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1 USING HORSES TO TEACH AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP SKILLS TO AT RISK YOUTH By BRITTANY L EE ADAMS A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEG REE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013
2 2013 Brittany L ee Adams
3 This dissertation is dedicated to my amazing family; my husband, Anthony, my mom and dad, my sister and brother in law, and my wonderful nephews. Without each of you, I would not have made it to the end of this crazy journey.
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank all the members of my doctoral committee: Drs. Nicole Stedman, Rosemary Barnett Grady Roberts, and Hannah Carter Each one was an integral part in the completion of this study. Without their expertise and words of encouragement, this study would have been impossible. I am especially grateful to my program more than I c ould have ever imagined. Without her mentoring, knowledge, and encouragement, I would not be half of the person or academic I have become. Her excitement about my visions, reasonable and unreasonable, allowed this study to happen. She is, by far, the best thing that could have happened to my academic life and career. She welcomed me into her family with open arms and for that I am forever grateful. I would also like to thank my husband, Anthony, for sticking with me through the ups and downs of graduate sch ool. Without him, I would not have had the support and encouragement to pursue my dreams. I am also extremely thankful to my parents, Bev and Bob, for always pushing me to do my best and be my best. Without their guidance and support from childhood I wou ld not have had the drive and courage to pursue such an endeavor. I would also like to thank my sister, Kelly, and her wonderful family Daniel, Carson, Cole, and Levi, for putting up with the distance and always making the effort to feel just a phone call (or Skype call) away. Lastly, I would like to thank each and every one of my friends and extended family. Their friendship, support, encouragement, tears, and laughter have been appreciated
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 9 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY AND PROBLEM STATEMENT ....................... 13 Background of Study ................................ ................................ ............................... 13 At Risk Youth ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 15 Rodeheaver Boys Ranch ................................ ................................ .................. 17 Authentic Leadership ................................ ................................ ........................ 17 Equine Facilitated Learning ................................ ................................ .............. 18 Statement of Problem ................................ ................................ ............................. 19 Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 20 Research Objectives ................................ ................................ ............................... 20 Significance of Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 21 Assumptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 23 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 24 Definitions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 24 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 25 2 LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ............................... 26 Authentic Leadership Development ................................ ................................ ........ 28 History of Authentic Leadershi p ................................ ................................ ........ 28 Self awareness ................................ ................................ .......................... 30 Relational transparency ................................ ................................ ............. 30 Balanced processi ng ................................ ................................ .................. 31 Internalized moral perspective ................................ ................................ ... 31 Models and Approaches of Authentic Leadership ................................ ............ 33 ................................ ........... 35 Positive psychological capacities ................................ ............................... 36 Authentic Leadership ................................ .......................... 38 Youth Development ................................ ................................ ................................ 42 Youth Development Programs ................................ ................................ ......... 45 History of Youth Development Programs ................................ ......................... 46 Models of Youth Development ................................ ................................ ......... 48 ................................ ......... 48 Roth and Brooks Gunn ................................ ................................ .............. 49
6 4 H youth development ................................ ................................ .............. 50 Children, Youth, an d Families At Risk ................................ ....................... 51 Other institutional models ................................ ................................ .......... 52 Rodeheaver Boys Ranch ................................ ................................ ........................ 54 Experiential Learning ................................ ................................ .............................. 57 History of Experiential Learning ................................ ................................ ........ 57 Models of Experiential Learning ................................ ................................ ....... 58 ................................ ............. 58 stage model of experiential learning ................................ ....... 59 ................................ ......................... 60 ................................ .................... 62 Model of Equine Facilitated Learni ng (EFL) ................................ ............................ 64 Animal Assisted Activities ................................ ................................ ................. 66 Conceptual Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 67 L eadership and Youth ................................ ................................ ...................... 67 Youth Development and At Risk Youth ................................ ............................ 69 Youth Development and Equine Facilitated Learning ................................ ....... 72 Conceptual Model ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 74 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 76 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 77 Program Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 79 The Program ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 81 The Context ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 84 Relationships ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 85 Self Discipline ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 88 Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 90 Values ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 91 Heart ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 94 Research Foundation ................................ ................................ .............................. 97 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 99 Population and Sample ................................ ................................ ........................... 99 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 101 Participant Observation ................................ ................................ .................. 101 Focus Group Protocol ................................ ................................ .................... 102 Level of Comfort Questionnaire ................................ ................................ ...... 103 Demographic Quest ionnaire ................................ ................................ ........... 104 Authentic Leadership Questionnaire ................................ .............................. 104 Reliability, Validity, and Trustworthiness ................................ ........................ 105 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 106 Subjectivity Statement ................................ ................................ .................... 107 Qualitative Data Collection ................................ ................................ ............. 109 Quantitative Data Collection ................................ ................................ ........... 110 Qualitative Data ................................ ................................ .............................. 111 Quantitative Data ................................ ................................ ............................ 113
7 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 114 The Program ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 115 The Context ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 115 The Focus Groups ................................ ................................ ................................ 118 Pre Program ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 118 Post Program ................................ ................................ ................................ 119 Research Objective One ................................ ................................ ....................... 120 Programmatic Reflection ................................ ................................ ................ 120 Focus Groups ................................ ................................ ................................ 125 Quantitative Data ................................ ................................ ............................ 126 Research Objective Two ................................ ................................ ....................... 128 Programmatic Reflection ................................ ................................ ................ 128 Focus Groups ................................ ................................ ................................ 131 Quantitative Data ................................ ................................ ............................ 133 Research Objective Three ................................ ................................ .................... 134 Programmatic Reflection ................................ ................................ ................ 134 Focus Groups ................................ ................................ ................................ 136 Quantitative Data ................................ ................................ ............................ 137 Research Objective Four ................................ ................................ ...................... 138 Programmatic Reflection ................................ ................................ ................ 138 Focus Groups ................................ ................................ ................................ 140 Quantitative Data ................................ ................................ ............................ 142 Research Objective Five ................................ ................................ ....................... 143 Programmatic Reflection ................................ ................................ ................ 143 Focus Groups ................................ ................................ ................................ 145 Quantitative Data ................................ ................................ ............................ 147 Additional Data ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 148 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 150 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ..................... 152 Summary of the Study ................................ ................................ .......................... 15 2 Purpose and Objectives ................................ ................................ ........................ 153 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 154 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 154 Programmatic Reflection ................................ ................................ ................ 154 Research Objective One ................................ ................................ ................ 155 Research Objective Two ................................ ................................ ................ 156 Research Objective Three ................................ ................................ .............. 158 Research Objective Four ................................ ................................ ................ 159 Research Objectiv e Five ................................ ................................ ................ 160 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 162 Programmatic Reflection ................................ ................................ ................ 162 Research Obj ectives ................................ ................................ ...................... 166 Research Objective One ................................ ................................ ................ 168 Research Objective Two ................................ ................................ ................ 168
8 R esearch Objective Three ................................ ................................ .............. 169 Research Objective Four ................................ ................................ ................ 170 Research Objective Five ................................ ................................ ................ 171 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 171 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ 174 Recommendations for Practice ................................ ................................ ...... 174 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ......................... 176 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 177 APPENDIX A FOCUS GROUP PROTOCOL ................................ ................................ .............. 179 B ................................ ........................... 181 C LEVEL OF COMFORT QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ........................... 183 D DEMOGRAPHIC QUE STIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ .... 184 E AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE (ALQ) ................................ ......... 185 F INFORMED CONSENT FOR PARTICIPANT ................................ ....................... 186 G PROGRAM FACILITATOR ACTIVITY GUIDE ................................ ...................... 187 H PROGRAM FACILITATOR QUESTION GUIDE ................................ ................... 193 I PROGRAM PICT URES ................................ ................................ ........................ 196 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 198 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 218
9 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 RBR Various levels of membership ................................ ................................ .... 55 3 1 Time line of p rogram ................................ ................................ ............................ 83 3 2 D emographic i nformation ................................ ................................ ................. 100 3 3 ................................ .............. 105 4 1 Themes for relationships preprogram ................................ ............................... 125 4 2 Themes for relationships post program ................................ ............................ 126 4 3 ALQ Transparency pre and post scores s eparately ................................ .......... 126 4 4 ALQ t ranspa rency q uestions: /% (N=16) ................................ ........................ 127 4 5 Themes for self discipline preprogram ................................ ............................. 132 4 6 Theme s for self discipline post program ................................ ........................... 132 4 7 ALQ b alanced processing pre and post scores s eparately ............................... 133 4 8 ALQ balanced processing q uestions: /% (N=16) ................................ ............ 133 4 9 Themes for purpose preprogram ................................ ................................ ...... 136 4 10 ALQ s elf awareness pre and post scores s eparately ................................ ....... 137 4 11 ALQ self awareness q uestions: /% (N=16) ................................ ..................... 137 4 12 Themes for values preprogram ................................ ................................ ......... 141 4 13 Themes for values post program ................................ ................................ ...... 142 4 14 ALQ s elf awareness pre and post scores s eparately ................................ ....... 142 4 15 ALQ self awa reness q uestions: /% (N=16) ................................ ..................... 143 4 16 Themes for heart preprogram ................................ ................................ ........... 146 4 17 Themes for heart post program ................................ ................................ ........ 147 4 18 ALQ m or al/ethical pre and post scores s eparately ................................ ........... 147 4 19 ALQ moral/ethical q uestions: /% (N=16) ................................ ......................... 148
10 LIST OF FIGU RES Figure page 2 1 Authentic l eadership ................................ ................................ ........................... 32 2 2 Dimens ions of positive psychological c apital ................................ ...................... 37 2 3 Dimensions of authentic l eadership ................................ ................................ .... 38 2 4 Compass for the journey to authentic l eadership. ................................ ............... 40 2 5 earning ................................ .............................. 59 2 6 f i ve s tage e xperiential l earning m odel ................................ ................... 60 2 7 E xperientia l learn ing as the process that links education, work, and personal d evelopment ................................ ................................ ........................ 61 2 8 Model of the experiential learning p rocess ................................ ......................... 62 2 9 rocess ................................ ........... 63 2 10 model of experiential learning c ontext ................................ .................. 64 2 11 Model for youth leadership c urriculum ................................ ................................ 68 2 12 Conceptual model of h orse based e ducation al p rogram on a uthentic l eadership for a t risk youth. ................................ ................................ ................ 75 3 1 h ierarchy of p rogram d evelopment ................................ ..................... 80 3 2 Levels of triangulation of qualitative and quantitative research .......................... 98
11 Abstract of Disser tation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy USING HORS ES TO TEACH AUTHENTIC LEADER SHIP SKILLS TO AT RISK YOUTH By Brittany L ee Adams May 2013 Chair: Nicole LaMee Perez Stedman Major: Agricultural Education and Communication The primary purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an equine facilitated authentic leadership development program on at risk youth. Participants were asked to participate in two focus groups and a 3 day equine facilitated authentic Leadership. Participants were also asked to complete three instruments, the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ), the Level of Comfort Questionnaire, and a short demographic survey. A total of 16 youth from Rodeheaver Boys Ranch in Palatka, Florida were asked to participate based on age, 12 15 years old. Focus groups were conducted pre and post the George model: relationships, self discipline, purpose, values, and heart. Participant observation was used to evaluate the program and determine the change in partic activities. Finally, participants were asked to complete the three instruments, each administered during the first day of the program with the ALQ being administered post progr am at the final focus group meeting.
12 Participants showed an increase in perception of two of the dimensions, relationships and heart. Participants showed no change in the self discipline dimension and a decrease in perception for the values and purpose di mensions. The researcher used participant observation to evaluate the programmatic details and found positive results. perceptions increased for some but not all dimensions of the George Model. With that, the greatest areas of weakness were values and purpose. The study also found positive results regarding the programmatic use of equine facilitated learning program as a means to teach authentic leadership skills to at risk you th. Recommendations for future practice and research are given in the final chapter of the document.
13 CHAPTER 1 I NTRODUC TION TO THE STUDY AN D PROBLEM STATEMENT Background of S tudy John F. Kennedy (1917 our children the best in education and social upbringing for while they are the youth of In the past decade the number of public figures, celebrities, and corporations who were involved in corruption has show n that adults in leadership positions are not always the best role models for youth ( George, 2003; Whitehead, 2009). Bell and Jenkins (1993 p.47 ) stated the following about youth the occurrence of violence, antisocial, and destructive behavi ors has been far more prevalent [in at r isk youth mentors ] which has resulted in the exposed youth learning and acclimating such values, behaviors and norms. Negative behaviors demonstrated by adults have fostered youth to engage in the same behaviors. When youth transition to adulthood they perpetuate the same behaviors to the next generation ( Hurd et al, 2011 ; Zi mmerman, Steinman, & Rowe, 1998 ). Rod Paige, the former United States Secretary of Education, stated, (After School Summit, 2003 2 ) people need the influence of caring adults and positive role models in their lives. Good youth program s can accomplish this by helping adolescents develop the Unfortunately for yo uth in at risk populations, positive influences may be few and far between. As expectations have changed, the role of mentoring and socializing youth has care workers, tea chers, community members, and other youth workers. Many studies have shown (Grossman & Tierney, 1998; Rhodes, 2002 ) p roper socialization requires
14 exposure to positive and constructive behaviors, yet research has continued to demonstrate a decrease in the a vailability and exposure of positive adult role models and support in the lives of adolescents (Whitehead, 2009) If natural positive role models do not exist in the community or in home life then adolescents need to be directed elsewhere to find positive adult relationships to guide their maturation ( Beck, 2005 ) A key indicator of this lack of positive role models is school discipline. Statistics regarding violence and discipline in schools have increased dramatically from 23% in 1990 to 74% in 2010 ( Aud & Hannes, 2011 ). Even with intervention programs, negative behaviors among at risk youth have continued to increase (Dryfoos, 1990). Scholars and practioners have determined that the lack of positive parental or adult influence and support plays a large p art in the increase of youth delinquency (Fla nnery, Williams & Vazsonyi, 1998 ; Galambos & Maggs, 1991; Hurd et al, 2011; Mahoney & Stattin, 2000; McHale, Crouter, & Tucker, 2001; Pettit, Bates, Dodge & Meece, 1999; ). A study completed on residential placeme nt for adjudicated youth showed that only 2% of youth are sent to a diversion program instead of being committed to a criminal facility (Sickmund, Sl adky, Kang, & Puzzanchera, 2008). Use of diversion or prevention programs may save taxpayer money with resp ect to helping at risk youth. Sickmund, et al. (2008) also determined that there were more than 90,000 youth in the juvenile justice system In 2007, states spent approximately $5.7 billion to detain more than 64,000 youth in residentia l facilities (Justice Policy Institute, 2009). The American Correctional Association (2008) estimated that states were spending approximately $80,000 per youth housed in detention facilities Snyder and Sickmund (2006) found that 36% of all juvenile facili ties are at or over capacity. The
15 overcrowded living situation of incarcerated youth has been shown to increase suicidal behavior, stress related illness, and psychiatric problems (Burrell, DeMuro, Dunlap, Sanniti, & Warboys, 1998). The California State Co mmission on Juvenile Justice (State practices that reduce future criminal behavior ceases to be a good idea and becomes a very good idea when reductions in justice system costs exceed the cost of the Developing leadership skills among at risk youth can benefit the youth and the community in which they live (McLaughlin, 2000) E ducating youth on leadership can give them the tools to make a better future for themselves, if they choose to, and may assist them in helping others learn about leadership by being a role model (McLaughlin, 2000) In order to have leaders of tomorrow, youth need to be educated about what leadership really means (Roth & Brooks Gunn, 2003) Below, the researcher provides more detail about at risk youth. At Risk Youth The label of at risk youth describes youth who are at substantial risk for negative outcomes. This includes youth in early childhood, school age, and teens. At risk youth are defined between their circumstances and needs, and the capacity or willingness of the school to accept, accommodate, and respond to them in a manner that supports and enables their maximum s A child at risk is more likely than others to experience the following: infant mortality, undernourishment, abuse, neglect, poor health, substance abuse, teenage pregnancy, crime, violence, and ac ademic underachievement ( C hildren, Youth, and F amilies at
16 R isk 2008) Other factors that contribute to children being deemed at risk include : single parent families, living in poverty, being linguistically isolated, parents with less than a high school ed ucation, and parents with no paid employment (National Center for Children in Poverty, 2010). However, n ot all youth living in at risk situations succumb to the pressures of their surroundings (Bowen & Chap man, 1996). Bronfenbren ner (1997 ) showed that prot ective factors such as social support, help youth in at risk populations to overcome their environment. These protective factors include : providing youth with the opportunities, resources, and supplies necessary to meet their physical and psychological ne eds The need for leadership skills in this population is extremely important in developing positive leaders for the future (Whitehead, 2009). Y outh who are in the at risk population may not be exposed to leadership in their family and social situations so incorporating leadership development opportunities elsewhere may help the se youth develop their leadership skills (Bowen & Chapman, 1996). Relationships, goals, and resources can help at risk youth to overcome the potential negative situations and becom e contributing citizens (Bowen & Chapman, 1996; Coleman, 1988; Singer, Anglin, yu Song, & Lunghofer, 1995). The C hildren, Y outh, and F amilies at R isk Program (CYFAR) has studied effective programs for at risk youth and families through the human ecological principle of working across the lifespan, in the context of the family and community (Children, Y outh, and Families at Risk, 2008 ) CYFAR encourages building resiliency and protective factors in youth, families, and communities ( Children, Y outh, and Famil ies at Risk, 2008 ). The education al programs which CYFAR deemed effective to educate
17 youth who are at risk of not having a positive, contributing, productive life, base d on their current situations are comprehensive, intensive, community based programs deve loped with active citizen participation in all phases ( Children, Y outh, and Families at Risk, 2008 ). Below and in the following chapters, the researcher describes the sample used, Rodeheaver Boys Ranch and other elements of the study. Rodeheaver Boys Ranc h Another example of a youth development program for at risk youth is the Rodeheaver Boys Ranch (RBR). The Ranch was created by Homer Rodeheaver in voc ational training for needy boys, (RBR, 2013, 1) Many of the boys come to RBR because of parental/guardian death, desertion, divorce, parental disability, or dysfunctional home situat ions. Boys range in age from 6 to 18 years old. In 2010, it cost approximately $20,000 to support one boy for one year at Rodeheaver Boys Ranch (RBR, 2010). Boys admitted to the Ranch have not been adjudicated delinquent and are required to be mentally and emotionally sound (RBR, 2013). Boys are placed at the Ranch by parents, guardians, and/or youth counselors from all over the nation. The 1). The Ranch is a not for profit 501(c ) 3 charity that does not receive any federal, state, or county funding. A more thorough description of Rodeheaver Boys Ranch will be provided in chapter two. The participants from RBR were taught authentic leadership skills using the Bill George Model (George & Sims, 2007), which is described below. Authentic Leadership Authentic leadership, specifically l (George & Sims, 2007) was chosen becau se of its ease of understanding The five dimensions of authentic
18 leadership include: pursuing purpose with passion, practicing solid values, leading with heart, establishing enduring relationship s, and demonstrating self discipline (George, 2003). An authentic leader is a genuine person who is true to themselves and to what they believe. Authentic leaders are their own people, go their own way, and do not always let others guide what they do. Ye t, these types of leaders are more concerned about serving others than they are about their own success or recognition. Authentic leaders are constantly looking for ways to grow personally and develop genuine connections with others and encourage trust. Finally, they are able to motivate people to high levels of performa nce by empowering them to lead (George & Sims, 2007) This study hoped to be an effective framework for the creation of a leadership workshop for at risk youth. T he George Model ( 2007) pro vided the theoretical framework for this study and leads to a description of the equine facilitated learning model, which was the model used to educate youth on authentic leadership. Equine Facilitated Learning Ewing, MacDonald, Taylor, and Bowers (2007 p .60 ) described equine facilitated Smith Osborne and Selby (2010 p. 292 ) reported, based on recent theoretical and empirical literature, that the following psychosocial effect s have been found in children and adolescents who participated in equine companionship, self esteem enhancement, improvement in personal space/boundary issues and other attachment related problems, reduction in emotional blunting and incongruence, and improvement in meta cognitio n and reflectivity (Karol, 2007 ; Roberts, Br adberry, & Williams, 2004; Rothe, Vega, Torres, Soler, & Pazos, 2005; Saunders Ferguson, Barnett, Culen, & TenBroeck, 2007; Schultz, Remick Barlow, &
19 Robbins, 2007). Smith Osborne and Selby (2010 p 292 ) also stated, from earlier population: self confidence, self esteem, self concept, interest in learni ng/motivation to participate in hippotherapy, improvement in attention span/concentration/listening skills, spatial awareness, and verbal skills (MacKinnon, Noh, & Laliberte, 1995a; MacKinnon, Noh, Lariviere, MachPhail, Allen, & Laliberte, 1995b ; Saunders Ferguson, et al., 2007 ). For the purposes of this study, researchers worked with the middle school population (ages 12 15 years old) at Rodeheaver Boys Ranch. With this population, the researcher was able to create a program, using the horses already pres ent at RBR, to teach authentic leadership base 2007). Using ( 2007), the researcher hoped to find a new way to educate at risk youth about authentic leadership, using equine facilitated learning. From this study, the researcher hoped to provide information in this new, innovative area that is lacking quality research. Statement of Problem Waxman and Padron (1995) concluded that one of the greatest challenges facing education today is the task of improving the quality of education for youth at risk. Some youth are not receiving the leadership development and education al opportunities from their family or community because they are in at risk situations (Edwards, Mumford, & Serra Roldan, 2007 ). This lack of leadership d evelopment and education may lead to youth not being able to reach their fu ll potential (Whitehead, 2009). Most at risk youth come from disadvantaged circumstances and these circumstances increase the possibility that youth will not be successful in school s or in their communities (Waxman & Padron, 1995). This population may experience failure at higher rates and this may contribute to feelings of low self efficacy and may contribute to their lower aspirations
20 and hope for their futures (Conchas & Clark, 20 02). With this being said, it is important to give extra attention to at risk youth in these disadvantaged areas (Roth & Brooks Gunn, 2003). A study done by the National Academy of Sciences showed scientific evidence supporting youth development programs a ability to navigate in multiple cultural contexts, commitment to civic engagement, good conflict resolution and planning for the futu re, a sense of personal responsibility, strong moral character, self se of larger purpose in life Kerka, 2003 3 ). When reflecting on previous research, it is apparent that new and innovative ways of educating youth are n ecessary (Conchas & Clark, 2002 ). The current, stagnant state of leadership development for at risk youth is a great indicator that new ways should be researched (Conchas & Clark, 2003) The intent of this study was to develop a new novel and effect ive way to teach at risk youth authentic leadership and to develop authentic leadership within at risk youth. Purpose of Study The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an equine facilitated authentic leadership developme nt program on at risk youth. Research Objectives The following research objectives provided guidance to the development of the study. The objectives were to: 1. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development program on partici relationships 2. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development self discipline
21 3. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development pr purpose 4. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development values and 5. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership developme nt heart Significance of Study This study represents the beginning of a new way of reaching at risk youth. odel (2007) shows five elements that could help at risk youth succeed in the future, regardless of their current situation. Based on the information in the at risk youth section; leadership, relationships, goals, resources and many other things can contribute to new lives for at risk youth. Finding an outlet for education that is new and interesting to youth is important in keeping them interested in learning (Bird, Wang, Watson, & Murray, 2009). Educators and at risk youth advocates are constantly looking for sustainable ways to contribute in a positive way to the at risk population. Using horses to te ach authentic leadership skills may be a sustainable educational tool and may be the key to keeping at risk students engaged (Smith Osborne & Selby, 2010) Bei ng an authentic leader may allow youth to be contributing, genuinely caring, educated citizens ( Whitehead, 2009). Creating a unique place for at risk youth to learn leadership skills may assist in c reating future leaders and better commun ities. At risk youth need not miss out on becoming leaders because of their disadvantaged situation. This study at tempted to create a new way of educating at risk youth about authentic leadership Creating a new and interesting way to learn may be the missing piece to educating at risk youth (Walker & Shuangye, 2007).
22 ars of child development have thinking about the characteristics and needs of animals (both human and non human) (Melson, 2003). When asked the question, why do animals present such good learning She (2003, p. 34) refers to Hatano and Inagaki (1993) and Vy gotsky (1978), respectively, when suggesting animals are likely to be powerful motivators for two hin Giving educators a new way to teach youth may provide the missing link between reaching students in the at risk population (Bijedic, 2010). Finding a new way to teach at risk youth by involving them in the experiential learn ing process may be an effective way to teach leadership (Whitehead, 2009). Educators, parents, volunteers, and community members may find the results of this study to be useful when determining how to properly and effectively reach the at risk youth popula tion. All in all, there are many people and groups that may benefit from the results of this study; by learning a new way to teach authentic leadership and increase positive psychological attributes such as resiliency. Youth professionals such as 4 H lead ers, diversion program coordinators, juvenile justice workers, youth educators, after school program coordinators, and many others can benefit from the results of this study. Giving these
23 professionals new and innovative ways to reach at risk youth may ben efit the you th and communities they live in across the United States. The National Research Ag enda (NRA) (Doerfert, 2 011 ) called Technol ogies, This study covered each of these in different ways. To address the new pr actices, horses are very rarely used as educational tools in fields other tha n animal science. Using horses to teach leader ship skills is a new practice that may have amazing outcomes. In terms of meaningful and engaged learning in all environments, creating effective and efficient educational programs is difficult. to show that teaching leadership skil ls using horses would be effective in teaching leadership skills. When creating vibrant, resilient communities there needs to be effective leaders and engaged citizens. To do this, at risk youth need to be included and educated on being effective leaders, which in turn, may m ake them more engaged citizens. Assumptions and limitations of the study are described below. Assumptions This study was conducted under the following assumption s : 1 ) Using different horses for different activities did n ot a ffect the i nstruction given, 2) participants received no additional (direct or indirect) leader ship education during the study, 3) results were not or were minimally influenced by other leadership experiences obtained by the participants during the study, and 4) part icipants were truthful and focused when answering the questionnaires.
