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Knowledge, Perceptions, and Experiences of Secondary Agriculture Teachers and 4-H Agents regarding Global Agricultural Issues

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045533/00001

Material Information

Title: Knowledge, Perceptions, and Experiences of Secondary Agriculture Teachers and 4-H Agents regarding Global Agricultural Issues
Physical Description: 1 online resource (120 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Hurst, Sara D
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: 4-h -- agent -- agricultural -- agriculture -- attitudes -- beliefs -- education -- experiences -- extension -- globalization -- international -- internationalization -- knowledge -- perceptions -- secondary -- teacher
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the international experiences, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of secondary agriculture teachers and 4-H extension agents regarding global agricultural issues.  The research utilized survey design methodology. The sample consisted of secondary agriculture teachers nationwide who were part of the National FFA Organization’s Agricultural Career Network and 4-H extension agents nationwide who were members of the National Association of Extension 4-H Agents. Data collected were knowledge, attitudes,beliefs, experiences, and demographic data (as measured by a modified version of The International Agricultural Awareness and Understanding Survey (Wingenbach et al., 2003)). Descriptive statistics, correlations, and T-tests were used to determine if significant differences existed between agriculture teachers and 4-H agents and if relationships existed between the variables of interest. The analysis revealed that agriculture teachers and 4-H agents differed significantly on several experiences. Differences were also found between select experiences and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. No relationships were found between demographic variables and knowledge,attitudes, and beliefs. Based on these findings, recommendations were given for agriculture teacher and 4-H extension agent educators, in-service educators,and future research.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sara D Hurst.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Roberts Ii, Thomas G.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045533:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045533/00001

Material Information

Title: Knowledge, Perceptions, and Experiences of Secondary Agriculture Teachers and 4-H Agents regarding Global Agricultural Issues
Physical Description: 1 online resource (120 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Hurst, Sara D
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: 4-h -- agent -- agricultural -- agriculture -- attitudes -- beliefs -- education -- experiences -- extension -- globalization -- international -- internationalization -- knowledge -- perceptions -- secondary -- teacher
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the international experiences, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of secondary agriculture teachers and 4-H extension agents regarding global agricultural issues.  The research utilized survey design methodology. The sample consisted of secondary agriculture teachers nationwide who were part of the National FFA Organization’s Agricultural Career Network and 4-H extension agents nationwide who were members of the National Association of Extension 4-H Agents. Data collected were knowledge, attitudes,beliefs, experiences, and demographic data (as measured by a modified version of The International Agricultural Awareness and Understanding Survey (Wingenbach et al., 2003)). Descriptive statistics, correlations, and T-tests were used to determine if significant differences existed between agriculture teachers and 4-H agents and if relationships existed between the variables of interest. The analysis revealed that agriculture teachers and 4-H agents differed significantly on several experiences. Differences were also found between select experiences and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. No relationships were found between demographic variables and knowledge,attitudes, and beliefs. Based on these findings, recommendations were given for agriculture teacher and 4-H extension agent educators, in-service educators,and future research.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sara D Hurst.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Roberts Ii, Thomas G.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045533:00001


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1 KNOWLEDGE, PERCEPTIO NS, AND EXPERIENCES OF SECONDARY AGRICULTURE TEACHERS AND 4 H AGENTS REGARDING G LOBAL AGRICULTURAL ISSUES By SARA D. HURST A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIA L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 2013 Sara D. Hurst

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3 To my family, for all t heir continued love and support

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would li ke to thank my graduate committee chair, Dr. Grady Roberts for keeping me calm and focused, and reassuring me that I could do this. With his guidance as my advisor, chair, and instructor, I will achieve my goal of becoming an excellent agriculture teacher. I would also like to thank the rest of my graduate committee, Dr. Amy Harder. Her time and commitment was instrumental to my success, and I am a more critical researcher for it. and helping me get here. I would also like to thank my grandparents, John and Nancy Davidson, for reminding me that school is important, but so are family and visits home, and my brother, Carter Hurst, who reminds me to lighten up. I would like to thank my extended family of aunts, uncles, cousins, and family friends for encouraging me throughout my education. I also thank my friends, especially Joe Heizman, for letting me vent and reminding me that I was accepted to graduate school for a reason. I thank al l of my fellow graduate students, especially my officemates in 406, for providing stress relief, laughter, and advice.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 Backgro und ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 12 Globalization in Agriculture ................................ ................................ ............... 12 History of Global Education ................................ ................................ .............. 13 Formal and Nonformal Agricultural Education ................................ .................. 14 Rationale ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 15 Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ 15 Purpose and Objectives ................................ ................................ .......................... 16 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 16 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 17 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 18 Basic Assumptions ................................ ................................ ................................ 18 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 19 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ............ 20 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 20 Conceptual Model ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 21 Review of Literature ................................ ................................ ................................ 22 Attitude towards the Behavior ................................ ................................ ........... 23 Educator knowledge of inter national agricultural issues ............................ 23 Student knowledge of international agricultural issues .............................. 23 Beliefs about international agricultur al issues ................................ ............ 25 Attitudes about international agricultural issues ................................ ......... 26 Experiences with international travel ................................ .......................... 29 Demographics ................................ ................................ ............................ 33 Subjective norms ................................ ................................ .............................. 34 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 35 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 37 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 37 Population and Sample ................................ ................................ ........................... 39

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6 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 40 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 42 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 45 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 45 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 47 Agriculture Teachers ................................ ................................ ............................... 48 De mographics ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 48 Knowledge ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 49 Attitudes ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 51 Beliefs ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 54 International Experiences ................................ ................................ ................. 55 4 H Agents ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 56 Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 56 Knowledge ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 57 Attitudes ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 59 Beliefs ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 62 International Experiences ................................ ................................ ................. 63 Comparison ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 64 Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 64 Objective 1: Perceptions of Agriculture Teachers and 4 H Agents towards International Agricultural Issues ................................ ................................ .... 65 Objective 2: Knowledge of Agriculture Teachers and 4 H Agents of Inte rnational Agricultural Issues ................................ ................................ .... 66 Objective 3: International Experiences of Agriculture Teachers and 4 H Agents ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 69 Objective 4: R elationship between Teachers and Agents Perceptions and Selected Demographics ................................ ................................ ................ 70 Objective 5: Difference Between International Experiences and Educator Knowledge ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 71 Objective 6: Difference between International Experiences and Educator Perceptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 73 Attitudes ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 73 Beliefs ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 74 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 75 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ .. 77 Summary of Findings ................................ ................................ .............................. 77 Demographic Variables ................................ ................................ .................... 79 Objective 1: Perceptions of Agriculture Teachers and 4 H Agents tow ards International Agricultural Issues ................................ ................................ .... 80 Objective 2: Knowledge of Agriculture Teachers and 4 H Agents of International Agricultural Issues ................................ ................................ .... 81 Objective 3: International Experiences of A griculture Teachers and 4 H Agents ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 81

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7 Objective 4: Relationship between Teachers and Agents Perceptions and Selected Demographics ................................ ................................ ................ 82 Objective 5: Difference between International Experiences and Educator Knowledge ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 82 Objective 6: Difference between Internationa l Experiences and Educator Perceptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 83 Discussion and Implications ................................ ................................ .................... 84 Objective 1: Perceptions of Agriculture Teachers and 4 H Agents towards International Agricultural Issues ................................ ................................ .... 84 Objective 2: Knowledge of Agriculture Teachers and 4 H Agents of International Agricultural Issues ................................ ................................ .... 85 Objective 3: International Experiences of Agriculture Teachers and 4 H Agents ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 87 Objective 4: Relationship between Teachers and Agents Perceptions and Selected Demo graphics ................................ ................................ ................ 89 Objective 5: Difference between International Experiences and Educator Knowledge ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 90 Objective 6: Difference between International Experiences and Educator Perceptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 91 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 92 Recommendations for Extension and Agriculture Teacher E ducation .............. 93 Recommendations for In Service Educators ................................ .................... 93 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ........................... 94 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 94 APPENDIX A SURVEY INSTRUMENT ................................ ................................ ......................... 96 B IRB APPROVAL AND INFORMED CONSENT ................................ .................... 105 C SURVEY PRENOTICE EMAIL ................................ ................................ ............. 107 D INITIAL SURVEY INVITATION E MAIL ................................ ................................ 108 E FIRST RE MINDER E MAIL NOTICE ................................ ................................ .... 109 F SECOND REMINDER E MAIL NOTICE ................................ ............................... 110 G THIRD REMINDER E MAIL NOTICE ................................ ................................ ... 112 H SURVEY CLOSING E MAIL NOTICE ................................ ................................ ... 113 I EXPERTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 114 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 115 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 120

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Frequencies and percentages of demographic information for agriculture teachers ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 48 4 2 Frequencies and percentages of correct knowledge assessment answers for agriculture teachers ................................ ................................ ............................ 49 4 3 Frequencies of responses to attitude statements for agriculture teachers .......... 51 4 4 Frequencies of responses to belief statements for agriculture teachers ............. 54 4 5 Frequencies and percentages of experiences from agriculture teachers ........... 55 4 6 Frequencies and percentages of demographic information for 4 H agents ........ 57 4 7 Frequencies and percentages of correct answers for 4 H agents ...................... 58 4 9 Frequencies of responses to belief statements for 4 H agents ........................... 62 4 10 Frequencies and percentages of experiences from 4 H agents ......................... 64 4 11 Percentages of correct answers on knowledge assessment f or teachers, agents, and overall ................................ ................................ ............................. 67 4 12 Chi square statistics for experiences teachers and agents have had ................. 69 4 13 Correlations between perceptions and demographic variables .......................... 71 4 14 ANOVA between work area and attitudes and beliefs ................................ ........ 71 4 15 Differences bet ween international experiences and knowledge ......................... 72 4 16 Differences between international experiences and perceptions ........................ 74

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Conceptual Model for examining factors associated with integration of international agricultural issues into secondary agriculture and 4 H programs (adopted from Ajzen, 1991). ................................ ................................ ............... 36

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science KNOWLEDGE, PERCEPTIONS, AND EXPERIENCES OF SECONDARY AGR ICULTURE TEACHERS AND 4 H AGENTS REGARDING GLOBAL AGRICULTURAL ISSUES By Sara D. Hurst May 2013 Chair: T. Grady Roberts Major: Agricultural Education and Communication The purpose of this study was to assess the international experiences, knowledge, at titudes, and beliefs of secondary agriculture teachers and 4 H extension agents regarding global agricultural issues. The research utilized survey design methodology. The sample consisted of secondary agriculture teachers nationwide who were part of the N H extension agents nationwide who were members of the National Association of Extension 4 H Agents. Data collected were knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, experiences, and demographic data ( as measu r ed by a modified version of The International Agricultural Awareness and Understanding Survey ( Wingenbach et al., 2003)). Descriptive statistics correlations, and T tests were used to determine if significant differences existed between agriculture teache rs and 4 H agents and if relationships existed between the variables of interest. The analysis revealed that agriculture teachers and 4 H agents differed significantly on several experiences. Differences were also found between select experiences and knowl edge, attitude s and beliefs. No relationships were found between demographic variables and knowledge,

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11 attitudes, and beliefs. Based on these findings, recommendations were given for agriculture teacher and 4 H extension agent educators, in service educato rs, and future research.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background The world has become increasingly interconnected through the availability of lower cost transportation and communication and the increase in co mputers (Schuh, 1989). As other nations have gain ed a foothold in the international market, the U.S. has lost economic power (Schuh, 1989). In order to remain competitive in a global marketplace, agriculture students, the future agricultural workforce must understand the international system of politics institutions, and economies, particularly agriculture economies, and cultures other than their own (Schuh, 1989). Globalization in Agriculture owning) farms and firms that Globalization of agriculture continues to increase, and employers have been demanding employees with global perspectives (Acker, 1999). Globalization refers to the development of an increasingly inte grated global economy. Many agricultural problems have a global nature. The integration of international perspectives in an agriculture comprehend the magnitude of these glo bal agricultural problems (Shoulders & Myers, 2010). The continued expansion of agriculture has led to a need for globalized curricula. The term globalization has often been ill defined, but for the purpose of this study globalization refers to the integra tion of a global component into the curriculum.

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13 History of Global Education Educators have been discussing global education for over 40 years. The term curriculum centered on t 200 2, p. 51). The use of the term global education signaled the change from teaching 51). In 1976, the availabil ity and quality of global education materials had improved, but integration was still lacking (Becker, 2002). In 1979, the National Commission on Foreign Languages and International Studies emphasized the need for global awareness and the continued lack of global education (Becker, 2002). more conservative view on global education, while the Danforth Foundation attempted to strengthen integration (Becker, 2002). In the 1990s, glo balization was recognized as a major force in the world, and the progress had continued faster than predicted (Becker, 2002). All of these events contributed to the current mindset regarding global education. In 2002, Becker said that although efforts to d esign national guidelines for global education were underway, and public opinion of global education was high, a gap still existed between actual world condition and the instruction offered. Many authors and educators have continued to support global educa tion into the 2000s. programs have lagged behind higher education overall in terms of interna tionalization, which has led to teachers and agents who may be unready to incorporate international issues (Zeichner, 2010). Acker (1989) specifically addressed the need for educators to

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14 see an issue from multiple perspectives and to build international i ssues into curriculum materials. In order for U.S. agriculture to maintain a strong presence in the global market, the curriculum used to educate future agriculture workers must be internationalized (Henson & Noel, 1989). Future agriculture workers may oft en be reached through youth agriculture organizations and agriculture classrooms, such as 4 H, FFA, and secondary agriculture classes. Formal and Nonformal Agricultural Education In 2010, 4 H had a total of 6,330,612 participants from kindergarten to post high school, with 1,553,259 as members of 4 H clubs (U.S. Department of Agriculture 2010). The National FFA Organization (2011) reported over 800,000 students enrolled in agricultural education programs from seventh grade to adult classes taught by over 1 1,000 agriculture teachers. The scope of these organizations combined has been extensive, reaching hundreds of thousands of agriculture students throughout the United States and its territories. Both 4 H and FFA have offered international travel opportunit ies, though they have been almost exclusively targeted at postsecondary students. Students in secondary agricultural education programs have had little opportunity to gain an international perspective unless their educator chose to make opportunities avail able to them. Reaman (1990 ) addressed the attitudes and perceptions of 4 H agents regarding 4 H international programs, along with clientele participation. Similarly, in 1994, Ibezim and McCracken examined the extent of internationalization and factors co ntributing to internationalization in twelve North Central states. Ibezim and McCracken (1994) found that only 58% of participating teachers in the selected states taught international agricultura l issues in their classes Despite this percentage, Speed, K ent, and Byrom

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15 (1998) found that eight out of ten 11 16 year old students felt that learning about global issues was important and would influence their life choices (as cited in Hicks, 2003). Rationale al economy (National Research Council, 2009). The AAAE National Research Agenda Priority Three (2011) T hree specifically ment ioned the need for a diverse workforce that meets the higher capacity demands of a global economy and understands agriculture in a global context (Doerfert, 2011). Not all high school agriculture students will go on to college, so incorporating internation al perspectives can give them a leg up as they seek employment. Agricultural education has a responsibility to prepare students for employment in the globally aware workforce. The first step to preparing these students has been determining factors associat ed with extent of globalization of educational activities. This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of educators, both teachers and 4 H agents, towards international agriculture issues in the hopes that this information could later be used to increa se the amount of globalized instruction that students receive. Problem Statement The problem this study investigated was that formal and nonformal agricultural education programs need to prepare students for employment in a global economy. Global educati on has been discussed since the 1960s, but in 1994, only 58% of agriculture teacher integrated global issues into their courses (Becker, 2002; Ibezim & McCracken, 1994).

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16 Purpose and Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the international exper iences, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of secondary agriculture teachers and 4 H extension agents regarding global agricultural issues. The objectives of this study were to determine the: Perceptions of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents towards intern ational agricultural issues; Knowledge of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents of international agriculture issues; I nternational experiences of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents; Relationship between teachers and agents perceptions and selected demograph ics; Difference between international experiences and educator knowledge; Difference between international experiences and educator perceptions Significance of the Study This study was significant due to the increased demand for employees with critical thi nking skills and an international mindset. Wingenbach et al. (2003) said that 33). Agriculture teach ers and 4 H agents must change with the times to match the increasing globalization seen worldwide. The investigation of current levels of integration and associated factors undertaken by this study should act as a call to action for agricultural educators by bringing to light ways to improve the value of agriculture programs. Both 4 H agents and secondary agriculture teachers should use this study to determine that the addition of global issues into their curriculum would be an appropriate modification,

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17 r esulting in more prepared, employable students. This study should also be significant to teacher and extension agent educators. The factors associated with integration will help teacher and extension agent educators design appropriate course material on in tegration of global agricultural issues and address potential problems or objections that arise. Definition of Terms Knowledge of the following terms will be useful in understanding the meaning and usefulness of this study. 4 H AGENT : ate, or national Cooperative Extension staff who work with 4 4 H in local communities for students aged 5 Co A GRICULTURAL EDUCATIO N resources at the elementary, middle school, secondary, postsecondary, or adult levels for the purpose of preparing peo ple for entry or advancement in agricultural occupations and professions, job creation and entrepreneurship, and A GRICULTURAL EDUCATOR : and related t al., 2008, p. 527). A GRICULTURE TEACHER : agriculture and natural resources courses/curricula in schools and community al., 2008, p. 527). A TTITUDE : a mental position with regard to a fact or state ( Attitude n.d.). In this study attitude is defined as a personal feeling or thought about international agricultural issues as measured by a modified version of the Internati onal Agriculture Awareness and Understanding Survey (Wingenbach et al., 2003). B ELIEF : something held as an opinion ( Belief n.d.). In this study belief is defined as a personal opinion about an object as measured by a modified version of the International Agriculture Awareness and Understanding Survey (Wingenbach et al., 2003).

