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Implementation of Intersection Management Algorithm considering Autonomous and Connected Vehicles

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045511/00001

Material Information

Title: Implementation of Intersection Management Algorithm considering Autonomous and Connected Vehicles
Physical Description: 1 online resource (58 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Singh, Maninder
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: autonomous -- communication -- intersection -- intervehicular -- management -- traffic -- v2i
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mechanical Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Autonomous vehicle development is on its peak these days.The thought of having self-driving cars is close to fruition. A lot of work has been done in the last decade in the field of Autonomous Systems. There are cars that can drive better than humans on highways. They allow for higher speed and safety. But infrastructure does not exist that is friendly to autonomous vehicles such as at intersections.Autonomous vehicles cannot use existing infrastructure to operate efficiently as the current infrastructure has been designed keeping human driven vehicles in mind. New algorithms need to be developed which will allow autonomous vehicles to use existing infrastructure without entirely changing the infrastructure. In this way both human driven and autonomous vehicles can use the infrastructure and human driven vehicles can also take advantage of developments done in the autonomous vehicle field. This can be achieved using smarter intersections which can communicate with the vehicles using vehicle-to-vehicle(V2V) communication and can use the data from the vehicles to optimize signal phase and timing. Additionally such an intersection can also control the flow of traffic by controlling the speed of vehicles.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Maninder Singh.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Crane, Carl D, Iii.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045511:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045511/00001

Material Information

Title: Implementation of Intersection Management Algorithm considering Autonomous and Connected Vehicles
Physical Description: 1 online resource (58 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Singh, Maninder
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: autonomous -- communication -- intersection -- intervehicular -- management -- traffic -- v2i
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mechanical Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Autonomous vehicle development is on its peak these days.The thought of having self-driving cars is close to fruition. A lot of work has been done in the last decade in the field of Autonomous Systems. There are cars that can drive better than humans on highways. They allow for higher speed and safety. But infrastructure does not exist that is friendly to autonomous vehicles such as at intersections.Autonomous vehicles cannot use existing infrastructure to operate efficiently as the current infrastructure has been designed keeping human driven vehicles in mind. New algorithms need to be developed which will allow autonomous vehicles to use existing infrastructure without entirely changing the infrastructure. In this way both human driven and autonomous vehicles can use the infrastructure and human driven vehicles can also take advantage of developments done in the autonomous vehicle field. This can be achieved using smarter intersections which can communicate with the vehicles using vehicle-to-vehicle(V2V) communication and can use the data from the vehicles to optimize signal phase and timing. Additionally such an intersection can also control the flow of traffic by controlling the speed of vehicles.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Maninder Singh.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Crane, Carl D, Iii.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045511:00001


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1 IMPLEMENTATION OF INT ERSECTION MANAGEMEN T ALGORITHM CONSIDERING AUTONOMOUS AND CONNECTED VEHIC LES By MANINDER SINGH A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQU IREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 2013 Maninder Singh

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3 To my parents

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my advisors Dr. Carl D Crane III for their guidance a nd for giving me the opportunity to work at Center for Intelligent Machines and Robotics (CIMAR) I would also like to thank Dr. Lily Elefteriadou for her valuable advice to this study I would also like to thank my friends at CIMAR for making my stay such a wonderful and learning experience I would like to thank my parents for their unwavering support and love.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 6 LIST OF F IGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 7 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUN D ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 12 Autonomous Vehicles ................................ ................................ ............................. 12 Navigation ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 13 Existing Infrastructur e ................................ ................................ ....................... 13 Need for Newer Infrastructure ................................ ................................ .......... 16 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 17 Exist ing Algorithms ................................ ................................ ........................... 17 Assumptions and Drawbacks in Existing Algorithms ................................ ........ 24 2 UF ALGORITHM ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 2 7 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 27 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 27 Algorithm ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 28 Benefits and Future Work ................................ ................................ ....................... 32 3 PHYSICAL IMPLEMENTATION ................................ ................................ ............. 34 Autonomous Vehicles ................................ ................................ ............................. 44 Human Driven Vehicles ................................ ................................ .......................... 46 4 FUTURE WORK ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 48 APPENDIX A RSSI BASED POSITION ESTIMATION ................................ ................................ 49 B PREVIOUS WORK ................................ ................................ ................................ 53 REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 57 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 58

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6 LIST OF TABLES Table page A 1 Effect of error in distance on position ................................ ................................ 51 A 2 Effect of error in distance on po sition in special orientation ................................ 52

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Sample STOP Sign B2a ................................ ................................ ..................... 13 1 2 Sample Yield Sign ................................ ................................ .............................. 14 1 3 Traffic Lights (Vertical Orientation) ................................ ................................ ..... 15 1 4 In road inductive loop sensor ................................ ................................ .............. 16 1 5 Traffic Lights (Horizontal Orientation) ................................ ................................ 16 1 6 Successful Vs. Failed Reservati on under AIM ................................ .................... 18 1 7 Every lane is given green light in a cycle for human dri ven vehicles .................. 20 1 8 Sample Inter section showing Collision Zones ................................ .................... 22 1 9 Time Diagram for all collision zones ................................ ................................ ... 23 1 10 Performanc e of the OSDI algorithm ................................ ................................ .... 24 1 11 Perform ance of AIM FCFS light according to traff ic composition ........................ 25 2 1 Scenario 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 29 2 2 Scenario 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 29 2 3 Scenario 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 30 2 4 Flowchart for combining both optimization techniques ................................ ....... 31 2 5 Rolling Ho rizon Technique ................................ ................................ ................. 32 3 1 GPS Receiver (u blox 5 developed by u blox) ................................ .................... 35 3 2 GPS/GLONASS Combined Receiver ................................ ................................ 36 3 3 Inertial Measurement Sensor (Razor 9 DOF IMU) ................................ .............. 37 3 4 Magnetometer (Micromag 3) ................................ ................................ .............. 38 3 5 VLF Metal Detector ................................ ................................ ............................. 39 3 6 Sample Intersection showing Lane Marker Locations ................................ ........ 41 3 7 Sample Marker Assembly ( Bolt, Ma rker, Pin, Security Cap/Nut) ....................... 42

