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The Effects of FFA Agricultural Sales CDE Training Modules on the Development of Content Knowledge and Argumentation Skill

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045443/00001

Material Information

Title: The Effects of FFA Agricultural Sales CDE Training Modules on the Development of Content Knowledge and Argumentation Skill
Physical Description: 1 online resource (341 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Burleson, Sarah E
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agricultural -- argumentation -- career -- cde -- content -- development -- event -- ffa -- knowledge -- sales
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the type of training module on argumentation skill, student content knowledge achievement, and performance in an agricultural sales practicum completed by secondary school agriculture students. This study was conducted using a quasi-experimental design. The group that acted as the control received agricultural sales training modules without argumentation infused while the treatment group received agricultural sales training modules with argumentation infused. A convenience sample was selected according to the interest of the teacher for participation in the Agricultural Sales CDE. Correlations of variables in the study were used to uncover relationships due to the type of training module used. Both the content knowledge posttest score and the team sales scenario in the agricultural sales practicum had moderate relationships with the treatment. The argumentation posttest had a moderate relationship with performance in the individual sales call. Moderate correlations were also seen between the individual sales call,grade level, and gender. Univariate analysis of covariance were conducted to determine the influence of the type of training module. Significant differences were seen in content knowledge and performance in the team sales scenario of the agricultural sales practicum. Students that received argumentation infused training modules performed better in the team sales scenario than students in the control group. However, students in the control group (training modules without argumentation infusion) performed better on the content knowledge achievement assessment. Results indicated increases in content knowledge and argumentation skill regardless of the type of training module. Increases in argumentation skill regardless of treatment may be due to the natural presence of argumentation within the Agricultural Sales CDE. Recommendations were presented for secondary agriculture teachers, state FFA staff members, and future research. Agriculture teachers may not need to purposefully infuse argumentation instruction in this CDE in order to develop argumentation skill,but should evaluate incorporation of argumentation instruction within other CDEs, state FFA staff should develop training modules for CDEs in order to standardize expectations and increase participation, and future research should include experimental studies in CDE preparation to determine the skills acquired by students from CDE participation.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sarah E Burleson.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Thoron, Andrew C.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045443:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045443/00001

Material Information

Title: The Effects of FFA Agricultural Sales CDE Training Modules on the Development of Content Knowledge and Argumentation Skill
Physical Description: 1 online resource (341 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Burleson, Sarah E
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agricultural -- argumentation -- career -- cde -- content -- development -- event -- ffa -- knowledge -- sales
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the type of training module on argumentation skill, student content knowledge achievement, and performance in an agricultural sales practicum completed by secondary school agriculture students. This study was conducted using a quasi-experimental design. The group that acted as the control received agricultural sales training modules without argumentation infused while the treatment group received agricultural sales training modules with argumentation infused. A convenience sample was selected according to the interest of the teacher for participation in the Agricultural Sales CDE. Correlations of variables in the study were used to uncover relationships due to the type of training module used. Both the content knowledge posttest score and the team sales scenario in the agricultural sales practicum had moderate relationships with the treatment. The argumentation posttest had a moderate relationship with performance in the individual sales call. Moderate correlations were also seen between the individual sales call,grade level, and gender. Univariate analysis of covariance were conducted to determine the influence of the type of training module. Significant differences were seen in content knowledge and performance in the team sales scenario of the agricultural sales practicum. Students that received argumentation infused training modules performed better in the team sales scenario than students in the control group. However, students in the control group (training modules without argumentation infusion) performed better on the content knowledge achievement assessment. Results indicated increases in content knowledge and argumentation skill regardless of the type of training module. Increases in argumentation skill regardless of treatment may be due to the natural presence of argumentation within the Agricultural Sales CDE. Recommendations were presented for secondary agriculture teachers, state FFA staff members, and future research. Agriculture teachers may not need to purposefully infuse argumentation instruction in this CDE in order to develop argumentation skill,but should evaluate incorporation of argumentation instruction within other CDEs, state FFA staff should develop training modules for CDEs in order to standardize expectations and increase participation, and future research should include experimental studies in CDE preparation to determine the skills acquired by students from CDE participation.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sarah E Burleson.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Thoron, Andrew C.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045443:00001


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1 THE EFFECTS OF FFA AGRICULTURAL SALES CDE TRAINING MODULES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONTENT KNOWLEDGE AND ARGUMENTAT IO N SKILL By SARAH E. BURLESON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PAR TIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 2013 Sarah E. Burleson

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3 To my Dad

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS When I reflect on my educational experiences and think of all the individuals who have helped me achieve my goals, I know I am truly blessed beyond measure. I am thankful God has blessed me with incredible individuals who have helped shape and mold me into the woman I am today. First, I would like to t hank my best friend, Will. Your love and support has been unwavering throughout this process, and for that, I will always be grateful. Lucky for us we both chose to pursue rigorous academic goals, which often meant sacrificing time spent together in lieu o f writing research papers and studying for exams. However, through it all, you have been a beacon of faith, love, support, and guidance. Thank you for all that you do and all that you are. I love you! I know I am truly blessed to have a family who has enco uraged me to pursue my academic goals. Thank you Dad, Jennifer, Mom, and Mike for your continuous investment in my future by providing love, support, and guidance during my academic career and for providing the means that allowed me to be successful. Thank you mom and dad for being an example of hard work and perseverance throughout my life your example in my life has encouraged me to do better and be better. Thank you for working so hard to provide me with an education that you could have only dreamed of. Thank you to the Sapp family for being such an immense blessing in my life. I am so thankful for your constant love and support in my life. Thank you for praying for me, loving me, and treating me like one of your own. To all of my family, thank you for y our love and encouragement. I am truly blessed with a wonderful family! I would be remiss if I did not thank a special family who took me in as their own during my student teaching, and who has continued to be part of my life throughout my

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5 graduate studie with love, support, and encouragement over the past few years. Thank you for the dinners we shared together, our discussions about God, and the continuous encouragement your family has provided me. Most of all, I am thankful for the love your family has shown me. I am so appreciative of the relationship we have developed, and the special place you will always have in my heart and life. Thank you for being such a wonderful blessing in my life! Next, I would like to thank my middle school and high school agricultural education teachers, Mrs. Tricia Bulleman and Ms. Farrah Johnson. Thank you both for instilling in me a love for agriculture and agricultural education, and for modeling profess ionalism, dedication, and passion in your careers. Both of you have provided me with so much guidance, support, and love throughout my education. Thank you for being mentors and friends in my life. I will forever be indebted to each of you for the successe s you have helped me achieve. I am certain I would not be who I am today without your counsel and guidance. There have been numerous individuals who have played a role in my education at the University of Florida. I am so blessed to have obtained two degr ees from this wonderful institution and the Department of Agricultural Education and Communication. The person who has had the greatest influence on my graduate studies is my major professor, Dr. Andrew Thoron. Andrew, thank you for your dedication to my s uccess and you willingness to help me achieve my goals. I am thankful for the friendship we developed many years ago that has only grown over these two years. Thank you for enduring meltdowns and stressful moments, and for celebrating successes and

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6 achieve ments in my life. You have been one of my biggest fans while I pursued my academic and career goals and I will always be grateful! I am thankful for my committee members, Dr. Kirby Barrick and Dr. Al Wysocki, who played a large role in making my graduate studies successful. I am appreciative that both of you were willing to take a risk with me and allow me to conduct a study that will certainly be beneficial to my future as an agricultural educator. I thank you both for your time, continued encouragement, and mentorship during this process. I would also like to thank the other faculty members in agricultural education who have served as mentors during both my undergraduate and graduate careers: Dr. Brian Myers, Dr. Ed Osborne, and Dr. Grady Roberts. I am th ankful for the important role each of you played in my education and for your dedication in helping prepare me to be an agricultural educator. I look forward to continued mentorship with each of you as I begin my teaching career. Next, I would like to than k my state FFA officer team: Mike, Karen, Jaime, Joey, Lauren, Josh, and Ashley. A year together created a bond and a family that I am so incredibly grateful to have. The support and love each of you have shown me during the successes and failures of life has been a great blessing in my life. I never knew such wonderful relationships would grow out of our year together. Thank you all for continuing to be part of my life and for encouraging me every step of the way. I love you all and look forward to sharing I also have a few special friends I would like to thank who have played a large role in my life and graduate career. First, I would like to thank Becca, my closest friend. Although many miles have separated us, our friendship has never changed. I am

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7 thankful for your kind words, encouragement, and love you have provided. I am truly blessed that you have been there to support me during the tough decisions and to celebrate the special moments in life. You will never know the great impact you have had on my life. I would also like to thank McKenzie Smith and Christopher Stripling. Both of you were instrumental in making my graduate career a success. I am so appreciative that each of you were willing to listen, he lp me work through tough decisions, and most importantly help me with APA citations! Thank you both for helping me grow academically, personally, and in my faith. There are few friends finer than Becca, McKenzie, and Christopher. I am so glad to call each a friend. Finally, I would like to thank my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. All I have things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to

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8 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 12 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 13 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 14 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 17 Background and Current U.S. Student Performance ................................ .............. 17 Employers Perceptions of Student Perf ormance ................................ .................... 20 Impact of Career and Technical Education ................................ ............................. 23 Statement of Problem ................................ ................................ ............................. 25 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 26 Statement of Objectives ................................ ................................ .......................... 26 Research Question and Statement of Hypotheses ................................ ................. 26 Research Question ................................ ................................ ........................... 26 Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 26 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 27 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 28 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 29 Assumptions of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 29 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 29 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ .................... 31 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 31 Constructivism ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 31 Situated Cognition ................................ ................................ ............................ 32 Conceptual Model ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 34 Previous Research ................................ ................................ ................................ 37 Teacher Variables ................................ ................................ ............................ 37 Professional development ................................ ................................ .......... 37 Prior knowledge/experience/ability ................................ ............................. 38 Available resources ................................ ................................ .................... 41 R elationship with the student ................................ ................................ ..... 42 Student Variables ................................ ................................ ............................. 42 Student motivation ................................ ................................ ..................... 43 Prior knowledge/experience ................................ ................................ ....... 44

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9 Relationship with teacher ................................ ................................ ........... 44 Situated Cognition ................................ ................................ ............................ 45 Salesperson Variables ................................ ................................ ..................... 47 Selling related knowledge ................................ ................................ .......... 48 Degree of adaptiveness ................................ ................................ ............. 48 Role ambiguity ................................ ................................ ........................... 49 Cognitive aptitude ................................ ................................ ...................... 50 Work engagement ................................ ................................ ...................... 50 Critical Thinking ................................ ................................ ................................ 51 Learner Outcomes ................................ ................................ ............................ 52 Argumentation skill ................................ ................................ ..................... 52 Content knowledge ................................ ................................ .................... 54 Student performance ................................ ................................ ................. 56 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 57 3 METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 58 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 59 Population and Sample ................................ ................................ ........................... 64 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 65 Training Modules ................................ ................................ .............................. 65 Content Knowledge Achievement Assessment Instrument .............................. 66 Argumentation Skill ................................ ................................ .......................... 67 Agricultural Sales Practicum ................................ ................................ ............. 68 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 69 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 70 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 71 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 73 Objective One: Describe the Ethnicity, Gender, and Year in School of Agriculture Secondary School Students who Participate in the Agricultural Sales Practicum in Florida. ................................ ................................ .................. 77 Ethnicity ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 77 Gender ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 77 Grade Level ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 78 Obje ctive Two: Ascertain the Relationship between the Use of Training Modules and the Development of Student Argumentation Skill, Content Knowledge Achievement, and Performance in an Agricultural Sales Practicum. ................... 79 Content Knowledge Achievement ................................ ................................ .... 79 Student Argumentation Skill ................................ ................................ ............. 80 Performance in an Agricultural Sales Practic um ................................ .............. 80 Objective Three: Examine the Relationships among Argumentation Skill, Content Knowledge Achievement, Performance in an Agricultural Sales Practicum, Ethnicity, Gender, and Year in School of Agriculture Secondary School Students who Participate in the Agricultural Sales Practicum. ................. 82 Test of Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ 83

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10 Hypothes es Related to Content Knowledge Achievement ............................... 84 Hypotheses Related to Argumentation Skill ................................ ..................... 85 Hypotheses Related to Performance in an Agricultural Sales Practicum ......... 86 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 87 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ .. 89 Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 90 Research Question and Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ...... 91 Research Question ................................ ................................ ........................... 91 Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 91 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 91 Summary of Findings ................................ ................................ .............................. 93 Objective One ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 94 Objective Two ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 94 Objective Three ................................ ................................ ................................ 96 Null Hypothesis One ................................ ................................ ......................... 96 Null Hypothesis Two ................................ ................................ ......................... 97 Null Hypothesis Three ................................ ................................ ...................... 97 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 99 Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 100 Objective One: Describe the ethnicity, gender, and year in school of agricultur e secondary school students who participate in the agricultural sales practicum in Florida ................................ ................................ ............ 100 Objective Two: Ascertain the relationship between the use of training modules and the development of student argumentation skill, content knowledge achievement, and performance in an agricultural sales practicum. ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 101 Objective Three: Examine the relationships among argumentation skill, co ntent knowledge achievement, performance in an agricultural sales practicum, ethnicity, gender, and year in school of agriculture secondary school students who participate in the agricultural sales practicum. ........... 102 Hypothesis One: There is no significant difference in student content knowledge achievement based upon the type of training module. .............. 104 Hypothesis Two: There is no signifi cant difference in student argumentation skill based upon the type of training module. ................................ .............. 105 Hypothesis Three: There is no significant difference in performance in the agricultural sales practic um based upon type of training module. ............... 106 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 108 Recommendations for Practitioners ................................ ................................ ...... 113 Recommendations for State FFA Staff/State CDE Coordinators .......................... 113 Recommendations for Further Research ................................ .............................. 114 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 114 APPENDIX A ARGUMENTATION INFUSION ................................ ................................ ............ 116

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11 B AGRICULTURAL SALES TRAINING MODULES ................................ ................. 123 C AGRICULTURAL SALES PRETEST AND POSTTEST ................................ ........ 280 D PRETEST/POSTTEST MATRIX ................................ ................................ ........... 290 E ARGUMENTATION SCORING RUBRIC ................................ .............................. 291 F ARGUMENTATION INSTRUMENT ................................ ................................ ...... 292 G AGRICULTURAL SALES PRACTICUM: COMPANY INFORMATION ................. 295 H AGRICULTURAL SALES PRACTICUM: TEAM SALES SCENARIO ................... 306 I AGRICULTURAL SALES PRACTICUM: TEAM SALES SCENARIO SCORING RUBRIC ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 318 J AGRICULTURAL SALES PRACTICUM: INDIVIDUAL SALES SCENARIO ......... 319 K AGRICULTURAL SALES PRACTICUM: INDIVIDUAL SALES SCENARIO SCORING RUBRIC ................................ ................................ .............................. 324 L INTRODUCTION LETTER FOR TEACHERS ................................ ....................... 325 M ARGUMENTATION INFORMATION FOR TEACHERS ................................ ....... 326 N IRB APPROVAL ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 327 O INFORMED CONSENT FOR PARENTS ................................ .............................. 329 P INFORMED CONSENT FOR STUDENTS ................................ ........................... 330 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 331 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 341

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12 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Treatment Group Membership Totals ................................ ................................ 75 4 2 Treatment Group Participant Totals ................................ ................................ .... 75 4 3 Response Rates fo r Data Collection Components ( n =37) ................................ .. 76 4 4 Participant Ethnicity ( n =37) ................................ ................................ ................. 77 4 5 Participant Gender ( n =37) ................................ ................................ .................. 78 4 6 Participant Grade level (n=37) ................................ ................................ ............ 78 4 7 Participant Mean Pretest Scores ( n =37) ................................ ............................. 79 4 8 Participant Mean Posttest Scores ( n =37) ................................ ........................... 79 4 9 Participant Mean Argumentation Scores ( n =37) ................................ ................. 80 4 10 Participant Practicum Pe rformance Scores ( n =37) ................................ ............. 81 4 11 Correlations Between Variables ................................ ................................ ......... 83 4 12 Content Knowledge Posttest Score by Treatment ( n =37) ................................ ... 84 4 13 Univariate Analysis of Treatment Effect for Content Knowledge ........................ 84 4 14 Argumentation Posttest Score by Treatment ( n =37) ................................ .......... 85 4 15 Univariate Analysis of Treatment Effect for Argumentation Skill ......................... 85 4 16 Practicum Performance Scores by Treatment (n=37) ................................ ........ 87 4 17 Univariate Analysis of Treatment Effect for Argumentation Skill ......................... 87

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13 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Conceptual model for teaching agricultural sales, guiding the development of argumentation skill, content knowledge, and performance. ................................ 36 3 1 Variation of the nonequivalent c ontrol group design used in this study. ............. 59 3 2 Nonequivalent design for this study. ................................ ................................ ... 60

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14 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S CDE Career Development Event CTE Career and Tech nical Education FFA National FFA Organization ILO International Labour Organization NCEE National Center for Excellence in Education OECD The Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development TIMSS Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study USDE United States Department of Education

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15 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science THE EFFECTS OF FFA AGRICULTURAL SA LES CDE TRAINING MODULES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONTENT KNOWLEDGE AND ARGUMENTATION SKILL By Sarah E. Burleson May 2013 Chair: Andrew C. Thoron Major: Agricultural Education and Communication The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the type of training module on argumentation skill, student content knowledge achievement, and performance in an agricultural sales practicum completed by secondary school agriculture students. This study was conducted using a quasi experimental design. T he g roup that acted as the control received agricultural sales training modules without argumentation infused while the t reatment group received agricultural sales training modules with argumentation infused A convenience sample was selected according to the interest of the teacher for participation in the Agricultural Sales CDE. Correlations of variables in the study were used to uncover relationships due to the type of training module used. Both the content knowledge posttest score and the team sales scenari o in the agricultural sales practicum had moderate relationships with the treatment. The argu mentation posttest had a moderate relationship with performance in the individual sales call. Moderate correlations were also seen between the individual sales cal l, grade level, and gender.

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16 Univariate analysis of covariance were conducted to determine the influence of the type of training module. Significant differences were seen in content knowledge and performance in the team sales scenario of the agricultural s ales practicum. Students that received argumentation infused training modules performed better in the team sales scenario than students in the control group. However, students in the control group (training modules without argumentation infusion) performed better on the content knowledge achievement assessment. Results indicated increase s in content knowledge and argumentation skill regardless of the type of training module. Increases in argumentation skill regardless of treatment may be due to the natural presence of argumentation within the Agricultural Sales CDE. R ecommendations were presented for secondary agriculture teachers, state FFA staff members, and future research. Agriculture teachers may not need to purposefully infuse argumentation instruction in this CDE in order to develop argumentation skill, but should evaluate incorporation of argumentation instruction within other CDEs, state FFA staff should develop training modules for CDEs in order to standardize expectations and increase participation and future research should include experimental studies in CDE preparation to determine the skills acquired by students from CDE participation.

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17 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background and Current U.S. Student Performance In 1983, A Nation At Risk reported t hat the current educational system in the The report highlighted the rise in ef ficiency of production and knowledge possessed by other countries, suggesting that the United States would soon fall behind if the educational system was not reformed (NCEE, 1983). Furthermore, the report identified the issue was beyond just industry and c ommerce and focused on the need for intellectual and moral strength from the American people. A Nation At Risk highlighted the fact that the United States as a whole was not only underperforming on the world stage in industry, but also in education (NCEE, 1983). Evidence of this underperformance was indicated in several arenas. On an international level U.S. students ranked last in student achievement among industrialized nations, the average achievement of high school students on standardized tests was low er than it was 26 years prior, and 23 million U.S. adults were functionally illiterate (NCEE, 1983). The results of this report projected the current generation of students would not surpass their y previous generation, if the trend continued (NCEE, 1983). This report painted a dim picture of the U.S. educational system and called for a resurgence in education that would provide justice to the country and its educational foundation (NCEE, 1983). N early thirty years later, the United States has found itself in a similar situation. The National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century

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18 performan ce in mathematics and science is unacceptable (USDE, 2000). The Condition of Education 2012 reported that 76% of eighth grade students were performing at the basic level in reading, and only 34% were proficient in reading (basic was defined as eighth graders were performing at a basic level in mathematics, while only 35% were proficient in math ematics performance. Results for fourth and twelfth graders were similar, suggesting that just over one reading, and just over one third were proficient in mathematics (USDE, 2012). An international exam ination suggested that the current prognosis has not gotten much better. According to the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, the United States ranked eleventh in fourth grade mathematics skills and eighth in eighth grade ma thematics skills when compared to other nations. Furthermore, only 10% of U.S. students in the fourth grade and six percent of students in the eighth grade were performing at or above the advanced international mathematics benchmark. Countries such as Sing apore and Hong Kong had 41% and 40% of fourth grade students performing at or above the advanced international mathematics benchmark respectively (USDE, 2009). In terms of science, the TIMSS 2007 reported the United States ranked eighth in fourth grade sc ience and eleventh in eighth grade science compared to other nations. When comparing U.S. students on the basis of the advanced international benchmark in science, only 15% of fourth grade students performed at or above the benchmark, while only 10% of eig hth grade

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19 students performed at or above the benchmark. This can be compared to Singapore that reported 36% and 32% of fourth grade and eighth grade students performing at or above the advanced international benchmark in science, respectively. As depicted by the TIMSS (2007) report, the U.S. has been falling behind in educational performance on an international scale. In addition to the current educational situation with regards to mathematics, velopment of transferable skills. Transferable skills are skills that can be acquired and applied in a variety of settings. Examples of transferable skills include communication skills, problem solving and analytical skills, and teamwork (USC, 2012). As fa r back as the A Nation At Risk report, students have not possessed higher order thinking skills or problem solving skills to draw inferences from written materials. The report argued that schools might have been placing too much emphasis on reading and mat hematics at the expense of learning skills such as comprehension, analysis, and problem solving (NCEE, 1983). and Alston (2006) suggested that it is not enough for students to possess only technical skills; students also need to possess other skills that can be employed in multiple settings. In 2003, a special assessment in problem solving indicated that the U.S. ranked 29th out of 40 countries when comparing the pro blem solving abilities of 15 year old students (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009). Moreover, the International Labour Organization (ILO) (2005) claimed that in order to obtain employment, individuals needed core skills, such as teamwork, problem s olving, and

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20 learning skills. The ILO suggested that many youth do not possess this skill set, and this has created a disadvantage for graduates when applying for employment. Employers Perceptions of Student Performance High school graduates have been lacki ng in both academic proficiency and transferable skills. Unfortunately, government reporting agencies have not been the only groups that have reported data which indicate a trend towards weakened U.S. academic proficiency. In a study conducted by The Confe rence Board, Corporate Voices for Working Families, Partnership for 21st Century Skills, and the Society for Human Resource Management, employers stated that both basic and applied skills are critical for new hires to be successful in the 21st century U.S. workforce (Casner Lotto, 2006). Basic skills included the ability to speak and comprehend English, as well as knowledge in grammar, mathematics, science, government/economics, humanities/arts, foreign languages, and history/geography (Casner Lotto, 2006). Applied skills included critical thinking/problem solving, oral communications, written communications, teamwork/collaboration, diversity, information technology application, leadership, creativity/innovation, lifelong learning/self direction, professiona lism/work ethic, and ethics/social responsibility (Casner Lotto, 2006). Recently, employers have noted the lack of skills in young hires (Casner Lotto, 2006). Although employers have been expecting new hires to possess these skills, students have not been meeting these expectations (Casner Lotto, 2006). Employers cited high school graduates as deficient in mathematics, reading comprehension, written communications, critical thinking/problem solving, and professionalism/work ethic (Casner Lotto, 2006). Empl oyers stated that high school graduates had adequate level of skills in information technology/application, diversity and teamwork/collaboration

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21 (Casner Lotto, 2006). More than 40% of employers stated that new hires with a high school diploma were deficien t in overall preparation for an entry level job (Casner Lotto, age education system, unhinged from the needs of the business world [which] fails to prepare students in the primary and sec ondary grades for twenty first In 2001, Roe purported that corporations have been requiring a new type of worker. Since the 1970s, computerization in the workplace has increased, taking the place of many manual tasks, which in turn has required employees to possess problem solving, communication, and management skills for more analytical tasks (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008). Roe (2001) referred to this new type of worker as a gold collar worker ciplinarian who combines the mind of the white collar worker with the hands of the blue seeking to hire high school graduates with professionalism/work ethic, teamwork/collaboration, oral communications, ethics /social responsibility, and reading comprehension, and a solid foundation in mathematics and science (Casner Lotto, 2006; Roe 2001). In a study conducted by Millennial Branding and Experience Inc., 98% of employers cited communication skills and 92% cited teamwork skills as being important when hiring for entry level positions. However, 91% of employers stated that communication skills are the hardest to find when looking to hire, and 78% cited strategic thinking and analytical skills are the hardest to fin d when looking to hire (Schawbel, 2012). Moreover, Billing (2003) conducted an international study of career skills sought by employers and discovered that problem solving was among the most highly

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22 regarded. Additionally, critical thinking has been highli ghted as essential for successful job performance (Casner Lotto, 2006). The combination of problem solving and critical Jonassen (2002) defined argumentation as requiring indiv iduals to identify problems, identify alternative viewpoints, and develop support for their solution, using facts and evidence. University of Cambridge (2011) cited argument and analysis as a transferable skill necessary for success in school and beyond. Recently, education experts have cited the process of using evidence to make arguments and engaging in arguments as a skill that has substantial academic value (Lynn & Canter, 2012). Furthermore, this skill set is cited as one needed for success in college and beyond (Lynn & Canter, 2012). The benefits of this skill have prompted the incorporation of argumentation skill into the new Common Core State Standards. The Common Core State Standards denote a specific section in the newly written standards which hi ghlights the place of argumentation in academia (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010). The National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (2010) stated the necessity of students t o write sound arguments on important issues is critical for college and career readiness. Argumentation encompasses qualities that employers have been seeking. However, students have not been able to construct well structured arguments and have been unabl e to connect their claims to evidence, which is essential for problem solving (Cho & Jonassen, 2002). (OECD) (2007) reported that only 1.3% of students across the OECD were able answer questions that require use of knowledge to develop an

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23 argument in supp ort of decisions focused around global issues. Furthermore, only nine percent of students in the OECD were able to construct an argument based on evidence and critical analysis. Research indicated that only 20% of students entering college have possessed a rgumentation skills (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010). Employers have been seeking specific attributes and skills in new hires. However, students have not possessed the necessary skill sets to be successful in the workplace. Impact of Career and Technical Education Based on the aforementioned findings, students could benefit from instruction on how to develop transferable skills. Bancino and Zevalkink (2007) proposed that transferable sk ills should be taught in Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs. Furthermore, Levine (2007) stated that high school coursework should help students develop these types of skills. Since secondary CTE programs have been suggested as a vehicle to help students develop these skills, agricultural education ought to provide a context for students to learn transferable skills (Dailey, Conroy, & Shelley Tolbert, careers in FFA Organization, 2012a, para. 1). Career preparation and success has been a large component of agricultural education and has been accomplished through classroom instruction an d Career Development Events (CDEs) (National FFA Organization, 2012b, para. 1). A C DE should reflect the current workforce needs in agriculture and natural resources; thus, students should be developing knowledge in a specified area of

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24 agriculture (Scholer, 2012). The National FFA Organization offers CDEs in 24 unique areas of agricultur e, such as livestock, agriculture mechanics, food science and technology, and agricultural sales (National FFA Organization, 2012b). The National FFA Organization has highlighted careers in agribusiness and agricultur al sales in several CDEs. Rece ntly, ag ricultural business and agricultural sales have been emphasized as areas of economic importance and a critical part of society (Harvard Business School, 2008). In 1988, Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education recommended that agribusiness m anagement and marketing be taught to secondary school agriculture students. Additionally, Radhakrishna and Bruening (1994) identified business and economic skills as important skills required for students pursuing careers in agribusiness. Furthermore, agri business leaders and secondary agricultural educators in Nebraska indicated that agribusiness knowledge and skills should be taught in junior high school, while more specific agribusiness principles such as economics, management, and accounting principles should be taught in high school (Blezek & Dillon, 1991). The National FFA Organization stated that the goal of a Career Development Event is to accomplish the purposes of agricultural education while developing responsibility, teamwork, and communication s kills, and promoting ethical competition and achievement (Scholer, 2012). Additionally, the National FFA Organization stated that activities in each CDE can include elements of problem solving, critical thinking, and teamwork skills, as well as focusing on the future needs of society (Scholer, 2012). Ultimately, students should have a base level of technical knowledge in an agricultural

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25 field, as well as certain transferable skills which have been developed through participation in a CDE. Statement of Prob lem As the United States has continued to grow, and the American workplace has become increasingly globalized, education of citizens will be a key to success. An educated citizen group has been needed to support the growing nation and ensure the ability of the United States to continue to compete on the global stage (USDE, 2000). However, the lack of student knowledge in academic areas and the low argumentation skill capacity of students have not presented a promising picture for the United States. Employer s reported trouble in finding enough employees that possess quality work habits and effective problem solving skills (Vanichkorn, 2012). Additionally, employers stated that positions were left unfilled due to the lack of qualified candidates (Vanichkorn, 2 012). As a result, employers have highlighted the skills required for entry level positions, but many students have not possessed the level of academic and transferable skills that are required (Casner Lotto, 2006; Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 200 9; USDE 2009, 2012). Employers have also taken note of the need to bring jobs back to the United States from China ; however they site a lack of qualified employees available for hire (Dahl, 2012). Employers cited available jobs that do not require a four year degree, but noted that eligible candidates either do not possess the technical skills or do not possess the soft skills (such as communication skills or argumentation skill) necessary to be successful in the position (Dahl, 2012). Therefore, the probl em this study investigated was the lack of argumentation skill among secondary school students.

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26 Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the type of training module on argumentation skill, student content knowledge ac hievement, a nd performance in an agricultural sales practicum completed by secondary school agriculture students. The specific objectives and hypotheses of this research were as follows: Statement of Objectives 1. Describe the ethnicity, gender, and year in s chool of agriculture secondary school students who participate in the agricultur al sales practicum in Florida. 2. Ascertain the relationship between the use of training modules and the development of student argumentation skill, content knowledge achievement, and performance in the agricultur al sales practicum. 3. Examine the relationships among argumentation skill, content knowledge achievemen t, performance in an agricultural sales practicum, ethnicity, gender, and year in school of agriculture secondary school students wh o participate in the agricultural sales practicum. Research Question and Statement of Hypotheses Research Question Does argumentation skill development, content knowledge achievement, or performance in the agricultural sales practicum have a rel ationship with the ethnicity, gender, or year in school of a student? Hypotheses For the purpose of statistical analysis, the other research questions were posed as null hypotheses. All null hypotheses were tested at the .05 significance level. H o1 There is no significant difference in student content knowledge achievement based upon the type of training module (argumentation infused vs. no argumentation infusion).

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27 H o2 There is no significant difference in student argumentation skill based upon the type o f training module (argumentation infused vs. no argumentation infusion). H o3 There is no significant difference i n performance in the agricultural sales practicum based upon the type of training module (argumentation infused vs. no argumentation infusion) Significance of the Study First and foremost, this study sought to add to the body of knowledge concerning student participation in CDEs and skill development based on CDE participation. This knowledge can contribute to the debate of the value of student participation in out of school activities and the use of the school day for intra curricular FFA events. This could be particularly informative for local, regional, state, and university educational leaders. This study also had significance for secondary school agriculture teachers inter ested in the area of agricultural sales. Through this study, materials and informat ion for the field of agricultural sales were compiled for use in classroom instruction or CDE preparation. In addition, this study could pro vide valuable insight into the effectiveness of using training modules to preparing CDE teams. This information could be used by curriculum developers, state FFA associations, and the National FFA Organization. Finally, this study answered the call by the National Research Agenda set forth by the American Association for Agricultural Education by adding literature to the following priority areas: Priority 3: Sufficient scientific and professional workforce that addresses the challenges of the 21st century Priority 5: Efficient and Effective Agricultural Education Programs. (Doerfert, 2011, p. 9 10)

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28 Definition of Terms The following terms were operationally defined for the purpose and use of this study: al products [which] is essential 2011, p. 23). Argumentation skill: the ability to develop statements that provide support for a conclusion (Halpern, 1989). In this study, arg umentation skill was defined as the score on a scoring rubric developed by Schen (2007). students develop the abilities to think critically, communicate clearly, and perform effectively 1). the subject matter teste d following treatment which measures the level of correct responses from content presented during preparation for the practicum. modified and belief systems developed and appropr iated through conversation operationalized as the practices used in the field of agricultural sales. Ethnicity: in this study students were categorized as White, Black, Hisp anic, or Other. theory, as on the study, the practicum consists of three components (written exam, individual sales specialist in agricultural business. Performance in practicum: in this study, performance will be determined by the l s ales activity in the agricultural sales practicum. Situated cognition: learning is specific to the situation in which it occurs enez Aleixandre & Erduran, 2008, p. 6); in this study, the situation or context used was the A gricultur al S ales CDE

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29 Training Modules: in this study, the researcher developed training modules that were used by secondary school agriculture teachers in a spe cified format to prepare an Agricultural S ales CDE team. Limitations of the Study The conclusions and implications drawn from this study were subject to the following limitations: The data were limited to the convenience sample of students of teachers p art icipating in this Agricultural Sales CDE training. Therefore, the generalizability of the results of this study was limited to the degree to which those groups matched the population. The applicability to other Career Development Events was limited to the extent in which components and objectives of the CD E match those of the Agricultural Sales CDE. Assumptions of the Study The following assumptions were made for the purposes of this study: The students involved in the study performed to the best of their a bility. Teachers delivered the argumentation treatment accurately. Teachers followed the prescribed preparation time schedule accurately. Summary education and the lack of transfera ble skills that students possess. Specifically, argumentation skill was highlighted as a transferable skill essential for both academic learning and career success. Employers have been seeking to hire graduates that possess knowledge in academic areas and who possess transferable skills, such as argumentation ; however recent studies have illustrated the lack of these skills, leaving employers to hire unqualified candidates, or leave the position unfilled. Due to the lack of academic knowledge and transfer able skills in U.S. students, particularly

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30 argumentation skill, the focus of this study was to determine the effects of training Literature indicated that Career and Technical Education has been a viable option to teach both technical and content knowledge as well as transferable skills. Therefore, this study used an agricultural education context to evaluate the development of technical and transferable skills through participa tion in a CDE. Objectives were identified that look specifically at the development of content knowledge and argumentation skill within the agricultural education context. Chapter 1 also operationalized terms important to this study and recognized limitati ons and assumptions of the study. The results of this study could contribute to the body of knowledge concerning student participation in CDEs and the skills that are developed through participation. This information could be useful for education leaders and could contribute to the debate over student participation in CDEs. Additionally, this study could provide educational materials to agriculture teachers interested in the field of agricultur al sales. The following chapter will describe the theoretical a nd conceptual framework of this study.

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31 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Chapter 1 provided a background on the deficiency of academic knowledge and transferable skills in high school students today, illustrating the lack of employability of high school gradu ates. T he principle focus for this study was to measure the effects of training modules in the development of argumentation skill and content knowledge. This chapter describes the theoretical and conceptual framework that guided this study. The review of l iterature focused on research in the following areas: teacher and student variables related to learning, situated cognition, salesperson variables, argumentation skill development, content knowledge achievement, and performance. Theoretical Framework Cons tructivism Constructivism was the overarching theory guiding this study. Constructivism focuses on the interactions between people and situations, and the acquisition of knowledge based upon experiences (Schunk, 2004). According to Doolittle and Camp (1999 ), creation of knowledge, the importance of experience (both individual and social) in this knowledge creation process, and the realization that the knowledge created will vary in its de gree of validity as an accurate representation of reality. (p. 5) Both Schunk (2004) and Simpson (2002) argued that constructivism is not a theory by definition, but rather an explanation about the nature of learning. Simpson (2002) stated vism is an epistemology, a philosophical explanation about the nature of (1999) agreed that constructivism is not a theory, but suggested that constructivism is

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32 more lik e a continuum. Assumptions associated with constructivism vary along a continuum, which has resulted in multiple types of constructivism: cognitive constructivism, social constructivism, and radical constructivism. Cognitive p. 6) and that knowledge is developed from active thinking by the learner. Social constructivism emphasizes the social nature of learning, suggesting that knowledge is a constructivism, knowledge is constructed from experiences of the learner; however the knowledge is not an accurate representation of the external world because reality is unknowable to the ind ividual (Doolittle & Camp, 1999). knowledge is not imposed from the outside, but rather constructed based upon the learners own understanding. Schunk (2004) purported that constructivism is founded in Development (Piaget, 1972). Situated Cognition This study was based on situated cognition. Situated cognition suggests that learning is specific to the situation in which it occurs (Anderson, Reder, & Simon, 1996). Much of situated cognition is focused around using cognitive apprenticeships where (Jimenez Aleixandre & Erduran, 2008, p. 6). During situated cognition, learning is a by product of a learner being engaged within a context where knowledge is naturally embedded (Choi & Hannafin 1995). Brown, Collins, and Duguid (1989) argued that the

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33 activity in which knowledge is developed is not separate from learning and cognition, but rather an integral part of what is learned. The authors contended that situations produce knowledge through activity (Brown, Collins, & Diguid, 1989). Situated cognition contains four dimensions that must be considered when designing situated learning environments: context, content, facilitation, and assessment. First, the context in which instruction occurs s hould be meaningful in order for effective learning to occur (Choi & Hannafin, 1995). Brown, Collins, and Duguid (1989) argued that the learning context must be authentic, in such a way that the activities used for instruction are common practices of the c ulture. When common practices are used, students are able to develop the skills used by experts in the culture (Choi & Hannafin, 1995). Secondly, the content determines the authenticity of what is learned in situated cognition (Choi & Hannafin, 1995). Con tent taught using situated cognition should be presented as a function of the culture (Choi & Hannafin). Brown, Collins, and Duguid (1989) stated that the activity the learner performs, the concept being taught, and the culture that the activity naturally occurs in, are interdependent. Thus, in order for learning to occur, the activity, concept, and culture must be taught together. Furthermore, Brown, Collins, and Duguid suggested using cognitive apprenticeships for ship methods try to enculturate students into authentic practices through activity and social interaction in a way similar to that evident and evidently successful 1989, p. 37). Cognitive apprenticeships allow students to learn by developing tools equal to those used by the culture (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989).