24 Limitations This study had the following limitations : 1) t he population was not a random sample and 2) t he sample was purposive so generalizability is limited These limitations cause t he generalizability to be restric ted to this specific sample Other limitations included: 1.) lack of attention and order from participants caused the second day to be shortened by two hours, although al l activities were completed and 2) The ALQ (Avolio, Gardner, & Walumbwa 2007) did not measure the same dimensions as noted in the objectives from the George (2007) model, correlations had to be drawn. Operational definitions for the study are provided below. Definitions Adjudication : The hearing at which t he judgment of whether the youth is or is not responsible for the offense he or she is charged with is made. It is the equivalent of the trial in the criminal court process where the guilt or innocence of an adult is determined At Risk Youth placed at risk when they experience a significant mismatch between their circumstances and needs, and the capacity or willingness of the school to accept, accommodate, and respond to them in a manner that supports and enables their maximum social, emotion al and intellectual growth and Risk Education Network (2010) The at risk youth participating in this study were living at a ranch specifically for at risk youth. Authentic Leader s : Genuine people who are true to themselves and to what they believe Rather than letting the expectations of other s guide them, they are prepared to be their own person and go their own way These people are more concerned about serving others than they are about their own success or recognition They ar e constantly looking for ways to grow personally, develop genuine connections with others and engender trust Finally, they are able to motivate people to high levels of performance by empowering them to lead (George & Sims, 2007) Authentic Leadership: both positive psychological capacities and a positive ethical climate, to foster greater self awareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information, and relational trans parency on the part of leaders working with followers, fostering positive self et al., 2010; Northouse, 2013; Walumbwa et al., 2008).
25 Authentic Leadership skills: pursuing purpose with passion; practicing solid values; leading with h eart; establishing enduring relationships; demonstrating self discipline. In this study, authentic leadership knowledge was determined based on participants score on the questionnaire. Equine Facilitated Learning (EFL) : An experiential, supportive learnin g style for participants to learn through the use of horses (Lou, 2006). Other interchangeable titles of EFL include: Equine Assisted Activities (EAA), Equine Guided Education (EGE), and Equine Assisted Psychotherapy (EAP) Experiential Learning: a process linking education, work, and personal development (Kolb, 1984). A process where a person carries out an action, sees the effects, understands the effects of the action, understands the action, and finally, modifies the action in new situations (Kolb, 1984) Youth Development: in positive ways (Walker & Dunham, 1994) Summary This study was conducted to determine the impact of an equine facilitated authentic leadership development program on at risk y outh At risk youth need extra education in the field of leadership because they are at risk of not learning these skills at home or at school (Whitehead, 2009). Developing leadership skills in youth, especially at risk youth may benefit the communities in which these youth live (Bijedic, 2010). Leadership skills, specifically authentic leadership skills, help create better leaders and followers alike (George & Sims, 2007) Both leaders and followers can benefit from better leadership skills because these skills help people interact be tter in society (George & Sims, 2007) Using the Rodeheaver Boys Ranch in Florida the researcher sought to teach authentic lead ership skills to at risk youth, incorporating equine facilitated learning methods. The results an d implications of this study may be used to change the way that educators teach and the tools they use.
26 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAM EWORK In this chapter, the researcher will explain literature to give a theoretical background of the study. Literature includes present and historical research of authentic leadership and authentic leadership models, present and historical research of youth development and youth development models, present and historical research of experiential learning and experiential learning models, equine facilitated learning, and the conceptual framework for the study. George (2006) stated, her suggested that authentic leaders are genuine people who are true to themselves and to what they believe. With political discrepancies campaign finance issues, and the economy, youth need to know what bei ng an authentic leader really means (George & Si ms, 2007) There have been many scholars of authentic leadership and the list grows continuously in this new field (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Brown & Tevino, 2006; Caza, Bagozzi, Woolley, Levy, & Caza, 2010; Eagly, 2005; Northouse, 2013; Rosenthal, Pittinsky Pruvin, & Montoya, 2007) Luthans and Avolio (2003) described authentic leaders as persons who are guided by end values instead of what may seem right at the moment. posed to just talking (Luthans & Avolio, 2003). Leadership has been defined by hundreds of scholars ( Avolio, 2003; George & Sims 2007; Goffee & Jones, 2000 ). The primary leadership defined by these scholars has focused mostly on adult leadership, with little being said about youth leadership (Dawes & Larson, 2010; Ricketts & Rudd, 2002). Youth in an at risk population have very few leaders to serve as role models (Dawes & Larson, 2010). Teaching the youth
27 of today will be important for the future of our society. In order to produce f uture leaders, educ ators need to teach youth leadership skills (George, 2003). Educators have o ften been challenged to identify novel approaches to teaching youth (Dewey, 1938; Kolb, 1984; Newsome, Wardlow, & Johnson, 2005). John Dewey (1938 p. 25 ) stated mate and necessary relation between the processes new level of think ing and learning (Driscoll, 2000 ). Leadership a nd youth development go hand in hand (Whitehead, 2009). Without young leaders, there will be no leaders of tomorrow. Finding the link between authentic leadership and at risk youth will be discussed in the following sections. view of Authentic Leadership (2003) paired with experiential learning pr ovided the theoretical basis for the study. There have been many research studies conducted to find out how to best teach leadership (Helland & Winston, 2005; Hogan & Kaiser, 2005; House & Aditya, 1997). In the following sections, authentic leadership as d efined by Bill George (2003) and other scholars will be discussed. Further, the delivery of an authentic leadership program for youth will be outlined through an experiential lens. Research has shown that there can be a difference in knowledge attainment b etween teaching methods (Day, Raven, & N ewman, 1998; Newsome, Wardlow, & J ohnson, 2005; Wulff Risner & Stewart, 1997). Using equine facilitated learning, an experiential teaching method, may have an effect on the way youth learn. The following sections will delve deeper into experiential learning and how i t may affect youth when developing leadership skills.
28 Authentic Leadership Development The literature exposed many definitions of authentic leadership (Eagly, 2005; Northouse, 2013 ) The intrapersonal defi nitio n focused on the leader and what the leader felt with in themselves (Northouse, 2013 ). Intrapersonal, a uthentic leadership incorporated knowledge, self regulation, a nd self concept (Northouse, 2013 ). The developmental definition foc used o n leadership as something that c ould be nurtured an d developed, not a fixed trait In this definitio n, authentic leadership included four components: 1) self awareness, 2) internalized moral perspective, 3) balanced processing, and 4) relational transparen cy. The interpersonal definition focused on leaders and follower s together. Eagly (2005), stated that authenticity in leadership comes from the interactions between leaders and followers, not just the leaders themselves. To create the most holistic approac h to authentic leadership the researcher focused on a combination of all three definitions. The history of authentic leadership and associated models are provided below. History of Authentic Leadership Authentic leade rship is a relatively new concept T he first resear ch article on the topic was published in 1993 ; since that time many points of view have been shared. With high profile scandals and other questionable federal actions, leadership and its morality is being questioned ( Brown & Tevino, 2006; Caz a, et al. 2010; Rosenthal, et al., 2007). The current world we live in is calling for more authenticity in its leaders (Caza, et al., 2010; Dashborough & Ashkanasy, 2005; George, 2006 ). The widely unethical and ineffective leadership of the past has all but required a more humane and constructive form of leadership (Fry & W hittington, 2005; Luthans & Avolio, 2003; Northouse, 2013).
29 Avolio and Gardner (2005) describe the conceptual roots of authentic leadership as coming from philosophy (Heidegger, 1962; Sartre, 1943) and psychology (Cooley 1902; James, 1890; Maslow, 1968, 1971; Mead, 1934; Rogers, 1959; 1963). Researchers of authentic leadership felt the need to expand on the work on authentic transformational leadership by Bass (1990) and Bass and Steid lmeier (1999). To achieve this expansion, t hese same authors describe the theoretical roots as coming from leadership, positive psychology ( Seeman, 1960, 1966; Seligman, 2002; Se ligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000 ), positive organizational behavior (Luthans, 2 002a, 2002b), transformational/full range leadership theory (Avolio, 1999, 2003; Bass, 1985, 1998), and ethical and moral perspective taking (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Cooper, Scandura, & Sch riesheim, 2005; Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May, & Walumbwa, 2005; No rthouse, 2013; Schulman, 2002). One of th e most important, and contradictory, aspects of authentic leade rship is the definition. With many scholars researching authentic leadership, the overarching definition often comes into question. Harter (2002 p 38 2 ) define d authenticity as consistent with that knowledge The research has shown a narrow definition and a larger, more encompassing definition. The narrow definition does not require anything from authentic leade rs except self consistency, which makes leaders with good, bad, and indifferent morals, authentic (Caza, et al., 2010; Shamir & Eilam, 2005; Sparro we, 2005; Zhange, Wang, & Caza, 2008 ) Other scholars argue that self consistency is important for simple aut henticity but is not enough for truly authentic leadership (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Caza, et al., 2010; May, Chan, Hodges, & Avolio, 2003; Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Pe terson,
30 2008). The most recent agreed on de finition is a combination of bo th. This definition suggests, from empirical evidence, that there are four components of authentic leadership : self awareness, relational transparency, balanced processing, and internalized moral perspective (Figure 2.1) (Caza et al., 2010; Gardner, Avoli o, & Walumbwa, 2005; Ilies, Morgeson, & Nahrgang, 2005; Northouse, 2013; Walum bwa et al., 2008). Multiple scholars agree that these four components increase the positive perception of authentic leadership by followers (Avolio, Gardner, Walumbwa, Luthans, & May, 2004; Caza, et al., 2010; Dashborough & Ashkanasy, 2005). Self a wareness The first, self awareness was defined as strengths, weakness, and idiosyncratic qualities (Caza et al., 2010; Kernis, 2003). This component refer r ed aware leaders reflect on their core values, identity, motives, and goals. Self awareness (p. 263) with who a leader is at the deepest level (Northous e, 2013). Kernis (2003) suggested that being self aware means being aware of and trusting of personal feelings. Self aware leaders have a clear sense of who they are and what they stand for (Northouse, 2013). Gardner et al. (2005) stated that a strong anch or for decisions and actions is a quality of authentic leaders with self awareness. Relational t ransparency The second, relational transparency was defined as a g enuine representation of the self to ot hers (Gergen, 1991). This component described a leader as being open feelings, motives, and inclinations are shared with others, relational transparency is in
31 effect (Kernis, 2003). Open communication and realness (being genuine and honest) are the main points of relational transparency (Northouse, 2013). Balanced p rocessing The third described as balanced processing included : the collection and use of relevant, objective infor mation (Gardner, Avolio, & Walumbwa, 2005). This sel f and explore other p decisions (Northouse, 2013). Leaders with the balanced processing component avoid favoritism and remain unbiased (No rthouse, 2013). Others see leaders with balanced processing as more authentic because they are open about their own perspectives but are also objective (Northouse, 2013). Internalized moral p erspective T he fourth and final component, internalized moral pe rspective was defined as using self regulation and self determination, instead of acting only from situational demands (Worline & Quinn, 2003). This component is also a self regulatory process rather than outside influence, to guide behavior and actions (Northouse, 2013). Leaders with internalized moral perspective take control over how much others influence them. These leaders are seen as authentic because their actions are consistent with thei r expressed beliefs and morals (Northouse, 2013). T aking all definitions and research into consideration the working definition for guided moral action and genuine interaction wit h others, based on accurate self knowledge and et al., 2010; Walumbwa et al., 2008).
32 Figure 2.1: Authentic Leadership (Luthans & Avolio, 2003; Northouse, 2013) The seminal work for Authentic Leadership, w ritten by Avolio and Gardner (2005), was leadership to determine why academics and practi ti oners are interested in describing and studying a uthentic leadership. Avol io and Gardner (2005) stated the unique stressors facing organizations throughout the world today call for a renewed focus on what constitutes genuine leadership (p. 316). These unique stressors and challenges suggested to aca demics and practi ti oners that an authentic way of leading is necessary to produce better outcomes (Avolio and Gardner, 2005). While most leadership theories were developed without the core processes in mind, Avolio and Gardner developed a model based on th e process of development of authentic leadership.
33 Based on work from Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May, and Walumba (2005), increased self awareness, self regulation, and positive modeling have become the basis for fostering authenticity in followers. An arti cle written by Ilies, Morgeson, and Nahragang (2005) added to this idea and through the combination of the two models four core elements of authenticity were defined: self awareness, unbiased processing, relational authenticity, and authentic behavior/act ion (Kernis, 2003). Avolio and Gardner based on the fact that humans are flawed and biased by default (Fiske & Taylor, 1991; Tice & Wallace, 2003). The term relational aut henticity was also modified to be in order to be more descriptive (Avolio & Gardner, 2005). Models and Approaches of Authentic Leadership There are many models of authentic leadership (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; George, 2003; Northo use, 2010; Terry, 2003) Just like the many definitions and ideas about authentic leadership are different, each model is different. There are two types of approaches : 1) practical approach and 2) theoretical approach (Northouse, 2013). In this section, di fferent models and approaches will be discussed. The Avoli o and Gardner (2005) model tried to place more emphasis on leader and follower self awareness and relationships the follower has with things such as, trust, engagement, and well being. All work inc luded in the Avolio and Gardner (2005) article used a different approach to authentic leadership and how it may be developed and expanded. The approaches include : life stories (Shamir & Eilam, 2005), narrative process (Sparrowe, 2005), effects of values and emotions (Michie & Gooty, 2005), boundaries and conditions (Eagly, 2005), and role incongruity theory (Eagly &
34 Karau, 2002). A final article, by Cooper, Scandu ra, and Schriesheim (2005), did not take a separate approach but c ritiqued all of the initial work on authentic leader ship. Cooper, et al (2005) warned plagued other areas of leadership res & Gardner, 2005). Northouse (2013) also mentioned the work of Robert Terry (1993) and his model of the Authentic Leadership Wheel, which will be discussed further. Avolio and Gardner (2005) explain ed the components of authentic leadership de velopment based on the compilation of articles. These nine components include d : positive psychological capital, positive moral perspective, leader self awareness, leader self regulation, leadership processes/behaviors, follower self awareness/regulation, f ollower development, organizational context, and finally, veritable and sustained performance beyond expectations (Avolio & Gardner, 2005) The article also compare d and contrast ed different leadership styles and authentic leadership. Avolio and Gardner (2 005) explain ed that authentic leadership is more generic than other leadership Gardner et al., 2005). Root construct is described as the basis of other forms of positiv e leadership (Avolio & Gardner, 2005). The three theories compared and contrast ed with authentic leadership were transformational leadership, charismatic leadership, and servant and spiritual leadership. Avolio and Gardner (2005) explain ed overlaps of each theory w ith authentic leadership but mad e a convincing argument for how each of them is different. The differences are important because without the differences, conceptual independence could not be proven. This would decrease the construct validation, by not
35 being individual enough (Avolio & Gardner, 2005). authentic leadership is described. pproach Robert action centere d approach focused on the actions of the leaders, leadership team, or organization in each particular situation (Northouse, 2013). Terry (1993) suggested that two core leadership questions must be asked: 1) What is really going on? and 2) What are we going to do about? (Northouse, 2013). To have the correct answer, leaders must know and act on what is true to themselves, their organization, and in the world (Northouse, 2013). Northouse (2013 p. 255 is going on, th Terry (1993) created an Authentic Action Wheel which was used to help diagnose and address underlying probl ems in an organization. The seven components of the wheel include: Meaning, M ission, Power, Structure, Resources, Existence, and Fulfillment (Northouse, 2013). Fulfillment is in the center and is supposed to represent the completion of the process (Terry, 1993). Terry (1993) created the wheel to assist in answering his two core que stions. The two steps associated with answering the questions via the wheel are: 1) Locate the problem on the diagnostic wheel, and 2) strategically select an appropriate response to the problem (Northouse, 2013). Locating the problem is accomplished by pe rforming an assessment of the organization, employees, and their concerns. After the assessment, a leader identifies where on the wheel their organization sits. This information is then used to determine the appropriate response to the concern, also using the wheel (Northouse, 2013). After
36 the problem is found, the wheel is used to give leaders ways to explore solutions and explanations (Northouse, 2013). The Authentic Action Wheel is a practical, visual diagnostic tool to help leaders frame problems and e xplore solutions (Northouse (2013). Leaders and followers identify the problem on the wheel and then use that information to respond to the major issues ( Northouse 2013). This approach was used to encourage leaders to be authentic and base their actions o n what is really going on within the organization or individual (Northouse, 2013; Terry 1993). Another model of authentic leadership, positive psychological capital, is described below. Positive psychological c apacities Avolio, Luthans, and Walumbwa (2004, who are deeply aware of how they think and behave and are perceived by others as strengths; aware of the context in which they operate ; and who are confident, hopeful, optimistic, resilient, and of high moral character From this definition, Luthans and Avolio (2003) developed the components of positive psychological capacities: confidence, optimism, hope, and resiliency (Figure 2.2 ) T hese attributes may assist in Confidence is defined by Northouse (2013, p more likely to succeed because they are motivated and persistent when faced with a challenge (Bandura, 1997; Luthans & Avolio, 2003). Hope is based on willpower and goal planning and is seen as a positive motivational state (Luthans & Avolio, 2003; Northo use, 2013). Optimism is how a person cognitively views a situation as positive and expects
37 favorable outcomes in the future (Northouse, 2013). Resilience is the idea that a person can recover from or adapt to adverse situations (Northouse, 2013). Positiv e psychological capacities are both trait like and state like, meaning they can be relatively fixed depending on the person, but they can also be cultivated through training and development (Northouse, 2013). Positive psychological capacities are often ref erred to in conjunction with moral reasoning and critical life events, as factors that can influence authentic leadership (Northouse, 2013). Moral reasoning refers to a (N orthouse, 2013). Critical life events include any major event, positive or negative, that ife (Northouse, 2013). Luthans and Avolio (2003) suggested these three factors, positive psychological capacities, moral reasoning, and critical life events, as key factors that may influence authentic leadership. Following Leadership is described. Figure 2.2 : Dimensions of Positive Psychological Capital (Luthans & Youssef, 2004, p.152) Efficacy/Confidence Believing mobilize cognitive resources to obtain specific outcomes Hope Having the willpower and Optimism Having the explanatory style that attributes positive events to internal, permanent, and pervasive causes Resiliency Having the capacity to bounce back from adversity, failure, or even seeming [sic] over whelming positive changes Positive Psychological Capital Unique Measureable Developable Impactful on performance
38 Bill George Model of Authentic Leadership An authentic leader is a genuine person who is true to themselves and to what they believe (George, 2003). Authentic leaders are more concerned about serving others than they are about their own success or recognition (George, 2003). Authentic leaders are constantly looking for ways to grow personally develop genuine connections with others and encourage trust (George & Sims, 2007) Finally, the se leaders are able to motivate peo ple to high levels of performance by empoweri ng followers to lead (George & Sims, 2007) Bill George created a model of the Dimensions of Authentic Leadership (Figure 2.3 ). This model visually depicts the elements that are required for authentic leadership Figure 2.3 : Dimensions of Authentic Leadership (George & Sims, 2007)
39 The five dimensions of authentic leadership include: pursuing purpose with passion, practicing solid values, leading with heart, establishing enduring relationships, and demonstratin g self discipline (George, 2003) When pursuing purpose with passion, leaders must understand who they are and what their passions are. When people do not have a sense of purpose, their egos and other vulnerabilities may get in the way of becoming the best authentic leaders they can be. For a person to practice solid values, this person must k now what their values are, not the values determined by others. Authentic leaders look inside themselves, their years of experience, and things learned from talking wi th others to develop their values. Authentic leaders stay true to their values even under pressure. Leading with heart means leaders have a passion for their work. Authentic leaders have compassion, empathy, and courage, all of which are required to make t ough decisions while keeping the followers in mind. The ability to develop enduring relationships is essential if leaders want their followers to give their full ability (George & Sims, 2007) Authentic leaders are able to develop relationships that are op en, trusting, and committed. Previous research has shown that close relationships can help children develop and adap & Farrell, 1992; Bo wen & Chapman, 1996; Gecas & Seff, 1990; Pittman & Bowen, 1994). Coleman (1988) showed tha t parent child relationships are important but in lieu of this relationship, neighbors, teachers, and friends can also help form important relationships. Finally, self discipline is a must of authentic leaders. Having strong self discipline requires leade rs to be held accountable for outcomes, positive and negative. Leaders must also admit mistakes and initiate ways to correct their mistakes. Self
40 discipline is important in their personal lives, because without it, discipline will be unsustainable at work (George & Sims, 2007) To give learners another visual image to remember, George (2007) conceptualized true north towards authentic leadership may help some leaders stay connected to being the best aut henti c leader they can be. Figure 2.4 shows the compass that authentic leaders should strive to keep pointed towards their true north. Figure 2.4 : Compass for the Journey to Authentic Leadership (George, 2003). The compass includes five key areas (much like the five dimensions) to developing as a leader. Self awareness is in the center, because being aware of oneself you know yourself, you can find the passion that mot ives and the purpose of
41 ask themselves the following questions: Values: What matters in life and how important are those things? Leadership Principles: What standards a re used to lead others (these should come from the values)? Ethical Boundaries: What limits are placed on actions based on standards of ethical behavior? Authentic leaders also need to determine their sources of motivation; extrinsic and/or intrinsic. Int rinsic motivators are more linked to authentic leadership because th ese are the motivators which come from the sense of mea ning in life. Discovering these motivators will help people become better authentic leaders (George & Sims, 2007) The grounding elem ent of the compass is a support team. This team helps the leader stay focused, realistic, and supported. Finally, having an integrated life is a key to being an authentic leader. A fully integrated life includes per sonal life, community life professional life, and family life. This type of life will help the authentic leader stay grounded and headed towards becoming a better leader (George & Sims, 2007) At risk children need a visual model to help understand what being a leader means (Whitehead, 2009). Instead of an intricate formula, the authentic leadership model leaves room for modification and is simplistic enough for any level of education. At risk youth can learn the five elements in the model and use the compass as a visual tool to see ways to bec ome an authentic leader. Research has shown that relationships, goals, and resources can help at risk youth to overcome their situations and becom e contributing citizens (Bowen & Chapman, 1996; Coleman 1988 ; Singer, et al., 1995).
42 Youth Development When talking about youth development, it is important to understand the different developmental stages youth progress through. Children, and Adolescents (5 th Ed) (2005), there are six periods of development: the prenatal period, infancy and toddlerhood, early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. The prenatal period is from conception to birth, a 9 month period, and is the most rapid phase of change. Infancy and toddlerhood, from birth to 2 yea rs, is when language begins, along with the emergence of a wide array of motor, perceptual, and intellectual capacities. Early childhood, from 2 to 6 years is when the body grows, motor skills are refined, and the child becomes more self controlled and sel f sufficient. During early childhood, children establish relationships with peers; they also begin to have a sense of morality, and their thought and language expand profoundly. Middle childhood, from 6 11 years, brings improved athletic abilities, more lo gical thought processes, and advances in understand the self, morality, and friendship. Adolescence, from 11 18 years, was the age groups of the participants in this study. Adolescence is a time where the youth begin to transition to adulthood. Puberty beg ins and brings an adult sized body along with sexual maturity. Adolescence is also when abstract thoughts and idealistic views begin. This is also a time when autonomy with family begins as does the defining of personal values and goals. Finally, emerging adulthood, from 18 25 years, is when youth begin to pursue higher education and/or other options. This is when youth begin to explore with love, work, and personal values. This new period has emerged because many contemporary youth have extended the transi tion to adult roles, resulting in another period of development before adulthood (Beck, 2005).
