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Comparative CPTED Analysis of Residential Communities in Pangyo and Yatap Towns in South Korea

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045441/00001

Material Information

Title: Comparative CPTED Analysis of Residential Communities in Pangyo and Yatap Towns in South Korea
Physical Description: 1 online resource (107 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Ha, Taehoon
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: cpted -- crime -- safety
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: CPTED is a fairly new approach in crime prevention in South Korea even though the effectiveness of the strategy has been approved and used in many different countries, such as UK, US, Canada, Australia, and Japan. Since both incidents and types of crime are increasingly exposed to the public through media, people’s fear of crime and concerns about safety issues in their territories are growing. Therefore, South Korean residential communities, with assistance from the local governments and the police, are currently testing CPTED in many areas to investigate its effects. Pangyo New Town was the first new town development in which CPTED has been applied from the planning stage, and they created their own “Crime Prevention Design Guideline” by modifying the existing regulations of the successful cases of UK, US, and Canada developing them to match South Korean culture. However, there is no clear support of the effectiveness and benefits of CPTED in Korea so far, based on the available data. This research could be a good start in finding out its benefits and effects. In order to pursue this research, two different new towns were selected. Both towns have similar populations and characters, one that has adopted CPTED and the other that has not. Then, crime rates for these selected towns were collected and compared to find out whether there is any evidence that adopting CPTED has positive effects in reducing crime incidents. In addition, qualitative analysis of the new town was performed with the “CPTED Audit Checklist” and the “CPTED Post-Audit Evaluation Worksheet” to learn how CPTED principles were applied and implemented in the new town development.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Taehoon Ha.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Schneider, Richard H.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045441:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045441/00001

Material Information

Title: Comparative CPTED Analysis of Residential Communities in Pangyo and Yatap Towns in South Korea
Physical Description: 1 online resource (107 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Ha, Taehoon
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: cpted -- crime -- safety
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: CPTED is a fairly new approach in crime prevention in South Korea even though the effectiveness of the strategy has been approved and used in many different countries, such as UK, US, Canada, Australia, and Japan. Since both incidents and types of crime are increasingly exposed to the public through media, people’s fear of crime and concerns about safety issues in their territories are growing. Therefore, South Korean residential communities, with assistance from the local governments and the police, are currently testing CPTED in many areas to investigate its effects. Pangyo New Town was the first new town development in which CPTED has been applied from the planning stage, and they created their own “Crime Prevention Design Guideline” by modifying the existing regulations of the successful cases of UK, US, and Canada developing them to match South Korean culture. However, there is no clear support of the effectiveness and benefits of CPTED in Korea so far, based on the available data. This research could be a good start in finding out its benefits and effects. In order to pursue this research, two different new towns were selected. Both towns have similar populations and characters, one that has adopted CPTED and the other that has not. Then, crime rates for these selected towns were collected and compared to find out whether there is any evidence that adopting CPTED has positive effects in reducing crime incidents. In addition, qualitative analysis of the new town was performed with the “CPTED Audit Checklist” and the “CPTED Post-Audit Evaluation Worksheet” to learn how CPTED principles were applied and implemented in the new town development.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Taehoon Ha.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Schneider, Richard H.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045441:00001


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1 COMPARATIVE CPTED ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITIES IN PAN GYO AND YATAP TOWNS IN SOUTH KOREA By TAEHOON HA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT S FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 201 3 Taehoon Ha

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3 To my family and friends

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to give a special thanks to my chair Dr. Richard Schneider, for his suppo rt and patience. He guided my interest and thesis topic in a right direction whenever I lost track and encouraged me when I was struggling. He helped me gain better understanding of the topic and allowed me to dive into the world of CPTED. I would also li ke to thank my co chair, Dr. Ruth Steiner, who provided me with valuable instruction and guidance throughout the entire process of ac complishing this thesis. By taking her class and gaining support from her, I could learn how enthusiastic and considerate s he was. In addition to the appreciation of the direct mentors, I wou ld also like to thank Dr. Hyeonho Park, who has supported and assisted in many ways in acquiring necessar y data and information that were cruci al in successfully completing this research He is an acknowledged professor and recognized CPTED expert in South Korea. Dr. Schneider has introduced him to me, and luckily I was able to work with him as an intern during the summer break.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS P age AC KNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 13 Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ 13 Research Objective ................................ ................................ ................................ 14 Brief Description of Two Towns ................................ ................................ .............. 16 Pangyo New Town ................................ ................................ ........................... 16 Yatap T own ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 17 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 23 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 23 Crime Preve ntion Through Environmental Design (CPTED) ............................ 23 Defensible Space ................................ ................................ ............................. 27 Situational Crime Prevention ................................ ................................ ............ 29 Environmental Criminology ................................ ................................ ............... 30 Crime in South Korea ................................ ................................ .............................. 31 CPTED Related Studies in South Korea ................................ ................................ 32 Sustaining the Crime Reduction Impact of Designing Out Crime: Re Evaluating Secured by Design (SBD) Housing in West Yorkshire ................................ ........ 36 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 41 Visual Audit ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 41 Self Reported Examination ................................ ................................ ..................... 43 An alysis of Police Recorded Crime Data ................................ ................................ 44 Short Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 45 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 46 4 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ .................... 48 Visual Audit ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 48 Pangyo New Town ................................ ................................ ........................... 48 Yatap Town ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 65 Self Reported Examination ................................ ................................ ..................... 80

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6 Analysis of the Police Recorded Crime Data ................................ .......................... 82 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 87 New Town Development in South Korea ................................ ................................ 87 Analysis of the Findings ................................ ................................ .......................... 88 6 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 93 APPENDIX A CPTED AUDIT CHECKLIST ................................ ................................ ................... 96 B CPTED POST AUDIT EV ALUATION WORKSHEET ................................ ............. 98 C SHORT INTERVIEWS ................................ ................................ .......................... 100 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 104 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 107

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table P age 4 1 Result of CPTED audit in Pangyo New Town ................................ ..................... 84 4 2 Result of CPTED audit in Yatap Town ................................ ................................ 84 4 3 Result of post audit evaluation ................................ ................................ ........... 85 4 4 Average of the results ................................ ................................ ......................... 85 4 5 Police recorded crime data for 5 major crime types (2009 ~ 2011) .................... 86 4 6 Burglary rates per 100,000 people ................................ ................................ ..... 86 4 7 Overall number of crime cases and crime rate in South Korea (2009 ~ 2011) ... 86

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure P age 1 1 Households and p opulation data for Pangyo New Town (2009 ~ 2011) ............. 17 1 2 Map of Pangyo New Town. ................................ ................................ ................. 18 1 3 Househol ds and population data for Yatap Town(2009 ~ 2011). ........................ 18 1 4 Map of Yatap Town. ................................ ................................ ........................... 19 1 5 Map of Korea and Gyeonggi Province. ................................ ............................... 19 1 6 Pangyo New Town(A) and Yatap Town(B) within Gyeonggi Province. ............... 20 1 7 Pangyo New Town(A) and Yatap Town(B) within Seongnam City in Gyeonggi Province. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 20 1 8 Map of Pangyo New Town. ................................ ................................ ................. 21 1 9 Map of Yatap Town. ................................ ................................ ........................... 21 1 10 Map of Pangyo New Town(A) and Yatap Town(B) together to illustrate their proximity. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 22 2 1 Twenty five techniques of situational crime prevention. ................................ ..... 39 2 2 Cases of burglary per 100,000 population. ................................ ......................... 40 2 3 Proportion of burglary cases in the residential areas. ................................ ......... 40 4 1 Site plan of Pangyo won Village Community No.3. ................................ ............ 51 4 2 Site plan of Pangyo won Village Community No.5. ................................ ............ 52 4 3 View of the main entrance to Pangyo won Village Community No.3 and No.5 ................................ ... 52 4 4 tograph by author. .......................... 53 4 5 Gated entrance. Photograph by author. ................................ ............................. 53 4 6 Entrance to underground parking lot. Photograph by author ............................. 54 4 7 Direction signs and caution alarm at underground parking lot. Photograph by author. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 54 4 8 Underground parking lot. Pho tograph by author. ................................ ................ 55

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9 4 9 CCTV camera installed in underground parking lot. Photograph by author. ....... 55 4 10 Elevator hall entrance at underground parking lot. Photograph by author. ......... 56 4 11 Parking spaces for the disabled and emergency vehicles. Photograph by author. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 56 4 12 Curved pavement for pedestrians. Photograph by author. ................................ 57 4 13 Different material and color of the pavement, and bollards express the territoriality. Photograph by author. ................................ ................................ ..... 57 4 14 Designed lighting systems installed along the pavement. Photograph by author. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 58 4 15 Guide and information map of the comp lex. Photograph by author. ................... 58 4 16 Location of the main entrance of the apartment building allows for good surveillance from windows. Photograph by author. ................................ ............ 59 4 17 Bicycle racks located in front of apartment building. Photograph by author. ...... 59 4 18 Photograph by author. ................................ ................................ ........................ 60 4 19 CCTV camera and street light. Photograph by author. ................................ ....... 60 4 20 Tables and chairs for residents. Phot ograph by author. ................................ ..... 61 4 21 Benches provided for residents. Photograph by author. ................................ ..... 61 4 22 Sculptures are located throughout the co mplex to provide warm and friendly atmosphere. Photograph by author. ................................ ................................ ... 62 4 23 Trees surrounding the buildings. Photograph by author. ................................ .... 62 4 24 Entrance of emergency safety shelter. Photograph by author. ........................... 63 4 25 Waste disposal located under a shelter with lighting system installed beside. Photograph by author. ................................ ................................ ........................ 63 4 26 Gas pipes covered with specially designed covers to prevent burglars from climbing up. Photograph by author. ................................ ................................ .... 64 4 27 Site plan of Ja ngmi Village Community No.1 and No.8. ................................ ..... 68 4 28 Main entrance of apartment complex in Yatap Town. Photograph by author. .... 69 4 29 Vi ew of the street inside the complex. Photograph by author. ............................ 69

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10 4 30 Tall trees are planted beside the buildings throughout the complex. Photograph by author. ................................ ................................ ........................ 70 4 31 Street lamp and overgrown vegetation. Photograph by author. .......................... 70 4 32 O vergrown vegetation. Photograph by author. ................................ ................... 71 4 33 Structure in front of the window of first floor. Photograph by author. .................. 71 4 34 Window of the basement of apartment building. Photograph by author. ............ 72 4 35 author. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 72 4 36 Rest area for residents. Photograph by author. ................................ .................. 73 4 37 Benches and shelters for residents. Photograph by author. ............................... 73 4 38 hotograph by author. ... 74 4 39 Trees in front of the building block the view from homes. Photograph by author. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 74 4 40 Vehicle ent rance to underground parking lot. Photograph by author. ................. 75 4 41 CCTV cameras installed in underground parking lot. Photograph by author. ..... 75 4 42 View of underground parking lot. Photograph by author. ................................ .... 76 4 43 Staircase to underground parking lot. Photograph by author. ............................ 76 4 44 Broken automatic sensor light. Photograph by author. ................................ ....... 77 4 45 Entrance of apartment building. Photograph by author. ................................ ..... 77 4 46 Trees and shrubs near the building entrance are blocking the view. Photograph by author. ................................ ................................ ........................ 78 4 47 Isolated area where garbage and other thrown away materials are stacked. Photogr aph by author. ................................ ................................ ........................ 78 4 48 Unclean lamp. Photograph by author. ................................ ................................ 79 4 49 This place looks dangerous and not managed. Photograph by aut hor. .............. 79 5 1 Population data for Pangyo and Yatap (2009 ~ 2011). ................................ ...... 92

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning COMPARATIVE CPTED ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITIES IN PANGYO AND YATAP TOWNS IN SOUTH KOREA By Taehoon Ha May 2013 C hair: Richard H. Schneider Major: Urban and Regional Planning CPTED is a fairly new approach in crime prevention in South Korea even though the effectiveness of the strategy has been approved and used in many different countries such as UK, US, Canada, A ustralia, and Japan Since both incidents and types of crime are increasing ly exposed to the public through media, people s fear of crime and concerns about safety issues in their territories are growing Therefore, South Korean residential communities wi th assistance from the local governments and the police, are currently testing CPTED in many areas to investigate its effects Pangyo New T own was the first new town development in which CPTED has been applied from the planning stage, and they created thei r own Crime Prevention Design Guide line by modifying the existing regulations of the successful cases of UK, US, and Canada developing them to match South Korean culture However, there is no clear support of the effectiveness and benefits of CPTED in Ko rea so far based on the available data T his research could be a good start in finding out its benefits and effects. In order to pursue this research, two different new towns were selected B oth towns have similar population s and character s one that has adopted CPTED and the other that has not Then crime rates for these selected towns were collected and

