<%BANNER%>

Discovering the Disconnect

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045512/00001

Material Information

Title: Discovering the Disconnect a Cognitive Analysis of Audience Perceptions and Media Personnel Realities for Women in Sports Broadcasting.
Physical Description: 1 online resource (73 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Dawson, Tory A
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: analyst -- broadcasting -- gender -- sideline -- women
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study is based on a series of 4 focus group interviews with past and present female sportscasters and reporters. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine whether a discrepancy exists between the audience perception of female sports broadcasters and the way the sports broadcasters see themselves. By comparing responses between the focus groups and in-depth interviews, a better understanding of the potential difference of opinion between the two sides of the sports industry was achieved.    The results show that there is a discrepancy between the way the audience views female sportscasters and the way these sportscasters view themselves and their contributions to the sports world. Examining themes like respect and credibility of female sportscasters as ascertained by the audience determined whether they deemed females reputable sources in sports reporting. By understanding that a discrepancy does indeed exist, we can further delve into the reasoning behind it and ultimately make strides towards a level playing field for men and women alike in the sports broadcasting field.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Tory A Dawson.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Cleary, Johanna L.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045512:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045512/00001

Material Information

Title: Discovering the Disconnect a Cognitive Analysis of Audience Perceptions and Media Personnel Realities for Women in Sports Broadcasting.
Physical Description: 1 online resource (73 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Dawson, Tory A
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: analyst -- broadcasting -- gender -- sideline -- women
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study is based on a series of 4 focus group interviews with past and present female sportscasters and reporters. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine whether a discrepancy exists between the audience perception of female sports broadcasters and the way the sports broadcasters see themselves. By comparing responses between the focus groups and in-depth interviews, a better understanding of the potential difference of opinion between the two sides of the sports industry was achieved.    The results show that there is a discrepancy between the way the audience views female sportscasters and the way these sportscasters view themselves and their contributions to the sports world. Examining themes like respect and credibility of female sportscasters as ascertained by the audience determined whether they deemed females reputable sources in sports reporting. By understanding that a discrepancy does indeed exist, we can further delve into the reasoning behind it and ultimately make strides towards a level playing field for men and women alike in the sports broadcasting field.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Tory A Dawson.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Cleary, Johanna L.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045512:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

1 DISCOVERING THE DISCONNECT: A COGNITIVE ANALYSIS OF AUDIENCE PERCEPTIONS AND MEDIA PERSONNEL REALITIES FOR WOMEN IN SPORTS BROADCASTING By TORY A. DAWSON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORI DA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

PAGE 2

2 2013 Tory Dawson

PAGE 3

3 To my mother and extended family at the Univ ersity of Flori da

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS o thank Dr. Cleary. Without your tireless efforts, your invaluable insight and your dedication, none of rt and unwillingness to allow me to stand in my own way. Ethan Levien and Kevin Dowdell were also critical to the completion of this study. Last Andrew Selepak. The tailored advice, the constant availability and straight talk meant more to me than you could possibly know. I truly appreciate it.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ............................... 4 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 10 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 15 Framing Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 15 Source Credibility Theory ................................ ................................ ........................ 19 Cultivation Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 20 Male Hegemony ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 21 Femininity ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 22 Role Congruity Theory ................................ ................................ ............................ 24 Standpoint Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 25 Social Identity ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 25 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 26 3 METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 27 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 27 Gayle Seirens ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 27 Beth Mowins ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 28 Carolyn Peck ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 28 Julie Quittner ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 29 Rationale f or Focus Groups ................................ ................................ .................... 30 Rationale for In Depth Interviews ................................ ................................ ............ 31 Specific Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ 31 Research Instrument ................................ ................................ ............................... 32 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 33 Focus Group Interviews ................................ ................................ .......................... 35 In Depth Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ 37 IRB Approval ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 38 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 39 The Roles Assigned to Women in Sports Reporting ................................ ............... 40 Credibility of Women in the Field ................................ ................................ ............ 41 Respect for Female Sportscasters ................................ ................................ .......... 43 Does a Disconnect Exist? ................................ ................................ ....................... 47

PAGE 6

6 5 ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 50 A Return to Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ 50 Framing Theory (1993) ................................ ................................ ..................... 50 Source Credibility Theory (1953 ) ................................ ................................ ...... 52 Social Identity Theory (1979) ................................ ................................ ............ 52 Cultivation Theory ................................ ................................ ............................ 53 Standpoint Theory (1983) ................................ ................................ ................. 53 Role Congruity Theory ................................ ................................ ..................... 53 Male Hegemony ................................ ................................ ............................... 54 The Focus Groups ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 56 The In Depth Interviews ................................ ................................ .......................... 57 Roles ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 57 Credibility ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 58 Respect ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 60 Is a Disconnect Present? ................................ ................................ ........................ 61 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 63 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 64 APPENDIX A FOCUS GROUP QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ ............... 65 B IN DEPTH INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ .... 66 C INFORMED CONSENT FORM ................................ ................................ ............... 67 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 69 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 73

PAGE 7

7 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ESPN Entertainment and Sports Programming Network. GTN Gainesville Television Network. IRB Institutional Review Board. NBA Nat ional Basketball Association. NBC National Broadcasting Company. NFL National Football League. SIT Social Identity Theory. WNBA

PAGE 8

8 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Ma ster of Arts in Mass C ommunications DISCOVERING THE DISCONNECT: A COGNITIVE ANALYSIS OF AUDIENCE PERCEPTIONS AND MEDIA PERSONNEL REALITIES FOR WOMEN IN SPORTS BROADCASTING By Tory Dawson May 2013 Chair: Johanna Cleary Major: Mass Communication It is commonly understood that all sportscasters are not created equally. Some are looked to for entertainment; some are looked to for hard sports coverage. The vast majority of notable spo rts analysts are men with women often remaining on the sidelines, rather than in the press box with the analysts. This study is based on a series of 4 focus group interviews with past and present female sportscasters and reporters. The purpose of this mix ed methods study was to examine whether a discrepancy exists between the audience perception of female sports broadcasters and the way the sports broadcasters see themselves. By comparing responses between the focus groups and in depth interviews, a better understanding of the potential difference of opinion between the two sides of the sports industry was achieved. The results show that there is a discrepancy between the way the audience views female sportscasters and the way these sportscasters view them selves and their contributions to the sports world. Examining themes like respect and credibility of female sportscasters as ascertained by the audience determined whether they deemed

PAGE 9

9 females reputable sources in sports reporting. By understanding that a d iscrepancy does indeed exist, we can further delve into the reasoning behind it and ultimately make strides towards a level playing field for men and women alike in the sports broadcasting field.

PAGE 10

10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTI ON ESPN has become synonymous with everything sports related. According to The reality is that there is not another media property in the world worth as much as ESPN because no media asset delivering content generates The people who have built careers on covering athletes are an intricate part of the sports viewing experience. They dig up the facts, provide context, and shed light on the complexities of the game. A sports cal to the sports viewing experience because he or she has a responsibility, not only to those new to the sports, but also to those familiar with the what their fami liarity with the sport is. Sports analysts, broadcasters, and reporters all fall what the important and unimportant issues are in the sports worlds. Success in this industry requires attention to detail, the ability to research quickly and efficiently, creativity, and, most importantly, a passion for the game and knowledge of it. Interestingly enough, the traits previously listed that seem to bring about success in the modern why is it that the number of analysts and commentators in the sports broadcasting industry are overwhelmingly male? Why is it that females seem to be overwhelmingly assigned to si deline reporting roles, while their male counterparts are the ones trusted with presenting viewers with information and analysis? USA Today writers Steve Weiberg and Steve Berkowitz (2011) speak on

PAGE 11

11 As a TV rights holder, ESPN is a business partner to a wide array of conferences and schools (its total college outlay will average more than $700 million annually by next year). And as a leading broadcast, print and online news outlet, ESPN If so much emphasis is put on sports coverage in this country, what does this say about social implications towards women when they are rarely trusted with top tier positions wit hin the ESPN Network? Until roughly 150 years ago, women were prohibited from participating in sports, much like their prohibition from participating in society, the workplace, and politics (Navarro, 2001). There are parallels that can be drawn between spo rts and the social structures in this country. Several researchers argue that sports perpetuate images of male superiority and female inferiority, more than any other social institution (Birrell & Cole,1990; Duncan, 1990; Duncan & Hasbrook, 1988; Kane, 199 5; Kane & Snyder, 1989). information is reported by a variety of sources, but the audience needs to believe that the sportscaster they are listening to is a reputable one. This vo ice is considered a critical part of sports media, and the right of women to own a place in the field of sports media is as important as their right to participate in professional sports (Staurowsky & DiManno, 2002). For example, NBC Sports reporter Miche lle Tafoya (2012), said: When I first started, people would look at female reporters like, 'what does she know?' But meanwhile a male reporter could show up to a press conference or event and no one is going to think twice. He could be clueless but no one will think twice because he looks like he fits in.

