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Teacher Beliefs of Language and Culture as a Resource for Latina/O English Language Learners

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045446/00001

Material Information

Title: Teacher Beliefs of Language and Culture as a Resource for Latina/O English Language Learners
Physical Description: 1 online resource (91 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Howard, Cassandra C
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: bilingual -- hispanic -- latina -- latino
Latin American Studies -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Latin American Studies thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis addressed the issue of low academic performance among Latina/o English Language Learners (ELLs) by exploring what high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners believe about the role of language and culture as a resource for learning. The study used a triangulation of methods. Survey data was collected from 57 teachers at a large high school in central Florida. Four teachers also participated in a group interview, and two teachers participated in a follow-up group interview conducted after the initial analysis of data. Findings revealed misconceptions and inconsistencies in beliefs and practices of home culture and Spanish as a resource for teaching Latina/o ELLs.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Cassandra C Howard.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Coady, Maria.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045446:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045446/00001

Material Information

Title: Teacher Beliefs of Language and Culture as a Resource for Latina/O English Language Learners
Physical Description: 1 online resource (91 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Howard, Cassandra C
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: bilingual -- hispanic -- latina -- latino
Latin American Studies -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Latin American Studies thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis addressed the issue of low academic performance among Latina/o English Language Learners (ELLs) by exploring what high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners believe about the role of language and culture as a resource for learning. The study used a triangulation of methods. Survey data was collected from 57 teachers at a large high school in central Florida. Four teachers also participated in a group interview, and two teachers participated in a follow-up group interview conducted after the initial analysis of data. Findings revealed misconceptions and inconsistencies in beliefs and practices of home culture and Spanish as a resource for teaching Latina/o ELLs.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Cassandra C Howard.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Coady, Maria.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045446:00001


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1 TEACHER BELIEFS OF LANGUAGE AND CULTURE AS A RESOURCE FOR LATINA/O ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS By CASSANDA CAROL HOWARD A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQ UIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 2013 Cassandra Howard

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3 To Sergio, whose advice I sometimes took

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It is with the support of many people that I have been able to complete this work. First, I thank Dr. Maria Coady, Dr. Brown, and Dr. Barradas for their feedback, patience, through this endeavor. Her commitment to educ ation inspires me. I would also like to thank my family who has been unconditionally supportive throughout this process. My parents provided much more than financial support. Fortunately, they have never asked for anything in return because my debt to them is one that I can never repay. My husband repaired computers, cooked dinners, and washed more than a few loads of laundry so that I could complete this work, and he never complained. He also contributed value input on the analysis of my quantitative data. I could not have asked for more a supportive work environment. I am furthermore grateful to the principal and staff at the high school where I inspiring. This project wou ld not have been possible without her support and the support of my coworkers. world is ready for that

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 11 Historic and Educational Policy Context ................................ ................................ 12 The Florida Context ................................ ................................ ................................ 14 The Latina/o Context ................................ ................................ ............................... 15 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 17 2 LANGUAGE AND CULTURE AS A RESOURCE FOR LEARNING ....................... 18 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 18 The Role of Language and Culture ................................ ................................ ......... 18 Empowerment of Language Minority Students ................................ ....................... 18 The Language as a Resource Paradigm ................................ ................................ 21 Empirical Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 23 Culture as a Resource ................................ ................................ ...................... 23 Language as a Resource ................................ ................................ ................. 27 Teacher Beliefs/Attitudes as a Prerequisite ................................ ............................ 29 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 34 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 37 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 37 Research Setting ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 37 The Mixed Methods Approach ................................ ................................ ................ 38 Survey ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 40 BCAR Items ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 41 BLAR Items ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 41 PLAR Items ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 41 PCAR Items ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 41 Group Interview and Follow up Interviews ................................ .............................. 42 Group Interview Participants ................................ ................................ ................... 42

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6 Carmenza ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 42 Jake ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 43 Ashley ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 43 Marc ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 43 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 43 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 45 4 FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 47 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 47 Demographic Findings ................................ ................................ ............................ 47 Beliefs about Culture as a Resource ................................ ................................ ....... 48 Practices of Cultures as a Resource ................................ ................................ ....... 51 Beliefs about Language as a Resource ................................ ................................ .. 54 Practices of Language as a Resource ................................ ................................ .... 58 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 61 5 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS ................................ ................................ ... 66 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 66 Misconceptions and Inconsistencies ................................ ................................ ....... 67 Meeting in the Middle: Explanations and Limitations ................................ .............. 72 Summary of Conclusions ................................ ................................ ........................ 76 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 76 Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 78 Implications for Professional Development ................................ ....................... 78 Implications for Future Research ................................ ................................ ...... 79 APPENDIX SURVEY ITEMS TA BLE ................................ ................................ ........ 81 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 86 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 91

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 ELL achievement compared to other subgroups at school and state level. ........ 46 4 1 Beliefs about culture as a resource (BCAR), positiv ely worded items ................ 62 4 2 Beliefs about culture as a resource (BCAR), negatively worded items ............... 62 4 3 Practices of culture as a res ource (PCAR), positively worded items .................. 63 4 4 Practices of culture as a resource (PCAR), negatively worded items ................. 63 4 5 Beliefs a bout language as a resource (BLAR), positively worded items ............. 64 4 6 Beliefs about language as a resource (BLAR), negatively worded items ........... 64 4 7 Practices of language as a resource (PLAR), positively worded items ............... 65 4 8 Practices of language as a resource (PLAR), negatively worded items ............. 65 A 1 Survey Items Table ................................ ................................ ............................. 81

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 ................................ ................................ .. 36

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9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AYP Adequate Y early P rogress BCAR Beliefs about C ulture as a R esource BLAR Beliefs about L anguage as a R esource ELL English Language Learner EOC End of Course Assessment ESEA Elementary and Secondary Education Act FAA F lorida Alternative Assessment FCA Focused Calendar Assessment FCAT Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test HC High Community Contact LC Low Community Contact NCLB No Child Left Behind PCAR Practices using C ulture as a R esource PLAR Practices using L anguage as a R esource

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts TEACHER BELIEFS OF LANGUAGE AND CULTURE AS A RESOURCE FOR LA TINA/O ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS By Cassandra Carol Howard M ay 2013 Chair: Maria Coady Major: Latin American Studies This thesis addressed the issue of low academic performance among Latina/o English Language Learners (ELLs) by exploring what high scho ol teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners believe about the role of language and culture as a resource for learning. The study used a triangulation of methods. Survey data was collected from 57 teachers at a large high school in central Florida. Fo ur teachers also participated in a group interview, and two teachers participated in a follow up group interview conducted after the initial analysis of data. Findings revealed misconceptions and inconsistencies in beliefs and practices of home culture and Spanish as a resource for teaching Latina/o ELLs.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Overview Shortly after viewing the latest results of the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT), the principal of a central Florida high school expressed mixed emotions concerning the scores of students designated as English Language p. Like educators around the country, this admi that ga p. educational environment in the United States has emphasized assessments such as the FCAT as a means to measure accountability for the le arning of all students. This means that the academic achievement of ELLs is linked to incentives such as school rewards, public recognition, and achievement based funding. Despite more than a decade of such incentives, school districts across the nation ar e reporting inadequate progress by ELLs on the state and national assessments required by NCLB ( U.S. Department of Education 2012) Meanwhile, the number of English Language Learners enrolling in school districts in the United States continues to increase As is the case of the central Florida high school, the majority of ELL students are Latina/o Spanish speaking students and comprise about 80% of the national K 12 ELL population ( National Clearing for English Language Acquisition and Language Instruction Educational Programs, 2011 ). The school administrator noted above echoes voices of educators across the nation in asking how to train teachers to close the gap between the achievement scores

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12 of Latina/o ELLs and th ose of their mainstream peers. The specif ic challenge of the schools throughout the United States. The purpose of this study was to explore ways to address this challenge. In Chapter 1 I will situate the probl em posed by the principal within the historic and educational policy context of second language instruction in the United States. I will also describe the specific context of ELLs in the state of Florida. In Chapter 2, I will explain that research shows th at language minority students learn best in environments in which their language and culture is viewed as a resource by educators. Chapter 3 will describe the methods I used to gather information about if and how teachers of Latina/o English Language Learn ers at a Central Florida high school view and use language and culture as a resource for teaching Latina/o ELLs. My findings will be presented in Chapter 4, and I will discuss conclusions and implications in Chapter 5. Throughout the work, I will be addres sing the following two research questions: What do high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners believe about the role of language and culture as a resource for learning? What do high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners beli eve about practices related to language and culture as a resource for learning? Historic and Educational Policy Context In 1965, the administration of Lyndon Johnson enacted the Elementary and act allocated federal funds to schools serving K 12 students from low income households. It was a significant piece of legislation because it dramatically increased federal funding and regulation of education, related educational achiev ement to

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13 education of children from all backgrounds. Since 1965, ESEA has been reauthorized seven times, most recently with The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001. No C hild Left Behind maintained the original rhetoric of education for all children, students and Hispanic Americans, African Americans, and American Indians. This gap was set to be closed by 2014, at which point, according to the goals of NCLB, all children in the United States were to be proficient in Reading and Mathematics. As part of this effort NCLB increased funding for educational programs that served minority and low incom e students. To ensure that such funding was used effectively, the a ct established stricter accountability measures that relied heavily on standardized tests to determine progress towards academic goals, with particular attention paid to the progress of stu dents who belong to subgroups based on factors such as race/ethnicity, English proficiency and income. As explained by then Secretary of Education Rod standards represents t he core of the bipartisan a ct's goal of ensuring that no child is left In compliance with the act, schools, districts and states submitted annual reports (AYP) in Reading and Mathematics As part of the accountability effort, a variety of incentives to show progress were tied to the information in those reports. Because the law allowed for states to develop their own plans for NCLB compliance, the nature of these incentives varied among states. However, for all states, a school that failed to

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14 and required to allow its students to transfer to a higher performing school withi n the same district. Schools that did not meet AYP goals for three years would be required to offer supplemental services, usually in the form of free tutoring, to its students. After five years, more drastic actions such as the replacement of personnel or extending the school year would be implemented. The Florida Context When NCLB was enacted, Florida already had an accountability system in place that assigned school grades (A F) based on academic achievement. Since 2001, Florida has kept the school gradi ng system while also following the guidelines of NCLB. In February 2012, the state of Florida was granted a flexibility waiver by the Obama administration that allows Florida to use an amended version of the pre existing grading system as an accountability measure instead of NCLB guidelines. Florida was one of many states (33 at the time of writing) to receive this waiver in exchange for a promise to set even higher standards for all students. According to the Obama administration, these waivers were necess ary because although higher standards and accountability Florida was granted the flexibility waiv er with the stipulation that it must amend its current grading system to include higher expectations and increased accountability for English Language Learners On July 16, 2012, Florida released the Revisions to School Grades Rule reflecting the amendment s required by the flexibility waiver. Its central tenet echoed previous NCLB policy: Student achievement data from the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), FCAT 2.0 and end of course (EOC) assessments and Florida Alternate Assessment (FAA) shall be used to establish both performance

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15 levels and annual progress for individual students, schools, districts, and the state. Results shall further be used as the primary criteria in calculating school grades, school rewards and recognition, and performanc e based funding and shall be annually reported (Revision s to School Grades Rule, 2012). In compliance with the waiver, the achievement scores of ELLs must be included in these reports unless they have been enrolled in school in the United States for less than one year. Under the previous guidelines, ELL scores were not factored until after two years of instruction in a U.S. school This new requirement could have significant consequences for Florida, which has the third largest ELL population in the natio n In 2011 enrolled more than 240,000 English Language Learners, 9.2% o f the total enrollment (Services, 2012) e of the non ELLs (FLDOE). Among ELLs, 17% in grades 3 10 scored satisfactory or above on the reading portion of the 2012 FCAT; the percentage for all Florida students in grades 3 10 was 57 % Those percentages drop significantly for older students. Twelve percent of ELLs in grades 6 8 scored satisfactory or above on FCAT Reading; for grades nine and ten, the number is 9%, compared to 57% and 52%, respectively, for all students. The Latina/o Context To appropriately understand the context of the achievement gap between Latina/o ELLs and their non ELL peers in Florida, it is essential to understand the complexity of the Latina/o experience in the United States. Over 16% of the total U.S. population falls under the umbrella of the term Hispanic/Latino (U.S. Ce nsus Bureau, 2010). Among the 50.5 million Latinos in the U.S are people with roots in over 23 countries, including those whose ancestors inhabited the United States well before it

