|UFDC Home||myUFDC Home | Help|
This item has the following downloads:
1 FACTORS OF CAREER MEANING : AN ANALYSIS OF U.S. NAVAL ACADEMY GRADUATES By CHERYL PENCE WOLF A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013
2 2013 Cheryl Pence Wolf
3 To my family, especially my husband Mark, and my mom Georganne, who were my closest partners, encouragers, and supporters throu gh this journey; they provided the inspiration and support to keep moving toward my goals
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The journey toward my degree has been a tremendous personal and professional growth opportunity that would not have been possible without the help an d support of my committee, research partners, professors, colleagues, research participants, Chi Sigma Iota, students, friends, and family First, I would like to thank my committee chair, Dr. M. Harry Daniels, for his guidance, support, creative thinking, and tough critiques along the way. Venturing into a new area of the counseling literature, he continued to ask the right questions to help me narrow my direction and explore this meaningful topic Not only did I learn more about this area of research, but I also learned to be a more attentive researcher and scholar. I would also like to thank my other committee members Dr. Ana Puig, Dr. Walter Leite, and Dr. Thomas Kerkhoff, for their encouragement, support, and ideas for this project. Additionally, a spe cial thank s to Eric Thompson, who served as my dissertation buddy through the final stages of this research study H is strengths and knowledge in data analysis were instrumental in helping me move forward when I got stuck Also, thanks to Dr. Jose Silva Lu go who taught SPSS and reviewed my data analysis to ensure I was on the right track. Furthermore, I would like to acknowledge all of my research and writing partners in this journey including Dr. Ana Puig, Dr. Sondra Smith Adcock, Dr. Mary Fukuyama, Dr. I sabel Thompson, Dr. Adrienne Baggs, Dr. Andrea Dixon, Dr. Rebecca Goldberg, Dr. Chris Adams, Eric Thompson, Ana Jaramillo, and Elisa Mott. My earlier research studies have informed my understanding of meaning, wellness, and spirituality so that I could int egrate my research ideas, knowledge, and experience into this project. Additionally, I am indebted to all the willing research participants who participated in our
5 wellness program functions, yoga classes, sexuality support groups, spirituality focus group s, and most importantly, this research study I t hank them for allowing me to look into their lives a bit and explore the areas of meaning, values, satisfaction, wellness, sexuality, and spirituality. I realize that these can very personal areas and their willingness to share their time and opinions was valued Furthermore I am grateful to Chi Sigma Iota, International, for their research support partially funding this study as well as several others in which I authored or co authored I am also thankful to the authors and publishers who provided permission to use their published instruments for my dissertation study and reproduce them in Appendix A. I also extend a special thanks to the faculty in the Counselor Education program and College of Education who extended academic funding through a four year alumni fellowship graduate teaching assistantships and several college/departmental scholarships that allowed me the financial support to pursue my interests in education, teaching, and research. I also a ppreciate all of the wonderful graduate and undergraduate students that I have been honored to teach at the University of Florida throughout the past seven years Although I was the teacher, I had much to learn from their stories and experiences. I am grat eful for their active participation and feedback in the classes; that is what truly makes teaching enjoyable and has inspired several of my research ideas Moreover many of my professors staff, colle agues and classmates along the way have been a source of support personally and professionally. The counseling training has been an introspective journey as well as an academic exercise. I spent many hours in the classroom learning from knowledgeable faculty and many more
6 hours with the friends I developed t hroughout my time at the University of Florida T he positive relationships have been a reminder that finding meaningful work with people I enjoy will not only be aligned with my values, but bring me more satisfaction and well being in my life, all of which I aspire to achieve. The friendships developed outside of the program have been invaluable as well as it was nice to balance the work and play side s of my life. Last, but certainly not least, I want to express a special thank s to my family for their conti nued support as this journey has taken longer than imagined and included a few more bumps than expected T heir support was invaluable to my continued success. Without them, this would ha ve been a much tougher journey.
7 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 12 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 14 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 15 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 20 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 22 Introduction of Career Meaning ................................ ................................ .............. 22 Career Meaning: A Working Definition ................................ ................................ .... 24 Career Meaning ................................ ................................ ................................ 25 Career Meaning Related Terms ................................ ................................ ....... 26 Theoretical Rationale for the Study ................................ ................................ ......... 31 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ....................... 34 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 35 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 36 Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 36 Research ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 36 Practice ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 37 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 39 Definition of Key Concepts ................................ ................................ ...................... 39 Career Meaning Related Terms ................................ ................................ ....... 39 Meaning Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ 40 Values Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 41 Satisfaction Terms ................................ ................................ ............................ 41 Wellness Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ 42 Organization of the St udy ................................ ................................ ....................... 43 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 44 Theoretical Perspectives Related to Career Meaning ................................ ............. 44 Career Development Theories ................................ ................................ ......... 44 Trait and Factor Theory ................................ ................................ .............. 45 ................................ ................................ ......... 46 Myers Briggs Type Theory ................................ ................................ ......... 47 Work Adjustment Theory ................................ ................................ ............ 51 Integrative Life Planning ................................ ................................ ............. 52
8 Meaning Centered Theories ................................ ................................ ............. 53 Logotherapy ................................ ................................ ............................... 53 Existentialism ................................ ................................ ............................. 54 Meaning centered counseling ................................ ................................ .... 55 Existentialist career counseling ................................ ................................ .. 56 Pathways to meaningful work ................................ ................................ .... 57 Meaningful work ................................ ................................ ......................... 59 Values Theories ................................ ................................ ............................... 60 ................................ ................................ ........ 6 1 ................................ ................................ ............. 63 ................................ ................................ .................. 65 Work values of Ros, Schwartz, and Surkiss ................................ ............... 66 Expanded life and work value models ................................ ........................ 67 Satisfaction Theories ................................ ................................ ........................ 69 Multiple Discrepancy Theory ................................ ................................ ...... 69 Theory of Materialism and Quality of Life ................................ ................... 71 Cornell Integrated Model ................................ ................................ ............ 73 Job Characteristics Model ................................ ................................ .......... 73 Value Percept Theory ................................ ................................ ................ 76 Wellness Theories ................................ ................................ ............................ 77 Indivisible Self Model of Wellness ................................ .............................. 78 Holistic Wellness Model ................................ ................................ ............. 80 ................................ ................................ ........ 80 Systems Model of Wellness ................................ ................................ ....... 81 Age, gender, cultural, or societal perspectives ................................ ........... 82 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 84 Empirical Research ................................ ................................ ................................ 85 Career Meaning ................................ ................................ ................................ 85 Positive Relationships of Meaning, Values, Satisfaction, and Wellness ........... 87 Individual Differences ................................ ................................ ....................... 91 Other Personal and Work Related Outcomes ................................ .................. 95 The Flip Side: A Lack of Meaning, Values, Satisfaction, and Wellness ............ 97 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 99 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 101 Population ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 101 Sampling Procedure ................................ ................................ ............................. 105 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 110 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 111 Measures of Meaning ................................ ................................ ..................... 112 Life meaning ................................ ................................ ............................ 112 Career meaning ................................ ................................ ....................... 117 Measures of Values ................................ ................................ ........................ 119 Life values ................................ ................................ ................................ 120 Career values ................................ ................................ ........................... 122
9 Measures of Satisfaction ................................ ................................ ................ 125 Life satisfaction ................................ ................................ ........................ 125 Career satisfaction ................................ ................................ ................... 127 Measures of Wellness ................................ ................................ .................... 129 Life wellness ................................ ................................ ............................ 129 Career wellness. ................................ ................................ ...................... 132 Measures of Bias ................................ ................................ ............................ 133 Participant Background Data ................................ ................................ .......... 135 Career experiences and preferences ................................ ....................... 135 Demographic information ................................ ................................ ......... 137 Statistical Analysis Procedures ................................ ................................ ............. 138 Describing the Sample ................................ ................................ ................... 138 Factors of Career Meaning ................................ ................................ ............. 139 Group Differences ................................ ................................ .......................... 142 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ 144 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 148 Sampling ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 148 Ove rall Response Rate ................................ ................................ .................. 148 Participant Inclusion and Exclusion ................................ ................................ 149 Data Management ................................ ................................ ................................ 150 Coding Data ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 150 Missing Data ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 151 Screening Data ................................ ................................ ............................... 152 Descriptive Statistics ................................ ................................ ............................. 153 Sample Demographics ................................ ................................ ................... 153 Personal characteristics ................................ ................................ ........... 153 Military and academic experiences ................................ .......................... 155 Career experiences ................................ ................................ .................. 160 Scale and Subscale Parameter Estimates ................................ ..................... 161 Exploring the Factors Underlying Career Meaning ................................ ............... 165 Factor 1: Finding Meaningful Work ................................ ................................ 168 Factor 2: Attaining a Balanced Lifestyle ................................ ......................... 169 Factor 3: Acknowledging Important Values ................................ .................... 170 Understanding Group Differences ................................ ................................ ........ 171 Factor 1: Finding Meaningful Work ................................ ................................ 173 Factor 2: Attaining a Balanced Lifestyle ................................ ......................... 180 Factor 3: Acknowledging Important Values ................................ .................... 183 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ 188 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 211 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 215 Research Question 1 ................................ ................................ ...................... 215 Factor 1: Finding meaningful work ................................ ........................... 215 Factor 2: Attaining a balanced lifestyle ................................ .................... 217
10 Factor 3: Acknowledging important values ................................ ............... 218 Empirically defining career meaning ................................ ........................ 218 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 219 Research Question 2 ................................ ................................ ...................... 220 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 222 Sampling ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 222 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ............................... 226 Instruments selected ................................ ................................ ................ 227 Categorizing careers ................................ ................................ ................ 228 Career coverage. ................................ ................................ ..................... 230 Research Design ................................ ................................ ............................ 230 Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 233 Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 233 Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 234 Practice ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 235 Career development and counseling ................................ ....................... 235 Military service ................................ ................................ ......................... 236 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ............................... 238 Mining the Data Further ................................ ................................ .................. 239 Impact on Wellness and Work Related Outcomes ................................ ......... 240 APPENDIX A DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS ................................ ................................ .. 243 Meaning Instruments ................................ ................................ ............................ 243 Life Meaning ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 243 Career Meaning ................................ ................................ .............................. 244 Values Instruments ................................ ................................ ............................... 244 Life Values ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 244 Career Values ................................ ................................ ................................ 245 Satisfaction Instruments ................................ ................................ ........................ 245 Life Satisfaction ................................ ................................ .............................. 245 Career Satisfaction ................................ ................................ ......................... 246 Wellness Instrument ................................ ................................ ............................. 247 Bias Instrument ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 247 Participant Background Information ................................ ................................ ...... 248 Career Experiences and Preferences ................................ ............................ 248 Demographic Information ................................ ................................ ............... 254 B RECRUITMENT EMAILS AND AN NOUCEMENTS ................................ .............. 258 Recruitment Email ................................ ................................ ................................ 258 USNA Alumni Facebook and/or LinkedIn Announcements ................................ ... 259
11 C INFORMED CONSENT ................................ ................................ ........................ 260 D POPULATION DATA REQUESTED FROM USNA ................................ .............. 262 E UF IRB FORM ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 264 F USNA PROPOSAL ................................ ................................ ............................... 267 G INSTRUMENT SUBSCALES ................................ ................................ ................ 272 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 274 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 291
12 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 USNA class profiles: Applica nts, admissions, and gender ............................... 145 3 2 USNA class profiles: Ethnicity ( N=32,579 ) ................................ ....................... 146 3 3 USNA class profiles: Backgro und experiences ( N=32,579 ) .............................. 147 4 1 Total participants, gender, marital status, and children ( N =688) ...................... 189 4 2 Partic ipant ethnicity ( N =688) ................................ ................................ ............ 190 4 3 Military and academic background experiences ( N =688) ................................ 191 4 4 Current military stat us ( N =688) ................................ ................................ ......... 192 4 5 Last military grade held ( N =688) ................................ ................................ ...... 193 4 6 Level of influence by others in initial and current ca reer directions ( N =688) ..... 194 4 7 Level of enjoyment with current job ( N =688) ................................ .................... 195 4 8 Alignment of personal values w ith current job ( N =688) ................................ .... 196 4 9 Significance of career meaning compared to other areas of life ( N =688) ......... 197 4 10 De scriptive statistics for scales and subscales ( N =688) ................................ ... 198 4 11 Descriptive statistics for the 5F Wel scales and subscales ( N =688) ................. 199 4 12 Spearman correlations ( ) of scales and subscales ( N =688) ........................... 200 4 13 Spearman correlations ( ) of scales and subscales ( N =688) ........................... 201 4 14 Spe arman correlations ( ) of scales and subscales ( N =688) ........................... 202 4 15 Initial factor loadings for all subscale variables ( N =688) ................................ ... 203 4 16 Final significant factor loadings and communalities for retained variables ( N =688) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 204 4 17 Three factor solution: factor correlations and Eigenvalues ( N=688 ) ................. 205 4 18 Descriptive statistics for the derived factors, ( N =688) ................................ ....... 206 4 19 Median derived factor scores by graduating class ( N=688 ) .............................. 207
13 4 20 Multiple regression analysis for Factor 1 ( N=634) ................................ ............ 208 4 21 Multiple regression analysis for Fact or 2 ( N=682) ................................ ............ 209 4 23 Multiple regression analysis for Factor 3 ( N=688) ................................ ............ 210 D 1 Population data requested from the U.S. Naval Academy ................................ 263
14 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page A 1 ACT World of Work Map ................................ ................................ ................... 249
15 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S 5F Wel Five Factor Wellness Inventory. A 91 item instrument designed to measure the wellness related factors of the I ndivisible Self Model of Wellness 5F Wel 3C Five Factor Wellness Inventory Control. A four item third order subscale of the 5F Wel desi gned to measure beliefs about 5F Wel 3CI Five Factor Wellness Inventory Cultural Identity. A three item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to identify the cultural lens through which life is experienced as well as the satisfaction and support one feels with that culture 5F Wel 3Em Five Factor Wellness Inventory Emotions. A four item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed t o measure being including being in touch with and the ability to express feelings appropriately 5F Wel 3Ex Five Factor Wellness Inventory Exercise A five item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure sufficient physical activity 5F Wel 3Fr Five Factor Wellness Inventory Friendship A four item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure social relationships and the support one derives from them 5F Wel 3GI Five Factor Wellness Inventory Gender Identity A fou r item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to identify the gender lens through which life is experienced as well as the satisfaction and support one feels with that gender 5F Wel 3H Five Factor Wellness Inventory Humor. A four item third order su bscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure incorporate positive humor into their life experiences to deal with challenges 5F Wel 3Le Five Factor Wellness Inventory Leisure A six item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure s atisfaction and ability to engage in leisure activities in a balanced way. 5F Wel 3Lo Five Factor Wellness Inventory Love A four item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure intimate relationships and the commitment or support one derives from them
16 5F Wel 3N Five Factor Wellness Inventory Nutrition A five item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to being including eating a nutritionally balanced diet, maintaining a normal weight, and eating in modera tion 5F Wel 3RB Five Factor Wellness Inventory Realistic Beliefs. A five item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure accurately and the ability to identify impossible or unrealistic goals and expectations 5F Wel 3SC Five F actor Wellness Inventory Self Care A four item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure healthy habits of self care including activities that are preventative and beneficial to well being including timely medical care, adequate sleep, and av oiding illegal drugs, tobacco, and alcohol. 5F Wel 3SM Five Factor Wellness Inventory Stress Management A four item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure stress through self regulation, seeing change as a growth opportunity, and managing resources such as time, energy, and structure. 5F Wel 3Sp Five Factor Wellness Inventory Spirituality A five item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure belief in a higher power, purpose in life, optimism, compassion, morals, and r eligious activities and beliefs 5F Wel 3SW Five Factor Wellness Inventory Self Worth A four item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure appearance and uniqueness 5F Wel 3T Five Factor Wellness Inventory Thinking. A f our item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure well being, curiosity, problem solving, and resolving conflicts 5F Wel 3W Five Factor Wellness Inventory Work. A four item third order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to me asure satisfaction with work work duties, recognition, and job or financial security 5F Wel Co Five Factor Wellness Inventory Coping Self. A 19 item second order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure elements of coping through four third order factors: leisure, realistic beliefs, stress management, and self worth. 5F Wel Cr Five Factor Wellness Inventory Creative Self. A 20 item second order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure elements of creativity and uniqueness throug h five third order factors: control, emotions, humor, thinking, and work.
17 5F Wel E Five Factor Wellness Inventory Essential Self. A 16 item second order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure the way one makes meaning in relation to life, self, and oth ers through four third order factors: cultural identity, gender identity, self care, and spirituality. 5F Wel LS Five Factor Wellness Inventory Life Satisfaction. A one item subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure overall life satisfaction. 5F Wel P Fiv e Factor Wellness Inventory Physical Self. A 10 item second order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure elements of physical well being through two third order factors: exercise and nutrition. 5F Wel S Five Factor Wellness Inventory Social Self. A n ei ght item second order subscale of the 5F Wel designed to measure social connection through two third order factors: friendship and love. IS WEL Indivisible Self Model of Wellness An evidenced based model of wellness. JPS Job Perception Scale. A 20 item i nstrument measuring five facets of job satisfa ction. JPS C Job Perception Scale Co workers. A four item subscale of the JPS designed to measure the aspects of work satisfaction related to co workers. JPS P Job Perception Scale Pay. A four item subscale of the JPS designed to measure the aspects of work satisfaction related to pay. JPS Pr Job Perception Scale Promotion. A four item subscale of the JPS designed to measure the aspects of work satisfaction related to promotion. JPS S Job Perception Scale Sup ervision. A four item subscale of the JPS designed to measure the aspects of work satisfaction related to supervision. JPS W Job Perception Scale Work. A four item subscale of the JPS designed to measure the aspects of work satisfaction related to the wor k itself. MLQ Meaning in Life Questionnaire. A 10 item instrument that measures meaning and purpose in life.
18 MLQ P Meaning in Life Questionnaire Presence. A five item subscale of life. MLQ S Mean ing in Life Questionnaire Search. A five item subscale of the M C Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale Short Form B. MCSDS Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale RVS Rokeach Value Survey. A 36 item instrument that measures the importance of RVS I Rokeach Value Survey Instrumental A n 18 item subscale that measures the importance of behaviors, or means of achieving RVS T Rokeach Value Survey Terminal A n 18 item subscale that measures the importance of goals one desires to achieve in life. SWLS Satisfaction with Life Scale. A five item instrument designed to overall life satisfaction. USNA Unit ed States Naval Academy. A four year military c ollege that prepares individuals for military careers USNAAA United States Naval Academy Alumni Association. An association of USNA graduates who support the college mission. WAMI Work and Meaning Inventory A 10 item instrument that measures three facets of work meaning. WAMI PM Work and Meaning Inventory Positive Meaning in Work A four item subscale that measures subjective experience of work that has personal significance and meaning WAMI MM Work and Meaning Inventory Meaning making through Wor k A three item subscale that measures broader ways that meaning in understanding of self and the world WAMI GG Work and Meaning Inventory Greater Good Motivations A three item subscale that measur es desire and ability to experience meaning work that has a positive impact on others WEL Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle. An instrument measuring the factors in the WoW model; a precursor to the 5F Wel.
19 WoW Wheel of Wellness model A precursor wel lness model to the IS WEL. WVS Work Value Survey. A 10 item instrument that measures work values. WVS E Work Value Survey Extrinsic A two item subscale that measures extrinsic work values such as income, job security, and work conditions. WVS I Work Valu e Survey In trinsic A two item subscale that measures in trinsic work values such as autonomy and interesting work WVS P Work Value Survey Prestige A two item subscale that measures prestige work values such as power and status. WVS S Work Value Survey S ocial A three item subscale that measures social work values such as positive social relations, collaboration, and contribution to society.
20 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy FACTORS OF CAREER MEANING: AN ANALYSIS OF U.S. NAVAL ACADEMY GRADUATES By Cheryl Pence Wolf May 2013 Chair: M. Harry Daniels Major: Mental Health Counseling As individual s spe nd so much time at work, the effects career meaning can have on professional and personal lives may be significant. Career meaning describes an experience with a career that provides meaningful, satisfying, and challenging work that contributes to an overall It extends beyond the pleasurable aspects of hedonic well being and integrates more fulfilling and self actualizing life experiences inherent in e udaimonic well being. As s ignificant relationships betwe en career meaning values, satisfaction, and wellness emerged in the research literature it became important to investigate these further The purpose of this research wa s to 1 ) review the theoretical perspectives related to career meaning including care er development, meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness; 2 ) explore the current literature and empirical studies related to career meaning ; 3 ) empirically examine factors underlying career meaning utilizing an exploratory factor analysis; 4 ) propose an empirical definition of career meaning that distinguishes it from other related concepts; and 5) investigate the age, gender, cultural, and environmental elements that may also be associated with career meaning.
21 Th is dissertation wa s organized into five c hapters. Chapter 1 i s an introduction to career meaning, and an overview of the problem, purpose, and rationale for the study. Chapter 2 is a review of the literature including the theoretical perspectives of the life and career dimensions of meaning, valu es, satisfaction, and wellness as well as the empirical studies connecting these constructs. Chapter 3 describes the methodology for the study. Chapter 4 provides the statistical results of the data analysis. Chapter 5 offers a discussion of the results an d a summary of the study including conclusions, limitations implications and recommendations for future research. The findings of this study highlight the importance of finding meaningful work, attaining a balanced lifestyle, and acknowledging important values.
22 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Chapter 1 provide s a summary of the construct of career meaning comprising a background, working definition, and differentiation from other terms. Additionally, an overview of the research study is provided which includes t he theoretical rationale, statement of the problem, purpose and significance of the study, and research questions. Furthermore, definitions of key concepts and overall organization of the study are presented. Introduction of Career Meaning u love, and you will never have to work a day in your (attributed to Confucius). For decades, individuals have been encouraged to follow their bliss, pursue their dreams, and find work they love because there is a positive connection between meaning ful work and improved or maintained wellness (Albion, 2000; Anthony, 1991; Bennett & Sparrow, 1990; Boldt, 1996; Coyne, 1998; Craddock, 2004; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Gilbert, 1998; Gilman, 1997; Haldane, 1974; Leider & Shapiro, 2001 ; Levoy, 1997; Percy, 20 01; Rath & Clifton, 2004; Seligman, 2002; Sinetar, 1989, 1995) Individuals often find great satisfaction and fulfillment engaging in meaningful work ; however loving a job may not be enough. The pleasurable or hedonic well being experiences of work can be limited (Ryan & Deci, 2001; Waterman, 1993) Individuals may find a career that they love, feel passionate about, or identify as their dream job or calling, and that may provide pleasure and improved mental, emotional and/or physical health. However finding career meaning also involves eudaimonic well being
23 The term e udaimonia has been translated from the Greek word and described as genuine happiness or human flourishing where an individual lives in harmony with their daimon 2007; Waterman, 1993 ). Eudaimonic well being extends beyond pleasure to activities that promote a fulfilling and self actualizing life (Ryan & Deci, 2001; Waterman, 1993) ; Wallace ( 2007 ) described it as at work of the soul in accordance with virt ue, and if the virtues are more than one, in accordance with the ( p. 3). Eudaimonic theorists suggest that not all things that produce pleasure (i.e., hedonic) may promote wellness or have lasting effects. Therefore, eudaimon ic well being is considered a n optimal way of functioning; it is achieved when an individual is fully engaged in activities that are compatible with their personal values ( Waterman 1993) This leads to a flourishing and authentic existence that lasts long beyond a momentary joy. Conceptually, w hen individual s engage in activities they enjoy, as well as expand their knowledge, skills, talents, purpose and potential, they experience both hedonic and eudaimonic well being (Waterman, 1993) W hen individual s find a career that offers both hedonic and eudaimonic well being, they may encounter career meaning; c areer meaning refers to an experience with a career that provides meaningful, satisfying, and challenging work that contributes to an overall balanced lif estyle and is aligned with The effects of career meaning can directly or indirectly impact colleagues in the workplace, relationships at home, and interactions with others. Steger and Dik (2010) eople prosper when they are engage d in meaningful work and organizations prosper when their employees are
24 example, individuals who lack career meaning in the workplace may find themselves unsatisfied and therefore more prone to decreased health, motivation, or productivity, and increased burnout (Dierendonck, Garssen, & Visser, 2005) ; colleagues may find absences from work. In a military setting, poor performance can be cr itical to mission effectiveness and/or human lives. A lack of career meaning can also affect relationships away from work; as unfulfilled individuals find their mental, physical, and spiritual wellness levels dipping (Reker et al., 1987) it may ultimately affect those around them. Additionally, if an individual is unable to experience meaning in their career, it may significantly impact the sense of meaning in their life as a whole, which can have a larger e ffect including distress or even suicide (Corey & Corey, 2010) Career Meaning: A Working Definition Historically, career meaning has been discussed in the literature from a variety of perspectives with interchangeable terms such as passion, dream, bliss, flow, satisfaction, subjective career success ca lling, and vocation. These terms may contribute to or impact career meaning yet they are distinctly different from the concept of career meaning. Although several authors have attempted to distinguish differences among these individual terms ( Dik, Eldridge & Duffy, 2009) there remains a lack of clarity about career meaning in the counseling literature. To understand the relationships and distinctions among the terms, it may help to view the terms in reference to their hedonic and eudaimonic qualities. Peo ple may think of hedonic and eudaimonic well being as polar opposites along a linear continuum At the hedonic end of the continuum, one would experience basic pleasure, but it may not
25 necessarily be stimulating, fulfilling, or even healthy; whereas at the eudaimonic end of the continuum, an individual would experience all of the qualities of eudaimonic well being such as stimulation, fulfillment, and alignment with values. However, a linear approach may not be the best way to view this relationship because of the overlaps between the hedonic and eudaimonic aspects of well being. Waterman (1993) suggested that not all pleasure is wellness producing; some elements of pleasure do not promote wellness. For example, certain activities may be enjoyable, but they being especially if they are dangerous or illegal. Therefore, a different conceptualization may create a more comprehensive look at the interactions between these concepts For example, a three dimensional spherical shape may not only provide variety and overlap to the qualities as different points around the surface of the sphere, but also a depth to each of the qualities that one may find at various points between the surface and the core of the sphere. This conceptual mo del provides space for both hedonic and eudaimonic qualities to co exist synergistically. The varying elements of hedonic and eudaimonic well being is provided to help differentiate the construct of c areer meaning from its related terms further defined in t he next section Career M eaning Career meaning is derived from the merger of the terms career and meaning. Career a profession for which one trains and which is undertaken as a career, 2010) Meaning is described as mak ing sense, order, or coherence out of one's existence while maintaining a sense of purpose, whereas purpose refers to striving towards worthy goals and achieving a sense of fulfillment (Reker, Peacock & Wong, 1987; Reker & Wong, 1988; Sommer & Baumeister, 1998).
26 Meaning is individual ly and uniquely construct ed (Steger Frazier, Oishi, & Kaler, 200 6 ) and m of purpose, satisfaction, and stimulation (Amundson, Borgen, Iaquinta, Butterfield & Koert, 2010) Al though Steger, Dik, and Duffy (2012 ) described meaningful work as eudaimonic rather than hedonic, the non linear description of hedonic and eudaimonic well being described earlier may allow for career meaning to have both he donic (i.e., pleasure, satisfaction) and eudaimonic (i.e., stimulation, fulfillment, alignment with values) aspects ; individuals may experience both pleasure and fulfillment when they find career meaning Therefore to incorporate both the hedonic and euda imonic qualities and create clarity in understanding the proposed working definition of career meaning throughout the conceptualization of this study refers to a n experience of a career that is personal values and provides meaningful ex periences, a sense of purpose, satisfaction stimulation and fulfillment An empirical definition based on the statistical analysis in this study is proposed in Chapter 5. Career M eaning R elated T erms Career meaning related concepts found in popular lite rature include passion, dream, bliss, flow, satisfaction, subjective career success, calling and vocation (Albion, 2000; Bennett & Sparrow, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Dik & Duffy, 2009; Gilbert, 1998; Gilman, 1997; Haldane, 1974; Leider & Shapiro, 2001 ; Levoy, 1997; Percy, 2001 ) Although thes e terms are closely related to career meaning, they have dist inctively different definitions and their hedonic and/ or eudaimonic qualities vary; this may be helpful in differentiating them from the construct of car eer meaning. Passion, dream, and bliss describe terms that align primarily with hedonic qualities Passion describes a desire or profound interest in an activity ( passion, 2011)
27 For example, an individual who pursues her passion in working with children will find herself in a job where she is able to work routinely with children. Similarly, when she follows her dream career it represents a gratifying career choice wherein she attains her desired goal (dream, 2011) She might again identify her dream jo b as one in which she works closely with children while performing job tasks and activities that she enjoys. career bliss refers to being guided by complete happiness or doing what one loves ( Boldt, 1996) O riginally attributed to Joseph Campbell, Bennett & Sparrow (1990) describe d of being that we experience when we are totally immersed in our work or in a favorite (p. 13) Based on these definitions, it appears that p assion, dr eam and bliss all provide a sense of hedonic well being, which can ultimately influence career meaning; however they may not always provide the growth oriented aspects of eudaimonic well being necessary for career meaning For example, the individual who works with children may enjoy the activities in which she engages such as finger painting, yet she may desire more intellectual stimulation and challenge to find fulfillment in her career Similar to bliss, the concept of flow describes a state in which a n individual is so involved in an enjoyable activity that nothing else seems to matter (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). However, t he easiest or most relaxing activities do not necessarily promote this focused motivation. Activities that promote flow provide a le vel of challenge comparable to the level of skill (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) which incorporates more eudaimonic experiences For example, as an individual learns a new work task, he is provided with instruction and the opportunity to practice that task. He may find the new task enjoyable
28 because it presents a challenge that is manageable. However if he is asked to practice the basic task repeatedly without advancing his skills, he will most likely grow bored. Conversely, if he is challenged with a difficult task and has little training or practice, he his skills improve and he experience s neither boredom nor anxiety (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) Even someone with a routine job (e.g. factory assembly line) may find a sense of flow in his work if he challenges himself to complete the job more quickly or with fewer errors each day. Flow can provide elements of both hedonic and eudaimonic well being, which are instrumental in career mea ning ; h owever one must also ensure the activity is aligned with personal values and provides meaningful and purposeful experiences. For example, t he factory worker may experience flow in his work; however he may not find his job meaningful or aligned wit h his personal values of helping people. Therefore he would not be fully experiencing the eudaimonic qualities of well being or the full aspects of career meaning. Other related terms include satisfaction and subjective career success. Career satisfactio n 2011), emotional response to both intrinsic (e.g., meaning, motivation) and extrinsic elements of a job (e.g., pay, status ; Greenhaus, Parasuraman, & Wormley, 1990 ) Care er satisfaction has also been used synonymously with the term subjective career success which emphasizes the intrinsic and intangible components of career success such as meaningfulness, job satisfaction, professional progress and future opportunities in the workplace (Judge, Cable, Boudreau, & Bretz, 1995). T he intrinsic or subjective factors like career mea ning are significant in experiencing greater satisfaction
29 (Cohen, 2003; Judge et al., 1995) and thus improved well being (Colozzi & Colozzi, 2000; D ik et al., 2009; Dorn, 1992). Career satisfaction and subjective career success appear to be more closely aligned with the hedonic pleasurable experiences of well being. Although satisfaction may provide a sense of fulfillment or individuals may find satis faction in work that is aligned with their personal values career satisfaction may not encompass all of the eudaimonic qualities that promote optimal functioning. For example, an individual may find satisfaction in simple work even though it is not stimul ating or growth oriented; therefore, he would not have all of the self actualizing experiences included in eudaimonic well being. Also more closely related to career meaning are concepts such as calling or vocation which encompass more aspects of eudaimo nic well being C alling and vocation have been conceptually identified as driven by a higher purpose or divine calling ( Dik et al., 2009 ) Calling has been linked to or meaningful work oriented towards others through divine inspira tion, passion, family legacy, societal need, exceptional abilities ( Bloch & Richmond, 1998; Dik & Duffy, 2009; Dik et al., 2009 ; Fox, 2003 ). Dik and colleagues ( 2009 ) argue d that a calling appears more directly connected to a divine purpose, while Sommer a nd Baumeister ( 1998 ) consider ed a sense o o believe in l believe that one is here for a reason, whether that reason is chosen by oneself, (p. 146) Vocati on has also been identified as being aligned with a divine calling and has its roots in the monastic tradition ( Dawson, 2005 ). However, the meaning of vocation has evolved over time to incorporate more secular aspects of work in relation to human
30 worth and dignity ( Dawson, 2005 ) and the pursuit of meaning through purely internal reasons rather than divine inspiration ( Dik et al., 2009 ). Career meaning is integral to these concepts, yet distinctly different. When individual s experience the hedonic and eudaim onic qualities of career meaning and they feel a driven by a higher purpose, it may lead them to describ ing their work as a calling or vocation. All of the concepts described above are related to but not synonymous w ith career meaning. They encompass va rying aspects of hedonic and eudaimonic well being such as pleasure, stimulation, and fulfillment ; however they may not necessary include the full spectrum of hedonic and eudaimonic qualities C areer meaning is considered to offer a full complement of hed onic and eudaimonic experiences ; it describes a n experience of a career that is personal values and provides meaningful experiences, a sense of purpose, satisfaction stimulation and fulfillment The focus of career meaning extends beyo nd experiencing pleasure in a specific work task or environment, and includes more fulfilling and self actualizing experience s within a career In summary, t he definitions above help clarify the distinctions between career meaning and o the r related terms based on conceptual definitions provided in the literature Developing an empirically based definition of career meaning may clear up this confusion and e xamining the potential factors underlying career meaning may help strengthen this exploration as well Significant r elationships between career meaning values, satisfaction, and wellness emerged in the research literature ( Dorn 1992 ; Nord, Brief, Atieh, & Doherty, 1990 ; Rounds, Dawis & Lofquist, 1987; Sharf, 2006) Therefore, the follo wing section provides a brief introduction to several theoretical perspectives of
31 career development meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness as they relate to career meaning; the theories and related research are later expanded in C hapter 2 Theoretic al Rationale for the Study C areer development theories such as the Trait and Factor Theory ( Parsons, Theory of Types (Holland, 1966, 1997) Myers Briggs Type Theory (Myers, 1987) Work Adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984) and Integrative L if e Planning approach ( Hansen, 1997) emphasize the importance of matching the traits values, personality types preferences, and/or satisfaction levels of an individual with a job (Sharf, 2006). By creating a complementary person job fit, individuals can find meaningful work that ultimately leads to satisfying (i.e., hedonic) and fulfilling (i.e., eudaimonic) experiences of well being. The se c areer development theories introduce the importance of the person and have increased in complexity as theorists expanded on earlier models to include additional elements to support the person job match M eaning centered theories highlight the importance of experiencing life and career meaning. The leading meaning centered theori es include logotherapy ( Frankl 1963) and existentialism; however, new meaning centered counseling techniques have also emerged to combine logotherapy and existentialism philosophies with cognitive and behavioral counseling techniques ( Wong 1998). Additio nally, new meaningful work theories have been developed ( e.g., Maglio, Butterfield, & Borgen 2005 ; Rosso, Dekas & Wrzesniewski, 2010; Steger et al., 2012 ) adding complexity to the existing theories and address ing r. Logotherapy, existentialism, meaning centered counseling techniques and meaningful work theories highlight the
32 importance individual s sense of meaning has on their li ves and career s a s well as their overall levels of satisfaction and well being Val ues theories provide structure for how individuals prioritize the standards by which they live ( Brown, 1995 ) and the goals they find important (Rokeach, 1973) Popular life values theories include those of Rokeach (1973) and Schwartz (1992), each conceptua specific to several work values theories emerged (Elizur, 1984; Elizur & Sagie, 1999; Lyons, Higgins, & Druxbury, 2010 ; Ros Schwartz, & Surkiss, 1999; Rosso et a l. 2010 ) These theories built upon the foundations of earlier works in the field, ultimately making these some of the most complex models in this paper. Furthermore, m any life and career satisfaction theories conceptualize satisfaction as the perceived g ap between what individuals have and what they want. Two life satisfaction theories that use the perceived differences include the Multiple Discrepancy Theory (Michalos, 1986) and the Theory of Materialism and Quality of Life (Sirgy, 1998). The first sugg ests that discrepancies exist between what individuals want compared to other situations such as what they had before or what others had; the latter compared the discrepancies within the materialism life domain living More related to ob satisfaction theories often focus ed on the gratification or contentment experienced in response to factors of work including pay, promotion, coworkers supervision, and the work itself (G reenhaus et al., 1990; Price, 1997). The job satis faction theories discussed in C hapter 2 include the Cornell Model (Hulin, 1991; Hulin, Roznowski, & Hachiya, 1985) Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) and Value Percept Theory (Locke, 1976). They focus more
33 specifically on the work domain aspect s of satisfaction and include a variety of aspects Furthermore, because m eaning values, and satisfaction play a significant role in holistic wellness, several wellness theories incorporate d these elements in their models including t he Indiv isible Self Model of Wellness ( Myers & Sweeney, 2005b ) Holistic Wellness Model (Chandler, Holden, & Kolander, 1992) of Wellness ( Hettler, 1980, 1986) and the Systems Model o f Wellness ( Crose, Nicholas, Gobble, & Frank 1992) Several of these models have expanded upon earlier models and they all include variety of dimensions that impact wellness. Each theory encompasses a search for meaning as a component at the core of the i ndividual self, the spirituality dimension, and/or the career dimension of well being. Accordingly, t he value individuals place on each area of wellness may also impact their subjective experience of wellness, and the satisfaction derived from life, career or other aspects of their existence Therefore, the holistic wellness theories encompass both the qualities of hedonic and eudaimonic well being necessary for individuals to experience career meaning. Moreover, individual differences including age, gend er, cultural background, and environment may also impact the way individuals experience career meaning. For example, Duffy and Sedlacek ( 2007) found that after ranking intrinsic values as most important, men were likely to rank extrinsic values (i.e., sala ry, job security) more highly and women were oriented toward social values (i.e., social interaction, contribution to society). Ethnic, religious and other cultural differences may also account for the differences in the way individuals define and desire career meaning. For example,
34 individualistic, goal as most significant, whereas the collectivist, group oriented cultures may focus more on the needs and meaning derived from the family or c ommunity. Additionally, personal, family, religious, and community values can also impact the way people experience career meaning. For example, parents may try to pass their personal and work values onto their children. They may value education, creativit y, or hard work, and expect their children to emulate those values through remaining in the family business or training for a particular profession. However, the child ren may find that their values differ and they would find more meaning in different caree r direction s In summary, as many people find their identities based in their careers and they spend so much time at work ( Blustein, 2006; Dik & D uffy 2009; Dik et al., 2009 ), it is helpful to examine the theoretical perspectives of career development, m eaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness, as well as the individual differences that may impact their experiences of career meaning As the theoretical perspectives in each area have evolved, the individual theories have become more complex in hopes of i dentifying These theories differ in their elements or structure, but taken together, they may lend strength to the importance of Statement of the Problem T heoretical empirical and practical e vidence suggest s that me aning is important in a career; however, competing conceptualizations of career meaning and related terms may serve to cloud the area rather than clarify the profession the construct. Additionally, the life and career dimensions of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness appear to intersect and overlap
35 overall life meaning may be impacted by the level of career meaning they experience and may inform the career direction they take the satisfaction they derive, and the holistic wellness they experience. Researchers (Claes & Ruiz Quintanilla, 1994; Dik et al., 2009; Guion & Landy, 1972; Knoo p, 1994a, 1994b; Mottaz, 1985; Serow, Eaker, & Ciechalski, 1992; Wrzesniewski, McCauley, Rozin, & Schwartz, 1997) have found relationships between meaning values, satis faction, and wellness outcomes associated with career meaning Therefore to better und erstand the impact of these possible factors of career meaning and disentangle the construct from the life and career dimensions of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness further exploration is needed. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this paper is to identify potential factors that appear to underlie career meaning by exploring the life and career dimensions of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness ; propose an empirically based definition of career meaning that distinguishes it from other r elated concepts in the literature; and investigate the age, gender, cultural, and environmental elements that may also be associated with career meaning. An exploratory factor analysis w as conducted to determine the principal factors that emerge d from the data to help refine the empirical definition of career meaning Furthermore, additional career specific questions and demographic items w ere asked to better understand the individual differences and si tuational context s of each participant that appear to i mpact the derived factors of career meaning The instruments designed to collect the relevant data are described in C hapter 3
36 Significance of the Study For many people, a significant portion of their adult life is spent at work ( Dik et al., 2009 ) ; therefo re the level of meaning they experience in their career s may have a considerable impact on their overall life meaning, personal values sense of satisfaction, and individual wellness. The significance of this study spans across the theory, research and pr actice of career development, and potentially the field of counseling as a whole. Theory As a relatively new area of research, theory related to career meaning is limited. The theoretical perspectives of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness appear t o overlap with career meaning and may contribute to the theoretical framework of career meaning. However, most of the career development models related to helping individuals find a good person job fit do not incorporate meaning in their models. Further un derstanding the relationships between the theories discussed and the factors underlying career meaning may serve to contribute to the current theoretical perspectives directly or indirectly related to career meaning. Research Authors (Albion, 2000; Boldt, 1996; Csikszentmihalyi, 19 90 ) have touted the benefits of follow ; however little research has been done to empirically justify this advice Although it intuitively makes sense and many people have had personal expe riences to support the need for meaningful careers little documented research is available to support the assertions Therefore empirically e xploring the factors of career meaning will help to define the construct of career meaning and further understand the relationships between the life and career dimensions of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness.
37 Practice The effects of career meaning can be far reaching. It satisfaction and well being or impact others with whom they w ork, live, or collaborate. Currently, most trait and type career development models help individuals find a good person job fit; however, very few if any incorporate meaning in their models. The findings of this study may highlight the significance of ca reer meaning within the career development and/or counseling setting when helping individuals find more satisfying and meaningful careers and lives. In addition, s pecific practices related to United States Naval Academy (USNA) graduates in this study may i nform not only the USNA and USNA Alumni Association (USNAAA) leadership and administration, but other service academies and possibly the military as a whole. graduate leaders who are dedicated to a career of naval service and have potential for future development in mind and character to assume the highest responsibilities of command, citizenship and government If the USNA desire s to retain graduates in military service, understandin g pursue a career can help to inform decision makers. For some individuals where career meaning is highly important, there may be a stronger need for making a congruent m atch to ensure hig her levels of job satisfaction, stronger performance, and ultimately longer tenure This may take place during service selection know n as the process of finalizing student assignments to a specific career field, or even as early as the admissions process. Additional factors may be uncovered to more narrowly focus personnel resources at those critical choice points in order to enhance the likelihood of graduates remaining in
38 military servi ce for longer periods of time. With defense budget cuts on the horizo n, more focused resource utilization may seem both attractive and timely. o serve and support the United States, the Naval Service, t he Naval Academy and its y seeking out, informing, encouraging and assisting outstanding, qualified young men and women to pursue careers as officers in the Navy and Marine Corps military officers, t he USNAAA provides a career center and Service Academy Career Conferences (SACC) to alumni throughout the year. These career services require staff time and support. In the 2009 Alumni Member Survey Detailed Findings the USNAAA reported that 33% of member s reported using the career programs at least once; a majority of them came from the 1980s (75%), 1990s (85%), and 2000s (89%; p. 93); Furthermore, 77% of those who have used the career programs ranked them very or extremely important (p. 91). Those who ra nked career programs as the most important member service indicated that the programs were helpful in the transition to civilian life, provide d assistance finding a job, and/or provide d opportunities for networking (p. 107). Understanding the career experi ences, preferences, and career meaning of graduates may be instrumental in enhancing and/or focusing the career support for alumni members most likely to use the career programs Furthermore, the USNA graduates from the classes of 1985 through 2010 span ac ross a wide adult working age range (approximately 2 4 to 53 years) and a variety of career fields such as military, government, and civilian careers This allows the possibility of generalizing the results to the general military officer population, or a l arger
39 college graduate population ultimately inform ing future theory, research and practice in the area s of career development counseling, and/or military service. Research Questions In exploring the s ignificance of career meaning several questions sti ll remain This study is aimed at empirically answering the following two research questions: 1. What factors contribute to a working definition of career meaning ? 2. Are group differences such as age, gender, culture and environment significantly related to c areer meaning and its derived factor scale? By answering these research questions, the construct of career meaning and importance withi e may be better understood. Furthermore, this may serve to inform future theory, research and practice in the area s of career development, counseling, and/or military service Definition of Key Concepts Definitions of ke y concepts are included below They have been organized by the major areas discussed in the paper and include a review of career meaning related terms (e.g., bliss, calling) as well as terms related to meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness. The definitions refer to the manner in which the terms are used throughout this paper and are not intended to serve as a comprehensive definition of each term. Career M eaning Related Terms The following definitions provide a brief overview of the terms reviewed earlier in C hapter 1 that are related to career meaning : B LISS B eing guided by complete happiness or doing what one loves ( Boldt, 1996).
40 C ALLING F inding meaningful work oriented towards others through divine inspiration, passion, family legacy, societal need, exceptional abilities ( Bloch & Richmond, 1998; Dik & Duffy, 2009; Dik et al., 2009 ; Fox, 2003 ). C AREER A profession und ertaken as a permanent calling ( career, 2010). C AREER SATISFACTION G and extrinsic elements of a job (e.g., pay, st atus; Greenhaus et al. 1990). D REAM I n reference to a career, this represents a gratifying career choice wherein one attains a desired goal (dream, 2011) F LOW A state in which an individual is so involved in an enjoyable activity that nothing else see ms to matter (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) P ASSION A desire or profound interest in an activity (passion, 2011). S UBJECTIVE CAREER SUC CESS A n element of career success that emphasizes the intrinsic and intangible components of work such as meaningfulness, jo b satisfaction, professional progress and future opportu nities in the workplace (Judge et al. 1995). V OCATION : W ork aligned with a divine calling ( Dawson, 2005 ), and the pursuit of meaning ( Dik et al., 2009 ) Meaning Terms The following terms are related to the areas of life and career meaning : L IFE MEANING T he sense made of, and significance felt regarding, the nature of ( Steger et al., 2006). P RESENCE OF MEANING T S EARCH FOR MEANING T he level an individual feels a search for meaning in his C AREER MEANING A n experience with a caree r that provides meaningful, satisfying, and challenging work that contributes to an overall balanced lifestyle P OSITIVE MEANING IN W ORK T he personal significance and meaning one experiences at work
41 M EANING MAKING THROU GH WORK T he broader ways that meaning in work can understanding of self and the world around them G REATER GOOD MOTIVATI ONS M eaning ful work that has a positive impact on others Values Terms The follo wing terms are related to the a reas of life and career values: L IFE VALUES F undamental components that are determinants of attitudes and behavior (Rokeach, 1973) I NSTRUMENTAL VALUES P referable modes of behavior, or means of achieving terminal values or goals T ERMINAL VALUES D esirable end states of existence; goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. C AREER VALUES E xpressions of ba sic values in the work setting (Ros et al., 1999). I NTRINSIC WORK VALUES V alues that contrib ute to a sense of personal growth and whose attainment derives directly from the nature of the work experience abilities E XTRINSIC WORK VALUES V alue attained from the extern al and tangible P RESTIGE WORK VALUES V alues whose attainment entails a comparison of self with others that implies personal superiority such as achievement, advancement, status, reco gnition, inde pendence, and influence in work or the organization. S OCIAL WORK VALUES D esire to work with people and contribute to so ciety Satisfaction Terms The following terms are related to the areas of life and career satisfaction : L IFE SATISFACTION A cognitive judgmental quality that is dependent upon the comparison of current situation s and what they expect (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985).
