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1 A CASE STUDY OF REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES: CREATIVE REVITALIZATION OF THE SOUTH 8 TH STREET CORRIDOR IN FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA By ASHLEY CHAFFIN MCGEHEE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013
2 2013 Ashley Chaffin McGehee
3 To my parents
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my Chair, Dr. Kristen Larsen and my Co Chair Dr. Joseli Macedo for their assistance and insight during my thesis research. Additionally, I would like to thank Marty Hylton and the Preservation Institute: Nantucket field school for for mally introducing me to the necessity of preservation and planning for the future of our built environment. I also thank my many professors from the University of Mississippi and the University of Florida, each of them have made a lasting impact on my life and have challenged me over the past six years. Special thanks are due to the planning staff at the Fernandina Beach Community Development Department, Marshall McCrary, Adrienne Burke, and Kelly Gibson, for guiding me through my first municipal planning experience. Each of them give so much of themselves to their work and are diligently working to make Fernandina Beach a greater place for current and future residents. I would also like to thank Christie Pascal and Todd Rimmer for being wonderful mentors d uring my internship with Walt Disney Imagineering. Lastly, I would like to thank my parents for raising me to be who I am today and all of their love and support. I would also like to thank my husband, Curtis, for his wisdom and constant encouragement
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 9 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 14 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTI ON ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 17 Introduction to the South 8 th Street Corridor Study Area ................................ ......... 18 Redevelopment Strategies ................................ ................................ ...................... 19 Crea tive Placemaking ................................ ................................ ............................. 19 Motivation for Redevelopment ................................ ................................ ................ 21 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ .................... 23 The Evolution of Municipal Corridors ................................ ................................ ...... 24 The Importance of Aesthetics, Vibrancy, and Place in Redevelopment Strategies ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 26 Historic preservation and adaptive use ................................ ............................ 27 Quality of place ................................ ................................ ................................ 28 Creative placemaking and development ................................ ........................... 31 Creative development and small cities ................................ ............................. 34 ................................ ............... 36 Defining blight and planning for redevelopment ................................ ............... 36 Florida redevelopment policy ................................ ................................ ............ 37 Local government redevelopment tools and policy ................................ ........... 39 Introduction and Overview of South 8 th Street ................................ ........................ 41 The Context of the City of Fernandina Beach ................................ ......................... 45 The Current Role of 8 th Street ................................ ................................ ................. 48 Past South 8 th Street Redevelopment Efforts ................................ ......................... 50 Summary of Literature ................................ ................................ ............................ 51 3 ASSESSING REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES: A COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 52 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 52 Observation ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 53 Stakeholder inte rviews ................................ ................................ ..................... 54
6 Collective case study analysis ................................ ................................ .......... 54 Selection of Case Studies ................................ ................................ .......... 56 Selection of Categories and Indicators ................................ ...................... 57 Case Study I: Gaines Street, Tallahassee, Florida ................................ ................. 61 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 61 Plan elements and strategies ................................ ................................ ........... 62 Community Redevelopment Agency ................................ .......................... 63 Knight Creative Communities Initiative ................................ ...................... 64 ArtSpace and Cultural Events ................................ ................................ .... 65 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 67 Opinions ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 67 Outcomes ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 68 Case Study II: The North Federal Highway, Delray Beach, Florida ........................ 68 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 68 Plan elements and st rategies ................................ ................................ ........... 70 Traffic and Parking ................................ ................................ ..................... 70 Community input ................................ ................................ ........................ 71 Policy tools ................................ ................................ ................................ 72 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 73 Outcomes ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 73 Case Study III: H Street NE, Washington, D.C. ................................ ...................... 73 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 73 Plan elements and st rategies ................................ ................................ ........... 74 Leadership and Funding ................................ ................................ ............ 75 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 77 Outcomes ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 77 Case Study IV: Fairfax Boulevard and George Street, Ranson Charles Town, West Virginia ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 79 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 79 Plan elements and strategies ................................ ................................ ........... 80 Quality of Life Improvements ................................ ................................ ..... 80 Collaborations, Partnerships, and Funding ................................ ................ 81 Multi Modal Transportation ................................ ................................ ........ 82 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 82 Findings and Analysis of Best Practices ................................ ................................ 83 1. Studies and analyses to guide strategy development ................................ .. 84 2. Civic engagement ................................ ................................ ......................... 85 3. Leadership ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 86 4. Transportation ................................ ................................ .............................. 89 5. Livability ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 89 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 94 4 DISCUSSION, ANALYSIS, AND RECCOMENDATIONS FOR THE SOUTH 8 TH STREET CORRIDOR REDEVELOPMENT ................................ ............................ 97 Redevelopment in Fernandina Beach ................................ ................................ ..... 98 Fernandina Beach Waterfront Community Redevelopment Area ..................... 98
7 Finding of Necessity ................................ ................................ ....................... 101 Opportunities and challenges to redevelopment in Fernandina Beach .......... 101 Existing condition ................................ ................................ ..................... 101 Small lot size ................................ ................................ ............................ 102 Location ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 102 Fernandina Beach Community Development Department goals for South 8 th Street redevelopment ................................ ................................ .................. 103 Enterprise zone ................................ ................................ ........................ 104 Overlay district ................................ ................................ ......................... 104 Simplifica tion ................................ ................................ ............................ 105 Promotion ................................ ................................ ................................ 106 Collaboration ................................ ................................ ............................ 106 Stakeholder Input and Observation ................................ ................................ ...... 107 Zoning ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 109 Density ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 110 Adjacent zoning classifications ................................ ................................ 110 Parking, traffic, and transportation ................................ ........................... 111 Public environment ................................ ................................ .................. 112 Existing business environment and occupancy of south 8 th street ........... 113 Stakeholder goals and suggestions for the corridor ................................ 115 Summary of conditions analysis ................................ ............................... 116 Catalysts for 8 th Street redevelopment ................................ ........................... 116 Gateway to Historic Downtown Fernandina Beach ................................ .. 116 Arts and culture ................................ ................................ ........................ 118 Recommendations for Redevelopment Strategies for the South 8 th Street Corridor ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 122 1. Objectives derived from market demand, feasibility analysis, and transportation studies ................................ ................................ .................. 122 Case study support ................................ ................................ .................. 122 Recommendation for South 8 th Street ................................ ...................... 124 2. Civic engagement and visioning ................................ ................................ 128 Case study support ................................ ................................ .................. 128 Recommendations for South 8 th Street ................................ .................... 129 3. Leadership and funding ................................ ................................ .............. 133 Case study support ................................ ................................ .................. 135 Recommen dations for South 8 th Street ................................ .................... 135 4. Transportation ................................ ................................ ............................ 138 Case study support ................................ ................................ .................. 139 Recommendation for the South 8 th Street corridor ................................ ... 140 5. Livability ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 141 Support from case studies ................................ ................................ ....... 143 Recommendation for the South 8 th Street corridor ................................ ... 143 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 147 5 CONCLUSION AND FURTHER STUDIES ................................ ........................... 149 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 149
8 Further Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 150 APPENDIX A C ONDTIONS ASSESSMENT AND PROPERTY LISTINGS ................................ 153 B INDICATOR TABLES ................................ ................................ ........................... 169 C FERNANDINA BEACH PLANNING DOCUMENTS ................................ .............. 171 D INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ .................... 177 E 8 TH STREET SURVEY QUESTIONAIRE ................................ .............................. 181 F REDEVELOPMENT PLAN ASSESSMENT TABLE ................................ .............. 183 G ANALYSIS OF REDEVELOPMENT BEST PRACTICES FOR THE SOUTH 8 TH STREET CORRIDOR ................................ ................................ ........................... 218 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 219 BIOGRAPHIC SKETCH ................................ ................................ .............................. 226
9 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Creative Strategies for Improving Economic Vitality ................................ ........... 33 2 2 Definition of Blight ................................ ................................ ............................... 38 2 3 Census Information for Fernandina Beach ................................ ......................... 45 2 4 Creative City Indicators based on Lewis and Donald (2010) .............................. 58 3 1 Livability Indicators in Case Studies ................................ ................................ ... 90 3 2 Sustainability Indicators in Case Studies ................................ ............................ 91 4 1 Cultural Development Strategies ................................ ................................ ...... 120 4 2 Summary Table 1 Developing objectives based on studies. ........................... 123 4 3 Summary Table 2 Community Input from Public Outreach ............................. 127 4 4 Summary Table 3 Organizations and Agencies Involved in the Redevelopment of Each Case Study Area ................................ ....................... 134 4 5 Summary Table 4 Transportation Initiatives in the Four Case Studies ............ 138 4 6 Summary Table 5 Livability Enhancements ................................ ..................... 142 A 1 8 th Street TAS Data from July 14,2011 ................................ ............................. 167 A 2 For Sale or Lease Properties by Land Use as of December, 2012 ................... 178 A 3 Historic Properties Facing South 8th Street ................................ ...................... 180 B 1 Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 169 B 2 Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 170 B 3 Livability Indicators Adapted from Lewis and Donald (2011) ............................ 169 B 4 Sustainability Indicators Adapted from Lewis and Donald (2011) ..................... 170 C 1 Fernandina Beach Land Development Code Chapter 2 Zoning Districts and Land Uses ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 171
10 C 2 Fernandina Beach Future Land Use Element Objective 1.0 Growth Management ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 173 C 3 Fernandina Beach Future Land Use Element Objective 1.03 Redevelopment 174 F 1 Redevelopment Plan Assessment Tables ................................ ........................ 183 G 1 Analysis of Redevelopment Best Practices for the South 8 th Street Corridor ... 218
11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Overview of Fernandina Beach ................................ ................................ .......... 42 2 2 Photo of the second home of Major Duryee and was demolished to build a gas station in the 1950s. Source: Hicks, 2007 ................................ .................... 43 2 3 Photo of the site today ................................ ................................ ........................ 43 2 4 South 8 th Street at Date c. 1950. Source: Courtesy of the Amelia Island Museum of History ................................ ................................ .............................. 44 2 5 Fernandina Beach Corridor Uses ................................ ................................ ....... 47 2 6 Current Land Uses on South 8 th Street ................................ ............................... 48 2 7 Map of Study Area Boundary ................................ ................................ .............. 48 4 1 Fernandina Waterfront CRA ................................ ................................ ............... 99 4 2 Current Business Environment of the South 8th Street Corridor ...................... 114 4 3 Photo of A) Historic and B) Current Entry Signage at 8 th Street and Lime Street. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 117 4 4 Potential Branding for the South 8 th Street Revitalization District ..................... 132 A 1 Fernandina Beach City Limits at Lime and South 8th Street ............................ 153 A 2 Current zoning of South 8th Street ................................ ................................ ... 155 A 3 Current Active uses along South 8 th Street ................................ ....................... 156 A 4 Current property activity along South 8 th Street ................................ ................ 156 A 5 For sale or Lease Properties by Land Use ................................ ....................... 157 A 6 South 8 th Street by Land use. ................................ ................................ ........... 158 A 7 Former Reynolds Motors Oldsmobile built in 1946. ................................ ......... 159 A 8 A1A Gas Station built in 1962. ................................ ................................ ......... 160 A 9 Former Lasserre Motor Company Built in 1954. ................................ .............. 160 A 10 Home in the Historic District, South Corner of South 8 th Street and Cedar ....... 161
12 A 11 Home in the Historic District, North Corner of South 8 th Street and Cedar ....... 161 A 12 Historic District Boundary Lines in Study Area. ................................ ................ 162 A 13 Pelican Palms 800 S. 8 th Street ................................ ................................ ....... 164 A 14 Amelia Coast Realty 608 S. 8 th Street ................................ ............................. 164 A 15 Merge Restaurant 510 S. 8 th Street ................................ ................................ 165 A 16 Approaching the South 8th Street and Centre Street Intersection .................... 166 A 17 Current Entry Signage on the East Side of South 8 th Street ............................. 168 A 18 Current Safety Signage on the West Side of South 8 th Street .......................... 169 A 19 8th Street proximity to historic residential area of 7th Street ............................ 172 A 20 Vacant Lot Potential Spot for a Dog Park ................................ ....................... 172 A 21 Gas Station Adaptive Use Examples on 8th Street ................................ .......... 173 A 22 Gas Station Adaptive Use Examples on 8th Street ................................ .......... 173 A 23 Gas Station Adaptive Use Examples on 8 th Street ................................ ........... 173 A 24 Gas Station Adaptive Use Examples on 8 th Street ................................ ........... 173 A 25 Signage Issues ................................ ................................ ................................ 174 A 26 Poor Faade Conditions ................................ ................................ ................... 174 A 27 Prolonged Vacancies ................................ ................................ ........................ 174 A 28 Non Conforming Uses ................................ ................................ ...................... 174 A 29 Pedestrian Unfriendly Street Presence ................................ ............................ 174 A 30 Prolonged Vacancy and Maintena nce Issues ................................ .................. 174 A 31 1000 Bl ock of South 8 th Street ................................ ................................ .......... 175 A 32 800 Block of South 8th Street ................................ ................................ ........... 175 A 33 700 Block of South 8 th Street ................................ ................................ ............ 175 A 34 400 Block of South 8 th Street ................................ ................................ ........... 175 A 35 400 Block of South 8 th Street ................................ ................................ ............ 175
13 A 36 20 Block of South 8 th Street ................................ ................................ ............. 175 A 37 Original Entry Signage at 8 th and Lime (Photo Courtesy of Adrienne Dessy Burke) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 176 A 38 8 th Street and Dade Street (Photo Courtesy of the Amelia Island Museum of History) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 176 A 39 South 8 th Street (Photo Courtesy of the Amelia Island Museum of History) ..... 176 A 40 Automotive Uses ................................ ................................ .............................. 177 A 41 Automotive Uses ................................ ................................ .............................. 177 A 42 Automotive Uses ................................ ................................ .............................. 177 A 43 Automotive Uses ................................ ................................ .............................. 177 C 1 Letter from Fernandina Beach to EPA Building Blocks for Sustainable Communities Program ................................ ................................ ...................... 175
14 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ADT Average Daily Trips BID Business Improvement District CBD Central Business District CDC Community Development Corporation CDD Community Development Department CRA Community Redevelopment Area or Community Redevelopment Agency HFBA Historic Fernandina Business Association SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats TIF Tax Incremental Financing
15 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning A CASE STUDY OF REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES: CREATIVE REVITALIZATION OF THE SOUTH 8 TH STREET CORRIDOR IN FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA By Ash ley Chaffin McGehee May 2013 Chair: Kristin Larsen Cochair: Joseli Macedo Major: Urban and Regional Planning This thesis explores redevelopment strategies to eradicate blight and foster economic vitality along the South 8 th Street Corridor in Fernandina Beach, Florida. As South 8 th Street is not functioning at the level expected for a main, commercial corridor. This street has been in consideration for redevelopment for a decade and is currently a top priority for the c ity. This study will identify the obstacles that hinder the economic and physical environment of 8 th Street, as well as explore standard and creative redevelopment strategies that could improve this corridor. These questions are answered through case study analysis. This thesis includes observations of the existing built environment along South 8 th Street, stakeholder interviews, and an overview of the current policies in place regarding redevelopment in Fernandina Beach. In order to develop sound recommen dations for the corridor redevelopment, a comparative case study was used, involving the evaluation of four distinct corridor redevelopment plans as models from other communities ; specifically exploring the ways these cities and neighborhoods have utilized their creative resources, historic districts, and community character to
16 successfully redevelop their blighted districts into livable places. These comparisons were analyzed and recommendations were made regarding best practices for redevelopment of Ferna South 8 th Street Corridor. A variety of redevelopment tools were utilized throughout these four corridor redevelopment plans, but their ultimate objectives were the same: to create more appealing, livable, active, pedestrian friendly streets The analysis of these plans determined livability and sustainability crucial elements in the corridor redevelopment process. The literature supporting this thesis reiterates this finding and provided insight on how incorporating placemaking, creative dev elopment, and the creative class can yield a more livable place. The discussion and recommendations for the South 8 th Street Corridor revitalization are grounded on this concept. The City of Fernandina Beach has the opportunity to reinvent 8 th Street as a vibrant and sustainable commercial corridor that will add to the appeal of this historic City.
17 CHAPTER1 INTRODUCTION High concentrations of di stressed properties drive down rents and discourage activity. These under performing businesses and unsightly facades deplete sense of place and cause citizens to lose interest in these area s. The pattern of blight is a cruel reality that cities face, regardless of size or location, resulting in s ocial and functional depreciation. main notions: depreciation, condition of real property (physical structures), and community nonacceptance of the condition The criterion for blight is sub jectively determined by a acceptable physical conditions, social values, history, and community income (Breger, 1967). In the state of Florida, the fact finding procedure for determining blight is called deemed blighted if one of the blight criteria, as defined by the Florida Statutes, 1 is present. Redevelopment is encouraged by Florida Growth Management policy, but there are restrictions on the powers and extent to which the government can intervene. For example, following the Kelo Supreme Court ruling, eminent domain (i.e. the government taking a property for public use) is no longer an acceptable strategy for advancing economic development in the State of Florida. The depreciation of real property, which comprises the built environment, is a consequence of low functioning, poorly maintained structures. Breger (1967) counts a esthetic inelegance the term as the intolerable physical condition of real property due to social, market or use inefficiencies. The roots of blight may be the same conceptually for all cities, b ut 1 See Table 2 2.
18 each area reacts uniquely to real property damage and value depreciation concept of nonacceptance of urban blight is expressed by proposals for corrective action and redevelopment planning. Introduction to the South 8 th Street Corridor Study Area Blight is caused by a combination of the following basic elements (Breger, 1967): ological change; rising social standards; and the There are no quick fixes available for blighted corridors; therefore traditional redevelopment strategies should be explored as well as alternative options to eliminate blight This study identifies innovative redevelopment strategies for blighted corridor s through case study analysis, determines best practices, and specifically recommends applicable best practices for the thesis study area of South 8 th Stre et in Fernandina Beach, Florida. Fernandina Beach is located in the north half of Amelia Island, forty miles from Jacksonville, Florida. The study area in Fernandina includes a two mile stretch of properties facing South 8 th Street between Lime Street and Broome Street. 2 This corridor has consistently declined over the past 50 years as development patterns on Amelia Island have shifted. Elsewhere, the city has successfully maintained two historic districts and established a Community Redevelopment Area to encourage waterfront redevelopment, but has struggled to make progress on this corridor. With activity slowly coming back into the real estate market, there is a glimmer of hope that blighted neighborhoods and distressed corridors might regain their vitali ty through public and private redevelopment (Spivak, 2010). 2 See Figure 4 3 for a map of the South 8 th Street study area.
19 The negative characteristics of this auto centric corridor are amplified by the non conforming and marginal uses that line the street The visible neglect is evident and does not encourage invest ment in the area or attract new uses. Through interviews and observation this study seeks to identify the obstacles that hinder the economic and physical improvement of South 8 th Street in order for the C ity to better draft a plan for the futur e redevelopment. South 8 th S treet has a few positive qualities: wide sidewalks, several street trees streetlights, and historic structures. More noticeable though is the lack of pedestrians and thriving businesses; poorly maintained facade s and streetscap es; and many properties that are vacant, fo r sale, or both (See Appendix A ). Redevelopment Strategies Redevelopment, as defined by the American Planning Association (2004), is a redirection of city growth that usually includes the improvement or developmen t of an developed for uses that have become obsolete or inappropriate as a result of changing (p.1) Traditional redevelopment efforts, like establishing Community Redevelopment Areas, Business Improvement Districts, and other special taxing districts, are successful to some extent, but cannot serve as the only means of revitalization (Hipler, 2007). Most redevelopment efforts include a combina tion of financing, community engagement, planning and design, project manag ement, and performance review (Blaesser, 2008). Creative P lacemaking The City of Fernandina Beach has the opportunity to redefine this corridor by capitalizing on its history and a rts culture as catalysts for redevelopment. One
20 unconventional redevelopment strategy to fight blight, to be explored further in this thesis, is Creative Placemaking. The intent of this concept is to revitalize streetscapes and neighborhoods, increase liva through the utilization of arts and cultural activities (Markusen and Gadwa, 2010). U sing (2010) research, as well as creative class theory t he notion of utilizing Fernandina existing creative infrastructure will be explored. The Rise of the Creative Class and introduced the concept of how cities are becoming more appe aling to young, college educated professionals. A creative class centered revitalization of the economic, physical, and social elements of the area has the potential to drastically impact the future of the South 8 th Street Corridor. Over the past ten years the creative city concept has gained popularity and has been assimilated into city planning and economic development. These ideas have encouraged local leaders and assets in order to attract creative thinkers and entrep reneurs (Zimmerman, 2008). Perhaps the adage sustainable workforce and better opportunities for their citizens. Across the nation cities are developing programming and mar keting geared to the creative class, such as the or the Arts Tech Hub in Tallahassee (Zimmerman, 2008). Apart from marketing and placemaking initiatives, cities have a variety of financial and regulatory tools that can be used to enrich the cultural economy (Markusen, 2006). This study will develop recommendations to include Fernandina
21 existing creative and cultural assets into traditi onal redevelopment funding programs and city planning tools to revital ize the corridor Motivation for Redevelopment Over the past 15 years, this corridor has been considered for redevelopment, but a plan has not been realized. This issue is cur rently at the forefront of the C ity of Fernandina Beach Community Development De begin exploring strategies for redevelopment of the corridor. The revitalization of this Downtown Historic District. This research utilize d four methods to identify the obstacles that hinder the economic and physical environment of South 8 th Street and explore appropriate redevelopment strategies and best practices to guide the revitalization of the corridor. This study began with observatio n of the existing conditions of the South 8 th Street study area and stakeholder interviews to gather insight on the attitudes toward the current 8 th nts were reviewed and policies affecting redevelopment were considered during the compilation of the recommendations. Not many studies focus solely on corridor redevelopment in small cities. In order to identify best practices and strategies for the redev elopment of 8 th Street, four case studies were selected for collective analysis that vary in context, but are focused on blighted corridors. The corridor redevelopment plans were drafted for districts that have experienced similar physical, economic, and social deficiencies, but differ in their application of redevelopment tools and strategies In Chapter 3, these case studies are summarized and best practices are identified in order to develop recommendati ons for
22 innovative redevelopment strategies tailored to the needs of South 8 th Street. Elements from these plans were organized into tables to gauge the variety of prior conditions, community and city goals, strategies, and their similarities to South 8 th Street. These tables also assess plan elements that will lead to more sustainable and livable places according to indicators derived from the literature. Chapter 2 is a review of literature that defines redevelopment, financia l incentives and regulatory strategies, as well as key concepts from the four case studies. Creative redevelopment of 8 th Street is investigated. This sectio n also provides details on the federal, sta te, and l ocal policies in place that support the redevelopment process. Based on the case study evaluation and strategies from this thesis research, Chapter 4 contains discussion, analysis, and recommendations for the revitalization of 8 th Street. The rese arch performed and redevelopment strategies derived from this collective case study are intended to support the eventual realization of a South 8 th Street corridor revitalization plan.
23 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE This literature review examine s existing thought regarding redevel opment and blig ht and unsightly streetscapes along The general redevelopment planning process, tools, and s trategies are defined in this chapter, as well as concepts of quality of place and creative placemaking. First, is an explanation of the evolution and role of commercial corridors. Second, the role and influence of aesthetics, vibrancy, and place in the re development process is defined. Creative placemaking and the creative city theory are also introduced as redevelopment strategies to enhance and preserve a sense of place and support the physical, social, and economic revitalization of an area. Then, this literature review clarifies state policies that support redevelopment efforts and the local government tools available to regulate and encourage reinvestment in a blighted area. Lastly, is an overview of the history of Fernandina Beach and the South 8 th St redevelopment. The subject of redevelopment fosters much discussion and debate in municipalities of all sizes. The APA ( 2004) defines redevelopment as a redirection of city growth that usually includes the improving or developing of an area that currently uses that have become obsolete or inappropriate as a result of changing social or market conditions p.1 ). For centuries, people have been drawn to cities because of their vitality, utility, and dynamic nature; th e very qualities that over time contribute to urban blight due to the inability to control environmenta l factors that accompany the
24 positive externalities of city life history of urbanization in the modern world and emphasizes the presence of the indicators of blight and its causes. There are many fac tors that contribute to the evolution of cities (e.g. industrialization or population growth) and it is the responsibility of the munici pal government to maintain the balance and plan for the future This evolution of cities has spurred new ways of approa ching development, land use, and social activity in cities. Smart Growth and New Urbanism are just two of the new philosophies in planning that are changing the way local officials organize, run, and regulate their municipality. Many smart growth principle s (e.g. Adaptive Use, Mixed Use Infill Development, Pedestrian oriented Urban Design) can be implemented into the redevelopment process to guid e sustainable development and are encouraged by the APA Policy Guide on Public Redevelopment (2004) (Blaesser, 20 08, p.xxxi). The components of redevelopment strategies are complex and require a clever combination of public and private support. Hipler (2007) reiterates throughout his article that no aspect of redevelopment can be used in isolation; the strategies mu st be used mutually in order to create a vibrant place with a variety of uses for citizens and visitors alike. To better plan for the redevelopment of corridors, there must an understanding of how corridor neighborhoods and social patterns have evolved. Th e Evolution of Municipal Corridors description of the role of street neighborhoods in The Life and Death of Great American Cities has remained relevant and supports the pertinence of intervening in the case of blighted corridors. When a street is blatantly unattractive and unproductive, there is a
25 definite disconnect from the surrounding neigh borhood realm. The causes for the decline of a street are no different from anywhere else in a city. It is common for like uses to agglomerate along the same corridor, which is great when the market is in demand, but that is not always the case. The strug gles of consistently failing businesses can be attributed to renters repeatedly filling the commercial space with the same, marginal uses (Spivak, 2010). Shopping development patterns evolved from small, downtown centric retail to de centralized, regional shopping centers after World War II (Longstreth, 1998). areas in Los Angeles and tracks the retail climate from 1920 1950. This transition led to a shift away from shopping in the downtown core; these outlying areas were perceived positively due to less time spen t searching for a parking spot, d ecrease d crime and congestion, and more easily accommodated the increased mobility of citizens and changes in residential gr owth. The goods and services provided in downtowns in the early 1900s met the basic needs of citizens and served as a main destination for social activity. Downtowns 1930 s 1950s, business planning incorporate d the growth of automobile use. For example, supermarkets and retail department stores could rely on customers coming to them, no matter the location. These major retail centers competed with downtowns, while smaller c orridors close to the core tended to compliment the downtown retail area
26 increased mobility of residents allows them to freely choose where to shop, dine, and interact withi n the city; utilizing the opportunities not afforded in their neighborhood. The Importance of Aesthetics, Vibrancy, and Place in Redevelopment Strategies The evolution of cities and shifts in mobility and commercial development has a great impact on curren t and future city planning. Yet, citizens will continually desire to live and work in visually appealing places (Maguire and Foote, 1997). B light has a ve ry powerful effect on an area ; e nough so that Florida and other states have paths toward redevelopmen t in place. The article p ublished by the Scenic America O rganization (1997) gives great detail on the various aspects of scenic and visual blight and impact on cities. environment Scenic history draws major tourism dollars and well maintained historic districts attract a variety of visitors, often driving cities economies (Maguire and Foote, 1997; American Planning Association, 2004) proven economic activity strategy in small cities (Robertson, 1999). Maguire and deve lopment in cities Surveys conducted by A nton Neilson in 1994 prove that Americans regardless of race, gender, and socioeconomic level have similar aesthetic desires when it comes to what they want their built environment to look like (Maguire and Foote, 1997). The value of beauty and character in a community should never be second in the realm of land use. Literature pertaining to redevelopment often focuses on the values placed on aesthetics in communities and the importance of vibrancy, with the majori ty of the attention paid to revitalizing major urban streets or downtowns. Downtowns, past and present, are successful due to their centrality of uses and
27 magnetism for citizens, local celebra tions, and events (Hipler, 2007 ). These attributes are obviously not restricted to downtowns and idealistically these characteristics would be found throughout cities main areas and entryways. The article by Kent Robertson (1999) for the APA journal provides many case studies with similar characteristics as Fernandin South 8 th S treet corridor problems The author defines common problems in small cities that can lead to blight and the strategies best fitted for implantation The best redevelopment assets of a small Pres ervatio n and Waterfront redevelopment; two things that Fernandina Beach has put time and effort into restoring since the late 1980s (City of Fernandina beach, 2006b). Historic preservation and adaptive use After World War II, many cities and towns experie nced growth and new deve lopment beyond the city boundaries and traditional neighborhoods, largely due to the automobile, new housing, and highways. This expansion to outlying areas and urban renewal progr ams led to community concern about the loss of histo ric fabric in the cities. Ultimately between 1949, the creation of the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and 1966, the adoption of the National Historic Preservation Act, a preservation network was established that created criteria for historic pro perties, federal funding programs, and federal tax credit incentives for the restoration and rehabilitation of historic structures (Waters, 2010). By 1980, local governments were encouraged to create a Certified Local Government program that allowed cities in on the existing partnership and delivered more grant opportunities. Historic Preservation ordinances on the local level and federal policies are in place to increase recognition of historic areas
28 and guard culturally significant places in the light of growth and overeager private individuals and developers. Concerns and challenges related to preservation, now and in the future, value, and potential of planning for the developme nt and redevelopment of our environment in recognition of the values of historic preservation (Waters, 2012, p. 88) Adaptive use is a common practice in Historic Preservation and sustainability that takes advantage of the aesthetic character of a neighborh ood while enhancing the livability and sense of place. With low rents and usually prime locations, potential property owners are drawn to these buildings as potential rehab projects. The sales of 010) and also provide the opportunity for Historic Preservation Tax Credits and other regional or locally based historic preservation incentives (Diamond, 1996). Effective rehabilitation captures the essence of a place as a whole, considering each property in context with its surroundings. In this way, historic preservation serves as a catalyst for community rebuilding (Diamond, 1996). Adaptive use of vacant historic structures is a suggested strategy to consider during redevelopment, especially in built ou t municipalities, where new development is not necessarily a viable option (American Planning Association, 2004). The APA (2004) also found that utilizing the existing historical and cultural assets helps redevelopment areas improve financial and tangible aspects of the city. Quality of place Ann Markusen and Anne Gadwa ( 2010) state (p.5). Just as for centuries residents were drawn to downtown areas, vibrant and diverse neighborhoods lure
29 entrepreneurs, extensive research on the economic contribution of creative placemaking has yielded the assump tion that jobs often follow people, rather than the other way around (Markusen and Gadwa, 2010). The power of a creative sense of place often goes unappreciated and the concept should be at the forefront of consideration during revitalization planning. On e of the main questions posed by Richard Flori da (2012) distance irrelevant to conducting business successfully, the issue of the importance of place has come in (2012) 188). A vibrant place can foster creativity and economic growth and facilitate the agglomeration of like networks (Jacobs, 1961; Florida 2012 ; Markusen and Gadwa, 2010). The communities that creatives are attracted to do not thrive for traditional economic reasons, such as access to natural resources or proximity to maj or transportation routes. Nor is their economic success tied to tax breaks and other incentives designed to lure businesses. A big part of their success stems from the fact that they are places where creative people want to live. (Florida, 2012, p. 186) Ri chard Florida incorporates the n ensuing chapter. Quality of place can be determined by the study area s authenticity, his tory, diversity and social experiences (Florida, 2012). The most desi rable aspects of cities can be attribut ed to the offerings and opportunities available in its various neighborhoods, corridors, and districts (Jacobs, 1961).