PAGE 12

12 than males holding the same position because the female gender is seen as some sort of handicap. In addition to spending a dispr oportionate amount of time proving themselves when compared to males, female sports broadcasters also have to deal with career advancement issues and in many instances remain stuck in the role they started their careers in. What seems to be happening is w omen are stuck with these secondary roles where they remain until they ultimately decide to change careers. As Hardin and Shain careers seem to be lack of advancement in the work place and negative consequences The aim of this study is not to trivialize the jobs women have in the sports media industry. Positions like sideline reporting are extremely important for the unique insight they bri ng to sports broadcasting. Speaking to the athletes in the midst of the most intense sporting events we know of is no easy feat. Emotions are running high and the wrong question could have disastrous effects, especially since sideline reporting is live. P oise and a concrete understanding of the game is key when it comes to success at this position. However, when one thinks about sports broadcasting, the mind instantly goes to the analysts. Sports analysts are the face of the industry; they hold much of the power because they are constantly speaking to audiences during broadcasts while sideline reporters are only able to secure a few fleeting moments per sporting event.

PAGE 13

13 Broadcasters and analysts are seen as the authority on sports; their opinions essarily agreed with, but are still respected enough to consider. Facts changing injury, serve as supplement for analysts up in the booth. The sideline reporting role is b y nature a supplemental one. what is seen on television. There are parallels that can be drawn between the roles women serve in the sports realm and the roles women are expecte d to have in other sectors of society. The male hegemony is explicitly stated and represented in scholarly textbooks on the subject of women in sports broadcasting. An analysis of journalism xts, to varying degrees, reinforce the idea that sports and sports journalism are masculine; they are literature about the sports realm, but the disc repancy between female and male one nonfiction book documented the p. 21). Books written by males help perpetuate stereotypes of women that were created by males. According to Hardin, Dodd and Lauffer (2006): These texts promote the gender stereotypes of sports, sports writing, and sports writers and, therefore, provide a model for students to maintain those patterns rather than promoting the realities and the opportunities for women sports writers. (p. 441) This study was carried out with a mixed methods approach. Focus groups were used to find out what the viewing audience thought about female broadcasters. Those

PAGE 14

14 responses were compared with in depth interviews and provided first hand accounts of how active female broadcasters perceived themselves and their place in the sports industry. The researc her wanted to thoroughly examine whether a disconnect exists between the way the sports audience views female in sports broadcasting, and the way the women actually working in the industry view themselves. When compared to their male co workers, it seems t seem to be respected in the same way the men are by the audience. In many instances general audience perception s of them? What do they think about themselves and how would they evaluate their contributions to the sports industry? The researcher believed that by first discovering whether there actually was a disconnect between audience perceptions and female sportsc asters realities, the groundwork could be laid for discovering why these sentiments existed in the first place.

PAGE 15

15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Before beginning to discuss the perception of females in the industry, there must be a solid understanding of how perceptions in the first place. Framing Theory According to Chong (1993): The major premise of framing theory is that an issue can be viewed from a variety of perspectives and be construed as having imp lications for multiple values or considerations. Framing refers to the process by which people develop a particular conceptualization of an issue or reorient their thinking about an issue. (Chong, 2007, p. 104) Framing, at its core, is the action of focusi ng on certain aspects of a subject concept draws attention to some related aspects and hides others. It is a way of determining what is of value and what should be focused o n. This simple phenomenon exists at many points throughout the human experience. It often goes unnoticed in its subtlety despite or because of its ubiquitous nature, but it is studied in various ways in the humanities and social sciences. Framing theory a s discussed by Entman (1993) deals more with the conscious application of a frame to promote a particular aspect of a concept to control focus or generate a response. In this application of the core idea, media and the field of communication become the pri mary display of the act of framing. A simple example is of partisan news media groups focusing on different stories or different aspects of stories. Any news story is perceived by the audience on the basis not only of its fundamental facts, but which fact s are presented and in what light, basically, what is

PAGE 16

16 salient information being most likely to be processed and stored. As alluded to before, salience works both ways. If someth ing is more likely to be noted, processed, and stored, then the reverse is true for aspects not being focused on. Entman (1993) suggests that what is neglected in media also has relevance and sends its own message. As some pieces of information are repeate dly brought to the fore, they are seen as most important and are engrained into the mind of the viewer, while those things repeatedly neglected fall out of sight. Frames are not defined only by what they emphasize, but also by what they obscure or omit ent irely. It should be noted that the idea of framing not only applies to what is being reported, but extends also to those doing the reporting. As easily as a certain aspect of on is passed on reinforces an idea of what makes the news important. If a certain type of presentation or presenter is repeatedly tied to a type or quality of information, this connection is solidified over time in the minds of viewers. Given that, by its very nature, a frame suggests what is important, there are clear implications for the people that are also framed in this way simply by their connection to what information they present. As mentioned before, framing is not limited only to media, and even i n media, it is not a wholly unique phenomenon. Strong connections can be seen between framing theory and priming effects, where the exposure to a specific stimulus influences a response to a later stimulus through things like repetition, memory, and even u nconscious recall. Framing is also not just a one way system. Audience selectivity plays a role and as the audience recognizes (consciously or unconsciously) frames

PAGE 17

17 being used, they may be more inclined to seek out frames they are familiar with and prefer. This is because while frames are capable of directing thought, they do not override opposing thoughts simply by existing. Viewers with established schemas about certain topics are less likely to accept a frame that defies their existing perception of the world. At some level the claim can be made that culture is no more than the collection of should be no surprise that frames common in a culture are repeated and reinforced in the media that reflects that culture. The real issue boils down to the way men in positions of power view women in women as equals. These gatekeepers have the power to ma rginalize the contributions women have made. For example, former 60 Minutes commentator Andy Rooney was damn women they have down on the sidelines who don't know what t he hell they're ence many that on television instantly broadcasts the message to millions of viewers. People see messages like that broadcast over airwaves nation wide and then the mes sage becomes embedded in their minds and accepted as factual. People of authority express views and those who are influenced by them adopt the same beliefs.

PAGE 18

18 As to Creedon (1994) asks: What does this synthetic super media spectacle (the Super Bowl) tell us about the differences between males and females in our culture? At a minimum, because professional football remains a male only preserve, we learn that being male in our culture confers a degree of privilege. By denying women access to the games as players we are taught that women are less qualified, powerful or physical than men. (p. 5) The same holds true for women in the broadcasting realm. Many times women are held from the more prestigious jobs, relegated to the lesser, supplementary tasks and the fra mes dictating the way people are supposed to view women in this profession may have a lot to do with that. Sideline reporters are given only a few minutes to speak foo tball and basketball games, these types of reporters only have the duration of a timeout, or a few fleeting moments as a coach is intercepted on the way to a locker accommodate a ny analysis they might want to add. They have just enough time to find out about any in game injuries, or late game strategy changes and toss that information up to the analysts so they can actually talk about the effects the findings will have on the game p.193). When a particular group of people is relegated to the same kind of role over an extended period of time, people begin to subconsciously form opinions about that group. If we only see women in secondary roles in sport s, then there must be something Sports have always been seen as a male dominated realm. The testosterone, the blood, sweat and tears tha t go into waging warfare on another group of men is a direct

PAGE 19

19 clash with the mental images that are associated with women. Women, seen as tender, Source Credibility Theory Credibility is the factor which grants a person or their words, weight, value, and truth. The problem is, we decide who has credibility based on our own assumptions and not always facts. The qu estion of what credibility is based on is of paramount importance. In the realm of sportscasting, one of the main issues is the idea of men having more credibility than females. usually attributed to prior field experience, or if not that, prior work exper ience on the same level. The first could be argued, but the second seems faulty. If someone is trustworthy because they have had a similar position in the past, but others are not able to have that position because of factors not based on merit (but on gen der and perceptions related to gender), then credibility is no longer based on actual ability and is undeserved. broken down into trustworthiness and expertise; both with their own objective and subjective components. Trustworthiness is at its base more subjective, but can be objectively supported through past experience and proven reliability. Expertise is typically more objectively grounded, using things like credentials and infor mation quality as objective measures. However, the relative importance of these objective measures, and other ways they are viewed and interpreted, can come into play. It should be clear that any assessment of one person by another, even if stemming from o bjective facts, is filtered by the many assumptions and preconceptions of the one doing the assessing.