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8 3 8 Sample Intersection showing location of Road Side Units ................................ .. 43 A 1 Graph showing nonlinear rel ationship between RSSI and distance (Blue). ........ 50 A 2 Location of Transmitter and Receiver ................................ ................................ 51

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9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AIM Autonomous Intersection Management AWSC All Way Stop Control DSRC Dedicated short range communications FCFS First Come First Serve FCFS EMERG First Come First Serve Emergency FCFS LIGHT First Come First Serve Light GLONASS Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Siste ma GNSS Glo bal Navigation Satellite System GPS Global Positioning System ISZ Intersection Study Zone LIDAR Light Detection and Ranging MAS Multi Agent System OBU On Board Unit OSDI Optimization Simulator for Driverless vehicl es at Intersections RSU Road Side Unit V2I Vehicle to Infrastructure V 2V Vehicle to Vehicle

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10 Abstra ct of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science IMPLEM ENTATION OF INTERSEC TION MANAGEMEN T ALGORITHM CONSIDERI NG AUTONOMOUS AND CONNECTED VEH I C LES By Maninder Singh May 2013 Chair: Carl D Crane Major: Mechanical Engineering Autonomous vehicle development is on its peak these days. The thought of havi ng self driving cars is close to fruition. A lot of work has been done in the last decade in the field of Autonomous Systems. There are cars that can drive better than humans on highways. T hey allo w for higher spee d and safety. But infrastructure does not exist that is friendly to autonomous vehicles such as at intersections. Autonomous vehicles cannot use existing infrastructure to operate efficiently as the current infrastructure has been designed keeping human driven vehicles in mind. New algorithms need to be developed which will allow autonomous vehicles to use existing infrastructure without entirely changing the infrastructure. In this way both human driven and autonomous vehicles can use the infrastructure and human driven vehicles can also take adva ntage of developments done in the autonomous vehicle field. This can be achieved using smarter intersections which can communicate with the vehicles using vehicle to vehicle ( V2V ) communication and can use the data from the vehicles to optimize signal phas e and timing. Additionally

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11 such an intersection can also control the flow of traffic by controlling the speed of vehicles.

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12 CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND Autonomous Vehicles Autonomous vehicle development is at its peak right now and has reached a level where one ca n imagine them running on every street and city in a few years. This system allows for complete control over the vehicle and has the potential to revolutionize the highway system. They allow higher yet safer speeds and have the potential to remove traffic congestions. An autonomous vehicle is a vehicle that is controlled by an onboard computer and gets its input from sensors like GPS, LIDAR, Computer Vision and stored terrain information. The onboard controller processes all the information in real time an d manipulates vehicle controls to keep the vehicle on its path. Extensive research has been done on how these vehicles will drive on open roads and in congested traffic. How these vehicles will deal with intersections or with human driven vehicles has not been dealt with in details. A number of algorithms have been developed for navigation of autonomous vehicles through intersections but most are focused on 100% autonomous vehicle use. The benefits provided by these algorithms reduce significantly when hum an driven vehicle s are introduced side by side with autonomous vehicles. The focus of this work is to develop a system that will allow an optimal co existence of human driven and autonomous vehicles. V arious approaches are investigated to find out which on e is the most optimal and will allow autonomous vehicles to use the existing infrastructure without many change s or modification s

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13 Navigation The current infrastructure is based on human driven vehicles and is not friendly with Autonomous vehicles. Existi ng systems require that the driver is alert of the other cars and their intentions before making a move. Every intersection is different from every other in regard to placement of lights and signage. Existing Infrastructure Currently the most used traffic control devices are Stop Signs, Traffic Lights and Yield Signs as shown in Figures 1 1 through 1 3 Figure 1 1 Sample STOP Sign B2a A stop sign is a traffic sign to notify drivers that they must stop before proceedin g. In the United States s ign B2a is used which is a red octagon with STOP written in bold letters. This traffic sign requires that the driver stops before crossing the Stop Line and yields to oth er traffic ( in case other traffic does not stop) or follows a Firs t

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14 in First Out rule to move ahead. It also requires that the driver yields to the car on his right in case both vehicles arrived at the same time. In US the stop sign is used in places where the installation of traffic light is not ju stified due to cost an d low traffic flow Figure 1 2. Sample Yield Sign In certain places such as an intersection with pass/right turn lanes the Yield sign is used. It requires the driver to slow down and stop / give way to the approaching traffic else the driver can conti nue on his path According to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices [1 ] a yield sign is used in cases when Approaches to a through street or highway does not require a mandatory stop. Channelized turn lane that is separated from the adjacent trave l lanes by an island, even if the adjacent lanes at the intersection are controlled by a highway traffic control signal or by a stop sign. Travel lanes merge and control is needed as road geometry may limit sight

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15 Figure 1 3. Traffic Lights (Vertical Or ientation) The most popular of the traffic signals/devices is the traf fic light as shown in Figures 1 3 and 1 5 This device alternates the right of way by showing signals to traffic (red for stop and green to go with yellow to warn about an upcoming sign al change. These devices either work on preset timings or use an in road loop sensor to sen se the presence of vehicles ( Figure 1 4). They may be installed in Horizontal or Vertical Orientation above the intersection and in some cases some additional s ignals are installed some distance before the actual intersection if the intersection cannot be seen from a distance. Every intersection is unique when it comes to its design and placement of devices, and this leads to the next section about the need for n ewer systems

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16 Figure 1 4. In road inductive loop sensor Figure 1 5. Traffic Lights (Horizontal Orientation) Need for Newer Infrastructure Every traffic control device present today has been designed keeping human drivers in mind and some devices r equire that the driver uses his own discretion when navigating through it