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18 G LOBALIZATION ( Globalization n.d.) I NTEGRATION : to form, coordinate, or blend into a functioning to unified whole ( I ntegration n.d.). In this study integration is defined as the discussion, investigation, or other use of international agricultural issues during educational activities. I NTERNATIONAL : of, relating to, or affecting two or more nations ( International n.d. ). I NTERNATIONALIZATION (Knight, 1994, p. 3). In this study defined as the integration of a global dimension into the educational activities of a formal or nonformal agricultural education program. Limitations of the Study This study has several limitations. Contact information was collected for agriculture teachers from the National FFA Agricultural Career Network; however, not all agriculture teachers in the U.S. were included in this frame. Teachers may not have been listed or may have been unavailable due to incorrect or outdated contact information. Additionally, retired teachers or those who have changed career s may still have been listed as advisors. Participating 4 H agents were contacted through the National Association of Extension 4 H Agents. However not all 4 H agents were members of this association. In addition, the survey may have been sent to 4 H agent s who were no longer working This study also measured perceptions experiences at a specific point in time, limiting generalizability to other time periods. These limitations may have reduced the generalizability of the results of this study. Basic Assump tions The first assumption was that the respondents answered the questions honestly, and that the questions were understood as intended. Since this survey was assessing

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19 attitudes and beliefs, some respondents may have felt pressured to respond positively to certain statements, despite their personal feelings. These assumptions were addressed by asking respondents to answer honestly, and informing them that survey results will be anonymous. Summary The integration of international issues into agricultural education activities has been necessary to create well workforce (Marinos & Bruening, 2010). The problem of underprepared agriculture graduates has been detrimental to both agriculture programs and the gr aduates. By assessing factors associated with the level of integration of international issues in formal and nonformal agriculture programs, this study will help both agricultural educators and teacher educators better prepare for a globalized world. For a gricultural educators, this study can be a wakeup call, helping them discover the importance of integration of international issues and personal barriers they may encounter. Determination of the current extent of integration and factors affecting integrati on can help university faculty in agricultural and extension education address barriers to integration and create educational activities educators would be likely to use.

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20 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE This study assessed the international experiences and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of secondary agriculture teachers and 4 H extension agents regarding global agricultural issues These factors were examined to determine the potential relationship s and differences between demographic data, knowledge attitudes, beliefs, and international experiences Planned Behavior and the Framework for Understanding Teaching and Learning to frame the study (Bransford, Darling Hammond, & LePage, 2005). Theo retical Framework nderstanding Teaching and Learning was examined (Bransford et al., 2005). In the Framework for Understanding Teaching and Learning, knowledge of learners and their development in social contexts, knowledge of subject matter and curriculum goals, and knowle dge of teaching overlap to create a vision of professional practice (Bransford et al., 2005). These three elements are encircled by the larger concepts of teaching as a profession and learning in a democracy. Educator knowledge of learners and their develo pment in social contexts includes knowledge of how people learn, basic human development, and language (Bransford et al., 2005). Knowledge of subject matter and curriculum the teaching encompasses content and content pedagogy, techniques to teach diverse

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21 learners, assessment strategies, and classroom management techniques (Bransford et al., 2005). Knowledge of all of these topics is necessary for beginning educators if they are to be effective (Darling Hammond & Baratz Snowden, 2005). 4 H extension agents must also possess these three elements in order to be effective educators. 4 H agents o ften serve as educators for 4 H youth, and must have knowledge of learners, subject matter, and teaching in order to effectively instruct and guide 4 H youth. (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior is designed to help predict behaviors and demonstrate t he effect of attitudes and personalit y traits on that behavior In the a behavior: attitude towards the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (Ajze and their positive or negative perceptions of the consequences of the behavior (Ajzen, should or should not perform the behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Finally, perceived behavioral which l eads to the behavior (Ajzen, 1991). When the Theory of Planned Behavior and Framework for Understanding Teaching and Learning are combined, the various elements of the Framework for Understanding Teaching and Learning fit into the categories described by A jzen (1991). The combination of these two models created the conceptual model that guided this study (see Figure 2 1). Conceptual Model To investigate the relationships and differences between knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, international experiences, and d emographics possible factors were grouped

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22 into the categories established by Ajzen (1991). The outcome behavior in question was educator integration of global agriculture issues. In the category attitude towards the behavior, possible variables were ident ified as educator knowledge of, beliefs about, and attitudes toward international agriculture issues. Additionally, experiences with international travel and demographic characteristics were identified as falling into this category. The category of subject ive norms included administrative support, availability of educational materials, work environment, the availability of collaboration, and learner interest and response. In the final category, perceived behavioral control, self efficacy, confidence, stude nt management techniques, time, funds, equipment requirements, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of pedagogy specific to teaching global agriculture issues were identified as possible variables of interest. Many of the possible variables of interest hav e been investigated in other contexts by other studies. In this study, the variables of interest were narrowed down to educator knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about international agriculture issues, experiences with international travel, and demographic s. These variables were investigated using previous research in the literature review that follows. Review of Literature Several factors that fall into the broader categories of attitude towards the behavior and subjective norms have been shown to have an effect on integration of educational innovations. This review of the literature investigated the effects of the variables of interest on both students and educators in various situations.

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23 Attitude towards the Behavior Educator k nowledge of international a gricultural issues Many studies have shown that educators continue to display a lack of knowledge, despite other studies suggesting that high knowledge levels have been linked to increased global perspective, perceptions of relevance, and positive viewpoin ts of internationalization. ( 2005 ) study showed that faculty at two land grant universities who had more knowledge of international issues perceived curriculum internationalization as more relevant than those with lower knowledge scores. Faculty knowledge was listed as one of several factors that affected participation in curricular reform (Navarro, 2005). In this study, knowledge was found to increase feelings of relevance, and personal (Navarro, 2005, p. 40). The factors found to most affect faculty participation in curricular reform were environment and context, administrative support, incentives, resources, development opportunities, personal priorities, knowle dge, and perceived needs (Navarro, 2005). Similarly, educator knowledge has been shown to play a role in global perspectives and positive viewpoints on internationalization. Ibezim and McCracken (1994) found a positive relationship between educator knowle dge and level of integration of international issues in agriculture classes. Student k nowledge of international agricultural issues Students at secondary and postsecondary levels have shown a lack of knowledge of international agricultural issues for deca des. Only 47% of high school agriculture students on an FFA study abroad program had received less than one week

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24 of instruction on international agriculture, while another 26% had received no instruction (Conners, 2003). This was despite the fact that in 1 994, 58% of agriculture teachers in 12 Midwestern states reported teaching international issues in agriculture (Ibezim & McCracken, 1994). Michigan State University students in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources and the College of Communicat ion Arts and Sciences were generally knowledgeable about international agriculture (Moore, Ingram, & Dhital, 1996). However, the students were not knowledgeable about countries that were likely marketing prospects, changes in imports over the last 30 years benefits of military bases abroad to agriculture, future demand in various countries, population distribution, and major exports from specific countries (Moore et al., 1996). Deficits in these areas researchers recommended focusing on world agriculture to increase student knowledge (Moore et al., 1996). Moore et al. (1996) also suggested that students from the surveyed group receive addition al international training if they found a job linked to inter nat ional agriculture markets In 2003, Wingenbach et al. found that juniors and seniors at Texas A&M University in the Department of Agricultural Education scored extremely poorly on a knowledge test of international agriculture issues. Only 3% of the stu dents achieved a passing score, 12 questions answered correctly out of 20, on a pretest (Wingenbach et al., 2003). After a semester in one of four department classes, the percentage of passing students rose to only 5.1% (Wingenbach et al., 2003). These sta rtlingly low results indicated that these students likely did not receive adequate instruction regarding international agricultural issues. The results of this study indicated that

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25 students need a broader perspective of international context, and formal ed ucation can use education on targeted issues to increase student knowledge and change student beliefs about internationalization (Wingenbach et al., 2003). Agricultural Sciences averag ed less than 60% correct answers on assessments regarding people and culture knowledge and agriculture products and policies knowledge (Radhakrishna, Leite, & Hill, 2003). Correspondingly, undergraduate students in an agronomy class at the University of Ne braska had little knowledge of international agriculture but listed several subjects they would be interested in learning about (Mason et al., 1994). College of Agricultural Sciences students at Penn State also indicated that they had very little knowledge of global agricultural export markets and marketing systems (Mamontova & Bruening, 2005). Studies have shown the serious lack of knowledge both undergraduate and secondary students have regarding international agricultural issues. Beliefs about internatio nal agricultural issues Teacher beliefs have been studied only briefly, but have been shown to impact the implementation of curriculum. The role of teacher beliefs on curriculum implementation was specifically explored in Cronin (1991) case stud y of two science teachers A grounded theory qualitative technique was used to study two lesson curriculum over more than six weeks per teacher. The teachers worked at the same school and thus, had a simil ar teaching environment (Cronin student learning, abilities, and discipline hindered implementation of the curriculum in the way in which it was designed to be implemented (Cronin Jones, 1991). From this

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26 stud y, four categories of beliefs that affect curriculum implementation were identified: how students learn, the role of the teacher in the classroom, student ability levels, and importance of content topics (Cronin Jones, 1991). Cronin Jones (1991) found that teacher beliefs played a large role in implementation and strategy choice w hen teaching a curriculum Attitudes about international agricultural issues Several studies have found that teachers and students hold positive attitudes regarding global agricul tural issues. Cronin Jones (1991) explored the effect of attitude on curriculum implementation by qualitatively comparing two science teachers. The first teacher did not have an internalized attitude towards the unit topic and had difficulty incorporating attitudinal components into her teaching (Cronin Jones, 1991). The second teacher had attitudes regarding student learning, assessment, and the relevance and importance of the information that had negative effects on the implementation of the curriculum (C ronin Jones, 1991). ( 1996 ) study, agricultural education professors across the total college curriculum should reflect a respect for knowledge of (p. 66). The professors also agreed that international issues would become important in the next 10 to 20 years (Akpan & Martin, 1996) Despite this high rating and the perceived importance of international studies, the majority of pr ofessors reported that they only occasionally or rarely used activities designed to internationalize the curriculum (Akpan & Martin, 1996). College of Agriculture undergraduates at Iowa State University also had favorable attitudes towards internationaliza tion of the curriculum, as long as no

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27 additional course requirements were added (Sammons & Martin, 1997). Interestingly, data were collected just two years prior regarding faculty perceptions regarding the infusion of a global perspective in the College of Agriculture at Iowa State University. In 1995, 52.2% of faculty members indicated that they were adding a global perspective to their teaching ( King & Martin 1995 ). However, the activities being used to add global perspectives to the courses were identif ied as debate and/or discussion, which the researchers felt did not provide adequate depth or frequency (King & Martin, 1995). The fact that only a few activities regarding internationalization were being used in each course could explain why student perce ptions were not strongly positive. In concordance with other data, faculty believe d that internationalization was important, that coursework should provide students with an international agriculture knowledge base, and that the College of Agriculture lacke d a global perspective at the time (King & Martin, 1995). Similarly, undergraduate students in the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences at The Ohio State University were found to have a moderate global perspective and a positive attit ude towards cultural diversity (Zhai & Scheer, 2004). In this study, global perspectives were shown to have a high positive relationship with attitudes towards cultural diversity (Zhai & Scheer, 2004). Participants reported that their main sources of infor mation about other countries were newspapers or magazines, televisions, radio news, and books (Zhai & Scheer, 2004). From this study, Zhai and Scheer (2004) through coursework, and college s of agriculture work to give their students international and multicultural experiences

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28 Despite the interest shown by undergraduate students, a study by Elliot and Yanik (2002) concluded that urban high school students did not place a high value on inter na tional agricultural issues The study focused on freshman students at a single urban high school and assessed their attitudes regarding international agricultural issues (Elliot & Yanik, 2002). Despite the fact that the students agreed with two thirds of the statements, the statements were not rated as highly important (Elliot & Yanik, 2002). Elliot and Yanik (2002) concluded that without a concerted effort to promote an international focus, student attitudes reading international agricultural iss ues woul d remain marginal In a survey by Ibezim and McCracken (1994) cultural awareness and teacher attitude were identified as having positive relationships with integration of internationaliz ed agriculture curriculum Reaman (1990) found that 4 H agents who p ossessed a positive attitude towards international programs were more likely to be involved in those programs, and 4 H professionals had an overall positive attitude regarding 4 H international programs. This trend is unsurprising considering the results o ( 2005 ) ( 1994 ) f indings. Additionally, those agents already involved in 4 perceptions of the programs than those who were not involved (Reaman, 1990). This thesis sugg ests that the trend of knowledge and experience being positively related to attitudes regarding internationalization holds true across both formal and non formal education. In 1995, Hossain, Moore, and Elliot investigated the attitudes of Michigan agricsci ence teachers regarding internationalization of their curriculum. Overall,

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29 agricscience teachers in Michigan showed a favorable attitude towards internationalization of their curriculum (Hossain et al., 1995). A 1999 study of Pennsylvania Extension educat ors found that they had an overall positive attitude towards diversity in 4 H/youth development programming (Ingram 1999 ). Over 75% of respondents agreed that 4 H youth should learn about other cultures, and that learning about other cultures should be an important part of 4 H (Ingram, 1999). Additionally, 85.5% of responses to an open about different cultures should be an important part of the 4 H/youth development (1999) concluded that extension professional viewed learning about different cultures as a way for youth to grow and develop Numerous studies have shown that educators and students alike have positive attitudes towards global agricultural issues. E xperiences wi th international travel E xperience with international travel has been shown to have a positive effect on perceptions of international agricultural issues. However, only 1.3% of agriculture students study abroad, the lowest percentage of any group measured (Institute of International Education, 2011). In the study conducted by Radhakrishna et al. (2003) on secondary students, those who had participated in the International 4 H Youth Exchange (IFYE) program had higher scores than those who had not on both po rti ons of the knowledge test From this study, the researchers concluded that participation in global activities increased global awareness and recommended that lessons be presented in a global context (Radhakrishna et al., 2003). Boyd et al. (2003) also a ssessed the impact of the IFYE program on the attitudes towards other cultures and the global awareness of

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30 participants Statistically significant positive changes were found in participant self ratings of cultural sensitivity, interest in global events, a nd involvement in community events (Boyd et al., 2003). The IFYE participants were also found to agree that the IFYE program was worthwhile and continued to impact their lives after the program ended (Boyd et al., 2003). From these results, Boyd et al. (20 03) recommended that IFYE be more enthusiastically promoted by extension agents, and that more teens be para. 27). ( 1997 ) study of Iowa State University undergraduates, v ery few participants in the study had international experience, except for foreign language classes (Sammons & Martin, 1997). In this study assessing attitudes of internationalization, participation in international activities had a significant, positive e ffect on student perceptions (Sammons & Martin, 1997). From these results, Sammons and Martin (1997) recommended that the College of Agriculture internationalize existing courses and encourage student participation in international activit ies Despite lit erature touting the benefits of study abroad programs, undergraduate College of Agricultural Science students at Penn State were the least interested in participating in study abroad (Mamontova & Bruening, 2005). The item rated as most interesting was goin g to an international restaurant to engage with different cultures, however, fewer than half of the students had actually engaged in this activity (Mamontova & Bruening, 2005). Overall, Mamontova and Bruening (2005) concluded that despite the perceptions o f international experience as highly valuable, students had not participated in many international activities The researchers suggested increasing

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31 international curricula offered and emphasizing agriculture in a global context (Mamontova & Bruening, 2005) The effect of internationally focused courses on undergraduate College of Agriculture s tudents at Montana State University was examined to identify perceived benefits and the long term impacts of enrollment (Bruening & Frick, 2004). Three internationally focused courses were evaluated for the study; each course included a travel component to the country or countries of major discussion in the class (Bruening & Frick, 2004). Participants were given a pre travel and post travel survey after completion of th e course (Bruening & Frick, 2004). As a whole, the students indicated they had gained a better understanding of culture and felt the classes created a safe environment for learning about international agriculture (Bruening & Frick, 2004). They were strongl y supportive of participation in future study abroad programs for other students and said that their college experience was enhanced by their participation (Bruening & Frick, 2004). From these positive reactions, Bruening and Frick (2004) recommended that internationally focused courses continue to be offered, and that and kno wledge into other courses More broadly, Bruening and Frick (2004) suggested that all agriculture gr aduates should possess international c ompetency upon graduation A study of 50 teachers who participated in an 8 to 15 week overseas student teaching experience demonstrated the impact international experience can have (Cushner & Mahon, 2002). The partici pants responded to questions about the effect the overseas student teaching had on their personal and professional lives. Student teachers responded that their beliefs about the world changed, and they developed