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16 was established as such. Spanish is not the first language of many Latina/o s in the United States. Indeed, it may not be spoken at all by someone who identifies as Latina/o. Much debate has developed around the usefulness of grouping such a diverse array of people under one umbrella like term, with some scholars suggesting the te rm is a marketing ploy (Davila, 2001) and others arguing for its usefulness as a political mobilizer (Garcia, 1997; Gonzalez, 2001). The options given for the Hispanic origin item of the last census exemplifies the problematic nature of the term. Accordin g to the United States census, Hispanic origin may refer to the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or of any race (U.S. Census Bur eau, 2010, p. 2). On the 2010 Census, respondents were first asked if they were of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Respondents then replied to a separate question that asked about race. In addition to the five race categories ( White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander ) used in the census, respondents could also mark a cial classification issues con tinue to persist among those who identify as Hispanic, resulting in a subst antial proportion of that popu lation being categor 4). The issue of complexity of identity is closely related to the problem this thesis addressed. As the United States struggles to delineate its identity in a globalized,

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17 transnational reality, questi ons of how to deal with culture and language manifest in all arenas, but particularly in education. Conclusion The current political and educational climate of the United States emphasizes accountability through high stakes testing as a means to ensure th at historically marginalized students such as English Language Learners receive the same educational opportunities as their peers. Despite decades of such measures, ELLs across the U.S. continue to perform well below non ELL students. This national level s ituation is exemplified well by a large high school in Central Florida. This high school has been rewarded for its success with non ELL students, but continues to struggle with its ELL students, who are mainly Latina/o. This study was designed as a respons e to the challenge of closing the achievement gap between Latina/o ELLs and their non ELL peers at this Central Florida high school. In Chapter 1, I introduced the topic of the thesis by explaining the historic and educational policy context of second lan guage instruction in the United States. In the Chapter 2, I will explain what research in the field of education shows about how Latina/o ELLs acquire second language and learn academic content.

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18 CHAPTER 2 LANGUAGE AND CULTURE AS A RESOURCE FOR LEARNING Overview Chapter 1 of this thesis introduced and contextualized a problem: Latina/o ELLs at a Central Florida High School are not making adequate achievement gains as defined by NCLB. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to know what factors fac ilitate the learning of academic content for Latina/o ELLs. In Chapter 2 I will describe how research has shown that Latina/o ELLs learn best in environments in which language and culture are seen and used as a resource. I will then describe studies that h ave shown specific ways in which language and culture may be used as a resource for learning. In the conclusion, I will use the research questions posed in the introduction to anchor the research within the context of the larger study. The Role of Languag e and Culture Two major contributors in the field of education, Dr. James Cummins and Dr. Richard Ruiz, suggest that minority students learning a second language possess linguistic and cultural resources that educators should acknowledge and utilize in the ir interactions with students who are linguistically diverse. Cummins relates the process of second language acquisition to social factors and provides insight as to how people develop second languages, and Richard Ruiz presents three ways of viewing langu education. Empowerment of Language Minority Students Successful schools empower their students with the ability and confidence to succeed. Language minority students are empowere d through school settings that 1)

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19 instill cultural confidence 2) provide collaborative interactional structures and 3) present pedagogy that liberates students from instructional dependency (Cummins, 1986) These three components are closely interrelated Cultural confidence is instilled through the affirmation of cultural identity. The affirmation of cultural identity is dependent upon the nature of interactional structures. Interactional structures set the ready existing resources and thereby liberates the student from instructional dependency. Cummins posits that the academic success or failure of culturally diverse students depends on the micro interactions between teachers and students, because p. 40). Through student teacher interactions, teachers reveal perceptions and assumptions of students that may reflect broader relations of power Cummins describes these perceptions and assumption with students, and those role definitions determine the nature of the interpersonal space created between teacher and student. It is within this interpersonal space that learn ing occurs. The learning process that occurs in these spaces can be coercive and reinforce negative assumptions about culturally diverse students for both the teacher and student, or collaborative, which empowers and reinforces the identity of the student (Figure 1 1 ). Collaborative relations of power are more likely to lead to student success. For example, Cummins cites research that shows that failure is less likely to occur in minority groups that do not feel inferior (Ogbu, 1982). In the classroom, an e xample of an empowering process of identity negotiation is language instruction that builds on the first language of the student (Cummins, 1996,

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20 2005). The skills gained from acquiring one language contribute to learning in another language. In fact, the c onceptual knowledge developed when learning the first language serves as a base, or a common underlying proficiency, that aids in the learning of both the second language and the first language. For educators, this means that one way to reinforce the ident ity of a second language learner is to acknowledge and reinforce the value of the first language and use the interdependence of languages as a resource for learning (Cummins, 1979; 2005). Another way to create a collaborative relation of power that foster s academic success is by building on the background knowledge of second language learners (Cummins, 2000). This may be achieved by incorporating content material that is relevant to the learner or through parent or community involvement. When home school c ommunication is increased through collaborative instead of coercive means, teachers learn more about the culture of their students and can use that knowledge to inform the content of their instruction (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 2001). In this setting students learn how to create their own knowledge and are thus liberated from instructional dependency, or a dependency on schools and teachers for learning. The result of this liberation is an empowered student who is more likely to succeed academically. This idea was described similarly by Ladson achievement but also helps students to accept and affirm their cultural identity while developin g critical perspectives that challenge inequities that schools (and other

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21 Cummins establishes various ways that the culture and language of minority language students can be a potential advantage in education. He challen should be asking how we can build on this potential advantage in the classroom by The Language as a Resource Paradigm potential advantage. This is not always the case. Published as a conceptual framework of an anthology for ESL professionals, Ruiz (1988) described three common ained that these dispositions may be unconscious or pre rational but must be made obvious for the purpose of language planning because they not only determine the way conversations about language planning are framed but ultimately inform the decisions made on the level of national and international policy regarding the role of language and cultural diversity in society (p. 4). Ruiz acknowledged the potential usefulness of all three orientations in specific contexts, but called for a greater emphasis on lang uage as a 16). According to Ruiz (1988), most language planning focuses on identifying and solving language problems. Ruiz surmised that the language as problem orientation g ained credence because past language planning activities occurred in the context of

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22 uage diversity with social problems and its effects can be seen in policies that associated bilingualism with poverty (such as the original Bilingual Education Act) and policies that promoted transitional bilingual education, a model designed to transition bilingual students to English only classrooms. Although this orientation may not always be malicious in nature, Ruiz expressed concern that it may be indicative of a more general view that sees cultural and social diversity as a negative aspect of society Language as right is another common orientation towards language planning identified by Ruiz (1988). He explained that there are many reasons people see language as a right. For one, the social and personal nature of language links it to the right of per sonal freedom and enjoyment or the right of freedom from discrimination. On a more practical level, language may determine the ability to participate in government related activities such as voting, enrolling in benefits programs, and participating in lega l proceedings. Ruiz described the rights orientation as necessary particularly for legal reasons. However, it is this same association with legal matters that makes the language as right orientation sometimes problematic. According to Ruiz, legal terminolo something, but also a claim against someone. In light of the imperfections of language as right and language as problem orientations, Ruiz (1988) proposed the augmentation of the lan guage as resource orientation. Through the lens of language as a resource, language is viewed as an asset to be conserved and developed. Ruiz cited a number of ways in which language may be used as a resource. In transnational settings, language can be use d for

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23 purposes of international diplomacy, national security, or global business. In the domain of education, bilingualism may be used a skill that correlates to learning outcomes. Finally, language may be used a social resource that broadens the cultural repertoire of diverse communities. Ruiz hypothesized that the effects of a resource based approach towards language would extend beyond the realm of education and policy and When fused wit h the empowerment framework presented by Cummins, the language as resource orientation provides a more focused lens through which to explore the question of how to best prepare educators who work with ELLs. Hence, the following research questions will be e xplored in this study: What do high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners believe about the role of language and culture as a resource for learning? What do high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners believe about practices related to language and culture as a resource for learning? Empirical Studies The assumption that both language and culture can serve as resources for classroom instruction are further supported by studies that can be divided into two distinct but related categories: those that demonstrate how culture can be successfully used as a resource and those that demonstrate how language can be used as a resource. Culture as a Resource for learning were conducted through the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP), which operated as a research school in Hawaii from 1972 until the 1990s. The grade students were identified as high

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24 risk for a cademic failure. Because careful consideration was given to the cultural distinctions of the Polynesian Hawaiian children who attended the school, valuable studies (Au & Mason, 1981; Weisner & Gallimore, 1977; Weisner, Gallimore, & Jordan, 1988) emerged th at showed a connection between academic achievement and the reinforcement of cultural identity. culture on academic achievement. The study was framed as a test of the social organiz ation hypothesis, which holds that minority school children have competencies that are manifested outside of school, but are not utilized in school. Gallimore and Au analyzed the r eading lessons of two teachers, one who had low contact (LC) with the sample community of students and one with high community contact (HC). The teachers used different participation structures in their separate classrooms. Teacher HC implemented a highly collaborative structure that incorporated communicative practices from the community, while Teacher LC used a structure that reflected mainstream practices and limited student participation. Au and Mason found a ch and student time on task and achievement, but concluded that the connection between academic learning and social organization deserves further investigation. Another study that derived from the KEEP program further explored the competence/ incompetence paradox. Weisner, Gallimore, and Jordan (1988) between natal and school settings that appeared to influence the academic

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25 achievement of minority students. Through interviews and observations, the researchers tested the assumption of a homogenized Native Hawaiian culture that could be reproduced in classroom settings. They built on previous KEEP studies that found a positive relationship between academic achievement and the in corporation of classroom (peer tutor) practices that mirror the sibling care practices of many Kamehameha students (Weisner & Gallimore, 1977; Gallimore, 1977). However, the study revealed an inconsistency of practices and beliefs concerning natal, or chil dcare, practices that support school relevant interactions among the Native Hawaiians who participated in components of classroom learning to create a curriculum that r eflects individualized, not stereotyped, conceptions of culture. Educators must avoid the temptation to go too far in assuming their students belong to a homogenized minority culture whose systems can ure can aid adaptation to the but if applied too rigidly, culture may also serve to prevent adaptation to unfamiliar situations (Weisner, Gallimore, & Jordan, 1988, p. 345). Alvarez, and Shannon (1994). These scholars questioned the consequences of positioning minority cultures in direct opposition t o mainstream middle class culture. Based on three separate ethnographic studies conducted over a span of six years, the authors observed that the community members of a Mexicano community in California drew upon a diverse range of cultural and linguistic r esources to help them navigate an unfamiliar and sometimes oppressive

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26 society. This study also emphasized the importance of considering the individualized context of minority learners, but still concluded that despite the diversity within the minority comm unity, there are ways that both culture and language (through their interconnectedness) could be used as a classroom resource. For example, they questioning device in which an adult asks for elaboration or clarification) with students who are accustomed to such conservations at home. They also suggest that because in and negotiating t p. 150). Another way to describe the experiences that Vasquez, Pease Alvarez, and historical and personal experiences of the people in a minority community (Gonzalez et a l., 1995; Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 2001). By conducting qualitative ethnographic research in both households and classrooms, Moll et al. (2001) sought to examine the ways schools can use the resources of households and community to design more effec tive instruction. They found that when teachers assume the role of learners/researchers and enter the households of their students, they begin to see the student as a whole child and organize instruction that considers and uses the funds of knowledge of th students, teachers see beyond the stereotypes that can impede the usefulness of

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27 culture as a resource. For example, one teacher observed in the study described the surprise she felt whe n a home visit revealed that one of her students, Carlos, was an international traveler with an interest in political and economic issues, due to his frequent trips to Sonora, Mexico: These children have had the background experiences to explore in depth issues that tie in with a sixth grade curriculum, such as the study of other countries, different forms of government, economic systems, and so on. (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 2001, p. 137) This teacher continued to explain how the discovery that Car los sold candy to other kids in the neighborhood gave her the idea to create a learning module about second language schooling: 1) it affirmed cultural identity, 2) included parent (home) participation, and 3) enabled students to create their own knowledge by including relevant and cognitively challenging material (Cummins, 1986). This example illustrates the conclusion of the review of literature related to culture as a peda gogical resource: Teachers can incorporate effective and culturally relevant pedagogy for minority based on stereotypes but complex realities. Language as a Resource Although culture and language are closely related (e.g. language is a way we express and interpret our culture) there is work that focuses on the specific usefulness of language as a resource for the learning of ELLs. These studies adopt the perspective pr omoted by Cummins and Ruiz that bilingualism can be used as a strength in classrooms.