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17 The driver needs to know the order in which the c ars arrived at a STOP sign so they can determine when it is their turn to proceed Making a right turn at a traffic signal requires that the driver check for incoming traffic before merging. An autonomous vehicle cannot easily perform these tasks without communicating with the intersection or other cars and this requires changes to existing infrastructure. It is also important to make sure that the changes do not render the intersections unusable for human driven vehicles Literature Review Algorithms have been developed by various universities which will allow the autonomous vehicle to navigate through an intersection and they have be en proved to be more efficient than traditional traffic light However these algorithms rely on several assumptions and require changes to the e xisting system that renders them inefficient to use with human driven vehicles. S ome of the algorithms are revie wed here such as the FCFS Algorithm by the University of Texas Austin and a similar algorithm by Ismail Zohdy of Virginia Tech Existing Algorithms T he Autonomous Intersection Management Algorithm developed by Peter and Stone of University of Texas Austi n is presented first. The algorithm developed by Dr. Dresner and Dr. Stone is titled Multi agent Traffic Management. In the first policy called FCFS (First Come First Serve) they assume all vehicles are autonomous and the vehicle follows an exact given pat h by the algorithm. Each and every intersection is divided into an n n grid where n is the granularity of the intersection. The algorithm works on the basis of reservation. Each vehicle approaching

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18 an intersection sends in a requ est to the intersection m anager. The reservation includes the following information [ 2 ] The time the vehicle will arrive The velocity at which the vehicle will arrive The direction the vehicle will be facing when it arrives minimum acceleration From this information the intersection computer simulates the path of the vehicle and notes the cells of the grid used by the vehicle. This process is repeated for every vehicle and if any of the cells required by the vehicle are not available then the request is denied O therwise the system accepts the request ( Figure 1 6) Figure 1 6. Successful Vs. Failed Reservation under AIM The driver agent behaves according to the information/ parameters given by the intersection manager. If the request is approved the driver agent continues proceed ing

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19 towards the intersection. However, if the request is denied it slows down and send the request again after a fixed time If the driver agent determines tha t it cannot keep the reservation it cancels the existing reservation and the reservation making process begins again. The algorithm was not implemented in a real world scenario but they used a simulation to determine efficiency` of the system [2 ] The othe r systems they discussed are called FCFS LIGHT and FCFS EMERG. When human driven vehicles are also present at the intersection, the FCFS LIGHT is preferred. This policy is designed to accommodate both human drivers and autonomous vehicles. Under this polic y if the light is green the policy ensures that it is safe for the vehicles to drive through the lane that is regulated by the light and also to grant reservations to autonomous vehicles in other lane s where human driven vehicle s are not present similar to a right on red. Under this policy the intersection is divided into an n n grid similar to the policy described earlier and the same parameters are sent to the intersection manager by the driver agent. The lane which is given the green light is conside red off limits and no reservation is made which intends to use the light controlled lane. This allows vehicles in other lanes to continue moving w/o affecting the light controlled lane [ 3 ] ( Figure 1 7).

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20 Figure 1 7. Every lane is given green light i n a cycle for human driven This policy subsumes the FCFS policy. FCFS is just like a special case of FCFS LIGHT. The other policy explained is FCFS EMERG ; T his policy is used when an Emergency Vehicle wants to pass through an intersection and is used to give priority to the Emergency vehicle. Under this policy all other reservation except for the lane in which the emergency vehicle is travelling is denied and the lane containing the Emergency Vehicle is given an unconditional Green Equivalent until the Emergency vehicle has crossed the intersection. As soon as the Emergency vehicle clears the intersection the policy switches back to FCFS or FCFS LIGHT based on traffic composition

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21 The algorithm entitled by Ismail Zohdy and Hesham Rakha of Virginia Tech Transportation Institute is now described This algorithm is a heuristic optimization algorithm for controlling driverless vehicles at unsignalised intersections. Similar to the algorithm discussed before, they have driver agents and an intersection manager called autonomous agents and manager agent. The manager agent has full authority over the autonomous agent. T his allows the manager to overcome any selfish behavior by an autonomous vehicle [ 3 ] The auto nomous agent provides the intersection manager with the following information. Initial Speed, location and acceleration Vehicle Characteristics (Power of engine, Weight of Vehicle, etc. ) Apart from this information, it also considers t he weather station measurements and s urface condition sensing along with intersection characteristics. According to Zohdy & Rakha previous research in this area had assumptions and did not capture various aspects of driverless vehicles. F or example All current simulators do not optimize the movements of driverless vehicles for the global benefit (total delay minimization) at intersections. All current simulators do not account for weather condition impacts Most of the simulators do not use the vehicle physical characterist ics (e.g. vehicle power, mass and engine capacity) in the simulation process Most of the simulators do not allow the intersection manager to control the movements of driverless vehicles and only grant the permission to pass or not. To cover for these assum ptions Zohdy and Rakha developed a new simulator called OSDI ( O ptimization S imulator for D riverless vehicles at I ntersection). The general concept of OSDI is to determine the optimum location, speed and acceleration of all

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22 vehicles along with minimizing t he time delay. The model used by Zohdy and Rakha also made certain assumptions which will be discuss ed later. The process works in 3 steps. First it calculates the Conflict Zon e Occupancy Time (CZOT) then adjusts the speed of one vehicle to avoid the confl ict and then finalize the decision and send it to the vehicle [4 ] ( Figure 1 8) Figure 1 8. Sample Intersection showing Collision Zones The system initially advises all vehicles to accelerate to the desired speed ( i.e. max safe speed) and if a co nflict is detected i t reduces the speed of one vehicle while maintaining the other to go at the desired speed. A sample time diagram is shown in Figure 1 9.