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12 compared to find out whether there is any evidence that adopting CPTED has positive effects in reducing crime incidents. In addition, qualitative analys is of the new town was performed with the CPTED Audit C hecklist and the CPTED Post Audit Evaluation Worksheet to learn how CPTED principles were applied and implemented in the new town development

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Problem Statement Urban crime has been a big concern for a long period of time (GRHS, 2007) throughout the world and researchers and practitioners alike have sought many ways to prevent and reduce crime in cities One of the intriguing way s to do that is by designing a city safely usi ng methods such as CPTED (Crime Prevention Throug h Environmental Design) strategies. The term CPTED refers to a multi disciplinary approach to deterring criminal behavior through environmental design (ICA, 2011), and it has been an imp ortant strategy in ur ban design since the 1970s I t has been used in various different fields such as urban planning, criminology, archi tecture, and building construction in an attempt to design out crime in cities CPTED strategies have been used in the United Kingdom and U nited States since the 1970s. D eveloping and transitional countries in Asia such as South Kore a are now beginning to adopt the s e idea s in urban designs and building environments in concert with the increasing rate of serious crime incidents These incid ents give South Korean cities a bad image and t end to affect urban economic value s While crime rate s in South Korea are known to be very low compared to other countries, there is significant variation throughout the country. For example pick pocketing, p urse snatching, assault residential burglary, and residential crime occur more frequently in major metropolitan areas, such as Seoul, than elsewhere in Korea (Overseas Security Advisory Council, 2012 ). As the population density in Korean urban society has increased in recent decades, so too have crime rates. This is evidenced by the official police crime statistics

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14 for the past 3 decades (1976 ~ 2005) that demonstrate that Korean who live within urban spaces, where increasing numbers of peo ple are living a nd working have become more vulnerable to crime (Park, 2010). In addition, with help from the influx of mass media outlets, Korean citizens recently have been exposed to various types of crime such as homicides, child kidnapping and sexual offences, which has caused people to be concerned about their safety in cities. The government, police agencies and other interested authorities are seeking solutions to control the growing number of crime incidents and mitigate the fear of crime experienced by citizens. One way to alleviate the increasing number of crime incidents is to predict the m, if possible, and prevent them in advance. Therefore, in urban spaces in Korea, the concept of CPTED is being reexamined and applied as a tool for preventing crimes. Despite crime preventing efforts made in Korean urban areas, we have recogniz ed the limitation of the police forces to manage the demand of the citizens. So, it is nec essary to adopt crime prevention measures in environmental designs in order to satisfy the public s need contribute to citie s safety, and eventually reduce the level of the fear of crime that is now growing among Korean citizens. R esearch Objective Since 1970 s, many CPTED related studies were being done by researchers throughout countries like Unite d States and United Kingdom, and CPTED is now considered one of the most advanced and effective method s in some cases, in preventing crime within the living spaces Due to the recent awareness of crime incidents in South Korea, CPTED is being adopt ed in t he planning stage of new town developments which are spreading out rapidly in order to solve housing problems in the central area, like Seoul. Collaborating with the police, large areas like Seoul and

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15 Gyeong gi province are making ac tive movements to fight crimes by installing CCTVs, improving streetlights, and re arran ging the street trees for better observation However, most of the research and studies were mainly focused on explaining the current situations of CPTED applications in South Korea and were m ostly informative contents about its principles. U nfortunately there are no research papers deali ng with the effectiveness of CPTED strategies since its initial application in the newly developed towns. As such, it was difficult to predict the success and failure of adopting these strategies The central question of this thesis is, Is CPTED effective in South Korea ? in terms of reducing the number of crime incidents in the city. Therefore, this thesis will provide evidence to address the effective ness of adopting CPTED strategies in a Korean community by comparing the crime rates of five major c rimes (murder, robbery, burglary, violence, and sexual violence) between two different towns, one of which has applied CPTED and the other which has not. Pangyo Ne w T own was chosen as the experimental town with CPTED applied and Yatap Town as the comparable one without. The r eason s for choosing th ese two towns for this thesis are because Pangyo is the first new town that was developed with CPTED considered from i ts planning stage, and Yatap which wa s developed more than 20 years ago is adjacent to Pangyo has similar characteristics has an equal ly sized population and is considered to have high crime rates. By completing this research, the success and failure of current CPTED a pplication s in Korean communities will be explor e d, which could eventually assist in developing the s e strategies into more effective and beneficial device s for preventing crime in Korea, as well as other countries around the world

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16 Brief Description of Two Towns The two towns studie d in this thesis were carefully selected by the author with assistance from Dr. Hyeonho Park, a director of Institute of Crime Science and Gyeongseok Oh a Lieutenant in the Gyeonggi Provincial Police Agency P angyo New T own was chosen as the experimental site without difficulty since it is the first town that has adopted CPTED However, selecting a comparable site took us a great deal of time Among many other proposed sites within South Korea, Yatap Town was s uggested to be the most appropriate to compare to Pangyo New Town, due to Yatap s regional characteristics and high crime rates P angyo New Town Pangyo was approved for development in 2001 to solve the housing shortage problems in Gangnam (a district locat ed in the South side of Seoul which is suffering from environmental and over population problem s ) and central Bundang (a district located in Seongnam, Gyeonggi province which was developed as a response to alleviating the excessive demand for apartments in the similarly affluent, but much older Gangnam). This town was developed into an eco friendly city with the lowest population density among newly developed cities. It was designed with large green spaces and parks along its streams. Also, waste facilities energy plants, and sewage treatment facilities in the community were built to maximize energy efficiency with the use of green technology. Construction of the town began in December 2003, and phase 1 and 2 were completed on December 2009 and December 201 0, respectively ( Korea Institute of Criminology 20 11 ). This town is divided into four different villages which are Pangyo dong, Sampyung dong, Baekhyun dong, and Unjung dong (a dong is the lowest administrative unit of districts and of those cities whi ch are not divided into wards

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17 throughout Korea) As of 2011, the total population is 78,895 and the number of household is 25,949 (Figure 1 1) Yatap Town Yatap is a neighborhood of Bundang district in the city of Seoungnam, Gyeonggi province developed alm ost 20 years ago It is officially divided into Yatap 1 dong, Yatap 2 dong, and Yatap 3 dong The merit s of this town are its close vicinity to Seoul convenience of public transportation, and quality of schools, which is the primary conce rn for parents A s of 2011, the total population is 71,521 and the number of household is 26,763 (Figure 1 3) Detailed m a ps of South Korea, Gyeonggi Province, Seon gnam City, and two towns are presented in Figure 1 5 through Figure 1 10 The foll owing chapter will provide descriptions of various literature reviewed by the author in order to understand the definitions of certain terms and also to learn abo ut the recent studies being conducted by other researchers related to CPTED in South Korea. Figure 1 1. Households and p opulation data for Pangyo New Town (2009 ~ 2011) (Source: Korean Statistical Information Service, http://kosis.kr )

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18 Figure 1 2 Map of Pangyo New Town. (Source: Gyeonggi Provincial Police Agency) Figure 1 3. House holds and population data for Yatap Town(2009 ~ 2011). (Source: Korean Statistical Information Service, http://kosis.kr )

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19 Figure 1 4 Map of Yatap Town. (Source: Gyeonggi Provincial Police Agency) Figure 1 5 M ap of K orea and Gyeonggi Province (Source: Google Maps) Gyeonggi Province

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20 Figure 1 6 Pangyo New Town(A) and Yatap T own(B) within Gyeonggi Province. (Source: Google Maps) Figure 1 7 Pangyo New T own (A) and Yatap T own (B) within Seongnam City in Gyeonggi Province. (Source: Google Maps) B A A B

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21 Figure 1 8 M a p of Pangyo N ew T own (Source: Google Maps) Figure 1 9 M a p of Yatap T own. (Source: Google Maps) Yatap Town Pangyo Ne w Town

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22 Figure 1 10 Map of Pangyo New T own (A) and Yatap T own (B) together to illustrate their proximity. (So urce: Google Maps) Pangyo New Town Yatap Town A B

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23 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter provid e s an overview of the literature which will give a brief introduction to the field of CPTED with definitions of basic terms which are crucial in understanding the context of this thesis. Ad ditionally, research pap ers dealing with Korean CPTED a re reviewed to understand the recent interest and concern in Korea regarding CPTED. Importantly, a paper written by Rachel Armitage and Leanne Monchuk (2010) i s also analyzed, since it is one of the fe w studie s that have used a similar method to evaluate the effectiveness of CPTED in UK. Definition of Terms Place based crime and terrorism prevention strategies include a variety of approaches by various scholars from diverse fields. C. Ray Jeffery (1971; 1976) introduced the concept Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), Oscar Newman (1972) discussed the D efensible Space principles, Ronald V. Clarke (1992) suggested the idea of Situational Crime Prevention and Paul and Patricia Brantingha m (1980) developed the Environmental Criminology approach Each of the contributions shall be discussed in detail below. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design ( CPTED ) CPTED asserts that the proper design and effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime, and an improvement in the quality of life (Crowe, 2000, p. 46). Also, it is described as a designing principle which analyzes the relationship between components of crime, such as victim crimina l, and place in order to protect people from being the potential victims Additionally, CPTED along with situational crime prevention seeks ways to reduce the opportunities of crime

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24 by appropriately designing bu ildings and planning the cities which will consequently improve the quality of life (Choi, 2006). It was originally coined and formulated by criminologist C. Ray Jeffery, but his initial contribution (1971) was heavily theoreti cal, based in stimulus/response and geared toward changes in criminolog y from a comprehensive physiology perspective (Schneider & Kitchen, 2007, p. 23). Although CPTED is recognized for its place based strategies, it should not be considered as a unique and complete solution for crime prevention. However, when applied properl y in an appropriate way to new development projects in the cities, it may help prevent or reduce the opportunity for crime incidents. B a sically CPTED is based on four elements : natural surveillance, natural access control, territorial reinforcement, and m aintenance (Crowe, 1990; 2000) Natural surveillance is a design concept directed primarily at keeping intruders under observation (General Guidelines for Designing Safer Communities, 2000). It aims to increase the visibility of t he building and property b y taking into account the proper placement and design of windows, lighting, and landscaping. When natural surveillance is used to its utmost, it can increase the potential to deter crime by making the offender s behavior more easily noticeable to resid ents police, or anyone else nearby. Natural surveillance is often referred to as eyes on the street Therefore, some new urbanist developers locate structures close to the street, with front porches and plenty of windows designed to allow ample visibility. T h e concept of eyes on the street was strongly supported by Jane Jacobs, where she asserted : A well used city street is apt to be a safe street. A deserted city street is apt to be unsafe ( Jacobs, 1961, p. 23 ) In the samples used in this research (Pan gyo New Town) natural surveillance strategy

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25 is being used in the location of the apartment buildings and windows which face the center of the complex, allowing for easy view from residents homes. Natural access control employs elements like doors, shrubs fences, and gates to deny or delay access to a crime target and to create a perception among offenders that there is a risk in selecting that target (General Guidelines for Designing Safer Communities, 2000). F ence s around a neighborhood or trees plante d in front of the hous es are some examples of access control measures that can be easily noticed Studies by Newman (1973; 1980, 1996) and other scholar s (Poyner, 1983; Coleman, 1985; Poyner and Webb, 1991) have all mention ed a close relationship between d esi gn features and levels of crime, particularly those features that allowed unrestricted pedestrian movement through residential complexes which led to an increase in crime Researchers have also found that busier streets with some pedestrian movement hav e experienced reduced levels of recorded crime (Hillier and Shu, 2000 ). Newman (19 96) indicated in his work a significant reduction in crime (54%) after the reconstruction of the Clason Point in the Bronx in New York City The number of r outes that went th rough the public housing complex was reduced and the lighting and surface appearance of the buildings was improved in order to utilize the access control strategy. In the apartment complexes used in current research (Pangyo New Town) short trees and shru bs in front of the buildings, and gated entrances were some of the noticeable access control strategies adopted. Territorial reinforcement employs such design elements as sidewalks, landscaping, and porches to help distinguish between public and privat e ar eas and help users exhibit signs of ownership that send hands off messages to would be offenders (General