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28 One way that the effectiveness of language as a resource can be observed is The more support a student is given in their L1, the higher the academic achievement of that student in the L2 (Thomas & Collier, 1997; Saville Troike, 1984). Research has (Cummins, 1986) shown bilingual programs to be the most effective tool for improving the academic achievement of second language learners. The logical inference is that this is due partially if not entirely due to the application of the L1 as a resource for instruction in the L2. Unfortunately, few public schools in the United States have imp lemented this form of bilingual education despite overwhelming evidence of its effectiveness. Is it, then, possible to take advantage of the L1 as a resource in monolingual educational settings? Some research shows that certain strategies that rely on the L1 may be implemented in monolingual settings, and indeed Cummins (1986) allows this possibility, as long as educators communicate the value of the minority language. This could be accomplished in simple ways such as teachers encouraging students to read a nd speak in their L1 or displaying an interest in learning words and phrases from a strategies, where students who speak the same language but with various English language pro ficiency levels can work together on a task and use the L1 and English. Explicit instruction in the L1 is another way in which the value of the language (and When it comes to language learning in general, mos t educators and researchers these days promote instructional practices that focus on process learning instead of

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29 explicit instruction aimed at the acquisition of a set of skills. Using this line of thought, the best way to improve reading comprehension ski lls is to simply read something relevant and comprehensible (Krashen, 2004; 2009). Indeed, this sort of instruction seems to fit with the common underlying proficiency model and the above described instructional practices that gave consideration to cultura tenets of effective instruction is that it allows students to create their own knowledge. Nonetheless, some evidence suggests that certain forms of explicit instruction regarding language may aid second language learners. For e xample, a comparison of the reading strategies of successful bilingual Latina/o students with less successful Latina/o readers revealed that the successful readers are more aware of the connection between Spanish and English and therefore the potential of bilingualism as an advantage (Jimenez, Garcia, & Pearson, 1996). For instance, the successful readers activated prior knowledge and used cognates to identify unknown vocabulary more often than less successful readers. This suggests teachers may need to act ivate the common underlying proficiencies described by Cummins (1986) in order to build upon already existing language resources. Again, the first step in teachers doing this is to be aware that language can be a resource. Teacher Beliefs/Attitudes as a Pr erequisite The above findings show that a potentially effective way to increase the progress of Latina/o ELLs on standardized achievement tests is to create a school and classroom environment that understands and draws upon the cultural and linguistic back grounds of those students. In order for this to occur, it is important that teachers and administrators first acknowledge such resources. Many researchers in education have concluded that the acknowledgment and subsequent application of culture and languag e as a resource

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30 in classrooms with second language learners is dependent upon teacher beliefs and/or attitudes (Castro, 2010; Gay, 2010; Okhee, 2004; Pajares, 1992). From this assumption, studies developed (Barry & Lechner, 1995; Byrnes & Kiger, 1994; Cabe llo & Nancy, 1995; Hachfield, Hahn, Schroeder, Anders, Stanta, & Kunter, 2011; Karabenick & Noda, 2004; Pohan & Aguilar, 2001; Razfar, 2012; Reeves, 2006; Siwatu, 2007; Spanierman, et al., 2011; Taylor, 2001; Walker & Shafer, 2004) that attempted to measur e teacher beliefs and attitudes towards cultural and linguistic diversity. While among these studies numerous variations exist among the terms and theories used to broader bel iefs about language and culture are complex and may differ from their professional beliefs and/or practices and 2) professional development and increased exposure to multicultural/multilingual settings correlates to more positive attitudes towards English Language Learners. Three studies related to teacher beliefs of language and culture as a resource itudes (n = 729) toward ELLs in a Midwestern school district that had recently experienced a rapid influx of immigrants and refugees. The quantitative survey instrument measured were used to inform the school district of potential areas for professional development. Although some of the conceptual areas did not relate directly to culture and language as nd

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31 generally positive attitudes towards ELLs in their classroom, many teachers he ld conflicting beliefs regarding culture and language as a resource. For example, 52% of the respondents agreed that using the L1 at home interferes with the learning of a second language, but 65% responded that learning in L1 does not interfere with learn ing in L2. However, respondents responded positively about the advantages of bilingualism. Regarding culture, the majority of respondents (89%) agreed that cultural diversity can enrich a community, although a substantial number (42%) agreed that cultural differences may be a barrier to community cooperation and socialization. The results of the study were used to implement professional development that emphasized Similarly, a q uantitative study (Reeves, 2006) of the attitudes of mainstream secondary teachers in a southeastern city revealed seemingly paradoxical beliefs concerning English Language Learners. Designed specifically to measure teacher attitudes towards ELL inclusion, coursework modification, professional development, and second language acquisition, survey responses showed that teachers in the study ( n = 279) held generally welcoming attitudes about ELL inclusion and tolerated coursework modification. However, despite reporting that they felt inadequately trained to meet the needs of ELL students, teachers expressed little enthusiasm for professional development opportunities. Of particular relevance to this study, 82% of respondents felt that English should be the off icial language of the United States, although 58% disagreed that ELLs should avoid using L1 at school. Notably, that still means that nearly 40% responded that L1 use at school should be discontinued.

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32 Nonetheless, this study also points to a potential disc onnect between general attitudes towards language diversity and attitudes towards ELL instruction. A third study (Walker & Shafer, 2004) that measured teacher attitudes towards English Language Learners also sought to understand the factors that contribute to teacher attitudes toward ELLs. Through both surveys and interviews with teachers in a Great Plains state, Walker and Shafer found the nature of teacher attitudes towards ELLs to be neutral to strongly negative, although this study has its paradoxes as well. For example, although 70% of respondents were not actively interested in having an ELL student in their classroom, 78% responded that language minority students bring needed diversity to schools. More negative attitudes toward ELLs were dependent upo n the community context and influenced by factors pertaining primarily to lack of training and support for teaching ELLs. Walker and Shafer are not the only researchers who explored the factors that earners. A study (Youngs & Youngs, 2001) of 143 mainstream junior high and middle school teachers compared survey responses about general beliefs towards ELLs with information about general educational experiences, prior contact with ELLs, ELL training, pe rsonal contact with diverse cultures, demographic characteristics, and personality. The results showed that the strongest predictors of a positive attitude towards ELLs were completion of a foreign language or multicultural education course, ELL training, experience abroad, work with ESL students, and gender. This suggests that professional development programs that prepare teachers to work with ELLs should include a component that exposes teachers to cultural diversity.

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33 Similarly, a quantitative study (Byr nes & Kiger, 1994) of the contextual variables professional development that provides teachers with intercultural experiences in a supported setting. Using survey data from 191 teachers in 3 states, Byrnes and Kiger found that factors such as region, ESL training, graduate degrees, and experience with linguistic minority children all contribute to more positive attitudes about linguistic diversity. Another study (Pohan & Aguilar about diversity in personal and professional contexts. After conducting a comprehensive review of previous diversity measures, Pohan and Aguilar developed and evaluated a two dimensional approach to measuri ng educator attitudes about diversity based on the premise that an educator may hold personal beliefs that differ from professional beliefs. The two scales were field tested with 756 preservice and practicing teachers from four states. Although this work w as concerned with diversity in general, the specific responses to items about bilingualism are useful to review. For example, Pohan and Aguilar found that teachers could simultaneously believe that students should receive instruction in their L1 while also believing that immigrants should learn English instead ELLs should carefully consider the relationship between broader beliefs about diversity and the professional beli efs that may directly inform practice. further demonstrated in an ethnographic study (Razfar, 2012) of an ESL teacher in a predominantly Latina/o urban high school. Through int erviews and observations, Razfar

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34 observed a teacher who expressed a commitment to multilingualism reflect beliefs of monolinguism and subtractive assimilation through her classroom practice and personal narratives of language acquisition. Razfar argued tha t this nuance might be missed in a purely quantitative study of teacher beliefs. beliefs and attitudes about language and culture as a resource, and yet they all point to the growin g need to do so in order to further inform professional development efforts. A similarly designed study would benefit the central Florida high school described at the beginning of this paper by first determining whether or not the teachers are acknowledgin g and using the potentially vast reserve of cultural and linguistic resources their English language learners bring to school each day. The results of such a study could then be used to determine the nature of professional development programs designed to train teachers in ways to close the achievement gap lamented by the principal. The development and design of such a study will be the focus of the next portion of this paper. Conclusion In Chapter 2, I explained that Latina/o English Language Learners acq uire second language skills and learn academic content when their cultural and linguistic identity is affirmed through practices that value langue and culture as a resource for fs, I developed the following two research questions for this study: What do high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners believe about the role of language and culture as a resource for learning? What do high school teachers of Latina/o Engl ish Language Learners believe about practices related to language and culture as a resource for learning?

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35 In previous studies with similar research questions, t eachers of English La nguage Learners have reported a wide range of beliefs about the role of lan guage and culture as resource for learning. At times their beliefs seemed paradoxical in nature and were influenced by many factors, most notably exposure to cultural/linguistic minorities and professional development. I concluded that m ore research is nee ded in order to better understand teacher beliefs about language and culture as a resource for Latina/o ELLs and inform future professional developments aimed at closing the achievement ga p. In Chapter 3, I will explain the methodology I selected and/or d esigned to address the research needs informed by this literature review.

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36 Figure 1 1

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37 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Overview The purpose of this study was to learn more about what high school teache rs of Latina/o ELLs believe about the role of language and culture as a resource for learning Chapter will 3 describe the methods of research and analysis chosen to achieve this end, offer a rationale for why each method was chosen, and describe the resea rch setting and participants Research Setting The research for this study was conducted at a high school in Central Florida, The high school is located in the largest city of a county that has seen its Latina/o population double since 2000. According to the latest census data, 11.2% of the The high school was built in 2000 as a magnet school for the visual and performing arts. It is located in a part of the county that has seen much recent growth, but is surrounded by horse farms, a major source of revenue for the county. The high school has been incentives. School administrators point out that this is a considerable accomplishment since 60% of the students are economically disadvantaged, a category which often equates with lower performance on standardized tests (Aud et al., 2012). Twenty six percent of the 2,260 students at the high schoo l are Latina/o. White students make up 4% ( n = 87) of the students are considered ELL, the majority of whom are Latina/o.

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38 While the school has experienced success with the academic achievement of its black, white, Latina/o, and economically disadvantaged students 1 it lags behind the state average for graduation rates of ELLs. In 2010 11 school year, the high school had a graduation rate of 39% for ELL students, compare d to the state average of 53%. The graduation rate for white students was 80%, 71% for black students, and 70% for Hispanic/Latino students. The graduation rates for these latter three categories all exceeded the state averages of 74%, 58%, and 68%, respec tively (Table 3 1). On the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT), ELLs exceeded state averages for ELLs on the 2011 12 mathematics and writing tests, but performed below state averages on reading (Table 3 1). On the reading portion of the FCAT, o nly 28% of ELLs earned a satisfactory score, while 64% of white students, 38% of black students, and 44 % of Latina/o students earned a satisfactory score. Sixty six percent of ELLs at the high school scored satisfactory or above on the mathematics portion of FCAT, compared to 71% of white students, 58% of black students, and 64% of Latina/o. On the writing portion of FCAT, 71% of ELLs at the high school earned a satisfactory score or above, while 87% of white students, 81% of black students, and 83% of His panic/Latino students scored satisfactory or above. The Mixed Methods Approach This study used a mixed methods approach to research. This approach assumes that a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods enables the researcher to form a more complete un derstanding of the focus of their study (Creswell, 2003; Creswell, 2005; Greene, 2012; Tashakkori & Teddlie,1998). Mixed methods research recognizes the 1 Results for ELLs are also calculated within the categories of black, white, Hispanic/Latino, and economically disadvantaged.