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23 Figure 1 9. Time Di agram for all collision zones This adjustment is done for every vehicle an d the process is repeated after a small time to adjust for any unforeseen circumstance/issue. Zohdy and Rakha compared this system to an All Way Stop Control and ran up to 1000 simulation and compared the results. They found that their system reduced the a verage wait ti me by 35 seconds which is approximately a 65% reduction in total intersection delay [4 ] as shown in Figure 1 10.

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24 Figure 1 10 Performance of the OSDI algorithm Assumptions and Drawbacks in Existing Algorithms There are certain assump ti ons in both algorithms that will be discussed in this subsection. T he assumptions in AIM are presented first and it will be shown how it affects the implementation and performance in the real world. T he FCFS policy limitations and assumptions are discussed first before moving to other policies. AIM assumes that all vehic les are autonomous; they report time of arrival accurately to the controller and can follow the path perfectly while travelling through the intersection [8] Autonomous vehicles have develop ed a lot over the last decade but they are still far from being us ed in a commercial public setting. Moreover the acceptance of autonomous vehicles in the market is unknown Traffic composition of 100%

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25 a utonomous vehicle is at least 10 years from now. Duri ng initial stages the majority of vehicles will still be human driven and sacrificing efficiency for h uman driven vehicles to benefit autonomous vehicles will be detrimental to autonomous vehicle acceptance. Figure 1 11 shows the anticipated delay time s as a function of traffic load under various mixes of human and autonomous vehicles. It shows that even a small percentage of human driven vehicles has a large impact Figure 1 11. Performance of AIM FCFS light according to traffic composition The c ontroller simulates the path of every vehicle to determine if it will accept the reservation or reject it. This works perfectly in the simulation but to do it in real life is far more complex and involves more variables, as for example; vehicle ch aracteris tics, road conditions and weather conditions. To work effectively in real life the bumper spaces on the vehicle have to be larger and this will lead to a slightly less efficiency than the simulation results [9]

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26 Abrupt changes in G forces due to turning, a cceleration and braking can make it an uncomfortable experience for some passengers and this is not taken into consideration in the AIM system. As far as the OSDI system by Zohdy and Rakha is concerned. They have mentioned several assumptions in their pa per, namely All vehicles are autonomous i.e. there is no human driven vehicle The intersection is equipped with an intersection controller that has the ability and authority to control the move ments of the vehicles All wireless connections are secure and support low latency communication All vehicles update their information to the controller each time step The intersection manager can change the speed profile of only one vehicle (the most critical one) at each time step. All vehicles are through vehicles (no turns) at intersections Some of these assumptions are valid and are required for successful implementation of such a system. A low latency secure communication system with regular updates is the backbone to any intersection management project. Other a ssumptions limit the capability of this system. The i nability to process turning vehicles limits the application of the algorithm. Similar to Dresner & AIM this algorithm only works with Autonomous Vehicles and will not work under a mixed traffic c omposition. The a ssumption that the intersection manager will only change the speed profile of one vehicle may hurt the overall wait time as the algorithm does not consider the effect of changing the speed of one vehicle on the others.

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27 CHAPTER 2 UF ALGO RITHM Overview The UF algorithm is cu rrently being developed by Zhuofe i Li, a PhD Student at the Transport Research Center of Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Florida under the gu idance of Dr. Lily Elefteriadou. It is a twofold approach which focuses on optimizing the signal phase and timing along with controlling the vehicles. The algorithm is in the development stage right now. Literature Review T here are two general categories of traffic signal control optimization algorithms that co nsider the performance of signalized intersections based on the connectivity between vehic les and signal controllers. The first category seeks to optimize the intersection efficiency by improving signal control schemes based on the speed and location info rmation from the approaching vehicles. These algorithms address spillback during oversaturated conditions, consider the breakup of vehicle platoons on the major street, and reduce the predicted future vehicle delays over a rolling horizon based on real tim e data. The se system s use short range wireless transmitters in cars to communicate basic position information to the signal controller t o achieve a better performance than the existing signal control scheme. The second category of signal control optimiza tion research focuses on improving the efficiency of the traffic stream by transmitting information from the signal to the vehicles. For example, the automobile company Audi developed a vehicle to infrastructure communication system named Travolution tech nology to help vehicles to communicate with traffic lights. Using this technology, the driver can decide what speed

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28 to adopt so that it can arrive at the next intersection after the traffic light changes to green. It can also provide the amount of red time expected when the car is stopped at the light. With respect to autonomous vehicles, previous work has mostly focused on the development of the technology itse lf. There has been research that has investigated the use of autonomous veh icles in an urban e nvironment, but often these systems use simplified assumptions such as not having to identify signs and signals Rather, it is assumed that this information is provided via road network data [12] Algorithm The algorithm will jointly optimize the signal c ontrol operations and vehicle paths. The algorithm is developed based on conventional signal timing, where the right of way is sequentially assigned to each phase. The algorithm provides optimal vehicle speeds (which can be presented to the driver of conn ected vehicles as a recommended speed, and to the autonomous vehicles as actual paths) and selects the phase pattern and duration to minimize the total waiting time of all the vehicles that travel through the intersection. It is expected that a communicat ion distance to the signal controller of at least 1,500 ft will be possible communicate with the signal controller. It is assume d that when the incoming vehicle is outside the signal influenc e area, it cannot obtain any signal control information. After the vehicle enters the intersection influence area, it may encounter three different us at the intersection. Figure s 2 1 through 2 3 shows the time distance diagram for the three

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29 different scenarios. The dashed blue area represents the speed region within which the vehicle can go through the intersection without stopping. Figure 2 1 Scenario 1 The dashed red are a represents the feasible speed region for the vehicle. If the red region overlaps with the blue region and the maximum speed of the overlapped region (recommended speed for this scenario) is higher than the current traveling speed, the vehicle has to acce lerate to go through the intersection without stopping Figure 2 2 Scenario 2