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26 Guidelines for Designing Safer Communities, 2000). In short, it is the design feature that expresses the ownership of the area. The examples of te rritoriality could include barriers such as fences and hedges and sign boards A more subtle expression might be a change in pavement color and material or an elevation change expressed b y a step or two (Beeler, 2011). Some of the important signs of terri toriality noticed in the sample complex used in this research (Pangyo New Town) were: large emblems at the entrance of the complex, tall trees surrounding the complex, and materials and colors of pavement inside the complex. These features gave the complex private atmosphere. Additionally, people will take more interest in something they own or when they feel intrinsically involved. Therefore, the environment should be designed to clearly delineate public and private spaces by providing obvious defined entr ies, patios, balconies and terraces, as well as by using low walls, landscape and paving patterns to delineate ownership and responsibility. A study by Brown and Bentley (1993) showed how some burglars used territoriality to evaluate risk. This concept of territoriality was also supported by the findings from a study of fear of crime (Perkins and Taylor, 1996). Eliminating any unassigned spaces and ensuring all spaces have a clearly defined and designated purpose, are routinely cared for and monitored is al so a component of territoriality. M a intenance allows for the continued use of a space for its intended purpose. If a place is properly maintained and managed it is more likely to send a message that someone cares about safety and welfare in adjacent struc tures, both residential and nonresidential and on existing premises by demonstrating minimum requirements and acceptable standards. However, it is the owners operators and occupants

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27 responsibility to keep their area well maintained (General Guidelines for Designing Safer Communities, 2000). Maintenance is the last and critical principle which supports the other strategies mentioned above. A residential complex that looks unclean and disorganized indicates lack of control and care by the residents and a uthorities. Broken Windows theory could be applied in this section of the principle. This theory suggest s that if neighborhood s or cities do not fix broken windows and graffiti, the environment will continue to descend into crime, chaos and violence. Th e theory implies that the more a city become s ruined and decayed, the more vulnerable it will become to crime Promoting a positive image and routinely maintaining the built environment supports the idea that the physical environment continues to function effectively and transmits positive signals to all users (Cozens, Saville & Hillier, 2005). Defensible Space In the United States defensible space evolved primarily from an architectural context, but was influenced by planning critics such as Jane Jacobs ( 1961) and by social and behavioral scientists Elizabeth Wood (1961, 1967), Schlomo Angel (1967, 1968), Edward Hall (1959) and Robert Sommer (1969) among others (Schneider and Kitchen, 2002). Despite these influences from various scholars, the concept of de fensible space was introduced and used by an architect and city planner Oscar Newman reflecting his ideas about crime prevention and neighborhood safety. In his f irst book on this topic Defensible Space ( 1972 ) he pointed out that crime rate s were highe r in high rise apartment buildings (multi family housing) than in lower types of housing complexes (single family housing) This was due to residents behavior of being negligent on the responsibility of their living spaces and shifting their duties to oth er people.

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28 Newman continued to describ e social control, crime prevention, and public health in relation to community design. Newman argues: Defensible space is a model for residential environments which inhibits crime by creating the physical expression o f a social fabric that defends itself (1972, p. 3). He also asserted that natural surveillance, territoriality and a sense of community make it easier to identify stranger s (1972, p. 3). The basic principles of Newman s defensible space are similar to th e CPTED principles since they both deal with crime preventing strate gies in the living spaces The f irst principle is territoriality which is defined as the capacity of the physical environment to create perceived zones of territorial influence (1972, p 51) as we discussed previously This could be understood as the residents desire to have a sense of the ownership which is expressed by using particular d esign features of the buildings or houses The s econd principle is natural surveillance which is defined as the capacity of the physical environment to provide surveillance opportunities for residents and their agents (1972, p. 78). This means that the appropriate design and location of the windows and entrances will likely allow residents and guest s to watch and observe movement of intru ders within their neighborhood. The third principle is boundary definition which correlate s with territoriality. It mean s having clear division and boundaries to identify private and public spaces. It incorporates t he use of symbolic and real access control mechanisms as design elements to impede the movements of offenders and to help alert residents to their presence, all of which are said to facilitate territorial impulses and behavior (Schneider and Kitchen, 2002)

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29 The final principle Newman focused on is the image and milieu of sites and structures. Newman s concern with environmental signs of incivility (such as graffiti and vandalism) anticipated the broken windows theory of Wilson and Kelling (1982) and also laid down the predicate for what was to become a later CPTED corollary: Maintenance (Schneider and Kitchen, 2002). The idea s and principle s generated by defensible space theory are funda mental notions in designing safe r space s If the above mentioned princ iples exist together and are consid ered while designing an area, t his would likely be an efficient way of expressing and adapting place based crime prevention strategies, including CPTED Situational Crime Prevention Another model for preventing crime is S ituational Crime Prevention developed by Ronald V. Clarke. The concept is based on opportunity models, and seeks to reduce crime by focusing on very specific crimes and circumstances (Schneider and Kitchen, 2002). It departs radically from most criminolog y in its orientation (Clarke, 1980; Clarke and Mayhew, 1980). It is basically focused on reducing the opportunity for crime incidents by changing the environments as a means of con trolling criminal behavior. Like other place based strategies, i t seeks ways to prevent the occurrence of crime instead of detecting and punish ing offenders. Also, it seeks not to eliminate criminal or delinquent tendencies through the improvement of society or its institutions, but merely to make criminal action less attracti ve t o offenders (Clarke, 1997). Clarke s situational crime prevention theory came out of the British Home Office s crime prevention efforts in 1960s and 1970s. It is crucial to note that this theory was not developed by itself; rather it stems from the ideas o f defensible space and CPTED (Schneider and Kitchen, 2002). As mentioned in Schneider and Kitchen (2002)

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30 Situational crime prevention is a fundamentally tactical approach in that it is place and time specific (p. 104). This crime prevention theory is seen by many to be effective in reducing crime incidents since it forestalls opportunities for crime before offenders reach the target and commit crime s Clarke (1997) published a matrix of sixteen opportunity reducing techniques by modifying the origina l version of twelve techniques developed in 1993 by adding the category of removing the excuses for crime However, in response to Wortley s (2001) critique of situational crime prevention, Cornish and Clarke (2003) expanded the techniques further to twe nty five by including the category reducing provocation and published a matrix of twenty five techniques of situational crime prevention ( Table 2 1). This matrix includes five situational crime prevention strategies with twenty five technique s ( five te chniques in each strategy ) For each technique listed in Table 2 1 examples are given to provide easier understanding of the intervention techniques. Local government authorities are most likely to impact crime through the use of the situatio nal crime pre vention techniques due to the importance of local knowledge of local community situations Given these factors, the Department of Attorney General and J ustice of New South Wales (2011) stated that the focus of local crime prevention should be overwhelmingl y on situational crime prevention activities. Environmental Criminology Environmental criminology is the final term that shall be discussed to introduce the development of modern place based crime prevention theory. This theory incorporates both defensible space and CPTED principles. Howeve r, environmental criminology differs slightly from other concepts in that it is more concentrated on the geographical elements of the crime, including paths and pattern s rather than on design elements of

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31 crime in places (Schneider and Kitchen, 2002). This theory focuses on the environmental or context ual factors that can influence criminal a ctivity, and these include spatial aspects such as geography time, law, offender, and target or victim (Brantingham and Brantingham, 1981). Environmental criminology starts with an analysis of the location of crimes (Brantingham and Brantingham, 1981, p. 19). In dealing with the crime, the Brantinghams tend to reject the sociological determinism by asking their most fundamental quest ions in terms of where instead of who (Schneider and Kitchen, 2002). This does not mean they neglect the importance of sociological reasons when describing criminal behavior. Instead, they would use these reasons as the supportive element s of the locat ion data rather than considering them as the primary elements By combining the location information with the movement patterns, environmental criminology seeks to determine patterns of crime as related to the environments in which it occurs (Brantingham and Brantingham, 1981). That is why environmental criminology is seen by many to be the foundation of GIS crime mapping approaches. Crime in South Korea The crime rate in South Korea is considered low compared to other countries. A ccording to official data (Figure 2 1) Korea is known to be one of the safe st countries in which to live. As you can clearly see from the graph in Figure 2 1, Korea s crime rate is extremely low compared to other countries. Because of the existing data like this as well as publi c announcements made internationally that Korea is a safe country, people outside Korea would not be aware of significant safety issues it is facing

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3 2 The Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency announced (2011) tha t the number of crime incident ha s been increasi ng every year by a large amount. In 2008 there were 28,000 c ases (per population of 100,000) of burglary, but in 2010 this number jumped to 49,410 cases. This data express the importance of considering crime prevention measures. O ther data published by the Supreme Prosecutor s Office Korea (2011) show that a number of crime incidents are occurring in residential communities (Figure 2 2). T his means that living environment s for the citizens, which are presumed to be safe and sound, are not being protected pr operly. In addition to this, the main targets for the criminal offenders are changing from single family housings to high story apartment complexes which are the most common type of housing in Korea. Therefore, residents concern about safety issues is gro wing and w ill not go down unless there is clear evidence of sec urity within their communities. CPTED Related Studies in South Korea C ases of CPTED successfully reducing crime incidents in the United States and United Kingdom have led to many other countrie s to becoming interest ed in the crime prevention strategies Since the beginning of the 1990s, although considered to have low crime rates compared to other countries South Korea sponsored research to understand CPTED principles properly and seek the most efficient way to adopt it R ecently, the local government s and the authorities have started to adopt crime prevention strategies in the cities by carefully studying the problems of crime in Korean cities and adapting existing principles to effectively app ly to the Korean context The author divided CPTED related studies conducted by researchers in South Korea into several categories by their topics in order to more easily describe existing studies The categories are : crime space, crime environment, fear o f crime, crime

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33 prevention policy, safety concerns in residential com plexes, evaluating locations of residents fear of crime within their neighborhood and CCTV application. For the studies related to crime space, Y. K. Choi and I. Kang (1993) have analyze d the correlation between the fear of crime and its occurring location in residential complexes by evaluating the quality of lighting systems and other sp at ial elements that impact crime within the living spaces. This study concludes that not only does cri me itself fosters fear but also the surrounding environment is responsible for people s fear of crime. Another study categorized the places of crime occurrence, and speculat ed that physical environmental factors were responsible for crime incidents ( Y. Ch oi, 2000). R esearch related to crime environment was studied by K. Lee (1997), which evaluated the living environment s of Korean residential complexes and found a relationship with the criminals behavior. Fear of crime was studied and investigated by seve ral researchers. Y. Lee (2008), Y. Lee and H. Baek (2008), and H. Lee, J. Park, & M. Ha (2009) This research evaluated people s degree of fear of crime within their residential communities and created an index for planning and designing safe environment s for neighborhood s Also, women s fear of crime at specific areas such as underground parking lots was evaluated in order to develo p safe spatial planning strategies with appropriate CPTED applications (Y. Choi and H. Lim, 2005; J. P a rk, 2009). For studie s related to crime prevention policy, C. Pyo (2003) and H. Park (2003) have made efforts to systematize CPTED as a policy in the development of the cities, based on the ideas from criminology and public policy. Also, E. Lee, S. Kang, & K. Lee

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34 (2008) resear ched ways to develop standardize d CPTED that could be applied in the district unit plans by analyzing existing CPTED guidelines and crime prevention laws For research related to residential complex safety, the environment of the exterior space of the resi dential complexes and outdoor activities of residents were both studied to find out how the design elements of the exterior space and outdoor activities impact criminal offenders behavior (S. Kang and K. Lee, 2004; Y. Lee, 2008; K. Sung, I. Park, & H. Kim 2009). This research concludes that both physical site designs of the exterior area of the complex and residents lively outdoor activities affect the behavior of criminal offenders To explore the locations of residents fear of crime within communities Y. Choi and H. Lim (2005) have studi ed the residents response of their crime experiences and where they feel the most fear within their neighborhood They tried to find out whether the re was a correlation between fear of crime within the community and a ctual crime incidents. The residents responded that undergrou n d parking lot and dark isolated areas were the most fearful p laces within their neighborhood. However, the number of residents who actually experienced crime in those places was low L a stly, to study about the effectiveness of CCTV camera s in reducing crime, S. Kang (2009) evaluated the effectiveness of CCTV camera s in the residential complexes by inve s tigating residents awareness of CPTED strategies and how they fe l t about safety after cameras were being installed throughout the community This study concludes that most residents are aware of CCTV cameras now and they feel safer than when there were no cameras installed. In addi tion to these studies being conducted H. Park (2010) published a pa per titled Designing Out Crime in South Korea: Qualitative Analysis of Contemporary