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34 Next, facilitation is an aspect to consider in situated cognition. Since situated cognition is rooted in constructivism, student learning occu rs through personal constructions of reality; therefore students need support through facilitation to construct with opportunities for internalizing information, thereb y promoting the higher order, metacognitive skill development The final aspect of situated cognition is assessment. Choi and Hannafin (1995) suggested that assessment be appropriate in both measures and methods that are relevant to what has been learned. Assessment for situated cognition should not be in the form of traditional tests but rather a student centered assessment that emphasizes cognitive growth rather than student achievement (Choi & Hannafin, 1995). Conceptual Model F igure 2 1 depicts the conceptual model developed to guide this study. The model presents the components of the study, including the variables, the outcomes, and the theory utilized to guide this study. The overarching theory used to guide the study, constr uctivism, encompasses the entire model. Various teacher and student variables affect how well content is presented and learned. Teachers will all have a base line level of knowledge because training modules were used. The training modules were a researcher developed teaching material to be used by the agriculture teacher to ins truct students about agricultural sales (further described in Chapter 3). Specific teacher and student variables also have an effect on the outcomes being measured. Teacher prior know ledge or experience, ability, resources, and the relationship with the student have the ability to influence student outcomes. Student motivation, prior knowledge or experience, ability, relationship with

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35 the teacher, demographic variables, and other varia bles (critical thinking ability, communication skills, and analytical skills) all have the ability to affect the learner outcomes. These variables then will influence the preparation for and performance in the practicum, which is developed around situated cognition. Situated cognition recognizes the need for instruction within the context in which the knowledge is naturally embedded. There are four aspects of situated cognition, namely context, content, facilitation, and assessment, all of which are associa ted with components of this study. The context for learning is developed based upon the structure of the modules. The content for learning is set around agricultur al sales. The modules developed were used as a method to facilitate learning. The assessment of learning is based on the outcomes of the study: argumentation skill development, content knowledge achievement, an d performance in the practicum. The next portion of the model presents the salesperson variables which could affect the outcomes of the stu dy. Each variable represents a characteristic of the salesperson which is directly correlated to success in selling. Selling related knowledge pertains to how well the salesperson understands the product being sold. Degree of adaptiveness is concerned with sales situation in order to interact with the customer. Role ambiguity is related to the perform that role. Cognit meet the needs of the customer. Work engagement is a state of work related well being that affects how well a salesperson performs in the job. The level of these variables can affect how wel l a student performs in the practicum. The learner outcomes in this study

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36 were argumentation skill, content knowledge, an d performance in the agricultural sales practicum based upon instruction with the use of training modules. In this study, only learner outcomes and demographic variables were specifically measured, using situated cognition as the guiding theory. The listing of other variables in the model was to illustrate other factors that could influence the development of argumentation skill, content know ledge, and student performance. Figure 2 1. Conceptual model for teaching agricultural sales guiding the development of argumentation skill, content knowledge, and performance.

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37 Previous Research Teacher Variables The first component of the conceptu al model is teacher variables. Teacher variables were listed that could have a relationship with the learner outcomes being measured. Literature was examined about the following teacher variables: professional development, prior knowledge/experience/abilit y, available resources, and relationship with the student. A review of the literature resulted in few factors that aligned with teacher preparation and preparedness for participation in FFA Career Development Events (CDE) (For the purpose of this study, an d clarity/transferability to other educational contexts, the author chose to use the term practicum. Practicum was chosen because the culminating event was not the Florida FFA sponsored Agricultur al Sales CDE see definition in Chapter 1 ). First, Roberts a nd Dyer (2004) sought to determine the effective characteristics of agricultural educators. Through the use of the modified Delphi technique, the participants indicated that effectively preparing students for CDE teams was a necessary characteristic of agr iculture teachers (Roberts & Dyer, 2004). Ricketts, Duncan, Peake, and Uesseler (2005) found that Georgia agriculture teachers rated preparin g FFA CDE teams as important, ranking within the top ten most important competencies for agriculture teachers. Prof essional development Ricketts et al. (2005) also found that teachers indicated they felt somewhat competent in preparing CDE teams and that in service in this area was somewhat important. Although teachers indicated some competence and did not indicate a s evere need for in service, teachers still indicated the importance of CDE preparation and the

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38 need for in service in this area (Ricketts et al., 2005). Furthermore, Harris (2008) conducted a study in 2008 that found that 83.3% of Kansas agriculture teache rs were interested in receiving professional development for preparing specific CDE teams. These agriculture teachers ranked CDEs based upon the interest in receiving professional development. The Agricultur al Sales CDE was the highest ranked CDE for profe ssional development. Harris also recommended that researchers identify ways to provide professional development i n CDE preparation for teachers. Moreover, several studies have been conducted to determine the in service needs of secondary school agriculture instructors. In a study conducted by Joerger (2002) to determine in service needs of agriculture teachers, one cohort of teachers indicated the need for further education in agribusiness. Peake, Duncan, and Ricketts (2007) examined the level of importance of selected technical competencies that Georgia agriculture teachers believe agriculture teachers should possess. Results indicated the high importance of competence in agribusiness relative to technical competence in other areas. Prior knowledge/experien ce/ability The aforementioned information suggested that teachers have been interested in receiving professional development and training in CDEs in order to gain more knowledge about the CDE. Flanagan, Kieth, and Lockaby (2000) surveyed 142 beginning teac hers in Texas and found that teachers desired more information and experience in CDEs. The researchers recommended that teacher education classes at the university level be specifically designed to address training CDE teams. Additionally, students in the teacher preparation program should be involved with CDEs while still in

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39 the program, and teacher preparation programs should include information about CDEs (Flana gan, Kieth, and Lockaby, 2000). Weeks (2000) sought to determine the impact of a professional development workshop in agricultural communications and leadership on agriculture teachers. Thirteen teachers who taught agricultural communications in Oklahoma attended the workshop, while 17 teachers who also taught agricultural communications did not at tend the workshop. Weeks found that teachers who attend the workshop taught a significantly higher number of days on communications and internet applications. Those teachers who did not attend the workshop taught a significantly higher number of days on pu blic speaking. Weeks concluded that workshop attendance was effective at influencing teachers to incorporate more instruction in communications and internet resources. Looking beyond the scope of agricultural education and at the greater picture of educati on, Shulman (1986) presented three categories of teacher subject knowledge that are necessary for teaching: content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, C urriculum knowledge refers to how topics are arranged within th e school year, ways of utilizing curriculum resources, and organizing a program of study for students (Shulman, 1986). Shulman suggested that it teach the subject that in fluences the instructional effectiveness.

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40 mathematics knowledge on student achievement in mathematics. The researchers collected information from students and teachers at 11 5 elementary schools, 89 of which were participating in a comprehensive school reform program. The study followed two groups of students for three years. Data on student achievement were collected from student assessments and parent interviews, while data on teachers was gathered using a teacher log and an annual questionnaire. Hill, Rowan, and Ball found that teacher content knowledge for teaching mathematics was a significant predictor of student gains on assessments (Hill, Rowan, and Ball, 2005). A meta analysis regarding teacher characteristics and student achievement conducted by Wayne and Youngs (2003) suggested that student achievement was positively influenced by teacher experience. Wayne and Youngs also stated that the generalization of teacher expe rience findings were limited, due to external factors that affect teacher experience. However, Archibald (2006) found that teacher performance is positively re lated to student achievement. Harris and Sass (2007) measured the effects of teacher experience and professional development on student achievement. The researchers found that professional development in mathematics at the middle school and high school levels had positive effects on teacher productivity. Harris and Sass attributed these positive effe cts to the increased exposure to content focused training through professional development and suggested more resources should be focused on training teachers in content area professional development programs (Harris & Sass, 2007). Finally, the study indic ated that increased teaching experience at the high school

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41 T he meta analysis by Wayne and Youngs (2003) yielded information concerning the effects of degree subject and degree le vel on student achievement. Results in several subjects (English, history, and science) were indeterminate, suggesting the results indicated that high school students learned more from teachers with additional mathematics coursework and degrees (Wayne & Youngs, 2003) In terms of teacher certification, evaluated by the Wayne and Youngs(2003) meta analysis, much research is al so indeterminate. As a whole, Wayne and Youngs concluded that students perform better in mathematics from teachers who are certified to teach mathematics, as opposed to teachers who hold no certification or a certification in other areas. Research in other subjects (science, history, and English) was inconclusive. Available resources Harris (2008) found that agricultural teachers did not have a specific set of resources they used to prepare students for CDE teams, but rather used various Internet resources. Consequently, Harris stated a need to determine the types of resources agriculture teachers need. Poskey, Igo, and Waliczek (2003) investigated the use of resources used by Texas agriculture teachers when preparing a nursery/landscape CDE team. Results i ndicated that the most widely used resource was videos or slides, followed closely by a greenhouse or garden center. Other resources used for nursery/landscape CDE preparation included textbooks, living laboratories, and the CDE website.

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42 Looking beyond the scope of CDEs to evaluate the use of resources in teaching, Greenwald, Hedges, and Laine (1996) indicated that school resources are positively related to student achievement. T he researchers also found that smaller schools, with smaller classes, were posi tively related to student achievement. T he authors noted that smaller schools and smaller classes could indicate the availability of resources within the school or school district (Greenwald, Hedges, and Laine, 1996). Archibald (2006) corroborated these fi ndings and suggested that per pupil spending at the school level is positively related to student achievement, signifying that the level of educational resources available does affect student achievement. Relationship with the student In a modified Delphi study, Roberts and Dyer (2004) sought to determine the characteristics of effective agriculture teachers. Results indicated several characteristics related to the relationship that the teacher forms with the student. In round one of the Delphi panel, respo Dyer, 2004, p. 86) among the list of characteristics of effective agriculture teachers. In the end, a t least 90% of respondents agreed that an effective agriculture teacher 90). Student Variables Student variables have been identified that can influence the development of knowledge and skills related to participation in CDEs and agriculture education. Those variables identified were student motivation, prior knowledge/experience, and the

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43 relationship with the teacher. R esear ch was examined that was found to influence the development of the learner outcomes. Student motivation In a study conducted by Croom, Moore, and Armbruster (2009), 2,145 students were asked about their participation in a National FFA Career Development Ev ent (CDE). When students were asked about their motivation to participate in CDEs, students ranked the relation of the CDE to their career choice as the highest motivating reason for participation in the CDE. Other reasons for participation, in ranked orde r included: opportunity for leadership development, scholarships and awards, travel and fun, and competition. motivation for participating in CDEs. The researchers used eight teacher s who had won the most CDEs at annual FFA events. Results indicated six main themes: 1. drawing upon the traditions and successes of the chapter, 2. providing opportunities for students to compete, 3. promising students that they will gain life skills, 4. enabling students to have fun, 5. actively recruiting members who show potential for doing well with CDEs, and 6. making CDEs an integral part of the classroom curriculum. (Russell, Robinson, and Kelsey, 2009, p. 108) R esults indicated that students are more likely to participate in CDEs if they expect to succeed and if they value the activity. T he more relevant and meaningful a teacher can make a CDE for a student, the more likely the student is to participate. Lastly, the

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44 researchers indicated that students are more willing to participate if the FFA chapter has a rich tradition for success in a particular CDE (Russell, Robinson, and Kelsey, 2009). Prior knowledge/experience Boone (1990) sought to determine if the problem solving approach to teaching had an effect on student achievement and retention of agricultural knowledge. There was a total of 99 freshman students enrolled in production agriculture in Ohio who were used in the study, based upon a purposive selection of their teachers. Results from the study indica ted that student achievement in a vocational agriculture unit is affected by Relationship with teacher Klem and Connell (2004) purported that students need to feel that teachers are involved and care. Research s uggested that students who have caring and supportive environments at school have positive academic attitudes and are more satisfied with their school experiences (Klem and Connell, 2004). Voelkl (1995) investigated the views of 13,121 eighth grade studen ts in public schools concerning school warmth and student achievement. Results indicated that achievement. Additionally, the relationship between perceived warmth and student par ticipation was significant. The findings suggested that environments perceived as warm created greater levels of student participation. Furthermore, a positive relationship exists between student participation and academic achievement. This finding suggest ed that more engaged students tend to have higher levels of academic achievement (Voelkl, 1995).

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45 Moreover, Klem and Connell (2004) found that students reported that they were more engaged in school when they perceived teachers as caring and that the teache rs exhibited clear expectations. As reported by Voelkl (1995), higher engagement in school resulted in greater student achievement, which was verified by Klem and Connell (2004). Situated Cognition The context in which learning occurs is an integral part of what is learned (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989). Buriak, McNurlen, and Harper (1996) stated that agriculture teachers should develop lesson plans based upon authentic application rather than compartmentalized, content driven models. Buriak et al. sugg ested that students should learn to use knowledge in multiple contexts, which occurs through instruction that applies concepts in multiple contexts. Griffin (1995) conducted a study to determine the effects of traditional instruction compared to situated c ognition. Griffin used map reading skills as the basis for instruction. One group of students received instruction in a traditional manner (guided instruction inside the classroom), while the other group of students left the classroom and used maps to dete rmine routes and find destinations (situated cognition group). In order to measure student learning, all students participated in a performance assessment where students had to read a map and arrive at a specified location. Results indicated that there was a significant difference in posttest scores between the traditional instruction group and the situated cognition group. Students who received information through situated cognition were more likely to have higher scores on the posttest performance assessm ent.

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46 Hendricks (2001) sought to determine the effects of instructional strategy on student achievement. S eventh grade science students ( N = 220) were split into two groups; one received abstract instruction while the other received situated instruction. The abstract instruction group received information in a lecture format where the teacher provided brief explanations and definitions, and then students were given practice in determining the correct answers. The situated instruction group was engaged in disc ussion of research, the teacher used modeling, relevant terms were discussed, and teachers used actual studies where they coached students to help them determine the correct answers. Students were assessed using a posttest Results indicated that there was a significant difference between students in the abstract instruction group and students in the situated instruction group. Those students who were in the situated instruction group out performed the students in the abstract instruction group. Akpinar (20 07) studied 61 eighth grade students to determine the effects of situated cognition on their understanding of photosynthesis and respiration and found results similar to those reported by Griffin (1995) and Hendricks (2001). Students were taught for three weeks. Half of the students received situated learning instruction while the other half received traditional instruction. A pretest and posttest were administered to the students. The pretest was identical to the posttest and covered concepts related to ph otosynthesis and respiration. The pretest indicated no significant difference between the two groups of students. The results of the posttest indicated there was a significant difference between students taught using situated learning and students taught u sing traditional instruction. Students who were taught through situated learning

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47 showed greater achievement than the control group on a knowledge based assessment. Furthermore, the results indicated that those students in the experimental group (situated l earning) had fewer misconceptions about photosynthesis than those in the control group (Akpinar, 2007). Unal and Inan (2010) sought to understand the perceptions of middle school students towards situated learning. In order to do this, the researchers sele cted a science class with 25 students. The students were taught using traditional teaching methods. Following the traditional teaching methods, the students were then taught through situated learning. A co teacher was used, and students learned by actively working on science activities. Following the one week period of situated learning, students were asked about their perceptions concerning the different teaching methods. Twenty of the 25 students noticed a difference in the instructional method, and 22 st udents preferred the situated learning method over the traditional method. T he observations by the two instructors indicated that in the situated learning environment students were more motivated to learn and the teachers indicated that the students asked more questions (Unal & Inan, 2010). Salesperson Variables Salesperson variables were identified that are applicable to the development of the learner outcomes measured in this study. Five sales person variables are presente d based upon previous research. V erbeke, Dietz, and Verwall (2011) conducted a meta analysis of research on salesperson performance by reviewing articles published from 1982 2008. After excluding articles that did not fit within the specifications, 268 studies were examined. The analysis resulted in five main factors that were identified as drivers of sales

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48 performance: selling related knowledge, degree of adaptiveness, role ambiguity, cognitive aptitude, and work engagement (Verbeke et al., 2011). Selling related knowledge Selling related knowledge described the knowledge of the product and of the customer. Salespeople with selling related knowledge understand the products/services of the company and can match those to the needs of the customer (Verbeke et al, 2011). Piercy, Cravens, and M organ (1999) conducted a study of sales units in the United Kingdom. Questionnaires were distributed to sales managers who then evaluated the salespeople within the unit. Results indicated technical knowledge of the product positively correlated with sales force outcome performance (Pie rcy, Cravens, & Morgan, 1999). W ork by Szymanski (1988) indicated that salesperson knowledge needs. Degree of adaptiveness Degree of adaptiveness behavior when interacting with customers (Weitz, 1981). An adaptive salesperson of knowledge are necessary f or a salesperson to be adaptive: declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge (Verbeke et al., 2011). Weitz, Sujan, and Sujan (1986) 178), where the category is the type of selling situation. Procedural knowledge was 1986, p. 178), such as a sales approach used in a specific sales situation. Weitz et al. (1986) proposed that a salesperson situation categories in the long term memory increases. This results in an increase in

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49 declarative knowledge. W eitz et al. proposed that adaptiveness increased when a salesperson hierarchically organized c ategory knowledge, which is again associated with declarative knowledge. Weitz et al. also increase. Piercy et al. (1999) found t hat adaptive selling was highly correlated with selling performance. Similarly, Babakus, Cravens, Grant, Ingram, and LaForge (1996) found a positive association between adaptive selling and overall sales performance. Role ambiguity Unlike the previously me ntioned factors affecting salesperson performance, role ambiguity is negatively correlated with sales performance. Role ambiguity is defined as 0). When role expectations are unclear, sales performance is worse than if role expectations were clear (Verbeke, et al., 2011). Role ambiguity is considered a factor that causes stress in a sales position; however, when role ambiguity is reduced, job per formance can increase (Singh, 1998). Results from research conducted by Singh (1998) indicated that role ambiguity is negatively correlated with sales performance. Singh also found that role ambiguity was especially devastating to sales performance when th e salesperson was not autonomous; however, a high level of autonomy was correlated with greater job performance and less role ambiguity. Johlke, Duhan, Howell, and Wilkes (2000) suggested that ambiguity could be decreased with greater communication practic es between the sales manager and the salesperson. Results from research by Johlke et al. indicated that frequency of communication between the salesperson and the sales manager is positively related to

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50 job performance. Thus, greater communication decreases ambiguity, which increases job performance (Johlke et al., 2000). Cognitive aptitude custome variations of the message in order to be more effective sellers (Sarvary, 2002). S alespeople with cognitive aptitude have the ability to help customers understand needs and pre sent data that will help meet those needs (Reibstein, Day, & Wind, 2009). Schmidt and Hunter (2004) stated that those salespeople who acquire knowledge are more likely to perform better in their job due to the greater amount of knowledge that can be utiliz ed suggesting salespeople with hig h cognitive aptitude will excel in sales (Verbeke et al., 2011). Work engagement The final variable associated with effective sales is work engagement. Work mot ivational state of work related well Salanova, Gonzalez roma, & Bakker, 2002, p. 74). Work engagement is also developing personal networks that salespeople utilize to transfer kn owledge (Verbeke et al., 2011). In a model proposed by Medhurst and Albrecht (2011), work engagement directly influences salesperson performance. Work engagement has been shown to positively influence job performance as well as a number of other factors; h owever, the exact relationship is unknown (Medhurst & Albrecht, 2011). Previous research has suggested that job resources, such as support from supervisors, performance feedback,

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51 and autonomy are positively associated with work engagement (Baker & Demerout i, 2008). However, Bakker and Demerouti (2008) indicated that few studies have shown that work engagement is positively related to job performance. Nevertheless, recent studies have indicated that engaged employees receive higher ratings from their supervi Demerouti & Verbeke, 2004). Bakker and Demerouti suggested that engaged workers perform better than non engaged workers because of four main factors: positive emotions, better healt h, creation of own job and personal resources, and transfer of engagement to others. Critical Thinking any claim, source, or belief to judge its accuracy, validity, or wort suggested that critical thinking is evaluative in nature. Beyer also stated that critical thinking should be a way of thinking that involves both analysis and evaluation. Beyer suggested that critical thinking is not a strategy with a set o f procedures or sequence of operations, but rather critical thinking is collection of operations that are used individually or in combination to address a question, problem, or situation. More specifically to this study, Beyer (1987) highlighted the use of argumentation together with evidence, reasoning, or principles which support the cla im.

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52 Learner Outcomes Specific learner outcomes were measured in this study: argumentation skill, content knowledge, and student performance. P revious research in these areas is presented that examines the development of each of these specific outcomes. A rgumentation skill coordination of evidence and theory to support or refute an explanatory conclusion, o the development of scientific reasoning. Osborne et al. discussed argumentation in terms of scientific instruction. However, argumentation can be used to make personal and ethical decisions about a wide range of issues, based upon information provided th rough the media (Osborne, Erduran, & Simon, 2004). Using argumentation has two functions: to engage learners in conceptual understanding and to make thinking and reasoning evident for teacher assessment (Osborne et al., 2004). Kuhn (1992) posited that the re are two kinds of arguments. The first type of second type, a dialogic argument, each person involved in the argument attempts to make a case by providing justification to rebut the other person (Kuhn, 1992). Kuhn suggested that the two types of arguments are closely related. An argument can only occur when there are two or more contrastin g assertions (dialogic), thus both supportive and unsupportive evidence must be weighed to determine which assertion to support (rhetorical) (Kuhn, 1992). Through these two types of arguments, individuals are exposed to two opposing views in which a positi on must be developed based upon facts

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53 (Kuhn, 1992). Kuhn suggested this is a form of discourse that must be explicitly taught through instruction and modeling. In order to teach argumentation skill, Toulmin (2003) presented an argumentation pattern which has four components that an individual would use to develop an argument. First, data are presented to establish a claim. The claim is the conclusion which an individual is attempting to establish, based on the data. Next, a warrant i s presented, which are reasons that justify the connection between the data and the claim. Finally, backing is utilized, which is information that supports the warrant. The combination of data, claim, warrant, and backing is the basic structure to present an argument. Kuhn (199 2) conducted an argumentation study of 160 individuals ranging in age from ninth grade to older adults and ranging in education level. Kuhn found that only 40% of individuals were able to generate genuine evidence to support their claim. T here were no sign ificant differences in ability to argue the claim among age levels. However, a greater percentage of individuals with a college education were able to generate genuine evidence in their argument as opposed to those without a college education (Kuhn, 1992). Zohar and Nemet (2002) investigated argumentation skill development among ninth grade students at two different schools. Students in the control group were taught genetics concepts using conventional methods, while students in the experimental group were designed to foster the development of higher order thinking skills and scientific

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54 argumentation in high school students. Results showed that students in the experimental group scored significantly higher than students in the control group on a test of genetics knowledge and there was an increase in the number of justifications and the complexity of th e arguments used by those students (Zohar & Nemet, 2002). In the agricultural education profession, Thoron (2010) conducted a study of high school agriscience students whose teacher participated as a National Agriscience Teacher Ambassador. In total, 437 students of ten National Agriscience Teacher Ambassadors participated in the study. Students in the control group were taught using the subject matter approach, while students in the treatment group were taught using inquiry based instruction. Results indi cated that students who were taught using inquiry based instruction had higher argumentation scores than those who were taught using the subject matter approach (Thoron, 2010). Content knowledge Content knowledge in agricultural education has been examine d through quasi experimental studies in which student s were given treatments that utilized different teaching methods. Flowers and Osborne (1988) compared the effects on student achievement between the problem solving approach and the subject matter approa ch in vocational agriculture. The researchers used a purposive sample of agriculture teachers in Illinois who were eligible for selection if they taught two or more introductory vocational agriculture courses. High school students were cluster sampled from the purposive sample. Flowers and Osborne found that there was no difference in student achievement between the problem solving approach to teaching and the subject matter approach (Flowers & Osborne, 1988).

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55 Boone (1990) sought to determine if the proble m solving approach to teaching had an effect on student achievement and retention of agricultural knowledge. Teachers were purposively selected based on their ability to teach the problem solving approach. Ninety nine freshman students enrolled in producti on agriculture in Ohio participated in the study. Results from the study showed that the problem solving approach to teaching increased the level of student retention of agricultural knowledge. Since the problem solving approach allows students to solve re al problems using the scientific method where students test the potential solutions and evaluate the results, there is a greater level of knowledge retention (Boone, 1990). Burris (2005) looked at the development of content knowledge among 140 Missouri ag riculture students whose teachers were purposively selected to participate in the study. Seventy seven students received instruction via the problem based learning method, while 63 students received instruction though the supervised study method. Burris fo und that supervised study method of instruction resulted in higher gain scores in content knowledge but suggested that supervised study may not be the most efficient method for accomplishing education objectives that are assessed at higher levels of cogni tion (Burris, 2005). Thoron (2010) also evaluated the content knowledge achievement of high school agriscience students in the study. Results indicated that students taught by inquiry based instruction achieved significantly higher scores on all content kn owledge exams over the 14 week study. Mean differences between the students who received the inquiry based instructional approach and those who received the subject matter

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56 approach on seven content knowledge exams ranged from 1.36 to 21.64 points on a 100 point scale (Thoron, 2010). While a majority of the content knowledge studies conducted in the agricultural education profession have examined a method of instruction and its effects on student learning, this study focused on the development of argumentat ion skill and content knowledge in agriculture education, and ultimately measures the development of student content knowledge. This study did not compare two teaching methods, but rather used one approach, situated learning, which focuses on the relevance of the needs. Student performance Bandura (1989) stated that self perform well. The stronger an individual 1175). Furthermore, Graham and Weiner (1996) stated that self beliefs about their capabilities t efficacy has been linked to greater effort and persistence (Alfred, Hansen, Aragon, & Stone, 2006). Alfred, Hansen, Aragon, and Stone (2006) suggested that high self efficacy can result from participation in Career and T echnical Student Organizations (CTSO). Alfred experience. The study included 1,797 high school students from 10 different states across the nation. Schools for parti cipation were selected with help from the national CTSO organization and state CTE directors. Each of the eight CTSO organizations was studied in at least two states. The researchers looked at students who were involved in

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57 the CTSO, students who were in a Career and Technical Education (CTE) class but did not have the option to participate in a CTSO, and students who were not in a CTE class at all. Alfred et al. found that involvement in a CTSO resulted in higher levels of career self efficacy compared to e nrollment in a CTE class alone and greater levels of efficacy. R esults indicated that participation in competitive events had significantly positive effects on career self effic acy (Alfred et al., 2006). Summary Chapter 2 described the theoretical and conceptual frameworks that guided this study. Additionally, this chapter provided a review of the literature related to the variables of this study. The literature review focused o n the empirical research in the areas of situated cognition, argumentation, content knowledge achievement, student performance, teacher and student variables that affect learning, and salesperson variables that contribute to effective sales. Several studi es have indicated that situated cognition, when compared to a more traditional teaching method, results in greater student achievement scores. T eacher and student variables can impact student learning. Additionally, specific salesperson variables where hig hlighted to present the effective characteristics of a salesperson. A gap in the literature existed regarding the development of content knowledge, argumentation skill, and performance through the use of situated cognition in the agricultural education pro fession. Several related studies were included that highlighted the positive effects of situated cognition, and other studies were presented to highlight the development of content knowledge, argumentation skill, and student performance outside of the agri cultural education context, but within education.

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58 CHAPTER 3 METHODS in academic areas. R esearch has suggested that students lack employability skills due to a deficiency in techn ical and transferable skills, including argumentation skill. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine the relationship between the use of training modules and the development of argumentation skill, content knowledge, and performance in an agric ultural sales practicum. Additionally, the purpose of this study was outlined, along with specific objectives and hypotheses. Chapter 2 described the theoretical and conceptual framework that guided this study. R elevant research was presented that addresse d all elements of this study. This chapter describes the research design and methods for this quantitative study. Chapter 3 also includes a description of the population and sample, instrumentation, data collection, and data analysis. The independent vari able in this study was the type of training modules developed for use in preparing an agricultural sales practicum team (or Agricultural Sales CDE team). T he group that acted as the control received agricultural sales training modules without argumentation infused while the t reatment group received agricultural sales training modules with argumentation infused The modules were used to prepa re a team of four students The dependent variables in the study were argumentation skill, content knowledge achieveme nt, an d performance in an agricultural sales practicum.

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59 Research Design This study utilized a quasi experimental design. This design was used because subjects could not be randomly assigned to treatment groups because teachers self registered for particip ation in the agricultural sales professional development workshop. Additionally, intact groups were used because students could not be randomly assigned to agriculture teachers. The study followed a nonequivalent control group design (Campbell & Stanley, 1 963). The treatment group received agricultural sales training modules with argumentation infused. T he group that acted as the control received agricultural sales training modules without an infusion of argumentation. An overall achievement assessment comp ared the two groups of students on agricultural sales process as he/she worked to determine a conclusion for a specific sales scenario. An agricultural sales practicum was use d to compare the performance of students based upon the treatment that was received (further information on the practicum is explained in the Instrumentation section). The variation of the nonequivalent control group design used in this study appears as fo llows: O1 O2 X1 O3 O4 O5 -----------------------------------------------O1 O2 X2 O3 O4 O5 Figure 3 1. Variation of the n onequivalent control group design used in this study. The first observation (O1) consisted of a pretest given to each student in t he treatment and control groups to determine prior knowledge of the subject matter. The second observation (O2) was comprised of an argumentation skill pretest administered to each student. The treatment (X1 or X2) was administered after the first two

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60 obse rvations. The third observation (O3) consisted of a subject matter posttest administered to students. The fourth observation (O4) was the administration of an argumentation skill posttest participat ion in the agricultural sales practicum. The design for the study was as follows: T O pretest O argumentation X 1 O posttest O argumentation O practicum ---------------------------------------------------------------------C O pretest O argumentation X 2 O po sttest O argumentation O practicum Figure 3 2. Nonequivalent design for this study. Treatment levels were randomly assigned to the agriculture teachers who participated in the Agricultural Sales CDE training, thus, the treatment was random ly assigned to i ntact groups. Researcher developed training materials with no argumentation infusion acted a s the control (C). Researcher developed training materials with argumentation infused were utilized as the treatment (T). Teachers utilized the materials from the t raining to prepare students for the practicum. The treatment occurred after the first two observations. The first observation (O pretest ) consisted of a content knowledge pretest given to each student to determine their prior knowledge in agricultural sale s. The second observation (O argumentation ) included the administration of an argumentation skills instrument to each student. The third observation (O posttest ) occurred directly following the treatment (training modules with or without argumentation infusi on) and consisted of a content knowledge achievement posttest which was administered to each student. The fourth observation (O argumentation ), which was also administered to each student directly following the treatment, consisted of an argumentation skill s instrument. The final observation (O practicum ) was the agricultural sales practicum administered directly

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61 following the treatment, with participation from each student. Pretest and posttest questions were randomized, and the tests were administered appro ximately five weeks apart. According to Campbell and Stanley (1963), the basic threats to internal validity in a nonequivalent control group design include history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, regression, selection, mortality, and interaction ef fects. The nonequivalent control group design controls for all threats to internal validity except regression and interaction effects. Campbell and Stanley stated that regression is avoidable and can be minimized if subjects are not selected on extreme sco res. Since the treatment was randomly assigned, and intact groups were used, regression as a threat to internal validity was not a concern. Interaction effects pose the largest threat to internal validity in this design type. Interaction effects are when other threats to internal validity interact with the selection of groups in quasi experimental designs. These interactive effects could be mistaken for the effect of the treatment (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). Through the use of a pretest and posttest inter action effects with history, maturation, testing, and instrumentation were controlled. T he use of randomized treatment groups and anonymity of treatment assignments helped control for interaction effects in relation to internal validity. E ach group was loc ated at separate schools, thus controlling for any interaction which would identify those who received the treatment. Threats to external validity were also taken into consideration in the design of the experiment. Ary, Jacobs, and Sorensen (2010) outli ned five basic threats to external

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62 validity which include: selection treatment interaction, setting treatment interaction, pretest treatment interaction, subject effects, and experimenter effects. Selection treatment interaction indicates that the interac tion between the subject and the treatment may not be found with a different set of subjects, suggesting that the subjects selected may not be representative of the larger population (Ary, Jacobs, & Sorensen, 2010). The population for this study was high s chool agriculture students; however, agriculture teachers self selected to participate in this study. Therefore the students who participated may not be representative of the larger population. However, it should be noted agriculture teachers normally self select to participate in the Agricultural Sales CDE, just as these teachers self selected to participate. Setting treatment interaction occurs when the setting in which the study is conducted is artificial (Ary, Jacobs, & Sorensen, 2010). Since the agricu lture teachers conducted the study in his/her normal environment, the setting in which the student received the treatment was not artificial. However, the students prepared for the agricultural sales practicum, n ot the state level CDE. Due to this factor, students may not have performed to the best of their ability, which was a limitation of the study. Pretest treatment interaction occurs when a pretest can increase or decrease a Pretest treatment i nteraction could cause subjects to alter their behavior, because the pretest brought attention to the behavior being observed (Ary, Jacobs, & Sorensen, 2010). In this study, two pretest s were administered. The first pretest was a content knowledge exam, wh ich is a component of the state CDE. This was not a threat because it did not draw attention to a particular behavior and was viewed as a practice exam for the CDE. The second

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63 pretest ess when working through a sales situation. This instrument could have drawn attention to the variable being measured. However, the situation presented was not different than what the student observed in the CDE; thus, the effects of pretest treatment int eraction were negated. Subject effects occur when the participants react to participation in an experiment, which could cause greater or lesser treatment effects (Ary, Jacobs, & Sorensen, 2010). Although the students had knowledge of participation in an e xperiment, their participation was not different than what occurs in the state CDE. Therefore, subject effects were not a threat to external validity. Finally, experimenter effects occur when the experimenter influences ly or unconsciously (Ary, Jacobs, & Sorensen, 2010). Since the experimenter did not have direct contact with the participants, this was not a threat to external validity. Additional threats exist when conducting a study of this nature. Both teaching abili ty and implementation of the training modules was a concern in this study. Boone (1988) recommended that professional development be provided to instructors in order providin g a one day professional development session to the instructors on how to properly implement the training modules provided. Teaching ability of the agriculture teachers in the study was controlled using several methods. Agriculture teachers self selected t o participate in the study, which resulted in varying teaching abilities. Since teachers received professional development, and teachers were interested in the

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64 material due to self selection, differences in ability were buffered. Furthermore, selection int o the treatment and control groups was randomized, which also addressed teacher ability in relation to effects of the treatment. Population and Sample The population of this study was Florida high school agriculture students. The accessible population was high school agriculture students of agriculture teachers who participated in the Agricultural Sales CDE professional development workshop in Florida. A convenience sample was selected according to the interest of the teacher for participation in the Agricu ltural Sales CDE. Since all teachers may not have an interest in this CDE, a simple random sample of teachers to participate in the study was not possible; therefore, convenience sampling was used which resulted in participation from 25 teachers Randomiza tion of intact groups for treatment (argumentation infused training modules) and control (training modules with no argumentation infusion) was used. Teachers who participated in this study did not receive a monetary incentive for participation. Teacher in centives to participate in this study included training modules for the Agricultural Sales CDE and participation in an agricultural sales practicum. For this study, the accessible population was a convenience sample, which was conceptualized as a slice in time (Oliver & Hinkle, 1981). Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996) indicated that convenience sampling is appropriate only if the researcher provides a detailed description of the sample used and the reasons for selecting this sample. T he sample c onsisted of 37 se condary agriculture students, including 21 males and 16 females. The average age of the sample was 15.9 (SD=1.05) years old with a range of 14 to 18.

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65 coordinator for the Agricu ltural Sales CDE, identified this population as representative of past participants in the state CDE. This sample was selected because of the agriculture registered, there was a genuine intere st in participation, which was equivalent to procedures used when teachers participated in state sponsored CDEs. Instrumentation The researcher developed the training modules used to administer the treatment. The content knowledge achievement assessment in strument was developed by the state extension specialist in agricultural business. The argumentation skills instrument was developed by the researcher. Finally, the agricultural sales practicum was developed by the state extension specialist in agricultura l sales with assistance from the researcher Training Modules Eight training modules for this study that aligned with coursework in the area of agricultural sales were developed by the researcher. The content of the training modules was designed based up on the Agricultural Sales CDE. The researcher used content from the Selling Strategically course taught by Dr. Allen Wysocki at the University of Florida. This course was used as the basis for development of the Agricultural Sales CDE materials. The comple te set of modules was developed, and then argumentation was infused within the set, which resulted in two different sets of training modules. Training modules that were infused with argumentation contained an extra component for four of the eight modules (Appendix A ). In the argumentation infused modules, the agriculture teachers were provided with supplemental information and

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66 questions to use with their students. Teachers were asked to lead a discussion, using the questions provided, which was based on t he scenario that the student utilized in the module. The discussion and questions required students to evaluate the conclusions that were reached in the scenario, use facts from the scenario to evaluate alternative conclusions, and then determine the best solution based upon the facts presented. Scenarios presented in each module were different; however, the basis of the argumentation infusion was the same for each of the four modules. The training modules (Appendix B ) were evaluated for content validity by the state extension specialist in agricultural sales. This expert determined that the modules were appropriate for preparation for the CDE, and an appropriate length of time was provided to prepare the CDE team. The argumentation infused training modules were evaluated for face and content validity by an expert in argumentation. The expert determined the argumentation infusion for the training modules followed an appropriate format to develop argumentation skill. Content Knowledge Achievement Assessment In strument In order to measure student prior knowledge and establish base line knowledge for each group, a content knowledge pretest and posttest were used (Appendix C ). The pretest and posttest were developed by the state extension specialist in agricultur al sales, based upon the Selling Strategically course taught at the University of Florida, which was used as the basis for the Agricultural Sales CDE. The pretest and posttest each consisted of 2 7 items, but the tests were not identical. Questions of simil ar type and kind were grouped together based on content in the module and then a random selection of questions was used to develop the pretest and posttest Equal numbers of questions were taken from each group of questions using the d eveloped matrix

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67 (Appe ndix D ). Each test was similar in design and difficulty to what would be utilized when competing in the state Agricultural Sales CDE. Since the assessment was developed by the specialist, con tent validity was not a concern; however the assessment was valid ated by an educational expert. In order to determine the internal consistenc y of the content knowledge achievement assessment, a post hoc reliability analysis was conducted. Since the content knowledge exam was multiple choice, the instrument was analyzed using a Argumentation Skill A researcher adapted scoring rubric originally developed by Schen (2007) (Appendix E ) was utilized to assess argumentation skill. The scoring rubric was used in conjunction with a researcher developed argument ation instrument (Appendix F ). An argumentation instrument was developed which served as the pre test and posttest The researcher scored each student response on the argumentation instrument using the argumentation scoring rubric. Scores on the rubric were assigned based on the quality of the response in the categories of claim made, grounds used, warrants given, counterarguments generated, and rebuttals offered. Face and content validity of the instruments was determined by an expert in argumentation from the Agricultural Education and Communication Department. The expert determined that the researcher developed instruments were valid. After completion of the researcher scored argumentation instruments, an expert selected a random sample from each group (t raining modules and training modules with argumentation infused, pre and post ) for a double blind review to obtain inter rater reliability. Researcher scores were determined to be consistent.