30 Quality of place can be manu factured and enhanced through urban design and revitalization efforts, but the authenticity of a vibrant place filled with comfort and history is hard to replicate in both physical and economic terms (Jacobs, 1961). Researchers Stern and Seifert (2010), b ring attention to revitalization efforts by incorporating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data to loca te existing cultural clusters. A cultural cluster is set it apart from other nei ghborhoods p. 262). Stern and Seifert (2010) have found that utilizing cultural clusters and creative assets spur a vast series of positives during the redevelopment of these areas. These clusters have formed over time and reflect the ing the concept of creative placemaking more palatable for potential skeptics. Richard Florida (2012) states: thinkers, artists, and entrepreneurs rarely come out of nowhere. They cluster and thrive in places that attract other creative people and p The desired elements that comprise the quality of a place are sought by all, not just the creative class (Florida, 2012). Members of the creative class include the cultural industrie s of architecture, media, and design; high tech, legal, and health care professionals; engineers, professors, writers, researchers, opinion makers, problem solvers and problem finders. The presence of this class and other forms of creative capital, the cul tural and creative assets of a region, leads to a productive place (Florida, 2012; Markusen, 2006). The combination of aesthetics, vibrancy and place supports of utilizing many methods to strengthen social and physical redevelop ment
31 Creative placemaking and development M arkusen and Gadwa (2010) define the importance of place, introduce existing and origina l economic research, and detail successful applications of creative placemaking initiatives. In the evaluation of the case st udies for their research, the and programs (Markusen and Gadwa, 2010). From this research, Markusen and Gadwa (2010) developed a series of six elements of a successfu l creative placemaking strategy: 1. Prompted by an initiator with innovative vision and drive 2. Tailors strategy to distinctive features of place 3. Mobilizes public will 4. Attracts private sector buy in 5. Enjoys support of local arts and cultural leaders 6. Builds partn erships across sectors, missions, and levels of government (p.5) The ir and a scholarly guide through the history and application of creative placemaking. Just a few of the be nefits o f creative placemaking include: Growth of local arts offerings Increased civic engagement Environmental initiatives Increased streetscape and utility aesthetics Economic development through increasing local e xpenditures, local investments, and recirculation of local funds Increase in sales, income and property taxes that fund infrastructure repairs New jobs and income streams Retail business expansion
32 Lead to the creation of new creative businesses and visitors (Markusen and Gadwa, 2010) economic development and therefore has a transformative power on a city. Directing regional spending to local cultural events and shops builds the consumption base and cycles money into the local economy (Markusen, 2006). Markusen (2006) uses the example of purchasing imported goods from a regional mall, where the employees will most likely also spend their earnings, versus shopping in a l ocal shop where the workers will most likely return their earnings to the local arts sector. A series of arts and culture briefing papers from the American Planning Association (2011) also promote the notion of the power of the arts and creativity sector in community planning. When joined with creative methods of development traditional economic development strategies can produce a much more vibrant platform for redevelopment (Dwyer and Beavers, 2011) states that economic development programs that integrate the arts are usually combinations of centric, people oriented, and program centric model could be the development of an arts incubator, studio spaces, or de signation of an a rts district. People oriented would be creating live/work spaces, arts ce nters, public art programs and providing other opportunities for the creative class The program based approaches could include any programming relating to the arts that raises awareness, beautifies an area, and contributes positively to the community.
33 Table 2 1 Creative Strategies for Improving Economic Vitality Strategy Description Promotion of Assets Promoting cultural amenities for the purpose of attracting e conomic investment and skilled workers Development Promoting community development through artistic, cultural, or creative policies Revitalization Promoting community and neighborhood revitalization through artistic measures and strategies that emphasize creativity Economic/Job Clusters Creating e conomic or job clusters based on creative businesses, including linking those businesses with non cultural businesses Education Providing training, professional development, or other activities for arts cultural, or creative entrepreneurs Arts Oriented Incubators Creating arts specific business incubators or dedicated low cost space and services to support artistic, cultural, or creative professionals Branding Developing visual elements that communicat e a design for advertising, marketing, and promoting a community Districts Creating arts, cultural, entertainment, historic, or heritage districts Live Work Projects Providing economic or regulato ry support for combined residential and commercial space for artists Arts Specific and General Public Venues Providing public or private economic or regulatory support for marketplaces, bazaars, arcades, community centers, public places, parks, and educat ional facilities of various types Events cultural amenities Source: Dwyer, M. C., & Beavers, K. A. (2011). How the arts and culture sector catalyze economic vitality. Retrieved September 28, 2012, from http://www.planning.org/research/arts/briefingpapers/vitality.htm These briefin ipalities or organizations through creative redevelopment. The first of these key point s is the power
34 of fostering a sense of place and clustering creative enter prises to elevate the quality of life. The second point is to identify and strengthen existing assets in a study area, stimulating community development as well as economic development. This element blends with the third point, to create or build on existing arts and cultural events to capture a wide range of audiences, attention, and to promote fut ure art initiatives. The final point is supported by references to Florida ( 2012) and the notion that the skilled, (p.1). n environment where creative and business professionals can collaborate. These partnerships are highly successful, especially for communications, media, and tec hnology oriented creative entrepreneurs. The services these professionals provide can incre ase t he value of the existing goods produced in the area (Dwyer and Beavers, 2011) Creative development and small cities These studies also argue why aesthetics and the quality of a place are vital to a successful neighborhood (Maguire and Foote, 1999; Florid a, 2012); why a strong sense of place and utilizing existing creative assets can encourage economic development (Markusen and Gadwa, 2010); and how joining these ideas will contribute to a more livable area and aid in redevelopment (Dwyer and Beavers, 2011 ). An article by balanced concept for smaller cities seekin g ec onomic growth by utilizing their creative tainability, rather than tolerance, technology, and talent, as the starting points for economic health and growth provides a useful alternative framework for smaller cities ( Lewis and Donald, 2010, p. 37). Their rubric establishes indicators that identify
35 1 Smaller cities typically have a stronger identity and sense of place than large, metropolitan areas, and therefore have an advantage in attracting the creative class (Lewis and Donald, 2010). Town Fuzzy the va lidity in the evaluation process is examined (Markusen, 2012). Livability and vibrancy, for example, mean very different things to different people. According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary (2013) livability relates to the suitability for human living, and vibrant is defined as the state of being f ull of life, vigor, or activity. The definitional challenges combined with the varying contextual factors of a neighborhood and the difficulty of charting the effects and changes post project all contribute to the difficulty in forming solid indicators for creative placemaking efforts. Ideally, Markusen would like to see arts forces at work that will interact with the various actors 2 ourages a more holistic approach to viewing the outcomes of creative placem aking efforts (Markusen, 2012). 1 See Appendix B for the rubric adapted from the Lewis and Donald Article 2 Actors include the creative placemaking project team, developers, community development non profits, etc.
36 Defining blight and planning for redevelopment which there are deteriorated and deteriorating structures t (Hipler 2007, p 42). The economic revitalization of blighted downtowns and declining business environments is addressed throughout Florida Statutes §163 and §187( Fl orida Statutes §187 2005b). Planning for redevelopment often begins by r ethinking the existi ng urban design and land use of the study area, then considering the promot ional and financial incentives that will facilitate a change (Hipler, 2007 ). According t o Hipler (2007) The goal is to expand and improve the livability and sustainability of the entire community by attracting employment, shopping, recreation, and social activities. Any successful downtown economic revitalization plan must be carefully organized, have long term financial commitments, and receive cooperation from property owners, business owners, local government officials, and residents of the community ( p. 42) Any citizen or group can begin the process towards redevelopment, but local government support is critical for the longevity of any revitalization project. The first step in this process is the finding of necessity (i.e. identifying the issues and blight criterion that are negatively affecting a neighborhood or district ) Bl ight has a multitude of cause s including: redirection of growth, incompatible uses, or property owner neglect (American Planning Association, 2004). After an issue is identified, it is usually brought up by a public official or citizen as a call for action to r esolve and revitalize the dis tressed area. If redevelopment programs are not identified in the Comprehensive Plan, the subsequent step is the creation of a plan (e.g. redevelopment, visioning, overlay, or revitalization ) led by the local government or rede velopment authority. This document dictates implement ation strategies and policy revisions to
37 remedy the issues that have negatively affe cted the study area over time. Ty pically, revisions to existing land development c ode s and future land uses will be con sidered to redirect growth, incorporate a mix of uses, and support the current and future needs of the community (Hipler, 2007). Additionally, the private sector can initiate redevelopment efforts without local government assistance as long as their projec ts are in accordance with the government regulations (American Planning Association, 2004). The S t ate of Florida was a pioneer in Growth Management policy. In 1972, Florida passed one of the strongest land and water management laws 3 in the country due to rapid population growth and increased economic activity (Diamond, 1996). Also in 1972 the Florida State Comprehensive Planning Act was established which held F rnments responsible for creating a comprehensive plan and a land development code to regulate future develop ment. These planning documents ensure orderly growth in respect to the history, natural resources, and quality of life in the city. In addition, these plans must also recognize the financial climate, ec onomic benefits, timing, and developm ent trends of future land uses (Hipl er, 2007, p .42). Florida redevelopment policy Florida Statute Chapter 163 is a solid res ource for municipalities concerning redevelopment. The policies in place welcome redevelopment and infill and define the correct procedures for the process. The statute recommends the local government entity create a Community Redev elopment Area (CRA) if in the F inding of N ecessity the area exhibits one factor of the blight criteria (See Table 2 2 ) C ommunity Redevelopment plans and g oals are to be included in the City or Regional 3 The Environmental Land and Water Management Act of 1972.
38 Comprehensive P lan Florida Statute §163.2511 emphasizes the importance of state and local governments promoting redevelopment and sustaining the core of cities. A relati vely new law in Florida generated by the Kelo v. City of New London takings case prohibits eminent domain as a strategy in the redevelopment process ( Florida Statutes §163.360 2006a). According to Florida law, the use of eminent domain to eliminate slum o r blighted areas does not satisfy the public purpose requirement. An area is deemed blighted if one or more of the criteria def ined by the Statute (see Table 2 2 ) are present in an area and the local taxing authority agrees t hrough a resolution ( Florida St atutes §163.360 2006a). Table 2 2 Definition of Blight Florida Blight Criteria (a) Predominance of defective or inadequate street layout, parking facilities, roadways, bridges, or public transportation facilities; (b) Aggregate assessed values of real property in the area for ad valorem tax purposes have failed to show any appreciable increase over the 5 years prior to the finding of such conditions; (c) Faulty lot layout in relation to size, adequacy, accessibility, or usefulness; (d) Unsanitary or unsafe conditions; (e) Deterioration of site or other improvements; (f) Inadequate and outdated building density patterns; (g) Falling lease rates per square foot of office, commercial, or industrial space compared to the remainder of the county or municipality; (h) Tax or special assessment delinquency exceeding the fair value of the land; (i) Residential and commercial vacancy rates higher in the area than in the remainder of the county or municipality; (j) Incidence of crime in the area higher than in the remainder of the county or municipality; (k) Fire and emergency medical service calls to the area proportionately higher than in the remainder of the county or municipality; (l) A greater number of violations of the Florida Building Code in t he area than the number of violations recorded in the remainder of the county or municipality; (m) Diversity of ownership or defective or unusual conditions of title which prevent the free alienability of land within the deteriorated or hazardous area; or (n) Governmentally owned property with adverse environmental conditions caused by a public or private entity. Source: Florida Statute 163.340 (8)
39 The policies incentives, and regulations approved by municipalities help guide the redevelopment process, but the roles of other parties vary. P lanning commissions and community redevelopment authorities facilitate the management and coordination of strategies and often incorporate neighborhood business associations and non profit o rganizations for promotional reasons (Zimmerman, 2008). O ften private developers may need assistance from a public entity for funding or regulatory issues (Blaesser, 2008, p. 4). Overall, the S tate of Florida is supportive of redevelopment efforts in orde r to improve the economic health of cities and therefore, the State as a whole. Local government redevelopment tools and policy Traditional p ublic solut ions for supporting redevelopment are comprised of various funding and management options including Busi ness Improvement Districts (BID), Tax Increment Financing (TIF), Community Redevelopment Agencies (CRA), Special Assessment Districts (SAD), and Enterprise Zones. Business Improvement Districts are financing entities that are authorized by local or state l aw. A certain geographic area can form a BID to draw funds from taxes collected on businesses and properties in the area. The collecte d monies are used only for BID operations and typically are found in ailing central business districts (Blaesser, 2008, p. 6). An alterna tive taxing district system is Tax Increment F inancing (TIF). This method is very common in Florida and works hand in hand with CRAs. For TIF, b onds increase d property taxes over a period of time (Blaesser, 2008 p.16 ). The aspect of this strategy is due to the difference between the real property value and the value of the property assessed at the beginning of this process. These increases over
40 time are usually deposited into the CRA trust fund and held for CRA use (Florida Redevelopment Association, 2012). CRAs are pub lic based and are derived from a necessity of intervention in the current built environment. Community Redevelopment Areas are t he geographi c boundary of the blighted area. T he Community Redevelopment Agency is charged with creating and carrying out the plans for physical and economic change in the boundary. CRAs are the most common form of redevelopment district in Florida ( Florid a Redevelopment Association, 2012). Additionally, the establishment of an Enterprise Zone is to be considered for areas of high unemployment, physical decay, and economic disinvestment. Enterprise Zones rely heavily on the private sector. Gainesville, Flo rida created an Enterprise Zone based on Florida Statute 190 that provides financial incentives for business es that plan to increase employment, private investments, and encourage economic revitalization (City of Gainesville, 2009). The central goal of ent erprise zones is to prompt economic reinvestment in an area. By providing discounts on development fees and business taxes; as well as tax credits on jobs, property taxes, equipment, and energy, Gainesville makes it easier on business own ers and creates a positive public private relationship from the start. Property owners, businesses and municipalities rely on each othe r during redevelopmen t, and anything the C ity can do to strengthen that bond is beneficial to the public good. An Enterp rise Zone Development Agency is created as a governing body for this designation. This group is tasked with developing a strategic plan describing their goals and how this zone will positively impact the community as a whole ( Florida Statutes §290.0058 2006c).
41 Sarasota, F lorida has several Special Assessment D istricts (SADs) each with a specific project that the funds are allocated t owards. These special districts are formed under Florida Statute 189.4041 and are considered dependent special districts; meaning they are created by the municipality through adoption of an ordinance ( Florida Statutes §163.335 2006b). For the Glen O aks Estates Special Assessment District, the project goal was a neighborhood privacy wall. F unds were levied against each proper ty in the district and will be paid back over a twenty year period as an assessment on the n.d. ). A particularly interesting district created in Sarasota was the Golden G ate Point Streetscape Special Di strict, a dependent taxing authority, where the monies received go towards streetscape improvements along the public rights of way (City of Sarasota, n.d.) Streetscape and facade improvement incentives are among the most effective to generate physical imp r ovements for blighted corridors and reintroduce the area aesthetically to citizens. There are many ways local governments can create special districts or define specific areas for redevelopment Introduction and Overview of South 8 th Street Amelia Island has been a desired location for tourists since the early twentieth century (Hicks, 2007). People are drawn to the beautiful beaches and vibrant river, offering a variety of recreation, sporting, and fishing opportunities. T his surge of tourism to the area over the years has transformed the C ity of Fernandina Beach into a booming, small beach town. Amelia Island has a remarkable history that contributes to the tourism activity and drives many cultural events
42 Figure 2 1. Ove rview of Fernandina Beach Eight flags have been flown over Amelia Island since the original French Settlement in 1562; most notably the Spanish rule. The current Old Town Historic District dating from 1811, has retained the original Laws of the Indes plat and was the last town platted to this celebrated design (Hicks, 2007) The activity center shifted from Old Town about two miles south to Downtown due to the port activity and the introduction of the railro ad in the 1900s (Hicks, 2007). After a slight economic decline in the early 1900s the introduction of new trade paper mills and the shrimping industry revolutionized the Island.
43 F igure 2 2. Ph oto of the second home of Major Duryee and was demolished to build a gas station in the 1950s. Source: Hicks, 2007 Figure 2 3. Photo of the site today
44 Figure 2 4. South 8 th Street at Date c. 1950. Source: Courtesy of the Amelia Island Museum of History Centre Street the core of the downtown area served as the shopping district for the majority of the mid twentieth century and was supported by South 8 th Street. At the peak of the automobile revolution there were Chevrolet, Ford, and Oldsmobile dealerships locate d within a mile of each other alo ng South 8 th S treet, and thus gas stati ons and repair shops followed. In addition t he corridor supported light manufacturing businesses and a few grocers and dry goods shops. Jeffery Bunch, a long time 7 th Street r recounted in our interview memories of mill workers grabbing cigarettes from the nearby gas station and th Street (Bunch, 2012). Until the late 1970s, there were still businesses (a pharmacy and a grocery) al ong Centre Street downt own and the 8 th Street corrid or that were reminiscent of its prime. The tourist presence was amplified by the development of the Amelia Island Plantation Resort in the 1970s and the Ritz Carlton Amelia in the 1990s (Hicks, 2007). Wi th new seasonal and full time residents on the island, the growth began redirecting
45 from the downtown area closer to the resort development and into the county (Bunch, stri located on 14 th Street, was convenient for auto traffic since it eliminated driving around tiny blocks downtown for a parking spot, and for the shopper as well due its close pro ximity to residential neighborhoods (Longstreth, 1998). D ecentralized shopping profoundly affected both the shape of the land and the routine patterns of new shopping center on 14 th Street wa s the first of many new strip and large scale commercial developments in Fernandina Beach that led businesses and patrons away from the residential commercial corridor of South 8 th Street. A variety of small businesses and home repair shops recently locate d along the corrido r, but only a few of the businesses have been in operation for a substantial period of time The Context of the C ity of Fernandina Beach Fernandina Beach has evolved over the years from a small, industrial beach town into a prime tourist destination with a growing population. The city is located in the north half of Amelia island, approximately 40 miles from Jacksonville. Table 2 3 Census Information for Fernandina Beach Demographic Information 2000 2010 Population 10,549 11,487 Increase of 8.89% Median Age 50 Median Income $53,231 Households 7,064 Source: U.S. Census Bureau. (2012)
46 The South 8 th Street corridor is a federal highway and is also called A1A or SR 200. A east coast. Most travelers arrive at Amelia Island via SR 200, an exit off of Interstate 95. This fifteen mile drive to the island goes through several small Nassau County cities. Since 2005, this area has seen a radical increase in commercial, big box development. This new development includes a Target, Publix, T.J. Maxx, and others, with signs p osted advertising Phase II development soon. As this area has grown, there has been a noticeable impact on large commercial retailers in Fernandina Beach and several have been forced to close (Bunch, 2012). As a beach town, there is a degree of seasonality to consider regarding the necessary uses available in Fernandina Beach. The summer brings many tourists, with the annual Shrimp Festival alone attracting over 150,000 people to the island the first weekend in May (Capuzzo, J. P., 2009). Attractions and de stination districts on the island include the Historic Downtown District, the Old Town Historic District, Fort Clinch State Park, and of course, the beach and river areas. Major corridors and shopping districts in Fernandina Beach include Centre Street Dow ntown, Sadler Road in central Amelia Island, and the South 8 th Street Corridor that leads to Downtown. The majority of tourists and summer residents arrive via I 95 and use SR 200 to arrive on the island. This corridor contains numerous gas stations, auto repair shops, and a variety of retail uses that meet the needs of county residents and tourists arriving for vacation.
47 Figure 2 5 Fernandina Beach Corridor Uses The South 8 th Street corridor has experienced no noticeable influx of new uses or activity i n the past decade (McCrary, Burke & Gibson, 2012). This corridor has remained an auto centric thoroughfare for the City with a variety of commercial, automotive, and office uses (see Figure 4 2). In the mid twentieth century, this corridor was home to thre e car dealerships, a variety of auto repair services, a furniture store and dry goods shops (Bunch, 2012). These uses suited the City in the 1950s, but the current lack of activity is deterring this corridor from contributing to the economic development an d overall urban design of the City of Fernandina Beach. Currently the corridor is defined by its inconsistent businesses and non conforming uses.
48 Figure 2 6 Current Land Uses on South 8 th Street The Current Role of 8 th Street Figure 2 7 Map of Study Area Boundary For residents and visitors to Amelia Island, South 8 th S treet serves as the introduction to Fernandina Beach proper. The line dividing the unincorporated county land and the city limits begins at Lime Street. The study area boundary for this thesis and the recommended boundary for the future redevelopment area is identified in Figure 4 3 South 8 th Street is the primary corridor leading to the two historic districts,
49 the Downtown Historic District and the Old Town Historic District, the port and marina, and the mill and factory area. 4 Today the downtown historic district is characterized by its late 19th and early 20th century architecture, quaint shops, art galleries, and restaurants. With its historic fabric this area is extremely pede strian friendly and walkable. Meanwhile, South 8 th Street evolved over time from a mostly residential corridor to incorporate more commercial and automotive uses (Sanborn Map Company, 2916 ) The older buildings are designed with front parking lots, uninvit ing storefronts, and very few pedestrian amenities other than sidewalks. The buildings along this corridor vary in condition and architectural character. Twenty one of these properties are included within the boundary of the Historic District, and six addi tional properties are considered hist oric due to their age In late 2012, 25.9% of the parc els along this corridor were vacant, for lease, or for sale. 5 The structures along this corridor are notorious for marginal, inconsistent uses and being leased to b usinesses that are ultimately unsuccessful (Bunch, 2012; M cCrary, Burke & Gibson, 2012) Services & Trades uses and Offices & Personal Services land use categories make up a little less than half of the uses along the corridor. The majority of the patrons of these businesse s probably arrive by car, carry out their business in the establishment, and then go on to their next destination ; whereas the uses along Centre Street downtown promote patrons parking once and 4 Please see Figure 2 1 for an overall map of Amelia Island and the relationship between Centre and 8 th Streets. 5 See Appendix A for a listing of all properties that are for sale, lease, or v acant.
50 then walking between the shops and cafes. S outh 8 th Street has the potential to shift from being simply the route to downtown to being a unique destination in and of itself. Past South 8 th Street R e development E fforts The C ity of Fernandina Beach has seen a rise in the tourism economy and new development throughout Amelia Island, as well as the decline of certain areas and a decentralization of activity. The South 8 th Street corridor is one of these problem areas and its re development has been a matter of discussion for over 15 years (McCrary, Burke & Gibson, 2012). The most recent efforts to generate redevelopment op portunities occurred in 2004 The planning documents included three d ocuments from the previous South 8 th Street redevelopment efforts : preliminary research for creating an overlay district a spreadsheet existing conditions of South 8 th Street properties and a Planning Advi sory Board report calling for a South 8 th Street Overlay District. The report compl eted by Lupita McClenning Fernandina Beach city planner, in April of 2004 for the Planning Advisory Board calls for the designation of 8 th Street as an Overlay D ist rict that will provide special guidelines for future development, site planning, and other amenities. The four goals proposed are as follows: 1. Create an entrance that announces arrival and sets the tone for the City; 2. Establish an attractive and inviting entrance to the City in order to form the basis for positive impressions and perceptions of t he community; 3. Avoid inappropriate development that would result in incompatible uses or design; and 4. Encourage site planning and design that are sensitive to the newly created unique gateway district (McClenning, 2004, p.2).
51 This brief document outlines the future ordinance and design guidelines, specifically signage. Other documents found relating to the 2004 planning initiative included a listing of properties and photos of problem areas along the corridor. T he issue was tabled in 2004 in order to address more imminent problems. The City planning department, the Community Development Department (CDD), realizes now more than ever that this area needs improvement and the redevelopment of South 8 th Street is currently at the forefront of their goals. Summar y of Literature Ultimately, redevelopment projects are initiated as a result of declining market capital, physical inefficiencies, and other undesirable community conditions. No two study areas are alike and the redevelopment initiatives should be equally unique. opinion, and political power players all have a significant impact on the redevelopment planning process and pose potential challenges an d opportunities. The success of redevelopment plans relies on the collective cooperation of municipal entities and property owners throughout the integration of the redevelopment strategies. Applying creative placemaking and th e creative city thesis with traditional redevelopment, development, and land use planning regulatory tools has the potential to deeply impact revitalization efforts (Markusen, 2006). There are a variety of regulatory tools t he City of Fe rnandina Beach can choose to implement during t he redevelopment of South 8 th Street. The ensuing chapter describes the methodology employed to derive the standard best practices and creative strategies from four corridor redevelopment plans and contains real world applications of the strategies defined in this review of literature
52 CHAPTER 3 ASSESSING REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES: A COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY This thesis assess es and identifies the most appropriate redevelopment options for South 8 th Street in Fernandina Beach, Florida. Traditional publ ic redevelopme nt methods (i.e. Tax Increment Financing and Business Improvements Districts) are effective in funding the redevelopment efforts for an under preforming area, but this thesis questions what additional strategies should be considered b ased on the existing assets of the community To identify the strategies that best fit the South 8 th Street study area, a methodology was developed that consisted of observation, stakeholder interviews, a review of Fernandina Beach planning documents, and a collective case study analysis of best practices This chapter clarifies the methodology, the selection of case studies, categories of evaluation, and indicators f or best practices. This chapter concludes with an overview of the four case studies Methodology A collective case study analysis was used to explore the redevelopment plans and strategies empl oyed by other cities for their distres sed corridors and neighbo rhoods in order to make effective recommendations for the thesis study area. This analysis identifies if or how these communities utilized their cultural resources and neighborhood character to guide revitalization planning and any similarities they might share with the Fernandina Beach study area to indicate best practices Case studies rely on evidence, data, and history to examine a phenomenon (Yin, 1981). The case study methodology provides the best approach for answering the se questions: 1. How do citi es utilize their creative resources, assets, and existing character to successfully re develop blighted corridors ?
53 2. How can Fernandina Beach best revitalize the South 8 th Street Corri dor economically and physically? Contextually, the redevelopment motivators vary between the four cases due to their geographic locations and the ir site specific social and economic conditions. The collective case study strategy allows for theory building and the establishment of a common explanation between cases (Y in, 1981). Th is strategy allows the researcher to establish a foundation for outlining best practices through the identification of cross case patterns through a series of assessment tables in the appendix. The researcher first explains each case study separately and then provides an analysis characterizing best practices based on the indicators and concepts defined in the review of literature. For the present study, information was gathered through observatio velopment policies. In addition, the comparative an alysis of the four case studies provides insight on the process and context of corridor redevelopment. Observation During the summer of 2012, the researcher worked close ly with the City of Fernandina B eac h to record and evaluate the present conditions of the South 8 th Street Corridor. During this period of observation a windshield survey was conducted and problem areas and potential opportunities and challenges were identified. Windshield surveys are a sy ( University of Kansas, 2013). During the survey, the current state of each property and detailed notes on the activities along the corridor were also recorded A listing of all properties current us es was produced and an assessment of their visual condition, cur rent occupancy, and history was documented. This observation period also included
54 Development Code in refere nce to their redevelopment and growth management policies. 1 Stakeholder interviews Community engagement and outreach are central to the redevelopment planning process, as justified by the four case studies presented in this thesis. Addressing the concerns of South 8 th Street stakeholders, business owners, and neighboring residents is a top priority for the City. Community input will help the Community Development Departmen t meet their goal of redeveloping the corridor as a place that w ill attract patrons a s well as facilitate and sustain business growth (City of Fernandina Beach, 2012) The Community Development Department drafts and regulate s planning frameworks, building procedure s, and community development in the City The interviews performed during th is study were merely preliminary exchanges to gauge public interest and concern. The interview questions were created based on the various stakeholder s association with the study area The divisions included; business owners, long time residents, realtors and city o fficials. Additionally, a short survey for 8 th Street business and property owners was also created with intention of being distributed at a later point in the redevelopment process. 2 Collective case study analysis The author chose four case st udies to identify common themes in the planning, process, and context for corridor redevelopment plans in order to assess the most 1 The documents prod uced are available in Appendix A. 2 The Interview Q uestions are found in Appendix D and the 8 th Street Business S urvey is available in Appendix E
55 appropriate redevelopment strategies for the South 8 th Street study area. These cases were chosen based on their diversity in study area size, history and existing conditions blighted neighborhoods or corridors and t he redevelopment of these areas has led to innovative projects and visible progress. Even the most recent case, which began in 2011, is already experiencing notable improvements. Characteristics associated with t hese four redevelopment plans were carefully analyzed and organized in to a series of tables (referred to as redevelopme nt plan assessment tables 3 ) to evaluate their prior condition, motivators for redevelopment, goals and details of their redevelopment strategy, and the outcomes, if available, of the implemented programs. The information for the redevelopment plan assessme nt tables come directly from the area Redevelopment Plan, the related website, or city documents. These tables highlight the contents of each plan The criteria organized in these tables categorize the general history and objective strategies in a way that ensures transparency. Beyond the typical categories, the author resources. The completed redevelopment plan assessment table was then r eviewed and analyzed, noting any similarities to the South 8 th Street Corridor and the goals of 4 Indicators to gauge each potential influence on livability and sustainabil ity in the study areas we re also 3 Located in Appendix F. 4 The goals of the Fernandina Beach CDD are further explained in Chapter 4 In general, these include establishing an overlay district to guide new development, incentivize reinvestment in the area, and simplifying the regulatory process for new developments
56 applied as a part of the cross case analysis. These i ndicators were derived from an article by Lewis and Donald ( 2010 ) cities by looking at their sustainable and livable characteristics 5 These indicators and the collective case study comparison led to the formation of five best practice categories that were used to generate recommendations for the future revitalization of the South 8 th Street Corridor. This analysis is visualized in a table, tit led Analysis of Redevelopment Best Practices for the South 8 th Street Corridor 6 and further explained in the analysis of best practices section of this chapter. Selection of Case Studies The four case studies examined in this thesis include Gaines Street in Tallahassee, Florida; the North Federal Highway in Delray Beach, Florida; H Street Northeast in Washington D.C.; and the Fairfax Boulevard/George Street Corridor connecting Ranson, West Virginia and Charles Town, West Virginia. These plans were chosen based on their variety i n location, population, and study area redevelopment goals. Additionally, these four redevelopment case studies are primarily focused on blighted corridors and had a detailed planning document that could be used for analysis. The two Florida examples were selected to compare the variation in E ach of these corridors relies heavily on the C for implementation but their motivators are very different. The 2001 Gaines Street Corridor Plan was instigated based on economic stagnation over the past decade and 5 (2010) article are found in Appendix B. 6 Located in Appendix G
57 State Capitol Complex. The 2001 Gaines Street plan incorporates a large amount of capital improvements to jump start redevelopment, while the North Federal Highway revitalization relies on private redevelopment stimulated by CRA incentives and programs outlined in the plan. Giv en that the context for each case is considerably different, u sing a collective case study methodology was suitable for this thesis (Yin, 1981). Irrefutably the most unique of the four case studies is the H Street Northeast corridor in Washington D.C. du e to it s location in a major urban area. The H Street NE Strategic Development Plan is well funded and supported by the local government and includes details for existing incentive programs not offered in the smaller city examples. The Ranson and Charles T own plan relies on roadway and infrastructure improvements to redevelop the thoroughfare connecting the two cities and builds upon the cities new sustainability initiatives. The need for redevelopment is inevitabl e in healthy, evolving cities. Since there are no blanket solutions for redevelopment it is beneficial to consider the strategies utilized elsewhere. The design of the evaluation tables categorizes each plan and through a cross case analysis provide s insight into redevelopment best practices. Se lection of Categories and Indicators The tables are divided into four separate categories for data collection: Background Demographics, and History; Redevelopment Plan Objectives and Elements; Cultural and Creative Resources; and Progress These categorie s were chosen based on the typical pattern of blight and the redevelopment process as defined in Chapter 2 (Blaesser, 2008; American Planning Association, 2004; Breger, 1967). The
58 variety in these four case study areas resulted in an interesting mix of red evelopment tools, organizational and agency involvement leadership, and funding sources Indicators were drawn from for a ssessing the of smaller cities and were codified by the author in table 2 1 appropriate gauges for determining if a small city is a good fit for creative development. Table 2 4 Creative City Indicators based on Lewis and Donald (2010) Livability Sustainability Education Security of Jobs, Homes, and Services High Quality schools ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: Green Policy Climate Ecological Security Authentic or Unique Natural Environment SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY: Reducing Crime Authentic or Unique Built Environment Promoting the harmonious evolution of a civil society Preserved Green Space COMPACT DEVELOPMENT: Artistic Spaces Multiple land uses/mixed use Imaginative Streetscapes and Landmarks Multiple amenities Recreational offerings Pedestrian connectivity Good city services Walking and biking Basic needs offered (mundane activities) Active street life Participation culture Markets Condition of housing Mixing Commercial and Recreational Life Housing Affordability Ease of Commute Investments in Technology Ease of Communication Source: Adapted from Lewis & Donald 2010
59 This list of indicators includes factor s present in cities that make them more livable and sustainable, or as applied in this thesis, the redevelopment strategies and tools that lead to a more livable and sustainable corridor making it more appealing to creative commerce. The assessed redevelopment plan strategies that correspond with these indicators are bolded in the tables and clarified in the analysis section of this chapter. Additionally, the similarities and alignment of redevelopment objectives between the four case studies and the South 8 th Street study area are also used as indicators. These indicators identify models of best pract ices, guiding the recommendations to make the redevelopment of the South 8 th Street Corridor more liva ble, sustainable, and creative Redevelopment offers a prime opportunity for cities to generate or reestablish a sense of place and highlight s existing cultural and historic assets. The A merican P lanning A ssociation (2004) guide on redevelopment states redevelopment as a tool for economic development, rather than a part of a comprehensive strategy for promoting physical revi talization and financial reinvestment, has wide ranging implications for how the redevelopment process functions (p.2). With the opportunity to draft a redevelopment plan for the South 8 th Street Corridor, all measures should be taken to ensure the long l asting improvement in the vital ity of the street. The Fernandina Beach C ommunity D evelopment D epartment reestablish the corridor as a desirable commercial district and encourage economic activity among the businesses by simplifying the permitt ing process and incentivizi ng the area for new development This comprehensive objective necessitate s planning for both the economic development and physical redevelopment of the corridor while
60 considering what is best for the City as a whole Economic dis tress is a result of blight and is mitigated through various financial incentives guidelines, and regulatory tools incorporated into redevelopment planning. One economic development concept is Richard Florida theory. In short, his theory is based on a large creative class presence in the population making a place more economically successful than one without a large population concentration of creative types areas which is the basis for his many books and studies. included in th is ind ex are highly specialized and are becoming a widespread measure for regional economic potential (Florida, 2012). The lesser t stands for territorial assets, the quality of place (Florida, 2012, p.280). As previously stated in Chapter 2 everyone benefits from quality improvement s and transformation in a city not just the creative class. Over the past decade, a spects of these th eories have been introduced into revitalization planning and the presence of creative development and placemaking in redevelopment has increased (Zimmerman, 2008). In 2006, t he Creative Class Group (CCG), led by Richard Florida, and the Knight Creative Co mmunities Initiative set out to ) F
61 Steifert, 2008, p.5). Further examination of this initiative is included in this chapter as one of these community catalysts was Tallahassee, Florida. pital model may be, it works best in large cities an d tends to marginalize smaller ones (Lewis and Don ald, 2010). His model has been a popular and effective driver in creative development, but the Canadian study by Lewis and Donald (2010) fills the gap for small cities to gauge their creative city potential. Small cities, like Fernandina Beach, are at a disadvantage due to the ir lower concentration of economic and social attributes when compared to the high concentration and diversity of desirable characteristics found in larger cities. Lewis and the sustainability a nd livability of a cit y, making and livable place, as defined by Lewis and Donald (2010), are used as gauges to This assessment of be st practices of redevelopment was expected to yield basic information on common tools and strategies specified in redevelopment plans, as well as strate gies unique to each study area. Each case study in this chapter is summarized individually to identify d istinctive plan elements and outcomes. The majority of the plan details are recorded and organized in the redevelopment plan assessment tables located in the appendix. Concluding this chapter is the overall analysis of best practices and creative redevelop ment strategies. Case Study I: Gaines Street, Tallahassee, Florida Overview In the early 1900s, the Gaines Street Corridor served as a promine nt industrial corridor for the C ity of Tallahassee. Along the corridor, two distinct neighborhoods
62 evolved around the CSX railroad, government buildings, and Cascades Park Despite Gaines Street s connectivity to Florida State University, Florida A&M University and the Capitol Complex, the corridor has been in steady decline since the 1950s (Wallace Roberts & Todd, LL C Planning, 2000). This decline is marked by poor pedestrian and vehicular access, brownfield areas, and zoning weaknesses throughout the corridor. For the past two decades, the Gaines Stree ity is responding creatively and b quality gateway to the Capital C Wallace Roberts & Todd, LLC Planning 2000 p.1). The Gaines Street Revitalization Plan was created in 2000 to organize the goals of the City of Tallahassee, business own ers, and the public regarding th e Gaines Street Corridor. Their vision and establish a sense of place ( Wallace Roberts & Todd, LLC Planning 2000 p.1). The implement ation tools were carefully created and chosen in order to properly utilize the existing space and meet the objectives of the plan. In 1997, a charrette for the Gai nes Street plan yielded information on the a visioning plan for the a rea. This vision pla n served as a framework for the recommendations and policies. The Gaines Street Vitalization Committee (GSVC), appointed by the city commission, and consultants worked together to create the Gaines Street Revitalization Plan Plan elements and strategies The Gaines Street Revitalization Plan is divided in to the following sections: 1. Existing Conditions and History of the Corridor 2. Proposed Future Land Use Plan for each sub district neighborhood 3. Development Standards and Design Guidelines
63 4. Implementation Concepts and Scenarios including long range and short term objectives (Wallace Roberts & Todd, LLC Planning, 2000) The 2001 Gaines Street Revitalization Plan called for a new urban zoning district to promote mixed uses along the c orridor and developed higher design standards for infill development. The development standards and design guidelines are to be implemented in conjunction with the other elements of the plan and are an driven and regulations ( Wallace Roberts & Todd, LLC Planning 2000 ). T he plan contains one major capital investment and land use change with the creation of the Cascades Greenway This project will expand Cascades Park into a greenway through open space acquisiti ons and easements. The plan suggests this preservation of green space will be the focal point of the corridor and enhance the value of current and future developments. The plan states that most of the redevelopment efforts will be attainable through the im plementation of the new zoning code, however the University Village area and the Cascades Greenway Corridor will require much more support. The plan cites m arket and economic feasib ility studies that were used to develop the proposed projects and preservat ion efforts associated with the redevelopment. The p lan provides a detailed implementation strategy that once adopted requires CRA involvement, 7 City cooperation, and the cr eation of a coordinating structure to ensure the application of this plan and upho ld the goals of the stakeholders. Community Redevelopment Agency The Gaines Street corridor is included in the Downtown District Community Redevelopment Area. The projects included in the redevelopment plan rely on the CRA involvement for funding, tax ince ntives, bonding authority, and land assembly. T he 7 The Gaines Street Revitalization Plan was approved in 2001.
