conquerors release the bodies for the pyres, and the [Pompeian] generals are in awe that a leader is worth any such price. Such esprit de corps words mid hexameter at the caesura appropriately enough. 25 As the site of totum bellorum nefas to a crucible of epic suicide. Subject object relations are reversed, and abject ma tter spills overboard ( ): 26 chests and necks assault swords and hands ( percussum est pectore ferrum | et iuguli pressere manum ). Theban epigon o i who chop one anot her down as soon as they sprout from the earth, sacrifice and seems to beg the 27 Moreover this simile points back t 25 26 Cf. Bartsch (1997: 23) for subject 27 In this regard, Lucan perhaps in the early Imperial period. See Rich (2011).
134 foundation of Thebes in Met. 3 where t he epigonoi warn Cadmus not to interfere in their bella civilia ( Met. 3.104 17 ) epigonoi indeed carry a serpentine contagion, but five at least survive this civil war to propagate congenital disease in the Theban cycle. I n BC no one gets o ut alive; men carry a terminal illness. His second teeth upshots) gains a metapoetic dimension when the poet magicus cantus bor n men to slaughter each other. (Note too t hat Medea turns fratricidal and dis members her brother Absyrtus). The witch Medea sees the power of song, and fratricidal Thebes sows i ts murderous ancestors neither bode well for the corpus Romanum Lucan thus reads future generations by virtue of its violent incipit In the nefas of his act wit h mythological freight front Some Virtue: Scaeva the Epic Gladiator BC itself. 28 Like the poet, like his epic, Scaeva is prone to crime and unaware of how sinful is excellence in civil war ( pronus ad omne nefas et qui nesciret in armis | quam magnum virtus crimen civilibus esset 6.147 8). Amphitheatrical language arises soon in the Dyrrhachium scene: the Cae sarians clamber up a hill to gain a better view of this man versus army ( bellum atque virum 6.191 2). Once on stage, the hero finds himself up to his eyes in corpses: ille ruenti aggere consistit, primumque cadavera plenis 28
135 turribus evolvit subeuntisque ob ruit hostis corporibus. (6.169 72) [Scaeva] made his stand on the tumbling ramp, and in the first place he rolled the corpses out from the full towers, and then he assaulted the advancing enemy with the bodies. eians by means of bodies ( corporibus ). apoetic language surface here. Masters points out moles aggeres handed, to psy turvy narrative aesthetic. Here, using ever y weapon at hand ( robora moles se conto ense saxo flamma ), Scaeva creates an agger made of corpora : Ut primum cumulo crescente cadavera murum admovere solo, non segnior extulit illum saltus et in medias iecit super arma catervas quam per summa rapit celerem venebula pardum. (6.180 83) As soon as the cadavers with the mound growing made the soil level with the wall, a leap no slower than carries the swift leopard above the tips of hunting spears propels him up and casts him above the enemy weapons a Now behind a wall of bodies, Scaeva demonstrates his athleticism with a single bound. Ever respondent to the amphitheatrical context Lucan recreates a miniature venatio that focuses its energy not on the trackers but t he t arget, the exotic leopard. The hunted becomes the hunter. Such zeal fills Scaeva that his sword grows blunt with slaughter: iamque hebes et crasso non asper sanguine mucro perdidit ensis opus, frangit sine vulnere membra. (6.186 & 188) 29 And now his sw ord tip, blunt and dull with thick blood, has lost the function of a blade, and he shatters limbs without a wound. 29 Line 187, [ percussum Scaevae frangit, non vulnerat, hostem ;], appears to be an unnecessary interpolation. See D.R. Shackleton Bailey (1997: 140 ad loc.).
136 s too much killing to be done. If Bellum Civile he gai ns epic recognition but at the price of his left ( scaeva ) eye. Despite a complete metallization of his body ( perfosso in pectore ), Scaeva recovers in time to return t o battle at Phocis (10.542 6). And finally, like the BC marred surface and violent stance toward the epic tradition, the cicatrized Scaeva carries visual reminders of his distorted virtu e in civil war. The exemplary hero, the poet and his poem thus mar the corpus of tradition but as complicit in that traditio n, Lucan too cannot come away unscathed Aware that he is yoked to his Caesar (Julius and Nero), Lucan, like Ovid, understands that he is a product of his age. For better or worse, the BC would not exist had the atrocities it describes never happened. By c asting Scaeva as a scarified surrogate of the poem, seems to grumble mpey. 30 In the Aeneid BC heading to the mythical Priam, and in so doing creates a precise moment of po etic violence. His severed narrative protracted across BC 7, 8 and 9, and interrupted by narrator ial interjections and speeches creates sectioned corpus 31 Aeneid makes a narrative incision into 30 See for example Bowie (1990), Hinds ( 1997: 8 10), and Erasmo (2005b). 31 Cf. Erasmo (2005: 345 divided into two parts: the actual decapitation (8.663 87) and the preservation of his head (8.688
137 Pr of poetic imagery and energy. truncated head spill chaotic matter into the epic narrative; the king, his corpus and his kingdo m are now in ruins. Lu can taps this inspirative font. Recall that Virgil does not include the act of decapitation in his Priam scene; Neoptolemus stabs the king, and four lines later he rests headless on the beach ( iacet ingens litore truncus | auulsumque umeris caput et sine nomine corpus Aen. 2.557 8). Lucan returns to this image four times in the BC : hunc ego, fluminea deformis truncus harena qui iacet, agnosco. ( BC 1.685 86) I see him, who lies as a deformed trunk on the watery sand. postquam tr unco cervix abscisa BC 8.674) truncus conspicitur. ( BC 8.722 23) pervolat ad truncum qui fluctu paene relatus litore pendebat. ( BC 8.753 54) [Cordus] flies to the trunk, which was hanging on the shore, nearly carried back by the swell. truncus fragment the already divided Priam across the breadth of the BC The Virgil ian scene holds such fascination for Lucan that he forces the reader to remind himself of the slaughtered king and his ignominious end ( corpus sine nomine ) scene dwells at length on the s occluded beheading, Lucan finds a narrative