43 According to Flannery, Hussey, and Jeffer is (2005) three main trends are elicited from the literature on at risk youth : d elinquency, crime, and violence. E arly onset of delin quency predicts later offending as juvenile offenders are more likely to become adult offenders, and a small number of chronic juvenile offenders commit a significant portion of all crimes. There are certain risk and protective factors that can lead t o or protect at risk youth from these trends. Risk factors for d elinquency are factors that can or overall health and well being. Individual risk factors for delinquency can include: premature birth, being male instead of female, low verbal IQ, hyperactivity impulsivity and attention deficit disorders, severe aggression and early conduct problems, exposure to violence and victimization, and substance use/abuse (Elliott, 1993; Farrington, et al., 1990; Flannery, Singer, & Williams, 1999 ; Huesmann, Eron, Leftkowitz, & Walder, 1984; Leukefeld et al., 1998; Raine, Brennan, & Mednick, 1994; Thornberry, 1994; Thornberry, Huizinga, & Loeber, 1995; Widom, 1989). Studies on chronic criminal behavior show three different dimensio ns: 1) great er frequency of offending, 2) a wider variety or number of types of crimes, and 3) m ore serious acts (Farrington, Loeber, Elliott, Hawkins, Kandel, Klein, McCord, Rowe, & Tremblay, 1990 ; Flannery, et al. 2005; Loeber, 1982). Research has shown younger children, who display frequent and serious antisocial behavior, are at a higher risk of committing high numbers of offenses, including violent and/or serious offenses for longer periods of time (Farrington et al., 19 90; Flannery, et al., 2005; Loe ber, 1982; Tracy, Wolfgang, & Figlio, 1990). Aggressive and disruptive behaviors that are prevalent in early childhood are also significant risk factors of later antis ocial behavior (Farrington, 1991 ; Tremblay,
44 Masse, Perron, Le Blanc, Schwartzman, & Ledi ngham, 1992). Children who are repeatedly exposed to violence, repeatedly, are more likely to act aggressive ly (Flannery, et al. 2005). Also, children who are victimized by a family member are at increased risk to act violently later in life (Flannery, et al. 2005). There are certain types of f amily situations which can also be a risk factor Some family risk factors include: child maltreatment, parental antisocial behavior and criminality, poor family management practices, harsh or inconsistent discipl ine, poor parent child relations, parental rejection, and having a delinquent sibling (Guerra, Huesmann, & Zelli, 1990; Flannery, et al. 2005; Maguin et al., 1995; Widom, 1989). Stressors to the family are also risk factors, these can include, unemploymen t, family violence, marital distress, and divorce (Flannery, et al. 2005; McCord, 1979; Patterson, DeBarysne, & Ramsey, 1989). Peer relationships that encourage delinquent behaviors are also a strong risk factor. Peer rejection for any reason but specif ically for antisocial behavior is also a risk factor (Patterson et al., 1989). Poor school performance is a risk factor and predictor of delinquent behavior, according to Farrington (1987). The environment of a school can produce risk factors such as, dis organiz ed school structure with lack of discipline, crowded physical space, and lack of conformity to routines. The biggest risk factor in regards to school is unsupervised after school time (Flannery, et al. 1999). This is the time that adolescents show increase substance abuse, deviance with peers, and a general increase in delinquent behaviors (Flannery, et al., 1999). The community and neighborhood in which an adolescent lives can be a risk factor. Places with gang
45 involvement, poverty, violence, high crime rates, drug availability, and social disorganization can all contribute to delinquency risk factors (Flannery, et al., 1999 ). Protective factors for delinquency are those which help increase the odds of adolescents having positive outcomes. An examp le of a positive outcome is not engaging in criminal acts. The most important protective factor for delinquency, according to Masten (1994), is a strong bond with a competent and caring, prosocial adult. A strong, positive youth parent bond was the most co nsistent factor across gender race and ethnicities (Blum, Beuhring, & Rinehart, 2000). Positive peer relationships can also be a protective factor for delinquency. If an adolescent associates with peers who do not approve of or p articipate in violent or delinquent behavior the likelihood of the youth engaging in delinquent acts is lowered (Ageton, 1983; Elliott, 1993 ). Research has shown that community, school, and family prevention and intervention programs are the best protective factor for delinquency (Flannery, et al. 2005). These programs can include: different therapy treatments residential rehabilitation programs, anger/aggression management programs, family interventions, and school based interventions. Below, youth development programs, the his tory of youth development, and models of youth development are described. Youth Development Programs The National Research Council (NRC) (2002 p 19 economic and social circumstances, need generous amounts of help, instru ction, discipline, support, and caring as they make their way from childhood through Ullrich French, McDonough and Smith (2012 p 431 ) prov iding opportunities for building strengths and res ources Positive youth
46 development assumes that youth have the potential for positive change (Benson, Scales, Hamilton & Sesma, 2006; Ullrich French, et al., 2012). In the following sections, the researc her will describe the history of youth development, models of youth development, and Rodeheaver Boys Ranch, the population used for this study. Youth may be referred to as young people, adolescents, s in which all young people are engaged to meet their needs, build skills, and find ways for opportunities to make a difference in all areas of their lives Thomas, 2004). Histo ry of Youth Development Programs The first study on adolescent development w as conducted by G. Stanley Hall in 1904 (Lerner, 2005). The study framed the earliest efforts in youth development by dete rmining deficits in adolescents instead of preventative steps (Lerner, 2005). Youth at the adolescent age (middle school and high scho ol) are sometimes seen as probl ems waiting to happen (NRC, 2002). Developmental scientists went so far as to label this stage as a time for storm and stress (Arne tt, 1999; NRC, 2002). Adolescence is a time to choose peer groups, determine how after school hours will be spent, and make future educational and occupational plans (NRC, 2002). Eccles and Gootman ( 2002) suggested that adolescence is a t ime when young people need to develop the attitudes, competencies, values, and social skills to prepare them for success in adulthood. Programs for youth v ary from situation to situation, ranging from large, structured programs to small, impromptu programs. Each program consists of different dimensions that need to be considered: program focus, curriculum, membersh ip, structural arrangements, organizational affiliations, local community issues, geographic location, funding, and political climate (NRC, 2002). At a basic level, the National Research
47 Council (2002, p 33) structured process es, most often led by adults and designed to address specific goals and youth outcomes. This category incorporates a range of programs from those that are highly structured, often in the form of curriculum with step by step guidelines, to those that may ha ve a looser stru cture Youth development programs can be labeled broadly : after school programs, youth programs, youth activities, community programs, extracurricular, activities, or programs during out of school time or non school hours (NRC, 2002) The Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development (1992) described five youth program categories: 1) Private, non profit national youth organization, 2) Grassroots youth development organizations, 3) Religious youth organizations, 4) Private community groups, and 5) Public sector institutions (Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1992; NRC, 2002). The Younge r Americans Act suggest ed activities such as : character development, mentoring activities, and community serv ice, as parts of youth programs (NRC, 2002) Catalano Berglund, Ryan, Lonczak, and Hawkins (2004) developed fifteen constructs of positive youth development: promotes bonding, fosters resilience, promotes social competence, promotes emotional competence, promotes cognitive competence, promotes behavior comp etence, promotes moral competence, fosters self determination, fosters spirituality, fosters self efficacy, fosters clear and positive identity, fosters belief in the future, provides recognition for positive behavior, provides opportunities for prosocial involvement, and fosters prosocial norms. The fifteen constructs were developed through a review of literature and a consensus meeting of leading scientists associated with youth development (Catalano, et al., 2004). Programs promoting positive youth devel opment sought to achieve one or more of the constructs
48 listed above. The program used for this study, which will be described later, sought to achieve all fifteen constructs. Models of Youth Development There are many models of youth development, as descri bed earlier. No one model is correct and the researcher sought to combine all elements of the models to reach the most positive outcome. The models reviewed for this study are described below: H, Children, Yo uth, and Families At Risk (CYFAR), and other institutional models. evelopment Lerner (2005) created the 5 Cs of youth development as program goals: competence, confidence, connections, character, and caring. Competence r eferred to & Brooks Gunn, 2003). Confidence was described as goals related to improving esteem, self concept, self efficacy, identity, and belief in th e future (Roth & Brooks Gunn, 2003). Connections referred to building and strengthening Gunn, 2003). Character is described as increasing self control, decreasing engagement in sense of right and wrong, and spirituality (Roth & Brooks Gunn, 2003, p. 173). Finally, (Roth & Brooks Gunn, 2003). After much research, Le contribution. Contribution is described as participation in civic engagement and contribution to society (Lerner, 2005). Although this model is slightly outdated, it was
49 co nsidered relevant for this study. Below, youth development based on Roth and Brooks Roth and Brooks Gunn Roth and Brooks Gunn (2003) suggested three defining characteristics of youth development programs: program goals, program atmosphere, and program activities. These characteristics were formed from a review of literature based around effective youth development approaches, adolescent development research, and lessons learned from failed traditional prevention and inte rvention programs ( Roth & Brooks Gunn, 2003 ). Program goals are developed to promote positive development Program atmosphere referred to programs that created a supportive atmosphere that encouraged youth to develop a supportive relationship with adults and/or peers through participation in the program (Catalano et al., 2004; National Research Council, 2002; Roth & Brooks Gunn, 2003). The third characteristic, program activities, was described by Roth and Brooks most programs attract and engage Gunn (2003) identified four features of program activities with this definition in mind: 1) the opportunity for adolescents to build skills, 2) the opportunity to engage in real and challengi ng activities, 3) an opportunity to broaden their horizons, and 4) an opportunity to increase developmental support in other worlds, such as family, school, or community. Below, the 4 H model of youth development is described.
50 4 H y outh d evelopment The 4 H youth development program is a n extension based, non profit, youth development organization (Thomas, 2004). The 4 H program was developed to help youth help themselves to become productive citizens or self directing, contributing members of society (National 4 H Council, 2000; Thomas, 2004). The mission of 4 H is (Seevers, Graham, Gamon, & Conklin, 1997) The 4 H program c onsidered the whole young person, not just specific characteristics or problems (CYFAR, 2008). Educational 4 H programs sought to meet developmental stages of youth (Seevers, et al., 1997). In 2000, 4 H took part in the National Youth Conversation and cr eated five strategies to help develop positive youth in the future : 1) enhance the power of youth, 2) enhance access, equity, and opportunity, 3) create extraordinary places to live and learn, 4) bring exceptional people and innovative practices to youth d evelopment, and 5) create effective organizations for positive youth development (National 4 H Council, 2000) Astroth (2001) stated that there are eight critical element s necessary for positi ve youth development : positive relationships with caring adults, opportunities for self determination, an accepting and inclusive environment, opportunities to contribute through community service, a sage environment, opportunities to develop and master skills, engagement in learning, and opportunities to be an active participant in life. 4 H was designed to meet the se eight elements : Astroth (2001) conducted a study to determine the results of youth who participated in 4 H, where H for more than a year are significantly better off
51 (2001) talked about the results of this study and found that 4 become more involv ed as leaders in school and community, and talk to parents about H program plays a positive role in youth development in many communities. More information about 4 H and how it involves animals in youth development will be described later in this chapter. Another youth development model, Children, Youth, and Families At Risk (CYFAR), is described below. Children, Youth, and Families At Risk The Children, Youth, and Families at risk program creates programs that encourage positive yout h and family development. CYFAR does this by supporting healthy environments for the at risk population and provides opportunities for learning and leadership from youth and adults in their communities ( CYFAR, 2008 ). The CYFAR program works with land gran t universities to develop and deliver educational program for at risk youth. This program also works with 4 H programs and other family development programs to ensure that all at risk youth are given equal opportunity to learn and succeed. CYFAR uses the 4 approach. This approach focuses on research that has been done to show that youth need positive relationships with caring adults, opportunities for mastery, self determination, to see themselves as active members in their fut ure, and to value service for others (CYFAR, 2008). The CYFAR program has a vision for all communities to have children and youth leading positive, secure, and happy lives while developing skills to fulfill and contribute as adults (CYFAR, 2008). Previous CYFAR research shows that effective programs for addressing the needs of at risk youth possess a specific set of elements. These elements include: working in community settings, engaging citizens in
52 targeted populations, implementing leadership program, cr eating supportive and respectful environments, and, finally, providing opportunities for learning and building (CYFAR, 2008). Other institutional m odels (YMCA) in London by George Willi ams to help young men escape the hazards of life on the street (YMCA, 2013). After hearing of the Y MCA in England, Thomas Valentine Sullivan let the first meeting of the US YMCA in Boston in 1851 (YMCA, 2013). Today, the Y is prevalent in more than 10,000 neighborhoods across the US. The YMCA is the learn, grow, and thrive 1). The Y MCA strives to nurture the potential of all children and teenagers, to improve being, and to insure everyone has the opportunity to become healthier, more confident, connected, and secure (YMCA, 2013). development. Founded in 1860 as a Girls Club then transitioned to Boys and Girls young people, especially those who need us most, to reach their full potential as productive, caring, responsib The Boys and Girls Clubs provide boys and girls with: a safe place to learn and grown, ongoing relationships with caring, adult professionals, life enhancing programs and character development experiences and hope and opportunity (Boys & Girls Clubs of America, 2013).
53 The Boys Scouts of America (BSA) was founded in 1910 and chartered by an educational program for boys and young adults to build character, to train in the responsibilities of participating citizenship, and to develop personal fitness (BSA, 2013 1). There are many units of the BSA, to account for different age groups, they include: tiger cubs, cub scouts webelos scouts, boys scouting, varsity scouting, venturing, and lone scouts (BSA, 2013). chartered into Congress in 1950 (Girl Scouts of the United States of America, 2013). T (GSUSA 2013, 1). Girl Scouts of the USA empower girls to discover the power of girls who come together for a better world. This organizatio n has more than 2.3 million girl members with 890,000 adult members all over the world (GSUSA, 2013). FFA (previously named Future Farmers of America ) was found ed in 1928 by a c e FFA described its mission as : developing competent and assertive agricultural leadership, increasing awareness of the global and technological importance of agriculture and i ts contribution to our well being, strengthening the confidence of agriculture student s in themselves and their work, promoting the intelligent choice and establishment of an agricultural career, encouraging achievement in supervised agricultural experienc e programs, encouraging wise management of economic,
54 environmental, and human resources of the community, developing interpersonal skills in teamwork, communications, human relations, and social interaction, building character and promoting citizenship, vo lunteerism, and patriotism, promoting cooperation and cooperative attitudes among all people, promoting healthy lifestyles, and encouraging excellence in scholarship (National FFA Organization, 2013). The FFA Organization, 2013). The aforementioned models and approaches of youth development helped the researcher create a conceptual framework for the study. The following model, Rodeheaver Boys Ranch, was used as the ba sis of the study. Rodeheaver Boys Ranch Rodeheaver Boys Ranch was founded in 1950 by Homer Rodeheaver. RBR is a faith based ranch that 1 ). The boys placed there come from varying backgrounds and are placed at the ranch for varying reasons; parental/guardian death, desertion, divorce, parental disability, dysfunctional home situations, or having no home of their own (RBR, 2013). Boys admitted to the Ranch have not been adjudicated delinquent and are required to be mentally and emotionally sound (RBR, 2013). Boys are placed at the Ranch by parents, guardians, and/or youth build boys than 1 ). The ranch has a board of directors including: an executive director, director of ranch life, development director, vehicle program/activities director, president, vice president, treasurer, and secretary. Ther e is also the Rodeheaver Foundation which consists of: a President, Treasurer, and Secretary.
55 Th e Ranch is a not for profit 501(c ) 3 charity that does not receive any federal, state, or county funding. The Ranch is run from private and corporate funds and philanthropic fundraising events. The boys at the ranch contribute to fundraising efforts by raising and selling livestock, vehicle repair with monthly auctions, fundraising trail rides, yearly Bluegrass Festivals, and oth er ranch functions (RBR, 2013). Ev ery year, about 20 boys, raise a pig to be shown and sold at the county fair. Each boy gets to keep the money made from the sale, minus the expenses of buying and raising the pig. The Rodeheaver Boys Ranch Vehicle Program is the most successful fundraising program. The ranch accepts donated cars, trucks, RVs, boats, tractors, and other vehicles to be repaired by the boys. The vehicle is then either used at the ranch or sold at a dealer only auction at the Ranch. These donations are tax deductible (RBR, 2013 ). To make use of the over 500 RV hook ups on the Ranch, two Bluegrass Festivals are held each year. During the festival, the boys run concession stands, act as parking attendants, and help the many bands set up and tear down their equipment. The festival s run from Thursday until Saturday, twice a year. The Ranch spends approximately $20,000 per year to house one boy (RBR, 2010, p. 4). This expense covers food, shelter, after school activities, and any other needs of the residents and ranch. Please see the table below for a breakdown of donation options (RBR, 2010, p. 4). Table 2 1 RBR Various levels of membership (RBR, 2010) Cost Membership/Support $20,000 One Boy One Year Sponsor $10,000 One Boy Half Year Sponsor $5,000 One Boy 90 Day Sponsor $1,000 L ifetime Member $1,000/year Gold Star Member $100.00 Century Club
56 Table 2 1 Continued. Cost Membership/Support $50.00 Ranch Partner $25.00 Voting Member Boys at RBR are housed in one of five cottages run by cottage families. Each cottage has a husband and wife team with ten to twelve boys. The cottage families are responsible for the day to day needs of the boys. The ranch employs two couples who act as relief cottage parents to give the permanent cottage parents time off. The cottage parents manage bo activities. A typical day for a boy at RBR consists of: waking at 6am to complete a few chores and eat breakfast, load the RBR school bus and head to Palatka public schools, go to school all day, load the RBR school bus and return to the Ranch, complete homework with cottage parent for a couple of hours before chapel or dinner (Chapel is Wednesdays), go to the cafeteria for dinner, and finally, return to their cottage to complete the remai Education is a very important part of the RBR life and each boy attends public school. Many of the boys participate in after school activities at the public schools such as the band, drama, ROTC, and other activities. The Ranch created its own 4 H club and also has a Boy Scout Troop and Cub Scout Pack (RBR, 2013). Some boys stay at the Ranch until adulthood but the minimum requirement is a one year placement. After Rodeheaver many boys graduate from h igh school, go to college or trade school, join the armed forces, or take jobs at local businesses (RBR, 2013). Rodeheaver Boys Ranch is considered a working ranch that is home to horses, cows, pigs, and other small animals. The founder, Homer Rodeheaver, 1 ). The horse
57 program at RBR is run by two adult volunteers and multiple Ranch residents To be on ion by the activities school, and complete all daily tasks at their cottage. For this study, researcher s used the horses, both adult voluntee barn roughly nine horses and 8 10 boys can be on barn duty at any given time. The barn was the main point of contact during the study. Below, experiential learning is described. Experiential Learning Experiential learning has been de sense making process of active engagement between the inner world of the person and situations. Mazurkewicz, Harder, a nd Roberts (2012) suggested that participating in educational activities does not mean experiential learning is taking place. They instead connections, and make an attemp et al., 2012, p 179). In the sections to follow, the researcher describe s the history and many models of experiential learning. History of Experiential Learning Experiential learning is not a new up a nd coming idea (Wulff Risner & Stewart, 1997). Experiential learning was first conceptualized by John Dewey in 1938 in his Experiential learning evolved to encompass many things since this time. Dewey (1938 p. 2 ) believed, not real problems to students and that school learning should be an experienti ally active, not passive affair. Steinaker and Bell, in 1979, described a taxonomic structure
58 to describe experiential learning Soon followi ng, learning w (p. 18) of cre (p. 41) Finally, in 2006, Roberts created a model that encompassed most of the previous experiential learn ing theories. Below, each of the aforementioned models is discussed in more detail. Models of Experiential Learning There are many models of experiential learning, as described earlier. No one model is correct. This research study sought to combine all mo dels to reach the most positive outcome. Described below are the models reviewed for this study. xperie ntial l earning The father of experiential learning, John Dewey (1938 ) suggested, that all experiences are not educational but al l learning is experiential The basis of his experiential philosophy was that education and personal experience go hand in hand (Dewey, 1938). Dewey described five steps in the learning process (Figure 2 .5 ) : 1) a felt difficulty; 2) its location and diffic ulty; 3) suggestion of a possible solution; 4) development via reasoning of the bearings of the suggestion; and 5) further observation and experiment leading to its acceptance or rejection (Dewey, 1997). Based on Dewey (1938), learning from experie nce involves observation of surrounding conditions, knowledge of what has happened in similar situations in the past, a knowledge obtained partly by recollection and partly from the information, advice, and warning of those who have had a wider experience, and judgment which puts together what is observed and what is rec alled to see what they signify.
59 Figure 2 5 stage model of experiential l earning Joplin (1981) reviewed many works on experiential lear ning and from these reviews she developed her own five stage model of experiential learning (Figure 2.6 ) on to be studied (Joplin, 1981) Joplin (1981) suggested that this stage should attention but allow for unplanned learning at the same time incorporates a direct interaction with the phenomenon being studied and should be challenging or provocative ( Joplin, 1981). This stage is where learners en gage in ordering, sorting, analyzing, and moving (Joplin, 1981). The third and fourth stages, important because it allows for challenge to the learner while being in a safe env ironment where risk ta king is endorsed (Joplin, 1981) Feedback is important because learners need assessments of their progr ess (Joplin, 1981 ). Finall y, the fifth this is the stage where learning is recognized, articulat ed, and evaluat ed (Joplin, 1981 ). In this stage learners sort through their experiences and order their observations from the experience and to their e xisting knowledge (Joplin, 1981 )
60 Figure 2 6 stage experiential learning model (Joplin, 1981) eory of experiential l earning ( Figure 2 .7 ) ( Smith & Rosser, 2007; Stedman, Rutherford, & Roberts, 2006 approach to education and learning as a lifelong process that is soundly based in intellectual traditions of social p. 20 ).
61 Figure 2 7 Experiential Learning as the process that Links Edu cation, Work, and Personal Development (Kolb, 1984) an action and seeing the effects of the action; the second step is to understand the effects of the action. The third step is to understand the action, and the last step is to modify the action given a new situation the work s of Dewey, Lewin, and Piaget, Kolb form ed his own model (Figure 2 .8 ) t he cycle goes as follows: 1.) Reflect on what you already know, 2 .) Plan how you intend to process, 3.) Act out your plan, and finally 4.) Observe the results your actions bring (Stedman, Rutherford, & Roberts, 2006)
62 Figure 2 8 Model of the Experiential Learning Process (Kolb, 1984) odel s of experiential l earning Ro berts (2006) developed a model that depicted the cycle of the experiential learning process. The researcher used Dewey (1910/1997, 1938), Joplin (1981), and Kolb (1984) experiential learning models to create the Model of the Experiential L earning Process (Figure 2 .9 ). Roberts (2006) described the process as having an on going, spiral like pattern. He (2006) suggested that the process begins with an initial focus from the learner, which is followed by an initial experience. From this experi ence, learners reflect on the observations and then create generalizations from the experience and reflection (Roberts, 2006). After this iteration is complete, the learner moves on to other iterations of the cycle (Roberts, 2006).
63 Figure 2 9 Model of the Experiential Learning Process (Roberts, 2006) In addition to the Model of the Experiential Learning Process, Roberts (2006) created a Model of Experiential Learning Contexts (Figure 2 .10 ). This model was develo ped based on four dimensions gath ered from Dale (1946), Joplin (1981), Steinaker and Bell (1979), and Etling (1993). The four dimensions are: the level, the duration, the intended outcome, and the setting The second dimension came from Dale (1946) who developed the Cone of Experience and can occur on a continuum from very concrete to very abstract The second dimension came from Joplin (1981 p. 17) who suggested an experience can last from a few seconds to many years. The third dimension came from Stei naker and Bell (1979) who suggested outcomes of experiential learning can include: exposure, participation, identification, internalization, and dissemination. Finally, the fourth dimension ca me from Etling (1993) who suggested there is a continuum from fo rmal to non formal to informational educational setting that is critical to defining the setting.
64 Figure 2 1 0 The aforementioned models and approaches of experiential learning helped the re searcher create a theoretical framework for the study. The following model, Equine Facilitated Learning, was used as the basis of the study. Model of Equine Facilitated Learning (EFL) Florence Nightingale reported companion animals being involved in huma n health care as early as 1860 (All, Loving, & Crane 1999; Smith Osborne & Selby, 2010). Since 1970, scientists were reporting the psychosocial benefits of horseback riding for children with disabilities (Harpoth, 1970 ; Smith Osborne & Selby, 2010). Schne ider (2005) stated, most human animal studies are focused on the relationship between people and their pets and companion animals not horses Smith Osborne and Selby (2010 p. 292 ) reported, based on recent theoretical and empirical literature, that the f ollowing psychosocial effects have been found in children and adolescents who participated in equine
65 esteem enhancement, improvement in personal space/boundary issues and other attachment re lated problems, reduction in emotional blunting and incongruence, and improvement in meta cognition and reflectivity (Karol, 2007; Roberts, Bradberry, & Williams, 2004; Rothe Vega, Torres, Soler, & Pazos, 2005; Saunders Ferguson, Barnett, Culen, & TenBroe ck, 2008; Schultz, Remick Barlow, & Robbins, 2007) Smith Osborne and Selby (2010 ) psychosocial benefits in the following areas, not specified by population: self confidence, self esteem, self concept, interest in learning/motivation to participate in hippotherapy, improvement in attention span/concentration/listening skills, spatial awareness, and verbal skills (p. 292) (MacKinnon, Noh, & Laliberte, 1995a; MacKinnon, Noh, Lariviere, MachPhail, Allen, & Laliberte, 1995b Saunders Ferguson, et al., 2008 ). Ewing, MacDonald, Taylor, and Bowers (2007 p. 60 ) described equine facilitated method requires the client to go to t approach is based on the physical attributes of the horse (Ewing et al. 2007). The risk youth, can be a barrier (Ewing, et al. 2007). Th e Equine Facilitated M ental Health Association (EFMHA) (2003 4 create an understanding of boundaries, to improve focus, a Some activi ties associated with EFL include feeding, tacking, and grooming. Most research done on EFL to date is qualitative in nature but interest in this approach has sparked attention to create more research.
66 Animal Assisted Activities While there is not much published research on equine facilit ated learning, there have been many studies done involving animals and youth (Pitts, 2005; Swift, 2009; Ward, 1996). In a study conducted by Ward (1996) 4 H animal science programs were found to have a positive influence on life skill development. Resear chers believe caring for the animals built responsibility and develops self discipline ( Boleman, Cummings, & Briers, (2004). Swift (2009) found the Reading Education Assistance Dogs (R.E.A.D) had positive influences on fluency and motivations of participat ing children. The reasoning behind these influences is that children get excited about reading to the dog which in turn increases motivations and helps increase their fluency in reading (Swift, 2009). Boyd, Herring, and Briers (1992) found that 4 H youth p rogramming (judging, raising, and working animals) developed valuable life skills through experiential learning activities. This was further confirmed by Nash and Sant (2005) who found, participants who took part in judging animals had lifelong effects suc h as: communication, decision making, problem solving, self discipline, self motivation, teamwork, and organization. Another study, based on more companion animal activities, showed that teachers in elementary school classrooms suggested live animals, alo ng with other instruction, taught children humane values and other life skills (Zasloff, Hart, & DeArmond, 1999). purposes Animals are used for educational purposes such as: humane education, behavioral observations, and dissection (Orlans, 1993). Kidd and Kidd (1996) suggest providing opportunities for youth to observe and interact with animals helps develop their appreciati on and respect for nonhuman species. For all of these reasons, it is not surprising that animals are so
67 frequently used in conjunction with youth programming Below is the conceptual framework for the study. Conceptual Framework Leadership and Youth MacNe il (2006 p. 27 MacNeil (2006) noted there was nothing about comprehensive review of more than f ive thousand leadership studies. Zeldin and Camino (1999, p. 11) defined youth leadership as the provision of experiences, from highly structured to quite informal, that help young people develop [a set of competencies that allow young peop le to lead others over the long term] Youth leadership development can be an intervention to risky behaviors or c hall enges that have already arisen, or it can be used as a prevention strategy for youth (MacNeil, 2006). Ricketts and Rudd (2002) created a Model for Youth Leadership Curriculum (Figure 2. 11 ) as a way to educate youth about leadership. The model was influenced by the research of Fertman and Long (1990), Fertman and Chubb (1993), Wald and Pringle (1995), Long, Wald, and Graff (1996), and Bloom (1956). This model was developed for integration into formal career and technical education programs (Ricketts & Rudd, 2002). When researching literature, Ricketts and Rudd (2002) found there were large gaps in the research regarding youth leadership. Educ ators must include all elements of the youth leadership curriculum model for a program to be complete (Ricketts & Rudd, 2002).