64 Communit y Redevelopment Agency for the C ity of Tallahassee was created in 1998 and is pr imarily funded by Tax Increment Financing. For the FY 2011, this district was funded through the TIF payments from Tal lahassee and Leon County, as well as receiving cent of the tourist development tax collected and held by the county for projects directly related to the p roposed Tallahassee Performing A (City of Tallahassee Community Redevelopment Agency, 2011, p.3). During FY 2011, the CRA future fiscal year projects and operating expenses (City of Tallahassee Community Redevelopment Agency, 2011 p.3). The Gaines S treet Corridor has experienced major improvements since the redevelopment along the corridor. The cultural and creative resources in Tallahassee, combined with the tra nsformation of Gaines Street have led to several redevelopment initiatives beyond the scope of the original plan. Knight Creative Communities Initiative The Knight Creative Communities Initiative (KCCI) theory of economic deve Richard Florida (Stern, M. J., & Seifert, S. C., 2008, p.2) In 2007, t he KCCI selected three catalyst communities to take part in their pilot study that included a two day seminar in which KCCI and the Creative Class Group (CCG) volunteers led citizens in planning activities The seminar resulted in the planning of several projects targeted towards stimulating the study areas creative and innovative economy. Tallahassee was chosen due to its highly educated, young population, as well as its unfortunate & Seifert, S. C., 2008, p.2).
65 The outputs of the seminars and work sessions would create programming that the pa rticipants would implement in the community and lead to a change in the behaviors and skills of the participant s regarding creative development T he overall in order to facilitate innovative means for econom ic development (Stern, M. J., & Seifert, S. C., 2008, p.6). The opinions on the effectiveness of the seminars across the catalyst communities were mixed, with most of the negative opinions focusing on the impracticality of the short term outcomes. Many of the programs and products planned during the workshop w ould take years to fully develop and fund However, in T allahassee community leaders exceeded their goal s during the workshop and s everal of their projects came to fruition (Stern, M. J., & Seifert, S. C., 2008). The products that evolved from the three 8 teams were The Tallahassee Film Festival, Greenovation sustainability efforts and Get Gaines Going. The goal of Get Gaines Going was to establish a portion of Gaines Street as a cultural corridor. The planning stage of the cultural corridor was complete within a year of the KCCI event and long term goals rela ting to arts development were drafted In the evaluation of the KCCI cata lyst communities (2008), an excerpt of a participant s follow up questionnaire stated that Get Gaines Going may take credit for the work being done on Gai nes Street, but most of the progress was slated to happen l ong before the KCCI initiative. ArtSpace an d Cultural Events Prior to the KCCI event, t he Council for Culture and Arts (COCA) in Tallahassee and Leon County received a $375,000 grant from the Knight Foundation to create a 8
66 90,000 square foot arts incubator on the Gaines Street Corridor with the help of the ArtSpace organization The C ouncil for Culture and A rts conducted an in depth feasibility study in 2006 with market, financial, and leadership analyses to provide data to support St rong, existing artist community with studio and workspace nearby ; Community support for cultural development, including plans for a New $100 million performing arts center ; Lack of arts meeting spaces and arts related businesses ; Missing link between the u arts communities ; ; and Many local, nationally renowned groups do not have adequate meeting space ( The Council on Culture and Arts, 2006 p 7) The Art Tech Hub, as i t will be call ed, will be completed soon This structure will set a standard for sustainability and green building for the region and provide 50 performance and exhibition s pace, and several retailers and restaurants to cater to the needs ( Art tech Hub n.d. ). In 2011, local volunteers and the Tallahassee Roller Girls launched the first Gaines Street Fest. Vendors, shop owners, and local bands collaborated to entertain 2,700 people (Fernandez, 2012). The most recent festival, held in Septe mber 2012, had over 80 bands perform in Gaines Street venues Currently the CRA is actively involved with the redevelopment of the Gaines Street Corridor. Several development s have utilize d the CRAs incentives including the Marriot Residence Inn Community Organizations, non profits, and a low income housing project have also received substantial support from the CRA (Williams, 2012).
67 Conclusion Opinions An article written f or the Tallahassee Democrat (2008) speaks attests to the good intentions and endless possibilities of the ArtSpace project. The author interviewed several Tallahassee professionals who share similar feelings toward the future live/work Ensley, G., 2008 p.1 ) Ken Van Assenderp, a local atto rney was quoted, as well, saying : We are a brainpower town. to do (in pursuing new business ( Ensley, G., 2008, p.1 ). Karen Brady, Director for Tallahassee COCA clarified the misconception that arts related redevelopment was only for artists artists commu nity is its creative clas Ensley, G., 2008 p.1 ) The revitalization plan, community input, and cooperation with the CRA provide a detailed framework for the future of this corridor. A writer for The Center for Participant Education Tallahassee was the Gaines Street and Railroad Avenue intersection (Williams, 2012). She described the built environment of the city as void of visual expression, but the creative thi also points out the negative effects the revitalization efforts have had on some business owners and community residents. With less traffic due to the narro close. The author encourages small businesses and entrepreneurs to utilize the CRA
68 incentives to maintain the community character of Gaines Street, just as the larger developers have b een doing for the past years. Outcomes the numerous projects and workshops. R oad way, parking, and utility improveme nts have been steady since 2009. The funding for the major r oadway enhancements came from both the State of Florida and discretionary funding from the Blueprint 2000 plan sales tax extensions (City of T allahassee n.d. ). All along the corridor n ew development s have been constructed and redevelopment projects contin ue to be planned utilizing the CRA incentives. Perhaps the most impressive improvements for the street revolve around the future Art Tech Hub area. This neighborhood in Tallahassee is attractive to the creative class and u niversity students. The ongoing r einvestment in this area may encourage them to stay in the City and attract others to relocate along the corridor. Studies and evaluations of the Gaines Street Revitalization Plan and other initiatives will be very helpful in deciding if these strategies a nd projects were the best approach for the corridor. Currently, it seems as though the creative corridor is just what Tallahassee needed. Case Study II: The North Federal Highway, Delray Beach, Florida Overview Until the 1970s the North Federal Highway th rough Delray Beach, Florida served as a prime route for travelers heading to South Florida for vacation. Small motels and shops w ere busy and profitable due to tourist activity, as were the many gas stations and automotive repair shops. This all changed af ter the completion of the Florida Turnpike and I 95 in the 1970s. The corridor was no longer the preferable route to
69 South Florida. Many businesses were forced to cl ose, leaving vacant buildings along the North Federal Highway. Throughout the subsequent de cades, t hese vacant motels and shops were centers for criminal activity. With the C ity of Delray Beach almost built out, th ere was a need for reinvesting in the existing neighborhoods and commercial structures along the corridor. The C ity of Delray Beach C ommunity Redevelopment Agency drafted the North Federal Highway Redevelopment Plan in 1999 following a significant reinves tment and redevelopment of the downtown area The North Federal Highway study area begins at the northern city limits and ends near th e Atlantic Avenue, downtown area The plan states that the positive forces from the downtown reinvestment efforts alone could have caused the North Federal Highway corridor to redevelop on its own without much public intervention (Ci ty of Delray Beach CRA, 1999). The refore, the executive summary of the sector that is the driving force behind the redevelopment initiative on the North Federal Highway the role of the public sector is to provide direction, remove obstacles, and promote the area was supportive Comprehensive Plan and the CRA Community Develop ment Plan found the area to be and included a descr iption of the blighted corridor These tw o documents are consistent with s policies. The CRA plays an active role in the revitalization of this corridor and offers several programs for businesses and
70 developers; a Business Development Program, Site Development Assistance Pr ograms, and a subsidized loan program for faade and interior improvements. The funding for these programs is generated through Tax Increment Financing from redevelopment projects and new developments along the corridor. The North Federal Highway Redevelop ment Plan was created for the Community Redevelopment Agency and relies on CRA funding and support for the implementation of the various proposals. Plan elements and strategies The North Federal Highway Redevelopment Plan is organized into four sections: 1. Introduction to Study Area 2. Existing Conditions and description of the zoning, land use, and future land use in 3. Opportunities and constraints that hinder redevelopment 4. Redevelopment Plan framework and implementation (City of Delray Beach CRA, 1999) The Plan calls for a more mixed use, pedestrian friendly design. While the plan encourages private sector reinvestment, the CRA has the power to buy properties (without emine nt domain) to resell to an interested developer. The programs and incentives offered by the CRA were designed to stimulate private sector activity. strategies for redevel oping the corridor. Traffic and Parking The North Federal Highway is a state owned highway that the Florida Department of Transportation maintains and upgrades a definite strength for the redevelopment area. A major opportunity addressed in the Plan is ba sed on the concurrency for The North Federal Highway. At the tim
71 corridor was the most heavily travelled highway in the area with 20,161 average daily trips ( ADT ) but is well below its capacity of 29,400 ADT (City of Delray Be ach CRA, 1999). The city has room to expand commercial and residential activity in this area and still remain within an acceptable concurrency range for the highway. A common goal for the corridor is to discourage further strip development and typical parking lots along the frontage of the corridor. The retrofitting of these buildings and future developments are to incorporate shared parking and better pedestrian accessibility in their designs arterial streets are al so addressed within this redevelopment plan. Pro po sed improvements to the street network include bike paths, railroad and neighborhood buffering, the creation of landscape nodes, and other roadway improvements. These improvements would require FEC railroad City of Delray Beach, and CRA cooperation. Community input Early preparation for the redevelopment plan for the North F ederal Highway began in 1995 with a series of pub lic presentations to gather feedback from citizens. In 1997, a charrette was conducted under the supervision of the consultant group hired to assist with draft ing the plan. The attendees suggested major goals f or the revitalization including improving the landscape, preserving the existing neighborhoods, decreasing the distance from the bui ldings to the street, revitalizing the blighted Delray Swap Shop, encouraging mixed use development, and exploring traffic calming options The citizen s agreed that the development along this corridor should not compete with Atlantic Aven ue, located downto wn, but should instead compliment it with more service and business oriented uses.
72 Policy tools The current strip develo pment patterns on the street were unappealing to the CRA, the consultants hired to draft the plan, and the citizens. Sp ecific guidelin es are mentioned regarding the massing and setbacks for development. To eliminate further strip development the p lan suggests Land Development Rights (LDR) amendments regarding setbacks, building depths, and strategies t o promote mixed use development In addition to the setback changes, further design requirements are suggested that call for certain building heights, street trees, and reconstructing the failing storm water drainage swales. While the Plan does not directly call for the changing of the Futu re Land Use Map (FLUM), it suggests using private rezones or a FLUM amendment to allow large scale co mmercial development that is otherwise prohibited The Plan also suggests one minor zoning change that recommends converting the multi fa mily residential m edium density classification to low density to match the surrounding area. Design Guidelines were recommended to improve the aesthetic condition of the corridor. This highway serves as the gateway to the city and the plan recommend s creating a more appeal and general gateway improvements An Overlay District was also created in conjunction with the Plan to allow for light industrial uses in the General Commercial zoning district. In addition to the Community Redevelopment Agency involvem ent, the Plan also suggests the creation of several property improvement districts to allow separate neighborhoods to act as legal entities to partner with the city to contribute to funding the improvements. A Market Demand Analysis was also conducted to determine the capacity and feasibility for the incorporation of various new uses.
73 Conclusion Outcomes The greatest contributor to the decline of the North Federal Highway was the poor aesthetic condition of the buildings and vacancies along the corridor. At the time of several private redevelopment projects were underway. The Delray Swap Shop was referenced during the charrette as one of the most aesthetically appalling buildings along the corridor. The S wap Shop gone major parking and faade improvements These enhancements have contributed to the attraction of new businesses to the site Several new up scale residential areas and townhome developmen ts have been c onstructed, attracting a new c usto mer base to the corridor. Other physical improvements include the creation of a pocket park and streetscape improvements. The downtown revitalization efforts were an unplanned catalyst for the reinvestment in the city and an increase in property values. Case Study III: H Street NE, Washington, D.C. Overview The H Street Northeast C orridor was a vibrant residential neighborhood in Washington D.C. during the early twentieth century. The street consisted of a mix of urban uses, theatres, shops, groceries, and services The decline of this corridor began when suburban flight drove out many of its residents in the 1950s. The H Street NE C orridor was physically and socially scarred by the race riots that followed th e death of Martin Luther King, Jr This demonstration was the climax for the deterioration of this neighborhood It was not until the 1990s when H Street began to see a renewed residential interest in the area (Woody n.d. ). With the incoming new residents also
74 Planning to explore redevelopment options. The leadership and cooperati on of the Office of Planning (OP), District Department of Transportation (DDOT), and the Office of the Deputy Mayor for Planning an d Economic Development (DMPED) we re largely responsible for the success of the revitalization plan and the activities that ha ve occurred since 2004. The major objectives and community goals of the "Revival: The H Street NE Strategic Development Plan" are summarized in the statement below: To provide vital information and expert recommendations to help existing businesses grow and thrive on H Street NE; to recommend a realistic strategy for encouraging the reuse of the numerous vacant lots and storefronts on the corridor to create a desirable mix of commercial offerings on the corridor; to assist in determining the public invest ment needed to improve the infrastructure and physical appearance of the corridor; and to improve the physical and market perception of the corridor to attract shoppers, tourists, residents, visitors and private investors (The District of Columbia Office o f Planning, 2004,p.3) Revitalization goals also included improving pedestrian and transit mobility, increasing housing and mixed use opportunities, and building on cultural assets to enhance the neighbor hood for residents and tourists alike. Plan element s and strategies The Revival Plan is organized based on four categories: Land Use, Zoning and Development; Retail Environment; Transit, Traffic and Parking; and Public Realm. These categories are used to arrange the existing conditions, recommended improve ments, and implementation in a consistent, easy to use format. This 183 page document provides detailed explanations and justifications for each recommendation
75 and is universally readable for an interested resident as it would be for a planning professiona l. The plan sections include: 1. Introduction to the planning process ; 2. Key Issues ; 3. Planning context, l ocation of corridor and uses, potential private development locations, listing of ince ntives in D.C. for development; 4. Market Conditions Summary ; 5. Retail Envir onment ; 6. Conditions Assessment ; 7. Challenges and Opportunities ; 8. Vision and Plan Framew ork; 9. Strategic Development Plan (by subdistricts) ; 10. Implementation ; and 11. Appendix (Market Analysis, Merchant and consumer surveys and summaries, Non preferred street section a (The District of Columbia Office of Planning, 2004) Leadership and Funding The revitalization of H Street Northeast in Washington D.C included a well prepared plan and incredible leadership and collaboration. As the director, Derrick L. Woody (n.d.) website, (H Street NE) has set a very high bar for collaboration with a broad base of stakeholders, willingness to think o utside of the box or conversely to embrace the uniqueness of each property on the corridor, and ability to build upon a truly compelling history for a n ew and exciting future (p.1 ). The planning process for the revitalization efforts began strong with the creation of the Advisory Neighborhood Commissions and effective networking between multiple agencies and professionals. Together, the Office of Planning and its advisory
76 committees began a year l ong planning proc that involved over 500 citizen particip ants (Woody n.d. ). This response, combined with consultant D C Council in April 2004. led to the 2006 creation of the Great Streets Initiative (GSI) that includes seven corridors in Washington D.C. The GSI was controlled and regulated by District and F ederal agencies. The Initiative was developed to use public tools and funding to influence privat e and cultural investments along the H Street Corridor. Furthermore, t he Deputy Mayor for Planning and Economic Development was able to secure approval for $ 16.6 million in development related assistance, loans, and credit enhancement s and $ 25 million in Tax Increment Financing bonds and notes to support H Street retail projects (Woody n.d. ). Major H Street infrastructure improvements were funded by the District Depar tment of Transportation match ing federal highway funds. The plan outline s clear roles for stakeholders, public agencies, and private developers during the implementation period. This portion directly asks the residents to take on an active role in the process and hold the Advisory Council accountable for their actions. It also calls for the H Street CDC to develop and redevel op in accordance with the plan and the Main Street organization to lead maintenance and safety improvement efforts ( The District of Columbia Office of Planning, 2004, ). Th e local and n contributed heavily to the success of the revival efforts. The Main Street program is a part of the National Trust for Historic Preservation and has been used across the United
77 Stat es for o ver 30 years (National Trust for Historic P reservation n.d. ). The proven development, reinvestment, and community sustainabil ity strategies to blighted commercial corridors that qu alify. 9 As a large metropolitan area, Washington D.C. has many existing incentive programs for housing, traffic enhancements, parking, transit, homelessness assistance businesses, and street improvements that are not found in many other places in the U.S. An important section of the Revival Plan is the listing of dozens of programs that would directly benefit the H Street NE corridor developers and existing businesses. Conclusion Outcomes During plan implementation, the D.C. Office of Planning gave p riorit y to the pedestrian oriented experience; transit and parking enhancements; and effective and appropriate marketing o f the area and its subdistricts ( The District of Columbia Office of Planning, 2004 ). Significant changes have occurred along the H Street NE Corridor in (DDOT) $53 million streetscape improvements and streetcar system These corrido r (as specified in the p lan) led to $ 2.5 billion in planned or completed investments along H Street (Woody n.d. ). The improvements made over the decade have drawn local investors to the H Street Corridor. An interesting and unusual example can be found with the Miller 9 design, economic restructuring, and organization to rede velop blighted commercial corridors.
78 Brothers, Dan and Ben, who are changing the typical pattern of real estate investments on H Street and beyond Their concept evolved after questioning how residents could directly invest in their own neighborhood skipping over the traditio nal wealthy, high end investor backing that is standard in urban re development (Badger, 2012). In August of 2012, the brothers created a company called Fundrise to allow community stakeholders the opportunity to invest in a property in their neighborhood. The first property they attempted to fund via their crowd funding pla t form was a former dollar store they had previously purchased in the H Street NE Neighbor hood. After only a few months, over 175 people had gone online to donate $325,000 to cover building reconstruction and start up business costs for the H Street NE property (Badger 2012 ). This crowd funding platform has the potential to drastically change the way communities reinvest in their blighted areas. With promise of the corridor val Ben million ger, 2012, p.3). Their plan connects reside nts and provides them with the investment power to contribute to the vit ality of their own neighborhood e community investment tech company will have a g reat effect on the H Street NE C orridor and potentially many more blighted neighborhoods
79 Case Study IV: Fairfax Boulevard and George Street, Ranson Charles Town, West Virginia Overview George Street and Fai rfax Boulevard connect the cities of Ranson and Charles Town, West Virginia. This street was designed as a classic thoroughfare between each downtown s, connecting the communities. According to the original nineteenth century town plans and plat, the corridor was once considered a wide, grand sp ace ( Hall Planning & Engineering Inc., 2012) During the mid twentieth century, this two lane street was home to several large manufacturing developments that have since closed, leaving the corridor scattered w ith contaminated brownfields. In 2011, the cities of Ranson and Charles Town were awarded the DOT TIGER II p lanning grant to transform the George Street Fai rfax Boulevard corridor into a Green Corridor supported with Corridor Revitalization Concept Plan for Fairfax goals through design. The plan targets redevelopment of the brownfield areas and vac ant land into a livable space that will provide workforce housing, green space, community facilities, and job centers (Hall Planning & Engineering Inc., 2012). This initiative will encourage economic development and promote a greater quality of life for the c ommunity residents. The revitalization plan focuses on creating a more sustainable thoroughfare, will increase pedestrian, bike, and transit activity between the cities (Hall Planning & Engineering Inc., 2012) In 2011, a charrette was held to gather community input. The issues raised were all addressed in the revitalization plan and ranged from the desire for slower traffic
80 speeds to an increase in mixed use development. Citizens were mostly concerned with how these changes would a ffect their abutting property and how the Green Corridor would enhance walkability. The goals of the Green Corridor plan required minimal policy change and ali gned with the C based Smart Code for undeveloped land and the Green Downt own Overlay. One of the policy shifts was regarding the Green new zoning classification as which accommodates multi modal transportation, smaller blocks, and greater focus on character and functionality of development. Plan elem ents and strategies The planning document draft ed by Hall Planning and Engineering (2012) focuses on various design concepts and implementation strategies that will improve t he traffic flow and walkability of the Green Corridor The sections included in this plan include: 1. Walkable Urban Design ; 2. Context ; 3. General Walkable Elements ; 4. Design Recommendations ; 5. Innovative landscaping and stormwater treatment ; and 6. Bicycle Facilities This document includes detailed sketches and in depth descriptions of the engineering efforts that are to be completed as a part of the plan implementation. Quality of Life Improvements The strategies and design adaptations included in the plan revo lve around aintain the quality of life and sense of communit y for the citizens within the Urban Growth Boundary of the Corporation of Ranson by enha ncing
81 development, maintaining Downtown Ra nson recognizing and protecting the natural (Hall Planning and Engineering Inc., 2012, p.16). A cornerstone of this plan is the rehabilitation of t he historic Charles Washington building into the community transit hub This adaptive use will provide the citizens increased accessibility to regional rail and bus transportation while utilizing a cultural resource. The plan illustrates a completely reengineered stormwater infrastructure along the corrid or that applies i nnovative sustainable technologies These civic landscaping improvements will better support tree growth and filter stormwater runoff (Hall Planning & Engineering, 2012). An article regarding the Green Corridor in 2009). The cities are about one hour from the Baltimore Washington D.C. metropolitan area, making them prime areas for professionals wanting to live outside of the city. Each c ity demonstrates a degree of innovati veness in their new comprehensive plan ad justments to incorporate form based codes and sustainability initiatives. Collaborations, Partnerships, and Funding The cooperation between the two cities is unusual, but exemplifies the proactive spirit (Branche, 2009). The Cit y Managers of these two communities recognized they must take a comprehensive approach at repairing the contaminated brownfields in order for developers and residents to reinvest in the area (Branche, 2009). The Green Corridor is well funded and supported by the following federal grant programs: 10 10 These grants are still available for application.
82 EPA Brownfields Assessment Grants The Partnership for Sustainable Communities EPA Brownfields Area Wide Planning Grant HUD Community Challenge Planning Gran t DOT TIGER II Planning Grant with local matching The EPA Building Blocks for Sustainable Communities grant assistance was instrumental in speeding up the process of planning and implementing the contributing grants in Ranson and Charles Town Multi Modal Transportation The overarching goal of improved mobility in the Green Corridor revitalization project led the planners to emp loy a strategy of specifying the land use and development patterns first and the transportatio n plans second (LU1 TR2) This method allowed this transportation heavy plan to consider the overall vision for the future land uses as suggested by the citizens and planning professionals. This vision includes improved wal kability, varied housing types restaurants, shops, and c ivic centers (Hall Planning & Engineering Inc., 2012). Roadway improvements include managing the vehicular speed, improving crosswalk connection s and other safety measures, reest ablish ing the pedestrian scale, on street parking, wider sidewalks, street tr ees, and increasing pedestrian amenities. Conclusion This unique plan was formed as a result of grants awarded for the redevelopment of the brownfields and sustainability improvements along Fairfax Boulevard and George Street Corridor. The revitalization plan identifies the goals agreed upon during the
83 eng ineering design of the corridor Hall Planning and Engineering, 2012, p.46). The element s included in the plan are a lso in the Comprehensiv e Plans for the cities, resulting in minimal policy conflict during implementation. In 2009, the American Public University System Academic Center broke ground on a former brownfield site on the Green Corridor Other u pcoming plans for the corridor include a LEED neighborhood to be constructed in the place of a former foundry. The Green Corridor is in the very early stages of revitalization and will undergo a dramatic transformation within the coming decade. Findings and Analysis of Best Practices Five common elements present in these four corridor redevelopment plans represent the five best practices in redevelopment planning. These broad concepts offer a foundation for a series of redevelopment strategies to be determined based on the existing condition s of the blighted area. Using the cross case analysis, these : 1. Studies and a nalyses to guide strategy development ; 2. C ivic engagement; 3. L eadership; 4. T ransportation and 5. L ivability. These best practices should be considered during redevelopment planning partially due to their positive impact in the four corridor case study areas, but also because their scope reaches beyond redevelopment into good city planning practices. These are evident in each redevelo pment plan as a series of strategies, methods, and tools to be used to redevelop the study areas.
84 These best practices also reflect a similarity in their concern for neighborhood context and existing assets and adherence to the vision of the community. A common objective for the redevelopment methods and strategies throughout these four plans was to create vibrant, sustainable corridors that will attract jobs, patrons, and activities. In the following paragraphs, the five best practices are supported by th e s trategies and tools adapted in the plan that influenced the overall revitalization of the respective corridors These five categories further clarify where the four case studies differ in their approaches toward their objectives and why they are conside red best practices to guide corridor redevelopment. 1. Studies and analyses to guide strategy development The four redevelopment plans evaluated for this thesis contained either a chapter or a detailed description of the preexisting condition s of the corri dor prior to the plan implementation. Citizens and visitors can easily notice aesthetic conditions, but underlying market conditions or economic hindrances are not as apparent. The inclusion of a conditions assessment is a simple way to record the present state of a blig hted area for future reference. The Delray Beach Plan contains a thorough assessment including a listing of all properties, square feet of each property, current land use, assessed value and existing parking (City of Delray Beach CRA, 1999). Both the H Street (2004) and the Delray Beach (1999) plans have data tables that show the existing activity and economic state of the corridors. Other factors typically included are the current zoning classifications; utilities and stormwater condition ; traffic and transit networks and other aspects that contribute to the overall current functioning of the corridor. The H Street NE conditions assessment is a substantial document on its own and is a prime model for other areas to reference.
85 Additionally, the re is merit in conducting a SWOT analysis of the corridors to identify the strengths, weaknes ses, opportunities, and threats In all four plans, SWOT analysis was used alongside the existing conditions assessment. Also, each plan references resu lts of market analyse s used to generate the strategies and target specific opportunity areas. The H Street NE plan, for example, provides a block by block overview of the square footage or lot assembly required for each in demand use. A general idea of wha t the citizens want and need (possibly generated from a workshop) can be a good start to exploring redevelopment ideas, but a formal ma rket demand analysis can guide c ities and redevelopment professionals toward what types of uses to attract to the area th at will facilitate a sustainable economy. These studies can drive public and private developers to build long lasting structures that will accommodate a variety of uses over the years. 2. Civic engagement Over the 15 years spanning the four case studies, d ifferent methods and technologies have been developed for conducting design charrettes and workshops, but the goal has remained the same. Generating community consensus and infor ming the stakeholders about the redevelopment process was instrumental to the success of each he goals and suggestions from stakeholders during charrettes are directly referenced in each plan and were used to establish a vision for the revitalization as a whole The actual details and records from the charret tes were not include d in the plans and therefore canno t be analyzed for specific civic engagement best practices.