138 fissure in Aeneid 2, and fills this presumed gap with tw enty eight lines of brutality. At this climactic moment, the reader finds Lucanian violence at its highest pitch: at, Magni cum terga sonent et pectora fe rro, permansisse decus sacrae uenerabile formae iratamque deis faciem, nil ultima mortis ex habitu uoltuque uiri mutasse fatentur qui lacerum uidere caput nam saeuus in ipso Septimius sceleris maius scelus inuenit actu, ac retegit sacros scisso uelamine u oltus semianimis Magni spirantiaque occupat ora collaque in obliquo ponit languentia transtro. tunc neruos uenasque secat nodosaque frangit ossa diu: nondum artis erat caput ense rotare. at, postquam trunco ceruix abscisa recessit, uindicat hoc Pharius, de xtra gestare, satelles inpius ut Magnum nosset puer, illa uerenda regibus hirta coma et generosa fronte decora caesaries conprensa manu est, Pharioque ueruto, dum uiuunt uoltus atque os in murmura pulsant singultus animae, dum lumina nuda rigescunt, suff ixum caput est nec satis infando fuit hoc uidisse tyranno: uolt sceleris superesse fidem. tunc arte nefanda summota est capiti tabes, raptoque cerebro adsiccata cutis, putrisque effluxit ab alto umor, et infuso facies solidata ueneno est. (8.663 75; 679 84; 687 91) and shoulders resounded from the sword, the revered beauty of his holy head persisted along with the face [angered at the gods]; and they hold that nothing changed from the expression at his final hour. For savage Septimius found even greater crime in the very act of criminality, and he bared half open his cloak and laid hold of his still breathing visage and placed his fail ing neck on a transverse beam. Then he shattered the nerves and veins and sliced the knotted bones at length: not yet was it an art to send a head spinning with the sword. But after the severed head fell off the trunk, the Pharian minion revels in thi So that the impious boy could recognize Magnus, that shaggy crown, revered by kings, and his grandiose hair are taken in hand, and the head is fixed to a Pharian pike while the face still has life and the gasping brea th beats the mouth into murmur while even his open eyes
139 he wants proof of his crime to remain. So then, the gore is drained from the head through that unspeakable art, and the skin is dri ed there with the grey matter stolen, and the sordid liquid flowed out from deep within, and the face was made permanent with venomous transfusion. If the Aeneid corpus the BC stumbles a round in the bloody aftermath. throughout BC 8, and after the unclean beheading and embalming, Lucan mutilates his person even after death. 32 ludibrium 727). 33 In a form of textual oblite ration, the BC dilutes the Priam/Pompey murder constellation across 1 304 His death spans late into book 9 where Caesar orders the exhumation of his corpse for an ossilegium t hat never occurs (9.1089 95). led in the Where Virgil demurs to display explodes the glorious death into a prolonged ( diu ) meditation on the dark underside of the conflicted epic canon. the beheading And sententia about spinning heads is only half true, for recall the single stroke ( ictus 3.611) required to seve The aphorism adheres indeed lacks the signal coup de grace ; it is not characteristic of art to send heads spinning with the sword Placed side by side, these exempla glimpse what one could call respectively Virgilian and Lucanian aesthetics: a single (unseen) sword st roke for Virgil; awkward axe throws for Lucan. 32 Other re facies 8.14; caput 8.615; capitis, 8.711. Pompey lingers between life and death even after his head is detached. Cf. Erasmo (2005b). 33 can be became less of a reality and more of a rhetorical exemplum and Lucan has poured out his enthusiasm upon a nominis umbra
140 Leigh and Erasmo contextualize the Pompey scene within the cultural artifacts of the amphitheater and gladiatorial combats. Though he faces two killers, Pompey is on stage with one at a time; Achillas employs an exotic, if outdated, instrument of death. The gladiatorial context adds double edged verve to the scene: the voyeuristic 34 Hence Eras forgets that Achillas and Septimius butcher Pompey Magnus, the caput mundi (2.136). conjure. Neoptolemus is a hack; Septimius at leas t takes his time with beheadings. Snakes on a Plain: Art Horror in the Libyan Excursus deification, Cato shoulders the remaining Re publican cause in North Africa. In BC 9, Lucan unleashes seventeen species of snake upon the w earied Republican corps. For all its kitsch appeal, the Libyan excursus finds a synopsis of Lu Far from mere fireworks, the scene exposes dep raved literary prerogatives coupled with virtuoso technique. After Elana are determi native criteria of aesthetic virtue, the sublime exploits the potential aesthetic virtue of disorder, non meaning and chaos: in the realm of art horror, one observes aesthetic virtue where limb loss and bodily mutilation are artfully depicted, where formal control yokes the baroque to the macabre. 34 Cf. Mayer (1981: 324,