PAGE 20

20 So while objective truths remain, the weight of the subjective can overwhelm them. It seems the objective factors of experience are highlighted when it supports an already held position (experience is helpful) and downplayed when they do not (experience is not necessary). The amount of time someone has played is an objective measure, but it would seem that its relative importance is not as great as believ ed. Another aspect of expertise to address is that it does not come solely from experience. Expertise is simply skill or knowledge in a particular area. Here it is important to separate expertise in play and expertise in analysis and reporting. As has bee n noted, field experience can certainly aid in analysis, but it is a separate thing. Skill and knowledge of the game and an ability to analyze and present the goings on of a game can be gained without extensive field experience. Putting this all together, expertise of analysis can be held by reporters without field experience but regardless of actual expertise, female reporters are perceived as having less. The subjective perception of the objective facts is what come together to fill out the expertise side of the credibility equation. Cultivation Theory looks to explain the phenomena of how people shape the world around them, based on the images they see on television. Gerbner become the main source of storytelling in today's society. Heavy viewers are exposed to more violence and therefore are affected by the Mean World Syndrome, an idea that the world is worse than it actually is especially concerned with the issue of television violence, over the years the

PAGE 21

21 investigation has been expanded to include sex roles, images of aging, political orientations, environmental attitudes, science health, religion etc. television eventually create the world they live in. The more television a person watches, the more that person will believe that the things seen are an accu rate portrayal of real life occurrences. McQuail and Windahl (1981) note that cultivation theory (1993, p. 100). Prevalence of a message in the media can promote cer tain societal values that are taken for granted (like male dominance). Cultivation theory is concerned with the big picture. If audiences are constantly inundated with images of women serving secondary roles, those views can eventually become the accepted norm. This theory is important to this study because it talks about (1976) address this specific phenomenon with their discussion of symbolic annihilation. n the fictional world signifies social existence; absence means heralded as important or knowledgeable (for instance male sports broadcasters), then how should groups that a have something worthwhile to contribute. Male Hegemony At any given time, the more powerful side will creat e an ideology suitable to help maintain its position and to make this position ac ceptable to the weaker one. In this ideology the differentness of the weaker one will be interpreted as inferiority, and it will be proven that these differences are

PAGE 22

22 unc It is the function of such an ideology to deny or conceal the existence of a struggle (Horney, 1967, p.56). Hegemony bout preserving the status quo. When it comes to male hegemony (Cockburn, 1991) a scenario is created in which males rule supreme leaders of the society they live in. Acco rding to Sheila Rowbotham (1973) in World, need to look at the separate instances in which women have come to accept it. In her study Male Hegemony, Madeleine Arnot (1982) defined world, through a wide variety of educational moments that seen separately may appear inconsequential but which together comprise a pattern of female experience that is qualitatively different More importantly we need to examine male dominated culture and the men accepting that as reality. Femininity In order to effectively frame women a certain way, femininity needs to be established. People need to understand what it means to be feminine. That way they can differentiate between that and masculinity. Examin ing the dominant cultural discourse on femininity is also instrumental in understanding why women are viewed the way they are in our culture. By realizing what has come to be expected of women

PAGE 23

23 and what makes a woman feminine, we can better sharpen our focu s when it comes to changing the roles that have embedded themselves in our minds. Femininity itself is a building competitions, for example, acknowledge that they have a d efinition of muscles Not only do women have to worry about femininity separating themselves from their male counterparts, they also have to worry about the same ideal creating rifts between their fellow woman. The apologetic is another frame women are forced to grapple with in the media world. They have to constantly worry about aggressively pursuing greatness. Tenacity, assertiveness, and aggression are largely seen as masculi ne characteristics. Women who possess these traits are often seen as strange, only further alienating them from their male co workers. One explanation for the negative evaluation of women athletes is that sport participation is incompatible with the female sex role (Colley, 1987). Sex roles are largely important to this study because they are a source of conflict in many instances. The image of what a woman should be and of what an athlete should be in many cases do not coincide with one another. According to Martin and Martin (1995), characteristics that make up a good woman. In essence, women are apologizing for striving to be great. They exhibit the same characteristics that their male co workers utilize to achieve success yet are seen as less feminine because of it. This makes it seem as if women are expected to settle for less;

PAGE 24

24 they ar e expected to be meek and not rock the boat or draw unwanted attention. How is one supposed to make any real advancements if one must constantly fear being ostracized from members of the opposite gender, in addition to members of his or her own? Role Congr uity Theory expectations. This has to do with the stereotypes that are associated with the f emale gender role and the way those stereotypes do not align with expected leadership traits. According to Eagly and Karau (2002) this perceived incongruity makes it more difficult for women to be selected for leadership roles and once they are selected, l ess likely certain leadership behaviors are perceived as being more typical for male leaders (e.g. transactional leadership) and others are more typical for female leader s (e.g. transformational leadership) without verifying this basic presupposition (Eagly, Johannesen Schmidt & van Engen, 2003). congruity theory. Glick and Fiske (1996, 2001) argued that there are two different types of sexism. Hostile sexism, which is based on the notion that women ultimately aim to of competition. Then there is benevolent sex ism, which is based on the notion that women have communal characteristics and that leads to more positive views towards women, but also to paternal stereotypes causing people to believe women are more suited for traditional gender roles rather than high s tatus roles in the workplace.

PAGE 25

25 Benevolent sexism is directly related to role congruity theory (2002) because it assigns men and women specific stereotypes (agentic for men and communal for women). By assigning gender specific stereotypes, women and men are expected to be proficient at different things in the workplace. The communal stereotype makes it easier to see women as supportive role players, while the agentic stereotype makes it easier to see men as leaders in their field. Standpoint Theory Dorothy S highlights the purpose of comparing and contrasting audience views of female working more or less indepe ndently of one another, have maintained that marginalized groups of people have less interest in preserving the status quo and occupy a unique In this study, female spo rtscasters are the marginalized group. In this study, women were the marginalized group. They were looked at as an own contributions to the sports world greatly contrasted th e views members of the accepted group have of those same women. Standpoint theory (1983) argues that women would not be interested in preserving the status quo when it came to their roles in sports reporting. That status quo currently has them doing lower level jobs, and producing supplementary work. Social Identity Social Identity Theory was developed by Tajfel and Turner in 1979. The theory was originally developed to understand the psychological basis of intergroup

PAGE 26

26 discrimination. SIT posits that indivi duals position themselves in social categories or groups (e.g., nationality, sports team, sex) in which they feel they belong (Tajfel, 1978; normal in a society, people have to group themselves. In every level of society there be a part of that accepted crowd will likely adopt those same viewpoints. People on the outside want to feel like th in three or more people construe and evaluate themselves in terms of shared attributes Research Questions Based on the previous discussion, the following research questions were proposed: RQ1: What roles are female sports br oadcasters expected to hold during sporting events by the audience? RQ2: How credible do viewers see female sports broadcasters to be when compared to their male counterparts? RQ3: Do men and women receive the same amount of respect when it comes to sports broadcasting from the audience? RQ4: Is there a disconnect between the way sports media consumers view female broadcasters and the way those same female broadcasters view themselves?

PAGE 27

27 CHAPTER 3 METHODS Methodology This study focused specifically on the ad vancements women have made in the changed over the years, the researcher needed to speak with people in different phases of their careers. People who started their careers at different points in time will have different memories and their experiences will be different. There are policies that are accepted now in the workplace that might have been considered outlandish 30 years ago. By speaking to people with different recoll ections of what it was like for women in the sports media workplace, the researcher constructed a timeline of noticeable changes that have occurred for women over the years. depth interview subjects were Gayle Seirens, Beth Mowins, Car olyn Peck and Julie Quittner. Gayle Seirens Gayle Seirens is a news anchor for WFLA TV in Tampa. She joined in 1977 as a weekend sports reporter and anchor. She was the first female sportscaster in the Tampa Bay area and in 1981 she was recognized as the Tampa Bay Metro Magazine On December 17th 1987, Sierens became the first woman to broadcast a NFL game on network television. Seirens has spent much of her career working on news, but her sports background is also very strong. The fact that she made history by becoming the first woman to do a NFL broadcast makes her special and her insight critical to this study. Sierens, age 59 at the time of the interview, has been covering sports longer than any

PAGE 28

28 other woman the researcher sp women in the sports reporting field as they have developed over the years. Beth Mowins Beth Mowins is a reporter and play by play announcer for ESPN and CBS. She is the second woman to call nationally televised football games for ESPN starting in 2005. Mowins was a high school athlete, playing basketball, soccer and softball at Cicero North Syracuse High School. She also played basketball for two seasons at Lafayette College. Mowins began her sports bro adcasting career in 1991 at WXHC FM radio in New York as a news and sports producer. Mowins, age 45 at the time of the interview was selected because she has been involved with sports reporting long enough to remember what things were like early on for wo men breaking into the field. As a pioneer of sports broadcasting for females, the memories she has provide valuable insight because they can help paint the picture of Her ex perience as an athlete at the high school and collegiate level also give her added depth as a broadcaster and analyst. Carolyn Peck Carolyn Peck has been a color analyst for ESPN since 2006. Before working with ESPN she played collegiate basketball at Va nderbilt from 1985 to 1988. She took a break from basketball, but returned to play in 1991 professionally in Italy for three weeks and then for Japan for 2 years. Her coaching career began in 1993 in Tennessee under Pat Summitt for two years. From 1995 199 6 Peck was an assistant coach at the University of Kentucky. She was an assistant coach at Purdue from 1996 1997 under Nell Fortner. She became the Head Coach at Purdue in 1997. Peck coached at Purdue