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32 more empathy and trust (Cushner & Mahon, 200 2). Additionally, several students mentioned using their international experiences in their teaching, in order to help students gain a multicultural and global perspective (Cushner & Mahon, 2002). Overall, the students became more global minded and open to diversity, characteristics that may lead to more globally minded teaching practices (Cushner & Mahon, 2002). As in other studies, international travel was positively linked to the support of curriculum internationalization by Iowa State University facult y (King & Martin, 1995). From these results, King and Martin (1995) recommended that the College of Agriculture at Iowa State University work to internationalize the curricula, encourage faculty to travel abroad, and provide workshops to help faculty devel op strategies for teaching internat ional agricultural issues By the same token, agricultural education professors who had visited a foreign country responded more positively to an internationalized curriculum than those who had not, and longer durations w ere positively related to higher perceptions (Akpan & Martin, 1996). Additionally, 4 H professionals in Pennsylvania who had international experience had a more positive attitude towards 4 experie nce (Reaman, 1990). Despite the strong support for international travel, most participants in the survey by Wingenbach et al. ( 2003 ) watched international television programs, while the smallest number participated in work experience or International 4 H Y outh Exchange programs. Additionally, students in this study believed they could learn more about international agricultural issues from a vacation or international television show than they could from interactions with exchange students (Wingenbach et al. 2003). This

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33 study showed the lack of perspective many students had, and Wingenbach et al. (2003) recommended using formal education to broad Despite some conflict, the positive relationship between travel abroad and intercultura l perspectives has been a strong theme throughout the literature on internationalization of agricultural education (Schuerholz Lehr, 2007). Demographics Selected demographic characteristics have been shown to have an effect on other factors, such as attitu des, beliefs, and level of integration of global agricultural issues. In a 2007 review of literature, Schuerholz Lehr found that despite the sometimes conflicting definitions of global mindedness, several traits were associated with global mindedness acros s the research. Positive relationships have been found between teacher age, level of formal education, and years teaching and level of integration (Ibezim & McCracken, 1994). In the study by Hossain et al. ( 1995 ) on the attitudes of Michigan agricscience t eachers regarding internationalization, younger teachers had more favorable attitudes than did older teachers (Hossain et al., 1995). Also positively associated with attitudes were the factors of memberships in professional organizations, cosmopolitanism, reading of the Agricultural Education Magazine and participation in national seminars (Hossain et al., 1995). In light of these results, Hossain et al. (1995) made recommendations for teachers to use when introducing new internationalized curriculum, but concluded that overall, agricscience teachers in Michigan were willing to internationalize their programs. Many studies indicated that females were more world minded than males, though a few studies did not show this relationship (Schuerholz Lehr, 2007). Zhai and Scheer

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34 (2004) found that female students had a significantly higher global perspective and a more positive attitude t owards cultural diversity Subjective norms Little research has been done on subjective norms such as administrative support, sta te/national standards, curriculum availability, student interest/response, school environment, and availability of collaboration despite the effect these factors may have on other factors and on integration of global agricultural topics. In 2005, Navarro f ound that the factors that most affected faculty participation in curricular reform were environment and context, administrative support, incentives, resources, development opportunities, personal priorities, knowledge, and perceived needs. Previously, Ibe zim and McCracken (1994) found that the five best predictors of integration were teacher attitude, level of formal education, use of visuals, use of curriculum guides, and mass media as a highly imp ortant information source Curriculum guides were found to have no effect o n attitudes in the 2005 study by Hossain et al Teachers who were provided with an instruction manual on internationalization did not have significant differences in attitudes from those who were not given a manual (Hossain et al., 1995). Availability of curriculum guides may also present an issue. At the middle school level, of the 14 states that had a core curriculum for middle school agriculture, only three included international agriculture (Rossetti & McCaslin, 1994). Lack of a clearly defined project was listed as a major barrier to adoption of a global outlook in 4 H by Pennsylvania county 4 H agents (Reaman, 1990). Undergraduate agronomy students at the University of Nebraska showed an interest in learning about agricultural concepts of the future, international trade and marketing, environmental issues, and crop production in foreign countries (Mason et al.,

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35 1994). Mason et al. (1994) concluded that students in these agronomy courses did not have sufficient knowledge of international topics, and an effort should be made to include topics of interest to the students in the curriculum in order to gain a n international dimension Summary Studies have shown that despite the reported positive attitudes of educators and students regarding i nternationalization of educational activities and global education, there is still a serious lack of knowledge and integration. Without a solid knowledge base, educators may lack the skills or confidence to incorporate new material, such as international i ssues, into the curriculum. It is clear that many studies agree that increased knowledge leads to increased participation, feelings of relevance, and sources of info rmation regarding international issues as media may indicate that the students are not currently receiving adequate education in international issues. In addition to knowledge, several studies have indicated a link between international experience and posi tive beliefs and attitudes towards global education, or internationalization of the curriculum. Additionally, many participants who had positive attitudes and beliefs regarding international issues shared the view that internationalization of the curriculu m is important. This could indicate that educators with more global perspectives are more likely to have positive attitudes towards education al activities that promoted cultural diversity. This study investigated the relationships between the selected vari ables of knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, international experiences, teaching standards, and demographics of secondary agriculture teachers and 4 H extension agents.

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36 Figure 2 1. Conceptual Model for examining factors associated with integration of internat ional agricultural issues into secondary agriculture and 4 H programs (adopted from Ajzen, 1991).

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37 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study was to assess the international experiences, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of secondary agriculture teac hers and 4 H extension agents regarding global agricultural issues. Additi onally, this study examined the relationships and differences between educator demographics and knowledge, perceptions, and extent of globalization. Chapter 3 outlines the research d esign, population and sample, instrumentation, data analysis, and data collection used in this study. Research Design The research design was a non experimental quantitative design utilizing descriptive survey methodology. The survey was distributed throu gh email due to the large sample size, low cost, and easy availability of contact information. Descriptive survey methodology was chosen due to the ability of the researcher to assess attitudes and beliefs of the participants (Ary et al., 2010). The variab les of interest included educator knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about global agricultural issues, experiences with international travel, and demographics. Ary et al. (2010) identified five threats to external validity: selection treatment interaction, setting treatment interaction, pretest treatment interaction, subject effects, and experimenter effects Selection treatment interaction is also referred to as non representativeness, and was controlled by random sampling of the populations of interest (A ry et al., 2010). Setting treatment interactions were controlled for by a dministering the survey online. E ach participant completed the survey in a different setting (Ary et al., 2010). In order to prevent pretest treatment interaction, a design

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38 without a pretest was selected (Ary et al., 2010). Subject effects may occur due to the subject matter and the use of sampling, which may influence how the respondents answer the survey (Ary et al., 2010). Experimenter effects occur when the attitude of the experime nter affects the outcomes of the experiment (Ary et al., 2010). Experimenter effects were controlled using a pilot test and a panel of experts to analyze the modified survey instrument before distribution to eliminate any researcher bias. Internal validity is a basic requirement to draw conclusions from research (Campbell & Stanley, 1963; as cited in Ary at al., 2010). Eleven threats to internal validity were listed by Ary et al.: history, maturation, testing effect, instrumentation, regression, selection b ias, mortality, selection maturation interaction, experimenter effect, subject effect, and diffusion (2010). History, maturation, testing effect, instrumentation, statistical regression, mortality, selection maturation interaction, and diffusion were contr olled for by the research design. Selection bias was addressed by the use of random sampling of the population, so that any differences between those selected to participate and those not selected was chance (Ary et al., 2010). The experimenter effect was controlled through the use of an online survey that was reviewed by a panel of experts and pilot tested before distribution. The subject effect may occur due to the subject matter and use of sampling. Dillman, Smyth, and Christian identified four types of survey error: coverage, sampling, nonresponse, and measurement (2009). Coverage error is defined as when all member of the population do not have an equal chance of selection, and when the excluded members are different from the included member on measures of interest (Dillman et al., 2009). Email addresses that were provided by the teacher or 4 H agent

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39 to the National FFA or the NAE4HA were used as contacts. Since the email addresses were provided by the participants and linked with the names, it should re duce the number of unusable contacts and duplicates (Dillman et al., 2009). Sampling error is (Dillman et al., 2009). The effects of sampling error were limited in this stu dy by taking a sample size large enough to give the desired power Nonresponse error occurs when participants who respond are different in a way important to the study from those who do not respond (Dillman et al., 2009). In order to reduce nonresponse, pe rmission was emails. This endorsement from the professional organizations should have increased response rates through the establishment of trust (Dillman et al., 2009). Ad ditionally, an attempt was made to contact nonrespondents by email or by phone in order to compare them to respondents to determine if any significant differences existed (Dillman et al., 2009). Because of the small number of nonrespondent data collected, early and late respondents were compared to determine if any differences existed between the groups. Measurement error is when answers are inaccurate or imprecise, often due to poor question wording or other design issues (Dillman et al., 2009). A pilot st udy and a panel of experts were used to reduce measurement error and ensure clear wording. Population and Sample The population of interest was all secondary agriculture teachers and 4 H extension agents in the U.S. In order to contact agriculture teacher s, the 2012 Agricultural Careers Network database directory was obtained from the National FFA Organization In November 2011, the National FFA Organization recorded more than 11,000 agriculture teachers in the U.S. The advisor contact list was obtained at the end

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40 of August 2012, and listed about 11,000 advisors. 4 H Extension agent contact information was obtained from the National Association of Extension 4 H Agents (NAE4HA). Contact information was acquired from the NAE4HA at the end of August 2012, and listed 2,769 active 4 H extension agent members. A simple random sample of each population was used because simple random sampling minimizes researcher bias, and due to the large sample sizes drawn, the likelihood that the sample is not representative is m inimized (Ary et al., 2010). Sample size was determined using a desired precision of five percent, a 95% confidence level, and a variability of 50%, indicating maximum variability (Israel, 1992 (1992) recommendations the desired sample si ze was determined to be 385 agriculture teachers, and 333 4 H extension agents (Israel, 1992). In addition to this sample size, an extra 80% of the required 385 agriculture teachers were sampled, and an extra 64 % of the required 333 4 H agents. This was du e to hypothesized response rates for agriculture teachers of 25%, and of 4 H agents of 66%, based on prior studies ( Ibezim & McCracken, 1994 ; Reaman, 1990; Shoulders, 2012) The increased sample size helped compensate for nonrespondents and ensure a suitab le sample size. In total, 2,000 agriculture teachers and 1,000 4 H agents were sampled. Of the 2,000 agriculture teachers, 237 had invalid email address, and 7 were no longer teaching agriculture, reducing the sample size to 1 756. Of the 1,000 4 H agents, 55 had invalid email addresses, and 18 did not fit the criteria of working with youth or were no longer agents, reducing the sample size to 927. Instrumentation This study was conducted using a modified version of the International Agricultural Awareness and Understanding Survey ( Wingenbach et al., 2003, See

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41 Appendix A) Section one of the survey used 20 multiple choice questions to assess the knowledge agriculture teachers and 4 H extension agents had about international agricultural issues. Section two m easured attitudes and section three measured beliefs of participants towards international agricultural issues. Section four collected information regarding international experiences of respondents and contained three open ended questions regarding integra tion. Section five collected demographic data from each participant. Using the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) list of global issues, each question was evaluated for relevance. Questions that were deemed no longer relevant wer e replaced with facts from the FAO. Questions that were relevant were updated to reflect current trends and statistics. Each section was reviewed by a panel of experts and pilot tested after modification. To establish content validity four experts were ask ed to provide feedback on sections one, two, and three of the modified instrument. The expert panel included Dr. Gary Wingenbach, a professor at Texas A&M University and part of the Norman Borlaug Institute for Inter national Agriculture, Dr. Kristi n Davis, executive secretary of the Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services, Dr. Pete Vergot, District Extension Director for University of Florida IFAS Extension, and Dr. Walter Bowen, Director of International Programs for the University of Florida IFAS. In or der to establish face validity, pilot test participants were asked to not only answer the questions but indicate any areas that needed clarification or rewording. The instrument was pilot tested on 32 junior and senior undergraduate agricultural education students. Section one, knowledge about international agricultural issues, used 20 multiple choice questions to assess educator knowledge. These questions were

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42 updated to reflect current trends in global agriculture. The pilot study recorded a KR 20 of 0 .42 The low reliability can be attributed to the high difficulty of the questions and relatively small number of questions (Ary et al., 2010). The average score of the pilot test participants was a 42%, or 8.5 questions correct. Section two measured attitude s about international agricultural issues using 36 six point Likert scale items. Wingenbach et al. (2003) 0 .95 for this section The pilot test 0 .95. Section three assessed beli efs about international agricultural issues using 20 six point Likert scale questions. A 0 .97 was found for section three (Wingenbach et al., 2003). The 0 .81 for section three. Likert scale items i n sections two and three were reworded for clarity when collecting data from educators instead of students. Section four collected information regarding international experiences of respondents. Section five collected demographic data from each participant through five questions, and was updated to reflect variables of interest in the populations under study. Post hoc reliabilities were also reported after the completion of d ata collection. A KR 20 of 0.29 was found for the knowledge sect a lpha of 0.96 was reported for the attitudes section, and of 0.85 for the beliefs section. Data Collection Participants were contacted through emails provided by the National FFA or NAE4HA using the Tailored Design Method (Dillman et al., 2009). Prenotice e mails were sent to both groups in late September 2012. Emails that came back as undeliverable were examined for misspellings and resent the following day. This timing avoided other major events for the participants, such as the beginning of the school year national association meetings, and major holidays. Email addresses were hidden

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43 so that the emails would not appear as bulk mail. The prenotice email was sent from the mail ing system provided by Qualtrics. The prenotice email contained information on the purpose of the research, information on the distribution of the survey, a document outlining previous research on integration of global agricultural issues, and researcher c ontact information (See Appendix C) The first email contact contained information on participant selection, the research purpose, and instructions. The email also contained contact information for questions, and the survey link and access instructions (Se e Appendix D) The survey was designed on and conducted through Qualtrics. Four additional contacts were sent when the amount of new survey respondents was no longer incr easing (Dillman et al., 2009, See Appendices E, F, G, and H) Contacts were sent at va rying times of day and days of the week due to the range of time zones included. Each contact, except for the closing notice, had at least one week between them (Dillman et al., 2009). All contacts were phrased differently, in order to prevent classificati on of the notices as spam and appeal to different respondents. Additional contacts were sent only to nonrespondents or those who had not finished the survey. Follow up emails contained a renewed request to nonrespondents, directions on accessing the survey a clickable link, a thank you, and a reiteration of the importance of receiving a response. A problem occurred in Qualtrics due to a limit on the number of emails that could be sent, resulting in a delay between the first reminder emails and subsequent e mails for agriculture teachers. A prenotice email was sent to agriculture teachers on September 24, 2012. Agriculture teachers were sent an initial invitation email on September 26, 2012. Follow up emails were sent to nonrespondent agriculture

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44 teachers on October 2, Oct 26, November 5, and November 7. 4 H agents received a prenotice email on September 27, 2012. An initial invitation email was sent to 4 H agents on October 1, 2012. Follow up emails were sent to 4 H agents on October 16, October 25, November 5, and November 7. Upon closing on November 7, of the 927 4 H agents eligible to take the survey, 324 had completed the survey, and an additional 204 had begun or partially completed the survey. Of the 1,756 el igible agriculture teachers, 417 had completed the survey, while an additional 284 had begun or partially completed the survey. To address non response, random samples of non respondents were first contacted by email and asked to complete the survey online, in a Word document, or through a phone inter view. Of the 1,057 agriculture teachers who did not respond, a total of 421 different agriculture teachers were contacted through email, eliciting no responses. Of the 402 4 H agents who did not respond, 155 different agents were contacted by email, elicit ing three responses. Since the email follow up to non respondents was not effective, a random sample of non respondents from each group was contacted by phone with a request to complete the survey over the phone at that time, online, or to schedule a time to take the survey later. Forty two 4 H agents were contacted by phone, resulting in responses from five additional agents, bringing the total number of 4 H agent non respondents recorded to eight. Forty two agriculture teachers were contacted by phone, el iciting seven total responses. A total of 332 responses were collected from 4 H agents, resulting in a response rate of 35.9%. A total of 424 responses were collected from agriculture teachers, resulting in a 24.1% response rate.

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45 Since follow up contacts d id not yield enough responses to make a comparison, e arly and late respondents were compared to determine if there were any significant differences between the groups (Lindner, Murphy, & Briers, 2001) Late respondents were identified as those who replied after the November 5th follow up email. No significant differences were found between early and late respondents in knowledge, perceptions, experiences, or demographic variables. Data Analysis After 42 days, the survey was closed and data were analyzed usi ng SPSS 20. Section one, testing respondent knowledge of international agricultural issu es, was analyzed using frequencies and percentages. For sections two and three, regarding attitudes and beliefs, means and standard deviations were found in order to de termine grand means for both sections. Demographics in section four were analyzed using frequ encies and percentages. T o address objectives one through three regarding perceptions, knowledge, and experiences of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents towards i nternational agricultural issues frequencies and frequency percentages were reported. For the fourth objective, demographics were cross referenced with perceptions to determine if any significant differences existed using T tests The fifth and sixth obje ctive s were analyzed by comparing the each of the international experiences with knowledge and perception scores to determine T values Additionally, KR 20 was used to evaluate the reliability of section one, and used to evaluate the r eliability of sections two and three. Summary A descriptive survey design methodology was used to collect information on agriculture teacher and 4 H agent knowledge and perceptions of global agricultural

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46 issues and international experiences Agriculture t eachers were contacted using random sampling from a list provided by National FFA. 4 H agents were contacted using random sampling from a list provided by NAE4HA. A modified version of the survey instrument by Wingenbach et al. ( 2003 ) International Agricul tural Awareness and Understanding Survey designed in Qualtrics and distributed through email. Data was collected over 42 days for each group, and analyzed using SPSS 20 to run descriptive statistics.