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68 Agricultural Sales Practicum The agricultural sales practicu m was developed by the state extension specialist in agricultural sales with assistance from the researcher. Each agriculture teacher who initially participated in the professional development training brought one team (four students) of high school agricu lture students to participate in the agricultural sales practicum. The practicum consisted of a written exam ( posttest ), a team sales activity, and an individual sales call, completed by each student. The breakdown of points was : written exam 100 points x 4 team members equal ing 400 points total; team sales activity 150 points; and the individual sales call 150 points x 4 team members equal ing 600 points; there w a s a total of 1150 points in the agricultural sales practicum The structure of the practicum was identical to the state CDE in agricultural sales. The written exam was the content knowledge achievement exam posttest developed by the The team activity (Appendix H te teamwork, group dynamics, problem solving, data analysis, decision making, and oral event was scored by three undergraduate students using a scoring rubric (Appendix I ). Stu dents selected to judge were enrolled in the Selling Strategically course taught by Dr. Wysocki and were selected based on their superior performance in the course. This is the same manner in which judges are selected to score the state CDE. Each judge sco red the team individually and then j udges scores were averaged to reach one score for each team. The individual sales activity (Appendix J ) required students to sell a product to a set of students in agricultural sales coursework who served as judges Ag ain, the

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69 and their selection was based on their superior performance in the course The student was scored by the two judges using a rubric ( Appendix K ). Judges scored each student individually and then judges scores were averaged to determine one score for each student. For both the team sales activity and the individual sales call, there were multiple pairs of judges. After all judging was completed, a calibration pro cess was conducted to ensure that scores were equally assigned between judging rooms. Judges were asked to describe the performance of the student(s) that resulted in the score assigned. If similar performance was describe, scores were adjusted to ensure e quality between judging rooms. Data Collection Boone (1988) recommended that professional development be provided to teachers when studies concerning teaching and teaching methods are conducted. He also identified the need to ensure the conformity to the t eaching approach being investigated. Therefore, teachers in this study attended a one day professional development training workshop prior to beginning the study. The training modules were provided to the teachers, and each module was reviewed so that the teacher could deliver each module effectively. Teachers who were randomly selected to participate in the treatment group (training modules with argumentation infusion) received additional training in argumentation skill development. Teachers were required to complete a record sheet which was utilized to record the time to complete each module and the manner in which the module was taught

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70 (during class, after school, or a combination). This record sheet was utilized to ensure that teachers followed the guid elines presented for the study. Data collection began with each student signing an informed consent, which was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the Univer sity of Florida ( Appendix N ). Prior to beginning the training modules, each student comp leted a paper based content knowledge achievement assessment pretest developed by the state extension specialist in agricultural sales and administered by the teachers. Each student also completed a paper based argumentation skill pretest Both pretest s we re returned to the researcher for scoring, along with the informed consent. The total set of training modules was designed to require six weeks to complete, with teachers and students practicing twice a week for no more than two hours and 30 minutes per p ractice. Approximately one half of the students received training through the training modules (control), while the other one half received training through the training materials infused with argumentation (treatment) during the entire length of the study At the end of the six week period, agriculture teachers brought the four person team of students to participate in the agricultural sales practicum. At the practicum students completed the content knowledge achievement assessment posttest and the argume ntation skill posttest Data Analysis Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0 for Windows TM Analysis of the first objective involved descriptive statistics and included frequencies, means and standard deviations. Objective two was examined using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Objective three was measured using correlations.

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71 According to Shavelson (1996) the use of inferential statistics for this type of research is appropriate. Shavelson stated that inferential statistics are used to draw infe rences about a population, based upon the data available from a representative subset. Huck (2008) stated that inferential statistics can be used to make inferen ces about an abstract population when a current sample is used. An abstract population is defin ed as present and future members (Huck, 2008). Huck (2008) stated that convenience samples that are described in detail can be used to conceptualize abstract populations. Additionally, Gall, Gall, and Borg (2003) corroborated the use of inferential statist can be used with data collected from a convenience sample if the sample is carefully the coordinator of the state Agricultural Sales CDE confirmed that the sample was representative of the target population. Summary Chapter 3 presented the research design and procedures that will be utilized to address the research questions of this study T he population and sample was described, instrumentation and collection procedures were explained, and data analysis was also explained. Additionally, methods to address threats to internal and external validity were outlined for this quasi experimental study. The independent variable in this study was the type of training modules developed for use in the agricultural sales practicum, with the treatment group receiving training modules with an argumentation infusion. The dependent variables were argumen tation skill, content knowledge achievement, and performance in an agricultural sales practicum.

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72 The target population for this study was Florida high school agriculture students, with the accessible population being Florida high school agriculture studen ts whose teacher participated in the agricultural sales professional development training. This accessible population was a convenience sample. The instrumentation utilized in this study and the procedures were outlined in order to measure the dependent va riables of this population. Chapter 4 will present the results of the study based upon the objectives.

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73 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Chapter 1 in academic areas. R esearch has suggested that students lack employability skills due to a deficiency in technical and transferable skills, including argumentation skill. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine the effects of training modules on the development of argumentation skill, content knowle dge, and performance in agricultural sales practicum. Chapter 2 described the theoretical and conceptual f ramework that guided this study and presented relevant research that addressed elements of this study. Chapter 3 describe d the research design and me thods for this quantitative study. Additionally, description s of the population and sample, instrumentation, data collection, and data analysis were included In this chapter, findings from this study will be presented. Results will be presented based on o bjectives and hypotheses that were established earlier. The independent variable in this study was the type of training modules developed for use in preparing an agricultural sales practicum team (or Agricultural Sales CDE team). T he group that acted as th e control received agricultural sales training modules without argumentation infused while the t reatment group received agricultural sales training modules with argumentation infused The modules were used to prepa re a team of four students The dependent variables in the study were argumentation skill, content knowledge achievement, an d performance in an agricultural sales practicum.

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74 Covariates were used to adjust treatment and control group means in an effort to compensate for previous knowledge in the s ubject of agricultural sales and previous development of argumentation skill. The covariate used was content knowledge pretest score and the argumentation pretest score Chapter 3 reported that a quasi experimental design was utilized in this study. Random assignment of groups was not possible; therefore a quasi experimental design was selected. Additionally, intact groups were used. The study followed a nonequivalent control group design (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). The treatment group received agricultural sales training modules with argumentation infused. The control group received agricultural sales training modules without an infusion of argumentation. Data collected were pretest scores, content knowledge achievement scores (posttest scores), argumentati on skill pretest scores, argumentation skills posttest scores, individual and team performance in the practicum, student demographic information, and teacher log sheets. Data were analyzed using univariate analysis of co variance, means, standard deviations frequencies, correlations, and post hoc analyses. Chapter 4 presents the findings obtained by this study. The results address the objectives and hypotheses of this study in determining the influence of training module type, gender, ethnicity, and year in school, on student achievement, student argumentation skills, and student performance in an agricultural sales practicum. The population used in this study consisted of Florida high school agriculture students. The accessible population was high school ag riculture students of agriculture teachers who participated in the Agricultural Sales CDE professional development workshop in Florida. A convenience sample was selected according to the interest of

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75 the teacher for participation in the Agricultural Sales C DE. A total of 2 5 teachers across the state of Florida opted to participate in the training. Since each teacher could bring a team of four students, there was a total of 100 students from whic h data were to be collected ( Table 4 1). Intact groups were rand omly assigned a treatment. Table 4 1. Treatment Group Membership Totals Treatment Group # of Schools for Each Section # of Students Training Modules, n o Argumentation 1 3 52 Training Modules Infused with Argumentation 1 2 4 8 Total 2 5 100 Of the 2 5 t eachers that originally opted to participate, nine teams participate d in the study. Repeated contacts were made weekly with all teachers. During the study, the date for the agricultural sales practicum had to be changed due to circumstances beyond the rese unable to complete the study due to a schedule conflict. Since no data were obtained, these students were removed from the study. A total of 63 students were removed from the study due to inability to comp lete the study (Table 4 2). Table 4 2. Treatment Group Participant Totals Treatment Group # of Schools for Each Section # of Students Training Modules, no Argumentation 5 19 Training Modules, Argumentation 4 18 Total 9 37 As outline d in Chapter 3, to ensure that teachers involved in this study were following the training modules and appropriating the correct amount of time to teach

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76 module, the teachers were required to complete a teacher log sheet. The log sheet documented the amount of time spent on each mod ule. Based on the teacher log sheet, teachers spent 21 to 24 hours preparing students for the agricultural sales practicum. Chapter three outlined the research design and data collection points throughout the study. Content knowledge was assessed prior to beginning the training modules and after beginning the training modules. The response rate for each collection was 100% (Table 4 3). Likewise, student argumentation skill was measured prior to beginning the training modules and following the completion of the training modules. The response rate for the argumentation instrument was 100%. Table 4 3. Response Rates for Data Collection Components ( n =37) Data Collection Component N Response Rate Content Knowledge Pretest 37 100% Content Knowledge Posttest 3 7 100% Argumentation Skill Pretest 37 100% Argumentation Posttest 37 100% As reported in Chapter 3, a post hoc reliability analysis was conducted in order to ensure the reliability of the content knowledge posttest The content knowledge posttest yield In addition, Chapter 3 reported that an argumentation skills instrument scoring rubric by Schen (2007) was utilized in the assessment of student argumentation skills. The researcher scored each student response, as signing a score based on the quality of the response in the categories of claim made, grounds used, warrants given, counterargument generated, and rebuttal offered. After completion of the researcher scored response, a random sample was selected (pretest a nd posttest as well as no argumentation infusion and argumentation infus ion ) for a double blind review to obtain inter rater reliability. The inter rater

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77 reliability for the argumentation skills instrument was a Pearson correlation coefficient of .979 O bjective One: Describe the Ethnicity, G ender, and Y ear in S chool of Agriculture Secondary School Students who P articipate in the Agricultural S ales P racticum in Florida Ethnicity Participant ethnicity was categorized into the groups of White, Black, Hispa nic, Asian and Other. The majority of students in this study self identified themselves as White (91.9%). Table 4 4. Participant Ethnicity ( n =37) Treatment Group Without With Argumentation Total Ethnicity n % n % n % White 17 89.5 17 94.4 34 91.9 Black 0 0 0 0 0 0 Hispanic 0 0 0 0 0 0 Asian 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other 2 10.5 1 5.6 3 8.1 Note: Without= training modules without argumentation infused; with argumentation=training modules infused with argumentation Gender The majority of parti cipants i n this study (56.8%) were male. Gender among treatment groups varied from the overall sample (Table 4 5). Nearly 42% of the control group (without argumentation infused) was male compared to just over 72% in the treatment group (argumentation infu sed).

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78 Table 4 5 Participant Gender ( n =37) Treatment Group Without With Argumentation Total Gender n % n % n % Male 8 42.1 13 72.2 21 56.8 Female 11 57.9 5 27.8 16 43.2 Note: Without= training modules without argumentation infused; with argumentation=training modules infused with argumentation Grade Level Of the 37 students who participated, 10.8% (n=4) were in ninth grade, 32.4% (n=12) were in tenth grade, 35.1% (n=13) were in eleventh grade, and the remaining 21.6% (n=8) were in twel fth grade ( Table 4 6). Those participants in the control group had a grade level distribution that was similar to the overall sample. Those in the treatment group had a grade level distribution that varied from the overall sample, but each grade level was still represented. Table 4 6. Participant Grade level (n=37) Treatment Group Without With Argumentation Total Grade Level n % n % n % Ninth 1 5.3 3 16.7 4 10.8 Tenth 7 36.8 5 27.8 12 32.4 Eleventh 8 42.1 5 27.8 13 35.1 Twelfth 3 15.8 5 27.8 8 21.6 Note: Without= training modules without argumentation infused; with argumentation=training modules infused with argumentation

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79 Objective Two: Ascertain the R elationship between the U se of T raining Modules and the Development of Student A r gumentation S kill, C ontent K nowledge A chievement, and P erformance in an A gricultural Sales P racticum. Content Knowledge Achievement instruments developed by the state extension specialis t in agricultural sales. The maximum possible score on the instruments was 100. Pretest data w ere collected from 37 participants with an overall mean of 35.97 ( SD =10.77). T he control and treatment groups achieved similar scores and standard deviations, wit h the control group achieving a higher pretest mean score (Table 4 7) Table 4 7. Participant Mean Pretest Scores ( n =37) Treatment Group Without With Argumentation Total Instrument M SD M SD M SD Pretest 36.89 11.57 35.00 10.1 35.97 10. 77 Note: Without= training modules without argumentation infused; with argumentation=training modules infused with argumentation Posttest data were collected from 37 students. The overall mean of the content knowledge achievement posttest was 52.54 ( SD =9.23 ). Again, the control group had a higher mean score than the treatment group, but the treatment group had a lower standard deviation (Table 4 8). Table 4 8 Participant Mean Pos t test Scores ( n =37) Treatment Group Without With Argumentation Total Instrument M SD M SD M SD Posttest 55.32 10.53 49.61 6.72 52.54 9.23 Note: Without= training modules without argumentation infused; with argumentation=training modules infused with argumentation

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80 Student Argumentation Skill The student argumentation level of argumentation prior to the treatments and following the treatments (training modules without argumentation and training modules infused with argumentation). The overall mean score for the argume ntation pretest was 3.53 ( SD =2.31) of a possible 10. The overall mean score for the posttest was 5.59 ( SD = 1.85) of a possible 10 ( T able 4 9 rubric to measure argumentation sk ill. The pretest mean was higher for the treatment group than the control group, but the mean score for the posttest was higher for the control group than for the treatment group. Table 4 9 Participant Mean Argumentation Scores ( n =37) Treatment Group Without With Argumentation Total Instrument M SD M SD M SD Pretest 3.37 2.41 3.71 2.26 3.53 2.31 Posttest 5.74 1.66 5.44 2.06 5.59 1.85 Note: Without= training modules without argumentation infused; with argumentation=training modules infuse d with argumentation Performance in an Agricultural Sales Practicum An agricultural sales practicum, identical in nature to the FFA Agricultural Sales CDE, was utilized as a context for measuring content knowledge and argumentation skill. The practicum c onsisted of a written exam ( posttest ), a team sales activity, and the individual sales call The breakdown of points was: written exam 100 points x 4 team members equaling 400 points total; team sales activity 150 points; and the individual sales call 1 50 points x 4 team members equaling 600 points; there was a total of 1150

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81 points in the practicum The practicum was used to determine the performance of student participants following the treatment (training modules without argumentation or training modul es with argumentation). The overall mean score for the individual sales call was 105.65 ( SD = 33.27) out of a possible 150 points Students in the control group earned higher achievement scores in the individual sales call and had a smaller standard deviat ion The overall mean score for the team sales scenario was 124.51 ( SD =20.65) out of a possible 150 points Students in the treatment group earned higher achievement scores in the team sales scenario. The overall mean team scores for the entire practicum ( content knowledge posttest, individual sales call, and team sales scenario of the whole team ) was 757.22 ( SD = 118.863 ). Students in the treatment group earned a higher overall score in the agricultural sales practicum and had a smaller standard deviation (T able 4 10). Table 4 10 Participant Practicum Performance Scores ( n =37) Treatment Group Without With Argumentation Total Practicum Event M SD M SD M SD Individual Sales Call 108 30.01 103.17 37.1 1 105.65 33.27 Team Sales Scenario 117.74 25 .73 131.67 9.81 124.51 20.65 Content Knowledge Exam 55.32 10.53 49.61 6.72 52.54 9.23 Overall Team Score 743.80 160.582 774.00 51.166 757.22 118.863 Note: Without= training modules without argumentation infused; with argumentation=training modules infused with argumentation

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82 Objective Three : Examine the Relationships among A rgumentation S kill, C ontent K nowledge A chievement, P erformance in an A gricultural S ales P racticum, E thnicity, G ender, and Y ear in School of A griculture S econdary S cho ol S tudents who P articipate in the A gricultural S ales P racticum. Prior to any inferential analysis of the data, all variables were examined for correlations. For the purpose of this discussion, the terminology utilized by Davis (1971) was used to indicate the strengt h of the correlations. Davis defined correlations between .01 and .09 as considered negligible, .10 to .29 as low, .30 to .49 as moderate, .5 to .69 as substantial, .70 to .99 as very high, and 1.00 as perfect. Pearson Product Moment correlations were used to determine the relationships between the variables (Table 4 11). The content knowledge posttest scores were found to have a moderate relationship with the practicum individual sales call (r = .41) and a substantial relationship with the overall team sc ore (r = 53 ). The argumentation posttest reported low correlations with gender (r = .22) and moderate correlations with the individual sales call performance score (r = .32). The team sales scenario performance was correlated with the other practicum rela ted scores ; t here were low correlations with the individual sales call (r = .27) and substantial correlations with the overall team score (r = 57 ). The team sales scenario performance also reported moderate correlations with the treatment variable (r = .3 4). The individual sales call performance score had substantial correlations with the overall team score (r = .59), and moderate correlations with grade level (r = .31) and gender (r = .30). The overall team score had low correlations with grade level (r = 19 Grade level, gender, and ethnicity did not have any correlations with the other demographic variables (Table 4 11).

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83 Table 4 11. Correlations Between Variables Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1. C ontent K nowledge Posttest -.23 .01 .41 .53 .17 .09 16 .31 2. Arg umentation Posttest -.02 .32 .18 .16 .22 .04 .08 3. Team Sales Scenario -.27 .57 .10 .01 .08 .34 4. Individual Sales Call -.59 .31 .30 .27 .07 5. Overall Team Score -. 19 07 06 .0 6 6. Grade Level -.01 00 .00 7. Gender -.14 .30 8. Ethnicity -.09 9. Treatment -Test of Hypotheses The dependent variables in the study were content knowledge, argumentation skill and performance in the agricultural sales practicum. All of the se variables were interval data. The independent variable in this study was ethnicity, gender, year in school, and treatment group. All independent variables were categorical data. Covariates in this study were content knowledge pretest scores and argument ation instrument pretest scores. Covariates were interval. To determine if significant differences existed in the content knowledge achievement assessment, argumentation skill, and performance in the practicum of the students taught in through training mod ules infused with argumentation or training modules without argumentation, hypotheses were formulated to guide this study. The decisions to retain or reject the null hypotheses (at the .05 level) were based upon the findings of the analysis of co variance p rocedures used to analyze data. Results of the tests of hypotheses are presented as they pertain to content knowledge achievement, argumentation skill score, and performance in the agricultural sales practicum.

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84 Hypotheses Related to Content Knowledge Achi evement H o1 There is no significant difference in student content knowledge achievement based upon the type of training module (argumentation infused vs. no argumentation infusion). Student content mean scores were analyzed between groups through analysis of co variance technique. Student pretest score was utilized as a covariate to adjust for achievement prior to the treatment. Following the treatment, students who were taught with the argumentation infused training modules reported a mean posttest score o f 49.61 ( SD =6.72) and those taught with the training modules without argumentation had a mean score of 55.32 ( SD =10.53) (Table 4 12) This difference in posttest scores was found to be statistically significant F(247 ) =4.021, p=.023 (Table 4 13). Based upo n th ese findings, the null hypothesi s of no significant difference in content knowledge achievement due to type of training method was rejected. Therefore students in the control group scored significantly higher than students in the treatment group in con tent knowledge achievement. Table 4 1 2 Content Knowledge Posttest Score by Treatment ( n =37) Treatment Group Without With Argumentation Instrument M SD M SD Posttest 55.32 10.53 49.61 6.72 Note: Without= training modules without argumentation in fused; with argumentation=training modules infused with argumentation Table 4 1 3 Univariate Analysis of Treatment Effect for Content Knowledge df F p C ontent K nowledge Posttest 2 4.206 .023

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85 Hypotheses Related to Argumentation Skill H o2 There is no significant difference in student argumentation skill based upon the type of training module (argumentation infused vs. no argumentation infusion). rubric. Student argumentatio n pretest score was utilized as a covariate to adjust for achievement prior to the treatment. Following the treatment, students who were taught with the argumentation infused training modules reported a mean posttest score of 5.35 ( SD =2.09) and those taugh t with the training modules without argumentation had a mean score of 5.74 ( SD =1.66) (Table 4 14). The univariate analysis of covariance [F( 2 ) =2.66, p=.09] revealed there was not a statistically significant difference at the alpha level of .05 between the students taught with training modules infused with argumentation and training modules without argumentation infused (Table 4 15) Based upon these finding, the researcher failed to reject the null hypothesis. This indicated that there was not a significan t difference in development of argumentation skill between the treatment and the control group. Table 4 14. Argumentation Posttest Score by Treatment ( n =37) Treatment Group Without With Argumentation Instrument M SD M SD Posttest 5.74 1.66 5.35 2. 09 Note: Without= training modules without argumentation infused; with argumentation=training modules infused with argumentation Table 4 15. Univariate Analysis of Treatment Effect for Argumentation Skill df F p Arg umentation Posttest 2 2.66 .09

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86 Hy potheses Related to Performance in an Agricultural Sales Practicum H o3 There is no significant difference i n performance in the agricultural sales practicum based upon the type of training module (argumentation infused vs. no argumentation infusion). Perf ormance in the agricultural sales practicum was measured by the performance score for two components of the practicum (individual sales call and team sales scenario) and the overall team score for the event (which included the individual sales call, the te am sales scenario and the content knowledge posttest for all four members of the team ) A pretest was not used as a covariate for this analysis, therefore a simple analysis of variance was used with scores obtained following the treatment In the individua l sales call, students who were taught using the training modules infused with argumentation had a mean score of 103.17 ( SD =37.11) and those taught using the training modules without argumentation had a mean score of 108 ( SD =30.01) (Table 4 16). The analys is of variance [F( 216 ),=.19, p=.67] revealed there was not a statistically significant difference between the tre atment groups (Table 4 17), indicating there was not a significant difference in performance between the treatment and control group in the ind ividual sales call portion of the agricultural sales practicum. In the team sales scenario, students who were taught using the training modules infused with argumentation had a mean score of 131.67 ( SD =9.81) and those taught using the training modules with out argumentation had a mean score of 117.74 ( SD =25.73) ( Table 4 16). The analysis of variance [F( 1,794) ,=4.63, p=.04] revealed there was a statistical ly significan t difference between the tre atment groups (Table 4 17), indicating that students in the trea tment group performed better than students in the control group in the team sales activity of the agricultural sales practicum.

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87 T he overall team score (which included the content knowledge posttest, the individual sales call, and the team sales activity fo r all four members of the team ) students who were taught using the training modules infused with argumentation had a mean score of 774.00 ( SD = 51.166 ) and those taught using the training modules without argumentation had a mean score of 743.80 ( SD = 160.582 ) (Table 4 16). The analysis of variance [F( 2027),=.13 p=. 73 ] revealed there was not a statistically significant difference between the treatment groups (Table 4 17). Based on the findings of the individual sales call, the team sales scenario and the overa ll team score, the null hypothesis failed to be rejected indicating that there was no significant difference in performance in the agricultural sales practicum based upon treatment group. Table 4 16. Practicum Performance Scores by Treatment (n=37) Tre atment Group Without With Argumentation Practicum Event M SD M SD Individual Sales Call 108 30.01 103.17 37.11 Team Sales Scenario 117.74 25.73 131.67 9.81 Content Knowledge Exam 55.32 10.53 49.61 6.72 Overall Team Score** 743.80 160.582 774.0 0 51.166 Note: Without= training modules without argumentation infused; with argumentation=training modules infused with argumentation Table 4 17. Univariate Analysis of Treatment Effect for Argumentation Skill Practicum Event df F p Individual Sales Call 1 .19 .67 Team Sales Scenario 1 4.63 .04 Overall Team Score 1 13 7 3 Summary This chapter presented the findings of the study. The findings were tailored to the objectives and hypotheses that guided this research. The objectives were: (1) Describe

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88 the ethnicity, gender, and year in school of agriculture secondary school students who participate in the agricultural sales practicum in Florida; (2) Ascertain the relationship between the use of training modules and the development of student argumenta tion skill, content knowledge achievement, and performance in an agricultural sales practicum; and (3) Examine the relationships among argumentation skill, content knowledge achievement, performance in an agricultural sales practicum, ethnicity, gender, an d year in school of agriculture secondary school students who participate in the agricultural sales practicum. The null hypotheses tested in this study were : (1) There is no significant difference in student content knowledge achievement based upon the ty pe of training module (argumentation infused vs. no argumentation infusion); (2) There is no significant difference in student argumentation skill based upon the type of training module (argumentation infused vs. no argumentation infusion); and (3) There i s no significant difference i n performance in the agricultural sales practicum based upon the type of training module (argumentation infused vs. no argumentation infusion). The findings presented in this chapter will be discussed in greater detail in the n ext chapter. Chapter 5 will provide conclusions, recommendations, and implications regarding the findings as presented. Chapter 5 will also provide a discussion of the overall findings of the study.

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89 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION S The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the type of training modules on argumentation skill development, student content knowledge achievement, and performance in an agricultural sales practicum across gender, year in school, and socio econo mic status of secondary school agriculture students. The independent variable in this study was the type of training module used when preparing the agricultural sales team. T he control group received agricultural sales training modules without argumentatio n infused while the t reatment group received agricultural sales training modules with argumentation infused The modules were used to prepa re a team of four students The dependent variables in the study were argumentation skill, content knowledge achievem ent, an d performance in an agricultural sales practicum. C ovariates were used to adjust treatment group means in an effort to compensate for previous knowledge in the subject of agricultural sales and previous development of argumentation skill. Covariate measures were the content knowledge pretest and the argumentation pretest. Chapter 1 discussed the justification for measuring the effect of argumentation infused agricultural sales training modules in secondary school agriculture students. Additionally, Chapter 1 described the national trends in academic performance among U.S. students which illustrated the lack of adequate performance in academic areas. Furthermore the chapter illustrated the lack of employability skills possessed by secondary school stu dents, thus leaving employers without suitable employees. Finally, the chapter examined the role of Career and Technical Education as a vehicle for helping students develop employability skills more specifically FFA Career

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90 Development Events (CDE) as an op portunity to build both content knowledge and skills in a specified area of agriculture. Chapter 2 described the theoretical and conceptual frameworks that guided this study. Re levant research was presented that addressed relevant elements of this study. The review of literature focused on empirical research in the following areas: situated cognition, critical thinking, argumentation skill development, student content knowledge achievement, and student performance. In Chapter 3, methods used to address the research questions were discussed. This chapter reported the research design, procedures, population and sample, instrumentation, data collection procedure, and data analysis technique. Chapter 4 presented the findings obtained in this study. The results address the objectives and hypotheses of the study in determining the influence of the type of training module on the development of argumentation skill, content knowledge achievement, and student performance. This chapter will present a summary and conclu sions based on the findings, and provide recommendations for future research and practitioners. The following research objectives and question guided this study. Objectives 1. Describe the ethnicity, gender, and year in school of agriculture secondary school students who participate in the agricultural sales practicum in Florida. 2. Ascertain the relationship between the use of training modules and the development of student argumentation skill, content knowledge achievement, and performance in an agricultural sa les practicum. 3. Examine the relationships among argumentation skill, content knowledge achievement, performance in an agricultural sales practicum, ethnicity, gender, and year in school of agriculture secondary school students who participate in the agricul tural sales practicum.

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91 Research Question and Hypotheses Research Question Does argumentation skill development, content knowledge achievement, or performance in an agricultural sales practicum have a relationship with the ethnicity, gender, or year in scho ol of a student? Hypotheses For the purpose of statistical analysis, the other research questions were posed as null hypotheses. All null hypotheses were tested at the .05 significance level. H o1 There is no significant difference in student content knowl edge achievement based upon the type of training module (argumentation infused vs. no argumentation infusion). H o2 There is no significant difference in student argumentation skill based upon the type of training module (argumentation infused vs. no argum entation infusion). H o3 There is no significant difference i n performance in the agricultural sales practicum based upon the type of training module (argumentation infused vs. no argumentation infusion). Methods This study utilized a quasi experimental de sign. This design was used because subjects could not be randomly assigned to treatment groups because teachers self registered for participation in the agricultural sales professional development workshop. Additionally, intact groups were used because stu dents could not be randomly assigned to agriculture teachers. The study followed a nonequivalent control group design (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). The control group received agricultural sales training modules without an infusion of argumentation. The treat ment group received agricultural sales training modules with argumentation infused.

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92 The population of this study was Florida high school agriculture students. The accessible population was high school agriculture students of agriculture teachers who parti cipated in the Agricultural Sales CDE professional development workshop in Florida. A convenience sample was selected according to the interest of the teacher for participation in the Agricultural Sales CDE. Since all teachers may not have an interest in t his CDE, a simple random sample of teachers to participate in the study was not possible; therefore, convenience sampling was used. Randomization of intact groups for treatment (argumentation infused training modules) and control (training modules with no argumentation infusion) was used. The researcher developed the training modules used to administer the treatment. Eight training modules for this study that aligned with coursework in the area of agricultural sales were developed. The content of the train ing modules was designed based upon the Agricultural Sales CDE. The researcher used content from the Selling Strategically course taught by Dr. Allen Wysocki at the University of Florida. This course was used as the basis for development of the Agricultura l Sales CDE materials. The complete set of modules was developed, and then argumentation was infused within the set, which resulted in two different sets of training modules. Training modules that were infused with argumentation contained an extra componen t for four of the eight modules. In the argumentation infused modules, the agriculture teachers were provided with supplemental information and questions to use with their students. The training modules were evaluated for content validity by the state exte nsion s pecialist in agricultural sales and determined to be appropria te for preparation for the CDE. The argumentation infused training modules were evaluated for face and content

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93 validity by an expert in argumentation and were determined to be an appropri ate format to develop argumentation skill. Instruments to collect data for the variable of content knowledge were developed by the state extension specialist in agricultural sales. Since the assessment was developed by the specialist, con tent validity was not a concern; however the assessment was validated by an educational expert. A post hoc reliability analysis was conducted in order to ensure the reliability of the content knowledge posttest. The ficient of .72. As reported in Chapter s 3 and 4, the ar gumentation skills instrument scoring rubric by Schen (2007) was utilized to assess student argumentation skill. The researcher scored each student response, assigning a score based on the quality of r esponse in the categories of claim made, grounds used, warrants given, counterargument generated, and rebuttal offered. After completion of the researcher scored response, an expert selected a random sample (pretest/posttest and control/treatment) for a do uble blind review to obtain inter rater reliability. The inter rater reliability for the argumentation skills instrument was a Pearson correlation coefficient of .979 Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0 for Windows TM Analysis of the first ob jective involved descriptive statistics and included frequencies, means and standard deviations. Objective two was examined using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Objective three was measured using correlations. Summary of Findings The findings of this st udy are summarized according to the objectives and

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94 nine teachers taught the agricultural sales training m odules. Of those, five teachers taught the training modules without argumentation and four teachers taught the training modules with argumentation. A total of 19 students were taught using the training modules without argumentation and 18 students were tau ght using the training modules with argumentation infused. Objective One The first objective sought to describe the sample of the study. The majority (91.9%) of students involved in the study were white, non Hispanic. The remaining 8.1% of the participant s classified their ethnicity as other. The majority of students were male (56.8%). Of the participants, 35.1% were in the eleventh grade. The second largest grade level represented was the tenth grade (32.4%), followed by twelfth grade (21.6%) and finally ninth grade (10.8%). Objective Two The second objective sought to ascertain the relationship between the use of training modules on the development of student argumentation skill, content knowledge achievement, and performance in an agricultural sales pra cticum. Student content knowledge was determined by using pretest and posttest instruments, each with a maximum possible score of 100, developed by the state extension specialist in agricultural sales. The overall pretest mean was 35.97 ( SD = 10.77). The c ontrol group (training modules without argumentation) reported a higher pretest mean, however differences were negligible. Content knowledge achievement posttest means were established from the instrument developed by the state extension specialist. The ma ximum possible score

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95 was 100. The overall mean for the content knowledge posttest was 52.54 ( SD = 9.23). Students taught using the training modules without argumentation scored higher than those using the training modules with argumentation infused. Howeve r, the standard deviation for the control group (training modules without argumentation) was higher than the standard deviation for the treatment group. Student argumentation skill was determined by using a researcher developed pretest and posttest. The m aximum possible score on the instrument was 10. The overall mean score on the pretest argumentation instrument was 3.53 ( SD = 2.31) and the overall posttest score was 5.59 ( SD (2007) scoring rubric to measure argumentation skill. The mean posttest argumentation score for the training modules without argumentation was 5.74 ( SD = 1.66). which was higher than the participants receiving training modules with argumentation (M = 5.44, SD = 2.06). P erformance in an agricultural sales practicum was also used to measure content knowledge achievement and the development of argumentation skill. There were t hree components to the agricultural sales practicum: content knowledge posttest (rep orted previously), individual sales call and team sales scenario. The overall mean score for the individual sales call was 105.65 ( SD = 33.27) out of 150 points possible Students in the control group (M =108, SD = 30.01) achieved a higher mean and smaller standard deviation than those in the treatment group (M = 103.17, SD = 37.11). The overall mean score for the team sales scenario was 124.51 ( SD = 20.65) out of 150 points possible Students in the treatment group (M = 131.67, SD = 9.81) achieved a higher mean score with a sm aller standard deviation than those in the control group (M

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96 = 117.74, SD = 25.73). The overall mean team scores for the entire practicum (content knowledge posttest, individual sales call, and team sales scenario of the whole team) was 757.22 ( SD =118.863). Students in the treatment group earned a higher overall score in the agricultural sales practicum and had a smaller standard deviation. Objective Three This objective sought to examine the relationship between content knowledge achiev ement, argumentation skill, performance in the agricultural sales practicum, ethnicity, gender, and year in school of agriculture secondary school students. The content knowledge posttest scores were found to have a moderate relationship with the practicum individual sales call (r = .41) and a substantial relationship with the overall team score (r = .53). The argumentation posttest reported low correlations with gender (r = .22) and moderate correlations with the individual sales call performance score (r = .32). The team sales scenario performance was correlated with the other practicum related scores; there were low correlations with the individual sales call (r = .27) and substantial correlations with the overall team score (r = .57). The team sales scen ario performance also reported moderate correlations with the treatment variable (r = .34). The individual sales call performance score had substantial correlations with the overall team score (r = .59), and moderate correlations with grade level (r = .31) and gender (r = .30). The overall team score had low correlations with grade level (r = .19. Grade level, gender, and ethnicity did not have any correlations with the other demographic variables. Null Hypothesis One The first null hypothesis for this stud y was that there is no significant difference in student content knowledge based on the type of training module (argumentation infused

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97 vs. no argumentation infusion). Student content mean scores were analyzed between groups through analysis of covariance t echnique. Following the treatment, students who were taught using the training modules without argumentation infused reported a mean posttest score of 55.32 ( SD = 10.53) and students taught through the training modules with argumentation infused reported a mean posttest score of 49.61 ( SD = 6.72). The difference in posttest scores was found to be statistically significant F( 247 ) = 4.021, p = .023. Based upon these findings, the null hypothesis of no difference in content knowledge achievement due to type of training method was rejected. Therefore students in the control group scored significantly higher than students in the treatment group in content knowledge achievement. Null Hypothesis Two Students taught using the training modules without argumentation infused reported a mean argumentation skill posttest score of 5.74 ( SD = 1.66) and students taught using the training modules with argumentation infused reported a mean argu mentation skill posttest score of 5.35 ( SD = 2.09). The univar iate analysis of covariance [F(2 ) = 2.66, p = .09] revealed there was not a statistically significant difference at the alpha level of .05 between the treatment groups. Based on these findings, the researcher failed to reject the null hypothesis. This indicated that there was not a significant difference in development of argumentation skill between the treatment and the control group. Null Hypothesis Three l sales practicum was determined through and team sales scenario and the overall team score for the practicum For the individual

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98 sales call, students who were taught u sing training modules without argumentation infused achieved a mean of 108 ( SD = 30.01) and those students who were taught using training modules with argumentation reported a mean of 103.17 ( SD = 37.11). The analysis of variance [F( 216 ), = 19, p = .67] re vealed there was not a statistically significant different between the treatment groups indicating there was not a significant difference in performance between the treatment and control group in the individual sales call portion of the agricultural sales practicum. In the second component of the practicum, the team sales scenario, the students who received the training modules without argumentation infusion reported a mean score of 117.74 ( SD = 25.73) and those who were taught using training modules with argumentation infused reported a mean score of 131.67 ( SD = 9.81). The analysis of variance [F( 1,794 ), = 4.63, p = .04] revealed there was a statistical ly significan t difference between the treatment groups indicating that students in the treatment group performed better than students in the control group in the team sales activity of the agricultural sales practicum. The overall team score (which included the content knowledge posttest, the individual sales call, and the team sales activity for all four m embers of the team), students who were taught using the training modules infused with argumentation had a mean score of 774.00 ( SD =51.166) and those taught using the training modules without argumentation had a mean score of 743.80 ( SD =160.582). The analys is of variance [F(2027),=.13, p=.73] revealed there was not a statistically significant difference between the treatment groups. Based on the findings of the individual sales call, the team sales scenario and the overall team score, the null hypothesis fai led to be

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9 9 rejected, indicating that there was no significant difference in performance in the agricultural sales practicum based upon treatment group. Conclusions The sample used in this study was not randomly drawn from the population due to the use of intact groups. With this limitation in mind and based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. The majority of participants in this study were White (91.9%), male (56.8%), and in the eleventh grade (35.1%). 2. The ethnicity and gr ade level was similar between the treatment and control group. 3. Whe ther taught using training modules without argumentation infused or training modules infused with argumentation, students showed gains in content knowledge. 4. Whe ther taught using training mo dules without argumentation infused or training modules infused with argumentation, students showed gains in argumentation skill score. 5. Stud ent demographic variables had low to negligible relationships with content knowledge achievement and argumentation s kill score. 6. Grade level and gender had moderate correlations with the individual sales call in the Agricultural Sales practicum. 7. Performance in the team sales scenario and the individual sales call had substantial correlations with overall team score. 8. Stu dents taught using training modules without argumentation infused scored higher on the content knowledge assessment than students taught using training modules infused with argumentation. 9. Students taught using training modules without argumentation scored higher on the argumentation skill instrument than students taught using training modules infused with argumentation. 10. Students taught using training modules without argumentation infused scored higher on the individual sales call than those taught using tra ining mod ules infused with argumentation. 11. Students taught using training modules infused with argumentation scored higher on the team sales scenario than those taught using training modules without a rgumentation infused.