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35 CPTED Related Issues This paper explores the route taken by South Korea in the last 18 years to develop an environmental approach to crime prevention, and furthermore il lustrates the growing interest and investment in CPTED by private enterprises and public poli cy makers, as well as discusses the challenges that architects, police and researchers face resulting from a series of local trials. This paper concludes that CPTE D application s have worked out effectively in South Korea so far in a way of developing livable and humane cities even though at this stage the scientific evidence is not sufficient to satisfy all the stakeholders. Therefore, it is crucial to conduct furt her experiments and action research to clear ly validate the efficacy of CPTED to satisfy all stakeholders, n ot just in terms of preventing crime, but also cost effective in both short and long term (H. Park, 2010). As described above, many research papers and projects were being published and performed by various researchers in South Korea in order to prevent crime incidents that are growing every day. As a result of these efforts, recently South Korean cities are adopting CPTED in newly developing towns fr om the planning stage. However, there is no clear evidence on the performance of CPTED in reducing crime in Korean residential communities This is probably because it has not been so long since its adoption. The author thinks that it is important to fi nd out the success of these applications of CPTED during the initial period of progress, before they get on the wrong track. This thesis will help guide future application s of CPTED through evaluating its success by compar ing the crime da ta between two towns. The idea for this method stems from a review of the fo llowing paper written by Armitage and Monchuk (2010).

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36 Sustaining the Crime Reduction Impact of Designing Out Crime: Re Evaluating Secured by Design (SBD) Housing in West Yorkshire Armitage and Monchuk s paper, Sustaining the Crime R e duction Impact of Designing Out Crime: Re evaluating the Secur ed by Design Scheme 10 Years On (2010) had a major impact on crime prevention research and practice. N ot many researchers have actually done pre and post crime prevention evaluation, even in England Only a few studies have evaluated its effect and success worldwide. There are four published articles that evaluate the effectiveness of the Secured by Design (SBD) strategies (Brown, 1999; Pascoe, 1999; Armitage, 20 00; Teedon a nd Reid, 2009), and eac h study concludes that SBD is to some degree effective in reducing crime. Secured by Design (SBD) is a term used in the United Kingdom in substituti on for CPTED. It is similar to CPTED in that it aims to encourage housing developers to design out crime at the planning or concept ual stage. The scheme is managed by the Association of Chief Police Officers Crime Prevention Initiatives (ACPO CPI) while day to day delivery of the scheme is conducted by Architectural Liaison Off icers (ALOs) or Crime Prevention Design Advisors (CPDAs) working for individual police forces throughout the United Kingdom (Armitage and Monchuk 2010). Armitage and Monchuk provide an evaluation of the effectiveness of SBD within West Yorkshire, England. The original study was conducted in West Yorkshire 10 years ago in 1999 by Rachel Armitage to find out the effect of SBD in the residential communities when it just started to be used. After 10 years, in 2009, a re evaluation study was planned and conduct ed in order to replicate the original evaluation of SBD to establish whether SBD ha d improved, maintained its performance or worked effectively

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37 as a crime prevention measure. The original paper was conduct ed with three types of methods. First, it compared 25 pairs of houses (25 SBD and 25 non SBD developments) to see whether there was a significant difference in the crime rates within these pairs of houses using police recorded crime data. Second, it used a survey in th e same 25 examples to ask residents a bout their personal experience s of crime, their fear of crime, and their perception of crim e and disorder. This was done using face to f ace interview s The f inal method of the original evaluation looked at whether SBD was improving as a standard were hou ses built more recently performing better than older ones? (Armitage and Monchuk, 2010) In order to r e evaluat e the previous research in an attempt to assess the long term sustainability of crime reduction impacts of SBD, Armitage and Monchuk utilized sev eral types of methods and data sets in this work. They used police recorded crime data, self reported crime (residents survey s ) and visual audits by the author s (Armitage and Monchuk, 2010). The main purpose of using a variety of methods and data sets was to find: (1) whether SBD properties experience less crime than non SBD properties, (2) whether residents living in SBD properties have lower levels of fear of crime than non SBD counterparts, (3) whether SBD developments show less visual signs of disorder than non SBD developments, and (4) whether SBD has maintained its effectivenes s as a crime reduction measure (Monchuk and Armitage, 2010) The results suggested that SBD performed effectively in reducing crime because the crime rates in SBD properties cam e out to be lower than that of non SBD properties

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38 although the study focused only on the burglary rates. Self reported surveys showed that twice as many non SBD residents than SBD residents experienced a crime within the previous year. Also, for all crime categories, the proportion of SBD respondents experiencing the crime was lower in the SBD sample. Through the visual audits by the authors, they found out that SBD sample scored lower than non SBD sample in the score sheet developed by the authors, in whi ch lower score meant less crime This result suggests that in relation to the disorder factors measured by the visual audit, SBD performed better than non SB D (Armitage and Monchuk, 2010). The final conclusion for this study was; (1) to be complacent abo ut the merits of any crime prevention measure is to ignore the evolving nature of crime, (2) SBD has continued to reduce crime and the fear of crime and SBD estates show less signs of visual disorder, and (3) the effectiveness of SBD developments built mor e recently has exceeded that shown in the original evaluation (Armitage and Monchuk, 2010) After reviewing this article by Armitage and Monchuk (2010), the author understood the necessity of a comparative evaluation study where CPTED is being utilized as a tool for preventing crime This is because detecting the problems in the ear lier stage would be helpful in amending principles and polic ies. Therefore, this thesis may provide valuable data for evaluating the current application of CPTED in the newly de veloped towns in South Korea. The following chapter will introduce the methodologies used by the author in acquiring necessary data and information to complete this thesis.

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39 Increasing the efforts Increasing the risks Reduce the rewards Reduce provocatio ns Remove the excuses 1. Harden targets Immobilizers in cars Anti robbery screens Solid external doors with quality locks 6. Extend guardianship Cocooning Neighborhood watch 11. Conceal targets Do not keep valuables in plain sight Off street parking 16. Reduce frustration & stress Efficient queuing Soothing lighting 21. Set rules R ental agreements Hotel registration 2. Control access to facilities Alley gating Entry phones/secure entries 7. Assist natural surveillance Improved street lightin g Neighborhood watch hotlines 12. Remove targets Removable car radios Pre paid public phone cards 17. Avoid disputes Reduce crowding in pubs Fixed cab fares 22. Post instructions No parking Private property 3. Screen exits Tickets needed Elec tronic tags for floor stock 8. Reduce anonymity Taxi driver IDs How s my driving? signs 13. Identify property Property marking Vehicle licensing 18. Reduce emotional arousal Control violent pornography Prohibit paedophiles working with children 2 3. Alert conscience Roadside speed display signs Shoplifting is stealing 4. Deflect offenders Street closures in red light district Separate toilets for women 9. Utilize place managers Train employees to prevent crime Support whistle blowers 14. Disrupt markets Checks on pawn brokers Licensed street vendors 19. Neutralize peer pressure Campaigns depicting what friends think of risk taking behavior (e.g. Speeding & Drug campaign ) It s ok to say no 24. Assist compliance Litter bins Public lav atories 5. Control tools/weapons Tougher beer glasses Photo on credit cards 10. Strengthen formal surveillance Speed cameras Security guards 15. Deny benefits Ink merchandise tags Graffiti cleaning 20. Discourage imitation Rapid vandalism repair V chips in TVs 25. Control drugs/alcohol Breathalyzers in pubs Alcohol free events Figure 2 1. Twenty five techniques of situational crime prevention. ( Source: Cornish and Clarke, 2003 )

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40 Figure 2 2 Cases of burglary per 100,000 population. (Source: T he Institute for the Study of Civil Society, www.civitas.org.uk/crime/ ) Figure 2 3 Proportion of burglary cases in the residential areas. (Source: Supreme Prosecutor s Office Korea, www.spo.go.kr )

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41 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY In this chapter we clarify the methods used to conduct the current research and describe how the resea rch results were achieved. We utilized several types of both qualitative and quantitative methods. Visual audits and self reported examination w ere completed b y the author using a checklist and survey paper developed by the author Also, police recorded crime data for three consecutive years (2009 ~ 2011) were analyzed. The official police data were or ganiz ed and provided by O fficer Gyeongseok Oh a Lieutenant in the Gyeonggi Provincial Police Agency I n addition to these methods, short interview s were completed with Dr. Hyeonho Park who has assist ed the author throughout the thesis process, and police lieutenant Gyeongseok Oh, who helped the auth or collect necessary crime data to get some ideas and thoug hts from people who actually have experienced crime and deal t with CPTED in their jobs. The context of the interviews is provided in Appendix C. The a uthor d id field research in South Korea specifically in Pangyo New T own a nd Yatap T own, to collect these data during the summer break. Visual Audit The v isual audit took place at the selected residen tial communities within Pangyo New T ow n and Yatap T own. The selection of the communities for the visual audit was randomly picked from the list of communities drawn out from the real estate website ( Budongsan 114 www.r114.co.kr ) This makes the auditing process fair and re duces bias from any elements. The name of the two complexes selected in Pangyo New Town were Humansia Prugio Apartment Complex in Pangyo won Village Community No.3 and No. 5 and t wo apartment complexes selected in Yatap Town were Dongbu Kolon

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42 Apartment Complex and Hyundai Apartment Complex in Jangm i Village Community No.1 and No.8 The visual audit took place over a 2 day period, with all four apartment complexes visited on the same day for approximately 8 hours (from 12 pm to 8 pm). On the fi rst day, the author visited two apartment complexes in Pangyo New T own first and then finishe d at two apartment complexes in Yatap T own. The schedule for the second day was reversed, starting from Yatap and then finishing in Pangyo. The reason for changing the orde r s of the visit was to observe situations of the towns during both the day and night The definition of the visual audit in this thesis is a direct visit to each community by the author to observe the actual status of CPTED principles (natural surveillance access control, territorial reinforcement, and maintenance) applied in the newly developed residential complexes This allowed the author to achieve a personal impression of the security and compare the difference of the design elements utilized within t he two towns. This method was performed by walking through each community at bo th day and night time, and observing both safety proc edures such as CCTVs and lighting fixtures, and dangerous factors such as dark and unmanaged spaces To conduct a visual a udit, a checklist to examine CP TED principles was used. The checklist is provided at the Appendix section and t his will be discussed in detail in the next section under self reported examination Pictures were carefully taken by the author as the eviden ce of the audit. The visual audit was followed by a self reported examination by the author. This includes checking CPTED principles in Pangyo New T own with a CPTED audit checklist developed by the author to determine whether it is efficiently used, and compl eting the CPTED post audit

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43 evaluation worksheet after the audit, al so provided by the author. A sample of the checklist and worksheet are attached in the Appendix section for reference. S e lf Reported Examination In addition to the visual audit of the site, the author conducted the self reported examination during the visit to the communities. The examination w as performed with two different evaluation papers. The f irst paper is the CPTED Audit C hecklist which allowed the aut hor to examine applied CPTED p rinciples within the residential complexes used in this research This is a modified version of the checklist that has been used in the CPTED Guidelines for Seoul New Town Development Plan developed by the City of Seoul and the National Police Agency Thi s was reformulated into a simpler version and adapt ed to this research. The modified version of the checklist is provided at the Appendix section. This modified checklist (Appendix A) looks at ten different ar eas in the community and some CPTED principles that should be applied in that area to meet the Korean standard developed by Korean Agency for Technology and Standards (2008) For each category a score between 0 and 5 was awarded, 5 being the most positive and 0 being the most negative. Then at the e nd of each category, total scores were calculat ed and a nalyzed to learn whether CPTED principles were applied efficiently to fulfill the standard After examining the principles, the author completed the self survey paper CPTED P ost Audit Evaluation Workshee t (Appendix B) This worksheet wa s also developed by the autho r to observe general impressions of the site. Th is worksheet is adopted from the CPTED Guidelines for Queensland which was created by the Queensland government in Australia (2005) to use it in the evaluation of CPTED during a safety