86 3. Leadership Leadership and collaboration are where the four corridor plans differ considerably Each of these plans are supported by various levels of leadership that are tasked wit h implementing and regulating the redevelopment efforts. Determining which level of leadership (community, commercial, nonprofit, city government, cultural affairs, etc.) is right for guiding the redevelopment effor ts of a blighted corridor is dependent upon the initiating private sector party (e.g. non profit organization or local business association) or the City. Private sector redevelopment must abide by th e regional regulatory framework but does not have to directly include the local government in their efforts. jurisdiction Some cities include redevelopment policies within their comprehensive plans or land development codes, while other s draft a specific plan for a blighted area to be overseen by the local redevelopment authority (American Planning Association, 2004). recognition of the economic potential of support to the nearby Universities and the State Capitol Complex (Wallace, Roberts & Todd, LLC Planning, 2000, p.1). The implement ation of the plan called for support from the Community Redevelopment Agency and the commission appointed the Gaines Street Vitalization Committee. These municipal groups assist in the execution of the plan. The Gaines Street Corridor plan also called for vario us FDOT studies and consultant led workshops and charrettes to develop strategies for the plan. Other
87 Prior to the cr eation of the Art Tech Hub, the ArtSpace organization c onducted a feasibility report assessing Tal development project. Stated in the report was the following cannot over emphasize the importance of leadership in making a project come t ( The Council on Culture and Arts, 2006, p.6) ArtS pace is a highly reputable developer for arts centers, but cannot simply lay the groundwork for a project and walk away. As a part of their leadership analysis, the group met with a focus group of commissioners, the City Manager, and the Economic Development D irector to discuss the potential funding sources for this project. Possible resources came from federal grants, existing TIF funds, enterprise zone creation, and new market tax credits (The Council on Culture and Arts, 2006). 11 In the case for extremely exp ensive developments or major capital improvements, the presence of strong leadership and collaboration are vital. The Delray Beach Plan encouraged minimal public sector intervention, and encouraged incentivizing and promoting private developments. The CRA justifies this logic by clarifying that as the values i n the redevelopment area increase, the rents and demand will increase and will force the under performing, marginal uses to relocate elsewhere (City of Delray Beach CRA, 1999, p.38). The Delray Beach Community Redevelopment Agency called for the creation of this plan, as well as the formation of individual neighborhood Property Improvement Districts They also encourage homeowner a ssociations along the corridor to support the recommended improvements a nd assist in funding and consensus building on a smaller scale. 11 New Market Tax Credits were extended through 2012 and are no longer available.
88 The District of Columbia Office of Planning initiated the H Street NE redevelopment plan after the increase in residential reinvestment along the corridor in the 1990s. The Office of Planning created a series of Advisory Commissions consisting of community stakeholders that ( The District of Columbia Office of Planning, 2004 p.2). This the collaboration of the Office of Planning, the Office of the Deputy Mayor, and the District Department of Transportation. The H Street NE C orridor is also home to a Co mmunity Development Corporation, a community based, non profit developer that assists in community and physical redevelopment of local capital (Blaesser, 2008). The H Street NE CDC provides development assistance services to the H Street neighborhood, and approximately 30% of the existing businesses along H Street have utilized their services ( The District of Columbia Office of Planning, 2004, ). community activists with the financial resources of government and private lender Street Community Development Corporation n.d. ). The website supporting the H Street CDC provides links to realized and future real estate projects, a community calendar, and the roles of the CDC. The West Virginia case study corridor connecting Ra nson and Charles Town was developed based on the cooperative efforts of the two c ities in securing grants for major improvements to the brownfields and roadway conditions. The City of Ranson has been working for over two years on an updated comprehensive p lan for the future of their City and the Green Corridor redevelopment plan fits in perfectly with their vision.
89 The two c ities are working together to implement the many interdependent projects that will be funded by the grants that were awarded. This plan was adopted in 2012, and no formal special organization or redevelopment authority has been formed to regulate the implementation. 4. Transportation Transportation improvements are included in each corridor revitalization plan. These corridors, by design, give priority to auto traffic rather than pedestrian traffic. The peak periods of activity for these corridors revolve around uses that are no longer viable or currently in demand and redesigning them requires changes based on new trends in mobility (Long streth, 1998). A few common strategies across the plans to redirect the corridor from an auto centric area to pedestrian friendly, multi modal transportation centers include: encouraging on street parking increasing safety at intersections, beautifying t he streetscape, and incorporating p edestrian amenities ( The District of Columbia Office of Planning, 2004 ; Wallace Rob erts & Todd, LLC Planning, 2000; City of Delray Beach CRA, 1999; Hall Planning & Engineering Inc., 2012). 5. Livability The overall livability of a district or neighborhood consists of a combination of cultural assets, creative resources, an authentic built and natural environment, and quality city services (Lewis and Donald, 2010 ). The concepts of livability and sustainabi lity are central to the intended outcomes of each redevelopment strategy assessed for this st udy. The individual strategies address a particular objectiv e or goal of the community and c ity, but are also contributing to the overall enhancement of the livabi lity of the corridor. Each objective achieved through the strategies implemented, in
90 turn contributes to the subsequent successes in the redevelopment process and leads towards long term, sustainable changes. Table 3 1. Livability Indicators in Case Studi es Livability Indicators Alternative path towards: Sustainability Creative Growth Economic Growth Aesthetic Appeal Livability Education x x x High Quality schools x x x Climate x Authentic or Unique Natural Environment x x Authentic or Unique Built Environment x x Preserved Green Space x x Artistic Spaces x x Imaginative Streetscapes and Landmarks x x Recreational offerings x Good city services x Basic needs offered (mundane activities) x Participation culture x Condition of housing x x x x x Housing Affordability x x x Investments in Technology x x Source: Adapted From Lewis and Donald, 2010
91 Table 3 2 Sustainability Indicators in Case Studies Indicators Sustainability Alternative path towards: Sustainability Creative Growth Economic Growth Aesthetic Appeal Livability Security of Jobs, homes, services (prices) x Environmental Sustainability Green Policy x x Ecological security x x Social Sustainability Reducing crime X X Promoting the harmonious evolution of a civil society X X Compact Development Multiple land uses/mixed use X X Multiple amenities X X X Pedestrian connectivity X X Walking and biking X X Active street life X X Markets X X Mixing Commercial and Recreational Life X X Ease of Commute X X X X Ease of Communication X X Source: Adapted From Lewis and Donald, 2010
92 sustainability and livability as being inherently complimentary to one another (i.e. a secure economy active city life, and sustaining natural resources all contribute to a sustainable community) Th e Gaines Street Corridor Plan incorporates sustainabil ity measures by applying Smart Growth principals to all new development (Wallace, Roberts, & Todd, LLC, 2000). The new guidelines for adaptive use and infill development will enhance the underutilized areas to create a more compact space, encou raging mixed uses and increased walkability. The central capital improvement in the Gaines Street plan is the creation of the Cascades Greenway through land acquisition and municipal support. This greenway will provide pedestrian and bike connectivity, preserve the na tural beauty of the area, and protect the historic Cascades P ark. Since the plan implementation there has been a substantial reinvestment in the area by residents and students (Ensley, G., 2008) and businesses and new developments are utilizing the CRA incentives (Wallace, Roberts, &Todd, LLC, 2000). The Washington D.C. metro area has a high concentration of cultural asset s and institutions that are in comparable with the other case study areas. The existing redevelopment, business development, and loc al government assistance programs referenced in the revitalization plan are unique to Washington D.C. and provide great support for the future of the corridor. The H Street reinvestment plan utilizes existing cultural assets to create a more vibrant neighb orhood, which is attractive to entrep The District of Columbia Office of Planning, 2004 ; Badger, 2012). The brothers Fundrise platform sparked interest in unassuming neighborhood residents and motivated local community engagement
93 The su bdistrict design the H Street NE P lan features divide s the neighborhood into four distinct areas based on their current and historic roles. An instrumental tool for this plan is the marketing of each district and the H St reet Corridor as a whole for future businesses, developers, residents, and visitors ( The District of Columbia Office of Planning 2004). A marketing package target ed towards potential developers is also recommended to promote one of the historic buildings along the corridor Reaching out to the neighborhood property owners and residents is a big part of the H Street NE P lan and the marketing team sends periodic newsletters with updates and alerts on new incentives and available assistance programs ( The District of Columbia Office of Planning, 2004 ). Each case study, with the exception of the North Federal Highway, contained a detailed element regarding historic buildings. The stipulations for preserving and reusing historic structures are whol ly addre ssed in each plan and are favored over new construction. Gaines Street incentivizes adaptive use of historic properties and encourages the use of various local and federal Historic Preservation tax credits and benefits. Similarly, in H Street NE, the plan suggests simplifying the regulatory barriers to preservation that might hinder property owners from pursuing reuse and historic preservation tax credits or similar incentive programs. The Green Corridor Plan incorporates adaptive use of a historic structu re, as well as the redevelopment of brownfield areas. Creating new, vibrant spaces from former contaminated sites is an incredible task and has already transformed the two cities. Effective preservation in redevelopment projects results in tangible economi c benefits and u tilizing natural and cultural assets has a great return in social vitality and economic
94 development (American Planning Association, 2004 ). Each plan relies on preservation and innovative urban design to reinvent their corridors as attracti ve, livable places. Summary These five best practices in redevelopment planning were determined by the commonalities between the strategies and methods outlined in the redevelopment planning d ocuments. They should be used to guide revitalization planning and provide a solid platform for further establishing more specific methods to integrate into the plan. After reading the four plans in depth, organizing them into the redevelopment plan assessment tables, and identifying the common best practices through analysis, it was clear that corridors exhibit commons signs of decline regardless of geographic location in regards to combating high vacancy rates, traffic and parkin g issues, a lack of pedestrian amenities, low economic activity, and unappealing aesthetic conditions. In addition to the revelation of the five best practices the analysis proved that although the strategies and tools each case study utilized may lead t o more economically and physically attractive corridors they would also consequently improve the quality of place. According to Florida (2012), the quality of a place is an important ach plan contained strategies to ultimately improve the livability and sustainability of the corridor; the two indicators that Lewis and Donald (2010) suggest indicate the potential for successful creative development opportunities. These improvements will promote new activity and attract new residents, patrons, and tourists into the area. This theory is supported by sources cited throughout this thesis that defend the economic development powers of
95 the creative class and the regeneration of a quality place through creative placemaking and utilizing existing community assets. Richard Florida (2012) confidently states that everyone has the capacity to be creative and certain jobs allow the creative class to utilize their problem solving and innovative perspective more than others. The influence the creative class has on economic development is where the creative city theory meets redevelopment. This research considers any improvements that make the corridor more appealing to innovative businesses and en trepreneurs smart redevelopment decisions. The existing creative class concentration in the population plays a factor in the success of creative development initiatives, as do the technology and tolerance of an area. Yet, given the small city case study ar ea in Fernandina Beach, his definition of t valid. The Lewis and Donald (2010) article debunks his index and explains that livability and sustainability should be indicators to decide if a small town is a good candidate for their which of the four case studies utilized their creative capital in redevelopment planning. Gaines Street is a great example of a redevelopment project that has escalated due t o its creative capacity. The original Gaines Street Revitalization P lan was adopted in 2001 and included language calling for a pedestrian friendly env ironment with open space, green ways and bike paths and an increase in cultural activities and community identity with in the urban neighborhood character. Eleven years later, these priorities eative placemaking initiatives. A factor in this success was due in part to the existing cr eative class in Tallahassee (Stern and Seifert, 2008). The unplanned presence of these young,
96 entre preneurial creatives, established a market for existing and potential businesses, galleries, and restaurants along the Gaines Street Corridor. W ith the suppo rt of the Knight Foundation Grant ArtSpace, and CRA incentives, this c ommunity will be seeing the pro active power of creative placemaking economically and physically for years to come. Each of these corridor plans was guided by a defined set of goals and a clear vision comprising community consensus, consideration for the neighborhood context, utilization of assets, and optimism for a more livable place. In the following section of this thesis, these best practices will be evaluated in the context of the South 8 th Street Corridor to consider possible recommend ed applications.
97 CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION, ANALYSIS, AND RECCOMENDATIONS FOR THE SOUTH 8 TH STREET CORRIDOR REDEVELOPMENT This chapter analyzes and discusses the South 8 th Street Corridor within the context of its current condition and role in the community with the goal of recommending planning in terventions for its improvement Throughout this chapter, a case will be made as to why the South 8 th Street C orridor in Fernandina Beach should be redeveloped. The stakeholder opinions and the goals of the Fernandina Beach Community Development Department (CDD), provide a context for this analysis Next, existing assets are defined as c atalysts that will be instrumental to the redevelopment of the corridor. The concluding recommendations were developed with the CDD in mind. The CDD should begin planning for redevelopment based on the best practices and various strategies and regulatory t ools that were found in the review of literature and the four case studies themselves. The intention of the CDD is to create an overlay district that will simplify the regulatory processes that hinder development on South 8 th Street, promote the area for new uses and opportunities, and incentivize the revitalization of the corridor by current and future property owners. Detailed recommendations were derived from the case h of the strategies and regula tory tools applied in the plans improved their corridors through a variety of means to yield a more livable, sustainable, quality place. This chapter completes the thesis research objective of identifying strategies, tradition al and creative, that will encourage the economic and physical revitalization of South 8 th Street.
98 Redevelopment in Fernandina Beach The C ity of Fernandina Beach Community Development Department is focused on upholding and establishing policies that will le ad to a more sustainable, livable, and successful city. Over the past decade, the City has taken significant steps in incorporating progressive urban planning principles including: form based codes, smart growth, multi modal t ransportatio n, and green building into their Comprehensive Plan, Future Land Use Map, and Land Development Code (McCrary, Burke & Gibson, 2012). The redevelopment of South 8 th S treet has been a main objective of the City for years, but the history of the failed attemp ts in the past makes the future revitalization efforts subjec t to scrutiny. The goal of the C ity CDD is to create an overlay district for the South 8 th Street Corridor that directs the form and functionality of the corridor and provides incentives for pote ntial and current property owners, future developments, and businesses (McCrary, Burke & Gibson, 2012). Fernandina Beach Waterfront Community Redevelopment Area The Community Development Department established a Community Redevelopment Area (CRA) in 2004 i n order to eliminate blight and improve the overall condition of the waterfront area in downtown Fernandina Beach.
99 Figure 4 1 Fernandina Waterfront CRA The City revisits the CRA plan every five years and could potentially incorporate the South 8 th Stree t area into the existing CRA or create a new district. In 2006, charrettes were held that led to the creation of the waterfr ont redevelopment CRA. Citizens consistently agreed on the importance of supporting downtown businesses, expanding their services an d getting more people to live and work downtown (City of Fernandina Beach Community Development Department, 2010). During the CRA creation process, several public hearings, charrettes, and workshops were held to gather community input and support. Creating awareness and encouraging involvement was a successful component to the approval of the downtown and waterfront CRA (City of Fernandina Beach Community Development Department, 2010). The existing CRA was created to promote development in the downtown dis trict and redevelop the waterfront area, but as of early 2013 not much activity has taken place. This is partially attributed to the economic recession, but could also be a result of
100 a lack of impetus by the CRA advisory board (Daught ry, 2012a). In a 2012 News Leader (2012a), article Mayor Filkoff noted that she would like to see more effort to get 1 Senior Planner, Kelly Gibson confirmed in the article that the CDD staff has programs ready once resou and fin According to Florida Statute 163.340(10), South 8 th Street would be eligible for CRA designation. With the existing CRA policies in place, there are obvious opportunities (i.e. building on the existi ng CRA framework) and challenges (i.e. staffing and the current economic state of the city) to facilitating the 8 th Street redevelopment via a formal CRA. The track record of the CRA should not be an immediate deciding factor on ruling out the possibility of a South 8 th Street CRA or a contiguous expansion of the existing CRA. With the real est ate market slowly rebounding in distressed commercial areas (Spivak, 2010), there is hope that in the coming year the CRA will be recharged. In both the Tallahassee and Delray Beach corridor redevelopment plans, the respective the creation of the plans and were very well respected and established (Wallace, Roberts, & Todd, LLC Planning, 2000; City of Delray Beach, CRA, 1999). 1 ation in early 2012
101 Finding of Necessity Before a Community Redevelopment Area can be designated or any redevelopment incentives applied, a Finding of Necessity must be conducted on the blighted district (City of Fernand ina Beach, 2006a; Florida Statutes §163.335 2006b). The past b light study for the Waterfront CRA found inadequacies in street layout, unsanitary and unsafe building conditions, deteriorated structures, industrial debris, economically obsolete buildings, and inadequate building density patterns (City of Fernandina Bea ch, 2006a). For the South 8 th Street corridor, a professional survey should be conducted to accurately define the causers of blight. From the 2012 windshield survey, the researcher noticed high vacancy rates, dilapidated buildings and an overall need for m ajor site improvements; these three elements can contribute to falling lease rates, declining property values, and a decrease in the tax base. After a formal study is conducted and the Finding of Necessity is performed the city can then move ahead with re development planning preparations Opportunities and challenges to redevelopment in Fernandina B each Existing cond ition Each of the four case studies analyzed in Chapter 3 contained a series of opportunities and challenges surrounding the r evitalization of each corridor. A major challenge for the South 8 th S treet redevelopment is the condition of the corridor. The buildings along the corridor have deep setbacks and inconsistent architectural styles. The setback inconsistency is a factor that can be seen in the 1926 Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps and is noticeable when driving down the corridor today (Sanborn, 1926). The inconsistencies in the streetscape add character to the corridor, but the de ep setback front parking lots are not a desirable urban design feature. The auto repair
102 shops (vacant and active) have unorganized parking lots and holding areas that significantly detract from the curb appeal of the corridor. Substandard design features, awnings, and metal buildings are a major part of the built environment along 8 th Street In several instances these unsightly features, metal sheds for example, are serving a purpose (i.e. protecting trailers from the weather), but are not properly screene d from public view. Sidewalks and driveways are in need of maintenance, and the minimal grass and shrubbery at the base of the telephone p oles are in poor condition The right of way area for the corridor detracts from the potential positive landscaping t he property owners have in place. The visual condition of South 8 th Street is uninviting and hinders potential investments. Roadway and right of way improvements on behalf of the City and FDOT may promote new business and development reinvestment Small lo t size This corridor consists of small lots, constraining development without land assembly. However, one possibility would be if an adjacent property owner purchased the neighboring property for expanding their business or for additional parking. A potent ial opportunity also arises if a property owner on the east side of South 8 th Street expands his property by purchasing an adjoining 9 th Street facing corner lot. Successful examples of land assembly are the North Federal Highway Plan and the Gaines Street Corridor Revitalization Plan. In these two cases, the CRA was able to assemble p roperties and resell them with incentives to developers Location Each stakeholder interviewed agreed that the location of South 8 th Street was ribute and was a reason they decided to invest in property
103 along the corridor. The heavy auto traffic and visibility along the corridor is appealing to businesses However, t he current mix of uses and condition issues do no t contribute to a vibrant, pedest rian friendly environment. Walkability along the corridor is hindered by the heavy traffic despite the 30 miles per hour speed limit and the lack of businesses South 8 th Street has no streetscape amenities, such as benches, or outdoor restaurant seating. It will be difficult to fill the gap between pedestrian activity and the auto centric design of South 8 th Street. The good news is that the challenges of the present co ndition of South 8 th Street can be combatted by a well planned public redevelopment effort as evide nced in the four case studies. The Fernandina Beach Community Development Department has clear objectives and goals for the imminent redevelopment of South 8 th Street. Fernandina Beach Community Development Department go als for South 8 th Street re development The Fernandina Beach planning documents contain provisions for redevelopment. The Fernandina Beach Comprehensive Plan (2004) section 1.03.01 City shall reduce blight through redevelopment, renewal, and removal and replacement of blighted structures and uses Redevelopment i ncentives mentioned in the Comprehensive Plan and Land Development Code include density or intensity bonuses, provisions f or redevelopment overlay districts, alternative site design requirements in designated redevelopment or historic district areas, as well as expedited review processes. The Community Development Department h as several options available for the redevelopmen t of South 8 th Street that are supported by Florida Statute: expanding or creating a new Community Redevelopment Area (CRA), establishing an enterprise zone, or creating an overlay zoning district.
104 Enterprise zo ne The Florida Statute 290.0065 provides the qualifications for state designated e nterprise zones. In short, the S tate of Florida evaluates each nominated area based on poverty rates unemployment rates and general distress. South 8th Street is mostly commercial, but a possibility exists of includin g the neighboring 9th Street area in order to potentially qualify as an enterprise zone. The City of Gainesville established an enterprise zone to attract property owners and businesses to invest in the designated zone through a series of incentives, disco unts, and tax refunds in hopes of generating economic revitalization (City of Gainesville, 2009). Overlay di strict Future CRAs or other special districts are established as Fernandina Beach policy. As defined in the Fernandina Beach Land D e velopment Code, the purpose of overlay d istricts are to provide a way to modify or alter the site design requirements as prescribed by the existing zoning district. Design standards and rules in overlay districts supersede those in the underlying zoning d istrict. The creation of an o verlay district is preferred to a new CRA or a CRA expansion because unlike water front area, this corridor requires little infrastru cture improvements or capital investment s. An overlay district is the redevelopment approach best fit to the needs of the South 8 th Street Corridor and is preferred by the Community Development Department. The Community Development Department (CDD) consists of one director and three senior planners It is their intenti on to redevelop the corridor by creating a South 8 th Street Overlay District that will include design guidelines and incentives for businesses and developments that locate in the area. The overlay would supersede the
105 existing zoning and regulations for the 8 th Street area and would allow for the City to customize the specifications for future development based on the collective vision of the stakeholders and the City for the corridor. Simplification Marshal McCrary, director of the CDD, emphasized in our i nterview that some people just see an overlay as another level of regulation or a burden, when it actually recognizes special characteristics of an area reasons why it should receive more th Street would simplify things. R ight now there is no way supportive of people who want to make their businesses wor k ( McCrary, Burke & Gibson, 2012). The simplification McCrary speaks of is in reference to t he current zoning and fees required for new developments and uses. The area is zoned C 2 (General Commercial) which prohibits residential, manufacturing, or industrial uses 2 The suggested overlay for this district would allow light industrial uses to acco mmodate craftsmen or small scale manufacturers encourage mixed use and live work situations, and incentivize the area for future developments and businesses The planners also discussed a few preliminary objectives for design guideline s to be implemented in the area, the highest priority being improving and implementing new parking strategies and reducing the existing residential setbacks. The CDD will classification for this overlay area to incorporate mixed use, reside ntial, and light industrial uses (McCrary, Burk e & Gibson, 2012). Ideally, the CDD would like to see the density of the corridor match that of downtown at 8 units per acre, however, this number 2 See Appendix C for Land Development Code Definitions
106 is subject to increase thr ough the density bonus program. In o rder to attract activity to South 8 th Street, the City must promote the incentives and the simplification of starting a business along the South 8 th Street corridor. Promotion The CDD wants to promote this new district to the public using a cle ar title t hat is distinct from past efforts overlay will simplify [the businesses, development, and building regulatory processes] and these policies are custom improve South 8 th Street (M cCrar y, Burke & Gibson, 2012). The CDD is aware that c ommunity outreach and marketing, combined with public cha r rettes and stakeholder engagement, are integral to the creation and success of the overlay district While the community and South 8 th Street stakeho lders will ultimately determine the vision that will guide redevelopment, the concept of creating an arts district has been mentioned. Adrienne Burke, a senior planner, is interested in seeing creative and arts based developments along the corridor, but sh e stresses the importance of not competing with Centre Street ( McCrary, Burke & Gibson, 2012). Effective promotion of the potential of the corridor requires the community being engaged and aware of the intentions of the redevelopment efforts and supportive of the project. Collaboration It is unrealistic to expect any major initiative to have suppor t from 100% of the public. The C ity of Fernandina Beach is no str anger to negative public uproar, specifically regarding impact and permitting fees (Griffin & Keogh, 2011). 3 The planning 3 land use of each development. Impact fees are a highly debated topic in Fernandina Beach and
107 staff at the CDD has in many instances worked with business owners to make their plans a reality (Gibson, 2012b). In the past, there has been a disconnect between realtors and the City. In the future, especially in declining are as like South 8 th Street, the desired project if there are any questions about its feasibility (McCrary, Burke & Gibson, 2012). During a stakeholder interview with Phil Gr iffin, a realtor who has listed many South 8 th Street properties, mentioned several instances where a client (a small scale furniture manufacturer for example) contacted him regarding a certain building on the corridor and he redirected them to another property (not on the corridor) due to the incompatibility with the existing zoning. He described similar situations where the poten tial property owner just could no t find it economically feasible to open a business on the corridor due fees. The City wants to see activity along the South 8 th S treet corridor and attract a healthy mix of uses (McCrary, Burke & Gibson, 2012) The potential overlay district will add transparency and trust to this process. The City hopes to strengthen its rel ationship with developers, real estate brokers, and stakeholders during the redevelopment of the South 8 th Street corridor. Stakeholder Input and Observation Stakeholder interviews and a windshield survey of the corridor took place in the summer of 2012 as a part of my observation of the conditions o f the South 8th Street Corridor. 4 considering any reductions to them for the South 8 th Street corridor revitalization will require additional research on behalf of the CDD. 4 ppendix A.
108 current state of the corridor, as well as their opinions on the improvements needed The interview ees included long time resident of Fernandina Beach and local employee, Jeffery Bunch and Phil Griffin, a local real estate broker and South 8 th Street property owner. I also received email cor respondence from Jim Tipton, another property owner and busines s operator, as well as Patri ck Keogh, a property owner and investor. Each revival. The existing conditions assessment was generated by a windshield survey of the study area, research into the property histories, stakeholder interviews, and a review of Fernandina Beach P lanning documents The conditions in formation was collected and organized based on the categories used for the H Street NE Corridor ass essment document accompanying the revitalization plan: land use, zoning and development; existing business environment; parking, traffic, and transportation; and public environment. 5 This process consisted of a series of drives along the corridor to assess the current conditions of buildings and facilities ; to record active business, vacant buildings, and properties for sale or lease; and to observe pedestrian activi ty along the corridor The result of this survey i s the con ditions assess ment in A ppendix A The ensuing paragraphs summarize the existing condition s as recorded in the Conditions Assessment and are supported by feedback from stakeholder interviews 5 The H Street NE Corridor conditions assessment was identified in Chapter 3 as a great example of a useable resource. The categories used for organizing the H Street document are very comprehensive and easy to adapt to the South 8 th Street Stud y area.
109 Zoning South 8 th Street has functioned as a commercial corridor for over thirt y years. 6 Currently all parcels facing South 8 th Street are zoned C 2 ( General Commercial) and one C 3 (Central Business District) Commercial uses permitted along the South 8 th street corridor include: a utomotive sales and repair, personal services, rest aurants, and offices. 7 The C 3 parcel was recently rezoned in order to accommodate a property owner who wanted to live above her busine ss in a historic building. The C ity passed this zoning change with no issues since it was a grandfathered single family u se at the time of purchase The City was welcoming to the idea of changing the existing zoning pattern to be more compatible work mentality. A total of 11 residential single family homes are located along the corridor within the Historic D istrict boundary. In the current zoning classification, residential and industrial/manufacturing uses are not permitted. Jeffery Bunch provided me with past property owner and business store on South 8th Street in the early 1970s and recounted the many furniture stores and light manufacturing use s that inhabited the now vacant properties. Mill workers and establishments. The area has seen a continuous decline since the early 70s, but was at its worst by the end of the 1980s (Bunch, 2012) 6 It is unclear what the zoning classification was prior to the 1970s. 7 See Appendix C for Land Development Code Definitions
110 Density With the current C 2 zoning classification for the majority of South 8 th Street, there are no density requirements (as there are no dwelling units allowed) and a maximum Floor Area Ratio (FAR) of 0.50 With a C 3 zoning classif ication, 8 units per acre are allowed, but with the Density Bonus Incentive that can be increased based on the fulfillment of criteria on behalf of the property owner The criteria and policies are located i n the Comprehensive Plan 8 and all properties with in the Community Redevelopment Area or areas that will acquire the future land use designation of Central Business District are eligible for the program. Adjacent zoning classifications It is crucial to consider the neighboring streets when contemplatin g the future zoning of South 8 th Street. Both 7 th and 9 th S treets are reside ntial areas. The majority of 7 th Street lies in the Historic District Boundary and is characterized by its older, historic homes and is zoned R 2 (Medium Density Residential). To t he east, the 9 th Street area consists of mostly single family residential homes, but is zoned as MU 1 (Mixed Use). Any major changes to zoning and permitted uses along South 8 th Street as a part of the redevelopment plan should account for the impact the modification might have on the surrounding neighborhoods. Potential conflicts could be prevented by possibly allowing for more intensive uses along the east side of the corridor, since it abuts a Mixed Use zoning district. 8 Future Land Use Element, Objective 1.03.04. Established 2010.
111 Parking, traffic, and transportation In 1985, South 8 th Street was reconfigured as a three lane road (City of Fernandina Beach, 1985) Before this change, the str eet was a two lane road with on street parking. B unch referenced the conversion from a two lane to a three lane road and the elimination of on street parking as a potential contributor that weakened the South 8th Street economy (Bunch, 2012). This area is highly trafficked by cargo trucks carrying suppli es and lumber to the ports, as well as by automotive traffic generated by the downtown area. A speed limit of 30 miles per hour is establishe d along the corridor. South 8 th Street averages 1,860 vehicles per hour (peak), which is only at 66% of the capacit y ( Florida Dep artment of Transportation, 2011). The existing sidewalks are very wide and easily allow for both pe destrian and bicycle traffic. The City and the Amelia Island Tourist Development Council include South 8 th or bicycling on Amelia Island ( Amelia Island Tourist Development Council 2011). The bicyclists are suggested to ride along the sidewalks from Jasmine to Center Streets. Chapter 7 in the Fernandina Beach Land Development Code notes the required bicycle spaces per vehicular spaces. For commercial uses, the required minimum number of bicycle spaces is 1 for every 25 required vehicle spaces. The current pattern of parking lots and connectivity between buildings is non conforming to the specifications outlined in the Land Development Code. Special attention should be paid to the parking design standards for the future redevelopment of any of the properties along South 8th Street and the South 8 th Street Revitalization project as a whole. The recently amended Land Development Code allows the use of
112 shared parking agreements in all zoning districts, something that has been informally utilized in the past (McCrary, Burke & Gibson, 2012). South 8 th Street is a federal highway serviced and supp orted by FDOT and is also called A1A. 9 The City will have to include FDOT for any roadway or rights of way improvements which may pose potential issues, but also offers the opportunity to a pp ly for Department of Transportation grant programs There is a nee d for streetscape amenity maintenance and public area landscaping, as well as improvements in individual business faades and curb appeal. Public environment The South 8 th Aesthetically, the formal welcome signage at Lime Street does not create a sense of place or highlight any of the a ttributes of Fernandina Beach. In our interview Phil Griffin commented, no one has ever given Jim Tipton, owner of the Pelican Palms shopping center on South 8 th Street, suggested enhancing the streetscape by incorporating historic signage, better lighting, and plantin g palm trees along the corridor (Tipton, J., personal communication, July 23, 2012). Similarly, Jeffery Bunch listed streetscape, faade, and overall visual enhancements to contribute to the revival of this corridor (Bunch, 2012). Based upon my windshield analysis and the subsequent conditions assessment the following items should be addressed in order to develop the area as a beautiful, entryway to the city : 9 Also referenced as Buccaneer Trail and S.R. 200
113 Consider New Entry Signage Consider Pedestrian Scale Street lights Enhance General Public Landscap ing and Amenities. Consider adding benches, street trees, trashcans, bike racks, etc. Enforce Maintenance Code on Public and Private Property Conditions (landscape, signage and faade) Incorporate public art and historic references to create a sense of pl ace Reconsider Parking Strategies, Traffic calming and redirection Consider Potential Parks and Open Green Space Reestablish the South 8 th Street Partners Association or encourage business owners to join the Historic Fernandina Beach Business Association to facilitate events and social activities Existing business environment and occupancy of south 8 th street South 8 th Street offers a prime location for commercial, retail, or restaurant uses. The corridor is very active with vehicular traffic and has sidewalks in place to facilitate bikes and pedestrians. Although there are existing sidewalks and street lights, the deep setbacks front age parking lots, and uninviting storefronts do not attract or encourage pedestrian activity. Additionally, walking along the sidewalk is far from relaxed due to the large number of driveways and busy side streets. Pedestrian walking signals are present at the intersections with traffic lights, but with the fast moving cars an d lumber trucks, extreme caution should be taken before crossing 8 th Street. The pedestrian condition of the corridor should be addressed in order to facilitate a more vibrant, business environment. Jim Tipton chose to build a small, strip center on his p roperty at the 800 block of South 8 th Street due to its proximity to downtown He owns and operates two of the parcels; Amelia Pottery Works and Island Life, and rents the rest to small businesses
114 and offices He noted that the business environment along t he corridor would thrive if the City decreased regulation and property taxes on small businesses (Tipton, J., personal communication, July 23, 2012 ). As a local real estate broker, Phil Griffin (2012) interacts with the declining corridor daily with both t he clients of his properties and his own real estate office Mr. Griffin is interested in the revival of the corridor and even area. The auto parts retailer filled a vac ant property that once was an Ace Hardware Store (1911 S. 8th Street). During our interview he said he has not had much luck or eight potential deals due to the fees (Gr iffin, 2012) Figure 4 2 Current Business Environment of the South 8th Street Corridor
115 108 Total Properties Zoned C 2 25.9% of Parcels along the corridor are Vacant Lots, For Sale, or For Lease Properties For the current C 2 zoning classification the lot size is a minimum width of 50 feet, a maximum impervious area of 75%, and a maximum Floor Area Ratio of 50%. Patrick Keogh, a friend of Phil Griffin, is the developer and investor of Merge Restaurant located at 510 S. 8 th gas stations and are very attractive and successful adaptive use projects. Each property owner had issues with permitting during the rehabilitation of their properties. Keogh stated the troubles rede veloping his (Keogh, P., personal communication, July 11, 2012). Stakeholder goals and suggestions for the corridor Mr. G riffin sees the future corridor as a professional street for business and manufacturing with perhaps short term rents, mixed use housing and apartments (Griffin, 2012). In his opinion, the City needs to incorporate incentives for reusing the buildings alon g the corridor and uses his own property as an example. His real estate structure, the xeriscaping, and well designed parking lot you would never know that this building was once an Amoco gas station (See Figure 4 4). Unfortunately, Griffin saved no money by reusing this property and had several permitting issues. Overall, Phil Griffin, and his 8th Street clients, would like to see the vac ancies filled along the corridor He s uggests the City could aid in this process by simplifying the guidelines and incentivizing green building and adaptive re use.