PAGE 29

29 from 1997 1999, before taking a head coaching and gener al managing job with the Basketball Coach of the Year by the Associated Press and her team also won a National Championship. After her brief coachi ng experience in the WNBA, Peck re turned to coaching collegiate basketball with the University of Florida from 2002 2007. Carolyn Peck, age 47 at the time of interview has experience as a player, coach t being involved with the media; she understands the pressure and expectations associated with trying to succeed in a male dominated realm. Julie Quittner Julie Quittner age 23 at the time of the interview, is the newest sports reporter of the group. The researcher chose to speak to her because her insight would be interesting to compare to that of the focus groups because those participants are around her age. According to the Gainesville Television Network Website (2012): Julie Quittner is a University of Florida graduate who as always had a passion for sports. Julie grew up in South Florida and interned in the sports departments of prominent TV stations in that area wh ere she covered Miami professional sports teams. Throughout college until now, she has collegiate basketball) in 2011 to the Gator Bowl. (GTN website, 2012). Julie Quittner belongs to a n ew age of sports reporting women, an age that may know opportunities older women may not have been able to start their careers with. Her insight might coincide with the focus group participants more so than any of the other broadcasters the researcher spok e with because of the similar thought process that may exist between people belonging to the same age demographic. When it comes to

PAGE 30

30 women involved with sports reporting, the status quo that the focus group participants and Julie Quittner have become famili ar with may be very different from the accepted norms that the other in depth interview subjects dealt with. In addition to the in depth interviews are the focus group interviews. The researcher conducted 4 focus group interviews with approximately 6 8 m embers in each group. The researcher was looking to gauge sentiments towards female reporters and analysts from the sports media consuming public in a college age demographic. For the purposes of this study that age demographic is 18 25 years of age. This demographic is one of the largest consumers of sports information. Even though Enoch (2012) says that college aged males are the main sports media consumers, both males and female college students were interviewed for this study. Interviewing college fema les proved particularly informative as their responses were compared with female sports reporters in the industry. The findings provided links between any disparities involving what college females thought the sports industry was like, and what female spor tscasters actually experienced. Rationale for Focus Groups Focus groups were used in this study because they provided a way to gather approach to evaluation research, a clea r sense of the research goals and the Program Evaluation: Focus Groups, 2008). The opinions participants shared during the focus groups came largely from the experiences t

PAGE 31

31 participan 529). Focus groups focus on depth, rather than breadth. They are effective at looking closely at a few specific issues and really allow participants the opportunity to thoroughly discuss the issues presented to them. The inter viewing method was more suitable for this study because the underlying issue that was discussed was the current status of women in sports broadcasting. All of the questions in some form or fashion related back to that main theme, eliminating the need to co ver many different topics. Rationale for In D epth Interviews The in depth interview has the same advantage as the focus group. A one on one conversation with a woman currently involved in sports reporting has limitless opportunities for insight to the re searcher. These interviews served as the foundation for the study because they reflected thoughts and emotions directly from people who have dealt with some of the issues raised in the focus groups. The comparison between what the media consuming audience thinks of female sports broadcasters and what those same sports broadcasters think of themselves is where the analysis for this study mainly focused. The in depth interview is only different from the focus group in scope. By focusing on one subject at a ti me, the in depth interview provided a tailored Specific Objectives The aim of the focus group interviews was to discover student opinions about female sports broadcasters. The o bjective was to better understand if college students viewed female and male sportscasters as the same or if different qualities influenced their perceptions of how well these individuals do their jobs. The in depth interviews with

PAGE 32

32 current and former femal e analysts were compared directly to focus group participant feedback. The goal of this study was discovering whether the views the general audience has of female sports reporters match the way females in the sports industry identify themselves. In additio n to discovering if the two opinions match up, the researcher sought to discover whether men and women in the sports reporting industry were viewed with the same level of respect from the audience. Research Instrument Focus group questions (See Appendix A ) served as a guide to discussion about the way female sports broadcasters, analysts and sideline reporters were perceived by the media consuming audience. The researcher wanted to determine whether females who fill these roles (broadcaster, analyst or sid eline reporter) were respected on the same level as male counterparts who held the same positions. Preliminary questions re important here because they demonstrated how heavily participants consume sports media. Broad questions like that one were utilized because the researcher believes that the responses from individuals will be directly correlated to how much sports media they consume. Another researcher was looking to see how many specific broadcasters could be named by participants regardless of gender. After that question was answered the resea rcher participants to name as many as they know. The researcher expected there to be a discrepancy between the number of male and female sportscasters named and used those quest ions to springboard into discovering why there seemed to be a discrepancy.

PAGE 33

33 If in fact, participants named more male than female broadcasters the researcher which in turn relates to the main purpose of this study which is identifying why the audience saw female sports broadcasters differently from males. question helped the researcher gauge the level of audience interaction during sporting events by noting the amount of attention they gave to broadcasters during a game. If commentary was seen as an important aspect of sports reporting, that lead the resea rcher to the subject of whether the source providing the commentary needed to be credible. Credibility ultimately lead back to research question two (How credible do viewers see female sports broadcasters to be when compared to their male counterparts?) In depth interviews were intended to gain deeper understanding of the existence of negative sentiments towards women in sports broadcasting; specifically, the plight and struggle of females in a male dominated realm. Data Collection Four focus groups of eig ht to ten college students each were asked a series of guided questions to better understand their views on sports. The questions specifically focus on issues involving female and male sports reporters. For the parameters of this onsidered 19 24 years old. This group was targeted because it is the heaviest consumer of ESPN products (Enoch, 2012). The four focus groups were gender specific; an all male, all female, and two mixed gendered groups. This format was created to better fac ilitate conversation with

PAGE 34

34 focus group participants. The researcher believed males would be more comfortable speaking around other males, and females would be comfortable speaking with other females. The researcher also believed the more comfortable the par ticipants were, the more frank and honest their responses would be. The mixed gendered groups were utilized to discover if participants would first acknowledge a discrepancy exists between males and females in the sports industry and then expound upon thei r beliefs in the presence of the opposite gender. This study used qualitative data collection to better understand how individuals perceive female sports broadcasters and analysts. Members of each focus group were asked the same general questions. The re searcher served moderator and facilitator during each focus group session. Name tags were provided for participants, allowing them to identify themselves however they wish. The researcher also had an assistant present to help video record each focus group session. With a visual representation of each participant, emotions that accompany responses were noted, which another dimension to the transcription can be perceived Focus group participants were compensated through course extra credit and the researcher provided food and dri nks during the focus group sessions. Each focus group lasted approximately one hour

PAGE 35

35 Insight from female reporters on gender inequalities enhanced the depth of this study by showing that the effects of double standards and gender discrimination in the sport s reporting industry were applicable and not just theoretical. Sports analysts work in a very deadline oriented environment and are always extremely busy, and therefore finding participants may prove difficult. Participants were contacted via email and as ked to participate and by using a snowball sample, they were asked if they knew any other female sports broadcasters that were also willing to participate. The format for the in depth interviews was similar to the focus group format. There were a few gene ral questions to get the subject talking about her experiences in discrepancy between th purpose. The biggest difference between the aim of the in depth interview questions and the focus group questions was the fact that the in depth interview questions were more catered to a woman in the sports industry. Interviews were 15 45 minutes long and followed a structured guide with the exception of any follow up questions. (Appendix B) Focus Group Interviews The issue of credibility addressed in research question two, was revisited with t report on sports they have not played, such as NFL sideline reporters where obviously

PAGE 36

36 there have not been any female players. So it was important to discover if participants took female reporters less seriously than a male who played on that same level. expected to ho audience members expect women to fill in sports reporting, inconsistencies with those expectations were discovered and evaluated. research question two (How credible do viewers see female sports broadcasters sportscaster is perceived to be, it was easier to determine if focus group memb ers think female broadcasters/sideline reporters fell into that category. purpose of this study. Th e researcher asked focus group participants if they felt more on air time meant more authority on a subject. The researcher drew conclusions as to why females seem to be lagging in the amount of on air time they received in comparison to men. Additional q learn more about whether participants believed sideline reporting was an integral part of the sports reporting package. The researcher came to some conclusions as to why focus group part icipants view female reporters differently than males by evaluating the importance placed on the types of reporting women were likely to be found doing.

PAGE 37

37 In D epth Interviews For the in t Responses to this question were most heavily analyzed because the responses made you ever account of the industry from those most impacted. Interviewing every female sports reporter wasn industry. Similarities were compared and the composite view that female sportscasters have of themselves is what was used to relate bac k to the main question of this study: else could be done to further advancement for women in this female sports reporters from their own perspective. These questions are critical because they brought the st udy full circle. By talking about the way women felt about the industry, it was possible to develop a better understanding of the changes that need to be made and the directions that need to be taken since focus group participants and in depth interview su the sports industry.