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44 audit. We modified and simplified t his worksheet for the current research t o be used after the visual audit of the site. The modified worksheet basically asks the observer about general impression s of the sites, how well each CPTED principles are applied, and for any suggestions for identified problems There were no poi nts scored for this worksheet, but ea ch category was evaluated by a scale of poor, bad, fair, good, and excellent. Analysis of Police Recorded Crime Data To judge the effectiveness of the CPTED strategy as a crime reducing measure in the residential complexes, police recorded crime data was the most critical type of data analyzed The author hypothesiz ed that if the crime rates for the CPTED town s and non CPTED town s differ significantly, this will be a good indicator of CPTED s effectiveness in reducing crime. With considerable help from L ieutenant Gyeongseok Oh, the author was able to acquire necessary data. S ince this thesis aims to compare the crime rates for the two different towns th e police recorded crime data were needed for both of the towns. The period of analysis was three consecutive year s (Jan. 2009 ~ Dec. 2011), because people did not begin to move into Pangyo New T own until the end of 200 8. Thus, we chose these three years of crime data to be used for the analysis T he categories included in the police recorded crime data were five major crimes in Korea : murder, robbery, burglary violence and sexual violence. Some of the categories seem a bit confusing since they are defin ed differently worldwide (GRHS, 2007) V iolence includes threatening, damage to property, bodily harm, and assault. Burglary in the collected data includes stealing valuables by break ing in to houses and car s car thef t, bike theft, shopli fting, and pick pocketing These definitions were provided by Lieutenant Oh of the Gyeonggi Provincial Police Agency

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45 I n this thesis, burglary was considered as the focal crime activity for analysis since the literature notes that it i s the most frequent property crime in Korea and the most serious property crime worldwide Other types of crimes are considered not as accurate as the burglary because they are not reported as frequently to the police The total numbers of these crime inci dents were then converted into rates per 100,000 people for both CPTED and non CPTED communities. Next c alculat ed crime rates were compared between both towns with further analysis of statistical significance ( i.e. ANOVA ) In order to calculate the crime data in to rates per 100,000 people, population data were also collected from the district office of each town. T he data were then classified into 11 different age groups to find out the distribution of the population. This was an important procedure in det ermining the proportion of young male s who are considered the most likely group to be crime offenders. Even though many people suggest that criminal activities are committed by intruders from other areas, it was considered to be worthwhile to check the re lationship between the number of young male s dwelling in the province and the frequency of crime incidents. Short Interviews A s a means of gathering thoughts and ideas on experts experiences and perceptions of cri me and its prevention schemes, short inter view s with two people are included in the thesis However, t he interview s were not scheduled ahead with arranged questions. They were casual conversation s between Dr. Hyeonho Park and the author and between L ieutenan t Gyeongseok Oh and the author. The fir st i nterview took place at the Institute of Crime Science office where Dr. Park is the director. The institute is located within the department of police administration in Yong in University, in South Korea, which is not far from the study

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46 sites used in th is research. T he discussion took approximately 2 hours, and the main objective of the conversation was to hear about his experience s with crime and his efforts to adopt CPTED in Korea Dr. Park is an expert in the field of crime prevention and studied CPTE D at the University of Portsmouth. His background is in police administration and criminal justice with a concentration in CPTED, and he is a reco gnized expert in crime science, especially in CPTED. Interview ing Dr. P a rk allowed the author to understand in depth about the world of CPTED and also gain a perspective on the future of Korea relative to crime prevention The seco nd interview was with L ieutenant Gyeongseok Oh. H owever, this interview only lasted fo r approximately half an hour. O fficer Oh works at the Gyeonggi Provincial Police Agency. He expressed his thoughts on the application of CPTED in the residential complexes in Korea from a police officer s point of view He also provided insight into how other colleagues think about CPTED as a crime preve ntion measure. Limitations Th e author experienced a few limitations while conducting this research. The se limitations appeared d uring the visual audit and while comparing the data between the two towns The time and days spent during the visual audit did n ot seem sufficient to fully observe effects of CPTED. Also, the author acknowledges that the time of year he observed the se communities can affect the audit This is because in summer, the re is much more daylight than in winter. Since the auditing time was between 12 pm and 8pm, it was still bright enough to walk around the site with just a small number of street lights close to finishing time. But during winter season, it would be expected to be darker close to finishing time, so the effect of lighting sys tems install ed would be observed more clearly.

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47 Another limitation was the lack of man power for the visual audit. The whole procedure was conducted solely by the author If more people we re involved in the audit multiple observation s of the site would be p ossible, and th e data collected could be more extensive Since the audit was only done by the author, so me observations may be biased to achieve the expected results for the research although all attempts were made to be impartial Other limitation s arose while data were compared between the two towns First, even though the number of population for both towns was similar, the geographical size of the two towns was different. The geographical size and the population for both towns are provided in Chapter 1 under Brief Description of Two Towns Furthermore, some variables such as income levels and employment status were unable to be retriev ed because they were not open to public Since the income levels and employment status which we re considered to be indicator s of wealth were not available to the public, the housing value was considered as a good indi cator to identify and compare relative wealth. This is considered as an importan t factor too because one could make the assumption that the prosperity le vel in residential complex es may correlate with the crime rate However, difference s in housing values between the two towns did not tell the status of wealth due to other factors that determine housing preference of the residents This will be discussed i n Chapter 5 in detail. The following chapter will describe the outcomes of the research and analyze these observed results. This will allow the readers to understand whether CPTED ha s actually performed effective ly.

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48 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND ANALYSI S This cha pter illustrates the findings of the research relating to the methodology discussed in the previous section. The results of the site visit and the impressions observed during the site survey are included in this chapter in detail. The context of the checkl ist and worksheets used for the site survey were review ed by Dr. Hyeonho Park before the visit, and the collected crime data and necessary information were also review ed afterwards. The results for each methodology will be supported by necessary eviden ce s uch as pictures and worksheets, and the context of the interviews conducted. Visual Audit Pangyo New Town A s illustrated at the beginning of the thesis, Pangyo was approved for development in 2001 to solve the demand for housing shortage problems in Gangna m (a district located in the South side of Seoul which is suffering from environmental problems and over population) and central Bundang (a district l ocated in Seongnam, Gyeonggi province which was developed to alleviate the excessive demand for apartments in the similarly afflu ent, but much older Gangnam). As such, the residential complexes were designed as high story apartment buildings to accommodate more dwellers in town. The name of the two complexes selected were P angyo won Village Community No.3 and N o. 5 ( Humansia Prugio is the name of the apartment complex ). There are 486 units and 5 buildings (each with 35 stories) in Community No.3, and 567 units and 7 buildings (each with 35 stories) in Community No.5. Figures 4 1 and 4 2 are provided to show the site plan s of Pangyo won Village Community No.3 and No.5, and its surrounding areas.

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49 When the author arrived at the compl ex, the first thing confront ed was the gated entrance with the emblem of the complex clearly visible near the gate (Figure 4 3 ) This expressed territoriality Permission was required to enter the complex by submitting an identification card to the security officer and explaining the purpose of the visit. The author explained that the visit was to conduct a visual survey and take a numbe r of pictures of the complex for the purpose of research However, in order to take pictures, prior permission was also needed by the authorities at the main office of the complex. The first impression of this community was that it was strict and the CP TED principle of access co ntrol ( Chapter 2 for the definition) was clearly noticeable. The audit started from the underground parking lot. Two or three parking spaces for disabled individuals and emergency vehicles were available on the ground level of eac h building (Figure 4 11 ) but all other parking spaces were provided underground. Numerous lighting sy stems and CCTVs were easily noticed as the author entered the parking lot. Plenty of spaces were avail able with clear directions, space numbers, and exit signs printed where people could see without difficulty. The elevator hall was located underground within the parking lot so residents could go to their homes directly from where they leave their vehicles using the pass code or access card (Figure 4 10 ) H owever, the author had to go out through the vehicle exit because he did not have an access card or any acquaintance l iving in the apartment. Immediately exiting the parking lot, well designed and planned pavement and trees were easily observed The materi al and the color of the pavement expressed that it was for pedestrians only, and the curved pathways naturally guided pe ople through the complex.

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50 Since there were no vehicles going through the com plex, it seemed very clean and safe The trees and shrubs pl anted along the pathways looked very organized and well managed. It was not difficult to find my way around the complex, since sign boards (Figure 4 15 ) w ere located in several places. The bicycle racks were located close to the building entr ance (Figure 4 17 ) so the bicycl es could be easily seen by residents both from inside and outside their homes Children s playground, resting areas and other recreational spaces were located in the center of the complex and surrounded by the apartment b uildings. This allowed clear visibility from residents homes in terms of natural surveillance, and also could naturally attract people to come out and use the area As the author walked through the complex, nicely designed lighting systems and CCTV cameras (Figure 4 14 and 4 19 ) were installed in many location s in order to avoid dark areas after sunset for the security purpose. Tables and chairs, benches, various sculptures, and promenade walking tracks made the complex feel human friendly and allowed resident s to gathe r at certain places. T his c ould naturally allow the neighbors to get familiarized with each other, which will help spot the strangers. Short trees surrounding the buildings with equal distances apart and no blind spots in between the buildings eliminate d hiding points for stealthy criminals Another peculiar feature noticed during the audit was that the gas pipes outside each building were covered with specially designed stainless (Figure 4 26 ) covers in order to prevent burglars from using these pipes to climb up and enter the houses ( this is a common method of break ing into high story apartment buildings in South Korea ).

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51 The overall impression of the community was that it was well managed, clean, bright colored, human friendly and of course safe While conducting the visual audit, t he author realize d how much of an effort ha s been concentrated on the development of the community and how serious many involved authorities and experts were in considering the well being of the residents Although the applic ation of CPTED principles is not yet perfect we speculate that it looks like a good start With minor improvement s of its principles new town developments in the future c ould benefit fr om its impacts. Figure 4 1. Site plan of Pangyo won Vi llage Community No.3. (Source: Budongsan 114, www.r114.co.kr ). APT 1 Playground Main Entrance APT 2 APT 3 APT 4 APT 5 Community Center Pond Neighborhood Facility Community Garden Green Space

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52 Figure 4 2. Site plan of Pangyo won Village Community No.5. (Source: Budongsan 114, www.r114.co.kr ). Figure 4 3 View of the main entrance to Pangyo won Village Community No.3 and No.5 Humansia Prugio with emblem Photograph by author. APT 1 APT 2 APT 3 APT 4 APT 5 APT 6 APT 7 Elementary School Playground Community Center Playground Main Entrance Community Center

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53 Figure 4 4 Security janitor s office at the entrance. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 5 Gated entrance. P ho tograph by author.

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54 Figure 4 6 Entrance to underground parking lot. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 7 Direction signs and caution alarm at underground parking lot. P hotograph by author.

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55 Figure 4 8 Underground parking lot. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 9 CCTV camera installed in underground parking lot. P hotograph by author.

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56 Figure 4 10 Elevator hall entrance at underground parking lot P hotograph by author. Figure 4 11 Parking spaces for the disabled and emergency vehicles. P hot ograph by author.

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57 Figure 4 12 Curved pavement for pedestrians. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 1 3 Different material and color of the pavement and bollards express the territoriality. P hotograph by author.

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58 Figure 4 14 D esigned lighting syste ms installed along the pavement. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 15 Guide and information map of the complex. P hotograph by author.

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59 Figure 4 16 Location of the m ain entrance of the apartment building allow s for good surveillance from windows P hot ograph by author. Figure 4 1 7 Bicycl e racks located in front of apartment building. P hotograph by author.

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60 Figure 4 1 8 Resting area and children s playground located in center of the complex. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 1 9 CCTV camera and street light. P hotograph by author.

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61 Figure 4 20 Tables and chairs for residents. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 21 Benches provided for residents. P hotograph by author.

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62 Figure 4 22 Sculptures are located throughout the complex to provide war m and friendly atmosphere P hotograph by author. Figure 4 23 Trees surrounding the buildings. Photograph by author.