141 Critics of art horror like Carroll, Worland and Fr eeland often find the germane pathos kai phobos ) in the audience, and Lucan doubtless Frankenstein with perhaps a nod toward Rome. Yet, horror is Latin, born at Rome some 300 years after Aristotle and 1800 years before Shelley. Ralph Johnson and Shadi Bartsch already note horrific elements in the BC : Johnson observes comic ugly, and Bartsch grotesque, imagery modern art horror discussions which provide useful language to explain how Seneca could close out h is Phaedra with reanimated creature thus stands as the successful outcome of a botched reconstructive surgery begun in Senecan tragedy. Katherine Eldred highlights the metapoetic func tion of the Libyan snakes and reads these monsters as verbal w eapons against epic tradition. Thus, [H]is snakes recreate their own etymologies in the deaths they inflict. [H]is t hat allows them to bring death reflective of their own names. episode, language becomes a literal are speech acts, the very deeds that they effect; they are examples of speech acts that to read an act of nefas (the civil war) is to participate in that act of nefas In this case, the snakes act as Lucan, as poets, writing the nefas of the poem on the bodies of th (2000: 70). scarring the body o f epic tradition (2000: 73 4). My discussion limns further metapoetic
142 corpus these H ow do these snakes function in the metapoetic struggle over tra march wi th familiar metapoetic tropes. Even within the parched Civil War landscape, water sources represent poetic inspiration: he foregoes tapping the inviolate font of Jupiter Ammon (9.544 86); rather, he drinks from a meager, venom laced oasis. 35 To this tainted well, Lucan appends a diptych of aetiological material: the Perseus Medusa (9.619 699) myth spills into a brief Theriaka type exegesis (9.700 33): arva bono v irus stillantis tabe Medusae concipiunt dirosque fero de sanguine rores, quos calor adiuvit putrique incoxit harenae. hic quae prima caput movit de pulvere tabes BC 9.696 701) nd good for nothing fields absorb the which the heat pro motes and bakes into the sand. Here, the gew that first lifted a head from the sand gave rise to the swollen necked asp, the brin This narrative linchpin makes a seamless ligature between the caput Medusae and caput aspidis Further, this passage continues the anatomical metamorphosis of severed heads in the BC facies solidata made caesa caput Gor gon ; venenum pours i nto the one and out the other. Met. 36 35 See Masters (1992: 169 types seems to evade any easy translation of symbol into theme: we have a p oetic conflict (1995: 117 31). The global position of s equidistant from all signs in the zodi ac (9.539 43) a momentary point of 39]). 36
143 corpus with grot esque pestes Critics have observed the amphitheatrical ambience discuss ed above in the Libya episode. Bartsch points out that the contenders make gladiator like entrances: standard bearer Aules versus the parched Dipsas; the rabid Prester versus Nasidius the Marsian tiller; great hearted Tullus versus the mighty Haemorrhois. Over and noire tones. Thus, where amphitheatrical fascination collides with abhorrent revuls ion, Lucan stages seven deaths by snakebite. Seven snakebites, seven corpora seven bodily deformations. In outline, th e engagement unfolds according to Table 4 1. In his Libyan ( h ) arena Lucan returns to Table 4 2 Synopsis of Libyan Snakebites and thei r Symptoms Lines Soldier/Snake Snakebite Symptoms 737 60 Aules Dipsas Extreme thirst; drinks from his veins. 762 88 Sabellus Seps Corpse melts into pool of viscera and venom. 789 804 Nasidius Prester Corpus expands into unrecognizable mass. 805 8 14 Tullus Haemorrhois Blood pours from every orifice. 815 21 Laevus [Serpent] Blood congeals in veins; drops dead. 822 27 Paulus Iaculus Shot through the temples. 828 32 Murrus Basiliscus Self amputates his dying arm. consis tent modes of poet ic violence. He desiccates the corpus ; 37 turns it inside out; 38 blows it out of proportion; 39 douses it with blood; 40 poisons its innards; 41 severs 37 od (2.140 43) and the droughts at Massilia (4.292 304) and Dyrrhachium (6.81 105). 38 46). 39 62). 40 Cf. Pax Sullana and the flood of slaughter (2.203 18, above).
144 moribund appendages. 42 Desecration of the epic corpus grows more charged with the quidquid homo est 779); a corpus explodes Aristotelian anatomy ( corpore maior | humanumque egressa modum super omnia membra 793 4); the ballistic iaculus makes bullets and arrows seem slow ( q uae funda rotat quam lenta volarent 826). Kostas Kapparis points out that the Dipsas, Seps, Prester, and Haemorrhois appear in the Greek medical writers as named diseases and with such rsums supplied in the preceding Theriaka it is unsurprising that t hese vipers transmit ultra realistic symptoms to their victims Indeed: etymology becomes a lethal procedure on the Libyan plain. re surfaces here, for it grows difficult to maintain a sense of humor while corpora implode and ex plode, while men drink from their veins or bleed from the eyes. Horror Business: a Portrait of the Poet at Work Similar, venomous poetics are at work in book 6, where Lucan puts poisonous subject matter to prophetic work. The BC er a number of the corpus witch, sits with irreverent contentment while civil war demol ishes the universe around her. As a tableau o f the poe t and his dirty work. From her position as vates 43 her words and deeds gather metapoetic dimensions: Masters points 41 Cf. Arruns (1.613 14) and Erictho (6.548). 42 43) and the lifeless arm clinging to a ship at Massilia (3.612 13). 43 Newman (1967) treats the vates theme in Augustan poetry and concludes that the Augustan poets don the term to elevate lasting carmen which defies the transient images of imperial pr 15)