68 Leadership Knowledge and Information Leade rship Attitude, Will, and Desire Decision making, Reasoning, and Critical Thinking Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Skills Oral and Written Communication Skills Integration The individual is focused on improving, leadership skills and abilities Intera ction The individual thinks about leadership and wants to explore. Awareness Leadership is not a Evaluation Synthesis Application Analysis Comprehension Figure 2 11 Model for Youth Leadership Curriculum (Ricketts & Rudd, 2002) The first dimension encompasses the knowledge and in formation that youth need to know about leaders and leadership prior to application of leadership concepts (Ricketts & Rudd, 2002). They also stated dimension demystifies complicated, abstract concepts and ideas of leadership by helping students understand phenomena as a personal and attainable undertaking. The second dimension leadership attitude, will, and desire, importance of motivation, self realization, and health in fulfilling a s capacity (Ricketts & Rudd, 2002 p. 5 ). The next dimension, decision making, reasoning, and critical thinking making, reasoning, and critical thinking skills are seemingly paramount in the quest to design a model for teaching leadersh The fourth dimension, oral and
69 written communication, was included based on a thorough examination of research (Benson, 1994; Ezell, 1989; Gardner, 1987; and Montgomery White, Lockaby, & Akers, 2001) pertaining to leadership competencies and communication (Ricketts & Rudd, 2002).The final dimension intrapersonal and interpersonal relations, has many parts, including: conflict resolution, stress management, teamwork, and ethics which are combined with diversity, personality types, communication styles, leadership styles, and o ther human relations abilities. This dimension was included to prepare students to look towards the future and seek to work with others in the best way possible (Ricketts & R udd, 2002). The Model for Youth Leadership Curriculum was depicted here to show the process of creating a leadership program for youth Based on the relatively small amount of research specific to youth leadership development, researchers hope to further t he field by conducting this study. Below, research of youth development and at risk youth is described. Youth Development and At Risk Youth To determine which age group would most benefit from this study, the researcher looked to previous research on youth development. Elementary school children do not yet think abstractly enough to digest the idea of authentic leadership, while high school aged youth may be out of reach as far as changing their future trajectory (NRC, 2002). Early adolescence, or ages 10 1 5, are seen as times of storming and stress (Arnett, 1999). During early adolescence, there are several concrete risks as described by the NRC (2002). These six risks include: 1.) renegotiation of parental relationships, some so turbulent there is a perman ent rift, 2.) joining deviant peer groups and becoming involved in behaviors that seriously endanger their ability to make a successful
70 transition to adulthood, 3.) failing to make social connections with proper adults to help transition to mainstream adul thood, 4.) having limited educational opportunities which leads to lack of intellectual knowledge and soft skills required to participant in the community, 5.) lack of civil engagement and social institutions which leads to the lack of will or skill necess ary to participate as positive community members, and 6.) experiences of racism, prejudice, and other cultural intolerances that alienate the adolescent so they withdraw or rebel against mainstream society (NRC, 2002). Kerka (2003 2 tified as at risk are often those who do not fit the mainstream mold; their learning styles, learning disabilities, or life experiences may previous research, Kerka (2003) describ ed eight factors that contribute to effective at risk youth development. The first is the presence of caring, knowledge able adults. These adults may be and deeply care about yo Jurich, 1999 p. x ; Kerka, 2003 4 ). These caring, knowledge adults can provide a climate of trust and support for youth who think no one is paying attention to them (Kerka, 2003). The second fac tor is a sense of community for the youth Grobe, Niles, and Weisstein ( 2001 p. 35 program s report that the major factor that helped them succeed in their second chance program was a feeling of belo 5 ).
71 The third factor is a type of programming called an assets approach. In this approach, instead of seeing deficits in at risk youth, youth are seen as having assets. Youth with more assets, or social capital, may be le ss likely to engage in risky behavior ( Benson, et al., 2006; Croninger and Lee, 2001; Grobe, et al., 2001; Kerka, 2003). Lewis (2003, p. 35) stated feeling valued, attachment to prosocial institutions, the ability to navigate in multiple cultural contexts, commitment to civic engagement, good conflict resolution and planning for the future skills, a sense of personal responsibility, strong moral character, self acy, and a sense of a larger purpose in life The fourth factor is respect for youth. Lewis (2003) found that youth development programs should be grounded in the idea that youth have talents, are intelligent, and deserve respect to always be present. Ke rka (2003, Youth programs should always show a sense of respect for the youth involved. With respect comes the fifth factor, high expectations for academi c achievement and responsible behavior (Kerka, 2003). Once analyzed, data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (2000) showed teacher supportiveness along with high expectations of success helped foster achievement in high school. Program evalua tions by James and Jurich (1999) found that at risk youth can prosper and succeed at high levels when challenged. These high expectations were also shown to translate into success in postsec ondary education and employment.
72 Creating a holistic, multidimensi onal developmental curriculum is the sixth factor to successful at risk youth development (Kerka, 2003). James and Jurich (1999 p. xiii ) overcome a variety of risk factors, such as lack of attachment to a caring adults, health youth with educational options that respond to student needs, interests, a nd learning styles (Kerka, 2003 ); o pportunities for students to experience success (Elliott, Hanser, & Gilroy, 2002; Kerka, 2003); and a focus on youth development and resilience (Grob e et al., 2001; Kerka, 2003; Lewis, 2003). Providing authentic, engaging learning that connects school and work is the seventh factor (Kerka, 2003). Conchas and Clark (2002, p. 305) found the goals They affirmed their professional expectations and remained optimistic despite adv as cited in Kerka 2003). The final factor for successf ul at risk youth development is support and long term follow up services (Kerka, 2003). When programs offer long term follow up, this fosters trust from the youth because there is time to deve lop a relationship (Kerka, 2003). These risks and factors are in no way all encompassing but were based on many previous research studies. These risks and factors were taken into consideration when researchers developed the study with an early adolescent age group. Youth Development and Equine Facilitated Learning Smith (2004 ) suggested that when youth spend extended periods of time riding and working horses, positive changes can be created. Activities u sing horses can be powerful in e ffecting personal att ributes, such as motivation, responsibility, confidence,
73 anxiety, and mood (Saunders Ferguson, et al., 2008). Melson (2001 pp. 115 ) stated the mind and, when successful ly met, stokes the dampened fires Ewing et al (2007 p. 60 to initiate discussion, and to establish the tru st Therapists, teachers, or other adults in general may be viewed by some at risk youth with apprehension and mistrust (Ewing et al., 2007). Nebbe (2003) suggested youth learn to be more empathic with animals instead of humans because animals are seen as peers. At risk youth may view adults, teachers, or thera Multiple researchers have found a positive link between animal companionship and empathy towards others (Ewing, et al., 2007; Poresky, 1996). A study done by MacDonald and Cappo (2003) found an increase in yout acceptance and peer popularity, which led researchers to believe the EFL program may ability to make friends. A study done by Bowers and MacDonald (2001) showed a significant decrease in depression symptoms in at risk youth working with horses. From this same study (Bowers & MacDonald, 2001) self reported measures and observations of the participants showed the program helped develop life skills such as respect, patience, honest, communication, and c orrect use of power and control. Saunders Ferguson, et al (2008) found increases in adolescent self esteem after participation in a 6 day horsemanship program through a 4 H Horsemanship School in Florida. During this program, adolescents were exposed to d ifferent horsemanship activities such as: cleaning stalls, feeding horses, haltering and leading horses, grooming and saddling horses, and riding the horses (Saunders Ferguson, et
74 al., 2008).This same study found a slight increase in adolescent self accept ance as a result of the horsemanship program (Saunders Ferguson, et al., 2008). Another study done in New Jersey called the H.A.Y (Horses and Youth) program, found an increase in life skill areas during a 26 week program (Cole, 2005). The H.A.Y program obj ectives sought to increase life skills in at risk youth, the life skills targeted were: anger management and conflict resolution, self awareness and self worth, problem solving and leadership skills, teamwork and relationships with others, and decreasing r ecidivism rates in the youth (Cole, 2005). Participants in this study received 6 weeks of life skills lesson, in addition to 26 weeks of horse care and knowledge lessons, group building activities, and horseback riding (Cole, 2005). The aforementioned the ories, models, and approaches were used as the conceptual framework for the study. In the following section, the conceptual model used for the study will be explained. Conceptual Model A conceptual model (Figure 2.12 ) was created by the researcher to illu strate the relationship between authentic leadership, equine facilitated learning, youth development and the five elements of the George model of authentic leadership (George, 2003) The model was created through a review of the authentic leadership, experiential learning, and youth development literature. As the model shows, the top three aspects of the conceptual model overlap, which is meant to show that without one, the others would not exist. The bottom element of the mod el showed elements of the George model of authentic leadership, th e variables the researcher anticipated would increase as a result of the program.
75 Fi gure 2 12 Conceptual Model of Horse based Educational Program on Authentic Leadership for At risk youth. model includes the concepts and definitions of the model. The researcher used the George model as a theoretical basis of authentic leadership for the program. Using this theory, the researcher developed an equine facilitated learning program that was focused on teaching the five elements of the George (2003) model. Youth development 12 15 y ears old. The outcomes of the conceptual model are the five elements of the George (2003) model of authentic leadership. The researcher anticipated that using the George model, an equine facilitated learning program, and youth development methods would res ult in an increase in the five elements of authentic leadership. Below is a summary of chapter two. Bill George's (2003) Model of Authentic Leadership Youth Development Elements of Authentic Leadership: Heart, Purpose, Relationships, Values, Self Discipline Equine Facilitated Learning
76 Summary Chapter 2 provided the theoretical and conceptual framework for the study. Bill the equine facilitated lear ning theory, and Rodeheaver Boys Ranch youth program supported the theoretical framework. The researcher included an appropriate literature review in each of the following topic areas: Authentic Leadership, History, and Models, Experiential Learning Define d, History, and Models, Youth Development Defined, History, and Models, Leadership and Youth, Youth Development and At Risk Youth, Youth Development and Equine Facilitated Learning. The literature review revealed researchers in the field have spent much t ime studying the concept of authentic leadership, experiential learning, and youth development. However, the literature review also indicated very little research on Development for at risk youth. In the following chapter, the researcher will explain the research design and methodologies of the study.
77 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Chapter o ne provided descriptions of at risk youth, the Rodeheaver Boys Ranch, authentic leadership, and the use of horses as educational tools. These descriptions provided the foundation for the fo llowing chapters. Chapter one also included definitions of key terms, description of the purpose of the study, and the objectives upon which the study was based. The literature review The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of an equine facilitated authentic leadership development program on at risk youth. Chapter two described the contextual framework of the study. The following topic s were discussed: 1. ) authen tic leadership (George & Sims, 2007) 2. ) youth development, 3. ) experiential learning theory, 4 ) equine facilitated learning, and 5. ) a researcher developed conceptual model. This chapter explains th e methods used by the researcher to accomplish each of the objectives of the study. The five objectives were to: 1. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development relationships 2. Determi ne the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development self discipline 3. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development purpos e 4. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development values and 5. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development h eart
78 The researcher implemented a case study approach to accomplish the purpose and objectives of the study. The case study approach has been used by many study (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). The case study format can provide the following advantages: The case study is better suited for emic constructions ). knowledge by presenting holistic a nd lifelike description that allow the reader to experience the context vicariously. The case study, more than the conventional report, allows for the demonstration of the interplay between inquirer and respondents. The case study provides the reader an op portunity to probe for internal consistency (factualness and trustworthiness). transferability between the sending and receiving contexts. The case study provides a grounded assessm ent of context by communicating contextual information that is grounded in the particular setting being studied. (Lincoln & Guba, 1985, pp. 359 360) In addition to these advantages, a case study may be written for the following purposes: 1) to teach, 2) to provide vicarious experiences for the reader in the context being described, 3) to facilitate change, and 4) to revise issues for future consideration (Erlandson, et al., 1993, p. 164). The case study is made up of several parts. First, it explains the pr oblem or entity being studied (Erlandson, et al., 1993). This section includes a statement of the problem, the significance of the study, research questions/objectives, operational definitions, assumptions, and limitations (Erlandson, et al., 1993). The s econd part is a thorough review of literature to help the researcher and reader view the study as a whole (Erlandson, et al., 1993). The third explains the
79 methodology of the study, including: information on the population/sample, instrumentation, procedur es, data analysis, trustworthiness, and an audit trail (Erlandson, et al., 1993). The fourth part includes the description of findings and the contextual nature of the study. Segments that must be included are: description of what the senses detected while in the setting, a description of the transactions and processes observed in the setting, a discussion of the important issues, trends, and patterns, and a final segment of the case study includes a discussion of the outcomes which may include limitations, conclusions, implications, and ideas for further research (Erlandson, et al., 1993). Another part of typical case studies is a companion volume that includes the audit trail. Due to the nature of this document, a companion volume was not logistically possible, to account for this, the researcher utilized the appendices as a partial companion volume. This chapter describes the program design, research foundation, researc h design, target population, instrumentation, data collection procedures, and data analysis procedures For the remainder of this document, when talking about research, I refer to ections, I Program Design The study was framed around the design and implementation of an authentic leadership development progr am for at risk youth. Further, the program employed the use of horses to facilitate this process The details of the program are explained in the following sections.
80 program de velopment. activities, participation, reaction, knowledge, skills, opinions, KASA (knowledge, skills, attitudes, and aspirations), practice change, and end results/SEEC (social, economic, envi ronmental conditions) (Bennett, 1975). Figure 3 1 The first step, inputs/resources refers to any inputs required to produce the program. For this study, the inputs and resources included: staff/assistants, pro fessional/expert volunteers, researcher time, and use of props, horses, and other resources from Rodeheaver Boys Ranch. The second step, activities refers to any activities that will happen during the program. For this study, there were many activities con ducted which are described below in the program design, instrumentation, and data collection sections. The third step, participation, refers to the types and numbers of persons involved in the program. For this study, participants included sixteen middle school aged boys from Rodeheaver Boys Ranch. These participants are more thoroughly described in the sections below. The fourth step, reactions, refers to participant reactions to the program. For this study, reactions were determined based
81 on participant observation, reflection exercises, and focus groups. These reactions and collection methods are described in the following sections. The fifth step, KASA change, refers to changes in knowledge, skills, attitudes, and aspirations. For this study, the resear cher determined these changes based on participant observation, reflection exercises, focus groups, and the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) (Avolio, et al., 2007). These methods are described further in the following sections. The sixth step, prac tice change, refers to any practices adopted as a result of participation in the program. For this study, change could not be fully determined but changes were noted during the post program focus group. The seventh and final step, end results, refers to th e ultimate effect of the program on social, economic, and environmental conditions. For this study, the end results were determined by participant observation, reflection exercises, focus group responses, and statistical analysis of the ALQ. The end result s will be described in chapters four and five. Below, the specifics of the program are described. The Program The equine facilitated learning program consisted of five sessions implemented over five days with a total of fourteen hours of participation (in cluding lunch and breaks) The program took place at the Rodeheaver Boys Ranch Horse Unit. All participants lived at Rodeheaver Boys Ranch but none of the participants had a direct role at the Horse Unit. The Horse Unit consisted of a barn, multiple pastu res, a large round pen, and multiple horses (7 10) The round pen is where six of the activities took place and another two activities taking p lace in the barn. The facilitator implemented s ix of the eight activities, and the horse unit director facilitati ng two of the activities. Assistants to the program included: the horse unit director, the assistant to the director,
82 five older boys who were assigned to the horse unit, and a professional with a doctoral level degree in leadership education The assistan ts to t he program helped the facilitator with logistics and overall ma nagement of the program. At one point, the horse unit director facilitated activities to keep the program running quickly and smoothly. When any inciden ts arose, such as being kicked or getting into an altercation with another participant, the assistant to the director would take the boys aside and make sure they were taken care of without interrupting the program. The horse unit boys were in charge of ge tting the horses to and from the leadership profess ional assisted in the administration of the questionnai res and to ensure the facilitator was assisted, when needed, with reflection questions. The leadership professional was only present on the first day of the program. All other assistants were present all three days of the program. Each of the sessions covered a different aspect of George Authentic L eadership Mode l ( 2003): relationships, self discipline, purpose, values, and heart. The activities were determined by t he researcher and were collected from multiple Equine Facilitated Learning guides (EAGALA, 2012; Mandrell & Mandrell, 2008) The facilitator was a Leve l One Equine Specialist Professional C ertified through the Equine Growth and Learning Association ( EAGALA). Level One C ertification requirements include: 1.) Professional must have 6,000 hours experience of hands on work with horses and 2.) Professional mu st have completed at least 100 hours of continuing education in the horse profession. The established activities were selected from for their fit to the desired outcome. The manuals used were titled: Fundamentals of EAGALA Model Practice
83 Untraining Manual, Seventh Edition (EAGALA, 2012) and Champions Curriculum EAP Group Curriculum for At Risk Adolescents, Third Edition (Mandrell & Mandrell, 2008). Before participants were introduced to the horses, a horse profession al completed a safety demonstration with each participant. During this safety demonstration, participants were informed about how to safely work with horses, wh at the dangers were, where the danger zones for horses were, and how to interact properl y with the horses while keeping safety in mind. The sessions were videotaped to allow the researcher to review each session for program evaluation purposes. Each session is covered in depth in the following sections. It is important to note that activities involving horses should not be done by praction ers without previous horse experience and/or training. It is also important to have multiple assistants in the ring and on hand in the case of an emergency and to act Timeline Below is a t imeline of the program activities and goals focus groups were conducted two days prior and two days after the program See Appendices G and H for Facilitator Guides. Table 3 1 Timeline of Program Day/Subject Activity Goals Day 1: Relationships Allow relationship building between boys and horses Day 2: Self Discipline To display difficulty of self discipline when faced with temptation Day 2: Purpose To display how people can work together even with differing purposes
84 Table 3 1 Continued Day/Subject Activity Goals Day 2: Values To display how each participant will have different values Day 3: Heart To encourage emp athy for the horses and each other The Context The program took place over the course of three days, Friday, Saturday, and Monday, in Novembe r (not including the pre and post program focus groups) I had already met the boys during the focus group two nig hts before but we had not been together at the barn y et I arrived, with another professional, about thirty minutes early to get the activities set up before t he boys arrived. There were five older boys at the barn who are assigned to the barn crew so the y helped me find the things I needed for my activities. The barn manager was running late so she told me to help myself and get things moving. At about 2:45 PM I started to see boys walking towards the barn from their cottages. We were to start the program at 3PM and work for two hours. We started by splitting the boys into two groups (from their focus groups). One group worked with me and the horses while the other group completed the preprogram questionnaires. We switched groups and when both groups had do ne both activities, we reflected on the afternoon and planned to see each other the next day. Saturday would be a long day. We started at 9am and worked until 2pm with a few short breaks and an hour long lunch break. We had three different sessions on Satu rday, which was a lot for middle school boys. We took Sunday off because Rodeheaver is a faith b are a day of worship for the boys On the final day, I could tell the boys had grown
85 attached to me and the horses, and I had become inv ested in them. We were comfortable with each other and they were very focused for the last session. Relationships The activities used to complete the relatio nship session were Catch and Halter and Extended Appendages (EAGALA, 2012 ; Mandrell & Mandrell 2008 ). These activities were conducted on day one because the facilitator hoped laying the groundwork for relationships would help the program and the boys work more efficiently together Participants were divided into two large g roups based on the focus group breakdown from two days prior While one group was participating in an exercise the other group was observing. The activities are described below. Catch and Halter The Catch and Halter exercise was conducted first to allow participants to intera ct with the horses in a very controlled setting. The researcher set up the activity based on the EAGALA manual (EAGALA, 2012). The Catch and Halter activity was conducted in the round pen with four horses. Participants were broken into two groups, one pa rticipating and one observin g. Participants were then divided into pairs with each pair choosing one horse. Participants were given a halter and a lead rope to use while catching the horses. There were no instructions or preparation given on how to catch a nd halter. The facilitator chose this activity to display relationships based on the interactions with the horses and the partners. The facilitator believed that once the boys were tasked with catching and haltering a horse, the act of creating a relations hip, with the horse and their partner, would develop Some horses would be easy to catch while others would
86 be difficult. Each event would give the facilitator opportunities to solicit reflection based on relationships and the events. The facilitator took field notes to develop questions, based on post activity observation, for reflection with the participants. Questions included, but were not limited complete the exercise. After all pairs returned to the facilitator with a horse, there was a r During the reflection session, the facilitator asked questions to help participants draw links between the activity and how creating relationships may have helped. Questions were also asked about how the participants would use the experience in the future (with parents, at school, with peers, etc. ). The second activity for relationships is described below. Extended Appendages The next activity to teach relationships was Extended Appendages This activity was created using the Champions curriculum ( EAGA LA, 1999; Mandrell & Mandrell, 2008 ). The Extended Appendages activity was conducted in the round pen with four horses. Participants were divided into groups of four by the facilitator. In this activity, participants were asked to catch and halter a hors e and then put a saddle on the horse. To catch and halter a horse means to choose a horse and place a halter on its face as a
87 means of restraint, and bring it to the desired location. To begin, the facilitator asked me way. After this was done, the facilitator directions (they could not use their own arms and the link between each participant could not be broken without consequence. If direction, there was a consequence. Each group was allowed to create their own consequence for breaking the rules. The consequences varied from pushups to losing an appendage which meant, one of the o utside participants had to leave the group There was no time limit for this activity. The facilitator chose this activity to display relationships based on the interactions with the horses and the groups. The facilitator believed that during the activity participants would be required to form relationships with their group or risk not completing the task. The facilitator knew the horses may be difficult to catch because of the fact that four boys were linked and coming towards them This may be scary to the horse This fear response could result in the horse walking or running away from the group, this action would require the boys to practice teamwork and relationship building to solve the problem and complete the task. Also, having to rely on one anothe r for direction helped to build a relationship between the boys. The facilitator took field notes to develop questions, based on observation, for post activity reflection with the participants. Questions included, but were not limited to,
88 returned to the facilitator with a saddled horse, there was a reflection session. Questions inclu to Appe ndix H. During the reflection session, the facilitator asked questions to help participants draw links between the activity and how creating relationships may have helped. Questions were also asked about how the participants would use the experience in the future (with parents, at school, with peers, etc. ). Below, the activities for self discipline are described. Self Discipline The activity used to complete the self created based on the Cha mpions curriculum (EAGALA, 1999; Mandrell & Mandrell, 2008). This activity was the first session on the second day of the program and is described below Participants remained in the same two large groups from the previous day. F or this activity, participants were divided into smaller groups of four. There were four horses in the round pen for this activity. The participants were instructed to get one horse over the obstacle (a small jump) in the middle of the ring, one time. The round pen consisted of many temptations for the horses from piles of hay to buckets of food. There were also traffic cones, poles, and other obstacles throughout the round pen. The rules of this activity were: no touching the horses in any way, shape, or f orm, no coaxing
89 the horses or pretending to have food, no use of halters or lead ropes, and no leaving the round pen. The facilitator chose this activity to display self discipline based on the interactions with the horses, temptations, rules, and group me mbers. The facilitator believed that during the activity, the boys would see the horses choosing feed or another temptation base for reflection questions to solicit The facilitator took field notes to develop questions, based on observation, for post activity reflection with the participants. Questions included, but were not l imited to, is activity. After the groups successfully completed the activity or ran out of time, the facilitator completed a teach you about self having this experience, how do you feel your own self of possible questions refer to Appendix H. During the reflection session, the facilitator asked questions to help participants dra w links between the activity and how having good self discipline may have helped. Questions were also asked about how the participants would use the experience in the future (with parents, at school, with peers, etc. ). The activity used to teach purpose ar e described below.
90 Purpose activity was implemented based on the EAGALA manual (EAGALA, 2012). This activity was the second session on the second day of the program and is descri bed below Participants remained in the same two large groups from the previous session. For this activity, participants were divided into two small groups of four There were two horses in the round pen for this activity. The facilitato r placed the groups on opposite sides of the round pen and talked to each group individually. One group was instructed to get the horse to go clockwise around the round pen and jump the jump. The other group was instructed to get the same horse (at the sam e time) to go counterclockwise around the round pen and jump the jump. The rules were t he same as previously stated: no touching the horses in any way, shape, or form, no coaxing the horses or pretending to have food, no use of halters or lead ropes and no leaving the round pen. The facilitator chose this activity to display purpose based on the interactions with the horses, conflicting instructions, rules, the other group, and group members. The facilitator believed that when the boys received conflicting instruction, it would immediately create conflict between the groups. Instead of immediately dissipating the conflict, the facilitator would allow the boys to disagree a bit to solicit a request for help. Once the boys asked for help, the facilitator woul d use that time to ask about each The facilitator took field notes to develop questions, based on observation, for post activity reflection with the participants. Questions included, but were not limit ed to,
91 fter the groups successfully completed the activity or ran out of time, the facilitator completed a reflection session. Successfully completing the activity required communicating within groups to realize they had different purposes. Questions included, bu t were not limited ions refer to Appendix H. During the reflection session, the facilitator asked questions to help participants draw links between the activity and how pursing their purpose may have helped or hindered. Questions were also asked about how the participants wo uld use the experience in the future (with parents, at school, with peers, etc. ). The activities used to teach values are described below Values implemented based on the EAGALA manual (EAGALA, 2012). These activities were the third session on the second day of the program. Participants remained in the same two large groups of eight from the previous session s The researcher decided to allow the hor se professional to facilitate the session. This decision was made based on the lack of attention and order from the participants after lunchtime. These activities are de scribed below.