42 C AREER SATISFACTION G 2011), and extrinsic elements of a job (e.g., pay, status; Greenhaus et al. 1990). W ORK J ob tasks completed P AY M onetary reward given for completed work P ROMOTIONS O pportunities for advancement S UPERVISION I C O WORKERS P eers or colleagues with whom one works Wellness Terms The following terms are related to the areas of life and career wellness : L IFE WELLNESS O being or total wellness that refers to reaching high levels in all dimensions of wellness ( Myers & Sweeney, 2005a, 2005b) C REATIVE SELF C ombination of attributes that individual s form to make a unique place among others in their social interactions and to posi tively interpret our world C OPING SELF T he combination of elements that regulate responses to life events and provide a means for transcending negative e ffects S OCIAL SELF S ocial support through connections with others in friendships and intimate rela tionships, including family ties. E SSENTIAL SELF E ssential meaning making processes in relation to life, self, and others. P HYSICAL SELF The biological and physiological processes that comprise the physical aspects of development and functioning. L OCAL C ONTEXT Th e systems in which we live most often families, neighborhoods, and communities and perceptions of safety in these systems. I NSTITUTIONAL C ONTEXT Social and political systems that affect daily functioning and serve to empower or limit de velopment in obvious and subtle ways, including education, religion, government, business and industry, and the media. G LOBAL C ONTEXT Factors such as politics, culture, global events, and the environment that connect individuals to others around the world
43 C HRONOMETRICAL C ONTEXT Growth, movement, and change in the time dimension that is perpetual, of necessity positive, and purposeful. C AREER WELLNESS A sense of well include areas such as being satisfied with one's work, financial and job security, appreciated and rewarded, having satisfactory relationships with co workers and supervisors, and the ability to cope with stress in the work place (Myers & Sweeney, 2005a). E UDAIMONIC WELL BEING E xtends beyond pleasure to activities that promote a fulfilling and self actualizing life (Ryan & Deci, 2001; Waterman, 1993). H EDONIC WELL BEING T he focus on pleasure and happiness (Ryan & Deci, 2001 ; Waterman, 1993). Organization of the Study This dissertation is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 was an introduction to career meaning, and an overview of the problem, purpose, and rationale for the study. Chapter 2 is a review of the literature including the theoretical perspectives of the life and career dimensions of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness as well as the empirical studies connecting these constructs. Chapter 3 describes the methodology for the study. Chapter 4 provides the statistical results of the data analysis. Chapter 5 offers a discussion of the results and a summary of the study including limitations and implications for future research.
44 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of C hapter 2 is to provide a review of th e literature that pertains to the theoretical underpinnings of career meaning. This review will involve a consideration of selected theories of career development, meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness. A review of the empirical research that highli ghts the relationships between each of these perspectives in relation to career meaning is also provided Theoretical Perspectives Related to Career Meaning A review of a variety of theoretical perspectives related to career meaning is provided in this sec tion First, several c areer development theories will be introduced that show how the four areas of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness are connected to career meaning; they focus on matching individual s to a job so they may experienc e meaning fin d alignment with personal values feel satisfaction and achieve well being Finally key theories related to the life and career dimensions of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness will be discussed In many cases, as theorists have given greater at work to create increasingly complex theories. Career Development Theories Career development theories such as the trait and type theories including Trait ers Briggs Types, and Work Adjustment were the first theories in career and vocational development and incorporated an element of helping individuals find meaning in their careers through a creating a complementary person job fit (Sharf, 2006). Each of th e theorists built upon earlier models by adding additional elements that they felt were important to the best person job match Alternatively the
45 Integrative Live Planning approach was a departure from the trait and type models but is still used to help individuals find meaning in their careers. It was developed as a n integrative and more complex model that incorporated individual differences and diversity as well as meaning and values in career development T herefore, it has also been included in this se ction. All of the se theories are discussed in more detail below. Trait and Factor Theory The Trait and Factor Theory (Parsons, 1909) included the early use of instruments to identif y the characteristics of the individual (i.e., traits) and the environment or job requirements (i.e., factors) so job seekers could find a career that closely aligned with their personal characteristics (Chartrand, 1991; Sharf, an individual s traits with occupational factors included a component of self knowledge; individual s must have an understanding of their own characteristics (e.g., attitudes, abilities, interests, strengths, limitations) as well as the conditions of the job (e.g., tasks, pay, advancement, opportunities) and reaso nably match the two (Sharf, 2006). Psychometric instruments and occupational classifications were used to help individuals discover more about themselves and the occupations that would most closely match their traits. These instruments and classifications were originally developed in the 1930s to help displaced workers find employment during the Great Depression L ater during World War II they became more widely used in the military and in college counseling settings (Chartrand, 1991). The popularity of this theory began to fade in the 1950s as newer theories contribution to career development and vocational psychology is still acknowledged today (Chartrand, 1991).
4 6 Hollan Holland (1966, 1997) agreed that matching people to their job s w as key, yet he emphasized the importance of the individuals personality (i.e., interests) in their career choice s. He suggested that career success and satisfaction hinge on finding a job that aligns with personalit ies more so than other throughout the 1960s and is one of the most researched and widely used career theories today. Holland (1966) began by categorizing careers into six major types and examined the people who chose jobs within each category. From his observations, he p roposed six types that describe d both the personality styles and work environments that provide d the best person job match. These types include Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC; Brown, 2007; Holland, 1966, 1997; Sharf, 2006). Realistic types prefer concrete tasks such as physical or mechanical work includi ng skilled trades and engineering. Investigative types favor independent and task oriented work that may be more analy tical, intellectual, or abstract, such as science and computer programming careers. Artistic types desire self expression and imaginative, creative and introspective work as in a fine arts or writing career. Social types have an interest in people and community service, and possess good interpersonal skills like teachers, nurses, and counselors. Enterprising types are ambitious and persuasi ve and they often seek leadership and influential positions in sales or management. Conventional types are practical, conservative and controlled; they like routine and structure such as clerical and accounting work (Brown, 2007; Holland, 1966, 1997; Shar f, 2006).
47 Holland (1966) recognized that individuals rarely fell into only one type, but rather a combination of types. He found these combinations were typically in consistent patterns ; therefore his order of types was intentional. He created a hexagon m odel and placed a type on each corner with a specific order of the types around the hexagon (i.e., R I A S E C ) The adjacent types (e.g., A S) were considered consistent whereas the types listed opposite from one another ( e.g., A C ) were considered incon sistent (Holland, 1997; Brown, 2007). This combination of types indicated the most important elements for an individual to consider when making a career choice that would be as sessment results may include a two or three letter code indicating the areas that aligned most with their interests (e.g., S A I: Social Artistic Investigative). While the first letter indicated their primary interest, the other letters indicated an elevat ed interest that may help guide them as they narrow their career options. Additionally, many occupational classifications were described with a multiple type code and could help an individual identify careers that fit their two or three letter code (e.g., College Instructor is classified as S A: Social counseling centers today and a number of instruments (e.g., Strong Interest Inventory, Self Directed Search, Vocational Preference Inventor y) are available to help individuals match their personalities with potential occupational choices (Brown, 2007). Myers Briggs Type Theory The Myers Briggs Type theory also focused on personality types and originated from its basis i n structural personali ty theory; it was later adapted for use in career development (Chauvin, Miller, Godfrey, & Thomas, 2010). The foundation of this theory began in the 1920s, when Katharine Briggs
48 theory of psychological types. For the next 2 0 years, she continued to observe and classify people into categories. Her daughter, Isabel Myers, joined her work in the 1940s and together they developed the Myers Briggs Type Theory which used personality types to categorize human behavior (Myers, 1987) The theory identified a scale of four dichotomous dimensions including extraversion introversion, sensing intuition, thinking feeling, and judgment perception ; individuals would fall somewhere on a scale between the opposing variables for each of the fo ur dimensions (Myers & Myers, 2004 ). These four dimensions describe individuals focus their attention and from where they draw their energy; extraversion types place their attention on external people and things whereas introversion types focus on internal concepts and ideas (Myers & Myers, 2004). For example, at a party, a more extraverted type would prefer interacting with people and observing the activities around them, while a more introverted type might be more introspective and reflective of the experience. The second dimension describes the way people take in their information; individuals with sensing personalities notice information through the five senses and focu s on the concrete or present moment, whereas those with intuiti ve type personalities will look at the larger picture and consider the patterns or future possibilities (Myers & Myers, 2004). For example, if both sensing and intuitive types were to witness a couple fighting, the sensing type would notice what they hear, see and feel in the moment ; for example, t he man is yelling loudly and is expressing anger at the woman Whereas, the intuiti ve type may consider the bigger patterns such as
49 wonder ing if th e behavior is typical or whether their relationship will end because of this fight The third dimension describes the way an individual makes decisions; a thinking type will base their decisions on logic al and objective analysis, while a feeling type will c onsider their values and subjective concerns (Myers & Mye rs, 2004). For example, a thinking type may weigh out the pros and cons of a decision objectively, possibly by writing a list of each, whereas a feeling type will ponder how their decision aligns wit h their values or how it will affect others. The fourth dimension describes how an individual handles the outer world; judging types prefer a structure and organization with things settled, while a perceiving type is more flexible and spontaneous (Myers & Myers, 2004). For example, if a person with each personality type w as going on vacation, the judging type might have an organized itinerary of their entire trip, complete with directions, times and location of each planned activity, whereas the perceiving type would prefer to go with the flow and figure things out day by day, being open to a variety of options. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers, 1962; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) was developed to assess these four dichotomous dimensions (i.e., ext raversion introversion, sensing intuition, thinking feeling, and judgment perception). Each dimension had a midpoint of zero and an extreme preference score of 30 Based on the personality type s were identified with a four letter code (e.g., ENFJ) that included the preferences toward each dimension. For example, an ENFJ type would have MBTI scores that fell on the extraversion, intuition, feeling, and judging ends of the dimensional scales. Although the four letter co de may
50 be helpful in understanding their preferences of those dimension s, the degree to which individual s fell on one end of each scale also identif ied the strength or clarity of those preferences. For example, on the extraversion introversion dimension, a n extraversion score of 28 would indicate a much stronger extraversion personality type than someone who had a score of 5. The lower score or score closest to the midpoint, might indicate more of a balance between extraversion and introversion preferences In addition to identifying personality types, the MBTI was later expanded to include a list of occupations held by people with various personality types (Myers, McCaulley, Quenk, & Hammer, 1998), making it a useful career development tool to aid in matc hing individuals with a suitable career choice. For individuals with high scores indicating an extreme preference in each dimension, this career tool may provide a clear approach to career development. However, for individuals who have lower, or more balan ced scores, their personality type may identify only some of their ideal career options. For example, the ENFJ type who scored high on the extroversion and other scale s would most likely prefer the ENFJ related occupations; whereas, the ENFJ type who score d lower on the extroversion scale, may have a more balanced score between both extroversion and introversion preferences. Therefore, they may consider looking at the INFJ occupations as well to identify interests that may suit their personality. This appro ach would apply for any of the dimensions where an individual had a more balanced score. Although this theory was not originally designed for career development, the availability to easily match personality types with relevant occupations makes the MBTI po pular in college counsel ing centers and in business, where human resource professionals use it to help employees find optimal jobs (Sharf, 2006)
51 Work Adjustment Theory The Work Adjustment Theory (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984) evolved from 35 years of research with vocational rehabilitation clients. Sharing similarities with other trait and type theories, the Work Adjustment Theory follows the of the job, and then matching th e two. Additionally, Dawis and Lofquist (1984) made several basic assumptions in their approach. Their first assumption was that people have two needs: survival needs (e.g., food, shelter) and psychological needs (e.g., social belonging and acceptance). In dividuals whose needs are fulfilled become satisfied and their behaviors are reinforced. The second assumption is that organizations also have needs are met, correspondence exists ; there is a person job match. Dawis and Lofquist (1984) believed that to achieve satisfaction, individuals would choose careers they thought would fulfill their needs and organizations would select individuals for the same reason. They felt this was important to job success and incorporated the measure of satisfaction and satisfactoriness into their theory as significant determina n ts in work adjustment S atisfaction represented the individual s satisfaction with the work ; satisfactoriness referred to the employer s s atisfac tion with the individual s work performance. Dawis and Lofquist (1984) felt the congruent match requirements could predict satisfaction for b oth the individual and emp loyer In addi tion to the basic assumptions of their model, Dawis and Lofquist (1984) made 18 propositions based on the idea of predicting successful work adjustment, making this theory more complex than the others. S everal instruments are available to
52 me asure satis faction, satisfactoriness, needs, and aptitudes such as the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and Mi nnesota Satisfactoriness Scales; however, t his theory is not commonly used today P erhaps the complex nature of this theory, length of instrum ents and popular use of other theories has limited its wide use (Brown, 2007). However, this theory lends support to the rationale that success, satisfaction, and traits and organizational factors. Integrative Life Planning In addition to the trait and type career development (1997) Integrative Life Planning theory incorporates the identification of meaning as vital in the process of ca (2001, 2002) approach evolved over 35 years of experience working in the areas of career development and counseling. She considered the impact of careers, communities and families on individuals, and focused on the cultural cont ext for life changes. Six critical life tasks connecting the important life concepts for individuals grew from her observations and include d : 1) finding work that needs doing in changing global contexts; 2) weaving our lives into a meaningful whole by inte grating personal values into work; 3) connecting family and work (negotiating roles and relationships); 4) valuing pluralism and inclusivity through cultural diversity; 5) managing personal transitions and organizational change; and 6) exploring spirituali ty, purpose, and meaning (Hansen, point to her belief that the search for B purpose and meaning in context with the other critical tasks, and by incorporating
53 personal values into work, one can create a career and life that is more meaningful (Hansen, 2001; Sharf, 2006). In summary, t he career development theories described above have been used to help individuals find meani ngful work that aligns with their traits, personality types, interests, values, and cultural contexts. As the theories were developed over time, they have shifted the focus from matching basic aptitudes and interests with job requirements to emphasizing th e importance of finding satisfaction and meaningful work as integral to lifespan development. To further explore the significance of meaning in career development, meaning centered theories also highlight the importance of finding meaning in career. Meaning Centered Theories Meaning lives and careers. While finding a sense of meaning at work is important, Corey and Corey ( 2010 ) pointed out that meaning in life is crucial because without it, individuals may experience substantial distress and even suicide. Therefore in this section several key meaning centered theories are identifie d including logotherapy, existentialism meaning centered counseling and meaningful work As the theories evolved, they gained more complexity in describing life and career meaning. These theories are described below. Logotherapy Much of the work in meaning centered theories originated with was one of the earlier theories primary motivational force in man [or woman] ankl, 1963, p. 154). This seminal work
54 erent ways: (1) by doing a deed; (2) meaning came from experiencing and observing the suffering of his fellow prisoners, but he also indicated that meaning can come from more than human suffering. In a professional work setting, meaning may be related to doing and experiencing. For example, individuals may do activities at work that are meaningful and experience meaning through their values or interactions with othe rs. Furthermore, meaning is only found through experiencing or engaging in life (i.e., love, work, creation, and building) rather than seeking it directly (Corey, 2001; Frankl, 1963; Yalom, 1980). For example, a teacher may find meaning in helping her stu dents learn how to read. She values reading as an important life skill and finds purpose, fulfillment and stimulation in her work as she helps her students develop their skills and satisfaction in reading. Meaning is not sought directly R ather she derive s a sense of meaning from doing and experiencing something in which she finds value and purpose. Existentialism At the time Frankl was developing his influential theory; several others (e.g., Rollo May, Irvin Yalom) were developing other similar theories to explore experiences like the search for meaning and meaninglessness. Described as a philosophical approach rather than a specific theory, the philosophy of Existentialism has informed therapy goals with individuals who need to make sense of what it me ans to be human (i.e., existence) by helping them find meaning and purpose, have accountability for their decisions, and accept their life experiences (Archer & McCarthy,
55 2007). Sartre (1943 ) suggested that individuals get caught up in their roles while f orming their identities; he believed that individuals must transcend their situati ons such as work, social status, racial or economic class, to realize their real purpose of be ing human E xistential philosophers defined therapy as a process rather than a s et of techniques, which focuse d sense of life (Corey, 2001; May & Yalom, 2005 ). Existentialism about the nature of the human being and the nature of anxiety, despair, grief, loneliness, and isolation, and anomie. It also deals centrally with the questions of While various existential philosophers emphasized slightly different concepts of how an individual derived meaning or ov ercame obstacles, a number of central concepts or ultimate concerns evolved including death, freedom, isolation, anxiety, guilt, and being, but the search for meaning is the most significant for this paper (Archer & McCarthy, 2007; May & Yalom, 2005). An i Without meaning, an individual may feel unsettled, isolated, or as if life is not worth living. E xistentialism historically focus ed on subjective emotions, beliefs, and values, yet new meaning centered counseling techniques have evolved to integrate logotherapy and existentialism with objective cognitive techniques or career counseling strategies. Meaning c entered c ounseling Wong (1998) introduced meaning centered counseling as a mix of logotherapy and existentialism combined with cognitive and behavioral counseling techniques He maintain ed the emphasis on seeking meaning and purpose as the ke y to self validation, but adopted more cognitive techniques in
56 helping individuals discover meaningful life goals though reflection, examination and life review. He suggest ed that meaning centered counseling goes beyond conscious thought or presenting complaint anguish, deep seated beliefs, and the core process of meaning, which select and color the phenomenological s on how individuals feel, but why they feel that way. Although Wong (1998) proposed us ing this approach within a general therapeutic session framework it can also be applied in career development. Using the cognitive and behavioral approaches such as reflection, examination and life review, people may assess what they found meaningful in a past job, how their goals may have changed, and how they will seek meaning and purpose in a future career. Several theories of meaningful work have emerged recently to expand on the call to integrate meaning in to career development They are described be low. Existentialist c areer c ounseling Maglio and colleagues (2005) suggest ed using an existential framework within career counseling. While existentialism is not a primary theory used in career development, the practice may be movin g in that direction. Th ey suggest ed using th eir meaning centered framework to help individuals overcome job loss, unemployment, uncertainty, and consequent meaninglessness, and counselors often m ove an unemployed individual toward employment right away. However, t he authors suggest ed that counselors should first explore what the individuals find meaningful, how they derive meaning, and the existential themes they face such as joblessness and trans ition through a series of questions (e.g., How are you
57 making sense of the job loss? Did the loss impact your sense of identity? How are you coping with the isolation?). As con sider the whole person before moving forward with a career specific focus. After these existential themes have been explored, the individual may be more prepared to move forward with the job search tasks. Maglio and colleagues (2005) suggest ed the importan ce of helping an individual explore meaning and conclude d counselor must become more attuned to the client's subjective world and the struggles involved as he or she negotiates a path through career transition and unemployment toward fulfi Pathways to m eaning ful w ork One of the first attempts to develop a theoretical framework focused on meaningful work was proposed by Rosso and colleagues (2010). First, t hey proposed that meaningful work comes from fo ur main sources including the self, others, context, and spiritual life. The self as source incorporate s the individual s values, motivations, and beliefs about work O thers refers to coworkers, leaders, groups, communities, and family that effect an indiv context of work describes the environmental factors such as the job task design, organizational mission, financial circumstances, non work domains, and the national culture where the spiritual life includes a connection to a higher power and/or a sacred calling to a specific vocation. Together, these sources of meaning provide the key areas from which individuals derive meaning. Additional ly Rosso and colleagues (2010) proposed a theoretical framework to illustrate the pathways to meaning; it was based on two psychological dimensions that
58 represent motives for living The first dimension describes the way people approach their work; it is a continuum that ranges from agency to communion Agenc y refers to activity; communion describe s collective group oriented goals including connecting and uniting. nges from self directed to other directed action. Hypothetically, most likely to be achieved at the intersection of these two dimensions. As these two continuums cross perpendicular to one another, they create four ma in pathways to meaningful work: individuation (self agency), contribution (other agency), self connection (self communion), and unification (other communication). Rosso and colleagues (2010) believed their four pathways were conceptually distinct, they sug gested that that work experiences could activate multiple pathways to meaning simultaneously. When multiple paths were activated, it could lead to a stronger sense of meaningful work. Within each of these main pathways, they identified a core set of seven mechanisms that make work meaningful including authenticity, self efficacy, self esteem, purpose, belongingness, transcendence, and c ultural or interpersonal sense making They address the psychological and social processes underlying the experienced of o r the construction of meaning and identify ways individual makes meaning. Rosso and colleagues (2010) attempted to identify four main sources of meaning (i.e., self, others, context, and spiritual life), four main pathways to meaning (i.e., individuation, contribution, self connection, and unification), and seven mechanisms that make work meaningful. They did not intend for this theory to be comprehensive theory
59 and did not conduct research to test their theory; however, they suggest it as a foundation for future research. Meaningful w ork Another theory incorporated research in meaning in life, meaningful work, and career calling. Steger and his colleagues ( 2012 ) develop ed a meaningful work model and corresponding instrument to measure work meaning (i.e., Work and Meaning Inventory ; see Appendix A ) Based on their emphasis to conceptualize work as meaningful and as serving the greater good, t hey identified three key facets of meaningful work : positive meaning in work, meaning making through work, and greate r good motivations. Positive meaning in work described the sense that people feel their work has personal significance and meaning ; for example, an organic farmer may find positive meaning in work if they believe their work is significant to the community and the eco system M eaning making through work underscore d the for example, an architect who finds meaning in his work is likely to have higher levels of life meaning, whereas, one who is not fulfilled in work would experience lower levels of life meaning. Finally, Gr eater good motivations describe d work that has a positive impact on others a concept closely related to Dik and Duffy 2009) research on calling ; for example, a school c ounselor may feel the desire or calling to help children in schools or reach out to their families in order to contribute to more supportive environments for the children they serve. Steger and his colleagues ( 2012 ) described the importance of meaningful w ork being and assert ed that all three facets we re key to understanding the full spectrum of meaningful work ; individuals must feel that their
60 work has significance and meaning, their meaningful work contributes to their meaning in life, and their work contributes positively to others. These facets are measured through the Work and Meaning Inventory, further described in the instrumentation section of C hapter 3 In summary, t he m eaning centered theories above highlig ht the importance individual s sens e of meaning has in their li ves and career s The connection between life and career meaning is important because individuals spend so much time at work ( Dik & D uffy 2009; Dik et al., 2009 ) and they often tie their person al identities to their careers ( Blustein, 2006 ). Although the current research in meaningful work seems promising, other important variables underlying career meaning have emerged in the literature such as values, satisfaction, and wellness. For example, w ithout values, individuals can find it difficult to determine what brings meaning to their lives; without meaning, individuals can have difficulty identifying their values ( May & Yalom, 2005) Therefore, the next section describes several values theories a s they relate to career meaning. Values Theories Values provide standards with which individuals may judge their actions or make decision s; they offer a foundation for setting life and career goal s that may provide meaning ( Brown, 1995; Colozzi & Co lozzi, 2000; Rokeach, 1973 ) May and Yalom Much has been written on basic life values and work values in the literature and both life and work values theories have been used to help guide decisions ( Colozzi & Co lozzi, 2000) Therefore, in this
61 section several values theories are describ ed including two commonly used life values theories of Rokeach (1973) and Schwartz (1992) and five work value s models that have increased in complexity as preceding frameworks were buil t upon T hese life and work values theories are summarized below. Rok each niversal v alues Most discussions about values in the meaning of work literature generally follow Rokeach s (1960, 1973) Rosso et al. 2010, p. 96) A pioneer in values research, Milton Rokeach (1973) defined a value enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence (p. 5) Rokeach believed that values had both cognitive (i.e., decision mak ing ) and affective (i.e., positive or negative emotions) dimensions. The prioritization of their values. Positive affect ( satisfaction happiness, excitement) was experienced when people were in alignment with their values and achieved their desired goals; n egative affect (anxiety, anger, depression) occur red when were not in accord with their values ( Brown, 1995 ). Rokeach (1973) identified two types of univers al values: terminal and instrumental values. T erminal values refer red to the goals individuals would like to achieve during their lifetime ; instrumental values were the behaviors, or means of achieving those goals (Rokeach, 1973) He developed the Rokeach Value Survey (Rokeach, 19 6 7) to allow individuals to rank a list of 36 terminal and instrumental values in order of importance. The 18 terminal values, or goals, included a comfortable life equality an exciting life family security freedom health inn er harmony mature love
62 national security pleasure salvation self respect a sense of accomplishment social recognition true friendship wisdom a world at peace and a world of beaut y. The 18 instrumental values, or behaviors to reach those goals, i ncluded a mbitious broad minded capable clean courageous forgiving helpful h onest imaginative independent intellectual logical loving loyal obedient polite responsible and self controlled As values are prioritized, individuals are more str ongly influenced by the highest ranked values and less influenced by the lower ranked value s ( Brown, 1995 ) in their life and career decisions. A further description of his instrument is provided in the instrumentation section of C hapter 3 Rokeach suggest ed that individuals want to think of themselves as moral and competent; therefore they would be willing to change their values, beliefs, and attitudes to appear so (Warner, 1976) For example, Rokeach conducted an experimental study attempting to influence the rankings of equality and freedom (i.e., terminal values) of college students through verbal dissatisfaction with their initial rankings. He suggested that those who valued freedom over equality were more concerned with their own interests than the int erests of others. Throughout the following months, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) solicitations were provided to the students and curricular choices were monitored. After 21 months, participants in the experimental group were significantly more likely to rank equality higher in importance support the NAACP, and sign up for an ethnic studies course. Other studies with cigarette smoking and highway beautification also supported this assertion Although he found that values could be easily influenced, Rokeach warned
63 that an intentional influence of values should only be used in a n ethically desirable direction, especially when conducting research. book on values became widely used despite some criticisms wh ich included how he arbitrarily derived his list of 36 values, a minimal relationship between the terminal and instrumental values, the broad generalization of his studies and the simplicity of his assertions. H e stated that values mattered, but did littl e to address w hy or how much values mattered ( Warner, 1976). Schwartz (1992) could not identify the differences between terminal and instrumental values; therefore, he provided an alternative structure of values that has also been widely cited (Jin & Round s, 2012; Ros et al. 1999) and is described in the following section. Schwartz b asic v alues Schwartz's (1992) basic values theory examined how value systems relate d to behaviors and attitudes (Ros et al., 1999). Schwartz (1992) described his model visua lly using a circumplex which include d 10 motivational ly distinct values The 10 values were represented as goals in response to three universal needs : physiological needs social interaction, and smooth functioning and survival of the group The 10 values were placed on the circumplex and associated with one of the four higher order value types ; it may be helpful to conceptualize this model like a pie where the 10 distinct values made up the pieces of a pie and the higher order value types made up quadrant s of a pie and included several pieces. The higher order value types (and the distinct values that f e ll under them) include d openness to change (self direction and stimulation), conservation (conformity, tradition, and security), self transcendence (univer salism and benevolence), and self enhancement (power and achievement). The
64 tenth distinct value h edonism fell in both the openness to change and self enhancement higher order value types Schwartz suggested that t he actions taken to pursue certain value s may be compatible or opposed to the other values. The refore, the four higher order values we re arranged on the circumplex as two sets of opposing values and were arranged opposite one another : openness to change oppose d conservatism, and self transcenden ce oppose d self enhancement. For example, an individual that valued change would score more highly on the openness to change values and lower on the opposing conservat ion values; an individual who came from an individualistic perspective may have value d th e self enhancement qualities of power, achievement, and hedonism over those of universalism or benevolence. Displaying the higher order values as opposing, provided a balance between two extremes and served to identify the significance of compatible values for each individual. Schwartz (1992) model was supported from samples of various cultures (Schwartz, 2005) and occupations (Koivula & Verkasalo, 2006 ) using a smallest space analysis (SSA) An SSA is a multidimensional scaling approach to geometrically depict the items in a map which serves as a visual representation of the relationships between the variables (Guttman, 1968) The smaller distances between two points indicate stronger correlations ; the closer proximity an item is to the middle of the dia gram, the stronger its relationship with other variables. An SSA is helpful for testing structural models and has been commonly used to test values theories including several work values theories below (Elizur, 1984; Elizur & Sagie, 1999 ; Ros et al., 1999 )
65 Elizur w ork v alues Early theories classified work values into either intrinsic or extrinsic (Elizur & Sagie, 1999). Challenging the intrinsic extrinsic dichotomy, Elizur (1984) suggested an alternative way of exploring work values. He identified two facets of work values: (1) modality which included cognitive, instrumental, and affective and (2) system performance contingency referred to as the correlation of rewards to performance or participation In the first facet, t he cognitive modality parall eled the commonly used intrinsic work value and represented psychological outcomes (e.g., interest, achievement, autonomy) of work. The instrumental modality paralleled the extrinsic work value and represented material outcomes that may be directly receive d (e. g money) or experienced (e.g., security, prestige) from work. Elizur (1984) also found support in the literature (Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrod, & Herma, 1951) for a third affective modality which reflected the social relationships ( e.g., co workers, s upervisors) in the workplace that create affect outcomes. The second facet examined the relationship of rewards to outcome. Elizur (1984) acknowledged that individuals were likely to respond to rewards and organizations were likely to offer rewards to att ract membership in their organization (e.g., benefits, good working conditions) and/or achieve desired outcomes (e.g., recognition, promotion). model was visually depicted circularly superimposing the two facets onto each other The first facet w in a circle, equally separating the three modalities; the second facet was drawn as a nother circumplex where task related performance was depicted in the inner ring and organizational resources were in the outer ring. This provided each o f the first facets to overlap each dimension of the second facet. For example, an individual may experience cognitive, instrumental, and
66 affective (i.e., intrinsic, extrinsic, or social) rewards to achieve desired work outcomes. In two samples of urban Jew ish adults (n 1 = 489; n 2 = 546) Elizur conducted a n SSA to analyze the relationships and structure of his proposed model T his analysis supported the structural validity of the model Work v alues of Ros, Schwartz, and Surkiss R os and her colleagues (199 9) They identified three higher order work cognitive, instrumental, and affective respectively). However, after they re examined the data from past studies, Ros and colleagues (1999) they felt there was enough empirical evidence to support a fourth work value type (i.e., prestige) which would create a model l. This provided a model of four higher order life values. The four higher order work values (and corresponding distinct work values) were positively correlated to the life values they repres ented and negatively correlated to the life values they opposed. Intrinsic values (autonomy, interesting and varied work) correlated with openness to change values (.23), extrinsic values (job security, income, work conditions) were consistent with conserv ation values (.24), social values (positive social relations, collaboration, contribution to society) were comparable to self transcendence values (. 25), and prestige values (power, status) correspon ded to self enhancement (.29). For example, if an individ ual valued the intrinsic values of autonomy and interest more highly, he would likely value the extrinsic values of job security and income less; what he did in the job would be more important than what he received from
67 the job. Additionally, if someone va lued social values like positive social interactions with her colleagues, she may not value the prestige values of status and power as highly; she would not gain rank in an organization at the expense of others. In a sample of 999 Israeli adults, Ros and h er colleagues ( 1999 ) used an SSA empirically supporting the model A detailed description of the Work Values Survey used with this model is provided in the instrumentation section of C hapter 3 Expanded l ife and w ork v alue m odels Additional life and work values theories have been developed that expanded on or paralleled the theories described above. For example, Lyons and colleagues (2010) took elements of other work values theories (Elizur, 1984) and empirically developed a more complex three dimensional cylindrex structure addressing individual, work, and societal values using SSA The model began with a modality dimension that included four work values based on three values (i.e., cognitive, instrumental, and affective ) and a fourth pres tige value as Ros and her colleagues (1999) did. The four values appeared as quadrants of a one dimensional circle A growth orientation dimension was superimposed on the circumplex of the four values which included growth related work aspects in the cent er and context related work aspects around the outer ring which was conceptualized similar ly Finally, a third level of focus dimension divided the overall cylindrical struc ture into three vertical levels: indivi dual, j ob or organizational, and societal; thus, addressing the life, work, and societal values within each of the other dimensions. This provided a more complex and comprehensive model that superimposed a combination of elements from the other theories.
68 I n another model, Elizur and Sagie (1999) proposed a combin ation of life and work values in a single model There were three facets to this model. The first facet was based on eferred to the modality (i.e., co gnitive, instrumental, and affective) represented as a circle in three equal parts The second facet incorporated life values; it was identified the level of focus (i.e., focused or diffuse) superimposed on the modality circumplex ; t his facet was depicted as an inner ring of more focused and clear or tangible values (i.e., money, friends); and an outer ring of diffuse or abstract values (i.e., meaningful work, contribution to society). They suggested 1973) distinction between instrumental (i.e., focused) and terminal (i.e., diffuse) values or contingent (i.e., focused) and system life are a differentiate d between life and work values and was conceptualized as a cone with two parallel layers; the more comprehensive life dimensions were in the larger base and the more specific work dimensions were represented in the smaller more narrow area at the top To test this theory, a sample of 165 Israeli employees across a variety of organizations ranked their life and work values in order of importance; using a n SSA to confirm t he three dimensional structure proposed Elizur and Sagie (1999) furthe r suggested that integration with other values models (Schwartz, 1992) may be valuable in better understanding personal values. Therefore future models may become even more complex and comprehensive in an effort to capture life and work values more fully. In summary, life and work values can be conceptualized in a variety of ways. The theories summarized above do
69 and work values. Although the theorists may not agree on one interpretation of values, th ere is agreement about the importance values have in life and career goals, behaviors, attitudes and decisions. In addition to the relationship with meaning, values eople who are unable to engage in work that they deem important violate their standards of behavior and are likely to be dissatisfied with ) T heories of satisfaction are described next Satisfaction Theories Satisfaction is often conceptualized as the perc eived gap between what individuals have and what they want in their overall life situation or as a sum of all the life domains (e.g., work, relationships, and health ). L ife satisfaction may be viewed through a approach (Sousa & L yumbomirsky, 2001) For example, i ndividuals using a top down approach might reflect on the value of overall life to determine their level of satisfaction and/or happiness; whereas individuals using a bottom up approach may consider summing all the domains of their lives (e.g., work, relationships, family) to determine their overall level of life satisfaction. In t his section five satisfaction theories are described. They consist of t wo life satisfaction theories including the Multiple Discrepancy Theory a nd the Theory of Materialism and Quality of Life and three job satisfaction theories including the Cornell Model Job Characteristics Model, and Value Percept T heory These life and career satisfaction theories are described below. Multiple Discrepancy Th eory Discrepancy Theory (MDT; 1986) propose d that satisfacti on wa s derived from seven perceived discrepancies or the difference between what individuals ha d and (1) what they want ed, (2) what others
70 similar to them have now, (3) the b est they had in the past, (4) what they expected to have by now, (5) what they expect to have five years in the future, (6) what they feel they deserve, and (7) what they believe they need. When the perceived discrepancies a re small, individuals experience greater life satisfaction ; when discrepancies a re large, they experience d greater dissatisfaction. Michalo (198 6 ) suggested that net satisfaction was a function of the seven perceived discrepancies and was also affected by seven demographics that he calle d conditioners; these included age, sex, education, ethnicity, income, self esteem, and social support. He reported that they were not found to be powerful predictors of satisfaction, but individual background did impact the data to some extent indirectly Michalo (19 8 6) found support for his theory analyzing the responses from a sample of 457 Canadian senior citizens He compared the results for the global satisfaction scale and eight individual domains including health, financial security, family relation s, friendships, housing, spouse, self esteem, and transportation He reported that the population had the highest levels of satisfaction from relationships with spouses; satisfaction with family relationships, housing, friendships, self esteem, transporta tion, financial security, and health followed respectively. Although, satisfaction with health ranked lowest of the domains, a regression analysis showed that the health domain had the strongest i nfluence on global satisfaction; this may be highly relevant in this older sample but not as significant in a younger, healthier sample. Additionally, Michalo (19 8 6 ) discovered that overall compared with the first three perceived discrepancy variables (i.e., what they wan ted,
71 what others similar to them have now, and the best they had in the past) there was a high relative impact on satisfaction respectively. Theory of Materialism and Quality of Life Also conceptualizing satisfaction as the gap between what an individua l has and what one wants, Sirgy (1998) suggested that the satisfaction individuals experienced in each of their individual life domains (e.g., work, health, family, education ) influenced their overall level of life satisfaction. The material life domain o r was one domain that Sirgy felt was important to overall life satisfaction and the focus of his theory on satisfaction; a standard of living referred to possession of material wealt h, goods, and income C omparisons between the actual and desired standards of living create d satisfaction or dissatisfaction, which then affect ed overall levels of life satisfaction or overall quality of life The importance placed on the material life d omain varied; materialists valued this domain highly relative to other domains in achieving overall satisfaction and happiness in their lives levels were more strongly affected by the discrepancies between wha t they had and what they wanted materially T heir desired standards we re often unrealistically high ; therefore, materialists frequently experience d greater dissatisfaction. For materialists, s atisfaction was described in terms of wealth expectancy; t he ir standards appear ed to b e more strongly influenced by affective based wealth expectations such as ideal, deserved, and need based expectations rather than cognitive based expectations like predictive, past, and ability based expectations. These affective ba sed wealth ideal, deserved, and need based
72 Sirgy (1998) found that materialists ideal wealth expectations were influenced by unequal upward social comparisons of remote referents For example, they compared themselves against others in the broader community or higher social groups of different age s gender s educational background ethnic ities occupations or social class es rather than using more equal situationally im posed social comparisons against their f amily, friends, neighbors, and colleagues. Additionally, m aterialists compared their deserved expectations with those who earned more income but had equivalent work efforts, which ultimately l ed them to experience fe elings of envy, anger, injustice and inequity at the pay discrepancies need based expectations were influenced by their overconsumption as they felt they needed more to be satisfied. T he y spent more than they received in hopes to increase pleasure, comfort, and happiness ; h owever, this actually resulted in lower leve ls of satisfaction, as overspending widened the gap between what they had and what they wanted. Roberts and Clement (2007) supported the claim that satisfaction and materialism have an inverse relationship. In a diverse sample of 402 U.S. adults, they found that as income fell, participants were more likely to connect happiness to material possessions. Furthermore, they discovered that men were more likely than femal es to make this connection, possibly because of the social roles men have in being the primary source of income for a family. This research has significant implications on the impact of materialism to overall life satisfaction, depending on how highly indi viduals value the material life domain. It suggests that valuing wealth, income, and materialistic goods may set people up for reduced satisfaction. As many people work to support their material needs, the work satisfaction theories that follow help indivi duals understand
73 how their satisfaction at work can also be impacted by their personalities, tasks, rewards, environment, job characteristics, and more. Cornell Integrated Model Hulin and colleagues (1985 1991 ) integrated resear ch in attitude and person ality to develop a job satisfaction model that p ropose d job satisfaction a s a function of the balance between role inputs and role outcomes. Role inputs were what an individual contributed to the work role (e.g., experience, effort), and role outputs were rewards an individual received from work (e.g., pay, achievement). Hulin and colleagues (1985 1991) suggested that if role outputs were higher relative to inputs, individuals experienced higher job satisfaction As the value of inputs and outputs var ied the levels of satisfaction could be impacted (Judge & Klinger, 2007) For example, in periods of high unemployment, individuals may value the competitive pay and promotions (i.e., outputs) more highly or value their contributions (i.e., inputs) less; there fore, they may find more satisfaction at their workplace than in times of low unemployment. could a ffect their p erceptions on current outcomes and impact their levels of job satisfaction. For exampl e, receiving a larger year end bonus last year may create dissatisfaction with a lesser bonus this year promising, empirical research is lacking to support it (Judge & Klinger, 2007). Therefore other models are disc ussed below. Job Characteristics Model T he J ob C haracteristics M odel (JCM ; Hackman & Oldham, 1976) f ocused on the intrinsically motivating characteristics of a job to predict job satisfaction. This model highlighted the interaction of job characteristics, i ndividual psychological states, and individual attributes that determine d
74 complex and challenging job. Hackman and Oldham ( 1976) suggested that five job characteristics led to three psychological states, which then led to four in dividual outcomes. The characteristics includ ed task identity, task significance, skill variety, autonomy, and feedback The job characteristic of task identity represented completing an entire task from beginning to end; task significance described the extent to which individuals found their work important and significant to others, the organization, or the environment ; skill variety referred to the variability and challenge of ; auto nomy indicated the level of control or independence in the way an individual completed their job tasks; and feedback denoted the level of performance feedback present in the work itself The five core job characteristics would hypothetically le a d to three psychological states : experienced meaningfulness of the work, experienced responsibility for the outcomes of the work and knowledge of the results of the work activities Conceptualizing these three psychological states, Hackman and Oldham ( 1976 ) propose that an individual experiences positive affect to the extent that he learns (knowledge of results) that he personally (experienced responsibility) has performed well on a task that he cares about (experienced meaningfulness) 256 ) They ex pected that t he first three job characteristics (i.e., task identity, task significance, and skill variety) would le a d to experie nced meaningfulness of the work ; a utonomy would le ad to experienced responsibility for the outcomes of the work ; and feedback would le a d to knowledge of the results of the work activities However, analyzing data from a sample of 658 employees working in a variety of jobs across seven organizations,
75 Hackman and Oldham (1976) found that all of the job characteristic psychological state matches were validated except the experienced responsibility psychological state, which was proposed to be directly impacted by autonomy, but it was affected by all five of the characteristics. Finally, the three psychological states would then lead to positive personal and work outcomes such as motivation, job satisfaction, performance, and lower turnover. They suggested the positive affect, or satisfaction one received, motivated individuals to continue performing well; whereas, dissatisfaction wit h any area encouraged individuals to try harder in the future. This self generated motivation cycle was theorized to continue until one of the three psychological states was no longer present or the individual no longer derived the internal rewards (i.e., satisfaction and motivation) from his or her performance. One anomaly arose during their analysis; Hackman and Oldham ( 1976 ) found that although the other job characteristics only had an impact on outcomes indirectly (i.e., through the psychological state) autonomy had a direct effect, linking it directly to experienced responsibility as well as motivation, satisfaction, performance, and turnover. How individuals respond ed to their work was another component in the JCM model. Hackman and Oldham ( 1976) pos people who have high need for personal growth and development will respond more positively to a job high in motivating potential than peopl suggested that high growth oriented individuals were be tter able to experience the three psychological states than low growth oriented workers and high growth oriented individuals were able to achieve more positive personal and work outcomes such as
76 high internal work motivation, high job satisfaction, high q uality work performance, and low turnover Although this model only addresses the aspects of a job than can be changed to create positive motivational rewards (i.e., not the negative repetitive aspects), there are still valuable implications for the effec t of job characteristics on meaning, motivation and satisfaction. Value Percept Theory Although the Value Percept Theory ( Locke 1976) appears to be a values model by its title, it is a work satisfaction theory that incorporates the importance of values to judge satisfaction Locke (1976) believed that individuals' values dete r mine d their levels of job satisfaction, especially those highly valued. He developed a for mula that described his model: s atisfaction = (value desired perceived value provi ded) x value importance. This model suggest ed that the difference between what is desired and what is received provide d dissatisfaction only to the magnitude of the importance one place d on that value. For example, an individual may place a strong importan ce on the value of autonomy in his job. If he received a level of autonomy similar to the level he desired, h e would experience a strong er sense of satisfaction. However, even with a small discrepancy, the high level of importance on autonomy would multipl y that discrepancy in relation to the importance he placed on other values. Conversely, if he placed little value on work status, even a large discrepancy in that area would have little impact on his job satisfaction. This formula would be repeated for eac h job factor that individuals value d in a job and aggregated for overall job satisfaction.