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100 Implications Objective One: Describ e the ethnicity, gender, and year in school of agriculture secondary school students who participate in the agricultural sales practicum in Florida Conclusion: The majority of participants in this study were White (91.9%), male (56.8%), and in the eleventh grade (35.1%). It was expected that the majority of participants in this study would be White. Membership in the National FFA Organization (2012c) is 73% White. The findings of this study are supported by Croom, Moore, and Armbruster (2009) in that 92.2% of students participating in a national CDE in 2003 were White. The finding that most participants in this study were male was not surprising. The majority (56%) of members in the National FFA Organization (2012c) are male. However, these findings are cont radictory to Croom et al. (2009 ) which indicated that females held a slight majority over males in national CDE participation. It was expected that a majority of participants would be upperclassm e n. The majority of students were in eleventh or twelfth grad e, h owever the grade level for participants in this study was fairly even across all grades. Conclusion: The ethnicity and grade level was similar between the treatment and control group. The finding that the treatment group contained similar demographics allows for groups to be compared. Thoron (2010) found the treatment groups to be similar, allowing comparisons to be made between groups across demographic categories. Although ethnicity and grade level were found to be similar, there were differences in g ender between treatment groups. Since intact groups were used, differences in demographic variables could not be controlled.

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101 Objective Two: Ascertain the relationship between the use of training modules and the development of student argumentation skill, content knowledge achievement, and performance in an agricultural sales practicum. Conclusion: When taught using training modules without argumentation infused or training modules infused with argumentation, students showed gains in content knowledge. The f inding that b oth groups showed content knowledge gains indicates that the training modules without argumentation infused and the training modules infused with argumentation were effective for the development of content knowledge. The findings of this stud content knowledge gain scores following treatments. Conclusion: When taught using training modules without argumentation infused or training modules infused with argumentati on, students showed gains in argumentation skill score. The finding that both groups showed argumentation skill score gains indicates that training modules without argumentation infused and the training modules infused with argumentation were effective tre atments for developing argumentation skill. Additionally, this finding indicates that it may not be necessary to specifically infuse argumentation into agricultural sales training in order to develop argumentation skill. These findings are contradictory to those of Zohar and Nemet ( 2002 ) and Thoron (2010) which found that when specifically teaching for the development of argumentation skill, the treatment group developed greater argumentation skill compared to the control group which was not taught specific ally for the development of argumentation skill. However, research by Kuhn (1992) indicated that only 40% of individuals are able to develop appropriate arguments.

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102 It is important to note that the length of time for which this study was conducted have res ult ed in lower argumentation skill gain scores. Other researchers who have conducted research concerning the development of argumentation skill have utilized a longer period of instruction than what was utilized in this study. Thoron (2010) conducted a stu dy over a twelve week period, Kuhn and Udell (2003) also conducted a study over a period of twelve weeks, and Yerrick (2000) conducted a study over a twelve month period. In each of the aforementioned studies, researchers saw significant treatment effects that indicated the development of argumentation skill among students when specifically taught about this skill. Since this study was conducted over a period of six weeks, this could be the cause of minimal treatment effects. Objective Three: Examine the re lationships among argumentation skill, content knowledge achievement, performance in an agricultural sales practicum, ethnicity, gender, and year in school of agriculture secondary school students who participate in the agricultural sales practicum. Conclu sion: Student demographic variables reported low to negligible relationships with content knowledge achievement and argumentation skill score. The finding that demographic variables reported low or negligible relationships on the effect of content knowledg e and argumentation assessments i s reassuring. The findings of this study are contradictory to that of Tate (1997) which indicated that White and Asian students were performing at higher levels than Black and Hispanic students in mathematics achievement. T ate also found that males outperformed females in mathematics assessments, particularly with more advanced mathematics topics. Furthermore, Greenfield (1996) found that ethnicity affected student science performance, in that White and Japanese students out performed Hawaiian and Filipino students. However, Greenfield did find that gender differences did not seem to affect

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103 science performance in the magnitude that ethnicity did. Although variation of ethnicity i n this study was minimal, there was variation am ong other demographic variables L ittle variation of achievement scores between demographic variables suggests that the training modules developed do not present barriers for the development of content knowledge and argumentation skill based upon demograph ic variables Conclusion: Grade level and gender reported moderate correlations with the individual sales call in the Agricultural Sales practicum. The finding that gender was moderately correlat ed with the individual sales call is intriguing. Alfred et al (2006) indicated that self efficacy can be developed as a result of participation in Career and Technical Student Organizations. Furthermore the authors indicated that greater self efficacy is a result of greater effort and persistence. Pajares (2002) st ated that gender differences in self efficacy are often reported. Girls tend to display more goal setting strategies and self monitor more frequently than boys (Pajares, 2002). In this study, the correlation between gender and the individual sales call wa s indicative of the higher performance of females than males in this event. The research by Pajares (2002) and Alfred et al. (2006) is supportive of the findings of this study concerning gender. The finding that grade level had moderate correlations with t he individua l sales call is consistent with other research Research by Bandura (1993) indicated that an efficacy is influenced by the acquisition of skills. Theoretically, older students should have acquired more skills simply because of having more educational experiences. Furthermore, in the national CDE participant study conducted by Croom et al. (2009) nearly half of the students held the Chapter FFA D egree. In order to hold this degree, a student would have been in eleventh or twelft h grade. This indicates that

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104 nearly half of the participants in a national CDE were upperclassman supporting the findings in this study that older students performed better in the individual sales call portion of the agricultural sales practicum. Conclusi on: Performance in the team sales scenario and the individual sales call had substantial correlations with overall team score. The finding that the scores in the team sales scenario and the individual sales call were highly correlated with the overall prac ticum score (content knowledge exam, individual sales call, and corresponding team score) is not surprising. The score of the team sales scenario and the individual sales call are compiled to develop the overall score. Thus, if an individual performs well on either event, it will positively affect the overall score, and vice versa. Hypothesis One: There is no significant difference in student content knowledge achievement based upon the type of training module. Conclusion: Students taught using training mod ules without argumentation infused scored higher on the content knowledge assessment than students taught using training modules infused with argumentation. The findings of this study indicate that the intentional infusion of argumentation into the trainin g modules did not lead to higher content knowledge scores. These findings are supported by the work of Flowers and Osborne (1988) which indicated that the use of two different teaching methods did not lead to a difference in student achievement. However, r esults from studies by Boone (1990), Burris (2005), and Thoron (2010) all indicated that the use of two teaching methods resulted in significantly higher achievement scores for the treatment group. Although the treatment did not result in a greater increa se in content knowledge, there was a content knowledge achievement increase across all participants. This

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105 increase answers the call by employers to develop a more knowledgeable workforce. Employers have cited that high school graduates are deficient in wor kforce preparation, specifically a deficiency in content knowledge (Casner Lotto, 2006). This knowledge gain in agricultural sales not only helps answer a call set forth by employers but also meets the needs identified by Radhakrishna and Bruening (1994) f or students seeking jobs in agricultural business and sales. Hypothesis Two: There is no significant difference in student argumentation skill based upon the type of training module. Conclusion: Students taught using training modules without argumentation scored higher on the argumentation skill instrument than students taught using training modules infused with argumentation. The findings of this study indicate that specifically teaching argumentation within the context of agricultural sales was not necess ary for the development of argumentation skill. Since there were gain scores for both groups, it is evident that argumentation skill does not need to be infused into instruction, but that it is naturally developed through instruction in agricultural sales. However, the lack of significance from the intentional teaching of argumentation is contradictory to the findings of Zohar and Nemet (2002) and Thoron (2010). Zohar and Nemet developed two variations of a genetic revolution unit for ninth grade students one of which was specifically designed to teach higher order thinking skills and scientific argumentation. Those that received the unit intended to teach argumentat ion developed more justifications and more complex arguments than those who did not have the specifically designed curriculum. In the case of Thoron, the subject matter approach and inquiry based instruction were used to teach secondary school agriculture students. Results indicated that those students who received inquiry based instruction had h igher

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106 argumentation skill scores than those that received the subject matter approach. Inquiry based instruction is credited with leading learners to thinking critically about a problem (Thoron, 2010). It is important to note a teacher may naturally teach in a manner that develops argumentation skill. Even though teachers were provided with professional development and modules for teaching the material, the way a teacher naturally teaches cannot be controlled. Lack of difference between the treatment and co Although the treatment was not effective in significantly increasing argumentation scores for the treatment group, there was an increase in argumentation skill score for all participant s. This increase helps address the current U.S. workforce needs. Aside from a deficiency in content knowledge, employers have cited deficiencies in critical thinking and problem solving. The development of both argumentation skill and content knowledge hel ps develop the type of worker highlighted by Roe (2001) the gold collar work er who is both knowledgeable in a specified area but also has certain applied skills, such as argumentation skill, critical thinking, and teamwork abilities. Regardless of statisti cal significance, students are better prepared to enter the workforce based on skills developed from this practicum. Hypothesis Three: There is no significant difference in performance in the agricultural sales practicum based upon type of training modul e. Conclusion: Students taught using training modules without argumentation infused scored higher on the individual sales call than those taught using training modules infused with argumentation Although students in the control group did have higher indi vidual sales call scores than those in the treatment group, the difference was not statistically significant. However, the difference in score could be due to the

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107 differences in gender. Although grade level and ethnicity were similar between treatment grou ps, there were more females in the control group. Based on research by Pajares (2002) that was previously mentioned, females tend to display more self regulatory behaviors which lea d to greater self efficacy. F emales may have exerted greater effort and per sistence during the preparation for the event, resulting in higher performance scores. Conclusion: Students taught using training modules infused with argumentation scored higher on the team sales scenario than those taught using training modules without argumentation infused. The finding that students taught using the training modules infused with argumentation outperformed the students taught using the training modules without argumentation infused was not a surprise. In fact, this was the outcome expect ed for all the hypotheses. Argumentation is the use of evidence to support or refute a conclusion (Osborne et al., 2004). Specifically teaching for the development of argumentation has resulted in greater argumentation skill ability and increased content k nowledge (Thoron, 2010; Zohar & Nemet, 2002). The findings of these researchers support the findings of this study. It is interesting to note that specifically teaching for argumentation skill presented a significant difference in favor of the treatment in the team sales scenario of the agricultural sales practicum, but did not present a difference in favor of the treatment in the individual sales call in the agricultural sales practicum. Furthermore, the development of argumentation skill through the use o f training modules with argumentation supports the incorporation of argumentation skill into the Common Core State Standards ( National Governors Association Center for Best

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108 Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010) Many studies cite student lack of ability to develop well structured arguments ( Cho & Jonassen, 2002 ; National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010 ; OCED, 2007 ) Moreover, employers have been seeking to hire employees with this type of skill, however, have been reluctant to find qualified applicants (Casner Lotto, 2006). Thus, the development of argumentation skill highlighted in this study answers the call by many employers to prepare high school graduates for employment. T he findings of this study support the work of Career and Technical Education programs which is to provide a context for students to learn transferable career skills. Finally, these findings support the mission of agricultural prepar e students for successful careers in the global agriculture, Discussion This study presents findings which indicate d that agricultural sales training modules are effec tive in developing content knowledge and argumentation skill among secondary agriculture students. However, this study also indicate d that the treatment of infusing argumentation into the agri cultural sales training modules wa s not effective in seeing addi (2010) study where the subject matter approach and inquiry based instruction were and scientific reaso ning, treatment effects were present. In other studies ( Flowers and Osborne, 1988; Myers, 2004) results based upon the use of two different teaching methods indicated mixed results. However, the parameters of this study were much different than the previou sly mentioned, thus the study yielded different results. This

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109 section will address those differences and how it affected the outcomes of the study. Additionally, this section will discuss future directions for agriculture education in terms of Career Devel opment Event participation. As indicated previously, the parameters of this study were different than many teaching methodology studies. First, this study was not linked directly to a specific agriculture course. Teachers who elected to participate in this study prepared students for the practicum after school hours. Additionally, student participation in the study was voluntary. Since participation was voluntary and this was not a state sponsored event, a student may not have felt it necessary to perform a t the level in which they would for the there was no grade incentive/punishment for participation. This c ould also be a factor that affected a students an opportunity to learn, practice, and compete in this CDE area without bearing on their performance. The abilit y to have a tr i a l run could have motivated students to perform well for future CDE opportunities. Finally, the last component of the study which was unlike others was the length of time. The study was conducted over a six week period of time. Other studies th at have seen significant treatment effects, such as Thoron (2010), conducted the study over a period of twelve weeks. Additionally, Thoron indicated that if the study was concluded at four weeks, there would have been no treatment effects, and after eight weeks, results would be mixed. Thus, the shorter time period is dissimilar to other studies, and it is a shorter period to seek treatment effects. However, after discussion with agriculture teachers, six weeks was determined

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110 as an adequate amount of time t o prepare a CDE team. Choosing a longer period of preparation time would not have been representative of the time that instructors typically spend in preparing CDE teams. Regardless of differences with other studies, in the short six week period, there was still an increase in the content knowledge and argumentation skill of students. If the study was conducted for a longer period of time, there may have been larger gains in content knowledge and argumentation skill. The results of this study indicated an overall increase in student content knowledge and argumentation skill regardless of treatment. This suggests that argumentation does not need to be infused into agricultural sales training modules in order to see growth in content knowledge and argumentati on skill. Although this was not an expected outcome, this outcome will be beneficial for both agriculture teachers and students. Since it is not necessary for agriculture teachers to infuse argumentation in agricultural sales for students to learn, the tea cher can save planning time by not preparing to specifically teach argumentation. Furthermore, students have the opportunity to develop a valuable skill without specific instruction as to how to construct arguments. However, it is important to note that al though gains in argumentation skill were seen, scores were still somewhat low. This could be indicative of the length of time in which this study was conducted. As indicated previously, other researchers (Kuhn & Udell, 2003; Thoron 2010; Yerrick, 2000) inv estigating argumentation skill over a longer period of time and found significant increases in argumentation skill. Based on the findings of other researchers and the results of this study, the length of time in which this study was conducted may not have been long enough to see significant increases in argumentation skill.

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111 One major factor that may have affected the outcome of this study was teacher retention As discussed in chapter four, there were originally 25 agriculture teachers that elected to part icipate in the study, however a series of events made it difficult to participate. First, the date for the practicum was scheduled for the first Friday in October. After all teachers agreed on this date, the state FFA association moved the date of an area leadership conference to the first Friday in October. Since many teachers that elected to participate in this study would be attending this conference with their students, it then became necessary to move the date of the practicum. After much deliberation, the second Friday of October was selected. It became apparent that this date was not going to work for each teacher, therefore there would be some teachers who would not be able to complete the study. Next, a university sponsored professional development event was previously scheduled to be on the second Friday in October, however, we chose not to move the date again because this was the date that was most accommodating for all teachers. Therefore, there were other teachers who were not able to participate in the practicum due to previous commitment to the university sponsored professional development. Finally, there were other miscellaneous issues that arose which prevented teachers for participating: the practicum was scheduled during homecoming week, tea cher/co teacher left for maternity leave, and county fairs. In addition, there were some instructors who were unable to participate due to other school commitments, and this study was a low priority Aside from many scheduling conflicts, the researcher co uld have had more regular communication with the participants. Since the teachers participated in this study voluntarily, the researcher did not want to be overbearing, but rather show appreciation for participation. Contact was

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112 maintained with each teache r, and weekly emails were sent, however, contact should have been more individualized and a response should have been elicited to gauge the This particular Career Development Event was selected fo r use in this study for a number of reasons, mainly the potential for the development of argumentation and the potential for the development of various career skills from participation. However, further information indicated that there was discussion by th e state FFA association to remove this CDE from the list of state sponsored CDEs, making this an event that was no longer available for students. This suggestion was made based upon the level of participation over the past five years. In this time frame, t here was an average of ten teams competing in the CDE each year. The participation in the agricultural sales practicum was similar to that seen at the state CDE each year. However, those who participated in the practicum were mainly teachers who had never participated in the CDE previously. Therefore, participation is expected to increase at the state CDE this year, after the completion of this study. Additionally, the development of these training materials will provide agriculture teachers with guideline s for preparing an agricultural sales team. practicum will aid in developing high school graduates who are prepared to enter the workforce. Much discussion has highlighted the la ck of employability skills possessed results of this study highlighted the development of knowledge, critical thinking skills, argumentation skill, and potentially othe r higher order thinking skills which will allow students to be successful in the workplace. Additionally, the components of this

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113 practicum challenge students to develop effective communication and teamwork skills. Some ( Bancino & Zevalkink 2007 ; Dailey, C onroy, & Shelley Tolbert, 2001 ) have suggested that Career and Technical Education and even specifically agricultural education be the vehicle for helping students develop employability skills. This study has illustrated the work of Career and Technical Ed ucation in preparing students for successful careers in the respective industries. Recommendations for Practitioners Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made for practitioners in secondary school agriculture education: 1. Agriculture teachers should consider participation in Career Development Events that not only prepare students for a specific career but also develop other transferable skills. 2. Based on the findings of this study, argumentation would not need to be purpose fully infused into preparation materials for agric ultural sales. However, argumentation can be discussed as a method for approaching the components of the agricultural sales CDE. 3. Although further research would be necessary, instructors can include instru ction on argumentation with other Career Development Events in an effort to promote the development of higher order thinking skills. 4. Based on the findings of this study, agriculture teachers should spend at least six weeks (21 24 hours) preparing a CDE tea m. Recommendations for State FFA Staff/State CDE Coordinators Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made for state FFA staff and/or state CDE coordinators: 1. Training modules should be developed for CDEs in an effort to help agriculture teachers effectively prepare students for a CDE and to standardize participation in the CDE. 2. State Staff and/or CDE Coordinators should work with agriculture teachers in order to determine the CDEs in which training modules should be develope d.

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114 Recommendations for Further Research While this study provides conclusions regarding its objectives and hypotheses, the study also developed recommendations for further research, including: 1. More experimental studies are needed in the area of Career Dev elopment Event preparation in order to prove the types of skills students are development from participation in these events. 2. Replication of this study using another group of teachers is needed to support the results found in this study (due to the low num ber of participants). 3. The timeframe in which this study was conducted should to be evaluated in future studies to confirm that six weeks is long enough to effectively deliver the treatment. 4. Future investigators should develop a timeline for communication with teachers before beginning the study and share this timeline with participants in order to effectively provide support for teachers participating in the study. 5. This study examined the effect of the teaching methods on content knowledge achievement and argumentation skill directly following instruction. This study should be replicated to investigate the effects of these treatments on long term retention of content knowledge achievement and argumentation skill. 6. This study did not assess student attitude toward the training modules used in this study. Further research should be conducted to determine student attitudes toward these training modules. 7. Although the researcher gathered information from teachers about their participation in this study through d iscussion, there was no formal method of gathering teacher perceptions after participation in the study. Further research should be conducted to in the study. Addit ionally, future studies should evaluate tea Summary This chapter presented a summary of the objectives and hypotheses that guided this study. This chapter also provided conclusions based on the findings and provided recommendations for agricu lture teachers, state FFA staff/CDE coordinators and future research. This study pre s ented the findings tailored to the objectives and hypotheses that guided this research. The objectives were: (1) d escribe the ethnicity, gender, and year in school of agri culture secondary school students who participate in the

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115 agricultural sales practicum in Florida ; (2) a scertain the relationship between the use of training modules and the development of student argumentation skill, content knowledge achievement, and perf ormance in an a gricultural sales practicum; and (3) e xamine the relationships among argumentation skill, content knowledge achievement, performance in an agricultural sales practicum, ethnicity, gender, and year in school of agriculture secondary school st udents who participate in the agricultural sales practicum. The null hypotheses tested in this study were: (1) t here is no significant difference in student content knowledge achievement based upon the type of training module (argumentation infused vs. no argumentation infusion); (2) t here is no significant difference in student argumentation skill based upon the type of training module (argumentation infused vs. no argumentati on infusion); and (3) t here is no significant difference in performance in the ag ricultural sales practicum based upon the type of training module (argumentation infused vs. no argumentation infusion). The findings of this study indicated that it was not necessary to infuse argumentation into agricultural sales training modules in orde r to see growth in content knowledge and argumentation skill. The findings of this study also indicated that the infusion of argumentation into the training modules may not be necessary when preparing students for the components of the CDE. This chapter th en presented recommendations for agriculture teachers, state FFA staff/CDE coordinators and future research.

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116 APPENDIX A ARGUMENTATION INFUSI ON Module 1 Argumentation Supplement One piece of selling that is essential is recognizing the alternative products to what you are selling (we will call your product, Product A). As a salesperson, there is probably another company that sells a similar product that will certainly have features and benefits to purchasing (this will be called product B). As a salesperson, you need to be able to understand the benefits of Product B so that you know why the customer is currently purchasing it. Knowing the features and benefits of Product B will help you understand what features and benefits to share about Product A, and make the case for purchasing Product A. It means that you acknowledge the positive aspects of Product B, but show how product A is still better. As illustrated in that example, the salesperson recognized the benefits of purchasing from Company G, but then highlighted the reasons why purchasing from Company Q would be the best choice. DIRECTIONS: As you prepare to sell the product that has been determined for this CDE, you will need to consider other companies that sell this same product. What are the features of the company? Why would someone purchase from them? Do they pride themselves on the highest quality product, are they the cheapest, do t hey fill order in 24 hours? When preparing to sell your product at the CDE, these are questions that you should consider. For example : You are selling peppers. You represent a company (Company Q) that sells peppers that are only grown in the state of Florida. Therefore, you have a locally grown product that is always fresh. However, you can only sell your product 6 months out of the year. Your competitor, Company G, sells peppers year round. The ir peppers are grown in Central and South America. You are attempting to sell your peppers to Publix. What could you say that would entice them to purchase your product? The buyer at Publix may bring up the fact that they cannot purchase your peppers year round, like they do with their current supplier. round. I know that uniformity of product is very important to you, and Company G can provide that for you. That is a really great benefit they offer. H owever, I think that purchasing this Florida grown pepper will provide you with a product that is high quality. Because they are locally grown, they are on the plant longer, and are much fresher when they arrive at your distribution center. Granted, they c annot be purchased year round like Company G, but I do think they are a quality product that you will be very satisfied

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117 As you work on preparing for this product today, you should research other companies that sell similar product, find out the features/ benefits of those products and the company. You need to find at least one company. Then you should make a comparison between the two/three/etc. for your own use. Know what it is about the product that makes people want to buy it. This will be information y ou can use in your sales presentation (just like what was said in the example).

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118 Module 4 Argumentation Supplement This is to be used with Module 4 after the students have completed each of the objection handling strategies. Once you have completed Module 4 use the following information and questions to lead a discussion about the scenario presented in the module. Have students think critically about what they were trying to sell to the customer. Example answers are provided however these are just for the instructor to use as a reference. Do not reveal the answers to the students. In the scenario, Mr. Burgess did not want to use multiple control measures because he was concerned that it would take more work than the chemical method he currently used. What are the benefits of keeping this same method? o Mr. Burgess will not have to learn any new methods/procedures and he o He can continue to do what he has always done and not change his method of operating, or time schedule in which he administers treatments Why does it matter that it takes more work? o To Mr. Burgess, more work might mean more time therefore he would have to spend more time doing this, and less time on other tasks. This coul d affect his normal production schedule and he may not be able to accomplish these tasks in a reasonable amount of time. He might have to hire additional help, or he might have to forgo some of his current responsibilities. The salesperson was trying to explain the importance of multiple control methods. Why is using this method a good idea? o As stated in the scenario, using multiple control methods is helpful in attacking all stages of the life cycle. This could mean greatly reducing the Small Hive Beet le population in a hive. A vast reduction in the population might mean that he has to visit the hive less often because the pest population is under control. What benefits will Mr. Burgess receive if he uses multiple control methods? o He will see a vast r eduction in the pest population o Eventually, he will not have to visit the hive as often (as he does with the chemical control method) because the pest population will be under control. o Overall, his bees will be healthier because there will be less pests i n the hives. Therefore his honey bees will produce more honey. Now thinking on the opposite end, what are the negative factors associated with each method? Chemical control only?

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119 o Does not control all the stages of the life cycle therefore you have less of a chance of actually controlling the population o Requires frequent visits for pesticide application o Could have adverse effects on the bees Multiple control methods? o A larger time commitment in the beginning o Greater investment in equipment because multiple measures are being used o Will have to learn how to appropriately administer the new treatments time and money invested into training Although you have already completed the objection handling scenario, think about some ways you could have validated his cur rent method. What would you say? How would you have compared the two methods without insulting his current operating procedures? Is there anything you would have done differently to handle the objection now that you have considered the benefits of both m ethods? If yes, what would you have said? If you were in this position, what decision would you make? Keep the same method or adopt the multiple control measures? Why?

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120 Module 7 Argumentation Supplement This is to be used with Module 7, after each studen t has completed the sales call with following information and questions to lead students through a discussion about the scenario presented in this module. Example answers are pro vided however these are just for the instructor to use as a reference. Do not reveal the answers to the students. In the scenario, Dr. von der Heyde was looking to purchase feed that was similar to the feed they already produce in their mills. He was cons idering purchasing FRM feed. What are the benefits of using FRM feed? o o Have product for multiple ages/stages of chicken development o Ingredients in the feed are very similar to the feed bei ng produced in the plant What are other companies that could have been selected? o Student could population a lot of answers examples below: Nutrena Purina Feed mill in the area of the operation central location which would then be distributed to farmers. What could be some general benefits from purchasing feed from these other companies? o Price o Ingredients/Nutritional value o Larger brand name, more reputable? o Availability distribution location coul d be closer o Delivery schedule could deliver more than once a week What is the one argument you would make that purchasing FRM is a better choice? If you were making the decision, what would you choose to do? Why?

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121 Module 8 Argumentation Supplement This i s to be used with Module 8 after the students have completed the first team sales situation following information and questions to lead a discussion about the scenario presented in t his module. Have students think critically about the company they were representing and the competing companies. Example answers are provided however these are just for the instructor to use as a reference. Do not reveal the answers to the students. In t canine and feline pet food. They were selling to three different customers ( Suburban ). What are the benefi ts of purchasing Science Diet for sale in their business? o High quality product with high quality ingredients o Because the product is high quality, it is better for the digestive health of the animal o Fairly well known brand o The company conducts a lot of rese arch to ensure they are always selling the best product thus you know you are always going to get a quality product because of their dedication to research o More veterinarians recommend and feed their own pets Science Diet than any other pet food brand o Many options (bag size, pellet size, medicated, etc.) What are the reasons that customers may be apprehensive about purchasing Science Diet? o Price expensive relative to other products What other companies could these customers have considered doing business wi th? o Purina o Iams o Pedigree o Wiskas o Etc. What would the benefits of these companies be? o Very well known brands because they are sold in retail stores and frequently advertise o Price much cheaper than Science Diet What would be reasons why the three specific cu stomers might not want to sell Purina, Iams, etc.? o Not as nutritionally sound as Science Diet o Not as highly recommended/researched o Other brands can be bought anywhere, therefore they would have more competition to sell the products (argument mainly for ani mal clinic and small pet store)

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122 If one of the customers objected to Science Diet because of the price, what would you say? (Want the student to actually provide dialogue, below are examples of reasons) o List the nutritional benefits of the product relative to the other brands provided o Illustrate how highly veterinarians highly recommend Science Diet o If you were in the position to sell Science Diet or another product, which product would you choose? Why?

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123 APPENDIX B AGRICULTURA L SALES TRAINING MOD ULES Module 1 : Introduction to the agriculture sales CDE Before beginning this module it is important that you do 2 things: 1. Have each student complete the IRB form, and obtain a parent signature (if under 18) 2. Administer the two pre test s that were mailed to you. The purpose of this module is to provide a general overview of the Agriculture Sales CDE. We will review the components of the CDE and the set up. However, if you have never competed in the CDE, it is recommend that you rev iew the rules in the Florida FFA CDE Handbook, which are provided in the appendix. In order to participate in this CDE, students must be in grades 9, 10, 11, or 12. This is a team event, with four members per team. The CDE is broken up into three componen ts: 1) written exam, 2) individual sales call, and 3) team sales situation. Prior to the CDE, the CDE coordinator will release information about the product that will be utilized in the CDE. The information will be appropriate company information and a p rice list. This product information will be used for both the team sales scenario and the individual sales call. Written Exam upon the list of references provided in t he event rules (in Florida FFA CDE Handbook). Much of the exam knowledge is drawn from resources Dr. Allen Wysocki, University of Florida, has provided on the FFA Sales website. Since we are asking you to use these training materials to prepare your team, please do not use those resources for this study. The exam will be no more than 30 questions, and the student will have 45 minutes to complete the exam. The exam can consist of multiple choice, fill in the blank, short answer, and essay questions. Each q uestion will have a point value assigned to it, for a total of 100 points per student, 400 points per team. Estimated Time Module: 20 minutes Product Prep: 1 hr, 40 minutes

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124 Team Sales Scenario In the team sales scenario, the team will be expected to develop a strategy to sell the products (which are provided prior t o the CDE) in a face to face sales call. Team members should work together to demonstrate teamwork, problem solving, data analysis, and communication. Each team member is allowed to bring a one inch binder containing information about the product (that w as provided prior to the CDE) that they will be selling. When the team arrives for the team scenario, they will be expected to develop a strategy to sell the product to several different customers. However, the judges are acting as the immediate supervisor s for the sales team. Thus, the presentation should be a strategy for selling to the different customers. The sales team IS NOT trying to sell the product to the judges. The team members will be provided with the customer profiles when they arrive for the team event. The team will have 20 minutes to analyze the information and develop their presentation. They will then have 10 minutes to present their presentation, followed by 10 minutes for questions. All portions of the 40 minutes will be scored (prepara tion, presentation, and questions). This event is worth 150 points. Individual Sales Call The students will use the information about the product (provided prior to the CDE) to conduct this component of the CDE. The individual sales call will take place after the team event, and will be based upon one of the customers presented in the team sales scenario. In this event, the student WILL BE selling directly to the judge, as this judge is one of the customers identified previously. The student should attem pt to make a sale, but the judge may not purchase the product (just as in a real sales call). Students will have 20 minutes to interact with the judges. They may use their one inch binder if they desire. This event is worth 150 points per student, for a t otal of 600 points per team. These are the basics of how the Agriculture Sales CDE is conducted. Attached are the scoring rubrics for the individual sales call and the team sales scenario (which are also found within the modules). Additional Informat ion As noted above, each team member is allowed to bring a one inch binder with information. This binder may contain a variety of information. There is nothing that is specifically suggested, however below are some ideas about what has been used in previou s years.

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125 Price list provided by the CDE coordinator O rder forms (can be a modified version of the price sheet) B usiness cards B rochures T estimonials F lyers P roduct information A dditional company information E tc. Really, the binder should contain infor mation that will be helpful for both the team and individual activity. Since the student will attempt to make a sale in the individual activity, it would be beneficial if the student brought thing with them that would aid in making the sale, and taking the order. However, it is important to note that laptops, flipcharts, etc. cannot be used in the team sales presentation. Furthermore, they may not be appropriate for the individual sales call. Product Preparation As has been noted above, you will learn about the company/product prior to arriving at the CDE. For the purposes of this study, you will receive the product information about five weeks prior to the mock CDE. With that being said, it is important that you spend time preparing to sell that produ ct, in addition to completing the modules Therefore, you should allot 30 minutes each practice to prepare for the product(s) that will be sold. This will be denoted at the top of each module, and will be 30 minutes per session, unless otherwise specified. This time should be used to learn about the company and product(s) that will be sold. As you work through the modules, it becomes apparent that knowledge of the product is very important in order to sell effectively. Therefore, time should be spent famil iarizing the students with the product(s). Additionally, this time should be spent preparing any materials that will be used during the CDE. This includes, but is not limited to the items listed above that can be taken in as part of the one inch binder. Since this first module is mainly to review the CDE, once you finish reviewing the general information about the CDE (contained in this module), you should spend the remainder of the time reviewing the information about the company/product(s) that will be sold at the CDE. Use this time to begin learning the products and the company. Remember, knowledge about the product(s)/company is very important. Also, you should consider potential customers when preparing for the CDE. Since you will be representing a specific company, it is important to know who your potential customers are so that you can prepare more effectively for the team sales scenario and

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126 individual sales call. Think logically about the company you are representing and who the potential customer s could be. Identifying potential customers will pay dividends for the students at the CDE.

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131 Module 2: The Opening Background Information for the Teacher This module will help you in preparing your team for the first portion of the sales ca ll, the opening. This information shares the basic elements that must be included as well as some questions to help the student reflect on their performance. The specific objectives of this module are to: Identify the five elements of the opening Demons trate the five elements of the opening Evaluate the sales call opening as presented by self and others The content information about the sales call opening is embedded within the module in the order in which it should be presented. The information is also listed below for ease of use. 5 Elements of a Sales Call Opening 1. Create a professional first impression a. firm handshake, introducing yourself, appropriate volume of voice, proper posture, appropriate attire, genuine interest in being there 2. Get and keep t he customers attention a. G enuine interest /excitement in being there b. I t is important that the salesperson does not do all the talking the customer wants to feel important/valued; do this by listening to what they say 3. Build trust/rapport a. Comments about observa tions current news articles (local/state/national), items in their office (pictures, degrees, sports memorabilia, etc.) b. Compliments awards in their office c. Discuss mutual acquaintances (might not work for this CDE) or interests 4. Probe for needs and values information a. By asking questions open and closed probing questions b. Open probing questions should use early in your opening. Helps identify needs and values, allows the customer to open up. Do not ask questions that can be answered with yes/no. i. Example ques tions: What is most important to you about ___?; ii. Questions that start with What, Where, Why, How, and Who are generally good open probing questions. Estimated Time Module: 1 hour, 30 minutes. Product Prep: 30 mi nutes

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132 c. Closed probing questions use later after information has been gathe red. Helps steer discussion to sales call objective. Helps verify needs and values. i. Examples: Would you be interested in ____?; Do you think that you need _____ in order to be more effective in business? ii. Questions that usually start with Do, Would, Could, Should, and Can are good closed probing questions. iii. Generally questions that can be answered with yes/no 5. Arouse customer interest in you, your company, and your product a. Sharing information about your company do you do business with similar people/businesse s; is there something special about your company b. Tie their needs to the product you are about to present opening and is ready to move on to the selling points, the stu dent should ask if the Below is a sample dialogue of a sales call opening. Although the sales call opening does not always have to sound like this, this example is intended to aid in your understanding of components to consider, and be aware of what your students should be saying.

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133 **After you complete this module, feel free to share this example with y our students. Example Sales Call Opening Salesperson: Customer: Y es, Gary, it is nice to meet you too. Salesperson: Mr. Jones, I noticed that you have some UF memorabilia in your office, are you a big Florida fan? Customer: Yes, I am. I never went to school at University of Florida, but my daughter goes to school there. She has one more year before she Salesperson: W Florida is a hard school to get in to. Do you keep up with the football team? Customer: dates from her. Salesperson: never had a chance to go, you should try to attend on sometime. Customer: Salesperson: Good! Well, just s working with Farm Suppliers, Inc. for about 10 years. I am originally from Clewiston, where my family operates our 4 th generation cow calf farm. After weaning, our calves are sold to feeder operations in the mid west You mentioned your sale barn a little earlier, can you tell me a little bit about it? Customer: Generally, the sellers and buyers are from a round this area no more than 2 hours away. We sell anywhere from 20 100 head a day. Salesperson: Okay, and I understand you are looking to improve some of your facilities. Can you tell me a little bit about that? Customer: Sure. Well we have our basic cow pens that we use to work the cows through the auction, but they are in need of repair. Also, on days when we have over 75 head, it gets a little tight in the pens. We want to expand our pens in the back so that they are more efficient, and so that they wi ll hold more cattle. Our sale pens just need a little work. We need some new panels and we need to try to repair some other areas. Eventually, we would like to convert to all panels, but that will need to be a gradual process. Salesperson: Okay, thanks for going to go ahead and move into my presentation, and we can discuss a little more about meeting your needs. Is that okay? Customer : Sounds great.