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30 If the red region overlaps with the blue region but the maximum speed of the overlapped region (recommended speed for this scenario) is smaller than the current traveling sp eed, the vehicle has to decelerate. Figure 2 3 Scenario 3 If the red region does not overlap with the blue region, the vehicle has to stop at the intersection, and a minimum speed is suggested. This basic idea will be enhanced to consider queues wa iting at the stop bar, as well as a feasible acceleration and deceleration process. For a given signal timing scheme, vehicles are able to adjust their speed to minimize the overall waiting time, and in this manner a minimum system waiting time (SWT) can be obtained The minimum among those minimum SWT will be the optimum among all timing schemes. The basic idea used in this research is enumerating all the feasible timing schemes, calculating the SWT for each of them and choosing the one

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31 that can minimiz e the SWT. The flow chart for this optimization proc edure is presented in Figure 2 4. Figure 2 4 Flowchart for combining both optimization techniques The optimization results include the predicted optimum for the following optimization time period w ith the assumption that all the vehicles follow the recommendations provided by the controller. However, in reality, some of the vehicles may not follow the suggestion. Also, vehicles already inside the influence area will gradually leave the intersection and new vehicles will enter the influence area.

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32 Therefore, optimization results are updated with a certain frequency using the rolling technique over a time horizon as illustrated in Figure 2 5 Figure 2 5 Rolling Horizon Technique There are two key f actors for this procedure: length of each optimization period and update frequency. The length of each optimization period should be determined based on the communication range between vehicles and the signal controller, and the average travelling speed of the vehicles. The update frequency should be determined based on the average speed of the vehicles and the magnitude of the influence area. It is better to guarantee that each optimization occurs while newly entering vehicles are still a certain distance away from the intersection, to maximize the effectiveness of the optimization. Benefits and Future Work Benefit of our algorithm over other algorithm is that we do not assume all vehicles are autonomous. We consider the data from both human driven and auto nomous vehicle and determine optimum speed / signal timing which benefits every

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33 vehicle. Human driven vehicles do not have to suffer longer wait times and there is no need to replace the existing infrastructure. This algorithm can be used as an intermediat e solution before moving to 100% autonomous vehicles and replacing all the existing infrastructure. In the future we plan to create a network of intersections controlled by our algorithm which will allow for better routing of vehicles in case of heavy traf fic in certain areas and can also be used to synchronize the movement of vehicles which have same destination. Because we are not assigning a permanent identifier to any vehicle, every intersection will treat the vehicle as a new entry. This makes it chall enging to design a system that can route the vehicle from one point to another without compromising the privacy.

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34 CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL IMPLEMENTATION No matter how sophisticated and efficient an algorithm might look in a computer simulation, it must be e asily implementable to be successful. The UF algorithm does not make any assumptions about traffic composition. A dditional information must be gathered from vehicles which will then be used to determine how the information is processed and what responses are given back to the vehicles. The guiding philosophy is to gather the required information, at a level of required accuracy, but at a low cost and in a form factor which requires little modification to the vehicle. Ideally, the entire unit would be batt ery operated, small and light weight enough so that it could be suction cupped to the windshield similarly to many existing toll transponders Irrespective of vehicle type, certain information is needed from every vehicle ex: temporary identifier, vehicle p osition, speed, acceleration (for future use), lane of travel, orientation, destination and other previous recommendations given to the vehicle Depending on vehicle type the algorithm will either issue a recommendation about speed or will change the spe ed of an autonomous vehicle using Vehicle to Infrastructure ( V2I ) communication Information needed from the vehicle irrespective of their type is: Vehicle Location Vehicle Speed Lane of travel Direction of Approach Turn Status To gather this data man y existing technologies will be used such as GPS, GLONASS, IMS, and DSRC which are explained in detail below.

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35 GPS: Global Positioning System is the GNSS (Global National Satellite System) developed and maintained by U.S Department of Defense to overcome th e limitations of existing systems [5 ] A GPS receiver works on the principle of Trilateration. The GPS satellites periodically transmit information regarding time and satellite position. The receiver on earth uses this message to calculate distance of tran smitt er. Each of the distance and location define a sphere and the intersectio n of three or more sphere gives the location of the r eceiver. To an accurate result four or more satellites must be visible to the receiver at all times. Fewer satellites may als o yield an accurate result in certain special cases. From any point on earth with clear vision to the sky 8 12 satellites are us ually visible at all times. The larger the number of visible satellites yields more accurate results. Figure 3 1 shows a typical GPS receiver, the size of which has greatly reduced in recent years Figure 3 1 GPS Receiver (u blox 5 developed by u blox)

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3 6 GLONASS: Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema is the Russian equivalent of GPS. It was developed as an alternative to GPS but now is used to supplement GPS. The b asic working s of GLONASS is similar to GPS. As GLONASS was developed by Russia it has better availability in higher latitudes and can work in places where GPS can be problematic. GLONASS works on a different frequency than GPS. Combined receivers have been developed which can also work in urban jungles with fairly hi gh level of accuracy. [ 6 ] Figure 3 2 shows a combined GPS/GLONASS receiver. Figure 3 2 GPS/GLONASS Combined Receiver IM U : An Inertial Measu rement Unit is an electronic device that measures angular velocity and acceleration using accelerometers and gyroscopes. They may or may not include a magnetometer (which will be discussed later in the chapter). An IMU works by

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37 detecting the acceleration u sing one or more accelerometers and detects changes in pitch, roll and yaw using one or more gyroscopes. They are used in Unmanned Air Vehicles ( UAVs ) and Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) and other autonomous vehicles along with GPS and can prov ide dead rec koning in case a position cannot be obtained by GPS. However dead reckoning is subject to cumulative errors and cannot be used for extended period s of time. Figure 3 3 shows a typical IMU. Figure 3 3 Inertial Measurement Sensor (Razor 9 DOF IMU) A m a gnetometer is an instrument used to measure the strength and direction of magnetic fields. Magnetometers can be of various types, for example Hall Effect M agentoresistive, Rotating Coil, or Flux Gate. Magnetometers are also available i n smart phones [7 ] Figure 3 4 shows a typical magnetometer