PAGE 38

38 IRB Approval Before the researcher could speak to anyone, he had to gain approval from the al, the researcher had to explain the purpose of the study, list the types of questions that would be asked, and state any risks that participants could potentially incur. Appendix C is the informed consent document that was signed by each focus group part icipant after the researcher gained IRB approval. Focus group participants agreed to either use their real name or a pseudonym for identification purposes. They could opt out of the focus group session at any time if they were uncomfortable for any reason. Focus group participants anyone without their expressed permission.

PAGE 39

39 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Overall, the themes the researcher utilized to create focus group and in dep th interview questions relate to respect or lack thereof, for females in the sports industry. These themes were used to first identify the roles women have in sports reporting, and then to identify the value placed on the things women bring to the table in the eyes of the sports consuming audience. The following research questions were explored t hrough a series of four focus groups with male and female college students and four in depth interviews with women working in sports broadcasting at various leve ls. The research questions were: RQ1: What roles are female sports broadcasters expected to hold during sporting events? RQ2: How credible do viewers see female sports broadcasters to be when compared to their male counterparts? RQ3: Do men and women rece ive the same amount of respect when it comes to sports broadcasting? RQ4: Is there a disconnect between the way sports media consumers view female broadcasters and the way those same female broadcasters view themselves? There were 15 female and 11 male foc us group participants in total. The r esearcher had four in depth interview subjects. Focus group participant ages ranged from 19 to 24 years old. Focus group participants were asked to either give their real name or a pseudonym before speaking for identifi cation purposes during transcription. The in depth interview subjects were former collegiate and WNBA coach and current ESPN sportscaster Carolyn Peck, current ESPN sportscaster Beth Mowins, former ESPN sportscaster Gayle Sierens, and GTN sports reporter J ulie Quittner.

PAGE 40

40 The Roles Assigned to Women in Sports Reporting Research question one focused on the positions most often filled by women in the sports reporting field. It was established that sideline reporter was the most common job for a woman in the s ports industry to hold. That role was treated with disdain in almost every focus group. It was established that sideline reporter was the role most frequently associated with women in sports broadcasting, but focus group subjects spoke about it as if it wa s a stepping stone to something more important. Morgan (Twenty year old female): I honestly think that is because when you tie sports into it, women are still trying to fight to break into this industry. I feel like sideline reporting is an entrance point. We saw Erin Andrews start off at sideline reporting and now she does College Game Day. Sportscaster Beth Mowins agreed. She had this to say in an in depth interview: Beth Mowins : an analyst because they did not play at that level and quite frankly there are not a whole lot more and more of them but that seems to be the nature of it and as to why women tend to g et steered more towards the sideline, I think that is the first point of entry, if you will, to get into the business and work your way up through the ranks. use to prove they belong in the field. Morgan : You have to prove you know your stuff on the sidelines before you can get sageway to something bigger. Sideline reporting was accepted, but not seen as needed by focus group subjects and nearly every participant said that the sporting world would remain largely unaffected without the jobs that women are doing now.

PAGE 41

41 Craig (T wenty four year old male): All you have to know is their name and what game or not. They may ask three to five questions at halftime or at the end of the game of the coach. So anybod y can feed them those Sideline reporting was accepted, but not seen as overly useful by focus group subjects and nearly every participant said th at the sporting world would remain largely unaffected without the jobs that women are doing now. (Twenty year old female): I think that if it (sideline reporting) never would impor (Twenty year old female): sport. I mean they always have recaps after the game. People talk about it before, during and after the game. So I feel like sideline reporting is just an extra thing to have for that immediate moment. Interestingly enough, there were instances in which it seemed sideline reporter was thought to be a role only suited for a woman. Twenty year old female): I think it would actually be kind of awkward for a guy see girls there. ( Twenty one year old female ): of people and we will generate a conversation about whe ther there is a female sideline there because that gets people talking more. Credibility of Women in the Field The second research question dealt with perceived credibility of women in the sports broadcasting field. For the most part, focus group participants felt that women

PAGE 42

42 experience. Twenty two year old male focus group participant said, this about the role playing experience plays in sports broadcasting: : You know more than an average person. You bring more to the table, more experience, a different kind of insight, more unde rstanding, more wisdom. Twenty one year old male foc Domingo : Yeah I think that it gives you like some kind of authority when you talk about the game in a way that some reporters cannot do because you played and you experienced it first hand. Some male focus group members argued that experience is needed for women (Twenty one year old male): I think the Al Michaels and world are kind of fading. Even with the World urning into that kind of world. I think the only position icable is being the host of some show. If you want to be an analyst or a reporter you definitely need that sports playing experience. However, Tampa Channel Eight news anchor and former ESPN sportscaster Gayle Sierens said in an in depth int erview that she believes playing experience is Gayle Sierens: I think to be a good play by played the game; you just need to know the game. You need to color announcer is for. So I thi Sportscaster Beth Mowins felt experience was necessary de pending on which position you pursue.

PAGE 43

43 Beth Mowins: analyst perspective. Just because you have a background and have es tablished and you can speak to sort of, not only what the om a requirement. The researcher found that in depth subjects generally felt that playing experience was a plus, but not a necessity for success in the field. They felt that there w ere other routes to getting where they wanted to go and those involved fact checking and researching. Former college and WNBA coach and current ESPN sportscaster Carolyn Peck said i n a separate in depth interview: Carolyn Peck: I f a female is reporting on the field, but wha yourself to understand it. These views were in direct contrast with the majority of focus group participants who seemed to feel like without experience playing the sport most women simply lacked credibility when it came to sports broadcasting. Respect for Female Sportscasters Research question three focused on the is sue of respect for sideline reporters by the audience. This respect was compared directly to respect for analysts and broadcasters in the booth during the focus group sessions. Participants generally agreed that sideline reporters do not get the same amoun t of respect as their peers in the booth get from the audience. In fact, when asked if sideline reporters are given the

PAGE 44

44 same amount of respect as their co workers in the booth, members of a mixed gendered focus group erupted into laughter before unanimousl y giving a resounding Twenty one year Kyra : I do not think that sideline reporters have the same level of respect as sports analysts because of the fact that they of competence, questions of experience in that particular sport and if they the same level of respect as o ther broadcasters in the field. Twenty two yea r Aaron : b that they are good looking. I think what they need to have more appeal. Since the majority of viewership is male, having attractive females report spo rts increases audience number s. Focus group members stated that generally, women need to use their physical characteristics to demand respect from the audience because the actual work they do in ve a sports background she has an additional hurdle to jump so people will actually pay attention and listen to her. Part of the appeal is physical especially in a field like sports th at can be pretty superficial. Twenty year old Jackie : attractive because a guy is going to want to watch a hot girl reporting somethi ng they actually like watching.

PAGE 45

45 The subject of physical attractiveness dominated focus group discussions. In every scenario a consensus was reached saying that the role of attraction heavily influenced the success of a woman in the f ield, but had little to no implications for a male in the same field. Specifically, in a mixed gendered focus group Twenty four year this: I think that women who are involved in sports reporting are judged on their appearances. I think often times there are a pretty face, or kind of a break from looking at 60 year old guys in the booth. You know, you go down to the sidelines, you have a twenty something year old nice looking reporter. porters have to deal with that. Male focus group me one years old ) added: I think that they (the sports audience) want that image, they want that attractiveness. It could attract more viewers. As for men, I think if they project themselves well, if they have a good voice, if they have a good knowledge base, attractiveness is secondary. Sportscaster Beth Mowins also agreed that physical appeara nce does play a role. She said: Beth Mowins: television how a woman looks on the air has something to do with The theme of women operating in a male dominated genre was common between focus groups and in depth interviews. Thoughts pertaining to male dominance were expressed in several interviews. Those thoughts were associated with issues of the preparedness of female sports reporters when compared to males in the sam e field. In nearly every conducted interview a female said they felt women needed to be more prepared than males because people were already looking for them to make mistakes.

PAGE 46

46 For instance, in a mixed gendered focus group interview, Twenty one year said: od or as efficient in some way. In a different mixed gendered foc I feel like looked down upon immediately and However, sportscaster Carolyn Peck argued that the pressure she feels to perform comes from herself, rather than outside influences. Carolyn Peck: Sometimes chemistry ju can hang in whatever circumstan Reporter Julie Quittner shared similar sentiments in an in depth interview. Julie Quittner: I think if you are a woman, you have to show those t hings even think if you are a woman you have to show that stuff even more than a man does. The male dominated realm theme led to comments about women having to at work, while simultaneously playing up physical attraction for viewers. Focus group partic I feel like as a woman you have to intellectually be one of the men, you have to be able to recite stats and know what th able to talk about that awesome play but at the same time you have to be the cute one and physically be feminine but intellectually be a man and lly hard to separate sometimes. In that same session, 20 year old fem ale p

PAGE 47

47 Physically the girl part is played up a lot and then mentally, you have to be a physically perfect kind of sports reporter because they are there for the entertainment factor and for their looks a lot of the time. Sportscaster Carolyn Peck admitted to the existence of male hegemony in the workplace, but she feels that things are slo wly changing. According to Peck: Carolyn Peck: I think t y at home dads and women are starting to make more of the income, Does a Disconnect Exist? The final research question aims to discover whether a discrepancy exists between the way sports media consumers view female sports broadcasters and the way those same broadcasters view themselves. A disconnect was discovered. This difference in views of women stemmed largely from the roles women are expected to have and the contributions they are thought to make in sports reporting. When asked about the positions women in sports broadcasting often have, participants, both male and female unanimously agreed that sideline reporting was the role most often served. For example, up session: I think mainly you see women as sideline reporters especially with football and basketball. You see very few female play by play commentators. moderator for a pre game show. In the same session, 24 y ear game show or someone that will interview someone else at halftime. Former ESPN sportscaster Gayle Sierens says that even though those are t long way.