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134 Module 2: The Opening and further understand the needs and wants of the customer. Building a relationship with the customer is a very important comp onent of sales and will pay dividends in the long run. This module will cover the important elements of a sales call opening. Objectives: Identify the five elements of the opening Demonstrate the five elements of the opening Evaluate the sales call open ing as presented by self and others This module will begin by presenting the basics of first meetings. Generally when you meet someone for the first time, what do you do? Introduce yourself, notice something about what they are doing/wearing/eating? You f ind something in common to talk about, right? Well, sales call openings work in a similar fashion. Just like when you meet someone for the first time, in a sales call opening you would introduce yourself and then find something to discuss that IS NOT bus iness. Below, the 5 elements of an opening are listed and explained. Share these with the students and ask the questions that pertain to each element (possible answers are provided with some commentary). 5 Elements of an Opening 1. Create a professional fi rst impression a. What would this entail? (firm handshake, introducing yourself, appropriate volume of voice, proper posture, appropriate attire, genuine interest in being there) i. Types of Handshakes: limp noodle, jack hammer, bone crusher, the sanitizer, the condolence 2. Get and keep the customers attention a. How would you do this? i. T his starts first with a genuine interest /excitement in being there ii. Additionally, it is important that the salesperson does not do all the talking the customer wants to feel important /valued; do this by listening to what they say 3. Build trust/rapport a. How do you do this? i. Tell students they are going to meet someone (who is the same age) for the first time and they have to talk to them for 5 10 minutes. Ask them what they would say? (P robably introduce themselves, maybe ask where they go to school, what they do for

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135 fun, if they play sports, or if they are in any clubs; they try to find b. Now ask students to consider if it were a business situation what are the types of things they could discuss? i. Comments about observations current news articles (local/state/national), items in their office (pictures, degrees, sports memorabilia, etc.) ii. Compliments awards in their office iii. Discuss mutual acqua intances (might not work for this CDE) or interests extent that the student wants. However, in a real sales situation, building rapport and trust would depend on the persona lity of the individual you are working with. 4. Arouse customer interest in you, your company, and your product a. How do you think you can do this? i. Sharing information about your company do you do business with similar people/businesses; is there something spe cial about your company ii. Share information about yourself how long have you been selling, how long have you been with the company, your credentials (degrees, etc) iii. Tie their needs to the product you are about to present 5. Probe for needs and values informatio n a. How do you do this? i. By asking questions open and closed probing questions ii. Open probing questions should use early in your opening. Helps identify needs and values, allows the customer to open up. Do not ask questions that can be answered with yes/no. 1. Ex ample questions: What is most important to you about 2. Questions that start with What, Where, Why, How, and Who are generally good open probing questions. iii. Closed probing questions use later after information has been gathered. Helps steer discussion to sales call objective. Helps verify needs and values. 1. Examples: Would you be interested in ____?; Do you think that you need _____ in order to be more effective in business? 2. Questions that usually start with Do, Woul d, Could, Should, and Can are good closed probing questions. 3. Generally questions that can be answered with yes/no

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136 **Transition Not a specific element in the opening, however, after the student has elling points, the student Although this seems like a lot, the five elements are relativ ely simple 1)professional first impression, 2) gain customers attention, 3) build rapport/trust, 4) probe for needs/values, 5) arouse interest in company and product. It boils down to asking good question and being an active listener In order to allow t he student to practice the sales call opening, several scenarios are presented below. Not much information about the customer will be shared because the student will need to use the elements of the sales call opening to find the information out. Each stude nt will use a different scenario. As the teacher you should play the customer. Ask the student to open the sales call and include all five elements. Have each ask the following reflection questions to all students: The rubric below is directly from the score sheet used in the CDE. You will notice the reflection questions are the same questions the st udent will be scored on in the CDE. Use this rubric to help assess how well each student performed the opening. Reflection Questions: 1. Did the student identify themselves with a good first impression? How? What did they do specifically that made it good/bad? 2. Did the student ask questions/dialogue in an attempt to build personal rapport with the customer? If not, identify areas where the student could have done this. 3. Did the stud ent actively listen to your personal comments when you answered? What specific behaviors did they exhibit? 4. Did the student use information from your answers to further establish rapport? If not, identify missed opportunities. 5. Did the student ask questions to learn about your business? If not, identify questions that could have been asked. 6. Did the student confirm and discover some of your needs and wants? If now, identify missed opportunities.

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137 Skills Points Possible Points Earned Did the salesperson identify themselves with a good first impression? 5 Did the student ask questions /dialogue in an attempt to build personal rapport with you? 8 Did the student actively listen to your personal comments when you answered? 8 Did the student use the information for your answers to further establish personal rapport? 8 Did the student ask questions to learn about your business? 10 Did the student listen to the answers about your business you provided? 10 Did the student confirm and discover your needs and wants? 12 Student Scenario 1 Customer: Mrs. Applegate is the owner of a floral shop in town. She has owned this shop for 15 years and it is still in the same location as it was when she opened it. Mrs. Applegate sells many different types of flower arrangements, and is able to help meet her customers needs for any occasion. She is looking to increase traffic to her bsuiness, but she is not sure how she wants to do that. She is considering potential advertising options. Salesperson ( a representative from Aplus Ads ): Has the ability to offer newspaper, magazine, billboard/si gn, and radio advertisements. Aplus Ads has been servicing this area for 15 years and specializes in local ad campaigns. Student Scenario 2 Customer: Mr. Mitchell is the owner of a local (non chain) grocery store. He is considering purchasing some new products to sell in his store. He is uncertain about what products he wants to purchase, and what quantity he will purchase for his first selling. He has limited shelf space, so he only wants to utilize his space for highly sought products with a high ret urn. Salesperson (representative from ): Currently, Mr. Mitchell only sells a few products, however, would be interested in him selling more. r opportunities to improve the relationship by offering special promotions for small grocers.

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138 Student Scenario 3 Customer: Mr. Matthews owns a small convenience store and tackle shop in north Florida. He is interested in bringing new tackle items into his store, however, he wants to purchase products that are both popular and able to be sold for a profit, while still at a decent price. Because he is a smaller store, low cost/overhead is important to Mr. Matthews. Salesperson (representative from Berkle y Fishing products): One of most popular products is Gulp bait. Many fishermen are impressed by the success they achieve with Gulp bait. This product, although slightly more expensive than others of its kind, is proven to be worth the extra money Student Scenario 4 Customer: Mrs. Stevenson owns a moderate size horse stable/farm in central Florida. She mainly teaches horse riding lessons, but is also open to the public on the weekends for trail riding. She is interested in trying out a new fe ed because she has not been satisfied with what she currently uses because of the higher cost, and the feed cannot be delivered. Salesperson (representative from Seminole Feed ): Seminole Feed specializes in horse feed for horses at all stages and ages of life. Additionally, they have supplements and horse care products. Seminole Feed is located within a reasonable distance from

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139 Module 3: Making the Selling Point Background Informatio n for the Teacher This module will walk you through the steps in making a selling point. It begins with identifying the feature, advantage, and benefits (FAB) of a product. This is called FAB selling. In order to make a sale, the salesperson uses the feat ures and benefits of a product to make a selling point. This module will provide the content information as well as specific scenarios for the student to utilize in learning how to make a selling point. The specific objectives of this module are to: Expl ain FAB selling Determine the FAB of a product Explain a selling point Demonstrate a selling point The content information about making a selling point is embedded within the module in the order in which it should be presented. The information is also lis ted below for ease of use. FAB Selling In order to make effective selling points, it is first important to understand how to highlight the features, advantages, and benefits of a product. This is called FAB selling. FAB stands for Features, Advantages, an d Benefits. When working with a customer you should seek to: Describe the feature Highlight the advantage Layout the benefit Describe the feature: So, what is a feature? A feature is a characteristic of the product things the customer can see, touch, tast e, smell, or hear. A feature can also be something that can be measured. For example, a feature could be the amount of protein in a feed, the size of a drill bit, or the interlocking components of storage containers. Highlight the advantage: An advantage is what translates features into benefits. What about your product is going supplement feed your goats because there is enough protein in the feed already, or an advantage coul d be improved communication due to a new word processing program your company is going to purchase. Layout the benefit: Estimated Time Module: 1 hour, 15 minutes Product Prep: 45 mi nutes

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140 product going to help them? Benefits include, savi ng time, saving money, better yield, or increased business. Example: Cattle Corral Panels Feature: Quick pin latch Advantage: Ease of moving, relocating, and reassembling panels Benefit: Purchasing corral panels with quick latch will provide ease in reloc ating panels so they are always where you need them. In the end, the quick latch panels save time and money. Making a Selling Point A selling point can be described using the acronym SELL: S State the feature E Elaborate the benefit L Lay out the proof of the benefit L Let the customer agree with the benefit

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141 Selling Point Example: Mr. Joe is looking to build new cattle pens, however he is considering purchasing corral panels because he has multiple pastures with cattle. This the panels, and assemble them to work cows. He is concerned about the price of the cattle panels, and the stability of the panels, relative to stationary cattle pens. Salesperson: These corral panels have a quick latch feature which allows quick assembly and disassembly, and even tho ugh they are portable, they are still very sturdy (State the feature) The cattle corral panels with quick latch will allow you to assemble the pens quickly, arrange them into a layout that will work best for your specific pasture, and then disassemble the m quickly in order to move them to another pasture. Also, since they have quick latch, you can purchase additional panels if you ever need to assemble larger pens. In the end, these quick latch cattle corral panels will allow you to save time, and money. S ince you will no longer have to move about buildingg multiple sets of pens, thus saving money. ( Elaborate the benefit) To illustrate this feature, I brought with me the latches that are on the panels so you can see how easily they latch. Also, I brought a video that shows the assembly and disassembly of a set of pens. (Please note: so far, I have only proved the features, and then the benefit. Make sure that you are not only proving t he features through demonstration/visual/etc., but that you are also proving the benefit. In order to prove the benefit, I will use a customer testimonial.) To further illustrate the benefits, the end of the video has a testimonial from Mr. Taylor, a custo mer of ours who began purchasing our quick latch panels 15 years ago. Show video (Lay out/prove the benefit) So, Mr. Joe, do you agree that these quick latch cattle corral panels can save you time and money? (Let the customer agree with the benefit).

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142 Module 3: Making the Selling Point The selling points in a sales presentation allow the salesperson to highlight the features of the product. By highlighting the feature s, a salesperson can explain the benefits of the product customers purchase products for the benefits. This module will describe how to make a selling point so that the customer understands the benefits associated with the product. Objectives: Explain FA B selling Determine the FAB of a product Explain a selling point Demonstrate a selling point In order to make effective selling points, you should use FAB selling. FAB stands for Features, Advantages, and Benefits. It is important to understand how to hi ghlight the features, advantages, and benefits of a product. When working with a customer you should seek to: Describe the feature Highlight the advantage Layout the benefit is a feature? A feature is a characteristic of the product things the customer can see, touch, taste, smell, or hear. A feature can also be something that can be measured. An advantage is what translates features into benefits. What about your product i s going problem, or satisfies their need. How is the product going to help them? element ary school teacher that is about butterflies. One feature of the product is that it is inclusive. The advantage of this is that everything you need to teach the lessons are in the kit time looking for pictures, or catching butterflies, everything they need to teach the lesson is in the kit. The benefit is that the teacher saves time and energy because the kit is ready to go. Or, a more popular example, Facebook. One of the features of Facebook is that it keeps track of all of your friends birthdays. The advantage of this is that you never miss a birthday. The benefit of the birthday feature is you never have to worry about losing friends because you forgot to tell them happy birthday. Now that FAB selling has been explained, use the example products below, and have each student come up with the feature, advantage, and benefit of the product. There will usually be more than one, and one feature may have multiple benefits.

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143 Products for students to determine FAB: 1. High Mineral Cattle Feed 2. Fertilizer (in general) 3. Radio commercial for a business 4. Drippers for a greenhouse (as opposed to sprinklers) Here are some possible answers students could have come up with, however, there is more tha n one feature/advantage/benefit for these products. Do not share these until the students have completed the scenarios. 1. High Mineral Cattle Feed: a. Feature: High Mineral b. Advantage: supplies cattle with necessary macro and micro nutrients; helps address miner al deficiencies c. Benefit: overall, more healthy cattle 2. Fertilizer: a. Feature: Has macro and micro nutrients for plants b. Advantage: helps provide minerals necessary for plant growth c. Benefit: overall, healthier plants (if administered correctly) d. Feature2: Necess ary nutrients contained within one package e. Advantage2: you only need one product to provide plant with necessary nutrients f. multiple products 3. Radio Commercial: a. Feature: commercial will play o n radio 5 times/day b. Advantage: a lot of people will hear about the business because of the number of times the commercial plays c. Benefit: increased business, which means an increase in profit 4. Drippers for a greenhouse: a. Feature: directs water directly into t he pot b. Advantage1: plant gets necessary amount of water c. Advantage2: water is not wasted d. Benefit1: plant gets required amount of water healthier plant e. Benefit2: save money because you are not using as much water Now that the students should be able to identify the features, advantages, and benefits of a product, we will move on to the selling point in a sales presentation. Determining the features, advantages, and benefits is a prerequisite to delivering an effective selling point. A salesperson need t o know the features, advantages, and benefits of a product before he/she attempts to sell it to the customer.

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144 Making a Selling Point A selling point can be described using the acronym SELL: S tate the feature E laborate the benefit L ay out the proof of the benefit L et the customer agree with the benefit Here is an example describing the use of a selling point: A potential customer is having problems with the grass in their yard. The grass is not growing well, and often requires too much water than wh at the home owner is willing to use to keep it green. The customer is meeting with a landscaping company to see what can be done. The landscaping company identifies that the issue could be a pest problem, and suggests that the grass does require a lot of maintenance for it to look as green as expected. Because of this, the landscaping company is recommending a new type of grass centipede sod. Centipede sod will provide the look of a fuller grass that you are looking for. It is a slower growing grass and it is more durable than the current type of sod you have now. Elaborate the benefit: Because centipede is a slower growing greener grass and it is more durable, it is going to require less your grass every week in the summer like you currently do. In the end, this is going to save you time and money. Layout/Prove the benefit: To illustrate these benefits, I have a brief testimonial from our customer, Gary Crawford. He had centipede sod insta lled in his yard 5 years ago, and says that he is very pleased with the results of the new sod. He has to mow his yard less in the summer, the sod grows well in all areas of his yard, including under trees, and he does not have to fertilize his yard. He is very happy that his grass has the look of a well kept lawn, but requires much less maintenance. Let the customer agree with the benefit: Do you see how When presenting a selli ng point, it is important to lay out proof of the benefit. In this example, a testimonial was used. However, demonstrations, videos, or other visual aids can be used to prove the benefit. Although FAB is not explicitly stated in making a selling point, it is apparent how the two are closely related. It is important the student is able to determine the features, advantages, and benefits so that they can use them to make selling point. An example product and customer are provided below. Have each student re view the scenario. They should determine the needs and wants of the customer so that they can

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145 customer. They will act as if they have already completed the opening, and are now moving on to selling point number one. The student should complete all components of SELL. **For this CDE, the student should aim to have two or more selling points in the individual sales call. Thus, the student would present one feature usin g the SELL strategy, and then present another feature using the SELL strategy again. The selling point should be seen as a tool in a tool box. The more tools a student has in ing points means that students can more effectively answer questions the customer is asking, and address the needs of the customer.

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146 Student Scenario Customer: Local hunter who has not found complete success using corn. He is looking to purchase a differ ent type of deer feed, but wants to make sure that it will meet his needs. He uses a feeder, but it is older and does have problems with letting water in. This might b e the product he is looking for: Product: AnterMax WaterShield TM Deer 20

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147 Example of the 4 Steps to Handling and Objection Customer: This really seems like too much money to spend on a new hay baler, especially when my old baler just needs a little bit of work. ( Listen) Salesperson: So, Mr. Smith, I understand that you think the price of the hay baler is too high. Is that correct? (Restate) Customer: Yes, that is correct. Salesperson: h you, I am going to finish explaining and then we will address the price concerns. Is that okay? (Handle and Verify) Customer: That will be fine. **This objection was handled using the Put Off Strategy. Module 4: Handling Objections Background Information for the Teacher This module will provide information on how to handle an objection and specific objection handling strategies that can be used. Contained within the module is the content information necessary to handle objections effectively, as well as specific scenarios for the students to use in order to learn how to handle objections. The specific objectives of this module are to: Demonstrate the 4 Steps to Handling an Object ion Demonstrate specified objection strategies The content information concerning handling objections is embedded within the module in the order in which it should be presented. The information is also listed below for ease of use. Additionally, there are specific dialogue examples to aid in your understanding of each objection handling strategy. 4 Steps to Handling an Objection 1. Listen to the objection a. Make sure you understand what the customer is saying/how they feel 2. Restate the objection a. Restate exactl y what you think they said try not to change their intentions because they could feel manipulated b. Let them know that you care about how they feel 3. Handle the objection a. Use a method which will be discussed below 4. Verify that the objection was handled a. Simply E stimated Time Module: 1 hour, 30 minutes Product Prep: 30 minutes

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148 Handling an Objection using the Put Off Strategy C ustomer: Although you keep saying that I will have more customers if I rent this my number of customers. ( Listen) Salesperson: Basically, what you are saying is that you more customers than you currently do, even if you rent the booth space, is that correct? (Restate) Customer: Yes, that is correct. Salesperson: I understand your concern, however, let me finish sharing the format of the far mers market with you and then we can address the traffic numbers. Is that okay? (Handle using Put Off and Verify) Handling Objection Strategies **these are just suggestions for objection handling strategies that can be used. For future reference, there are other strategies that can be used, however, these strategies seem to be mos t useful for the purposed of this CDE. A. Put Off B. Feel, Felt, Found C. Compensate/Counterbalance D. Case History E. Indirect Denial Each method is explained below and a dialogue example is provided. A. Put Off The customer jumps the gun let them know that you are going to get around to answer their question

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149 Handling an Objection using the Feel, Felt, Found Strategy Customer: I am uncertain if this barn really will provide the protection from the weather that I need and be portable if we decide to add on to the house. ( Listen) Salesperson: You are concerned that this barn might not give you good weather protection and be portable, is that correct? (Restate) Customer: Yes, that is correct. Salespers on: I can understand how you feel. Many other customers have felt that this product might not be able to do both of these things. However, after trying out the barn, they have found that it really does protect your equipment from the weather and can be mo ved if necessary. Does this address your concern? (Handle using Feel, Felt, Found and Verify) Handling an Objection using the Compensate/Counterbalance Strategy Customer: It is important that I get quality hay, and I am concerned that I might not be gett ing the quality as I am expecting. ( Listen) Salesperson: So it seems that you are concerned about the quality of the hay. Is that correct? (Restate) Customer: Yes, that is correct. Salesperson: that you can have the hay delivered or pick it up 6 days a week, the hay producers do er may be different, but like I said, they do have to sign a contract, so there are minimum quality standards they must meet. Does this help address your concern? (Handle using Compensate/Counterbalance and Verify) B. Feel, Felt Found Helps show empathy for the objection, then legitimizes the objection, then erases the objection I know you have feel ______, others have felt _______, but they found_______ Very positive C. Compensate or Counterbalance points out the imperfections Counter their minor objection with a more important benefit

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150 Handling an Objection using the Case His tory Strategy Customer: I am a little bit concerned about the level of skill required to put these centerpieces together. I am not sure if all of my students will be able to achieve this esign. ( Listen) Salesperson: the centerpieces correctly, and then your tables will not look like you want them. Is that correct? (Restate) Customer: Yes, that is correct. Salesperson: Well, Mrs. Jones at Turner High School also felt that way last year when she ordered centerpieces for her banquet. However, I went out there and helped her teach the students how to assemble the centerpieces and she told me that she was very pleased with how they turned out, and several parents and alumni members commented on how nice the centerpieces were. So I think we will be able to assemble (Handle using Case History and Verify) D. Case History This strategy helps you provide extra proof that was lacking. Share testimonials, experiences, stories, etc. from other customers Bottom line should reflect satisfaction and resul ts

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151 Handling an Obje ction using the Indirect Denial Strategy Customer: I have heard that this GPS is not very user friendly, so I am afraid that I will not be able to operate this technology without messing it up, or having to consult t want to do that. ( Listen) Salesperson: So it seems that you are concerned about how easy it will be for you to use the GPS. Is that correct? (Restate) Customer: Yes, that is correct. Salesperson: Well, that has been a problem in the past with other cust omers. They did not think that they GPS was user friendly. Since then, we have made changes to the GPS and it is much more user friendly than it was previously. (Handle using Indirect Denial Method) Does this address your concern? ( Verify) Customer: Yes, I think so. E. Indirect Denial Generally used when a customer has misinformation about the company or product The customer is not always right, but they are still a customer, so you This method should be used if a cu stomer highlights a problem that was a problem in the past, but it is no longer a problem **After you have completed the entire module, feel free to share these examples with your students.

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152 Module 4: Handling Objections This module will introduce the four steps to handling objections, and some specific strategies to handle objections. Handling objections is one of the most important aspects of a sales presentation because the salesperson has to prove the values and benefits of the product in order to gain a sale. Objectives: Demonstrate the 4 Steps to Handling an Objection Demonstrate specified objection strategies In order to learn how to handle objections, a fictional situation is provided below which the students will use for the purposes of t his module. Student Scenario Customer: Mr. Burgess is a beekeeper in North Florida, where he has about 300 hives that he uses for pollination services for small producers. Recently, he has noticed an increase in Small Hive Beetles in his colonies. Smal l Hive Beetles can destroy an entire hive of bees. Currently, he only uses chemical methods to control the beetles and he is not seeing a large reduction in the number of beetles. He is looking for other chemical options, however, he knows that the salespe rson he is meeting with, advocates for multiple control measures. During the sales call, the salesperson encourages Mr. Burgess to put Small Hive Beetle traps in his hives and to use a fungus which will kill the larvae of the Small Hive Beetle. Mr. Burgess is objecting to this integrated method because he thinks that it will be too much work. Salesperson (work for Dadant & Sons in High Springs, FL): Dadant & Sons is a company that provides complete hives, partial hives, bees, and beekeeping equipment to N orth Florida. The Dadant family has been involved in beekeeping for nearly 200 years. As a salesperson for Dadant & Sons, you encourage an integrated pest control method. This means that you think the beekeeper should use more than one method to control th eir pest problem. In the case of Mr. Burgess, this means using pesticides, traps, and a biological method (fungus) that kills larvae to control his Small Hive Beetle problem. Mr. Burgess thinks this will be too much work and he is not sure about using this method to control the Small Hive Beetle. However, you know that this method will help reduce the Small Hive Beetle population. Because several methods are being used, you are able to control the beetle in multiple life cycle stages (adult, larvae, and egg ). When you control all life cycle stages, you have a greater chance of eliminating the pest. You should show him that, although it might take more time now, he will have healthier hives and more productive bees because they are not affected by the pest as much. It is important that you illustrate how this method of control can attack several life cycle stages for optimum outcomes.

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153 4 Steps to Handling an Objection Using this scenario, you will ask the student to handle the objection. The student should ac t as if they have presented the majority of the sales call, and the customer raises this objection. Have each student handle the objection to the best of their ability. You will act as the customer try to answer questions similarly, and appropriately so th at situation seems real. Attempt to make your responses to questions/situations for each student similar, if the situation presented by the student is similar. **Note: Although the students may be uncertain as to how to handle the objection, allow them to handle the objection in whatever fashion they deem appropriate. After each student has handled the objection, review the dialogue that each student presented. Here are questions that can guide your reflection: a) Did the student(s) listen to your objection? Were they paying attention, or thinking about what they were going to say next? Here you can discuss what good listening would entail, i.e. eye contact, non verbal communication, gestures that show understanding (head nodding) b) Did the student(s) restate t he problem? Did they ask the customer if they understood the problem correctly? This is important because it allows the customer to know that the salesperson is paying attention and that they understand their concerns. c) Did the student(s) handle the objecti on? Or did they ignore it? In terms of handling objections, 5 specific strategies will be presented However, in this case, we are looking for what the salesperson did in order to address the customers need. Did they provide a sample, a demonstration, did t hey compare this product to other companies, or did they specifically state the benefits? Did they do anything to address the customers concerns? d) Did they ask the customer if they answered their q uestion? Was the customer satisfied with the answer? After reviewing all the handling objection presentations with the questions, ask students to think about what is important to do when handling an objection. The list should be similar to what was disc ussed in the review questions. Ultimately their list should mirror the 4 steps to handling an objection (help guide their discussion). 4 Steps to Handling an Objection 1. Listen to the objection a. Make sure you understand what the customer is saying/how they feel 2. Restate the objection

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154 a. Restate exactly what you think they said try not to change their intentions because they could feel manipulated b. Let them know that you care about how they feel 3. Handle the objection a. Use a method which will be discussed below 4. Veri fy that the objection was handled a. b. then what? i. Need to ask for clarification about the question, maybe the salesperson did not understand the question ii. Try to answer the question agai n Now that the students know the 4 Steps to Handling an Objection it is time to learn the specific strategies used to handle objections. There are multiple strategies, however, we will focus on the following five strategies: A. Put Off B. Feel, Felt, Found C. C ompensate/Counterbalance D. Case History E. Indirect denial You should first tell the students the strategy and explain the components of the objection handling strategy (as listed below). After explaining the method, have one or two students handle the objecti on using the specified strategy with the scenario above. Following the objection handling strategy, use the questions provided to debrief the close. Have 1 student go through the objection strategy in front of your other team members. As a group, have the students review the objection strategy using the questions provided. After you have reviewed the first objection scenario, have another student complete the same objection strategy (2 students total will complete each strategy). This will help save time, while also providing students an opportunity to view and improve each closing method.

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155 Specific Objection Handling Strategies A. Put Off a. b. The customer jumps the gun let them know that you are going to get around to answer their question c. Example: Listen Restate Handle using Put Off Verify B. Feel, Felt Found a. Helps show empathy for the objection then legitimizes the objection, then erases the objection b. I know you have feel ______, others have felt _______, but they found_______ c. Very positive d. Example: Listen Restate too risky of an investment for Handle using Feel, Felt, Found this is a risky investment, however, they found that after they purchased the equipment, and saw how well it worked, they were glad they invested Verify C. Compensate or Counterbalance a. points out the imperfections b. then c. Counter their minor objection with a more important benefit d. Example: Listen Restate Handle using Compensate look you can see, the benefits greatly outweigh the negatives, and I have Verify D. Case History a. This strategy helps you provide extra proof that was lacking. b. Share testimonials, experiences, stories, etc. from other customers c. Bottom line should reflect satisfaction and results d. Example: Listen Restate booth here, yo u will not see the increase in traffic to your produce stand as Handle using Case History Miller also felt that way when he initially spoke with me, however, after convincing him to purchase booth space for 2 week ends, he told me that

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156 he was very pleased with his traffic and even sold out of some of his Verify E. Indirect Denial Method a. Generally used when a customer has misinformation about the company or product b. The cus tomer is not always right, but they are still a customer, so you c. This method should be used if a customer highlights a problem that was a problem in the past, but it is no longer a problem d. Example: Listen R estate Handle using Indirect Denial concern over the longevity and durability of the barns, howeve r, we now use a new roofing material and the barns now last much longer than Verify

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157 Module 5 : Closing the Sale Part 1 How to Close a Sale Background Information for the Teacher This module will walk you th rough the steps in closing a sale. The module provides the content information as well as specific scenarios for the student to utilize in learning the steps to closing a sale. The specific objectives of this module are to: Identify the 5 Steps to Closin g a Sale Demonstrate the 5 Steps to Closing a Sale Evaluate the 5 Steps to Closing a Sale presented by self and others The content information about closing a sale is embedded within the module in the order in which it should be presented. The information is also listed below for ease of use. 5 Steps to Closing a Sale 1. Ask if there are any other questions (if the customer says yes, you need to address the questions) 2. Review the problem what was the customer looking for? 3. Review the solution what does your co mpany/product offer that meets the a. This is like using the summary close. We will not specifically cover the summary close as a closing method because it should be done in all sale closings b. In the summary close, i. t he salesperson summari zes the product as the best alternative ii. suggests i t is a logical/rational close since it can be used to highlight the benefits of the product want to show the customer (again) what the product can do for them, i.e. save time, save money, increase yields, e tc. 4. Use the appropriate closing strategy (these will be covered in the next which is seen in step 5 direct close) 5. Ask for the sale. a. A Direct Close is one where the salesperson just asks for the sale. b. For this module, use the direct close Estimated Time Module: 1 hour, 45 minutes Product Prep: 30 minutes

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158 It is important to remember that the custom er might not purchase the product. The rules for the CDE indicate that the judge does not have to buy. So, what should the student Just ask the customer why they are not goi ng to buy today Then they should try to set up another meeting to try to make a sale again Just make sure that you have a back up plan in place if the customer decides not to buy the product. Below is a sample dialogue of a sale closing. Although closing a sale does not always have to sound like this, the example is intended to aid in your understanding of components to consider, and be aware of what your students should be saying. For the purposes of the example, I will use a direct close. **This example can be shared with your students as an additional example after the entire module has been completed. Example Sale Closing using the Direct Close Salesperson: Mr. Smith, do you have any further questions? ( step 1 ) Customer: No, I think you have answered everything for me. Salesperson: Great! Well, you were looking for a boat shelter that would protect your boat and be sturdy enough to withstand the Florida wind and rain, but something that had the option of being portable if you add on to your house. Is that correct? ( step 2 ) Customer: Yes, that is correct. Salesperson: Today, I have shown you the products offered by Shelters, Inc. which are easily portable, especially if you choose to add on to your house as you have suggested, but they are strong enough to withstand the weather because of the unique feature on the poles which allows you to secure the shelter down ( step 3 ). It looks like we have been able to meet your needs today. Would you like to go ahead and purchase the 20 foot shelter? ( steps 4&5 ) *Steps 4 & 5 are co mbined in this instance because a direct close is being used. These steps will not always be combined.

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159 Module 5: Closing the Sale Part 1 How to close a sale This module will introduce the general rules to follow when closing a s ale. Closing a sale is an important aspect of the sales call because the salesperson will attempt to Objectives: Identify the 5 Steps to Closing a Sale Demonstrate the 5 Steps to Closing a Sale Evaluate the 5 Steps to Closin g a Sale presented by self and others In order to learn the proper steps to closing a sale, a fictional situation is provided below which the students will use for the purposes of this module. Student Scenario Customer : Mrs. Allen lives in North Cen tral Florida where she owns 10 horses. Mrs. Allen has had the horses for several years as her son and daughter used to ride horses. However, now that the children do not live at home, the horses only get ridden occasionally. Mrs. Allen does not have enough pasture to rotate the horses thus, there is not much grass left for the horses to eat. Because of this, Mrs. Allen is looking to purchase hay for the horses. She would need one round bale every 2 weeks. Mrs. Allen wants the hay to be good quality, so she was ruined. It is important that the hay is of good quality and that the hay will be ready for pickup every 2 weeks. Salesperson (Representative from The Hay Place located in North Marion County): The Hay Place prides itself on quality hay that is available for delivery or pick up six days a week The Hay Place bales some of their own hay, and the rest is from local farms. Although The Hay Place does not regulate the practices of local farmers, the farmers are required to sign a contract with The Hay Place that helps ensure the quality of hay they are receiving to sell. The Hay Place who have smaller numbers of horses and livestock. They sell both square and round bales. Using this scenario, ask each student to close the sale (even though they have not learned t he steps to closing a sale yet) Have the student act as if they have already completed the majority of the sales call, the last thing left is to close the sale (ask for the

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160 order). You will act as the customer try to answer questions similarly (between s tudents), and appropriately so that situation seems real. Make sure that what you do for one student, you do for each (i.e if 2 students ask for the sale in the same manner, nt asks the same way, you also do not buy on the first try). *Note: Although the student may be uncertain about what steps to take, just have them close the sale in a fashion they deem appropriate. After each student has closed the sale, review the closi ng that each student presented. Here are questions to guide the reflection: a) Did the student(s) ask if the customer had any further questions about the product? Here you can discuss what types of questions that customers might have: what time is the facili ty open, what type of hay, when was the hay cut, etc. However, tell the students that if you have done a good job with the sales call, the customer should not have many questions, if any. b) Did the student(s) review the problem? The problem was needing qual ity hay with the option to pick it up every other week c) Did the student(s) review the solution Buying hay from The Hay Place will meet their needs (quality and pick up) How satisfied they will be if they decide to purchase from The Hay Place have the stude nt illustrate how satisfied Mr./Mrs. Allen will be d) Did the student(s) ask for the sale? If so, how many times? e) Did the student(s) stop the first time the customer said no? ask again in a nother fashion. Or, review additional benefits that might help earn their business. Continue to show how your product will meet their needs. f) f these questions, ask students to come up with a list of things that need to happen in the closing. This list should include many of the components that were discussed the in the reflection/review of their sales presentations (asking for further questions reviewing the problem, reviewing the solution, asking for the sale). Ultimately, you should help their list mirror the 5 steps to closing a sale:

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161 5 Steps to Closing a Sale 1. Ask if there are any other questions (if the customer says yes, you need to addr ess the questions) 2. Review the problem what was the customer looking for? 3. Review the solution what does your company/product offer that meets the a. This is like using the summary close. We will not specifically cover the summary close as a closing method because it should be done in all sale closings b. In the summary close, i. t he salesperson summarizes the product as the best alternative ii. suggests i t is a logical/rational close since it can be used to highlight the benefits of the product want to show the customer (again) what the product can do for them, i.e. save time, save money, increase yields, etc. 4. Use the appropriate closing strategy (these will be covered in the next which is seen in step 5 direct close) 5. Ask for the sale. a. A Direct Close is one where the salesperson just asks for the sale. b. For this m odule, use the direct close After the students have developed their list, you can reveal/share the 5 Steps to Closing a Sale. Now that students know what the 5 steps are, you will have each student attempt to close the sale again keeping the 5 steps in mind. The student(s) will use the same scenario as before for ease of understanding the 5 steps. a) Did the student(s) ask if the customer had any further questions about the product? b) Did the student(s) review the problem? c) Did the student(s) review the solution d) Did the student(s) ask for the sale? If so, how many times? e) Did the student(s) stop the first time the customer said no? f) After each student has presented the first scenario a second time, and e time using the new scenario on the next page. Since this will be the third sale closing

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162 they preform, you do not have to use the review question with each student. However, you should review/reflect as a group after all students have presented their closing. Student Scenario 2 Customer: Mr./Mrs. Dent is an agriculture teacher and FFA advisor at the local high school. For the FFA banquet, the chapter wants to put centerpieces on each table in the cafeteria. Mr./Mrs. Dent wants the centerpieces to be a floral arrangement which his/her students can assemble (By assembling them, the students will learn elements of floral design, and it will not cost as much mo ney for the chapter to purchase the centerpieces). Mr./Mrs. Dent wants the centerpieces to be in clear vases; only have white, blue, and yellow flowers; a simplistic design that students will be able to assemble; and cost effective. Not all of the designs have to be the same, but they should complement eachother. Additionally, the supplies will need to be picked up/delivered 2 days prior to the banquet. Salesperson ( Owner of The Floral Shop, located in a town about 20 minutes from the high school): The Flo ral Shop provides a variety of options for assembling your own centerpieces, however, some of the designs can be complicated. Multiple vases are available, but they vary in price. The same is true for colors and flower types, each varies in cost and availa bility. Floral design can be expensive, thus it is important that the salesperson try to meet the needs of the customer at the appropriate price level. Since the chapter will be purchasing so many centerpieces, the owner is willing to come in and help the students assemble the centerpieces free of charge. It is important to remember that the customer might not purchase the product. The rules for the CDE indicate that the judge does not have to buy. So, what should the student Just ask the customer why they are not going to buy today Then they should try to set up another meeting to try to make a sale again Just make sure that you have a b ack up plan in place if the customer decides not to buy the product.

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163 Module 6: Closing the Sale Part 2 Types of Closing Methods Background Information for the Teacher This module will present the different types of closing methods that can be used whe n closing a sale. This module provides the content information as well as specific scenarios for the students to utilize when practicing the different methods. The specific objectives of this module are to: Identify different methods for closing a sale D emonstrate the seven methods for closing a sale Evaluate the methods for closing a sale as presented by self and others The content information concerning closing methods is embedded within the module in the order in which it should be presented. The info rmation is also listed below for ease of use. Since this module coincides with the previous module, the 5 Steps to Closing a Sale is also included in this section. 5 Steps to Closing a Sale 6. Ask if there are any other questions (if the customer says yes, y ou need to address the questions) 7. Review the problem what was the customer looking for? 8. Review the solution what does your company/product offer that meets the a. This is like using the summary close. We will not specifically cover the summ ary close as a closing method because it should be done in all sale closings b. In the summary close, i. t he salesperson summarizes the product as the best alternative ii. suggests i t is a logical/rational close since it can be used to highlight the benefits of t he product want to show the customer (again) what the product can do for them, i.e. save time, save money, increase yields, etc. 9. Use the appropriate closing strategy. 10. Ask for the sale. Estimated Time Module: 2 hours Product Prep: 30 minutes

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164 The types of closing methods: A. Direct Close B. Standing Room Only C. Choice C lose D. Assumption Close E. Special Deal Close F. Success Story Close Closing Methods A. Direct Close The salesperson directly asks for the sale Combines steps 4 & 5 Yes/no question Should be used when the sales call has been positive or with repeat customers Custo mer will respond yes or no to the direct close Direct Close Salesperson: Mr. Smith, do you have any further questions? ( step 1 ) Customer : No, I think you have answered everything for me. Salesperson: Great! Well, you were looking for a boat shelter that would protect your boat and be sturdy enough to withstand the Florida wind and rain, but something that had the option of being portable if you add on to your house. Is that correct? ( step 2 ) Customer: Yes, that is correct. Salesperson: Today, I have shown you the products offered by Shelters, Inc. which are easily portable, especially if you choose to add on to your house as you have sug gested, but they are strong enough to withstand the weather because of the unique feature on the poles which allows you to secure the shelter down ( step 3 ). It looks like we have been able to meet your needs today. Would you like to go ahead and purchase t he 20 foot shelter? ( steps 4&5 ) *Steps 4 & 5 are combined in this instance because a direct close is being used. These steps will not always be combined.