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47 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this study was to asse ss the international experiences, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of secondary agriculture teachers and 4 H extension agents regarding global agricultural issues. Chapter 1 explained the significance of integration of global agricultural issues into seco ndary agriculture and 4 H programs. Chapter 1 also listed the objectives of this study, key terms, and limitations. The objectives of this study were to determine the: Perceptions of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents towards international agricultural is sues; Knowledge of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents of international agriculture issues; I nternational experiences of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents; Relationship between teachers and agents perceptions and selected demographics; Difference betwe en international experiences and educator knowledge; Difference between international experiences and educator perceptions Chapter 2 presented an overview of the theoretical frameworks and conceptual models used to guide this study. Chapter 2 also presente d a review of relevant literature related to each variable from the conceptual model utilized in this study. Chapter 3 explained the methods used to collect data, the research design, population and sample, instrumentation, data collection, and data analys is. Chapter 4 presents the results obtained by this study. The results include data on demographics, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences for both teachers and agents, and address the objectives of this study.

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48 Agriculture Teachers Demographics Re spondents were analyzed by the following demographics: gender, years of experience as a teacher or 4 H agent, area in which they do most of their work, and family ancestry. Re sults can be found in Table 4 1 Table 4 1 provides the frequency distribution o gender, years of experience, area in which they work, and family ancestry. Of the 417 agriculture teachers who completed the survey, 240 (57.5%) were male, 172 (41.2%) were female, and six (1.4%) did not respond. The resp ondents had an average of 14.5 years of experience, ranging from first year teachers to 49 years of experience. Three hundred thirty (79.1%) of the teachers indicated that they did most of their work in a rural area, 66 (15.8%) indicated suburban, 20 (4.8% ) indicated urban, and one (0.2%) did not respond. In terms of ancestry, 387 (90.2%) indicated that they were European/Caucasian, 16 (3.7%) that they were African American, 12 (2.8%) that they were Native American, four (0.9%) that they were Mexican/Latin American, four (0.9%) that they were Asian, three (0.7%) that they were Pacific Islander, two (0.5%) that they were Puerto Rican, and one (0.2%) that they were other Caribbean ancestry. Table 4 1 Frequencies and percentages of demographic information for agriculture t eachers f Percent Gender (N= 412) Male 240 57.5 Female 172 41.2 Years of Experience (N=415) Less than 1 year 1 0.2 1 5 109 26.3 6 10 66 15.9 11 15 77 18.6 16 20 48 11.6

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49 Table 4 1. Continued f Percent 21 25 31 7.5 26 30 46 11.1 31 35 30 7.2 36+ 7 1.7 Area in which participant works (N=416) Rural 330 79.3 Suburban 66 15.9 Urban 20 4.8 Family Ancestry (N=429) European/Caucasian 387 90.2 African American 16 3.7 Native American 12 2.8 Mexican/Latin Amer ican 4 0.9 Asian 4 0.9 Pacific Islander 3 0.7 Puerto Rican 2 0.5 Other Caribbean ancestry 1 0.2 Arab 0 0 Knowledge In order to measure knowledge levels, participants were asked to complete a 20 questions multiple choice test. The average percent cor rect was 42%, or 8 questions of 20. Only 27 ( 6.5%) agriculture teachers achieved a passing score of 12 questions correct of 20, as defined by Wingenbach et al. (2003). Correct answers are bolded in Appendix A. Table 4 2 shows the frequencies and percentage s of correct answers given by agriculture teachers on the knowledge assessment. Table 4 2 Frequencies and p ercent age s of correct k nowledge assessment a nswers for a griculture t eachers Question f Percent What is the primary hou sehold fuel in Africa and As ia? 331 79.4 Which cereal grain is the basic food for more than half of the 328 78.7 What country produc es the largest volume of swine? 313 75.1 The _____________ desert is 308 73.9

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50 Table 4 2. Conti nued Question f Percent Which one of the following food nutrients is most lacking in the 263 63.1 Considering developing and developed countries, the projection of the world population for the year 2050 shows the largest segment will be in: 255 61.2 Generally, who carries out most of the field work on an African farm? 254 60.9 Which country is the larges t producer of tea in the world? 251 60.2 Which following sequence correctly ranks, from most to least, the four l angua ges most spoken worldwide? 205 49.2 Although large areas of land are brought into cultivation throughout the world each year, large amounts are also rendered useless or are reduced in productive capacity for ea ch of the reasons below except: 181 43.4 Acc popula tion used the internet in 2010? 167 40.0 As of 2010, the percent of useable land in th e world for food production is: 147 35.3 According to UNESCO, as of 2000, approximately what percent of the urba n population did not have piped water in its house? 115 27.6 According to the FAO, about how many crop species provide 95% of human food energy needs? 99 23.7 In what part of the world are you most likely to find a hand dug underground irrigation system called a ghanat (quanat) that may extend for many miles from the mountai ns to fields out to the plains? 72 17.3 According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, as of 2007, which sector contributed the largest percenta ge of greenhouse gas emiss ions? 63 15.1 According to the FAO, which food sector uses a greater variety of biodiversity than any other? 53 12.7 In East Africa, it is expected that everyone will ____________ upon greeting each other at a meeting, an d upon departure from meetings. 4 7 11.3 As of 2012, how many countries are members of the European Union? 40 9.6 According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN pulation was undernourished? 30 7.2

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51 Attitudes A 36 item Likert type scale was used to measure the personal feelings or thoughts the teachers had about international agricultural issues. The largest number of agriculture teachers (367 88.4% ) agreed or strongly agreed with the statement e about agriculture and its importance to the world 55.2% ) agreed or strongly agreed with The scale average was 5.01, wit h a standard deviation of 0.58. This scale measured the attitudes of agriculture teachers towards international agricultural issues. The average of 5.01 +/ positive attitudes towards i nternational agricultural issues. Table 4 3 shows the frequency of responses from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree) for each attitude statement. Table 4 3 Frequencies of r esponses to a ttitude s tatements for a griculture t eachers Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Youth/Students should know more about agriculture and its importance to the world economy 10 6 4 28 125 242 Youth/Students should know more about their to world trade 8 7 5 32 153 210 Youth/Studen ts are more likely to understand global agriculture if instructed about major agricultural products produced in their home state 0 3 7 47 180 176 Youth/Students should know more about how world agriculture affects food prices in the local grocery store 9 5 7 39 153 202 Youth/Students should know more about how world events affect local agriculture in their community 10 5 6 39 167 188

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52 Table 4 3. Continued Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Youth/ Students should know more about agricultural products that their ho me state sells to other countries 10 5 5 44 158 193 Politics has a major effect on world agriculture. 2 3 8 50 164 187 Youth/Students are more likely to understand global agriculture if instructed about major agricultural products produced in their count ry 0 3 8 52 207 143 Marketing U. S. agricultural products to other countries will help the U. S. economy. 2 3 6 55 190 159 Youth/Students are more likely to understand global agriculture if instructed about countries that need U. S. agricultural products 1 2 6 59 199 146 Global food production affects food prices in my local grocery store. 2 3 8 62 191 147 If properly instructed, youth/students can understand international career opportunities in agriculture. 2 3 4 66 198 140 Considering U. S. agricult ural exports, youth/students should be instructed on other 1 1 5 70 197 139 If properly instructed, youth/students can understand basic international agricultural concepts. 1 4 8 69 192 140 Lessons on global a gricultural issues should prepare youth/students for future changes in global agriculture 1 3 6 73 220 112 Learning more about agriculture in other countries will help youth/students understand future changes in world agricultural production. 2 3 5 79 203 122 World events impact the agricultural industry in their community. 1 4 12 72 198 127 Lessons on global agricultural issues should help youth/students appreciate the interdependency of nations around the world 0 2 6 82 223 102 Marketing agricultural products to other countries 2 4 8 77 186 138 Youth/Students should know more about the agricultural products from other countries that are consumed in their state 9 6 10 69 169 152 Youth/Students are more likely to under stand global agriculture if instructed about the economic issues between the U. S. and other countries 0 4 12 76 201 120

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53 Table 4 3 Continued Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lessons on global agricultural issues should help youth/students function better as a ci tizen in a global society 1 3 5 88 203 114 Lessons on global agricultural issues should not be too complex for youth/students 0 9 15 77 177 137 Considering U. S. agricultural exports, youth/students should be instructed on other rces 1 2 11 89 214 97 Lessons on global agricultural issues should help youth/students understand global agricultural marketing systems 1 2 6 100 213 93 Youth/Students should know more about other products 8 6 10 88 183 119 Youth/Students are more likely to understand global agriculture if instructed about the humanitarian issues between the U. S. and other countries 1 3 18 91 194 105 Youth/Students are more likely to understand global agriculture if instructed about the political issues between the U. S. and other countries 1 5 17 98 191 101 Youth/Students should know more about the differences between developed and developing countries 9 6 19 67 191 93 Considering U. S. agricultural exports, youth/students sh ould be instructed on other 2 3 12 128 185 84 Lessons on global agricultural issues should provide an opportunity for youth/students to interact with people in other parts of the world 1 6 16 127 168 97 American culture has a major effect on agriculture in other countries. 2 10 39 110 138 116 Considering U. S. agricultural exports, youth/students should be instructed on other transportation system, major industries, etc.) 1 6 2 2 151 158 76 Considering U. S. agricultural exports, youth/students should be instructed on other 2 6 21 152 155 78 Youth/Students should know more about the cultures of other countries 11 7 35 134 153 75 Note. 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= slightly disagree, 4= slightly agree, 5= agree, 6=strongly agree

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54 Beliefs In order to measure the personal opinions of the teachers regarding global agricultural issues, a 22 item Likert type scale was used. The most agriculture teachers (38 0 91.3% youth/students to learn about food safety. The fewest number of teachers (140 34.9% ) from l deviation of 0.55. This scale measured the beliefs of agriculture teachers towards international agricultural issues. The average of 4.68 +/ ag international agricultural issues. Table 4 4 shows the frequency of responses from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree) for each belief statement. Table 4 4 Frequen cies of r esponses to b elief s tatements for a griculture t eachers Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 It is important for youth/students to learn about food safety 0 2 1 33 182 198 International agriculture involves more than farming 1 1 0 31 156 223 It is important fo r youth/students to learn about sustainable energy 2 4 4 48 203 155 It is important for youth/students to learn about global food security and hunger 0 2 5 54 195 160 Global food production allows me to eat a variety of products all year 1 3 6 48 177 177 Global agriculture is different from one country to another 2 5 10 49 185 161 Natural disasters affect the price of food in my local grocery store 0 4 5 59 166 178 Understanding other cultures helps U. S. producers market their products abroad 0 1 9 89 212 102 Understanding global politics helps U. S. producers market their products abroad 0 4 8 100 201 100 It is important for youth/students to learn about climate change 1 1 10 25 82 192 96 US agricultural products are superior in quality to products from other countries 2 8 28 103 159 113

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55 Table 4 4. Continued Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 The US should actively help other countries develop their agricultural industries 1 3 19 120 168 101 It is important for youth/students to learn about childhood obesity 1 0 10 28 106 164 98 In times of famine, the U. S. should help other countries with food aid 2 4 23 130 167 87 Competition between producers worldwide keeps food prices low in my grocery store 2 13 44 127 146 81 I learn about global agricultural issues from watching selected television programs 1 0 26 27 126 182 44 I learn about global agricultural issues from professional development 2 0 28 43 109 147 66 I learn about global agricultural issues from my college classes 1 8 34 40 128 137 56 I learn about global agricultural issues from attending events such as fairs or shows 1 4 43 58 140 124 35 I learn about global agricultural issues from participating in study abroad programs 6 1 81 50 71 82 66 I learn about global agricultural issues from taking vacati ons in other countries 6 1 70 43 96 97 44 I learn about global agricultural issues from listening to selected radio programs 2 2 68 57 126 113 27 Note. 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= slightly disagree, 4= slightly agree, 5= agree, 6=strongly agree International E xperiences In order to investigate the impact of a variety of ten experiences, teachers were asked to indicate whether or not they had the experience listed. The most teachers tudies in classes you Table 4 5 shows the frequency and xperience. Table 4 5 Frequencies and p ercentages of e xperiences from a griculture t eachers Statement f Percent I ntegrate global examples or case studies in classes you teach 236 56.6 T raveled internationally for personal reasons (i.e. vacation, etc.) 19 8 47.5

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56 Table 4 5. Continued Statement f Percent Participated in professional development workshop(s) with a global focus 174 41.7 Took a globally focused course as a student 136 32.6 Participated in a short term study abroad experience as a student ( 1 to 3 weeks) 67 16.1 Participated in a long term study abroad experience as a student (> 3 weeks) 35 8.4 Lived outside the US for a short duration for professional reasons (< 1 year) 33 7.9 Lived outside the US for a short duration for personal reasons 28 6.7 Lived outside the US for a long duration for personal reasons 21 5.0 Lived outside the US for a long duration for professional reasons (> 1 year) 18 4.3 4 H Agents Demographics Of the 324 4 H agents who completed the survey, 68 (21.0%) were mal e, 249 (75.9%) were female, and three (0.9%) did not respond. The respondents had an average of 13.1 years of experience, ranging from first year agents to 45 years of experience. Two hundred thirteen (65.7%) of the agents indicated that they did most of t heir work in a rural area, 62 (19.1%) indicated suburban, 39 (16.7%) indicated urban, and 10 (3.1%) did not respond. In terms of ancestry, 297 (91.1%) indicated that they were European/Caucasian, 11 (3.4%) that they were Native American, eight (2.5%) that they were African American, five (1.5%) that they were Mexican/Latin American, four (1.2%) that they were Asian, and one (0.3%) that they were Puerto Rican. Table 4 6 provides the frequency distribution of 4 experience area in which they work, and family ancestry

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57 Table 4 6 Frequencies and p ercentages of d emographic i nformation for 4 H a gents f Percent Gender (N= 317) Male 68 21.5 Female 249 78.5 Years of Experience (N=319) Less than 1 year 6 1.9 1 5 78 24.5 6 10 80 25.1 11 15 43 13.5 16 20 37 11.6 21 25 26 8.2 26 30 24 7.5 31 35 21 6.6 36+ 4 1.3 Area in which participant works (N=314) Rural 213 67.8 Suburban 62 19.7 Urban 39 12.4 Family Ancestry (N=326) European/Caucasian 297 91.1 Native American 11 3.4 African American 8 2.5 Mexican/Latin American 5 1.5 Asian 4 1.2 Puerto Rican 1 0.3 Pacific Islander 0 0 Other Caribbean ancestry 0 0 Arab 0 0 Knowledge Participants were asked to complete a 20 question multiple choic e knowledge assessment on international agricultural issues in order to measure knowledge levels. The average percent correct for 4 H agents was 42%, or 8 questions of 20. Wingenbach et al. (2003) defined a passing score on the original assessment as 12 of 20 questions correct. Only 31 agents, or 9.6%, achieved a passing score. Table 4 7 presents the

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58 frequencies and percentages of correct responses from 4 H agents on the knowledge assessment. Table 4 7 Frequencies and p ercentages of correct a nswers for 4 H agents Question f Percent Which cereal grain is the basic food for more than half of the 275 84.9 The _____________ desert is 149 76.9 What is the primary hou sehold fuel in Africa and Asia? 227 70. 1 Which country is the larges t producer of tea in the world? 211 65.1 Generally, who carries out most of the field work on an African farm? 199 61.4 Which one of the following food nutrients is most lacking in the 197 60 .8 Considering developing and developed countries, the projection of the world population for the year 2050 shows the largest segment will be in: 191 59.0 Which following sequence correctly ranks, from most to least, the four l anguages most spoken worldw ide? 170 52.5 What country produces the largest volume of swine? 168 51.9 Although large areas of land are brought into cultivation throughout the world each year, large amounts are also rendered useless or are reduced in productive capacity for ea ch of the reasons below except: 136 42.0 tion used the internet in 2010? 118 36.4 As of 2010, the percent of useable land in th e world for food production is: 118 36.4 According to UNESCO, as of 2000, approximately what percent of the urban population did not have piped water in its house? 98 30.2 According to the FAO, about how many crop species provide 95% of human food energy needs? 95 29.3 In what part of the world are you most likely to find a h and dug underground irrigation system called a ghanat (quanat) that may extend for many miles from the mountai ns to fields out to the plains? 60 18.5 According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, as of 2007, which sector contributed the larg est percenta ge of greenhouse gas emissions? 50 15.4 According to the FAO, which food sector uses a greater variety of biodiversity than any other? 48 14.8 As of 2012, how many countries are members of the European Union? 46 14.2