145 inside a hi Erictho (Luc an), qua vates exsanguinates the epic corpus and r eanimates a grotesque travesty. Her mangled, yet prophetic zombie is miles away injects morbid n ecromancy into the annals of epic katabaseis 44 sibyl, an attractive point of reference for readers of Erictho, foretells a brief Roman history founded upon bella horrida bella ( Aen. 6.86); from its titular Bella (1.1), BC ful fills V From her hundred nian vates prophesies the future greatness of Rome; by means of a battered corpus vates witch relates the hell of civil war. Her first words to Sextus carry programmatic weigh sed pronum, cum tanta novae sit copia mortis, Emathiis unum campis attollere corpus. (6.619 20) one This is gleeful commenta ry on the BC tastes that Lucan never explains how the novae copia mortis came to be in Thessaly (no fighting has taken place there yet). Rather, in a poem that has already shown the reader Vulteius, Curio, Scaeva, Massilia and Ilerda (the novae copia mortis ), it is hard not to take In such close proximity, the metaliterary terms copia and corpus throw into high relief L referential moment. Nor is his pronum pun vates theme in the BC ; they also agree that Erictho is the more able vates of the lot. 44 Ogden (2002) contextualizes the Eri ctho scene within the Neronian milieu. Morford (1967: 66 73) and Ahl (1976: 130 49) argue that Erictho subverts the traditional katabasis
146 gratuitous: r etrieval of battlefield corpses is an es A master of her craft, the witch has a penchant for the dar k humor that pervades the poem. Choose a corpus any corpus ; Erictho can give it voice. 45 vates performs grotesque surgery on the epic corpus vity for poetic violence. If the task requires blood, both dirty their hands ( nec cessant a caede manus, si sanguine vivo | est opu s 6.554 5). Her (his) chant, their song ( cantus, carmen 6.693 & 728), has penetrative force as it shrieks into Hell She inhabits tumuli (6.510); buries men alive ( busto infodit 6.530); relieves trunks of their heads ( truncavitque caput 6.566); digs ey es out of their sockets ( orbes effodisse 6.542); feasts on omnis artus to the fingernail (6.542 3); scopes cadavers ( scrutari 6.542) and removes the virus coactum (6.548). victima at the end of BC 1; note the ominous innards he finds there : nec cruor emicuit solitus, sed vulnere laxo diffusum rutilo nigrum pro sanguine virus. (1.613 14) Nor did the customary gore spurt forth, but in place of red blood, black brine seeped out from the open wound. Such poisoned infusion permeates the BC with venenum ; or the snake bitten Catonians in Libya ( virus venenum sanies ). gustatory cannibalism recalls S She recasts Gratidianu its Pompey like decapitations. Every mode of 45 Erictho boasts as much: tellus nobis aetherque choasque | (6.617 18). Masters (1992: 106 Stoic cosmos in which everything connects; conspires To which Lucan
147 death is in her employ ( hominum mors omnis in usu est 6.561). When she invigorates a Protinus astrictus caluit calor atra que fovit vulnera et in venas extremaque membra cucurrit. percussae gelido trepidant sub pectore fibrae, et nova desuetis subrepens vita medullis miscetur morti. tunc omnis palpitat artus, tenduntur nervi; nec se tellure cadaver paulatim per membra levat, terraque repulsum est erectum semel. distento lumina rictu nudantur. nondum facies viventis in illo, iam morientis erat: remanet pallorque rigorque, et stupet illatus mundo. (6.750 57) Suddenly a tense heat grew warm and heated the black wounds and ran throug h the veins and outside limbs. The lungs are struck and quiver under his tepid chest, and new life creeps under the unaccustomed bones and mixes with death. Then every limb quivers, the muscles pull tight; and the corpse does not lift itself from th e earth little by little, limb by limb, but it is thrown from the ground and stands erect all at once. Its eyes are open with a strict stare. Not yet does it have the face of one living, but still the face of a dead person was upon it: the paleness and dis tortion remains, and it marvels at being brought into the world. calor atraque fovit | vulnera ). Her (his) transfusion affects every limb of the corpus : extrema membra fibrae medullae omnis art us nervi facies Imbued with distended grin ( rictus amazed at its own existence. freighted: in a text where all are dying, this war torn corpus stands straig ht up and sings his heart out. Here then Lucan offers a surrogate for the BC itself: a half dead Roman soldier chanti ng on about the horror and toxicity of civil war. Poetic Suicide and the Metahi storical Moment the violation and fragmentation of the epic corpus operates in centrifugal and centripetal
148 evisceratio n, so does coup de grace of the Aeneid In each case, and in those discussed above, Lucan demonstrates a heavy handed, high decibal, narrative aesthetic. In the case of Erictho, Lucan still maintains his dry sense of hu mor, but one that carries an air of irreverence and sneering panache. I conclude by considering three responses to the poem that capture the received biography of a poet caught up in a personal civil war with his contemporary Rome. My comments here are sug gestive, and they follow James The Deaths of Seneca (2009). Ker examines the Nachleben demonstrates that this moment in the biography becomes central for later readers of the Senecan corpus In the same way (and perhaps moreso) suicide shades responses to the poem and often informs modern assumptions about in writing as he did The BC can induce scholars to impressionistic pronouncements tional palette challenges conventional critical wr iting. Redeeming the Text concludes its discussion of the BC with the following meditation on the Wunderkind and his song of nefas : We can end with the lacerated body of a 25 year old poet, the marvelous boy. And the corpse of a truncated poem which ought never to have been written, the poem of the unspeakable, of nefas It breaks off without closure, without telos For there was nowhere to go. And poetry cannot save us; indeed, if we try s o to use it, it may corrupt us and we it. These fragments h ave I shored against my ruins. Why, thi s is Hell, nor am I out of it. The rest is silence. Gott ist ein lauter Nichts One may ask whether this paragraph s ays more about critic or poet. Or one could tinues his fight to the death.