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165 B. Standing Room Only Close The salesperson expresses urgency to purchase the product This method suggests that there is only a limited supply of the product, there is an upcoming shortage, or the price may i ncrease Using this method helps prevent the customer from delaying the decision to purchase Standing Room Only Close Salesperson: Mr. Smith, do you have any further questions? ( step 1 ) Cust omer: No, I think you have answered everything for me. Salesperson: Great! Well, you were looking for a boat shelter that would protect your boat and be sturdy enough to withstand the Florida wind and rain, but something that had the option of being porta ble if you add on to your house. Is that correct? ( step 2 ) Customer: Yes, that is correct. Salesperson: Today, I have shown you the products offered by Shelters, Inc. which are superior to your other options because they are portable and we know that mos t others are not portable. Also they are strong enough to withstand the weather because of the unique feature on the poles, and we have agreed that finding a shelter that is both sturdy and portable is difficult ( step 3 ). Customer: Yes, I do agree. Salesp erson: Right now we only have two of these shelters left in stock, and we will not be receiving the next shipment for 8 weeks. I know that you wanted to get this set up soon, so I think you need to go ahead and purchase so that you do not have to wait 8 we eks. Do you agree? (step 4) Customer: Yes, I do agree. Salesperson: Can we go ahead and place an order for the 20 foot shelter? ( step 5 )

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166 C. Choice Close Similar to the direct close, but instead of asking a yes/no question, you are giving the customer a choice between two or more alternatives. The q uestion should ask which one, or how many Using this type of close can help prevent a negative response (no, I would not like to purchase 3 months of service) Can be used in conjunction with the summary close You might not want to use this because it can be considered rude, because you are assuming the customer wants to buy your product. You should not use this close if you are unsure you have a feeling the customer might not want to buy Choice Close Salesperson: Mr. Smith, do you have any further questions? ( step 1 ) Customer: No, I think you have an swered everything for me. Salesperson: Great! Well, you were looking for a boat shelter that would protect your boat and be sturdy enough to withstand the Florida wind and rain, but something that had the option of being portable if you add on to your hou se. Is that correct? ( step 2 ) Customer: Yes, that is correct. Salesperson: Today, I have shown you the products offered by Shelters, Inc. which are easily portable, especially if you choose to add on to your house as you have suggested, but they are stro ng enough to withstand the weather because of the unique feature on the poles which allows you to secure the shelter down ( step 3 ). It looks like we have been able to meet your needs today. Would you like to go ahead and purchase the 20 foot shelter of the 25 foot shelter? ( steps 4&5 ) **Same as the direct close, but you are giving them a choice instead of a yes/no question.

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167 D. Assumption Close Similar to the direct close, but instead of aski ng a question, you are making a statement. You are assuming that you are getting the sale, so you proceed under the assumption that the customer has decided to buy You should use this when the customer has indicated strong interest in the product, or when there are obvious buying signals. Used a lot with repeat customers Generally used in combination with the summary close can be very powerful with the summary close Again, this can seem rude, so if you are unsure, do not use the assumption close Make sure that you ask for the sale following the assumption close statement Assumption Close Salesperson: Mr. Smith, do you have any further questions? ( step 1 ) Customer: No, I think you have answered everyt hing for me. Salesperson: Great! Well, you were looking for a boat shelter that would protect your boat and be sturdy enough to withstand the Florida wind and rain, but something that had the option of being portable if you add on to your house. Is that c orrect? ( step 2 ) Customer: Yes, that is correct. Salesperson: Today, I have shown you the products offered by Shelters, Inc. which are easily portable, especially if you choose to add on to your house as you have suggested, but they are strong enough to withstand the weather because of the unique feature on the poles which allows you to secure the shelter down ( step 3 ). It looks like we have been able to meet your needs today. Would you go ahead and verify your address so that we can have the shelter mate rials delivered ( steps 4&5 ). Customer: That address looks correct. Salesperson: Okay, so we have a deal?

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168 E. Special Deal Close This is when you are offering price discounts to secure the sale, cash discounts on trade ins, or seasonal promotions Can be used to help change the customers mind if they are hesitant c ustomer might not fully understand the value of the product Need to be careful with this kind of deal because a customer may come to expect this in the future (which might not be possible) Generally used in combination with the direct cl ose (described below) Special Deal Close Salesperson: Mr. Smith, do you have any further questions? ( step 1 ) Customer: No, I think you have answered everything for me. Salesperson: Great! Well, you were looking for a boat shelter that would protect your boat and be sturdy enough to withstand the Florida wind and rain, but something that had the option of being portable if you add on to your house. Is that correct? ( step 2 ) Customer: Yes, that is correct. Salesperson: Today, I have shown you the products offered by Shelters, Inc. which are easily portable, especially if you choose to add on to your house as you have suggested, but they are strong enough to withstand the weather because of the unique feature on the poles which allows you to secure the shelter down ( step 3 ). It looks like we have been able to meet your needs today. If you purchase today, we will deliver the shelter for free. Does that sounds like a deal? ( steps 4&5 ).

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169 F. Success Story Close Describes how the benefits solve a specific problem Helps provide assurance to the customer by relating the experience of others story clo se might not be appropriate. Also, using a success story may seem to convenient (like you made it up) so be careful to use this only when appropriate Use it only when you want to put the customer over the top Introduce the success story in step 4 Ask for the sale after providing the success story **Note: These examples can be shared with the students after the entire module is completed. Assumption Close Salesperson: Mr. Smith, do you have any further questions? ( step 1 ) Customer: No, I think you have answered everything for me. Salesperson: Great! Well, you were looking for a boat shelter that would protect your boat and be sturdy enough to withstand the Florida wind and rain, but something that had the option of being portable if you add on to your house. Is that correct? ( step 2 ) Customer: Yes, that is correct. Salesperson: Today, I have shown you the products offered by Shelters, Inc. which are easily portable, especially if you choose to add on to your house as you have suggested, but they are strong enough to withstand the weather because of the unique feature on the poles which allows you to secure the shelter down ( step 3 ). Mr. Anthony also bought this shelter for his boat a few weeks ago. I spoke with him on Tuesday and he told me that even after that big storm this weekend his boat hardly even got wet and his shelter stayed in place ( step 4 ). Customer: Is that so ? Salesperson: Indeed. Would you like to go ahead and purchase the shelter today? ( Step 5 )

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170 Module 6: Closing the Sale Part 2 Types of Closing Methods There are several ways for a salesperson to close a sal business. For the purposes of this module, there are 7 closing methods which will be described. Although there are many others that can be used, they are not all appropriate for the parameters of this CDE. Objectives: Identif y different methods for closing a sale Demonstrate the seven methods for closing a sale Evaluate the methods for closing a sale as presented by self and others Since there are several types of closing methods which will be discussed, there will be one sce nario which is used for all methods. This will allow the student to focus more on the elements of the closing strategy, and less on the actual product/service that is being sold. Customer: Mr. Henry is a small farmer who has 5 acres of land where he gro ws a variety of crops. The type of crop varies between years however, some things typically grown are strawberries, blueberries, peanuts, potatoes, lettuce, peppers (various), eggplant, peas, sweet corn, watermelons, and cucumbers. Generally, Mr. Henry tak es his produce up to the road on the weekends to sell, however, business is unpredictable. h space, and also wants to make sure there is adequate traffic to help cover the costs of booth farmers market that meets on a regular basis so that he can sell all of his p roduce. The farmers so established for 5 years, so many people know about it, and visit it on a regular basis. The far rental, however, if the individual commits to one month, 3 months, or 6 months, there is pote ntial for a discount. The salesperson thinks this is exactly what Mr. Henry is looking for because it will be more dependable than roadside traffic, and there are enough opportunities for him to sell produce.

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171 Closing Methods Below, each closing metho d is described, and an example is provided. You should first tell the students the method and explain the components of the method (as listed below). There is an example of each method provided which will help to guide your understanding. After explaining the method, have two students close the sale using the specified method. The student should use the specified method as part of the 5 Steps to Closing a Sale (specified method will be used in step 4) which were presented in the previous module. The steps a re listed below for your convenience. Following the closing strategy, use the questions provided to debrief the close. Go through the information about each closing strategy one at a time. Then, have 1 student use that closing method in front of your othe r team members using the scenario above. As a group, have the students review the closing method using the questions provided. After you have reviewed the first sale closing, have another student complete the same closing method (2 students total will comp lete each method). This will help save time, while also providing students an opportunity to view and improve each closing method. The types of closing methods (SPECFIC INFORMATION ABOUT EACH CLOSING STRATEGY IS BELOW): A. Direct Close B. Standing Room Only Close C. Choice Close D. Assumption Close E. Special Deal Close F. Success Story Close Review Questions: 1. Did the student use all 5 steps to close the sale? If not, which ones were left out? 2. Did the student use the specified method? If so, what did they say? 3. Do you think the method was used appropriately? (Did it fit within the context of the conversation? Did it make sense?) 4. How could it have been improved? ***To be used after each student

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172 A. Direct Close The salesperson directly asks for the sale Combines steps 4 & 5 Yes/no question Should be used when the sales call has been positive or with repeat cust omers Customer will respond yes or no to the direct close Direct Close Example B. Summary Close The salesperson expresses urg ency to purchase the product This method suggests that there is only a limited supply of the product, there is an upcoming shortage, or the price may increase Using this method helps prevent the customer from delaying the decision to purchase Summary Close Example units left in stock, and we do not know when the next shipment will be. I rchase a six month service, you get an additional 3 months of service for free. Now C. Choice Close Similar to the direct close, but instead of asking a yes/no question, you are giving the cus tomer a choice between two or more alternatives. The question should ask which one, or how many Using this type of close can help prevent a negative response (no, I would not like to purchase 3 months of service) Can be used in conjunction with the summa ry close 5 Steps to Closing a Sale 1. Ask if there are any ot her questions (if the customer says yes, you need to address the questions) 2. Review the problem what was the customer looking for? 3. Review the solution what does your company/product offer that 4. Use the appropriate closing strategy (use the strategy you are teaching) 5. Ask for the sale.

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173 You might not want to use this because it can be considered rude, because you are assuming the customer wants to buy your product. You should not use this close if you are unsure you have a feeling the customer might not want to buy Choice Close E xample Choice Close used with Summary Close Example this type of barn will protect your equipment bet ter than what you currently have and it has the option for adding on new sections, which is not the case with your current barn. Would you like the barn materials to be D. Assumption Close Similar to the direct close, but i nstead of asking a question, you are making a statement. You are assuming that you are getting the sale, so you proceed under the assumption that the customer has decided to buy You should use this when the customer has indicated strong interest in the pro duct, or when there are obvious buying signals. Used a lot with repeat customers Generally used in combination with the summary close can be very powerful with the summary close Again, this can seem rude, so if you are unsure, do not use the assumption cl ose Assumption Close Example Thursday, I think you will need 3 cases of tomatoes and 2 cases of Make sure that you ask for the sale f ollowing the assumption close statement E. Special Deal Close This is when you are offering price discounts to secure the sale, cash discounts on trade ins, or seasonal promotions Can be used to help change the customers mind if they are hesitant c ustomer mi ght not fully understand the value of the product Need to be careful with this kind of deal because a customer may come to expect this in the future (which might not be possible) Generally used in combination with the direct close (illustrated below) Speci al Deal Close the initial expense, we will give you $500 cash back if you purchase the

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174 F. Succe ss Story Close Illustrates how the benefits solve a specific problem Helps provide assurance to the customer by relating the experience of others story close might not be appropriate. A lso, using a success story may seem to convenient (like you made it up) so be careful to use this only when appropriate Use it only when you want to put the customer over the top Introduce the success story in step 4 Success Story Close Example down the road? He purchased a barn from us 5 years ago, and since has added on 2 sections because he was so pleased with how well it kept his Ask for the sale after providing the success story

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175 Module 7 : The sales call Background Information for the Teacher Thus far we have discussed all the elements of a sales call separately. This module is intended to put all the elements together to create a complete sales call. Since w e have already covered the information necessary to complete an entire sales call in the previous five modules, there is no new/additional information contained in this module T his module does provide a selling company and a purchasing company for practic e as a complete sales call The student will represent the selling company, while you, the teacher will play the role of the purchasing company. In this background information, there are some components to look for while the student is presenting the sales call. These components are based upon the scoring rubric which is found in the next section of this module. Components of the scoring rubric for the sales call : 1. Did the salesperson identify themselves with a good first impression? In this section, you wil l be looking for the student to provide a good handshake, and state their name and company. The student should either wait for you to offer them a seat, or ask to take a seat. 2. Did the student ask questions/dialogue in an attempt to build personal rapport w ith you? The student should make small talk more than one or two sentences. place, or even something you are wearing to dialogue and build rapport. Make sure the dialogue is sufficie nt. 3. Did the student actively listen to your personal comments when you answered? During this time, the student should not cut you off. Additionally, the student should be giving non verbal signals that indicate they are listening, or verbal signals, or cla rify your comments, so that you know they are listening to what you say. 4. Did the student use the information for your answers to further establish personal rapport? The student should build off the answers you provide. The student needs to be able to dialo gue. Too often, students are more focused on what they need to say, that their comments seem unrelated to what the other individual has said. Make sure that the student is providing responses that are related to the current conversation. 5. Did the student a sk questions to learn about your business? The student should ask clarifying and/or general questions about your business and your goals. The student should use open ended probes at first, then use more directed probes as the students detects the need/prob lem/etc. 6. Did the student listen to the answers about your business you provided? Estimated Time Module: 1 hour, 15 minutes Product Prep: 45 minutes

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176 be related to the conversation, and the student should verify understanding of your responses. 7. Did the student confirm and discover your needs and wants? The student should work to discover ALL of your needs/wants, and verify that they have done so. The student should not stop at one need/want, they must uncover all needs/wants. 8. Did the student apply the f eatures/benefits of their product to your needs/wants? In order to do this, the student should present a complete selling point. Therefore the student should use the SELL acronym (State the feature, elaborate the benefit, lay out the proof of the benefit, and let the customer agree with the benefit). 9. Did the student allow you to participate in matching your needs/wants to their product features? During this, the student should involve you in the process, not just talk at you. The student should be asking qu estions, and gaining acceptance that the product meets your needs/wants. 10. Did the student effectively use trial close (gain acceptance on a point, identify customers willingness to buy or a closing opportunity)? The student should use the trial close. This is something we DID NOT specifically discuss in the closing methods module. However, in order for the student to use a trial close, they would basically ask if the customer is ready to buy at this time. Chances are the customer will say no, and the studen t will present another selling point. The trial close should be attempted after the student has presented the first selling point. 11. Did the student listen to and clarify your objections ? The student needs to follow the steps to handling objections which we have previously discussed (listen, restate, handle, verify). Additionally, they should use one of the five objection handling strategies which were presented in the module. 12. Did the student apply and discuss the features/benefits of their products to addres s your objections? The student should share the features and benefits of the product that address your objections. 13. Did the student clearly close or attempt to close the sale? The student should close the sale using the five steps to closing a sale, which i ncludes a specific closing method that was discussed in a previous module. The student needs to at least summarize the meeting, the problem you had, and the order that was placed. However, the student will earn more points for using the five steps, and a s pecific closing method. Information for the teacher about the meeting with F R M Feed, Inc.: You will play the role of Charles von der Hedye, Senior Vice President of Commodity Risk Management, Feed Ingredient Purchasing, and Export Sales:

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177 Charles von d er Heyde has served as Senior Vice President of Commodity Risk Management, Feed Ingredient Purchasing and Export Sales since joining Pilgrim's in February 2010. Mr. von der Heyde comes to Pilgrim's from Bunge LTD in Brazil, where he had worked for more tha n 29 years. Bunge, a leading agribusiness and food company with integrated operations that circle the globe, is one of Brazil's largest agricultural exporters, oilseed processors and wheat millers. Dr. von der Heyde is looking to purchase a new feed for t he producers that do not have a mill in their area. It is important that the feed be similar in composition to the feed they currently have at other mills.

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178 Module 7 : The sales call So far, you have covered all the elements of a sales call. From opening a sale, to identifying needs, highlights selling points, handling objections, and closing a sale. Now it is time to put them all together. This module will utilize all the information learned in the previous modules in order to complete an entire sales cal l. Objectives: Describe the components of a sales call Demonstrate a complete sales call Evaluate a sales call presented by self and others The information for this module has been covered in the previous five modules ( there is no new/additional content information presented in this module). Included is a scenario for students to use in the complete sales call. Before beginning the sales call, be sure to review the following rubric with the students. This is the complete scoring rubric that will be used in the individual sales call portion of the CDE. Skills Points Possible Points Earned Did the salesperson identify themselves with a good first impression? 5 Did the student ask questions/dialogue in an attempt to build personal rapport with you? 8 Did the student actively listen to your personal comments when you answered? 8 Did the student use the information for your answers to further establish personal rapport? 8 Did the student ask questions to learn about your business? 10 Did the studen t listen to the answers about your business you provided? 10 Did the student confirm and discover your needs and wants? 12 Did the student apply the features/benefits of their product to your needs/wants? 16 Did the student allow you to participate i n matching your needs/wants to their product features? 15 Did the student effectively use trial close (gain acceptance on a point, identify customers willingness to buy or a closing opportunity)? 11 Did the student listen to and clarify your objections ? 14 Did the student apply and discuss the features/benefits of their products to address your objections? 13 Did the student clearly close or attempt to close the sale? 20 Total Points 150

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179 **We did not discuss the trial close in the closing strat egies module however, the trial close is very simple. The student should present the first selling point. At the end of that selling point, the student should ask the customer if they are ready to purchase. The customer will more than likely say no. In tha t case, the student should go on and present another selling point. Student Scenario (give a copy to each student) The student will be representing FRM (Flint River Mills), Inc. Below is information about the company for the student to learn about the products they will be selling. that will be helpful in completing the sales call. (The teacher will play the role of the s looking to purchase feed). The student will be meeting with Charles von der Hedye, Senior Vice President of Commodity Risk Management, Feed Ingredient Purchasing, and Export Sales: Charles von der Heyde has served as Senior Vice President of Commodity Risk Management, Feed Ingredient Purchasing and Export Sales since joining Pilgrim's in February 2010. Mr. von der Heyde comes to Pilgrim's from Bunge LTD in Brazil, where he had worked for more than 29 years. Bunge, a leading agribusiness and food company with integrated operations that circle the globe, is one of Brazil's largest agricultural exporters, oilseed processors and wheat millers. Dr. von der Heyde is looking to purchase a new feed for the producers that do not have a mill in their area. It is important that the feed be similar in composition to the feed they currently have at other mills.

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180 F R M Feed Data Sheet Our Mission Our pledge from the beginning has been to strive with our sincerest efforts to elevate the standards of this business i n which we are engaged, and to so conduct our affairs that others may find it desirable and profitable to follow our example. Company Profile F R M (Flint River Mills, Inc.) has been supplying the feed industry with innovative formulas and technologicall y advanced feeds since 1927. F R M has long been dedicated to providing customers with a complete line of products made from the highest quality, most palatable feed ingredients always keeping in mind the developmental stages of each species. We have a lways, and will continue, to strive to produce useful, needed products of the highest quality at fair prices. We deliver our product through a network of dealers in Georgia, Florida, Alabama and South Carolina fresh from our manufacturing facility in Bai nbridge, Georgia each week. Availability and Freshness Testimonial F R M 15% LAYER PELLETS Dear FRM, I just finished feeding my chickens and thought about how much I appreciate your well made product. My chickens certainly do enjoy it an d I love to feed it to them. Thank you for making such good feed that not only keeps my chickens healthy and strong, but helps produce fantastic eggs. Sincerely, Clinton Evans Sopchoppy, FL

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188 A message fo To our Customers, Consumers, Shareholders and Team Members: responsible steward of the environment. customers and employees live and work. Whether by supporting food banks in the fi ght against hunger, assisting local schools and youth programs, or raising funds for disaster relief and cancer research, we strive to take an active role in our communities. ibility efforts in more than a dozen areas, including animal welfare, business ethics, charitable giving, corporate governance, diversity, energy conservation, environmental stewardship, food safety, immigration and recycling. Sustainability can be define business in a manner that supports the ability for future generations to enjoy a quality of life mill ions of people through the quality poultry products we produce, the manner in which we conduct our business and the value that we generate for our stakeholders. At the core of our sustainability program is an adherence to these three principles: that the p rojects we undertake and the processes we change are all designed to ensure the continued production of quality food products, to enhance the way we do business and to ultimately generate sustained value for our company and its stakeholders. This document is not intended to be a comprehensive sustainability or corporate social responsibility report as it is technically understood with extensive metrics against established international standards. Rather, we offer it as an honest assessment of our positio ns and performance in key areas of interest to our stakeholders. We consider it a foundation on which to build in the years ahead. We welcome your comments, questions and suggestions at any time. You can contact us by calling 800.727.5366 or by visiting o ur web site at www.pilgrims.com. recognize that we can and must do more. Our ultimate success as a company will be measured not only by our profitability, but a lso by our commitment to sustainability and social responsibility. Sincerely, William W. Lovette President & CEO

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189 Pilgrim's is the second largest chicken producer in the world, with operations in the United States, Mexico and Puerto Rico. Our corporate headquarters is in Greeley, Colorado. We employ approximately 38,500 people and have the capacity to process more than 36 million birds per week for a total of more than 9.5 billion pounds of live chicken annually. Pilgrim's i s ranked among the largest U.S. corporations, with net sales totaling $7.5 billion in fiscal 2011. Approximately 4,100 contract growers supply poultry for the company's operations. Pilgrim's products are sold to foodservice, retail and frozen entre cust omers. The company's primary distribution is through retailers, foodservice distributors and restaurants throughout the United States and Puerto Rico and in the Northern and Central regions of Mexico. We currently operate in 12 U.S. states, Puerto Rico an d Mexico. These states include Texas, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia. Pilgrim's operates 25 fresh processing plants and eight prepared foods cook plants. Pil grim's has 26 feed mills and 30 hatcheries supporting our plants. Pilgrim's operates 13 distribution centers (one i n Puerto Rico and 12 in Mexico). The company exports chicken products to customers in approximately 105 countries, including Mexico. We pr oduce 30 million dozen table eggs per year, or about 0.46% of the nation's supply. JBS USA, a unit of JBS S.A. in Brazil, owns 75.3% of our outstanding common stock.

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190 Mission, Values, and Beliefs Mission Statement To be the best in what we set out to do totally focused on our business, ensuring the best products and services to our customers, solidity to suppliers, satisfactory profitability for shareholders and the certainty of a better future for all employees. Values and Beliefs We believe that one of the main competitive advantages the quality of our people, that no matter how simple one's position is, people who are skilled and motivated make the difference. We understand that Human Capital is our company's most important asset. Especially through people, we manage to innovate, create, improve and grow. Such capital, when well managed and supported, allows us to achieve the results required to perpetuate the company. Planning : Think before you act. Look to the future. Always be prepared. Determina tion : Never give up. Be involved. Drive to meet your goals and objectives. Discipline: Each day, be organized and prompt. Focus on details. Availability: Be supportive and accessible. Take initiative. Sincerity : Be true. Disagree when necessary. Recogni ze when to say no; however, be positive and offer solutions. Simplicity: Simplify. See things clearly. Make improvements. What Brings us Together : Reliance Who We Are : People with the same attitude, additional knowledge, Sense of Urgency and Spirit of O wnership. Our Pillars : Our Culture, Our People, Our Products and Our Customers. Our Priority: The Common Good. Our Chickens In the Hatchery At Pilgrim's, the chicken comes first, then the eggs. We buy day old chicks, called pullets, from primary breede r companies and raise them to be breeders. The breeder hens lay eggs that are collected and taken to our hatcheries, where they are incubated

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191 and hatched. When the eggs hatch, the chicks are sent to contract grow out farms to be raised to maturity. Feedin g Previously, Pilgrim's own ed and operate d 26 feed mills, which are strategically located in the areas where we have operations. However, we now only have 15 feed mills, and use other feed sources for the areas which no longer have a feed mill. We use fee d that is a mixture of corn, soybean meal and other grains, and we feed our chickens only natural ingredients. We do not use growth hormones of any kind in our poultry rations. On the Farm We highly value our relationships with our poultry growers, becaus e their success on the farm helps make possible the excellent Pilgrim's poultry products our customers expect and demand. Pilgrim's contracts with approximately 4,100 family farmers in the U.S. and Mexico to grow chickens for our operations. We provide th e birds, feed, and technical and veterinary services, while growers provide the labor, housing, litter, utilities and, most important, the knowledge and expertise that's essential to maintaining the Pilgrim's standard of excellence. Pilgrim's service tech nicians work with each farm family, visiting the farm regularly and remaining on call for the farm 24 hours a day, seven days a week, to assure the best possible growout conditions for our flocks. Important to the rural areas where our company has operati ons, poultry production helps maintain the family farm. Our contract growers are committed to being leaders in environmental stewardship, pledged to maintain and improve the quality of life where they live and work. Processing and Food Production Pilgrim' s operates 25 fresh processing plants and eight prepared foods cook plants. Every Pilgrim's processing facility in the U.S. is regularly inspected by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) to ensure that our food pr oducts meet all federal food safety standards. Each year we conduct numerous food safety and quality system audits using accredited, independent, third party auditing firms. We have conducted hundreds of these audits and have never failed to achieve a sco re of excellent or better. In 2010, all of our plants achieved an "A" grade in the British Retailers Consortium audit, one of four audits recognized by the Global Food Safety Initiative. These audits, which today are required by most of our retail customer s, are used to evaluate a plant's food safety and quality programs. With 326 requirements that must be met before a final certification

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192 grade can be given, the audit is among the toughest in the industry. Earning a "clean sweep" of A's was an unprecedented achievement, and we are extremely proud of each of our plants for their dedication and commitment to food safety and quality standards. Taking Care of Our Customers For more than 60 years, our products have been made with the freshest ingredients availab le, and that tradition continues today at Pilgrim's. We put the customer first with a relentless focus on quality, innovation and customer service, and it's been that way since our company began as a small feed and seed store in rural east Texas in 1946. I n fact, it's our company's mission, a part of everything we do every day.

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193 Module 8 : Team Sales Situation Two part Module Part 1: Information about team scenario, review rubric, team scenario #1 Part 2: Team sales scenario #2 Background Information for the Teacher At this point, we have covered the components of the individual sales call. Now it is time that we move on to the team sales scenario that is part of the CDE. You will see that a lot of the components are similar to what is expected in the in dividual sales call. However, students will be asked to work together as a team to develop an effective strategy and presentation. In this module, two scenarios are provided for the students. In the first scenario, work through the example with the stude nts. Example answers to the questions are provided. There may be more answers that can be populated, than what is provided. After you work through the scenario with the students, they should use the information and prepare a sales presentation. Then the st will. This will provide them an opportunity to determine how they want to present the information, as well as practice presenting. After the first scenario is completed, there is a second scenario that the students should work through unassisted, and then present to you. Below are comments concerning the scoring rubric. These can be shared with the student when you review the rubric. Components of the scoring rubric: 1. How well did each team member partic ipate by analyzing and providing input to the solution? All team members must actively participate in the preparation phase. Each team member can take the lead on specific areas, but all team member needs to participate equally. 2. How well did each team me mber communicate with the rest of the team members? Needs to be dialogue between all team members judges will be looking for quiet students. Estimated Time Module part 1 : 1 hr, 30 minutes Product Prep: 30 minutes Module part 2 : 1 hour Product Prep: 1 hour

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194 3. How well did each team member demonstrate effective listening skills? Each team member should listen, restate (if appropriate), respond to teammate questions, and verify that they have answered questions/addressed concerns. 4. How well did each team member respect the input of other team members? Team members need to appear to receive suggestions from other team membe rs. They do not necessarily have to change their mind, but they need to consider the suggestions of others and ensure that all team members feel their input is respected. 5. What level of knowledge did the team have of the products they are selling? It shoul d be obvious that all team members have come prepared regarding their roles in the assigned company. Based on the product you are supposed to sell, you should be able to guess what types of about what to expect. 6. Did the team accurately analyze all the information for each customer type? Team must be able to discuss all the customer types and be able to point out differences in needs between the customers. Differences will sometimes be subtl e, but nonetheless, need to be identified. Judges will assess whether the team identified the needs correctly. 7. Did the team identify customer needs and wants, and prepare quality Students need to understand a wide variety of needs for each customer. They should show their understanding of customer needs in their questions. Additionally, they need to attempt to determine the problems with the current product/situation. 8. Did the team identify produc ts for each customer type based on their wants? The team should identify products for each of the customer types. Some products could be appropriate for all of the customers, while ot her products would not be suited for certain customers. Students need to be smart about what products they select. Make sure that the product they select makes sense for the customer. 9. How well did the team identify potential objections for each customer t ype and how to address them?

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195 Team needs to show a thorough understanding of potential objections. There might be different objections for different customers, students should be aware of that. 10. Were complimentary/related products also identified? Team shou ld select complimentary or related products from the product list they have been provided with prior to the contest. Since this needs to happen, a team might not want to select all the products from the list if they still need to suggestive sell. 11. Were the decisions made by the team based on sound sales principles using the information they were given? those needs the best. You should aim to match products with specific needs. More specifi city shows a greater depth of knowledge. 12. Was the presentation delivered professionally? The presentation should be organized, students should speak clearly, and have a systematic way to approach the scenario. 13. Did all team members participate in the pres entation? All four members must participate. 14. Were all the questions answered correctly by all team members? All members of the team should participate in answering questions. be scored according to the judges preferences. Please understand that what has been presented is just general suggestions. As the instructor, you should provide more specific comments to the students regarding the criteria as it fits within your preparatio n plan. Each chapter has their own way of doing things, it will be up to you to determine how your students will prepare, deliver, etc. However, you do need to have a plan about what the students will do when they participate in the team sales event. The actions they take will need to be purposeful if they intend on earning points in those areas that evaluate teamwork. During the preparation phase, there are several routes the team can take. 1) each student can be responsible for addressing the 5 questi ons for 1 customer, 2) each person addresses one of the 5 questions, 3) complete the task as a whole team (but will need to be very efficient). It may not matter exactly what you choose, but rather that you

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196 Module 8 : Team Sales Situation Two part Module At this point, we have covered all of the elements of the individual sales call. Now, we will move on to the team sales situation. Much of the team sales call is similar to the components of the individual sales call, however in the team sales scenario, you will be asked to sell to more than one customer. This module will examine the components of the team sales call, as well as provide an example for you to work through with the students, and an example for the students to perform on their own. Objectives: Identify the components of the team sales situation Describe the components of the team sales situation Develop and present a sales strategy for the team sales situat ion In reviewing the past team sales situation, there are five main tasks that the team will be asked to perform in the team sales situation. The tasks are: 1. Identify potential customer needs and wants 2. Identify features and benefits of the product(s) that needs and wants 3. Identify potential customer objections and how you plan to address them 4. Identify possible related/complimentary products and suggestive selling strategies 5. Develop information gathering questions to be utilized in clar ifying the Since the team will be asked to complete these tasks, we will go through each of these

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197 Before beginning, be sure to review the team sales situation rubric with the students. This is the complete scoring rubric that will be used in the team sales situation portion of the CDE. Skills Points Possible Points Earned How well did each team member participate by analyzing and providing input to the solutio n? 8 How well did each team member communicate with the rest of the team members? 10 How well did each team member demonstrate effective listening skills? 10 How well did each team member respect the input of other team members? 9 What level of kno wledge did the team have of the products they are selling? 12 Did the team accurately analyze all the information for each customer type? 12 Did the team identify customer needs and wants, and prepare eds and wants? 12 Did the team identify products for each customer type based on anticipated needs and wants? 15 How well did the team identify potential objections for each customer type and how to address them? 12 Were complimentary/related products also identified? 10 Were the decisions made by the team based on sound sales principles using the information they were given? 12 Was the presentation delivered professionally? 8 Did all team members participate in the presentation? 8 Were all the questions answered correctly by all team members? 12 Total Points 150

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198 Team Sales Situation #1 (**student should not receive this page at first) Following this page, you will find a scenario as well as supplemental information for the students to complete the scenario. In order to learn how to address the specific scenario as an example. You should give in the module, and give them time to look over it. Allow them to get acquainted with what they are being asked to do, as well as time to look over the company they are representing and the customers they will be considering. After you have provided enough time for them to go look at this, then you can work through each question with the student. I would like for you to ask the students the questions, and have them develop their own assessment of the situation, instead of just telling them the answers. 1. Identify potential customer needs and wants Suburban Pet Hospital Needs/Wants: o Ability to make a profit o No commitment to sell specific products or amounts o Quality product/nutritional value/ingredients o Delivery o want to have to carry 10 different dog foods for all different size and age dogs) o Information about products available so that vet can share with clients Pe tSmart Needs/Wants: o 2 year price guarantee o Best price possible/profitability o General product line o Bi weekly delivery o Information/training about products o Ability to make a profit o Reasonable product size o No commi tment to sell specific products or amounts o Quality product o Delivery o want to have to carry 10 different dog foods for all different size and age dogs) o Ability for customer special orde rs o Information about products

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199 2. needs and wants Features of Products (should be tailored for each customer): Investment in technology and talented scientists to develop high quali ty products Food formulated for optimal health benefits and taste Hillsvet.com provides information about pet food specifics and provides information to give to clients Variety of product sizes, product flavors, and option for medicated foods Delivery opti ons (although the info does not explicitly state this, it would be surprising if they did not deliver) Benefits of product Quality product=satisfied customers, who keep returning for business Delivery saves time and money Information online help educate cl ients better which provides them with a positive experience, which results in return customers Varying products and product sizes allows you to meet the need of various customers=return customers 3. Identify potential customer objections and how you plan to address them The biggest objection will be price. Although I did not provide a price sheet, be prepared for the price objection. Another objection could be delivery options or pro duct sales requirement Quality of product bad reviews of product turns potential customers away 4. Identify possible related/complimentary products and suggestive selling strategies Suggest selling multiple sizes of the same type of food (different size dogs ) Suggest a particular medicated product (helps treat a very common problem, i.e. hairball control, or sensitive stomach) Suggest that the smaller stores purchase some extra bags of food that are strictly to divide out as samples for clients 5. Develop inform needs and wants What are you looking for when you select pet food for sale in your store/practice? What are the most important aspects you consider when selecting a pet food? Do you curr ently sell a pet food in your store/practice? If so, what do you like about it, and what do you dislike about it? What do your customers think about the current options for pet food that you sell? Do you have any problems with the current brand of food you sell? Whether in quality or service?

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200 After you have reviewed this with the students, you should give them time to prepare a presentation, and then have them present their sales strategy as if you were their immediate supervisor. This will allow them to h ave practice in preparing and presenting for the team sales scenario. AFTER THEIR PRESENTAION, YOU SHOULD CONCLUDE MODULE 8 PART 1, AND BEGIN WORKING ON YOUR PRODUCT PREPARTION. MODULE 8 PART 2 BEGINS WITH THE SECOND TEAM SALES SCENARIO.

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201 Team Sales Situ ation Scenario #1 Your Task You and your teammates are salespeople for Your company sells pet food for both dogs and cats. Products, and specific product information is included in this document for you. Your te am is to develop a sales strategy for the following customers. You will need to decide which product(s) best fit each customer and answer the questions concerning each of the following customers. You will be observed as you work on your solution for TWENTY MINUTES You will then have TEN MINUTES to TEN MINUTES to ask questions about the products, the customers, and the information you presented. Customers: Suburban Animal Hospital They opened in 1977 and specialize in personal care of dogs and cats. They offer both veterinary services and some grooming services. Suburban is committed to the welfare of animals and high veterinary care. See the attached sheets for more information about Suburban Animal Hospital PetSmart They are the largest specialty retailer of services and supplies for pets. They have more than 1232 stores in the United States and Canada. A side from the retail store, PetSmart operates grooming, sitting, and training programs. They also operate a charity, PetSmart Charities, Inc. that was established in 1994 to create awareness about homeless pets. See the attached sheets for more information about PetSmart They have been serving in the Gainesville area for over 30 years. They specialize in pet grooming, but also offer a selection s Grooming is dedicated to providing great care and compassion for animals. See the attached sheets for more information about Supplies Your job is to answer the following questions: 1. What are the potential customer needs and want s? 2. What are the features and benefits of the product (s) that address the customer needs and wants? 3. What are the potential customer objections and how will you prepare to address them? 4. What are the possible related/complimentary products and their suggesti ve selling strategies? Develop information gathering questions to be utilized in clarifying the customer needs and wants

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202 Team Sales Situation Scenario #1 Your Company The Company Inspired by a Guide Dog Today, Hill's Pet Nutrition c arries on the tradition of caring that began in 1939 with one remarkable veterinarian. Our Prescription Diet and Science Diet pet foods offer the highest quality pet nutrition available. We're making a difference for people and their pets all over the world. The Hill's pet food lines began in 1939. Dr. Mark L. Morris Sr. believed certain health conditions in pets could be managed through carefully formulated nutrition. His ideas were visionary in veterinary medicine, and he soon had the chance to prov e his theory. A young blind man named Morris Frank asked Dr. Morris if anything could be done to help his guide dog, Buddy, who was having kidney health issues. The result of Dr. Morris' efforts was the nutritional formulation that became the first produc t in the Hill's Prescription Diet line of therapeutic pet foods, and the world's first pet food designed for kidney health. Soon after, Hill's Pet Nutrition was founded and the field of clinical nutrition sprang to life. That first therapeutic dog food evo lved into Hill's Prescription Diet k/d, which is still sold today. Vision To make nutrition a cornerstone of veterinary medicine. Mission To help enrich and lengthen the special relationships between people and their pets. We will do this by providing the best, leading edge pet nutrition technology, products and expertise to pet owners, veterinary professionals and other key pet nutrition influencers worldwide. Philosophy We believe all animals from your pet to the companion animals we care for sh ould be loved and cared for during their lifetimes. That's why we're proud our pet foods can make a difference in your pet's life. We make this pledge to you about our commitment to the welfare of animals everywhere. Hill's Commitment to Animal Welfare We believe quality care for pets includes optimal nutrition, veterinary healthcare, daily exercise and an enriching environment with lots of love. All pets at Hill's Pet Nutrition live in such an environment. We only use compassionate, non invasive methods

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203 n ecessary to develop nutritional technology so dogs and cats around the world live long, healthy lives. Nutritional Research and Innovation Hill's employs more than 150 veterinarians, Ph.D. nutritionists and food scientists who work every day around the wo rld to create new products and improve existing ones that will help your pet live a long, healthy and full life. Hill's scientists author more than 50 research papers and textbook chapters each year and teach at leading schools of veterinary medicine all o ver the world so we can put our knowledge and expertise into every Hill's pet food for you. Our foods for dogs and cats are formulated for the optimal balance of nutrients and best taste. We know the best nutrition for your pet not only meets nutritional needs, but also avoids excess nutrients, such as fat and salt, that can be harmful over time. Hill's long term investment in learning, technology and talented scientists has helped us develop industry leading product innovations, including the most exten sive range of clinical nutrition products for sick, at risk and healthy pets. Your pet's well being is our reward. The Hill's Pet Nutrition Center in Topeka, Kansas, is a state of the art center that illustrates our commitment to improving the health of c ats and dogs. In addition to a staff of veterinarians and board certified specialists in nutrition and internal medicine, we also have a staff of companion pets. Our furry team members put our products to the test; ensuring pets get the most nutritious, be st tasting food available. In return, we give them everything a pet could want, including clean, roomy living quarters, exercise areas, an agility course and plenty of friends, both human and animal. Each pet has his own dedicated team. They develop a stro ng trust and human animal bond, just like you and your pets do. Learn more about our commitment to animal welfare. Consequently, our products have been trusted by millions of pet owners since 1948, and, today, veterinarians recommend and feed their own pe ts Hill's products more than any other brand of pet food.