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38 Figure 3 4. Magnetometer (Micromag 3) Metal Detector: It is device that responds to presence of metal objects which are not in plain sight. They are used to find metal objects buried deep in soil and also to f ind hidden objects such as knives and guns at Security checkpoints A metal detector consists of 3 components, namely [8 ] : C ontrol Box contains the circuit/processor Shaft connects the other two parts Search Coil the actual part which senses the m etal There are 3 basic t ypes of metal detectors, namely: Very Low Frequency (VLF) Pulse Induction Beat frequency Oscillation (BFO)

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39 Very Low Frequency: There are two coils in a VLF metal detector a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. The receivi ng coil is shielded from the receiving coil but it is not shielded from the reflected fields. W hen the receiver coil passes over an object the object gives off a magnetic field. This causes a small electric current to travel through the coil [ 8 ] The coil amplifies the frequency and sends it to the control box of the metal detector, where sensors analyze the signal Figure 3 5 shows a typical VLF metal detector Figure 3 5 VLF Metal Detector Pulse Induction: This is a less common form of a metal detect or Unlike a VLF system it only uses one coil instead of two. This type of metal detector sends bu rsts of

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40 energy to the coil. The pulse generates a brief magnetic field. At the end of the pulse, the re is reversal in the magnetic field polarity and it co llapses very suddenly, resulting in a sharp electrical spike. This spike lasts a few micro seconds and causes another current to run through the coil. This current is called the reflected pulse and is extremely short, lasting only about 30 microseconds [ 8 ] I f the metal detector is over a metal object, the pulse creates an opposite magnetic field in the object. When the pulse's magnetic field collapses, causing the reflected pulse, the magnetic field of the object makes it take longer for the reflected pulse to completely disappear. A sampling circuit then detects the difference between the times taken for the pulse to disappear which indicates presence of metal. BFO: Beat frequency oscillator is the most common form of metal detector In a BFO system, there are two coils of wire. One large coil is in the search head, and a smaller coil is located inside the control box. Each coil is connected to an oscillator that generates thousands of pulses of current per second. The frequency of these pulses is slightly o ffset between the two coils. I f the coil in the search head passes over a metal object, the magnetic field caused by the current flowing through the coil creates a magnetic field around the object. The object's magnetic field interferes with the frequency of the radio waves generated by the search head coil. As the frequency deviates from the frequency of the coil in the control box, the audible beats change in duration and tone [ 8 ] The intent is to use a Pulse Induction type metal detector to detect road markings. Small discs of metals will be secured under the surface of the road in specific

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41 patterns which will the vehicle to determine the lane of travel. This is shown in Figure 3 6. Figure 3 6 Sample Intersection showing Lane Marker Locations The Fi gure 3 7 shows the different parts of the proposed marker. The assembly consists of the metal disc, an anchor both, bolt pin and a cap with security head. The anchor bolt and security cap ensures that the marker cannot be removed for its position in case o f theft or vandalism.

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42 Figure 3 7. Sample Marker Assembly ( Bolt, Marker, Pin, Security Cap/Nut)

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43 DSRC: Dedicated short range communications are one way or two way short to medium range wireless communication channels specifically designed for auto motive use In October 1999, the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated in the USA 75MHz of spectrum in the 5.9GHz band for DSRC to be used by Intelli gent T ransportation Systems. [ 9 ] It uses IEEE 802.11p as its groundwork. It is c apable of providing a range of up to 1 kilometer and v ehicle speeds up to 60 mph. The data rate is in range of 3 27Mbs with latency less than 50 milliseconds 802.11p: IEEE 802.11p is an approved amendmen t to the IEEE 802.11 standard. It adds wireless acce ss to vehicular environments and is required to support Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) applications. It operated in the licensed ITS band of 5.9 GHz (5.85 5.925 GHz) [ 10 ] The setup to use DSRC in this project includes a n On Board Unit ( OBU ) and a Road Side Unit ( RSU ) There will be 1 5 RSU installed around the intersection depending on the geometry and range ( Figure 3 8 ) and one OBU per complaint vehicle. Figure 3 8 Sample Intersection showing location of Road Side Units

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44 Human driven v ehicles will be sent a recommended speed and lane (in future work) along with time to signal change. Autonomous vehicle speed will be changed by the intersection controller. The intersection controller will also run a simulation of the path of the entire v ehicle based on data from th e vehicles so position extra polated in case of missing packet or other transmission fault Autonomous Vehicles Autonomous vehicles already have certain sensors installed in them and data fro m these sensors can be used for the sy stem. For l o cation, a GPS Sensor will be used but most GPS sensors are not accurate enough for the purpose for detecting the lane of travel with a high level of certainty There are other ways to detect the lane which were initially thought but dropped as they were not accurate enough for this project e.g. Received Signal Strength Indicator ( RSSI ) Triangulation (explained in Appendix A) The only two options available here are either to use a very accurate GPS receiver or to have magmatic markings in the lanes which can be read by a coil attached to the base of the vehicle. GPS receivers can be quite accurate when there is a clear line of sight to the satellites but they are ineffective when used in an urban jungle like Manhattan. Multi path errors render the data unfit for this project. However the newer GPS/GLONASS combined receivers are claimed to have better accuracy in urban jungles. One such system that is available is the Garmin GLO GPS GLONASS receiver. Garmin claims that this receiver has an accura cy of 3 meters Garmin GLO is ideal to navigate in an urban environment but it is still not accurate enough to sense lane of travel and lane changes. Due to this reason it was decided to use lane markers and sense them to determine the lane of travel.