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39 complexity of human phenomena and acknowledges the role that context and values play in research (Green e, 2012). As explained by Jennifer Greene, a professor in research methodologies at the University of Illinois: A mixed methods approach can contribute importantly to the quality and reach of a study specifically through its respectful engagement with mult iple ways of knowing and multiple perspectives on the character of human phenomena and the prerequisites for warranted knowledge (Greene, 2012, p. 769). Greene also explains that mixing methods encourages self inquiry throughout the research process and th (MMR) can increase the validity and reliability of research by acknowledging all of the ways that validity and reliability may be jeopardized and addressing those concerns throughout the research process. The quantitative instrument in this study was a survey created online using Survey Monkey and administered to teachers at a Central Florida high school. The surv ey served as a way to collect data from a larger sample of teachers than would have been possible via quantitative methods due to time and scope constraints. The survey also provided teachers with a more anonymous way to report their beliefs. Because the s urvey was limited in its ability to capture a more in beliefs, it was complimented by a group interview and follow up interviews, the qualitative components of this study. Questions for the follow up interviews were developed as res ponses to survey results. Structuring the data collection in this way allowed me to address the limitations of the survey and created a space for reflection on the research process as the process unfolded.

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40 Survey The purpose of the survey was to measure in the classroom. The survey items were either selected from previous studies (e.g., Byrnes et al., 1994; Spanierman et al., 2011) that sought to measure teacher beliefs about language and culture or were created based on the beliefs and practices believed by scholars in the field of education, (particularly Jim Cummins, Richard Ruiz, and Luis Moll,) to promote positive learning environmen ts for English language learners (Appendix). The survey was created using the website Survey Monkey and consisted of 36 statements that teachers rated strongly disagree, disagree, agree, or strongly agree. Respondents could also skip a question. The quest ions were divided among four subsets: Ten survey items related to teacher beliefs about culture as a resource for learning (BCAR); eight related to beliefs about language as a resource (BLAR). Another eight questions related to practices of language as a r esource (PLAR), and ten items related to practices of culture as a resource (PCAR). The survey was sent out via an email with an embedded link to all instructional staff at the high school on Friday, November 30, after I briefly explained the subject of m y research at a weekly staff meeting. I received immediate enthusiastic responses from several teachers who praised the topic of the research and expressed interest in the group interview. By the end of the first day, I had received approximately 20 respon ses. I sent out a reminder email on the following Monday and another email on the final day of the survey period, which was Thursday, December 6. By the end of the survey period 53 out of 107 teachers (roughly 50%) had fully filled out the survey. The

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41 resp onses to questions about demographics suggest that I have a fairly accurate sample. BCAR Items n ot value culture as a resource for teaching Latina/o students. The other six items Latina/o students. BLAR Items Eight items from the survey asked teachers to rate sta tements about beliefs or a belief that does not value language as a resource for teaching Latina/o students. s language as a resource for teaching Latina/o students. PLAR Items Another eight items from the survey were intended to determine if teachers were incorporating practices that use Spanish as a resource for teaching Latina/o ELLs. Of these items only two w discourage use of Spanish, presumably negating the potential resource of the language. The remaining six items described practices of using Spanish as a resource. PCAR Items Items describing practic es that use culture as resource for learning comprise ten of the survey items. Only one of these items was worded negatively, expressing a

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42 practice that would negate the use of culture as a resource for learning. Nine PCAR items described a practice that u tilizes culture as a resource for teaching Latina/o ELLs. Group Interview and Follow up Interviews Teachers were invited to participate in a semi structured group interview in the last email reminder that I sent for the survey. Seven teachers volunteered, but only four were able to attend on the scheduled day. They included a math teacher, history teacher, English teacher, and ESOL teacher. Each grade level was represented and there were two males and two females. The group interview was held on December 1 3, or one week after the end of the survey period. During the group interview, teachers were asked to respond to three questions related to the use of culture and language as a resource for ESOL students. After further analyzing survey results and the no tes from the first group interview, I asked the original participants to participate in a follow up interview. Tw o of the four original participants were available for the follow up intervi e ws, which were conducted separately and asked questions related to specific items from the survey. Group Interview Participants Carmenza 2 Carmeza had 11 years of experience teaching ESOL and Spanish at the time of language from Intera merican University of Puerto Rico and M.Ed. in curriculum and instruction in ESOL and multicultural education from the University of Florida. Carmenza also trains teachers in ESOL strategies for teacher certification as an adjunct instructor 2 All names are pseudonyms.

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43 at Florida So uthern College. She sponsors the Multicultural Club and writes an ESOL Jake Jake teaches World History and AP World History. He has six years of teaching rom the University of Florida and is a former member of the United States Coast Guard. Ashley in mathematics from the University of Florida and is certified to teach math grades 9 1 2. She has been teaching high school for five years. Marc March teaches English Honors. He was the 2010 11 Teacher of the Year at the high school. He finished course requirements and passed the exam to become ESOL certified in June of 2012. He was the vars ity soccer coach for the 2011 2012 season. Data Analysis A mixed methods approach to research implies not only the mixing of methods when obtaining data, but also a mixing of methods when analyzing data (Bazeley, 2012; Creswell, 2003 Creswell, 2005; Greene 2012; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998). By potential of their data as they seek to a 2012, p. 825). My goal when analyzing the data was to allow each source to inform the other in as many ways as possible so that I could learn as much about my research questions as the data could provide.

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44 To a nalyze the survey results, the first step was to code each item BCAR, BLAR, PCAR, and PLAR. To create these subgroups, I divided each of my research questions into four sub questions: What do high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners belie ve about the role of culture as a resource for learning? (BCAR) What practices of culture as a resource do high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners report using in their classrooms? (PCAR) What do high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners believe about the role language as a resource for learning? (BLAR) What practices of language as a resource do high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners report using in their classrooms? (PLAR) Coding the items in this w ay allowed me to easily see which items addressed which sub question. This also allowed me to organize data into four Likert type scales and create a composite score for each subgroup to reflect a central tendency. I calculated the composite score by assig four, where 1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=agree, and 4=strongly agree. I then found the average for each item, reversing the numbers for items that were negatively worded. The average score for all of the items on a particular scale represented its composite score. I also calculated the standard deviation for each item on the scale. Survey Monkey provided descriptive statistics for each item on the survey and I used those numbers to learn more about responses to individual items and double check the accuracy of my analysis. Notes from the group interview were also coded as BCAR, BLAR, PCAR, or PLAR after they were transcribed. I also included a positive sign (+) if the comment expressed a belief or pr actice that values language and culture as a resource and a negative sign ( ) if the comment expressed a belief or practice that does not value

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45 language and culture as a resource. These comments were then integrated into the chart where I had organized sur vey results. Because questions from the follow up interviews were based on responses to specific items from the survey, they were not coded for the four subgroups, but rather transcribed and comments marked as positive or negative dependent on the type of belief or practice expressed. Conclusions In Chapter 3, I explained how I developed a mixed methods research design that uses a survey, group interview, and follow up interviews to answer the two research questions that are the focus of this study: What d o high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners believe about the role of language and culture as a resource for learning? What do high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners believe about practices related to language and cultu re as a resource for learning? In Chapter 4, I will report the findings of the three data collection instruments as they relate to the research questions.

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46 Table 3 1. ELL achievement compared to other subgroups at school and state level. Numbers for FCAT results refer to percentage of students scoring satisfactory or above. Graduation rates also reflect percentages. Graduation Rate FCAT Writing Results FCAT Reading Results FCAT Math Results School State School State School State School State All students 77 70 85 74 54 57 67 58 White 80 72 87 76 64 69 71 68 B lack 71 61 81 66 39 38 58 40 L atino 70 66 83 76 44 53 64 55 E conomically disadvantaged 70 63 81 70 45 46 61 48 ELL 39 51 71 60 28 33 66 41

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47 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS Overview Chapter 4 pr esents the findings of the survey and group interviews. The first section presents the results of the demographic questions of the survey. The rest of the sections are organized by the four subgroups (BCAR, PCAR, BLAR, and PLAR) that described the items fr om the survey. Each subgroup correlated to one of the four research questions. Therefore, the second section presents findings related to beliefs about culture as a resource (BCAR). The third section presents findings related to practices of culture as a r esource (PCAR). The fourth and fifth sections report results related to beliefs of language as a resource (BLAR) and practices of language as a resource (PLAR), respectively. Findings from the group interviews and follow up interviews are also woven into e ach section. Demographic Findings Fifty three people responded to the online survey, of which 58% ( n = 29) were female and 42% ( n = 21) were male. A large majority, 85% ( n = 42) identified as white; 8% ( n = 4) identified as black or African American. Seven respondents (14%) identified faculty. Thirty three percent ( n = 15) of respondents were bilingual or multilingual. Respondents were also asked if they had experience ab road, to which 56% ( n = 28) responded that they had travelled to another country. Respondents were divided fairly evenly among subject areas. Teachers of English/Language Arts were the most represented sample of the survey with 24% ( n = 12). Twenty two pe rcent ( n = 11) of respondents were math teachers, and 20% ( n = 10)

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48 taught Life/Physical Sciences. Fifty two percent ( n = 26) of respondents had over ten years of teaching. Forty eight percent ( n = 24) of respondents stated that they had their ESOL certific and ESOL endorsement, which are easily confounded, so this number can likely be interpreted to mean that 48% of respondents have had some sort of ESOL training to meet the state req uirement. Twenty and 44% ( n = Three of the questions from the demographic section asked participants about religion. Fifty one percent reported regularly attending reli gious services. Most of the respondents with a religious preference were Protestant (44%, n = 22) or Catholic (22%, n = 11). Six (40%) of the Protestant respondents were Southern Baptist and four (27%) were Methodist. The remaining ( n = 9) Protestant respo describing their affiliation. Beliefs about Culture as a Resource The results of this study show that teachers at this Central Florida high school generally do believe that the culture of their Latina/o ELLs can be a resource for learning, although there are some cases where this appears to be less so. Nine of the survey items were on the BCAR scale. The mean score for those items was 2.9/4.0, after reverse coding for negatively worded items. In the group interview and follow u p interviews, teachers also made primarily positive comments regarding beliefs about culture as a resource. Five of the survey items that asked teachers to rate attitudinal statements of beliefs about culture as a resource were worded positively, expressi ng a positive belief about culture as a resource (Table 4 1). Of these five statements, teachers agreed most

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49 strongly with the statements that expressed the belief that teachers are better able to meet the academic needs of their students when they know mo community (3.4/4.0) and culture (3.4/4.0). Only 3.8% ( n = 2) disagreed with the statement about community and there was only one respondent who strongly disagreed with the statement concerning culture. Comments from the group inte rview corroborate this finding. Group interview participant Jake explained that knowledge he gained while travelling to Honduras and interactions he had with Latina/o friends while serving as a member of the Coast Guard helped him to make personal connecti ons with Latina/o ESOL students that he felt made students feel more comfortable in his classroom and therefore more receptive to learning. Another group interview participant, Mark, agreed: Yeah, I try to talk about places I have travelled too. For examp le, I had a Colombian student and I recommended Gabriel Garcia Marquez and I impressed that I know about G arcia M arquez From then on, I knew I had the support of the parents. While s peaking about these examples, both Jake and Mark made comments that the cultural experiences of my Spanish speaking While describing his experience with a student fr om Honduras, Jake began to express respect for this student and other in the case of the Honduran student, a long journey on foot from Honduras to Texas. However, in the respect for the difficulties faced by the Honduran student. In the case of Mark, he mentioned that af ter travelling to Colombia, he became aware of how different things

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50 were in Colombia compared to other places he had travelled in Central America and the Caribbean. In the survey, forty nine percent ( n = 26) agreed that the cultural experiences of Latina/ o ELLs vary significantly, while only 5.7% ( n = 3) strongly agreed. Thirty eight percent ( n = 20) disagreed and 8% ( n = 4) strongly disagreed. On a negatively worded BCAR item that expressed a similar idea, (Spanish speaking countries all share a similar s et of holidays, customs, and cultural activities .), only seventeen percent ( n = 9) agreed. Most people (58.5%, n = 31) disagreed or strongly disagreed (23%, n = 11). The positively worded BCAR item that received the lowest level of agreement was the state Spanish speaking ELLs have competencies that they 61% ( n = 31) of respondents agreed with the statement, another 30% ( n = 15) disagreed ( n = 13) or strongly disagreed ( n = 2). Four of the items from the BCAR scale were negatively worded, or expressed a belief that does not value culture as a resource (Table 4 2). The highest rated item It is the responsibility of Spanish speaking ELLs to adapt to American culture and school life two percent ( n = 33) of respondents agreed to this statement, and 15% ( n = 8) strongly agreed. Twenty one percent ( n = 11) disagreed, and 2% ( n = 2) strongly disagreed. In a follow up interview, Mark explained his response to this item: part, you know, attempt to (..) become proficient in the language of the place where they needed to meet in the middle a little bit more.