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59 Table 4 7. Continued Question f Percent In East Africa, it is expected that everyone will ____________ upon greeting each other at a meeting, an d upon departure from meetings. 42 13.0 According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), as of 2008, what percen population was undernourished? 19 5.9 Attitudes To measure the personal feelings o r thoughts the 4 H agents had regarding international agricultural issues, a 36 it em Likert type scale was used The highest number (296 92.8% ) of 4 H age Youth/Students should know more about The lowest number (194 61.0% ) of 4 H agents agreed or strongly agreed with the statement The scale average was 5.13 ( SD = 0.54 ). This scale measured the attitudes of 4 H agents towards international agricultural issues. The average of 5.13 +/ range, indicating that most agents h ave positive attitudes towards international agricultural issues. Table 4 8 shows the frequency of responses from 4 H agents on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree) for each attitude statement. Table 4 8 Frequencies of r esponses to a tt itude s tatements for 4 H a gents Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Youth/Students should know more about agriculture and its importance to the world economy 4 1 0 18 131 165 Youth/Students should know more about how world agriculture affects food prices in the local grocery store 3 2 2 25 133 153 Youth/Students should know more about how world events affect local agriculture in their community 3 1 4 23 139 147

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60 Table 4 8. Continued Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 If properly instructed, youth/students can understand intern ational career opportunities in agriculture. 1 1 4 31 165 117 Youth/Students should know more about agricultural products that their home state sells to other countries 3 1 5 28 152 129 Politics has a major effect on world agriculture. 2 2 4 30 120 160 Lessons on global agricultural issues should help youth/students appreciate the interdependency of nations around the world 0 0 4 34 166 114 Global food production affects food prices in my local grocery store. 1 1 3 34 155 124 Youth/Students are more li kely to understand global agriculture if instructed about major export markets for U. S. agricultural products 1 0 6 35 173 103 Considering U. S. agricultural exports, youth/students should be instructed on other es 1 1 5 35 173 103 Youth/Students should know more about their to world trade 3 1 2 37 140 135 If properly instructed, youth/students can understand basic international agricultural concepts. 1 2 4 39 16 2 112 Youth/Students should know more about the agricultural products from other countries that are consumed in their state 3 2 3 37 160 112 Lessons on global agricultural issues should prepare youth/students for future changes in global agriculture 0 1 6 39 168 104 Lessons on global agricultural issues should help youth/students function better as a citizen in a global society 1 1 3 45 145 123 Youth/Students are more likely to understand global agriculture if instructed about major agricultural produc ts produced in their country 1 0 9 41 166 101 Youth/Students are more likely to understand global agriculture if instructed about major agricultural products produced in their home state 1 0 8 42 150 117 Youth/Students are more likely to understand glob al agriculture if instructed about countries that need U. S. agricultural products 1 1 5 44 162 105

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61 Table 4 8. Continued Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Youth/Students are more likely to understand global agriculture if instructed about the economic issues betw een the U. S. and other countries 1 1 5 48 148 115 Considering U. S. agricultural exports, youth/students should be instructed on other 1 0 9 49 162 97 Learning more about agriculture in other countries will help youth/studen ts understand future changes in world agricultural production. 2 0 4 55 155 103 World events impact the agricultural industry in their community. 1 1 8 52 148 108 Youth/Students are more likely to understand global agriculture if instructed about the hum anitarian issues between the U. S. and other countries 1 0 9 55 152 101 Lessons on global agricultural issues should help youth/students understand global agricultural marketing systems 1 2 8 54 185 68 Youth/Students should know more about the cultures o f other countries 2 0 8 56 124 128 Lessons on global agricultural issues should provide an opportunity for youth/students to interact with people in other parts of the world 0 0 10 57 145 106 Considering U. S. agricultural exports, youth/students should be instructed on other 1 0 5 64 163 85 Considering U. S. agricultural exports, youth/students should be instructed on other 1 0 9 61 137 110 Marketing U. S. agricultural products to other countries will h elp the U. S. economy. 4 1 4 63 151 95 Lessons on global agricultural issues should not be too complex for youth/students 1 9 14 49 141 104 Youth/Students should know more about other products 3 2 5 66 151 91 C onsidering U. S. agricultural exports, youth/students should be instructed on other transportation system, major industries, etc.) 1 2 8 70 159 78 Youth/Students are more likely to understand global agricultu re if instructed about the political issues between the U. S. and other countries 1 1 11 69 140 96

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62 Table 4 8. Continued S tatement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Youth/Students should know more about the differences between developed and developing countries 2 2 6 74 147 8 8 Marketing agricultural products to other countries 4 1 7 72 154 80 American culture has a major effect on agriculture in other countries. 1 3 24 96 131 63 Note. 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= slightly disagree, 4= slightly agree, 5= agree, 6=strongly agree Beliefs A 22 item Likert type scale was utilized to measure the personal opinions of the agents regarding global agricultural issues. The largest number of 4 H agents (307 97.7% ) agreed or strongly agreed wi 29.9% ) agreed or strongly agreed with the 4 H agents was 4.74, with a standard deviation of 0.49 This scale measured the beliefs of 4 H agents towards international agricultural issues. The average of 4.74 +/ indicating that most agents ha ve positive attitudes towards international agricultural issues. Table 4 9 shows the frequency of responses from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly a gree) for each belief statement from 4 H agents. Table 4 9 Frequencies of r esponses to belief s tatement s for 4 H a gents Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 International agriculture involves more than farming 0 0 0 7 115 192 It is important for youth/students to learn about food safety 0 0 1 13 125 176 Natural disasters affect the price of food in my local grocery sto re 0 2 3 17 127 165 It is important for youth/students to learn about global food security and hunger 0 0 3 25 137 151

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63 Table 4 9. Continued Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 It is important for youth/students to learn about sustainable energy 1 2 1 25 136 151 It is important for youth/students to learn about childhood obesity 1 3 8 28 129 147 Global food production allows me to eat a variety of products all year 0 1 8 33 139 133 Global agriculture is different from one country to another 0 0 9 37 155 113 Unders tanding other cultures helps U. S. producers market their products abroad 0 1 6 58 165 83 Understanding global politics helps U. S. producers market their products abroad 0 0 8 63 171 72 It is important for youth/students to learn about climate change 4 2 18 51 124 117 In times of famine, the U. S. should help other countries with food aid 0 4 15 78 136 81 The US should actively help other countries develop their agricultural industries 1 0 14 88 127 83 I learn about global agricultural issues from pro fessional development 5 11 21 90 127 59 US agricultural products are superior in quality to products from other countries 2 12 39 107 95 57 Competition between producers worldwide keeps food prices low in my grocery store 2 14 52 104 101 40 I learn abou t global agricultural issues from participating in study abroad programs 45 56 31 41 73 66 I learn about global agricultural issues from my college classes 22 33 25 88 103 35 I learn about global agricultural issues from taking vacations in other countri es 36 49 30 70 81 44 I learn about global agricultural issues from watching selected television programs 13 34 28 120 97 22 I learn about global agricultural issues from attending events such as fairs or shows 19 45 48 102 78 21 I learn about global agr icultural issues from listening to selected radio programs 22 50 42 106 69 25 International Experiences 4 H agents were asked to indicate yes or no in regards to whether or not they had had ten experiences. The largest number of agents ( 200, 61.7%) had experienced traveled internationally for personal reasons (i.e. vacation, etc.) The fewest agents

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64 (14, 4.3% ) answered yes to Table 4 10 4 H agent respondents. Table 4 10 Frequencies and p ercentages of e xperiences from 4 H a gents Statement f Percent Traveled internationally for personal re asons (i.e. vacation, etc.) 200 61.7 P articipated in professional development workshop(s) with a global focus 173 53.4 T ook a globally focused course as a student 118 36.4 I ntegrate global examples or case studies in classes you teach 116 35.8 P artici pated in a short term study abroad experience as a student (1 to 3 weeks) 56 17.3 P articipated in a long term study abroad experience as a student (> 3 weeks) 40 12.3 L ived outside the US for a short duration for professional reasons (< 1 year) 34 10.5 L ived outside the US for a short duration for personal reasons 23 7.1 L ived outside the US for a long duration for professional reasons (> 1 year) 14 4.3 L ived outside the US for a long duration for personal reasons 14 4.3 Comparison Demographics When comparing Tables 4 1 and 4 6 it is clear that agriculture teachers and 4 H agents are similar in many ways. The agriculture teachers and 4 H agents surveyed had similar averages of years of experience, 14.5 and 13.1 years respectively. Both groups were al so most likely to do the majority of their work in a rural area (79.3% of teachers, 67.8% of agents), followed by suburban areas (15.9% of teachers, 19.7% of agents) and urban areas (4.8% of teachers, 12.4% of agents). Both agriculture teachers and 4 H age nts were most likely to be of European/Caucasian ancestry, 90.2% of teachers,

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65 and 91.1% of agents were in this category. However, agriculture teachers were much more likely to be male than 4 H agents. Of the agriculture teachers surveyed, 57.5% were male, while only 21.5% of 4 H agents surveyed were male. Objective 1 : Perceptions of A griculture T eachers and 4 H A gents towards I nternational A gricultural I ssues A comparison of Tables 4 3, 4 4, 4 8 and 4 9 show s that b oth agriculture teachers and 4 H agents h ad generally positive perceptions of global agricultural issues as measured by their responses to statements on the attitude and belief scales. The attitude and belief scales both used a 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree). The attitude scale aver age for teachers was 5.01 ( S D = 0.58) and 5.13 ( S D = 0.54) for agents. On the attitude scale, both agriculture teachers and 4 H agents most more about agriculture and its teachers, 367 agreed or stro ngly agreed with that statement. Two hundred ninety six 4 H agents agreed or strongly agreed with the statement more about agriculture and its importan Agriculture teachers and 4 H agents differed on the attitude statement they least agreed or strongly agreed with. The fewest agriculture teachers agreed or strongly the cultures of H agents agreed or strongly agreed with the statement S tatistically significant differences were found between agriculture teachers and 4 H agents on the attitude scale (t value = 2.602, p value = .009)

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66 Tables 4 4 and 4 9 show the distribution of responses to belief statements for teachers and 4 H agents. The belief scale average for agriculture teachers was 4.68 ( S D = 0.54) and 4.74 ( S D = 0.49) for 4 H agents. On the belief scale, both agriculture teachers and 4 H agents least frequently agreed or strongly agreed with the statement radio programs (140 teachers, 94 ag ents). This could be because radio programs are somewhat outdated technology for news. The top two belief statements were the same for both groups, but reversed. Agriculture teachers most frequently responded with a 5 or 6 to the statement the second most agreeable to 4 H agents, with 301 respondents selecting agree or strongly agree. Three hundred seven 4 H agents selected agree or strongly agree for was the second most frequently agreed or strongly agreed with for agriculture teachers, at 379. No statistically significant differences were found on the belief scale between teacher s and agents (t value = 1.729, p value = .084) Objective 2 : Knowledge of A griculture T eachers and 4 H A gents of I nternational A gricultural I ssues B oth agriculture teachers and 4 H agents had an average of 42%, or 8 questions of 20, correct on the knowle dge assessment. Only 6.5% of agriculture teachers and 9.6% of agents achieved a passing scor e on the knowledge assessment. Teachers and agents were not found to be statistically different on the knowledge assessment (t value = 0.36, p value = .720) Both g roups had higher percentages of correct answers on questions that could be considered general knowledge, or questions that have answers

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67 food for more than half of the wo developed countries, the projection of world population for the year 2050 shows the questions that contain information th at may be misrepresented in the media, such as According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, as of 2007, which sector contributed the largest percentage o had low scores on questions about cultura In East Africa, it is expected that everyone will ____________ upon greeting each other at a meeting, an d Accord ing to the Food and Agriculture population was Table 4 11 Percentages of c orrect a nswers on k nowledge a ssessment for t eachers, a gents, and o verall Question Percent Ag riculture Teachers Percent 4 H Agents Percent Overall Which cereal grain is the basic food for more than 78.7 84.9 81.2 What is the primary hou sehold fuel in Africa and Asia? 79.4 70.1 75.1 The _____________ desert is the desert. 73.9 76.9 75.0 What country produc es the largest volume of swine? 75.1 51.9 64.7 Which country is the larges t producer of tea in the world? 60.2 65.1 62.2 Which one of the following food nutrients is most lacking in the diet 63.1 60.8 61.9 Generally, who carries out most of the field work on an African farm? 60.9 61.4 61.0 Considering developing and developed countries, the projection of the world population for the year 2050 shows the largest se gment will be in: 61.2 59.0 60.0

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68 Table 4 11. Continued Question Percent Agriculture Teachers Percent 4 H Agents Percent Overall Which following sequence correctly ranks, from most to least, the four l anguages most spoken worldwide? 49.2 52.5 50.5 Alth ough large areas of land are brought into cultivation throughout the world each year, large amounts are also rendered useless or are reduced in productive capacity for ea ch of the reasons below except: 43.4 42.0 42.7 According to World Bank, what percent of the tion used the internet in 2010? 40.0 36.4 38.4 As of 2010, the percent of useable land in th e world for food production is: 35.3 36.4 35.7 According to UNESCO, as of 2000, approximately what percent of the urban population did not ha ve piped water in its house? 27.6 30.2 28.7 According to the FAO, about how many crop species provide 95% of human food energy needs? 23.7 29.3 26.1 In what part of the world are you most likely to find a hand dug underground irrigation system called a g hanat (quanat) that may extend for many miles from the mountai ns to fields out to the plains? 17.3 18.5 17.8 According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, as of 2007, which sector contributed the largest percenta ge of greenhouse gas emission s? 15.1 15.4 15.2 According to the FAO, which food sector uses a greater variety of biodiversity than any other? 12.7 14.8 13.6 In East Africa, it is expected that everyone will ____________ upon greeting each other at a meeting, an d upon departure from meetings. 11.3 13.0 12.0 As of 2012, how many countries are members of the European Union? 9.6 14.2 11.6 According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), as of 2008, pulation was undernourished? 7.2 5.9 6. 6

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69 Objecti ve 3 : I nternational E xp eriences of Agriculture Teachers and 4 H A gents When asked to respond yes or no as to whether or not they had a list of selected experiences, agents were more likely overall to have international experiences Tables 4 5 a nd 4 10 agents respectively. Agents were most likel ived outside the US for a long duration for professional reasons (>1 year) and for professional reasons Statistically significant differences were found between teachers and agents concer ning three experiences. 4 H agents were significantly more likely to have answered yes to the experience p valu e = 0 .001). Agriculture teachers were significantly more likely to an p valu e = 0 .000). Finally, 4 H extension agents were significantly more likely to have answered yes to raveled internationally for personal reasons (i.e. vacation, etc.) p va lu e = 0 .000). Table 4 12. Chi s quare s tatistics for experiences t eachers and a gents have had Experience Teachers Agents Pearson Chi Square Significance Yes No Yes No E1: Participated in a short term study abroad experience as a student (1 to 3 week s) 67 348 56 258 0 .364 0 .5 5

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70 Table 4 12. Continued Experience Teachers Agents Pearson Chi Square Significance Yes No Yes No E2: Participated in a long term study abroad experience as a student (> 3 weeks) 35 380 40 274 3.590 0 .0 6 E3: Took a globally focused course as a student 136 279 118 196 1.821 0 .1 8 E4: Lived outside the US for a short duration for professional reasons (< 1 year) 33 381 34 281 1.708 0 .1 9 E5: Lived outside the US for a long duration for professional rea sons (> 1 year) 18 397 14 300 0 .006 0 .9 4 E6 : Participated in professional development workshop(s) with a global focus 174 241 173 143 11.822 0 .00 E7: Integrate global examples or case studies in classes you teach 236 179 116 199 28.809 0 00 E8: Lived outside the US for a short duration for personal reasons 28 387 23 291 0 .092 0 .76 E9: Lived outside the US for a long duration for personal reasons 21 392 14 300 0 .153 0 70 E10: Traveled internationally for personal reasons (i.e. vacation, etc.) 198 217 200 116 17.558 0 .00 Objective 4: Relationship between Teachers and Agents Perceptions and Selected D emographics Correlations between attitudes and beliefs and selected demographic variables were used to determine if significant relationships existed. No significant relationships exist ed between gender and attitudes or gender and beliefs There were no significant

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71 relationships between years of experience as a teacher or agent and beliefs Similarly, there was no signi ficant relationship between area in which the participant conducts most of his/her work and attitudes or beliefs. The Point Biserial correlation of years of experience and attitudes was negligible at only 0 .08 (p valu e = 0.03 ) making it not practically s ignificant Thes e results are shown in Table 4 1 3 and Table 4 1 4 Table 4 1 3 Correlations between p erceptions and d emographic variables Attitudes Beliefs Gender Point Biserial Correlation 0 .04 0 .01 Significance 0 .33 0 .88 N 736 733 Years Experience Correlation 0 .08 0 .03 Significance 0 .03 0 .46 N 732 730 Table 4 1 4 ANOVA between work a rea and a ttitudes and b eliefs Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Significance Attitude Average Between groups 0 .135 2 0 .068 .2 21 0 .80 Within Groups 221.939 726 0 .306 Total 22.075 728 Belief Average Between groups 0 .864 2 0 .432 1.582 0 .2 1 Within Groups 197.128 722 0 .273 Total 197.992 724 Objective 5: Difference Between International E xperiences and Edu cator K nowledge Table 4 1 5 shows the T tests used to investigate differences between international experiences of educators and knowledge. Five experiences did not have a statistically significant difference with respect knowledge: ( E1 ) p articipated in a short term study abroad experience as a student (1 to 3 weeks) (E5) l ived outside the US for a long duration for professional reasons (> 1 year) ( E6 ) p articipated in professional development workshop(s) with a global focus (E8) l ived outside the US for a short