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63 Figure 4 24 Entrance of emergency safety shelter. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 2 5 Waste disposal located under a shelter wi th lighting system installed beside. P hotograph by author.

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64 Figure 4 26 Gas pipes covered with specially designed covers to prevent burglars from climb ing up. Photograph by author.

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65 Yatap Town Yatap is one of the oldest neighborhood s in the Bundang dist rict in the city of Seoungnam, Gyeo nggi province. It is divided into three villages which are named Yatap 1 dong, Yatap 2 dong, and Yatap 3 dong (a dong is the lowest administrative unit of a district and of a city which is not divided into wards). Yata p was one of the first set s of t owns planned and developed within the Bundang district approximately 20 years ago. The proximity to Seoul convenience of public transportation, and quality of education are main reason s why people reside in this town for lo ng period s without moving out to other places Two complexes selected for the audit were the Dongbu Kolon Apartment Complex in Jangmi Village Community No. 1 and Hyundai Apartment Complex in Jangmi Village Community No.8 There are 1134 units and 21 bui ldings ( each with 17 storie s) in Dongbu Kolon Apartment Complex, and 1083 units and 18 buildings ( each with 16 storie s) in Hyundai Apartment Complex. Figure 4 27 presents brief outline of the site plan of the two selected apartment com plexe s in Yatap T own. I t took approximately 15 minutes for the author to drive from Pangyo New T own to arrive at Yatap T own Traffic was not a significant problem in this district compared to Seoul where almost everywhere is suffering from traffic congestions The roads i n Yatap Town were wider with fewer vehicles on the streets. When th e author arrived at the complex selected for the audit the gate was closed with a security officer present. However, it was surprisi ng that as s oon as the author approached the gate the o fficer immediately opened the g ate without checking for identification or asking about the purpose of the visit.

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66 Two words to describe t he first impressi on on this apartment complex are murky and negligence The sense of tranquility and security which the author had received when visiting Pangyo were not present in this complex Since there were no emblems that express the apartment at th e entrance, there were no noticeable sign s of territoriality The first thing the author had noticed about this compl ex was that the re were too many trees and bushe s surrounding the buildings (Figure 4 29 ) A lthough a bundant vegetation allowed for a natural and green atmosphere throughout the complex, too many tall trees and thick bushes were blocking the view for natura l surveillance. Trees that covered the entrances and the windows on the first floor of the apartment buildings looked very distracting and messy. There were signs that the plants were managed, but the ir volume was too great and need ed more careful consider ation of the ir distribution (Figure 4 30 ~ 4 32 ) Many trees and building structures made shades and dark corners which could be used as hiding spots for criminal offenders. Some features that are considered to be CPTED principles were observed, such as lighting fixture s and CCTVs (Figure 4 3 5 ) However, these elements seemed very antique and did not reflect any specific design concept that harmonize d with the whole complex Streetlights were installed in certain areas but the number of lamps was too smal l and the condition of the lamps was poor. Unli ke Pangyo, there were parking spaces on the ground level. So, m any vehicles were going through the complex and small pedestrian walkways were provided along the side of the streets. To solve the lack of parkin g spaces on the ground level, underground parking lots were also provided. Small lamps were attached along the wall of the entrance of the parking lot, but they were not sufficient enough to fully light up the

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67 area (Figure 4 40 ~ 4 42 ) The impression of t he underground parking lot was that it was damp, dark, and unpleasant. The floor w as partially wet and whole area was not bright enough to feel comfortable or safe A couple of CCTV cameras were installed near the entrance but the ir locations did no t seem to be effective in monitor ing possible dangerous situations that could occur in the parking lot. Shadowed dead spots were noticed which could be a hiding po int for the criminal offenders. An important problem of underground parking lots in old fashioned a partment complexes is that there is no direct elevator hall to residents homes. A s mall opening with stairs is provided for people to enter and exit the parking lot (Figure 4 43 ) but this staircase did not seem to be managed properly. The automatic senso r light did not work when walked through so it was very dark (Figure 4 4 4 ) The next feature observed was the entrance of the apartment buildings. The access to each building was not difficult since there were no special pass code or RFID cards needed to enter the building. Large transparent doors were left opened most of the times (Figure 4 4 5 ) As the author looked around the complex, an isolated space where garbage and thrown away goods were piled was observed. This area was considered the most serious spot within the complex because t hings like trash, broke n furniture, chopped trees, and used paper s were all stacked in this area, while only o ne lighting fixture was present which was unclean and useless in light ing up this space (Figure 4 4 8 ) This are a was totally isolated from the complex without any management, so we speculate that delinquent students c ould possibly use this spot as their secret gathering place.

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68 The purpose of t he visual audit was to identify existing problems so we could solve them in advance Therefore, the author inevitably primarily search ed for problems in the two Yatap T own complexes, even though several positive measure s to prevent crime were also noticed. Figure 4 27. Site plan of Jangmi Village Community No.1 a nd No.8. (Source: Budongsan 114, www.r114.co.kr ). Dongbu Kolon Apartment Hyundai Apartment Elementary School Bus Terminal Junior High School Jangmi Village Community No.1 Jangmi Village Community No.8

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69 Figure 4 2 8 Main ent rance of apartment complex in Yatap T own. Photograph by author. Figure 4 2 9 V iew of the street inside the complex. P hotograph by author.

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70 Figure 4 30 Tall trees are planted beside the buildings throughout the complex. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 31 Street lamp and overgrown vegetation. P hotograph by author.

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71 Figure 4 32 O vergrown vegetation. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 33 S tructure in front of the window of first floor. P hotograph by author.

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72 Figure 4 3 4 Window of the basement of apartment building. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 3 5 S ecurity janitor s office, CCTV camera and street lamp. P hotograph by author.

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73 Figure 4 3 6 Rest area for residents. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 3 7 Benches and shelter s for residents. P hotograph by author.

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74 Figure 4 3 8 Children s playground is located in an isolated spac e. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 3 9 Trees in front of the building block the view from homes. P hotograph by author.

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75 Figure 4 40 Vehicle entrance to underground parking lot. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 41 CCTV cameras installed in underground parking lot. P hotograph by author.

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76 Fig ure 4 42 V iew of underground parking lot. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 4 3 Staircase to underground parking lot. P hotograph by author.

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77 Figure 4 4 4 Broken automatic sensor light. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 4 5 Entrance of apartment build ing. P hotograph by author.

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78 Figure 4 4 6 Trees and shrubs near the building entrance are blocking the view. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 4 7 Isolated area where garbage a nd other thrown away materials a re stacked. P hotograph by author.

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79 Figure 4 4 8 Unclean lamp. P hotograph by author. Figure 4 4 9 This place looks dangerous and not managed. P hotograph by author.

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80 Self Reported Examination I n addition to the visual audit of the two towns, self reported examination was conducted as a site asses sment in order to support the visible observation of the two areas by the author. The s elf reported examination includes : (1) CPTED audit checklist and (2) CPTED post audit evaluation worksheet. S amples of these are provided in th e Appendix section as a re ference. The main purpose of the site assessment was to emphasize existing safety factors in the communities determine measures and design elements which will enhance the safety of the residents and to identify design elements that are responsible for po tential criminal activities. The outcomes from the site assessment could be used to support suggestion s for identified problems The CPTED audit checklist contains a list of required CPTED principles for each location with separate sections to score points and check its existence. The score is giv en by the author at a scale of 0 to 5, 0 being the most negative and 5 being the most positive. I f the author recognized the sign of CPTED, it is checked on the last section. Ten different areas were designated as the observation locations within the complexes. Sample check list is presented in Appendix A to show the readers the areas being observed and the required principles Table s 4 1 and 4 2 show the results of the CPTED audit cond ucted in four complexes in Pang yo and Yatap. The overall score difference betwe en the two complexes in Pangyo New Town and the two towns in Yatap T own clearly showed that the new town possessed more element s that expr ess safety measures. Again, result s may be subjective since the points were scored entirely by the author but he tried to stay neutral. The average score was 228 out of 290 in Pangyo, and 130 in Yatap. The higher score in Pangyo tells

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81 us that it considered safet y measures in the CPTED guidelines. Also, Pangyo satisfied the average of 53 principles out of 58 suggested principles in the guideline, where Yatap only satisfied 23 of the principles. The result shows that in the new town development plan, the developers considered crime prevention schemes significantly in order to increase the residents quality of life by designing the dwellings to be safe and sound. Since one of the major concerns of choosing the houses is safety, it could be anticipated that people would favor the newly developed complexes with CPTED. After audit ing the site using the provided checklist the author completed the CPTED post audit evaluation worksheet in order to assess the two towns in terms of sense of security. This worksheet asks the researcher s observation and feelings of the visited sites in eleven different topics. Several questions were included under these topics beginning with the general impressions of the site. The topics included lighting, signage, sightlines, isolation, movement predictors entrapment sites, escape routes, activity use s, maintenance, and territorial definition. The questions were answered by checking five perceptions: Poor, Bad, Fair, Good, and Excellent. Some of the questions asked for yes or no answer s or specific descriptions. Table 4 3 and 4 4 show the total and th e average number of each perception recorded for all four apartment complexes visited. The average number of positive perceptions which are excellent and good in Pangyo was 11.5 and 13 consecutively, while it was 0 and 0.5 i n Yatap. On the other hand, the average number of negative perceptions which are bad and poor in Pangyo was both 0, while it was 16 and 8.5 consecutively in Yatap. Although the result

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82 is based on the researcher s observation, one could conclude that the CPTED principles applied i n Pangyo New T own a re in a close relationship with increas ing the residents sense of security However, the visual audits and the evaluation worksheet s completed after the audit do not fully provide much proof as to whether or not CPTED is actually perfor ming well in reducing c rime incidents in residential complexes. It is too hasty to form a conclusion with just observation and feeling. Therefore, the crime data collected by the police are retriev ed in order to provide eviden ce to support the research and hopefully draw an expected result. Analysis of the Police Recorded Crime Data The major method utilized in this research to evaluate the ef fectiveness of CPTED in Pangyo New T own was the analysis and comparison of the police recorded crime data. These dat a are valuable and could be provided as evidence of effectiveness of CPTED. As highlighted in the methodology section, the crime data for both Pangyo New Town and Yatap T own was retrieved from the police for three consecutive years (2009 ~ 2011). The data includes the number of incidents occurred in each year in each town for five major crime types. Table 4 5 shows the co llected crime data The five major types of crime in the collected data are: murder, robbery, burglary, violence, and sexual violence. The se types of crimes are the major crime activities occurring in South Korea class ified and defined by the police As you can see from the provided table except for the robbery case s in 2011, Yatap experienced more crime incidents than Pangyo during the per iod between 2009 and 2011 In this thesis, the burglary rate will only be com pared for the analysis since burglary is the most frequent incident and concern in the residential complexes. Again,

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83 burglary includes stealing valuables by breaking into houses a nd cars, car theft, bike theft, shopli fting, and pick pocketing From the data in the T able 4 5, the total number of burglary cases is converted into rates per 100,000 people and then compared between both towns in order to find out the difference in burgl ary rates ANOVA in SPSS is used to find out whether t his difference is statistically significant. Table 4 6 presents the converted burglary rates per 100,000 people for both Pangyo and Yatap. As presented above in Table 4 6, the burglary rates in Yatap, w here CPTED is not applied, were significantly higher than that of Pangyo where CPTED was concerned and applied from the planning stage of the development. T he difference between the burglary rates between Pangyo New Town and Yatap T own were found to be sta tistically significant (ANOVA, P <0.05). Table 4 7 presents the overall number of crime cases and crime rate in South Korea to explain how high Yatap Town s crime rate is compared to Pangyo New Town The police recorded crime data was considered the key fa ctor in determi ning the effect of CPTED in residential complexes. C omparing the practical data actually collected by the po lice would be reliable evidence to support the hypothesis made in the beginning of this research that CPTED is effective in reducing crime rates in residential complexes in South Korea Although the data suggests that the crime rate in the apartment complex es in Pangyo New T own is low er than the complexes in Yatap T own, the result should be treated with care when generaliz ed since the number of samples chosen to be evaluated was small and other factors such as societal or economical issues that could