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51 In a separate follow up interview, Ashley echoed this idea, saying that she agrees that to a certain point, Latina/o ELLs should adapt to American cul ture and school life, even though she is simultaneously aware the she needs to adapt to the students in her classroom and is willing to do so as part of her job to teach students to the best of her ability. Another negatively worded item that was moderatel y The cultural backgrounds of my Spanish speaking ELLs sometimes impede their learning. Forty nine percent of respondents ( n = 26) agreed with this statement, and 6% ( n = 3) strongly agreed. On the other hand, 38% ( n = 20) disagreed and 8% ( n = 4) disagreed. This belief was not expressed in the group interview. All four participants agreed that school first. For the most part, school is the priori ty. I even had several guys quit the Students who question authority in school a high ranking ( 2.4/4.0). More respondents disagreed ( n = 4) or strongly disagreed ( n = 24) than agreed ( n = 23) or strongly agreed ( n = 1). Practices of Cultures as a Resource The second sub question of this study was: What practices of culture as a res ource do high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners report using in their classrooms? According to the surveys and interviews, teachers in the sample are using culture as a resource for teaching Latina/o ELLs. Ten survey items related to

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52 pr actices of culture as a resource (PCAR). The mean score for PCAR items from the survey was 3.0/4.0, after reverse coding for negatively worded items. With the exception of one item, all items on the PCAR scale were statements that reflected a positive pra ctice of culture as a resource. All nine of these items had a mean rating of 2.8 or above (Table 4 3). The three highest rated PCAR items had a mean I present lessons that build upon the background knowledge of all of my students. responses for this item, and 9.6% ( n = n = n = 12 I design lessons that help my students become independ ent learners, or learners who do not depend on a school or teacher for learning n = 35) agreed and 26% ( n = 13), strongly agreed. I have examined my own behavior in the c lassroom n = 32) of respondents agreeing and 29% ( n = 14) strongly agreeing. Three other PCAR statements received a mean score of 3.0/4.0. One of these I take into account the various communicatio n styles of racial and ethnic minorities when I plan my classroom activities and procedures five percent ( n = 36) of respondents agreed and 10.4% ( n = 5) strongly agreed. Sixty two percent ( n = I have made contact with the parents or guardians of my ELL students n = 8) strongly agreed. Only 22% ( n = 11) disagreed and no respondents stro ngly disagreed.

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53 In the group interview, all four teachers reported having made contact with the parents or guardians of a Latina/o ELL. I have examined the materials I use in my classroom to check for cultural bias (e.g., stereotypes, incorrect c ultural information) score of 3.0/4.0. Sixty four percent ( n = 32) of respondents agreed and 18% ( n = 9) strongly agreed. Only 16% ( n = 8) disagreed and one respondent (2%) strongly disagreed. When asked about this item in a follow up interview, Mark, an English teacher, admitted that he had never read a book or story before class with the explicit intent of checking for cultural bias, but says that he often has moments while teaching in which he has looked out upon a classroom of dive rse faces and become aware of the various perspectives and conscious of the way he is presenting the material. In a separate follow materials for bias because she is a math teacher. She The issue of bias in classroom materials also came up in the group interview. Participants were discussing the possibility of administering the FCAT in Spanish, when Carmenza, t he ESOL teacher, interjected with a comment about a recent exam: Did you see in the last FCAT? Everyone agrees, there was a question that the language of the test. The test she referenced was one of a series of district created English test that all 9 th and 10 th grade students must take periodically to predict their FCAT English success. I incorp orate lessons that help my students develop a critical perspective on issues such as inequality and oppression I involve my students in

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54 the creation of classroom rules and procedures lowest rated PCAR item was I involve my students in the creation of classroom rules and procedures three percent ( n = 26) of respondents agreed and 16.3% ( n = 8) strongly agreed. Twenty nine percent disagreed and only one respondent (2%) strongly di sagreed. I discourage my students from discussing issues such as racial inequality or social injustice. item was 1.9/4.0 (Table 4 4). Eighty one percent of respondents ( n = 44) disagreed or str ongly disagreed, while 15% ( n = 8) agreed and 4% ( n = 2) strongly agreed. During the group interview, an instance of culture being used a resource outside of the classroom was mentioned by Mark In 2011 12, Mark was the coach of the predominantly Latina/o soccer team at the high school He described his decision to We had a mostly Hispanic team and the other teams were racist against us for that. I wanted the boys to be proud, so other s chools knew calling us Mexi can or whatever is not an insult. Even with the soccer banquet. Instead of having it catered or ordering p izza or something, we had a pot luck and all the dishes were from, you know, C entral and S outh America and everyone brought their famil ies It was a re al good atmosphere. I wished I could speak Spanish so I could have addressed the families. And the food, of course, was delicious. Mark continued by explaining that campaign, he built ra pport with the team members, who respond ed to him more because as he explained, Beliefs about Language as a Resource The third research question of this study asked what teachers believe about language as a resource for teaching Latina/o English language learners. Eight items

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55 from the survey were designed to answer this question. Teachers in the group interview also commented on beliefs about language as a resource. The responses from the survey and group interview reveal that teachers generally do believe that Spanish c an be used a resource for learning. The mean score for BLAR items from the survey was 2.9/4.0, after reverse coding for negatively worded items. In the group interview and follow up interviews, teachers made positive comments regarding Spanish as a resourc e for learning, although some comments expressed the belief that students in Three of the items from the BLAR scale of the survey were worded positively, expressing the belief that Spanish can be used a resource for learning for Latina/o ELLs. All three of these items received a mean rating of 2.9/4.0 or above (Table 4 5). For the highest rated item (3.2/4.0), 73% ( n = 37) of respondents agreed and 24% ( n = 12) strongly agreed that Spanish speaking ELLs can use their knowledge of Spanish to learn content material in English. strongly disagreed. The second highest rated item (3.1/4.0) on the positively worded BLAR scale asked teachers Bilingual students have benefits for learning that monolingual students do not have. three percent ( n = 32) of respondents agreed and 24% ( n = 12) strongly agreed, while 14% ( n = 7) disagreed and one respondent (2%) st rongly disagreed. Whenever possible, second language learners should receive instruction in their first language until they are proficient enough t n = 16) di sagreed. Fifty four

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56 percent ( n = 28) agreed with this item, and 15% ( n = 8) strongly agreed. A conversation related to this item arose during the group interview. When asked about what the high school could do to better serve Spanish speaking ELLs, Mark im mediately responded, speakers classes. Then they can learn the subject in Spanish started a Spanish for Spanish Speakers course the year before. Ashley a lso agreed and asked why the FCAT is not offered in Spanish. She then recounted the story of an ELL mathematics score Ashley felt that student belonged in an advanced or honors course but since the FCAT relied heavily on word problems, her score was low. Ashley These comments also relate to several negative ly worded items on the BLAR Students should not be allowed to speak a language other than English while in school Speaking Spanish in school impedes the learning of Spanish speaking ELLs ent ( n = 4) of respondents agreed with the first item and 6% ( n = 3) strongly agreed, while 2% ( n = 1) strongly agreed with the second statement, and 17% ( n = 9) agreed. On the other hand, 50% ( n = 26) of respondents disagreed and 37% ( n = 19) strongly dis tudents should not be allowed to speak a language other than English while in school ( n = 33) disagreed and 17% ( n = Speaking Spanish in school impedes the learning of Spanish speaking ELLs 6).

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57 Beliefs were also expressed concerning the effect of speaking Spanish outside of Parents of ELLs should speak English with t heir children worded statement (2.8/4.0). Sixty five pe rcent ( n = 34) of respondents agreed with this statement and 12% ( n = 6) strongly agreed. Fifteen percent ( n = 8) disagreed and 8% ( n = 4) strongly disagreed. For a similar item, 44% ( n = Spanish speaking ELLs would make fa ster achievement gains if they spoke less Spanish at home and n = 20) disagreed with the same statement, and 12% ( n = 6) strongly disagreed. Eight percent ( n = 4) strongly agreed. To the statement, Speaking Spanish outs ide of school impedes the learning of Spanish speaking ELLs (2.0/4.0), 15% ( n = 8) agreed and 2% ( n = 1) strongly agreed. Sixty five percent ( n = 34) disagreed and 19% ( n = 10) strongly disagreed. A belief about language as a resource was expressed in the group interview that was not measured as part of the survey. Twice during the group interview, Jake The first time he used this phrase, he was referring to ELLs and Ashley agreed and told the story of an ESOL student whom she struggled to motivate. her class regardless of his

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58 Another belief about language as a resource expressed during the group interview had to do with Spanish as a resource for teaching. While explaining the ways in which she learns about the backgrounds of her ELL students, Carmenza addressed t insisted she does have an advantage. All three of the other teachers expressed a desire t o know more Spanish so they could converse with students. Practices of Language as a Resource The fourth sub question of this study asked: What practices of language as a resource do high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners report using i n their classrooms? Eight items from the survey asked teachers to rate their agreement to statements describing practices of Spanish as a resource. The mean score for PLAR items from the survey was 2.9/4.0, after reverse coding for negatively worded items. In the follow up interviews, two respondents spoke about ways specific practices of language as a resource are used in their classrooms. The most highly rated practice from the PLAR scale was the positively worded I sometimes group Spanish speakin g ELLs who have limited proficiency in English with Spanish speaking students with high proficiency so they can work together on a t five percent ( n = 34) of respondents agreed and 25% ( n = 13) s trongly agreed. No one strongly disagreed, while 9.6% ( n = 13) strongly agreed. In a follow up group interview, Ashley explained that for her, this means having a student who is fluent in both Spanish and English translate for a student who is only profici ent in Spanish.

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59 The second highest I have learned some words or phrases in Spanish so that I can bett Seventy nine percent ( n = 41) of respondents agreed (58%, n =30) or strongly agreed (21% n = 11). No one strongly disagreed and, 21% ( n = 11) disagreed. Another positively worded item from the PLAR scale received a mean rating of 2.9/4.0. This item I allow my Spanish speaking students to study content material in Spanish when available. five percent ( n = 34) of respondents agreed to this statement and 15% ( n = 8) strongly agreed. Three respondents (6%) strongly disagreed and seven (14%) disagreed. Related to that item was the state have Spanish language materials availab le for students in my four percent ( n = 23) of respondents agreed and 14% ( n = 7) strongly agreed. Thirty seven percent ( n = 19) disagreed and 6% ( n = 3) strongly disagreed. When a sked about this item in a follow up interview, Mark said that although he has many books by Spanish speaking authors in his classroom, all of those books are in English. However, during the group interview, Mark described a project he assigned one year whe n he had several ELLs in his classroom. Students were asked to analyze a poem. The Spanish speaking students were given an optional alternative assignment in which they could recite a poem in English and Spanish and explain what meanings if any, were lost in translation. Mark said the textbook they used at the time had several Spanish language poems that students could use or they were given the option of finding a poem online. Ashley remembered seeing a Spanish language version of her

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60 textbook and perhaps even using it once, but said that currently the only Spanish language material she has in her classroom is a Spanish English dictionary. I use cognates (words with similar linguistic roots and corresponding meaning ) to show s imilarit 2.7/4.0. The majority of respondents (51%, n = 26) agreed or strongly agreed (12%, n = 6). Seventy five percent ( n = 37) of respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the I have used an interpreter to communicate with the parents or guardians of a Spanish speaking student n = 10) disagreed. Two of the items on the PLAR scale were negatively worded, describing a practice that does not utilize language as a resource fo r teaching Latina/o ELLs. The item I discourage my students from speaking a language other than English in my classroom 8). No respondents strongly agreed with that statement; 15% ( n = 8) agreed. Most respondents di sagreed (58%, n = 30) or strongly disagreed (27%, n = 14). The other negatively worded item to call or email the parents or guardians of students whose parents I suspect do not speak English agreed to this statement, while 37& ( n = 19) agreed. Thirty nine percent ( n = 20) disagreed and 23% ( n = 12) strongly disagreed. Other practices of language as a resource outside of the classroom were mentioned during the group interview. Carmenza describ ed how she hosts a bilingual open house at the beginning of each school year. Parents are invited to the open house via a Spanish

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61 allow her to translate all messages from the school i show that Spanish is the primarily language of the household, those students receive phone messages from the school in Spanish. Mark who coached a largely Latina/o soccer the year before, mentioned how he printed Spanis h language T shirts to support soccer wins during morning announcements. Another practice of language as a resource that was mentioned three times during the group interview was the use of ESOL paraprofessionals. Paraprofessionals are hired to provide extra support for ELLs. In 2011 12, the high school only had one paraprofessional on staff. After teachers complained that they needed more support, the school petitioned for fu nding to hire another paraprofessional. For the 2012 12 school year, the school had 2 paraprofessionals, but all participants in the group interview agreed there should be more. Jake explained that he uses the paraprofessional regularly to provide accommod ations for his ELLs, such as translating test materials. Ashley said that she has also used ESOL paraprofessionals to act as interpreters when she needed to phone the family of an ELL. Conclusion In Chapter 4 I described how the results of the survey, gro up interviews, and follow up group interviews answered each of my four research questions. In Chapter 5 I discuss the conclusions drawn from my findings and the implications of the research professional development and future research.