149 should accompany his One ma It breaks off without closure, without telos He breaks off without closure, without telos Note first person and punctuating lacuna remarks Erasmo (2005b: 360). es of Lucan a historical method actor author who wages a war of words agains t the Imperial regime. Similar to Martindale, Henderson strives to complete the BC to insert the suicidal poet into his macabre drama: Read Lucan. You must read Lucan. His extraordinary poem break rules inflicts pain and suffering. wild, accusing, ranting screams a curse on its readers and upon itself: it challenges If you can grit your teeth and decide implication with the mindset he denounces. It takes one to know one. (Henderson 1998: 168) Taken together, Martindale and Henderson offer an intriguing biography : Lucan w rote the epic that killed him. His personal civil war with Neronian Rome gains expression in his Bellum Civile and his implication in the Pisonian co nspiracy counts him another casualty in that civil strife. These comments are effectively For Tacitus, Lucan self stages the Stoic suicide that the BC at Utica : 46 Exim Annaei Lucani caedem imperat. is profluente sanguine ubi frigescere pedes manusque et paulatim ab extremis cedere spiritum fervido adhuc et compote mentis pectore intellegit, recordatus carmen a 46 Contra Masters (1992: 216 59), a majo rity of critics agree that Lucan would have carried the BC out to Cf. Ahl (1976: 306 26 with nn.). question, of course, but I feel safe saying that Lucan reached a completion point at some point in the composition; then editing took priority. Twelve books seems an attractive rival to the Aeneid but at times I think Lucan would have written 135 books if he could.
150 se compositum, quo vulneratum militem per eius modi mortis imaginem obisse tradiderat, versus ipsos rettulit, eaque illi suprema vox fuit. ( Ann. 15.70.1) Next, [Nero] ordered the death of Anna eus Lucanus. And he meanwhile, with the blood flowing forth, fe lt his feet and hands grow cold and his life leave his limbs little by little, though his chest was still warm and his mind intact; he recited a song he had composed, the very lines themselves, in which he wrote that a wounded soldier had died in a similar fashion as he, and those were his final words. Tacitus also inserts the po et into the drama of his poem. Scholars agree that Tacitus reads the Neronian period as especially self conscious, or theatrical, in its day to day experience. 47 Seneca carries out the suicide of the Stoic sapiens ( Ann. 15.63 4) and Petronius that of the mod arbiter elegentiae ( Ann. 16.19). own death by assuming a fictional identity as a response to his forced 2005b: 359). Thus Tacitus cr eates an intertextual relationship between the historiographic Lucan and his poem. corpus To be sure, t he BC executed under an autocratic, death dealing Nero presages a story recalled by Zizek: According to a well known anecdote, a German officer visited Picasso in his Paris studio during the Second World War. There he saw Guernica f the painting, asked Picasso: you inspiration needed for the BC ( tu satis ad vires Romana in carmina da ndas 1.66). His sardonic praise for Nero rather congratulates the Emperor as the hoped for conclusion 47 conscious gesture toward literary representations ( mimeseis ) in their real world actions. In this regard, Nero too becomes a method actor, for he ordered the death of his mother Agrippina shortly before playing the matricide Oreste s on stage. Cf. Coleman (1990), Bartsch (1994) and Erasmo (2005a).
151 this scelera ipsa nefasque | hac mercede placent 1.37 8). line death wishes ( mortis amor velle mori ), or like Roma herself, turned against her own innards the Lucan as we have him writes on a kamikaze mission. As a nihilist or political ironist, 48 Lucan finds self and agency in poetry. His vocifero us lament at the death of the Republic and his scene of suicide couple together into a prolonged assertion of his agency, however futile. suicide mar the the epic tradition before and after him, and his violent poetics have come to stand for the Marvelous Boy who waged a war of words. Conclusions: Violent Poetics and the Lucanesque This chapter has examined famously violent movements scenes which for many scholars taint the p oem as exempla of its pe rnicious rhetoricism. When with the BC language and ove r determined imperious narratives ( like those constructed by the Aeneid ) Like Ovid, Lucan finds the aesthetic experience and narrative teleology of and morphological counterpoise in the Metamorphoses Lucan pushes the teleol ogy of the Aeneid Caesarism ad extremum ( plus quam ), so that a Caesarian telos ever looms over his poem In short, Lucan rewrites the Imperial aetiology of the Aeneid in starker, darker lines. 48 Sklenar (2003: 1 12) makes t he case for Lucan as nihilist. Bartsch (1997: 137 49) makes the case for Lucan as political ironist, the philosopher poet who bandies the empty hope of freedom before the reader
152 Lucan achieves this Virgilian revision through calculated allusive gestures to the Aeneid and especially in his scenes of body violation. His Sullan digression in book 2 Aeneid 2 as the story of Rome qua Troy, besieged by herself and her Sulla dumping he r cadavers into her Tiber ; unlike Aeneas, no one gets out alive Vulteius and Scaeva recall the historical circumstance of amphitheatrical combats, and so turn civil war into a spectacle of voyeuristic jouissance. 49 The amphitheatrical context adds the furt her anxiety of what sort of aesthetic experience the BC provides the reader. Scholars have recently begun to consider what psychological processes underwrite amphitheatrical appeal in the Roman imaginary, yet I remain unconvinced that every ancient reader was a s blood thirsty as the (Christian) sources would have us believe 50 Certainly Seneca raises ethical questions regarding attendance at the ludi ( Epist. 7) It seems that Lucan too wishes the reader to perform introspection on this count. When Suetonius relates that an unfortunate Icarus fell from the machina and splattered the Emperor with blood ( Nero 12 ), he gives this anecdote as a negative electing to raise the Roman civil wa r to the plane of amphitheatrical entertainment, Lucan problematizes the morality of both contexts: this tragedy takes center stage, as it were, for the consumption of a depraved Emperor and his subjects V ulteius especially destabilizes the aesthetic 49 Barthes (1973) provides good overview of plaisir and jouissance the former a non challenging reading experience, the latter reaching i nto the realm of the sublime. 50 Lintott (1999) and Coleman (1990) discuss of the deterrant aspects of public executions. Kastor (2001) discusses how modern readers should understand the emotional state of fastidium (disgust). Edwards (2007: 46 77) has the most recent and comprehensive account of the emotional experience of the amphitheater. She further notes an oscillation between ethical and libidinal instability in the Vulteius 44).