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72 duration for personal reasons and ( E9 ) l ived outside the US for a long duration for personal reasons Five of the experiences had a statistically significant difference at the 0.05 level with knowledge : ( E2 ) p articipated in a long term study abro ad experience as a student (> 3 weeks) (E3) t ook a globally focused course as a student (E4) l ived outside the US for a short duration for professional reasons (< 1 year) ( E7 ) i ntegrate global examples or case studies in classes you teach and ( E10 ) t ra veled internationally for personal reasons (i.e. vacation, etc.) T able 4 15 Differences between i nternational e xperiences an d k nowledge Experience t Significance E1: Participated in a short term study abroad experience as a student (1 to 3 weeks) 1.6 42 0 10 1 E2: Participated in a long term study abroad experience as a student (> 3 weeks) 2.048 0 04 E3: Took a globally focused course as a student 2.991 0 00 E4: Lived outside the US for a short duration for professional reasons (< 1 year) 2.578 0 01 E5: Lived outside the US for a long duration for professional reasons (> 1 year) 1.756 0 .08 E6: Participated in professional development workshop(s) with a global focus .621 0 .5 4 E7: Integrate global examples or case studies in classes you teach 4.312 0 .00 E8: Lived outside the US for a short duration for personal reasons .242 0 .8 1 E9: Lived outside the US for a long duration for personal reasons 1.268 0 .2 1

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73 Table 4 15. Continued Experience t Significance E10: Traveled internationally for personal reasons (i.e. vacation, etc.) 3.543 0.00 Objective 6: Difference b etween International Experiences and Educator P erceptions To investigate the difference between international experiences and educator perceptions, in dependent samples t test was used. At the 0 .05 significance level, two experience variables had no differences with attitudes or beliefs : ( E1 ) participated in a short term study abroad experience as a student (1 to 3 weeks) and ( E2 ) participated in a long term study abroad experience as a student (> 3 weeks). Table 4 16 shows the differences between the international experiences and attitudes and beliefs. Attitudes In addition to E1 and E2, two other experiences did not have a statistically significant dif ference with attitudes. (E4) L ived outside the US for a short duration for professional reasons (< 1 year), and ( E5 ) lived outside the US for a long duration for professional reasons (> 1 year), had no statistically significant differences with attitudes. Six experience statements had significa nt differences with attitudes at the 0.05 significance level: ( E3 ) took a globally focused course as a student (p valu e = 0.002) (E 6 ) p articipated in professional development worksh op(s) with a global focus (p valu e = 0.001), (E 7 ) integrate global examples or case studies in classes you teach (p valu e = 0.003), ( E8 ) lived outside the US for a short duration for personal reasons ( p valu e = 0.0 10 ) (E9) lived outside the US for a long duration for personal reasons (p va lu e = 0.022), and (E10) traveled internationally for personal reasons (i.e. vacation, etc.) (p valu e = 0.044).

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74 Beliefs S tatistically s ignificant differences were found between eight experience statements and beliefs. Several of the statements, such as (E3 ) took a globally focused course as a student (p valu e = 0.000), (E6) p articipated in professional development workshop(s) with a global focus (p valu e = 0.000), and (E7) i ntegrate global examples or case studies in classes you teach (p valu e = 0.000), may indicate the importance of quality introductory and on going global experiences for teachers and agents. The other 5 statements: (E4) l ived outside the US for a short duration for professional reasons (< 1 year) (p valu e = 0.001), (E5) l ived outside the US for a long duration for professional reasons (> 1 year) (p valu e = 0.009), ( E8 ) l ived outside the US for a short duration for personal reasons (p valu e = 0.012), ( E9 ) l ived outside the US for a long duration for personal reasons (p valu e = 0.006), and ( E10 ) t raveled internationally for personal reasons (i.e. vacation, etc.) (p valu e = 0.015), indicate the influence that international travel can have. Participants who had lived abroad or traveled to another country had more positive beliefs than those wh o had not. Table 4 16 Differences between i nternational e xperiences and p erceptions Experience Attitudes Beliefs t Significance t Significance E1: Participated in a short term study abroad experience as a student (1 to 3 weeks) .151 88 .954 .34 E2: Participated in a long term study abroad experience as a student (> 3 weeks) .384 .70 1.233 .2 2 E3: Took a globally focused course as a student 3.086 .00 3.754 .00

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75 Table 4 16. Continued Experience Attitudes Beliefs t Significance t Significance E5: Lived outside the US for a long duration for professional reasons (> 1 year) 1.683 .09 2.602 .01 E6: Participated in professional development workshop(s) with a global focus 3.408 .00 3.840 .00 E7: Integrate global examples or case studies in classes you teach 2.977 .00 3.556 .00 E8: Lived outside the US for a short duration for personal reasons 2.579 .01 2.528 .01 E9: Lived outside the US for a long duration for personal reasons 2.300 .02 2.740 .01 E10: Traveled internationally for personal reasons (i.e. vacation, etc.) 2.013 .04 2.439 .02 Summary Chapter 4 presented the findings of this study. The findings were structured based on the respondent type and the objectives of the study. The descr iptive statistics presented included, for both agriculture teachers and 4 H agents: gender, years of experience as a teacher or agent, area in which the participant does most of their work, and family ancestry. The objectives discussed included: (1) Percep tions of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents towards international agricultural issues; (2) Knowledge of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents of international agriculture issues; (3) I nternational experiences of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents; (4) Rela tionship between teachers and agents perceptions and selected demographics; (5) Difference between

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76 international experiences and educator knowledge; (6) Difference between international experiences and educator perceptions. The findings presented in Chapte r 4 will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter 5 Chapter 5 will also offer a summary of findings, discussions and implications, and recommendations regarding these findings.

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77 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of this stu dy was to assess the international experiences, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of secondary agriculture teachers and 4 H extension agents regarding global agricultural issues. The following objectives guided this study: To determine the: Perceptions of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents towards international agricultural issues; Knowledge of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents of international agriculture issues; I nternational experiences of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents; Relationship between teac hers and agents perceptions and selected demographics; Difference between international experiences and educator knowledge; Difference between international experiences and educator perceptions Summary of Findings The findings were based on the respondent type and the objectives of the study. In order to conduct this study, 2000 agriculture teachers were contacted through email Network database directory. This National FFA O rganization recorded over 11,000 agriculture teachers in November 2011. Additionally, 1,000 4 H agents were contacted by email using a simple random sample from the NAE4 HA. The required sample size was determined using a desired precision of five percent, a 95% confidence level, and a variability of 50% (Israel, 1992). Using sample size was determined to be 385 agriculture teachers, and 333 4 H extension agents (Israel, 1992). An extra 80% of agriculture teacher s were sampled, due to

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78 hypothesized response rates of 25% (Shoulders, 2012; Harris & Birkenholz, 1996 ; Ibezim & McCracken, 1994 ). An additional 64% of 4 H agents were sampled, due to a hypothesized response rate of 66% (Reaman, 1990; Bowen, Radhakrishna, & Keyser, 1994). Of the 2,000 agriculture teachers, the valid sample size was 1756 after invalid email addresses and those no longer in the profession were removed. Four hundred twenty four agriculture teachers completed the survey, resulting in a response rate of 24.1%. Of the 1,000 4 H agents, 927 were eligible to take the survey and had a valid email address. Of those 927, 332 completed the survey, resulting in a response rate of 35.9%. These response rates may have been increased if the participants kne w the sender of the survey invitation. Initially, non respondents were contacted by email. When individual emails did not yield enough responses, non respondents were contacted by phone Again this did not yield enough responses. In order to address non r esponse, early and late respondents were compared. Late respondents were classified as though who responded to the survey after the November 5th follow up email. No significant differences were found between early and late respondents. The variables analyz of Planned Behavior. Attitude towards the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived whether or not they actua lly perform the behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Attitude towards the Subjective norms are described as how a person believes others will perceive them if

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79 they perform or do not perform the behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Perceived behavioral control is the level of control a person believes they have over performing the behavior (Ajzen, 1991). For this study, only variables that fell into the category of attitude towards the behavior we re analyzed. These variables included demographics, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and international experiences (See Figure 2 1). Demographic Variables Respondents were analyzed by the following demographics: gender, years of experience as a teacher or 4 H agent, area in which they do most of their work, and family ancestry. Results can be found in Tables 4 1 and 4 6 Table 4 1 provides the area in which they work, and family ancestry. Table 4 6 provides the frequency distribution of 4 work, and family ancestry. Teachers and agents who responded had similar averages of years of experience, at 14.5 and 1 3.1 years respectively. Both groups were also most likely to do most of their work in a rural area, with 79.3% of teachers and 67.8% of agents selecting rural. Agriculture teacher and 4 H agents who responded to this survey were overwhelmingly of European/ Caucasian ancestry, at 90.2% for teachers, and 91.1% for agents. Though similar in these ways, agriculture teachers were much more likely to be male (57.5%) than 4 H agents (21.5%). This is not unusual, as agriculture extension agents are often male, while 4 H extension agents are often female.

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80 Objective 1: Perceptions of A griculture T eachers and 4 H A gents towards I nternational Agricultural I ssues A 36 item six point Likert type scale was used to assess the personal feelings or thoughts of agriculture teac hers and 4 H agents regarding statements about international agricultural issues. On a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree), teachers averaged 5.01 ( S D = 0.58), while agents averaged 5.13 ( S D = 0.54). Both teachers and agents generally had positive personal feelings or thoughts about the items on the attitude scale. Agriculture teachers and agents both agreed or strongly agriculture and its importance to the wor agreed or strongly agreed with that statement, along with 296 4 H agents. The fewest should know more about the cultures of other co H agents agreed between agriculture teachers and 4 H agents on the att itude scale. A 22 item six point Likert type scale was utilized to measure the personal opinions of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents regarding global agricultural issues. On a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree), teachers averaged 4.68 ( S D = 0.54), while agents averaged 4.74 ( S D = 0.49). Both agriculture teachers and 4 H ents). Agents (307) most frequently agreed or strongly agreed with the statement

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81 agreeable statement to agriculture teachers, with 379 teachers selecting a 5 or 6. The st atement agriculture teachers found most agreeable, with 380 teachers selecting a 5 or the second most agreeable to 4 H agents, with 301 respondents selecting agree o r strongly agree. No statistically significant differences were found on the belief scale between teachers and agents. Objective 2: Knowledge of A gric ulture Teachers and 4 H Agents of International Agricultural I ssues A 20 item multiple choice test based on items from the FAO and the ) International Agricultural Awareness and Understanding Survey by Wingenbach et al. (2003) was used to assess participant knowledge. Both agriculture teachers and 4 H agents had an average of 42% correct. Only 27 (6.5%) agricu lture teachers and 31 (9.6%) agents achieved a passing score of 12 questions correct of 20, as defined by Wingenbach et al. No significant differences were found between agriculture teachers and 4 H agents on the knowledge assessment. Objective 3: I nterna tional E xperiences of A griculture Teachers and 4 H A gents international experiences. The largest number of teachers, 236 (56.6%) indicated that ate global examples or case studies in classes you ived outside the US for a long duration for

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82 short duration for personal reasons. international experiences. Statistically significant differences were found regarding three of the experiences. example c lasses as many 4 H agents may not consider the work they do as teaching or their meeting as classes. Agents were significantly more likely to have globally focused workshops and travel abroad than agriculture teachers. Objective 4: Rel ationship between T eachers and Agents P erceptions and S elected D emographics Correlations between attitudes and beliefs and selected demographics were investigated to determine if any significant relationships existed. No significant relationships were foun d between gender and attitudes, gender and beliefs, years of experience as a teacher or agent and beliefs, area in which the participant conducts most of their work and attitudes, and work area and beliefs. Years of experience and attitudes had a significa nce level of 0 .029, but the Point Biserial correlation of 0 .081 was negligible. Objective 5: Difference between International Experiences and E ducato r K nowledge In order to investigate the potential differences in knowledge based on international experi ences, independent samples t tests were used. Five experiences did not have a significant difference with knowledge at the 0.05 level. The five experiences that had a significant difference with knowledge fell into two main

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83 categories. Two of the experien ces were related to prior or on going learning by the educator, while the other three were related to international travel or living. These experiences may have a longer lasting or stronger impact than other experiences. Objective 6: Difference between Int ernational Experiences and Educator P erceptions Independent samples t tests were used t o investigate the differences in perceptions based on international experience s At the 0 .05 significance level, two experience variables showed no difference with attit udes or beliefs. Two additional experiences did not differ s tatistically Of th e six experience statements that had differences significant at the 0.05 level, three could be categorized as teacher or agent education, while the other three fell into the int ernational travel or living category. The educational experiences may help teachers and agents remain in touch with international issues. The travel and living experiences may be significant because they allow the participants to witness global issues firs thand. Eight experience statements had significant differences with beliefs at the 0.05 level. Four of those statements related to introductory or on going education, indicating the importance of education in cultivating positive beliefs. The other four st atements were related to international travel or living, indicating that firsthand international experience s can affect beliefs. Experiences such as E3, E6, and E7 may affect attitudes because they expose teachers and agents to international issues, either on an introductory on on going basis. Travel and living experiences such as E8, E9, and E10 may affect attitudes because the participant is strongly affected by actually experiencing and witnessing international issues in person.

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84 Discussion and Implicatio ns Objective 1: Perceptions of Agriculture Teachers and 4 H Agents towards International Agricultural I ssues This study found that both agriculture teachers and 4 H agents have overall positive perception s of int ernational agricultural issues. This finding is consistent with several prior studies. Akpan and Martin (1996) found that agricultural education professors nationwide believed that international agricultural issues would become more rriculum should reflect a respect for knowledge of th ). This could correlate closely with the top should know more about agriculture and its importance to the wor at Iowa State University in the College of Agriculture also believed that internationalization was important (King & Martin, 1995). The findings of this study are also consistent with the results of the study by Hossain et al. (1995) showing that Michigan agricscience teachers had positive attitudes towards international ization of the curriculum (1999) results from Pennsylvania Extension educators that found that respondents agreed that learning about other cultures should be an important part of 4 professionals viewed learning about other cultures as a way for youth to grow and develop These results could indicate that teachers and agents would be receptive t o increasing the integration of international agriculture concepts. Cronin Jones (1991) found that teacher beliefs and attitudes played a large role regarding curriculum implementation and strategy choice when teaching a curriculum. Ibezim and McCracken

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85 (1 994) also found that teacher attitudes had a positive relationship with integration of internationali zed agriculture curricula (1990) findings that positive perceptions of international agricultural issues and involvement in 4 H international pro grams are related indicate that this trend holds true in non formal education as well. Objective 2: Knowledge of Agriculture Teachers and 4 H A gents o f International Agricultural I ssues This study found that both teachers and agents did poorly on an asse ssment meant to assess knowledge of international agricultural issues. This is consistent with many previous studies on students at the secondary and post secondary levels. Moore et al. (1996) found that students at Michigan State University had significan t gaps in their knowledge of international agriculture Further, Wingenbach et al. (2003) found that Texas A&M University juniors and seniors scored extremely poorly on an older version of the same knowledg e test used in this study Secondary students at t he about people and culture knowledge and agricultural products and policies knowledge (Radhakrishna et al., 2003). Studies by Mason et al. (1994) and Mamontova and Bruenin g (2005) also evidenced the serious lack of inter national agricultural knowledge in undergraduate agricultural students. In this study, the results suggest that the low knowledge scores of secondary and undergraduate students are carried into professions s uch as agriculture teacher and 4 H agent. This may suggest that agriculture teachers and 4 H agents are not receiving adequate in service professional development and training regarding international agricultural issues. Increasing educator knowledge of gl obal agricultural issues may

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86 encourage teachers and agents to use global issues in their work more often ( Ibezim & McCracken, 1994 ; Navarro, 2005). Both groups had higher percentages of correct answers on questions that could be considered general knowled ge, or questions that have answers that are more widely projection of world popul Not all agriculture teachers and 4 H agents were in agriculture programs in secondary or postsecondary school, but access to the media and postsecondary education may have provided respondents with the knowledge to accurately answer these types of questions. Both groups had low percentages of correct answers on questions that contain According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Clima te Change, as of 2007, which sector contributed the largest percentage o on questions about cultural customs suc In East Africa, it is expected that everyone will ____________ upon greeting each other at a meeting, an d upon departure from is possible that more general questio ns about cultural customs may have elicited more correct answers. Teachers and agents also tended to underestimate the percent of According to the Food and Agriculture

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87 Organization of the UN (FAO), as of 2008, w population was undernou Objective 3: I nternatio nal Experiences of Agriculture Teachers and 4 H A gents This study found that a relatively small number o f teachers and age nts had international experiences. Agents not consider their work as teaching classes. The most common experience for agents Teachers were significantly more likely to integrate global example and ca se studies into classes, though the low number of agents may be due to wording. Agents were significantly more likely to have participated in workshops with a global focus and to have traveled internationally for personal reasons. This may be due to the a vailability of workshops or a higher desire to attend them in agents. This is consistent with the statistic s from the Institute of International Education that show only 1.3% of agriculture students study abroad (2011). Though not all agriculture teacher s and 4 H agents were agriculture students, this may explain some of the low participation rates. Sammons and Martin (1997) also found that a low amount of Iowa State University agricultural major undergraduates had participated in international experience s other tha n foreign language classes Mamontova and Bruening (2005) found that Penn State undergraduates were least interested in participating in study