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45 Smal l metal discs will be embedded 3 4 inches deep in the road surface at predetermined intervals and patterns. For e xample, the lane closest to the median can have one marker after every say 10 meters and the next lane can have two markers after each 10 meter s and the lane right to them can have three m arkers after every 10 meters. There can also be a special pattern of markers for turn lanes. The vehicle will be equipped with a metal detector coil which will be installed under the chassis. The metal detector will detect the presence of marker patterns and this information can be used to sense the lane as well as any lane change accurately. There are a few choices f or sen sing the speed and acceleration. One can either tap into the speedometer to get the speed o f the vehicle or c an use the GPS way points to calculate the speed. Additionally the lane markers can be used for calculating the speed. GPS seems to the easier solution but it suffers from the multipath problem in urban environments. Multipath error can l ead to an error in speed calculation. Using the speedometer seems to be a better solution but it will require modification to the vehicle. Since we are talking about an autonomous vehicle, all the tools necessary to extract the speed information from the v ehicle will be available For calculating the acceleration d ata from the vehicle an IMS device will be used which will report all three axial accelerations along with yaw pitch and roll rates The algorithm however does not require this information but i t can be used to extrapol ate the position of vehicles in case of loss of transmission This information can be used in future algorithms to maximize safe turning speeds for larger vehicles. The last and most important piece of information which sets this system apart from the one developed by Virginia Tech is the use of turn s ignals Since turning

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46 vehicles are also considered in the UF algorithm It is necessary to extract this information. This can be done by tapping into the CAN BUS of the vehicle or by using information from a Navigation Unit/Map. This extracted information will then be packaged into the format required for transmission and sen t to the Intersection Manager which wi ll run its calculations and send the optimal speed and lane information ba ck to the vehicle. This information will be used to change the speed of the vehicle and lane (if required). This process will be repeated at predetermined interval s till the vehicle has cleared the intersection Human Driven Vehicles Application of such a system in a Human Driven Vehicle is more compl icated and requires more effort as a human driven vehicle does not have the necessary hardware unlike their autonomous counterpart. Similar to the autonomous vehicle the location information can be obtained fro m a GPS/GLONASS sensor and it can be differentiated to obtain speed information Information about acceleration and orientation can be obtained from an IMS device and heading can be obtained from a magnetometer so the algorithm can differentiate between ve hicles approaching and leaving the intersection. The main issue with human driven vehicles is to obtain the turn indication. One can tap into the electrical system of the vehicle to sense the use of turn signals or attach a small micro switch onto the turn stalk that will report the turn direction. This system works on the assumption that human driver will use the turn indicator every time he/she has to make a turn. The lane data will be obtained using a marker and metal detector as explained with autonom ous vehicles. After the data has been sent to the Intersection Manager the

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47 Intersection Manager will send back the recommended speed / lane along with Signal Timing information. This will help the driver to make adjustments as he/she deems best.

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48 CHAPTER 7 FUTURE WORK This system is far from perfect and does not account for many factors such as vehicle type or vehicle capacity. In the future more variables can be ac counted for in the algorithm. One can assign priority based on vehicle type such as giving a higher weightage to a bus in an urban environment. This can also be used to give priority to laden trucks at rural intersections or at ramps. The system at present is only designed to work at one intersection. As there is no unique permanent identifier issued to any vehicle because of privacy issues. Work can be done in designing a network of intersection managers which can optimize the flow of traffic on a city or block level w/o assigning a permanent identifier to a vehicle. Lane sensing can be develo ped using Markov Based Lane Positioning Using Inter vehicle Communication [ 11 ]. This will relieve us from having to install markers or to rely on GPS data. Under this system the vehicles will communicate with each other ermine the lane of travel [11].

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49 APPENDIX A RSSI BASED POSITION ESTIMATION This is the sample algorithm we used to determine the effects of errors in RSSI based triangulation. p1 = [ 0 0, 0 ]' p2 = [ 10 0, 0 ]' p3 = [ 0 10, 0 ]' e=.02 r1= sqrt ( 200) r2= sqrt ( 10 0+100*e) r3= sqrt ( 100) ex = ( p2 p1) ex=ex/(sqrt(ex(1,1)^2+ex(2,1)^2+ex(3,1)^2)) i= dot ( ex ( p3 p1)) Ey= ( p3 p1 i*ex) ey=ey/(sqrt(ey(1,1)^2+ey(2,1)^2+ey(3,1)^2)) ez= cross ( ex ey ) d=p2 p1 d=sqrt(d(1,1)^2+d(2,1)^2+d(3,1)^2) j= dot ( ey ( p3 p1)) x = ( r1^2 r2^2+d ^2) / ( 2*d) y = ( r1^2 r3^2+i^2+j^2) / ( 2*j) i*x/j z1= sqrt ( r1^2 x^2 y^2) z2= sqrt(r1^2 x^2 y^2) xv = (x 10)*10 yv= (y 10)*10 p1 p2, p3 are simulated locations of 3 Transmitters with [0 0, 0] being the center of the intersection. E is the error in distance estimate from RSSI values. xv and yv are the error in position we obtained from the calculation.

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50 Figure A 1 Graph showing nonlinear relationship between RSSI and distance ( Blue ) Based on our experiment we are able to determine certain positio ns of transmitters which gave us high tolerance for errors in one direction but the error in other direction became worse

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51 Figure A 2 Location of Transmitter and Receiver The table below tells %age error in position caused by error in converted d istance Table A 1 Effect of error in distance on position %age e rror in D1 %age e rror in X %age e rror in Y 1 .5 .5 2 1 1 4 2 2 6 3 3 10 5 5 20 10 10

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52 In certain orientations the error in one direction remains 0 while e rror in other direction would become huge. This is possible because we were assuming the x y plane is flat. Table A 2 Effect of error in distance on position in special orientation %age error in D1 %age error in X %age error in Y 1 1.5 10 2 3 20 4 6 40 10 15 100 20 30 200 Due to such large %age errors and distances involved. RSSI Trilateration cannot be used to accurately calculate position of a vehicle. This is due to the fact that the receiver is outside the triangle formed by the transmitters.