116 Patrick Keogh offered a positive perspective on the redevelopment of the corridor as a possible arts overlay district wi th fewer regulations. He wrote an article on this possibility for the local paper, The News leader (Keogh, P., personal communication, July 11, 2012). The information received from these four stakeholders show a great interest in the revival of the area and reflec t the potential opportunities that could become realized through aesthetic improvements and business and development incentives. Summary of conditions analysis City to use as they begin planning for redevelopment of the physical conditions Similarly, the opinions and suggestions collected through the stakeholder interviews provide a glimpse into the conditions that hinder development activity along the corridor. Catalysts for 8 th Street redevelopment Gateway to Historic Downtown Fernandina Beach The South 8 th Street Corridor leads to the Historic Downtown Fernandin a Beach area, an economic and cultural asset for Amelia Island restaurants are destination points for many tourists and residents. The focal point of downtown, Centre Street, leads to the waterfront marina area and offers a beautiful view of the Amelia River. The Centre Street area is designated by the National Register of Historic Places, as is the Old Town Historic District ( U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service 2011). These areas are regulated by the Historic District Council and must abide by the standards of development for Historic District Overlays as specifie d in the Cit face South 8 th Street and are included in the thesis boundary area.
117 A B Figure 4 3 Photo of A) Historic and B) Current Entry Signage at 8 th Street and Lime Street. Downtown hosts th sponsored by the Historic Fernandina Beach Business Association. Historically the South 8 th S treet corridor suppo rted the downtown district by providing automotive sales and service along with convenience stores that sold gasoline and other necessities. The relationship between the corridor and downtown in the 1950s is no longer suitable for Presently, allowance of mixed uses to meet the needs of the community (determined by feasibility
118 and market analyses), the introduction of more affordable apartment style housing to support the younger workforce, a nd improved functional and aesthetic connectivity between South 8 th Street and Centre Street for pedestrian and bicycle traffic. the South 8 th Street corridor should reflect the character and history of the community. T he existing welcome sign and safety alert sign do ial about the arrival into the C ity of Fernandina Beach. The recommendation s for the redevelopment of South 8 th Street in this chapter consider the historic assets of the City and the Downtown Historic District as catalysts for the corridor revitalization. Arts and culture Fernandina Beach is a cultural cluster 10 offering a conce ntration of resident artists and arts & culture organizations Given the current condition of the South 8 th Street corridor, the city should incorporate its cultural assets and existing creative resources into the revitalization plan. Cultural assets and cultural development strategies are becoming more common in community economic development plans due Grodach and Loukaitou Sideris, 2007, p.350). Major cultural i nstitutions (e.g. performing arts centers and museums ) have been used as urban revitalization tools in large cities across the world, and the concept can function similarly on a smaller scale. More and more local governments are incorporating cultural deve lopment strategies for their economic impacts ( Grodach and Loukaitou Sideris, 2007). A survey was 10 D efin ed by Stern and Steifert (2010) as areas of high concentrations of cultural resources.
119 concluded that the most important benefits of cultural activities and fac ilities are an improved quality of life (93%), the attraction of visitors and tourists (59%), and the strengthened competitiveness of the city (34%) ( Grodach and Loukaitou Sideris, 2007). This survey also asked the respondents to rank the important ways cu ltural activities and facilities create a positive city image; the results were as follows: Emphasize the distinctiveness of your city 79% Building local pride 66% Demonstrate international importance 45% Overcome a negative city or neighborhood image 38% Revitalize decaying areas 34% Creating a positive image of local government 31% ( Grodach and Loukaitou Sideris, 2007, p.362) Economic, social, and physical improvements follow creative initiatives (Markusen, 2006; Markusen and Gadwa, 2010; Florida, 2012). Areas with a large amount of creative resources typically contain higher levels of local civic engagement 2010). Richard Florida (2012) encourages clustering a pl and our collective creativity and The South 8 th Street corrid or is a primary artery for the c ity and has the potential to be a dest inatio n for startup companies, artist s, and entrepreneurs seeking low rent
120 and highly visible properties. Fernandina Beach may not be a large, industrial city like most of the creative placemaking success stories (Markusen and Gadwa, 2010), but with a car eful use of resources and planning could contribute to the successful redevelopment of the South 8 th Street Corridor. Municipal governments can engage in a variety of strategies for cultural and creative develo pment outlined in the following table Table 4 1 Cultural Development Strategies Source: Grodach, C., & Loukaitou Sideris, A. (2007). Cultural development strategies and urban revitalization. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 13 (4), 353 Strategy Type Goals Types of Cultural Projects and Programs Geographic Focus Target Audiences Entrepreneurial Economic growth through tourism, city image Catalyze private sector investments Flagship cultural projects Spectacular events Promotional activities Downtown Tourists and Conventioneers Affluent residents and suburbanites Creative Class Economic growth through quality of life amenities Attract new residents/employ ees in the Arts and entertainment districts Collaboration between arts and private sector Central city and historic urban neighborhoods Prospective and existing residents Young, urban professionals and Progressive Community development Arts Education and access Local Cultural Production Community arts centers Arts education programs Inner city neighborhoods Underserved neighborhoods Underserved residential populations
121 Entrepreneurial strategies are most frequently employed by cities since they can justify their development by economic means and are typically jointly funded by the private sector ( Grodach and Loukaitou Sideris, 2007). Markusen (2006) states that it is often a nd cultural planning has been successful (p.2) Smaller cities may have a small amount of creative resources, but they also have fewer governmental agencies and major institutions, thus allowing for consolidated leadership (preferably a single agency) ( Ma r kusen 2006 ). Markusen (2006) recommends the agency use its regulatory and funding tools to improve cultural programming and facilities in step with economic development and urban planning functions. A South 8 th Street arts district could lure artists by expanding the existing studio space s available and allowing light industrial and live/work art spaces. Incorporating the existing arts presence in the c ity could also provide opportunities for arts based grants and funding as well as increase job opportunities In August of 2012, Fernandina Beach adopted an ordinance regarding public art. T he purpose as defined in the code states: The City of Fernandina Beach recognizes that providing for public art and enhancing the appearance of buildings and spa ces provides benefits to the community by expanding the historical, cultural, and creative knowledge of citizens. It further recognizes the diverse aesthetic character of the city's built environment is vital to the quality of the life of its citizens, the economic successes of its businesses, an attraction for visitors and a benefit to tourism; and that a public art and design program contributes to the aestheti c enhancement of the community. (Ord. No. 2012 3) Through the adoption of this ordinance, the Ci ty and its designated cultural organization, Arts and Culture Nassau, acknowledge the power of the arts on the community. This statement of purpose should be incorporated into the corridor redevelopment plan to further justify the incorporation of creative resources. The culture and existing creative
122 network in Fernandina Beach will be assets during the redevelopment process and should be used to stimulate the revitalization planning process as well. The following section includes recommendations for redeve lopment strategies based on the best practices in revitalization planning from the four corridor redevelopment case studies and their applicability to the condition of South 8 th Street. Recommendations for Redevelopment Strategies for the South 8 th Street Corridor This section outlines specific recommendations for redevelopment methods, strategies, and tools based on the five best planning practices for revitalization. The study area of S outh 8th Street has the potential to become a destination for tourist s and residents, alike, ins tead of an unattractive through street. The economic and physical redevelopment needs of the corridor have already been identified, and in this chapter the basis for recommended redevelopment strategies is supported by literature and analysis of the four case studies 1. Objectives derived from m arket d emand, feasibility a nalysis and transportation s tudies Case study support Each of the case study corridor redevelopment plans contained recommendations based on a series of market demand studies and feasibility analyse s. Due to market studies, the Gaines Street Revitalization Plan was able to identify certain uses that would thrive on this corridor and the feasibility of adapting historic and infill structures. Additionally, these studies showed potential for high density housing in the area. These studies support the recommended concepts in the plan for future action by the Community Redevelopment Agency.
123 Table 4 2 Summary Table 1 Developing objectives based on studies. The use of market demand analyses to provide feasible options for redevelopment Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor South 8 th Street Conditions Historic structures and infill development opportunities Corridor does not permit light industrial uses and has many vacant properties Historic and infill developme nt opportuniti es, many vacant properties Poor infrastructure to relay stormwater Infill structure opportunit ies and many vacant properties marginal uses, and lack of mixed u ses due to existing zoning Strategies, Methods, & Tools Created a program for future mixed uses Established an Overlay district to allow for light industrial Created marketing for the corridor accentuatin g the available incentives Plan includes engineering and design specifications for new stormwater treatment techniques The market demand analysis performed by the Delray Beach CRA for the North Federal Highway Redevelopment Plan identified the potential for mixed use and light industrial uses along the corridor. There were very few areas in the City that could accommodate light industrial establishments that were in desirable locations. The North Federal Highway offers them the visibility and convenience of busy highway frontage. The one stipulation of this overlay is that the assembly and storage of inventory must be in an enclosed building and must also be sold at that location. The study also calculated the absorption rate per square foot for potential retail and office uses so the CRA can plan accordingly for redevelopment. The H Street corridor also used the results of market demand analysis to plan for new infill uses. The studies predict the area can support more retail, office, and
124 residential units. The North Federal Highway, H Street NE, and South 8th Street all are high traffic, highly visible corridors in their cities and consider their locations a prime asset for attracting new uses and businesses. In order to sustain and enhance the businesses along the corridor, the Delray Beach CRA offers a business development program that fosters the creation of new busines ses and assists with startup costs during the first year of business. Also, the CRA provides a program offering initial site development assistance to property owners to subsidize the costs of site planning, design, and engineering. Similarly, the H Street NE plan provides details for a program available to educate H Street business owners on retail best practices. Recommendation for South 8 th Street Fernandina Beach should partner with the Amelia Island Fernandina Beach Yulee Chamber of Commerce and the N assau County Economic Development B oard to perform market demand and feasibility studies of the commercial environment in the C ity and South 8 th Street prior to the creation of a revitalization plan. A market demand study would investigate the potential uses that would thrive along the corridor long term. In the 1950s, the car dealerships, repair shops, and gas stations complimented the downtown area, but changes development and travel routes may prove these uses no longer viable for this area of Fernan dina Beach. 11 The corridor has several automotive based structures that are no longer functioning as auto repair shops or gas stations, but there are still many active automotive shops. 12 T he reality is that there will continue to be family operated auto rep air shops along the corridor. This thesis does not 11 There was a much greater need of automotive uses prior to interstate development since A1A was a major highway for east coast travel. 12 The corridor currently has eight active automotive uses and three inactive vacant, for sale, or lease automotive structures.
125 recommend shifting the use entirely from automotive to another, only a more deliberate effort to encourage a mix of uses and business es that will thrive Th e C ity wants to see this area become an active and vibrant part of Fernandina Beach. T he future land use element addr area of downtown and therefore it should be redeveloped as a place that endorses a high qualit y of life and urban design ( City of Fernandin a Beach, 2004 ). By incentivizing this corridor to attract developers, new businesses, and potentially residents, the city will prove its commitment to planning for the future of the City as well as the current residents. A market study would indicate if a need exists for incorporating housing infill or livable studio spaces along the South 8 th Street corridor. Introducing apartments or live/work spaces along 8th Street would provide a low cost opti on for a younger demographic, creative professionals, and th e summer workforce. By incorporating dwelling uni ts along the corridor there would be a localized consumer base and general ly more activity on the street, a notion addressed by both the H Street NE and the Gaines Street redevelopment plans. Additional traffic studies, particularly on pedestrian and bicycle activity, should be conducted as well to guide planning strategies to make the area more walkable and pedestrian friendly. A study on the possibilities of rerouting the heavy traffic to th e mills would also add to the walkabi lity of this corridor. The idea of rerouting truck traffic and thru traffic around South 8 th Street has been explored by the CDD but a study would further justify the feasibility of these options. The C ity should also consider surveying the existing stormwater management facilities and the present state of other utilities. The Green Corridor plan included an in depth reconfiguration of more sustainable
126 methods for stormwater management an d civic landscaping along the st udy area. Given the high percentage of impervious surface along the corridor, a thorough study of potential remediation should be conducted. This thesis suggests incorporating creative development into the corridor based on the creative city theory and the and physical environme nt (Florida, 2012). The CDD embraces the concept of providing incentives to creative or arts based developments to compliment the revitalization and further encourage a mix of uses. To programs should be created to sustain existing businesses and foster new businesses. The H Str eet NE plan conducted an assessment that measured the performance of various retail establishment s in order to understand the needs and opportunities within the existing business environment An evaluation of the current retailers and businesses on the South 8th Street corridor would be an effective way for the City to engage the business operator and property owner prior to redevelopment and the data collected would identify areas for improvement and a basis for potential incentives. Similarly, t he implementation of a retail best practices education program, similar to the one used in H Street, would promote the retention and revitalization of South 8th Street businesses These market demand and feasibility studies should be among the first steps in the revitalization planning process, along with civic engagement and public outreach. Together, these d ata collection methods will direct the objectives that will be included in the redevelopment plan and provide an overall vision for the revitalization project. The
127 wo rkshops or charrettes that were considered during the planning for various redevelopment strategies and tools. Table 4 3 Summary Table 2 Community Input from Public Outreach Civic Engagement Type of Public Participation Activity Community Input Gaines Street Charrette, 1997 Workshop, 1999 Stakeholder Interviews urban character, entertainment and cultural activities, parks, bike paths, preserved neighborhood characteristics, new mixed use development, Higher standards of quality development, establish a sense of place, define corridor as a gateway, create a truly pedestrian environment, address traffic and parking problems. North Federal Highway Charrette, 1997 Suggestions included: landscape improvements, buildings closer the street, Traffic calming, mixed use development, all participants agreed it shouldn't compete with Atlantic Ave., but should complement it with office buildings and such.
128 Table 4 3 Continued 2. Civic engagement and visioning Case study support Each redevelopment plan was highly influenced by the input received during civic engagement activities and the vision generated by the public This collective vision was derived from environmental factors, community consensus, and existing assets. While each plan did no t give details on specific public participation methods that were used to engage their communities, several plans did incorporate marketing and promotion of the redevelopment area to help meet their objectives. Each of the four Civic Engagement Type of Public Participation Activity Community Input H Street NE Launched a yearlong campaign. Public workshops and a five day design charrette Community goals were to help existing businesses grow and thrive, encourage reuse of the numerous vacant lots and storefronts on the corridor to create a desirable mix of commercial offerings, traffic enhancements, parking improvements, public gathering places. protect the streets character and promote the se nse of place. The Green Corridor Charrette, 2012 Community desired walkability, managed vehicle speeds, street trees, wider sidewalks, mix of land uses, cost effective stormwater management techniques.
129 case studies analyzed for this thesis had a corresponding website to promote and update the residents on the redevelopment process. The H Street NE revitalization used place based promotion and incentives to market their historic structures for adaptive use to potential investors and developers Properties should be advertised according to the desired uses based on the market demand analysis. Recommendations for South 8 th Street In Fernandina Beach, t he CDD should engage the South 8 th Street s takeholders prior to developing a planning document; similar to the workshop process they went through during the planning for the Waterfront Area Community Redevelopment Plan The four case studies analyzed for this thesis did not provide further details of their ci vic engagement practices or activities. However the St. Claude Main Street in New Orleans, Louisiana an innovative public involvement initiative discovered while researching this thesis, embraced strategies that could be easily translated to the 8th Stre et Corridor planning process. This corridor is a National and State designated Main Street that is operated as a non profit by volunteers and one full time employee. The St. Claude Main Street is focused on fostering commercial revitalization and equitable development in the community surrounding this corridor. This group provides faade improvement grants, community markets, and creative placemaking strategies for the corridor through a series of grants from organizations including the National Trust for P reservation M ain Street Program and ArtPlace ( St. Claude Main Street 2013). This organization began its efforts by first taking a walk thru of the corridor with citizens and St. Claude stakeh olders to perform an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, op portunities, and threats. Subsequent meetings after this public space exercise resulted in the overall vision to direct the redevelopment of the corridor. More
130 recently, the St. Claude Main Stree t organization placed a sign on the corridor asking internet through social marketing and the website, http://neighborhorland.com. The very noticeable, large green and white sign was attached semi permanently along the side of this stre et with sharpies attached so citizens could write their answer to the question. These two simple civic engagement strategies could be very helpful in the plan creation and direction for the South 8th Street revitalization. Due to the current state of disr epair of several South 8th Street sties, a community cleanup day would be a good start for small scale faade improvements and allow stakeholders to become familiar with the conditions along the corridor. At this stage of redevelopment planning, it would b e appropriate to reach out to stakeholders via survey or questionnaire to receive more in depth feedback regarding their opinions of the corridor and any ideas for how the corridor could become more attractive to new businesses and customers. 13 A first st ep in bringing together these stakeholders could be led by the CDD supporting the creation or reestabli shment of a South 8 th Street Business Association. In 2004, a group o f business owners th designation as a non p rofit, but never materialized The reestablishment of the 8 th Street Partners group or another business related non profit would be an asset to the district and a voice for the many property owners on this corridor. Another option would be for the interest ed businesses to consider joining the Historic Fernandina Business Association (HFBA) 13 A survey was created to be distributed to South 8 th Street businesses and property owners. A copy of this questionnaire is located in Appendix E.
131 network While the mission may focus on the downtown businesses, there may be a possibility they would include the adjacent corridor businesses. The HFBA promotes the historic place to live, work, and play Th e group also hosts various citywide ( Historic Fernandina Business Association, n.d. ). A s evidenced by the four case studies, a strong vision leads to achieving goals and regenerates the sense of community. The CDD should plan for a Town H all South 8 th Street C orridor revitalization to begin develop ing a common vision for the Plan During this meeting, the City should identify the networ k of stakeholders and establish a relationship of mutual respect. To add transparency to the redevelopment process, the City should maintain contact with residents, property owners, and business owners through an email newsletter or other medium to keep them aware of events and progress relating to the 8 th Street Corridor Revitalization Plan Special attention should be paid to the adjacent 9 th Street and 7 th Street residents during the planning process both in terms of buffer ing and potential inclusion in the revitalization area. Local realtors and developers should be seen as partners during the revitalization process. Incorporating them from the beginning will be very helpful to draw in new stakeholders, businesses, and uses into the area. Once a name is decided for this district, it should be used to promote and market the properties and vacant lots to develop ers or realtors.
132 Figure 4 4 Potential Branding for the South 8 th Street Revitalization District The marketing should target the uses identified through market demand analysis and the branding materials and website should be generated from local graphic design services, artists, and other creative groups. The City should work with the Chamber of Commerce to target creative institutions and organizations to relocate to the South 8th Street corridor. The economic revitalization of the corridor could be accelerated if the CDD marketed the various business incentives and vacant properties available only for the 8th Street Corridor. By promot ing the historic commercial corridor, potential developers may be motivated to adapt one of the automotive use structures to their needs. The North Federal Highway Corridor in Delray Beach had a similar history of automotive uses lining the corridor with a total of 14 properties classified as Gas stations or Auto Repair shops (The City of Delray Beach CRA, 1999). This may provide
133 a model as Delray Beach continues with its revitalization efforts. As seen with Merge Restaurant and Amelia Coastal Realty, the a daptive use of former gas stations can be done successfully. ; 2010 ) research supports the concept of incorporating and engaging the creative class during redevelopment Fernandina Beach has local cultural resources available that should be used during planning and implementation of revitalization efforts. A great creative placemaking opportunity to jumpstart redevelopment could be the rehabilitation of a South 8th Street property currently on the market into a shared office spa ce for freela nce designers or studio space s for local artists. Fundrise community investment platform (utilized on H Street NE) could be used to allow the community and investors to fund this project. As evidenced by t he Art Tech Hub on Gaines Street, creative incubators generate other creative placemaking efforts in an area. Ultimately, a community charrette should be held to discu s s in further detail the vision, goals, and the overall design standards for the corridor. The charrettes should be a highly advertised engagement activity. After a clear vision has been generated to guide the redevelopment planning process, the City must d ecide how best to implement and regulate the revitalization plan. 3. Leadership and f unding The four case studies involved a variety of municipal organizations, p rivate groups, and non profits during redevelopment. Each of these actors played a vital rol e and used their strengths in order to further the goals of the revitalization plan providing financial and organizational support
134 Table 4 4 Summary Table 3 Organizations and Agencies Involved in the Redevelopment of Each Case Study Area Leadership and Funding Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor South 8 th Street Municipal Advisory Committee on the revitalization of Gaines Street (GSVC) appointed by the City Commission ; FDOT FAMU FSU conducted studies, City of Tallahassee, Leon Co. Community Redevelopm ent Agency City of Delray Beach Community Redevelopme nt Agency The D.C. Office of Planning initiated redevelopment created two Advisory Network Commissions, Single Member Districts, DC Main Streets Program, Office of the Deputy Mayor, Great Streets Initiative, District Department of Transportation The Restore DC group, and the DC heritage Tourism coalition. City of Ranson, City of Charles Town, DOT. Fernandina Beach Community Development Department Consultants St.Joe/ Arvida, Genesis Group, PBS&J, and Artspace Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council and the Dover, Kohl & Partners. The Main Street Program and HOK Planning Group. PlaceMake rs and Hall Planning and Engineerin g. Non Profit Metropolitan Planning Organization, Knight Creative Communities Institute PAC, Council for Culture & Arts (COCA) H Street Community Development Corporation
135 Case study support The four case studies analyzed in C hapter 3 were regulated and implemented by a variety of agencies and groups that contributed their expertise to the improvement of the study area Each organization either sought funding from f ederal or private grants or utilized tax increment financing Combining partners with local government in redevelopment increases the range of possible outcomes and adds a broader scope of knowledge to the planning process. Hipler (2007) spoke of the need for multiple resources to most effectively combat blight and guide revitalization. The intended overlay district for S outh 8 th Street in Fernandina Beach will be drafted and implemented by the Community Development Department. Overlays were used in the North Federal Highway and H Street NE case studies to accommodate a mix of uses and establish form based controls on development (The District of Columbia Office of Planning, 2001; City of Delray Beach CRA, 1999). D ue to the past success of the ir respective CRA frameworks and mechanisms CRAs were the appropriate redevelopment mechanism s for the North Federal Highway and Gaines Street corridors. An overlay district allows the local government to establish a redevelopment district that will serve a similar function as a Community Redevelopment Area, only without the formality of a Community Redevelopment Agency. Recommend ations for South 8 th Street To begin planning for the Overlay District, the C ity Community Development Department (CDD) South 8th South 8th Street Gatew South 8th Street Arts Corridor Redevel opment South Prior to community engagement, the CDD
136 should consider the roles of other Fernandina Beach governme nt officials in the planning and regulatory processes that will accompany the redevelopment. The City commissioners, City Manager, Mayor, and an FDOT representative should be aware of the intentions of the redevelopment overlay and have a say in their role and contribution to the process. Similarly, the CDD should consider involving Arts and Culture Nassau, local business associations, professional societies, and other interest groups in the planning process to utilize their knowledge and social connections within the community. The local tourism bureau would also be crucial in speaking to the interests of the tourists and ways to incorporate South 8 th Street into the tourism economy. A strong, supportive network will reinforce the leadership of the CDD in the community. With the help of the new overlay zoning district, a wide variety of uses will be encouraged along 8th Street. Based on the market demand analysis and the responses during the civic engagement, the revitalization plan should include a series of incentives (that are deemed feasible by the CDD) to encourage new development in the overlay district, for instance: Reduced impact fees; Business tax refunds; Refunds for existing adaptive use projects; Incentives for property owners to purchase adjacent properties or lots; Incentives for developers pursing creative or arts based uses; Incentives for job creation, land assembly, adaptive use, green building, LEED certification; Assistance and grants for p re development processes; and Faade improvement grants and incentives.
1 37 These programs could be funded through redistributions of federal or private grants awarded to the CDD for redevelopment purposes A special taxing district could also be designated in addition to the Overlay District so that funds from Tax Increment Financing can be used to fund improvements Point Streetscape Special District is a great example of a dependent (separate) taxing authority created f or streetscape and public rights of way improvements (City of Sarasota, n.d.). A series of design standards and guidelines should also be included in the corridor revitalization plan to guide future infill development and hold existing structures to a high er standard of faade maintenance, landscaping, and signage. A new property maintenance code should be enforced within the zone to improve the overall image of the corridor. The CDD should In addition to offering incentives and encouragement for private creative development, the CDD should also consider funding public creative placemaking efforts with the help of Arts and Culture Nassau and the new public art ordinance. Fernandina Beach sh ould apply for grants according to the most imminent redevelopment needs of the corridor. For Gain es Street, a grant from the ArtS pace organization Council on Culture and Arts were able to fund the Arts Tech Hub project and promote creative placemaking efforts along the corridor. Creative placemaking efforts across the nation are supported by ArtPlace and The Ar tSpace organization preformed a market, site, financial, and lea dership analysis to
138 verify the C ity of Tallahassee could support a multi purpose arts campus and studio space ( The Council o n Culture and Arts, 2006). ArtS pace provides years of expertise and their projects. As of 2006, the organization had completed 20 successful live/work spaces and other creative projects across the United States. The incorporation of this organization was instrumental in laying the ground work for futu re creative placemaking efforts on Gaines Street. Corridor redevelopment ultimately involves many interest groups, private property owners, the local government, and often the federal or state departments of transportation. 4. Transportation The central focus of these four redevelopment plans is on the major roadway in the blighted area. Several of these case study corridors are federal highways that will require major efforts to redesign. Table 4 5 Summary Table 4 Transportation Initiatives in the Four Case Studies Transportation Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor South 8 th Street Condition s Poor vehicular and pedestrian access Drop in traffic by 14% since 1990, but is still the busiest highway in the area. Low walkability and high speed traffic. Hostile intersections for pedestrians, poor public parking conditions, less than optimal pedestrian conditions, no street trees, few pedestrian scaled elements. Brownfields along the corridor, inconsistent side walks, improper side street parking, Walkability is hindered by heavy traffic, unsafe intersections and a lack of pedestrian amenities.
139 Table 4 5 Continued Transportation Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor South 8 th Street Strategie s, Methods, & Tools Planned improvement s to connectivity between FAMU, FSU, and Capitol. New design guidelines address traffic circulation, bike safety, and parking standards. Major infrastructure redesign in 2011 to rebuild Gaines street as a two way, two lane street and widened sidewalks. Design guidelines discourage front parking lots and new development s are required to be pedestrian friendly. Reconstruct ed drainage swales should reduce speeding and discourage on street parking. Cross parking agreements and shared parking are encouraged. Plan calls for an improvement in transit and pedestrian experience on the corridor and improve parking. Traffic calming measures are to be employed, streetlights are to be retimed, and intersecti ons will be made less complicated. Encourages shared parking and includes details of the proposed public transit connectivity. Plan includes a design of the new that incorporate multi modal transportati on and lowers vehicular speeds. Cros swalks are redesigned and a safety strip will be placed between the two lanes of traffic to slow speeds. The new multi modal corridor will connect to the regional transit hub. Case study support Commonalities between the four case study areas and the thesis study area of 8 th Street include poor pedestrian amenities, low walkability, and a lack of appealing streetscaping in the rights of way. The various approaches to redeveloping the transportation and connectivity in the case studies ranged from establishing new wide
140 sidewal ks to de fining new design standards to be implemented through major roadway improvements. Gaines Street recently underwent major highway reconfiguration that was performed by the FDOT ( City of Tallahassee, n.d.) The Green Corridor plan in West Virginia co ntains a complete corridor design overhaul that will shift the focus from auto centric to multi modal. The new corridor will increase bicycle and pedestrian connectivity to the new regional rail and bus hub and also calm automobile traffic. The Green Corri dor revitalization plan was created using the DOT TIGER (Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery) grant and many ot her brownfield and transportation oriented grants. This grant is highly selective and is awarded to projects that will increas e the livability and sustainability of a region ( U.S. Department of Transportation, 2012 ). Similarly, o ver $ 53 Million in DDOT funds supported streetscape and traffic improvements in the H Street NE plan in Washington D.C. ( The District of Columbia Office of Planning, 2004 ). Recommendation for the South 8 th Street corridor Since South 8 th Street is a federal highway, FDOT is responsible for the roadway maintenance and the condition of the rights of way Major t ransportation grants can be secured through th e Florida Department of Transportation for future traffic studies or for highway beautification. The Fernandina Beach CDD should pursue available FDOT grants to fund sidewalk, streetscape and rights of way improvements f or the corridor Walkability was i dentified in the conditions assessment as a major issue for the South 8 th Street Corridor. Additional transportation studies on the walking and biking conditions of this corridor on behalf of the FDOT would be helpful in drafting strategies and objectives to enhance walkability. Currently, the corridor lacks pedestrian oriented uses or activity points, potentially due to the high speed of traffic and a lack of proper
141 buffering between the sidewalks and the three lane highway. Improvements to pedestrian safe ty may have a direct impact on future uses implementation of design elements that are more pedestrian oriented and promote walkability. To address insufficient parking, businesses and future developers should be alerted to the existing shared parking strategy employed by the city. Shared parking is lthy transportation network. This concept i s an efficient use of land in redevelopment situations and stems from the fact that not all businesses share the same peak hours of operation ( U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006). A transferable parking entitlement program could also be employed to regulate the transference or purchase of unused parking spaces from one development to another ( U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006). The design standards and guidelines should recommend side and rear parking if at all possible to promote a pedestr ian oriented corridor. 5. Livability The chart below is an excerpt from the livability improvements section of the redevelopment plan assessment tables found in the appendix. The enhancements include any measures in the plan that increase s the overall quality of life of the corridor. In addition to these strategies, there were many other redevelopment tools that indirectly improved the livability of the area (the items bolded throughout the document). The criteria used to assess the livabili ty and sustainability measures in these four plans (See Table 2 3 ) were used to identify any redevelopment plan element that would lead to a more livable, sustainable and therefore, more creative place.