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88 abroad when given a list of international experiences, and that despite the value, many students had n ot participated in international activities These results are also consistent with findings by Wingenbach et al. (2003) that the fewest number of agricultural undergraduate students had participated i n IFYE or work experience The results of this study i ndicate that the quality of international experiences may be more important than the quantity. Though teachers and agents both had moderate amounts of international experiences, there is no way to measure the quality of the experiences participants had. Te achers and agents may feel that their time is not well spent on the types of international experiences currently available to them. Teachers and agents may also have a hard time finding time to take off in order to attend conferences or participate in othe r activities. Additionally, many schools and county extension offices may discourage works from taking time off, especially for international experiences, which may be seen as less valuable. Local politics in schools and extension offices may mean that tim e taken off for international experiences is not seen as valuable. Neither profession is particularly well paid, presenting another barrier to participation in international activities. Another barrier to participation is family, since many agents and tea chers may be unable to take family with them during experiences, or unable to leave their family for a period of time. Teachers and agents are also unlikely to work a traditional nine to five workday, making taking time off more taxing on work and family s chedules. Providing high quality, purposeful international experiences with evident, real world application may draw mo re attendants to professional

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89 development experiences These experiences could be provided by universities, extension offices, or indepen dent workshop suppliers. Obj ective 4: Relationship between T eachers and A gents Perceptions and Selected D emographics This study found no significant relationships between gender and beliefs, years of experience as a teacher or agent and beliefs, years of e xperience and attitudes, area in which the participant conducts most of their work and attitudes, and work area and beliefs. This is inconsistent with prior studies. Ibezim and McCracken (1994) found positive relationships between years teaching and level of integration Hossain et al (1995) had results that conflicted with thos e of Ibezim and McCracken (1994) when they found that younger teachers had more favorable attitudes towards internationalization than older teachers (1995). In a review of the lit erature, Schuerholz Lehr (2007) found that many, but not all, studies indicated that females were mor e world minded than males Zhai and Scheer (2004) also found that female students had a more positive global perspective and attitude than males The resul ts of this study suggest that gender, years of experience, and work area do not have a significant effect on the attitudes and beliefs. Gender may not have had a significant relationship with perceptions because not all prior studies showed a link. The lac k of relationship between years of experience and perceptions and work area and perceptions may be due to consistencies in training and educational background across the professions. The lack of relationships may be beneficial to professional development d esigners, as t his may indicate that a single professional development can be applied to teacher and agents across gender, years of experience, and work area.

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90 Objective 5: Difference between International Experiences and Educator K nowledge The results of t his stud y found that no significant differences existed between any of the ten international experiences and knowledge scores. This is inconsistent with the study by R adhakrishna et al. (2003) of secondary students indicated that those who participated in IFYE had higher knowledge scores than those who had not (2003). Though IFYE was not one of the experiences listed, agents and teachers were given to option to indicate that they had studied abroad for a short or long period of time. It is also inconsistent with the findings of Boyd et al. (2003) that IFYE participation increased global awareness of participants Bruening and Frick (2004) found that participants in an internationally focused class with a travel component felt they better understood culture The results of this study suggest that quality of international experience may matter more than quantity However, respondents were not asked to indicate when they participated in the international experience. The respondents have been working for an aver age of about 15 years, meaning they may have participated in international experiences during postsecondary education. I nternational 4 H Y outh Exchange (IFYE) could be an example of a high quality experience due to the care taken to ensure that participant s have a positive educational experience. Participants are placed with multiple carefully chosen host families for about 1 month each, for a total of three to six to day activities (IFYE As sociation of the USA, Inc., 2012). Participants are also provided with information on preparing for the trip and on creating presentations about the experience. High quality international experiences may provide more significant effects than do lower quali ty, or less purposeful, experiences.

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91 Objective 6: Difference between I nternational Experiences and Educator P erceptions This study found that international experiences as a whole did not practically affect a globally focused course as a difference with beliefs. This is inconsistent with prior research. In a review of the literature, Schuerholz Lehr (2007) described a strong positive relationship between international travel and i ntercult ural perspectives Sammons and Martin (1997) found that participation in international activities had a significant, positive effect on Iowa State University undergra duate perceptions Bruening and Frick (2004) also found positive results from the use of a n internationally focused undergraduate course with a travel compone nt on student perceptions The results of this study are also inconsistent ( 2002 ) study of student teachers. After an 8 to 15 week overseas student t eaching experience, the participants reported an increase in positive perceptions, such as trust and openness to diversity (Cusher & Mahon, 2002). The results of this study also conflicted with the findings of King and Martin (1995) that international trav el by faculty was positively linked to support of curric ulum internationalization and Martin (1996) that international travel by agricultural education professors was positively rela ted to higher perceptions Reaman (1990) also found that international travel by 4 H professional in Pennsylvania was positively related to attitudes towards 4 H international programs Though agents and teachers were not asked about their attitude towards 4 H i findings that international travel and perceptions were positively related.

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92 In this study, the results suggested that international experiences were not significantly different with perceptio ns of international agricultural issues. This may speak to the importance of the use of more purposeful international experiences. It is possible that the international experiences the agents and teachers had were not well focused and purposeful, leading t o a lack of difference with perceptions. However, the importance of the passage of time cannot be measured in this study. Respondents were not asked to indicate when they participated in international experiences, meaning that the effect of time cannot be evaluated. It is likely that the passage of time diminished any positive outcomes from international experiences teachers and agents had. Recommendations This study addressed the issue of global agricultural issues in formal and nonformal agricultural edu cation programs on a national scale. Few studies have compared formal and nonformal agricultural education regarding global agricultural issues, and even fewer have done it on a multi state basis More research must be done to determine if the results of t his study and others is consistent nationwide. Additional research will help curriculum designers, profession development coordinators, agricultural educators, professors, and others better prepare students, agriculture teachers, and 4 H extension agents f or a globalized economy. Recommendations for extension and agriculture teacher education, in service educators, and future research are included below. interconnected. It is crucial that formal and informal agricultural education programs prepare students for employment in a global economy. Recent studies indicate that

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93 despite global education becoming a hot button topic in the 1960s, global issues are still not implemented in to agricultural education often enough (Ibezim & McCracken, 1994). More research is necessary to determine what can be done to help teachers and agents integrate global issues into their work with agricultural youth. Integration of global issues would ben efit the future agriculture workers in formal and informal agriculture programs. Without a change in the status of integration of international issues, the U.S. will continue to lose economic power (Schuh, 1989). Recommendations for Extension and Agricul ture Teacher Education Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations for extension and agriculture teacher education were made: 1. Agricultural teacher and extension educators should consider integrating more high quality, purposeful inte rnational experiences into their undergrad uate programs. 2. Educators of agriculture teachers and 4 H agents should provide more examples of how to integrate international issues into classes with youth/students. 3. Based on the finding that international experi ences and perceptions are not related, which is inconsistent with previous research, more intentional international experiences should be developed. More intentional, high quality experiences may have an effect on perceptions. Recommendations for In Servi ce Educators Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations for in service extension and agriculture teacher education were made: 1. In service training and professional development regarding important current international issues may need to be improved both in terms of content and relevance to the needs of the teachers and agents participating 2. In service educators should make an effort to increase their knowledge of international agricultural issues in order to better prepare their studen ts for employment in a globalized workplace.

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94 3. In service educators should attempt to use global issues where applicable in their programs. Previous studies have indicated that secondary and postsecondary students lack knowledge of and experience with intern ational issues, and that they are interested in learning about global issues. Recommendations for Future Research Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations for future research were made: 1. Due to the low KR 20 found for the knowledg e assessment, replication with a more reliable instrument in similar groups would be useful to determine the true level of teacher and agent knowledge of international agricultural issues. 2. Due to the finding that international experiences and perceptions were not related, inconsistent with prior research, a follow up study using qualitative methodology should be done. This research should seek to determine why international experiences and perceptions were no related in this respondent group. 3. Inconsistent with prior research, this study found no relationship between demographic variables such as gender, years of experience, and work area and perception. Future research should further investigate these phenomena. 4. Future research should seek to determine if use of internationally focused professional development workshops increase knowledge, perceptions, or integration of global agricultural issues. 5. Future research should seek to determine the impact of an educator centered travel abroad experience on knowle dge, perceptions, and integration of global agricultural issues. 6. Future research should take care to use more neutral terms in the survey instrument questions. For example, 4 H agents may not consider their work as falling into the ed by agriculture teachers. 7. Future research on international experiences should include an indication of when the experience most recently occurred. This information would be helpful in determining if the effect of international experiences decreases over time and how many participants have received in service training. Summary Chapter 5 conclusions for each objective were given Chapter 5 then presented a discussion and implications regardin g each objective. During the discussion and implications, each

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95 inconsistency with prior research. Finally Chapter 5 gave several recommendations for extension and agriculture tea cher educators, in service educators, and future research.

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96 APPENDIX A SURVEY INSTRUMENT Instructions The following sections contain questions about knowledge, awareness, and understanding of international agriculture policy, products, people and culture. Please answer each item to the best of your ability. Answer all items completely. All your answers will remain confidential. Your participation in this study is voluntary. Section I. Knowledge about International Agricultural Issues Read each statement c arefully and circle the letter that best represents your answer. 1. Generally, who carries out most of the field work on an African farm? a. Men & Children b. Men & Women c. Men d. Women 2. What is the primary household fuel in Africa and Asia? a. Natural gas b. Petroleum c. Wood d. Coal 3. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), as of 2008, a. 10% b. 13% c. 16% d. 18% 4. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, as of 2007, which sector contribut ed the largest percentage of greenhouse gas emissions? a. Industry b. Agriculture c. Transport d. Energy supply 5. 2010? a. 10% b. 20% c. 30% d. 40% 6. Which following sequence correctly ranks, from m ost to least, the four languages most spoken worldwide?

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97 a. Chinese, Hindi, English, Spanish b. Chinese, Russian English, French c. English, Chinese, Arabic, Hindi d. Spanish, English, Russian, Arabic 7. In what part of the world are you most likely to find a hand dug un derground irrigation system called a ghanat (quanat) that may extend for many miles from the mountains to fields out to the plains? a. Eastern China b. Middle East c. South East Asia d. Central Africa 8. As of 2012, how many countries are members of the European Union? a. 21 b. 23 c. 25 d. 27 9. Although large areas of land are brought into cultivation throughout the world each year, large amounts are also rendered useless or are reduced in productive capacity for each of the reasons below except: a. wind and water soil erosion. b. salt bui ldup in irrigated land. c. lack of sufficient farm labor. d. converting agricultural land to other uses. 10. According to the FAO, which food sector uses a greater variety of biodiversity than any other? a. Grain production b. Red meat production c. Fruit and vegetable prod uction d. Capture fisheries 11. a. Kalahari b. Sahara c. Serengeti d. Sonoran 12. What country produces the largest volume of swine? a. China b. Brazil c. Mexico d. Japan

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98 13. Which cereal grain is the basic food for more than half o a. Wheat b. Oats c. Barley d. Rice 14. Considering developing and developed countries, the projection of the world population for the year 2050 shows the largest segment will be in: a. Africa b. Latin America c. Asia and Oceania d. North America and Europe 15. Which country is the largest producer of tea in the world? a. India b. Sri Lanka c. United Kingdom d. Bangladesh 16. In East Africa, it is expected that everyone will ____________ upon greeting each other at a meeting, and upon departure from meetings. a. shake hands b. kiss both cheeks c. politely nod d. bow at the waist 17. According to UNESCO, as of 2000, approximately what percent of the urban population did not have piped water in its house? a. 15% b. 20% c. 25% d. 30% 18. As of 2010, the percent of useable land in the world for food production is: a. 7% b. 17% c. 27% d. 37% 19. According to the FAO, about how many crop species provide 95% of human food energy needs? a. 10 b. 30 c. 50 d. 100

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99 20. population? a. Proteins b. Vitamins c. Carbohydrates d. F ats

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100 Section II. Attitudes about International Agricultural Issues Listed below are statements relative to attitudes and beliefs toward international agricultural issues. Please indicate your level of agreement by checking the appropriate column for each statement. Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree Youth/Students should know more about ___________________. 1 agriculture and its importance to the world economy 2 the differences be tween developed and developing countries 3 products 4 the cultures of other countries 5 connections to world trade 6 agricultural produc ts that their home state sells to other countries 7 how world agriculture affects food prices in the local grocery store 8 how world events affect local agriculture in their community 9 the agricultural products from other countries th at are consumed in their state Please indicate your level of agreement with each of the following statements: 10 learning more about agriculture in other countries will help youth/students understand future changes in world agricultural pro duction. 11 marketing agricultural products to other 12 marketing U. S. agricultural products to other countries will help the U. S. economy. 13 politics has a major effect on world agricultur e. 14 American culture has a major effect on agriculture in other countries. 15 world events impact the agricultural industry in their community. 16 global food production affects food prices in my local grocery store. 17 if pr operly instructed, youth/students can understand basic international agricultural

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101 concepts. 18 if properly instructed, youth/students can understand international career opportunities in agriculture. Youth/Students are more likely to underst and global agriculture if instructed about __________. 19 major agricultural products produced in their country 20 major agricultural products produced in their home state 21 major export markets for U. S. agricultural products 22 c ountries that need U. S. agricultural products 23 the economic issues between the U. S. and other countries 24 the political issues between the U. S. and other countries 25 the humanitarian issues between the U. S. and other countries Considering U. S. agricultural exports, youth/students should be instructed on other ______ 26 cultures 27 infrastructure (educational system, transportation system, major industries, etc.) 28 standard of living 29 natural resources 30 agricultural production practices Lessons on global agricultural issues should __________________. 31 not be too complex for youth/students 32 help youth/students appreciate the int erdependency of nations around the world 33 prepare youth/students for future changes in global agriculture 34 provide an opportunity for youth/students to interact with people in other parts of the world 35 help youth/students underst and global agricultural marketing systems 36 help youth/students function better as a citizen in a global society

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102 Section III. Educator Beliefs about Global Agricultural Issues Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree 1 international agriculture involves more than farming 2 global agriculture is different from one country to another 3 global food production allows me to eat a variety of products all year 4 natur al disasters affect the price of food in my local grocery store 5 in times of famine, the U. S. should help other countries with food aid 6 the US should actively help other countries develop their agricultural industries 7 competition between producers worldwide keeps food prices low in my grocery store 8 understanding other cultures helps U. S. producers market their products abroad 9 understanding global politics helps U. S. producers market their products abroad 10 US agricultural products are superior in quality to products from other countries I learn about global agricultural issu es from ________________ _. 11 watching selected television programs 12 listening to selected radio programs 13 attending events such as fairs or shows 14 participating in study abroad programs 15 taking vacations in other countries 16 my college classes 17 professional development It is important for youth/student s to learn about ____________________. 18 global food security and hunger 19 climate change 20 sustainable energy 21 childhood obesity 22 food safety

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103 Section IV: Educator Experiences Please indicate if you have had the following experiences: 1 participated in a short term study abroad experience as a student (1 to 3 weeks) 2 participated in a long term study abroad experience as a student (> 3 weeks) 3 took a globally focused course as a student 4 liv ed outside the US for a short duration for professional reasons (< 1 year) 5 lived outside the US for a long duration for professional reasons (> 1 year) 6 participated in professional development workshop(s) with a global focus 7 integrate globa l examples or case studies in classes you teach 8 lived outside the US for a short duration for personal reasons 9 lived outside the US for a long duration for personal reasons 10 traveled internationally for personal reasons (i.e. vacation, etc.) 11 Do you have any international experiences that are not reflected in the list above? If so, what are they? Open ended: 1. How often do you integrate global issues into your work with youth/students? 2. What activities do you currently use to inform youth/students about international agriculture and global food issues? 3. What would make globalizing your work with youth/students easier? Section IV. Demographics 1. Gender: __ Female __ Male 2. Years of experience as an agriculture teacher or 4 H agent: ____ 3. In what state do you work?