PAGE 48

48 Gayle Sierens: than anything that used to go on back in my day, much, much b y play in the NFL but you do have women now doing play by play in college football and most of th em are doing a really fine job. The theme of strong opposition towards women in sports broadcasting appeared frequently, revealing itself in one way or anot her in every focus group conducted, but most often in focus groups with males present. Much of the opposition came from a sports as their male counterparts. Twenty year old mal e focus gr oup participant women as underst anding sports like that. Current ESPN sportscaster Beth Mowins disagreed. In an in depth interview she said: Beth Mowins: I think that women are capable of doing that job, of being an analyst, of being a play by play reporter. Largely, t he focus group participants viewed female sports reporters with little group par ticipants seemed to feel that there were discrepancies in treatment between When it came to the in depth interviews, the feedback was different. The results r eflected more positive views of women coupled with a much more aggressive attitude

PAGE 49

49 themselves to be discriminated against. For example, sportscaster Carolyn Peck said : Carolyn Peck: answer and if you get the answer of no, you find another way to get ve got to be confident and not seeking confidence from somebody else. Former sportscaster Gayle Sierens and current sports reporter Julie Quittner echoed similar sentiments when it came to overcoming obstacles that could present themselves because of the ir gender during their in depth interviews. Sportscaster Beth from her own competitive nature. Beth Mowins: felt that I needed to be better than anybody else in terms of that regard, I was always going to push myself to be the best that I could be, with the understanding that in a lot o f instances, people do and whether or no t you deserve to be there.

PAGE 50

50 CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS The major themes of this research are credibility and respect of female sportscasters. In this chapt er the researcher will explore whether the viewing audience find females in this field to be credible sources when it comes to presenting sports news. The researcher will also discuss whether the sports media consuming audience respects female sportscaster s in the same way that males are respected. seriously and the women who hold those roles aren give much credibility to. The researcher came to these conclusions about respect for the sideline reporting role by asking focus g female sideline reporters in the same way. Specifically, 19 year old female f ocus group h as the other people up there? A Return to Theory Framing Theory (1993) Women are framed in a variety of different ways in sports; many of them are ons heavily supported that

PAGE 51

51 unfavorable comparisons to male athletes that denigrate the ir athletic prowess, often By framing women as sex objects they are diminished as equal society members eotypes women have always been subjected to and it becomes extremely difficult to take them seriously alike face the same discriminatory issues in this regard. ore, sport media are more likely to use denigrating humor and delve Crosset, 1995). This type of framework is more subtle than the ones mentioned previously. However, the effect is the same. Women are presented in a different diverting our attention to matters out of the professional realm, we as an audience are inclined to believe that field or in the newsroom. The researcher argues that the next frame is the most damaging one to views of handle sports on and off the field. The frame posits that sports should remain an all boys c lub because men can handle the pressure while women cannot. As Kinnick

PAGE 52

52 This is the most powe rful frame because it encompasses more than sports or sports reporting. This frame suggests at the most basic levels that men are stronger and tougher than women. Men can handle the hardships of life while women crack under pressure and should be left with secondary roles. Source Credibility Theory (1953) sports analysts by focus group partic ipants. The other side of the equation is trustworthiness. In this, sideline reporters are at a bad start since the position itself is one of low trustworthiness. This is reflected by the fact that both men and women are seen as less trustworthy in the sid eline reporting position. Women are seemingly relegated to the position is a gender discussion, but that the position itself lacks trustworthiness can be separated from gender to some degree. Combining trustworthiness and the interplay of objective and sub jective aspects of expertise, female sideline reporters are seen as lacking credibility when compared to their male counterparts in the booth. Social Identity Theory (1979) inconclusive f plicitly stated by focus group participants or in depth interview subjects. Generally, focus group members felt that women had a place in sports reporting, even if it was marginal. The researcher believes women were looked at differently because of the kinds of work they do in sports reporting more than anything else. In depth interview subjects always described themselves as sports reporters that happened to be female. They never

PAGE 53

53 placed themselve s in an outside category. Women were identified as sports media personnel, the question of their contributions varied, depending on who the researcher talked to. Cultivation Theory s as well. The researcher came to this conclusion bas ed on the roles women in sports reporting tend to have. By relegating women to secondary roles in sports, it becomes easier to see women as second class reporters. Once this view of women has been create d, a tendency forms for the audience to take females in the field less seriously Standpoint Theory (1983) S it came to in depth interviews compared with focus group sessions, in every scenario there was a difference in the way female sportscasters viewed themselves and the way as the audience tended to. Female sportscasters saw themselves as capable, competitive and goal oriented professionals. Focus group participants (male and female) almost universally described women in sports reporting negatively, while the sportscasters identified themselves positively. Role Congruity Theory is that people expect males and females to specialize in different leadership roles. Once those lines are crossed prob lems arise. When people begin to see women holding roles

PAGE 54

54 to have the roles that men have always had. This theory was in the sports reporting realm. They were described as being more assertive, knowledgeable and accurate when it came to sports. The agentic stereotypes discussed in the Literature review showed up in every focus group session when men were talked about. In focus group sessions, women were talked about as being supportive, team oriented players in sports reporting. The communal stereotypes associated with women were frequently discussed. Male Hegemony is constantly challenged but rarely altered without the consent of men at the top of the would be to incorporate more women into the upper echelons of the sports media world wi th hopes of disassembling the hegemony because of different viewpoints that women matter of course and, thus, become incapable of incorporating real change (Hardin & Shain, 2005; Messner & Sabo, 1990). Since sports broadcasting is a male dominated realm, the researcher believes that some women would try to take on male speaking patterns and deliv ery techniques and sports broadcasting are structured largely by and for men, and the literature

PAGE 55

55 suggests that both authoritativeness and gender affect perceptions of fema le attention from the fact that a woman is the one bringing the audience the facts. A latent g that the male way is the correct way to do things. women are under a microscope as analysts and reporters from the start, much more so than their male counterparts. Forc ing women to walk on pins and needles in the sports industry is only perpetuating the male hegemony because women feel pressure from the males who are seen as all knowing authoritative figures with an iron fist hold over their futures in the industry. The hegemonic values and in efforts to divert attention from their femininity. However, the researcher also argued that more women end up trying their best to fit in rather than standing out in a male dominated face who cannot talk sports. Her sex prevents her from being judged as credible as the least attractive and least knowledgeable male The nature of the reporting industry itself is also something the researcher would argue perpetuates the male hegemony. The ideal of objectivity is critical here; it might have something to do with why some women distance themselves from supporting valued, they might not want to be seen as advocating for women because doing so is ). The scenario is a

PAGE 56

56 l the time. Holland (1987) The older male focus group participants (ages 23 to 24) were generally more moderate in their views on women in sports broadcasting. They either believed that women served a legitimate purpose with their contributions, or that one day the playing field would be level as far as who has an opportunity to secure a top tier analyst position. This might have social implications because as sportscaster Carolyn Peck alluded to, sports are often a microcosm of the society they reflect. As these changes rom younger men, but more acceptance from an older crowd. The Focus Groups The four conducted focus groups were grouped by gender. The all male and all female groups were intended to create an atmosphere in which audience members could express themselves w ithout worrying about having to be politically correct in front of the opposite gender. Those were the focus groups the researcher expected to be the most frank, those were the groups expected to have the most outlandish comments about women in sports broa dcasting. In actuality, sentiments towards women in sports broadcasting were uniform across the board. Subjects in every focus group (no matter which gender) expressed the same feelings towards women in the sports reporting field. They spoke about the cont ributions of women as mildly significant but nothing that

PAGE 57

57 all male focus group: Well, I think it (sports) would definitely be unaffected. The game of footbal nge without sideline reporting. The In Depth Interviews All four women spoken to were at different stages of their sports broadcasting careers and all four of them had unique insight to certain subjects which seemed t o be a apparent opposition to women in the sports broadcasting realm was a distinct memory to Gayle Seirens, but to a new reporter like Julie Quittner, those same se ntiments were unfathomable. By asking four women, all from different time eras similar questions about treatment of women in the sports reporting realm, the researcher composed an outline of thoughts and sentiments towards women in the field over the last 30 years or so. Roles Focus group participants perceive women in sports as sideline reporters with few exceptions, depending on if the woman has playing experience at a professional level or not. The focus group members see the sideline reporting role as secondary to the analysis roles carried out in the booth. So since the roles are secondary, it makes sense professional ability as their male counterparts up in the booth. T he researcher believes that this is a latent form of opposition, allowing women to participate in the industry with even if the amount of experience the man and woman h ave in the field is the same.