92 For this activity participants were divided into smaller groups of four. There were two horses in the round pen for this activity. Both groups were given the same instructions, to come up with a goal they would like to accompli sh with their horse(s). It needed to be something the horse did not already know how to do and would not do without instruction. With this in mind, the facilitator set the activity up as a game of HORSE where one group performed an activity and the next group had to replicate the activity or they received a letter (H, O, R, S, E) until there were no letters left to assign carrot in an overturned buck et The facilitator ch ose this activity to display value building based on the interactions with the horses, friendly competition, the other group, and group members. The facilitator believed that during the activity, providing a competition would encourage the boys to determin e if they valued winning or succeeding at a task more. Creating this internal conflict between creating a task so difficult no one could do it or winning the game would provide for good reflection on the thought process. This reflection would allow the boy s to draw the link between having differing values amongst the same goals. The facilitator took field notes to develop questions, based on observation, for post activity reflection with the participants. Questions included, but were not limited to, they ran out of time, the facilitator completed a reflection session. Questions included,
93 willing to make your activity harder/easier to make it harder/easier for th of possible questions refer to Appendix H. During the reflection session, the facilitator asked questions to help participants draw links between the a ctivity and how their values/goals may have helped or hindered. Questions were also asked about how the participants would use the experience in the future (with parents, at school, with peers, etc. ). The second activity used to teach values is described b elow. For this activity, participants were divided into pairs. Each pair had one horse. This The instructions were for each pair to make vided (hose, buckets, soap, etc. ). The only rule was that both participants in each pair had to agree that the horse The facilitator chose this activity to display value building based on the interactions with the horses, partner inte would lead to a reflection ab but neither is necessarily wrong. The facilitator took field notes to develop questions, based on observation, for post activity reflection with the participants. Questions included, but were not limited to,
94 When all pairs were finished, the facilitator completed a reflection session. Questions included, but were not questions refer to Appendix H. During the reflection session, the facilitator asked questions to help participants draw links between the activi ty and how their values/goals may have helped or hindered. Questions were also asked about how the participants would use the experience in the future (with parents, at school, with peers, etc. ). The activities used to teach heart are described below. Hear t The activities used to complete the heart session we and are described below. The activities were implemented based on the EAGALA manual and Champions curriculum (EAGALA, 2012; Mandrell & Mandrell, 2008). This was the fina l session, done on the last day of the program. Participants were in the same two large groups of eight as the previous day. For this activity the horse was to be fearful of a plastic shopping bag. In order to get the largest reaction, the r esearcher collaborated with the horse unit director to choose the horses w ith the biggest fear of a plastic bag which was tied to the end of a lunge whip. There were two horses used for the activity in the round pen. Participants were broken into groups of four. Each group worked with a different horse. Assistants to the program brought the plastic bag on a stick out to the arena and demonstrated the
95 animals were harmed as a result of this activity. The participants were asked re flective questions ab out why the horses may be fearful of the bag. After the discussion, each group was instructed to develop a plan to help the horse get over their fear of the bag. Participants were able to come up with short term (right then) and long t erm (what the barn workers could do) plans. Once the groups determined a plan of action, they were allowed twenty minutes with their respective horse. The facilitator chose this activity to display heart based on the interactions with the horses, the elem ent of fear for the horse, and group interaction. The participants had become attached to the horses so the facilitator believed that soliciting a fear response from the horse would solicit empathy in the boys. The facilitator believed that once the horse was scared, the boys would ask that the assistants stop scaring the horse by taking the bag away. Once this request was made, the facilitator would link the fear in th at empathy and heart happen all around them. The facilitator took field notes to develop questions, based on observation, for post activity reflection with the participants. Questions included, but were not limited to, When the groups succeeded at getting the horse to accept the bag or when time ran out, the facilitator completed a reflection session. Questions included, but were not
96 complete list of possible que stions refer to Appendix H. During the reflection session, the facilitator asked questions to help participants draw links between the activity and how their heart or compassion for the horse may have helped or hindered. Questions were also asked about how the participants would use the experience in the future (with parents, at school, with peers, etc. ). The second activity used to teach heart is described below. For this activity participants were to estimate the size of the horses. In order t o facilitate this activity, the researcher collaborated with the horse unit director to choose horses with a wide array of body type (over weight, underweight, tall, short, etc.). Participants stayed in their large group for this activity. The participants were asked to guess which horse was largest or smallest and put on a board in that order. Once the group determined the order from largest to smallest, they were able to measure them wi th weight/height measuring tape to figure out the ac tual order from largest to smallest. The facilitator chose this activity to display heart based on the interactions with the horses, the ordering activity based on size, and group interaction. The facilitator believed that having the boys specifically ord er the horses by size would solicit discussion about what makes one horse bigger or smaller than the others. During this discussion the facilitator would use the actual measurements to show that size can be deceiving. Once the actual sizes were given, the facilitator would solicit reflection about how this can happen in day to day life, showing the boys that it is hard to determine one
97 thing as being bigger, smaller, better, or worse, than another thing without proper investigation. The facilitator took fi eld notes to develop questions, based on observation, for post activity reflection with the participants. Questions included, but were not limited to, differences in size (fat, sk group finished the activity, the facilitator completed a reflection session. Questions feel sympatheti to Appendix H. During the reflection session, the facilitator asked questions to help participa nts draw links between the activity and how their heart or compassion for the horse may have helped or hindered. Questions were also asked about how the participants would use the experience in the future (with parents, at school, with peers, etc.). Please refer to Appendix I to view pictures from activities implemented during the program. Below, the research foundation is described. Research Foundation To meet the objec tives of this study, the researcher determined a mixed methods approach would be most ef fective. Historically, quantitative methods and qualitative met hods have been seen as addressing different types of research questions For the methodology of this study the researcher used these two differing methods as complementary methods instead of o Flick (2002 p. 265 by side,
98 In the following paragraphs the groundwork for each method is described. Flick (2002) suggested that instead of using the normal definitio n of triangulation which is, combin in g several qualitative methods; that researc hers begin instead to see triangulation as combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Triangulation (Figur e 3 .2 ) in this sense, is focused on one case; the same people that are interviewed fill out a questionnai re (Flick, 2002). The answers from the interview and the questionnaire are compared with each other and referred to each other during the analysis (Fl ick, 2002). This type of research seeks to link the results that each method produced. The researcher chose a mixed lick, 2002). Figure 3 2 Levels of triangulation of qualitative and quantitative research (Flick, 2002 ) When a mixed method approach is used, Kelle and Erzberger (2002) suggest three sorts of outcomes: 1) qualitative and quantitative results converge and support the same conclusions, 2) both results focus on different aspects of the issue but Data Set Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Triangulation Single Case Participant Observation & Focus Groups ALQ & Level of Comfort Questionnaires
99 complement each other to lead to a fuller picture, and 3) both results are divergent or contradictory (Flick, 2002). Below, the research design is described. Rese arch Design This mixed method case study design used participant observation, focus groups and three quanti tative questionnaires to address the objectives of the study. Focus groups were structured wit h researcher developed question protocol which were d eemed acceptable by a panel of experts A researcher developed questionnaire was lt around horses, which was deemed acceptable by a panel of experts. A researcher developed demographics survey was use d to collect demographic information from participants. The final instrument was the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire developed by Avolio, Gardner, and Walumbwa (2007). The researcher developed educational activities (with horses) to teach authentic lead ership knowledge and skills, described previously. The independent variable s of the study were age (interval ), gender (dichotomous), race (categorical ), and grade level (ordinal). The variables were measured on a short demographic instrument The populat ion and sample are described below. Population and Sample The theoretical population of this study was at risk youth regardless of age, race, gender, or living situation. However, it is recognized that each at risk youth has a unique situation that may imp act and differ from the data discovered in this study. The purposive sample consisted of sixteen, middle school age males at Rodeheaver Boys Ranch in Palatka, Florida in Palatka, Florida A purposive sample of purposive sampling:
100 The logic and power of purposive sampling lies in selecting information rich cases for in depth study. Information rich cases are those from which one can learn a great deal about issues of central importance to the purpose of resea rch, thus the term purposeful sampling. For example, if the purpose of an evaluation is to increase the effectiveness of a program in reaching lower socio economic groups, one may learn a great deal more by focusing on understanding the in depth needs, int erests, and incentives of a small number of carefully selected poor families than by gathering standardized information from a large, statistically representative sampling of the whole program. The purpose of purposeful sampling is to select information ri ch cases whose study will illuminate the questions under study. (p. 169) This purposive sample was chosen based on the size of the age group and the at risk qualifiers of the population. Boys ranged in age from 12 to 15 years old. Boys were in grades 6 8 a t Palatka Middle School. There were multiple ethnicities represented with the majority being White. The table below describes the demographics and was used to code for participant anonymity. Table 3 2 Demographic Information Participant Age Grade Race 1 1 3 7 Black 2 14 8 White 3 13 8 White 4 14 8 White 5 13 6 Native American 6 12 6 Mixed 7 14 8 White 8 13 7 Native American 9 15 8 White 10 13 7 White 11 14 8 White 12 13 7 White/Hispanic 13 14 8 White 14 14 7 White
101 Table 3 2 Continued Particip ant Age Grade Race 15 14 8 White 16 13 8 White Rodeheaver Boys Ranch (RBR) is a ranch for pre adjudicated youth. This means RBR may be the last opportunity for some of the boys before going into the juvenile justice system. T he researcher obtained priva te information about certain participants during informal conversations with the boys, but it is against their constitutional confidentiality rights to elaborate o legal background (Etten & Petrone, (1994). The instrumentation used for t his study is described below. Instrumentation To collect the necessary infor mation, the researcher used five different methods. Each method is described below. Participant Observation This method is commonly used in qualitative research and is defined by Denzin (1989) as: Participant observation will be defined as a field strategy that simultaneously combines document analysis, interviews of respondents and informants, direct participants and observation, and introspection. (p p .157 8) The main idea of part icipant observation is that the researcher is fully involved in Jorgensen (1989) described seven specific features of participant observation: 1. A special interest in human meaning and interaction as viewed from the perspective of people who are insiders or members of particular situations and settings; 2. Location in the here and now of everyday life situations and settings as the foundation of inquiry and method;
102 3. A form of theory and theorizing stressing interpretation and understanding of human existence ; 4. A logic and process of inquiry that is open ended, flexible, opportunistic, and requires constant redefinition of what is problematic based on facts gathered in concrete settings o f human existence; 5. An in depth, qualitative, case study approach and design; 6. The performance of a participant role or roles that involves establishing and maintaining relationships with natives in the field; and 7. The use of direct observation along with oth er methods of gathering information. (pp. 13 14) Participant observation allows for more time in the field and more contact with the sample of the study (Flick, 2002). A limitation to the participant observation method is the researcher may miss events or interactions due to their participation. To combat this limitation, the activities were video recorded so the researcher could return to them for further reflection and observation after the program concluded. The researcher also took detailed field notes during each activity to facilitate further reflection after the program concluded. Focus Group Protocol Another method was researcher developed questions to be administered in two focus groups (Appendix A ) Lunt and Livingstone (1996) suggested the strengt hs of focus groups as: First, focus groups generate discussion, and so reveal both the meanings that people read into the discussion topic and how they negotiate those meanings. Second, focus groups generate diversity and difference, either within or betwe en groups, and so reveal what Billig (1987) has called the dilemmati c nature of everyday arguments. (1996, p. 96) Participants were broken into two different focus groups to make the conversation more manageable. The groups were determined based on which cottage each boy lived
103 in at the Ranch There were four cottages in attendance so the researcher divided them based on the number of boys from each cottage, with each group having a maximum of seven to nine boys for a total of sixteen boys in both groups. The focus groups were used to determine youth perception s of leadership, determine any prior knowledge of leadership/authentic leadership, and to introduce the idea of horses as an educational tool. youth to meet the researcher. Each focus group was audio recorded and later transcribed by a reliable, confidential company, FoxTranscribe. To ensure the confidentiality of the participants and research, FoxTranscribe deleted the audio files after the tra nscription process. A moderator was used while the researcher took field notes. Thirteen semi structured questions were asked during the focus group In some cases, prompts were used. Each focus group last ed appro ximately 30 45 minutes Questions were reviewed by a panel of experts for face and content validity. The panel of experts consisted of experts from the fields of leadership, qualitative research methods, and youth development. Questions included, but were not limited to: and Focus groups were conducted two days before the program started and t wo days after the program ended to determine a change in knowledge or answers. Level of Comfort Questionnaire The second instrument, given two days after the first focus group, was a researcher (Appendix C ) This instrument collected data from the participants in reference to th eir self perceived level of comfort around horses. This was also used to determine previous knowledge or contact with
104 regards to horses. The questionnaire consisted of three Likert type (scale 0 4) questions and one open ended question. The questionnaire w as reviewed by a panel of experts to determine validity. The panel of experts consisted of experts in the fields of : leadership, horse management, quantitative research methods, and youth development. Demographic Questionnaire The third instrument was a r esearcher developed demographic questionnaire questionnaire. The demographic questionnaire consisted of three questions: Age, Grade, and Race. Authentic Leadership Question naire The fourth instrument was the Authenti c Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) (Appendix E) by Avolio, Gardner, and Walumbwa (2007). The ALQ was created based on authentic leadership theory and was used to measure four components of authentic leadership (Avo lio et al., 2007). Its validity and theoretical and empirical basis have been extensively analyzed and confirmed (Avolio, 2007; Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Gardner et al., 2005; Avolio et al., 2004). The four components are: self awareness, transparency, ethica l/moral, and balanced processing. Self degree is the leader aware of his or her strengths, limitations, how others see him or her et al., 2007 p. 1 ). Transparency refers to e does the leader reinforce a level of openness with others that provides (Avolio et al., 2007 p. 1 high st p. 1 ). Balanced
105 p. 1 ). Participants were g iven the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ Version 1.0 Self) by Bruce Avolio (2007).The questionnaire consisted of sixteen questions on a Likert type scale (0 The questionnaire was measur ed based on the four components previously explained. Scoring was as follows: Questions 1 5 dealt with transparency; Moral/Ethical was represented in questions 6 9; questions 10 12 were related to Balanced Processing; and Self Awareness was represented in questions 13 16 (Avolio, et al., 2007). Although the ALQ (Avolio, et al., 2007) does not completely reflect the objectives determined the concepts were comparable enough for study. The researcher determined the correlations between the four dimensions of the ALQ (Avolio, et al., 2007) and the five dimensions of the George ( 2007) model in table 3.3. Table 3 3 Authentic Leadership Questionnaire George Model of Authentic Leadership Self Awareness Purpose and Values Transparency Relationships Ethical/Moral Heart Balanced Processing Self Discipline Reliability, Validity, and Trustworthiness Reliability and validity of the instrum ents were important considerations when the researcher determined which instruments to use and how credible the study would be. The instruments were examined by a panel of experts to determine their validity, i.e.: if the instrument measures what it is sup posed to measure. Avolio et al., (2007) established reliability coefficients of the Auth entic Leadership Questionnaire. The
106 estim ated internal consistency coefficients alpha) for each of the measures were also at acceptable levels: self awarene ss, .92; relational transparency, .87; internalized moral perspective, .76; and balanced processing, .81 (Avolio, et al., 2007) Establishing trustworthiness was very important for this study. Erlandson, et al. ( 1993) suggested credibility, transfera bility, dependability, and confirmability are all essential to establishing trustworthiness Credibility was created through prolonged engagement, observation, triangulation, and member checking with the participants. The researcher w as with the participan ts for five days, with a total of eighteen contact hours. The researcher videotaped the sessions to ensure observations and triangulation was addressed. Finally, after each focus group, member checking was done to ensure the correct data was included in th e study. Transferability was addressed by using thick description of all data to allow other scholars to determine if the data was applicable to other studies and in other contexts. Dependability was addressed by using a constant comparative, theme based a nalysis of the data. This method of analysis ensured consistent relationships were addressed for each theme or phenomena. Finally, confirmability was addressed by researcher tracking of the sources and logic used to assemble the interpretations properly. D ata Collection A formal review of this study by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) preceded any data collection. The IRB 02, at the University of Florida, reviews non medical researcher proposals for ethical soundness. The IRB approved the research propo sal and assigned an IRB protocol number 2012 U 0745. The researcher sent the approved informed consent letter to the Director of Rodeheaver Boys Ranch and the participants (Appendix
107 G). Rodeheaver Boys Ranch acts as the legal guardian to all residents so t here was no other parental consent collected. The informed consent described the study, the researcher, and any potential risks associated with participating in the study. The participants were also informed about the approximate amount of time participati on in the study would require. Participants opted to voluntarily participate in the study and confirmed their acceptance of the terms by signing and returning the informed consent form. After formal approval by the IRB (#2012 U 0745) data collection bega n. Data collection occurred during six days in November 2012 with formal review of data during January 2013 The methods for completing each research objective and the statistical analysis used to do so, is described below. During data collection, t he res earcher randomly assigned individual identification numbers (see table 3.2) along with brief descriptions of the participants. This was done to maintain anonymity and monitor which participant was speaking during the audio recording of the focus group and specific participant responses to the written instruments. Subjectivity Statement In order to establish transparency and transferability of the findings, the researcher has included a subjectivity statement. The subjectivities of the researcher may bias and limit the finding of the qualitative inquiry (Preissle, 2008). The researcher is a 28 year old white female who was raised in an upper middle class family and now works as a full time graduate student. The researcher lived in a middle income area duri ng and after undergraduate study and currently reside s in a middle in come area in Gainesville, FL. The researcher has been involved with youth
108 programs horseback riding and volleyball, and informally mentored youth (a t risk and not at risk) since she was 16 years old. The researcher has been involved riding, caring for, and competing with horses since she was 6 years old. She has studied psychology, social work, youth development, and adolescent behavior problems focuse d on at risk youth during her unde rgraduate and graduate education. experiences and knowledge of horses and youth do impact how she view s at risk youth; however the data gathered in this study pertains to experiences unknown and indepe ndent of her. The relationship with th e participants of this study was non existent before the focus and experiences. M ultiple analysts including the researcher and an expert in the field of leadership and yout h development, and peer reviews were employed to help establish impartiality and avoid bias. Furthermore the theoretical frameworks served as a guide for interpretation. Despite demographic and experiential influences, the most prominent influence upon da ta an stance determines the way one views everything, including research ( Tebes, 2005 ). What an individual views as knowable in the universe determines how one will interpret and essen tially analyze information ( Tebes, 2005 ). over all quality (Preissle, 2008). The researcher believe s that the specific experiences with horses and youth fuel the study, and enhance the personal drive to better understand how equine facilitated learning experiences can be used to teach leadership
109 skills. However, measures were taken to appropriately avoid any bias that may constrain the results of the study. Qualitative Data C ollection The qualitative data was collected and analyzed using participant observation Participant observation is a process that should h appen in three distinct phases. Spradley (1980) describes each phase as: Descriptive observation at the beginning, w hich serves to provide the researcher with an orientation to the field under study and provides non specific descriptions, and which is used to grasp the complexity of the field as far as possible and to develop at the same time more concrete research ques tions and lines of vision; Focused observation in which the perspective increasingly narrows on those processes and problems which are most essential for the research question; and Selective observation towards the end of the data collection, which is ra ther focused on finding further evidence and examples for the types of practices and processes found in the second step. Participants were asked to participate in a small focus group consisting of seven to nine youth. The focus groups took place at Rodehea first round of focus groups was done two days prior to the beginning of the program and lasted approximately 35 and 40 minutes, respectively. The second round of focus groups was done two days after the program ended and lasted approximately 25 and 21 minutes, respectively. Participants were asked to make name tents so the moderator could speak to them on a personal level. The researcher wrote brief descriptions, such as shirt color or haircut, to be able to determine who was talking during the audio recording. The focus groups were very casual and the researcher formatted the groups around a conversation instead of an interview. After the focus groups, the researcher contracted FoxTranscribe to transcribe all of the audio coverage for analysis.
110 Quantitative Data Collection The two questionnaires were the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire [ALQ] (Avolio, et al., 2007) and a researcher developed Level of Comfort questionnaire. Participants were also asked to complete a shor t demographic survey to determine the sample specifics. The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire [ALQ] (Avolio, et al., 2007) was administered by two professionals associated with the study. Participants were broken into their respective focus groups (previ ously determined). One group completed the ALQ and two other questionnaires while the second group participated in an equine facilitated learning activity with the researcher. Each group was given approximately twenty minutes to complete the questionnaires The groups switched after the twenty minutes and completed the opposite activity (either the questionnaires or the equine facilitated learning activity). The researcher administered the Level of Comfort questionnaire The questionnaire, described previou sly, was given the first day of the program. The questionnaire was administered by two professionals associated with the program. The questionnaire was given in conjunction with the ALQ and demographic questionnaire. Participants were broken into their res pective groups (previously determined by focus group participation ). One group completed the questionnaires while the second group participated in an equine facilitated learning activity with the researcher. Each group was given approximately twenty minute s to complete the questionnaires (extra time was given when necessary). The groups switched after the twenty minutes and completed the opposite activity (either the questionnaires or the equine facilitated learning activity).
111 Data Analysis Qualitative Data The researcher used the constant comparative method to analyze the qualitative data. Glaser (1969) suggested the constant comparative method, to interpret texts, integrating categories and their properties, 3) delimiting the theory, and 4) writing the growth process each stage after a time transforms itself into the next previous stages r emain in operation throughout the analysis and provide continuous development to the er again with codings and classifications that have already been made (Flick, 2002). Transcriptions that have already been coded are continually integrated into the further process of comparison (Flick, 2002). The first step in coding transcriptions is op en coding. Open coding is done to express the data and phenomena in the form of concepts (Flick, 2002). The researcher analyzed the data and classified each expression by a unit of meaning, single or short sequences of words (Flick, 2002). After units are created, the researcher categorized the codes by grouping them around themes that seemed particularly relevant to the research questions (Flick, 2002). From Flick (2002, p 180), Strauss and Corbin (1990) summarized open coding as: Concepts are the basic bu ilding blocks of theory. Open coding in grounded theory method is the analytic process by which concepts are identified and developed in terms of their properties and dimensions. The basic analytic procedures by which this is accomplished are: the asking o f questions about the data; and the making of comparisons for similarities and
112 differences between each incident, event and other instances of phenomena. Similar events and incidents are labeled and grouped to form categories. (1990, p. 74). Axial coding was the next step in coding the data. Axial coding was done to refine and differentiate the categories that resulted from the open coding (Flick, 2002). The researcher refined the data by selecting the codes with the most promise of further elaboration (Fl ick, 2002). From Flick (2002, p. 182), Strauss and Corbin (1990) summarized axial coding as: Axial coding is the process of relating subcategories to a category. It is a complex process of inductive and deductive thinking involving several steps. These are accomplished, as with open coding, by making comparisons and asking questions. However, in axial coding the use of these procedures is more focused, and geared toward discovering and relating categories in terms of the paradigm model. (1990, p. 114) The f inal step in analyzing the data was selective coding. Selective coding was done to elaborate the core categories/themes around which the other developed categories can be grouped and by which they are integrated (Flick, 2002). The core categories/themes we re used to unify all the other themes and categories from the previous coding methods (Flick, 2002). The results were communicated through a case study method to allow others to determine transferabilit y to other sites research is one method that excels at developing an understanding for complex issues and strengthens relationships to previous research In chapter four, the results are laid out with the context described first, followed by the programmatic reflection. The context provides the reading with rich description of the environment during the program and focus groups. Laying the context and then following with the programmatic reflection allowed the reader to put themselves into the scene with the researcher.
113 Quantitative Data The quantitative data (three questionnaires) were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software package for Windows The researcher obtained descriptive statistics as a means for analyzing the data. The descriptive statistics included fr equencies, means, and standard deviations. Summary In this chapter, the researcher explained the program design, research foundation, the research design, the instrumentation used, the data collection methods, and the data analysis methods. In the followi ng chapter, the researcher will explain the findings of the research. The findings will provide a better understanding of the programmatic details of an equine facilitated learning program aimed at teaching authentic leadership skills to at risk youth.
114 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Chapter one provided the introduction and background for the importance of studying leadership and youth development within program development. The chapter presented the purpose, objectives, and significance of the study. The p urpose of this study is to determine the impact of an equine facilitated authentic leadership devel opment program on at risk youth Specif ically, the study addressed five objectives: 1. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development pro relationships 2. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development self discipline 3. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development purpose 4. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development values and 5. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leade rship development heart Additionally, chapter one provided limitations and the operationalization of selected terms used throughout the study. Chapter two addressed the theoretical and conceptual framework for this study. The researcher based the theor etical and conceptual framework s on previous researcher related to leadership, youth development, experiential learning, and equine facilitated learning. Empirical research was presented in the following areas: a) auth entic leadership defined and major theories of authentic leadership, b) youth development defined and major theories of youth development, c) experiential learning and major theories of experiential learning, and d) equine facilitated learning defined.
115 Cha pter three presented the research methodology used to accomplish the four objectives of the study. This included the research design, population instrumentation, data collection, and analysis procedures. In order to accomplish the purpose, the researcher first had to create an equine facilitated authentic leadership development program. Using the case study approach dimensions of authentic leadership. These dimensions are: rela tionships, self discipline, purpose, values, and heart. Based on Lincoln and Guba (1985 p.2 the best means for r Borg and Gall (1983) describe d a case study as a study where an investigator makes a detail ed examination of a single subject, group, or phenomenon In this case, the r ationale for using a case study with mixed methods was to report programmatic reflection and changes in authentic leadership knowledge from a horse based educational program for a t risk youth. Findings are organized by the objectives as listed above. In this chapter thick description will be given to detail the examination of the perspectives of youth on equine facilitated learning and authentic leadership. T he researcher used con stant comparative analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) and quantitative data analysis to more fully answer the research objectives of this study. The following section describes the context of the program to give the reader a chance to grasp the environment i n which the researcher collected data. The Program The Context Over the course of three days, there were approximately fourteen contact hours between the boys and the horses. For reflection purposes, each session was video
116 recorded. All sixteen participan ts came to the barn at the same time. To make sure each boy got the same amount of exposure and opportunity, they were divided into small groups of two to four boys. Each group took turns during the activity, which meant the rest of the boys were free to w atch or in some cases, cause trouble in other areas of the barn Instead of observing, some of the boys would wander away to pet other horses or try to interact with the horse unit assistants. The free time for the boys not actively participating was not e ffective for them. Instead of observing and processing what was happening in the round pen with the active participants, the observers would talk amongst themselves or attempt to distract the horse unit assistants. With an older age group, observation may have been useful, but not for 12 15 year olds. On the first day of programming, I had the horse unit director conduct a safety demonstration to ensure the boys knew where the danger zones were and how to interact with and around the horses. The boys were so excited to be around the horses. She showed the boys the kick zones, what the horses meant when they positioned their ears in certain ways, how to walk around them, and how to interact with the horses safely. We had five boys assigned to the horse unit assist us with the program and this helped with logistics and horse/human safety. I really used the older boys as extra eyes to make sure all participating boys stayed safe around the horses. After the safety demonstration I had one group complete the Au thentic Leadership Questionnaire, Level of Comfort Questionnaire, and demographic survey with the horse unit director and a leadership professional from the University of Florida while the other group participated in an activity with the horses and me. The activities and the timeline were provided in chapter three.