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104 ______________ 4. Would you describe the community in which you do most of your work as: __ Rural __ Suburban __ Urban 5. People in the U.S. come from different ancestries. Check the one below that best describes your fam ily's ancestry. __ European/Caucasian __ African American __ Mexican/Latin American __ Arab __ Asian __ Puerto Rican __ Native American __ Other Caribbean ancestry

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105 APPENDIX B IRB APPROVAL AND INFORMED CONSENT

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106

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107 APPENDIX C SURVEY PRENOTICE EMAIL Alaba ma example a different name was used in the salutation to personalize the prenotice to each state. Alabama 4 H Agents, I am writing to ask you for your help with an important study being conducted by the University of Florida to understand the integratio n of global agricultural issues into secondary agriculture classes. In the next few days, you will receive a request from the email address noreply@qemailserver.com to participate in this project by answering questions about your knowledge, perceptions, and experiences regarding global agriculture. This study has been approved by the National Association of Extension 4 H Agents and will contribute valuable information. I would like to do everything I can to m ake it easy and enjoyable for you to participate in the study. I am writing in advance because many people like to know ahead of time that they will be asked to fill out a questionnaire. This research can only be successful with the help of generous people like you. To say thanks, I am including a document outlining the previous research done on this along with a summary of previous research. I have also included resources for educating youth about global agricultural issues, and some information about me. I will also be following up with a summary of the results of this study, which will be emailed to all invitees and shared with NA4 HEA. I hope you will take 15 25 minutes of your time to help us. Most of all, I hope that you enjoy the questionnaire and the opportunity to voice your thoughts and opinions about the integration of global agricultural issues. Please contact me with any questions or concerns you have, SD hurst@ufl.edu or (352)273 2093 Thank you! Sara Sara Hurst Graduate Student Dept. of Agricultural Education and Communication 406 Rolfs Hall (352) 273 2093

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108 APPENDIX D INITIAL SURVEY INVITATION E MAIL Hi ${m://FirstName}, H agents nationwide integrate global issues into their work with youth/students. I am conducting this research in order discover how teachers and agents are succeeding in integrating global issues, and what resources would be helpful in encouraging more integration. The best way to find out what teachers and agents need is to ask teachers and agents l ike yourself to share their thoughts and opinions. This is a short survey and should take no more than 15 25 minutes to complete. Please click on the link below to access the survey website and begin the survey. Follow this link to the Survey: ${l://Su rveyLink? D = Take the Survey} Or copy and paste the URL below into your internet browser: ${l://SurveyURL} Your responses are voluntary and will be kept confidential. If you have any questions about this survey, or you have difficulties with the survey, I am happy to help and can be reached by telephone at (352)273 2093 or by email at sdhurst@ufl.edu This study has been reviewed and approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board and by entering th e survey you are agreeing to participate in the study. If you have questions about your rights as a participant in this study, you may contact them by phone at (352)392 0433. I appreciate your time and consideration in completing the survey. Thank you fo r participating in this study! I hope you enjoy completing the questionnaire and look forward to receiving responses. Thanks! Sara Sara Hurst Graduate Student Dept. of Agricultural Education and Communication 406 Rolfs Hall (352)273 2093

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109 APPENDIX E FIRST REMINDER E MAIL NOTICE Hi ${m://FirstName}, Last week I sent you an email asking you to respond to a brief survey about how agriculture teachers and 4 H agents nationwide integrate global issues into their work with youth/students. Your responses to this survey are important as they will help in developing resources such as curriculum and lesson plans to make teaching about global agricultural issues easier in the future. I know you are extremely busy, but this survey is short and should take you only about 15 25 minutes to complete. If you have already completed the survey, I appreciate your participation. Please click on the link below to go to the survey website and begin the survey. Follow this link to the Survey: ${l://SurveyLink? D = Take the Survey} Or copy and paste the URL below into your internet browser: ${l://SurveyURL} Your response is important. Getting direct feedback from teachers and 4 H agents is crucial in improving the quantity and quality of education materials available. Thank you for your help by completing the survey. Sincerely Sara Sara Hurst Graduate Student Dept. of Agricultural Education and Communication 406 Rolfs Hall (352)273 2093 Follow the link to opt out of future emails: ${l://OptOutLink? D = Click here to unsubscribe}

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110 APPENDIX F SECOND REMINDER E MAIL NOTICE Agriculture Teacher example Hi ${m://FirstName}, At this time, you have received several requests asking you to respond to a brief survey about how you incorporate global agricultural issues into your work with youth/students. As we work to develop strategies to enhance and assist you in incorporating international issues, it is imperative we get feedback fro m the field. You are receiving this follow up email if you haven't completed the survey at this time or if you have completed part of it. If you have completed part of it, please complete the rest by clicking on the link below. If you have already begun t he survey, the system will have saved your responses up to this point and will start you where you left off. I realize you have probably had a busy week at FFA National convention, but if you could take the 15 25 minutes to complete the survey, we would r eally appreciate it. Please click on the link below to go to the survey website and begin the survey. Follow this link to the Survey: ${l://SurveyLink? D = Take the Survey} Or copy and paste the URL below into your internet browser: ${l://SurveyURL} As many of you already know, this is a multi state study designed to assist in developing curriculum and resources for educators nationwide. Getting a high response to this survey is an important part of being able to make good judgments about what works for you in relation to integration of globalized curriculum. Many have taken the time to respond, so we would really appreciate your participation. Again, your response is extremely important. If you believe you are receiving these notifications in error, pl ease let me know. Thank you for your help by completing the survey, and have a fantastic week! Sincerely Sara Sara Hurst Graduate Student, University of Florida Dept. of Agricultural Education and Communication

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111 406 Rolfs Hall (352)273 2093 Follow th e link to opt out of future emails: ${l://OptOutLink? D = Click here to unsubscribe}

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112 APPENDIX G THIRD REMINDER E MAIL NOTICE Hi ${m://FirstName}, The Global Agricultural Issues survey is about to close! Over the past few weeks, you have received several requests asking you to respond to a survey about how you integrate global agricultural issues into your work with youth/students. This survey will be closing at 5pm on Friday, November 9 th and we need as many responses as possible. It is truly imperative we get the feedback from the field that this survey provides. If you could please find 15 25 minutes to complete the survey this week we would really appreciate it. Please click on the link below to go to the survey website and begin the survey. Follo w this link to the Survey: ${l://SurveyLink? D = Take the Survey} Or copy and paste the URL below into your internet browser: ${l://SurveyURL} Again, your response is extremely important. If you believe you are receiving these notifications in error, pleas e let me know. Thank you for your help in completing the survey and have a great week! Sincerely, Sara Sara Hurst Graduate Student, University of Florida Dept. of Agricultural Education and Communication 406 Rolfs Hall (352)273 2093 Follow the link t o opt out of future emails : ${l://OptOutLink? D = Click here to unsubscribe}

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113 APPENDIX H SURVEY CLOSING E MAIL NOTICE Hi ${m://FirstName}, This is your last chance! The Global Agricultural Issues survey will close at 5pm today! If you could please hop on line and complete the survey I would really appreciate it. To do so click on the link below to go to the survey website and begin the survey. Follow this link to the Survey: ${l://SurveyLink? D = Take the Survey} Or copy and paste the URL below into you r internet browser: ${l://SurveyURL} Your response is extremely important and thank you so much for your time! Have a wonderful weekend. Sara Sara Hurst Graduate Student, University of Florida Dept. of Agricultural Education and Communication 406 Rolf s Hall (352)273 2093

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114 APPENDIX I EXPERTS Panel of Experts for the Survey Instrument Gary Wingenbach, PhD Professor and Senior Scientist Norman Borlaug Institute for International Agriculture Department of Agricultural Leadership, Education, and Communi cations Texas A&M University 2116 TAMU College Station, TX 77843 2116 Kristi n Davis, PhD Research Fellow Senior Research Staff Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services International Food Policy Research Institute 2033 K St, NW Washington, DC 20006 1002 P ete Vergot III, PhD District Extension Director University of Florida IFAS Extension Professor Agricultural Education and Communication University of Florida 155 Research Road Quincy, FL 32351 Walter Bowen, PhD Director of International programs Universit y of Florida IFAS 2039 McCarty Hall Box 1110282 Gainesville, FL 32611 0282

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115 LIST OF REFERENCES Acker, D. (1989). Internationalizing agricultural curricula: Who will get it done? In E. Porath (Eds.), Educating for a global perspective: International agri cultural curricula for 2005 (pp.1 10). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Madison. Acker, D. G. (1999). Improving the quality of higher education in agriculture globally in the 21st century: Constraints and opportunities. Journal of International Agricul tural and Extension Education, 6 (2), 47 53. Retrieved from http://www.aiaee.org/journal.html Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50 179 211. Retrieved from http://www.cas.hse.ru/ Akpan, M., & Martin, R. A. (1996). Perceptions and activities of agricultural education professors in U.S. institutions of higher education regarding internationalization of the agricultural education curriculum. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 3 (2), 63 71. Retrieved from http://www.aiaee.org/journal.html Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., & Sorenson, C. ( 2010). Introduction to research in education (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. Attitude. (n.d.). In Merriam Retrieved from http://www.merriam webster.com/dictionary/attitude Becker, J. (2002). Globalization and global education ever the twain shall meet? The International Social Studies Forum, 2 (1), 51 57. Retrieved from http://jri.sagepub.com/ Belief. (n.d.). In Merriam Retrieved from http://www.merriam webster.com/dictionary/belief Bowen, C. F., Radhakrishna, R., & Keyeser, R. (1994). Job satisfaction and co mmitment of 4 H agents. Journal of Extension, 32 (1). Retrieved from http://www.joe.org/journal current issue.php 3). Does study abroad make a difference? An impact assessment of the International 4 H Youth Exchange program. Journal of Extension, 39 (5). Retrieved from http://www.joe.org/journal current issue. php Bransford, J., Darling Hammond, L., & LePage, P. (2005). Introduction. In L. Darling Hammond & J. Bransford (Eds.), Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do (pp.1 39). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass

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116 Brueni ng, T. H., & Frick, M. (2004). Evaluation of selected courses intended to internationalize the curriculum in the College of Agriculture at Montana State University. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 11 (1), 17 24. Retrieved from http://www.aiaee.org/journal.html Conners, J. J. (2003). International knowledge and attitudes of FFA Costa Rican travel seminar participants Paper presented at the meeting of Association for Internation al Agricultural and Extension Education, Raleigh, NC. Retrieved from http://www.aiaee.org/journal.html Cronin Jones, L. L. (1991). Science teacher beliefs and their influence in curriculum implementation: Two case studies. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28 (3), 235 250. Cushner, K., & Mahon, J. (2002). Overseas students teaching: Affecting personal, professional, and global competencies in an age of globalization. Journal of Studies in Internationa l Education, 6 (1) 44 58. doi: 10.1177/1028315302006001004 Darling Hammond, L., & Baratz Snowden, J. (Eds.). (2005). A good teacher in every classroom: Preparing the highly qualified teachers our children deserve San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass Dillman, D A, Smyth, J. D., & Christian, L. M. (2009). Internet, mail, and mixed mode surveys: The tailored design method. (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Doerfert, D. L. (Ed.) (2011). National research agenda: American Association for Agricultural 2015. Lubbock, TX. Retrieved from http://aaaeonline.org/ Elliot, J., & Yanik, R. (2002). An analysis of secondary student attitudes and beliefs relative to international a gricultural issues Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, Durban, South Africa. Retrieved from http://www.aiaee.org/journal.html Globaliz ation. (n.d.). In Merriam Retrieved from http://www.merriam webster.com/dictionary/globalization Harris, C. R., & Birkenholz, R. J. (1996). Agricultural l iteracy of Missouri secondary school educators. Journal of Agricultural Education, 37 (2), 63 71 doi: 10.5032/jae. 1996.02063 Henson, J. B., & Noel, J. C. (1989). Faculty and the internationalization of the agricultural education curriculum for the year 20 05. In E. Porath (Eds.), Educating for a global perspective: International agricultural curricula for 2005 (pp.1 10). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Madison

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117 Hicks, D. (2003). Thirty years of global education: A reminder of key principles and preceden ts. Educational Review, 55 (3), 265 275. doi: 10.1080/0013191032000118929 Hossain, M. D., Moore, E. A., & Elliot, J. (1995). Attitudes of agricscience teachers in Michigan towards internationalizing agricultural education programs Paper presented at the m eeting of the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from http://www.aiaee.org/journal.html Ibezim, D. O., & McCracken, J. D. (1994) Factors associate d with internationalization of secondary level agricultural education programs. Journal of Agricultural Education, 35 (3), 44 49. doi: 10.5032/jae.1994.03044 IFYE Association of the USA, Inc. (2012, August). The adventure of a lifetime! Retrieved from http://www.ifyeusa.org/home.html Ingram, P. D. (1999). Attitudes of extension professionals towards diversity education in 4 H programs. Journal of Extension, 37 (1). Retrieved from http://www.joe.org/journal current issue.php Institute of International Education. (2011). [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.iie.org/en Integration. (n .d.). In Merriam Retrieved from http://www.merriam webster.com/dictionary/integration International. (n.d.). In Merriam Retriev ed from http://www.merriam webster.com/dictionary/international Israel, G. D. (1992). Determining sample size (Publication #PEOD6). Gainesville, FL: IFAS. Retrieved from https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ King, D. R., & Martin, R. A. (1995). Perceptions regarding the infusion of a global perspective into the curriculum as identified by the faculty of the College of Agriculture at Iowa State Universi ty. Journal of Agricultural and Extension Education, 2 (1), 26 35. Retrieved from http://www.aiaee.org/journal.html Knight, J. (1994). Internationalization: Elements and checkpoints Ottawa: Canadian Bureau for International Education. Lindner, J. R., Murphy, T. H., & Briers, G. E. (2001). Handling nonresponse in social science research. Journal of Agricultural Education, 42 (4), 43 53. doi: 10.5032/jae.2001.04043

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118 Mamontova N. N., & Bruening, T. H. (2005). Undergraduate students perceptions of internationalization and international involvement activities Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, San Antonio, TX. Marinos, N., & Bruening, T. (201 0, March/April). Integration of international agriculture at Twin Valley High School. Agricultural Education Magazine, 82 (5), 8 10. Retrieved from http://www.naae.org/links/agedmagazine/ Mason, S. C. Eskridge, K. M., Kliewer, B., Bonifas, G., Deprez, J., Medinger Pallas, C., & Meyer, M. (1994). A survey: Student interest and knowledge of international agriculture. North American Colleges and Teachers of Agriculture Journal, 38 (2), 34 38. Retrieved fr om http://www.nactateachers.org/journal.html Moore, E. A., Ingram, P. D., & Dhital, P. (1996). College of agriculture and non college of agriculture students knowledge about international agricultu re and related factors. Journal of Agricultural Education, 37 (4), 14 22. doi: 10.5032/jae.1996.04014 The National FFA Organization. (2011, November). FFA statistics. Retrieved from https://www.ffa.org/P ages/default.aspx National Research Council. (2009). Transforming agricultural education for a changing world. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Navarro, M. (2005, May). Associations between faculty self perceived international knowledge and thei r perspectives on strategies to internationalize the agricultural curriculum Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, San Antonio, TX. Retrieved from http://www.aiaee.org/journal.html Phipps, L. J., Osborne, E. W., Dyer, J. E., & Ball, A. (2008). Handbook on agricultural education in public schools (6th ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning Radhakrishna, R. B., Leite, F. C., & Hill, R. J. (2003, April). Relationships between global awareness and understanding and participation in international activities Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, Raleigh, NC. Retrieved from http://www.aiaee.org/journal.html Reaman, K. K. (1990). International programming delivered by county 4 H professionals Rossetti, R., & McCaslin, N. L. (1994). A status report on middle grade agricultural education and FFA programs in the United States. Journal of Agricultural Education, 35 (2), 22 26. doi: 10.5032/jae.1994.02022

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119 Sammons, S., & Martin, R. A. (1996. march). Building linka ges with students: Internationalization of the curriculum as perceived by undergraduates in the College of Agriculture, Iowa State University Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, Arlingt on, VA. Retrieved from http://www.aiaee.org/journal.html Schuh, G. E. (1989). The rationale for international agricultural education for the 21st century. In E. Porath (Eds.), Educating for a global perspe ctive: International agricultural curricula for 2005 (pp.1 10). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Madison. Shoulders, C. W. (2012). The effects of a socioscientific issues instructional model n edge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science (Doctoral dissertation). University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Shoulders, C. W., & Myers, B. E. (2010, July/August). Globally based SAEs Encouraging students to experience international agriculture. Agricultural Education Magazine, 83 (1), 5 8. Retrieved from http://www.naae.org/links/agedmagazine/ U.S. Department of Agriculture, 4 H National Headquarters. (2 010). 2010 4 H Youth development ES 237 statistics Retrieved from http://www.4 h.org/ Vannatta, R. A., & Fordham N. (2004). Teacher dispositions as predictors of classroom technology use. Journal of Research on Technol ogy in Education, 36 (3), 253 271. Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/learn/publications/journals/jrte Wingenbach, G. J., Boyd, B., Lindner, J. R., Dick, S., Arispe, S., & Haba, S. (2003, April). Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, Raleigh, NC. Retrieved from http://www.aiaee.org/journal.html Zeichner, K. (2010, June). Preparing globally competent teachers: A U.S. perspective. 2010 Colloquium on the internationalization of teacher education Symposium conducted at the meeting of NAFSA: Associatio n of International Educators, Kansas City, KS. Zhai, L., & Scheer, S. D. (2004). Global perspectives and attitudes toward cultural diversity among summer agriculture students at the Ohio State University. Journal of Agricultural Education, 45 (2), 39 51. do i: 10.5032/jae.2004.02039

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120 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Sara D. Hurst grew up in Lutz, Florida, a suburb of Tampa. Sara was involved in agriculture from a young age, and joined FFA in 6 th grade. She was a member and an officer throughout high school, graduating i n 2007 from Freedom High School in Tampa, Florida. Upon graduation, Sara attended the University of South Florida where she majored in Environmental Science and Policy. After two years, she transferred to the degree in Agricultural Education and Communication, specializing in agricultural education, graduating in 2011. Upon completion, Sara accepted a graduate assistantship at the University of Florida in Agricultural Education and Communication department to work on her the class AEC3033: Research and Business Writing. Sara also conducted research related to short term study abroad experiences, perceptions of international agr icultural issues, agricultural systems of other countries, teacher education learning communities, and preflection and reflection as related to student understanding.