PAGE 58

58 The idea that women writing about sports is unnatural perhaps a little pathetic is still common enough to elicit comments even from children more than 30 years after Tit le IX opened doors for women in sports, and consequently, sports journalism. The women who are employed are too often relegated to lesser, more supportive roles than their male counterparts who have similar if not identical credentials (p.15). When it come s to future roles for females in the sports industry, the outlook that women would continue to be given the roles they currently have. They seemed to believe that the sportscasting role is going to former athletes and coaches rather than reporters with classical training and as time goes on this trend will only continue to grow. The only time focus group participants agreed that they could see women at a top level anal ysis position, is if the sport they were covering was one played by women. Twenty one year old female focus tball and stuff like that. I can see NFL and co Former ESPN sportscaster Gayle Sierens felt much more optimistic for the future of female sports reporter s. She said in an in depth interview : Gayle Sierens: I think the sky is the limit for women right now. I think networks are looking for talented women to come in and do a job. Credibility In many scenarios, women lost credibility with focus group partici pants because There seemed to be more to it than that because focus group participants still gave

PAGE 59

59 ports playing experience either). In a focus gr oup twenty year NBC and covered the Olympics, he also has his own show on HBO, so I would value Bob Costa industry because she can rep ort well and is decent looking. So playing experience seems to be more important for women than for men according to focus group participants. In depth interview subjects felt playing experience was helpful, but not critical. For instance, according to former ESPN sportscaster Gayle Sierens: Gayle Sierens: a good play by play announcer; you just have to know the game. The only women who were given credibility were women with professional playing experience. Doris Burke was brought up in every focus group and she was seen as a reputable source for sports reporting because of her basketball career. Focus group because they lack the insight gained from playing with other men at the professional focus groups. about in the same way women without playing experience were discussed. The men with no sports experience were still given credence over women in every scenario. The surprising thing t o note was the fact that when it came to in depth interviews, the subjects that had playing and coaching professional experience at the highest level were the main ones saying experience was helpful but not necessary. The researcher expected males to be t he only ones who would look to other males as authority figures when compared to women in the field, but there were some

PAGE 60

60 instances in which female focus group participants mirrored those sentiments. For example, in a mixed gendered focus group twenty one y ear old seem to k In that same focus group session another female (twenty one year added: I kind of agree with her unfortunately. I feel like a lot of times they put a knowledgeable. Respect Focus group participants were asked if they respected sideline reporters the same way they resp ected analysts and broadcasters that work in the booth. The notion of respecting the p ositions in the same way was simply outrageous. Focus group participants were also asked if they respected male sideline reporters and the answer to a momentary distr action from the people who actually do the reporting. Interestingly enough, it was noted that sideline reporters were fed information on questions to ask and things to say. It was also noted that people in the booth were sometimes fed information in the s ame manner (sometimes from sideline reporters themselves). However, people working in the booth were always talked about with more respect than those on the field. Male focus People in the booth are perceived as be tter at their important.

PAGE 61

61 In Chapter Four, the researcher determined from focus group participant sports reporting field. In several instances, focus group subjects casually referred to that by identifying people in the broadcasting booth that way, audience members are expressing assumptions that men are expected to b e given those positions. The themes utilized to form focus group and in depth interview questions are all linked. The themes of credibility and respect are directly related to one another. be respected without credibility. More often than not, that credibility comes from playing experience, but there authority figure, e.g., Bob Costas. The problems for women in this field arise because NBA player because viewers said the NBA and the to bridge the gender gap when it comes to respecting male and female sports media personnel in the same way. A trend was noted when it ca me to male focus group participant responses. It seemed like younger men (ages 19 to 22) had more extreme opinions on the roles women serve in sports broadcasting and what the future holds for them. Is a Disconnect Present? Female sportscasters view thems elves and their contributions to the sports field one way (in a positive, proactive manner), while the general viewing audience view

PAGE 62

62 those same sportscasters quite differently (usually wi th disdain). To answer research q estion four: Is there a disconnect b etween the way sports media consumers view female broadcasters and the way those same female broadcasters view themselves? Y es, there is a disconnect present. The audience tends to view female sports reporters with contempt. While they recognize the positi ons most likely held by females in the field, they also label those roles as subservient and supplemental. The researcher believes that there is a discrepancy between the thought process females in the sports reporting field are presumed to have by the aud ience and the way they actually think (according to the sportscasters). Focus group participants largely described sideline reporters as meek, bewildered women who need to be fed information constantly because they generally know little to nothing of the sport they cover (unless they actually played that spo rt). Specifically, twenty year old male focu or just narrating the game although tha a bias against women that they might not understan d athletics as much as men do. In contrast, in depth interview subjects described sideline reporters and women in the sports reporting field in a completely differe nt manner, regardless of playing experience. Former sportscaster Ga yle Sierens said: Gayle Sierens: sive and pretty darn assertive. Even thoug hts on the future of women in sports broadcasting were split right down the middle depending on who was speaking about them. Focus group participants largely agreed that women would never get to a point where they were giving analysis

PAGE 63

63 without the presence as them (women) overtaking men and filling the roles of analysts and the guy you see at as hosts, as sideline reporters, maybe in that way, but as far as seeing a table of like depth interview subjects differ ed. Current GTN sports reporter Julie Quittner said, Julie Quittner: Erin Andrews and Rachel Nichols, I turn them up especially to really take some time and see what they do and try to better myself. Years ago, I would have had to look up to a man, or ma ybe I paved the way for young women like me to feel that I have a chance and work at it. So I think it has come a long way and I think it will continue to grow. Limitations The single gre atest limitation of this research was sample size. In order to gather a more accurate reading on the thoughts of audience members towards females in sports broadcasting, more people need to be interviewed. Also, the sample size was an issue for the in dept h interviews. More subjects who are actively involved with sports reporting would have given a sharper image of what things are currently like for women working in the field today. However, this is an exploratory study on gender equality in sports reportin g. Responses should provide early indicators of how female reporters are viewed by members of the public versus how the position is seen by actual sports reporters. An important limitation of focus groups to acknowledge is any agenda the moderator may hav e. The moderator has a duty to facilitate conversation and could steer participants towards reaching certain conclusions if the right questions were

PAGE 64

64 asked. By paying close attention to the responses of the participants and by making certain not to pose lea ding questions, the moderator should be able to avoid this, but it is worth noting. Every sports broadcaster has gone through different experiences during the course of their careers. Speaking to three or four analysts will not provide a complete represent ation of the entire female sports reporting world, but this study is exploratory in nature and seeks to discover common themes between audience expectations and the beliefs of the reporters. The focus group subjects all fit into a college aged demographic Opinions on women in sports broadcasting might have varied if the pool of ages interviewed was broader than 19 to 24. Future Research During the data collection and compilation process, the researcher noted that younger male subjects tended to have much more extreme views on the roles women serve and have the ability to efficiently work in sports broadcasting. It seemed that as the men got older, their views became more moderate. In almost every scenario, a male older than twenty three had optimistic vie ws towards women in sports reporting. This trend could be further researched with a survey or experiment to document and quantify logged. This study made use of qualitative r esearch instruments. Findings might have been more concrete if coupled with quantitative instruments as well. Utilizing something like a survey or questionnaire to gauge opinions of the effectiveness of female sportscasters and relevance of sideline report ing could have strengthened claims made by qualitative data collection methods.

PAGE 65

65 APPENDIX A FOCUS GROUP QUESTIONS Sports Viewing 1. How much attention would you say you pay to the commentary during sports broadcasts? Sports Broadcasters 1. Does experience as an a thlete affect how credible you see them? 2. Does the level of skill an athlete had make the source more credible? 3. Does physical appearance make a difference when it comes to how much attention you pay to a sports broadcaster? 4. Are there physical qualities tha t are more preferable for certain job positions? For instance, when you hear the term, sideline reporter, describe what that person looks like from your perspective? 5. What qualities does a good sports broadcaster have? 6. What kind of role do you think women m ost often serve when it comes to sports reporting? Thoughts On Women 1. Do you think women and men are capable of the same level of sports reporting? 2. Is it easier for you to view a male or a female as an authority for sports knowledge? Why or why not? Seconda ry Questions 1. How many hours of sports programming do you watch per week? 2. How many sports broadcasters can you say you are familiar with? 3. How many female sports broadcasters are you familiar with? 4. How many sideline reporters are you familiar with? 5. Do you th ink there is a discrepancy between the amount of time men and women spend on air in sports broadcasting? 6. What do you think about sideline reporting? 7. How important to sports is sideline reporting?