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62 Table 4 1. Beliefs about culture as a resource (BCAR), positively worded items Statement Mean Standard Deviation Spanish speaking ELLs have competencies that they display outside of school but not in school. 2.8 0.78 Spanish speaking ELLs bring needed diversity to schools. 3.3 0.72 The cultural experiences of my Spanish speaking ELL students vary significantly between students. 3.2 0.59 am able to meet their academic needs. 3.4 0.57 The more I know about my stude able to meet their academic needs. 3.4 0.61 Table 4 2. Beliefs about culture as a resource (BCAR), negatively worded items Statement Mean Standard Deviation Spanish speaking countries all share a similar set of holidays, c ustoms, and cultural activities. 2 0.69 Students who question authority in school usually have difficulty learning. 2.4 0.74 The cultural backgrounds of my Spanish speaking ELLs sometimes impede their learning. 2.5 0.72 It is the responsibility of Spani sh speaking ELLs to adapt to American culture and school life. 2.9 0.66

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63 Table 4 3. Beliefs about practices of culture as a resource (PCAR), positively worded items Statement Mean Standard Deviation I involve my students in the creation of classroom rul es and procedures. 2.8 0.72 I assign readings that provide alternative historical accounts or perspectives. 2.9 0.71 I incorporate lessons that help my students develop a critical perspective on issues such as inequality and oppression. 2.9 0.75 I have made contact with the parents or guardians of my ELL students. 3 0.62 I have examined the materials I use in my classroom to check for cultural bias (e.g., stereotypes, incorrect cultural information). 3 0.65 I take into account the various communication styles of racial and ethnic minorities when I plan my classroom activities and procedures. 3 0.5 I present lessons that build upon the background knowledge of all of my students. 3.2 0.6 I design lessons that help my students become independent learners or learners who do not depend on a school or teacher for learning 3.2 0.51 I have examined my own behavior in the classroom for signs of bias or favoritism. 3.2 0.55 Table 4 4. Beliefs about practices of culture as a resource (PCAR), negatively worded items Statement Mean Standard Deviation I discourage my students from discussing issues such as racial inequality or social injustice. 1.92 0.79

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64 Table 4 5. Beliefs about language as a resource (BLAR), positively worded items Statement Mean Standard Dev iation Whenever possible, second language learners should receive instruction in their first language until they are proficient enough to learn via English instruction. 2.90 0.69 Bilingual students have benefits for learning that monolingual students do not have. 3.10 0.68 Spanish speaking ELLs can use their knowledge of Spanish to learn content material in English. 3.20 0.51 Table 4 6. Beliefs about language as a resource (BLAR), negatively worded items Statement Mean Standard Deviation Speaking Span ish in school impedes the learning of Spanish speaking ELLs. 2.04 0.69 Speaking Spanish outside of school impedes the learning of Spanish speaking ELLs. 2.04 0.77 Spanish speaking ELLs would make faster achievement gains if they spoke less Spanish at hom e and with peers. 2.48 0.83 Students should not be allowed to speak a language other than English while in school. 1.81 0.82 Parents of ELLs should speak English with their children whenever possible. 2.81 0.74

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65 Table 4 7. Beliefs about practices of lan guage as a resource (PLAR), positively worded items Statement Mean Standard Deviation I have learned some words or phrases in Spanish so that I can better communicate with my students. 3.00 0.66 I sometimes group Spanish speaking ELLs who have limited pr oficiency in English with Spanish speaking students with high proficiency so they can work together on a task in both Spanish and English. 3.15 0.57 I allow my Spanish speaking students to study content material in Spanish when available. 2.90 0.72 I h ave Spanish language materials available for students in my classroom. 2.65 0.79 I use cognates (words with similar roots) to show similarities between Spanish and English. 2.73 0.70 I have used an interpreter to communicate with the parents or guardians of a Spanish speaking student. 2.94 0.77 Table 4 8. Beliefs about practices of language as a resource (PLAR), negatively worded items Statement Mean Standard Deviation I discourage my students from speaking a language other than English in my classroom 1.88 0.65 I am hesitant to call or email the parents or guardians of students whose parents I suspect do not speak English. 2.17 0.81

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66 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Overview Chapter 4 reported the findings from the survey, group interview, and follow up interviews. In Chapter 5, I discuss the conclusions and implications of those findings as they relate to my two research questions: What do high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners believe about language and culture as a re source for learning? What do high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners believe about practices related to language and culture as a resource for learning? Findings show that teachers generally do believe in the value of culture and languag e as a resource for teaching Latina/o ELLs. However, after examining individual items from the survey more closely and comparing those items with findings from the interviews, I identified four misconceptions about the role of language and culture in teach ing ELLs that are inconsistent with other beliefs expressed through the survey that value the role of language and culture. Data from the follow up interviews suggest that these misconceptions and inconsistencies stem from limitations of the survey design that resulted in a masking of beliefs and practices that may not value the role of language and culture as a resource for learning to the extent needed to create the culture affirming learning environment that foster academic success for Latina/o ELLs. In the first section of Chapter 5, I describe the misconceptions about second language acquisition revealed in the findings and identify inconsistencies among survey items or opinions expressed in the group interview. The second section explains those miscon ceptions and inconsistencies using information from the follow up interviews.

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67 The next section describes the limitation of the study, and the final section discusses the implications of the findings. Misconceptions and Inconsistencies Language minority stu dents such as Latina/o ELLs learn best when their cultural identity is affirmed through an empowering learning process and their first language is seen as a resource instead of a problem (Cummins, 1986, 2000 ; Ladson Billings, 1995; Ruiz, 1988 ). T eachers mu st believe that the culture and language of their Latina/o stud ents is a resource for learning in order to empower those students and affirm their cultural identity (Castro, 2010; Gay, 2010; Okhee, 2004; Pajares, 1992) Any belief expressed through the sur vey, group interview, and follow up interview that did not value the language or culture of Latina/o ELLs is a misconception about the role of language and culture for teaching Latina/o ELLs. Data from the survey revealed four such misconceptions that were inconsistent with other beliefs professed through the survey, group interview, and follow up interview that value the role of language and culture in teaching Latina/o ELLs. The most obvious example of such an inconsistency is seen in the response to the first item of the survey: speaking ELLs to adapt to Ame chool life is superior to the cultural experiences of language minority students. As Cummins explained, this type of belief creates a coercive instead of collaborative relation of power between student and teacher, and coercive relations of power inhibit a cademic success for language minority students (2000).

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68 The survey data showed that the idea that ELLs should adapt to American culture and school life is a misconception held by 77% ( n = 41) of the teachers in the study. Yet, among th e 77% of respondents who agreed or strongly agreed with this The more I know le to meet their academic needs (Figure 5 1). The rationale behind this survey item w as that if teachers believe that they are better able to meet the academic needs of their students when they know more about affirming practices funds of knowledge (Moll et al., 2001), presenting culturally relevant pedagogy (Ladson Billings, 1995), and developing a non stereotyped view of minority experiences (Weisner et al., 1988; Vasquez et al., 1994) (Appendix). Using these culture affirming practices are examples of teachers adapting their curriculum to meet the needs of their students, and not an example of ELLs adapting to American culture and school life. Therefore, the idea that it is the responsibility of ELLs to adapt to American cultur e and school life is a misconception that is inconsistent with the belief that teachers can better meet the needs of their students when they know On a second survey item, seventy six percent ( n = 25) of the same respon dents (that agreed or strongly agreed with Item 1) agreed and 22% strongly agreed with the culture affirming belief that Spanish speaking ELLs bring needed diversity to schools. This particular survey item was borrowed from a 2004 study that measured teach er attitudes towards ELLs in mainstream classrooms. In that study, the item received a

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69 strong positive response when given to a group of teachers who otherwise professed strongly negative attitudes towards ELLs (Walker et al., 2004). The authors of that st udy found that teachers responded positively to general questions about diversity but on items specifically related to their classroom practices, displayed more negative attitudes toward ELLs. In this study the inverse seems to be true: teachers reported b elieving in and utilizing specific practices that value culture and language as a resource, but expressed a more general belief that devalues the culture and language of their ELLs. This finding is more consistent with the Pohan and Aguilar study (2001) t hat They found that teachers held personal beliefs that devalued the L1 of bilingual students, but nonetheless believed that the L1 should be a resource for learning i n the professional context of their classroom. This sort of inconsistency of beliefs can be further seen through responses to survey items related to specific practices of language as a resource (PLAR). Seventy three percent ( n = 24) of those respondents w ho agreed or strongly agreed to Item 1 responded that they had learned some words in Spanish to help them better communicate with Spanish speaking ELLs. Eighty eight percent ( n = 29) agreed or strongly agreed that they allow students to study content mate rial in Spanish when available. Respondents also reported that they used cognates to show similarities between Spanish and English, interpreters to contact parents of ELLs, and grouping strategies to accommodate ELLs in their classroom. Again, these practi ces are all examples of teachers adapting to meet the language needs of their students and not vice versa.

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70 In fact, responses to all items on the PLAR scale, which received a moderately high mean rating of 2.9/4.0, seemed inconsistent with several survey items about beliefs of language as a resource (BLAR). For example, Parents of ELLs should speak English with t seven percent ( n = 40) of respondents agreed with this statement or s trongly agreed. Only four respondents (8%) strongly disagreed. On another item from the PLAR scale, over half of the respondents ( n = 27) Spanish speaking ELLs would make faster achievement gains if they spoke less Spanish a t home and second language acquisition that was inconsistent with survey items where teachers reported using practices that valued the role of the second language in lear ning. These survey items are furthermore inconsistent with other BLAR Items that received high Whenever possible, second language learners should receive instruction in their first language until they are proficient enough t o learn via En glish Bilingual students have benefits for learning that monolingual students do not have Spanish speaking ELLs can use their knowledge of Spanish to le Both of the miscon ceptions from the BLAR scale relate to speaking Spanish outside of school, yet teachers agreed that Spanish can be a resource inside of school. This suggest that teachers believe that the common underlying proficiency described by Cummins (2005) should be activated in the classroom but ignored in the home. In other words, if it is useful for learning English, then speaking Spanish is just fine, but only if