77 Although this simplicity allows for measuring individual differences, Judge and Klinger (2007) pointed out that what an individual desires and the level of importan ce they place upon that value may be highly correlated; therefore, the weighting of the variables may be questionable. Additionally, they suggested that the model excludes external factors ( e.g. social, economic, or organizational conditions), which may l eave out important components of job satisfaction. Furthermore, Judge and Klinger (2007) t he reciprocal nature of job attitudes [i.e., satisfaction] and subjective well being highlights the fact that a sound understanding of one domain is i ncomplete without In summary, the satisfaction theories described above offer a variety of ways to conceptualize life and work satisfaction within a limited context. However, life satisfaction has also been identifi ed as an element of overall wellness and may be measured in wellness instruments (Myers, 2005 b ). Therefore to look at a more satisfaction as well as a variety of other life domains, several popular wellness theor ies are described below. Wellness Theories W M any wellness models include meaning as an integral p iec e to defining holistic wellness and as the theories evolved, so has the complexity of the models. I n this section wellness models are described that incorporate meaning in the spirituality and/or career component s of the models including the Indivisibl e Self Model of Wellness Holistic Wellness Model and Systems Model of Wellness Additionally, as individual, familial, or cultural influences alter t he way individuals make
78 meaning, define values, and experience satisfaction, the dimensions of wellness may be positively or negatively impacted (Myers & Sweeney, 2005b ) Therefore, a brief discussion of the gender, cultural, and societal perspectives is examined as well. Indivisible Self Model of Wellness The Indivisible Self Mo del of Wellness ( IS WEL ; Myers & Sweeney, 2005b ) is the most widely used wellness model in the counseling literature. The model provides a holistic look at wellness and includes overall wellness as a single higher order factor, which is comprised of five s econd order factors (and 17 third order factors). The second order factors include: 1) creative self (thinking, emotions, control, work, and positive humor); 2) coping self (leisure, stress management, self worth and realistic beliefs); 3) social self (fr iendship and love); 4) essential self (spirituality, gender identity, cultural identity, and self care); and 5) physical self ( nutrition and exercise). The IS WEL offers a helpful look at the interaction being F or example, the search for meaning and purpose is the foundation of the spirituality third order factor ; therefore, this factor and all of the others may consequently influence the level of holistic well being individuals experience (Myers & Sweeney, 200 5b ). T he IS WEL also considers the chronometrical environments as external influences that may impact personal wellness L ocal contexts include family, neighborhood and community ; institutional contex ts include education, religion, government, business and industry ; global contexts include world events and/or influences such as politics, culture, the environment, and the media ; and chronometrical or lifespan factors i nclude changes over time relating to an ( Myers & Sweeney, 2005b )
79 The precursor to the IS WEL the Wheel of Wellness (WoW; Sweeney, 1998; Sweeney & Witmer, 1991; Witmer, Sweeney, & Myers, 199 8; Witmer & Sweeney, 19 92) was heavily influenced by Adler (1954) The WoW model was based on the existing research and as well as two additional Adlerian life tasks proposed by Mosak and Driekers (1967) : self and spir it (Myers, Luecht, & Sweeney, 2004; Myers & Sweeney, 2005b). proposed as a multilevel, circumplex model for explaining both the characteristics of (Myers et al., 2004). Adler viewed spirituality as synonymous with purpose and fundamental to holistic wellness (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1967). T herefore the WoW model was illustrated similar to a bicycle tire where spirituality was depicted as the central axel a nd 12 tasks of self direction; these include sense of worth, sense of control, realistic beliefs, emotional awareness and management, problem solving and creativity, sense of humor, nutrition, exercise, self care, stress management, gender identity, and cultural identity The tasks of self direction served as spokes pointing out ward served as the rim of the tire connecting all the spokes The contextual factors of envi ronmental and societal influences including family, community, government, media, business and industry, education, and religion served as the tire surrounding the rim and global events were beyond that (Myers et al., 2004). Although the model has evolve d into the restructured IS WEL where spirituality has been incorporated into the essential sel f second order factor, the importance of spirituality and the search for
80 meaning in holistic well being has remained an integral element of this model, reinforci ng the importance of meaning a nd purpo se in being. Holistic Wellness Model Th e Holistic Wellness Model (Chandler et al., 1992) incorporates five dimensions of wellness including social, emotional, physical, intellectual, and occupatio nal ; it includes a spiritual and personal component in each dimension. Similar to the WoW model the spiritual component is at the core of this model and is incorporated in each of the five dimensions of wellness. Spiritual wellness in this model is define ( Chandler et al., 1992 p. 170), which includes accepting what is, working toward the greater good, and developing a sense of purpose. The authors suggested that with an imbalance in any of the five dimensions, an individual would not achieve holistic wellness. Therefore without meaning, all areas of wellness would be incomplete. Another wellness model that incorporates meaning and purpose as a component of well 1986). It integrates six dimensions of wellness including the intellectual, emotional, physical, social, occupational, and spiritual dimensions similar to those in the Holistic Wellness Model (Chandler et al., 199 2) However, rather than depicting the spiritual dimension at the core of this model, Hettler identified it as one of the major dimensions of wellness. He suggested that meaning wa s addressed in both the occupational and spiritual dimensions. The occupatio nal dimension incorporate d factors related to work spiritual dimension involve d a search for meaning and purpose that c ould include a
81 career but extended This model described the major life dimensions contributing to personal wellness; however, the next model adds a level of dynamism to these six dimens ions. Systems Model of Wellness The Systems Model of Wellness (Crose et al., consisting of the intellectual, emotional, physical, soci al, occupational, and spiritual dimensions as a foundation on which to apply system properties such as cybernetics and emergence. Cybernetics refers to the ability to self regulate oneself through the feedback of individual parts For example, fear, an emotional response, may signal the desire to run away from a per ceived danger, a physical response ; one dimension of wellness may be impacted by another dimension. Additionally, emergence describes the concept that new properties emerge in a whole system that are unique from the properties of the individual parts that make up that system For example, bread is made up of flour, yeast and water, yet when combined, the ingredients take on new properties that differ from each of the individual ingredients ; the whole is not just the sum of the parts These concepts emphasiz ( Crose et al., 1992 p. 149). For that reason Crose and colleagues (1992) considered the effects of wellness within and across each of the life dimensions. They suggested that health f luctuates within each dimension, such as when an individual may feel physically healthy in one moment and then experience a headache or fever in another moment It can also fluctua te across dimensions as a career change may impact social connections
82 spirituality and sense of meaning. Furthermore, health was described as variable, dynamic and fluctuating with unique individual differences such as age, gender, and culture affe cting wellness For example, an older female may experience more physical health concerns than a younger female; however she may feel more balanced in her spiritual awareness and sense of meaning because of her life experiences. Crose and colleagues (1992 ) believed this comprehensive systems view provided a deeper understanding of holistic wellness and the individual differences that impact ed health and well being. In summary, t he wellness models above include the search for meaning and purpose as a necess life and career well being. From a holistic perspective, when one does not have meaning in their lives, it will most likely negatively affect other wellness areas as well, including occupational, physical, social, emoti onal, intellectual, creative, coping and spiritual selves. Additionally, sever al models (Myers & Sweeney, 2005b ; Crose et al., 1992) recognize that age, gender, culture and societal influences can be crucial in molding individual ways of making m eaning and achieving well being. T herefore the next section briefly discusses the meaning. Age, g ender, cultural or societal perspectives Age, gender, culture and social statu s appear to impact the way individual s create meaning mold values, derive satisfaction, and achieve wellness (Crose et al. 1992; Myers & Sweeney, 200 5b ). Those individual factors also shape career development (Worthington, Flores, & Navarro, 2005). For e xample, in a study of stability and change in work values, Jin and
83 Rounds (2012) found that work values were less stable during college years (18 to 22 years) and stability increased with age. Additionally, the y suggested that college aged adults (18 to 22 years) ranked intrinsic values more highly than the other values (i.e., extrinsic, social, prestige); whereas, young adults new to the work force (22 to 26 years) found extrinsic values rise in importance relative to other value s. Furthermore, in their re view of the health and wellness literature, Crose and colleagues well being, in diagnosis and treatment of physical and mental disorders, in multiple role stress, in vocational patte rns, in economic resources, in social support networks, and in spiritual well related patterns, they suggested that men tend ed to find more meaning in their careers and achievements; thus, leading to primarily work related stresses such as less social or emotional connection (e. g. less time a t home with family and friends). However, men also experienced more work stability and economic resources for their continued service in the workplace Conversely, women often derive d meaning primarily from their social connections. Therefore if a woman pursued a career, she may ex perience multiple role stress ( e. g. work and family), varied work patterns (e.g., taking time off to raise a child), and less financial stability Y et her career ma y offer additional social or emotional outlets with which to offset her stress. Duffy and Sedlacek (2007) found similar results in their study comparing intrinsic, extrinsic, social, and prestige values. Both genders found intrinsic values (e.g., meaning, purpose) most significant, but after that, the men ranked extrinsic values (e.g., income, promotion) and women placed social values next in importance. Their research is further described in the empirical studies section below.
84 Furthermore, Savolaine and Granello (2002) contend ed that cultural factors may provide an array of interpretations to meaningful work. For example, people with individualistic cultural values may interpret career meaning as a tool to enhance their personal well being and satisfactio n; whereas those with collectivist values may forego an individual sense of purpose and center on the elements that benefit the group (Dik & Duffy, 2009; Dik et al., 2009). Societal values regarding particular professions may also impact perspective s on ho w one experiences meaning in a career For example, in a society which values a competitive professional status or salary, individuals may find those extrinsic factors motivating. Conversely, individuals in societies which value the helping professions ra ther than those with a high monetary reward may find more meaning in a career focused on helping people. As meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness are shaped by individual differences and perspectives, it is also helpful to consider the impact of age gender, cultural, and societal characteristics when examining the factors underlying career meaning. Summary A good person job fit is valuable; without a meaningful career that aligns with an holi stic well being, individuals may suffer. M eaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness theories incorporate significant aspects Scholar s (Chen, 2001; Cohen, 2003) understand the value of integrating thes e theories and highlight ing the importance of having a career personal values and provides meaningful experiences, a sense of purpose, satisfaction stimulation and fulfillment; having a career that provides both hedonic and eud aimonic well being. For example, Chen (2001) and Cohen (2003) promote d the conceptualization of meaning in career
85 development and suggest ed there is a high correspondence between the career choic e and the individuals' ability to 2003, p. 197). Additionally, Steger and his colleagues ( 2012 ) reported that when individuals find work that is meaningful, they place a higher value on work, feel satisfied with their jobs, and experience more well being These authors highlight the importance of connecting the concepts of meaning values, satisfaction, and wellness, and lifespan with consideration to influential age, gender, cultural or societal differences T o further explore the it is helpful to review the current literature and e mpirical studies related to career meaning meaning values, satisfaction, and wellness. Empirical Research The importance of finding a meaningful c areer is widely published in popular literature. H owever empirical research is lacking i n the professional counseling literature to support this assertion Much of the literature and research exploring concepts around meaningful work are published through industrial organizational psychology, management, and occupational health psychology. Se veral themes emerged through the research literature that linked career meaning to meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness as well as other personal and work related outcomes. This research is summarized below Career Meaning A career with meaning ma y be significant for people. For example, Dik and colleagues (2009 ) suggested that approximately 30 50% of working adults preferred
86 meaningful careers and in their study of 5,523 college freshmen, Duffy and Sedlacek (2010) found that more than 40% of coll ege students reported feeling called to a specific career decidedness, comfort, self (Dik et al., 2009, p. 626) Consequently, e ven low p restige jobs could be satisfying if an individual can find meaning in them (Ashforth & Kreiner, 1999; Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001). In one qualitative study using a phenomenological approach, Amundson and colleagues (2010) explored the career decision mak ing of 17 working adults. The sample consisted of 8 men and 9 women (21 to 40 years) who came from a variety of professions. They found that 88% of participants found engaging in meaningful activities were critical in their career decisions. They defined m eaningful activities as those which provided eudaimonic qualities such as purpose, fulfillment, stimulation, challenge, or enthusiasm, excitement, peacefulness, contentment, an (p. 342) Approximately 53% of the participants were driven to find a sense of purpose in their careers, whereas others looked for flexibility in their work so they could engage in meaningful activities outside of work (e.g., hobbies, relation ships). Participants in this study experienced fear, uncertainty, and insecurity in being unable to find a meaningful career, and looked to career counselors to help facilitate a sense of meaning in their career search ( Amundson et al., 2010 ). This study u nderpins the importance of career meaning on well being. Although a career is not the only source from which an individual can derive meaning, it may be one of the most important simply because of the amount of time
87 spent at work and individuals often find their id entities tied to their profession s (Blustein, 2006; Dik & Duffy, 2009; Dik et al., 2009). A sense of meaning has been linked with career satisfaction (Sharf, 2006), and many components of well being including happiness ( Frankl, 1963, Sharf, 2006; Sommer & Baumeister, 1998), physical and emotional health (Dorn 1992), initiating and maintaining positive wellness oriented behaviors (Hermon & Hazier, 1999; Prochaska, 1995; Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross, 1992), increasing a sense of importance to ot hers (Mack, 1994), tolerating negative events or setbacks, enhancing personal wellness (Savolaine & Granello, 2002), and handling stress (Lightsey, 1997; Westgate, 1996). A variety of other studies focus on the overall search for meaning in life which im being ( e.g., Brassai, Piko & Steger, 2011; Ebersole & DeVogler, 1985; Emmons, 1986; Kashdan, & Steger, 2007; Owens, Steger Whitesell & Herrera, 2009; Reker, Peacock, & Wong, 1987; Ryff, 1989; Zika & Chamberlain, 1987, 1992 ). For example, Reker and colleagues ( 1987 ) and Zika and Chamberlain ( 1987, 1992) found that meaning has a positive correlation to well being across the lifespan, and while the sources of meaning may change throughout a evelopment, their need for meaning remains consistent. Positive Relationships of Meaning Values, Satisfaction, and Wellness Historical and current research highlights the critical importance of meaning and purpose in career decisions and work adjustment (Lips Wiersma & Mcmorland, 2006; Young & Valach, 2004) Additionally, t hat people place on work (Nord et al. 1990) and the degree of satisfaction that they (Rounds et al. 2010, p. 969). Both meaning and values have been linked to life and work satisfaction
88 ( George & Jones, 1996; Guion & Landy, 1972; Hochwarter, Perrew, Ferris, & Brymer, 1999; Locke, 1976 ; Mottaz, 1985 ; Park, Park, & Pe terson, 2010 ), well being ( Amundson et al. 2010 ; Zika & Chamberlain, 1987, 1992 ) and lower levels of job stress (Knoop, 1994a, 1994b) For example, Park and colleagues ( 2010) conducted a study of 731 U.S. adults and they found the presence of meaning was positively correlated with life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect ; it was negatively correlated with depression and negative affect Additionally, the search for meaning was positively correlated with well being life satisfaction, happiness, a nd less depression for those who also scored high on the presence of meaning scale. Therefore, individuals who already experience the presence of meaning may find the search for expanded meaning in life a positive contributor in their well being. Further more, Guion and Landy (1972) performed a study of 91 new male engineers across eight different organizations. Three stages of data collection consisted of pre employment testing using an orientation inventory, temperament survey, and an additional question naire asking about expectations and ideals for the job. After eight to ten months, participants completed a second questionnaire, which paralleled the first, but asked about actual experiences from the job. After a full year of employment, site visits were motivation and behaviors including self development team attitude, job curiosity, task concentration, independence, persistence, and organizational identification. Guion and Land y (1972) found that when individuals engaged in more meaningful work, they
89 person will be motivated to work, and to do so with some observable diligence, to the degree t Zika & Chamberlain (1992) reported that meaning in life was a key predictor of psychological well being They studied two groups: 194 unemployed mothers with at least one child under 5 years and 150 eld erly men and women over the age of 60 component of well (p. 142) Additionally, they found that meaning in life may be essential to a high level of well (p. 143) T he re were no significant age differences However, an observed limitation of this study limited the generalizability because participants included primarily Caucasian (98%) and middle or working class adults (74%; Zika &Chamberlain, 1992). V alues attainment also had a significant effect on job satisfactio n and performance (George & Jones, 1996; Hochwarter et al, 1999) Hochwarter and colleagues (1999) examined the responses of 270 managers across the United States (mean age was 33.5 years). They found a strong positive relationship between job satisfaction and performance when value attainment and positive affect w ere high. work values determine the meaningfulness of work (James & James, 1989), and the attainment of core values in the workplace prompt a variety of positive (p. 300). Additionally, Knoop (1994a ) explored the relationship between work values and the physical, emotional and mental stress of 607 Canadian elementary school teachers
90 and administrators. Using th e Pine s, Aronson, and Kafry's (1981) T edium S cale and Elizur's (1984) work values scale, Knoop examined 12 intrinsic values including responsibility, esteem from others, achievement through work, influence over work, meaningful work, job status, use of abi lities and knowledge, contribution to society, independence in work, recognition, influence in the organization, and pride in working for the organization He also looked at four extrinsic values including pay or benefits, convenient hours of work, worki ng conditions, and job security All of the intrinsic work values were negatively correlated with stress. Four of these (i.e., meaningful work, esteem from others, achievement through work, and the use of abilities and knowledge) were found to be significant reducers of stress. The four extrinsic values were also negatively correlated but not significantly related to stress. The authors noted that it as feeling worthless, trappe d, troubled, hopeless, and disillusioned; or that esteem from others makes people feel more optimistic, happy, and energetic; or that a sense of also added that a stressfu demands on individuals, but it can be a dull job that does not provide a reasonable amount of meaning, personal growth, and stimulation. Additionally, even when workers feel overburdened with wor k they dislike, additional work that might typically cause more work does not have to be valued or meaningful, as the parts that are can compensate for the parts tha meaning such as control over the type or amount of work and the hours one works.
91 These outcomes highlight the importance of attaining intrinsic factors like meaning in a career to re duce stress and improve well being. Mottaz (1985) also loo ked at intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and values for 1,385 full time employees in six diverse metropolitan organizations including a university, five elementary schools of one school district, a p lastics factory, an order processing firm, a hospital, and a law enforcement agency. He created a survey compiled from items on commonly used instruments including work values, work satisfaction, intrinsic task rewards, and extrinsic social and organizatio nal rewards. Participants included a variety of high and low levels jobs categorized as professional, managerial, clerical, service, and blue collar. Although he discovered that individuals in higher level occupations valued the intrinsic rewards more heav ily than those with lower level jobs, he found that workers in all of the occupations and levels desired rewards beyond pay, security and opportunity. Intrinsic rewards such as independence, meaning, and challenge brought them higher levels of job satisfac tion. He concluded that although extrinsic rewards were important for individuals, finding work that aligned with their values and provided meaning (i.e., intrinsic rewards) w as a stronger determinant in employee satisfaction, especially for the higher lev el workers, highlighting the connection between career meaning values, and satisfaction. Individual Differences Meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness can also be impacted by individual differences such as age, gender, and culture. The following stud ies provide a description not only of the impact of the relationships among meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness, but they identify the effects of individual differences as well.
92 In a study of 1,388 U.S. executives, Judge and colleagues (1995) disc overed overall career satisfaction was strongly determined by extrinsic rewards; however, those objective variables did not predict job satisfaction the s atisfaction derived from specific job tasks For example, an executive may be satisfied with his over all career because he has a high status job with great pay and benefits; however those benefits do not increase the satisfaction he feels in completing specific tasks of his job. The pleasure or fulfillment experienced appeared to fluctuate with individua l differences and/or environments For example, Greenhaus and colleagues ( 1990 ) and H ofmans, Dries, and Pe permans ( 2008 ) found that both objective and subjective factors we re important to overall career success and satisfaction using the Career Satisfactio n Scale Although Hofmans and colleagues (2008) found that both genders similarly conceptualized the co nstruct of subjective career success Greenhaus and colleagues (1990) found that women perceived their careers to be even though their objective factors (i.e., income, prom otion) were not equivalent; women valued the subjective factors (i.e., meaning, interest) more heavily. Their emphasis on social values more strongly impacted the subjective experience of satisfaction and fulfillment they experienced at work, even with less pay. Duffy and Sedlacek ( 2007 ) conducted a study of 3,570 college freshmen (50% men, 50% women) through a single item assessment requesting students to list their most important work values affecting th eir long term career choices. They categorized the responses into four dimensions based on Ros (1999) work values theory. They found that overall, intrinsic values ( e. g. interest, autonomy) ranked more highly than extrinsic values ( e.g ., salary, job security), social values ( e.g., social
93 intera ction, contribution to society), and prestige values (e. g. prestigious respected occupation). When c omparing men to women, after intrinsic values men were likely to rank extrinsic values more h ighly and women were oriented toward social values, possibly due to the societal influences affecting their social roles. Additionally, freshmen with parents making over $150,000 or less than $49,000 tended toward more extrinsically oriented goals, while t hose in between placed the most importance on intrinsic values; Duffy and Sedlacek (2007) speculated that the positive or negative effects of income on a family may explain this result. Examining the impacts of race, the African American students were more likely to have stronger extrinsic values, while the Asian American students ranked extrinsic equivalent to intrinsic values. The Caucasian and Hispanic students were more likely to emphasize intrinsic values as important. Finally, all educational aspirati on levels (i.e ., Bachelors, Masters, Advanced, or Professional degree) valued intrinsic goals more highly, but noted that after that, there was a trend toward valuing prestige more highly (over extrinsic rewards) for those planning to pursue advanced or pr ofessional degrees. This study not only emphasized the importance of intrinsic values such as meaningful work over other extrinsic, social or prestige values, but also captured the variability of gender, economic, cultural, and educational differences amon g groups. In another study, Reker and colleagues (1987) found a relationship between meaning and wellness at different life stages. They explored age and gender (1978) concept. Their sample included a total of 300 participants which included 30 men and 30 women at each of the five developmental stages: 16 to 29 years, 30 to 49
94 years, 50 to 64 years, 65 to 74 years and 75 years or over They found that life purpose and f uture meaning were positively correlated with psychological and physical well being, while lack of meaning and purpose was negatively correlated with well being. Reker and colleagues ( 1987 ) found gender differences especially for those in age groups from 3 0 to 49 years and 65 to 75 years. They pointed out that the women in these groups had a stronger will to meaning and suggested that displeasure with points in their li ves such as empty nest, retirement. While Zika and Chamberlain (1992) found no gender differences in their study, they suggested that the variability of results between this study and theirs may be a result of using different instruments and ways of measur ing meaning. M eaning can impact wellness at younger ages as well. For example, Brassai and colleagues (2011) found that meaning in life was strongly correlated to the health and well being of 1,977 Romanian adolescents (15 19 years). Meaning in life served as a protective factor against health risk behaviors and poor psychological health. Gender differences were also noted, showing that meaning in life for adolescent males was correlated to substance use (i.e., illicit drugs, sedatives), yet for the females it was related to a variety of other health risk factors as well including binge drinking, unsafe sex, lack of exerci se, and diet control Adolescents who experienced a stronger sense of meaning in life showed significantly less risky behaviors and bette r psychological health ultimately leading to increased health and well being. This study shows the
95 Other Personal and Work R elated Outcomes Meaning, satisfaction, and wellness are als o related to other perso nally significant dimensions of life such as curiosity and spirituality (Kashdan & Steger, 2007; Constantine, Miville, Warren, Gainor, & Lewis Coles, 2006). In a study of 97 college students, Kashdan & Steger (2007) explored curiosi ty as a predictor of meaning and well being. They found that on days where students expressed more curiosity and growth oriented behavior, they also experienced more meaning in life, the continued search for meaning, and life satisfaction. Additionally, ex periencing higher levels of curiosity on one day increased the chances of experiencing these traits on the following ratory orientation to everyday activity shows that meaning is not only associated with well being, but also with curiosity as another positive psychological health re lated factor. To look beyond the workplace for meaning, another qualitative study examined the impact of spirituality and religion on career development. Constantine and colleagues (2006) found that meaning assists adaptive career development even through institutional racism or sexism. They interviewed 12 African American undergraduate students (18 to 22 years; 8 women, 4 men) in a predominately White private university to determine the most salient factors in their career development. The researchers foun d that spirituality and meaning were crucial in providing emotional difficulties due to racial discrimination, isolation and lack of faculty or parental support, their reli gious or spiritual beliefs and practices such as prayer, meditation, and/or
96 participating in religious activities helped them cope with the challenges they faced. Additionally students reported that they believed they were pursuing their life purpose or brought purpose to their life and thereby enhanced their sense of meaning. They believed t hey could find career success through balance, helping others and finding happiness and meaningful work. Other work related outcomes have been linked to meaning and values as well including work motivation and performance ( Claes et al., 1994 ; Guion & Landy 1972; Locke, 1991), longer tenure and organizational commitment ( Agho, Mueller, & Price, 199 2 ; Meyer, Irving, & Allen, 1998), employee turnover ( Agho et al., 199 2 ; Steers & Mowday, 1981), decision making (Ravlin & Meglino, 1987), and career choices ( Duff y & Sedlacek, 2007; Judge & Bretz, 1992). Additionally, Wright and Bonett (1992) found that satisfaction related to meaningful work and promotion opportunities were strong predictors for individuals to leave an organization. For example, i n one work outco me study, Claes and colleagues ( 1994 ) conducted a three year longitudinal study of 1,358 young machine operators and office technology workers (mean age was 20.6 years) ; they examined the response s across seven countries. Using two individual interviews af ter the first and second years of employment, they meanings assessed as a combination of work centrality, or the level of importance the work has for individuals; intrinsic and extrinsic work va lue orientation; and beliefs of entitlement or obligation regarding the work environment and activities.
97 They concluded that people with the worst person job fit and lowest psychological well being provided the least effort and poorest performance on the job, whereas individuals with the best person environment fit and highest sense of well being showed a moderate or high level of work effort and performance. This study reinforced the importance of meaning and well performance and effort. All of t he studies described meaning and values to contribute to job satisfaction well being, and other personal and work related outcomes. Conversely, the lack of meaning is closely link ed with compromised physical and mental health ( Reker et al 1987 ). Therefore in the next section, the negative effects of meaninglessness are discussed to reinforce the The Flip Side: A Lack of Meaning, Values, Satisfaction and Wellness In contrast to career meaning as wellness promoting, without a se nse of meaning in their lives, individuals may experience what Frankl (1963) referred to as an existential elings of frustration, emptiness, depression, and apathy because the career that they chose has failed to provide them with a sense of and colleagues (2005) found that wit hout a sense of meaning in career, individuals may experience burnout, absenteeism, high turnover, lowered productivity, and poor quality work. They proposed a new burnout prevention program that integrated meaning as the primary solution to burnout. They wanted to go beyond the previously published programs which focused on stress management and relaxation and get to the core of an The program was based on transpersonal psychology; it
98 included important elements such as personal growth and spirituality to help participants find meaning in their lives. Participants attended the program over the course of three months, which started with a two day meeting, then six individual bi weekly meetings, and ended with a final tw o day meeting. The 34 participants (27 men, 7 women; mean age was 40) were divided into 4 groups, each led by two counselors, and encouraged to participate in activities such as meditation, guided imagery, visualizations, art, discussions, and journaling t o address self awareness, body consciousness, emotions, desires, personality, habits, characteristics, psyche, important influences, authorities, love, will, autonomy, interconnectedness, personal values, and personal mission. Dierendonck and colleagues (2 005) used surveys before the start and after completion of the program as well as six months later, where additional interviews were also conducted. This study was aimed at reversing the sense of meaninglessness and not only improved participant well being ; it also resulted in less burnout, increased self awareness, enhanced self esteem, and improved outlook on life. Furthermore, quantitative results showed that participants with the lowest sense of meaning and inner strength at the start had the largest im provements by the completion of the program. Other research looking at the effects of meaninglessness and illness also supports the importance of meaning on wellness (Reker et al., 1987) Early research on meaning in life focused on the relationship betwee n lack of meaning and psychopathology (Yalom, 1980; Zika & Chamberlain, 1992). Meaninglessness was (Frankl, 1963; Salthouse, 1998; Yalom, 1980), depression (Westgate, 1996), alienation and vu lnerability (Ganellen & Blaney, 1984; Pettie & Triolo, 1999; Westgate, 1996), and substance abuse
99 (Newcomb & Harlow, 1986; Harlow, Newcomb & Bentler, 1986; Coleman, Kaplan & Downing, 1986). T hese negative consequences of meaninglessness in life or in a car eer support the importance of finding a job with meaning and other intrinsic rewards, to protect from frustration, emptiness, depression, apathy, and burnout. Finding meaningful work may be a crucial component to overcoming these destructive feelings and c onsequences; thus, leading to greater satisfaction and holistic wellness. Furthermore, i n a study of 174 military veterans (mean age was 57 years), Owens and colleagues (2009) examined the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depress ion, guilt, and meaning in life. They found significant negative correlations between meaning in life and both PTSD symptoms and low or moderate could minimize the effe cts of PTSD and depression, as well as positively impact other areas in their life. They suggested that counselors focus on building more beneficial attitudes about meaning in life, further emphasizing the importance of meaning to not only protect well bei ng but also to restore it. The se studies exploring the effects of meaninglessness reinforce the argument that meaning in values, experiencing satisfaction, and achieving well being. When individuals find meaningful work, they are happier, more readily absorbed in their work (Sharf, 2006), and are healthier physically and emotionally (Dorn 1992). Chapter Summary In summary several theoretical perspectives were reviewed related to car eer meaning including c areer development theories that highlighted the importance of matching people to their environment s for a complementary fit (Sharf, 2006)
100 Additionally, theories describing the life and career dimensions of meaning, values, satisfacti on, and wellness were provided to broaden the understanding of these areas in relation to career meaning. M eaning centered theories emphasize d the significance of meaning in li fe and career ; values models provide d a structure for prioritizing an d setting life and career goal s ( Brown, 1995 ) ; s atisfaction theories ex amined the perceived difference s between what individual s had and what they wanted; wellness theories explore d ; and a brief look at the age, gender, cultural, and societal perspectives highlighted the importance of individual differences on each of th e se areas Additionally, a broad range of research was condense d t o illuminate the relationships between career meaning and the areas of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness alignment with his or her values, one may find greater levels of satisfaction, well being and other positive personal and work related outcomes. Conve rsely, a lack of meaning These relationships underscore the significance of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness i rch. Therefore, C hapter 3 describes the methodology for this current study, and the measures used to assess each of the life and career domains of meaning, valu es, satisfaction, and wellness.
101 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The purpose of C hapter 3 is to provide an overview of the methodology used to examine the factors that underlie career meaning The population, sampling procedure, and data collection are described as well as a description of the i nstruments selected for participants to complete. The instruments represent ed several areas of the research literature related to career meaning including the life and career dimensions of meaning values, satisfaction, and wellness ; a social desirability bias instrument wa s also included to control for bias. Supplementa ry career and demographic information was also gathered. Furthermore, the stati stical analysis procedures are provided to describe the sample and answer the research questions; they include descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and multiple regression. Population The research population include d U.S. Naval Academy (USNA) graduates from the graduating classes of 1985 through 201 0 The USNA is a full time fully funded undergraduate institution that provides gradu ates with a four year education with housing, meals, leadership, athletics, military training, and fleet experiences. In 2012, Best Undergraduate Engineering Progr ams, 2012). However, it is more than just an academic institution. The USNA was founded on 10 acres in 1845 by Secretary of the Navy, George Bancroft, to train the first class of 50 midshipmen (i.e., title given to students ) for a career in the U.S. Navy. It has grown to encompass 338 acres and train approximately 4,000 midshipmen each year for careers in the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps. The USNA
102 trains primarily men; h owever, the first women were accepted in 1976 with approval from Congress, and graduat ed with the class of 1980 ( A Brief History of the United States Naval Academy, 2012) The percentage of women has increased since their first admission and currently, women make up approximately 19 percent of entering midshipman (i.e., students) Admission to the USNA is extremely competitive and c andidates applying for admission must meet specific requirements. Candidates must be between 17 to 22 years; remain unmarried, not pregnant, and have no obligations of parenthood; have a competitive ranking in high school and above average SAT or ACT board scores; pass a medical qualification and have no disqualifying conditions; successfully complete a physical fitness test including a one mile run, shuttle run, kneeling basketball throw, abdominal crunches, push u ps, and pull ups or flexed arm hang; perform well during an interview with an admissions representative; and receive a congressional nomination ( Steps for Admissions, 2012) In each cohort, approximately 1,000 1,200 individuals are admitted on induction day and about 800 1 000 of them graduate. A class profile is published for each cohort shortly after they are admitted. Although the statistics were reported differently throughout the years basic information exists in each profile including the number o f applicants, offers of appointment, number admitted, and genders (see Table 3 1), ethnicities and international student status (see Table 3 2) and background military and academic experiences (see Table 3 3). Military readiness and commitment is represen ted through prior military service, whether they were a son or daughter of USNA alumni, experience in the ROTC or Sea Cadets, and varsity athletics. Academic
103 readiness is indicated through previous college or preparatory school, high school ranking, and in volvement in the National Honor Society. For example, t he class of 201 0 profile provides a snapshot of the youngest, or most recent graduating class in this study which is representative of the population being sampled. There were a total of 1 0 747 appli cants ; 1, 510 ( 14 %) received an offer of appointment and 1,2 15 ( 11 %) were admitted including 9 4 3 men ( 7 8%) and 2 72 women ( 22 %). The incoming mids hipman identified as White ( 77%); Hispanic (10 %) ; African American ( 6 %); and Asian American/ Pacific Islander (5% ) or Native American ( 2.3 %). Additionally, there were 1 3 ( 1.1 %) international students. The class include d a total of 46 who were formerly enlisted in the Navy (37) or Marine Corps (9) and 68 (6%) who were sons and daughters of alumni, with five of them h aving both parents who were alumni. Additionally, 13% had experience with ROTC or Sea Cadets and 90% were varsity athletes. There were 393 (32%) who had attended college or preparatory school before entering the USNA. A majority ( 79 %) ranked in the top qua rter of their high school class, and m any had been involved in the national honor society (62%), student body leadership (65%), and other activities prior to applying ( 2010 Class Portrait, personal communication, June 25, 2012 ) SAT scores were not repor ted consistently across the class profiles, if at all; however, the SAT scores for the middle 50 th percentile of the class of 2015 ranged from 590 to 720 in the verbal scales, and between 610 and 730 on the math scales for total SAT scores ranging from 120 0 to 1450. The USNA mission is "to develop midshipmen morally, mentally and physically and to imbue them with the highest ideals of duty, honor and loyalty in order to graduate
104 leaders who are dedicated to a career of naval service and have potential for f uture development in mind and character to assume the highest responsibilities of command, citizenship and government" ( Mission of the USNA, 2012). Therefore, in addition to their academic, athletic, and military requirements, leadership responsibilities are provided as well. For example, f reshmen also referred to as fourth class midshipman or plebes undergo a rigorous summer and first year experience which includes a boot camp style treatment from upper class midshipmen Sophomores also known as third class midshipman transition from the demands of plebe year and begin to mentor the incoming plebes. Juniors or second class midshipman, are expected to take on leadership roles within their companies and have a more involved role in training the plebes. Seniors or first class midshipman take on larger leadership roles within the brigade (i.e., entire student body) and are responsible for leading and training the midshipman of all classes. These increasing leadership roles prepare midshipman to become co mmissioned officers and lead groups of men and women in the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps after graduation. With the exception of a few individuals, a majority of midshipmen, enter and graduate with the same cohort, completing all of their work within the fou r year time span. Upon completion of graduation requirements, graduates receive a Bachelor of Science degree in one of approximately 18 majors primarily focused in the STEM fields, and a commission as a military officer in the U.S. Navy or U.S. Marine Corp s. A small percentage of graduates are offered an opportunity to transfer into another military service (i.e., Air Force or Army), attend graduate school, or participate in advanced training before embarking on their first job. In most cases, they incur a five year
105 obligation of military service ; however, for extensive follow on training or graduate school, graduates may also incur an additional obligation of service that may extend their initial five year contract. USNA graduate s have generally similar un dergraduate and first career experiences as junior officers and many graduates go on to complete full careers in the military ; however after their initial five year obligation they may choose to reduce their service to part time (i.e., reserve duty), or end their service and enter civilian careers. The refore this population represents a 2 9 year span (24 to 53 years) across stages of work life, genders, cultural and community backgrounds, personal values job preferences and experiences, military length and commitment. This population includes individuals who have served up to 30 years of active duty service, many of whom are eligible to receive military retirement benefits beginning at 20 years of service. Sampling this group of USNA graduates provides a n opportunity to explore the career development, meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness of working adults who had similar educational backgrounds and initial career opportunities and currently represent military, government, and civilian career fields around the world Sampling Procedure A convenience sample was drawn from the population of 32,648 USNA graduates listed in the USNAAA databases from the cohort classes of 1985 through 2010 The frame population or the subset of the full population in clude d only graduates for which a current private email address wa s available through the USNA AA ; emails reach ed graduates at home, work or deployed around the world Due to government limitations, the survey could not be sent to graduates who provided th eir navy.mil work email address as their point of contact However, this d id not seem to limit the frame
106 population significantly I n a review of the first 50 graduates of the class of 2010 with updated emails on record, although most are active duty milit ary, not one used a navy.mil address as their point of contact. Each graduate in the frame population receive d an email on a Monday afternoon inviting them to participate in the online survey. Due to the large size of the database and limitations on indiv idual email accounts, the USNAAA sen t out the emails through their servers to provide the recognition and endorsement from the USNAAA, maintain control of their email list, and help to avoid potential spam filters from mass mailings. The email (see Append ix B) invite d them to take part in the study and provide d a link to the online survey (see Appendix A ). Although Umbach (2004) and Nulty (2008) supported the use of follow up emails to increase response rates and follow up emails were requested, the USNAA 8/6/12). However further access to the survey was provided through additional announcements posted on the U.S. Nav al Academy Alumni Facebook LinkedIn and Yahoo Groups to reach graduates who had not received an email invitation or had not yet and/or respon ded to the email request. The announcements were posted on the following Sunday afternoon. A different link was provided for each social networking site so response rates from each source could be monitored separately. Due to the nature of this population, t he survey remain ed open for a total of eight weeks. Although Umback (2004) and Nulty (2008) suggested that re searchers found lower response rates for online surveys than for paper surveys, t he results of a 2009 Alumni Member Survey showed that web surveys appear ed to be a better mode of
107 contact for this population For example, the 2009 survey went to members of all classes for which they had updated email and mailing addresses. They had a 33% response rate for the online survey, and only a 7% response rate for those receiving a paper copy; the overall response rate for all classes 2012). Therefore, a 25 % response rat e for the online survey wa s anticipated for this study The low response rate would not be representative of the entire population ; h owever, with the large sample size, it may still offer useful data for examining the u nderlying factors of career meaning. Before participants bega n the online survey, they read the informed con sent document (see Appendix C ) which describe d the anonymity and confidentiality of the study, estimated time required to complete the instruments, potential risks and benefits of participation. They agree d to the terms before proceeding. Prior to contacting participants, this research study was approved by the University of Florida Institution al Review Board (IRB; see Appendix E) and the USNA Propos al (see Appendix F) was accepted by the USNAAA. Approval from the USNA IRB wa s not required for conducting the survey through the USNAAA or for requesting the publicly available class profiles. Ho wever, it would have been required if additional population data was requested from the USNA databases. There we re several advantages to conducting this research through an online survey. For example, a large number of people could be contacted multi ple times for little to no cost and there wa s minimal time and la bor required to send out one email to all of the respondents Wher eas, paper surveys w ould cost thousands of dollars for the paper, envelope s stamps, and labor required to prepare and deliver them. With only a
108 7% response rate on the 2009 A lumni M ember S u rvey mailed survey it appear ed that the online survey w as a better option for this population. Additionally, the online survey reache d participants immediately and once they complet ed the survey, their responses we re received without the time lag of posta l delivery. Furthermore Tourangeau, Couper, and Steiger ( 2001 ) suggested that online surveys may reduce or eliminate social desirability effects, and Umback (2004) point ed out that online surveys may reduce errors in coding participant responses, since re sponses are recorded directly to a downloadable spreadsheet rather than transferred from a large number of paper surveys. Conversely, t here we re also limitations to using an online survey Umback (2004) suggest ed a variety of disadvantages including error s and ethical considerations For example, online surveys may introduce bias from several types of error: coverage error, sampling error, measurement error, and nonresponse error. Coverage error results when reaching the full population is limited by the m ethod of contact (Umback, 2004) I n this study, only graduates with a valid private email address were contacted, limiting the representativeness and generalizability of the sample to those who update d their contact information with the alumni association and ha d access to a computer and the internet during the time the survey was active For example, military personnel change jobs and locations frequently and may not update their contact information including temporary or work related email addresses. Addi tionally, technology is reaching out to sea and in forward deployed areas; however, some graduates may not have access to their email or have a consistent internet connection that would allow them to stay connected for the duration of the survey. Therefore coverage may not include all of the
109 active duty members or those employed in international government positions to be represented in the study. Additionally, t here is inherent bias with those who respond and those who do not. S ampling error results when all members of the population are not given an e qual chance to be included in the survey (Umback, 2004) ; this study is using a non random convenience sample of graduates who ha d updated emails on file and ha d an internet connection available. This subset o f the population may not represent th e full population and did not include graduates who do not update their contact information with the USNAAA or regularly access an email account. Therefore, it does not fully capture the variety of individual difference s present in the entire population. M easurement error is a consequence of the survey mode effects including variations on the way a web survey can appear on different browsers, operating systems, screen configurations, and hardware (Dillman & Bowker, 200 1) ; a dditionally, respondents who complete online surveys are typically more comfortable using technology (Carini, Hayek, Kuh, Kennedy, & Ouimet, 2003 ). W ith the wide range of age s and income levels in this population, there may be a variation of equipment and confidence levels with technology ; therefore, measurement error may be present Finally, nonresponse error may be caused when those who complete the survey are different from those who do not comp lete it (Umback, 2004). For example, those from variou s age groups, genders, ethnicities, and environments may respond at differing rates biasing the outcome When women or certain ethnic groups represent only a small number of graduates in the population, nonresponse from those groups may present significan t bias.
110 Umback (2004) also suggested that ethical considerations were important in conducting online surveys. For example, privacy and confidentiality could be a concern for researchers and participants. In order to maintain the privacy and confidentiality of participants, this research survey is designed to maintain the anonymity of participants by not requiring any personal identifiers to connect them to their re sponses, and the online survey wa s hosted on a secure web server. In order to maintain the ano nymity, the frame population, or the portion of the population receiving the email invitation, receive d a general link to take the survey that d id not identify them by their email address Th erefore, it wa s difficult to determine patterns of who responded and who did not. Although there we re several limitations in sampling this population and using an online survey, there we re many benefit s that mad e the study useful. In an exploratory study, the large sample size variety of ages, genders, ethnicity, and e nvironments, were still be beneficial to exploring the underlying factors of career meaning and identifying individual differences that may impact the experience of career meaning. Data Collection Data collection consist ed of an electronic survey that incl ude d a total of 2 46 items from eight instruments (1 94 items) and additional career and demographic items ( 52 items; see Appendix A ) This wa s a large survey and may have discouraged respondents from beginning or completing the surveys The electronic sur vey was designed using www.surveybuilder.com which was renamed to www.instant.ly. The survey took participants an average of approximately 35 minutes to complete; however, several respondents finished it in less than 20 minutes.
111 Survey Builder renamed In stant.ly during the survey dissemination process offers secure web pages. The website follow reasonable technical and management practices to help protect the confidentiality, security and integrity of data We employ physical, electronic and procedural safeguards in connection with the collection, storage and disclosure of a ny personal The survey contain ed a total of 10 pag es including the title and informed con sent page ; a page for each of the four main areas assessed including meaning, values, satisfaction, wellness; three pages for career experiences and demographic information; a final page for comments if desired; and a thank you page that provide d the resea contact information. Participants had the option to move forward or backward through the survey if they fe lt the need to change their answers and they were not required to answer all questions to complete the survey Th is was designed to encourage participants to continue the survey if they desire d to avoid an uncomfortable question, but we re willing to proceed onto the next question. Instrumentation A review of instruments selected to measure participant s responses in the areas of meaning values satisfaction, and wellness are provided in this section They we re presented to participants in the order of life and then career specific responses for each of the four are a s in order to fully capture the various dimensions of their life experiences su ch as relationships, health, or hobbies before asking them to narrow their focus on career specific items. F urthermore to determine the presence of potential bias, a social desirability scale was administered. Fin ally, a series of specific questions we re asked to
112 identify the initial and present career experiences and preferences of participants and their demographic background. The instruments are described in more detail below. Measures of Meaning Several instruments have been developed t hat assess an i life, but few instruments The scale s used for this study (i.e., Meaning in Life Questionnaire, Work and Meaning Inventory see Appendix A ) w ere chosen based on the complementary fit of items that most closely measure the constructs desired. The two scales are concise, and contain a total of 20 items that measure the Life m eaning Life meaning often referred to as meaning in life is described as the sense made of, a existence 2006 p. 81). As areas of life ( Maglio et al. 2005), it is before focus ing on the meaning associated with a specific career and the impacts on other variables such as values, satisfaction, and wellness The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ; Steger et al. 2006 see Appendix A ) is a 10 item measure designed to measure an ind and contains two subscales: the presence of and the search for meaning. Other life meaning instruments primarily measure the presence of meaning and not the search for meaning. Although the scales may seem to oppose one another (i.e. does one search for meaning if meaning is currently experienced?), Steger and his colleagues (2006) suggested that the presence of meaning and search for meaning could coincide as an individual may experience a desire for a deeper or more gratifying understanding of 85 ). Additionally, they suggested that higher
113 scores on both scales may reflect the fluctuation of meaning over time or across activities. For example, individuals might exp erience meaning with their famil ies but experience the search for meaning in their career s Moreover, Park an d colleagues (2010) suggested that when comparing the presence of and search for meaning with life satisfaction and wellness levels, the variance in meaning scores may reflect different stories. For example, for people who experience the presence of meaning, their search for meaning may be a positive expansion of what they want; therefore, they may also experience higher levels of satisfaction and w ell being. However, when they lack the presence of meaning, their search for meaning can be challenging and often frustrating as they seek something that may seem elusive; their life satisfaction may be lower. Although the instrument does not capture the r easoning behind high or low scores, it two scales separately. The presence of meaning subscale (MLQ P) includes contains five items : clear purpose [reverse Steger et al. 2006 p. 9 3). T he items on this subscale have high convergent correlations (.61 .74) between the MLQ P and other meaning measures including the Purpose in Life Test (PIL; Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1964) and the Life Regard Index (LRI; Battista & Almond, 1973), indicati ng that they are measuring the same construct (Steger et al. 2006) The search for meaning subscale ( MLQ S ) includes five items that measure search for meaning :
114 Steger et al. 2006 p. 93). Item correlations for this scal e are not available, as the search for meaning has not been consistently measured in other meaning instruments such as the PIL ( Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1964) or the LRI ( Battista & Almond, 1973) However the MLQ S was incorporated into the MLQ to assess Fran or search for meaning was central to human existence. Responses for the MLQ are based on a 7 point Likert scale ranging from 1 (absolutely untrue) to 7 (absolutely true) with a neutral midpoint. One item is reverse coded. After correcting for the reverse coded item, the scales are summed for each of the items with a total score ranging from 10 to 70 points and each of the 5 item subscales ranging from 5 to 35 points. Steger and colleagues (2006) suggest that the improvements over current meaning in life measures [ PIL and LRI ] including no item overlap with distress measures [Brief Symptom Inventory; Derogatis & Spencer, 1992 ], a stable factor structure, better discriminant validity, a bri efer format, and the ability to measure the search for meaning (p. 80). To develop the measure and test its validity and reliability, Steger and colleagues (2006) conducted four studies with college students. The first study of undergraduates (n 1 = 151 ) used an exploratory factor analyses t o identify two principal factors, the presence of and search for meaning. The two principle factors were then removed from the 44 original items and obliquely rotated.
115 Items that loaded above .60 on the intended factor and below .20 on the other fac t or were retained. A total of 17 items remained. The second study of undergraduates (n 2 =154) further narrowed the item pool to 14 items through assessing goodness of fit with the two factor model (factor loadings below .50) A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with the remaining 14 items, removing four items with factor loadings less than .60, reducing the total number of items to 10. Th e model that provided the best fit and internal consistency included five items for each scale; these items loaded more on the intended factor (.70 .84) than on the other factor ( .10 .13). The scores were normally distributed ( M p =23.5, M s =23.1) and variable ( SD =6.6) within the 5 to 35 point range and provided good internal consi stency for the MLQ P 2 = .86) and MLQ S 2 = .86) scores respectively. The final two studies (n 3 =400, n 4 =70) confirm ed the internal consistency of the 3 = .86 4 = .82 .87), goodness of fit of the two factor model and moderate to large factor load ings (.65 .83, and .55 .84) for each of the factors and a one month test retest reliability coefficient estimate of .7 0 and .73 for the MLQ P and MLQ S respectively. In a s eparate study of 97 undergraduates Kashdan & Steger (2007) reported similar int ernal consistency for the MLQ P and MLQ S scores ranging from .82 .88 respectively In another study of 731 U.S. adults (71% women, 29% men; typical age 40yrs; 66% had college degrees), Park and colleagues (2010) reported a higher internal consistency for both the MLQ scores Additionally, Steger and colleagues (2006) reported that the presence of meaning (measured by the MLQ P) was related to age ( r =.20, p <.05) and the search for meaning (measured by the MLQ S) was related to grade point average ( r =.21, p <.05).