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84 impact crime rates were not considered. Th e findings from this section do indicate some evidence for the success of CPTED in residential c ommunities Table 4 1. Result of CPTED audit in Pangyo New Town Areas Total Score in Pangyo A Number of Yes s in Pangyo A Total Score in Pangyo B Number of Yes s in Pangyo B 1. Main Entrance 33(35) 7(7) 33(35) 7(7) 2. Sub Entrance 23(35) 6(7) 25(35) 6(7) 3. Apartment Building 19(30) 4(6) 20(30) 4(6) 4. Security Janitor s Room 16(25) 4(5) 16(25) 4(5) 5. Fences & Hedges 20(25) 5(5) 21(25) 5(5) 6. Subsidiary Facilities 20(20) 4(4) 20(20) 4(4) 7. Parking Lot 42(55) 10(11) 41(55) 10(11) 8. Elevator 1 5(20) 4(4) 15(20) 4(4) 9. Apartment Corridor/Staircase 20(20) 4(4) 20(20) 4(4) 10. Exterior Gas Pipes 19(25) 5(5) 18(25) 5(5) Total 227(290) 53(58) 229(290) 53(58) Note: ( ) indicates the maximum value. Table 4 2. Result of CPTED audit in Yatap Town Areas Total Score in Yatap A Number of Yes s in Yatap A Total Score in Yatap B Number of Yes s in Yatap B 1. Main Entrance 15(35) 3(7) 14(35) 3(7) 2. Sub Entrance 16(35) 5(7) 16(35) 5(7) 3. Apartment Building 11(30) 3(6) 10(30) 3(6) 4. Security Janit or s Room 8(25) 1(5) 9(25) 1(5)

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85 Table 4 2. Continued Areas Total Score in Yatap A Number of Yes s in Yatap A Total Score in Yatap B Number of Yes s in Yatap B 5. Fences & Hedges 12(25) 2(5) 10(25) 2(5) 6. Subsidiary Facilities 11(20) 0(4) 11(20) 0(4) 7. Parking Lot 22(55) 2(11) 23(55) 2(11) 8. Elevator 10(20) 2(4) 10(20) 2(4) 9. Apartment Corridor/Staircase 15(20) 4(4) 14(20) 4(4) 10. Exterior Gas Pipes 11(25) 1(5) 11(25) 1(5) Total 131(290) 23(58) 129(290) 23(58) Note: ( ) indicates the maximum value. Table 4 3 Result of post audit evaluation Perception Pangyo Complex A Pangyo Complex B Yatap Complex A Yatap Complex B Excellent 11 12 0 0 Good 13 13 0 1 Fair 6 5 5 5 Bad 0 0 17 15 Poor 0 0 8 9 Table 4 4. Average of the results Perception Pangyo Yatap Excellent 11 .5 0 Good 13 0 .5 Fair 5.5 5 Bad 0 1 6 Poor 0 8.5

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86 Table 4 5. Police recorded crime data for 5 majo r crime types (2009 ~ 2011) Year Type of Crime Pangyo Yatap 2009 Murder Robbery Burglary Violence S e xual Violence 0 0 125 96 7 1 12 383 378 29 2 010 Murder Robbery Burglary Violence S e xual Violence 0 0 118 140 5 0 3 336 259 34 2011 Murder Robbery Burglar y Violence S e xual Violence 1 3 148 148 6 3 0 245 301 34 Source: Gyeonggi Provincial Police Agency Table 4 6. Burglary rates per 100,000 people Year Pangyo (No. of cases) Pangyo (Rate) Yatap (No. of cases) Yatap (Rate) Significant difference 2009 125 28 2.25 383 527.09 P <0.05 2010 118 177.02 336 466.19 P <0.05 2011 148 189.38 245 344.96 P <0.05 Table 4 7. Overall number of crime cases and crime rate in South Korea (2009 ~ 2011) Year Overall Number of Crime Cases Overall Crime Rate 2009 256,680 516 20 10 268,007 524 2011 281,561 555 Source: Supreme Prosecutor s Office Korea, www.spo.go.kr

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87 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION This thesis was initially planned and designed to address the effectiveness of CPTED applied in the new t own developed in South Korea by comparing the crime rates between the two selected towns and conducting visual audits. It was anticipated that comparing the crime rates between the CPTED town and non CPTED town would support its performance as a crime prev ention measure. Also, through this research the author expected to investigate the problems of the current application of CPTED and consequently provide suggestions to improve its performance. New Town Development in South Korea New town developments in Korea began in 1960s when there was a dramatic population growth in the capital city and need for industrial development. Therefore, the Korean government decided to develop the outskirt areas to decentralize the growing population and also create industri al districts ready f or economic growth. However, more active new town developments occurred in the early 1990s. This was named the 1 st generation new town and they were a set of new tow n s concentrated solely on transportation access, convenience of living, high quality education opportunities, and housing. Since, the m ain focus and the initial idea were to solve housing shortag e problems in the capital city, there were no specific considerations on preventing anticipated crime incidents. The new design conc epts for the new communities made some areas vulnerable for criminal activities such as burglary, robbery, rape, and violence. In th e early 2000s, due to the rise of crime incidents and their seriousness, the police agencies and the local governments plan ned a new type of town development

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88 named the 2 nd generation new towns which considered safety concerns for the residents. In July, 2005, the N a tional Police Agency and the local governments decided to adopt CPTED in the newly developed towns. Pangyo New T own was selected as the first development project to apply CPTED from the planning stage, and they created their own Crime Prevention Design Guidelines Analysis of the Findings As described above, the safety issue is not somebody else s matter anymore. It should be dealt carefully and considered significantly by related officials such as local government and police, and scholars to make the city safe and pleasant for people to live in. Pangyo New T own may be recognized as a good starting point and esta blished as a standard for future developments in Korea. T h rough the visual audits conducte d by the author, it was clear that CPTED principles were considered and applied within the residential complexes in Pangyo. Strict access control, CCTV cameras, well organized vegetation, nicely designed and located lighting systems, and well managed surroundings are some of the safety measures immediately apparent during the visit. The author felt extremely comfortable and safe throughout the whole audit and wanted to stay there longer. However, upon arr ival to the complexes in Yatap T own, the author experienc ed a contrary feeling. Since this apartment complex was constructed approximately 20 years ago, the author did not expect many safety measures to exist and tried to be generous in the evaluation. Old fashioned lighting systems, overgrown trees and bushes, easy access to the complex, and many isolated areas with garbage and thrown away goods

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89 made this place un attractive. The environment and atmosphere in Yatap did n ot give the author safe and comfortable feelings After the visual audit, post audit evaluation work sheet was completed by th e author to assess the efficiency of the applications of the CPTED principles. The results of the worksheet indicate difference bet ween the two towns in terms of safety measures being adopted. However, t he limitation of the visual audit and the post evaluation is that they were all conducted by the author only and this could mean the information and the outcome may be less reliable th an when it is conducted by more people and residents themselves The main focus of this thesis, however, was to compare the crime rates between Pangyo New Town and Yatap T own to find out whether CPTED is performing well as anticipated. Although the crime r ate is not the only factor to decide its effectiveness, it is considered one of the cle ar signs of performance to support it a s effective. It could be carefully stated that low crime rates in Pangyo compared to Yatap provide some evidence that CPTED has wo rked to some degree in reducing the crime rate. One has to keep in mind however, that t h ere are other factors such as economic and social conditions that s hould also be considered as element that impact crime rates. In order to conduct a compar ative stu dy, the variables need to be similar to be reliable for generalization. In this research, we considered many factors before we chose to select Yatap T own as the comparable sample in this study For example, the number and types of population, geographical size of the area, and distance from Pangyo were considered cautiously to m ake the results as significant as possible. However, many important factors such as income levels and employment status were

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90 una ble to be procure d although t hese elements were consi dered to be in close relationship with the crime rates The wealth status of the residents could be determined by looking at the housing values but there is a limit to this. To understand the reason you need to know the cultural difference and the housing issues in Korea versus the US or the UK There are v arious traditional factors that people consider when choosing their homes in Korea such as the name value of the apartment (i.e. company that constructed the complex) public transportation availability quality of schools, convenience of living, and surro unding environment s Residents of Yatap T own are mostly people who had been living in that area for a long period of time. An employee at t he real estate office in Yatap T own stated that s ome of the rea sons for choosing Yatap a re: proximity to Seoul high quality schools, easy commute to work (proximity and transportation issue), and of cours e convenience of living. On the other hand, people who choose new towns like Pangyo, are those who like quiet and clean atmosphere although it is far from Seoul They prefer new apartments to old ones. Another reason could be because it is considered safer than older apartment complexes. Therefore, even though the housing value of the two towns differs greatly, it cou ld not be conc luded that residents of Pangyo N ew T own are wealthi er than the residents of Yatap T own. Another factor to look at was the distribution of the residents in terms of age groups. This was because if one town has more young male population (age from 10 to 39 in this research) than the other, thi s could impact the crime rate to some degree. To find this o ut, the population data for two towns were divided into 11 age groups (Figure

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91 5 1 ) The result showed that the population for young male s was sim ilar between Pangyo and Yatap, so it was not deemed as the crucial factor that impact the difference in the crime rates. Overall analysis of the findings suggest that CPTED has been applied efficiently and it is performing well in reducing crime activitie s so far in the sample residential complexes chosen in this research The author admits that there are limit ations in this research and result s should be treated with care before they are applied to other studies. Therefore, the findings from t his research should be limited in their use as an indicator of evidence of the effect of CPTED in South Korean residential communities In addition, hopefully the result of this research could be used to support the continued use of CPTED in other places in the future and improve its application in South Korea A

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92 B Figure 5 1. Population data for Pangyo and Yatap (2009 ~ 2011). A) Yatap, B) Pangyo. (Source: Korean Statistical Information Service, http://kosis.kr )

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93 CHAPTER 6 CONCL USION The main objective of this study was to investigate whether CPTED applied in the residential complexes in S o uth Korea is performing effectively as anticip ated, by conducting a comparative study between CPTED t own and non CPTED town. Pangyo New Town w as the town that adopted CPTED from its planning stage while Yatap Town was the non CPTED with which Pangyo New Town would be compared The first chapter of the thesis introduces the problem statement which addresses the concept of CPTED and its importanc e as a crime prevention measure. T he research objective which emphasizes the necessity of a comparison study to evaluate the effectiveness of CPTED, was also introduced. Lastly, this chapter provides a short description of the two towns selected for this research to provide background information The following chapter involves the literatures reviewed by the author prior to conducting this study. Some of the important terms such as CPTED, defensible space, situational crime prevention, and environmental c riminology are defined through the review of numerous articles The description of CPTED related studies conducted in South Korea was listed in order to assert the importance of this research. T he paper written by Armitage and Monchuk (2010) was also intro duced to explain how the effecti veness of CPTED in other countries wa s evaluated. The third section describes the methodology utilized to accomplish the study. The methods include: visual audits, self reported examination, analysis of police recorded crime data, and short interviews. In addition, the limitations of the study are also addressed to explain obstacles and problems experienced during the research.