117 At the end of the 3 day program, we reconvened as a large group to talk about the program. During this reflection, the boys told me what they liked about the program and what I could do for futu re programs with boys their age. Although I had been building rapport with the boys throughout the program, I allowed them to ask me questions about my personal and professional life to nurture the transparency that I hoped to see from them. This reflectio n time was to create closure for the program and to give the boys a chance to digest everything that happened over the last three days. We had good Some statements included (13) (3) arn as much as I can to be good (4). The boys exceeded all expectations I had for the program. I hoped I would be able to teach them some things about leadership but the reflection sessions showed me the horses and I had reached them on a deeper level. To watch the boys com e to conclusions on their own was very exciting. The relationship the boys were able to create with the horses was very important. It is important to note the changes in the e horses would keep a large distance and would not come over to investigate. By the end of the weekend, we could not get the horses to stay away from us. When we would reflect, the horses wou ld be right there, in our space I pointed this out to the boys a nd they said they had noticed; they felt like the horses wanted to be with them all the time
118 now. I will take all of the lessons learned from the workshop and use them to make future workshops better. The attachment the boys built with me and the horses w as something I was worried about from the beginning of program planning. Working with an at risk population creates a dynamic that facilitators need to take into account. Some of the boys had been abandoned or felt abandoned by their families and I did not want them to feel the same way about me and/or the ho rses. To account for this, I planned to return to the ranch for events that they host so I can see the boys again. I also worked with the barn manager to ensure that the boys who wanted to ride or visit with the horses were able to do so, within reason. Descriptions of the focus groups and other results are described below. The Focus Groups Pre Program Rodeheaver is three miles off the main road, down a small, two lane paved road. The sign to Rodeheaver but it is so far off the beaten path, no one would ever know this place existed Pulling onto the property there is an even smaller, one lane road where the speed limit is 15 MPH. There are people going in and out of different buil dings on the way to the horse barn and activity center which are located at the far right corner of the property The focus groups were held in the activity center, over the course of about two hours. My moderator and I park ed the car and were greeted by o ne of the horse unit boys who unlocked the activity center for us. I have met him a few times and he seems happy to have visitors. Inside the activity center there are a lot of activities to distract the boys; two pool tables, two ping pong tables, a telev ision, and multiple video game consoles. I determined quickly that the
119 distraction would be a problem. We set out name cards and markers for the boys to write on when they arrive. We are a little early so the boys had not been released from their cottages y et I laid out the consent f orms, although internally, I knew they might not actually read them, they are middle school boys and may not have cared about the specifics of the program jumped out. Most of the boys had never met me before but they were not shy at all. They ran into the activity center and their driver (one of the cottage dads) followed them in to the activity center He sternly told them to sit down and listen to the lad ies, the energy and commotion in the room was electrifying. The boys settle into seats, fighting over the sign them if they agreed to participate. As expected, no one read t hem, but they all signed. Having taken this into account, the moderator explained the study briefly and informed them they could quit at any time. Each focus group started with an icebreaker activity, the boys broke into pairs and were given a body part; e yes, ears, or fe et They were instructed to draw what their body parts meant to leadership. They were very creative e boys were asked to sit in their seats and the formal focus groups began. Post Program The second set of focus groups, post program, was much more causal. The boys were familiar with me and felt comfortable, coming in and paying attention to what was goin g on. I had the activity center set up the same way so they could go back to where
120 they sat the first time. The boys were talkative and energetic from school so I let them fill out the questionnaires and play while everyone finished. We did not complete an icebreaker this time because they knew each other and they knew us. The conversation flowed easier than the first round; I could tell the boys were focused on what we were doing and actually answering the questions. They were very talkative so keeping eve ryone in order was a bit harder, but there was more respect from the boys than there was the first time. Below, the results from each research objective are described. Research Objective One Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadersh ip development Programmatic Reflection The ability to develop enduring relationships is essential if leaders want their followers to give their full ability (George & Sims, 2007) Authentic leaders are able to develop relationships that are open, trusting, and committed. The first day, the boys were at the barn for two hours, this was plenty of time to complete the activities and reflections planned for the day We worked on one element of the George mo del (George & Sims, 2007) relationships, and interacted with four different horses. The boys were focused enough that the activities ran smoothly. I chose to break them into pairs and then groups of four for the two different activities and halter This created a lot of chaos for me as a facilitator because there were at least two groups working with the horses at a time. The older boys, from the horse unit, were essential as extra eyes to keep an eye on the safety aspect of the program. In the future, I would have only one group in the ring at a time.
121 e perfect activity to start the program because this gave the boys a chance to get to know the horses slowly The boys who had never i nteracted with horses were able to connect with the horses at their own pace and the boys who were more familiar could dive right in to the activity Getting the boys to listen to the directions was very difficult, most of them just wanted to start doing, w ithout listening. The exercise ran fairly quickly. The boys were broken into pairs for this exercise and each pair was able to work with one horse. I pair ed the boys based on who they were standing next to and the pairs chose which horse to try to catch. T here was no instruction given on how to put the halter on correctly so some horses came over with the halter on upside down and backwards. I never corrected the halter placement, unless it was causing discomfort (like poking the horse in the eye). One pair had a very hard time catching their horse, he just would not come. One of the boys got very frustrated and gave up at one point. His partner gave words of encouragement and said he could not complete the task without his partners help. This was a great di splay of relationships. The partner reengaged and they were able to catch the horse. Once all relationships played a role in this activity. The boys were quick to find links between if the horse liked them, if they worked with their partner well, and if they moved too quickly and scared the horse. The pair who had trouble determined that if they had worked together, the horse may have not run away for so long. I probed a little deeper and the
122 rest of the group suggested that the horse could tell the one boy was mad and did not want to be involved with him. I asked how leadership helped or hurt during this activity. The boys thought if they acted like leaders, the horse wa s more likely to be caught. After probing more, they decided that if leaders are friendly then horses would want to follow them. When asked if they felt the same way about humans, everyone agreed they like to be with people who are nice and friendly. While relationships and leadership connection. I noticed during the reflection time that most of the boys were petting their horses and some were even trying to find food to give. I asked if they felt they had a were put in groups of four based on how they were standing. Some boys did not want to be in the same groups as others but I required that them to stay in those groups When I shirts. I suggested they link arms so they could move easier, they all agreed. I then instructed them to catch and halter a horse and then bring the horse over and put a saddle on it. They immediately dropped arms and started moving around. I yelled, The instructions were, the tw they were the only ones who could talk. The boys on the outsides of the groups were
123 caused reaction from the groups, as these I ignored all of this and said they needed to think back to the reflection about relationships and determine how they could work together. I also asked each group to member. The group that chose to los and was removed from the group. The group immediately realized this was a bad consequence and they would never be able to c omplete the task without their work with their group. That particular group never required another consequence. All groups caught their horses and worked on getting the ho rse saddled. The saddling was interesting, with saddles being put on backwards, falling off, and only being buckled on all about how the groups worked with each other. One boy referred back to the previous exercise and said it was easier when there were just two people involved. More opinions caused more problems. We talked about how relationships played into this activity and the boys immediately understood that if they worked well together, the activity went more smoothly. I probed about why this was and one boy Well
124 pointed out that he was showing leadership skills and was met with an astounding, At the end of day one, a few o f the boys asked if they could come to the barn early in the morning to help me set up. As much as I wanted them to spend time at the barn, I said no because I did not want all 16 boys to be there early. There was one boy (11) who asked if we could talk af terwards, so we did. He told me about why he was at Rodeheaver and how he really wanted to go home but just could not behave. He had been assigned to the hors e unit once and got kicked off because he was thought to be stealing or doing drugs while at the parents and had been grounded for weeks. Being grounded meant that he had to sit in his room, by himself, from when he got back from school until bedtime. I immediately felt sympathy for him and wanted him to be able to spend as much time at the barn (and out of his room) as possible. I agreed that he could come early and help me set up. In hindsight, I should not have agreed to this. I was going behind his cottage parents backs and letting him out of his c onsequence. I talked with the horse unit director and she said he is notorious for convincing people he is the victim and everyone should feel bad for him. As a facilitator, I should have stayed objective and treated all the boys the same, I definitely got tricked by him. Day two was originally scheduled to run from 9am to 5:30pm, with two hour blocks for sessions, a lunch break, and an afternoon break. The morning session focused on self discipline, the session after lunch focused on purpose, and the last session focused on values.
125 Focus Groups All data from the focus groups was analyzed but the specific data analyzed for objective one was from question 9 (a, b, c, and d) of the focus group protocol (Appendix A). Relationships, in regards to authentic lea (George & Sims, 2007) demand personal relationships with their leaders before they will give themselves owing that trust and commitment are in mind, the results are described below. responded, p reprogram, with themes including: happin ess, ideals, and companionship (Table 4.1) Table 4 1 Themes for relationships preprogram Participant Theme Statement 11 Happiness 13 Happiness 4 Ideals 16 Ideals You 6 Companionship 11 Companionship 3 Companionship To 13 General pants responded, post program, with themes including: respect, companionship, and trust (Table 4.2) A statement that summarized all the themes of relationships was:
126 nothing, and you look up to your friends. You get like al l the love and peace from them. (11) Table 4 2 Themes for relationships post program Participant Theme Statement 16 Respect respect you and like help 9 Respect 4 Respect 3 Companionship so I can 1 Companionship you ever have problems, you can just vent and tell 16 Trust relationship, t 11 Trust someone so you can be honest and tell them how you 3 Trust If you make relationships, with trust, you can lead people in the right dire The statements post program show more depth and understanding of relationships. More than just companionship and happiness, the participants seemed to understand that with relationship, leadership can happen. Creating trusting, respectful compani onship was more important to them after the program. Quant itative Data The mean of the transparency section preprogram was ( M= 13.25 SD= 4.18) and the mean post program was ( M= 15.31, SD= 3.28) (Table 4.3 ). Table 4 3 ALQ Transparency Pre and Post Scores Sepa rately Mean Standard Deviation TransparencyPreScore 13.25 4.18 TransparencyPostScore 15.31 3.28
127 After performing a frequency test on the data, the results showed an increase in the response pertaining to transparency (percent improvement) after the pro gram was completed. This increase was determined by analyzing the pre and post ALQ scores for items related to the transparency portion of the ALQ (questions 1 5). The table below (Table 4.4 ) shows what the frequency of pre and post ALQ answers were, follo wed by the percentage of these answers (N=16). Table 4 4 ALQ Transparency Questions: /% (N=16) Item Pre Test Response ( /%) Post Test Response ( /%) 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 Q1 0 0 4/25.0 10/62.5 2/12.5 0 1/6.3 4/25.0 4/25.0 7/43.8 Q2 1/6.3 1/6.3 3/18.8 6 /37.5 5/31.3 0 2/12.5 2/12.5 6/37.5 6/37.5 Q3 2/12.5 2/12.5 4/25.0 2/12.5 6/37.5 0 2/12.5 3/18.8 4/25.0 7/43.8 Q4 1/6.3 2/12.5 6/37.5 4/25.0 3/18.8 0 0 4/25.0 9/56.3 3/18.8 Q5 1/6.3 2/12.5 1/6.3 9/56.3 3/18.8 0 0 3/18.8 5/31.3 8/50.0 Note: =frequency, %=percentage. When asked about the definition of leadership during the preprogram focus group, the participants answered with themes of helping others or transparency (Avolio, et al., (13) working and your sa (11) Other statements given post program included: (3) lead everybody to do the right things, so if they do anything wrong, they will do better (2) Another great example of transparency and relationships is an explanation abo ut why a participant did I need a teacher or a counselor, (14) When
128 processing the qualitative data and the quantitative data, the researcher noted more themes based around transparency in the statements regarding leadership. The particip ants portrayed post program knowledge about the importance of being transparent as a leader. Some statements that lead to this conclusion includ (4) (13) I can acknowledge wh (8). Research objective two is detailed below. Research Objective Two Determine the impact of the equine facilit ated authentic leadership development discipline Programmatic Reflection Having strong self discipline requires leaders to be held accountable for outcomes, positive and negative. Leaders must also admit mistake s and initiate ways to correct their mistakes. Self discipline is important in their personal lives, because without it, discipline will be unsustainable at work (George & Sims, 2007) The activity to teach self r th is activity the boys were divided into group s of four and there were two horses in the round pen. We had to impose a time limit after the first group, of 15 minutes. The first group came into the ring and was given the instructions. Their goal was get a horse over a small jump in the middle of the ring. There were objects to tempt the horses, feed buckets, carrots, and hay, spread out around the ring to keep the horses entertained and to make it more difficult for the boys to get the horses to cooperate The rules were: they could not touch the horse at all, they could not bribe the horse with food, they could not use a halter or lead rope, and they could not leave the round pen. The boys seemed really excited to do this activity and even the boys not pa rticipating were paying attention. The first group
1 29 did not succeed in getting the horse over the jump but made it very entertaining. After 15 minutes, I called them over and we reflected on what happened. The boys started the main problem was that the horses were too distracted by the food to pay attention to carrots, and hay were all temptations to make the horses misbehave. The boys thought mad, I want to hit them tempted at school and at home and how they had to use self discipline to keep from misbehaving. Everyone agreed that self discipline is not easy but it is necessary to do the right thing. I ask The second group did not complete the task but they worked together better than the fir st group. They went into the ring with a plan to work with one horse, instead of switching from horse to horse like the first group. They tried to keep the horse away from the feed buckets and hay. At one point, one of the boys tried to take all of the tem ptations out of the ring! I told them that was against the rules (although it was brilliant). During reflection about the activity, the boys discussed how they were tempted bu t
130 else. They explained their temptations as things ranging from talking back to doing The third group entered the ring with a plan too. They were going to put people in front of the temptations to deter the horses away from the temptations and towards the jump. Below is the description of an event that transpired during the activity. Approxima tely five minutes into the exercise a boy was kicked in the leg after spooking a horse from behind. He was shaken up but not hurt. I was writing notes and did not see the kick but reviewed the video recording and determined the boy was in a danger zone and it was a great learning experience. He had approached one of the horses from behind while the horse was eating out of a buck et The boy clapped his hands behind the horse, spooking the horse that then kicked out. As a facilitator, using an event, like ge tting kicked, was a great opportunity for me to explore how often this particular boy put himself in dangerous situations. We sent him to see his cottage parent and then he was allowed to observe from outside of the ring until he felt comfortable coming in with the horses again. He was nervous but eventually came back in and worked with the horses for the rest of the program. Group three did not en d up succeeding at the goal and decided they would have if they had more time. The reflection was focused arou nd how the temptations kept the horses from doing what the boys wanted and how the boys can relate that to their own lives. The boys decided that to be a good leader, you have to ignore all the temptations in life and behave. The fourth group succeeded! T hey focused on just one horse and created a human tunnel to keep the horse away from the temptations and guided her right to the groups and listening to what they said, we decided that our cottage parents try to keep us from doing bad things and we just needed to keep the horse from doing anything
131 discipline and listen to their cottage parents and teachers when th ey were trying to be a tunnel. I was able to eat lunch with the entire ranch community, allowing me to see the cottage families and other boys was essential for me to u nderstand what day to day life looked like for them. While this population is very unique and most programmers will only interact with their participants during the activities, the community lunch was a great opportunity to talk with cottage parents about the boys in my program and get an understanding of their strengths and weaknesses that I could not see in the short time I was with them. Focus Groups All data from the focus groups was analyzed but the specific data analyzed for objective two was from qu estion 10 of the focus group protocol (Appendix A). Self (George & Sims, 2007) George (2007, p. xxxiii) states this about self l responsibility for the outcomes and holding described below. What do you think it means to have good self discipline? participants responded, preprogra m, with themes including: knowing right versus wrong and learning from mistakes (Table 4.5) A statement that summarized both of these themes was: learn not to do it again, even if n obody tells you it was wrong. And you like feel guilty about what you did and you w ant to change it in the future. (3)
132 Table 4 5 Themes for self discipline preprogram Participant Theme Statement 13 Right vs. Wrong and wrong, 15 Right vs. Wrong 13 Learning 3 Learning ke, one time, the next time you know not 11 Learning yourself not to do it again or like to give yourself a When asked, What do you think it means to have good self discipline? participants responded, post program, with themes including : self awareness and behavior (Table 4.6). Two statement s that summarized these themes were : you get mad at your cottage mom and like having good self discipline would be like not getting mad back at them and like talking at a regular tone of voice and not yelling at them. (16) It [the program] taught us to be good and to be a leader to people in the to be bad, (4) Table 4 6 Themes for self discipline post program Participant Theme Statement 3 Self Awareness like before 1 Self Awareness 1 Behavior 9 Behavior ask you to do The statements post program show more depth and understanding of self discipline related to leadership. Showing self awareness correlates with the idea of accountabilit y and self discipline described by George ( 2007). Trying to show good
133 behavior shows that the participants may understand they should demonstrate self discipline to be a better leader. Quant itative Data The mean of the balanced processing section preprogra m was ( M= 8.75, SD= 4.69) and the mean post program was ( M= 8.75, SD= 2.79) (Table 4.7). Table 4 7 ALQ Balanced Processing Pre and Post Scores Separately Mean Standard Deviation BalancedProcessingPreScore 8.75 1.69 BalancedProcessingPostScore 8.75 2.79 Af ter performing a frequency test on the data, the results showed no change in the response pertaining to balanced processing (percent improvement) after the program was completed. This was determined by analyzing the pre and post ALQ scores for items relate d to the balanced processing portion of the ALQ (questions 10 12). The table b elow (Table 4.8 ) shows what the frequency of pre and post ALQ answers were, followed by the percentage of these answers (N=16). Table 4 8 ALQ Balanced Processing Questions: /% (N=16) Item Pre Test Response ( / %) Post Test Response ( /%) 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 Q10 1/6.3 0 5/31.3 7/43.8 3/18.8 0 3/18.8 2/12.5 4/25.0 7/43.8 Q11 0 0 7/43.8 4/25.0 5/31.1 0 1/6.3 4/25.0 6/37.5 5/31.3 Q12 0 1/6.3 3/18.8 4/25.0 8/50.0 0 3/18.8 2/12.5 5/31.3 6/37.5 Note: When asked about the definition of leadership during the focus group s the participants answered with themes regarding teamwork or balanced processing (Avolio, (12) and (15). (5)
134 leaders in the world we would get nowhere with our li (2) ed, (15). The results of objective three are described below. Research Objective Three Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development p Programmatic Reflection When pursuing purpose with passion, leaders must understand who they are and what their passions are. When people do not have a sense of purpose, their egos and other vulnerabilities ma y get in the way of becoming the best authentic leaders they can be. After lunch we reconvened for the second, two hour, session of the day. It was hard to get the boys motivated to pay attention so the barn manager made the boys who were not actively par ticipating with me, do work around the barn The boys were very excitable after lunch so I consulted with the barn manager and the barn assistants we had about what to do with the boys. We decided it would be best to move on to the third session without the planned break and let the boys go early. E ight hours was too much to expect the quality of work to remain high. boys were divided into groups of four, with two groups in t he ring at a time. I had each group go to different ends of the ring so I could tell them the instructions without the other group hearing. The goal of this activity is to get the horse to go one complete time around the ring. The interesting part of the a ctivity is, I give each group almost identical instructions, but one group is supposed to go clockwise while the other goes
135 counterclockwise. This small change in instruction gives each group a different purpose. Since there is only one horse in the ring, this made it very difficult for th e boys. After giving each group instructions, I asked them to begin. Each group walked to the same horse and some arguing ensued. Each group told the other group to go find another horse; they were supposed to use this one The boys immediately looked at me for mpt they needed. Each group guided the horse in their respective direction, sharing. When we reflected, the boys were mad I tricked them. I explained that I did not trick them; I gave them two different goals and the same purpose. I asked what made them f inally understand to take turns and one boy pointed ment, we talked pursuing your purpose while also respecting that others may not have the same purpose. The second group of boys had seen the activity unfold so we included them in our reflection instead of letting them do the activity. They laughed about h ow both groups were fighting when they should have just asked what instructions I had given. When I asked how this related to leadership sure they take that into account befo re getting mad. After the reflection, we moved on to the next session. The focus group information based on purpose is described below.
136 Focus Groups All data from the focus groups was analyzed but the specific data analyzed for this component of objective three, was from question 11 of the focus group protocol (Appendix A). (George & Sims, 2007) purpose, leaders are With this information in mind, the results are described below. preprogram, with themes including: to have meani ng and helping people (Table 4.9) A statement that summarized these themes was: Table 4 9 Themes for purpose preprogram Participant Theme Statement 16 Having Meaning 12 Having Meaning maybe he put me her e so I can influence some 11 Having Meaning 11 Helping 3 Helping people to do right instead of messing up and doing 2 Helping were not very different. Statements post program were actually less correct than preprogram. Reasons for these results may include, the activities used to teach purpose were ineffective, the researcher (facilitator) was not thorough enough when explaining
137 and debriefing the activity around purpose, or the participants were inatten tive during the activity that taught purpose. A note from a programming perspective, the researcher mentioned, in objective one, about the participants being distracted and inattentive after lunch, which is when the activity for purpose was done. This dist raction or excitability should be taken into account for future programs. Quantitative Data The mean of the self awareness section preprogram was ( M= 12.19, SD= 2.58) and the mean post program was ( M= 11.94, SD= 3.39) (Table 4.10). Table 4 10 ALQ Self Awaren ess Pre and Post Scores Separately Mean Standard Deviation Self AwarenessPreScore 12.19 2.58 Self AwarenessPostScore 11.94 3.39 After performing a frequency test on the data, the results showed a decrease in the response pertaining to self awareness (p ercent improvement) after the program was completed. This decrease was determined by analyzing the pre and post ALQ scores for items related to the self awareness portion of the ALQ (questions 13 16). The table below (Table 4.11 ) shows what the frequency o f pre and post ALQ answers were, followed by the percentage of these answers (N=16). Table 4 11 ALQ Self Awareness Questions: /% (N=16) Item Pre Test Response ( / %) Post Test Response ( /%) 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 Q13 0 0 7/43.8 5/31.3 4/25.0 0 0 6/37.5 3 /18.8 7/43.8 Q14 1/6.3 1/6.3 4/25.0 6/37.5 4/25.0 1/6. 3 2/12.5 3/18.8 2/12.5 8/50.0 Q15 0 0 0 8/50.0 8/50.0 0 1/6.3 2/12.5 7/43.8 6/37.5 Q16 1/6.3 0 2/12.5 5/31.3 8/50.0 0 2/12.5 4/25.0 4/25.0 6/37.5 Note: When asked about th e definition of leadership during the preprogram focus group, the participants answered with themes about characteristics of leaders or self
138 right thing (16). The result s of objective four are described below. Research Objective Four Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development Programmatic Reflection Authentic leaders look inside themselves t heir years, of experience and things learned from talking with others to develop their values. Authentic leaders stay true to their values even under pressure. ere split into two groups, one group worked with me while the other group worked with the barn manager. four. This activity was used to encourage creativity while showing h ow each boy values group performed a certain activity with the horse and the other group had to perform the same activity or they would receive a letter (H, O, R, S, E). The game stopped when one group spelled the letter HORSE. We flipped a coin to see which group would start. The rules were to teach the horse to do something it would not do on its own. The boys were very creative, teaching the horse to kick a ball, bow, f ind a carrot under a bucket, and many other activities. There was a 15 minute time limit for this activity. In the end, each team received HOR, so no one won. When we began the activity, the boys were worried about doing something the other group could not complete. I referred back to this when we reflected. I asked them how they decided to come up with their activities.
139 At first they wanted to teach the horse something really difficult with hopes the other ey wanted to do were harder than they anticipated, the decision was made to just teach the horse anything they could. I explained that each group had d difficult level and this was the same way in real life. When I asked the m about their values, they all had similar values that other boys did not have. One boy really valued his mother while another boy really valued money, I pointed out t hat everyone has different values. When I asked activities. boys were instructed to break into pairs and wash their respective horse until both boys agreed the horse was squ eaky clean. There was no explicit definition of squeaky clean; the only requirement was that both boys in each pair agree the horse is squeaky clean. After the instructions, the boys immediately started washing the horses, without talking about their partn er about what squeaky cleaned looked like. After 10 minutes, I asked to ask the other pairs if they had discussed what squeaky clean meant. They had not. I allowed them five more minutes and then we all stopped for reflection. Only one of the pairs agreed their horse was squeaky clean. I asked why the other pairs did not agree,
140 one bo used this statement to ask if they felt like there were other situations, besides being cle c out that everyone values things differently. When asked about how values and leaders hip go together the responses were focused on the leader understanding his followers and needing to think about why people had different values then they did. After this reflection, we concluded for the day. We were two hours ahead of schedule and we told the boys they were going to go home early, there were mixed reviews. The boys were really starting to appreciate what they were learning from the horses and wanted to stay at the barn for as long as possible. Some of the boys asked if there was anything t he barn manager or I needed help with, so they could stay. In an effort to keep things equal, we sent everyone home at the same time. Focus Groups All data from the focus groups was analyzed but the specific data analyzed for this component of objective th ree, was from question 12 of the focus group protocol (Appendix A). (George & Sims, 2007)
141 shaped by their pe rsonal beliefs and developed through study, introspection, described below. Wh What do you think it means to have values? responded, preprogram, with statements about material objects such as: food, water, shelter, money, clothes, etc. The moderator then gave the definition, according to George (2007), of val ues. After receiving the definition, participants responded with themes including: how to treat people and thoughts about the future (Table 4.12) A statement summarizing both of themes was: nd you can with your values and try to achieve something in life (8 ) Table 4 12 Themes for values preprogram Participant Theme Statement 13 Treatment rstand their 5 Treatment you could teach other people values of life. You can 13 Future 3 F uture responded, post program, with themes including: standards for school and life (Table 4.13) A statement summarizing t hese themes was: Now I know what I want, I have higher standards now. I know why my teachers and my cottage parents want to help me, because their values were better than mine, or smarter than mine. (2)
142 Table 4 13 Themes for values post program Participant Theme Statement 11 Life 3 Life 16 Life 16 School want to get good grades so I While there was a change in themes from pre to post program, it is not clear if the participants completely understood what values were. There were more positive statements about value building and int rospection after the program but the participants had a hard time verbalizing their values. Quantitative Data The mean of the self awareness section preprogram was ( M= 12.19, SD= 2.58) and the mean post program was ( M= 11.94, SD= 3.39) (Table 4.1 4 ). Table 4 1 4 ALQ Self Awareness Pre and Post Scores Separately Mean Standard Deviation Self AwarenessPreScore 12.19 2.58 Self AwarenessPostScore 11.94 3.39 After performing a frequency test on the data, the results showed a decrease in the response pertaining to self awareness (percent improvement) after the program was completed. This decrease was determined by analyzing the pre and post ALQ scores for items related to the self awareness portion of the ALQ (questions 13 16). The table below (Table 4.1 5 ) shows wh at the frequency of pre and post ALQ answers were, followed by the percentage of these answers (N=16).