116 Convergent validity estimates showed significant positive correlations between the MLQ P and life satisfaction ( .46; Satisfaction With Life Scale; Diener et al., 1985); positive emotions such as joy (.49) and love ( .4 0; Long Term Affect Scale; LTAS; Diener, Smith, & Fujita, 1995); intrinsic religiosity (Intrinsic/Extrinsic Religiosity Scale ( .30; Gorsuch & McPherson, 1989); extraversion ( .28 ) conscientiousness ( .17 ), openness ( .13 ), and agreeableness ( .23 ; Mini marker s; Saucier, 1994). N egativ e correlations were identified with depression ( .48 ; BSI; Derogatis & Spencer, 1992); negative emotions such as shame ( .20) fear ( .20) anger ( .17) and sadness ( .35; LTAS; Diener et al., 1995) and neuroticism ( .23 ; Mini m arkers; Saucier, 1994 ) Significant positive correlations were noted between MLQ S and neuroticism (.20) depression (.36) shame (.19), fear ( .25), and sadness ( .26); Steger and colleagues ( 2006) suggested that the correlations may support the belief that the search for meaning can come from distressing circumstances (Frankl, 1965) Additionally discriminant validity showed that the MLQ subscales were not correlated with the Schwartz & Sagiv (1995 ) rank ordered values scale ( 12 to .15 ) or the Marlowe Cro wne Social Desirability Scale (Crowne & Marlowe, 1960 ; .08 to .02) Also supporting the discriminant validity, the MLQ P showed stronger correlations between other meaning scales than with other wellness scales in 91% of the comparisons as compared with t he PIL (58%) and the LRI (58%) underscoring the assertion by Steger and colleagues (2006) that the latter two measures are not effective in discriminating from other well being constructs. The MLQ S also showed strong correlations between other meaning and wellness scales (96%), supporting the discriminant validity of the scale.
117 Career m eaning This stud y refers to career meaning as a n experience of a career that is personal values and provides meaningful experiences, a sense of purpose, satisfaction stimulation and fulfillment A limited number of instruments are available that focus on the construct of career meaning. Although this study is designed to more fully examine the factors that underlie and thus, define career meaning, t he Wo rk and Meaning Inventory (WAMI; Steger et al. 2012 see Appendix A ) has been selected as the developers have defined it; it provides a helpful starting point in examining career meaning. The WAMI is a theoretically based instrument that measures overall m eaningful w ork (MW) and contains three subscales for each of the major areas of meaningful work that emerged in the literature: positive meaning in work (PM), meaning making through work (MM), and greater good moti vations (GG). Positive meaning in work refers to the subjective experience that work has personal significance and meaning Meaning making through work i s related to the broader ways that meaning and the Greater g ood motivations is more closely related to the construct of calling (Dik & Duffy, 2009) where individuals desire meaning work that has a positive impact on others To develop the WAMI, an original item pool of 40 items was generated and then reduced to 10 items through exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis,
118 and cross validation (Steger et al., 2012) P articipants included a sample of 370 university employees ( M age = 44.6), who were primarily female (69.7%), Caucasian (90%), and represented a broad range of occupations across campus including faculty members administrative staff and research ers Participants were instructed to an swer the 10 items regarding how they see the role of work in their lives. Responses were indicated on a 5 point Likert scale from 1 ( absolutely untrue ) to 5 ( absolutely true ) The scores for the PM and MM subscales are obtained by summing the four PM items (e.g., 1, 4, 5, and 8) and three MM items (e.g., 2, 7, 9) respectively. The score for the GG subscale is obtained by subtracting the negatively oriented item 3 from the positively oriented item 6 and then adding items 6 and 10 to obtain a total subscale s core ; this presents an unusual scoring dilemma in that it presents problems for validation because item 3 is not expected to load on the construct, but the difference between items 6 and 3 is expected to load. The analyses in this study will focus on the s ubscale level; therefore, it may not present an issue because the scoring will be accounted for in the final subscale score. However, for analyses at the item level, this scoring procedure may present problems with future studies. The subscale scores range from 4 to 20 for the PM scale ( M = 15.12, SD = 4.01) and from 3 to 15 for the MM ( M = 10.70, SD = 3.05), and GG scales ( M = 11.80, SD = 2.85) The three subscale scores can then be summed to obtain t he total MW score which may range from 10 to 50 ( M = 3 7.54 SD = .8.84). The i nitial reliability estimates of the scores were high for PM = .8 M M = .8 GG = .8 3) and for the total Meaningful Work scale = .93 ) There were no significant differences across gender or ethnicity, and only a slight significant finding with age, where older
119 workers were more likel y to find positive meaning in their work. The subscales were strongly correlated with each other (.65 .78) and with the total score (.85 .94). Consistent with their initial hypotheses Steger and colleagues (2012) found that total an d subscale scores posit ively correlated to desirable variables such as job satisfaction, career commitment, calling orientation, meaning in life, and life satisfaction ; as expected, scores negatively correlated to undesirable variables including absenteeism, job orientation, hos tility, and depression. Additionally, using a hierarchical regression analysis, meaningful work was found to explain unique variance in job satisfaction, number of days absent from work and life satisfaction. Steger, Dik, and Shim (2010) suggested that these results strengthened the support for meaningful work as a better predictor of absenteeism than job satisfaction. Measures of Values May and Yalom (2005) suggested that meaning helps to define the importance people place on life and career values M eaning and values seem inextricably linked ; w ithout values, individuals may have difficulty determining what brings meaning to their lives and without meaning, they may have difficulty identifying their values. T herefore it is helpful to understand both values to better understand how they impact career meaning Elizur and Sagie (1999) suggested it could be valuable to examine life and work values together. Therefore t wo scales (i.e., Rokeach Value S urvey, Work Value Survey, see Appendix A ) have been selected to examine both life and work values. Rather than use parallel instruments that measure values in a similar way, these instruments represent models based on different theories to gain a more comp rehensive view of life and work values. The instruments
120 contain a total of 46 goals, behaviors to achieve their goals, and preferences in the workplace. Life v alue s Life values are con sidered to be fundamental components that are determinants of overall attitudes and behavior conduct May & Yalom, 2005 experiences, family influences, or othe r external forces and can be measured through a ranking or rating of specific values ( Rokeach, 1973 ) T he Rokeach Value Survey ( RVS; Rokeach, 1967 ; see Appendix A ) assesses the overall life values through list of 36 personal values for which respondents ra nk their value of importance. The original RVS ( Rokeach, 1973) included two scales that contain 18 forced ranking items each. However later studies ( Chapman, Blackburn, Austin, & Hutcheson, 1983; George & Jones, 1996; Hochwarter, et al., 1999; Thompson, L evitov, & Miederhoff, 1982) found that Likert type scale responses with the same items yielded higher reliability estimates The two scales represent terminal values, which refer to desirable end states of existence or the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime ; and instrumental values, which refer to preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving the terminal values. The 18 t erminal v alues include a comfortable life ( prosperity ) equality (brotherhood and equal opportunit y for all) an exciting life (a stimulating, active life) family security (taking care of loved ones) freedom (independence and free choice) health (physical and mental well being) inner harmony (freedom from inner conflict) mature love (sexual and sp iritual intimacy) national security (protection from attack) pleasure (an enjoyable, leisurely life) salvation (saved; eternal life) self respect (self
121 esteem) a sense of accomplishment (a lasting contribution) social recognition (respect and admirat ion) true friendship (close companionship) wisdom (a mature understanding of life) a world at peace (a world free of war and conflict a nd world of beauty (beauty of nature and the arts) The 18 i nstrumental v alues include 18 values as well: ambitious (hardworking and aspiring) broad minded (open minded) capable (competent; effective) clean (neat and tidy) courageous (standing up for your beliefs) forgiving (willing to pardon others) helpful (working for the welfare of others) honest (sincere and truthful) imaginative (daring and creative) independent (self reliant; self sufficient) intellectual (intelligent and reflective) logical (consistent; rational) loving (affectionate and tender) loyal (faithful to friends or the group) obedient (dut iful; respectful) polite (courteous and well mannered) responsible (dependable and reliable) and self controlled (restrained; self disciplined) as they make career decisi ons (Brown, 1995). T he original RVS was designed a s a forc ed ranking instrument; however, Thompson and colleagues (1982) compared an adult sample (n=1409) who ranked the val u es from 1 to 18 for each set of values with a nationwide probability sample of ad ults ( n =174) who independently rated each of the values using Likert type responses T hompson and colleagues (1982) found higher reliability for the scores when each of the items was rated by participants, as ratings provide independence choices for each v alue. A principal components analysis with varimax rotation was used and they found significant dif ferences in the mean communalities which can be considered lower bound estimates of reliability ; t he ranked
122 item communalities were lower (.41, SD = .09) as compared to the individually rated items (.70, SD = .08). Thompson and colleagues (1982) reported that most of values are highly desirable and allowing individuals to independently rate the value s honors the perceived importance of each value. Other researchers (George & Jones, 1996; Hochwarter, et al. 1999 ) also used the Likert type response scale with the RVS in their studies and found higher internal consistency estimates of the scores ; alpha coefficients ranged from .85 to .93 (Fields, 2002 work settings had in helping them attain their desired end states; a strong positive relationship was found between job satisfaction and performance when value attainment was hig h suggesting evidence of concurrent validity. Although ranking is useful in an individual setting to help prioritize values, it appears that rating each value individually provide d the highest reliability of the scores Therefore participants in this stud y will rate each of the 36 values using a 7 point Likert type scale ranging from 1 (least important) to 7 (most important ). Career v alue s Work goals or values are seen as expressions of b asic values in and can be measured by assessing t he degree to which one values intrinsic, extrinsic, prestige and social values in the workplace ( Ros et al., 1999 p. 49 ) Therefore to look more specifically at values, t he Work Values Survey ( WVS ; Ros et al., 1999 see Appendix A ) w as selected. It includes a list of 10 work values that individuals may find important within the work environment and scales work values into one of four higher order work value types P articipants a re asked h ow important is each of the following to you i n choosing an occupation?
123 relating to the four higher order work values; r esponses were provided using a 4 point Likert type scale from 1 (very important) to 4 (not at all important). Ros and colleagues (1999) developed the WVS from t he basic values identified by Schwartz (1992) Schwartz (1992) identified 10 distinct values based on three universal requirements: individual physiological needs, social interaction needs, and the smooth functioning and survival of groups. These 10 value s fell into two sets of opposing higher order value types or four higher order values The higher order basic values (and ten distinct values) included the opposition of o penness to change (self direction, stimulation, hedonism) with c onservation (securit y, conformity, and tradition) and the opposition of self transcendence (universalism and benevolence) with s elf e nhancement (power, achievement, hedonism). Using the existing literature as a guide Ros and colleagues (1999) identified four higher order value types higher order values but related directly to work : intrinsic, extrinsic, social, and prestige. In a study of 999 Israeli adults, they compared the WVS to an abbreviated version of the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwa rtz, 1992) and found that the work higher order values were correlated ( p < 0.001) to the overall life values. Intrinsic values (autonomy, interesting and varied work ) correlated with openness to change values (.23) e xtrinsic values (job security, income work conditions ) were consistent with conservation values (.24) s ocial values (positive social relations, collaboration, contribution to society) were comparable to self transcendence values (.25) and prestige values ( power status ) corresponded to self enhancement (.29) As expected, the values were negatively correlated to the values that opposed them.
124 The factor loadings on the 10 items supported the four work types (intrinsic, .50, .80; extrinsic, .79, .90; social, .67, .77, .79; and prestige .63, .69), their opposing nature and the parallels with the higher order basic individual values. H owever when the analyses were conducted with subsamples of occupational groups, item 6 (being your own boss) and item 10 (advancement) had multiple and inconsi stent loadings. For order value for all occupational groups except the professionals, where it emerged as an intrinsic val ue. Ros and colleagues (1999) suggested that all groups may have related bei ng their own boss to an increase of control over their own resources, whereas the professionals may have associated it with freedom and independence. Opportunities for advancement had more variation; it emerged as an intrinsic value (independence) for prof essionals, intrinsic and prestige values (independence and power over others) for managers and as an extrinsic value (income and security) for skilled blue collar workers. In a separate study of 885 Belgian employees, Van steenkiste Neyrinck, Niemiec, Soe nens, De Witte, and Van de Broeck ( 2007 ) used the identical intrinsic and extrinsic work value items; however, they gathered dichotomous respons es to each (1 = important, 0 = not important) rather than the four point Likert type responses from not importan t at all (1) to very important (4) They conducted a factor analysis with promax rotation confirming that two factors clearly emerged. The intrinsic items loaded on the same factor with a factor loading of .67 (eigenvalue = 2.30) and the extrinsic factors loaded on the other factor with a factor loading of .57 (eigenvalue = 1.48). These two factors accounted for 47% of the variance. Furthermore, reliability results were reported
125 as .64 and .61 respectively and found a significant positive correlation (.21, p <.001) between the two. Measures of Satisfaction Pearson ( 1991) suggested that i ndividuals place different values on each job factor (e.g., pay, coworkers), and when they feel that they are provided with the set of factors they desire, they usually feel satisfied. However when there is a gap between what they desire and what they experience, they often ex perience less satisfaction Therefore to measure the aspects of life and career satisfaction, two instruments have been selected (i.e., Satisfaction w ith Life Scale, Job Perception Scale see Appendix A ) that contain a total of 25 items. They have desirable psychometric properties and provide a complimentary fit for this study. Life s atisfaction Life satisfaction is described as a cognitive judgmental quality of well being that is dependent upon the comparison of current situation s and what t he y expect ( Diener et al. 1985 ). For example, individual s may find satisfaction when they experience a situation that they desire such as being rewar ded for a successfully completed task. Early l ife satisfaction measures have used single items to assess the construct, or have been primarily developed for older populations; i n response, Diener and colleagues ( 1985) developed a 5 item instrument to measu re global quality of life T he Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et al. 1985 see Appendix A ) was developed from an original list of 48 items In a study of 176 undergraduates, a factor analysis of the 48 items was conducted and items with factor loadings less than .60 were eliminated, reducing the number of items to 10. T he re was a semantic similarity of several items; thus, five additional items were removed, resulting in the final 5 item scale :
126 ; factor loadings rang ed on these items from .61 to .84 Part icipants were asked to indicate their ag re ement with each of the five item s by rating the items from 1 ( strongly disagree ) to 7 ( str o ngly agree). Total scores range from 5 (low satisfact ion) to 35 (high satisfaction). Diener and colleagues (1985) conducted several studies to provide estimates of the psychometrics of the instrument. In a sample of 53 older adults ( M age = 75), the mean score was 25.8 ( SD not reported) In a sample of 176 undergraduates the mean score was 23.5 ( SD = 6.43), internal reliabili ty alpha was .87, and a two month test retest correlation coefficient of .82. In a separate study of 731 U.S. adults (71% women, 29% men; typical age 40yrs; 66% had college degrees), Park and colleagues (2010) reported a higher internal consistency for thei P articipants from both the Diener and colleagues (1985) sample of 176 undergraduates and another sample of 163 undergraduates took a variety of subjective well being measures that were positively correlated with the SWLS including Cant ril's (1965) Self Anchoring Ladder (.62 .66); Andrews and Withey (1976) D Tscale (.62 .68); Fordyce s (1918) single item measure of happiness (.57 .58), Fordyce's (1978) percent of time happy question (.58 .62), Campbell, Converse, and Rodgers (19 76) semantic dlifferential like scale (.59 .75), Bradburn's (1969) Affect Balance Scale (.50 .51), and Tellegen's (1979) well being subscale of his Differential Personality Questionnaire (.68).
127 As predicted, the positive correlations on the subjective well being scales a nd negative correlations with neuroticism ( .48 ; Neuroticism scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory ; Eysenck & Eys enck, 1964 ) served to validate the instrument Diener and colleagues (1985) individuals who are satisfi ed with their lives are in general well adjusted and free from psychopathology Life satisfaction may often be included in wellness instruments as an element of wellness. The wellness instrument used in this study, the Five Factor Wellness Invent ory, has a single item life satisfaction index that will also be examined in relation to the SWLS; it will serve as an additional data point and validating factor for life satisfaction. Myers and Sweeney (2005a) described their life satisfaction index as t he level of overall life satisfaction. Career s atisfaction Career or job satisfaction refers gratification or emotional response to both intrinsic (e.g., meaning, motivation) and extrinsic elem ents of a job (e.g., pay, status ; Greenhaus et al 1990 ) It may be commonly measured through responses to work, supervision, pay, promotion and coworkers (Price, 1997) Many j ob satisfaction instruments measure the degree to which employees have a f avorable orientation towards their job and organization (Price, 1997) and several offer few items that are However, t he Job Perception Scale s ( JPS; Hatf ield, Robinson, & Huseman, 1985 see Appendix A ) provides more descriptive bipolar scales which allow participants to rate their affective experiences (e.g. exciting to dull large to small ) in response to five facets of job satisfaction : work, pay, promotions, supervision, and co workers. The scale us es 2 0 dichotomous scales
128 (four scales for each of the five job aspect s ) based on the Job Descriptive Index (JDI, Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969) P articipants are asked to choose a level from 1 to 5 that describes their present job with the word pairs as en d point anchors. I n response to the job aspect of work itself participants choose a response to the scales exciting dull, pleasant unpleasant, challenging unchallenging, and satisfying unsatisfying. For the pay aspect the scales include rewarding unrewar ding, large small, right wrong, and positive negative. For the promotion aspect of work responses include just unjust, reliable unreliable, positive negative, and reasonable unreasonable. In the supervisor scales, participants choose between near distant sincere insincere, friendly unfriendly, and qualified unqualified. Finally, in the last scale regarding co workers, scales include careful c areless, loyal disloyal, pleasant unpleasant, and boring interesting. Hatfield and colleagues (1985) began with ap proximately 500 semantic differential scales. After review, they were narrowed to the most relevant factors and 75 scales (15 per factor) were tested with a group of 108 undergraduate business students who were working full time. The participants labeled e ach of the scales as it described and stepwise multiple discriminant analysis helped determine which scales discriminated well between the best and worst groups for each factor Ultimately, 21 scales were identified for further study and v alidity of the scales was obtained using a two phased study. First, Hatfield and colleagues (1985) use a principle components analysis with a sample of 670 participants, which showed clear convergence on 20 of the 21 scal in the work aspect did not load on any of the five factors. Second, a sample of 225 participants (144 utility supervisors and 81 business students) took both the JPS and the JDI. Campbel l
129 (1959) multitrait multimethod proced ures were used to determine the convergent and discriminate validity. A matrix of Pearson correlations was derived between each of the factors on the two instruments (i.e., JPS and JDI); the correlations between each of five factors (work, .72; pay, .58; promotions, .57; supervisors, .71; and co workers, .67) were significant ( p =.001) offering convergent validity. Conversely, the correlations between factors other than the primary factor had significantly lower correlations (e.g., work pay, .18 .31 ), thus suggesting e v idence of discriminant validity. Split half reliability coefficients of internal consistency for the scores ranged from .6 7 to 8 8 for the five factors and test retest reliability over a three week period ranged from .64 to .80 (Hatfi eld et al., 1985). Internal reliability coefficient alpha values were reported from another study of 702 participants ranging from .87 to .93 (Smith et al., 1998) Measures of Wellness One comprehensive instrument has been selected to measure life and ca reer wellness (i.e., Five Factor Wellness Inventory see Appendix A ). It contains a total of 80 holistic wellness, and the 5 item work subscale will measure occupational wellness. It has been widely used in cou nseling research and has sound psychometric properties. Life w ellness From a holistic perspective, when one does not have meaning in their lives, it will most likely negatively affect other wellness areas as well, including social, emotional, intellectual, creative, coping and spiritual selves (Myers & Sweeney, 2005b; Crose et al., 1992). well being or life wellness refers to reaching high levels in all dimensions of wellness including the search for meaning. T he dimensions of wellness will be captured using the Five Factor
130 Wellness Inventory (5F Wel; Myers & Sweeney, 2005b see Appendix A ) The 5F Wel is the primary wellness instrument used in counseling research ; it was developed from the evidence based IS WEL using exploratory and confirmatory analysis on the data gathered from the original Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (WEL; Myers, Sweeney, & Witmer, 1996). The 5F Wel measures wellness using 91 items to assess the factors of the IS WEL: the single higher order factor ( holistic wellness) five second order factors (i.e., creative self, coping self, social self, essential self, and physical self) and the 17 third order factors (i.e., thinking, emotions, control, work, positive humor, leisure, stress manageme nt, self worth realistic beliefs, friendship, love, spirituality, gender identity, cultural identity, self care, exercise, and nutrition ) of personal wellness The model also identifies four interrelated contexts (i.e., local, institutional, global, and c hronometrical), and a single item life satisfaction index. The contextual factors include environmental a nd community. The including education, directly through the influence of media including world events, politics, culture, and the environment. The chronometrical or lifespan factor relates to the time dimension of with three related elements (e.g., perpetual, positive, and purposeful) that lead to personal wellness The life satisfaction index r efers to the extent one is satisfied with life overall (Myers & Sweeney, 2005a).
131 The 5F Wel was based on the earlier WEL ( Myers, Sweeney, & Witmer, 1996), designed to measure the life tasks described in the Wheel of Wellness (WoW; Witmer & Sweeney, 1992). However further studies, factor analys e s, and structural equation modeling analyses resulted in the improved measure (i.e., 5F Wel) and model of wellness ( i.e., IS WEL; Myers et al., 2005b ). In the 5F Wel, p articipants respond to attitudinal or behavior a l sta te ments that reflect elements of holistic wellness responses are provided using a 5 pt Likert type scale from 1 ( strongly agree ) to 5 ( strongly di sagree) ; s everal items are reverse scored (Myers, et al., 200 5b ). Items within each scale are averaged and then multiplied by 25 to achieve a score ranging from 25 to 100 for each of the scales. The higher order wellness factor is the sum of scores on all items. Norms were developed based on responses from 3,343 students in university classrooms, professional workshops, research projects and doctoral dissertations. Each scale score is provided as a range from approximately 25 to 100 points and the Total W ellness scores were reported for the full sample ( M = 71.63, SD = 15.87 ) as well as by ethnic group: African American ( N = 920, M = 7 2.06 SD = 14. 96 ), Asian American ( N = 278, M = 69. 73 SD = 14. 44 ), Caucasian ( N = 1,446, M = 76.31 SD = 1 2.29 ), Hispanic ( N = 55, M = 77. 4 2, SD = 8.62 ), and Native American ( N = 80, M = 70.21 SD = 16.46 ). Internal reliability estimates of the scores are provided in the manual for the wellness first order factor ( = .98), five second order factors ( = .89 .96 ), and 17 third order factors ( = .58 .95) as well as the four interrelated contexts ( = .66 .79).
132 In a separate study of 3,043 individuals, Hattie, Myers, and Sweeney (2004) reported alpha coefficien ts for total wellness ( = .94 ) and the five second order factors ( = .90 .94), using the 73 items from the WEL that were consistent with the newer 5F Wel version of the wellness instrument. Convergent and divergent validity estimates were provided in t he manual from several studies. For example, in a sample of 2,837 people drawn from a database, total wellness was positively correlated with happiness (.30), health (. 30), and life satisfaction (.38; Myers & Sweeney, 2005a ) Career w ellness. Myers and Sw eeney (2005a) refer to c areer wellness measured by their 5F Wel W ork subscale, as a sense of well being that is related to eing satisfied with one's work financial and job security skills and talents a ppropriately a manage able workload, feeling appreciated and rewarded, having satisfactory relationships with co workers and supervisors, and the ability to cope with stress in the workplace element in human experience that can enhan ( p. 7 ) The 5F Wel third order factor W ork within the second order creative s elf was designed t o measure wellness factors specific to work (Myers & Sweeney, 2005a, 2005b see Appendix A ). The subscale contains five item s that measure the concept of work (e.g I have a lot of control over conditions affect y work or schoolwork allows me to use my abilities and skills I look forward to the work or schoolwork I do each day I am app reciated by those around me at work or school ). The subscale score ranges from 25 to 100 and m ean scores are available for the full norm sample ( N = 3,343, M = 71.86 SD = 1 6.35 ) as well as by ethnic group: African
133 American ( N = 920, M = 73.31, SD = 14.33), Asian American ( N = 278, M = 69.82, SD = 14.58), Caucasian ( N = 1,446, M = 75.18, SD = 14.60), Hispanic ( N = 55, M = 77.27, SD = 12.98), and Native American ( N = 80, M = 69.68, SD = 19.52). I nterna l reliability for the work subscale scores with a sample of 3,343 students was adequate ( = .79). In a study of 179 West Point cadets using the WEL, the precursor instrument to the 5F Wel, Myers and Bech t e l (2004) found that the cadets scored lower ( M = 69.80, SD = 12.04) than the norm population ( M = 74.84, SD = 13.04) on the work subscale the only subscale with significant difference from the norm. This appears to be consistent with life at the service academies where autonomy and control over meaningful work or school work can be limited in favor of the needs of the military training exp erience. Furthermore, evidence of concurrent and divergent validity were described through a significant positive correlation between work and mattering ( r = .351, p = .000) and a negative correlation between perceived stress and work ( r = .0187, p = .012 ) Measures of Bias Meaning values, satisfaction and wellness are highly personal constructs ; however family, peers, and society can impact the way in which an individual is willing to express their personal beliefs about each of these Social desirabili ty bias describes the tendency to answer questions in a manner that may over report good behavior or under report bad behavior in order to be viewed favorably ( Crowne & Marlowe, 1960 ) Therefore t o identify potential participant respon se bias, Crowne and Marlowe (1960) The original Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS; Crowne & Marlow, 1960) included 33 items utilizing a
134 true false response format. Participants who respond true to many of the socially desirable and false to many of the socially undesirable statements are presumed to have a stronger need for social approval which may in turn affect their responses to measures. The MCSDS has been used in social science research to measure the impact of socially desirable responses on self report instruments To reduce the administration time of the scale, several short forms ( Reynolds, 1982 ; Strahan & Gerb asi, 1972 ) have also been developed to serve as an adjunct to an already large number of survey items Additional analyses compare d the various short forms to determine the best fit for researchers ( Arbuckle, 1997; Loo & Thorpe, 2000; Reynolds, 1982 ). Alth ough Barger (2002) recommend ed using the full scale over the short form, Loo and Thorpe (2000) reported that the Marlowe Crowne Short Forms A and B (Reynolds, 1982) provided a significant improvement over the full scale in its factor structure and internal consistency reliability. The Short Forms A and B contain 11 and 12 items respectively. Loo and Thorpe (2000) also suggested that the short forms are generalizable, as their findings were consistent with those obtained in other studies using different popu lations. Therefore to ensure brevity in this study the Marlowe Crowne Form B (M C; Reynolds, 1982) is utilized to identify potential social desirability response bias. T he M C was reported to have psychometrically sound properties comparable to the full sc ale MCSDS (Loo & Thorpe, 2000; Reynolds, 1982 ) The MC includes 12 items from the original 33 items and is provided in the same true false format. It was developed based on the responses of 608 undergraduate students Reynolds (1982) conducted a principal factors analysis and item analysis of the 33 MCSDS items and
135 compared the results against the existing short forms and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale (Edwards, 1957). He reported that the MCSDS and related short forms provided relatively normal scor e distributions whereas the Edwards SDS was skewed and range restricted. Additionally, little to no significant difference was found between genders ( Barger, 2002; Loo & Thorpe, 2000; Reynolds, 1982 ) Reynolds (1982) described the internal consistency reli ability estimates for the MC scores using the Kuder Richardson Formula 20 (KR20; Richardson & Kuder, 1939; r KR20 = .75) and the concurrent validity between the MCSDS and MC using the product moment correlation coefficient ( r =.92, r 2 =.85). In a later study Loo and Thorpe (2000) conducted a confirmatory analysis with 232 und ergraduates and reported the validity using the Pearson correlations ( r =.89). Barger (2002) also conducted a confirmatory analysis with two samples of undergraduates (n 1 = 4 97, n 2 =431) and 1 2 =.64) compared to the full 1 2 =.74). There is some argument over the validity in measuring social desirability at all (Barger, 2002), yet it may be helpful to determine if a response bias affects the remaining data collected. Therefore, this measure will be used with the understanding that the concept of measuring social desirability is under scrutiny. Participant Background Data Career e x periences and p references A series of additional questions were developed specifically to the USNA population to understand the initial and present career experiences as well as their career preferences of participants. For a majority of
136 USNA graduates, a limited number of initial career opportunities are offered based on the needs of the military. These often include the more co mmon career fields in the Navy such as aviation, surface, or submarine s, or the Marine Corps such as aviation or ground); a small number of graduates may qualify to enter more selective fields including intelligence, oceanography, medical, supply, and human resources. Until 1994, women were allowed in only certain career fields; however, now they are only limited from choosing the s pecial warfare or submarine fields. At times, the limited career options do not align with their educational major or preferences. For example, an individual may graduate with a history degree, yet their assigned duties include working as an officer onboar d a ship in the engineering department. Although the core educational requirements include some training in interest or skill set to work in engineering. Some individuals will chose to find meaning in their overa ll job of serving as a naval officer regardless of what specific duties they are assigned. Whereas others may focus their meaning more in the day to day activities of their specific job and become dissatisfied with a poor fit between their interests and th eir assigned duties. Therefore it is helpful to learn more about their career experiences and preferences to determine whether it affects career meaning in a significant manner. In addition to questions identifying their specific career fields, the World of Work map descriptions (ACT, 2012) were (1966, 1997) As described in C hapter 2 personality and work environments (e.g., RIASEC). P articipants were provided with a list of six specific work environments that corresponded to the six Holland types ; the six
137 work environments were further separated into a total of 26 related career fields. Participants were asked to identify which of the 26 career fields most closely matched th eir actual and preferred job tasks; they were asked about their initial assignment (immediately following graduation) as well as their current job to determine if their initial and current assignments and preferences were consistent. Colozzi and Colozzi ( 2 000 ) values, or hidden underlying interests, and felt that a help him or her more fully comprehend the role of values in career and lif e decision The 26 World of Work categories may help provide a consistent categorization of assigned and preferred job tasks in which to objectively determine if there is a significant relat ionship with assessed meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness. Additionally, it may contribute to the discussion regarding the impact of proper person job fit on job tenure or other work related outcomes Next, participants are asked ab out the involvement of others in their career direction and how career compares to other areas in their life from which they derive meaning. Additionally, because meaning in life and career meaning are such individual and subjective experiences, participa nts were provided two open ended questions asking them to describe in their own words what provides the mo st meaning for them in their liv e s and career s Demographic i nformation To understand the sample demographics and potential mediators of career mean ing a variety of identifying information will be collected on the survey to include age, gender, ethnicity, highest rank during military
138 service, military t enure (length of active service), current job tenure, initial service selection (e.g., U.S. Navy su bmarines, U.S. Marine Corps aviation), current and/or final military career field, current civilian career field (if applicable), number of career field changes after graduation This data will help to understand the sample relative to the larger populatio n. Statistical Analysis Procedures Several analyses were conducted using the participant data gathered from the sample of USNA graduates. The analysis consist ed of descriptive statistics to describe the sample and responses to the scales and subscales (see Appendix G). Additionally, exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression were aimed at answering the two research questions presented in C hapter 1 Describing the Sample In order to describe the sample population, descriptive statistics were used t o determine the total and frequencies for each class regarding gender, marital status, number of children, and ethnicity to identify potential group differences. Additionally, other background experiences such as prior military service, previous college or preparatory school, and high school graduation will help identify potential differences in military, academic, and age readiness before entering the USNA. Many of these variables may be compared against the population data provided in Tables 3 1 through 3 3 to determine the representativeness of the sample to the overall USNA population by examining differences in response rates by various groups. Additional demographic items were also analyzed by class to determine if participant responses vary across cla ss, which may have implications on the impact of age, maturity, and/or career experience levels of the participants. The analyses helped
139 to understand the career experiences of participants including current military status, last military grade held, level their initial service selection and current career choices, level of enjoyment participants experience with their current jobs, and significance of career meaning compared to other areas in life su ch as family, church, and hobbies. For the remaining analyses, the responses of the full sample were used. The range of scores, means, and standard deviations, skew, kurtosis, internal consistency, were calculated for each of the scales and subscales. The range, means, and standard deviations provide an overview of participant responses. Skew and kurtosis are estimates of normality and should be less than 2.0 if the distributions of responses ha d little or no distortion (Bandalos & Finney, 2010). Internal consistency estimates suggest better reliability for scales with higher alpha scores. Additionally, social desirability bias correlations are commonly used measures to determine if participant responses are distorted in a direction considered desirable by society; little or no correlation between the social desirability scale and variables is desired (Beretvas, Meyers, & Leite, 2002). After the sample was described, the two research questions for this study were answered using exploratory factor analysis a nd multiple regression. They are further described below. Factors of Career Meaning The first research question asks wh at factors contribute to a working definition of career meaning? In order to answer this question, the empirical factors that contribute to career meaning were identified. Derived from current theoretical and research literature, four domains of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness provide d a conceptual framework for considering the empirical basis of career meaning. They also
140 provi de d a framework for identifying scales and subscales that purport ed to measure constructs related to career meaning. To measure these domains, seven instruments with 35 subscales were selected. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) at the subscale level was used to further explore the factors underlying career meaning. It wa s anticipated that the subscales of the selected measures would have the highest factor loadings in the domain it is designed to measure. After checking the data for normality, EFA first require d a calculation of correlations for each of the scales and subscales using SPSS 21 Next, if the data wa s normally distributed, the EFA maximum likelihood (ML) extraction would be used ; otherwise, the principle axis (PA) would be used (Osborne, Cos tello, & Kellow, 2008). The factor analysis is a preferred method for identifying the underlying latent constructs (Bandalos & Finney, 2010). A combination of a parallel analysis and scree test determine d the most appropriate number of factors for this st udy. As with most social science research, the variables we re expected t o be correlated to one another. However, a review of the factor correlation matrix determined the proper rotation : v arimax (orthogonal) for un correlated factors and oblimin ( oblique ) r otation for correlated factors (Bandalos & Finney, 2010; Osborne et al., 2008). The factor loadings were reviewed and those variables with low factor loadings across all factors were eliminated because they contributed very little to the factor structure. Moreover, Stevens (1986) suggested that sample size should also be considered in that t he factor cut off criterion should be based on the correlation value that is needed to achieve a Type I error of p < .05 in a given sample size.
141 The adequacy of the samp le size wa s also important in determining the reliability of the EFA. Comfrey and Lee (1992) suggest ed specific guidelines for evaluating samples of less than 200 participants as poor or fair, 300 500 as good or very good and those over 1 000 as excellent and more reliable. Nunnally (1978) suggested that a minimum subject to variable ratio of 10:1 was a better guide. Osborne and colleagues (2008) recommend using both the total sample size and subject to variable ratio in determining the adequacy of the samp le; they supported a large sample and ratio for the most reliable results. With a sample size of 688 for this study and 35 subscale variables u sing the 5F Wel second or third order subscales the subject to variable ratio was 20:1. This ratio is double th e recommended minimum ratio of 10:1 Therefore, the sample size for this study was adequate for an EFA The derived factor structure, factor correlation matrix, and eigenvalues were calculated next and the derived factors were assessed for independence. A secondary EFA was then conducted to determine if the combination of the derived factors result in a higher order career meaning (CM) score. If a single higher order factor d id result, any subsequent analyses would have been conducted using that higher or der factor. If a single higher order factor did not result, then subsequent analyses would be conducted using each of the originally derived factors. For the derived factor s, the numbers of items, range, mean standard deviation, skew, kurtosis, and reliab ilities were calculated. The resulting statistical analyses inform ed the nomological net, or the theory based net of data that underpins the construct of career meaning; the more data supporting the construct, the larger the nomological net, and the strong er the argument for construct validity (Cronbach &
142 Meehl, 1955). Considering all of the analyses and parameters described above, factor s that underlie career meaning we re expected to emerge, helping to empirically refine the definition of career meaning an d providing a basis for exploring group differences. Group Differences Multiple regression was used to answer the second research question: are group differences such as age, gender, culture and environment significantly related to career meaning and its derived factor scale ? This analysis w as aimed at explain ing the relationships between the variables and factors rather than predict ing them. T he derived factors scores were used as the dependent or outcome variables (Y) and individual multiple regression s w ere run for each of the derived factor s identified during the EFA. The independent variables included demographics, family influence, military and academic readiness, military experiences, current career experiences, and environment al contexts The y we re the regressor variables (X 1 X 2 8 ). The multiple regression equation look ed like the following: Y = a + (b 1 )X 1 + (b 2 )X 2 + (b 8 )X 8 + 1 where a is the population intercept and is equal to Y when all in dependent variables (X) are zero; b 1 b 2 8 are the beta weights, or levels of influence the variables X 1 X 2 8 have on Y when controlling for the influences of the other X variables; a nd 1 is the random error or variation. To estimate the regression coefficients (a, b 1 b 2 8 ), a commonly used method of least squares, also referred to as ordinary least squares (OLS) was used; it estimated the regression coefficients so that the sum o f squared errors ( 2 ) was minimized (Ethington, Thomas, & Pike, 2002) Additionally the were provided to represent the regression coefficients as if all variables were standardized, or used the same metric. They allow th e
143 independent variables to be compared fairly, which is not possible with the unstandardized regression coefficients (i.e., b 1 b 2 8 ). The regressions were run for each of the derived factors by using the factor scores as the dependent variable and the demographic, family influence, military and academic readiness, military experiences, current career experiences, and environmental context variables as the independent variables. Furthermore, continuous variables such as age were kept continuous; ordinal variables were left with multiple response categories, and categorical variables such as gender were dummy coded (i.e., male = 1, female = 0) to be useful in the regression analysis. Using the parameters calculated above, an omnibus test for significance ( i.e., F test) determine d if any of the independent variables ha d a significant relationship to the dependent variable (factor score) In other words, this test help ed identify if any of the individual differences we re related to the derived factors. If the test wa s significant ( F p <.05), it would indicate that at least one of the variables had a significant relationship with the derived factors. Additionally, the correlation between the observed and predicted values of Y (R) was reported; the square o f th at correlation (R 2 ) provide s the level of variance explained by the independent variables used in each analysis. It is calculated by dividing the regression sum of squares (explained variance) by the total sum of squares (explained variance + error). F or example, if R 2 = .68, then 68% of the variance of that factor score would be explained by the linear combination of the independent variables used in that regression equation Furthermore, the adjusted R 2 or R 2 A, using the omnibus effect size, can pro vide a best estimate of P 2 or the
144 population value that quantifies the proportion of variance in Y that can be accounted for by the independent variables (Kelley & Maxwell, 2010). A total of 79 variables were entered into each regression equation and a ba ckward regression approach was used to remove insignificant variables one at a time based on a stepping method removal criteria. The final model resulted with only independent variables that had a significant unique contribution ( p <.05) to the model. F urt her tests ( e. g., t tests ANOVAs ) were then conducted on each of the regression coefficients to determine the mean differences of factor scores between the groups A further description of the analyses and results is provided in C hapter 4 Chapter Summary Although a few studies have explored aspects of the relationship between career meaning and meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness, the relationship has not been extensively investigated. This research can further explore the factors of career meaning to underpin its importance in the theory, research, and practice of the counseling profession (Dik & Duffy, 2009; Lopez et al., 2006; Robitschek & Woodson, 2006) A dditionally, military or business leaders may find the implications informative for recruit ment and retention efforts within academic and operational organizations
145 Table 3 1. USNA class profiles : A pplicants, admissions, and gender Class Total Applicants Offers of Admission Number Admitted a Men b Women b n n n % n % n % 1985 11,897 1,647 1,328 11% 1,219 92% 109 8% 1986 12,614 1,662 1,329 11% 1,233 93% 96 7% 1987 13,568 1,676 1,356 10% 1,246 92% 110 8% 1988 14,700 1,674 1,352 9% 1,239 92% 113 8% 1989 14,014 1,718 1,375 10% 1,236 90% 139 10% 1990 14,282 1,692 1,363 1 0% 1,220 90% 143 10% 1991 15,565 1,595 1,315 8% 1,196 91% 119 9% 1992 15,730 1,640 1,350 9% 1,203 89% 147 11% 1993 15,057 1,709 1,403 9% 1,272 91% 131 9% 1994 12,476 1,498 1,232 10% 1,096 89% 136 11% 1995 11,588 1,385 1,133 c 10% 987 87% 146 13% 1996 12,268 1,500 1,240 10% 1,070 86% 170 14% 1997 11,522 1,463 1,181 10% 1,017 86% 164 14% 1998 11,340 1,555 1,207 11% 1,016 84% 191 16% 1999 10,422 1,474 1,165 11% 971 83% 194 17% 2000 9,962 1,527 1,212 12% 1,012 83% 200 17% 2001 10,11 9 1,447 1,175 12% 9 65 80% 210 18% 2002 9,827 1,552 1,231 13% 1,036 84% 195 16% 2003 10,145 1,511 1,232 12% 1,031 84% 201 16% 2004 10,296 1,520 1,224 12% 1,021 83% 203 17% 2005 11,558 1,471 1,239 11% 1,043 84% 196 16% 2006 12,331 1,457 1,214 10% 1 ,022 84% 192 16% 2007 14,101 1,479 1,228 9% 1,023 83% 205 17% 2008 14,425 1,472 1,244 9% 994 80% 250 20% 2009 11,259 1,503 1,2 16 11% 98 1 81% 235 19% 2010 10,747 1,510 1,215 11% 943 78% 272 22% Total 321,813 40,337 32,7 59 10% 28,292 86% 4, 467 14% a P ercentages for Number Admitted are based on the Total Applicants for that class. b Percentages for men and women are based on the Number Admitted for that class. c Congressional mandate for 1995 class size to be 100 less than the year before.
146 Table 3 2 USNA class profiles : Ethnicity ( N= 32,579 ) Class Number Admitted White Hispanic African American Asian /Pac. Islander Native American Foreign National n n % n % n % n % n % n % 1985 1,328 1,165 88% 50 4% 51 4% 55 4% 7 0.5% 7 0.5% 1986 1,329 1,123 84% 66 5% 72 5% 62 5% 6 0.5% 4 0.3% 1987 1,356 1,173 87% 66 5% 68 5% 45 3% 4 0.3% 7 0.5% 1988 1,352 1,170 87% 76 6% 61 5% 42 3% 3 0.2% 9 0.7% 1989 1,375 1,155 84% 71 5% 77 6% 66 5% 6 0.4% 8 0.6% 1990 1,363 1,115 82% 76 6% 92 7% 6 9 5% 11 0.8% 8 0.6% 1991 1,315 1,101 84% 82 6% 68 5% 54 4% 10 0.6% 11 0.8% 1992 1,350 1,140 84% 84 6% 69 5% 49 4% 8 0.6% 12 0.9% 1993 1,403 1,141 81% 89 6% 89 6% 70 5% 14 1.0% 13 0.9% 1994 1,232 962 78% 99 8% 106 9% 55 4% 10 0.8% 7 0.6% 1995 1,133 c 906 80% 80 7% 84 7% 49 4% 14 1.2% 8 0.7% 1996 1,240 1,013 82% 70 6% 98 8% 52 4% 7 0.6% 10 0.8% 1997 1,181 987 84% 68 6% 73 6% 44 4% 9 0.6% 9 0.8% 1998 1,207 967 80% 88 7% 88 7% 52 4% 12 1.0% 12 1.0% 1999 1,165 932 80% 88 8% 86 7% 40 3% 19 1.6% 11 0.9% 2000 1,212 993 82% 86 7% 71 6% 53 4% 9 0.7% 8 0.7% 2001 1,175 938 80% 99 8% 78 7% 51 4% 9 0.8% 10 0.9% 2002 1,231 1,012 82% 86 7% 62 5% 59 5% 12 1.0% 4 0.3% 2003 1,232 997 81% 91 7% 81 7% 50 4% 13 1.1% 10 0.8% 2004 1,224 1,001 8 2% 88 7% 72 6% 49 4% 14 1.1% 11 0.9% 2005 1,239 973 79% 109 9% 90 7% 51 4% 16 1.3% 8 0.6% 2006 1,214 915 75% 121 10% 78 6% 68 6% 32 2.6% 7 0.6% 2007 1,228 926 75% 115 9% 101 8% 57 5% 29 2.4% 12 1.0% 2008 1,244 975 78% 110 9% 69 6% 69 6% 21 1.7% 17 1.4% 2009 1,2 16 944 78% 115 9% 69 6% 59 5% 29 2.4% 11 0.9% 2010 1,215 930 77% 125 10% 77 6% 55 5% 28 2.3% 13 1.1% Total 32,7 59 26, 654 8 1 % 2,298 7% 1,960 6% 1,4 25 4% 352 1.1% 247 0.8% Not e. Population statistics in the publicly available c lass profiles were reported differently by admissions across years. The ethnicity of foreign nationals has been included in the five ethnicity categories.
147 Table 3 3 USNA class profiles : B ackground experiences ( N=32,579 ) Class Prior Military a % Son or Daughter of Alumni % ROTC or Sea Cadet % Varsity Athlete % College or Prep School % H.S. Rank Top 20% % National Honor Society % 1985 5 7 81 12 82 56 1986 4 7 80 11 81 53 1987 5 9 78 19 82 54 1988 4 8 82 26 81 57 1989 5 9 82 27 82 54 1990 4 9 82 26 82 55 1991 4 7 85 27 81 58 1992 4 7 86 28 83 62 1993 5 8 85 29 82 58 1994 4 11 86 36 81 57 1995 4 11 86 34 81 56 1996 3 10 89 31 80 56 1997 5 10 88 33 80 59 1998 8 3 10 86 31 80 59 1999 8 4 9 88 27 78 58 2000 7 4 12 88 29 77 60 2 001 6 5 15 88 28 78 60 2002 6 5 13 90 23 78 60 2003 7 4 11 88 32 74 52 2004 9 5 12 88 27 76 58 2005 8 6 15 86 30 75 56 2006 10 4 14 86 31 78 58 2007 9 5 13 89 32 80 56 2008 7 6 10 89 31 81 57 2009 6 6 1 2 91 3 4 82 59 2010 7 7 26 92 31 80 59 Avg 8 5 11 86 28 80 57 a Midshipman with prior military service were only reported in class profiles for the cohorts of 1998 2010. Not e. Population statistics in the publicly available class profiles were reported differently by admissions across years.