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71 revealed similar inconsistencies. For example, Karabenick and Clemens (2004) also found that teachers believe that bilingualism is an advantage for learning, but as in the case of this study, teachers believed that speaking the L1 at home hindered the academic progress of ELLs. Another study by Reeves (2006) showed that despite a generally welcoming attitude towards ELLs, most of the teachers in the study (82%) believed that English should be the official language of the United States. This assimilationist belief devalues t he culture and language of Latina/o ELLs. That message is likely not missed by the student who needs to feel her culture and language is valued to have the surest shot at academic success (Cummins, 2000). Another way in which this problem manifested was th The cultural backgrounds of my Spanish speaking ELLs sometimes impede their learning. Fifty five percent ( n = 29) of respondents agreed or strongly agreed with this statement, which expressed a belief that directly devalues the cult ure of Latina/o ELLs. As in other cases, this misconception seemed inconsistent with opinions expressed in the group interview and the survey items mentioned above in which teachers reported that they value culture as a resource. All participants in the gr oup interview commented positively on the support from families of their Latina/o ELLs as a resource for learning. Of course, the belief that the culture of Spanish speaking ELLs sometimes impedes their learning is consistent with the high rating of Item 1 of the survey. In fact, those who agreed or strongly agreed with Item 1 agreed or strongly agreed at a similar rate (56%, n = 19) to this BCAR item. As in the case of beliefs about language as a resource, this may also suggest that teachers believe that the culture of their Latina/o ELLs may

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72 sometimes be useful in the classroom, but that does not necessarily equate to a broader belief that values the culture of Latina/o ELLs. Meeting in the Middle: Explanations and Limitations The follow up interviews with Mark and Ashley introduced the idea that inconsistencies between responses may be due to a tendency to please the researcher and a lack of specificity on items that asked about practices. If these explanations are accurate, then beliefs that value lan guage and culture as a resource may not be as pervasive as the first glance at findings suggested. In her follow up interview, Ashley volunteered her response to the Item 1 of the survey (It is the responsibility of Spanish speaking ELLs to adapt to Ameri can culture and school life), by saying: ause I actually think. This could also be another explanation for the high level of positive ratings for practices of culture and language as a resource. Teachers might self report practices they know they should be using but actually are not. Also, because of la ck of specificity in the survey items that asked about classroom practices, teachers could be partially implementing practices that view language and culture as a resource without making any significant changes to their lessons and assignments. For exampl e, although translation assignment used language as a resource, it primarily required students to look up poems online because he admitted that while he has Spanish

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73 language authors in his classroom, they are all English translations. He said he agreed with the survey item, le for students in my Spanish translations of poems. He admitted that he has never intentiona lly sought Spanish language materials for his classroom library. In her follow up interview, Ashley said something similar: I do have Spanish language materials in my classroom, as long as Spanish English dictionaries count. I have two of those. Also, now that I think of it, I remember a long time ago seeing a Spanish language version and I do think I let ______ use that book a couple of times, but I have no idea where that book i s now. Maybe ________ still has it. At best, these two examples show teachers using culture and language as a resource when it happens to be convenient to do so. The follow up interview revealed this phenomenon in another way as well. When asked about if/how she uses grouping strategies to aid ELLs, Ashley explained that she chooses a student whom she knows is proficient in English and Spanish and asks him/her to translate for a Latina/o ELL. She said this decision is usually made at the last minute or during class. That is not the same as using an intentional grouping strategy that considers the precise proficiency level of the grouped students (Diaz Rico, 2004; Herrera, 2010) One can speculate that other practices of culture and language as a resource that received a high rating might mask a similar occurrence. For example, 93% ( n = n = 41) agreed o r strongly agreed with the statement, communication styles of racial and ethnic minorities when I plan my classroom activities

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74 However, it is not clear through the survey exactly what these practices look l ike in the classroom. responses again cast doubt on the high rating of a survey item. Sixty four percent ( n = 32) of respondents agreed and 18% ( n = 9) strongly agreed with the statem I have examined the materials I use in my classroom to check for cultural bias (e.g., stereotypes, incorrect cultural information). However, in her follow up interview, Ashley, use she is a In actuality, researchers have identified forms of cultural bias in mathematics classrooms, ranging from a Eurocentric presentation of the history of mathemati cs in textbooks to biased assumptions of knowledge in word problems (Davison, 1991; Sleeter, 1997; Sleeter & Grant, 1987). When asked if/how he has checked for bias in his classroom, Mark an English teacher, said that he never explicitly considers the b ias of his classroom material before creating a lesson. However, he recalled that in his first year of teaching at a primarily African American high school, his students pointed out that all of his assigned readings were written by white males. He said tha t since then, he has tried to diversify the selection of assigned readings, but admitted that it is often in the midst of a lesson when he sees the reactions of his diverse students that he realizes the importance of being minded as possible about point, he provided an example from earlier that day:

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75 a joke about somebody taking out chopsticks, and I noticed I was getting a look from a girl in the middle of the room who is part Chinese. He explained that his realization that the comment was inappropriate came too late, and that by re This way of approaching culture and language as a resource is similar to the above discussion of grouping strategies and Spanish language content material in that they are all examples of practices implemented partially and as an after thought, instead of intentionally, as the result of reflection, training and planning. As the chopsticks episode illustrates, that semi approach to utilizing culture and language as a resource can nonetheless result in a student receiving the message that his/her culture and language are not valued. When asked about Item 1 in a follow language as a resource. He explained that alt hough he does feel that Latina/o ELLs should adapt to American culture and school life, he also thinks he, as a teacher, should also adapt to accommodate Latina/o ELLs. In the course of this explanation, he spoke slowly and paused often, seeming to choose his words carefully: part, you know, attempt to (..) become proficient in the language of the place wher needed to meet in the middle a little bit more. role as a teacher of Latina/o ELLs, and unfortunately, it seems that when teachers ask

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76 devalues their culture and language. Summary of Conclusions This study was based on the premise that teachers must value the language and cultu re of Latina/o English Language Learners in order for those students to experience academic success. As Cummins articulated, The root causes of academic failure among subordinated group students are to be found in the fact that the interactions between ed ucators and students frequently reflect and reinforce the broader societal pattern of coercive relations of power between dominant and subordinated groups. Reversal of this pattern requires that educators resist and challenge the operation of coercive rela tions of power and actively seek to establish collaborative relations of power both in the school and in the broader society (Cummins, 2000, p. 2). Although the data revealed a general attitude that values the language and culture of Latina/o ELLs, this st udy did not find that teachers are actively seeking to establish collaborative relations of power. Instead, findings suggest that teachers believe that the language and culture of their Latina/o ELLs are sometimes convenient as a tool for teaching, but the to partial implementation of the culture affirming practices that lead to academic success for language minority students. Limitations The interpretation of these findings must take into consideration the limitations of the study. One potential limitation was sample size and scope of the study. This study focused on teachers from one high school i n Central Florida. Only 53 of the 107 teachers at the high school responded to the survey. Four teachers participated in the

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77 group interview, and only two teachers participated in the follow up interview. Presumably, greater participation in the qualitativ e aspects of the study would have yielded a greater variation of responses. Likewise, a larger sample for the survey would have increased the validity of the results. Another limitation of the study was the design of the survey. Items for the survey were s elected from previous studies (Barry & Lechner, 1995; Byrnes & Kiger, 1994; Cabello & Nancy, 1995; Hachfield, Hahn, Schroeder, Anders, Stanta, & Kunter, 2011; Karabenick & Noda, 2004; Pohan & Aguilar, 2001; Razfar, 2012; Reeves, 2006; Siwatu, 2007; Spanier man, et al., 2011; Taylor, 2001; Walker & Shafer, 2004) that sought to survey resulted in a limited view of beliefs of culture and language as a resource. For example, a teac that asked about practices that values culture and language as a resource, but I could not deduce from that response the nature or extent of that practice in the classroom. As was highlighted through the interpretation of group interview findings, the lack of specificity in survey items had the effect of masking certain beliefs that do not value language and culture as a resource. A final limitation of the study was the subjectivity of the researcher and the effect this may have had on survey responses. I am a second year teacher at the high school where the study was conducted. Teachers were informed of the study at a weekly faculty meeting at which the principal introduced me and asked me to briefly describe the study. Most of the teachers know me and hear me speaking Spanish with students in the hallway, which would be a fairly good indicator of my stance on survey items

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78 related to language as a resource. During the follow up interview, Ashley admit ted to choosing survey responses that she knew I would approve of. She also stated that she felt the presence of an ESOL teacher in the group interview might have resulted in more positive comments regarding ELLs. Indeed, both Ashley and Mark shared more n egative beliefs during the follow up interview than they expressed during the group interview. Implications The goal of this study was to learn what high school teachers of Latina/o English Language Learners believe about the role of language and culture as a resource for learning. This research was conducted as a response to a challenge by the principal of the Central Florida high school to help her find a way to close the achievement gap between ELLs and mainstream students. My implications center around the specific context of this Central Florida high school, but because the situation at this high school is indicative of a nationwide problem, my conclusions have the potential to apply to a broader context. In this spirit, I will discuss implications for professional development at the research site and implications for future research. Implications for Professional Development The analysis of data showed that teachers at a Central Florida high school do not believe that language and culture are a resour ce for teaching Latina/o ELLs to the extent necessary to create the kind of truly identity affirming environment in which Latina/o ELLs may best learn academic content. Professional development programs that address this issue should not only encourage tea chers to challenge their assumptions about the value of language and culture in the learning process of Latina/o

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79 ELLs, but should also encourage teachers to challenge their assumptions about the value of language and culture of Latina/o ELLs in general. I t seems that teachers generally know how language and culture can be used as language and culture, they will not be challenging the broader societal structures that contrib ute to academic non success (Cummins, 1986). This could be addressed through professional development that emphasizes transformative or culturally relevant pedagogy, or pedagogy that fosters the collaborative relations of power that lead to student empower ment (Cummins, 1986; 2001; Ladson Billings, 1995). If teachers acknowledge and address the way that their interactions with Latina/o ELLs reflect broader relations of power, the problem of partial implementation of practices that value language and culture as a resource would be more easily solved, and the academic success of Latina/o ELLs should increase as a result. Professional development programs that merely provide teachers with strategies and practices that value language and culture may not be suffi cient to solve the problems of partial implementation. Implications for Future Research Educators continue to struggle to close the achievement gap between ELLs and their non ELL peers, despite mounting pressure by the United States government to do so (N ational Evaluation of Title III Implementation -Report on State and Local Implementation, 2012). This indicates a clear need to continue exploring the factors that contribute to non success for ELLs. The findings of this study suggests that future research in this area should 1) recognize the importance of using qualitative data to

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80 language as a resource, and 3) analyze professional development programs that could addres s misconceptions about culture and language as a resource for teaching Latina/o ELLs. data because quantitative data may mask more negative beliefs. In this study, the quali tative data shed important light on the findings of the survey and revealed limitations of the survey design that are not easily remedied without incorporating qualitative methods. The survey from this study could be replicated and used in other schools to increase the sample size, but would need to be used in collaboration with other qualitative methods The data set from the survey also includes information pertaining to various demographic characteristics that could be used to study predictors of teacher about language and culture as a resource. This information could in turn be used to further determine the nature of professional development programs that address the achievement gap. Because this study revealed multiple misconceptions about th e role of language and culture as a resource, future research should explore the types of professional development that would address such misconceptions. Because I hypothesize that the misconceptions in this study stem from beliefs that reinforce broader relations of power than inhibit minority success, research should more specifically seek to identify the professional development programs that most successfully challenge these kinds of beliefs.