153 experience of amphitheatrical ludi when he requires not witnesses to a virtuous devotio but an audience in the arena (Edwards 2007: 45). Vulteius thus creates a perverted version of the amphitheater ppens when the contestants turn their swords on Aeneid is epitomized in the Erictho and Pompey scenes. In place of a katabasis Lucan reanimates a zombie that relates the state of affairs in Hades. There t oo the cosmic order is disturbed, so much so that Catiline has reason to smile once again BC 6 thus subverts Aeneid 6, which offers Aeneas a triumphant view of his future Roman ancestors. Moreover, spinning heads makes a macabre joke at the expense of the Aeneid reverence. Lucan probes ( perfodere ) coup de grace and creates a transum ptive, or meta BC dissects the Aeneid operations His engagement with Theriaka fable inject the civil war saga with mythic and quasi scientific lore, which create s a monstrous situation for Cato and the Republican remainder. The ultra realistic symptoms displayed by the victims enact venomous etymology on the epic corpus wherein th e unity of the Aristotelian soma text is distorted into a grotesque reincarnation. Such verbal gymnastics map the Ovidian once terrifying and compelling. Reflected in Cat
154 In Libya, Lucan is at his most Lucanesque. The coincidence of a truncated poem and suicide recital mirror one another in a tragic irony surely not lost on Ideology in Cold Blood an anon ymous woodcut for a 1706 edition of the poem portrays Lucan with veins open spouting blood and poetry. Just such an elision, historical or not, aestheticizes the His violent poe tics thus find a neat analogue in the received biography, which in turn creates a compelling, energetic traditio n of Lucanian criticism.
155 CHAPTER 5 EPILOGUE NARRATIVE CANNIBAL This chapter ties together the foregoing observations an d examines an intersection of violence, body and text in Thebaid Tydeus echoes and Ars Poetica Aeneid 10, Metamorph oses 8 and Bellum Civile 8. cant portions of the epic tradition stemming back to Odyssey 19. Moreover, as a victim of poetic furor Thebaid Erysichthon, the her ith such a range of models concentrates an over abundance of poetic imagery on Tydeus, who buckles under the weight of his literary inheritance and so must excise himself from epic discourse. This self deletion befits Ty ther so that his horrific anthropophagy gives rise to a feeling of alienation in the audience (reflected in With the help of cognitive film theory, I suggest, such alienating poetics presage the macabre palet te found in the modern horror film and other violent media. experience of the Thebaid which recalibrates over and over again the a esthetic experience of the scene from one of fascinated voyeur to alienated witness. Saetiger Sus Statius allusions to boar imagery, so that the boar becomes Tyde J ust before entrance, saetigerumque suem palace at Argos ( Theb. 1.397). His physique reflects that of a low weight class wrestler,
156 a stature he inherits from Il. 5.800 1 His squat frame situates him close to the ground, like his identifying animal. And finally, Tydeus sports a boar hide mantle throughout the poem: terribiles contra saetis ac dente recurvo Tyd ea per latos umeros ambire laborant exuviae, Calydonis honos ( Theb. 1.488 90) shoulders, terrible with bristles and backward curving tusk. exuviae Calydonis honos hide: exuvias rigidis horrentia saevis | dentibus ora ( Met. 8.428 29). Statius thus dresses Tydeus in the pelt given Atalanta by Meleager in the Metamorphoses Statius later indi cates that Tydeus wears the mantle as a Hercules figure would, pulled over his head, so that only his face peers out of the open, tusked mouth ( tergoque et vertice tegmina nota | saeptus Theb. 2.2833 84). Further correspondence with the Calydonian boar ap pears when Tydeus rushes from the Theban court in Thebaid 2: Oeneae vindex sic ille Dianae erectus saetis et aduncae fulmine malae, cum premeret Pelopea phalanx, saxa obvia volvens fractaque perfossis arbusta Acheloia ripis, iam Telamona solo, iam stratum Ixiona linquens te, Meleagre, subit: ibi demum cuspide lata haesit et obnixo ferrum laxavit in armo. talis adhuc trepidum linquit Calydonius heros Theb. 2.469 77) Just as that avenger of Oenean Diana, rigid with spikes and the bo lt of his terrible ja w, when the Peloponnesian phalanx pressed upon him, rolling rocks Telemon is on the ground, now leaving behind Ixion, [the boar] was laid low when he came up ag ainst you, Meleager. There at last he ceases at the spear thrust and relaxes the iron in his resolute shoulder. So the Calydonian hero left the still
157 and streamlines his story into eight verses. 1 In place of replaying the Calydonian boar hunt, Statius adopts and his eventual death at Thebes hide ma ntle before the encounter ( Theb. 2.541), so the in i tial image of a cadre of hunters sent into the countryside to exterminate a boar or boar like figure Calydonian boar hunt. Metamorphoses 8 underpins the structure of Thebaid Statius builds a dense allusive network upon this framework that looks back to Aeneid 10 and ultimately Odyssey 19. The final moments aristeia who is in fact compared to a penned boar on mount Vesulus ( Aen. 10.707 10). Statius thus re elevates the I return to the Odyssey e relationship to Tydeus not so much structures his place in the poem as it underwrites his particularity within Roman found in Ovid, Virgil, and Homer. Das Auge Isst Mit aside, Statius here conjures a thick allusive network, all the more complicated by 1 Not | et saetae similes rigidis hastilibus horrent: | fervida cum rauco latos stridore per armos | spuma fluit, dentes aequantur dentibus Indis, | fulmen ab ore v enit, frondes afflatibus ardent ( Met. 8.281 that in Aen. 10 (Mezentius), stems originally from the Homeric boars at Il. 11.414 20, 13.470 75, and Od. 19.439.