148 CHAPTE R 4 RESULTS The purpose of Chapter 4 is to provide an overview of the results from the statistical analyses. It includes the results of the descriptive statistics for the sample and subscale parameters, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and multiple regre ssion (MR) Sampling Overall Response Rate The USNAAA reported a total of 32,648 graduates in their database from the classes of 1985 2010. G raduates for which a current private email address was available through the USNAAA were sent an invitation to par ticipate in the survey However, t he USNAAA limited their support to only one email for this survey. A total of 1,484 clicked on the survey invitation link. However, 610 never completed the informed consent to proceed with the survey and are not included i n the response rate or any further discussion. A total of 874 participants completed the informed consent page and at least one or more items for a total response rate of 2.68% as compared to the entire database of graduates. This response rate does not re flect the smaller number of graduates who received the invitation through email; that information has not been provided by the USNAAA administration. A total of 834 responses (95%) came from email. A dditional announcements were posted on social networking sites a week later and received responses from the U.S. Naval Academy Alumni (USNAA) Facebook (7) USNAA LinkedIn (18) and USNAA Yahoo Group (15) to reach graduates who may have not received an email invitation or had not yet and/or responded to t he initial email request. Although numbers declined as the weeks progressed (i.e., 638, 130, 36, 31, 14, 12, 9, 4) survey
14 9 responses continued to come in each day until the seventh week. Therefore, t he survey was closed after eight weeks. Participant Inc lu sion and Exclusion After downloading the initial database the database was reviewed and sorted based on the number of completed or missing items. Because the EFA was completed at the subscale level and the MR required complete career and demographic dim ensions, it was important that a majority of each subscale, career, and demographic item be completed by study participants. In order to create a conservative sample with minimal loss of statistical power, only participants who completed all or most of the items for each subscale, career, and demographic item were included. Therefore, participants missing four or more responses in the instrument items and/or missing all or most of their career and demographic items were removed using listwise deletion. Cons equently, o f the 874 participants who started the survey and completed the informed consent 140 participants (16%) were deleted who did not fully complete the instruments, career, and demographic data Of the remaining 734 participants who completed at l east 95% of the instrument items 46 participants (5%) did not complete at least one subscale, full scale, or a significant portion of the career and demographic questions ; they were also deleted. Several of the missing data points in the 46 deletions appe ared to be not at random. For example, four participants skipped an entire scale, yet continued on to others and eight participants appeared to intentionally skip several of the subscales in the Job Perception Scales which may have related to their job tit les and duties. For example, one participant who skipped the supervisor subscale was the CEO of her company, most likely not working under a supervisor.
150 The remaining participants included 688 (79%) graduates T his included participants who missed only on e to three items seemingly at random in the first eight instruments. Since responses were not required to move forward in the survey and the instrument items appeared in a matrix of items versus individual responses, it appeared reasonable that items were randomly missed. Data Management Coding Data For the 68 8 participant dataset used in this analysi s, variables that were used in the EFA and MR were coded for handling with the SPSS and MPLUS statistical software The first seven instrument item s used a Li kert type scale and were coded numerically between a low of 1 (e.g., absolutely untrue, least important, not at all important, strongly disagree) and a high from 4 to 7 (e.g., absolutely true, most important, very important, strongly agree) ; they were iden tified as ordinal, or ordered categorical variables Those items that were marked as reverse scored were reversed as well. The Marlowe Crowne Short Form B ( MC ) used true/false responses and those responses w ere identified as nominal, or unordered categoric al variables and marked with a 0 or 1 The career and demographic categorical variables were coded using a numerical or categorical structure based on the type of variable Numerical or scale items such as birth year, graduating class year, and years of service remained as completed by participants. Binomial c ategorical variables such as gender and marital status were assigned simplified numerical codes (i.e., 0 or 1) to represent each category. Categorical variables such as employment status, college maj or, ethnicity, and i tems that required ranking or selection of more than one category were dummy
151 coded where each response was considered a separate variable; responses received a 1 for selected and 0 for non selected responses and 1, 2, or 3 for rank ed it ems Missing Data Although the listwise deletion procedure described above minimized the amount of missing data it was necessary to fill in the missing values before proceeding to further analyses. There were no more than 3 (0.4%) missing data points in any one variable in the subscales and no more than 16 (2.3%) of the missing variables in the career and demographics section s A limited number of demographic items had means for cross validating items. For example, if high school graduation was missing, b ut birth year and USNA graduation date were provided, many dates could be narrowed down to a single year. The response to prior military service or college helped validate missing value s as well However, if there was no evidence to complete a missing item it was coded as 9 to complete in the next step. All m issing data that could not be cross checked or validated using other items were replaced with values using Bayesian M ultiple I mputation (MI). MI wa s recommended as a more accurate way to calculate mis sing data (Peugh & Enders, 2004) It provides unbiased parameter estimates when data appears to be random, whereas traditional missing data methods (e.g listwise deletion only, mean substitution, regression imputation) can provide biased parameter estima tes even for data missing at random (Peugh & Enders, 2004). Rather than filling in the missing data with one possible answer, MI create d multiple data sets where the missing values we re given different values The MI algorithm use d a covariance matrix to c onstruct a series of regression equations to predict missing values and add ed a random draw from the normal distribution of residuals for each variable. Then a n umber of iterations we re run
152 with new covariance matrices that buil t upon the earlier iteration s (Peugh & Enders, 2004). Therefore, using simultaneous datasets may not be an accurate representation of the random possibilities. Rather, a sufficient number of iterations (e.g., 100 0 ) we re run between each retained dataset One study comparing the signi ficance between 5 or 50 imputed datasets proved that five datasets are sufficient, as generating 50 datasets did not improve the results (Asparouhov & Muthen, 2010). Therefore, five datasets were generated for use in this study using MPLUS 7 Convergence wa s achieved when the distribution of parameters stabilize d (Peugh & Enders, 2004). Typically, datasets are pooled for further analyses to produce one set of results, culminating in more accurate estimates than using only a single imputation (IBM, 2011). Although pooling the datasets can typically be handled by statistical software such as MPLUS and SPSS, that feature was not available for an EFA. Because there were no more than 3 (0.4%) missing responses for any items related to the subscales in the datas et, it was appropriate to assume that there would not be significant differences between the datasets. However, to confirm this, an ANOVA was run on all of the subscales to determine the variance between the five datasets. N o significant differences were f ound for any of the subscales. Therefore, the EFA and MR analysis using imputed data was run using only the first imputed dataset. Screening Data Before cond ucting any analyses, the data were screened for normality and outliers. Many of the variables were negatively, or left, skewed, indicating a larger proportion of the population selecting the higher Likert type answers. For example, in the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, responses ranged from absolutely untrue (1) to absolutely true (7). In item one, a m
153 (7). Many of the other variables had a similar pattern with negatively skewed items. Only one subscale, the Rokeach Valu e Survey Terminal Values showed a normal distribution. The data was screened for outliers and an attempt to filter them out or transform the variables using the arithmetic functions of the square root, Log10, inverse, and exponent were all used. However, t hese approaches were not able to transform the variable responses into a normal distribution. Therefore, parametric tests for the analyses would not be appropriate; non parametric tests were used for further analyses. Descriptive Statistics Sample Demograp hics In this section, i nformation is provided on the 688 participants including frequencies of responses related to personal characteristics a s well as military, academic, and career experiences. The information reported in this section is based on the non imputed data which includes notation of the missing responses for the full sample and by cohort in the respective tables. Personal c haracteristics A ge restrictions allowed participants to enter the USNA between the ages of 17 and 22; therefore, of the 6 88 participants included in this study, up to five years after high school before entering the USNA. For example, s everal participants entered one (18%), two (3.5%), three (3.5% ), four (1.9%), or five (0.3%) years after graduating high school. However, a majority of participants (73 %) entered the USNA immediately after high school.
154 Furthermore, m any graduates tend to remain connected to USNA activities, reunions, and alumni event s for many years following graduation. Therefore, this sample represents a fair distribution across classes (2 6%; see Table 4 1) ; however, overall participation tended to decrease as age decreased. For example, the 688 graduates represent the cohorts, or classes of 1985 1989 (26%), 1990 1994 (22%), 1995 1999 (20%), 2000 2004 (14%), and 2005 2010 (18%). Many of the sample descriptive statistics in this narrative report the total percentage of participants for a particular variable in order to determine the representativeness to the large r population. However, a further breakdown of several variable responses by cohort is available in T ables 4 1 through 4 9 Although a majority of graduates were male and midshipman were not allowed to be married or have chil dren while attending USNA, the current gender identity, marital status, and presence of children (see Table 4 1) may have an impact on the relationship of other career related variables in this study T here were 582 (85%) men, 99 (14%) women, 1 (<1%) parti cipant who identified as transgender, and 6 (1%) who did not answer; this was representative of the population of men (86%) and women (14%) admitted. M arital status was designed to be inclusive to determine if committed relationships may contribute to or i experiences and direction. Therefore, 581 (84%) participants identified as currently married or in a committed relationship and 102 (15%) identified as single or not in a committed relationship. The largest nu mber of single or not committed participants came from the younger classes of 2006 2010. Furthermore, the presence and/or
155 number of children were related decisions. A total of 449 (65%) of participants reported having b etween one to 10 children. Of the 688 participants, 600 (87%) participants identified as White / Caucasian, 28 (4.1%) Hispanic, 16 (2.3%) African American, 23 (3.3%) Asian or Pacific Islander, 5 (0.7%) Native American, and 16 (2.3%) did not answer (see Tabl e 4 2) The ethnic groups were based on the admissions ethnicity categories in order to determine representativeness to the population categories of White (82%), Hispanic (7%), African American (6%), Asian or Pacific Islander (4%), or Native American (1%). Additionally, there were 5 (0.7 % ) international students who participated in this study from foreign navies Four of the five international students returned to their countries of origin to complete their military servi ce obligations after graduation; one served in the U.S. Navy. Y et they all continue to maintain their connection with the USNAAA. Military and a cademic e xperiences Military and academic background experiences such as prior military service, military prep school, previous college or prepara tory school, or pre navy experiences (e.g., growing up in a Navy family) help identify pot ential differences in military and academic readiness before entering the USNA (see Table 4 3 ) Participant responses included a total of 5 5 ( 8 %) with prior enlisted military experience (i.e., Navy, Navy Reserve, Marine Corps, Army, or f oreign military ) 62 ( 9 %) who attended the Naval Academy Preparatory School (NAPS) and 13 (2%) who attended another military preparatory program such as ROTC, BOOST, N ew M exico M ilitary Institute, or foreign n aval a cademy Additionally, 4 (0.6%) wrote in their pre Navy experiences such as participating in Sea Cadets, growing up in a military family, or attending the USMC Platoon Leader course. For those who served in the
156 military before entering USNA, participants served one (8.5%), two (2.2%), three (2.4%) or four (1.3%) years. A total of 179 ( 26 %) reported having previous college or prep school experience before entering USNA. e of three general areas including engineering ( 36% ), math and science ( 28% ), or humanities (36%); 1.3% of participants did not answer Th e engineering major s included naval architecture as well as aeronautical/aerospace, electrical, general, marine, mecha nical, ocean, or systems engineering. The math and science majors included chemistry, computer science, mathematics, oceanography, physical sciences, physics, and general science. The humanities majors included Arabic, economics, English, history, and poli tical science. In addition to their academic experiences described above many graduates pursued advanced education after graduati on completed included bachelors (36%) master s (57%) specialist (0.3%) professional (6%) and doctoral degrees (1.5%) For many participants who advanced their education, the military paid for their education in full (27%) or in part (21%). The remaining participants did not receive military funding for their education (41%) or did not pu rsue further schooling (11%). Additional military exper iences gathered included current military status Participants included those on active duty (39%), active reserves (8%), inactive reserves (8%), retired from military service (11%), separated before r etirement (34%), and one who did not answer (see Table 4 4) Grad uates may serve in the military full time (i.e., active duty) or part time (active reserve). Inactive reserve requires no active
157 commitment but may be required for a number of years before co mpletely separating from military service; inactive reservists may be reactivated to serve in times of military need. Retired military members have served at least 20 years to qualify for ongoing military pay and benefits, but are no longer serving in the military. Graduates who have separated from military service may have left for medical or voluntary reasons to pursue activities and employment outside of the military. last military grade held indicates the highest rank they achieved while on active duty or in the active reserves, except in rare disciplinary cases where they may be demoted (see Table 4 5) and corresponding ranks held by officers in the U.S. military services. However, the names o f the ranks vary by service. Most USNA graduates receive a commission in the U.S. Navy or Marine Corps starting at the O 1 grade and advancing through tenure and promotion to the higher grades. Most graduates achieve a grade of O 3 before their five year m ilitary obligation is completed; therefore, many of the participants from the classes of 2007 2010 were still fulfilling their obligated service at the time they participated in this study. Participants from older classes would be most likely to achieve hi gher ranks ; t hose who separated as an O 1 did so because of early separation due to medical reasons downsizing, or disciplinary action Participants in this sample included 13 (2%) Ensigns/2nd Lieutenants (O 1) ; 48 (7%) Lieutenants Junior Grade/1st Lieute nants (O 2) ; 309 ( 45 %) Lieutenants/Captains (O 3); 146 ( 21 %) Lieutenant Commanders/Majors (O 4) ; 130 ( 19 %) Commanders/ Lieutenant Colonels (O 5) ; 35 ( 5 %) Captains/Colonels (O 6) ; and 1 (0. 1 %) Rear Admiral Upper Half/Major General (O 8). Additionally, o ne participant surrendered his
158 commission and accepted an enlisted rank of E 7 to attend dental school, one did not receive a commission for medical reasons, and four participants did not provide their last military grade held. During their initial service, participants served in a variety of military communities including unrestricted line officer jobs in naval aviation (33%), conventional surface warfare (24%), nuclear surface warfare (4%), submarines (14%), SEALS (1%), special operations (1%), and Marine C orps aviation (4%) or ground (9%). Although most graduates served in the unrestricted line communities above, a few served in the restricted line, staff corps, or other related areas including general restricted line (4%), supply (3%), civil engineering (2 %), foreign service (0.6%) or others (2%) such as naval aviation maintenance, cryptology, intelligence, oceanography, medical, dental, human resources, engineering duty, USNA/NAPS instructor, Army, Air Force, Coast Guard, U.S. Geological Survey, Integrated Undersea Surveillance System, graduate school, or they were medical separated. academic, physical, and medical standards as well as undergo a series of applications and/or inte rviews with leaders in their prospective communities. The order of service selection was also determined by class rank and there may have been a limited number of billets in several military communities; therefore, not all graduates were assigned a career field that was their first choice. In this sample participants reported that the ir initial career field was their first choice (79%), was one of their top preferences but not their first choice (11%), was not an area they preferred yet they still enjoyed their work (6%), or was not an area they preferred and they did not enjoy their work (4%).
159 Furthermore as part of receiving their education, graduates agreed to stay on active duty to fulfill their service obligation of approximately five years. If gradua tes accepted other advanced education and/or training, they may have endured an additional obligation as well. For example, a two year pilot training program may require an additional two year obligation. After completion of the initial obligation, partici pants negotiated for future education, training, or job location in return for extending their obligation (37%), extended their time in service but did not incur an additional obligation (24%), did not extend their service time but completed their last ass ignment (17%), left the military as soon as they completed their obligation (8%), or left the military before completing their obligation (5%); participants in the younger classes have not yet completed their initial five year obligation (9%). Additionally when asked if participants planned to continue military service until retirement, they reported planning to remain on active duty until retirement (30%), remaining on reserve status until retirement (10%), or not remaining in the service (9%). Almost hal f (48%) have already retired or separated from the military and several (2%) did not answer. Participants reported the number of years of military service after graduation including those with no service (0.6%), less than five years (12%), 5 to 9.5 years ( 49%), 10 14.5 years (15%), 15 19.5 years (8%), 20 24 years (11.9), and 25 to 29 years (2%). For participants who left the military or anticipated leaving soon, their reasons for leaving included wanting to try a different career direction (31%), retiremen t (24%), lack of meaning in their career (18%), limited advancement opportunities (18%), lack of enjoyment with their military career (15%), family conflicts and separation (13%), conflicts between personal values and job duties (8%), military downsizing ( 8%),
160 transfer request was not accepted to another field (6%), poor work environment and long deployments (5%), pressure to leave the military from others (4%), poor senior leadership/mentorship/bureaucracy (3%), medical discharge (3%), and other reasons su ch as disciplinary action, inadequate pay, being gay or lesbian, or other personal conflicts (3%). Those areas with 5% or less were written in by participants and grouped by theme. Career e xperiences With a wide range of ages, the in this sa mple primarily worked full time ( 94 %) However, a smaller number of graduates also worked part time ( 2.6 %) or were retired but working ( 0.6 %), retired and not working ( 0.3 %), non traditional such as homemaker or caretaker ( 1.3 %), non paid or volunteer (0.6 %), or not retired but not working (0.9%). A variety of career decisions such as job duties, location, and work hours can be influenced by others (see Table 4 6). Consequently, i n selection decisions participants stated tha t others had a strong influence (9%), some influence (30%), minimal influence (36%), or no influence at all (25%). In their current career decisions participants stated that others had a strong influence (10%), some influence (35%), minimal influence (38% ), or no influence at all (17%). with personal values may also impact their career decisions or experience of career meaning. Participants reported their level of enjoyment w ith their current job s across a range including loving almost everything about their job s (15%), enjoying a lot, but not everything (57%), enjoying their job s about half the time (14%), enjoying only a small part of their job s (13%), and enjoying nothing a bout their job s (2%; see Table 4 7).
161 Additionally, participants felt that their current job s w ere aligned with their personal values absolutely (39%), somewhat (43%), partially (11%), slightly (6%), or not at all (1%; see Table 4 8). Although career can b e significantly meaningful to many, there are other areas in reported that career meaning was extremely important to them because they spend a lot of time focused on their careers (19%), important to them, but they had other equally important ways to derive meaning in life (67%), not very important because they placed more emphasis on other meaningful outlets (12%), or not important to them at all (2%; see Table 4 9). Furthermore, w hen asked to rank the top three areas which provide d family ( 95 %) career (79%) and friends (43%) emerged as Of the 95% of participants who identified family as an imp ortant area of meaning 73% ranked it first, 24% ranked it second, and 3% ranked it third Of th e 79% of participants who ranked career in their top three, 18% ranked it first, 48% ranked it second, and 34% ranked it third. Of th e 43% who listed friends, 6 % ranked it first, 41% ranked it second, and 53% ranked it third. Other areas participants identified as significant included religion/spirituality (27%), hobbies (24%), sports (14%), co workers (7%), service (2%), health (1%), education/self improvement, travel, culture, financial security, and happiness (<1%) Scale and Subscale Parameter Estimates For the remaining analyses, only the responses of the aggregate sample were used and the tables do not include a breakdown by graduating class. The data for th is section w ere generated using the imputed data set so that missing items did not negatively impact subscale and scale scores.
162 First, a description of the subscales include t he number of items per scale scale range, sample range, median, mode, estimated mean, standard deviation skew ( S.E. = .093 ), kurtosis ( S.E. = .186 ), Shapiro Wilk Test of Normality (SW) and internal consistency was reported for each of the subscale and scales scores in Table s 4 10 and 4 11 using SPSS 21 The ranges, median, mode, est imated means, and standard deviations provide an overview of the 688 participant responses. estimator with a weighting constant of 1.34, was used for the estimated means as a more robust non parametric measure of central tendency. In general participants scored in the top half of the subscale or scale range for all of the instruments indicating that a majority of them felt that they experienced a positive level of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness in their lives and careers. S kew kurtosis and the Shapiro Wilk Test of Normality estimate d normality I n all subscales except one (RVS T) the distributions of responses show distortion resulting in a non normal distribution of responses. Lower scores for all three statistics suggest a n ormal distribution, as well as a Shapiro Wilk Test of Normality significance of p .05 ; values of p < .05 show non normality. Finally i nternal consistency alpha coefficients suggest better reliability ; G eorge and Mallery (2003) suggest that 0 0 0 0 0 0 unacceptable. Most of the subscales and scales in this study have at least acceptable alph a coefficients. However, three scales have alpha coefficients that fall below .6 0 indicating poor reliability of those instruments The Work Values Survey (WVS ; .68 ) has four subscales with low alphas including intrinsic (.26),
163 extrinsic (.54), social (.64 ), and prestige (.53). The M arlowe C rowne Form B (MC) has a low alpha of .22 for this sample Additionally the 5F Wel has overall good reliability (.92); however, several of the third order subscales have lower reliabilities including thinking (.50), contr ol (.60), realistic beliefs (.61), and self care (.33). In the next analyses of 688 participant responses non parametric Sp ear man correlations ( ) were calculated for each of the scales and subscales (see Table s 4 1 2 through 4 1 4 ). Of the main scales, sev eral had a moderate positive relationship with each other. For example, the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) and Work Value Survey (WVS) were correlated with each other (.49 p = .00 ); this was expected as they each measure the construct of values. Additionally, t he Work and Meaning Inventory (WAMI) was correlated to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; .5 2 p = .00 ), Job Perception Scales (JPS; .5 5 p = .00 ), and Five Factor Wellness Inventory (5F Wel; .4 3 p = .00 ). The SWLS was correlated to the JPS (. 48 p = .00 ) and 5F Wel (.50 p = .00 ); and the JPS and 5F Wel were correlated with each other (. 40 p = .00 ). The SWLS, JPS, and 5F Wel all include measures of life and work satisfaction; the correlations between them are consistent with their measures. Howeve r, it is surprising that the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) and the WAMI are only weakly correlated (.2 1 p = .00 ) when both purport to measure the construct of Additionally, it may be expected that when one experiences alignment with work values, they might experience more meaning, satisfaction, and/or wellness in their work and life. However, the correlations were negligible between the WVS and the MLQ (.22, p = .00), WAMI (.2 3 p = .0 0 ), SWLS (.10 p = .0 1 ), JPS (.1 8 p = .00 ), and 5F Wel (.1 9 p = .0 0 ).
164 A further look at the correlations of the life and career meaning subscales shows that the presence of meaning, measured by the MLQ P was moderately correlated to several other scales and subscales (WAM I, WAMI PM, WAMI MM, WAMI GG, SWLS, JPS, JPS W, 5F Wel, 5F Wel Cr, 5F Wel 3w, 5F Wel Co, 5F Wel SW, and 5F Wel LS) ; yet, the search for meaning (MLQ S) showed a weak and primarily negative correlation to all of the other scales and subscales including the MLQ P ( .35 p = .0 0 ) The only exception was a strong correlation with the MLQ (.78, p = .0 0). The opposing nature of the presence of and search for meaning could impact the relationship of the overall MLQ with other variables impacting the limited corre lation of the MLQ with all of the other scales and subscales. Furthermore, t he WAMI and its related three subscales had moderate positive correlations with several of the other scales and subscales These included the MLQ P (.41 .59), SWLS (.42 .53), JP S (. 44 .56 ) JPS W (.52 .68), 5F Wel (. 33 .44), 5F Wel 3W (.49 .61), and the 5F Wel LS (.35 .48), all at the p = .000 level. It is not surprising that the scales and subscales measuring work meaning w ere correlated with life and career satisfaction as well as overall and career wellness. However, it is interesting to see weak correlations with the WVS (.01 .29, p = .00 .71) a measure of work values The WVW only seemed to be correlated to the RVS, measuring life values, but not other aspects of work Low reliabilities for these subscales may contribute to these findings. Finally, MC social desirability bias correlations for each of the subscales and scales indicate d tha t responses were not distorted in a direction considered desirable by society. Al l correlations we re equal to .2 8 or less indicating weak or very weak correlation between the social desirability scale and each of the subscales and scales.
165 Many of the correlations were significant at the p < .05 or p < .01 levels, indicating that these findings were unlikely to happen by chance. This is the preferred outcome. Exploring the Factor s Underlying Career Meaning To understand how the subscales selected might help to define the construct of career meaning better, an EFA helped explore possible factors related to this structure. Because the variable responses were not normally distributed, the principle axis (PA) extraction was used for the factor analysis. A parallel analysis was run in SPSS 21 to determine the number of factors that should be extracted. A parallel analysis is also referred as a Monte Carlo approach and is used to determine the statistically significant Eigenvalues for a factor analysis. This is a more accurate estimate than using the Kaiser criterion which arbitrarily determine s the number of factors based on an Eigenvalue of 1.0 or the scree plot alone (Bandalos & Finney, 2010) The point at which the factors in the parallel analysis scree plot flattens out starts with the fourth factor The fourth factor f e ll just above the M o nte Carlo simulation line; therefore, each successive factor after the fourth accounts for smaller and smalle r amounts of the total variance. T he EFA was run using the 35 subscales and extracting four factors. A varimax (orthogonal) rotation was used as th e factors were un correlated The Kaiser Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy ( KMO =.8 9 p = .00) s how ed the sample was adequate for this factor analysis and w ould yield distinct and reliable factors The factors were extracted in five iterations and rotation converged in 11 iterations. An acceptable factor loading is important for convergent validity to show the variables within a single factor are highly correlated (Hair, Anderson Tatham, & Black, 1998). Osborne an d Costello (2004) suggest ed that loadings over .50 are generally
166 considered strong because they account for 25% or more of the variance (i.e., .50 2 ) whereas, loadings of less than .30 account for less than 10% of the variance Factor loadings between .32 a nd .50 were considered weak to moderate. To achieve at least moderate loadings for the factor structure a factor cut off score of .40 was used. The factor loadings for all variables in the first analysis are provided in Table 4 15. Initially, eight varia bles (i.e., MLQ S, WVS E, JPS P, JPS S, 5F Wel 3Sp, 5F Wel 3GI, 5F Wel 3CI, and 5F Wel 3SC) with factor loadings of less than .40 were eliminated. Additionally, the 5F Wel LS, a single item subscale and highly correlated with the five item subscale SWLS, was eliminated because it cross loaded equally across F actors 1 and 2 and the SWLS was a more reliable measure of life satisfaction that loaded more significantly on a single factor Furthermore, al l factor loadings were weak on F actor 4 ; o nly one variable (RVS T) loaded above .40 on F actor 4 yet it loaded more strongly on F actor 3 Therefore, another analysis was run without the eliminated variables and extracting only three factors. One more variable (i.e., 5F Wel RB) fell below the factor loading criter ia of .40 and was also eliminated. A fter running the analysis again, the final factor solution resulted in 25 variables loading on three factors with positive factor loadings between .41 and .88, accounting for 17 7 7% of the variance (see Table 4 16). Of these 25 variables, 22 had a simple structure as indicated by loading strongly on only one factor. Three variables had more complex structure. For example, the MLQ P and SWLS had loadings on F actor 2 of .41 and the 5F Wel 3W had a loadin g on F actor 2 of .3 5, indicating possible multidimensionality of these variables. However, th ey all loaded more strongly on F actor 1 by at least .17. When removed, the factor structure became more complex for a
167 number of other variables; therefore, the three variables were r etained in the final solution. Factor 1 included nine subscales primarily from the meaning and life satisfaction instruments, F actor 2 included 11 subscales, all from the wellness instrument, and F actor 3 included five subscales, all from the values instr uments. T h is alignment appears to be consistent with the constructs measured. Furthermore, t he extraction communalities show the proportion of each extraction has been comp leted. The communality of a variable is calculated by adding the square of the factor loadings for each factor. For example, the WAMI PM had a final factor loading of .88 on F actor 1 .17 on F actor 2, and .09 on F actor 3 Therefore, the communality is equa l to .88 2 + .17 2 + .09 2 or .81. A communality of 81 indicates that 81 % of the variance in the WAMI PM subscale is common variance (see Table 4 16) Low communalities (<.4 0 ) indicate little common variance related to the factors, suggesting the variables may not be reliable measures of the proposed factor solution. T hese variables typically do not load strongly on any of the factors. However, several subscales with communalities as low as .20 are included in this factor structure because they had at least moderate factor loadings Furthermore, t he factor correlations, E igenvalues and percent of variance explained by this factor solution are available in Table 4 17. The cumulative variance explained by this factor solution is nearly 42% T he variables appea r to be distinct and uncorrelated indicating independence and discriminate validity
168 Finally, f actor scores were calculated for each participant using SPSS 21 calculated Bartlett scores This is considered a refined method of calculating the scores becaus e standardized variable scores (i.e., Z scores) are used to create factor scores ranging from approximately 3.0 to +3.0 with a mean of 0 The Bartlett approach creates unbiased estimates of the true factor scores with high validity by using only the comm on factors that have an impact on the factor scores. Thus, this results in factor scores that are highly correlated to their corresponding factor and not with other factors (DiStefano, Zhu, & Mindrila, 2009). A secondary EFA was run using the factor score s to determine if the factors load ed onto a single higher order factor. However, they collapsed onto only two factors with factor loadings of .34 or less for all factors. Additionally, the communities ranged from .09 to .11 indicating a poor fit for this factor structure. Consequently, the scores for the final three derived factors wer e used for the remaining analyse s. The number of items per factor factor score range, median, mean, standard deviation, skew ( S.E. = .09), kurtosis ( S.E. = .1 9 ), Shapiro Wil k Test of Normality, internal consistency for the derived factors, and internal consistency for the standardized items are provided in Table 4 18 Furthermore, the median factor scores were separated by USNA graduating class (see Table 4 19). The median sc ores vary by cohort from .17 to .48 for Factor 1, from .46 to .61 for Factor 2, and from .75 to .71 for Factor 3 for all 688 participants. The factors are further described below. Factor 1 : Finding Meaningful Work Factor 1 included nine subscales with f actor loadings above .40; the subscales included a total of 36 items. Nearly 28% of the v ariance in this factor solution is contributed by this factor. The subscales (and factor loadings) that contributed to F actor
169 1 in order of factor loading strength s in clude d positive meaning in work ( WAMI PM ; .88) satisfaction with work ( JPS W ; .80), greater good motivations through work ( WAMI GG ; .75), meaning making through work ( WAMI MM ; .73) wellness at work ( 5F Wel 3W ; .68), satisfaction with life ( SWLS ; .59) pr esence of meaning in life ( MLQ P ; .58), satisfaction with promotions at work ( JPS Pr ; .45) and satisfaction with co workers ( JPS C ; .43) Overall, t hese subscales measure d the presence of career meaning, satisfaction, and wellness; as well as the presenc e of life satisfaction and meaning T aking a more thorough look at the items that ma d e up each of these subscales and considering the amount of variance contributed by each of the subscales to the factor solution, those with the highest factor loadings wer e weighted more heavily around a common theme of finding meaningful work. Factor scores were calculated for Factor 1. They ranged from 4.06 to 2.06 ( mdn = .20, m = 0, s = 1.06) with a These factor s cores were not normally distributed ; they were negatively skewed ( S = 1.03; K = 1.23 ; S W = .94, p = .00 ). Outliers included all of those with factor scores below 1.75; therefore, removing the 54 outlying cases below that would create a normal distributi on for use with further analysis. Factor 2 : Attaining a Balanced Lifestyle Factor 2 included 11 subscales with a total of 48 items ; 8 % of the variance is contributed by this factor. The subscales (and factor loadings) that contributed to F actor 2 in order of factor loading strength s include d the remain ing 5F Wel third order subscales that were retained These include d stress management (5F Wel 3SM ; 65 ), self worth ( 5F Wel 3SW ; 65 ), friendship ( 5F Wel 3Fr ; 59 ), leisure ( 5F Wel 3Le ; 59 ),
170 emotions ( 5F Wel 3Em ; 58 ), control ( 5F Wel 3C ; 56 ), thinking ( 5F Wel 3T ; 55 ) exercise ( 5F Wel 3Ex ; 54 ), nutrition ( 5F Wel 3N ; 53 ), positive humor ( 5F Wel 3H ; 42 ) and love ( 5F Wel 3Lo ; 41 ) Overall, these subscales measure d four of the five 5F Wel second order sub scales: creative, coping, social, and physical; none of the subscales that ma d e up the essential second order subscale loaded significantly on this factor structure. Although a variety of wellness areas loaded on this factor, the common theme seems to addr ess attaining a balanced lifestyle across differing areas of wellness. Factor scores were calculated for Factor 2. They ranged from 4.49 to 2.58 ( mdn = .08, m = 0, s = 1.10) with a These factor sco res were not normally distributed; they were negatively skewed ( S = .42; K = .18 ; S W = .99, p = .00 ). Outliers included six cases with factor scores below 3.32; therefore, removing those cases w ould create a normal distribution for further analysis. Fa ctor 3 : Acknowledging Important Values Factor 3 included five subscales with a total of 44 items ; nearly 6 % of the variance is contributed by this factor The subscales (and factor loadings) that contributed to F actor 3 in order of factor loading strengths include d the life and career values instruments: universal terminal values (RVS T; .70), universal instrumental values (RVS I; .66), prestige work values (WVS P; .53), social work values (WVS S; .49), and intrinsic work values (WVS I; .48). Overall, thes e subscales include d all but one of the life and career values subscales. The only subscale that did not load from the two values instruments was extrinsic work values (WVS E; .04 .26). That subscale measured the importance of
171 salary and job security. Int erestingly the job satisfaction with pay/salary loaded weakly on F actor 1 (.39) and was also eliminated indicating the extrinsic aspects of a job were not related to career meaning Consequently, since the scales focused on rating the importance of value the common theme for Factor 3 appeared to be acknowledging important values Calculated scores for Factor 3 ranged from 3.13 to 3.20 ( mdn = 0, m = 0, s = 1.17) with a tor scores were normally distributed ( S = .02; K = .25 ; S W = 1.00, p = .53 ) ; therefore, all 688 participant scores could be used for further analysis. Understanding Group Differences To answer research question two (i e., a re group differences such as ag e, gender, culture and environment significantly related to career meaning and its derived factor scale ? ), multiple regression was used to explore the impact of the career and demographic variables on the derived factors The factors scores were used as t he dependent variables (Y) and linear regressions were run f or each of the derived factors as demographic characteristics family influence, military and academic read iness, military experiences, current career experiences, and environmental contexts. Furthermore, outliers were removed from the sample in order to create a normalized distribution of factor scores before running the analyses for each factor. Only the outl iers related to a specific factor were removed before each analysi s. Therefore, the sample sizes used for each of the factors differs slightly (i.e., Factor 1, N = 634; Factor 2, N = 682; Factor 3, N = 688). Outliers for Factor 1 included 54 cases with fa ctor scores below 1.75. Outliers for Factor 2 included 6 cases with factor scores
172 below 3.32 There were no outliers for Factor 3; the scores were normally distributed allowing for all 688 participant scores to be used for further analysis. A backward re gression approach was used to remove insignificant variables and produce a model containing only independent variables that contributed significantly ( p .05) to the final model. This approach started by eliminating the most insignificant variable first an d reexamin ed the equation with each successive step, resulting in a final linear regression equation that included only significant variables Initially, a model containing the 94 main effects was entered first and assess ed for collinearity. Collinearity i nflates the variance accounted for by the variables in the model. Therefore, Belsley, Kuh, and Welsch (1980) suggested that variables should have a variance inflation factor (VIF) of less than 10. In order to reduce collinearity, extra v ariables that measu USNA cohort) were removed in favor of a single variable Dummy coded variables with one large group (e.g., White ethnicity) were set as the reference group and removed from the model to reduce t he correlation with the other dummy coded variables measuring the same element. Other variables that were distinct, but highly correlated were centered by subtracting the mean from the original raw score of that variable, creating a new score centered on t he group mean (Robinson & Schumacker, 2009) This approach was helpful to reduce the collinearity between main effects as well as any collinearity introduced by adding interaction effects to the models. The independent variables in the final regression mod els for this study had a VIF of less than 2, with a few exceptions. However, all variables had a VIF of less than 5, which is considered a more conservative estimate of variance inflation
173 After regressing only the remaining 79 main effects, a number of in teraction effects were added to the model and run again. In order to identify potential interaction effects, t tests were used to highlight significant factor score mean differences in the demographic variabl es and any significant variables remaining from the main effects model were considered for possible interactions with other variables For example, there were differences in mean Factor 1 scores for age, marital status, and presence of children. A dditionally, a significant main effect was one that measu red the influence of controlled for by age, marital status, and children respectively. Finally, to determine the specific impact of the significant variables on the derive d factor scores, further tests ( e. g., t tests ANOVAs ANCOVAs ) w ere conducted on the remaining significant main and interaction effects The results of the regressions are summarized below. Factor 1: Finding Meaningful Work The backwards multiple linear r egression analysis for Factor 1 scores ( N = 634) reduced the number of main effects from 79 to 14 variables for the model that included only the main effects. The linear combination of the main effects explained 51% ( R 2 = .51, F = 46.16, p = .00) of the Fa ctor 1 variance When adding in 25 potential interaction effects, the model retained 12 main effects and 3 interaction effects. The variance explained increased to 52% ( R 2 = .5 2 F = 44.16 p = 00 ) indicating a better fit when including the i nteractions In terms of unique contribution, many of the main effects were consistent across both models. However, t wo main effects dropped out completely including the 5F Wel institutional environmental context and retirement as a reason for leaving the military.
174 A lthough a third main effect was removed (i.e., involvement of others in current career direction) it was incorporated into the interaction effects in the final model Furthermore, one new main effect was added to the model (i.e., religion/spirituality as a top area of meaning ) as well as two interactions (i.e., part time employment status moderated by age and presence of children). A total of 15 main and interaction effects were retained in the final model. and satisfaction, s tatistically significant positive contribut ors to the model in order of their contributions included their current career s the alignment of values with career, family as a top area of meaning influence of ot hers in current career direction when controlled by marital status the importance of career meaning relative to other areas in time employment status when controlled for presence of children religion/ spirituality as a top area of meaning, and Native American ethnicity. S ignificant negative contributors to the model included part time employment, lack of meaning as a reason for leaving the military, part time employment status when controlled for age initial career selection of supply corps retired employment status, lack of enjoyment as a r eason for leaving the military and Hispanic/Latino(a) ethnicity (see Table 4 20). ANOVAs were run for the variables that included more than two response categories P for their current job, showed a significant main effect on Factor 1 scores ( F = 75.24, p = .00, p 2 hoc analysis showed several significant differences for the comparisons of Factor 1 mean scores between participants who enjoyed nothing about their jobs ( n = 4, m = .69, s = .48),
175 enjoyed only a small part of their jobs ( n = 53, m = .72, s = .73), enjoyed their jobs about half the time ( n = 86, m = .28, s = .64), enjoyed a lot but not everything about their jobs ( n = 392, m = .27, s = .65), and enjoyed just about everything in their jobs ( n = 99, m = .95, s = .55). On averag e, p articipants who scored lowest on Factor 1 enjoyed nothing or only a small part of their jobs; those who scored highest loved almost everything about their jobs. Because Factor 1 scores contained items that measured both meaningful and satisfying work, this finding seems appropriate. All comparisons between the five response categories had statistically significant differences in the mean Factor 1 scores with the exception of the lowest scoring categories ( p = .00 .03) Those who enjoyed nothing about their jobs were not significantly different than those enjoyed only a small part or enjoyed their jobs about half the time. In addition, p alignment of values with their current job s showed a significant main effect on Factor 1 scores ( F = 8 7.39 p = .00, p 2 = 29 post hoc analysis also showed significant differences ( p = .00 .04) between the comparisons of all response categories on Factor 1 mean scores Participants responded that their current jobs were aligned with their values only slightly ( n = 23 m = 90 s = 60 ), about half the time ( n = 6 3, m = 4 7, s = 71 ), most of the time ( n = 281 m = .05 s = .64), and all the time ( n = 267 m = 64 s = .6 7 ). Although participants were given the option to choose a fifth res ponse category indicating that their jobs were not aligned with their values at all, none of the 634 participants selected that category. There was a linear relationship between the responses and the Factor 1 scores. Participants who scored lowest on Facto r 1 felt their values were in alignment with their jobs only slightly ; whereas, those who scored highest felt their values were in alignment
176 with their jobs almost all of the time. As anticipated from the literatur e ( Amundson et al., 2010 ; George & Jones, 1996; Guion & Landy, 1972; Hochwarter et al. 1999; James & James, 1989 ; Locke, 1976; Mottaz, 1985; Nord et al., 1990 ; Park et al. 2010 ) participants with jobs that we re in alignment with their values tended to experience more meaningful work. Another v ariable, t he importance of career meaning relative to other areas in life also had a significant main effect on Factor 1 scores ( F = 22.94, p = .00, p 2 = .10). Participants were told that career meaning was one aspect of meaning in life and asked how sig nificant their careers were in providing a source of meaning compared to other areas. They responded that career was not at all important ( n = 4, m = .88, s = .72), not very important because they placed more emphasis on other areas of meaning ( n = 76, m = .34, s = .66), important but there were other equally important areas of meaning ( n = 439, m = .24, s = .76), and extremely important because they spen t a lot of time focused on their careers ( n = 115, m = .49, s = .74). There was a linear relationship between the responses and the Factor 1 scores as well. P articipants who scored lowest on Factor 1 felt that careers were not a significant area from which they derived meaning; those who scored highest felt their careers were an extremely significant area from which they derived meaning. hoc analysis showed significant differences ( p = .00 .01) between the comparisons of all response categories on Factor 1 mean scores except one. The differences between those who reported that career was not at all important were not statistically significant than those who reported career was not very important ( p = 49 ) meaning in life and satisfaction as well as the career aspects of meaning, satisfaction,
177 and wellness. Yet even for those who rated career less important than other areas, they scored significantly less on Factor 1 than participants reporting a higher level of importance for career meaning in their lives. Furthermore, ANOVAs showed a signific ant main effect on Factor 1 scores ( F = 3.31 p = .0 2 p 2 = 0 2) for participants who selected family as a top area from which they derived the most meaning. Participants ranked the areas to indicate whether family was their first ( n = 448 m = 21 s = 7 6 ), second ( n = 141 m = 31 s = .7 7 ) or third ( n = 20 m = .06 s = 88 ) most significant area from which they derived meaning Although most participants selected family as their top area of meaning, a small number of participants did not rank family in their top three at all ( n = 25 m = .15 s = 97 ) Factor 1 scores were not significantly different between the response groups with the exception of one comparison. The participants who selected family as a second most meaningful category had Factor 1 scores that were 45 higher than those who did not select family at all. Since most people selecting family as second listed career as their first most meaningful area, this highlights the possible significance of both career and family as meaning contri butors to Alternatively, although several participants ( n = 69) selected religion/spirituality as a top area of meaning and that contributed positively to the variance in Factor 1 scores analysis revealed that there was not a significant main effect on Factor 1 scores ( F = 2.08 p = 1 0, p 2 = 01 ) and there were no statistically significant differences in Factor 1 scores from those who did not select that area. In order t o examine the variables with dichotomous resp onses t tests were run for several of the main effects. Analysis revealed significant differences between the
178 mean Factor 1 scores of those who chose the S upply C orps in their initial career selections and those who did not ( t = 3.07, p =.00). Those who chose the supply field ( n = 22) scored .52 less on Factor 1 scores than did those who selected other areas of initial career directions ; participants choosing supply reported lower levels of meaningful work. Furthermore, Factor 1 mean scores of those who r eported a lack of enjoyment as a reason for leaving military service ( n = 85) were significantly different than those who did not indicate enjoyment as a reason for leaving ( t = 5.34 p =. 00 ) Those who lacked enjoyment in their careers scored on average .48 less on Factor 1 scores than those who did not specify that reason for leaving. Additionally, those leaving because they no longer found meaning in their military careers ( n = 100) also had significantly lower Factor 1 scores than those who did not ind icate meaning as a reason for leaving ( t = 6.68 p =. 00 ) Those who found less meaning in their careers scored on average .55 less than others for Factor 1. This makes logical sense considering Factor 1 refers to finding meaningful work. Moreover, when e xploring ethnicity, t tests showed a significant mean difference ( t = 2.73, p = .01) for participants who identified as Hispanic/Latino(a) compared to those who did not. They scored .42 less on average on Factor 1 scores than non Hispanic/Latino(a) groups There was also a significant mean difference ( t = 2.87, p = .00) between those who identified as Native American and those who did not; they scored 1.0 higher on average for Factor 1 scores than non Native American groups. These mean differences indicate d that that Hispanic/Latino(a) participants experienced
179 the lowest levels of meaningful work as compared to the other groups; whereas, Native American participants reported the highest levels. T tests were also used to look at two current employment status categories (i.e., part time and retired). There were no significant differences in the means of each group compared to those in other groups. However, w hen part time employment status was controlled for presence of children, a two way ANOVA showed a signi ficant interaction effect in mean Factor 1 scores ( F = 4.91 p = 00 p 2 = .0 2 ) However, none of the group differences were statistically significant. When part time status was controlled by age, there was also a significant interaction effect in mean Factor 1 scores ( F = 2.95 p = 05 p 2 = .0 1 ) For this interaction, th ere were significant mean differences in scores for the oldest age group. The Factor 1 scores rose slightly with age for participants not working part time. However, the scores decreased significantly for older participants when they work ed part time; the participants between 48 and 53 years of age had mean Factor 1 scores 1.63 less than those who did not work part time ( p =.00). Participants did not indicate if part time work was desired or a consequence of di fficulty finding full time work. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the cause of these findings. Finally a two way ANOVA w as used to show a significant interaction effect in mean Factor 1 scores for the influence of others in a current career direction when controlled by marital status ( F = 2.13 p = 04 p 2 = .0 2 ) Factor 1 scores were high for both married/committed ( n = 52, m = .43, s = .82) and single ( n = 10, m = .41, s = .81) participants when they felt strongly influenced by ot hers. For the married/committed participants, the mean scores were all po sitive but declined slightly for those who felt influenced somewhat ( n = 201, m = .27, s = .74), minimally ( n = 207, m = .21, s = .74),
180 or not all by others ( n = 84, m = .13, s = .81). For single participants, the mean scores declined even more when they f elt influenced somewhat ( n = 28, m = .10, s = .86), minimally ( n = 33, m = .03, s = .80), or not all by others ( n = 19, m = .00, s = 1.02). The only statistically significant differences in scores were for those somewhat influenced by others ( p = .02); ma rried/committed participants had Factor 1 scores .38 higher than single participants. Factor 2: Attaining a Balanced Lifestyle The backwards multiple linear regression analysis for Factor 2 scores ( N = 6 82 ) reduced the number of main effects from 79 to 7 variables for the model that included only the main effects. The linear combination of the main effects explained 35% ( R 2 = .35, F = 52.20 p = .00) of the Factor 2 variance. When adding in 19 potential interaction effects, the model retained 9 main effects and 1 interaction effects. The variance explained increased to 36% ( R 2 = .36 F = 38.24 p = 00 ) indicating a better fit when including the interactions In terms of unique contribution, all of the main effects from the first model were kept in the fin al model containing both the main and interaction effects with the exception of one which was included only as an interaction effect (i.e., enjoyment of current career). Furthermore, three additional main effects were retained in the final model (i.e., hig hest degree, marital status, and global environmental context). As Factor 2 measured a balanced lifestyle through scores statistically significant positive contributors to the model in order of their contributions included the chronological context local context institutional context pre Navy experiences marital status, health as a top area of meaning, and the global context. S ignificant negative contributors to the model included the importance of career
181 meaning relativ enjoyment of current career when controlled for gender and highest degree completed (see Table 4 21). In the final multiple regression model, the four interrelated environmental contexts measured in the 5F Wel scal e were retained: local, institutional, global, and chronometrical The local contexts include family, neighborhood and community. The institutional contexts includ e education, religion, government, business, and industry. The global contexts include the i nfluence of media, world events, politics, culture, and the environment. The chronometrical context incorporates a lifespan dimension related to the perp etual, positive, and purposeful elements that promote well being (Myers & Sweeney, 2005a) The s cores f or each of the interrelated context subscales could range from 25 to 100. The maximum scores reported for all four contexts were 100; however, the minimum scores varied. Therefore, to compare differences between factor scores, the scores for each of the co ntexts were divided at the median score, representing the highest and lowest scores for each context The local context scores ranged from 40 to 100 with a cut point of 85. The institutional context scores ranged from 25 to 100 with a cut point of 75. The global context low scores ranged from 25 to 100 with a cut point of 66.7. The chronological context ranged from 50 to 100 with a cut point of 81. The Factor 2 mean scores were higher for all groups who scored more high ly on the contextual subscales. T he me ans differed between the high and low scores by.29 for t he local, .63 for the institutional, .43 for the global, and .84 for the chronological contexts suggesting that participants who scored higher all of the contexts also experienced more balanced lifest yles. T tests indicated significant differences of Factor 2 mean scores between the high and low scorers for each of the contexts ( p = .00)
182 Furthermore, only one interaction effect in the final regression model showed significant differences in Factor 2 s careers controlled by gender (F = 2.71 p = 01 p 2 = 03 ). The pattern of scores was noteworthy; participants who either enjoyed nothing or everything about their jobs had the highest Factor 2 scores with slight differences by gender. For example, males had the highest scores when they enjoyed nothing about their jobs; f emales had higher scores when they loved just about everything about their jobs. Both males and females who responded that they enjoyed the ir jobs about half the time had the lowest Factor 2 scores. Females generally scored higher than males across all response categories; however, the only statistically significant difference was for those who reported that they enjoyed a lot, but not everyt hing about their current careers ( p = .02). The female participants had Factor 2 scores that were .35 higher than male scores. Although several main effects were retained in the regression model, there were no significant differences for the remaining vari ables. A n ANOVA showed that t he importance of career meaning relative to other areas in life had a significant main effect on Factor 2 scores (F = 2.89 p = .0 3 p 2 = .10). However, none of the comparisons between group responses was significant. Although mean scores for Factor 1 increased as importance placed on career meaning increased there is an inverse effect with Factor 2 scores measuring a variety of well ness aspects The more importance participants placed on career meaning, the lower their holistic wellness scores. That seems counterintuitive unless those who place d more importance on career meaning we re also more disappointed if their current careers we re not meaningful or satisfying.