142 Table 4 6 Summary Table 5 Livability Enhancements Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor Walkability Encourage pedestrian connections to FAMU, FSU, and capitol. Discourage front parking and make new developments pedestrian friendly. Plan's goal is for H Street to become a transit and pedestrian corridor with parking for the retail stores. Improved connectivity from public transit, walking, and cars. Utilizing neighborhood assets and capitalizing on arts facilities to improve livability and character of neighborhoods. The Pl an design team set standards to enhance walkability and bikability and reconsider vehicular speed. Smart Growth Smart growth approach towards new development with respect for historic features and nature. The Plan complies with based SmartCode to encourage sustainable community development Sustainability Employing these Smart Growth principles reduces costly infrastructure, creates a nice place to live, and enhances the tax base. The Green Corridor is the first major project for the community wide goal for improvement in sustainable development. The proposed landscape plan promotes conservation of water and energy. Mixed Use Mixed Use implemented in new zoning, The Plan suggests reinventing the corridor as a "workplace" providing services, light industrial uses, office buildings, banks, restaurants, etc. to the local neighborhood market. The city suggests using some of the vacant parcels to incorporate mixed use developments to bring in more residential units to the corridor. New zoning change to encourage Mixed Use. Mixed Use is encouraged Open Space Open Space Concepts Proposed and New setback requirements to provide more open space for pedestrian activities Property could be acquired to form a small park, but there was little interest in the creation of a large park because residents didn't want "outsiders" in their neighborhood. Entire corridor will be a multi modal thoroughfare with wide passages. Public Space Improvements or Creation Greenway Concepts proposed respects natural features and serves as a bike trail, pedestrian corridor linking the downtown area with the campuses. Will be lit 24 hours, landscaped; contain signage, art, and seating areas. The city owned Donnelly Tract is a preservation area that will remain passive. Improvements to two separate "public realms": Hopscotch Bridge area; pedestrian access and improved streetscape. Eastern gateway Civic Space; improved pedestrian experience, infill street frontage, create public space, long term and require design and traffic studies. Green Corridor is a great improvement on the existing, narrow roadway.
143 Support from case studies These four redevelopment plans contain objectives that will lead to more livable corridors in a variety of ways. The Lewis and Donald (2010) methodology was used to support this thesis argument for the creative redevelopment of the South 8 th Street Corridor. The methods and strategies that are used during redevelopment of a blighted area should lead to a more livable place and encourage sustainable practices The indicators from Lewis and Donald (2010) can guide redevelopment planning in order to generate a more creative corridor that encourages more people to live, work, a nd socialize there. Consequently attracting creative class patrons and residents to the area is a positive externality of planning for a more creative place. Recent studies (Zimmerman, 2008) outline how cities market themselves as innovative, creative pla ces to appeal to young, entrepreneurs and other members of the creative class. Investors, developers, and even local governments spend thousands of dollars on mixed use developments and other quality of place improvements to attract creative thinkers and facilitate new businesses and ideas. For a small city like Fernandina, the best way to appeal to this sector is to increase livability and sustainability of the corridor through the specific redevelopment tools and strategies. Recommendation for the Sout h 8 th Street corridor The CDD should draft the plan f or the South 8th Street corridor redevelopment, using th e livability and sustainability measures as indicators. encompassing city planning topic and the ensuing recommendatio ns are
144 and open space will significantly improvement the quality of life for the patrons and business owners along the South 8 th focus available TIF funds (or other available public funds for park creation) to p urchase one of the vacant lots to increase the green space along the South 8th Street Corridor. Prime sites for park creation a re the vacant lot adjacent to Hot Paws this could be developed as a dog park or the west lot at Lime Street that is owned by the City of Fernandina Beach and currently holds the safety signage. The City could also offer an incentive or tax break to any pri vat e investor willing to purchase one of these lot s for the establishment of a park or open, green space. Figure 4 5 Safety Signage at Lime Street and S. 8 th Street Photo Courtesy of Ashley Chaffin McGehee In terms of sustainability, the Ranson Charles Town Green Corridor project was created using a series of grants including the EPA Building Blocks for Sustainable
145 Communities grant The City of Fernandina Beach recently submitted a letter of interest to th is EPA grant; i f secured this grant will aid in the equitable re development of the South 8th Street Corridor. There should also be incentives and grants available for any South 8 th Street sustainable adaptive use projects for older structures that do not seek the historic preservation incentives. Mixed use and other smart growth techniques are also identified by Lewis a nd Donald (2010) as contributing to the quality of a place. The redevelopment overlay ordinance will address the new, hybrid zoning classif ication for this area that will allow a mix of uses and utilize the existing non conforming structures. Potential uses could include breweries (which a few entrepreneurial citizens have requested ); metal sculpting work studios; or small s cale furniture manufacturers. Once the boundary area is set, sufficient buffering should be established and consideration should be given to the established residential areas of 7 th and 9 th S treets. As a result of market studies or analysis, the City will be aware of what type of businesses and uses are feasible for this area. Once identified, the city should incorporate the various development incentives into marketing for the corridor in order to at tract a vibrant mix of uses to the area. The majority of the vacant properties are former office and retail uses, ideal for startup companies or studio spaces as revealed in the H Street NE plan (The District of Columbia Office of Planning, 2004). Addition ally, ince ntives for creative development, arts based or high tech businesses should be promoted as a part of the revitalization plan if the community vision for redevelopment is a more vibrant, creative district.
146 A major factor in enhancing vibrancy and livability is utilizing the exi sting assets of a community as well as the authentic natural or built environment (Lewis and Donald, 2010). This corridor should highlight its automotive past by incorporating the auto centric built environment into the over all branding of 8th Street (See Figure 4 7). There are several sites that could be eligible for local or state historic designation, like the old Ford dealership or the A1A gas station. The City and the Historic District Council should go out of their way to offer assistance to current South 8 th Street historic property owners or anyone who is willing to redevelop their historic property if they qualify for inclusion into the Historic District or seek national designation as a historic site. This corridor h as the potential to utilize its automotive roots in order to establish a sense of place and utilize the existing auto centric architecture. Bringing new life to these familiar buildings will generate interest and be instrumental in placemaking. As mentione d briefly in this thesis, the National Trust Main Streets program is a highly successful, well established corridor redevelopment strategy. The H Str eet NE plan used this program at the local and federal level. As a part of the National Trust for Historic Preservation, this program focuses on restoring economic vitality by utilizing a Historic Preservation, n.d.). By 2002, this program was present in over 40 states and gen erated $17 billion in central business district revivals (Waters, 2010). In 1988, the City Commission of Fernandina Beach endorsed and supported participation in the Florida Main Street Program, but no further action was taken beyond these efforts (McCrary Burke, & Gibson, 2012).
147 Th e South 8 th Street corridor was defined as visually unappealing in the stakeholder interviews and the existing conditions assessment. T he visual quality of place has an impact on its economic activity and therefore hinders pote ntial investment by existing stakeholders and new investors ( Maguire, M., & Foote, R., 1997). A significant capital investment should be considered for the gateway of South 8 th Street at Lime Street The City owns the two lots that greet visitors to the So uth 8 t h Street Corridor and the c ity limits of Fernandina Beach. The current signage on these two lots could be much more visually appealing and utilize a greater portion of the lots The west lot would benefit from pedestrian amenities like benches, shade trees, bike racks, and open space. This mini park area would detract attention from the new safety sign installed on the corner and provide a meeting point for South 8 th Street patr ons in the future. 14 n to Fernandina Beach is located on the east lot. Instead, the original signage that was once on this corner should be recreated with an additional semi permanent message recognizing the South 8 th Street Corridor Revitalization District. Additionally, t here are approximately 50 telephone poles lining South 8 th Street from Lime to B room e If the removal of the poles and burying the power lines is not feasible, they could be utilized to hold street pole banners to u nify the street or used to sup port a pedestrian scaled street light project. Conclusion The City of Fernandina should draft a plan for the overlay district; conduct civic engagement to gather opinions and consensus; coordinate the ad option of the ordinance; secure funds and grants; and implement the new policies. For the South 8 th 14 See Page 141 for photo of the safety sign on the west corner of Lime Street and 8 th Street.
148 Street corridor revitalization, the overlay ordinance and incentives will guide the future of the corridor, similar to the Delray Beach ideology of public r einvestment yielding private redevelopment. The overall vision for the future of the corridor and the design guidelines for infill development will support the rich history and cultural assets of Fernandina Beach. By combining the traditional municipal red evelopment strategies with creative and cultural placemaking, the South 8 th Street corridor will experience improved livability.
149 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND FURTHER STUDIES Conclusion The recommendations for the 8 th Street Revitalization District were derived by considering the Quality of Place theories of Florida (2012) and Jacobs (1967); the small city creativity rubric of Lewis and Donald (2010); and the notion of utilizing existing creative and cultural assets fr om Ann Markusen (2006; 2010), Anne Gadwa (2010), and the APA (2004). The cross case analysis of the four case studies, also, proved successful in organizing the redevelopment strategies and visualizing the common connections between the plans and the South 8 th Street corridor Through this process, it was revealed that the goals of blighted corridor redevelopment are similar regardless of city size or population interests. The creative city theory is geared towards large cities, which made it difficult to f ind literature supporting the incorporation of creative redevelopment strategies in small cities. not discriminate based on the actual size of the population. The studies referenced throughout this thesis proved the quality of place, cultural assets, and the presence of livable and sustainable amenitie s has a powerful impact on the physical and econom ic well being of a district or city. By attracting new businesses, residents, and experiences to South 8 th Street, the incorporation of these ideals into redevelopment planning will support a deep, lasting revitalization. This research was guided by the co nonacceptance of the current condition of South 8 th
150 examines four corridor redevelopment case studies, the resulting best practices encompass the broad concept of redevelopment p lanning. The C ity of Fernandina Beach will soon begin planning for the revitalization of the South 8 t h Street corridor, and it is my hope that this research contributes to this process. Further Studies A separate body of research could be written on when is the appropriate time for redevelopment in any given blighted area. Literature on the subject often mentions that can run its course and regenerate a neighborhood, but of ten there is a point when an intervention is necessary. During my survey of past planning documents for th e C ity of Fernandina Beach, I was unable to uncover any justification for the failed redevelopment attempts over the last 15 years. Research into the context of the creation of those plans and why they were unsuccessful would provide an essential resource for the City and would have provided background for this thesis. 1 After 50 years of slow decline on the corridor, the time has come for the City of Fe rnandina Beach to create an ordinance guiding the future infill development and regulating the existing built environment to meet higher urban design standards My research recommends market studies and feasibility analyses of the South 8 th Street corridor, and perhaps all other commercial activity centers of Fernandina Beach, to be conducted in order to guide development and attract the appropriate, sustainable land uses. The Community Development Department should also research how other b each cities incorporate the role of tourism in their redevelopment plans. Public health 1 Lupita McClenning, who drafted the 2004 plan, was contacted but was unable to state her opinions on the matter but encouraged the city to move forward with their present rede velopment efforts.
151 improvements should also be researched further in regards to future development efforts. In addition to civic engagement activities, visual preference e surveys and ot her stakeholder surveys should be given to support the plan making process and the imminent evaluation of the revitalization district. In addition to the stakeholder interviews, I intended to send a survey to all South 8 th Street business owners during the observation process. These questionnaires are included in Appendix E and should be sent by mail with return postage or utilizing the Due to time and resource constraints, I was unable to fully explore the history of the si x undesignated historic structures along the corridor or research the backgrounds of properties that have been listed on the real estate market for a considerable period of time. The concept of incorporating creative resources in this case study were deri ved from my personal knowledge of Fernandina Beach, the considerable amount of arts and cultura l activities that occur on the i sland, and the popularity of the creative city thesis. There is a need for further research of the impacts of implementing creati ve city theory and creative development in the redevelopment process. Anne Markusen (2006) efforts by mentioning the need for more The creative 2010) research are unable to provide clear indicators of success regarding the actual creative placemaking outcomes (e.g. public art or creation of an innovati ve, public open space) due to the other contributing environmental factors during the redevelopment process
152 Additional research could also be conducted on the presence of the creative class in the Fernandina Beach area. T he more creative occupations (e.g. yoga studio, cycling studio, bakeries, antique stores, and restaurants) seem to thrive on the Island and even along the South 8 th Street Corridor. Quantifying the presence of the creative class and the success of creative industries could further support and promote the redevelopment of this corridor
153 APPENDIX A CONDTIONS ASSESSMENT AND PROPERTY LISTINGS This is a preliminary step towards the future Redevelopment plan for South 8th Street in Fernandina Beach, Florida. The following observations were recorded and observed during the summer of 2012. This is a summary of the physical conditions along the Sout h 8th Street Corridor. All photos were taken by the author unless noted otherwise. Figure A 1. Fernandina Beach City Limits at Lime and South 8th Street
154 LAND USE, ZONING, AND DEVELOPMENT Summary of the current state of land use, zonin g and development along the 8th Street Corridor. The assessment also includes key informant opinions regarding the current conditions of 8th Street. The conditions assessment is organized according to the following: a) Zoning b) Land Use c) Parcel Histories and Ownership d) Historic Preservation a) Zoning Currently all parcels facing South 8th Street are zoned C 2 (General Commercial) and one C 3 (Central Business District ). 1 The one C 3 parcel property owner requ ested a rezone in order to live and work in the same building. With the current zoning classification, residential, and industrial/manufacturing uses are not permitted. The current zoning has facilitated the establishment of several successful businesses a nd services, and it is unsure if the current zoning has hindered any future activities. Historically, 8th Street was home to many light manufacturers, grocery stores, car dealerships, and a variety of services. Corridor Capacity and Density With the curr ent C 2 zoning classification for the majority of 8th Street, there are no density requirements (as there are no dwelling units allowed) and a maximum FAR of 0.50. With a C 3 zoning classification, 8 units per acre are allowed, but with the Density Bonus I ncentive that can be increased. In the Comprehensive Plan, the policies are in place for a Density Bonus Incentive program for areas within a Community Redevelopment Area or acquire the future land use designation in the Central Business District. Adjace nt Zoning Classifications The neighboring streets are crucial to consider in the context of this corridor. Current Zoning Pattern and Zoning of the majority of 7th Street is R 2 (Medium Density Residential), while 9th street is MU 1 (Mixed Use). b) Land Use Occupancy of 8th Street 108 Total Properties Zoned C 2 25.9% Vacant Lots, For Sale, or For Lease 2 For the current C 2 zoning classification, the lot size is a minimum width of 50 feet, a maximum impervious area of 75%, and maximum Floor Area Ratio of 50%. Occupancy of 7th and 9th Streets The majority of 7th Street is Low Density Residential and is located in the Historic District Boundary. 9 th Street is made up mostly of single family residences, but is classified as Mixed Use. 1 S e e A pp e nd i x D f or L a nd D e v e l o pm e nt C o d e D ef i n i t i ons. 2 See Table A 2 for a complete list of for sale and vacant properties by land use classification.
155 Figure A 2. Current zoning of South 8th Street
156 Figure A 3. Current Active uses along South 8 th Street Figure A 4. Current property activity along South 8 th Street
157 Figure A 5. For sale or Lease Properties by Land Use
158 Figure A 6. South 8 th Street by Land use.
159 c) Parcel History and Ownership Historically this corridor served as an automotive and manufacturing hub for Fernandina Beach that complimented the Historic Downtown core. Around the 1950s and 1960s, three major car dealerships were located on this street: Reynolds Oldsmobile opened in 1948 (232 S.8th Street), Lasserre Motor Company, a Ford dealer, opened in 1910 (629 S. 8th Street), and the Chevrolet Dealership (400 S. 8th Street). Several auto repair shops and gas stations also were located on this street. By the 1960s and 1970s, the main draw to 8th Street was the grocery stores and furniture stores. The adjacent mill employees were frequenters of th e corridor, whether it was to eat lunch at a grocery or gas station or pick up a repair for work at one of the steel or fabric manufacturers along 8th Street. The street was regularly decorated for Christmas during this period. Near the end of the 1970s, the commercial activity on 8th Street declined. 8th Street (A.1.A) was changed from a two lane road with on street parking to a three lane highway in 1985. Development shifted on the island around this time and two new strip mall areas were constructed on 14th Street and Sadler Road. The 14th Street strip included a furniture store, grocery store, and movie theatre. This drew patrons away tail corridor followed soon after, and still remains the prime retail corridor for Amelia Island. Recently, competition to d) Historic Preservation 27 properties along 8th Street are l ocated within the Historic District Boundary. The Downtown Historic District is a nationally designated Historic Distri ct added to the National Register in 1973 (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2011). Figure A 7. Former Reynolds Motors Oldsmobile built in 1946.
160 Figure A 8. A1A Gas Station built in 1962 Figure A 9. Former Lasserre Motor Company Built in 1954.
161 Figure A 10.Home in the Historic District, South Corner of South 8 th Street and Cedar A 11. Home in the Historic District, North Corne r of South 8 th Street and Cedar
162 Figure A 12. Historic District Boundary Lines in Study Area.
163 8th Street Historic Properties For a complete listing of Historic District Properties and potentially eligible properties along the 8th Street Corridor please see Table A 3. Incentives Qualifying historic properties are eligible for an exemption of ad valorem taxes up 100 percent of the value of restoration or rehabilitation improvements (Dessy, 2010). The improvements must follow the rest rictions in the Florida Statutes and meet the Secretary of the Interior Standards and Guidelines. The property should also be listed in the National Register of Historic Places, contribute to a district included in the National Register or a contributing p roperty under the terms of a local preservation ordinance EXISTING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT The following section includes a listing of current businesses along the 8th Street Corridor by land use classification and a sum mary of stakeholders interview responses on the current and past commercial environment of South 8th Street. summer and fall of 2012. Their general comments ar e organized below. Positive Qualities of 8th Street Negative Qualities of 8th Street ty controls, high fees, and inefficient permitting for development projects I would like to see more____ along 8th Street? nir Shops What would make 8th Street a more livable community and small business friendly? Christmas decorations along the corridor Uses term rentals
164 Properties Owned by Stakeho lder Interviewees Figure A 13. Pelican Palms 800 S. 8 th Street Figure A 14. Amelia Coast Realty 608 S. 8 th Street
165 Figure A 15. Merge Restaurant 510 S. 8 th Street
166 PARKING, TRAFFIC, & TRANSPORTATION In 1985, 8th Street was reconfigured as a three lane road. 8th Street is also called A1A, SR 200, the Buccaneer Trail, and is a Federal Highway. This area is highly trafficked by local patrons as well as cargo trucks carrying supplies and lumber to the ports. Current Condition o f the 8th Street Roadway 1 The existing infrastructure and pedestrian amenities include; sidewalks, streetlights, Trails, connects 14 th Street North w ith Centre Street by directing bicyclists onto 8th Street at Jasmine. This path includes bikes driving on the 8th Street Development Code states for comme rcial uses, the required minimum number of bicycle spaces is 1 for every 25 required vehicle spaces. 2. Small shrubs, grass between the curb and sidewalk, and few unmaintained street trees make up the street landscaping. The Florida Department of Transport ation is responsible for the 100 foot Right of Way. 3. The majority of 8th Street businesses have street facing parking lots. Several properties have employed an informal, city approved shared parking strategy. 1 This compliments the Future land use categor 4. The speed limit of 30 is dictated by FDOT. Figure A 16. Approaching the South 8th S treet and Centre Street Intersection 1 Sol Pedal and Go Yoga currently share parking
167 Table A 1. 8 th Street TAS Data from July 14,2011 Roadway S. 8 th Street (Lime Street to Atlantic Avenue) Lanes and Classification 2 Lane Minor Arterial Maximum Peak Hour Capacity 1,860 Vehicles per Hour Annual Average Daily Traffic Volume 10,500 P.M. Peak Hour Capacity Current Volume 1,071 Approved Concurrency Traffic 153 Percent Capacity Used 66%
168 PUBLIC ENVIRONMENT entrance at Lime Street does not define a sense of place or highlight any of the attributes of Fernandina Beach. In order to develop the area as a beautiful, entryway to the city of Fernandina Beach proper, the following should be addressed: Entry Signage Pedestrian Scale Street lights En hance General Public Landscaping and Amenities. Consider adding benches, street trees, trashcans, bike racks, etc. Enforce Maintenance Code on Public and Private Property Conditions (landscape, signage and faade) Incorporate public art and historic refere nces to create a sense of place Reconsider Parking Strategies and Traffic calming and redirection Potential Parks and Open Green Space Revitalize the 8th Street Partners Association or encourage business for inclusion in the Historic Fernandina Beach Business Association to facilitate events and social activities Figure A 17. Current Entry Signage on the East Side of South 8 th Street
169 Figure A 18. Current Safety Signage on the West Side of South 8 th Street
170 REGIONAL CREATIVE NETWORK Fernandina Beach is home to many artists, craftsmen, arts organizations, galleries, and hosts seve ral arts events annually. There is considerable research that supports the incorporation of the creative class and the creative network into planning initiatives to f acilitate economic, social, and visible change in an area. This chart is organized based on Ann Occupation data. Writers and Authors : de Vries Phelts Photographers 904 261 7860 206 2203 (web design, home tours) Galleries 218 A Ash Street. 557 1195 Blue Door Artists 205 Centre Street. 491 7733 Gallery. 261 6044 Gallery 1750 s.14th. 277 5290 C 218 B Ash Street. 583 4676 361 Centre St. 261 8225 Gallery 18 n.2nd. 2 61 7020 (arts collective, art therepy) 206 Centre Street. 261 0444 819 S. 8th Street. 261 2535 Performing Arts 1014 beech Street. 206 2607 207 Cedar Street or P.O. Box 662. 904 261 6749 ARIAS Amelia Residents in Action for the Symphony Architects 613 Tarpon Ave. 904 491 6060 516 Ash St. 904 277 3729 914 Atlantic Ave. 904 261 4586 2775 Racheal Ave. 904 583 4044 9 S. 3rd Street. 904 277 4593 961687 Gateway Blvd. 904 491 0072 ge 961687 Gateway Blvd. 904 277 1277 4 Juniper Dr. 904 321 4242 Design and Media No. 3 s. 3rd street. 321 0367 2162 Sadler Road 904 261 0740 Florists 1430 Park Avenue. 261 5546 5381 S. Fletcher Ave. 904 491 5056 502 Ash Street 904 261 3011
171 6800 First Coast Hwy 904 277 5900 Jewelry 202 Centre St. 277 4880 Antique Stores melia Island Antiques 5210 First Coast Hwy. 321 1314 702 Centre Street. 277 2717 702 Centre street.491 4461 2030 Gourmet Food 809 s. 8 th street. 321 0020 8th Street. Festivals Festival Cultural Organizations Literature and Writing Library System Arts Organizations
172 EXHIBITS Figure A 19. 8 th Street proximity to historic residential area of 7 th Street Figure A 20. Vacant Lot Potential Spot for a Dog Park
173 Figure A 21. Gas Station Adaptive Use Examples on 8 th Street Figure A 22. Gas Station Adaptive Use Examples on 8 th Street Figure A 24. Gas Station Adaptive Use Examples on 8 th Street Figure A 23. Gas Station Adaptive Use Examples on 8 th Street
174 Areas of Concern along 8 th Street Figure A 26. Poor Faade Conditions Figure A 28. Non Conforming Uses Figure A 25. Signage Issues Figure A 27. Prolonged Vacancies Figure A 29. Pedestrian Unfriendly Street Presence Figure A 30. Prolonged Vacancy and Maintenance Issues
175 Inconsistent Set Backs and Streetscape Issues Figure A 31. 1000 Block of South 8 th Street Figure A 32. 800 Block of South 8 th Street Figure A 33. 700 Block of South 8 th Street Figure A 34. 400 Block of South 8 th Street Figure A 35. 400 Block of South 8 th Street Figure A 36. 20 Block of South 8 th Street
176 Historic Photographs of 8 th Street Figure A 37. Original Entry Signage at 8 th and Lime (Photo Courtesy of Adrienne Dessy Burke) Figure A 38. 8 th Street and Dade Street (Photo Courte sy of the Amelia Island Museum of History) Figure A 39. South 8 th Street (Photo Courtesy of the Amelia Island Museum of History)
177 Figure A 40. Automotive Uses Figure A 41. Automotive Uses Figure A 42. Automotive Uses Figure A 43. Automotive Uses
178 Table A 2. For Sale or Lease Properties by Land Use as of December, 2012 Address Name Zoning For Sale or Lease Price Square Footage/Acreage Notes on Condition Automotive Repair, Garage, Body Shop 1 1002 S. 8th Street (Vacant) A1A Island Auto C 2 For Sale, ACR 199000 2129 SF/.33 AC Built in 1962.Visable Blight. Open Floor Plan. 2 432 S. 8th Street Ram's 8th and Elm Detailing C 2 For Sale, Century 21 Visual Blight 3 232 S. 8th Street Amelia Dream Cars C 1 For Sale, Collier Dickinson 925000 12352 Built in 1946 In Historic District. Gasoline Station Trades and Repair Services (Electrical, Heating and Air, Mechanical, Painting, and Plumbing) 1 926 S. 8th Street (Vacant)Pye's Equipment Co. C 2 For Sale, Watson 275000 1627 SF Visual Blight. 2 925 S.8th Street H&H Tire Service Center C 2 For Sale, Remax 3685 SF Built in 1962 Not in Historic District 3 629 S. 8th Street Trawick Tile (et.al) C 2 For Sale, ACR 650000 15293 Built in 1954 Not in Historic District. Old Ford Dealership Lumber and Building Supp l y Small Equipment/Appliance Repair Shops Professional Offices 1 1027 S. 8th Street Inside Out, Family Wealth Advisors, Absolute Fabrics, Kathryn Knee, P.A. MU 1 For Sale, Collier Dickinson 1360680 5,916 SF/ .79 AC Built in 1981. Former Restaurant 2 917 S. 8th Street Ocean Breeze Baptist Church MU 1 For Sale, Century 21 235000 1,890 SF/ .17 AC Currently a Religious Facility 3 910 S. 8th Street Sky Office Complex C 2 For Lease, Caldwell Banker Built in 1971. Needs Tenants and Landscaping. Former Fitness Facility. 4 212 N 8th Street Elizabeth Russell C 2 For Sale, Collier Dickinson 2400 2 apartments and office space
179 Table A 2 Continued. Retail Stores 1 1014 S. 7th Street Buy Gones Consignment C 2 For Sale 330000 3592 SF/ .23 AC Built in 2003. Seen From 8th Street. 2 626 S.8th Street William and Arlene Sirockman C 2 For Lease, ACR 12p SF/Year 1,500 SF avail Small kitchen 3 512 S. 8th Street shopping center C 2 For Sale, Watson 225000 Built in 1965 4 432 S. 8th Street Cradle to Crayons C 2 For Sale, Century 21 Sold with the Auto Detail shop 5 312 S. 8th Street Nassau Humane Society's Second Chance C 2 For Sale, 310000 2,184 Specialty and Gift Shops (Art, Antique, Jewelry Shops, Books, and Stationers) Restaurant 1 802 Ash Street D&M Amelia C 2 For Sale 1450000 6405 Built in 1948 in Historic District 2 801 Beech Street Beech Street Grill c 2, r 2 985000 8164 Built in 1900 in Historic District Specialty Food Stores (Bakeries or Ethnic Grocers) Bars Personal Services Religious Facilities Laundry and Dry Cleaning 1 832 S. 8th Street (Vacant) Dry Cleaners C 2 Vacant Vacant Land 1 S 8th Street City of Fernandina C 2 Vacant 2 S 8th Street City of Fernandina C 2 Vacant 3 Kelp and S. 8th Street Yangas Land Co. LLC C 2 Vacant/ For Sale 249,500 28,750 SF Frontage on Kelp, 8th, and 9th Streets 4 1000 Block 8th Street New River Group, LLC C 2 Vacant/For Sale, Collier Dickinson 200,000 10,019 SF Owned by and Adjacent to the 1027 S. 8th Street Property. 5 900 Block Vacant Lot Vacant/For Sale, Remax
180 Table A 2. Continued Vacant Land 6 800 Block Vacant Lot (By Bell Reeves) Sherry Quattlebaum C 2 Vacant 7 800 Block Vacant Lot between A.1. Gas and 832 S.8th Street Middle Lot is owned By City of Fernandina C 2 Vacant 8 700 Block Vacant lot Hardee Edward/Nan Gibson C 1 Vacant/ For Sale, Atlantic Properties Approx. 8 acres Option to subdivide 9 425 S. 8th Street vacant C 2 10 109 S 8th Street BLB Amelia LLC Vacant/For Sale .11 acre lot In Historic District Total Vacant Lots or For Sale and Lease properties: 28 Table A 3. Historic Properties Facing South 8th Street Address Business/Property Owner Year Historic District? 1002 S. 8th Street A1A Island Auto 1962 No 109 S 8th Street BLB Amelia LLC Yes 400 S. 8th Street Taylor Rental Center 1939 No 302 S. 8th Street Allstate Auto and Truck Repair 1952 Yes 816 S. 8th Street A.1. Gas Mart 1952 No 232 S. 8th Street Amelia Dream Cars 1946 Yes 629 S. 8th Street Trawick Tile 1954 No 401 Block 1963 No 227 S.8th Street Citrona Homes, LLC/ Rebostravel, LLC 1900 Yes 510 S. 8th Street Merge 1956 No 202 S. 8th Street T Ray's 1959 Yes 710 Centre Street Tasty's 1951 Yes 320 S. 8th Street Halftime Sports Bar and Grill 1950 Yes 329 S. 8th Street 329 Place 1968 Yes 229 S. 8th Street CorMieR Salon 1900 Yes 714 Beech Street Windward Sailing 1907 Yes 221 N 8th Street James John (Trustee) Yes 222 N.8th Street James Pratt O'Conner Yes
181 Table A 3. Continued Address Business/Property Owner Year Historic District? 303 S. 8th Street Patricia Benner 1900 Yes 217 S. 8th Street Victorian Ventures, INC 1900 Yes 316 N 8th Street James Pratt O'Conner Yes 113 S 8th Street Clara Sanders Wells 1900 Yes 125 S. 8th Street House of Pets/House of Cards 1900 Yes 131 S 8th Street House of Pets/House of Cards 1900 Yes 219 S. 8th Street Country Store Antiques Yes 121 S 8th Street Jessie Mae Freeman 1900 Yes 226 N. 8th Street Chuck and Annette Hall 1900 Yes 223 N. 8th Street Bessie M. Lawyer 1925 Yes 925 S.8th Street H&H Tire Service Center 1962 No
169 APPENDIX B INDICATOR TABLES Table B 1. Livability factors that Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor Livability Authentic or Unique Natural Environment X X Authentic or Unique Built Environment X X X Preserved Green Space X X X Artistic Spaces X X Imaginative Streetscapes and Landmarks X X Recreational Offerings X X Good City Services and Basic Needs Offered X X X X Participation Culture X X X X Condition and Affordability of Housing X X X Investments in Technology X X
170 Table B 2. Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor Sustainability Security of Jobs, Homes, and Services (prices) X Environmental Sustainability Green Policies X X X Ecological Security X X Social Sustainability Reducing Crime X X Promoting the Harmonious Evolution of a Civil Society X X Compact Development Multiple Land Uses/ Mixed Use X X X X Multiple Amenities X X Pedestrian Connectivity X X X X Walking and Biking X X X X Active Street Life X X X X Markets X Mixing Commercial and Recreational Life X X X Ease of Commute X X
169 Table B 3. Livability Indicators Adapted from Lewis and Donald (2011) Indicators Alternative path towards: Sustainability Creative Growth Economic Growth Aesthetic Appeal Livability Livability Education x x x High Quality schools x x x Climate x Authentic or Unique Natural Environment x x Authentic or Unique Built Environment x x Preserved Green Space x x Artistic Spaces x x Imaginative Streetscapes and Landmarks x x Recreational offerings x Good city services x Basic needs offered (mundane activities) x Participation culture x Condition of housing x x x x x Housing Affordability x x x Investments in Technology x x
170 T able B 4 Sustainability Indicators Adapted from Lewis and Donald (2011) Sustainability Security of Jobs, homes, services (prices) x Environmental Sustainability Green Policy x x Ecological security x x Social Sustainability: Reducing crime X X Promoting the harmonious evolution of a civil society X X Compact Development: Multiple land uses/mixed use X X Multiple amenities X X X Pedestrian connectivity X X Walking and biking X X Active street life X X Markets X X Mixing Commercial and Recreational Life X X Ease of Commute X X X X Ease of Communication X X Source: Lewis, N. M., & Donald, B. (2010). A new rubric for 'creative city' potential in Canada's smaller cities. Urban Studies, 47(1), 29 54.
171 APPENDIX C FERNANDINA BEACH PLANNING DOCUMENTS Table C 1. Fernandina Beach Land Development Code Chapter 2 Zoning Districts and Land Uses Land Use Map Category/ Zoning District Description Examples of Uses and Densities 2.01.05 Medium Density Residential/ (R 2) The R 2 District is intended for the development, redevelopment, or maintenance of stable medium density residential neighborhoods. The medium density residential designation includes a mixture of single and multi family structure types. Prevents commercial uses, hotels, bed and breakfast unites, resort rentals, or other forms of transient accommodations. Accessory land uses and supportive community facilities may be located in designated areas. Density for medium density residential development ranges up to a max of 8 unit s per acre. 2.01.09 Mixed Use/ (MU 1) The MU 1 District is intended for the development of a combination of residential, office and limited neighborhood commercial uses. The Mixed Uses District encourages well planned development and redevelopment of areas that feature compatible, interrelated uses including single family and multi family residential units; medical, business, and professional offices; personal services establishments with limited inventory of goods; and limited neighborhood commercial uses. Designation is not intended for manufacturing. Max density of 8 units per acre for residential development and non residential development shall not exceed a FAR of 0.50. 2.01.11 General Commercial/ (C 2) The C 2 District is intended for the development of land uses to accommodate offices; commercial retail; personal services establishments; restaurants; transient accommodations; uses that provide sales and services for several neighborhoods; repair shops; retail sales and services; and other similar commercial uses. The General Commercial District recognizes existing development with locations that have access to arterial roads. Designation not intended to accommodate manufacturing of goods or other production or assembly activities that may generate nuisance impacts, including glare, smoke, or other air pollutants, noise, vibration, major fire hazards, or other impacts generally associated with industrial uses. The intensity of development shall not exceed a FAR of 0.50.