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53 APPENDIX B PREVIOUS WORK Prior to working with the Civil engineering department and using their algorithm. I tried to develop an algorithm for all way STOP sign based intersections which would allow two cars to cross the intersection at the same time wh en their path was not intersecting. The program was written in parts as a function, the main program just runs them on parallel threads. Any increase in efficiency has not been calculated. The physical implementation is same as explained in Chapter 3. func tion [b]=define clear b b.tag= 'NY2444446' b.dirin=2 b.dirout=4 b.right=0; b.left=1; b.delay=1 b.stamp=clock function [a]=go(a) [r,c]=size(a); if c==0 display( 'Empty Stack' ) else if c==1 a=subs(a,1); display( 'Car sent delay in itiated' ) else if a(1).dirin==a(2).dirin a=subs(a,1); display( 'Car sent delay initiated' ) else if a(1).dirin==a(2).dirout && a(2).dirin==a(1).dirout a=subs(a,1); display( 'No Delay used as pat h are parallel' ) display( 'Car1 Sent No Delay' )

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54 a=subs(a,1); display( 'Car2 Sent Delay' ) else if a(1).right==1 && a(2).right==1 a=subs(a,1); display( 'No Delay used both are turning right a nd hence have no intersection' ) display( 'Car1 Sent No Delay' ) a=subs(a,1); display( 'Car2 Sent Delay' ) else if a(1).right==0 || a(1).left==0 || a(2).right==1 || a(1).dirout~=a(2).dirout a=subs(a,1) ; display( 'One is going straight and 2 is turning right with exit not common' ) display( 'Car1 Sent No Delay' ) a=subs(a,1) ; display( 'Car2 Sent Delay' ) else if a(2).right==0 || a(2).left==0 || a(1).rig ht==1 || a(1).dirout~=a(2).dirout a=subs(a,1) ; display( 'two is going straight and 1 is turning right with exit not common' ) display( 'Car1 Sent No Delay' ) a=subs(a,1) ; display( 'Car2 Sent Delay' ) else a=subs(a,1); display( 'Car sent delay initiated' ) end end end end end end end

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55 function [a]=add(a,tag,dirin,left,right,delay) [r,c]=size(a); if left==1 if dirin~=4; % IF left then where to exit dirout=dirin+1; else dirout=1; end end if right==1 if dirin~=1; % IF right then where to exit dirout=dirin 1; else dirout=4; end end if left==0 && right==0 if dirin==1 || diri n==2 % IF straight then where to exit dirout=dirin+2; end if dirin==4 dirout=2; end if dirin==3 dirout=1; end end a(c+1).tag=tag; a(c+1).dirin=dirin; a(c+1).dirout=dirout; a(c+1).left=left; a(c+1).right=right; a(c+1).delay=delay; a(c+1).stamp=clock; function [a]=subs(a,n) [r,c]=size(a); for i=n:c 1, a(i).tag = a(i+1).tag; a(i).dirin = a(i+1).dirin; a(i).dirout = a(i+1).dirout; a(i).delay = a(i+1).delay; a(i).stamp = a(i+1).stamp; a(i).left = a(i+1).left;

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56 a(i ).right = a(i+1).right; end Another approach that we used was to detect presence of other cars at the stop sign controlled intersection using LIDAR sensors and comparing the distance between points that were returned and comparing them with existing d ata to check for presence other vehicles and proceed according to the order the cars were sensed

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57 REFERENCES [1] United States Federal Highway Administration Manual on uniform traffic control devices: for streets and highways Washington DC : GPO, 2010 Print [2 ] K. Dresner and P. Stone. (2008, March.). A multiagent approach to autonomous intersection management Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 31, 591 656. Available: http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~aim/papers/JAIR08 dresner.pdf [ 3] K. Dresner and P. Sto ne. (2007, January.). Sharing the Road: Autonomous Vehicles Meet Human Drivers International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence 20 1263 1268 Avaliable: http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~aim/papers/IJCAI07 kurt.pdf [4] I Zohdy and H. Rakha (2012, O ctober.). Optimizing Driverless Vehicles At Intersections ITS World Congress 19 Available: http://www.ertico.com/assets/Congress/Vienna/Bestpapers/Ismail Zohdy.pdf [5] United States. National Research Council The global positioning system: a shared national asset Wa shington DC: National Academies Press, 1995 p. 16. [6] B. Harvey. The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program: 50 Years after Sputnik, New Frontiers (1st ed.) Germany: Spring er, 2007 [7] Tyson, Jeff, Magnetometer http://www.howstuffworks.com/magnetometer info.htm HowStuffWorks.com. 2 013 [8] Tyson, Jeff, How Metal Detect ors Work, http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/gadgets/ot her gadgets/metal detector.htm. HowStuffWorks.com. 2 013 [9] United States. Federal Communications Commission. News Release, October 1999". FCC. [10] E uropean Union. European Telecommunications Standards Institute. News Release, September 2008". ETSI. [1 1 ] T. S. Dao, K. Y. K. Leung, C. M. Clark, and J. P. Huissoon. (2007, December.). M arkov based lane positioning us ing intervehicle communication. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 8, 641 650. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=04381247 [12] C. Rouff and M Hinchey. Experience from the DAR PA Urban Challenge. Germany: Springer, 2012.

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58 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Maninder Singh was born in Union Territory of Chandigarh, India. He received his Bachelor of Technology degree from the P unjabi University, INDIA in 2011 He worked for Honda Motorcycle an d Scooter India as an Engineering Intern for 5 months in Supplier and Quality Development before joining University of Florida for Masters of Science in Mechanical Engineering. He joined the Center for Intelligent Machines and Robotics under the guidance o f Dr. Carl Crane in early 2012. He worked closely with the Transportation Research Center at the University of Florida under guidance of Dr. Lily He plans to pursue a doctoral degree in Mechanical Engineering in Nea r Future. His research interests include Autonomous Vehicles, Sensors, and Industrial /Process Automation