183 their importance of career meaning, no significant interaction effect was found. Furthermore, the remaining variables in the regression model did not have significant main effects or mean differences in the Factor 2 scores. A small number of participants who selected health as a top area of meaning; however, an ANOVA showed no significant main effect on Factor 2 sc ores and scores were not statistically different between groups. degrees had the highest mean scores and those with professional degrees had the lowest mean scores, there were no statistically significant main effect s or differences between the Factor 2 scores for any of the groups. Moreover t tests showed that there were no differences between those who were married/committed and those who were singl e or between participants who reported pre navy types of experience s such as service in the Sea Cadets and growing up in a navy family and those who did not select that option. Factor 3: Acknowledging Important Values The backwards multiple linear regression analysis for Factor 3 scores ( N = 6 88 ) reduced the number of ma in effects from 79 to 12 variables for the model that included only the main effects. The linear combination of the main effects explained 16% ( R 2 = .16, F = 10.40, p = .00) of the Factor 3 variance. When adding in 33 potential interaction effects, the mod el retained 7 main effects and 7 interaction effects. The variance explained increased to 18% ( R 2 = .18 F = 10.77 p = 00 ) indicating a better fit when including the interactions In terms of unique contribution, six of the main effects were retained in both models and six of the original main effects were retained in the second model as
184 interaction effects only (i.e., importance of career meaning, meaning and pressure as reasons for leaving, prior NAPS experience, age, and African American ethnicity). F urthermore, one additional main effect was added in the final model (i.e., prior military enlisted experience). As Factor 3 acknowledgement of importa nt values statistically significant positive contributors to the model in order of their contributions included the global context, importance of career meaning when controlling for non minority (i.e., White) status, advanced education funding from the military when controlled by age and African American ethnicity, institutional context prior college or preparatory school, pressure from others as a reason for leaving military service controlled by age initial career selection preferred when controlled by African American ethnicity, friends as a top area of meaning, and prior military e nlisted experience. Significant negative contributors to the model included advanced educational funding from the military, prior NAPS experience controlling for prior college/preparatory school, lack of meaning as a reason for le aving military service con trolled by age, and initial career selection preferred (see Table 4 22) T tests revealed significant differences between the high and low mean scores for both the global ( t = 6.15 p =. 00) and institutional ( t = 5.15 p =. 00) contexts. The Factor 3 mean scores were higher for all groups who scored more high ly on the contextual subscales. The means differed between the high and low scores by .53 for the global and .45 for the institutional contexts inferring that participants who scored higher on these co ntexts placed a higher importance on their values.
185 T tests showed no significant differences in Factor 3 scores between participants who reported enlisted military service or college experience prior to entering the USNA. However when prior NAPS experienc e was controlled by prior college or preparatory school, there was a significant interaction effect (F = 3.39 p = .0 3 p 2 = .0 1 ) Since NAPS is a preparatory school, all participants who attended NAPS also indicated having college experience; however, se veral of those who did not attend NAPS did attend a college or preparatory school elsewhere. P articipants who reported having prior college experience and attend ing NAPS had Factor 3 scores .37 lower than those who did not attend NAPS ( p = .04). Furthermo re, military funding of advanced education was available for many service members completing active duty assignments. Participants could have received full funding, partial funding or obtained advanced education without military funding. For participants who reported pursuing an advanced education ( n = 612), there was a significant main effect on Factor 3 scores (F = 2.58 p = .0 5 p 2 = .0 1 ) Consequently those who received full military funding had Factor 3 scores that were .44 lower than participants w ho did not pursue advanced education ( p = .03). Moreover, w hen advanced funding was controlled by age there was a significant interaction effect on Factor 3 scores (F = 1.89 p = .0 1 p 2 = .0 6 ) When age was divided into categories based on a relatively equal number of participants, t here were also several significant mean differences across age groups. For participants receiving full military funding, 36 40 year olds had Factor 3 scores .64 less than those 41 44 years and .66 less than participants 46 4 7 years ( p = .02). For participants receiving partial military funding, 46 47 year olds had the highest Factor 3 scores; they were .81
186 higher than the 41 44 year olds ( p = .01), .78 higher than the 36 40 year olds ( p = .02), .72 higher than the 31 35 year olds ( p = .03), and 1.03 higher than the 24 30 year olds ( p = .00). Additionally, the 48 53 year olds had 1.14 higher Factor 3 scores than the 36 40 year olds ( p = .05) and 1.18 higher than the 31 35 year olds ( p = .03). Finally, the 31 35 year olds had .7 9 higher scores than the 24 30 year olds ( p = .02). There were no statistically significant differences between the age groups for participants who pursued advanced education but did not receive any funding. Those scores were relatively close to the mean. When funding was controlled by African American ethnicity, the interaction effects were not significant, nor were any differences in mean scores. When p ressure from others as a reason for leaving military service was controlled by age, a two way ANOVA rev ealed a significant interaction effect (F = 2.9 8 p = .0 0 p 2 = .0 5 ) and significant differences in age groups on Factor 3 scores between the those who left or plan to leave military duty because of pressure and those who did not indicate that reason for leaving. Participants who did not indicate pressure from ot hers as a reason had relatively similar scores across ages; however, those who left because of pressure ( n = 28) had significantly higher Factor 3 mean scores for the 41 44 and 46 47 year age group s ( p = .01). When lack of meaning as a reason for leaving w as controlled by age, there was a significant interaction effect (F = 1.79 p = .0 5 p 2 = .0 3 ) ; however, there were no significant differences in mean Factor 3 scores across age groups. When importance of career meaning relative to other areas in life was controlled by non minority status, a two way ANOVA showed a significant interaction effect on Factor 3 scores (F = 6.26 p = .0 0 p 2 = .0 6 ). T he non White group generally had Factor
187 3 scores that were higher than the White scores with one exception whe re non White scores were lowe r for participants who felt that career meaning was extrem ely important. However, the non White groups scored significant ly higher on Factor 3 compared to White participants when participants reported career meaning was not very important or that it was important ( p = 0) Non White groups scored 1.02 higher on Fa ctor 3 scores meaning was important. Although many participants received their preferred initial career selection, several did not because of a limited quota in certain military career fields A n ANOVA showed no significant main effect in Factor 3 scores between those who received their first choice, received a preferred career but not their first choice, did not prefer their initial career field but enjoyed it, or did not prefer and did not e njoy their initial career However, Factor 3 scores for those who did receive their first choice were .61 lower than for those who did not receive their first choice and did not enjoy their careers ( p = .03). No other comparisons were statistically signifi cant. When preferred career choice was controlled by African American ethnicity, a two way ANOVA showed a significant interaction effect on Factor 3 scores (F = 2.89 p = .01, p 2 = .0 3 ). Although Factor 3 scores were generally higher for African American participants in each of the response categories, they were significantly lower when participants did not prefer their initial careers but they did enjoy it ( p = .00 ); they had Factor 3 scores that were 1.70 lower than the other ethnic groups who did not pr efer but did enjoy their initial careers. The only other significant difference was for participants who reported that they received their first career choice. However this time,
188 African American participants scored 1.00 higher Factor 3 scores than the ot her participants in the study. Finally, f riends as a top area from which participants derived the most meaning had a significant main effect on Factor 3 scores (F = 3.67 p = 0 1, p 2 = .0 2 ). Participants ranked friends as their first ( n = 17 ), second ( n = 120 ), or third ( n = 156 ) most significant area from which they derived meaning or they did not rank friends in their top three at all ( n analysis revealed significant differences in mean Factor 3 scores only between those who ranked f riends as third most significant area of meaning compared with those who did not rank it at all ( p = .04). Those who ranked friends as a third most important area of meaning had Factor 3 scores that were .30 higher than those who did not rank friends in th eir top three areas. There were no significant differences between the other comparison groups. Chapter Summary In summary, Chapter 4 provided a description of the results including participant sampling ; coding missing, and screening data ; sample persona l characteristics; scale and subscale scores ; the factors that emerged related career meaning ; and the group differences that explain the variance of the derived factor scores. T hree factors were extracted from the EFA representing finding me aningful work, attaining a balanced lifestyle, and ac knowledging important values This help ed to further define the construct of career meaning as proposed in the first research question Furthermore, the second research question asked whether there were group differences for each of the derived factors. In fact, t here were several group differences that impacted the factor s They were described and organized for each of the derived factor scores
189 Table 4 1. Total participants, gender, marital status, and children ( N =688) Class Total Men Women Married d Single d Children e n n % n % n % n % n % 1985 a 37 28 76% 8 22% 33 89% 4 11% 25 68% 1986 37 36 97% 1 3% 34 92% 3 8% 32 86% 1987 c 39 37 95% 2 5% 37 95% 1 3% 34 87% 1988 31 31 100% 29 94% 2 6% 28 90% 1989 31 26 84% 5 16% 28 90% 3 10% 29 94% 1990 a c 40 35 88% 4 10% 38 95% 1 3% 35 88% 1991 30 28 93% 2 7% 26 87% 4 13% 25 83% 1992 34 27 79% 7 21% 33 97% 1 3% 32 94% 1993 c 25 23 92% 2 8% 23 92% 1 4% 23 92% 1994 22 20 91% 2 9% 20 91% 2 9% 19 86% 1995 28 27 96% 1 4% 28 100% 26 93% 1996 b 20 14 70% 5 25% 15 75% 5 25% 14 70% 1997 33 25 76% 8 24% 30 91% 3 9% 24 73% 1998 33 26 79% 7 21% 29 88% 4 12% 21 64% 1999 21 17 81% 4 19% 19 90% 2 10% 11 52% 2000 16 13 81% 3 19% 13 81% 3 19% 9 56% 2001 a c 17 13 76% 3 18% 14 82% 2 12% 11 65% 2002 a 24 18 75% 5 21% 16 67% 8 33% 9 38% 2003 26 20 77% 6 23% 24 92% 2 8% 12 46% 2004 16 14 88% 2 13% 13 81% 3 19% 6 38% 2005 24 20 83% 4 17% 21 88% 3 13% 12 50% 2006 20 17 85% 3 15% 15 75% 5 25% 6 30% 2007 27 21 78% 6 22% 13 48% 14 52% 2 7% 2008 a 19 14 74% 4 21% 9 47% 10 53% 1 5% 2009 20 16 80% 4 20% 12 60% 8 40% 3 15% 2010 16 15 94% 1 6% 8 50% 8 50% NA a c 2 1 50% 1 50% Total 688 582 85% 99 14% 581 84% 102 15% 449 65% a Six participants did not report their gender, one in each annotated year group. b One participant identified as Transgender, identifying with the opposite gender group. c Five participants did not report their marital status, one in each annotated year group. d Married = marr ied or in a committed relationship; Single = not in a committed relationship. e Participants with one or more children were included. Not e. Percentages based on total number of participants in each class.
190 Table 4 2. Participant ethnicity ( N =688) Class Total White Hispanic African American Asian /Pac. Islander Native American NA a n n % n % n % n % n % n % 1985 37 33 89% 2 5.4% 1 2.7% 1 2.7% 1986 37 31 84% 2 5.4% 2 5.4% 1 2.7% 1 2.7% 1987 39 37 95% 2 5.1% 1988 31 29 94% 2 6.5% 1989 31 27 87% 1 3.2% 1 3.2% 2 6.5% 1990 40 35 88% 2 5.0% 1 2.5% 2 5.0% 1991 30 26 87% 2 6.7% 2 6.7% 1992 34 30 88% 1 2.9% 2 5.9% 1 2.9% 1993 25 21 84% 1 4.0% 2 8.0% 1 4.0% 1994 22 19 86% 3 13.6% 1995 28 25 89% 3 10.7% 1996 20 16 80% 1 5.0% 1 5.0% 1 5.0% 1 5.0% 1997 33 29 88% 2 6.1% 1 3.0% 1 3.0% 1998 33 29 88% 2 6.1% 1 3.0% 1 3.0% 1999 21 19 90% 1 4.8% 1 4.8% 2000 16 15 94% 1 6.3% 2001 17 12 71% 1 5.9% 1 5.9% 2 11.8% 1 5.9% 2002 24 20 83% 2 8.3% 1 4.2% 1 4.2% 2003 26 23 88% 1 3.8% 2 7.7% 2004 16 15 94% 1 6.3% 2005 24 21 88% 3 12.5% 2006 20 19 95% 1 5.0% 2007 27 25 93% 1 3.7% 1 3.7% 2008 19 17 89% 2 10.5% 2009 20 15 75% 2 10.0% 1 5.0% 2 10.0% 2010 16 12 75% 1 6.3% 1 6.3% 2 12.5% NA 2 2 100% Total 688 600 87% 28 4.1% 16 2.3% 23 3.3% 5 0.7% 16 2.3% a Participants did not answer this item. Not e. Percentages based on total number of participants in each class. Ethnicity categories were based on the USNA Admissions categories.
191 Table 4 3. Military and a cademic b ackground experiences ( N =688) Prior Prior Military Prep School Previous Class Total Military ( E nlisted) (NAPS) (ROTC, Boost, etc .) College or Prep School Pre Navy n n % n % n % n % n % 1985 37 2 5% 4 11% 1 3% 10 27% 1986 37 2 5% 4 11% 10 27% 1987 39 2 5% 3 8% 1 3% 7 18% 1988 31 1 3% 3 10% 7 23% 1 3% 1989 31 2 6% 1 3% 8 26% 1 3% 1990 40 3 8% 1 3% 1 3% 9 23% 1991 30 2 7% 2 7% 4 13% 10 33% 1992 34 1 3% 2 6% 7 21% 1993 25 3 12% 1 4% 8 32% 1994 22 4 18% 4 18% 8 36% 1995 28 2 7% 3 11% 6 21% 1996 20 2 10% 5 25% 1997 33 3 9% 3 9% 6 18% 1 3% 1998 33 4 12% 4 12% 2 6% 16 48 % 1999 21 3 14% 3 14% 7 33% 2000 16 3 19% 2 13% 4 25% 2001 17 1 6% 3 18% 5 29% 2002 24 2 8% 2 8% 6 25% 2003 26 2 8% 4 15% 6 23% 2004 16 2 13% 2 13% 4 25% 2005 24 6 25% 2 8% 4 17% 2006 20 2 10% 1 5% 1 5% 2007 27 2 7% 3 11% 9 33% 2008 19 2 11% 2009 20 1 5% 1 5% 1 5% 5 25% 2010 16 2 13% 2 13% 2 13% 8 50% NA 2 1 50% Total 688 55 8% 62 9% 13 2% 179 26% 4 0.6% Note Percentages based on total number of participants in each class.
192 Table 4 4. Current military status ( N =688) Class Total Active Duty Active Reserve Inactive R eserve Retired Separated n n % n % n % n % n % 1985 37 6 16% 1 3% 2 5% 11 30% 17 46% 1986 37 1 3% 4 11% 17 46% 15 41% 1987 39 3 8% 4 10% 4 10% 8 21 % 20 51% 1988 31 8 26% 3 10% 7 23% 13 42% 1989 31 8 26% 1 3% 1 3% 10 32% 11 35% 1990 40 10 25% 3 8% 2 5% 6 15% 19 48% 1991 30 10 33% 1 3% 2 7% 6 20% 11 37% 1992 34 10 29% 4 12% 3 9% 5 15% 12 35% 1993 25 12 48% 3 12% 1 4% 9 36% 1994 22 7 32% 2 9% 13 59% 1995 28 15 54% 4 14% 9 32% 1996 20 4 20% 4 20% 12 60% 1997 33 12 36% 5 15% 2 6% 1 3% 13 39% 1998 33 15 45% 3 9% 15 45% 1999 21 7 33% 3 14% 1 5% 1 5% 9 43% 2000 16 5 31% 2 13% 1 6% 8 50% 2001 17 5 29% 3 18% 4 24% 1 6% 4 24% 2002 24 10 42% 4 17% 3 13% 1 4% 6 25% 2003 a 26 11 42% 4 15% 5 19% 5 19% 2004 16 10 63% 1 6% 3 19% 1 6% 1 6% 2005 24 15 63% 6 25% 3 13% 2006 20 16 80% 1 5% 2 10% 1 5% 2007 27 22 81% 2 7% 2 7% 1 4% 2008 19 15 79% 1 5% 1 5% 2 11% 2009 20 1 8 90% 1 5% 1 5% 2010 16 13 81% 1 6% 2 13% NA 2 1 50% 1 50% Total 688 269 39% 55 8% 54 8% 77 11% 233 34% Note Percentages based on total number of participants in each class. a One participant did not answer from 2003.
193 Table 4 5. Last mi litary grade held ( N =688) Class Total O 1 O 2 O 3 O 4 O 5 O 6 n n % n % n % n % n % n % 1985 a 37 2 5% 8 22% 13 35% 7 19% 6 16% 1986 37 15 41% 5 14% 12 32% 5 14% 1987 39 19 49% 5 13% 10 26% 5 13% 1988 a 31 11 35% 4 13% 8 26% 7 23% 1989 31 6 19% 10 32% 12 39% 3 10% 1990 40 2 5% 15 38% 7 18% 10 25% 6 15% 1991 a 30 9 30% 8 27% 10 33% 2 7% 1992 34 1 3% 1 3% 9 26% 7 21% 16 47% 1993 25 5 20% 9 36% 11 44% 1994 22 1 5% 1 5% 11 50% 2 9% 6 27% 1 5% 1995 28 6 21% 4 14% 18 64% 1996 b 20 10 50% 4 20% 5 25% 1997 c 33 1 3% 13 39% 13 39% 5 15% 1998 33 13 39% 20 61% 1999 a 21 1 5% 7 33% 12 57% 2000 16 1 6% 6 38% 9 56% 2001 17 1 6% 10 59% 6 35% 200 2 24 1 4% 16 67% 7 29% 2003 26 2 8% 1 4% 23 88% 2004 16 16 100% 2005 24 4 17% 20 83% 2006 20 1 5% 19 95% 2007 27 1 4% 26 96% 2008 19 2 11% 2 11% 15 79% 2009 d 20 2 10% 17 85% 2010 16 4 25% 12 75% NA 2 1 50% 1 50% Total 688 13 2% 48 7% 309 45% 146 21% 130 19% 35 5% Note officers in the U.S. military services. T he names of the ranks vary by service. Most common for graduates of the USNA, the ranks of U.S. Navy/ Marine Corps officers are as follows: O 1 = Ensign/2nd Lieutenant; O 2 = Lieutenant Junior Grade/1st Lieutenant; O 3 = Lieutenant/Captain; O 4 = Lieutenant Commande r/Major; O 5 = Commander/ Lieutenant Colonel; and O 6 = Captain/Colo nel. a Four participants did not answer this item, one in each annotated year group. b One participant did not receive a commission for medical reasons. c One participant indicated a last military grade of O 8 = Rear A dmiral Upper Half/Major General. d One participant surrendered his commission and accepted an enlisted rank of E 7 to attend dental school.
194 Table 4 6. Level of influence by others in initial and current career directions ( N =6 88) Initial Service Selection Current Career Direction Class Total n Not at all Minimal Some Strong Not at all Minimal Some Strong 1985 37 38% 22% 35% 5% 19% 54% 19% 8% 1986 37 24% 32% 35% 8% 24% 35% 30% 11% 1987 39 21% 38% 28% 13% 18% 33% 41% 8% 19 88 31 13% 55% 23% 10% 10% 45% 42% 3% 1989 31 29% 32% 23% 16% 23% 35% 35% 6% 1990 40 13% 35% 45% 8% 18% 30% 43% 10% 1991 30 17% 43% 27% 13% 10% 43% 30% 17% 1992 b 34 26% 35% 21% 15% 6% 50% 26% 18% 1993 25 32% 40% 24% 4% 16% 56% 28% 1994 22 32% 45% 14% 9% 14% 41% 41% 5% 1995 a 28 29% 29% 21% 21% 18% 32% 25% 21% 1996 20 25% 40% 25% 10% 15% 35% 30% 20% 1997 33 12% 45% 42% 3% 45% 48% 3% 1998 33 42% 15% 36% 6% 18% 27% 52% 3% 1999 b 21 29% 29% 38% 33% 43% 24% 2000 16 44% 19% 19% 19% 19% 25% 38% 19% 2 001 b 17 24% 47% 18% 6% 12% 24% 41% 24% 2002 24 29% 33% 21% 17% 13% 29% 42% 17% 2003 26 19% 31% 38% 12% 15% 31% 50% 4% 2004 16 25% 31% 38% 6% 13% 25% 50% 13% 2005 a 24 29% 42% 29% 29% 29% 29% 8% 2006 20 20% 40% 30% 10% 5% 45% 30% 20% 2007 27 22% 48% 2 2% 7% 22% 67% 11% 2008 19 26% 11% 53% 11% 21% 16% 47% 16% 2009 20 15% 45% 30% 10% 20% 35% 35% 10% 2010 16 13% 56% 19% 13% 38% 25% 25% 13% NA 2 50% 50% 50% 50% Total 688 25% 36% 30% 9% 17% 38% 35% 10% Note Participants were asked how involved ot hers (e.g., partner, parents, peers, coaches, supervisor s ) were others in their initial service selection or career direction. a Two participants did not answer this item for their initial service selection, one in each annotated year group. b Three partic ipants did not answer this item for their current career direction, one in each annotated year group.
195 Table 4 7. Level of enjoyment with current job ( N =688) Class Total n Enjoy nothing about job Enjoy a small part of job Enjoy job half the time Enjoy a lot but not everything Love almost everything 1985 37 14% 5% 70% 11% 1986 37 3% 11% 8% 65% 14% 1987 39 10% 21% 62% 8% 1988 31 13% 10% 52% 26% 1989 31 10% 6% 74% 10% 1990 40 8% 10% 58% 25% 1991 30 13% 20% 57% 10% 1992 34 15% 18% 47% 21% 1993 25 8% 24% 48% 20% 1994 22 5% 14% 68% 14% 1995 28 4% 11% 4% 68% 14% 1996 20 15% 5% 70% 10% 1997 33 3% 18% 15% 45% 18% 1998 33 9% 15% 64% 12% 1999 21 10% 14% 57% 19% 2000 16 6% 31% 44% 19% 2001 17 12% 6% 18% 53% 12% 2002 a 24 13% 4% 17% 54% 8% 2003 26 4% 12% 8% 62% 15% 2004 16 25% 6% 56% 13% 2005 24 8% 13% 54% 25% 2006 20 5% 20% 25% 35% 15% 2007 27 33% 15% 41% 11% 2008 a 19 16% 11% 63% 5% 2009 a 20 20% 15% 60% 2010 16 6% 19% 25% 38% 13% NA 2 50% 50% Total 688 2% 13% 14% 57% 15% a Three participants did not answer this item, one in each annotated year group.
196 Table 4 8. Alignment of personal values with current job ( N =688) Class Total n Not at all Slightly Partially Somewhat Absolutely 1985 37 5% 8% 46% 41% 1986 37 3% 3% 11% 46% 38% 1987 39 3% 10% 56% 31% 1988 31 10% 45% 45% 1989 31 6% 3% 45% 45% 1990 40 3% 5% 10% 33% 50% 1991 30 7% 13% 57% 23% 1992 34 3% 15% 44% 38% 1993 25 8% 12% 32% 48% 1994 22 5% 9% 59% 27% 1995 28 7% 4% 36% 54% 1996 20 10% 20% 40% 30% 1997 33 3% 9% 12% 27% 48% 1998 33 15% 45% 39% 1999 21 5% 10% 57% 29% 2000 16 6% 13% 38% 44% 2001 17 12% 12% 47% 29% 2002 a 24 8% 4% 13% 46% 25% 2003 26 8% 27% 65% 2004 16 6% 13% 44% 38% 2005 24 4% 4% 50% 42% 2006 20 10% 30% 15% 45% 2007 27 7% 19% 52% 22% 2008 19 16% 53% 32% 2009 20 20% 15% 30% 35% 2010 16 6% 13% 13% 19% 50% NA 2 50% 50% Total 688 1% 6% 11% 42% 39% a One participant did not answer this item.
197 Table 4 9. Significance of career meaning compared to other areas o f life ( N =688) Class Total n Not important at all Not very important Important Extremely important 1985 37 8% 65% 27% 1986 37 22% 68% 11% 1987 39 85% 15% 1988 31 10% 65% 26% 1989 31 19% 68% 13% 1990 40 13% 78% 10% 1991 30 10% 73% 17% 1992 34 15% 71% 15% 1993 25 8% 12% 68% 12% 1994 22 18% 64% 18% 1995 28 4% 7% 68% 21% 1996 20 10% 75% 15% 1997 33 18% 55% 27% 1998 33 27% 61% 12% 1999 21 5% 76% 19% 2000 16 6% 13% 69% 13% 2001 17 6% 6% 53% 35% 2002 24 8% 71% 21% 2003 26 4% 12% 65% 19% 2004 16 19% 56% 25% 2005 24 8% 79% 13% 2006 20 15% 55% 30% 2007 27 11% 67% 22% 2008 19 11% 63% 26% 2009 20 5% 20% 40% 35% 2010 16 13% 13% 63% 13% NA a 2 50% Total 688 2% 12% 67% 19% a One participant did not answer this item.
198 Tabl e 4 10. Descriptive statistics for scales and subscales ( N =688 ) Measure Items n Scale Range Sample Range mdn md m s S K S W Sig. MLQ 10 10 70 27 70 51.0 51.0 51.1 7.6 .00 .45 .99 .01 .65 MLQ P 5 5 35 5 35 30.0 30.0 29.3 5.1 1.26 1.86 .90 .00 .91 MLQ S 5 5 35 5 35 24.0 30.0 23.3 7.7 .43 .63 .96 .00 .90 WAMI 10 10 50 10 50 40.0 40.0 40.0 7.4 .94 .99 .94 .00 .92 WA MI PM 4 4 20 4 20 16.0 16.0 16.3 3.2 1.16 1.75 .90 .00 .88 WAMI MM 3 3 15 3 15 12.0 12.0 11.6 2.4 .73 .54 .94 .00 .76 WAMI GG 3 3 15 3 15 12.0 12.0 12.2 2.6 .97 .72 .91 .00 .84 RVS 36 36 252 134 252 198.0 188.0 197.5 19.7 .03 .24 1.00 .71 .89 RVS T 18 18 126 60 126 95.4 96.0 95.3 11.0 .09 .18 1.00 .24 .78 RVS I 18 18 126 61 126 102.3 102.0 102.4 10.3 .22 .12 .99 .01 .85 WVS 10 10 40 10 40 29.0 29.0 29.1 4.2 .22 .23 .99 .00 .68 WVS I 2 2 8 2 8 6.0 6.0 5.9 1.2 .22 .35 .94 .00 .26 WVS E 2 2 8 2 8 7.0 6.0 6.7 1.2 .65 .43 .90 .00 .54 WVS S 3 3 12 3 12 9.0 8.0 8.6 2.0 .15 .60 .97 .00 .64 WVS P 2 2 8 2 8 5.0 5.0 5.0 1.5 .03 .57 .95 .00 .53 SWLS 5 5 35 5 35 28.0 30.0 27.9 6.1 1.05 .70 .91 .00 .89 JPS 20 20 100 31 1 00 77.0 82.0 77.0 12.1 .57 .29 .98 .00 .90 JPS W 4 4 20 4 20 15.0 16.0 15.1 3.8 .89 .32 .93 .00 .88 JPS P 4 4 20 4 20 16.0 16.0 15.3 3.4 .82 .74 .94 .00 .89 JPS Pr 4 4 20 4 20 16.0 20.0 15.9 3.9 .76 .14 .91 .00 .94 JPS S 4 4 20 4 20 16. 0 16.0 16.0 3.6 .86 .38 .93 .00 .83 JPS C 4 4 20 4 20 16.0 16.0 15.9 2.9 .65 .57 .95 .00 .89 MC 12 0 12 0 12 6.0 6.0 5.6 1.8 .03 .07 .98 .00 .22 Note Number of items per scale/subscale ( n ) median ( mdn ), mode ( md ), estimated mean ( m ), standard de viation ( s ), skew ( S ), kurtosis ( K ), Shapiro Wilk Test of Normality ( S W MLQ = Meaning in Life Questionnaire (P = presence, S = search); WAMI = Work and Meaning Inventory (PM = positive meaning in work, MM = meaning making through work, GG = greater good motivations); RVS = Rokeach Value Survey (T = terminal, I = instrumental); WVS = Work Values Survey (I = intrinsic, E = extrinsic, S = social, P = prestige); SWLS = Satisfaction with Life Scale; JPS = Job Perception Scales ( W = w ork P = p ay Pr = promotions, S = s upervision C = co w orkers ); MC = Marlow Crowne Short Form B.
199 Table 4 11. Descriptive statistics for the 5F Wel scales and subscales ( N =688) Measure Items n Scale Range Sample Range mdn md m s S K S W Sig. 5F Wel 73 25 100 56 98 81.2 81.5 81.2 7.4 .28 .13 .99 .00 .92 5F Wel Cr 2 0 25 100 60 100 83.8 86.3 83.6 7.8 .28 .39 .99 .00 .83 5F Wel 3T 4 25 100 56 100 87.5 87.5 87.4 9.2 .48 .17 .93 .00 .50 5F Wel 3Em 4 25 100 38 100 81.3 81.3 78.9 11.7 .41 .17 .96 .00 .65 5F Wel 3C 4 25 100 56 100 93.8 93.8 91.0 8.9 .66 .17 .90 .00 .60 5F Wel 3W 4 25 100 25 100 75.0 75.0 77.6 14.7 .59 .18 .96 .00 .74 5F Wel 3H 4 25 100 44 100 87.5 100.0 86.5 12.3 .69 .05 .91 .00 .77 5F Wel C o 19 25 100 42 97 77.6 81.6 77.7 9.3 .49 .38 .98 .00 .84 5F Wel 3Le 6 25 100 25 100 79.2 79.2 77.4 13.8 .47 .04 .97 .00 .82 5F Wel 3SM 4 25 100 25 100 81.3 75.0 81.9 14.2 .68 .59 .93 .00 .83 5F Wel 3SW 4 25 100 38 100 87.5 100.0 88.7 11.8 .85 .41 .89 .00 .74 5F Wel 3RB 5 25 100 25 100 65.0 60.0 66.8 12.5 .10 .10 .98 .00 .61 5F Wel S 8 25 100 25 100 93.8 100.0 92.0 10.6 1.61 4.17 .85 .00 .82 5F Wel 3Fr 4 25 100 25 100 87.5 100.0 87.8 12.2 .99 1.39 .89 .00 .75 5F Wel 3L o a 4 25 100 25 100 100 .0 100.0 92.66 12.1 2.12 5.16 .67 .00 .77 5F Wel E 1 6 25 100 41 100 79.7 79.7 79.1 12.2 .32 .53 .98 .00 .8 3 5F Wel 3Sp 5 25 100 25 100 75.0 100.0 73.0 25.2 .41 1.09 .90 .00 .94 5F Wel 3GI 4 25 100 25 100 75.0 75.0 78.9 18.4 .79 .33 .92 .00 .86 5F Wel 3CI 3 25 100 25 100 75.0 75.0 77.1 17.4 .62 .14 .94 .00 .72 5F Wel 3SC 4 25 100 38 100 93.8 100.0 94.3 9.3 1.53 2.74 .78 .00 .33 5F Wel P 10 25 100 30 100 82.5 85.0 82.0 13.9 .68 .02 .95 .00 .87 5F Wel 3N 5 25 100 25 100 80.0 100.0 80.9 15.7 .66 .02 .94 .00 .83 5F Wel 3Ex 5 25 100 30 100 85.0 100.0 84.2 15.9 .83 .04 .91 .00 .83 5F Wel LS 1 25 100 25 100 75.0 100.0 84.5 18.4 1.02 .74 .76 .00 Note Number of items per scale/subscale ( n ) median ( mdn ), mode ( md ), estimated mean ( m ), standard deviation ( s ), skew ( S ), kurtosis ( K ), Shapiro Wilk Test of Normality ( S W 5F Wel = Five Factor Wellness Inventory; second order factors: Cr = c reative Co = co ping S = s ocial E = e ssential and P = p hysical ; third order factors: 3T = thinking, 3Em = emotional, 3C = control, 3W = work; 3H = positive humor, 3Le = leisure, 3SM = stress management, 3SW = self worth, 3RB = realistic beliefs, 3Fr = friendship, 3Lo = love, 3Sp = spirituality, 3GI = gender identity, 3 CI = cultural identity, 3SC = self care, 3N = nutrition, 3Ex = exercise; LS = life satisfaction). a Estimated mean could not be computed ; standardized mean reported
200 Table 4 12. Spearman correlations ( ) of scales and subscales ( N =688) Measure n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 MLQ 10 2 MLQ P 5 .22 3 MLQ S 5 .78 .35 4 WAMI 10 .21 .56 .13 5 WAMI PM 4 .17 .59 .19 .92 6 WAMI MM 3 .24 .41 .01 .85 .70 7 WAMI GG 3 .15 .51 .17 .88 .75 .60 8 RVS 36 .28 .23 .16 .25 .27 .21 .21 9 RVS T 18 .29 .20 .19 .24 .24 .21 .19 .93 10 RVS I 18 .24 .23 .12 .2 3 .26 .19 .19 .91 .71 11 WVS 10 .22 .11 .17 .23 .21 .25 .17 .49 .49 .43 12 WVS I 2 .11 .01 .13 .08 .07 .10 .07 .26 .25 .23 .58 13 WVS E 2 .07 .02 .04 .01 .05 01 .02 .26 .26 .23 .35 .00 14 WVS S 3 .26 .19 .15 .28 .24 .29 .22 .37 .35 .35 .71 .25 .02 15 WVS P 2 .17 .04 .14 .15 .13 .18 .11 .32 .33 .25 .75 .43 .14 .32 16 SWLS 5 .10 .53 .23 .52 .53 .42 .45 .19 .16 .18 .10 .01 .00 .19 .02 17 JPS 20 .11 .41 .14 .55 .57 .44 .46 .26 .26 .23 .18 .03 .05 .24 .07 .48 18 JPS W 4 .12 .40 .14 .65 .68 .56 .52 .25 .24 .23 .21 .08 .06 .25 .10 .48 .73 19 JPS P 4 .05 .18 .05 .23 .26 .19 .17 .13 .13 .11 .04 .03 .09 .04 .00 .33 .63 .30 20 JPS Pr 4 .09 .31 .10 .36 .39 .26 .33 .19 .20 .15 .16 .02 .06 .19 .10 .33 .75 .41 .47 21 JPS S 4 .06 .23 .07 .28 .26 .23 .25 .14 .12 .15 .06 .03 .00 .10 .00 .19 .62 .31 .25 .32 22 JPS C 4 .06 .28 .11 .35 .37 .27 .29 .22 .20 .22 .13 .07 .05 .23 .01 .30 .64 .45 .27 .34 .31 23 MC 12 .09 .19 .19 .17 .19 .08 .17 .00 .01 .02 .06 .07 .01 .00 .06 .20 .21 .18 .13 .20 .07 .09 Note MLQ = Meaning in Life Questionnaire (P = presence, S = search); WAMI = Work and Meaning Inventory (PM = positive meaning in work, MM = meaning making through work, GG = greater good motivations); RVS = Rokeach Value Survey (T = term inal, I = instrumental); WVS = Work Values Survey (I = intrinsic, E = extrinsic, S = social, P = prestige); SWLS = Satisfaction with Life Scale; JPS = Job Perception Scales ( W = w ork P = p ay Pr = promotions, S = s upervision C = co w orkers ); MC = Marlow Crowne Short Form B. = |.075|, p < .05; = |.098|, p < .005; = |.145|, p < .0001 (two tailed)
201 Table 4 13. Spearman correlations ( ) of scales and subscales ( N =688) Measure n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 5F Wel 73 .12 .55 .20 .43 .44 33 .37 .35 .32 .33 .19 .08 .07 .29 .09 .50 .40 .33 .19 .29 .22 .38 .10 25 5F Wel Cr 20 .16 .47 .13 .46 .48 .36 .39 .34 .28 .35 .26 .14 .02 .30 .14 .44 .44 .41 .18 .27 .26 .41 .04 26 5F Wel 3T 4 .15 .25 .02 .22 .22 .20 .18 .27 .24 .28 .18 .17 .08 .20 .10 .20 .21 .16 .12 .14 .13 .24 .06 27 5F Wel 3Em 4 .09 .30 .09 .21 .23 .14 .18 .30 .25 .31 .18 .07 .01 .25 .06 .27 .20 .15 .07 .15 .16 .23 .01 28 5F Wel 3C 4 .12 .39 .11 .38 .38 .27 .36 .21 .14 .25 .19 .13 .03 .15 .13 .34 .27 .24 .11 .22 .14 .23 .08 29 5F Wel 3W 4 .06 .45 .23 .59 .61 .49 .49 .23 .21 .22 .21 .10 .00 .24 .14 .49 .59 .63 .26 .36 .30 .45 .17 30 5F Wel 3H 4 .15 .20 .02 .16 .17 .13 .13 .19 .14 .20 .13 .04 .04 .20 .06 .20 .15 .12 .03 .06 .11 .21 .06 31 5F We l Co 19 .01 .45 .29 .32 .35 .21 .29 .15 .12 .17 .04 .00 .07 .13 .00 .47 .28 .23 .16 .19 .19 .25 .17 32 5F Wel 3Le 6 .02 .25 .13 .19 .20 .14 .16 .21 .18 .20 .09 .01 .02 .15 .05 .32 .16 .12 .07 .10 .10 .18 .02 33 5F Wel 3SM 4 .03 .39 .23 .3 0 .32 .22 .26 .15 .13 .16 .08 .03 .04 .12 .02 .39 .26 .22 .15 .15 .18 .23 .11 34 5F Wel 3SW 4 .09 .41 .15 .32 .33 .23 .29 .26 .22 .25 .16 .07 .03 .21 .10 .36 .27 .21 .16 .23 .19 .26 .09 35 5F Wel 3RB 5 .15 .28 .33 .16 .18 .05 .17 .15 .17 .11 .20 .08 .13 .09 .20 .26 .15 .14 .08 .09 .12 .09 .28 36 5F Wel S 8 .12 .39 .13 .29 .31 .19 .28 .27 .24 .26 .18 .05 .02 .25 .09 .44 .29 .24 .14 .22 .16 .31 .06 37 5F Wel 3Fr 4 .13 .35 .09 .30 .31 .20 .27 .26 .25 .25 .19 .03 .02 .28 10 .38 .28 .22 .14 .23 .15 .30 .05 38 5F Wel 3Lo 4 .05 .34 .15 .21 .22 .12 .21 .16 .13 .17 .09 .05 .03 .13 .03 .40 .19 .18 .09 .12 .10 .20 .06 39 5F Wel E 16 .09 .39 .10 .25 .24 .21 .22 .28 .29 .23 .12 .05 .07 .19 .08 .18 .23 .17 .11 .19 .08 .26 .02 40 5F Wel 3Sp 5 .06 .37 .13 .20 .18 .14 .20 .16 .17 .13 .00 .01 .07 .09 .00 .15 .16 .12 .09 .12 .06 .17 .02 41 5F Wel 3GI 4 .05 .19 .05 .19 .19 .19 .13 .27 .26 .24 .21 .08 .00 .21 .15 .12 .18 .13 .06 .14 .05 .22 .02 42 5F Wel 3CI 3 .11 .23 .01 .18 .18 .18 .14 .25 .25 .23 .19 .11 .02 .21 .13 .15 .19 .17 .08 .16 .06 .19 .01 43 5F Wel 3SC 4 .03 .16 .04 .07 .08 .02 .07 .05 .04 .05 .07 .00 .07 .03 .12 .07 .04 .02 .01 .05 .02 .09 .03 44 5F Wel P 10 .09 .26 .06 .24 .24 .20 .19 .21 .18 .22 .07 .02 .07 .20 .01 .32 .22 .18 .09 .18 .12 .18 .09 45 5F Wel 3N 5 .08 .25 .07 .19 .21 .16 .16 .19 .16 .19 .02 .02 .06 .16 .06 .29 .20 .15 .08 .14 .13 .16 .08 46 5F Wel 3Ex 5 .08 .22 .04 .22 .21 .19 .18 .19 .16 .20 10 .05 .07 .20 .03 .26 .19 .17 .06 .17 .10 .15 .08 47 5F Wel LS 1 .06 .52 .27 .46 .48 .35 .41 .17 .15 .16 .10 .01 .03 .19 .02 .69 .40 .40 .26 .27 .20 .30 .18 Note 5F Wel = Five Factor Wellness Inventory; second order factors: Cr = c reative Co = co ping S = s ocial E = e ssential and P = p hysical ; third order factors: 3T = thinking, 3Em = emotional, 3C = control, 3W = work; 3H = positive humor, 3Le = leisure, 3SM = stress management, 3SW = self worth, 3RB = realistic beliefs, 3Fr = friendship, 3L o = love, 3Sp = spirituality, 3GI = gender identity, 3 CI = cultural identity, 3SC = self care, 3N = nutrition, 3Ex = exercise; LS = life satisfaction). = |.075|, p < .05; = |.098|, p < .005; = |.145|, p < .0001 (two tailed)
202 Table 4 14. Spearman cor relations ( ) of scales and subscales ( N =688) Measure n 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 24 5F Wel 73 25 5F Wel Cr 20 .79 26 5F Wel 3T 4 .56 .71 27 5F Wel 3Em 4 .61 .71 .41 28 5F Wel 3C 4 .55 .70 .53 .39 29 5F Wel 3W 4 .57 .72 36 .33 .46 30 5F Wel 3H 4 .45 .62 .37 .35 .26 .22 31 5F Wel Co 19 .77 .60 .39 .47 .45 .42 .35 32 5F Wel 3Le 6 .60 .44 .30 .34 .28 .29 34 .74 33 5F Wel 3SM 4 .67 .58 .37 .45 .45 .38 .34 .79 .46 34 5F Wel 3SW 4 .67 .58 .46 .45 .50 .40 .30 .65 .33 .50 35 5F Wel 3RB 5 .25 .16 .05 .12 .13 .17 .03 .56 .11 .31 .23 36 5F Wel S 8 .67 .54 .36 .47 .42 .39 .30 .46 .36 .40 .46 .10 37 5F Wel 3Fr 4 .65 .55 .39 .47 .41 .38 .32 .45 .37 .40 .47 .06 .91 38 5F Wel 3Lo 4 49 .36 .21 .32 .28 .28 .18 .34 .26 .28 .29 .12 .77 .48 39 5F Wel E 16 .67 .35 .26 .30 .19 .27 .18 .25 .21 .24 .33 .01 .34 .33 .23 40 5F Wel 3Sp 5 .49 .20 .14 .18 .11 .16 .09 .16 .09 .16 .22 .02 .23 .19 .20 .82 41 5F Wel 3GI 4 .51 .33 .25 .26 .17 .26 .23 .24 .27 .22 .29 .08 .30 .33 .15 .65 .21 42 5F Wel 3CI 3 .49 .33 .28 .29 .18 .26 .17 .25 .26 .21 .28 .01 .30 .35 .12 .59 .19 .56 43 5F Wel 3SC 4 .28 .19 .17 .18 .15 .11 .03 .14 .03 .16 .22 .05 .14 .09 .16 .34 .22 .05 .09 44 5F Wel P 10 .67 .39 .31 .30 .34 .26 .22 .45 .43 .39 .38 .07 .37 .36 .26 .30 .20 .26 .24 .18 45 5F Wel 3N 5 .61 .36 .27 .28 .27 .27 .19 .42 .32 .38 .37 .12 .35 .34 .24 .28 .20 .22 .21 .21 .88 46 5F Wel 3Ex 5 .57 .33 .28 .25 .33 .20 .19 .38 .43 .31 .31 .01 .30 .30 .21 .26 .17 .24 .21 .11 .87 .55 47 5F Wel LS 1 .60 .49 .25 .31 .39 .48 .25 .53 .34 .48 .46 .25 .52 .46 .45 .26 .21 .20 .20 .11 .38 .35 .33 Note 5F Wel = Five Factor Wellness Inventory; second order factors: Cr = c reative Co = co ping S = s ocial E = e ssential and P = p hysical ; third order factors: 3T = thinking, 3Em = emotional, 3C = control, 3W = work; 3H = positive humor, 3Le = lei sure, 3SM = stress management, 3SW = self worth, 3RB = realistic beliefs, 3Fr = friendship, 3Lo = love, 3Sp = spirituality, 3GI = gender identity, 3 CI = cultural identity, 3SC = self care, 3N = nutrition, 3Ex = exercise; LS = life satisfaction). = |.075|, p < .05; = |.098|, p < .005; = |.145|, p < .0001 (two tailed)
203 Table 4 15. Initial factor loadings for all subscale variables ( N =688 ) Measure Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 MLQ P .58 .43 .08 .01 MLQ S .25 .18 .37 .01 WAMI PM .86 .18 .10 .14 WAMI MM .72 .10 .23 .18 WAMI GG .74 .17 .08 .15 RVS T .14 .25 .66 .43 RVS I .14 .30 .57 .30 WVS I .01 .06 .43 .09 WVS E .04 .11 .17 .26 WVS S .22 .24 .46 .02 WVS P .10 .03 .52 .02 SWLS .63 .40 .18 .20 JPS W .80 .05 .09 .04 JPS P .39 .08 .07 .28 JPS Pr .49 .10 .05 .19 JPS S .35 .09 .00 .09 JPS C .44 .24 .07 .11 5F Wel 3T .11 .56 .23 .19 5F Wel 3Em .09 .60 .14 .05 5F Wel 3C .29 .54 .10 .19 5F Wel 3W .68 .35 .10 .08 5F Wel 3H .07 .42 .16 .15 5F Wel 3Le .08 .58 .01 00 5F Wel 3SM .25 .64 .11 .08 5F Wel 3SW .24 .65 .04 .07 5F Wel 3RB .21 .20 .41 .09 5F Wel 3Fr .22 .62 .09 .10 5F Wel 3Lo .21 .42 .06 .17 5F Wel 3Sp .14 .24 .03 .10 5F Wel 3GI .10 .35 .27 .03 5F Wel 3CI .11 .37 .24 .04 5F Wel 3SC .04 .21 .0 4 .01 5F Wel 3N .12 .53 .05 .10 5F Wel 3Ex .08 .53 .05 .04 5F Wel LS .53 .52 .18 .16 Not e. MLQ=Meaning in Life (P=presence, S=search); WAMI=Work and Meaning (PM=positive meaning in work, MM=meaning making through work, GG=greater goo d motivations); RVS= Rokeach Value s (T=terminal, I=instrumental); WVS=Work Values (I=intrinsic, E=extrinsic, S=social, P=prestige); SWLS=Satisfaction with Life; JPS=Job Perception ( W =w ork P =p ay Pr=promotions, S =s upervision C=co w orkers ); 5F Wel = Five Fa ctor Wellness (3T=thinking, 3Em=emotional, 3C=control, 3W=work; 3H=positive humor, 3Le=leisure, 3SM=stress management, 3SW=self worth, 3RB=realistic beliefs, 3Fr=friendship, 3Lo=love, 3Sp=spirituality, 3GI=gender identity, 3 CI=cultural identity, 3SC=self care, 3N=nutrition, 3Ex=exercise; LS=life satisfaction).