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94 Following the methodology is the findings and analysis se ction. This section present s the results o f the visual audit including personal photographs taken by the author during the visit to the sites, the outcome of the evaluation worksheet and the context of the short interviews. Then in the next chapter, findings are discussed in detail by explainin g the history of new town development and the crime issues in South Korea. This is follo wed by an analysis of the findings. The central question for this research was Is CPTED effective in South Korea ? In fact, there was no clear evidence that CPTED is e ffective in reducing crime rates citywide so far. It is only assumed or expected to reduce crime activities. In order to assess its effectiveness, more thorough research and solid evidence is required. However, by conducting this study and achieving de sired results, the author realized that CPTED could be effective in reducing crime incidents in some areas of South Korea This research was considered to be worthwhile research since it was successful in presenting positive results of CPTED a dopti on, and it could be carefully concluded that CPTED is performing as effectively as anticipated since its appearance to the world. Prior to concluding the paper, the author suggests some recommendations for anticipated future CPTED research. First, use variety of n eutral field researchers for the research, in order to achieve more broad and accurate results. Second, find out the effect of CPTED by re evaluating this research every several years on a regular basis. T h is will allow researchers to provide evidence of t he effect of CPTED like Armitage an d Monchuk s paper has proved in their research. Finally, the author would like future researchers to deal with CPTED certification issue in their papers, which is also another

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95 positive movement for developing safe commun ity. Some of the major South Korean construction companies are beginning to adopt CPTED in their development plans and require certifications for approval from CPTED authorities. Therefore, thorough research on developing and standardizing CPTED regulation s is considered important and necessary

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96 APPENDIX A CPTED AUDIT CHECKLIS T

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97

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98 APPENDIX B CPTED POST AUDIT EVALUATION WOR KSHEET

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99

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100 APPENDIX C SHORT INTERVIEWS This a ppendix contains context of short interviews taken during the visit to South Korea. T he r esearch involved two short interviews with Dr. Hyeonho P a rk and Lieutenant Gyeongseok Oh. These t wo people assisted the author to achieve nece ssary data during the visit to South Korea. I nterviews were not scheduled ahead. It was more like a casual convers ation that happened when the author met with these two people to discuss the thesis topic. However, it contained some valuable information about s afety issues in Korea, and their lifetime experiences. Although it is presumed that it will not impact the res ult s drawn from other methodologies, the author decided to include this information under the sub heading Short Interviews because it helped the author to understand mor e about CPTED in depth, and efforts being made in Korea in order to reduce crime rate s. T h e first interview was with Dr. Hyeonho Park, who is both a professor in the department of police administratio n in Yongin University and a recognized expert in CPTED. Talking with someone who is in an academic field of crime science helped to understa nd and approach CPTED from an academic point of view. During the interview, he emphasized the importance of crime prevention measures and asserted that more CPTED related research is needed. Dr. Park also stated the importance of the roles of experts and l ocal government in CPTED. There is lack of CPTED experts in Korea so far to accomplish the desired objective of reducing crime rates. T he National Police Agency and scholars are putting great efforts to institutionalize CPTED in the local ordinance s and de velopment plan policies, but we need more experts from various fields, such as criminology urban & architectural

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101 engineering, and other social science divisions It would be even better when there is someone with experiences in two or more of these fields together The following is the attachment of the context of the interview with Dr. Park. 1. How did you get interest in the field of CPTED? Working as a police officer, I faced many kinds of crime incidents in the city and noticed the importance of the crim e prevention measures. While studying in UK, Dr. Mark Button who taught crime prevention and industrial security recommended this topic as my master s thesis. After all, my interest in CPTED and security issues in my home country allowed me to continue my study in the Ph. D program and become an expert in this field. 2. You are the director of the Institute of Crime Science. What is the main objective of this institute and what do you do? Our institute works closely with experts of behavioral science, geograph y, information and communication technology, urban and architectural engineering, economics, criminology, and so forth in order to solve existing crime issues by developing advanced interdisciplinary crime preventing measures. We benchmarked the institute of crime science in University of College London (UCL). 3. How much interest do the cities in South Korea have on CPTED so far? The National Police Agency showed interest in CPTED from the end of year 2000, and recently the Ministry of Public Administration a nd Security, the Ministry of Knowledge Economy and the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs are also trying to get involved in the adopti on of CPTED. Currently, the local government are developing new ordinance s including safety measures and CPTED, and growing number of cities are showing great interest in including CPTED in their development policies. Academically, Korea CPTED Association was established in 2010 to provide foundations for future academic research 4. What do you think is the Korea n people s perception of CPTED in terms of crime prevention measure? People are getting aware of the concept of CPTED due to recent exposure on the m edia to the public.

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102 However, there are still people who do not know about CPTED. So more publicity activities are required by the local government to let the public know the effect and importance of the crime prevention me asures. 5. In your opinion, do you th ink CPTED is really effective in reducing crime? I think it definitely helps prevent or at least reduce the crime incidents that are related to citizens quality of life. Also, there are numerous studies that address the effectiveness of CPTED, so I think it will definitely be effective in reducing crime incidents in Korea 6. What efforts did you make in order to apply CPTED in Korean cities? Since the end of year 2000, I was involved in development of CPTED guidelines with the National Police Agency, the sta ndardization of CPTED principles, consulting work to the local governments, and other CPTED related consultations and projects. 7. What is your future plan as a CPTED expert? I would like to make CPTED as the policy, not an option, for city redevelopment and new town developments. I will continuously work close with national authorities to institutionalize CPTED 8. To become the next expert in CPTED, people from which academic field is the most appropriate? We need people from various different fields such as cr iminology, urban planning, architecture, and also police administration. People who have practical experience s with knowledge in the mixture of these fields would be a perfect candidate to become the next expert. The second interview was with Lieutenant G yeongseok Oh. Since he was currently working as a police officer at the Gyeonggi Provincial Police Agency, the author could hear about the ideas and thoughts on CPTED from the law enforcement point of view. He insisted the significance of growing number of crime incidents and types of crime in Korea. The types of crime are changing from simple house break in burglaries to intensive robbery involving abduction or even murder. He also mentioned that s e xual violence was another big issue. Recent cases of sexua l assaults involving

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103 female and children show the importance of the local government and police to provide protective measures to prevent these crime incidents. Lieutenant Oh stated that in order to stop crime, more incorporated efforts are needed by the l ocal governments and the police. Adopting CPTED could be a good way to prevent crime, but adopting and just leaving it to work by itself is irresponsible. We need to develop more advanced and organized system to continuously monitor and evaluate the effect s of the crime prevention measures and correct the problems detected. He finalized the interview by stressing the importance of people s interest in the safety issues and residents attention to their living environment before asking for direct support fro m the government or the police.

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104 LIST OF REFERENCES Ahn, S. (2011). A study on the fear of crime of the residents in Pan gyo new town Kyunggi University Armitage, R. (2000). An evaluation of secured by design housing within West Yorkshire briefing note 7/00 London: Home Office. Armitage, R. (2006). Predicting and preventing: developing a risk assessment mechanism for residential housing. Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal 8(3) pp. 137 149. Armitage, R., & Monchuk, L. (2009 ). Reconciling security with sustainability: the challenge for eco homes. Special Edition Volume of Built Environment Journal 35(3) pp. 308 327. Armitage, R. & Monchuk, L. (2010). Sustaining the crime reduction impact of designing out crime: Re evaluatin g the secured by design scheme 10 years on University of Huddersfield Armitage, R., Monchuk, L., & Rogerson, M. (2010). It looks good, but what is it like to live there? Exploring the impact of innovative housing design on crime University of Huddersfie ld. Brantingham, P. L., & Brantingham, P. J. (1975). Residential burglary and urban form. Urban Studies 12 pp. 273 284. Brantingham, P.J. & Brantingham P.L. (1981). Introduction: The dimensions of crime. In Brantingham, P.J. & Brantingham P.L. (Eds.) Env ironmental Criminology (7 26). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. Choi, Y. (2005). The analysis on the characteristic s of the fear of crime in the public space of high rise multi family attached housing. Architectural Institute of Korea 21(7) Choi, Y K. & Kang, I. H. (1993). Spatial structures in apartment complexes and crime. Architectural Institute of Korea 58 pp. 25 33. Clarke R. V. (1980) Situational Crime Prevention: Theory and Practice British Journal of Criminology 20 ( 2 ) pp. 136 47. C larke R. V. and Mayhew P. (1980) Designing Out Crime HMSO: London. Coleman, A. (1985) Utopia on Trial Hilary Shipman Ltd, London. Cozens, P. M., Saville, G., & Hillier, D. (2005) Crime prevention through environmental design(CPTED): a review and modern bibliography Property Management 23 (5) pp. 328 356

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105 Crowe, T. (2000) Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: Applications of Architectural Design and Space Management Concepts, 2nd ed. Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford. Hall, P. (2002). Cities o f Tomorrow: An intellectual history of urban planning and design in the 20th century (Third Edition). Malden, MA: Blackwell. Jacobs, J. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. (Revised Ed. 1993). New York: Modern Library. Jeffrey, C. R. (1977 ). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (Revised Ed.) Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. Kang, S. J. & Lee, K. H. (2004). A study on the relationships of the outdoor space activation and the experienced crime victimization rate in Multi Family Housings. Architectural Institute of Korea 20(2) pp. 71 78. Kang, S. J., Park, J. E., & Lee, K. H. (2009). An analysis for effect of crime preventive CCTV in residential areas through public opinion survey. Architectural Institute of Korea 25(4 ) pp. 2 35 244. Kelling, G. & Wilson, J. Q. (1982). Broken Windows: The police and neighborhood safety. The Atlantic Monthly Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1982/03/broken windows/4465/1/. Kim, K. (2007). A study on application plan of CPTED for safety of city Hansei University Kim, N. (2008). A study on the formation of a crime safety environment in an apartment complex Yonsei University Lee, H. C., Park, J. A., & Ha, M. K. (2009). A basic study on the indoor & outdoor residential e nvironment planning indicators to prevent the crime and the fear of crime at residential areas. The Korean Housing Association 10(2) Lee, Y. M. (2008). The study on the correlation analysis between the experienced crime victimization rate and the evaluat ion indicator for residents safety of outdoor spaces from crime in multi family housing The Korean Housing Association 19(2) Levitt, S. D. (2004). Understanding why crime fell in the 1990s: Four factors that explain the decline and six that do not. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 18(1) pp. 163 190. Lim, Y. (2010). A conceptual model of co housing planning using crime prevention through environmental design Kwangwoon University Lynch, A. K., & Rasmussen, D. W. (2001). Measuring the impact of crim e on house prices. Applied Economics, 33 (15), pp. 1981 1989

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106 Murray, B. (2012). South Korea 2012 Crime and Safety Report Overseas Security Advisory Council Newman, O. (1973). Defensible Space: Crime prevention through urban design. New York: Collier Book s. Newman, O. (1980) Community of Interest, Anchor Press/Doubleday New York, NY. Newman, O. (199 6 ) Creating Defensible Space US Department of Housing and Urban Development Office of Policy Development and Research, Washington, DC. Oh, M. J. (2011). A s tudy on the characteristics of urban environment influencing crimes: focusing on 5 major crimes Hongik University. Park, H. (2006). A policy study on the CPTED strategy Centering on the Korean approach employing foreign experiences. Korean Police Studie s Association 5(2) pp. 114 160. Park, H., Hwang, J., Hwang, C., Hwang, U., & Park, K. (2009). How to institutionalize CPTED in Korea(II) Korean Institute of Criminology Park, J. E, Kang, S. J., & Lee, K. H. (2009). An analysis on the application of CPT ED through the survey results of the residents in multi family housings. Architectural Institute of Korea 29(1) pp. 567 571. Poyner, B. (1983) Designing Against Crime: Beyond Defensible Space Butterworths, London. Poyner, B. & Webb, B. (1991) Crime Fr ee Housing Butterworths Architecture, London. Saville, G. (1997). 2nd Generation CPTED: An Antidote to the Social Y2K Virus of Urban Design. Retrieved from http://www.e doca.eu/content/docs/CPTED_2ndGeneration.pdf Schneider, R. & Kitchen, T. (2002). Plann ing for Crime Prevention: A transatlantic perspective New York: Routledge. Schneider, R. & Kitchen, T. (2007). Crime Prevention and the Built Environment New York: Routledge. Uhm, S. (2010). A study on schemes to activate CPTED in Korea Dong guk Univers ity UN Habitat. (2007). Enhancing Urban Safety and S e curity: Global Report on Human Settlements 2007 Earthscan, London. Wortley, R. (1998). A two stage model of situational crime prevention. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 7 pp. 173 188.

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107 BIOGRAP HICAL SKETCH Taehoon Ha was born in Seoul, South Korea in April, 1982 as a second son in the family. He spent six years of his childhood in England, since his father was assigned to work at the overseas branch office when he worked at a construction compa ny. Thankful to his parents, Taehoon had a great opportunity to observe foreign culture and learn English while living in England. This helped Taehoon to be able to understand and speak English fluently Taehoon attended Konkuk University in S e oul, S o uth K orea in 2001, and received his bachelor s degree in architectural engineering upon graduation in 2008. His interest in architecture continued after graduating from K onkuk University, and entered the major construction company Daewoo Engineering and Const ructions. He worked as a construction engineer for two years until he decided to pursue a master s degree in urban and regional planning in the United States Taehoon is ent husiastic about playing baseball. He play s baseball every week with his fellow Kore an students at UF ever since he arrived in Gainesville Getting involved in an active sport, Taehoon was able to keep motivated physically and academically After graduation, he is hoping to proceed with his education in the doctoral program in urban and regional planning, and become a renowned expert in this field.