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204 Feline Products (see attached sheets for further details about selected products)

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206 Canine Products (see attached sheets for further details about selected products)

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232 Team Sales Situation Scenario #1 Suburban Animal Hospital Data Sheet Welcome to Suburban Animal Hospital. We understand that your pets are members of your family and that their well being is a top priority. We will do our utmost to fulfill the needs of our clients by offering and providing quality health care service for their pets through a responsive, well trained, highly qualified, professional and caring staff working as a team with an emphasis on indivi dual client and patient attention and a commitment to our community. We pride ourselves on being an AAHA accredited full service hospital, capable of handling almost any medical or surgical problem. This means that we can provide a wide range of services to our clients and patients. Some of our services include: Hospitalization and Intensive Care for seriously ill patients, Diagnostic Laboratory Testing, routine and specialized Radiographic Procedures, routine Dental Care, in addition to Boarding, Bathing, and Flea Control Services. Our operating room is well instrumented and equipped with modern inhalation anesthetic machines and a Radiosurgical Unit, as well as a monitoring and recovery area to ensure the safety and well being of your pet. Although our ro utine office hours are from 7am to 7pm, Suburban Animal Hospital has someone on site 24 hours a day to attend to individual patient's needs. The Doctors: Dr. Mark W. Coleman grew up in West Central Indiana on a farm and received his DVM from Purdue Unive rsity School of Veterinary Medicine in 1968. After serving 2 years in the U.S.A.F. Veterinary Corps, Dr. Coleman worked as a small animal practitioner in the Chicago area before moving to Gainesville. Commitment to the welfare of animals and high standard s of veterinary care led Dr. Coleman and his wife Melinda to the opening of Suburban Animal Hospital in 1974. Since then, Dr. Coleman has continued to serve the Gainesville area with a veterinary practice that emphasizes on individual client and patient ca re. Dr. Coleman enjoys all aspects of veterinary care including animal behavior, dentistry, diagnostics, medicine and surgery. He also enjoys the communication aspect of veterinary care, not only with client information and guidance, but also with his staf Animal Hospital. Dr. Coleman and his family have had a wide assortment of pets including dogs, cats, goats, and pigs. In his free time, he likes spending time with his family; wife Melinda, sons Kevin and Jeff, daughter Kendr a, their spouses, and 3 grandchildren. Dr. Coleman also finds enjoyment in travel, agriculture, antiques, Gator basketball, and spending time at Crescent Beach as well as Crystal River. Below is a list of some of the memberships, programs, committees, and contributions that Dr. Coleman has been a part of over the years:

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233 One of the original members of Alachua County Humane Society as well as a lifetime member One of the founders of the AA Pet Emergency Clinic, to help ensure ongoing availability of emergen cy care to the pets in the Tri County area President of Alachua Veterinary Medical Association Board Member of Florida Veterinary Medical Association President of American Heartworm Society Member of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Member of the American Association of Feline Practitioners Member of the American Veterinary Dental Society Member of Rotary Club for over 20 years Varied pharmaceutical field trials to improve pet health care including the first monthly heartworm preventatives as well as monthly topical flea and heartworm preventatives Contri butor of professional journal articles Advisor/Speaker at state, national, and international Veterinary Continuing Education meetings Dr. Marlin Nipper received her undergraduate degree from the University of Miami. In 1991, she received her doctorate of Veterinary Medicine from the University of Florida. From 1991 to 1992, she did a small animal medicine and surgery internship at Angell Memorial Animal Hospital in Boston. Since 1992, Dr. Nipper has been practicing at Suburban Animal Hospital providing cli ents, patients, and our community with quality and compassionate medical care. On her off time, she enjoys spending time with family and friends, working out, boating and photography. Dr. Nipper has three cats named Ivan, Charley and Jake; and two dogs, a black lab named Jet and an Italian Greyhound named Raisin. She also has 4 snakes, a gecko and a bearded dragon. Dr. Holly Blair received her undergraduate degree in microbiology from the University of Florida. In 1992, she graduated with honors from the U niversity of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine. Dr. Blair has practiced at Suburban Animal Hospital since 2001 and has a special interest in geriatric medicine. She enjoys spending time with her husband Armon and her two children Cody and Grace. Dr. B legged family consists of a Golden Retriever named Lucy, two cats named Rocky and Snicklefritz, Dr. Richard Sammy joined Suburban Animal Hospital in June 2004 after graduating from the University of graduated from the College of Engineering at UF and worked in the petroleum industry for eight years. His areas of interest include surgery and internal medicine. Dr. Sammy lives in Gainesvil le with his wife Michele and their children Katherine and William. During his spare time, Dr. Sammy enjoys reading, fishing, and home renovation projects. Dr. Sammy has a cat named Thomas and a Black Lab mix named Deme.

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234 Dr. Kristin MacDonald received her undergraduate degree from the Ohio State University in 2000. She then received her Masters Degree in Veterinary Medical Sciences and her Doctorate of Veterinary Medicine from the University of Florida in 2002 and 2006, respectively. While her professional interests include primarily small with a variety of different farm critters, including pet goats, chickens and horses. Dr. MacDonald is also involved with some of our local pe t rescue organizations and strives to help the homeless animal population within our community as much as possible. When she has a little free time, she enjoys outdoor activities such as kayaking and canoeing, hiking with her dogs and landscaping around he r home. Services Suburban Animal Hospital offers a variety of pet care services to the Gainesville community. We specialize in the personal care of cats and dogs. Suburban Animal Hospital focuses on providing great customer service and quality performance The American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) fully accredits less than 15% of all small animal hospitals. Suburban Animal Hospital has maintained its AAHA accreditation since 1977. Below is a list of some services that we offer, along with products th at we have. Services Wellness and preventative medicine Immunizations/Vaccinations Small Animal Medicine Laboratory including an in house lab with state of the art equipment Radiology Dental Care including digital radiography Surgery including but not limited to spay, neuter, exploratory, orthopedics, soft tissue, and ear cropping Microchipping Supervised Boarding as well as Special Care Boarding Baths Products Flea and Tick Prevention Heartworm Prevention Nutraceuticals Pharmaceuticals Prescription Die ts

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235 Team Sales Situation Scenario #1 PetSmart Data Sheet Company Information PetSmart, Inc. (PETM) is the largest specialty retailer of services and solutions for the lifetime needs of pets. We have more than 1,232 pet stores in the United States, Canad a and Puerto Rico, over 192 in store PetsHotels dog and cat boarding facilities and Doggie Day Camps, and is a leading online provider of pet supplies and pet care information. PetSmart provides a broad range of competitively priced pet food and pet suppli es, and offers complete pet training and pet adoption services. Since 1994, PetSmart Charities, Inc., an independent, nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization, has created and supported programs that save the lives of homeless pets, raise awareness of companion a nimal welfare issues and promote healthy relationships between people and pets. The largest funder of animal welfare efforts in North America, PetSmart Charities has provided more than $165 million in grants and programs benefiting animal welfare organizat ions and, through its in store adoption program, helped save the lives of nearly 5 million pets. Company Overview PetSmart, Inc. (NASDAQ: PETM) is the largest specialty pet retailer of services and solutions for the lifetime needs of pets. We operate more than 1,232 stores in the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico, providing a broad range of competitively priced pet food and pet products; services including pet training, pet grooming, pet boarding and pet adoption services. Our stores are stocked with m ore than 10,000 products, all available at everyday low prices. In addition to providing great value, we have the broadest, deepest product range in the industry, including thousands of products exclusive to PetSmart. And we're constantly on the prowl for innovative new products that can help our pet parents give their pets long, happy lives. The millions of dogs groomed and bathed each year in PetSmart salons are pampered at the hands of pet stylists who must complete a rigorous PetSmart safety certifica tion process. Grooming isn't just about a fabulous "do," it's also about keeping pets happy and healthy with services including expert nail trimming, ear cleaning and teeth brushing. Dogs and their pet parents grow smarter each year with help from our acc redited pet training instructors. In addition to ensuring pets are happy, well behaved members of the family, training classes help solve obedience problems the number one reason pets are relinquished to shelters. And with the SmartPet PromiseSM, trainin g customers are guaranteed 100 percent satisfaction or they can take the class again for free.

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236 PetSmart also operates over 192 in store PetsHotels dog and cat boarding facilities and Doggie Day Camps. These overnight boarding and daycare facility for dogs and cats, offer an exclusive promise, featuring caregivers who are hand picked for their love of pets and are on the premises 24 hours a day. Pet parents rely on us to take care of their pets when they can't be there. PetSmart PetsHotel, our overnight b oarding and daycare facility for dogs and cats, offers an exclusive promise, featuring caregivers who are hand picked for their love of pets and are on the premises 24 hours a day. Pet parents rely on us to take care of their pets when they can't be there. In addition to day camp services offered inside all our hotels, we've opened Doggie Day Camps in stores where there isn't a PetsHotel, giving busy pet parents yet another reason to pass up the competition. Our customers adopt an average of 1,000 pets pe r day from our PetSmart Charities Adoption Centers located inside every PetSmart store. Established in 1994, PetSmart Charities, Inc. is an independent 501(c)(3) organization that creates and supports programs that save the lives of homeless pets, raise awareness of companion animal welfare issues and promote healthy relationships between people and pets. The largest funder of animal welfare efforts in North America, PetSmart Charities has funded more than $165 million in grants and programs benefiting an imal welfare organizations and, through its in store pet adoption programs, has helped save the lives of nearly 5 million pets. Expert veterinarian care is within arm's reach in more than 60 percent of our stores, where Banfield Pet Hospital, operates fu ll service pet hospitals. These hospitals operate independently of PetSmart and employ more than 1,000 veterinarians who provide a full range of health care and emergency services. PetSmart holds a 20.5 percent equity interest in Medical Management Interna tional, the operator of Banfield, Pet Hospital. Whether it's finding the right pet, the best food or the perfect toy, signing up for training or grooming sessions, checking into a PetsHotel, or taking home a newly adopted dog or cat, we help pet parents help their pets live long, happy, healthy lives. Diversity and Inclusion Our Vision for Diversity and Inclusion At PetSmart, we value our associates' diverse backgrounds, experiences and ideas because it makes us a stronger company. Diversity and inclus ion enable us to solve problems, generate new ideas and enhance our brand. They help us execute effectively and allow us to deliver results that drive shareholder value. When we embrace and appreciate a wide range of people and perspectives, we create an

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237 environment where associates can do their best work, partners enjoy engaging with us and pet parents have an unmatched customer experience. Delivering the Vision We deliver our vision by developing in three key areas talent, culture and community. Thes e areas are our pillars of diversity and inclusion efforts and guide what we do to make our good company great. Talent At PetSmart, we utilize sourcing to ensure diverse candidate pools. We want the best and brightest associates, and we know the only w ay to get that is ensuring that our associates have a wide range of experience and skill. Culture Our focus on creating a diverse and inclusive culture incorporates some key factors. We use accountability in implementing tools and measures to ensure tha t leaders and associates are helping to create a diverse and inclusive culture. Our associates are given the opportunities, information and resources to develop their careers. In addition, we frequently review our policies, practices and rewards to ensure consistency and fairness. At PetSmart, our goal is to communicate with transparency as we grow our culture. Community We are a caring company involved and immersed into the communities where we live and work. Our vision is to engage and support diverse organizations through community outreach. We also are focused on inspiring our business partners to share and embrace our vision of diversity and inclusion. Another goal we are focused on is reflecting diversity and inclusion in everything we do. Our Dive rsity and Inclusion Journey PetSmart is new to the journey of diversity and inclusion. We know this type of culture is good for people and pets. It's also good for business and that's why we have a strategy for diversity and inclusion and a team of dedica ted associates committed to growing our efforts in this area. As we travel down this path, our focus is phased into three steps for building a diverse and inclusive organization laying the foundation, integrating with the business and sustaining our cult ure. We want to raise awareness and get people excited about all the differences we have among one another.

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238 Team Sales Situation Scenario #1 Data Sheet We have served the Gainesville area for over 30 years. Our shop offe rs personalized attention to you and your pet We have two professional groomers that get to know each animal individually. Feel free to drop by our shop for a tour of the facility and to meet our professional staff. upplies want to welcome you to our shop. We are dedicated to provide the best care and service to you and your pet. We have served the Gainesville area for many years and strive to build a long term relationship with our clients. We are a small shop wit h dedicated employees. You will see the same people each time you come to visit. Lisa Holtzendorf, a Certified Veterinary Technician, bought the shop from long time founder and owner Jean Blanchard in 2006. Jean was ready to slow down a bit after 30 ye ars in the business. She wanted to spend more time with her family and showing her paint horse Cowboy. She is still grooming four days a week and is very active in the every day activities of the shop. Lisa has been caring for animals since she was a c hild. She attended The University Of Florida and is a Certified Veterinary Technician. She worked 10 years for a local Veterinarian and 9 years for the University Of Florida, College Of Veterinary Medicine as an Animal Anesthetist. She is dedicated to p roviding compassionate and professional care to all pets that enter her shop. We feature many services at our shop Bathing with Hydrosurg Hand blow dry Anal Gland expression All breed grooming Nail trims Flea/Tick treatments Ear cleaning Teeth brushing Th erapeutic / Medicated Baths Deshedding Brushing Deskunking Our Store stocks all your basic pet care needs for Birds, Rabbits, Hamsters, horses, guines pigs, dogs ,cats and some exotics. If we do not have it in stock we are more than happy to order it for you

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239 PART 2 : Team Sales Situation Scenario #2 Your Task Hunter Industries You and your teammates are salespeople for Hunter Industries Your company sells a variety of irrigation supplies which are included in this document for you. Your team is to dev elop a sales strategy for the following customers. You will need to decide which product or products that best fit each customer and answer the questions concerning each of the following customers. You will be observed as your work on your solution for TWE NTY MINUTES. You will then have TEN MINUTES to present your solution for all TEN MINUTES to ask questions about the products, the custome rs, and the information you presented. Customers: West Farms A locally owned and operated landscaping and lawn care service in Gainesville, Florida. West Farms has been a leader in irrigation installation in e in both residential and commercial landscaping. Refer to the attached handout for more information about West Farms FIS Outdoor They are one of the leading irrigation and landscape product distributors in the United States. They operate over 30 branc h locations in the southeast. FIS Outdoor has been in business since 1974. They are committed to helping others grow their business and accomplish their goals. Please refer to the attached handout for more information about FIS Outdoor Haile Plantation Golf and Country Club They are located within Haile Haile Plantation Golf and Country Club has a variety of activities and hosts a number of events throughout the year. From the golf course, to t ennis courts, swimming, and dining, the country club offers many amenities to its members. The management takes great pride in providing outstanding facilities with outstanding service. Please refer to the attached handout for more information about Haile Plantation Golf and Country Club Your job is to answer the following questions: 1. What are the potential customer needs and wants? 2. What are the features and benefits of the product (s) that address the customer needs and wants? 3. What are the potential custo mer objections and how will you prepare to address them? 4. What are the possible related/complimentary products and their suggestive selling strategies? Develop information gathering questions to be utilized in clarifying the customer needs and wants

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240 Team S ales Situation Scenario Your Company Hunter Industries As a team, you will represent the sales team from Hunter Industries Hunter is a residential and commercial irrigation equipment company that provides products for a wide array of venue. Below is mo re information about the company.

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241 Mission and Values: Our mission is to deliver innovative products and services of the highest quality to the industries we serve. We will achieve this mission without compromising our core values of customer satisfact ion, innovation, family, and citizenship. Customer Satisfaction We are dedicated to achieving the highest level of customer satisfaction from our professional customers to end users. We will be responsible for the decisions we make, we will be respectful in every contact, and we will fulfill our commitments. All employees will treat one another with the same concern, respect, and care that they are expected to show customers. Innovation Our tradition of quality and innovation, instilled by Edwin and Paul Hunter, is central to everything we do. We develop cutting edge products and processes, focusing on continuous improvement and enhancements. Interdepartmental teamwork and collaboration are fundamental as we establish new standards of performance that sati sfy our customers' needs. Family Our legacy as an organization founded by the Hunter family is central to how we honor our position as a leader in our industry and our community. We value our employees as individuals. We encourage a balance between work a nd family and actively cultivate an environment of personal fulfillment and professional growth. We are committed to high ethical standards of honesty, respect, and fairness, creating trust in our dealings with each other, our customers, our suppliers, and our community. Citizenship We are committed to serving the communities, in which we live, work, and play. We take seriously our responsibility to support the efforts of our employees dedicated to improving our neighborhoods. As a global company, we will take steps to protect the planet by reducing our environmental footprint and designing more advanced methods, products, and technologies that promote the efficient use of our natural resources.

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242 Our Story

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243 Brands and Products Products you will be se lling (see attached documents for more information) Controlers: ACC Decoder, Pro C with FX Lighting Control, ET System Rotor Sets: I 20, I 25 Plus, PGP Landscape Drip Line

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272 Team Sales Situation Scenario #2 West Farms Data Sheet About Us: West Farms Landscape Services Owned and operated by Nick, Tammy and John West, West Farms is located in Gainesville Fllorida. We are a member of the Gainesville Area Chamber of Comm erce and have been providing landscape services in north central Florida since 1978. West Farms has been the leader in irigation installations in North Central Florida since 1980. Our fully automatic systems feature rain cut offs that will not allow your system to operate if nature has already watered your lawn. Our trained staff will design a custom system for you that will save water and insure the health of your landscape. West Farms Landscape Services is at the forefront of paving stone installation We enjoy what we do, are constantly striving for excellence and warranty our work from the ground up. We believe that as people become aware of the superiority of a segmental pavement and that as we continue to require our customer's overwhelming approva l of our installations, West Farms Landscape Services will continue to be a dynamic leader in an expanding industry. We would be glad to provide you with pictures of projects to determine if a paving stone driveway, walkway or front porch best meets your needs. Services Offered: Pavers Retaining Walls Firepits Landscaping Lawn Maintenance Irrigation installation and maintenance

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273 Gallery of Work

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274 Team Sales Situation Scenario #2 FIS Outdoor Data Sheet A message from our Vice President, Jeff Bower First, I would like to extend our sincere appreciation to each and every one of our customers and vendor partners for your phenomenal support. Yes, the economic climate and building markets were very strong during the first several nd most likely our competitors enjoyed solid performance as well. Over the past few years though, the business climate has been more challenging and success. I am reminded of a created our success or were we just in the right place at the right time. I truly believe our success is because of t he way we conduct business and the people who make it happen. your business. The on ly way to gain this perspective is to forge solid relationships with our customers and understand their business. We are fortunate to enjoy such extraordinary relationships with many of our customers. We seek to understand the challenges you face everyday. products at a competitive price, but to have those products available and delivered to you when you need them is most critical. Productivity of your employees is where the real money is either made or lost. Doing business from this perspective, we continue to seek new ways to provide reso urces to assist you in securing new revenue streams and efficiency. These range from a full department focused on providing commercial job leads and quotes, to a customer portal called @FIS that will allow you to manage your account online, to training cla sses on complimentary products you could install to create supplemental revenue. In addition, with our customers adapting to provide more services beyond irrigation; many requested that we seek out and acquire additional products to be their one stop, ou providing these products at very competitive prices. A few of these products that have gained great acceptance in the past few years are: a wide range of quality landscape lighting brands, mulch, chemicals like RoundUp, fertilizer, landscape tools, drainage, custom pump stations, as well as commercial mowers, power equipment and parts in many markets to name a few. These additional product lines are a natural compliment to the qualit y brand name irrigation products that we have supplied for over 36 years.

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275 Although FIS is a fast growing company, with over 30 branch locations in five states throughout the Southeastern US, we still do business as we did decades ago. We remain agile in our ability to serve you and adapt to the market. We are still a family owned business who sees our customers and our vendor partners as friends of the family. Serving our customers as friends is vastly different than just providing customer service. When the counter person who facilitates your order, or the delivery driver that brings product to y people in the industry. Look for the FIS Outdoor logo, because your friends are there to help you. Again, thank you for your business over the years and we look forward to se rving you, and growing with you, in the future! Best Wishes, Jeff Bower Vice President FIS Outdoor

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277 Business Partners STAPLES We make buying office products easy. So relax and take advantage of our savings, service and selection. Use our helpful on line tools. Explore our great deals. You'll save time. You'll save money. And you'll find yourself saying one word a lot more often: easy. Learn More DELTACOM Deltacom has earned a strong reputation built on customer satisfaction. We first opened our do ors more than 100 years ago and following multiple mergers and acquisitions, Deltacom, Inc. was formed in 1997. Today, with more than 40 locations and 2,000 experienced employees, Deltacom is the largest facilities based Competitive Local Exchange Carrier seamless, reliable, cost effective communication and technology solutions to help them execution and superior cus tomer service is what sets us apart from the competition.. Learn More i TECH Experience, certifications and specializations with industry leading technologies have allowed us to better serve our clients. I Tech is a Cisco Premier Partner, a Microsoft Gol d Certified Partner, and a Citrix Silver Partner, with over 100 years of combined experience on our staff. We possess the skills sets, experience and industry partnerships to be a true total technology support partner to our clients.

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278 Team Sales Situation S cenario #2 Haile Plantation Golf and Country Club Data Sheet Harmoniously nestled among the towering woods and rolling terrain of Haile Plantation community, Haile Plantation Golf and Country Club offers private club amenities in the family focused envi ronment. Eighteen holes of championship golf and an outstanding tennis program offer plentiful challenges for both social and competitive play. Dining at the club provides incomparable quality and service within a family oriented dynamic. And private event s at Haile Plantation Golf and Country Club, whether casual, formal, intimate or immense, promise a memorable occasion perfectly tailored to your specifications. We are transforming Haile Plantation Golf & Country Club The next generation of Haile Plantat ion Golf & Country Club is right around the corner. Watch as we transform golf, dining and Club activities to make them even better, just for NEW Tavern and Knight Rooms NEW outdoor bar and patio with poolside and courtsid e service NEW family friendly activities and games NEW rebuilt bunkers and tee boxes across the course NEW cart path renovations Haile Plantation: good southern living award winning master planned community. Great care is taken to integrate the golf course into the spectacular natural setting. As a result, the fairways wind deliberately through a carefully preserved upland hammock spotted with such native species as maje stic live oaks, wild plum and dogwood trees. Haile Plantation Golf and Country Club strives to accommodate every member of the family by hosting a variety of events throughout the year. For adults these events often include after work wine tasting partie championships. The kids look forward to junior golf school, tennis and swimming lessons, and the Annual Easter Egg Hunt just to name a few. Family cookouts held on the Fourth of July and other times during the year are another favorite. The Haile Plantation Golf and Country Club clubhouse represents all that is good about southern living. From socializing after a round with frie nds on the sweeping verandas to relaxing and simply enjoying the magnificent views, our Club is the standard for generous hospitality. The clubhouse offers a complete range of services including Members only locker rooms with personal lockers, snack bar, r estaurant, conference room and well stocked golf shop.

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279 Additionally, Members enjoy access to the other outstanding facilities. These include two swimming pools and 9 tennis courts (5 clay, 4 hard). Exceptional Gainesville Golf onship golf course offers you Gainesville golf at its finest. Great care is taken to integrate our country club course into the spectacular natural setting. As a result, the fairways wind deliberately through a carefully preserved upland hammock spotted wi th such native species majestic live oaks, wild plum and dogwood trees. Other Gainesville golf courses truly take a back seat to this premier golf club. Our golf course offers you the exciting challenge you desire but in a breathtaking natural layout.

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280 APP ENDIX C AGRICULTURAL SALES P RETEST AND POSTTEST 2012 FFA Sales CDE Name: KEY Written Examination Contestant Number: Pretest September 2012 School: 45 minute time limit Score: (100 pts possible) Part I: True False Statements. Please circle the best answer. (3 points each) T F 1. Experienced salespeople dread objections because objections signal that the presentation has failed T F 2. The two most important salesperson attributes are ego drive and empathy. T F 3. According t o the website lectures, gaining conviction is the fourth step in a selling point. T F 4. Assertiveness in sales is defined as the way in which a person is perceived as expressing feelings when relating to others. T F 5. According to the website lectures, T F 6. According to the website lectures, value is defined by price divided by perceived benefits. T F 7. A person with a very strong analytical communication st yle would most likely have more trouble communicating with a person that has a very strong amiable style than they would with a person that has a strong expressive style. T F 8. that ten ds to be higher in assertiveness. T F 9. It is wise to build rapport early in your sales presentation and once you rest of the sales presentation. T F 10. Deception in sales is when a salesperson presents inaccurate information, half truths, or withholds important information.

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281 T F 11. In website lectures we discussed how, on average, the typical salesperson will spend the least amount of their time waiting and traveling. T F 12. Sale speople from other companies (not direct competitors) can be a good source for prospecting. Part II: Multiple Choice Statements. Please enter the best answer in the blank provided. (4 points each) A 13. What handling objection technique is being used h questions, it looks like you would are more interested in the ton Gator Blue pickup truck than the ton red pickup truck. Would you like to take A) Alternative Product. B) Boomerang. C) Direct Denial. D) C ompensate and Counterbalance. E) Put Off. C 14. will I have to wait for my Boston Market Order? I have been waiting in the car for delay. I had to replace the battery on my headset. I have fixed that now. Please A) Put Off. B) Pass Off/Blow Off. C) Indirect Denial. D) Compensate and Counterbalance. E) Feel, Felt, Found. C 15. Which of the following statements best describe a salesperson letting the customer agree (gaining conviction) with a benefit statement on a selling point? A) Did the value analysis make sense? B) Do you have any questions regarding what I have just told y ou? C) Was I able to show you that even though our product is more expensive initially, it will save you money in the long run? D ) Can we send you two cases next Wednesday? E) All of the above are sufficient ways to gain conviction on a selling point. A 16. In the website lectures we discussed the 10 ingredients for success. Need to succeed and to survive rejection is most closely associated with which ingredient? A) Ego Drive. B) Diplomacy. C) Empathy.

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282 D) Self Motivation. E) Determination. B 17. Which closing strat indicated that you like the orange and blue color, the 90 day payment schedule, and the prompt 48 hour delivery schedule. I am going to put you A) Summary Benefit Close and Choice Close. B) Assumption Close. C) Summary Benefit Close and Direct Close. D) Choice Close E) None of the above A 18. According to the website lectures, a person who is earnest, but nervous and wants to convey warmth, but lacks sensitivity are likely to shake hands using which handshake? A) The Bone Crusher. B) The Limp Noodle. C) The Jackhammer. D) The Condolence. E) The Sanitizer. E 19. your question? Yes, perfect. I will put you d A) Direct Close. B) Turnover Close. C) Standing Room Only Close. D) No Risk Close. E) Objection Close. B 20. According to the website lectures when customers wish to change product specifications, change delivery schedules, or negotiat e price, this describes which business buying situation? A) New task buy. B) Modified rebuy. C) Straight rebuy. D) All of the above. E) None of the above. A 21. agreed that our product performed the trial better than your competitors, correct? We agreed that our financing options are more flexible than our competitors, correct? Can I put you down for 10 cases for delivery on A) Stimulus Response Close. B) Lost Sale Close.

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283 C) Assumption Close. D) Summary Close. E) Standing Room Only Close D 22. According to the website notes, successful salespeople do which of the following to improve the quality of their prospecting? A) Shorten the sales cycle quickly by determining which new prospects are qualified. B) Improv e the quality of people who board the ferris wheel. C) Increase the number of people they contact. D) All of the above. E) Both A and C. D 23. According to the website lecture notes on communication, a person with a dominant style of driver will exhibit what man nerism when they first face conflict? A) Attacking. B) Avoiding. C) Acquiescing. D) Autocratic. E) None of the above. B 24. Which of the following are not common types of concerns raised by customers? A) Concerns related to the source of your product or service. B) Concerns C) Concerns about the product or service itself. D) Concerns about the need for the product or service. E) All of the above E 25. According to the website lecture, a salesperson who is a customer advocate and one that wil l even deliver products to the customer when the customer is in a bind is carrying out which diverse role? A) Demonstrator. B) Negotiator. C) Prospector. D) Planner. E) Facilitator. Part III: Short Answer. Please answer the following questions. 26. In sa les, it is wise to follow time tested procedures, such as the five steps of a close. State the five generic steps for closing a sales call. (5pts) One point for each step 1. Ask if there are any more questions

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284 2. 3. Review the solutio n to the problem 4. Use an appropriate closing strategy 5. Ask for the sale (call to action) 27. rep at your local farm supply cooperative and you are trying to sell heavy duty wh eel barrows to a local farmer. Your wheel barrow will cost the farmer $100.00 and your List the four steps of a selling point and include a simple numerical value analysis (table with a side b y side comparison) as part of one of the steps showing why the farmer should purchase your $100.00 wheel barrow instead of the $85.00 wheel barrow from your competitor. (7pts) 1 pt for labeling each step (feature, benefit, proof, conviction = 4pts total) 3 pts for presenting a solid value analysis. For the VA they need to show a side by side comparison (1pt) and they should show how the cooperative is more expensive initially (1pt), but a better value in the long run (1pt)

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285 2012 FFA Sales CDE Name: KEY Written Examination Contestant Number: October 12, 2012 School: 45 minute time limit Score: (100 pts possible) Part I: True False Statements. Please circle the best answer. (3 points each) T F 1. is more than an art. It is a science or a discipline. T F 2. Personal visits, telephone calls, letters, and emails are all acceptable methods for following up after a sales call. T F 3. According to the website lectures, gaining conviction is the fourth step in handling an objection. T F 4. Assertiveness in sales is defined as the way in which a person is perceived as attempting to influence the thoughts and actions of others. T F 5. According to the website lectures, over 96 percent of communication ef fectiveness is determined by non verbal cues. T F 6. According to the website lectures, packaging is considered to be a tangible characteristic of a product. T F 7. A person with a very strong expressive communication style would most likely have more tr ouble communicating with a person that has a very strong analytical style than they would with a person that has a strong amiable style. T F 8. that tends to be higher in assertiveness. T F 9. Whenever possible, it is wise to arrive early to an appointment. T F 10. Business slander is when a sales person makes untrue or unfair statements about competitor in writing. T F 11. In website lectures we defined SMACT as specific, monetary, at tainable, challenging, and time.

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286 T F 12. According to the website lectures, value is defined as the perceived benefits of your product or service divided by the price of your product. Part II: Multiple Choice Statements. Please enter the best answer in the blank provided. (4 points each) E 13. questions, it looks like you would are interested in the ton Gator Blue pickup truck. Could you tell me what additional features you are int A) Alternative Product. B) Boomerang. C) Special Deal. D) Compensate and Counterbalance. E) Answer with a question. A 14. Which of the following statements best describe a salesperson letting the customer agree (gaining conviction) with a benefit statemen t on a selling point? A) Was I able to show you that even though our product costs more initially, B) Did the value analysis make sense? C) Do you have any questions reg arding what I have just told you? D) Can we send you two cases next Wednesday? E) All of the above are acceptable for describing a salesperson gaining conviction on a selling point. C 15. In the website lectures we discussed the 10 ingredients for succe ss. The with which ingredient? A) Ego Drive. B) Diplomacy. C) Empathy. D) Self Motivation. E) Determination. D 16. in dicated that you like the orange and blue color, the 90 day payment schedule, and the prompt 48 hour delivery schedule. May I put you down for A) Summary Benefit Close and Assumption Close B) Assumption Close. C) Summary Benefit Cl ose and Direct Close. D) Direct Close E) None of the above

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287 B 17. According to the website lectures, a person who the opposite of a knuckle cruncher, one who leaves you with the impression that they have a lackluster personality are likely to shake hands using which handshake? A) The Bone Crusher. B) The Limp Noodle. C) The Jackhammer. D) The Condolence. E) The Sanitizer. D 18. will I have to wait for my Boston Market Order? I have been waiting i n the car for delay. I had to replace the battery on my headset. I have fixed that now. Since you had to wait, we will throw in a free desert with you meal purchase tonight. Plea A) Alternative Product. B) Boomerang. C) Compare and Contrast D) Compensate and Counterbalance. E) Feel, Felt, Found. C 19. the house. We ha ve two other potential buyers who have indicated they will put a bid in by the end of the day, so I suggest if you are interested, you also submit a bid A) Direct Close. B) Turnover Close. C) Standing Room Only Close. D) Lost Sale Close. E) Summary Close. A 20 According to the website lectures when customers make purchases for a product for the first time, this describes which business buying situation? A) New task buy. B) Modified rebuy. C) Straight rebuy. D) All of the above. E) None of the above. A 21. Which closing te that new tractor has some features you are not sure about. I would like you to use the tractor on your farm for a week, at my cost to see if you think it will A) Puppy Dog Close. B) Lost Sal e Close. C) Assumption Close.

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288 D) Turnover Close. E) Success Story Close E 22. Accord to the website lectures, a sales manager that sets challenging standards for his/her salespeople is practicing what leadership philosophy? A) Supportive. B) Directive. C) Participative. D) Achievement Oriented. E) None of the above. C 23. According to the website lecture notes on communication, a person with a dominant style of amiable will exhibit what mannerism when they first face conflict? A) Attacking. B) Avoiding. C) Acquiescing. D) Autocratic. E) No ne of the above. E 24. Which of the following are common sources of product knowledge? A) Plant tours. B) The product itself. C) Publications. D) Internal sales and sales support teams. E) All of the above. C 25. According to the website lecture, a salesperson that is constantly looking for new ways to find new customers is carrying out which diverse role? A) Demonstrator. B) Negotiator. C) Prospector. D) Planner. E) Facilitator. Part III: Short Answer. Please answer the following questions. 26. In sales, it is wi se to follow time tested procedures, such as the four steps for handling an objection. State the four generic steps for handling an objection during a sales call. (4pts) One point for each step 1. Listen 2. Restate 3. Handle 4. Verify

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289 27. for MWI, a veterinary supplies distributor and you are trying to cattle de wormer to a local large animal veterinarian. Your cattle de wormer costs $4.00 a dose (per animal once a year) and your com wormer is priced at $3.50 per dose (per animal once a year). List the four steps of a selling point and include a simple numerical value analysis (table with a side by side comparison) as part of one of the steps showing why t he veterinarian should purchase your $4.00 per dose cattle de wormer instead of the $3.50 per dose cattle de wormer from your competitor. (8pts) 1 pt for labeling each step (feature, benefit, proof, conviction = 4pts total) 4 pts for presenting a solid v alue analysis. For the VA they need to show a side by side comparison (2pts) and they should show how the cooperative is more expensive initially (1pt), but a better value in the long run (1pt)

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290 APPENDIX D PRETEST/POSTTEST MAT RIX Module Pretest Questions Posttest Questions 1 2 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 18, 23 1, 4, 7, 8, 9, 17, 23 3 3, 6, 10, 15, 27 3, 10, 14, 24, 27 4 1, 3, 13, 14, 24 3, 6, 13, 18, 26 5 26, 2, 6 17, 19, 21 16, 19, 21 7 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 8 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27

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291 APPENDIX E ARGUMENTATION SCORIN G RUBRIC Schen, M.S. (2007). Scientific reasoning skills development in the introductory biology courses for undergraduates. Unpublished doctoral disser tation, The Ohio State University, Columbus.