204 Table 4 1 6 Final significant factor loadings and communalities for retained variables ( N =688 ) Measure Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Comm MLQ P .58 .50 WAMI PM .88 .81 WAMI MM .73 .57 WAMI G G .75 .59 RVS T .70 .54 RVS I .66 .51 WVS I .48 .23 WVS S .49 .32 WVS P .53 .28 SWLS .59 .52 JPS W .80 .66 JPS Pr .45 .22 JPS C .43 .25 5F Wel 3T .55 .37 5F Wel 3Em .58 .38 5F Wel 3C .56 .40 5F Wel 3W .68 .60 5F We l 3H .42 .20 5F Wel 3Le .59 .35 5F Wel 3SM .65 .48 5F Wel 3SW .65 .48 5F Wel 3Fr .61 .44 5F Wel 3Lo .41 .21 5F Wel 3N .53 .29 5F Wel 3Ex .54 .30 Not e. MLQ=Meaning in Life (P=presence); WAMI=Work and Meaning (PM=positive meaning in w ork, MM=meaning making through work, GG=greater good motivations); RVS= Rokeach Value s (T=terminal, I=instrumental); WVS=Work Values (I=intrinsic, S=social, P=prestige); SWLS=Satisfaction with Life; JPS=Job Perception ( W =w ork Pr=promotions, C=co w orkers ); 5F Wel = Five Factor Wellness (3T=thinking, 3Em=emotional, 3C=control, 3W=work; 3H=positive humor, 3Le=leisure, 3SM=stress management, 3SW=self worth, 3Fr=friendship, 3Lo=love, 3N=nutrition, 3Ex=exercise). Factor 1 = Finding meaningful work; Factor 2 = At taining a balanced lifestyle ; Factor A cknowledging important values
205 Table 4 1 7 Three factor solution: factor correlations and Eigenvalues ( N=688 ) Factor 1 2 Extracted Eigenvalue % of Variance % Cumulative Factor 1 7.00 27.99 27.99 Factor 2 .06 2. 01 8.03 36.02 Factor 3 .03 .06 1.49 5.94 41.96 Note Factor 1 = Finding meaningful work ; Factor 2 = Attaining a balanced lifestyle; Factor 3 = Acknowledging important v alues r = |.075|, p < .05; r = |.098|, p < .005; r = |.145|, p < .0001 (two tailed )
206 Table 4 1 8 Descriptive statistics for the derived factors, ( N =688) Measure Items n Score Range mdn m s S K S W Sig. s Factor 1 36 4.06 2.06 .20 0 1.06 1.03 1.23 .9 4 .00 .79 .89 Factor 2 48 4.49 2.58 .08 0 1.10 .42 .18 .9 9 .00 .84 .85 Factor 3 44 3.13 3.20 .00 0 1.17 .02 .25 1.0 0 53 .61 .73 Note Number of items per scale/subscale ( n ) median ( m dn ), mean ( m ), standard deviation ( s ), skew ( S ), kurtosis ( K ), Shapiro Wilk Test of Normality ( S W s ). Factor 1 = Finding meaningful work; Factor 2 = Attaining a balanced lifesty le; Factor 3 = Acknowledging important values
207 Table 4 19 Median derived factor scores by graduating class ( N = 688 ) Class Total n Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 1985 37 .20 .08 .28 1986 37 .26 .08 .08 1987 39 .24 .31 .15 1988 31 .13 .02 .53 1989 31 .36 .25 .03 1990 40 .48 .01 .26 1991 30 .14 .22 .13 1992 34 .31 .72 .19 1993 25 .10 .12 .21 1994 22 .24 .46 .69 1995 28 .19 .55 .07 1996 20 .40 .09 .22 1997 33 .15 .08 .75 1998 33 .23 .41 .06 1999 21 .31 .12 .22 2000 16 .23 .17 .34 2 001 17 .05 .14 .66 2002 24 .03 .25 .01 2003 26 .23 .51 .35 2004 16 .30 .61 .05 2005 24 .01 .18 .36 2006 20 .08 .33 .59 2007 27 .17 .57 .26 2008 19 .26 .20 .71 2009 20 .09 .02 .05 2010 16 .13 .11 .22 Total 688 .20 .08 .00 Note Factor 1 = Finding meaningful work; Factor 2 = Attaining a balanced lifestyle; Factor 3 = Acknowledging important values Factor scores are standardized scores with a mean of 0.
208 Table 4 20 Multiple regression analysis for Factor 1 ( N = 634) Mea sure b SE b t p VIF R R 2 P 2 F Sig. M ain effects only (enter) .74 .54 .48 8.32 .00 Interactions incl. (enter) .75 .57 .48 6.65 .00 Main effects (backwards) .71 .51 .50 46.16 .00 Interaction s inc l (backward) .72 .52 .51 44.14 .00 Enjoy ment of current career .29 .04 .29 7.78 .00 1.81 Values aligned with career .29 .04 .28 7.60 .00 1.75 Employment part time 1.00 .30 .19 3.33 .00 4.20 Leaving meaning .32 .06 .16 5.00 .00 1.29 Top meaning family .09 .03 .16 3.40 .00 2.78 Involve ment m arital status .05 .02 .15 3.25 .00 2.76 Imp ortance of career m eani ng .18 .04 .13 4.36 .00 1.09 P art time a ge .09 .03 .13 3.62 .00 1.74 P art time c hildren .76 .38 .11 2.01 .05 4.02 Initial career s upply .40 .13 .09 3.21 .00 1.08 Empl oyment retired 1.29 .41 .09 3.16 .00 1.04 Leaving enjoyment .20 .07 .09 2.93 .00 1.23 Top meaning religion /sp irit ual. .05 .02 .07 2.00 .05 1.40 Hispanic/Latino e thnicity .24 .11 .06 2.11 .04 1.06 Native American e thnicity .53 .25 .06 2.08 .04 1.02 Note. Fac tor 1 = Finding meaningful work Variance explained for four regression models usin g the same 79 main effects. Two regressions included only the main effects; the other two included the main effects and 25 interaction effects. The first two models were based on a forced entry regression retaining all variables; the next two models were b ased on backward stepwise regression eliminating all insignificant variables one step at a time. Only the significant ( p .05) variables remaining in the final regression model that included the main and interaction effects are listed above in order of their standardized contributions ( ) to the regression model.
209 Table 4 21 Multiple regression analysis for Factor 2 ( N = 68 2) Measure b SE b t p VIF R R 2 P 2 F Sig. Main effects only (enter) .64 .42 .34 5.42 .00 Interactions incl. (enter) .66 .43 .33 4.47 .00 Main effects (backwards) .59 .35 .34 52.20 .00 Inte ractions incl. (backward) .60 .36 .35 38.24 .00 Chronological c ontext .04 .00 .37 10.52 .00 1.32 Local c ontext .03 .00 .21 6.44 .00 1.17 Institutional c ontext .01 .00 .17 4.84 .00 1.34 Imp ortance of career meani ng .23 .05 .14 4.26 .00 1.07 Enjoyment of career g ender .12 .04 .10 3.06 .00 1.15 Highest d egree .09 .04 .10 2.44 .01 1.90 Pre Navy experiences 1.19 .42 .09 2.80 .01 1.02 Marital status .10 .05 .09 2.03 .04 1.93 Top m eaning health .22 .10 .07 2.22 .03 1.02 Global Context .00 .00 .07 2.01 .04 1.16 Note. Factor 2 = Attaining a balanced lifestyle Variance explained for four regression models using the same 79 main effects. T wo regressions included only the main effects ; t he other two included the main effects and 19 interaction effects. The first two models were based on a forced entry regression retaining all variables; the next two models were based on backward stepwise regression eliminating all insignifi cant variables one step at a time. Only the significant ( p .05) variables remaining in the final regression model that included the main and interaction effects are listed above in order of their standardized contributions ( ) to the regression model.
210 Table 4 23 Multiple regression analysis for Factor 3 ( N = 688) Measure b SE b t p VIF R R 2 P 2 F Sig. Main effects only (enter) .48 .23 .13 2.32 .00 Interactions incl. (enter) .53 .28 .15 2.04 .00 Main effects (backwards) .40 .16 .14 10.40 .00 Interactions incl. (backward) .43 .18 .17 10.77 .00 Global Context .02 .00 .21 5.64 .00 1.14 Imp of career meaning White .34 .07 .17 4.79 .00 1.04 Adv. educ ation funding .10 .03 .17 3.82 .00 1.62 Adv. education funding Age .01 .00 .16 4.11 .00 1.23 Adv. ed funding African Am. .42 .12 .13 3.41 .00 1.11 Institutional context .01 .00 .11 2.91 .00 1.16 Prior NAPS p rior college/prep .44 .17 11 2.56 .01 1.58 Leaving meaning age .04 .01 .10 2.62 .01 1.17 Prior college/prep school .22 .11 .10 2.06 .04 1.89 Leaving pressure age .08 .03 .09 2.65 .01 1.05 Initial career pref African Am. .70 .29 .09 2.43 .0 2 1.08 Initial career pref erred .13 .05 .09 2.37 .02 1.08 Top meaning friends .06 .03 .09 2.17 .03 1.40 Prior e nlisted .31 .15 .08 1.98 .05 1.19 Note. Factor 3 = Acknowledging important values Variance explained for four r egression models using the same 79 main effects. Two regressions included only the main effects; the other two included the main effects and 33 interaction effects. The first two models were based on a forced entry regression retaining all variables; the n ext two models were based on backward stepwise regression eliminating all insignificant variables one step at a time. Only the significant ( p .05) variables remaining in the final regression model that included the main and interaction effects are listed above in order of their standardized contributions ( ) to the regression model.
211 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to deter mine underlying factors of career meaning in order to better understand the construct and explore the group differences related to the derived factors. Chapter 5 provides a summary of the research ; conclusions of the analyses ; limitations of the sample, in strumentation and research design ; implications for theory, research, and practice; and recommendations for further research. The current theories, literature, and research on life and career meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness emphasize the impor tance of career meaning in an these constructs, counselors may better help individuals identify the underlying factors that may contribute to a more meaningful career and promote increased sat isfaction and well being. The research questions that guided this study were aimed at filling the gaps in literature The first research question asked w hat factors contribute to a working definition of career meaning ? An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to determine the underlying factors of career meaning and identify the specific variables relevant to empirically defining the construct more accurately. The second research question asked a re group differences such as age, gender, culture a nd environment significantly related to career meaning and its derived factor scale ? Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the career and demographic variables that appeared to contribute to each of the derived factors. A nswering these researc h questions inform ed theory, research, and practice in the area s of career development, counseling, and the practices of military leaders.
212 F our key areas of assessment were used to explore the constructs of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness in bo th the life and career dimensions The survey contained items from eight instruments including the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ; Steger et al. 2006 ), Work and Meaning Inventory (WAMI; Steger et al., 2012), Rokeach Value Survey ( RVS; Rokeach, 19 6 7 ), Work Values Survey ( WVS; Ros et al., 1999), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et al. 1985 ), Job Perception Scale s ( JPS; Hatf ield et al., 1985), and the Five Factor Wellness Inventory (5F Wel; Myers & Sweeney, 2005b ) These measurements included 3 5 subscales that were used for the EFA. Additionally, t he Marlowe Crowne Short Form B (Reynolds, 1982) was used to assess social desirability bias in the subscales. Finally, a series of career and demographic items were included to help identify potential group differences related to the derived factors ; these were used in the multiple regression analyses. In order to obtain responses, a n online survey of 2 34 items was sent to U.S. Naval Academy (USNA) graduates from the classes of 1985 2010. A total of 688 participants completed all or most of the survey; their responses were used for the analyses in this study. Although the response rate was small compared to the total number of graduates throughout the 26 year span of classes, the sample was somewhat repr esentative of the population of graduates relevant to gender and ethnicity. Additionally, there was a relatively even distribution of responses from each cohort (2 6%), with slightly higher participation among the older cohorts, indicating their continued involvement in the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA) for more than 25 years after graduation. Furthermore, t he relationship status and presence of children also tended to increase as graduates got older, which makes logical sense considering midshipman
213 are not all owed to marry or have children while attending USNA, and many may choose to wait until later because of the high training and deployment demands of military service. Overall, 94% of participants worked full time Approximately 72% stated they enjoyed a l ot or almost everything about their jobs, and 82% felt that their current jobs were somewhat or absolutely aligned with their personal values. Additionally, 86% identified career meaning as important or extremely important to them and they ranked family, c areer, and friends respectively as their top three areas from which they derived the most meaning The responses to the subscales were also weighted positively in that a majority of participants reported higher levels of presence and/or importance of meani ng, values, satisfaction, and wellness in their lives. The participants provided reliable responses for most items; reliability alpha coefficients were above .60 for all except three of the subscales in the Work Values Survey (intrinsic, .26; extrinsic, .5 4; and prestige, .53). Subs equently, the ex trinsic values scale was dropped during the EFA because it loaded poorly on all factors. In order to answer the first research question, 35 subscales were used for the EFA with a principle axis extraction and vari max rotation to identify underlying factors of career meaning. Because four key constructs were measured, a four factor solution was anticipated. However, only three factors emerged from this analysis Initial factor loadings ranged from .25 to .86. Subsc ales that loaded on one of the three factors with a factor loading of .40 in the final solution were retained, leaving a total of 25 subscales from the original 35 contributing to the final factor solution and explaining nearly 42% of the variance. Standar dized factor scores for each of the three derived factors were
214 calculated using the Bartlett approach; factor scores rang ed from approximatel y 3.0 to +3.0, with a mean of zero Factor 1 combined the career meaning, satisfaction, and wellness subscales as well as the life meaning and satisfaction subscales. The career meaning, satisfaction, and wellness subscales loaded more strongly on Factor 1 ; therefore, this factor was named finding meaningful work It contained nine subscales that included a total of 36 items and accounted for 28% of the variance alpha for standardized items was .89 for combined Factor 1 subscales indicating good reliability of the subscales loading on this factor Factor 2 combined all of the re tained items from the wellness subscales except career wellness. These subscales covered a variety of wellness related areas including the areas of creative, coping, social, and physical. Therefore, this factor was named attaining a balanced lifestyle It comprised 11 subscales that included 48 items and standardized items was .85 for the combined Factor 2 subscales. Factor 3 included subscales retained from the life and care er values instruments Therefore, this factor was named acknowledging important values This factor included five subscales with a total of 44 items; nearly 6% of the variance is contributed to this factor alpha for standardized items was .73 for the combination of Factor 3 subscales. In order to answer the second research question, group differences were assessed using multiple regression to determine if there were significant disti nctions relevant to any of the three derived factors. The s tandardized factor scores were used
215 as the dependent variables. The career and demographic items were the independent variables. Differences were explored for demographics, family influence, milita ry and academic readiness, military experiences, current career experiences, and environment al contexts Several significant differences did arise for each of the three factors : 12 main effects and 3 interaction effects contributed significantly to Factor 1 ; 9 main effects and 1 interaction effects contributed to Factor 2 ; and 7 main effects and 7 interaction effects contributed to Factor 3. The specific group differences are further discussed in the conclusion below. Conclusion s This study provided insig hts in to the underlying factors of career meaning to more accurately defin e the construct and identify any group differences relative to the derived factors Current research suggests that there is a strong connection between meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness. This analysis confirms these constructs contribute to a common var iance for this factor solution. Research Question 1 The first research question was aimed at determining the underlying factors that contributed to a working definition of car eer meaning. An EFA was conducted to explore the number of factors emerging from the 35 subscales and use them as a guide to identify the specific elements relevant to empirically defining the construct more accurately. Factor 1: Finding m eaningful w ork The subscales that contributed to Factor 1 were focused on the concepts that measured career meaning, satisfaction, and wellness as well as those that measured life meaning and satisfaction. Factor 1 contribute d to 28% of the variance in this factor soluti on ; however, it also combined the
216 largest number of constructs O nly the subscales were used for the factor analysis rather than the items ; therefore, this may have present ed problems in differentiating the constructs. However, it could also indicate that gaining clarity may be difficult in this area beca use there may be an overlap between meaning and satisfaction. For example, the instruments assessing meaning in this study included satisfaction (e.g., k that has a satisfying purpose ). Furthermore, t here may be an inherent satisfact ion when people find their lives and careers driven by a sense of meaning and purpose. Alternatively, there could be a causative element in this relationship that may require more research to uncover For example, individuals may experience satisfaction on ly if they have found meaning in their lives or careers. Conversely they may experience meaning only if they find satisfaction in their lives or careers. Exploring this factor further may help to better understand the relationships between life and career meaning, satisfaction, and wellness. However, for this study, the career dimensions of meaning, satisfaction, and wellness contributed to a larger portion of the variance than the life dimensions. Therefore, finding meaningful work appeared to be the most significant theme for Factor 1. Moreover, because the subscales contributing to Factor 1
217 contributed t o most of the variance for the overall factor solution, they were used most prominently in clarifying the definition for career meaning. Factor 2: Atta ining a b alanced l ifestyle Approximately 8% of the variance in the factor solution is contributed to Factor 2. All of the subscales that contributed to Factor 2 came from the 5F Wel, measuring various aspects of holistic well being. The subscales measured stress management, self worth, friendship leisure, emotions, control, thinking, exercise, nutrition, positive humor, and love respectively in order of their level of contribution to ma in my life who is interested in my growth and well ne whom I am close importance for maintaining a balanced lifestyle across several areas of well being. The only wellness subscale that was retained in the overall factor str ucture that did not load on Factor 2 was the work subscale. Although the work subscale did have a weak factor loading of .38 on Factor 2, it had a stronger factor loading of .68 on Factor 1, aligning it more closely with the areas of career meaning and sat isfaction. This also offers concurrent validity for the 5F Wel work subscale as it clearly measures aspects of work related wellness.
218 Factor 3: Acknowledging i mportant v alues Factor 3 accounted for nearly 6% of the variance for this factor solution. The s ubscales contributing to Factor 3 included those that measured life values including terminal values (e.g., goals), instrumental values (e.g., means to achieve the goals) and well as the prestige, social, and intrinsic work values. Looking more closely at the items that made up these subscales and considering the amount of variance contributed by each, more consideration was given to the life values subscales, as they contributed more of the variance (44 49%) to Factor 3 Additionally, the subscal e s used to measure life values had higher reliabilities than those measuring work values The life values instruments measured the importance participants placed on each of the values from least important (1) to most important (7). Among the 36 values, the 10 item s that had the highest mean scores ( m > 5.92) included five items from each of the terminal and instrumental values subscales. The top terminal values described the goals participants found most important to achieve including family security, health, freed om, accomplishment, and self respect. The instrumental values described what participants valued most as a way to achieve their goals, such as honesty, responsibility, capability, courage, and loyalty. Among the least important life values for this sample ( m = 4.04 4.66) were the terminal goals of salvation, equality, social recognition, world of beauty, and world at peace. The mean score for all life values fell above the mid point of the scale indicating that all or most of the values were important to participants. Therefore, acknowledging the important values the most central theme for Factor 3. Empirically d efining c areer m eaning The EFA was used to determine the underlying constructs of career meaning to help more accurate ly define the concept.
219 The functional working definition of career meaning used initially in this study refer red to a n experience of a career that is personal values and provides meaningful experiences, a sense of purpose, satisfaction stimulation and fulfillment A more accurate empirically based definition of career meaning refers to an experience with a career that provides meaningful, satisfying, and challenging work that contributes to an overall balanced lifestyle and is aligned definition combines the elements from each of the derived factors related to career meaning. Additional analyses using supplementary scales and/or subscales may refine this definition even further. Moreover, exploring the factors at the item level may also be more telling in the specific items that load more prominently on Factor 1 and may more narrowly identify the most significant contributors of career meaning. Summary There were three unanticipated findings with the EFA. First, instead of four clearly defined factors that loaded with only the constructs they were designed to measure, a three factor solution resulted. Most of the wellness and values subscales loaded on Factors 2 and 3 respectively. However, the subscales for meani ng, satisfaction, and career wellness all loaded on Factor 1 suggesting these constructs may be more significantly interrelated than expected. An overlap in these constructs may be difficult to separate. However, additional analysis or different instrument s may help to differentiate the constructs further. Second, one aim of this study was to create a clear distinction between the life and career dimensions of each of the constructs. Separate instruments were used to measure the life and career dimensions a nd to distinguish any important differences between the two. However, this factor structure provided little clarity in that goal. Most of
220 the life and career subscales for same construct loaded on a single factor rather than two separate factors. For examp le, the subscales from the life and career values instruments both loaded on Factor 3. This overlap of life and career dimensions was evident in most of the factors. The exception was with career wellness, which aligned more strongly on Factor 1 with the c areer meaning and satisfaction subscales; whereas, the remaining life wellness subscales loaded on Factor 2. This could indicate that the dimensions of life and career in each of these areas overlap and may not be separated Since people spend so much time at work, their career s may be a significant contributor to their overall li fe meaning, satisfaction, values, and wellness However, this may also be a limitation of conducting the EFA at the subscale, rather than item, level. This may necessitate additio nal analysis or different instruments to further separate the dimensions if it is possible. Finally, literature suggested the significance of the four constructs and their relationships to each other. Although meaning and satisfaction loaded on the same fa ctor, when a secondary EFA was run with the derived factor scores to determine if the three factors loaded on a single factor, they did not. The model collapsed onto two factors, only by splitting the Factor 2 loadings between the other two factors. It was clearly not a viable solution. However, the multiple regression analysis did show independent variables related to wellness and values contributing positively to Factor 1 scores, highlighting that although aligning on separate factors, there is a direct r elationship between meaning, satisfaction, values, and wellness. Research Question 2 The second research question focused on whether group differences such as age, gender, culture and environment significantly related to career meaning and its
221 derived fa ctor scale Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the career and demographic variables that appeared to contribute to each of the derived factors. The nominal variables were dummy coded if necessary expanding the total number of variables us ed in the three regression models to 94; however, removing overlapping variables to control for collinearity, the final number of independent variables was 79 A backward stepwise regression analysis was used to reduce the number of variables to only those which contributed significantly to the model. Approximately 52% of the variance for Factor 1 score was explained by 12 main effects (i.e., career, part time employment, lack o f meaning as a reason for leaving the military, family as a top area of meaning, the importance of career meaning relative to other status, lack of enjoyment as a re ason for leaving the military, religion/ spirituality as a top area of meaning, Hispanic/Latino(a) and Native American ethnicity ) and three interaction effects (i.e., influence of others in current career direction when controlled by marital status part t ime employment status when controlled by age, and part time employmen t status when controlled by presence of children ). Approximately 36% of the variance for Factor 2 was explained by 9 main effects (i.e., chronological context, local context, institution al context, importance of career highest degree completed, pre Navy experiences, marital status, health as a top area of meaning, and the global context ) and 1 interaction effect (i.e., enjoyment of their careers when controlled by gender ).
222 Approximately 18% of the variance for Factor 3 was explained by 7 main effects (i.e., global context advanced educational funding from the military, institutional context prior college or preparato ry school, initial career selection preferred, friends as a top area of meaning, and prior military enlisted experience ) and 7 interaction effects (i.e., importance of career meaning when controlling for non minority (i.e., White) status advanced educatio n funding from the military when controlled by age and African American ethnicity, prior NAPS experience controlling for prior college/preparatory school, lack of meaning as a reason for leaving military service controlled by age, pressure from others as a reason for leaving military service controlled by age, and initial career selection preferred when controlle d by African American ethnicity ) Consequently only one variable was included across all three regression models The importance placed on career meaning relative to other areas of life contributed positively to Factor 1 which measured career and meaning and satisfaction. It contributed negatively to Factor 2 scores measuring a variety of wellness areas, and when controlled by White versus non Whit e groups, it contributed positively to Factor 3 scores measuring the importance of values. Limitations Overall, the research study had some positive and interesting findings; however, as with any research, there were several limitations that impacted the full success of this study. The limitations discussed in this section include those related to the sample, instrumentation, and research design. Sampling Although a majority of participants answered all or most of the demographic items, a few of the most commonly missed items included personal characteristics such
223 as gender ( n = 7 1% ) and ethnicity ( n = 16, 2.3%) Although the demographic items were obtained to determine the representativeness of the sample to the population of USNA graduates, several of the 5F Wel questions related to gender identity and culture demographic items and were addressed in their final comments. More specifically related to gender identity, the 5F Wel asked participants to respond to a four point Likert eing a male/female is a source eing male/female h as a positive effect on my I feel support from others for being a feel a positive identity with others of my gender. Additionally, in an effort to be more inclusive, the Responses included three categories: male, fema le, and transgender. The wording on demographic question alone, or combined with the other 5F Wel questions, may have confused or irritated participants, indicated by the following comments: I don't understand (at all) the comfortable with gender type questions What's the deal with the focus on pride in gender? Your questions about g ender were difficult to answer. I don't really think about a need to identify with or get support fo r my t he questions wrt [with respect t o] pride/reinforcement based on gender -didn't get those should have had more than just 4 options for response. M y success and satisfaction is based on my capabilities/performance, not because of my gender ; derive neither good nor negative feelings from being male, but t he number
224 of gender identity related questions seem to be excessive; and t he focus on gend er identity felt forced and odd Furthermore, because p articipan ts were able to select transgender as an option for gender in an attempt to be inclusive, it garnered controversy. Two participants supported the decision to include it and recommended including a sexual orientation question as well. They stated ecommend future surveys incorporate sexual orientation to identify possible unique t rends/outcomes and comparison. This survey identifies gender/transgender (progressive thinking), but orientation ca n have an effect on uestions should have been asked about sexual orientation, not just gender and culture/ethnicity. Alternately, three participants disagreed and felt the questions were not relevant. It appears that offering categories such as male, female, and prefer not to answer may have been mo a classification of 'transgender' seems inappropriate given the survey audience and time frame. T here may be some transgenders of which I am unaware, but the source and timing of military com missioning generally discouraged 'transgender identification. Any such self identifying individuals would be note worthy outliers. apparent that some of the graduates had strong feelings about the use of the word transgender in the s urvey or the relationship to sexual orientation Their comments transgender? really? and t his is a survey about the gays and I detest them. T he USNA is traditional ly conservative and has not allowed openly gay or lesbian individuals admission September 20, 2011. It would be interesting to note any relationships between sexual
225 orientation and career related factors, especially in the military where they have historically not been acc epted However, because of the recent heightened political scrutiny related to sexual orientation and military service, a question asking about their orientation was not included in this study. Furthermore, several participants felt that both the gender an d ethnicity/culture questions were unnecessary. They stated w e cannot change that, so why brag or worry about it? I feel that pandering to culture and gender is insulting to anyone who has a solid sense of self worth ; t he gender based questions are ri diculous followed by the ethnic back ground questions. Anybody strong enough to identify themselves as an individual should be able to move past these associations and if not have no place in a leadership position in our service ; lot of the questions on the male/female thing I didn't feel had an answer that matched my thoughts. I don't think about my cultural background or my sex, so asking if I feel I have support is more not applicable than yes or no and I think the questions about gender and cul tural heritage are distracting and minefields. The ethnic/cultural questions related to cultural identity on the 5F Wel included y cultural background enhances the quality of m I have sources of support with respect to my race, color, or cultur I am proud of my cultural heritage. ethnic categories provided in the admiss ions application including African American, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino(a), Native American, Pacific Islander, and White. The class profiles over the course of the 26 years reported Asian American and Pacific
226 Islander separately or combined. Therefore the results reported in this study were combined to be consistent with the population tables. Additionally, it is limiting narrowing down all participants to five or six ethnic categories; h owever, it was done to determine the representativeness of the sample to the population. There are obvious limitations with this procedure. For example, as one participant emphasized that there were no bi or multi I'm bi racial and can't remember what race I listed over 25 years ago on an application. Additionally, one male who identified as White, felt that his ethnicity could be used to I was disappointed that ethnicity was a component of this survey. The military is entirely too focused on treating people differently based on the irrelevant and arbitrary classification of skin color. This is a deep injustice unworthy of our country and our Academy. Finally, o ne participant pointed out he response 'W hite' is not an answer to a question reg arding one's ethnic origin. A color is not one's ethnic origin. However, White was used in the USNA ethnic groups and has been used to encompass a wider variety of people, not necessarily just from Europe. It may include individuals with an origin from Eu rope, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, United States, North Africa, or the Middle East decent. It is also a commonly accepted descriptor in American society and is used by the U.S. Census Bureau (Bhopal & Donaldson, 1998). Instrumentation The instruments in this study were designed to gather relevant data based on the theoretical framework of the four main areas of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness in addition to gathering personal career and demographic information. However, after reviewing the results of the data collection, limitations were identified
227 related to the instruments selected, the categorization of careers using the ACT World of Work codes, and achieving proper coverage of the career information participants felt would better identif y them. Instruments selected Several of the instruments had acceptable reliabilities and the data w ere normally distributed. However some scales and /or subscales had limitations related to the reliability, normality, and poor factor loadings on any facto r. For example, the Work Values Scale (WVS ) had some of the lowest reliabilities ( .26 .64) of the 35 subscales used for this sample Work values instruments were not common in the literature; therefore, this was chosen based on its availability and relev ance to the study. Consequently, these subscales had only moderate or poor factor loadings ( 43 ) and low communalit ies ( .28 ) during the EFA, making them less relevant to the factor structure and a possibly a poor fit for this study. Additionally, the Mea ning in Life (MLQ) instrument had good subscale reliabilities for the presence of meaning (MLQ P; .91) and the search for meaning (MLQ S; .90). However, when taken together, the MLQ scale reliability decreased to .65 possibly because the MLQ P and MLQ S w ere negatively correlated ( = .35) Since only the subscales were used in the EFA and the MLQ full subscale score was not used, the lowered reliability of the full scale did not impact the EFA. However, the MLQ S did have lower factor loadings ( 3 7) and loaded negatively on Facto r 1 with the other subscales designed to measure meaning Therefore, it was not retained in the final factor solution. Furthermore, t he Marlowe Crowne, Short Form B (MC) was used to determine social desirability bias in the instruments. There were low corr elations for all of the scales and subscales, which is preferred to show little or no distortion in the data
228 However, the reliability of the instrument was very low (.22) for this sample This contradicts the higher reliabilities found in other research s tudies (.62 .75). Using the full form with 33 items could have possibly provided higher reliability, but the short form was selected to minimize the number of items being added to an already long survey. Finally, there is an assumption that all items in a given subscale contribute evenly to that subscale. All of the subscales used in this study were calculated by summing related items with the exception of the 5F Wel. T here is a potential source of measurement error when calculating the instrument subscal es this way That error may also contribute to further error in calculating factor scores because there is also the assumption that items in each subscale contribute evenly to the factor as well. However, some items may have factored more strongly on a par ticular factor if the EFA was performed at the item level. Categorizing c areer s In addition to the published scales, it was helpful to understand the initial, current, and preferred career directions of participants Originally i t appeared helpful to us e the ACT World of Work codes to identify the type of work participants did or preferred by general categories This would have created a standardized measure for job duties regardless of whether participants were currently i n civilian, government, and mil itary jobs This was necessary to determine if a difference between initial and preferred job duties correlated to leaving the military after the initial obligation or whether a difference between current and preferred job duties resulted in increased or d ecreased career meaning, alignment with values, job satisfaction, and/or well being.
229 Unfortunately, there was a significant amount of missing data and comments from 20 participants regarding those items he ACT career map is truly confusing and the career classifications perplexing the job category selections were not very applicable to military service he sectional/pie chart in the Career Experience and Preference section is a round peg in a square hole. It appears to detail civilian ca reer fields that clumsily lthough I selected management for most responses, this barely captures the focus of my work related respo orry to have skipped the middle section on careers it was just too time consuming and difficult to try to fit what I do into those and the section where we categorize our Navy and current career field was very confusing. It would have taken me 15 minutes to read and understand all those choi ces. I would not put much confidence that those were answered completely accurately. Military officers often hold management jobs overseeing a variety of job duties from engineering to operations. However, they may not necessarily see themselves as actu ally performing those specific job duties. A number of participants felt that because they were in management positions, the 26 categories did not effectively represent their job duties. Additionally, some of the military and government jobs held by partic ipants are specialized and combat related; therefore, they are difficult to match under any of the categories provided. Therefore, those variables were not used in the regression analysis as intended In addition, as several participants pointed out, the l ist of the 26 career areas was cumbersome in an already long survey. Therefore, in future studies it may be helpful to collapse the categories down to the six main career clusters
230 model described in C hapter 2 a nd be mindful of the population so that job duties may be more accurately captured. Career c overage. Although there was an attempt to capture the variety of career and military service options, several participants commented about the lack of coverage rega rding their career and/or military service. For example, a single current career was assumed and participants were asked to answer the current career questions based on that. However, one participant pointed out that t he survey doesn't capture the experie nces of officers who ar e very active in the Reserves. Rather, it assumes that the respondent has one career or job. I have two, parallel, careers as an air line pilot and Navy Reservist. In fact, I spend more time in my Navy uniform than in my airline unifo rm. Another participant described that it did not accurately capture her experience; here may appear to be some inconsistenc y in answers due to grey areas. I left a successfu l (but unfulfilling) career in sales to become an Army w ife and moth er, but also work as the Co Founder and Director of a social enterprise in international children's health education at no pay. I would have liked more questions about why I don't care for my current job. I think th at job satisfaction is very important to keeping people in the military but family is also my number one priority and does come before my work/career. Research Design One significant limitation of this research design was the limited exposure to the popu lation. Because the USNAAA limited their email to a single dissemination, the response rate was low. For potential participants who would have participated had they received a reminder, the restrictions of just one email was limiting. Unfortunately, the
231 de cision was announced after the initial email was disseminated. However, with a large population to survey, the sample was adequate for the analyses in this study. Other limitations included the length of the survey and repetitiveness of the items ; several participants commented on these issues at the end of the survey. Fortunately, these participants did complete the survey in its entirety. Unfortunately, it is difficult to understand why graduates did not begin or complete the survey. However, o ne particip a graduate he knew. When asked why he would typically not bother, he responded w hen I read th is I am immediately turned off his survey contains 234 items and is expected t o take approximately 25 & time and in my selfish world Additionally, two participants who did not take the survey contacted the USNAA representative directly with their reaction s to the survey One participant said that the What is the meaning of life? Additionally, although there were no political questions on the survey, another participant wrote I didn't even get thr ough the first page of questions and thought I was answering a Democrat sponsored survey on how I will vote in the upcoming election. How do I feel????? Really? I feel like working ha Therefore, the psychological nature of the survey may have discouraged participants who were not interested in life or career meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness. Furthermore, research scales often have redundancy built in to create more accu rate scale and sub scale scores; however, seve ral participants found this too lot of questions are redundant which is irritating
232 when I don't really understand what this survey will produce. Although additional items on a subscale can improve reliability of the instruments and it is helpful to gain as much information from participants as possible, a long survey can produce higher rates of attrition. Therefore, a reasonable balance is necessary to retain participants throughout the entire survey. Additionally, p a rticipants suggested that a progress counter would have been helpful ; however, it was unavailable with the survey software used. C hoosing shorter instruments or a smaller number of items could have also simplified and shortened the survey so participants w ere not discouraged from finishing. In the future, it may help to more narrowly focus the survey items without compromising reliability to create a shorter survey. Moreover, although most of the sample completed the full survey, there was missing data. In order to compensate for the missing data, the multiple imputation approach was used to create multiple datasets. However, only a single imputed dataset was used for the data analysis. This seemed appropriate given that there was a low percentage of missing data for any of the variables and there appeared to be no statistically significant difference between the datasets. Yet, there was a potential to introduce a small amount of error into the study by using only the single dataset. Overall, the graduates w ho completed the survey appeared to support it as evidenced by multiple positive comments and requests for dissemination of the results Conversely a few graduates used it as an opportunity to voice their dislike for certain aspects of their military serv ice in hopes of future changes within the USNA and military community. These comments will be included in a report to USNA administration so they may acknowledge and possibly address them with their graduates.
233 Finally, exploration of the databases mainta ined by the USNA could have also been informative. The connection between this research and information available in the USNA databases m ay identify predictors of service career longevity nested within midshipmen/graduate data that relate to the constructs measured in this study. The limitations and time requirements of gaining access to the database information was difficult for this research study. However, it could be useful to consider requesting database information for further analysis. Implications The significance of this study spanned across theory, research and practice Therefore, the implications discussed below cover the se areas as well Theory The literature and theory related to career meaning is limited. Therefore, this study was able to exp lore the relevance of meaning ful work balanced lifestyles and the importance of values in this study Although several researchers pointed out the connection between meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness; it does appear that there are some connecti ons that are stronger than others. For example, the aspects of career meaning, satisfaction, and wellness load ed on the same factor with life meaning and satisfaction; this factor contributes the most variance (28%) to the overall factor solution. However, the life and career values as well as the other areas of overall wellness clearly load ed on separate factors with lower levels of va riance (6 8%) yet they still contributed to th e overall factor structure. Although values and wellness were expected to be more significant to the construct of career meaning, these findings do highlight the more significant relationship
234 between meaning and satisfaction. Therefore, it does narrow down the theoretical framework so that further explorations may be more specific ally focused on the meaning and satisfaction constructs. Furthermore, it has been suggested that when people lack career meaning and satisfaction, it can impact their overall life meaning and satisfaction as well. This study confirms the relationships betw een the life and career dimensions of these constructs. It would be helpful to continue exploring these constructs further to better understand a predictive or causative relationship between the life and career dimensions of meaning and satisfaction. Final ly career development theories suggest the importance of a person job fit and they include the importance of matching values, interests, personality, skills, and even satisfaction. However, this research suggests that career meaning is also a significant factor that should be considered when working with clients. Since career meaning is important to the participants in this sample and it is closely related to career satisfaction and wellness, it appears to be an important contribution to theory. Research A uthors and researchers (Albion, 2000; Boldt, 1996; Csikszentmihalyi, 19 90 ) have published on benefits of follow Although it intuitively ma d e sense it is helpf ul to have the empirical data to support this E xploring the factors underlying the construct of career meaning help ed to more narrowly define the construct of career meaning and understand ing of the relevant relationships between the life and career dimen sions of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness. Furthermore, a dditional career and demographic items helped to explore the group differences and understand patterns of the group in key areas including the
235 importance of family and career as top areas from which participants derive d meaning For example, many of the participants in this study rated highly the importance of career meaning within their lives ranking it only second to family It is no surprise that family and career are the two most impo rtant ways from which participants derive meaning considering many spend most of their waking hours at work or home. It is also evident that lack of meaning and enjoyment as reasons for leaving military service were also significant negative contributor s i n explaining the variance of Factor 1 scores. These and other findings contribute to the res earch related to career meaning The results also generate ideas for future research to expand upon the current findings or explore them in more detail. Practice Th e effects of career meaning are widespread The implications of this study extend to the fields of career development and counseling as well as the participant specific groups like those who attend ed the USNA and /or served in the military Career developm ent and counseling The practices of career development and counseling can certainly be impacted by the findings of this study. For career counselors who focus primarily on helping individuals find a viable career, it would be helpful to determine not only their values, interests, personality, and skills to find a complementary fit with a job. It would be prudent to consider the importance individuals place on finding a meaningful career, and from where they derive most of their meaning in life This may he lp them find a career that can contribute to a well balanced lifestyle relevant to their personal needs of meaning, satisfaction, values, and wellness For example, if family were more important to meaning than a career, an individual might prefer a job th at offered him the time, stability, and/or finances to be with his family,
236 allow them to grow up in one place, and afford the education desired. Alternatively, if a different individual value s career meaning equally or even more importantly than family he r needs between work and family may be balanced a bit differently Furthermore, the areas from which individuals derive meaning may change over the course of their lives. For example, individuals who may have put a higher emphasis on their early careers m ay find a shift when they decide to start a family. Conversely, as children get older and begin to leave the home, individuals may shift their priorities from family back to work or onto other areas Taking these aspects into consideration would be helpful beyond assessing the four areas most typically explored in career counseling (i.e., values, interests, personality, and skills). It can help prioritize the areas of significance and help individuals identify careers which most closely align with their nee ds so they can experience higher levels of career meaning, satisfaction, values, and wellness. Military service Many p articipants in this study shared the reasons they left military service Some of the most typical responses included their desire to t ry a different career direction, a lack of meaning or enjoyment in their career s, limited advancement or transfer opportunities conflicts between personal values and job duties, family conflicts and separation, poor work environment and long deployments, an d pressure to leave the military from others. T hose who found the ir military careers unfulfilling and not aligned with the importance they place d on family appeared to impact attrition in a mi litary where keeping well trained and motivated people is import ant. In addition, researchers have shown negative impact s for those who do not leave but remain un satisf ied within the workplace ; these findings indicate d how a lack of
237 meaning an affect colleagues at work, families at ho me, and the larger mission of the military in service around the world. Specific practices related to United States Naval Academy (USNA) graduates in this study may inform not only the USNA and USNA Alumni Association (USNAAA) leadership and administration but other service academies, and possibly the military a s a whole. graduate leaders who are dedicated issues that cause p eople to leave a career of naval service, the achievement of that mission could be impacted Gaining a n understanding that career meaning is important naval career can help to inform decision makers as early as the admissions process Issues such as reason s for leaving, specific conflicts with the work or environment, and value of the work m ay impact factors considered in training and career decisions at the insti tutional and individual level. If there are accurate predictors o f career service longevity and satisfaction, it can be helpful to understand those predictors to identify candidates early that may be more likely to remain on active duty. S everal participants in this study took the time to make additional USNA or navy s pecific comments related to their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their military service. Those can be helpful in understand ing issues not necessarily targeted in the survey. It may also serve as an effective guide when gathering additional informatio n careers to shed more light on why people choose to continue serving or leave the military. Un derstanding the reasons across a larger cross section of military personnel could be helpful, especially when breaking
238 down the reasons by military career field. Even with military downsizing, the individuals who experience the most meaning and satisfaction from their work may be those who are the most motivated to remain on active duty This could mak e the retention of m ilitary personnel in higher ranks more selective and focused on the most motivated and satisfied performers. In addition, the choice and motivation for remaining in the military m ay impact contract incentives for extended service time and training Additio nally, part of the USNA Alumni Association (USNAAA) supports military officers through alumni and career activities and services throughout the year. These services require staff time and support. As pointed out earlier in the 2009 Alumni of graduates using the career programs came from the year groups included in this study. Those who found these programs important found them helpful in the transition to civilian careers, provid ing assistance with the job search and creating networking opportunities (p. 107). Therefore, the findings in this study and the comments provided by participants may help the USNAAA better understand who is remaining in the military and who is transition ing to civilian careers as well as the potential reasons for the move. It may also ser ve to guide the decision makers to the important aspects involved in transitioning to a civilian career and how tailoring a job search could be more beneficial when consi dering aspects such as meaning, satisfaction, values, and wellness. Recommendations for Future Research The data collected in this study has provided helpful insight s to the understanding of the life and career dimensions of meaning, values satisfaction, and wellness Although the research questions posed for this study have been answered, additional questions remain regarding this topic and population.