143 Table 4 1 5 ALQ Self Awareness Questions: /% (N=16) Item Pre Test Response ( / %) Post Test Response ( /%) 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 Q13 0 0 7/43.8 5/31.3 4/25.0 0 0 6/37.5 3/18.8 7/43.8 Q14 1/6.3 1/6.3 4/25.0 6/37.5 4/25.0 1/6.3 2/12.5 3/18.8 2/12.5 8/50.0 Q15 0 0 0 8/50.0 8/50.0 0 1/6.3 2/12.5 7/43.8 6/37.5 Q16 1/6.3 0 2/12.5 5/31.3 8/50.0 0 2/12.5 4/25.0 4/25.0 6/37.5 Note: When asked about the definition of leadership during the preprogram focus group, the participants answered with themes regarding self awareness and values such as: (13) (3) (15). The results of objective five are described below. Research Objective Five Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development Programmatic Reflection Leading with heart means leaders have a passion for their work. Authentic leaders have compassion, empathy and courage, all of which are required to make tough decisions while keeping the followers in mind. We had a day off before the final day of the program. We started day three at 9am; the boys were on time and seemed excited to be participating again. We split the groups up and had two activities running at once; one group with me in the round pen o help me. We brought two of the more nervous horses into the round pen. I told the boys that the
144 activity we were going to do was going to s care the horses a little bit however, that we would not hurt the horses at all. I could already tell some of the bo ys were not okay with scaring the horses, even just a little. This was exciting for me; the boys had gotten attached to the horses and were learning compassion through them. I stood with the boys while two of the older boys shook a plastic bag at one of th e horses. Both horses started running away from the bag, terrified. Some of the boys yelled to stop it. I asked the older boys to come over and participate in our conversation. We talked about why the horses were scared of the bag. Some boys suggested it w as the noise, other boys suggested it was the color. I asked how it made the boys feel to see the horses being mpathy and compassion. I if they had ever felt bad for someone before. All of the boys raised their hands. We continued to talk about how having heart or compassion f or other people was important. I asked the boys if they wanted to work with the horses to help them not be scared and everyone was excited. They talked out some strategies such as holding the horse far away from the bag while the bag was making noise, brin ging the bag to the horse to let them smell it, and eventually getting the horse to allow the bag to make noise near them. I offered to let the older boys help them, they were more knowledgeable about the horses, and the boys got more excited. I could tell the younger boys had begun to see older boys, they decided someone would hold the horse while another person held the bag without making any noise. If the horse looked nervous, they stopped and started
145 again. This went on for a few minutes until the boys were actually able to rub the bag on about what happened and why they were so excited ore reflection we switched activities. people/horses of different shapes, sizes, and colors. The boys were instructed to rank the horses from largest to smallest. After they decided who they wrote the ranking on the chalkboard. The boys then learned how to actually actual sizes of the horses, the list changed. A taller horse, who they assumed would be heavier, was actually lighter than a shorter, heavier horse. We used this activity to talk mitted they made fun of people omment, we talked about how each boy should work on having heart and being compassionate to everyone. Focus Groups All data from the focus groups was analyzed but the specific data analyzed for this component of objective three, was from question 13 of th e focus group protocol (Appendix A).
146 (George & Sims, 2007) compassion for the people you serve, empathy for t he people you work with, and the described below. responded, preprogram, with themes inclu ding: caring and personal qualities (Table 4.1 6 ) A statement that summarized both themes was: every time you get next to people you can encourage one more and more and more and not sto p. (12) Table 4 1 6 Themes for heart preprogram Participant Theme Statement 5 Caring 4 Caring 13 Caring 13 Personal Qualities 11 Personal Qualities 1 Personal Qualities really care about a responded, post program, with themes including: helping and making the right decisions (Table 4.1 7 ) A statement summarizing these themes was: Um, so you can be lik e, have a heart for things and like instead of being mean and like not just paying attention to yourself, you have a heart for up and stuff and you want to know how other people feel. (8)
147 Ta ble 4 1 7 Themes for heart post program Participant Theme Statement 4 Helping 3 Helping 13 Helping 15 Right Decision 7 Right Decision the right decisions, and you make the right decisions While there was a change in themes from pre to post program, it is not clear if the participants completely understood what it meant to have heart in relation to leadership. There we re more positive statements about empathy and compassion after the program but the participants had a hard time verbalizing what it meant to have heart. Quantitative Data The mean of the moral/ethical section preprogram was ( M= 11.50, SD= 2.68) and the mean post program was ( M= 12.13, SD= 3.11) (Table 4.1 8 ). Table 4 1 8 ALQ Moral/Ethical Pre and Post Scores Separately Mean Standard Deviation Moral/EthicalPreScore 11.50 2.68 Moral/EthicalPostScore 12.13 3.11 After performing a frequency test on the data, the results showed an increase in the response pertaining to moral/ethical (percent improvement) after the program was completed. This increase was determined by analyzing the pre and post ALQ scores for items related to the moral/ethical portion of the ALQ (q uestions 6 9). The table below (Table 4.19 ) shows what the frequency of pre and post ALQ answers were, followed by the percentage of these answers (N=16).
148 Table 4 1 9 ALQ Moral/Ethical Questions: /% (N=16) Item Pre Test Response ( /%) Post Test Response ( /%) 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 Q6 1/6.3 0 5/31.3 7/43.8 3/18.8 1/6.3 4/25 2/12.5 5/31.3 4/25.0 Q7 0 0 3/18.8 8/50.0 5/31.3 0 1/6.3 4/25.0 6/37.5 5/31.3 Q8 1/6.3 0 3/18.8 7/43.8 5/31.3 0 1/6.3 4/25.0 1/6.3 10/62.5 Q9 0 1/6.3 6/37.5 5/31.3 4/25.0 0 0 1/6.3 6/37.5 9/56.3 Note: When asked about the definition of leadership during the preprogram focus group, the participants answered with themes of right versus wrong or ethical/moral (Avolio, et (13) ng responsibility for something, (15). Additional data collected during the focus groups is described below. Additional Data General leadership questions from questions 1 through 8 of the focus group protocol (Appendix A) were also analyze d. In the following sections, the results of the focus groups, example statements, and a link between the ALQ and the focus group information will be discussed. When asked about the qualities of good leaders, participants first answered with themes such as respect, good looks, entertaining, and motivation. Some examples (13) (13) (11) (3) and aining, (13). When asked about qualities of good leaders after the (2) (3) (8 ) (16) which correlated to self awareness, transparency, e thical/moral, and balanced processing (Avolio, et al., 2007). When asked about the definition of leadership during the preprogram focus group, the participants answered with themes from Boy Scouts, the military, and the Bible:
149 (5) and fty, brave, clean, and reverent, (4). When asked about qualities of good leaders after the program, some statements (3) (12) (2), which correlated to self awareness, transparency, ethical/moral, and balanced processing (Avolio, et al., 2007). When asked about qualities that co uld be bad for leadership, the themes were consistent pre and post program. Themes included: lack of self discipline, lack of trustworthiness, and being self (2) (15) (13) and (16). Other examples of lack of self discipline, lack of trustworthiness, and being self (3) (10) (12) (16). These themes were comparable to ethical/moral, self awareness, and transparency components from the ALQ (Avolio, et al., 2007). When asked about why leadership is important, part icipants first responded with (3) (13) i fficulties or like problems (15). When asked about why leadership is important, after the program, the themes were similar but with more explanation. The theme of understanding came up (14) (8).
150 Other participants first responded with statements based around situations and emselves, and (14) (7) do your duty daily; to respect elders; to do your share of civil service (5). When asked about why leadership is important, after the program, the the mes were similar but with (5) do everything on their own so (6) th and lead others the same way (3). A summary of this chapter is described below. Summary Thi s chapter presented the results of the study. Results were organized and pre sented by the objectives. Overall, the focus groups showed an increase in knowledge of most of the eleme nts of the George model ( 2007). The depths of thought increased from preprogram focus groups to post program focus groups but it is not definitive tha t the participants understood purpose, values, or heart completely. Programmatically, the focus groups ran fairly well. For the age group, 12 15 years old, the conversation was as expected. I chose to do focus groups, instead of individual interviews, to e ncourage a conversation, not just a question and answer session. There were two groups of seven to nine boys each and this may have been too many boys in
151 with this age group in the future, I will make the focus groups smaller, four to five youth maximum. W hen going through the transcriptions, there was not as rich of detail as I anticipated. The answers were very short, one word or a short sentence, not very much elaboration on each topic. The age group of the participants may have contributed to the lack o f detail during the focus groups. The field notes were imperative as there was a lot the transcriptions did not catch due to background noise and crosstalk. It was also important that I was present during all sessions to have memory to reflect on about how the boys were communicating, verbally and nonverbally. The similarities and differences in themes from the focus groups helped explain why there was a change in the preprogram ALQ and the post program ALQ data. The participants showed knowledge on a basic level, preprogram, regarding the four components of the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire [ALQ] (Avolio, et al., 2007): transparency, ethical/moral, balanced processing, and self awareness. This introductory knowledge may have accounted for the minimal c hange in the mean scores from the ALQ data. Chapter five will present a more detailed discussion of these findings, as well as implications for the findings to the discipline. Conclusions will be drawn from the findings and recommendations will be provide d.
152 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter summarizes the study and presents the conclusions, implications, and recommendations drawn from the findings of the study. The first section provides a summary of the study, including the purpose and objectives, methodology, and findings. Findings and conclusions were organized and presented by the following objectives: 1.) Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development ionships, 2.) Determine the impact of the equine perceptions of self discipline, 3.) Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development program on participan Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development equine facilitated authentic leadership development program perceptions of heart. This study examined at risk youth at Rodeheaver Boys Ranch. Summary of the Study As the professions of leadership and youth development continue to expand, it is necessary to identify effective teaching methods for le adership and youth educators. As the country and world continue to struggle with hardship, it is imperative that the youth of today and tomorrow are educated about leadership skills. The corporate scandals, acts of terrorism, and massive bank failures have created a need for more authentic leaders (Northouse, 2013). People are demanding to be led by people whom they can trust and who, as leaders, are honest and good (Northouse, 2013). With this need in mind, it is important to educate youth about authentic leadership.
153 Authentic leadership represents one of the newest and fastest growing areas of leadership development (Northouse, 2013). There are many ways authentic leadership is being studied; from practical approaches to theoretical approaches. The approa ch values, relationships, self discipline, and heart. Another issue addressed in this s tudy is the lack of leadership education and opportunities for at risk youth. Waxman and Padron (1995) concluded that one of the greatest challenges facing education today is the task of improving the quality of education for youth at risk. Some youth are not receiving the leadership development and education al opportunities from their family or community because they are in at risk situations (Edwards, Mumford, & Serra Roldan, 2007). Finding new, innovative ways to teach youth in the coming generations is important to continuing the advancement of the world. Ewing, MacDonald, Taylor, and Bowers (2007) described equine Osborne and Selby (2010) reported, based o n recent theoretical and empirical literature that positive psychosocial effects have been found in children and adolescents who participated in equine assisted activities (EAA). It is important to determine if equine facilitated learning can be used to te ach authentic leadership skills to at risk youth. Purpose and Objectives The p urpose of this study is to determine the impact of an equine facilitated authentic leadership devel opment program on at risk youth Specifically, the study addressed five object ives:
154 1. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development relationships 2. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development s of self discipline 3. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development purpose 4. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development perceptions of values and 5. Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development heart Methodology This mixed method case study design used participant observation, focus groups, video reco rdings, and three quantitative questionnaires to address the objectives of the study. Focus groups were structured with researcher developed questions, which were deemed acceptable by a panel of experts. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to det deemed acceptable by a panel of experts. A researcher developed demographics survey was used to collect demographic information from participants. The final instrument was the Authent ic Leadership Questionnaire developed by Avolio, Gardner, and Walumbwa (2007). The researcher developed educational activities (with horses) to teach authentic leadership knowledge and skills, described previously. Findings The findings of this study are summarized in relation to the objectives of the study presented in Chapter one. Programmatic Reflection For this section researcher sought to reflect on the creation of the program as a whole. Using participant observation field notes and vide o recordin gs of the session,
155 the researcher found positive information regarding the program matic impacts While there was room for improvement, overall, the researcher formed a positive opinion of the results. Over the course of five days, the resea rcher had appro ximately eighteen contact hours with the participants and horses at Rodeheaver Boys Ranch. There were focus groups conducted two days prior and two days post program, these were audio recorded and later transcribed. There were seven activities conducted ov er three days, two on Friday, three on Saturday, and two on Sunday. Each session was video recorded and the researcher logged detailed field notes. Program assistants included the horse unit director, assistant to the director, a leadership professional, a nd five older ranch residents who were assigned to the horse unit as their afterschool activity. The layout of the program consisted of activity time with small groups then immediate reflection. The group size varied from pairs to groups of four, dependin g on the activity. The objective of the program was to teach at risk youth (the participants) authentic activity performed was associated with one of the dimensions of the George (2003) model: relationships, self discipline, purpose, values, and heart. The findings are described below based on objectives. Research Objective One Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development program on partici The first day was based on relationships and consisted of two activities to display how relationships were integral to leadership. The participants completed one activity was to catch and halter a horse, no other
156 instructions were given. Some participants had never worked with horses before so they learned quickly how to interact with the horses. Reflection after this activity was brief; the researcher used it more as an ic ebreaker for the participants and horses alike. The next activity utilized group work, with participants in groups of four, each group with one relationships, and teamwork relate to leadership. The reflections from this activity were in depth. The participants shared struggles with working in their groups and having everyone thought they knew what to that was frustrating, (3) trol, we just starting doing it (7). leader was good with rela tionships, people would listen to him m ore (13). The quantitative data showed an increase in the mean scores for transparency ( M =13.25, SD =4.187, M =15.31, SD =3.281). The focus group data showed a positive change in regards to relationships; s tatements po st program show more depth and understanding of relationships. More than just companionship and happiness, the participants seemed to understand that with relationship, leadership can happen. Creating trusting, respectful companionship was more important t o them after the program. Findings for objective two are described below. Research Objective Two Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development discipline The second day was the longest day, with three sessions throughout the day. The first activity was used to teach self discipline. From reflection, this activity was the
157 an obstacle c ourse with temptations throughout. The goal was to get the horse over a small jump, avoiding the temptations, without touching or bribing the horse. Only one group, out of four, was successful and one participant was kicked, but not injured. This activity displayed how being disciplined when there are temptations is important to (5) jump, (9). When asked to relate the experience to he be tempted like the horses were (6). There was no change in mean scores for balanced processing ( M =8.75, SD =1.693, M =8.75, SD =2.793). It is important to account for the developmental status of these y outh. Being in an at risk situation can lead to delayed development (Barnett, 2013). This delayed development may mean the idea of balanced processing was too abstract for the participants to understand. The questions associated with balanced processing on the ALQ (Avolio, et al., 2007) may have been too advanced or abstract to be understood, leading to a lack of positive change. During the focus groups the dimension of self discipline statements post program show ed more depth and understanding of self disc ipline related to leadership. Tr ying to show good behavior showed that the participants may understand they should demonstrate self discipline to be a better leader. The findings for objective three are described below.
158 Research Objective Three Determine t he impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development were instructed to guide the horse one full circle aroun d the round pen. The twist in instruction was that one group was told to go clockwise, while the other group was told to go counterclockwise; only one horse was present. The objective of this activity was to show how pursuing purpose with passion is import ant but it is also important to realize the purpose of others. The instructions caused the participants to argue with each other over who was right or wrong. After some extra instruction, participants decided to take turns and both completed the goal. Duri ng the reflection, participants offered statements (1) (2) wanted to succeed, we just t the other group to understand (13). When have to think about what everyone wants, not just themse lves, or else people will fight (11). There was a decreas e between mean scores for self awareness ( M =12.19, SD =2.588, M =11.94, SD =3.395). Purpose showed a negati ve change in self perception. Statements post program were actually less correct than preprogram. Reasons for these results may include, the activities used to teach purpose were ineffective, the researcher (facilitator) was not thorough enough when explaining and debriefing the activity around purpose, or the participants were inattentive during the activity that taught purpose. Findings from objective f our are described below.
159 Research Objective Four Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development participants to be creative, work in teams, and construct their own goals. This activity showed participants how everyone has different values and goals when it comes to c ertain situations. The activity was more relaxed than the others and allowed the boys to have fun with the horses. Neither group won but during the reflection, participants o I wanted to think of the hardest trick for the horse, but my group thought it would be too (13) just having fun, so (3). When asked how th e experience do something different, not everyone wanted to win, I think leaders have to realize that not everyone is goin g to want to do the same things (16). The next a to show participants the difference in their values. Participants were told to wash the horses and they could be done when both members of the group agreed the horse was squeaky cl my (6) (3)
160 always things my room i (14). When asked how the experi t, they need to talk about that (8). There was a decrease between mean sco res for self awareness ( M =12.19, SD =2.588, M =11.94, SD =3.395). While there was a change in themes from pre to post program, it is not clear if the participants completely understood what values were. There were more positive statements about value building and introspection after the program but the participants had a hard time verbalizing their values. Findings for objective five are described below. Research Objective Five Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development pro were used to create empathy and compassion for the horses, to teach the heart ome of the participants became very upset when the horse was purposely scared by the plastic bag. When reflecting the boys (3) (13) (2). When asked (3). The next activity participants the varying sizes, shapes, and colors of horses. When the participants were
161 asked to rank the horses from largest to smallest, coming to a consensus was not easy. Each participant saw (15) (7) and (15). Participants were one (4) an igh the least, but he was heavy (1). Using these statements, the participants were asked how the experience related to leaders shou (5) and should treat everyone the same (3). The quantitative data showed an increase in the mean scores from pre to post program for th e moral/ethical component ( M =11.50, SD =2.683, M =12.13, SD =3.117). Pertaining to heart, w hile there was a change in themes from pre to post program from the focus groups data but it is not clear if the participants completely understood what it meant to hav e heart in relation to leadership. There were more positive statements about empathy and compassion after the program but the participants had a hard time verbalizing what it meant to have heart. These reflections showed the researcher deep thought on the part of the participants regarding the dimensions of authentic leadership. Overall, the results were positive and showed the program was successful at teaching authentic leadership. In regard to the focus groups showed an increase in knowledge of most of t he elem ents of
162 the George model ( 2007). The depths of thought increased from preprogram focus groups to post program focus groups but it is not definitive that the participants understood purpose, values, or heart completely. Conclusions and discussions pe rtaining to the data are described below. Conclusions A holistic review of the results from both segments of this study demonstrated the program was successful in regards to the obje ctives of educating youth about authentic leadership. The following conclu sions were drawn with the understanding that due to the selection process of participants, a purposive sample of middle school age boys from Rodeheaver Boys Ranch, the generalizability of the conclusions and recommendations should be carefully considered. The following sections are organized based on the programmatic reflection, researcher objectives, focus groups, and equine facilitated learning program. Programmatic Reflection This study sought to determine if equine facilitated learning could be an effec tive teaching method for authentic leadership. The lack of previous research for programs comparable to the program outlined for the study, the researcher used a case study method to outline the results. Based on (1980) three phases of participa nt observation, the researcher was able to determine the positives and negatives of the study. Analysis of the qualitative data lead the researcher to determine the program partially succeeded at teaching authentic leadership skills to at risk youth. Part icipants were able to take part in reflection after each activity and during the post program focus groups. Positive aspects of the program were plentiful. The activities were easy to set
163 up and easy to explain. Each activity, with reflection, was able to portray the correct dimension of the George model and some of the activities provided overlap with the other dimensions The activities were also very complimentary of each other, with one building on the other. The activities also provided for deep reflec tion and were able to portray more than just one dimension at a time. An example, the relationship dimension was included in all activities purely because the participants were working in groups. Another positive regarding the program, the activities are e asily adapted, when time was an issue, it was easy to adapt the activity to fit almost any time frame. The program implementation was facilitator friendly, in that there was not a lot of setup time on the front end or back end. A few negatives of the prog ram, the length of the second day (Saturday) was too long for this age group. The original time frame was from 9am 5:30pm. Halfway through the day, it was decided to cut out one break and end the day at 3pm. For the facilitator and horse unit director it would have been nearly impossible to continue the program until 5:30. The participants required a lot of attention and this made logistics more difficult. Without the program assistants and the horse unit director running the program would have been treac herous. Considering the small amount of research similar to this study, the results of this study provide suggestions and valid research to further the fields from this study. Ewing, MacDonald, Taylor, and Bowers (2007, p. 60) described equine facilitate d approach is based on the physical attributes of the horse (Ewing et al. 2007). The
164 ho compared to the youth, solicited respect which, with some at risk youth, can be a barrier (Ewing, et al. 2007). With this research in mind, the researcher concluded that the physical attributes of the horse s absolutely played a role in the prog ram. Some of the participants were very aggressive with each other and some tried unwillingness to be pushed around created an environment that was unique for the participants. In stead of being able to force their way into something, the participants had to take a step back and learn from the situations at hand. This wa s the main idea behind using horses for this program. Allowing the horses to be the teachers was the most importan t part of the equine facilitated learning process. Some of the pa rticipants viewed the facilitator horses as a mediator, removed the facilitator from some of the process. Educators and other work with at risk youth can use the results of this program to further their educational programs. Based on the personal experiences of the researcher with regard to equine assisted activities, it was determined that equine facilitated may be an effective way to teach authentic leadership skills to youth. The researcher referred to previous literature based on equine assisted activities used for youth to determine the positive significant effect from the program. Smith Osborne and Selby (2010, p. 292) repo rted, based on recent theoretical and empirical literature, that the following psychosocial effects have been found in children and adolescents who participated in equine assisted activities esteem enhancement, improvement in personal space/boundary issues and other attachment related problems, reduction in
165 emotional blunting and incongruence, and improvement in meta cognition and reflectivity (Karol, 2007; Roberts, et al., 2004; Rothe Vega, et al., 2005; Schult z, et al., 2007). Smith could have psychosocial benefits in the following areas, not specified by population: self confidence, self esteem, self concept, interest in learning/motiv ation to participate in hippotherapy, improvement in attention span/concentration/listening skills, spatial awareness, and verbal skills (MacKinnon, et al., 1995a; MacKinnon, et al., 1995b). For the purposes of this study, the researcher considered equine assisted activities and all other forms of equine assistance to be equal to equine facilitated learning. The dimensions of the George model are comparable to the psychosocial benefits as described by Smith Osborne and Selby (2010). When taking the previous research into consideration, the results of this study supported these previous findings. It is important to note that during the reflection, after each activity, the researcher based on each dimension. An example, purpose showed a negative change in self perception. Statements post program were actually less correct than preprogram. Reasons for these results may include, the activities used to teach purpose were ineffective, the researcher (facilitator) was not thorough enough when explaining and debriefing the activity around purpose, or the participants were inattentive during the activity that taught purpose. When thinking of youth development in general, the at risk factor fo r youth participants may have led to delayed development which may account for the lack of positive results for purpose. Barnett (2013) suggested youth in the at risk population, such as the participants, may experience delayed development so the activitie s may
166 have been too abstract for the youth to process. The reflection component was as important as the activities because it provided a time for the facilitator to help participants reach conclusions about how the activities related to leadership. The re sults of this study should be used by future researchers, educators, youth development specialists, and facilitators to enhance any program done with at risk youth, using equine facilitated learning techniques. Using these results, future educators and fac ilitators can modify their programs to further advance leadership skills in at risk youth. takes hands on hands on learning to a nother level. With most youth programs, dimensions of learning may be implied but not necessarily taught. This program taught the dimensions of authentic leadership by allowing participants to actively engage in their learning environment. The horses prov ided the participants with challenges to further their learning of the authentic leadership model. The researcher suggests that the equine facilitated learning model may be used to teach many more subjects other than leadership. Educators and should consider using horses, or other interactive animals, to teach different subjects. Finding other ways to use the experiential learning model may be a key to teaching youth in an effective way. Below, conclusions bas ed on the research objectives are described. Research Objectives The similarities and differences in themes from the focus groups help explain why there wa s a change in the preprogram Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) (Avolio, et al., 2007) and the post program ALQ data. The partici pants showed
167 knowledge on a basic level, preprogram, regarding the four components of the Authenti c Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) (Avolio, et al., 2007): transparency, ethical/moral, balanced processing, and self awareness. This introductory knowledge may have accounted for the small amount of change from pre to post program. Also, Barnett (2013) found a lack of initial learning gains during at risk programming when evaluating post program. She (2013) has found during her many program implementations with the Children, Youth, and Families At Risk Program (CYFAR) at risk youth need time to process the information they receive during programming, so evaluating immediately after a program may lead to skewed or no results. With this in mind, the researcher cons ulted with the horse unit director to determine if the participants showed an increase in leadership overall. The horse unit director reported positive changes in the boys and stated they still talk about the program and how much fun they had, five months post program. The fact that the program focused on the five dimensions of the George (2007) model and the ALQ focused on four different dimensions must be taken into account when reviewing the quantitative data. Developing a program that focuses on the fo ur dimensions of the ALQ would make the results from the ALQ questionnaire more relatable. In regard to the ALQ, previous research (Avolio et al., 2007; Gardner, et al., 2005b; Gardner & Schermerhorn, 2004) has focused on adults. The questions in the ALQ a re geared more towards adults; this leads the researcher to believe that some of the questions may have been too advanced or abstract for the participants in this study. Future studies could use a modified ALQ created for youth. Vice versa, creating a ques tionnaire/instrument to test the five dimensions of the George (2007) model would
168 make evaluating the program more effective. Conclusions and discussions for each objective are provided below. Research Objective One Determine the impact of the equine facil itated authentic leadership development Participants showed a deeper understanding of relationships from pre to post the statements were more comprehensive, These statement were supported by the positive change in ALQ mean scores from pre to post program regarding transparency ( M= 13.25, M= 15.31). Although a small change, these results are supportive of the idea that authentic leadership can be taught using e quine facilitated learning. Barnett (2013) suggested that many programs for at risk youth do not show an immediate positive change, so these results are very encouraging. Research objective two is described below. Research Objective Two Determine the imp act of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development discipline Participants showed a deeper understanding of self discipline from pre to post program. Themes regarding self discipline preprogram were summarized with one learn not to do it again, even if nobody tells you it was wrong. And you like feel guilty about what you did and (3). Themes regarding self
169 These statements show an introductory knowledge of self discipline but also show a deeper understanding of what self discipline means regarding leadership. While there was no change in mean scores for balanced processing ( M =8.75, M =8.75 ) i t is important to account for the developmental status of these youth. Being in an at risk situation can lead to delayed development (Barnett, 2013). This delayed development may mean the idea of balanced processing was too abstract for the participants to understand. Th e questions associated with balanced processing on the ALQ (Avolio, et al., 2007) may have been too advanced or abstract to be understood, leading to a lack of positive change. Research objective three is described below. Research Objective Three Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development Participants did not show a positive change regarding purpose from pre to post program. The statements given during the preprogram focus groups actually proved to be more correct than the statements given during the post program focus groups. A re just to live and die. lack of positive change with mean scores decreasing from pre to post program ( M= 12.19, M= 11.94). ) It is
170 important to account for the developmental status of these youth. Being in an at risk situation can lead to delayed development (Barnett, 2013). This d elayed development may mean the idea of purpose was too abstract for the participants to understand. The activities used to portray purpose may not have accomplished this task. Also, t he questions associated with self awareness (purpose) on the ALQ (Avolio et al., 2007) may have been too advanced or abstract to be understood, leading to a lack of positive change. Research objective four is described below. Research Objective Four Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership developme nt Participants did not show a significant change in understanding regarding values from pre to post program. The themes regarding values were summarized with the n and you give yourself a goal to reach and understanding of values. The stateme nts made regarding values during the post change with means scores from the ALQ de creasing from pre to post program ( M= 12.19, M= 11.94). It is important to account for the developmental status of these youth. Being in an at risk situation can lead to delayed development (Barnett, 2013). This delayed development may mean the idea of purp ose was too abstract for the participants to understand. The activities used to portray values may not have accomplished this task. Also, the questions associated with self awareness (values) on
171 the ALQ (Avolio, et al., 2007) may have been too advanced or abstract to be understood, leading to a lack of positive change. Research objective five is described below. Research Objective Five Determine the impact of the equine facilitated authentic leadership development rt Participants showed a deeper understanding of heart from pre to post program. heart for things and like instead of being mean and like just paying attention to yourself, up suppo rted by the positive change in ALQ mean scores from pre to post program regarding the ethical/moral component ( M= 11.50, M= 12.13). Although a small change, these results are supportive of the idea that authentic leadership can be taught using equine facilit ated learning. Barnett (2013) suggested that many programs for at risk youth do not show an immediate positive change, so these results are very encouraging. Discussions regarding the conclusions are described below. Discussion Overall, the focus groups sh owed no change in k nowledge of the dimensions of the George model (2007). The depth s of thought increased from preprogram to post program but it was not definitive that the participants understood purpose, values, or heart completely. Programmatically, th e focus groups ran fairly well. For the age group, 12 15 years old, the conversation was as expected. When working with youth,
172 researchers should expect less depth in thought and responses (Barnett, 2013). The researcher chose to do focus groups, instead o f individual interviews, to encourage a conversation, not just a question and answer session. There were two groups of seven to nine participants each and this may have been too many participants in one session. Participants would frequently answer based o this age group in the future, it is recommended to make the focus groups smaller, four to five youth maximum. When going through the transcriptions, there was not as rich of detail as anticipated. The answers were very short, one word or a short sentence, not very much elaboration on each topic. The fi eld notes were imperative as there was a lot the transcriptions did not catch due to background noise and crossta lk. It was also important that the researcher was present during all sessions to have memory to reflect on about how the participants were comm unicating, verbally and nonverbally. While there was a change in themes from pre to post program, it is not clear if the participants completely understood what values were. There were more positive statements about value building and introspection after t he program but the participants had a hard time verbalizing their values. Barnett (2013) suggested that youth in at risk situations, such as the participants, may experience delayed development and the idea of values may have been too abstract for the yout h to understand fully; thus leading to a lack of positive change in results.