158 In this scene, I suggest, Statius offers a audience might yet each in their own way destabilize what (2004: 62) The coexistence of three After taking a spear in the groin and returning fire, Tydeus accepts the seve red head of Melanippus : erigitur Tydeus vultuque occurrit et amens laetitiaque iraque, ut singultantia uidit ora trahique oculos seseque agnouit in illo, imperat abscisum porgi, laevaque receptum spectat atrox hostile caput, gliscitque tepentis lumina toru a uidens et adhuc dubitantia figi. Theb. 751 7) Tydeus is set upright and meets [Melanippus] with his face. And meanwhile, now out of his mind in anger and happiness, he sees his face and eyes languishing, and he recognizes him self in the other, and he orders the severed head to be given him and he glares at it savagely, holding it in his left hand, and he grows warm while gazing upon the not so fixed. Though unfortunate he wa s content. Tydeus sees himself in the eyes of Melanippus: ut singultantia vidit / ora trucesque oculos seseque agnovit in illo Tydeus sees his reflection, but t he audience sees two Tydeuses. This image is reinforced by the repetitive prosody of seseque a substitute for se layered as the Latin seseque agnovit in illo for it raises the question of what Tydeus recognizes in Melanippus. At face value, th is phrase means that Tydeus sees his own reflect ion in the eyes of the severed head Under this reading, one then considers what Tydeus sees in Me In fact, Statius describes exactly what
159 Tydeus looks like earlier in his aristeia : iam cruor i n galea, iam saucia proluit ater / pectora permixtus sudore et sanguine torrens Theb. 8.711 12). Tydeus, covered in blood and sweat, appears as he does at the close of his encounter with the Theban fifty: pectore, tum crines ardentiaque ora cruentis roribus et taetra morientum aspergine manant ( Theb. 2.672 74) A cold shower falls from his panting chest, t hen his hair and burning face drip with bloody dew and the black spray of the dying. Tydeus sees himself not only as he appears in book 8, but also as he appeared in book 2; instead of weary and victorious, however, Tydeus is here wounded and dying. It i s significant that Tydeus sees himself without his boar skin mantle: 2 the Calydonis honos that protects him against the Theban Fifty slips from his shoulders when he reaches the point of no return in book 8 Now stripped of his marked cloak, Tydeus sees hi mself as a human in the eyes of another human, a reflection of himself. disrupts any notion of humanity, since Melanippus dying eyes rest within a severed BC 8 lumina torua uidens et adhuc dubitantia figi dum lumina nuda rigescunt reflect exemplary beheading in the BC matter and m cerebrum finds a much more gruesome end. Statius out 2 r from Melanippus: tergoque fatiscit | atque umeris gentilis aper ( Theb. 8.705 6).
160 cerebrum then, Statius elides two metaliterary currents: dismemberment o f the corpus leads to sacreligious feasting on the body of tradition. Yet, Tydeus sees more than just himself in the eyes of Melanippus. When over the Tirynthian boar: vaque super cervice reportat, terga cruentantem concussi vulneris unda: qualis ab Arcadio rediit Tirynthius antro captivumque suem clamantibus intulit Argis ( Theb. 8.747 50) And upon his left shoulder [Capaneus] brings [Melanippus] back, staining h is back with a gush of blood from the traumatized wound: just as when Tirynthian [Hercules] returned from the Arcadian cave and brought in the captive to an applauding Argos. Though his mantle is lost, Tydeus cannot shed his boar like appearance. His ses eque agnovit now signifies that he recognizes the bestial boar like madness that pursues him Thebaid back at the hero through the eyes of Melanippus. The saetigerumque su em of book 1 turns captivumque suem in book 8. In this light, when Tydeus consumes vivo scelerantem sanguine fauces Theb. 8.761), he consumes himself; that is, he eats his portion of the Thebaid partic severs his own narrative thread, and with it the narrative of book 8. AP and Metamorphoses 8 Thebaid 8 closes with an image of cannibalistic mad ness. Recall that Horace prohibits such imagery from poetic poeta vesanus reflects a bear
161 suggest, as a blight on epic decorum, scarifies the narrative surface of the Thebaid and hunt imagery stems ba ck to Homeric models, and Statius adopts the paradigm of recognition through scarring. When Eurykleia spies Autolycus and pursuant boar hunt. In the same way, when Tydeus recognizes himself in, and consumes, the Thebaid and makes it all the elicits Eurykleia recognition of his peculiarity In the case of Ty deus, his self recognition proves too horrific to bear, and he excises himself from epic discourse. Now Other to his comrades, to Minerva, to the reader, and finally to himself, epic narrative can contain him no longer. Kyle Gervais demonstrates the validi notion of argues that the Thebaid consistently equivocates on placing the reader either within or above the fantasy of the text There is a fundamental conflict betw een the processes of which allows the audience to imagine itself as part of the fiction and allus ion which casts the author and his audience as entities above the fiction, o pening and closing textual gaps In the former instance, Stati us creates a phantasia that draws the audience in as fellow spectators to his Theban horror show (affect); in of his position as reader,
162 al relationships with previous literary tradition (meaning). In the Tydeus scene, I suggest, a similar wavering between and/or the reader can f ill with figurative meaning the allusive space opened by seseque agnovit in illo Note that even Tydeus sits both apart from ( a mens ) and within ( con tentus ) himself. The internal audience responses are telling here: Tisiphone looks on unphased, while Mine rva turns away and must cleanse her eyes. The coexistence of these aesthetic responses casts the reader into a statory cannibalism of epic tradition (Minerva). Gervais discusses the Thebaid in relation to Reservoir Dogs where the articulation between first and third person camera shots in the ear amputation station with r espect to the film, whether it be within (voyeuristic pleasure) or without (repulsed alienation) the dramatic action. A similar, problematizing articulation takes place in the dinner scene in The Texas Chainsaw Massacre (1974) where nt oscillates between that of Sally (Marilyn Burns) and that of (Gunnar Hansen) cannibal family. Such horrified meal (Sally) to horrific man eaters (Leatherface and f amily) In similar fashion s insofar as he constructs an ever reductive mirroring between the eyes of Melanippus and Tydeus : seseque agnovit in illo esome scene?