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292 APPENDIX F ARGUMENTATION INSTRU MENT ID Number: Argumentation Mr. Baldwin farms 150 acres of watermelons in Newberry, Florida. Over the past few years he has noticed that his fruit set is not as high as he would like it to be in order to produce a maximum profit (Fruit set is the number of melons produced versus the number of flowers present). Because of the low fruit set, he contacted Hackenberg Apiaries to set up a pollination contract. A pollin ation contract requires the owner of the days to pollinate the crop, and then pick up the hives when the time frame is over. Mr. Baldwin is upset because he did not se e a drastic increase in his fruit set. He has contacted Hackenberg Apiaries to get his money back because he does not feel the honey bee pollination services were effective. Mr. Baldwin has objections in the following areas, leading him to ask for his m oney back: Not enough hives, therefore not all of the plants were pollinated Hives were delivered too late, so the bees were not able to pollinate adequately Hives were not placed in an adequate location, so the bees were not able to pollinate as easily Wh en it was raining, bees did not come out of the hives, so there were lost days of pollination As a representative for Hackenberg Apiaries you are responsible for handling Mr. rovided and the contract he signed. The information provided by Mr. Baldwin indicates the following features of his land: Mr. Baldwin indicated that he has seen bumble bees and wild honey bees on his land The contract signed by Mr. Baldwin and Hackenb erg Apiaries indicates the following: Honey bees hives will be provided at a rate of 1.5 hives per acre, since Mr. Baldwin has indicated the presence of natural pollinators Bad weather will not be grounds for compensation Honey bee hives will be delivered notification Mr. Baldwin will provide an adequate location to place the bee hives

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293 The honey bees will be kept for 8 weeks (56 days) during the growing season The following are recommended practices for using honey bee pollination: Watermelon Growing Specifics: Length of Season Length of flowering Stocking Rate # of visits needed for pollination Planting dates: mid December to mid April From seed to maturity requires 80 100 days Approximately 6 7 weeks Each flower is only receptive to pollination one day 1.8 hives per acre** One bee for each 100 flowers Hives have 40,000 60,000 bees At least 1000 grains of pollen must be deposited for the fruit to develop Approximately 24 visits from bees to adequately pollinate **C an be variance from 1.8 hives/acre if there are natural pollinators (need less bees) or other, more attractive sources to pollinate (need more bees) Hives should be delivered when approximately 10% of the flowers are open. Sooner than this could result i n the bees finding another source to pollinate (a source other than the intended crop) Optimum placement of honey bee hives is a hive every 500 feet, on high ground, in an area that receives morning sun, and in an area that is protected from strong winds There is a scrub pine area just beyond his property that includes a variety of trees/plants, however Mr. Baldwin has indicated there may be some palmetto and gallberr y plants. (Palmetto and gallberry are very attractive sources for honey bees). that the email was sent prior to flowers blooming Mr. Baldwin did not have his hives placed in t he recommended locations. The hives were spread further than 500 feet, and not all of the hives received morning sun and visiting his farm?

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294 What information are you us ing to support these conclusions? What rationale links this information to your conclusion? You speak with him and share your conclusions. He listens to your conclusions, but offers an alternative conclusion. What does he conclude? How do you respond to his viewpoint? Mr. Baldwin wants his money back. What do you do? How will you ex plain this to him?

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295 APPENDIX G AGRICULTURAL SALES P RACTICUM: COMPANY INFORMATION The company you will be representing is Animal Health International, Inc. a premier food and companion animal hea lth distributor. The company sells products for cattle, equine, poultry, swine, cats and dogs. In 2011, Animal Health International, Inc. (which also operates under the name Walco ) merged with Lextron, Inc. The combination of these two companies resulted in a premier animal health business with over 100 years of combined experience and expertise in animal health. Animal Health International sells numerous products for food animals and companion animals. Products include (but are not limited to): pharmaceuticals, vaccines, veterinary equipment, grooming supplies, barn and stable equipment, dental products, pet food, dewormers, and flea and tick prevention. Animal Health International provides products to retailers, veterinarians, large and small livestock operations, horse stables, and individual owners. Products can be purchased online, through a local sales representative, or through retail locations (limited locations). Background Materials to be attached on website: Price List AIH merger press release FAQ merger FFA Press Release.Foundation Chairman General O verview of Animal Health International History of Walco and Lextron Ocala AIH Location Okeechobee AIH Location Links for website: http://www.facebook.com/pag es/Animal Health International Joe Berry/185040144852738 http://www.linkedin.com/company/animal health international inc

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299 Frequently Asked Questions concerning the merger of Animal Health International: Q: What are the details and timing of this transaction? A: On March 14, 2011, Animal Health International, Inc. and privately held Lextron, Inc. announced that they had entered into a definitive merger agreement. Toda y, June 10, 2011, the transaction closed, and the new combined company will now operate under the umbrella of the Animal Health International, Inc. name. The new company brings more than 100 years of combined experience to the industry and will be one of N orth America's leading animal health businesses. Q: Why did these two companies decide to merge? A: This decision was made with careful consideration for employees and customers of our respective companies. Both companies bring a solid reputation and long standing presence in this industry, and we ultimately moved forward because we believe we can create North Q: Who comprises the new leadership team? A: Animal Health International will be will be run by an integr ated management team led by John Adent, as president and CEO. Q: Why are you keeping the Animal Health name? A: strong presence in this market. As we move forward with this name, our goal is to maintain Q: What does this mean for customers? A: Our goal is to offer our customers the highest standard of service and experience while becoming more efficient. W e will plan to update customers regularly as we proceed and as we have more information about any impact the transaction may have to our customers. Q: With the newly merged company, what changes in service or product offerings should customers be prepared for? A: come to expect of us; the only changes we intend to make are those that increase efficiency plementing new technologies and other value added services that support your business. Q: Are there any plans for future expansion? A: companies involved and for the ind ustry. This company continues to look forward to a strong and stable future. While we do not have any additional announcements to make at this stage, we are constantly evaluating opportunities that make sense for the future growth and prosperity of our com pany and employees.

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301 General overview of Animal Health International, Inc. Animal Health International is a distributor for all the "major brand" animal health products plus we market over 200 products under the Aspen and Cooper's Best labels ranging from pharmaceuticals, biologicals, insecticides, anthelmintics, cleaning and sanitizing agents, as well as many other specialty products. The Animal Health International distribution network markets products to veterinarians, dealers, poultry and livest ock producers throughout most of the United States. Products can be purchased online, through a local sales representative, or through retail locations (limited locations). Animal Health International has the experience, the products, the people, and the dedication to the animal health industry. Purchasing your animal health products and supplies from Animal Health International gives you the benefit of a credible, reliable, single source for all your animal health needs. We understand the importance and necessity of good animal health products and good animal health programs. Our goal is to provide veterinarians, dealers and livestock producers with the right products and health programs to help make their job easier, more satisfying and more profitable. We are dedicated to providing our customers with uncompromising service. CATTLE BEEF Animal Health International is dedicated to helping cattle producers maximize herd health and improve beef quality and safety. Providing the highest quality products and services to the beef cattle indu stry is a major part of Animal Health International 's focus. We service all segments of the beef cattle industry from cow/calf through feedlot operations. Animal Health International is your single source for vaccines, pha rmaceuticals, anthelmintics, parasiticides, insecticides, implants, livestock identification plus all the other supplies and accessories required to run a successful livestock production operation. COW/CALF Animal Health International is dedicated to help ing cattle producers maximize herd health and improve beef quality and safety. We deliver innovative, high quality animal health products and supplies that offer powerful solutions for all your animal health needs. Solutions that help you improve your bott om line. FEEDLOT One of Animal Health International and supplies for processing incoming cattle as well as supplying antibiotics and treatment products used in the sick pen and treatment barn. Ani mal Health International has everything you need to get feedlot cattle back on feed, gaining weight and adding dollars to your bottom line. An innovative veterinary treatment and records system is available from Lextron Information Systems.

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302 DAIRY Animal H ealth International 's involvement in the dairy industry ranges from sales, service and installation of dairy equipment to a full line of dairy supplies. This includes dairy cleaners, sanitizers and teat dips, as well as vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and fly and rodent control products. SWINE Animal Health International markets a full range of animal health products for all sizes and segments of the swine industry. Animal Health International is your single source for vaccines, pharmaceuticals, anthelmintics, parasiticides, insecticides and vitamin and mineral supplements...the products you need to help ensure the health of your herd and improve the efficiency of your operation. EQUINE Animal Health International can help you maximize your horses' health wit h vaccines, p harmaceuticals, vitamin/mineral supplements and parasite control. Plus, we are your best source for fly control, shampoos and conditioners, tack, and farrier supplies. Animal Health International is the one stop source for all your equine need s. COMPANION ANIMALS Pet owners are better informed and more receptive to providing quality care, treatment products Animal Health International provides an extensive line of products to h elp insure the health and well being of your pets. POULTRY Animal Health International provides poultry producers with a wide selection of quality, cost effective products (vaccines, feed additives, coccidiostats, parasite control, etc.) to help maximize health, productivity and profitability. SHEEP/GOAT Animal Health International provides a full range of products for sheep and goat producers such as parasiticides, anthelmintics, vaccines and pharmaceutical treatment products, ID, clippers, shears, sho w equipment and supplies. EXOTIC/OTHER Animal Health International provides products for producers and breeders of llamas, alpaccas and certain other exotic animals.

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303 History of Walco International and Lextron Animal Health International, Inc., one of t he leaders in the animal health industry, dawned as two businessmen with above average desire, vision, perseverance, and inspiration set out to change the landscape of the animal health industry. Walco History Willard Wall opened a sundries store in Porter ville, California, in 1945 that would later grow into the company known as Walco International. Wall closed the sundries store and opened Livestock Supply in 1954 and expanded into Visalia, CA and Phoenix, AZ. In 1972, nine companies were brought togethe r to form Walco International. The company flourished, with retail and distribution outlets popping up throughout North America. By 1995, Walco fielded 700 employees and booked more than $330 million in sales. Wall passed away after 50 years of continuo us operations as a family business man. Walco International sold to an investment firm and moved its original home base from Porterville, California to Westlake, Texas. In 2007, the company went public under the new name Animal Health International, Inc. Lextron History Founded by Bob Hummel in 1966 as an animal health distribution business serving veterinarians in California. In 1967, Hummel and Jim Laughlin purchased RX Company, and incorporated the new company under the name Great Plains Chemical Com pany, Inc. In 1972, Hummel made Greeley, Colorado as the home base of Great Plains Chemical Company, Inc. Hummel acquired several regional distributors in the late 1970's, and began marketing private labels under the name Lextron, Inc. In 1986, Great Pl ains Chemical Company officially changed it's name to Lextron, Inc. The company flourished, and began opening retail and distribution outlets throughout North America. In 2011, Lextron, Inc. purchased its respected long time rival operating under the new name Animal Health International, Inc. The combination of these two histories creates a premier animal health company with more than 100 years of combined knowledge, proven vision, unmatched commitment to the customer, and industry expertise.

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306 A PPENDIX H AGRICULTURAL SALES P RACTICUM: TEAM SALES SCENARIO 2012 Mock Sales CDE Grading/Judging Suggestions Be sure to put the name of the school on top of each grading sheet. Refer to the grading criteria on the Te am Sales Situation scorecard. Remember, you need to judge how well the team works together to tackle this team sales problem in addition to evaluating their presentation. A couple of thoughts relative to the task each team is charged with: 1. Determine pote ntial customer needs and wants. Look for these during the presentation. Read of the info sheets as you are waiting for the teams to present. Most customers seek value, just like I taught you in class. They need to identify the four types of customers for f ull credit, and their needs: North Florida Holsteins (A large dairy that is probably most concerned with purchasing a large amount of supplies and getting it for a good price), Dr. Marty Stevens, DVM (A veterinarian who is most concerned with getting produc ts in a timely manner, having good service, and products at a relatively decent price so he Hunter Stables (a small horse stable who is concerned with purchasing relatively small quantities, but still wa nts the same customer services as the other companies), and Tractor Supply Company (a large retail chain that would be most interested in a variety of products at a good price). 2. The team is to describe the key features and benefits of the product(s) that address the Identify the key features and benefits of the product that will address the needs of the specific customer types. Use your common sense. Push them on benefits and benefits specific to the types of customers. Note the attached sheets are filled with features and advantages, not so much on benefits. 3. Identify potential customer objections and develop strategies to address those objections. Use your common sense here. I have listed a few below, but these are not all incl usive. 4. I dentify potentially related products and suggested selling strategies. Use your common product knowledge for some of the potential customers. 5. Develop information g needs and wants Use your common sense here. I think this is a key that the best teams will devise a separate strategy dor each of the four potential customer groups. Use common sense and ask questions related to the information provided or generated by their presentation Key Features of Animal Health International See attached AHI price list Offer a wide array of products to help suit the needs of many different customers (i.e. different an imal industries) Have salespeople throughout Florida and U.S. and a few retail locations (in larger farming communities)

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307 Recently merged with Lextron, Inc., therefore they have an increased number of products and salespeople Ability to provide different pr oducts to different customers (size, quantity, etc.) Dedicated to providing great service to their customers Provide service to many different size operations, and several different types of customers Sell prescription products Can obtain veterinary approv al/prescription from the customers vet in order to receive the product Benefits for Customers (may apply to all four customer types) Well equipped to meet all the needs of the four customer types (not a specific benefit Frequent del ivery schedules, and some retail locations to make delivery/pickup easier because you can get all your products from us) Regional salespeople who are knowledgeable and available to answer any questions getting a copy of the prescription, or sending it in. Common Objections Raised by Customers Pricing is too high Want a different size than what is available. May want quantity discounts (particularly for large operations) Want to purch Items may be out of stock/on back order Currently purchase from other companies who they have a long time relationship with, and they are happy with them Remembe r, the teams have a 40 minute time limit: 20 minutes to read the scenario and to prepare and write a marketing plan, 10 minutes to present the plan, and 10 minutes to answer questions from you (the judges). Grading Rubric and Grading Guidelines You have a copy of the grading rubric that each judge will fill out. You will then average the Below are some things I want you to consider for each of the grade categories. How well did each team member participate by analyzing and providing input to the solution? (8 pts) okay if one of the team members takes the lead in organ izing the team, etc.

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308 How well did each team member communicate with the rest of the team members? (10 pts) To receive full points, there must be dialogue between all team members. Look for the quiet ers. How well did each team member demonstrate effective listening skills? (10 pts) To receive full points, each member should listen, restate (when appropriate), respond to the teammates inquires and verify they handled the questions, etc. How well did each team member respect the input of other team members? (9 pts) To receive full points, each team member must at least appear to receive suggestions from other team members. It does not mean they need to change their mind in all cases. What level of kno wledge did the team have of the products they are selling? (12 pts) To receive full points, it must be obvious that all team members have come prepared regarding their role as Animal Health International and they should have been guessing ahead of time wha t types of potential customers they would be dealing with in the competition. Did the team accurately analyze all the information for each customer type? (12 pts) To receive full credit, the team must be able to discuss all four customer types and be able to point out the differences in needs (sometimes subtle differences) between these four types of between the four types of customers. Did the team identify cust omer needs and wants, and prepare quality questions to help (12 pts) To receive full points, the team needs to understand a wide variety of needs for each of the four customers. There questions should show their unde rstanding of customer needs. This would be similar to the second step used in the SPIN method in our class. s? (15 pts) Theo receive full points, the team must be able to identify products for each of the four customer types. Not all of the products are appropriate for all the customer types. Only veterinarians can purchase products they require a prescription/v et approval and only dairy farms or the veterinarian would purchase ketosis treatments, while only the horse stable or veterinarian would purchase horse related products. How well did the team identify potential objections for each customer type and how t o address them? (12 pts) To receive full points the team needs to show a thorough understanding of potential objections. I have listed some, but not all possible objections. Also, teams that are able to see that there might be different objections for diff erent customer types would be entitled to receive more points. Were complimentary/related products also identified? (10 pts)

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309 To receive full points the team needs to suggest complimentary and related products from the product list they have received prior to coming to the contest. Allow latitude in this category, as they may pick all possible products from their product list, which would leave them little additionally products to select. Were the decisions made by the team based on sound sales principles using the information they were given? (12 pts) To receive full points, the team needs to match customer needs with products that fit those needs. Teams that bring out more specifics would earn higher points versus those teams that tend to generalize solut ions to needs. Was the presentation delivered professionally? (8 pts) To receive full points, the team needs to be organized, speak clearly, and have a systematic approach (e.g., answer each of the five questions in order). Did all team members particip ate in the presentation? (8 pts) To receive full points the team needs to have all four members presenting. Were all the questions answered correctly by all team members? (12 pts) To receive full points, the team needs to answer your questions to your sat isfaction.

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310 2012 Mock Sales CDE Team Sales Situation ( ) Animal Health International You and your teammates are salespeople for Animal Health International Your company sells a variety of products for the care of food and compani on animals, which were given to you prior to arriving at the competition. Your team is to develop a sales strategy for the following customers. You will need to decide which product or products best fit each customer and answer the questions concerning eac h of the following customers. The judges will observe you as you work on your solutions for twenty minutes You will then have ten minutes to present your solution for all the customers to the judges as if they are your supervisors at the company After yo ur presentation, the judges will have ten minutes to ask questions about the products, the customers, and the information you presented. Customers: 1. North Florida Holsteins. They began in 1980 with 125 cows and are now the largest single location dairy ope ration in the state of Florida. They produce the most milk of any single location in the state. Currently they have about 10,000 head of cattle on 2400 acres of land. Refer to the attached handout for more information about North Florida Holsteins. 2. Dr. Ma rty Stevens, DVM. Dr. Stevens is a veterinarian that works with both small and large animals; however, the majority of his work is with large animals. He works with several dairies, cow/calf operations, and horse owners, as well as smaller operations in No rth Florida. His work with small animals primarily consists of providing services for the companion animals of his large animal clients. See the attached handout for more information about Dr. Marty Stevens. 3. Hunter Stables Jessica Hunter owns and operate s Hunter Stables, a small horse stable in Micanopy, Florida. At any point, she can house up to eight horses, three of which are her own. Deworming is part of the fee that the horse owners pay, however, Jessica is generally the first to deal with any medica l issues that may arise, so she likes to have a few supplies on hand. Refer to the attached handout for form information about Hunter Stables 4. Tractor Supply Company. They are the largest operator of retail farm and ranch stores in the United States, with over 1,130 stores in 45 states, focused on supplying the lifestyle needs of recreational farmers and ranchers. The Company offers merchandise for equine, pets and small animals, and livestock. Items include feeds, tack and other equipment, and health rela ted items. Your job is to answer these questions for each customer: 1. What are the potential customer needs and wants? 2. wants? 3. What are the potential customer objectio ns and how will you prepare to address them?

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311 4. What are the possible related/complimentary products and their suggestive selling strategies? 5. wants. After the judge s are finished with their questions, you will go individually to a pair of judges that will represent one of the customer types listed above. You will then interact with the judge to determine which customer they are, establish rapport, and discover their needs and wants. Once you have accomplished these steps, you will then attempt to sell the appropriate products to the customer. You will have twenty minutes to accomplish all of those steps. It is critical to remember that in addition to the final prese ntation being judged, teamwork and equal involvement of all team members will also be judged. Also, it is critical to not only state what you chose to do, but why you chose to do it. In selling, there are not absolute right or wrong answers. The judges wil l act as the audience, but will not engage in dialogue during the presentation.

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312 2012 Mock Sales CDE North Florida Holstein s Data Sheet About North Florida Holsteins History North Florida Holsteins (NFH) began in 1980 when one dairy farmer and two catt le dealers purchased a feed lot with cropland in Bell, Florida. They immediately built a double 10 herringbone parlor. The parlor was opened in September with 125 cows. The capacity of the double 10 milking parlor was reached in 1985 as the herd approached 1000 cows. At that time a double 12 herringbone milking parlor was added. Also three times a day milking was initiated at this time. By 1990 the capacity of both parlors was reached and a double 40 parallel milking parlor was added. Soon over 3000 cows w ere being milked in the double 40 milking parlor. The double 10 facility was converted to a parlor office allowing the cow records to be maintained away from the employee and accounting divisions. The double 12 became the hospital facility with ability to handle overflow from the double 40. Originally, cattle were bought and sold in addition to the milking herd. After nine years, one of the dealer partners was bought out. This allowed greater emphasis on improvement of the milking herd. The major challeng combinations were tried. In 2002, a tunnel ventilation facility was constructed. From the first attempt, a number of variations were initiated. Today the milking cows from the 4700 cow herd are mostly in tunnel ventilation with bunk sprinklers and evaporative cooling in the summer. Some overflow cows would not be in the cooling facilities in the winter. Current Practice The farm consists of about 10,000 head of cattle and 2400 acres of land. The 10,000 head of cattle are 4700 cows; 4000 replacement heifers; 350 bulls held for AI and for sale to other dairy farms, 350 Holstein steers sold at 400 to 500 pounds to feedlots and a few beef cattle. Calves are raised on site, and heifers are r aised as replacements, while some bull calves are raised as breeding bulls, and others are castrated and sold to western feedlots. Ninety five percent of the breeding at the dairy is done through artificial insemination, with the use of clean up bulls fo r heifers. NFH uses AI to help manage genetic traits. The traits the dairy is most concerned with are high daughter fertility, low somatic cell count, high productive life with sound udders and mobility, and low still births. The land is used for farm fac ilities, pasture and cropland. purchased commodities and farm stored forages. Today the bulk of the forages are purchased from neighboring farmers. The future includes more home grown forage.

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313 The dairy employs about 80 people, i ncluding a general manager, a herd health and embryo transplant specialist, manager of non milking cattle, parlor and free stall barns manager, crops and shop manager, and a maintenance manager. NFH does not employ a full time veterinarian. They have a few staff members with some veterinary training, however a consultant veterinarian only visits once a week to check on the operation. NFH produces 23,500 pounds of milk per cow, per year, making the dairy the largest milk producing dairy at any one location in the state of Florida. Although milk prices in Florida are high, the cost of production is also very expensive relative to other states. This is due to the high heat and humidity, as well as the difficulty in raising high quality forages to be used for feed. Common Herd Health Problems Dystocia: trouble calving Metritis: bacterial infection of the uterus Ketosis: cow has low energy balance Mastitis: infection of the udder Pneumonia: infection of the respiratory tract lungs Lameness: cow with limp

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314 2012 Mock Sales CDE Dr. Marty Stevens, DVM A Message from Dr. Stevens My name is Marty Stevens. I am a veterinarian in North Florida, mostly servicing Dixie, Gilchrist, Lafayette, Levy, Madison, Suwannee, and Taylor counties. I began my practice 18 years ag o after graduating from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Auburn University. Currently, I am the only veterinarian within my practice, and I hire a part time bookkeeper to manage my records and client payments. I have a mobile service instead of a cl inic location since I primarily work with large animals. Since I have a mobile service, I cannot keep that much stock on hand, but I do have some facilities at my home that allow me to store some extra supplies. Most of my work is with large animals dair y cattle, beef cattle, horses, with some sheep, goats, and swine mixed in. I work with operations of varying sizes, from 5,000 head dairies, to 5 head cow/calf owners, to horse stable owners, and everything in between. Because of the diversity of my work, I usually need various supplies, but in limited quantities (relative to the amount of business I do with each species). In addition to the large animal work, I do some work with small animals, but usually only for the large animal clients I already have. Most work includes general procedures, and prescriptions for parasites. I am very passionate about what I do, and building relationships with my clients is one of the most important things in my practice, aside from doing ethical business. I have built great relationships with my clients and intend to keep that through providing excellent veterinary care at a sustainable cost. Attached are specific details about the breakdown of my practice. Sincerely, Marty Stevens Marty Stevens, DVM Practice Breakd own Dairy 45% Beef 15% Equine 25% Sheep/Goat/Swine 10% Companion Animal 5%

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315 2012 Mock Sales CDE Hunter Stables About Hunter Stables Hunter Stables is a private horse boarding facility located in Micanopy, Florida, just off of SR 441. It is located abou t 15 miles south of Gainesville, Florida. Hunter Stables t ake s pride in their love for all animals, whether they are under their personal care or not. Each horse that join s their herd is treated as an individual with his/her own preferences and emotions. T hey have expectations of the horses' caregivers to provide veterinary care and general health care as needed. Jessica Hunter began the stable 8 years ago after much experience in the horse industry. She began riding at age 13, and has owned and worked wit degree in Animal Science from the University of Florida 20 years ago, and since that time has been working and volunteering in the equine industry, but eventually felt led to open her own stable. The stable has an 8 stall concrete block barn with clay aisle ways and fans/lights in every stall. There are also wash stalls, a tack room, and a feed room. They provide both stall and pasture accommodations, along with areas for exercising and trail riding. As part of the b oarding fee, owners pay for farrier, veterinary, and dental care. Additionally, fly spray, deworming, and other basic veterinary services are provided. Jessica lives on the property, so she is normally the first person to respond for health issues. Howeve r, there are a few staff members who also work with the horses that would be alerted to health issues during business hours. Minor health issues are usually handled by staff, however when more severe issues arise, the veterinarian is called.

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316 2012 Mock Sal es CDE Tractor Supply Company About Tractor Supply Company Tractor Supply Company is the largest retail farm and ranch store chain in the United States. The company operates over 1,130 retail stores in 45 states, employs more than 16,000 team members an d is headquartered in Brentwood, Tenn. Its stock is traded on the NASDAQ exchange under The company was founded in 1938 as a mail order catalog business offering tractor parts to ng edge retailer with revenues of approximately $4 billion. Tractor Supply stores are primarily located in rural areas and the outlying suburbs of major cities. The typical Tractor Supply store has 15,000 24,000 square feet of inside selling space with a similar amount of outside space used to display agricultural fencing, livestock equipment and horse stalls. generators to animal care products and men and wome supplies, animal feed, power tools, riding mowers, lawn and garden products and more. Each store team includes welders, farmers and horse owners who collectively provide an exceptional depth of knowledge and resources. Tractor Supply is committed to understanding and fulfilling the needs of those who enjoy the rural lifestyle: folks who frequently describe themselves as hobby farmers and hobby ranchers. It nt spends more than $5.5 classify themselves as full segment does not farm at all. They are more a ptly described as rural or suburban homeowners, or Tractor Supply is continuing to grow with new stores and improved product offerings. The Tractor Supply mis sion and values motivate and inspire team members and give the organization a unified focus for the future. Who are Tractor Supply Company's customers? A niche market of farmers, horse owners, ranchers, part time and hobby farmers, and suburban and rural h omeowners, as well as contractors and tradesmen. What can you buy at Tractor Supply Company? Everything except tractors. At TSC, customers find everything they need to maintain their farms, practically every chore themselves, from repairing wells to building fences, welding gates

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317 together, constructing feed bins, taking care of livestock and pets, repairing tractors and trucks and building trailers for hauling. TSC's products include: clothing, equine and pet supplies, tractor/trailer parts and accessories, lawn and garden supplies, sprinkler/irrigation parts, power tools, fencing, welding and pump supplies, riding mowers and more. TSC Products: Farm Mainte nance Products Fencing Tractor Parts and Accessories Agricultural Spraying Equipment Tillage Parts Specialty Feeds Animal Supplements and Medicines Veterinary Supplies Livestock Feeders General Maintenance Equipment Air Compressors Welders Generators Pump s Electrical Products Plumbing Paint Lawn and Garden Products Riding and Push Mowers Tractor/Mower Parts and Accessories Tillers Fertilizers Long Handle Tools Animal Care Feed and Supplements Health and Medicine Products Tack and Equipment Pet Suppl ies Apparel Wear Work/Garden Gloves Automotive Accessories Batteries Lubricants Tarps/Tiedowns Truck Toolboxes Trailers Towing Parts/Accessories Fuel Tanks

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318 APPENDIX I AGRICULTURAL SAL ES PRACTICUM: TEAM S ALES SCENARIO SCORIN G RUBRIC

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319 APPENDIX J AGRICULTURAL SALES P RACTICUM: INDIVIDUAL SALES SCENARIO SALES PRESENTAION AND JUDGING COMMENTS The contestant will have 20 minutes to present (18 minute wa rning will be given). The sales presentation is to be interactive between the contestant and the judges. Before the contestant begins the sales presentation you are to inform him/her that as the customer, you will be a buyer from North Florida Holsteins I have included the North Florida Holsteins information the contestants see during the team sales event as background information for you. The students know from the team event that North Florida Holsteins was one of four possible customers they would have to sell to. I have also included a copy of the product and price list the teams were given a month ago. I have modified this product list to show you what products you will be interested in during the call. See below for additional instructions on how t o role play for this contest. The two judges should each grade the contestant separately. Turn in one grade shee for each contestant that is an average of your scores. Do not share your grading with the contestant or give them a copy of your grading. Be s school, and contestant number (e.g., Jane Doe, Gainesville High School, 4C) on each grade sheet your submit. Place the completed grade sheets in the envelope that will be turned into Doc W at the end of the contest. Situation You are a buyer for North Florida Holsteins a 10,000 head dairy operation located in Bell, Florida. This dairy produces the most milk of any single location in the state. Read the attached data sheets for North Florida Holsteins but k now that there obvious main purpose is producing milk and ensuring the health of their herd to sustain production levels. The contestants need to (they will lose points in this case). This sales situation is likely to be a little different than the one on one sales call you will do for class, in that they will likely ask you to place orders for different products throughout the sales call. This is fine and normal in animal pharmaceutical sales. They should try and get your commitment on a number of different products from the price list and some may even suggest something not on the list. In other words, they will be closing numerous times, but the final close sho uld include some kind of summary of what you have agreed to purchase. Needs There are some things that you would not purchase from the Animal Health International See the additional comments on the price list for specifics of what you could buy and what you will not buy. I have also given price objections and suggestions. I will also give you a quantity order range that you should stay within. Do not offer to buy anything unless they will sell it to you.

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320 You could consider buying in larger quantities if they are willing to give you a discount. Also keep in mind that there are some products you want to purchase, but that you need veterinary approval. They may offer to gain approval for you, or offer some other solution. This is obviously a good objection t o raise. However, they should not sell you products that require veterinary approval that would be illegal in a real situation. Presentation Grading Rubric Attached is a copy of the grading rubric you are to use to evaluate the sales presentation. It is s omewhat different than what we will use in class, so I have given you grading advice for each of the categories (see below). The contest places a lot of weight on the opening (more than we do in class). Did the salesperson identify themselves with a good first impression? (5 pts) To receive full points, the contestant needs to have a good handshake, state their name, and company name clearly. Offer them a seat. Did the student ask questions/dialogue in an attempt to build personal rapport with you? (8 pt s) To receive full points, the contestant needs to make small talk and hopefully more than just one sentence or two. I would be impressed if they looked around the room, or took note of something you were wearing to make a connection with you. Whatever the y do, play along with them to the extent they try to build rapport. Did the student actively listen to your personal comments when you answered? (8 pts) To receive full points, the contestant would not cut you off and give at least non verbal signals that they were listening and clarifying your statements. Did the student use the information from your answers to further establish personal rapport? (8 pts) To receive full points, the contestant needs to build on your responses here. Did the student ask qu estions to learn about your business? (10 pts) To receive full points, the contestant needs to ask clarifying, general questions about your business and your goals. This is the sense of asking open ended probes first and in the grading below, ask more dire cted probes. Did the student listen to the answers about your business you provided? (10 pts) To receive full points, the contestant should not cut you off and verify their understanding of your answers. Did the student confirm and discover your needs an d wants? (12 pts) To receive full points the contestant needs to verify that they have uncovered all of your needs and not just a few of them. Did the student apply the features/benefits of their product to your needs/wants? (16 pts)

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321 To receive full poin ts, the contestant needs to present complete selling points to you. Did the student allow you to participate in matching your needs/wants to their product features? (15 pts) To receive full points, the contestant needs to involve you in the process, not j ust talk at you. Ideally, you could see involvement in the value analysis calculations. Did the student effectively use trial close (gain conviction on a point, identify customers willingness to buy, or a closing opportunity)? (11 pts) To receive full poi nts, the contestant needs to trial close you. In this pharmaceutical sales situation, you are likely to say yes to a number of products you need, versus our one on one sales calls where you build up to one yes or no decision. Did the student listen to and clarify your objections? (14 pts) To receive full points, the contestant needs to follow at least the four generic steps to handling an objection (listen, restate, handle, verify). I would be very impressed if they provided more specific handling objectio n strategies. This should be noted in your comments and score. Did the student apply and discuss the features/benefits of their product to address your objections? (13 pts) To receive full points, the contestants need to bring up features and benefits and some may even fine for the contest). Did the student clearly close or attempt to close the sale? (20 pts) To receive full points, the contestant needs to close the sales at least once, but I suspect they will get your order for a number of products throughout the call and that is great. Contestants that use specific closing strategies like the choice close will earn more points. I would expect all conte stants should summarize the call, the problem you had, and the order you placed.

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322 2012 Mock Sales CDE North Florida Holsteins Data Sheet About North Florida Holsteins History North Florida Holsteins (NFH) began in 1980 when one dairy farmer and two catt le dealers purchased a feed lot with cropland in Bell, Florida. They immediately built a double 10 herringbone parlor. The parlor was opened in September with 125 cows. The capacity of the double 10 milking parlor was reached in 1985 as the herd approached 1000 cows. At that time a double 12 herringbone milking parlor was added. Also three times a day milking was initiated at this time. By 1990 the capacity of both parlors was reached and a double 40 parallel milking parlor was added. Soon over 3000 cows w ere being milked in the double 40 milking parlor. The double 10 facility was converted to a parlor office allowing the cow records to be maintained away from the employee and accounting divisions. The double 12 became the hospital facility with ability to handle overflow from the double 40. Originally, cattle were bought and sold in addition to the milking herd. After nine years, one of the dealer partners was bought out. This allowed greater emphasis on improvement of the milking herd. The major challeng combinations were tried. In 2002, a tunnel ventilation facility was constructed. From the first attempt, a number of variations were initiated. Today the milking cows from the 4700 cow herd are mostly in tunnel ventilation with bunk sprinklers and evaporative cooling in the summer. Some overflow cows would not be in the cooling facilities in the winter. Current Practice The farm consists of about 10,000 head of cattle and 2400 acres of land. The 10,000 head of cattle are 4700 cows; 4000 replacement heifers; 350 bulls held for AI and for sale to other dairy farms, 350 Holstein steers sold at 400 to 500 pounds to feedlots and a few beef cattle. Calves are raised on site, and heifers are r aised as replacements, while some bull calves are raised as breeding bulls, and others are castrated and sold to western feedlots. Ninety five percent of the breeding at the dairy is done through artificial insemination, with the use of clean up bulls fo r heifers. NFH uses AI to help manage genetic traits. The traits the dairy is most concerned with are high daughter fertility, low somatic cell count, high productive life with sound udders and mobility, and low still births. The land is used for farm fac purchased commodities and farm stored forages. Today the bulk of the forages are purchased from neighboring farmers. The future includes more home grown forage.

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323 The dairy employs about 80 people, i ncluding a general manager, a herd health and embryo transplant specialist, manager of non milking cattle, parlor and free stall barns manager, crops and shop manager, and a maintenance manager. NFH does not employ a full time veterinarian. They have a few staff members with some veterinary training, however a consultant veterinarian only visits once a week to check on the operation. NFH produces 23,500 pounds of milk per cow, per year, making the dairy the largest milk producing dairy at any one location in the state of Florida. Although milk prices in Florida are high, the cost of production is also very expensive relative to other states. This is due to the high heat and humidity, as well as the difficulty in raising high quality forages to be used for feed. Common Herd Health Problems Dystocia: trouble calving Metritis: bacterial infection of the uterus Ketosis: cow has low energy balance Mastitis: infection of the udder Pneumonia: infection of the respiratory tract lungs Lameness: cow with limp

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324 APP ENDIX K AGRICULTURAL SALES P RACTICUM: INDIVIDUAL SALES SCENARIO SCORI NG RUBRIC

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325 APPENDIX L INTRODUCTION LETTER FOR TEACHERS

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326 APPENDIX M ARGUMENTATION INFORM ATION FOR TEACHERS Argumentation ugh it is an argument, it is not an argument in the typical sense of the word. It is not a heated debate or conversation over a particularly controversial topic. Argumentation is more about selecting a position on a topic based upon facts and evidence. The learner should recognize that there are other positions that can be taken, however, the learner reasons their position is based upon data and supported by evidence. Argumentation is focused on the logic behind selecting a particular position or opinion. Through argumentation learners are more engaged because they are required to consider all the facts and evidence to develop a position on a topic. Argumentation can be explicitly taught through instruction. Specific instructional strategies help develop a rgumentation skill. Research has reported a link between argumentation skill and success on classroom assessments and standardized tests. The very nature of the Agriculture Sales CDE lends itself to the development of argumentation skill, thus many of the activities inadvertently challenge students to develop this skill. Therefore I am examining at both the natural development of argumentation through this CDE, and the development of argumentation skill if is explicitly highlighted. As part of the argume ntation infused group, you will be asked to specifically teach to build argumentation skill. This is done through a series of questions found on the yellow sheets in modules 1, 4, 7, and 8. For module 1, you will guide the students in finding information t hat will be beneficial when presenting the product that is assigned for this CDE. The students will be asked to look up information about competing companies/product, in order to understand the features and benefits of those companies/products. For modules 4, 7, and 8 you will lead a discussion with the students based upon the questions provided. The discussion will be focused on the scenario that was presented in that module. Ultimately, students will be reasoning through the decisions that could have been made within the module.

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327 APPENDIX N IRB APPROVAL

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328

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329 APPENDIX O INFORMED CONSENT FOR PARENTS

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330 APPENDIX P INFORMED CONSENT FOR STUDENTS

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341 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Sarah E. Burleson grew up in Deltona, Florida. Although her parents were not involved in agriculture, Sarah developed her passion for agriculture while enrolled in an agriculture course at Deltona Middle School. Sarah graduated from Deltona High School in 2006 and went on to serve the Florida FFA Association as the State FFA President from 2006 2007. After completing her year of service to the Florida FFA Association, Sarah attended the University of Florida and received her Bachelor of Science degree in agricultural education and communication with honors in 2011. Sarah student taught at Un ion County High School, in Lake Butler, Florida, under the guidance of Mrs. Amanda James, Mr. David Harris, Mr. Tom Williams, and Mrs. Brittney McGee, and was awarded a teaching certificate in agricultural education by the Florida Department of Education. While pursuing her undergraduate degree, Sarah was awarded the College of Agricultural and Life Science Alumni and Friends Leadership Award in 2011. Following complete of the B.S. degree in 2011, Sarah accepted a graduate teaching and research assistantshi p with the Agricultural Education and Communication Department at the Unive rsity of Florida to be g in work on a Master of Science. As a graduate teaching and research assistant, Sarah taught various courses within the department and conducted research in va rious areas of agricultural education.