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81 APPENDIX SURVEY ITEMS TABLE Table A 1 Survey Items Tab le Item Subset To which components of Latina/o ELL academic success does this item relate? It is the responsibility of Spanish speaking ELLs to adapt to American culture and school life. BCAR Affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 2000) Spanish speak ing countries all share a similar set of holidays, customs, and cultural activities. BCAR Complex (not stereotyped) view of minority experiences ( Weisner, Gallimore, & Jordan, 1988 ; Vasquez, Pease Alvarez, and Shannon, 1994) The cultural backgrounds of m y Spanish speaking ELLs sometimes impede their learning. BCAR Affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 2000); funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 2001) The cultural experiences of my Spanish speaking ELL students vary significantly betwe en students. BCAR Complex (not stereotyped) view of minority experiences ( Weisner, Gallimore, & Jordan, 1988 ; Vasquez, Pease Alvarez, and Shannon, 1994) Spanish speaking ELLs have competencies that they display outside of school but not in school. BCAR A ffirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 2000); funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 2001) Spanish speaking ELLs bring needed diversity to schools. BCAR Affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 2000); funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, N eff, & Gonzalez, 2001) Students who question authority in school usually have difficulty learning. BCAR Affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 2000); culturally relevant pedagogy (Ladson Billings, 1995) the better I am able to meet their academic needs. BCAR Affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 2000); funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 2001); Complex (not stereotyped) view of

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Table A 1. Continued 82 Item Subset To which components of Latina/o ELL academic success does this item relate? minority experiences ( Weisner, Gallimore, & Jordan, 1988 ; Vasquez, Pease Alvarez, and Shannon, 1994); culturally relevant pedagogy (Ladson Billings, 1995) meet their academic needs. BCAR Affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 2000); funds o f knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 2001); Complex (not stereotyped) view of minority experiences ( Weisner, Gallimore, & Jordan, 1988 ; Vasquez, Pease Alvarez, and Shannon, 1994); culturally relevant pedagogy (Ladson Billings, 1995) Whenever possi ble, second language learners should receive instruction in their first language until they are proficient enough to learn via English instruction. BLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005) St udents should not be allowed to speak a language other than English while in school. BLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005) Bilingual students have benefits for learning that monolingual s tudents do not have. BLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005); funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 2001) Speaking Spanish in school impedes the learning of Spanish speaking EL Ls. BLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005); funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 2001)

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Table A 1. Continued 83 Item Subset To which components of Latina/o ELL academic success does this item relate? Spanish speaking ELLs would make faster achievement gains if they spoke less Spanish at home and with peers. BLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005) Spanish speaking ELLs can use their knowledge of Spanish to learn content material in English. BLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005); funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 2001) Speaking Spanish outside of school impedes the learning of Spanish speaking ELLs. BLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005) Parents of ELLs should speak English with their children whenever possible. BLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005) I have le arned some words or phrases in Spanish so that I can better communicate with my students. PLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005) I sometimes group Spanish speaking ELLs who have limited pr oficiency in English with Spanish speaking students with high proficiency so they can work together on a task in both Spanish and English. PLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005) I discour age my students from speaking a language other than English in my classroom. PLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005) I allow my Spanish speaking students to study content material in Spanis h when available. PLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005) I have Spanish language materials available for students in my classroom. PLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirma tion of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005)

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Table A 1. Continued 84 Item Subset To which components of Latina/o ELL academic success does this item relate? I use cognates (words with similar roots) to show similarities between Spanish and English. PLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005) I have us ed an interpreter to communicate with the parents or guardians of a Spanish speaking student. PLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005) I am hesitant to call or email the parents or guardians of students whose parents I suspect do not speak English. PLAR Language as a resource (Ruiz, 1988); CUP and affirmation of cultural identity (Cummins, 1996, 2005) I present lessons that build upon the background knowledge of all of my students. PCAR Crea tion of collaborative relations of power by building on background knowledge (Cummins, 2000); funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 2001); culturally relevant pedagogy (Ladson Billings, 1995) I discourage my students from discussing issues s uch as racial inequality or social injustice. PCAR Culturally relevant pedagogy (Ladson Billings, 1995); creation of collaborative relations of power (Cummins, 2000) I have made contact with the parents or guardians of my ELL students. PCAR Creation of c ollaborative relations of power by building on background knowledge (Cummins, 2000); funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 2001); culturally relevant pedagogy (Ladson Billings, 1995) I design lessons that help my students become independent learners, or learners who do not depend on a school or teacher for learning PCAR Liberation from instructional dependency(Cummins, 2000); culturally relevant pedagogy (Ladson Billings, 1995) I have examined the materials I use in my classroom to check for cultural bias (e.g., stereotypes, incorrect cultural information). PCAR Culturally relevant pedagogy (Ladson Billings, 1995); collaborative relations of

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Table A 1. Continued 85 Item Subset To which components of Latina/o ELL academic success does this item relate? power (Cummins, 2000); I take into account the various communication styles of racial and ethnic min orities when I plan my classroom activities and procedures. PCAR Collaborative relations of power (Cummins, 2000); funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 2001); I have examined my own behavior in the classroom for signs of bias or favoritism. PCAR Culturally relevant pedagogy (Ladson Billings, 1995); collaborative relations of power (Cummins, 2000); I assign readings that provide alternative historical accounts or perspectives. PCAR Culturally relevant pedagogy that challenges inequalities (L adson Billings, 1995); creation of collaborative relations of power (Cummins, 2000) I involve my students in the creation of classroom rules and procedures. PCAR Culturally relevant pedagogy (Ladson Billings, 1995); collaborative relations of power (Cummi ns, 2000); I incorporate lessons that help my students develop a critical perspective on issues such as inequality and oppression. PCAR Culturally relevant pedagogy that challenges inequalities (Ladson Billings, 1995); creation of collaborative relations of power (Cummins, 2000)

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86 LIST OF REFERENCES Au, K. H., & Mason, J. M. (1981). Social organizational factors in learning to read: The balance of rights hypothesis. Reading Research Quarterly 17 (1), 115 152. Aud, S., Hussar, W., Johnson, F., Kena, G., R oth, E., Manning, E. & Yohn, C. (2012). The Condition of Education 2012 National Center for Education Statistics, US Department of Education. Barry, N., & Lechner, J. (1995). Preservice teachers' attiitudes about and awareness of multicultural teac hing and learning. Teaching and Teacher Education 1 (2), 4 11. Batt, E. G. (2008). Teachers' perceptions of ELL education: potential solutions to overcome the greatest challenges. Multicultural Education 15 (3), 39 43. Byrnes, D., & Kiger, G. (1994). Lan guage attitudes of teachers scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement 54 227 231. Cabello, B., & Nancy, B. (1995). Examining teachers' beliefs about culturally diverse classrooms. Journal of Teacher Education 46 285. Carlo, M. S., August, D., McLauglin, B., Snow, C., Dressler, C., Lippman, D. (2004). Closing the gap: Addressing the vocabulary needs of English language learners in bilingual and mainstream classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly 39 (2), 188 215. Castro, A. (2010). Themes in the r esearch on pre service teachers' views of cultural diversity: implications for researching millennial pre service teachers. Educational Researcher 39 198 210. Coady, M., Harper, C., & de Jong, E. (2011). From pre service to practice: Mainstream elementa ry teacher beliefs of preparation and efficacy with English language learners in the state of Florida. Bilingual Research Journal 34 223 239. Cummins, J. (1986). Empowering minority students: A framework for intervention. Harvard Educational Review 56 ( 1), 18 28. Cummins, J. (1996). Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society Los Angeles: California Association for Bilingual Education. Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power and p edagogy: Bilingual c hildren in the c rossfire Cl evedon, England: Multilingual Matters. Cummins, J. (2005). A proposal for action: Strategies for recognizing heritage language competence as a learning resource within the mainstream classroom. The Modern Language Journal 89 585 592.

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87 Davila, A. (2001). Latinos, Inc.: The Marketing and Making of a People Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Davison, D. (1990). An e thnomathematics a pproach to t eaching l anguage m inority Students In J. Reyhner (Ed.), Effective Language Education Practices and Na tive Language Survival (pp. 143 148). Choctaw, OK: NALI Board of Executors and Jon Reyhner D iaz Rico, L. T (2004) Teaching English Learners: Strategies and Methods Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon Publishers. Florida Department of Education (FL DOE). (2012). Revisions to School Grades Rule Retrieved January 19, 2013, from https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ruleNo.asp?id=6A 1.09981 Gallimore, R., & Au, K. H. (1997). The competence/incompetence paradox in the education of minority culture children. In M. C ole, Y. Engestrm, & O. Vasquez, Mind, Culture, and Activity: Seminal Papers from the Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition (pp. 241 253). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gay, G. (2010). Acting on beliefs in teacher education for cultural diver sity. Journal of Teacher Education, 61 143 152. Garcia, F. C. (Ed.) (1997). Pursuing Power: Latinos and the Political System Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Gonzalez, J. (2001). Harvest of Empire: A History of Latinos in America New Yo rk: Penguin Books. Gonzl ez, N., Moll, L. C., Tenery, M. F., Rivera, A., Rendon, P. Gonzales, R ., & Amanti, C (1995) Funds of knowledge for teaching In Latina/o households. Urban Education 29 (4), 443 470. Hachfield, A., Hahn, A., Schroeder, S., Ande rs, Y., Stanta, P. & Kunter, M. (2011). Assessing teachers' multicultural and egalitarian beliefs: the teacher cultural beliefs scale. Teaching and teacher education 27(6), 986 996. Herrera, S. Guadalupe. (2010). Teaching R eading to English L anguage L e arners: D ifferentiated L iteracies Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon Publishers. Jimenez, R. T., Garcia, G. E., & Pearson, D. P. (1996). The reading strategies of bilingual Latina/o students who are successful English readers: Opportunities and obstacles. R eading Research Quarterly 31 (1), 90 112. Karabenick, S. A., & Noda, P. A. C. (2004). Professional development implications of teachers' beliefs and attitudes toward English language learners. Bilingual Research Journal 88 55 75.

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88 Krashen, S. (2009). An ything but reading. Knowledge Quest 37 (5), 18 25. Krashen, S. (2004). The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Ladson Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal 465 491. Moll, L., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (2001). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice 31 (2), 132 141. National Clearing for English Language Acquisit ion and Language Instruction Educational Programs. (2011). Retrieved January 19, 2013, from http ://www. ncela gwu edu/files/uploads/N CELAFactsheets/EL_Languages_2011. pdf Obama, B. (2012). Remarks by the President on No Child Left Behind flexibility. Retriev ed October 14, 2012, from http://www.whitehouse .gov/the press office/2012/02/09/remarks president no child left behind flexibility Ogbu, J. (1982). Cultural discontinuities and schooling. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 13 (4), 290 307. Okhee, L. (200 4). Teacher change in beliefs and practices in science and literacy instruction with English language learners. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 4 (1), 65 93. Paige, R. (2002, July 24). Key Policy Letters Signed by the Education Secretary or Deputy Secretary. Retrieved July 2012, from U. S. Department of Education: http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/guid/secletter/020724.html Pohan, C. A., & Aguilar, T. (2001). Measuring educators' beliefs about diversity in personal and professional contexts. American Educational Research Journal 38 159 182. Razfar, A. (2012). Narrating Beliefs: A language ideologies approach to teacher beliefs. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 43 (1), 61 82. Reeves, J. R. (2006). Secondary teacher attitudes toward including Engl ish Language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms. Journal of Educational Research 99 131 142. Ruiz, R. (1988). Orientations in language planning. In S. L. McKay, & S. C. Wong (Eds.), Language Diversity: Problem or Resource (pp. 4 26). New York: Harper & R ow.

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89 Saville Troike, M. (1984). What really matters in second language learning for academic achievement? TESOL Quarterly 18 (2), 199 219. Shannon, S. M. (1995). The culture of the classroom: Socialization in an urban bilingual classroom. The Urban Review 27 (4), 321 345. efficacy and outcome expectancy beliefs. Teaching and Teacher Education 23 (7), 1086 1101. Sleeter, C. (1997). Mathematics, m ulticultural e ducation, and p rof essional d evelopment Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 28 680 696. Spanierman, L. B., Oh, E., Heppner P. Neville Mobley, M., Wright, C., Dillon, F., (2011). The multicultural teaching competency scale: development. Urban Education 46 (3), 440 464. Teaching and Teacher Education 17 (4), 487 503. Thomas, W., & Collier, V. (1997). Sc hool effectiveness for language minority students. Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs. Washington, D. C. : ERIC. United States Census Bureau (2011) The Hispanic Population: 2010 2010 Census Briefs Re trieved February 27, 2012, from http://www census gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br 04 pdf United States Department of Education (2012). National Evaluation of Title III Implementation -Report on State and Local Implementation. Office of Planning Evaluation and Policy Development. Vasquez, O. A., Pease Alvarez, L., & Shannon, S. M. (1994). Pushing Boundaries: Language and Culture in a Mexicano Community New York: Cambridge University Press. Walker, A., & Shafer, J. (2004). Not in my classroom: teacher attitudes towards English lan guage learners in the mainstream classroom. NABE Journal of Research and Practice 2 (1), 130 158. Weisner, T., & Gallimore, R. (1977). My brother's keeper: Child and sibling caretaking. Current Anthropology 18 (2), 169 90. Weisner, T., Gallimore, R., & J ordan, C. (1988). Unpackaging cultural effects on classroom learning: Native Hawaiian peer assistance and child generated activity. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 19 (4), 327 353.

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91 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH the Unive rsity of Florida in 2012 She currently teaches 11 th grade at a high school in Central Florida.