163 the spaces opened and closed when the audience recognizes an allusion. When Tydeus recognizes himself and the beast he has become ( saetiger sus, captivus su s ), spaces between the Thebaid and tho se loci in the Odyssey Aeneid and Metamorphoses are filled by imaginative intellectual activity on the part of Thebaid readers. 5). appearance, refracted through the eyes of a severed head, creates a schism in his textual body, whic h he attempts to efface by consuming what lies on the other side of Chaos in half, the audience confronts a crisis of semiotics wherein both halves of this schism look alike. Again, like Erysichthon, corpus consumes corpus and the image collapses in on itself. The textual gaps opened s become re beyond just cerebrum Tydeus opens a semiotic fissure that in fact swa llows Tydeus Hunting Zombies On 18 April 2012, the Los Angeles Times reported that American Marines had photographed themselves with the maimed limbs of Afghan insurgents. In one picture, a soldier smiles with a severed arm draped over his shoulder; in an other, two soldiers grin and give a thumbs up between a pair of detached legs. How dare they? America ns urinating on enemy corpses to say nothing of the 2004 Abu Ghraib abuses. Perhaps the 82 nd the Zombie Hunter s Jeffrey
164 Jerome Cohen points out that the modern zombie occupies a psychological space into which modern (especially American) society can pour its hatred of the Other: never in dividualized and always dangerous, the zombie now contains and exposes the fears and anxieties of a culture immersed in violent media (ICFA 33, March 2012). Mass slaughter of zombies never presents a moral conundrum; they are the diseased embodiment of pur e appetite; they eat our brains. If We do not destroy Them, They will surely consume Us. The Zombie Hunters of the 82 nd Airborne posed not with human limbs, but those of the Walking Dead. For them, the enemy was non human, zombiefied and in a sense dead already. This helps explain why they could treat human limbs as prize d deer. One must remember this before asking, The paratroopers in these photographs are not desensitized to violence; on the contrary, t hey are hyper sensiti ve to it. They have tasted the Real through unmediated, alingual, and violent interaction with the Other and so transcended themselves. For them, the zombie film is made flesh. It is in this light that one can further capture the aesthetic experience of T eating. The furor of epic combat and mastery of tradition outgrows the hero, so that his ultra violent experience in the poem recalibrates his worldview to one where cannibalism is non threatening and sanctioned If Tisiphone and Minerva were to visit the Zombie Hunters of the 82 nd Airborne, the former would snap photographs; the latter would email the LA Times responses to violent art. Like the Zombie Hunters, Tisiphone and her local surrogate Tydeus require more violence to satiate their aesthetic needs ( plus exigit ultrix |
165 Tisiphone Theb. 8.757 58 grotesque meal makes an attempt at internalizing the insane ( amens ) violence of epic narrative, but his collapse into the Other only perpetuates and makes him accomplice to that violence. In the same way, the Zombie Hunters experienced real violence unmediated by language, so that they aestheticized Kristev ; maimed limbs become props in a grotesque, Facebook like photo album Within the bounds of wartime Afghanistan, their actions perform the psychological work found in From a states ide perspective, they beco me the Other with which they were photographed. A House of Horrors The Roman interest in the macabre, grotesque, and violent informs modern reception of this imagery. In the hands of the Roman epicists, represented violence compr ises communicative opportunities beyond mere shock value. In their artful slaughter, the poets announce their particularity and aesthetic preferences. Their allusive gestures take the form of textual dismemberments, which raise ethical aesthetic questions and prompt reflection on unity of tradition, poetic innovation, and artistic ars poetica proves too enticing to pass up for in this prescriptive lacuna, authors find spark for creative imagination There ar e myriad pathways of violent song. inasmuch as poets grapple with deference to tradition and the necessity of innovation. i true through out the pain, a
166 a Heideggerian House of Language that includes violence in Roman epic teaches as much about literary violence two millennia ago as it is informed by the modern horror film, pulp fictions, and debates over gun control and violent media. Salon recently posed the question of whether American visual media has reached a saturation point in its representation of violence, yet this is neither the first nor the last time the question has or will be raised. Certainly Lucan seems to reach a saturation point in the epics I consider, but as with any aesthetic preference, violence such as his waxes and wanes. The foregoing study demonstrates that mimetic violence and the anxieties it raises ar e unique neither to the Romans nor modern popular culture. Ancient and modern horror of this kind draws the audience in to a complicit relationship contemplatio n of the macabre.
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177 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH James Lohmar was born in Dallas, TX in March 1984. He graduated from Collins Hill Hi gh School in Suwannee, GA in May 2002 and began undergraduate study at the University of Mississippi the following Fall. In August 2004, he returned to Georgia and finished his undergraduate work magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa in Latin and Classical Cu Thebaid He immediately began Ph.D. work in May 2008 after summer study at the American Academy in Rome. 9 August 2013.