PAGE 66

66 APPENDIX B IN DEPTH INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Background 1. How long have you been involved with sports reporting? 2. What are the qualities of a good sports reporter? 3. What made you decide you wanted to choose this career path? Sports Reporting 1. 2. Can you talk abou your career? 3. your gender? 4. Do you feel there is a discrepancy between the way men and women are treated in your field ? Why or why not? 5. What can be done to make the playing field more level for men and women in 6. industry that seems to be male dominated ? 7. Do you ever feel like you need to be more prepared than your male counterparts? 8. What do you think the future holds for female sports reporters? 9. Do you think positive changes are occurring and what else could be done to further advancement for women in th is industry?

PAGE 67

67 APPENDIX C INFORMED CONSENT FORM Purpose Of The Research Study: The purpose of this study is discovering whether there is a disconnect between the way the audience views female sportscasters and the way those same sportscaster see themselves. What You Will Be Asked To Do In The Study: In this study, you will be asked a series of questions covering subjects ranging from how much sports media you view on a weekly basis, to how you perceive female sportscasters. There will be a series of general questions, leading to more specific questions about your thoughts on the roles of women in sports broadcasting and reporting. Time Required: 1 hour 1hour and 30minutes Risks And Benefits : Benefits from this study include shedding some light on the feelin gs you may have towards females in the sports broadcasting realm. If it is discovered that there is indeed a discrepancy between the levels of respect male and female sports casters receive, other studies aimed at revealing why this is the case may be carr ied out. There are no risks to you for participating in the study. Compensation: Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. You wi ll have the opportunity to provide a pseudonym to be identified by if you so wish. Voluntary Participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating.

PAGE 68

68 Right To Withdraw From The Study: You have th e right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence. Whom To Contact If You Have Questions About The Study: Tory Dawson 2800 SW Willison Road Apt 611 G ainesville Fl, 32608. (954) 881 5722 Whom To Contact About Your Rights As A Research Parti cipant In The Study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone 392 0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this d escription. Participant: _________________________________________Date: ______________ Principal Investigator: _________________________________Date: ______________

PAGE 69

69 LIST OF REFERENCES Arnot M. (1982) ` Male Hegemony Social Class, and Women's Education', Journal of Education 164(1): 64 89. Badenhausen K. (2012). Why ESPN Is Worth $40 Billion As The World's Most Valuable Media Property [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/kurtbadenhausen/2012/11/09/why espn is the worlds most valuable media property and worth 40 billion/ [Last Accessed March 13, 2013]. Bishop, R. (2003). Missing in action: Feature c illustrated. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 27 (2), pp.184 194 Bocock, R. (1986). Hegemony 1st ed. Chichester West Sussex and London and New York: E. Horwood. Boyle, R. (2006). Sports journalism: Context and issues 1st ed. London: Sage Publications. Bronstein, C. (2005). Representing the third wave: mainstream print media framing of a new feminist movement. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 82(4), pp. 783 803 Bruce, T. (2002). What we talk about when we t alk about the locker room: women sportswriters' stories 11(1), pp. 49 61. Butler, J. (1988 ), Performative acts and gender constitution: an essay in phenomenology and feminist theory. Theatre Journal 40(4.), pp. 519 531. Chambers, D., Steiner, L., & Flemi ng, C. (2004). Women and journalism London: Routledge Chong, D. & Druckman, J. A. (2007). Framing theory [ONLINE] Available at: http://faculty. wcas.northwestern.edu/~jnd260/pub/Chong%20Druckman%20Annu al%20Review%202007.pdf [Last Accessed February 20 2013]. Creedon, P. (1994). Women, media, and sport: challenging gender values Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications. Dow, B. J., & Wood, J. T. ( 2006). The SAGE handbook of gender and communication Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications. Duncan, M. C., Wilson, W., & Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles. (1990). Gender stereotyping in televised sports Los Angeles, Calif: The Foundation.

PAGE 70

70 Dun can, M.C. (2006). Gender warriors in sport: women and the media. In A.A. Raney & J. Bryant (Eds.), Handbook of sports and media (pp. 231 252). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Eagly A. H. & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109(3), 573 598. Etling, E. (2002, June). An uphill climb. APSE Newsletter p. 7. Gerbner, G. & Gross, L. (1976). Living with television: The violence profile. Journal of Communication, 26 (2), pp. 172 194 Gilbert, Daniel T .; Fiske, Susan T.; Lindzey, Gardner, eds. (1998). The Handbook of Social Psychology. Oxford University Press. Glick, P. & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Socia l Psychology, 70, 491 512. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (2001). Ambivalent sexism. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (vol. 33, pp. 115 188), Thousand Oaks, CA: Academic Press. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (2001). An ambivalent allia nce: Hostile and benevolent sexism as complementary justifications of gender inequality. American Psychologist, 56, 109 118. Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience New York: Harper & Row. Grestner, J. (2005). Wome n aren't getting a fair shake in sports, either [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.editorandpublisher.com/Article/Women Aren t Getting a Fair Shake in Sports Either [Last Accessed February 20 2013]. Hardin, M., Dodd, J. E., & Lauffer, K. (2006). Passing it on: The reinforcement of male hegemony in sports journalism textbooks. Mass Communication & Society 9(4), pp. 429 446. Hardin, M., & Shain, S. (2005). Strength in numbers? The experiences and attitudes of women in sports media careers. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 82(4), pp. 804 819. Hardin, M., Simpson, S., Garris, K., & Whiteside, E. (2007). The gender war in U.S. sport: wi nners and losers in news coverage of Title IX. Mass Communication & Society ,10(2), pp. 211 233. Horney, K. (1967). Feminine Psychology W.W. Norton Company, New York.

PAGE 71

71 Howard, L. (2008). Help end world hunger [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.squidoo.com/world hunger [Last Accessed February 20 2013]. Jilibean417. (2011). Female sportscasters: challenging a male dominated industry [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jRoKU1btu2E [Last Accessed February 20 2013]. Kian, E. (2010). Framing of sport coverage based on the sex of sports writers: female journalists counter the traditional gendering of media coverage. Internation al Journal of Sport Communication 2(2), pp. 185 204. Klein, M. W. (2002). Work and play: international evidence of gender equality in employment and sports Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Lapchick, R., Moss, A., Russell C. & Scearce R. (2011). The 2010 11 associated press sports editors racial and gender report card [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.tidesport.org/RGRC/2011/2011_APSE_RGRC_FINAL.pdf [Last Accessed February 20 2013]. Leonard, W. M. (1993). A sociological perspective of sport New York: Macmillan. Martin, B. A. & Martin, J. H., (1995). Comparing perceived sex role orientations of the ideal male and female athlete to the ideal male and female person. Journal of Sport Behavior 18 (4), pp.286 301. Gender in televised sports: News and highlight shows, 1989 2009 Center for Feminist Research pp. 1 35. Miller, P, & Miller R (1995). The invisible woman: Female sp orts journalists in the workplace. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 72,(4), pp. 883 889. Pew Research Center (2006). Americans to rest of world: soccer not really our thing [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2006/06/14/americans to rest of world soccer not really our thing/ [Last Accessed February 20 2013]. Ricchiardi, S. (2004 2005). Offensive interference. Amer ican Journalism Review 26 (6), p. 54. Ross B. (2011) Playing ball with the boys. Clerisy Press Rowbotham, S. (1973). Women's consciousness man's world 1st ed. Balitmore: Penguin. Schwartz, L. (1991). Women in sportscasting: a brief history [ONLINE] Ava ilable at: http://www.americansportscastersonline.com/womeninsportscasting.html [Last Accessed February 20 2013].

PAGE 72

72 Sheffer, M.L., & Schultz, B. (2007). Double standard: Why women have trouble getting jobs in local television sports. The Journal of Sports Medicine, 2(1), pp. 78 101. Seattle Post Intelligencer p. B6. Sportstvjobs (2011). Women in sports jou rnalism [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DAMzScmbNiY [Last Accessed February 20 2013]. Staurowsky E. & Di Manno, J. (2002). Young women talking about sports and careers : A glimpse at the next generation of women in sports media. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal 11(1), pp. 127 138. Wagner E. & Morawitz E. (2010). Audience perceptions of female sports reporters. International Journal of Sport Communication 3( 3), pp. 261 274. Wieberg S. ,& Berkowitz S. (2011). Is ESPN the main force behind realignment in college sports? [ONLINE] Available at: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/sports/college/story/2011 10 27/is espn the force behind college conference realignment/51019966/1 [Last Accessed March 13, 2013].

PAGE 73

73 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Tory Andrew Dawson was born in 1988 in Queens New York, and r aised (mostly) in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. In 2010, he earned a Bachelor of Scienc e in Electronic Media Telecommunications from the University of Florida. Tory completed his Master of Arts in Mass Communication at the U niversity of Florid a in May 2013 and plans to enter th e field of sports writing