172 Table C 1 Continued. Land Use Map Category/ Zoning District Description Examples of Uses and Densities 2.01.12 Central Business District/ (C 3) The C 3 District is intended for the development of land uses within the central business district as the governmental, professional, and cultural activities. The Central Business District category is d esigned to accommodate single family or duplex residential uses; either freestanding or in mixed residential and business use structures; offices; commercial retail; personal services establishments; restaurants; transient accommodations; commercial parkin g facilities; civic uses; and cultural uses. Density of residential development in the CBD shall not exceed 8 units per acre and the non residential development shall not exceed a FAR of 2.0.
173 Table C 2 Fernandina Beach Future Land Use Element Objective 1.0 Growth Management Policy Description 1.01.06 The City shall assure that specific density assigned to new development is compatible and consistent with established residential development patterns and provides equitable use of land. Criteria to be considered in allocating density shall include, but not be limited to, the following: a) Protect the integrity and stability of established residential areas; b) As sure smooth transition in residential densities; and c) require application o f sound landscaping and urban design principles and practices. 1.01.11 The City shall provide for the orderly transition of uses. Where it is infeasible to separate residential from nonresidential land uses, buffering shall be required to promote a smooth land use transition. 1.01.13 The City shall ensure that the image, function, architecture, and ambiance of the historic downtown further the use and development of downtown as the ceremonial, civic, and cultural center of the City. Toward this end, the C ity shall preserve and enhance the identity, design, and vitality of the downtown, including the designated historic preservation district and the adjacent fringe area.
174 Table C 3 Fernandina Beach Future Land Use Element Objective 1.03 Redevelopment Policy Description 1.03 The City shall reduce blight through redevelopment, renewal, and removal and replacement of blighted structures and uses. 1.03.01 The City shall encourage needed redevelopment and renewal through incentives such as the following: a. Density or intensity bonuses; b. Provision of alternative site design requirements in designated redevelopment areas; c. Provision of development guidelines in designated districts; and d. Expedited review processes 1.03.02 The City shall seek funding to assist in the reduction and elimination of blight. Funding programs, such as the federal Community Development Block Grant, may be used for housing rehabilitation, demolition and replacement of substandard housing, infrastructure improvements, o r commercial redevelopment. 1.03.03 residents for retail sales and services. The City shall coordinate with private sector interest groups co ncerned with enhancing the central business district, waterfront corridors, and commercial corridors on South 8th Street, Sadler Road, and 14th Street, in order to direct efforts to achieve a public and private partnership in improving the image and functi on of these districts and corridors. Design strategies shall provide physical themes for development and redevelopment opportunities that are consistent with and reinforce the historic character of architecture, where historic structures are present, as we ll as the ambiance and urban design amenities in each location. 1.03.04 The City shall implement a Density Bonus Incentive Program to encourage redevelopment within its Community Redevelopment Area (CRA). The Density Bonus Incentive Program shall be available only to those properties within the CRA which carry or acquire the Central Business District (CBD) future land use designation. The Density Bonus Incentive Program shall utilize a scoring system as formalized within the Land Development Code by w hich redeveloping, eligible properties may choose to address categories of Housing Type Mix, Mixed Use, Community Amenities, Green Building Certification and Sustainable Site Development Practices to earn points toward a density increase
175 Figure C 1. Letter from Fernandina Beach to EPA Building Blocks for Sustainable Communities Program
176 Figure C 1continued.
177 APPENDIX D INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Interview Questions Community Development Department/City of Fernandina Beach Marshall McCrary, Adrienne Burke, Kelly Gibson 1. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of the past 8 th Street Overlay initiatives? a. What was the role of the 8 th Street Merchants group in the process? 2. Thoughts on the CRA? a. How does the city feel about it? b. How does the city feel about it? c. Who were the key players in making the CRA happen? d. Is/was there a committee devoted to CRA activity? e. Do you think creating a CRA for 8 th street would be successful? 3. How does growth and development in the south of the is land effect the city? 4. Any idea of the source(s) of 8 th Street blight? 5. What do you think visitors and business owners would like to see aesthetically change on 8 th Street? 6. What would you like to see change on 8 th Street? (Zoning change, signage, wayfinding etc.) 7. What types of businesses do you think would contribute well to 8 th street? 8. What do you see for the future of the three city owned 8 th street parcels? 9. th Street properties? 10. What would help ma ke a more livable community, in terms of walkability, bike compatibility safety, community organizing, beautification and green/open space planning? 11. In your opinion what are three strategies the area could employ for a transformation that imp roves resilie nce, stability, competiveness and appeal?
178 Realtor: Phil Griffin/ ACR Properties 1. How closely do you work with the city when dealing with commercial real estate? 2. Do you reach out to chains, business owners, or locals to buy commercial properties? 3. What is the target demographic for 8 th street? 4. Who would you like to see come in one of your vacant buildings? 5. Who do your clients want to see come in their vacant buildings? 6. What incentives do you think would bring more interest to the 8 th street properties? (Benefits if they adapt an existing structure rather than demolish it, incentives for being energy efficient/green building, etc.) 7. Would 8 th Street benefit from housing in existing structures? (mixed use) 8. How could the city better work with realtors to fi ll vacant properties?
179 Long Time Resident: Jeffery Bunch 1. Describe the history and progression of 8 th Street? 2. Over the years, what would you say was the most successful time for 8 th Street? 3. What businesses along 8 th Street (past and present) drew the mo st people into the area? 4. What aesthetically has changed along 8 th Street? 5. What would help make 8 th Street a more livable community? 6. Which 8 th Street property owners would be interested in an initiative to redevelop or reinvent 8 th Street?
180 8 th Street Property Owner: Jim Tipton 1. What made you choose to build on 8 th Street? a. What do you like about this location? b. What do you not like about this location? c. What type of businesses would you like to see less of in this area? d. What type of new businesses would you like to see more of in this area? e. What type of businesses would help your business? 2. Would you consider joining the Historic Fernandina Business Association? 3. What could the city do to help your business? 4. What type of incentives would help your b usiness? 5. What aesthetic elements would you change about the area? 6. What would help make 8 th Street a more livable community, in terms of walkability, safety, community organizing, beautification and green/open space planning?
181 APPENDIX E 8TH STREET SURVEY QUESTIONAIR E
183 APP ENDIX F REDEVELOPMENT PLAN ASSESSMENT TABLE Table F 1. Redevelopment Plan Assessment Tables Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor South 8th Street Corridor 1. Background, Demographics, and History City Population 182,965 61,209 617,996 2,957 Ranson / 5,337 Charles Town 11,487 Study Area Population 65,000 FAMU, FSU, Capitol Traffic. 1.5 Million a Year to Civic Center 125 Housing Units, 240 people 52 children and 188 adults 286 parcels, 54 vacant, 232 occupied. Approx. 3,000 in trade study area 112 Commercial (C 2,C 3) Parcels 11 Residential Parcels Creativity Index/Rank Tallahassee, Florida .766 / #66 South Florida Metro .772 / #63 DC Metro .947/ #9 DC Metro .947/ #9 Jacksonville, Florida .645/#109 Name of Plan Gaines Street Development Guidelines for an Urban Revitalization District "North Federal Highway Redevelopment Plan" "Revival: The H Street NE Strategic Development Plan" "The Green Corridor Revitalization Concept Plan for Fairfax Boulevard and George Street" Year Created 2000 1995 1999 2003 2012 Year of Application 2001 March 16,1999 2004 2012 Boundary Area 2 miles of Gaines Street bounded East and West by Cascades Park and Lake Bradford and Pensacola Street to the North and FAMU way to the South North Federal Highway Corridor, between NE 4th Street and North City Limits 1.5 miles, 13 blocks from North Capitol Street to 17th Street NE 1.5 miles of Fairfax Blvd and George Street extending from Washington Street to the Fairfax Crossing All properties facing 8th Street from Lime Street to Broome Street
184 Period of Peak Condition 1925 1946 Industrial development (CSX Railroad) led to an increase of residential properties. Major tourist corridor to the beaches of South Florida until the 1970s. Residential Corridor pre 1950s suburban flight Mid Twentieth Century manufacturing hub for the two cities 1940s 1960s. Automotive Sales, repairs, and Light Industrial Uses that complimented the downtown central business area. Historic Preservation District Concern for preserving the patriarch trees and historic properties in the All Saints and Sterns Mosley neighborhoods. Cascades Park was listed on the National Register in 1971 and is now contaminated and owned by the State. The original 1825 plan for the city included the area around the Park. Atl as Theatre revitalization is declared a first project to be completed in order to spur future redevelopment, as well as the Capitol Children's Museum site. Plan suggests the establishment of an H Street Commercial Corridor National Register District should be pursued and further surveyed based on previous assessments. Planned adaptive use of the historic structure, George Washington Hall, as a transportation hub. 26 of the study area parcels lie in the Downtown Historic District. The district was nationally designated in 1973. History of Redevelopment in Study Area To fight crime, the city purchased several properties and increased police coverage. Private investments include new housing developments, revitalization of several businesses, and compliance wi th the 1993 landscaping ordinance. With the city almost to build out there is an importance on reinvesting in older neighborhoods. There was a slight reinvestment in the 1990s with people moving back into the city and interest in older properties grew, leading to the current planning efforts. The present revitalization efforts began in 2000 and 2001. Funding was secured by Mayor Antho ny Williams and the Districts Office of Several redevelopment attempts of the corridor, the most recent in 2004.
185 Planning was to facilitate the creation of the Vision plan for the redevelopment. Past Roles of Study Area Industrial Corridor, Government O perations, healthy mix of residential, commercial and industrial uses. Main route to South Florida. Commercial uses that depended on tourists and single family homes were among the first developments. Industries included trailer parks, gas stations, small motels, and auto repair stations. Residential urban corridor until the Suburban flight of the 1950s. Major travel corridor became mostly commercial and institutional by the mid twentieth century. The 1968 riots after Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination led to the decline of the street and the heightened crime activities. Originally a classic thoroughfare as seen in the 1890s plat map. Region grew to accommodate the manufacturing economy. The original plans referenced the corridor as a wide, grand place t o connect the towns of Ranson and Charles Town. Former Uses include a grocery, dry goods, light industry, furniture sales, automobile dealerships, auto repair shops, and gas stations. Several residential properties near the downtown area. Creative Capital A market analysis by the COCA for the ArtSpace project gives multiple reasons why an arts campus would be feasible for the Gaines Street Area. High creative class index. A major subdistrict of the corridor will be the "Arts and Enterta inment District". The plan calls for the incorporation of cultural and historic programming throughout the corridor Fernandina Beach has an arts agency, Arts and Cultural Nassau, and a new ordinance encouraging public art as a strategy for placemaking. Ce ntre Street boasts a variety of art galleries and the City hosts an annual art festival, The Isle of 8th Flags Shrimp
186 Festival. Key Geographic Characteristics Pre existing districts to build upon two neighborhoods, the university village area, and cascades park Former tourist destination, beach area. Area is divided by the Plan into 4 subdistricts based on their existing assets. Two downtowns are connected by this corridor. Corridor leads to the Historic Downtown District and Centre Street. 8th Street at Lime Street marks the Fernandina Beach city limits. Fernandina Beach is a tourist destination for its historic assets and beaches. Cultural Institutions Corridor leads to FAMU, FSU, and the State Capitol Complex. Gallaudet University, Northeast Branch library, Atlas Theater, H Street Playhouse, R.L. Christian Library are located along the corridor. American Public University System Academic Center Comprehensive Plan and Future Land Use Policies Future Land Use The plan follows Development Standards, Urban Design Criteria, Historic Preservation and Adaptive Use Criteria, Traffic The City of Delray Beach FLUM labels several declining ar eas of the city. The North Federal Highway was not included, but the Comp Plan and CRA Community Several neighborhoods will be reassigned as "Compact Urban" in the FLUM The Future land use element of Fernandina Beach calls for the equitable use of land, smooth transi tion
187 Management and Open Space Criteria. The Proposed Future Land Use recommendations largely involve reuse and redevelopment of older indust rial properties and of University development in the FSU and FAMU areas. Implementation of the Plan will require several new zoning districts to encourage mixed use and urban design characteristics. Redevelopment Plan identify the area as blighted. No changes to the FLUM designations are included in this plan, but there are suggestions for further feasibil ity studies to be conducted regarding the conditions of the commercial designations. of uses, and contain sound landscaping and urban design principles Additionally, the City is to maintain and enhance the identity and vibrancy of downtown this includes the historic district as a whole and the adjacent fringe area. Objective 1.03 ca lls for the redevelopment of blighted structures, uses, and areas. The City shall also coordinate with private sector interest groups in order to enhance the image and function of these areas, including the South 8th Street corridor. Growth Management and Comprehensive Plan In the Delray Beach Comprehensive Plan, it states Blighted areas of the city shall be redeveloped and renewed and shall be the major contributing areas to the renaissance of Delray Beach." A description of the area is identified in the Future Land Use Element Policy c 1.4 in the Comp plan, as well as a definition of the b light along the corridor. The The current zoning of H Street does not support the proposed revitalization efforts set forth in the Plan. An Overlay district is recommended. The Comp Plan identifies the actions the city should take to ensure the v ision of the Plan. The Green Corridor design is consistent with Comp Plan The current zoning of South 8th Street is C 2 General Commercial and one C 3 Central Business District. General Commercial
188 Comp Plan states that there is to be an "Improvement Program" created. In the Housing Element, the two neighborhoods in this area are labeled "Stabilization" and "Revitalization on the categorization map. Goals for the Redeve lopment from the 1989 Comp Plan: 1. Reconstruction of the North Federal Highway using Traditional Neighborhood principals to encourage pedestrian and neighborhood connections ; 2. Completion of the Road Network; 3. Proper connection of the existing neighbo rhood to future redevelopment areas; 4. Creation of new public places; 5. encourage a greater diversity for commercial development uses; 6. Improvement of the perceived image and overall physical appearance of the area including, police code enforcement, n eighborhood plans, and beautification. actions including transportation mobility guidance and design standards to achieve land use and transportation compatibility and augmenting the classification system with the "Compa ct Urban" designation. does not encourage a mix of uses or permit light industrial, assembly activities. Municipality Strengths The Blueprint 2000 Plan and the Downtown Plan will work with the Gaines Street Revitalization Plan towards the improvements in Cascades Park through the greenway and open space plan Strong CRA. Strong CRA The DC Office of Planning created the advisory commit tees that led to the Plan creation, the DC council adopted the plan in April 2004. The build out of the plan was estimated to be 1.38 billion. Plan suggests utilizing the parking authority NCRC to create municipal parking projects The existing smart code s and transects facilitate the creation of the multi modal corridor. The Fernandina Beach Community Development Department encourages the redevelopment of the 8th Street corridor to enhance the function and form of the corridor.
189 Municipality Challenges The community redevelopment plan identifies redevelopment needs but lacks the market and economic backing as seen in this plan. Current zoning promotes development to single use buildings with suburban site configurations instead of mixed use buildings Past South 8th Street redevelopment initiatives have not been successful. Existing Conditions Prior to Plan Challenges of Study Area Poor vehicular and pedestrian access, varied densities of residential uses, contaminated brownfield. Zoning Weaknesses existing land uses for the east side of Gaines are all set as governmental operations, western side of corridor is defined by industrial and commercial uses, southern edges are along CSX railroad tracks. Two north Gaines residential neighborhoods, the FSU transition zone was once a residential zone and is now offices, warehouses, institutional school properties. Alternative routes to South Florida contributed to the decline of the North Federal Highway (Turnpike, I 95). This led to a loss of a consumer bas e that extended through the 70s and 80s. Crime mostly drugs and prostitution, filled the declining motels and trailer parks. Corridor traffic has dropped 14% in the 1990s. 232 buildings on H, 51 vacant, 30% of storefronts vacant 47% upper floors were vac ant. 54 parcels had no construction. Redundant uses on occupied storefronts. 2,600 total parking spaces but only 446 accessible to the public on the street. Hostile intersections for pedestrians. Small, shallow lot sizes make it difficult for mixed use a nd large developments to come in Scattered pattern of ownership limits large scale construction, preservation, and redevelopment. Blocks are hard to combine to support modern building requirements or multi building preservation projects. No formal control s to ensure the historic buildings are preserved and infill is appropriately designed. Newer buildings are very suburban and have front Several brownfields along co rridor, inconsistent sidewalks, improper side street parking, The current condition of the corridor includes deep setbacks, inconsistent architectural styles, undesirable design features (front parking lots, unorganized auto repair shop holding lots, metal awnings, and improper screening from the public realm). Right s of way lack sufficient landscaping, maintenance, and pedestrian oriented amenities.
190 and side parking; out of step with the historic context of the street. narrow, low quality retail mix. no established identity unattractive business facades, lack of public parking, high traffic commuter route, less than optimal pedestrian conditions, no street trees, little pedestrian scaled elements (benches, shelters, bike racks, tables), Several of the corridors current uses are marginal and do not fully contribute to the City's economic development. Walkability is hindered by heavy traffic, unsafe inter sections, and a lack of activities that would encourage pedestrian activity Opportunities of Study Area City recognizes the economic potential of this area. Assets of the corridor include: close proximity to downtown, inexpensive land values, vacant potential redevelopment sites, historic properties and cultural heritage. Cascades Park and other open spaces provide a centerpiece for the redevelopment plan. There is an existing redevelopment movement in downtown Delray Beach. Decreased property values and vacant buildings make acquisitions in the area affordable. The Plan states that given the current conditi ons of the area, the corridor might recover on its own without much government investment. The North Federal Highway is a state highway that FDOT services. 24,000 vehicles per day, 35,000 metro bus passengers per day. Corridor assets lent themselves to cre ate subdistricts including "the hub, urban living, the shops, arts and entertainment district, arboretum place". Close to Union Station and New York Ave Metro Stations. Single ownership buildings available for private investment, barriers to hinder small s cale developments will be eliminated with zoning changes, financial assistance and the Plan guidelines. Lots of character and The existing streets can be retrofitted due to the curb lines to promote lower speeds. Small lots constrain the size of new development, but encourages compact development and provides potential land assembly opportunities. Several vacant properties (For Lease or Sale) are small office spaces ideal for start up companies or non profit organizations. This is a highly
191 neighborhood assets to reinforce the corridor's livability. Existing arts uses and planned arts uses will lead to more. Low rents, small scale business and office space is appealing to entrepreneurs. visible, well traveled corridor leading to the downtown area. The FDOT s ervices this corridor. Current Role of Area Corridor connects 3 significant institutions: State Capital Complex, FSU, and FAMU. "Back Door" to downtown, scattered government uses, eroded neighborhoods, offices, vacant public and private parcels Most heavily Traveled highway in the area with 20,161 ADT, but is below its design capacity of 29,400 ADT. Small, local commercial uses, local churches, national chains, several abandoned buildings and vacant land and upper floors Fairfax Blvd and George Street connect the two cities central downtown areas. Corridor serves as a thoroughfare to the downtown area. Existing uses include services, trades, auto repair, professional offices and 11 residences. Motivators for Plan/Finding of Necessity Goals and Desired Improvements Maintain a high standard of Urban Design; Create a high quality "gateway" to the capital city; revitalize obsolete industrial areas; create livable urban centers and economic diversity in neighborhoods; enhance opportunities for racia l diversity and mixed uses; improve pedestrian and Improvement of the appearance of the area; Identification of appropriate uses for parcels adjacent to Dixie Highway and FEC railroad tracks; Identification of and strategies for the elimination of inappropriate and marginal uses; provision for increases in permitted res idential densities near the intracoastal waterway; Retention of existing businesses and attraction of new businesses to support more diverse offerings of goods and services, growth in job opportunities for area residents, and increased tax revenues to support local services; attract ion of new residents, visitors and customers while Create a multi modal tra vel corridor; lower speeds; provide a sense of character to the community; employ innovative stormwater management techniques; and widen roads. The goal of the Fernandina Beach community development department is to create an overlay district to direct the form and functionality of the corridor by providing incentives for businesses and
192 vehicular access; promote an active ambiance, outstanding aesthetic quality, scenic streetscapes and roadways; preserve sub district neighborhood character; and enhance and create greenway. direct small business operations to concentrated areas; creation of jobs; stabilization and preservation of residential neighborhoods and elimination of blight. Encourage coexistence of bikes, automobiles and pedestrian traffic. protecting surrounding neighborhoods and balancing needs for pedestrians, vehicular traffic flow and parking; and creation of a strong sense of place that respects architectural and soc ial history through streetscape improvements, the preservation and adaptive reuse of existing buildings and the construction of new buildings compatible with the character and contemporary business requirements. developments and design guidelines to enhance the appearance of the corridor. The City wants to create a place that will encourage resident and tourist patronage and also fa cilitate and sustain business growth. Civic Engagement Charrettes in 1997 and workshops in 1999. Major Charrette in 1997. Advisory committee work sessions, public workshops, 5 day design Charrette, work by the Office of Planning. 2012 Charrette to discuss the green corridor vision and the Charles Washington Hall Commuter Center. Community Input From the 97 and 99 discussions, citizens want: unique urban character, residential areas, entertainment and cultural activities, parks, bike paths, preserved neighborhood suggestions included: landscape improvements, buildings closer the street, better utilization of Dixie Highwa y. Traffic calming, revitalizing the swap shop and the Delray Shopping Center, waterfront park development, mixed use C provide vital information and expert recommendations to help existing businesses grow and thrive on H Street NE; to recommend a realistic strategy for Citizens were concerned mostly about walkability and how this would affect their property. After the Charrett e, exhibits were sent to each property owner Stakeholders realize the prime location of the corridor and see its' potential to be a more vibrant district. There are concerns
193 characteristics, encourage new mixed use development that compliments the university, Higher standards of quality development, establish a sense of place, unique characterist ics and landmarks in each sub district, define corridor as a gateway, create a truly pedestrian environment, address traffic and parking problems. development all participants agreed it shouldn't compete with Atlantic Ave. but should compliment it with office buildings and such. encouraging the reuse of the numerous vacant lots and storefronts on the corridor to create a desirable mix of commercial offerings on the corridor; to assist in determining the public investment .Other issues ranged from role of housing incentives, benefits of housing, building design and development guidelines, marketing strategies smal l business incubators, traffic enhancements, parking improvements, public gathering places. Community spoke of a bright future for the corridor and want a safe and attractive place to live. They want to support local businesses, entrepreneurs, and new inve stments; protect the streets character and promote the sense of place; and ensure the new uses compliment rather than detract from the positives. showing the proposed design changes. Community desired walkability, managed vehicle speeds, street trees, wider sidewalks, mix of land uses, cost effective stormwater management techniques. regarding the visual appeal of the corridor, the lack of landscaping, poor property maintenance, and the need for incentives to promote adaptive use and green building (From stakeholders reviewed for this research)
194 Aesthetic Condition Existing Building and Landscape conditions and character were recorded and inventoried. The majority of buildings exhibit major and minor deterioration, especially in the industrial uses. A series of maps were created highlighting the drainage patterns, tree massings, and other natural environment conditions. Circulation network was also assessed. Buildings have held many marginal uses. Physical conditions include inade quate parking and poorly maintained buildings. There are many vacant properties that lead to the blighted condition of the corridor. Vacant sites, storefronts, buildings, poor condition of occupied buildings give off the impression of an unsafe, unwelcom ing area. Security grates and security lighting also contributes to this stigma. Size and depth of parcels contribute to the limited reinvestment and redevelopment potential. Brownfields and declining roadways. Front parking lots, narrow parcels, prolonge d vacancies and numerous for sale or lease properties, poor pedestrian experience, lack of civic landscaping and amenities. Economic Condition Market Assessment was conducted for adaptive use feasibility. Economic condition worsened during the 80s after t he loss of the majority of the tourist base: Property values went down and businesses closed. Many vacant lots and buildings along the street, but there has been recent reinvestment in the area by housing and commercial properties. The downtown area has s een substantial reinvestment that has spread throughout the community. Market Analyses were conducted to suggest a capacity of 200,000 square feet of small professional, non profit, and organizational offices. Small scale projects will find the area highly accessible. Studies found that 300,000 square feet of retail will be desired over the next 10 years.
195 Organizations, Agencies, and Government Entities Involved Municipal Advisory Committee on the revitalization of Gaines Street (GSVC) appointed by the City Commission, FDOT FAMU FSU conducted studies, City of Tallahassee, Leon Co., Community Redevelopment Agency City of Delray Beach Community Redevelopment Agency The D.C. Office of Planning initiated redevelopment, created two Advisory Network C ommissions, Single Member Districts, Member of the DC Main Streets Program, Office of the Deputy Mayor, Great Streets Initiative, District Department of Transportation, The Restore DC group, and the DC heritage Tourism coalition. City of Ranson, City of C harles Town, DOT. Fernandina Beach Community Development Department Consultants St. Joe/ Arvida, Genesis Group, PBS&J, and ArtSpace Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council and the Dover, Kohl & Partners. The Main Street Program and HOK Planning Group. PlaceMakers and Hall Planning and Engineering. Business Associations Non Profit Metropolitan Planning Organization, Knight Creative Communities Institute PAC, Council for Culture & Arts (COCA) H Street Community Development Corporation 2. Redevelopment Plan Objectives and Elements
196 Development The creation of the cascades greenway and open space concept plan is the centerpiece(and main capital investment) of the redevelopment efforts. It enhances value and scenery for future projects, preserves open space, encourages compact development, natural stormwater drainage. Promote a mix of commercial and residential development, decrease the strip type development. There no current restrictions on the depth of commercial development, but the city shall consider either private sector rezoning or FLUM amendments to allow for larger scale developments. Plan calls for the following projects t o be addressed first: Retail Development, Redevelopment of 3 major blocks, the atlas theatre revitalization, and the air rights and station place developments. Develop the Charles Washington Commuter Center( adaptive use of a historic structure) to facilit ate regional rail and bus transit access. Infill Utilize land assembly and context sensitive infill to each sub district neighborhood. Commercial developers must strive to create buffers for the nearby residential properties. Zoning change to enable mixed use and residential infill projects Policy Changes Created the Gaines Street Revitalization Plan, new zoning ordinance for urban zoning districts and sub districts to set higher standards for new development, City Implementation Program, new Future land uses to dictate appropriate development density and i ntensity, Greenway and open space plan created to acquire special natural resource areas prohibit additional heavy, highway commercial There are currently 5 zoning designations applied on the corridor, three lev els of residential and two commercial. Only one zoning change is recommended by the Plan, changing a section of the corridor from Multi family Medium density to Multi family low density which exists both north and south of the area in quesiton.LDR amendme nts will be made following the adoption of the plan, include eliminating the landscape setback along the corridor except where the parking abuts the roadway, a 2006 rezoning of H Street was approved in accordance with the Plan. The proposed rezoning optimizes proximity to transit, increases density to support proposed development and permits larger in fill residential and mixed use structures. The new SmartCode system for Ranson will link the green downtown overlay district with a new zoning approach for the green corridor. In order to achieve walkable streets the functional classification sys tem should be augmented in Ranson's comp plan as a "Compact Urban" area type. For these areas
197 and industrial uses in neighborhood zones. reduction in the front building setback. The next steps of implementation involve re writing the Community Redevelopment plan to include the new capital improvements. multi modal transportation will be the norm. Ranson city council approved new zoning code and comprehensive plan that revisit the new vision for growth. Overla y Establish Historic Preservation Overlay in All Saints area particularly. Perhaps designating as a historic district A "North Federal Highway Overlay District" was created to accommodate mix of light industrial and commercial uses on the General commercial zoning designation. Plan suggest establishing a new zoning overlay district for the whole corridor that incorporates form based controls of the design guidelines. There is an existing green downtown overlay for the city of Ranson Special Area Designation or Organizational Body Creation Gaines Street projects will require CRA involvement (TIF, Tax Incentives, bonding authority, and land assembly powers, especially for the greenway and university village projects.) The CRA was involved in the c reation of this Plan, but discourages major public sector intervention. Properties may be bought by the CRA when necessary, but eminent domain will not play a major role in Redevelopment efforts. This Plan is created to promote private redevelopment. In th e event of property acquisition, the CRA would resell the property to an interested partner that would redevelop according to the Plan's objectives. Also the plan suggests the creation of a property improvement district (a 4 sub areas were created based on the interests and assets of the areas (Western gateway: The hub and Urban living; Central Retail district: arts and entertainment: the mall).The Plan suggests the opportunity for a subBID to be pursued as a spur of the Cap itol Hill Business Improvement District. This would give merchants, residents, and workers access to the same benefits of the Capitol Hill BID including security, homeless services, Redevelopment area to be called the "Green Corridor"
198 legal entity with which the city could partner with) for individual neighborhoods and play a part in funding the improvements. streetscape improvements and maintenance. It should avoid its "brand" b eing absorbed by the capitol hill district, but should negotiate a stipend to conduct its own marketing. Civic Engagement (Workshops, Charrettes, Panels) Gaines Street Planning Charrette in 1997. GSVC public, and city commission workshop in 1999, interviews with stakeholders, 2007 Bike Safety Workshop Before the plan, there was a 1997 charrettes to help form the plan. To create the plan, the OP initiated an "Its all about us" campaign to generate inpu t from the community, over 500 citizens participated over the course of the year. Sept. 2011, multi project, city wide Charrette to develop the SmartCode, prepare redevelopment plans for brownfields, and vision for the green corridor and chalres Washington hall commuter center Design Standards Design Guidelines and Development Standards Design Guidelines to focus on quality urban development, new development phasing, addressed edge conditions, suggests target uses for each sub district, defines different densities for each sub district, divided into 4 sections, land use development standa rds, building Many of the existing buildings are strip type development, which limits the redevelopment options. Plan suggests eliminating landscape setback est ablished by city regulations. To encourage street beautification, homeowners associations should be involved with the three neighborhoods involved with the Target Code enforcement is suggested to improve the overall image especially on vacant properties. New zoning encourages buildings with less setbacks.