173 The lack of research using the George Model (2007) was both positive and negative in regards to this study. The researcher did not have any previous research to help lead towards conclusions or hypotheses but this also allowed for an open minded approach to the program development. The results of this study may encourage future researchers to follow the lead of this study and use the George model in future studies. This study hoped to open the eyes of researchers in the field of authentic leadership to finding new and innovative ways to teach authentic leadership to different populations. At risk children need a visual model to help understand what being a leader means (Whitehead, 2009). Instead of an intricate formula, the authentic leadership model leaves room for modification and is simplistic enough for any level of education. At risk youth can learn the five elements in the model and look at the compass to see ways to become an authentic leader. Research has shown that relationships, goals, and resources can help at risk youth to overcome their situations and become contributing citizens (Bowen & Chapman, 1996; Coleman, 1988; Singer, et al., 1995). These results showed that aut hentic leadership is a skill that can be developed. Although not all four components had a positive change in mean scores, the researcher believes there was increased self perception of authentic leadership. The participants elaborated more during the refl ections and focus groups about what authentic leadership meant and what it meant to be an authentic leader. The lack of significant research on authentic leadership and youth led the researcher to believe the results of this study will help advance the fie ld of authentic leadership as it pertains to youth. Previous research done using the ALQ (Avolio, et al., 2007) has been focused on adults specifically business focused authentic leadership (Avolio, et al., 2009) so the results of this study will assist
174 i n advancing rese arch using this instrument. Although more research needs to be done, the results of this study showed equine facilitated learning may be a way to educate people about authentic leadership. Recommendations for practice and research are given below. Recommendations Recommendations for future practice and research are provided as a results of assessing the program details and quantitative results. Recommendations for Practice Based on the results of this study, there are several recommendations for programs that seek to teach authentic leadership skills using equine facilitated learning methods. While this study was focused on the at risk population, specifically Rodeheaver Boys Ra nch, these recommendations may be applied to other program of sim ilar function and structure. It is recommended to perform a pre and post program questionnaire based on the dimensions being taught during the program to determine the impact the program may or may not have on the participants. Collecting data regarding t he ALQ and Level of Comfort was very important in determining the efficacy of the program. It is also recommended to work with smaller groups at a time. Sixteen, middle school age boys was too many for this program; the participants not actively engaged wi th the activity were left to their own devices. It is suggested to maintain small groups, preferably a maximum of four to five at one time. It may be beneficial for older age groups to observe others during activity, but that is inconclusive due to the pop ulation of this study. Having multiple program assistants to help with the logistics of multiple horses is recommended. The facilitator should be processing the events consistently so having
175 someone to exchange horses and retrieve props is advised. One are a of interest was that the boys filling out the questionnaires (preprogram) were more worried about getting to interact with the horses than filling out the questionnaires. The distractions may have caused skewed results for the quantitative data. In hinds ight, it is suggested to have a specified, focused time for the questionnaires to be filled out, away from distraction, if questionnaires are utilized. In regards to the activities, it is suggested to adapt the exercises based on attentiveness of the parti cipants. If the facilitator seems to lose the participant focus, it may be time to move on to the next activity. After lunch on the second day, the participants were very inattentive. The lack of focus and attention is a reason it is suggested to have smal ler groups so there are not observers, only active participants. Programmatically, it is suggested to work in shorted time periods with younger age groups. Eight hours of programming was too long and the quality of the program was negatively impacted. For showed a decrease in self perception. With this in mind, it is advised to revisit the efficacy of the particular activity associated with that session. It is also recommended to get feedback from t he participants, within reason. Learning participant expectations may help the facilitator create a more effective program. Equine facilitated programs can be implemented in various lengths. If a program is brief and does not consist of in depth theories, it could be implemented in one afternoon. If the program, such as this, covers a more in depth theory, it can be implemented over the course of days or even weeks. When developing this particular program, the researcher created outlines for 3 day programs to 7 week programs and much iteration in between. Depending on the time
176 frame and the depth of theory involved, future programmers can adapt the program length as needed. This study can be categorized as a life skill development program or a prevention pr o gram for at risk youth. Providing youth with leadership skills is importa nt in life skills development and may also help prevent these pre adjudicated youth from offending in the future. In regard to risk and protective factors, described in chapter one, this program is a pr otective factor in that it provides youth skills necessary to succeed in the future and overcome their many risk factors. In the future, youth workers, program developers, educators, and many other professional may use equine facilitate d learning programs for life skill development, prevention, intervention, and/or diversion programs. While logistically it is difficult, an equine facilitated learning program can be used in rural and urban settings. Gang intervention and prevention progra ms could benefit from this type of program because it takes the participants out of their comfort zone and provides the facilitator around, more aggressive partici pants have to act in response to the horses. Other populations that could benefit from these types of programs include: adults, corporations, youth organizations, academia, and many others. The adaptability of equine facilitated learning programs lends it to work in many situations. Recommendations for Future Research Although this study specifically focused on at risk youth at Rodeheaver Boys Ranch, research in other programs, organizations, and other demographics is essential to further assess the effecti veness of equine facilitated learning in regards to teaching authentic leadership skills. By comparing the change in self perception of authentic leadership from other populations, researchers could further determine the
177 effectiveness of equine facilitated learning. Researchers could also assess if changes in structure or focus of the programs is related to the results of change in self perception of authentic leadership. Additionally, other activities and program format should be used to determine which fo rmat would be best for differing populations. One respondent of the study appreciated individual sessions. Trying different group sizes and working individually could help determine the most effective format for differing populations. Another recommendation is to include different teaching objectives. Authentic leadership was the teaching objective for this study but future researchers should attempt to teach different lea dership theories or subjects. A final recommendation is to conduct research using the Bill George Model (2007). There has been no academic research done to determine if the model is an effective model for authentic leadership. Also, creating an instrument to measure the dimensions of the model is imperative. An instrument would provide quantitative data to determine the change in knowledge or perception of authentic leadership in regards to the George model. Summary Chapter five provided a review of the s tudy in its entirety. This included the purpose and objectives of the study from Chapter one, the inclusion of literature as it related to the findings of the study from Chapter two, a review of methods and procedures from Chapter three, and a summary of t he findings from Chapter four. Chapter five continued with the study to provide a discussion of the findings and their relation to other studies, the implication of the findings, and recommendations
178 drawn from the conclusions of the study. The remainder o f the document includes the questionnaire, demographic questionnaire, Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ), informed consent, and references.
179 APPENDIX A FOCUS GROUP PROTOCOL R odeheaver Boys Ranch Focus Group Protocol Leadership Questions: 1. How would you define leadership? 2. What qualities do you have that make you a good leader? a. 3. What leaders do you know or look up to ? 4. Why is leadership important 5. Do you want to be a leader someday? a. b. If you do want to be a leader, what do you need to do to be a great leader in the future? 6. What would you like to learn about how to be a better leader? a. What resources would you need? 7. Have you ever heard of authentic leadership? a. How would you describe it? 8. An authentic leader is someone who has a genuine desire to serve others, who knows themselves, and who feels free to lead from their core values a. Knowing the definition, how important do you think this type of leadership is? 9. Describe how relationships are important to you. a. School
180 b. Friends c. Cottage families d. Others? 10. What do you think it means to have good self discipline? a. How would you describe your se lf discipline? 11. What do you think it means to have purpose? a. How would you describe your purpose in life? 12. What do you think it means to have values? a. How would you describe your values? i. Values are the things that allow leaders to know who they are, where they are going, and what the right thing is to do. When in difficult situations, authentic leaders stick to their values. 13. How important is heart when thinking about leadership? a. Heart is like compassion. Leaders with hear t act from their heart instead of their heads. These leaders are passionate about their missions, they believe with their hearts.
181 APPENDIX B FOCUS GROUP MODERATO Rodeheaver Boys Ranch Leadership Workshop WELCOME/GROUP PROCESS & PURPOSE (5 minutes) Modera tor reads: Hello and welcome to our focus group session. Thank you for taking time to join our discussion today My name is ____ and I will be moderating this session. This is Brittany and she is my assistant moderator. You have been invited here today b ecause we are interested in having a general discussion with you about leadership. We are very interested in knowing what you think about leadership Please feel fr ee to share your point of view even if it differs from what others have said. there is a tendency in these discussions for some people to talk a lot and some people not to say much. But it is important for us to hear from each of you today because you have different experiences. So if one of you is sharing a lot, I may ask you to let others We welcome all opinions and will keep them confidential, so please feel free to say what you think. Additionally, we encourage you all to keep this discussion confidential. However, we cannot guarantee that you all will do so. There is no particular order for the responses, and there are no correct/incorrect answers to any of the questions. This session will be recorded so that we are able to consider your views later. For the sake of clarity, please speak one at a time and be sure to speak loudly and clearly so that our recorders can pick up your comments. You can see that we have placed name cards on the table in front of you. That is because we will be on a first name basis, but i n our later reports there will not be any names attached to comments. You may be assured of confidentiality. Our session will last about forty five minutes. If you have your cell phone with you, we would appreciate it if you could turn it off while we are in the discussion. I hope that everyone will feel comfortable with the process, and will feel free to share their opinions as we proceed. If you did not fill out a waiver when you arrived, please see Joy and complete this form before we begin our dis cussion. Are there any questions before we begin?
182 ICEBREAKER/GROUP INTRODUCTIONS (5 minutes) something about leadership. I will give each group a piece of anatomy and you wi ll draw what that piece of anatomy means to your group about leadership. Group 1: Eye Group 2: Feet Group 3: Ears CONCLUDING DISCUSSION (10 minutes) Have you thought of anyt Is this an adequate summary? As was explained at the beginning of the session, the purpose of this focus group was to get your feedback and opinions about leadership. Your comments today will be useful in developing materials to better educate people like you about leadership. Have we m issed anything or are there any other comments at this time? Thank you for taking time out of your day to share your opinions. Now that we have finished, I can now tell you that I represent the Department of Agricultural Education and Communication at the University of Florida. The person who we are conducting this research for is Brittany and her dissertation research. Your participation is greatly appreciated and has provided valuable insight into this topic.
183 APPENDIX C LEVEL OF COMFORT QUE STIONNAIR E Rodeheaver Boys Ranch Leadership Program Level of Comfort Questionnaire Please circle the answer that sounds most like you. 1. How comfortable are you around horses? Very uncomfortable Somewhat uncomfortable Neutral Somewhat comfortable Very comfortable 1 2 3 4 5 2. Do you think horses and leadership go together? Not at all Sometimes Neutral Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 3. Would it be fun to work with horses while learning about leadership skills? Not at all Somewhat fun Neutral Fun Very fun 1 2 3 4 5 4. Ha ve you had any previous horse experience? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _____________________ _______ ____________________________________
184 APPENDIX D DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTION NAIRE Rodeheaver Boys Ranch Leadership Program Demographic Questionnaire Please answer the following questions: Your Age: _________ years Your Grade: _________ Your Race (cir cle): White Black Hispanic Other : _______________
185 APPENDIX E AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE (ALQ)
186 APPENDIX F INFORMED CONSENT FOR PARTICIPANT Rodeheaver Boys Ranch Leadership Program Hello. My name is Brittany Adams and I am a student at the University of Florida. I am trying to learn about how students think, learn, and behave in school. I will be working with several boys at Rodeheaver Boys Ranch If you decide to participate, you will be asked to do a series of activities, including some re ading, writing, and outdoor activities with horses, and answering some questions about your feelings and emotions. We will spend about an hour and a half working in a group with other students and horses. There are no known risks to participation, and mos t students actually enjoy the study at any time. Other than the researchers, no one will know your answers, including it and, if you ask, your answers will not be used in the study. I also want you to know that whatever you decide, this will not affect your grades in class or time on the ranch. Your cottage parents and Mr. Johnson said it would be OK for you to participate. Would you be willing to participate in this study? If so, please print your name on the top line and sign your name on the bottom line. You have the right to withdraw consent at any time without consequence. The re are no immediate benefits to the participants. No compensation is offered for participation. The risks to the participants are horse related injuries that will be minimized by close supervision and education for the children on safety around horses. The horses chosen have been evaluated by horse professionals to ensure that they are not aggressive in any manner. Group results of this study will be available in December upon request. If you have any questions about this research protocol, please contact m e at firstname.lastname@example.org or my f aculty superviso r, Dr. Stedman, email@example.com. Questions or concerns about your rights as research participant may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesv ille, FL 32611, (352) 392 0433, using the Protocol #: 2012 U 0745 __________________________________________ ________________ Print Name Date __________________________________________ ________________ Sign Name Date
187 APPENDIX G PROGRAM FACILITATOR ACTIVITY GUIDE Rodeheaver Boys Ranch 3 Day Leadership Program Facilitator Guide Day 1: Relationships/Connectedness Need: 6 8 horse total Halters Lead ropes 4 saddles 4 saddle pads 4 girths 3:00pm: Boys gather 3 4 horses in round pen Amanda do quick safety demo with a horse 3:10pm: Break into smaller groups/pairs allow them to choose Give each group a halter and lead rope Ask them to catch and halter the horse then bring it over to you 3:40pm: Break into groups of 3 4 allow them to choose They must saddle the horse they catch o The brain can ONLY give direction. o Arms can o Arms must do EXACTLY what the brain tells them o Arms can only use outside arm o Start over if they break a rule 4:10pm:
188 Change horses Break into smaller groups/pairs allow them to choose G ive each group a halter and lead rope Ask them to catch and halter the horse then bring it over to you 4:40pm: Break into groups of 3 4 allow them to choose They must saddle the horse they catch o The brain can ONLY give direction. o o Arms must do EXACTLY what the brain tells them o Arms can only use outside arm o Start over if they break a rule 5 5:15pm Conclude Rodeheaver Boys Ranch 3 Day Leadership Program Facilitator Guide Day 2 Section 1: Self Discipline/Consistency Need: Giant Post It to write Rules on 6 8 horses total Halters available Lead ropes available Jump Cones (4 ) Poles Buckets of feed (4) Flakes of hay Carrots Apples
189 9:00am: Boys Gather Reflect on previous day 9:10am: 3 horses in pen Break into two groups o Get horse over the jump (name the jump an obstacle in their lives) o Na me horses traits or characteristics that can help them with the bad behavior o Need to make a consequence for breaking the rules* o o o o eave the arena o NO TALKING 9:40am: Stay in your small groups o Same rules apply o Get horse around the round pen at least once and over the jump 10:10am: Change horses if necessary Break into two groups o Get horse over the jump (name the jump an obstacle in their lives) o Name horses traits or characteristics that can help them with the bad behavior o Need to make a consequence for breaking the rules* o o rse with food or pretend to have food o o o NO TALKING 10:40am: Stay in your small groups
190 o Same rules apply o Get horse around the round pen at least once and over the jump 11 11:30: Re flect and Conclude 11:30 1:00pm: Break for lunch Section 2: Purpose/Passion Need: 5 horses 2 jumps Halters and leads available 1:00pm: Boys gather 1:10pm: Come up with a goal for your horse(s) to accomplish o The horse cannot al ready know how to do it o Examples: playing soccer, wearing a hat, spinning in circles 1:40pm: Swap horses if necessary Come up with a goal for your horse(s) to accomplish o The horse cannot already know how to do it o Examples: play ing soccer, wearing a hat, spinning in circles 2:10pm: One horse in round pen Both groups in round pen o Separate the groups o Tell one group to make the horse go around the pen clockwise and jump over jump A
191 o Tell other group to make the horse go around the pen counter clockwise and jump over jump B 2:40pm: Regroup in barn Reflect on the activities *3:00 3:30pm: Break *Researcher and horse unit director decided to remove this break and run the activities (CreACTivity and Squeaky Clean) simultaneously to allow the program to run more quickly. Section 3: Values/Behavior Need: 12 buckets of feed 6 horses 2 poles 2 cones Soap Brushes Hoses *1:10pm: Break into 4 groups of 4 o Each group chooses a horse t o clean o Each group can only have one bathing tool at a time o All must work on the same side of the horse o *2:30pm Wrap up for the day *3:00pm: Conclude Rodeheaver Boys Ranch 3 Day Leadership Pro gram Facilitator Guide Day 3: Heart/Compassion Need:
192 Soft sided measuring tape Rodie Another horse with fear Lasso Whatever the other horse fears Giant Post It 9:00am: Boys Gather Talk about Day 2 9:10am: Show the bo o o Long and short term goals o Describe/write down what their end goal is for the horse 9:40am: o Boys need o Long and short term goals o Describe/write down what their end goal is for the horse 10:10am: Have 3 horses per group Have boys determine which horse is biggest to smalles t (without asking others) o Have the boys measure the horses o Height of the horse in inches, divided by 4 = hands o Heart girth of the horse squared time the body length of the horse, divided by 10:30am: Program wrap up 11:00am: Conclude
193 A PPENDIX H PROGRAM FACILITATOR QUESTION GUIDE Rodeheaver Boys Ranch 3 Day Leadership Program Facilitator Question Guide Day 1: Relationship/Connectedness Safety Demo Do you guys have any questions about being safe around the horses? How did the boys respond to the directions? How did they break into groups/pairs? How did they interact as groups/pairs? How does the activity go? (do they quit, get frustrated, try different things?) Which horse did each group pick? Why? How do the interactio ns remind the boys of interactions at school, home, etc. ? How did the brains feel about their role? How did the appendages feel about their ro le? Did they work together? How can you relate this to relationships? How important is communication in relationship? Rodeheaver Boys Ranch 3 Day Leadership Program Facilitator Question Guide Day 2: Section 1: Self Discipline/Consistency Safety Recap Wha t do you remember from the safety lesson?
194 What did this activity teach them about self discipline? What bad habits/behaviors do you struggle with? What did you learn from this activity that can help you in the future? What resourc es/behaviors were helpful or hurtful? Can you relate that to life? How do the rules/consequences play into the activity? Day 2: Section 2: Purpose/Passion How did the process go? How did you come to a common purpose? How passionate did you be come about the goal? Did everyone agree? Does everyone always agree? Day 2: Section 3: Values/Behavior They both had different purposes, right? When did they realize they were working against each other? How did they handle this? How doe s this relate to things at home? How were the needs verbalized? How did they define squeaky clean? How did they communication? How did different values and behaviors come into play? R odeheaver Boys Ranch 3 Day Leadership Program Faci litator Question Guide Day 3: Heart/Compassion Discuss and explore ideas with the boys on how to help the horse overcome the fear How did their plan work What are their thoughts about how the fear affected the horse How did they feel about th
195 How can they relate this to their lives? How did the boys react to the actual measurements? How does the horse react to the measuring tape? How will you use this feeli ng in your life? Compassion?
196 APPENDIX I PROGRAM PICTURES Extended Appendages Extended Appendages Life's Little Obstacles Life's Little Obstacles Life's Little Obstacles CreACTivity
197 CreACTivity CreACTivity Squeaky Clean Squeaky Clean Circularelations Circularelations
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218 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brittany Adams was bor n in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania By age three, her family moved to Augusta, Georgia. Brittany graduated from Lakeside High School in May 2003. Brittany attended the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia beginning in the fall of 2003. Sh e completed her B.S. degree in p sychology from Franklin College of Arts and Sciences and her B.S.A in a nimal s cience from the College of Agricultural and Environmental S ciences in December of 2007. In May of 2010, Ms. Adams received her M.S. in agricultural leadership from the Department of Agricultural Leadership, Education, and Communication at the University of Georgia. In August, 2010, Brittany entered the doctoral p rogram in the Department of Agricultural Education and Communication at the University of Florida with an emphasis in leadership development. Brittany was awarded a graduate assistantship, the Grinter Scholarship, and the Newbern Scholarship. She worked as an assistant to Dr. Nicole Stedman and as an assistant for the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Undergraduate Honors Program. She worked closely with undergraduate students in four different courses and has participated in professional conferenc es across the United States. Brittany is most interested in the up and coming field of Equine Facilitated Learning, which combines her love of horses with her love of teaching. She constantly searches for ways to bring horses into the field leadership dev elopment, specifically to the at risk youth population. She works with local groups to develop leadership workshops for youth and other organizations.
219 Brittany married Anthony Pope in March of 2012 and they currently reside in Gainesville with their four dogs, two horses, and two cats. She stays busy by competing in horse shows around the country and stays active in her professional activities which include American Association for Agricultural Educators, Association of Leadership Educators, the Equine Gui ded Growth and Learning Association, and the North American Colleges and Teachers Association.