199 development standards, circulation and parking standards, and open space/landscaping standards. redevelopment area. Signage Standards Included in the design guidelines and development standards of the Plan. Plan suggests entry feature since the North Federal Highway corridor is a gateway to the city. The city currently maintains a "welcome" monument that the plan suggests should be changed and a new sign be added that clarifies the actual entry to the city and the corridor. Massing and Accessibility Guidelines Design Guidelines specify heights for each sub district zone, Floor Area ratios, residential parameters for each zone ( retail office below/ residential above), appropriate housing product, faade specifications, Plan discourages strip development that encourages front parking lot s. Future developments should promote pedestrian accessibility with on street, rear, and shared parking. Each subdistrict has a detail section in the Plan regarding the appropriate massing and design details. Livability Enhancements Walkability Encourage pedestrian connections to FAMU, FSU, and capitol. Discourage front parking and make new developments pedestrian friendly. Plan's goal is for H Street to become a transit and pedestrian corridor with parking for the retail stores. Improved connec tivity from public transit, The Plan design team set standards to enhance walkability and bikability and Consider
200 walking, and cars. Utilizing neighborhood assets and capitalizing on arts facilities to improve livability and character of neighborhoods. veh icular speed. Top priority. Smart Growth Smart growth approach towards new development with respect for historic features and nature. The Plan complies with Ranson's form based SmartCode to encourage sustainable community development Sustainability Employing these Smart Growth principles reduces costly infrastructure, creates a nice place to live, and enhances the tax base. The Green Corridor is the first major project for the community wide goal for improvement in sustainable develo pment. The proposed landscape plan promotes conservation of water and energy. Mixed Use Mixed Use implemented in new zoning, The Plan suggests reinventing the corridor as a "workplace" providing services, light industrial uses, office buildings, banks, restaurants, etc. to the local neighborhood market. The city suggests using some of the vacant New zoning ch ange to encourage Mixed Use. Mixed Use is encouraged
201 parcels to incorporate mixed use developments to bring in more residential units to the corridor. Open Space Open Space Concepts Proposed and New setback requirements to provide more open space for pedestrian activities Property could be acquired to form a small park, but there was little interest in the creation of a large park because residents didn't want "outsiders" in their neighborhood. Entire corridor will be a multi modal thoroughfare with wide passages. Public Space Improvements or Creation Greenway Concepts proposed respects natural features and serves as a bike trail, pedestrian corridor linking the downtown area with the campuses. Will be lit 24 hours, landscaped, contain signage, art, and seating areas. The city owned Donnelly Tract is a preservation area that will remain passive. Improvements to two separate "public realms": Hopscotch Bridge area; pedestrian access and improved streetscape. Eastern gateway Civic Space; improved pedestrian experience, infill street frontage, create public space, long term and require design and traffic studies. Green Corridor is a great improvement on the existing narrow roadway. Historic Preservation Adaptive Use Created a historic resources plan and design guidelines to support adaptive use, employing Historic Preservation through the smart growth context. Adaptive Use is highly encouraged. Plan suggests removing the barriers of reinvestment making economic and regulatory barriers to preservation and adaptive reuse more Plan to reuse the rundown Charles Washington Hall historic building as a commuter transit center. Also plan to create a LEED development out
202 clear and identified. of a former foundry that will ha ve recreation areas, housing, stores, and green infrastructure. Historic Preservation Tax Credits Encourages the creation of a historic district, inclusion on the national register, and use of local preservation incentives (Tallahassee's Historic Preservation Overlay Zones). Surveys have been done to identify the areas that would be considered a district. HP tax credits would be an option if the lessee or the owner follows the protocol. The Capital Children's Museum is men tioned as a candidate for application for the HP tax credits Plan encourages developers to take advantage of these credits. Calls for the further study of the H Street area as a potential National Historic District. Funding and Incentives Capital Investments/Local Taxes Blueprint 2000 sales tax extension will benefit the greenway efforts, including land acquisitions Development and Business Incentives Encourage development incentives in reference to the greenway network. Encourage land dedications in return for "bonus 1. Business Development Program: CRA helps foster the creation and start up costs of a new business for the first year of long term leases. 2. Site Development Assistance Business development programs with the H Street merchants should be instated to enhance their understanding of "retail best practice" in Brownfield redevelo pment funded by EPA Grants
203 intensities" to reduce public acquisition and relocation costs. Encourage open space easement and provisions for certain public uses lik e vendors and outdoor entertainment Programs provided by the CRA subsidize the costs of site planning, design, and engineering. conjunction with Restore DC and the Main Street Efforts Tax Increment Financing and Credits Most of these projects are funded by the CRA, which gets the majority of their funds from TIF. These funds have gone towards buying properties along the corridor and selling them to interested businesses with a low interest loan or grant. The CRA receives Tax Increment Financing from new developments and redevelopment along the corridor. Funding for these projects are generated through a series of TIF programs through the many munici pal entities involved with the H Street Revitalization. Faade Improvement, Streetscape/Landsca pe, or Beautification Incentives Landscape Improvements included in redesign of corridor. CRA subsidized loan program: The CRA works with lenders to provide low, subsidized loans for businesses. This also is available for interior modifications and the increase of new structures Funding and design assistance should be provided for business und er conditions and compliance of the proposed guidelines Density or Intensity Bonuses encourages residential density bonuses, commercial intensity bonuses. Property Improvement Incentives The Plan suggests the adjacent neighborhoods join in a CRA residential post light program similar to the one along North Federal Highway
204 coordinated by the city. CRA shares these costs with the individual homeowner if he chooses to add the lighting to his property. Marketing Suggests a marketing program to be established for children's museum so the developer may see a desirable adaptive use opportunity. Even the opportunity to have a design competition for the site. District should take measures to alert property owners of incentives and assistance programs perhaps with updates and briefings. Grants There are a wide variety of preservation based grants available in Tallahassee and the state of Florida, all are listed in the Plan. EPA Brownfields Assessment Grants, EPA Brownfields area wide planning grant, EPA Building Blocks for sustainable communities program, HUD community Challenge planning grant, DOT TIGER II planning grant. Section 108 Loan,DOT grants will be responsible
205 for t he redesign of the corridor to incorporate green infrastructure, safe transportation routes and the designing of the Charles Washington Commuter Center. Housing Incentives for Improving Housing Condition Plan contains a listing of existing programs and funding available for improvements made to housing conditions in Washington D.C. Affordability Plan encourages low to moderate density market rate housing for University and Capitol center. In town residential neighborhood zones, low density infill housing, single family detached are preferred. Plan also encourages elderly housing development. A goal of the Plan is to create more affordable, sustainable housing
206 Incentives for Mixed Use Development Plan calls for 750 new or rehabbed residential units to support retail corridor. Transportation and Infrastructure Streetscape Improvements Continuous side walks, shade trees, and pedestrian elements to be considered. Reduced set backs for developments closer to the right of way and at least two stories high. New Street Trees, sidewalks, reconstruction of drainage swales. DDOT designed and implemented a 53 million streetscape improvements. Includes streetcar service t o begin 2013. Other improvements in the plan include wider sidewalks, street trees, pedestrian scale lighting, bike racks, signage. Improved on street parking helps walkability, economic activity, manages vehicle travel speeds. Street trees, crosswalk desi gn improvements, pedestrian and bike amenities are encouraged. Safety Improvements/ CPTED Share the road signs to be implemented. Greenway Corridor will be lit at all times. There is a recommendation to create a police sub station in the study area, in addition to the many programs created to reduce crime in the surrounding neighborhoods. Post Light program is also encouraged. More people living on the corridor means more "eyes and feet on the street" to make it a safer place Safety strip (cobbled texture to make it uncomfortable to drive ) placed between two lanes of traffic. Traffic Calming Traffic Calming measures included in Corridor Redesign. The improved swales will discourage on street parking and add street trees and in turn reduce speeding. Calming and smoothing measures will be employed. Intersections will be made less complicated for bikes, pedestrian, vehicles and buses. Street
20 7 lights will be retimed. Installing new stop lights at all intersections and proper p edestrian crossings. Traffic Studies Recommended FDOT assess alternatives to mitigate traffic on Gaines Street, 2007 workshop to evaluate Bicycle Safety on the street. Since the corridor is below traffic currency standards, there is excess capacity for new development. Future studies should include H street's development as a transit way with pedestrian movement and vehicular through traffic and on street parking. The department of highways and the "Ranson Charles Town Transportation Development Fee Study" considered the four lane option. Four lanes would hinder the pedestrian friendly corridor the Vision calls for. The street sees a 4,500 unit daily traffic count at the heaviest and the northern corridor has less than 2,500 not warranting the creati on of a four lane. Parking Incentives and Creative Strategies Implement cross parking agreements and interconnected parking lots. Shared and managed parking. Public parking envisioned with a few redevelopment projects. 11' transit lands for rush hour transit. Three lane road, with two lanes in rush hour priority direction. Permitted on street parking at all times.
208 Curbside parking is encouraged. Increased off street parking that is easily accessible and safe is proposed. The plan addresses the high cost of parking structures and suggests structures be constructed by parking authority NCRC as municipal projects or public/private partne rships. Road Improvements Rebuilding Gaines Street as a 2 way, 2 lane street with limited on street parking (Began in 2011) The FEC/ Dixie Highway Corridor improvements will contribute to the overall revitalization. Proposals for improvements include a bike path between the railroad and the Dixie highway and on street parallel parking and sidewalks This will require FEC rail road approval and likely CRA and City involvement. Along Federal Highway, the plan suggests reducing the right of way, conversio n of one way roads, and the addition of landscape nodes. Several other arterial roads included in the study area have concerns as well that are addressed in the Plan. Streetcar system designed and will open in 2013. Plan states to enhance transit service a long H street with a bus rapid transit system or a light rail transit (trolley service) This will improve connectivity DDOT will include the public realm plan with their streetscape improvements. "Transportation objectives include; networks treated as a public realm that is attractive and livable not just a road for vehicles, comfort for pedestrians and bicycles, thoroughfare laid out for transit and be feasible and desirable between neighborhoods. Ranson should connect to regional transit. Prioritize ch aracter and function over capacity, create smaller blocks and increase the total capacity for
209 moving people, consider all mobility forms. Bike and Pedestrian Paths Encourage new connections and access points for FAMU, FSU, and Capitol traffic. Share the road strategies were implemented for bikes as well as widened side walks. Green Corridor will increase connectivity for all forms of traffic. Bike facilities planned include: shared lane markings (sharrows) and share the road signs. Utilities Analysis of Services There is limited stormwater infrastructure in the Old town Ranson area. The Plan analyzed the corridors existing drainage patterns and explored the options if the area were changed to a MS4. Stormwater Studies/ Upgrades Plan includes a comprehensive stormwater and natural resource management plan. The new greenway and open space plan The existing drainage swales are in poor condition and are the responsibility of the abutting property owners. A program should be developed to The Green Corridor is focused on sustainability. Civic landscaping is introduced to assist the water up
210 will enhance the current stormwater situation. improve and maintain the swales. take and pre treatment, heat island reduction, reduced pollutant loads and nutrients. Specific techniques include; crate stacking system to promote tree growth as opposed to concrete surrounded trees, flow through filtration planters to remove pollutants, stores stormwater runoff, and irrigates planter vegetation. A mi cro pool weir system is similar to the planters and is chemically treated to filter stormwater through a series of dams and pools. Relocation of Utilities Underground Electric lines moved off street, utility lines already underground are replaced (Began in 2009). 3. Cultural and Creative Resources
211 Planned Cultural Hub In partnership with ArtSpace, there are plans for a 90,000 square foot arts incubator (called the Art Tech Hub) with 50 affordable apartments and an incubator operated by COCA Plan proposes a potential development of Station Place and the Union Station Air Rights in "The Hub" area. Creative Placemaking Strategies Major goal of the Plan and the citizens are to incorporate community recognition, community identity, and civic atmosphere. Establish an "arts district", cascades greenway and open space plan will combine the neighborhoods and be an asset to the community. The proposed Cascades Greenway is an expansion of historic Cascades Park near the corridor, a cultural resource. the GSI's goal was to leverage private and cultural investments along corridors. The subdivision of the four unique districts helps support existing character of the area. Encourages public art and streetscape treatment at "Gateway at 3rd and H Street. The Arts and Entertainment Subdistrict is built upon the existing atlas theater, R.L. Christian Library Plan suggests restaurants art galleries and community services to compliment the cultural activities. Marketing plan to be creat ed incorporating history and culture of the corridor.
212 Heritage Tourism Plan includes the development of tourism programs for H Street perhaps a survey of historic sights along the street. Suggests creating an education program aimed at h street heritage, historic preservation potential and buildings. Cultural Events and Festivals Encourages provisions to be considered for special events, art fairs, outdoor entertainment, vending cards, concessions,etc., Gaines Street Fest celebrated it second year in 2012. Creative Use of Public Land Cascades greenway and open space plan. Creative Class Engagement Visual and Performing Arts The proposed ArtSpace art incubator will provide mixed use space for artist's and arts organizations including a live/work/ exhibit/ and performance space called "Art Park on Gaines" Plan suggests incorporating public art throughout the corridor.
213 Technology in general, the reStore DC program and the DC Main Streets program give financial assistance for neighborhood business districts, encourages local entrepreneurial opportunity and strengthens partnerships in government and civic organizations as well as revitalization agencies. Plan calls for innovative landscaping and sustainable techno logies. Science, Law, Professionals, etc. Volunteers/ Non Profits The "Get Gaines Going" initiative utilized volunteers. Market Studies stated that 200,000 square feet of office space could be used for small, professional offices for orgs and non profits due to the location and accessibility 4. Progress Increase in Traffic The Gaines Street Fest is in its 2nd year. The festival promotes local restaurants, businesses, and bands. DDOT enhanced transit connectivity and created the streetcar service. With help from the technical assistance programs, the city was able to draft new zoning requirements that support safer streets for
214 pedestrians, bicyclists, vehicles. Allows for buildings to be closer to the street which encourage mixed uses. Increase in Economic Development New developments along the corridor have raised property values and rents. Reinvestment has raised property values. 2010 DMPED TIF was reprogramed to allow 5 million in real property tax abatement to support retail parking for a supermarket in H street. As well as 20 million as direct grants until fy2014 to new and existing retail business owners on H street in accordance with enabling legislation. Thanks to the Brownfield area wide grants, the city was able to crea te a plan to clean up brownfields and encourage new activity. Physical Improvements Roadway, Streetscape, and Utility Improvements have been steady since 2009. The Delray Swap Shop was a building that contributed to the blighted conditions along the north federal highway that began redevelopment in 1999 by the owner to become a "public market plaza ". Improvements include traffic, parking, and economic activity. Several other buildings had been privately redeveloped. Pocket park and street improvements occurred in a neighborhoods along the corridor. DMPED received approval for 16.6 million to provide development assistance multiple property owner grants, technic al assistance, loans and credit enhancements to projects. The DC council also authorized DMPED to use 95 million in TIF notes and bonds to support retail projects along the GSI corridors. 25 million was just H Street. H street is a federal highway DDOT was able to match federal
215 highway funds with local capital funds (and other sources) to perform infrastructure improvements. Reinvestment Arts Hub and loft apartments will provide new consumer base for the corridor. Two new "high end residential" developments constructed led to a new consumer base for the area. The implementation of the rezone (2006) and the DDOT streetscape projects have "resulted in 2.5 billion in completed or planned investments in approx. 10 medium/large scale residential or mixed used projects" The American Public University System Academic Center was built on a brownfield site in 2009. A LEED neighborhood is to be developed in an old foundry location. Successful Creative Placemaking Art Tech Hub under construction, Gaines Street Fest est. 2011. City is very responsive and open to arts and cultural developments as an economic development tool. Adaptive use of the Delray Swap Shop. Notes: 1. All elements in Bold indicate a tool or strategy that will further the livability and sustainability of the corridor. These factors were derived from the following source: Lewis, N. M., & Donald, B. (2010). A new rubric for 'creative city' potential in Canada's smaller cities. Urban Studies, 47(1), 29 54. Sources:
216 Gaines Street:(a) Fernandez, J. (2012, September 26). Tally is ready for gaines street fest. FSU news. Retrieved from http://www.fsunews.com/article/20120927/FSVIEW0 102/120926028/Tally ready Gaines Street Fest.(b) Wallace Roberts & Todd, LLC Planning. (200 0). Gaines street:development guidelines for an urban revitalization district (c)Ensley, G. (2008, March 23). Artspace sounds like just what gaines street needs. Tallahassee Democrat. Retrieved from http://the arts exchange.com/files/ensley_artspace_articl e.pdf (d)The Council on Culture and Arts, (2006). Preliminary feasibility report (e) Williams, O. (2012). Taking back gaines street. Retrieved from http://fsucpe.com/articles/taking back gaines street/(f) Florida, R. (2012). The rise of the creative class revisited. New York: Basic Books. (g) City of Tallahassee. (n.d.). Gaines street. Retrieved from http://talgov.com/gaines/GainesStreet.aspx (h)U.S. Census Bureau.(2012). State and County QuickFacts. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.ht ml North Federal Highway: (a)City of Delray Beach Community Redevelopment Agency. (1999). North Federal Highway Redevelopment Plan. (b) Florida, R. (2012). The rise of the creative class revisited. New York: Basic Books. ( c) U.S. Census Bureau.(2012). State and County QuickFacts. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html(d) Delray Beach CRA. (2013). North federal highway redevelopment plan. Retrieved from http://www.delraycra.org/index.php?option=com_co ntent&task=view&id=58&Itemid=81 H Street NE: (a) The District of Columbia, Office of Planning. (2004). Revival: H street ne strategic development plan. Retrieved from website: http://planning.dc.gov/DC/Planning/In Your Neighborhood/Wards/Ward 6/H Street Corridor Revitalization Plan (b) W oody, D. (n.d.). A brief
217 history of h street. Retrieved from http://hstreet.org/h street/history/ (c) Florida, R. (2012). The rise of the creative class revisited. New York: Basic Books. (d) U.S. Census Bureau.(2012). State and County QuickFacts. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html Green Corridor: (a) Hall Planning & Engineering Inc. (2012). The green corridor revitalization concept plan for fairfax boulevard/george street. Concept plan, Cities of Ranson and Charles Town. (b) Florid a, R. (2012). The rise of the creative class revisited. New York: Basic Books. (c) U.S. Census Bureau.(2012). State and County QuickFacts. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html (d) PlaceMakers. (2011). Ranson renewed: Charles town conn ected. Retrieved from http://ransonrenewed.com/
218 APPENDIX G ANALYSIS OF REDEVELOPMENT BEST PRACTICES FOR THE SOUTH 8 TH STREET CORRIDOR Table G 1. Analysis of Redevelopment Best Practices for the South 8 th Street Corridor South 8th Stre et Corridor. Fernandina Beach, Florida This chart identifies the common conditions of the four corridor redevelopment study areas with the 8th Street corridor, as well as their alignment with the five best practices and CDD goals for the redevelopment of the 8th Street Corridor City Population 11,487 County Population 72,413 Creativity Index/Rank Jacksonville, Florida .645/#109 Boundary Area All properties facing 8th Street from Lime Street to Broome Street
219 Table G 1. Continued Alignment of the Four Case Studies with Fernandina Beach Community Development Department Goals and Similarities to the South 8th Street Study Area Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Period of Peak Condition Predominately commercial and industrial corridor in the mid twentieth century (8th Street Recommendation) Given the historic function of the auto centric 8th Street corridor, the City should incorporate the car culture into the branding efforts for the corridor itself as well as the revitalization efforts. The plan should include provisions for improving the pedestrian experience on the corrid or by incorporating buffering and safety measures to combat the highly trafficked street. Connectivity should be improved to further establish the corridor as a multi modal connector to the Historic Downtown area. Historic Preservation District Study area adjacent to Historic Districts Historic properties along the corridor History of Redevelopment in Study Area Redevelopment of nearby downtown area was a catalyst for potential reinvestment in the study area Past Roles of Study Area Mix of commercial and industrial uses Prime route for travelers. Many Automotive land uses Major travel corridor and thoroughfare Major thoroughfare Creative Capital Existing neighborhood cultural characteristics to incorporate into redevelopment planning Key Geographic Characteristics Visitors come to the City for its' beaches Corridor is important due to connectivity Cultural Institutions Corridor leads to major regional destinations
220 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Comprehensive Plan and Future Land Use Policies Growth Management and Comprehensive Plan Comprehensive Plans states that the City shall redevelop and renew blighted areas. Land Development Code principals encourage connectivity and the improvement of the perceived image and physical appearance of the area Overlay District was recommended since the existing zoning code didn't allow for the proposed changes (8th Street Recommendation) Fernandina Beach has an existing CRA that could expand or provide a framework for a new 8th Street Community Redevelopment Area similar to the Delray Beach or Tall ahassee CRAs. Municipality Strengths CRA involvement CRA involvement City initiated the plan creation and enforcement Municipality Challenges Prior to plan there were no market and economic backing for recommended strategies. They were included during the creation of the plan. Zoning prior to plan encouraged suburban setbacks and single use buildings.
221 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Existing Conditions Prior to Plan Challenges of Study Area Poor pedestrian access, varied densities, zoning weaknesses, lack of buffering Hostile pedestrian intersections, small shallow lots, suburban setbacks, front and side parking lots, no established identity, unattractive facades, lack of public parking, high traffic commuter route, very few street trees, limited pedestrian amenities, low quality retail mix (Best Pract ice #1) Each of the four redevelopment plans contained an existing conditions assessment that identified the current conditions of the corridor. For Fernandina Beach, there should be an in depth survey of the existing conditions to aid in the Finding of Ne cessity and a market demand study should be conducted to identify the most feasible uses to attract to the area. These documents guide the redevelopment planning process by identifying the problem areas to focus the goals and objectives of redevelopment. ( 5) The challenges to the case study areas were met with strategies that will enhance livability. Opportunities of Study Area City recognizes the economic potential of the corridor. Assets include: proximity to downtown, vacant potential redevelopment sites, low rents, historic properties, cultural heritage. Acquisitions are affordable due to low rents, large number of vacant pro perties, Federal Highway maintained by FDOT High traffic street, vacant buildings available for private investment, vacant small business spaces ideal for entrepreneurs. Current Role of Area Corridor connects major destination points, vacant private parcels Very highly traveled corridor, yet below its design capacity. Local commercial uses, local churches, several abandoned buildings and vacant lots Corridor leads to downtown
222 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Motivators for Plan/ Finding of Necessity Goals and Desired Improvements Want to create a gateway with a high standard of urban design, enhance pedestrian environment, establish a sense of place, promote an active, livable, attractive streetscape. Improvement of appearance, create jobs and direct businesses to the area, elimination of blight, and improve coexistence of pedestrians, bicycles, and automobiles. Retain existing businesses and encourage new ones, grow job opportunities and services for residential population, buffer surrounding neighborhoods, balance needs for pedestrians, vehicles, and bikes, create a strong sense of place that respects the areas culture, streetscape improvements, historic preservation and adaptive use of existing buildings. Create a multi modal corridor, provide a sense of character to the community Aesthetic Condition Major and minor building deterioration Structures have hos ted a variety of marginal uses, inadequate parking, poorly maintained buildings and vacancies. Vacancies, poor condition of occupied buildings give the impression of a lack of safety, narrow parcels
223 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Organizations, Agencies, and Government Entities Involved Municipal Advisory Committee on the revitalization of Gaines Street (GSVC) appointed by the City Commission, FDOT FAMU FSU conducted studies, City of Tallahassee, Leon Co., Community Redevelopment Agency City of Delray Beach Community Redevelopment Agency The D.C. Office of Planning initiated redevelopment, created two Advisory Network Commissions, Single Member Districts, Member of the DC Main Streets Program, Office of the Deputy Mayor, Great Streets Initiative, District Department of Transportation, The Restore DC group, and the DC heritage Tourism coalition. Ci ty of Ranson, City of Charles Town, DOT. (Best Practice #3) Leadership varied between the four plans, but was vital to the successful implementation of the plans. Gaines Street and H Street NE both encouraged a wide variety of public and private partnersh ips to make the revitalization a reality. Incorporating a variety of organizations allowed the direction of the plan to explore all possibilities and increase possible outcomes. The Delray Beach plan is driven by CRA incentives to promote private reinvestm ent, while the Green Corridor is a municipal effort between the two Cities that is funded by grants. Consultants St. Joe/ Arvida, Genesis Group, PBS&J, and Artspace Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council and the Dover, Kohl & Partners. The Main Street Program and HOK Planning Group. PlaceMakers and Hall Planning and Engineering.
224 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Non Profits Metropolitan Planning Organization, Knight Creative Communities Institute PAC, Council for Culture & Arts (COCA) H Street Community Development Corporation 2. Redevelopment Plan Objectives and Elements Development Encourages compact development and natural storm water drainage Calls for a mix of commercial and residential developme nt and a reduction of strip development. (8th Street Recommendation) Each plan contained recommendations for new development and uses based on market demand studies. Fernandina should perform these studies of the commercial environment in the city and South 8th Street prior to the creation of a revitalization plan. Infil l Utilize land assembly Commercial developers must provide a buffer from the adjacent neighborhoods Calls for a zoning change to permit mixed use infill development Policy Changes Plan included a new zoning ordinance to set higher standards for new development and density/intensity provisions. Calls for the reduction of front building setback Rezone increases density and permits larger infill residential and mixed use structures Created a new zoning classification to their existing smart code to encourage more walkable streets
225 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Overlay Established an overlay district to accommodate a mix of light industrial and commercial uses. Established an overlay district to incorporated form based controls (design guidelines) over development (8th Street Recommendation) Establishing an overlay is the preferred option by the CDD to guide form and functionality of the corridor. Special Area Designation or Organizational Body Creation CRA involvement utilizing their TIF, tax incentives, bonding authority, and land assembly powers. Utilize CRA land assembly and funding to purchase properties. Civic Engagement (Workshops, Charrettes, Panels) Held planning charrettes, workshops, and meetings with stakeholders, city commission, and the public. Charrette to help form plan Public outreach campaign prior to plan creation city wide charrettes to develop redevelopmen t plan (Best Practice #2) Each plan incorporated public involvement and was created in pa rt by civic engagement in the planning process. Design Standards Design Guidelines and Development Standards Address edge and buffer conditions, land use development standards, building/parking development standards, and open space/landscaping standards Address eliminating strip development, reducing setback, and encourages street beautification Code enforcement is suggested to improve overall image of corridor Addresses reducing setbacks
226 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Signage Standards Plan suggests new "Welcome" signage on the corridor Massing and Accessibility Guidelines Design Guidelines drafted to specify FAR, permitted uses, and faade specifications. Guidelines promote pedestrian accessibility with shared and rear parking Design guidelines are drafted to dictate appropriate massing and design details. Livability Enhancements Walkability Enhance pedestrian connectivity Discourage front parking and new developments must be pedestrian oriented Improved connectivity of pedestrians, utilize neighborhood assets and capitalize on arts facilities to improve livability and character Design standards created to enhance walkability and bikability. (Best Practice #5) All objectives and strategies implemented in the four redevelopment plans contribute to the overall improvement of the community and City's livability. (8th St reet Recommendation) A goal of the CDD is to increase density along the corridor and incentivize the area for new businesses. Through the establishment of an overlay zoning district that encourages mixed uses, the area will become more compact with a diver sity of uses yielding a more active corridor. Sustainability Adaptive use reduces costly infrastructure Landscape plan for the area promotes conservation of water and energy Mixed Use Mixed use implemented with new zoning Plan encourages mixed use developments through new overlay, especially residential development Zoning change encourages mixed use Mixed use is encouraged throughout the plan Open Space Open Space is encouraged for pedestrian activities
227 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Public Space Improvements or Creation Potential to create public space from a vacant parcel to form a park Historic Preservation Adaptive Use Design Guidelines support Adaptive Use Plan calls for clearly identifying preservation and adaptive use options for property owners Plan and grant funding includes the adaptive use of a historic structure (Best Practice # 5) Three cases include a plan element that refers to the historic buildings and stipulations for preservation and adaptive use. Maintaining an authentic built environment is major contributor to livability and the aesthetic appeal of the corridor. (8th Stree t Recommendation) 8th Street should consider marketing historic structures along the corridor to potential developers as adaptive use projects with incentives, like the H Street NE plan. Historic Preservation Tax Credits Incorporates both local and federal preservation incentives Plan encourages developers to take advantage of tax credits and includes a plan to market historic properties.
228 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Funding and Incentives Development and Business Incentives CRA sponsors a business development program for new businesses and covers start up costs. Site Development Assistance Programs are also sponsored by the CRA to subsidize the costs of site planning, engineering, and predevelopment. Business development programming to enhance corridor merchants understanding of "retail best practices" (8th Street Recommendation) As a result of the progress of the H Street NE plan, innovative community investment methods were utilized in 2011. A smaller scale adaptation of the Fundrise platform could be used on 8th Street to fund a community project. Tax Increment Financing and C redits TIF funding through CRA. Go towards purchasing properties TIF Funds through CRA Partial funding for projects comes from TIF programs through many municipal groups Faade Improvement, Streetscape/Landscape or Beautification Incentives CRA subsidized loan program for businesses to be used for modifications or alterations to existing structures Offers Funding and Design Assistance to business who comply with the guidelines Density or Intensity Bonuses Plan encourages residential and commercial density and intensity bonuses.
229 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Marketing Plan suggests marking existing historic structures for developers as potential adaptive use opportunities. Marketing plans to distribute information to alert property owners of incentives and assistance programs regularly. (8th Street Recommendation) The CDD h as recently submitted a letter of interest to the EPA for the Building Blocks for Sustainable Communities grant. Fernandina Beach should consider applying to this grant and others to generate funds for public redevelopment projects. Grants Used preservation grants National Trust for Historic Preservation Main Streets Program EPA Building Blocks for Sustainable Communities Program Housing Affordability Plan encourages low to moderate density market rate housing Major goal of the plan is to create affordable and sustainable housing (8th Street Recommendation) The market demand analysis should determine the feasibility of more affordable multi family housing and short term rentals along the corridor to support the workforce. Incentives for Mixed Use Development Plan calls for residential units to support the retail uses.
230 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Transportation and Infrastructure Streetscape Improvements Calls for shade trees and pedestrian elements Reduced setbacks and improved civic landscaping Department of Transportation funded major improvements. Pedestrian and bike amenities are encouraged (Best Practice #5) Each of these plans calls for a redirection of the corridor from an auto centric street to pedestrian friendly, multi modal transportation centers. (8 th Street Recommendation) The 8th Street plan will need to address a shift in parking lot design of new structures to be in the rear or the side, as well as promote the City's shared parking program or other potential parking plan. The plan should call for further bicycle, pedestrian, and commercial traffic studies for the corridor. Safety Improvements/ CPTED Street light improvements Street light improvements encourage more people to live on the corridor to add additional eyes on the street Traffic Calming Intersections made less complicated for pedestrians, bicycles, and cars. Installed proper pedestrian crossings Traffic Studies Workshop on Bike safety Corridor has the capacity for new development Traffic study was conducted on the pedestrian and vehicular movement along the corridor.
231 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Parking Incentives and Creative Strategies Implemented cross parking agreements and interconnected parking lots Shared parking Utilities Analysis of Services Conducted analysis to identify drainage issues (8th Street Recommendation) A study on the stormwater and drainage system of the 8th Street corridor should be conducted to mitigate future problems. Stormwater Studies/ Upgrades Plan includes a stormwater and natural resources management plan. Encourages the development of a program to improve and maintain drainage swales. New civic landscaping incorporates innovative and sustainable irrigation techniques
232 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach 3. Cultural and Creative Resources Planned Cultural Hub ArtSpace and Council on Culture and Arts are constructing the "Art Tech Hub" as an effect of the plan (Best Practice #5) The Gaines Street and H Street NE plans both utilize their existing cultural assets to establish vibrant areas of the corridor. (8th Street Recommendation) The corridor should take the opportunity during redevelopment to enhance the "Gateway" that lea ds to the Historic Downtown District, a major tourist destination in Fernandina. The corridor should complement the downtown shopping area with live/work spaces and feasible uses. This area could potentially be marketed as an arts district or hub for creat ive activity as suggested by the CDD and community input.
233 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Creative Placemaking Strategies Goal of the plan makers and citizens were to incorporate community recognition, community identity, and establish and "arts district". The proposed Cascades Greenway is an expansion of historic Cascades Park near the corridor. Gro ups involved with the revitalization encouraged private and cultural investments along the corridor. Plan encourages public art throughout corridor and at the Gateway streetscape treatment. Marketing plan to include history and culture of corridor. Each su bdistrict of the corridor is defined by its' existing assets and are marketed towards desired uses to complement their assets. Creative Class Engagement Visual and Performing Arts Plan calls for incorporating public art throughout corridor. (8th Street Recommendation) Fernandina Beach should incorporate public art as a tool for redevelopment through the City's recently adopted public art ordinance. Technology Plan calls for innovative landscaping and sustainable technologies.
234 Table G 1. Continued Gaines Street North Federal Highway H Street NE The Green Corridor The Five Redevelopment Best Practices and Recommendation for Fernandina Beach Science, Law, Professionals, etc. Volunteers/ Non Profits The market demand study stated that the many vacant small professional offices would be prime for organizations and non profits due to the location and accessibility. Notes: 1. All elements in bold indicate a tool or strategy that will further the livability and sustainability of the corridor. These factors were derived from the following source: Lewis, N. M., & Donald, B. (2010). A new rubric for 'creative city' potential in Canada's smaller cities Urban Studies, 47(1), 29 54. Sources: (a) U.S. Census Bureau.(2012). State and County QuickFacts. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html (b) Fl orida, R. (2012). The rise of the creative class revisited. New York: Basic Books
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226 BIOGRAPHIC SKETCH Ashley Chaffin McGehee is the daughter of Paul Ray and Brenda Chaffin and grew up in the rural town of Marietta, Mississippi. Ashley earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in Art History from the University of Missis sippi. She was led to the field of Urban and Regional Planning indirectly by her innate int erest in improving her community and a fascination with the built environment. Being raised in a rural place on hundreds of acres, she has always had a keen awarenes s of the value of land and the importance of protecting and preserving the landscape. She graduated from the University of Florida College of Design, Construction, and Planning in 2013 where she earned her Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning with an interdisciplinary certificate in Historic Preservation. She hopes to continue exploring how to effectively redevelop blighted and historic neighborhoods and practice in the realm of campus and master planning or private development.