239 Conducting a confirmatory factor analysis with a different population would be helpful because this sam ple was largely homogeneous in a number of ways including gender, ethnicity, educational opportunities, initial military service, and general career experience in management. Therefore, looking at the results of a larger cross section of individuals may co nfirm these findings or yield different results. Further analyzing the responses in this data set or asking new questions may also be helpful to exploring these concepts further. Mining the Data Further There is more room to explore the underlying factors of career meaning and group differences related to these factors. Since only subscales were used for the factor analysis, a further deconstruction of the subscales may be helpful to gain clarity, especially for Factor 1. There are a total of 36 items inclu ded in the nine subscales that loaded on Factor 1. Therefore, a further analysis at the item level could be helpful to understanding this factor more clearly. It may also help to separate the life from career dimensions and/or the meaning from satisfaction measures. Practical applications of this derived model may also help inform the practices of career counselors, counselors, and military leaders T he career experiences, preferences, and background information collected may provide the opportunity to look at additional correlates between variables For example, the following research questions could be explored: d oes the empirical model derived from the factor analysis provide a means for describing the work patterns of working adults ? If graduates were as signed initial jobs that were co ngruent with their preferences were they more likely to remain in military service or indicate plans for continued service until retirement ? If their assignments were incongruent with their preferences, were participants in clined to
240 separate from military service after their initial obligation? If they separated from military service, do their current job s provide more enjoyment and alignment with their values or do they generally experience lower levels of satisfaction acro ss both their military and current careers ? If participants indicated family as a reason for leaving military service, were there other family influence variables that significantly impacted their factor scores? Was there a difference between those who rat ed career as a more significant source of meaning than those who ranked it less important on variables such as enjoyment of current job, alignment of values, and reasons for leaving military service? Furthermore given the findings of this empirical invest igation, it may be helpful to explore the variables that differentiate those who pursue long term military career s from those who separate from the military before retirement or even as early as completion of their initial military obligation. Additionally it may be beneficial to look further at the reasons for leaving military service compared to variables such as alignment with personal values, level of satisfaction, career wellness, and family influences Finally, it may be interesting to explore whethe r younger cohorts are more or less satisfied with their current jobs on active duty than older cohorts who have voluntar il y remained in servic e past their initial obligation offer helpful insights in to the decisions that impact the derived factor s of this study. Impact on Wellness and Work Related Outcomes Although a few studies have explored aspects of the relationship between career meaning and wellness and asserted a positive correlation between th e two, the relationship has not been extensively investigated. More research is needed to explore the influence of career meaning on well being to underpin its importance in the counseling profession (Dik & Duffy, 2009; Lopez et al., 2006; Robitschek & Woo dson,
241 2006). Future research may explore the direct correlation between the career meaning and specific wellness outcomes like creativity, emotional stability coping, stress management, social connection, spirituality, self identity, self worth, and self care as well as work related outcomes such as job performance, productivity, tenure, income level, job satisfaction, and work motivation. Additionally, it may help t o further understand additional group differences on the derived factors that were not meas ured in this study such as religio us / spiritual beliefs, socio economic status, promotion opportunities workplace environment, and work schedule/flexibility. Furthermore, a n understanding of the way individuals make meaning may also be crucial to generate a more complete picture of this construct Therefore additional areas may be explored like how meaning has changed over time for people the desire to have a meaningful career, how individuals integrate other meaningful outlets/activities into their live s beyond work, and how much they believe different influences impact the way they make meaning (e.g., parents, mentors, peers, society, media, church, organizations). As one participant pointed out, a further exploration of why individuals do not enjoy the ir current jobs could be enlightening as well reason for leaving military service was assessed in this study, any dissatisfaction with their initial a nd current job s were not explored in detail. In summary, understanding the interp lay among the three factors identified by this study, that is, finding meaningful work, attaining a balanced lifestyle, and acknowledging important values, appears to be beneficial in contributing to the theory, research, and practice related to career mea ning. Through mining the data further or
242 gathering new information, more insights could be offered to benefit the fields of career development, counseling, and military service.
243 APPENDIX A DATA COLLECTION INST RUMENTS Survey Instructions The purpose of t his survey is to help explore the factors related to career meaning. In the next four pages, you will be asked to respond to items regarding your life and career dimensions of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness. After that, we want to know more about you. Therefore, you will be asked additional questions about your career experiences and background. Your answers will be anonymous ; n o personal identifying information will be collected connecting you to your responses which would allow you to sto p the survey and return to it later. Therefore, you must compl ete the survey in one sitting. Additionally, if you leave the survey idle for 60 minutes, the server will automatically time you out. You may also move forward and backward in the survey if you feel the need to modify an earlier answer, but please do so through the survey arrows at the bottom of each screen. Using the browser back button may take you out of the survey and require you to start over. Meaning Instruments Life Meaning Meaning in L ife Questionnaire (MLQ; Steger, M. F., Frazi er, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M., 2006 ; reprinted with permission ) Please take a moment to think about what makes your life and existence feel important and significant to you. Please respond to the following stat ements as truthfully and accurately as you can, and also please remember that these are very subjective questions and that there are no right or wrong answers. Please answer according to the scale below: Absolutely Mostly Somewhat Can't Say Somewhat Mostly Absolutely Untrue Untrue Untrue True or False True True True ( 1 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) ( 5 ) ( 6 ) ( 7 ) 1. 2. I am looking for something that makes my life feel meaningful. 3. I am always looking t 4. My life has a clear sense of purpose. 5. I have a good sense of what makes my life meaningful. 6. I have discovered a satisfying life purpose. 7. I am always searching for something that makes my life feel significant. 8. I am seeking a purpo se or mission for my life.
244 9. My life has no clear purpose. 10. I am searching for meaning in my life. Career Meaning Work and Meaning Inventory (WAMI; Steger, Dik, & Duffy, 2012 ; reprinted with permission ) Work can mean a lot of different things to different people. The following items ask about how you see the role of work in your own life. Please honestly indicate how true each statement is for you and your work. Absolutely Mostly Neither Mostly Absolutely Untrue Untrue True nor Untrue True True (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 1. I have found a meaningful career 2. I view my work as contributing to my personal growth. 3. My work really makes no difference to the world. 4. 5. I have a good sense of what makes my job meaningful. 6. I know my work makes a positive difference in the world. 7. My work helps me better understand myself. 8. I have discovered work that has a satisfying purpose. 9. My work helps me make sense of the world around me. 10. The work I do serves a greater pu rpose. Values Instruments Life Values Rokeach Value Survey (RVS; Rokeach, 1967 Permission not provided to reprint this survey in full. Only the introduction, scoring, and sample items are provided. Contact the publisher for the full scale ) Below are t wo lists of values (and brief description) each in alphabetical order. Please select the level of importance each value has in your life. (1) Least important to (7 ) Most important In this first section Terminal Values refer to desirable end states of exi stence. These are the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. These values vary among different groups of people in different cultures. A Comfortable Life ( a prosperous life )
245 In this next section, I nstrumental Values refer to preferable modes of behavior. These are preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values. Ambitious (hardworking and aspiring) Career Values Work Value Survey (WVS; Ros, Schwartz & Surkiss, 1999 ; reprinted with permission ) How important is each of the following to you in choosing an occupation? (1) Not at all important to (4) V ery important 1. Good salary and work conditions 2. Job security (permanent job, pension) 3. Interesting and varied work 4. Work with people 5. Prestigious, highly va lued work 6. Work in which you are your own boss 7. Contributing to people and society 8. Authority to make decisions over people 9. Social contact with co workers 10. Opportunities for occupational advancement Satisfaction Instruments Life Satisfaction Satisfaction wi th Life Scale (SWLS ; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985 ; public domain ) Below are five statements with which you may agree or disagree. Using the 1 7 scale below, indicate your ag re ement with each item. Please be open and honest in your responding. I = strongly disagree, 2 == disagree, 3 == slightly disagree, 4 == neither agree nor disagree, 5 == slightly agree, 6 == agree, 7 = stro ngly agree 1. In most ways my life is close to my ideal. 2. The conditions of my life are excellent. 3. I a m satisfied with my l ife. 4. So far I have gotten the important things I want in life. 5. If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing.
246 Career Satisfaction Job Perception Scale s (JPS; repr oduced with permission of authors and publisher from : Hatfield, J. D., Robinso n, R. B. & Huseman, R. C. An empirical evaluation of a test for assessing job satisfaction. Psychological Reports 1985, 56, 39 45. Psychological Reports 1985). For each of the items below, there are two end points that describe a quality related to a p articular work activity (e.g., pay, co workers). Please choose a point between the end points that you feel best describes your present job conditions. My present work is: 1. Dull ----------------Exciting 2. Unpleasant --------Pleasant 3. Unchallenging ---Challenging 4. Unsatisfying -------Satisfying My present pay is: 5. Unrewarding ---Rewarding 6. Small -----------Large 7. Wrong -----------Right 8. Negative ---------Positive My present promotion is: 9. Unjust --------Just 10. Unreliable ------Reliable 11. Negative --------Positive 12. Unreasonable --Reasonable My present supervisor is: 13. Distant ---------Near 14. Insincere --------Sincere 15. Unfriendly --------Friendly 16. Unqualified ------Qualified My present co workers are: 17. Careless -------Careful 18. Disloyal -------Loyal 19. Unpleasant -----Pleasant 20. Boring -----------Interestin g
247 Wellness Instrument Five Factor Wellness Inventory (5F Wel ; Myers & Sweeney, 2005b ; used with permission Permission not provided t o reprint this survey in full. Only the introduction, scoring, and sample items are provided Contact the author for the full scale ) The purpose of this inventory is to help you make healthy lifestyle choices. The items are statements that describe you. Answer each ite m in a way that is true for you most of the time. Think about how you most often see yourself, feel, or behave. Answer all the items. Do not spend too much time on any one item. Your honest answers will make your scores more useful. (1) Strongly Disagree if it is never true for you (2) Disagree if it is mostly true for you (3) Agree if it is true for you some of the time (4) Strongly Agree if it is true for you most of the time 1. I engage in a leisure activity in which I lose myself and feel like time stand s still. 91. Changes in life are normal. Bias Instrument Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale Short Form B ( MC ; Reynolds, 1982 ; reprinted with permission ) Listed below are a number of statements concerning personal attitudes and traits. Read each item and decide whether the statement is true or false as it pertains to you personally. T / F format 1. It is sometimes hard for me to go on with my work if I am not encouraged. 2. I sometimes feel resentful when I don't get my way. 3. There have been times when I felt like rebelling against people in authority even though I knew they were right. 4. No matter who I'm talking to, I'm always a good listener. 5. There have been occasions when I took advantage of someone. 6. I'm always willing to admit it when I make a mistak e. 7. I sometimes try to get even rather than forgive and forget. 8. I am always courteous, even to people who are disagreeable. 9. I have never been irked when people expressed ideas very different from my own. 10. There have been times when I was quite jealous of the good fortune of others. 11. I am sometimes irritated by people who ask favors of me. 12.
248 Participant Background Information Career Experiences and Preferences Now please tell us about your c areer experiences and preferences. We are interested in learning about your initial experiences immediately after graduation, and your present experiences. 1. Please select the area of military in which you serve d immediately after graduation from USNA. Unrestricted Line USN Aviation (Pilot, NFO) USN Surface Warfare (Conventional) USN Surface Warfare (Nuclear) USN Submarines USN Seals USN Special Operations USMC Aviation (Pilot, NFO) USMC Ground Restricted Line & Staff Corps Aviation Maintenance Crypto logy Intelligence Oceanography Medical Corps Supply Corps Civil Engineering Corps Human Resources Professional US Army or Air Force (Interservice Transfer) Other (list below) 2. Was the area select ed above a top preference? Yes, this was my first choice Yes, this was one of my top preferences, although not my first choice No, this is not an area that I preferred but I did enjoy my work No, I did not prefer it and I did not enjoy it 3. How many major career fields have you worked in life since graduating USNA? F or example if you served USMC Ground for 5 years (various jobs) and then transitioned to Public Affairs (military or civilian), that should count as a total of two career fields. _________
249 The next five questions ask about your career assignment and preferences in reference to the ACT World of Work Map (2012) and categories The map condenses a wide variety of careers into the following 6 career clusters (see outer ring or major headings) and 26 career areas; examp les of occupations are provided as we ll. Figure A 1 ACT World of Work Map (Source: http://www.act.org/wwm/counselor.html Last accessed May 9, 2012 ) Reprinted with permission Administration & Sales A. Employment Related Services ( Employee Benefits Manager; Employment Interviewer; Human Resources Manager; Labor Relations Specialist; Training/Education Manager ) B. Marketing & Sales ( Advertising Manager; Buyer; Insurance Agent; Real Estate Agent; Sales/Marketing Manager; Travel Agent ) C. Management ( Financial Manager; Foreign Service Officer; General Manager/Executive; Hotel/Motel Manager; Property/Real Estate Manager ) D. Regulation & Protection ( Customs Inspect or; Detective (Police); FBI Agent; Food & Drug Inspector; Park Ranger; Police Officer )
250 Business Operations E. Communications & Records ( Abstractor; Court Reporter; Hotel Clerk; Medical Record Technician; Title Examiner/Searcher ) F. Financial Transactions ( Acco untant/Auditor; Bank Teller; Budget/Credit Analyst; Insurance Underwriter; Real Estate Appraiser; Tax Accountant ) G. Distribution & Dispatching ( Air Traffic Controller; Flight Dispatcher; Mail Carrier; Shipping/Receiving Clerk; Warehouse Supervisor ) Technica l H. Transport Operation & Related ( Aircraft Pilot; Astronaut; Bus Driver; Locomotive Engineer; Ship Captain; Truck Driver ) I. Agriculture, Forestry & Related ( Aquaculturist; Farm Manager; Forester; Nursery/Greenhouse Manager; Tree Surgeon/Arborist) J. Computer & Information Specialties ( Actuary; Archivist/Curator; Computer Programmer; Computer Systems Analyst; Web Site Developer ) K. Construction & Maintenance ( Carpenter; Electrician; Firefighter; Plumber; Security System Installer ) L. Crafts & Related ( Cabinetmaker; Che f/Cook; Jeweler; Tailor/Dressmaker; Winemaker ) M. Manufacturing & Processing ( Printing Press Operator; Sheet Metal Worker; Tool & Die Maker; Water Plant Operator; Welder ) N. Mechanical & Electrical Specialties ( Locksmith; Millwright; Technicians in various field s (for example, Automotive, Avionics, Broadcast, Sound) Science & Technology O. Engineering & Technologies ( Architect, Engineers (for example, Civil, Mechanical) & Technicians (for example, Energy, Quality Control) in various fields; Production Planner; Sur veyor ) P. Natural Science & Technologies ( Biologist; Food Technologist; Geologist; Meteorologist; Physicist ) Q. Medical Technologies ( Dietician/Nutritionist; Optician; Pharmacist; Radiographer Technologists in various fields such as Medical, Surgical) R. Medical D iagnosis & Treatment ( Anesthesiologist; Dentist; Nurse Practitioner; Physical Therapist; Physician; Veterinarian ) S. Social Science ( Anthropologist; Criminologist; Political Scientist; Experimental Psychologist; Sociologist ) Arts T. Applied Arts (Visual) ( Anima tor; Fashion Designer; Graphic Artist (Software); Photographer; Set Designer ) U. Creative & Performing Arts ( Actor; Composer (Music); Dancer/Choreographer; Fashion Model; Musician; Writer/Author ) V. Applied Arts (Written & Spoken) ( Advertising Copywriter; Column ist; Editor; Interpreter; Librarian; Reporter/Journalist )
251 Social Service W. Health Care ( Athletic Trainer; Dental Hygienist; Health Services; Administrator; Psychiatric Technician; Recreational Therapist ) X. Education ( Athletic Coach; College/University Facult y; Educational Administrator; Teachers in various specialties such as Art, Foreign Language, Music) Y. Community Services ( Counselors in various specialties such as Mental Health or Rehabilitation; Director of Social Service; Lawyer; Social Worker ) Z. Personal Services ( Barber; Flight Attendant; Gaming Occupations Worker; Hairstylist/Cosmetologist ) 4. Which career area above most closely aligns with your specific primary career duties during your first regular career assignment immediately following graduation or advanced education/training ? [select A Z ] 5. Which career area most closely aligns with career duties you would have most preferred during your first regular career assignment (may be the same or different as that selected above)? [select A Z] 6. Which ca reer area most closely aligns with the primary career duties of your current job? [select A Z, N/A] 7. After your initial assignment please select up to 3 career areas that most closely aligned with your specific career duties in the military, government and/or civilian jobs (up until now). If you have not completed your initial assignment please select N/A. [select A Z top 3, N/A] 8. Which career areas most closely align with career duties you would prefer to have currently in an ideal job? Please select your top 3 areas. [select A Z top 3, N/A ]
252 9. After your initial service obligation, did you extend your service in the military? Yes, I extended my service and incurred a new service obligation Yes, I extended my service for a new assignment, but did n ot incur an additional obligation No, I did not extend my service but completed that assignment before separating. No, I completed the initial obligation and left the military as soon as I could. No, I left the military before completing the initial obliga tion (e.g., medical, other reasons) I have not completed my initial service obligation. 10. During your initial service selection how involved were others in your career direction (e.g., partner, parents, peers, coaches, supervisor)? My selection was strongl y influenced by others My selection was somewhat influenced by others My selection was minimally influenced by others My selection was not influenced by others at all 11. Regarding your current career field (which may be a non traditional, non paid or volunte er position), how involved were others in your career direction (e.g., partner, parents, peers, coaches, supervisor)? My selection was strongly influenced by others My selection was somewhat influenced by others My selection was minimally influenced by oth ers My selection was not influenced by others at all 12. P lease list your current job title (which may be a non traditional, non paid or volunteer position) _______________ 13. How long (in years) have you been in your present position? Please round to the near est half year (e.g., 5, 7 .5 ) _______________ 14. How ideal is your current job; how passionate are you about your work? I love just about everything about my current job. I enjoy a lot about my current job, but not everything. I really enjoy my current job only about half the time. I only enjoy a small part of my current job. I enjoy nothing about my current job.
253 15. Does your current job align with your personal values? Absolutely, my values are highly aligned with my current job. Somewhat, my current job al igns with my personal values most of the time, but there are a few areas that may not. Partially, my values are aligned with my current job about half the time. Slightly, only a small part of my current job aligns with my personal values. Not at all, none of the work I do is in line with my personal values. 16. Career Meaning is one aspect of Meaning in Life. Currently, h ow significant is your career in providing a source of meaning compared to other areas (e.g., family, church, hobbies) ? Career meaning is ext remely important to me because I spend a lot of time focused on my career. Career meaning is important, but I have other equally important ways I derive meaning in life. Career meaning is not very important because I place more emphasis on other meaningful outlets. Career meaning is not important at all. 17. Please rank the top 3 areas which provide the most significant meaning in your life. Career / professional pursuits Family Friends Colleagues / coworkers Religious activities Sports Hobbies Other (list be low) ____________________________ 18. In your own words, please describe what provides the most meaning for you in your life _________________________ 19. In your own words, please describe what provides the most meaning for you in your career ____________ _____________
254 Demographic Information 1. H ow would you describe your current employment status? Employed full time Employed part time Retired but working Retired and not working Non traditional career (e.g., homemaker, caretaker) Non paid or volunteer position Not retired and not working 2. What is your current military status? Active duty military Active Reserve Inactive Reserve Retired Separated ( e.g., medical voluntary) 3. What is y our current military grade or the last military grade you held if retired/separated ? [O 1 > O 10 Other (list below) ] 4. If you have not yet retired or separated, do you plan to continue military service until retirement? Yes, I will remain on active duty s tatus until retirement. Yes, I will remain on reserve status until retirement. No, I will not remain in the military until retirement N/A, I have already retired or separated 5. If you did leave military service or plan to leave soon please select the prim ary reason(s) that most closely relate to your reason for leaving (select up to 3). Retirement I did not personally enjoy my military career I did not/no longer found meaning in my military career My personal values were in conflict with my job duties My a dvancement opportunities within my career field were limited I tried to change career fields within the military but my transfer request was not accepted I wanted to try a different career direction I experienced pressure to leave the military from others I was forced out due to downsizing or limited promotions I was medically discharged Other (list below) ____________________
255 6. How many years were you on active duty AFTER you graduated from USNA (not including prior service) ? Please round to the nearest h alf year (e.g., 5, 7.5) _____ years 7. How many years were you on active duty BEFORE attending USNA? Please round to the nearest half year (e.g., 5, 7.5) _____ years 8. Describe your prior military service before you entered the U.S. Naval Academy? Please select all that apply. Enlisted USN Enlisted USMC Enlisted USA/USAF NAPS (Naval Academy Prep School) Other military prep school (e.g., BOOST) N o prior military servic e Other (list below) ________________________ 9. Did you have prior college or prep school experience before you entered the U.S. Naval Academy? [Yes / No] 10. In what year did you graduate high school? _______________ 11. With what class did you graduate USNA? Class of _____ 12. W hat was your academic major at USNA ? _________________ 13. What is your h ighest degree completed? Bachelors (B.S., B.A.,) (M.S., M.A., M.Ed, MBA, Specialist (Ed.S) Professional (MD, JD, DDS, PsyD) Doctorate (Ph.D., Ed.D. )
256 14. If you pursued advanced education after graduation from USNA, did the military pay for any or all of your graduate education? Yes, the military paid in full for my advanced degree. Yes, the military paid for some of my advance degree. No, I did not receive any financial assistance from the military for my graduate education. 15. In what month were you born? 16. In what year were you born? 17. What is your ethnic origin (as identified in your USNA application) ? African American Asian American Hispanic /Latino Native American Pacific Islander White 18. Were you were an international student when you attended USNA? ___________ 19. How do you identify your gender? [male, female, transgender] 20. What is your marital status? Married or committed relationship Single (not in a committed relationship) 21. Please list the number of children you currently have (please list z ero if you have no children). ______________ 22. If you have any comments regarding is survey, please feel free to do so below. If no t, click n ext and your survey will be complete. Thank you for participating in this research study. Your responses are va luable and your time is beneficial in helping us explore the factors related to career meaning. If you would like a summary of the final results, please send a request to email@example.com.
257 If you have any questions regarding this study, please contact : Che ryl Pence Wolf Principle Investigator firstname.lastname@example.org 352 332 8921 Dr. Harry Daniels Faculty Supervisor email@example.com 352 273 4321
258 APPENDIX B RECRUITMENT EMAILS AND ANNOUCEMENTS Recruitment Email (sent through USNAAA email server ) You are invited to participate in a research study designed for USNA graduates from the classes of 1985 through 2010. This is an independent research study designed to examine the factors underlying the career meaning of U.S. Naval Academy (USNA) graduates. This survey includes questions explor ing the life and career dimensions of meaning, val ues, satisfaction, and wellness as well as questions about your career experiences preferences, backgr ound, and demographics to help better understand individual differences that i mpact those dimensions. T he final results will inform the USNA and USNA Alumni Association administration regarding the professional and career development experiences of USNA graduates and may help improve the career services offered to alumni Therefor e, y ou are encouraged to participate in this study This survey contains 234 items and is expected to take approxim ately 25 35 minutes to complete online The individual results collect ed will be anonymous and no personal identifying information (e.g., you with your responses. Thank you for your time and consideration. To participate in this study, please click the link below to proceed: http://www.surveybuilder.com/s/KSbbolJAQAA?source_type=email This study has been approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board UFIRB #2012 U 529. If you have any questions or concerns regarding this study, you may c ontact one of the following: Cheryl Pence Wolf Principle Investigator firstname.lastname@example.org 352 332 8921 Dr. Harry Daniels Faculty Supervisor email@example.com 352 273 4321
259 USNA Alumni Facebook and/or LinkedIn Announcements ( posted through survey pr ogram directly to Facebook or LinkedIn ) Attention USNA graduates (classes of 1985 2010 ) : If you are a USNA graduate from the classes of 1985 through 2010 and have not responded to an email invitation to participate in an independent research study design ed to examine the factors underlying the career meaning of U.S. Naval Academy (USNA) graduates please continue reading. You are invited to participate in this independent study by taking the survey linked below. This study explores your life and career d imensions of meaning, val ues, satisfaction, and wellness as well as your career experiences preferences, backgr ound, and demographics to help better understand individual differences that impact those dimensions. T he final results will inform practices in the field of counseling as well as the USNA and USNA Alumni Association regarding the professional and career development experiences of USNA graduates and the career services offered to alumni This online survey contains 234 items and is expected to take approximately 25 35 minutes to complete. The individual results collect ed will be anonymous and no personal connect you with your responses. Demographic information is b eing collected to determine the representativeness to the larger USNA graduate population and to This study has been approved by the University of Florida Instituti onal Review Board UFIRB #2012 U 529. If you have any questions or concerns regarding this study, you may contact one of the following: Cheryl Pence Wolf Principle Investigator firstname.lastname@example.org 352 332 8921 Dr. Harry Daniels Faculty Supervisor harry email@example.com 352 273 4321 To participate in this study, please click the link below to proceed: [generated through survey server Facebook or LinkedIn buttons]
262 APPENDIX D POPULATION DATA REQU ESTED FROM USNA The class profile information provided in Table D 1 was requested from the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA) regarding population statistics for each graduating class from 1985 through 2010. This provide d a general snapshot of the population as well as a com parison against the sample responses to determine generalizability to the USNA graduates and other populations.
263 Table D 1 Population data requested from the U S N aval Academy Data Requested Sample Comparison Questions Data represents the following variables N umber of applicants, o ffers of admission c andidates a dmitted Q11. With what class did you graduate USNA? Identifying cohort and size of class Gender Q19. What is your gender? Influence of gender on career development and preferences Et hnicity Q17. What is your ethnic origin (as identified in your USNA application)? Cultural background International students status Q18. Were you were an international student when you attended USN A? Non U.S. military commitment Prior m ilitary serv ice s on/ d aughter of a lumni R OTC / Sea Cadet v arsity a thlete Q7 How many years were you on active duty BEFORE attending USNA? Please round to the nearest half year (e.g., 5, 7.5) Q8 Describe your prior military service before you entered the U.S. Na val Academy? Military readiness and commitment Previous college or prep school h igh school ranking National Honor Society Q 9 Did you have prior college or prep school experience before you entered the U.S. Naval Academy? Academic readiness and comm itment
264 APPENDIX E UF IRB FORM UFIRB 02 Social & Behavioral Research Protocol Submission Form This form must be typed. Send this form and the supporting documents to IRB02, PO Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611. Should you have questions about comple ting this form, call 352 392 0433. Title of Protocol: An Analysis of the Career Meaning of U.S. Naval Academy Graduates Principal Investigator: Cheryl Pence Wolf UFID #: 0989 1918 Degree / Title: Ed.S. / Doctoral Candidate Mailing Address: 2707 NW 103 rd Way Gainesville, FL 32606 Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Department: Counselor Education Telephone #: 352 870 1135 Co Investigator(s): UFID#: Email: Supervisor (If PI is student) : Dr. Harry Daniels UFID# : Degree / Title: Ph.D. / Profess or Mailing Address: 1215 Norman Hall PO Box 11704 6 Gainesville, FL 326 11 7046 Email : harryd @coe.ufl.edu Department: Counselor Education Telephone #: 352 273 4 321 Date of Proposed Research: March 1, 2012 March 1, 2013 Source of Funding (A co py of the grant proposal must be submitted with this protocol if funding is involved): Scientific Purpose of the Study: Because an individual spends so much time at work, the effects career meaning can have on their professional endeavors and overall h ealth and wellness can be significant. Career meaning describes an experience of a satisfaction, stimulation, and fulfillment. It extends beyond plea sure (i.e., hedonic well being) and integrates more fulfilling and self actualizing life experiences (i.e., eudaimonic well being; Ryan & Deci, 2001; Waterman, 1993). The purpose of this research is to 1) propose a working definition of career meaning t hat distinguishes it from other related concepts; 2) review the theoretical perspectives related to career meaning including career development, meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness; 3) explore the current literature and empirical studies related to career meaning; 4) empirically examine the factors underlying career meaning including meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness utilizing an exploratory factor analysis; and 5) investigate the age, gender, cultural, and environmental elements that may also be associated with career meaning.
265 The research population includes U.S. Naval Academy (USNA) graduates from the graduating classes of 1985 through 2010. USNA graduates have generally similar undergraduate and first career experiences as junior offic ers and many graduates go on to complete full careers in the military; however, after their initial five year obligation, they may choose to reduce their service to part time (i.e., reserve duty), or end their service and enter civilian careers. Therefore, this population represents a 25 year span across stages of work life including a variety of ages (23 to 53 years), genders, cultural and community backgrounds, personal values, job preferences and experiences, military length and commitment. This populat ion includes individuals who have served up to 30 years of active duty service, many of whom are eligible to receive military retirement benefits beginning at 20 years of service. Sampling this group of USNA graduates provides an opportunity to explore the career development, meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness of working adults who had similar educational backgrounds and initial career opportunities and currently represent military, government, and civilian career fields around the world. Descri be the Research Methodology in Non Technical Language: ( Explain what will be done with or to the research participant. ) T his study will examine the factors that are significant to career meaning through an exploratory factor analysis. Eight published ins truments are included that represent several areas of the research literature related to career meaning including the life and career dimensions of meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness (see Appendix A) Supplementary career and demographic informat ion will also be gathered using an online survey Additional publicly available population profiles will be requested from the U.S. Naval Academy for comparison with the sample population. Before participants begin the online survey, they must read the i nformed consent document (see Appendix B ) which describes the confidentiality of the study, estimated time required to complete the instruments, potential risks, and benefits of participation. They must agree to the terms before proceeding. Describe Pot ential Benefits: Benefits include contributing to the understanding of career meaning within the scope of this research as it relates to USNA graduates. Upon completion of the research analysis, a final report will be provided to the USNA and USNAA, which may inform future practices but will not include any personal identifying data. Describe Potential Risks: ( If risk of physical, psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect participant.) No risk is expected ; p artici pants may exit the survey any time they wish Describe How Participant(s) Will Be Recruited: The research sample will be drawn from the entire population of USNA graduates from the cohort classes of 1985 2010, all of whom are lifetime members of the U.S Naval Academy Alumni Association (USNAAA). The sample will include all individuals for which a current email address is available through the USNAAA (except navy.mil email addresses per USNA direction) An initial email (see Appendix C) will be sent thro ugh the USNAAA server introduc ing the study and will provide a link to the online survey. Two follow up emails will also be sent at two and four weeks after the initial survey. The survey will remain open for six weeks. Additional USNA IRB permissions are not required for conducting the survey through the USNAAA or for receiving publicly available class profiles (see Appendix D). It would be required for requesting additional USNA database information; however, I am not requesting any additional informati on requiring the USNA IRB. No compensation will be provided to participants.
266 Maximum Number of Participants (to be approached with consent) 25,00 0 Age Range of Participants: 2 3 55 Amount of Compensation/ course credit: None Describe the Informed Cons ent Process. (Attach a Copy of the Informed Consent Document See http://irb.ufl.edu/irb02/samples.html for examples of consent.) Each participant will grant consent to participate in the survey. Part icipants will access the Informed Consent narrative (See Appendix B ) by clicking on a web link provided in the initial email (see Appendix C) They will grant consent to participate by checking a box at the end of the Informed Consent narrative that will c onfirm they have read the informed consent, qualify to be a participant, and wish to proceed to the survey items Principal Investigator(s) Signature: Date: (if PI is a student): Date: Department Chair Signature: Date:
267 APPENDIX F USNA PROPOSAL An Analysis of the Career Meaning of U.S. Naval Academy Graduates Introduction As individuals spend so much time at work, the effects career meaning can have on their personal and professional lives may be significant. Career me aning describes an meaningful experiences, a sense of purpose, satisfaction, stimulation, and fulfillment. It extends beyond the pleasurable aspects of hedonic well being and in tegrates more fulfilling and self actualizing life experiences inherent in eudaimonic well being (Ryan & Deci, 2001; Waterman, 1993). As significant relationships between career meaning and meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness emerged in the researc h literature, it became important to investigate these further. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this research is identify potential factors that appear to underlie career meaning by exploring the life and career dimensions of meaning, values, satisfa ction, and wellness; and to investigate the age, gender, cultural, and environmental elements that may also be associated with career meaning. Significance of the Study For many people, a significant portion of their adult life is spent at work (Dik, Eldr idge, & Duffy 2009), therefore, the level of meaning they experience in their career may have a considerable impact on their overall life meaning, personal values, sense of satisfaction, and individual wellness. The significance of this study spans across the theory, research and practice of career development, and potentially the field of counseling as a whole. More specifically to the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), p eople prosper when they are engaged in meaningful work and organizations prosper when their employees are The e ffects of career meaning can directly or indirectly impact colleagues in the workplace, relationships at home, and interactions with others. For example, individuals who lack career meani ng in the workplace may find themselves unsatisfied and therefore more prone to decreased health, motivation, or productivity and increased burnout (Dierendonck, Garssen, & Visser, 2005); colleagues may find they have to pick up the burden of that individ poor job performance and increased absences from work. In a military setting, poor performance can be critical to mission effectiveness and/or human lives. A lack of career meaning can also affect relationships away from work; as unfulfilled individ uals find their mental, physical, and spiritual wellness levels dipping (Reker Peacock, & Wong 1987), it may ultimately affect those around them. I f an individual is unable to experience meaning in their career, it may significantly impact the sense of m eaning in their life as a whole, which can have a larger affect including distress or even suicide (Corey & Corey, 2010).
268 Furthermore, understanding the concepts related to the career meaning of USNA graduates may help to inform not only the USNA and Alum ni Association leadership and administration, but other service academies, and possibly the military as a whole. The naval service and have potential for future develop ment in mind and character to s to retain graduates in military service, understanding whether a sense of career meaning is importan pursue a military career can help to inform decision makers. For some individuals where career meaning is highly important, there may be a stronger need for making a congruent match to ensure higher levels of job satisfaction, stro nger performance, and ultimately longer tenure. This may take place during service selection, or even as early as the admissions process. Additional factors may be uncovered to more narrowly focus personnel resources at those critical choice points in orde r to enhance the likelihood of graduates remaining in military service for longer periods of time. With defense budget cuts on the horizon, more focused resource utilization may seem both attractive and timely. Additionally, part of the USNA Alumni Associ by seeking out, informing, encouraging and assisting outstanding, qualified young men and women to pursue careers as officers in the Navy and Marine Corps through the In addition to supporting military officers, the USNAAA provides a career center and Service Academy Career Conferences (SACC) to alumni throughout the year. These career ser vices require staff USNAAA reported that 33% of members reported using the career programs at least once (p. 91). Furthermore, 77% of those who have used the career program s ranked them very or extremely important; a majority of them came from the 1980s (75%), 1990s (85%), and 2000s (89%; p. 93). Those who ranked career programs as the most important member service indicated that the programs were helpful in the transition t o civilian life, they provided assistance finding a job, and/or provided opportunities for networking (p. 107). Understanding the career experiences, preferences, and career meaning of graduates may be instrumental in enhancing and/or focusing the career s upport for the alumni members most likely to use the career programs. USNA graduates have similar undergraduate and first career experiences as junior officers and many graduates go on to complete full careers in the military; however, after their initia l five year obligation, they may choose to reduce their service to part time (i.e., reserve duty), or end their service and enter civilian careers. Therefore, this population represents a 25 year span across stages of work life including a variety of ages (23 to 53 years), genders, cultural and community backgrounds, personal values, job preferences and experiences, military length, and commitment. This population includes individuals who have served up to 30 years of active duty service, many of whom are e ligible to receive military retirement benefits beginning at 20 years of
269 service. Sampling this group of USNA graduates provides an opportunity to explore the career development, meaning, values, satisfaction, and wellness of working adults who had similar educational backgrounds, initial career opportunities, and currently represent military, government, and civilian career fields around the world Research Questions This study is aimed at empirically answering the following research questions: What fact ors contribute to a working definition of career meaning? Are group differences such as age, gender, culture and environment significantly related to career meaning and its derived factor scale? However, additional analysis may be done to look more speci fically at items that may inform the practices of military leaders and administrators: Given the findings of this empirical investigation, are there factors that differentiate between those who pursue long term military careers and those who separate from the military before retirement? Given the findings of this empirical investigation, are there predictors of service career longevity for those who elect to pursue military careers? Timeline The survey and informed consent are online and approved by the UF IRB. The recruitment emails are ready to send out as soon as possible and have the information included for participants to respond to the survey. The initial email can go out anytime and each of the follow up emails can be sent out 4 7 days after the p revious email. For example, if the first email goes out on Monday, the first follow up can go out on Friday, the next follow up on Wednesday, and the final follow up on the following Tuesday. They can be sent at different times of the day and different day s of the week to provide variability and gain as many responses as possible. The survey will remain open for four weeks to allow for those deployed to have time to access and complete the survey. In addition to the emails, I would like to create an invit ation posting on the USNAAA website, Wave Tops newsletter, Facebook, and/or LinkedIn pages. This will be done after the first follow up email has been out to the graduates. Once the data collection is complete, the information will be analyzed using desc riptive statistics, factor analysis, and multiple regression; the results and discussion will be written to complete my dissertation. If the survey goes out soon, I may be able to complete the analysis this summer and the dissertation by early fall 2012; t hat is my goal. I intend to run additional analyses specific to the USNA population as described in my research questions above. That will take additional time and a final report of all of the results will be provided to the USNA and USNAAA upon completi on.
270 Scope of the Study The desired scope of this study would be to reach all USNA graduates from the classes of 1985 2010 However, the practical scope of this study is intended to include all of the USNA graduates from the classes of 1985 2010 for which the USNAAA has active email accounts Per USNA HRPP office discussion, anyone with a navy.mil address should not be included in this private survey request. Requested Support from USNA In order to create a profile of the USNA graduates, I request copies of the publicly available class profiles for each of the classes 1985 through 2010. Requested Support from USNAAA The following support is requested to distribute the survey to USNA graduates: 1. I request use of the USNAAA graduate email list to send my re search survey (see Appendix A) and recruitment email s (see Appendix B) to all of the USNA graduates from the classes of 1985 2010 for which the USNAAA has active email accounts (non navy.mil accounts). This would include an initial email, and three follow up reminders 4 7 days apart. I request those emails go directly through the USNAAA servers because of the large number of email addresses and the limits of individual email accounts. I believe your system is set up for large email distribution to members and would min imize issues with spam filters. 2. For determining an accurate response rate for each class, I request to know how many emails were sent (unreturned). It is preferable to have the numbers for each class to calculate the response rate for each class. 3. If possible, after the first follow up email is sent, I request additional links to my survey be posted on the USNAAA website, Wave Tops newsletter, Facebook, and/or LinkedIn pages for individuals who may not have an accessible email address on fil e. Separate links to the survey can be set up through the survey host software to distinguish the various sources. Resources Provided The following resources are attached for your action and review. They have been approved by my dissertation committee an d the UF IRB (2012 U 529) and will be provided to participants via an online link. For your action: Appendix A Recruitment Emails (initial, three follow ups, social networking) For your review: Appendix B Informed Consent (page 1 of the online survey ) Appendix C Online Research Survey (234 questions) for your review
271 Upon completion of this research study, I will provide the USNA and USNAAA a report of my findings and possible recommendations based on those findings. The findings will be provided in class and/or aggregate results and may be of assistance to USNA or USNAAA leadership and administration decisions. I appreciate your support and assistance disseminating this research survey Once you have approved my request, we can proceed with sending out the first email invitation to participate in the survey. Please let me know if you have any questions or concerns regarding my requests. I look forward to exploring the career meaning of U.S. Naval Academy graduates and contributing to the theory, re search, and practice within career development, the field of counseling, and the U.S. Naval Academy. Very Respectfully, Principle Investigator email@example.com
272 APPENDIX G INSTRUMENT SUB SCALES Meaning Instruments Life Meaning (MLQ) 1. Presence of meaning subscale (MLQ P) 2. Search for meaning subscale (MLQ S) Career Meaning (WAMI) 1. Positive meaning in work (PM) 2. Meaning making through work (MM) 3. Greater good motivations (GG) Values Instruments Life Values (RVS) 1. Terminal values 2. Ins trumental values Career Values (WVS) 1. Intrinsic values 2. Extrinsic values 3. Social values 4. Prestige values Satisfaction Instruments Life Satisfaction (SWLS) 1. Satisfaction with life Career Satisfaction (JPS) 1. Work 2. Pay 3. Promotions 4. Supervision 5. Co Workers Wellnes s Instrument Personal Wellness (5F Wel) 1. Creative self a. Thinking b. Emotions c. Control d. Work e. Positive humor
273 2. Coping self a. Leisure b. Stress management c. Self worth d. Realistic beliefs 3. Social self a. Friendship b. Love 4. Essential self a. Spirituality b. Gender identity c. Cultural ident ity d. Self care 5. Physical self a. Exercise b. Nutrition Four interrelated contexts 1. Local 2. Institutional 3. Global 4. Chronometrical Life satisfaction index
274 LIST OF REFERENCES A Brief History of the United States Naval Academy. (2012). Retrieved April 17, 2012, from h ttp://www.usna.edu/VirtualTour/150years/ ACT (2012). World of Work Map Retrieved January 8, 2012 from http://www.act.org/wwm/counselor.html Adler, A. (1954). Understanding human nature New York: Fawcett. (Original work published 1927). Agho, A.O., Price, J.L., & Mueller, C.W. (1992). Discriminant validity of measures of job satisfaction, positive affectivity and negative affectivity. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 65 185 196. Albion, M. (2000). Making a life, making a living: Recl aiming your purpose and passion in b usiness and in life New York: Warner Business Books. Alumni Member Survey (2012). Retrieved April 23 2012, from http://www.usna.com/SSLPage.aspx?pid=10183 Amundson, N. E., Borgen, W. A., Iaquinta, M., Butterfield, L. D., & Koert, E. (2010). Career decisions from the decider's perspective. Career Development Quarterly, 58 (4), 336 351. Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well perception of life quality. New York: Plenum. Ansbach er, H.L., & Ansbacher, R.R. (Eds.), (1967). The individual psychology of Alfred Adler New York: Harper & Row. Anthony, R. (1991). Doing what you love, loving what you do: The ultimate key to personal happiness and financial freedom New York: Berkley Book s. Arbuckle, J. L. (1997). Chicago: SmallWaters. Archer, J. & McCarthy, C.J. (2007). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: Contemporary applications New Jersey: Pearson Education. Ashforth, B. E. & Kreiner, G. E. (1999 challenge of constructing a positive identity. Academy of Management Review 24 413 434. New York, NY: Routledge. Asparouhov, T. & Muthen, B. (2010). Multiple Imputation with Mplus : Version 2 Retrieved January 2 6, 2013, from http://www.statmodel.com/download/Imputations7.pdf
275 Bandalos, D. L. & Finney, S. J. (2010). Factor analysis: Exploratory and confirmatory. In G. R. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), methods in the social sci ences (pp. 93 113). Barger, S. D. (2002). The Marlowe Crowne affair: Short forms, psychometric structure, and social desirability. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79 (2), 286 305. Battista, J., & Almond, R. (1973). The development of meaning in life. Ps ychiatry, 36, 409 427. Bennett, H.Z. & Sparrow, S.J. (1990). Follow your bliss: Discovering your inner calling and right livelihood Lincoln, NE: iUniverse. Beretvas, S. N., Meyers, J. L., & Leite, W. L. (2002). A reliability generalization study of the Ma rlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62 570 589. Best Undergraduate Engineering Programs. (2012). Retrieved April 3, 2012, from http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best colleges/rankings/engineering no doctorate Bhopal, R. & Donaldson, L. (1998). White, European, Western, Caucasian, or what? Inappropriate labeling in research on race, ethnicity, and health. American Journal of Public Health, 88 (9), 1303 1307. Bloch, D.P. & Richmond, L.J. (1998). Soul work: Finding the work you love, loving the work you have Palo Alto, CA: Davies Black. Blustein, D. L. (2006). The psychology of working: A new perspective for career development, counseling, and public policy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Boldt, L.G. (1996). How to find the work you love Arkana: Penguin. Bradburn, N. M. (1969). The structure of psychological well being Chicago: Aldine. Brassai, L., Piko, B. F., & Steger, M. F. (2011). Meaning in life: Is it a protective factor for adolescents' psychological he alth? International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 18 (1), 44 51. doi:10.1007/s12529 010 9089 6 Brown, D. (1995). A values based approach to facilitating career transitions. The Career Development Quarterly 44 (1), 4 11. Brown, D. (2007). Career informati on, career counseling, and career development (9 th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rodgers, W. L.(1976). The quality of American life. New York: Russell Sage.
276 Campbell, D. T., & Fisk, D. W., (1959). Convergent and discrimina nt validation by the multitrait mulcimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81 105. Cantril, H. (1965). The patterns of human concern New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Career. (2011). In Merriam Webster.com Retrieved March 16, 2011, from h ttp://www.merriam webster.com/dictionary/career Carini, R. M., Hayek, J. C., Kuh, G. D., Kennedy, J. M., & Ouimet, J. A. (2003). College Student Responses to Web and Paper Surveys: Does Mode Matter? Research in Higher Education, 44 (1), 1 19. Chandler, C. K ., Holden, J. M., & Kolander, C. A. (1992). Counseling for spiritual wellness: Theory and practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 71 (2), 168 175. Chapman, D. W., Blackburn, R. W., Austin, A. E., & Hutcheson, S. M. (1983). Expanding analytic possibi lities of Rokeach values data. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 43 419 421. Chartrand, J. M. (1991). The evolution of trait and factor career counseling: A person x environment fit approach. Journal of Counseling & Development, 69 (6), 518. Chau vin, I., Miller, M. J., Godfrey, E. L., & Thomas, D. (2010). Relationship between Holland's vocational typology and Myers Briggs' types: Implications for career counselors. Psychology Journal, 7 (2), 61 66. Chen, C. P. (2001). On exploring meanings: Combin ing humanistic and career psychology theories in counselling. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 14 (4), 317 330. doi:10.1080/09515070110091308 Claes, R., & Ruiz Quintanilla, S. A. (1994). Initial career and work meanings in seven European countries. Career Development Quarterly, 42, 337 352. Cohen, B.N. (2003). Applying existential theory and intervention to career decision making. Journal of Career Development 29 195 209. Coleman, S., Kaplan, J. & Downing, R. (1986). Life cycle and loss: The spiritual vac uum of heroin addiction. Family Process 25 5 23. integrated values oriented perspective. In D. A. Luzzo (Ed.), Career counseling of college students: An empirical guide t o strategies that work (pp. 63 91). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Comfrey, A. L. & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
277 Constantine, M. G., Miville, M. L., Warren, A. K., Gainor, K. A. & Lewis Coles, M. E. L. (2006). Religion, spirituality, and career development in African American college students: A qualitative inquiry. Career Development Quarterly 54 227 241. Corey, G. (2001). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy ( 6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Corey, G. & Corey, M.S. (2010). I never knew I had a choice: Explorations in personal growth (9 th ed). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. Coyne, T. (1998). Your life's work: A guide to creating a spiritual & successful work life. B erkley Books: New York. Craddock, M. (2004). The authentic career: Following the path of self discovery to professional fulfillment. Novato, CA: New World Library. Cronback, L. J. & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychologi cal Bulletin, 52 (4), 281 302. Crose, R., Nicholas, D. R., Gobble, D. C., & Frank, B. (1992). Gender and wellness: A multidimensional systems model for counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 71 (2), 149 156. Crowne, D. P. & Marlowe, D. (1960). A n ew scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24 349 354. Crumbaugh, J. C., & Maholick, L. T. (1964). An experimental study in existentialism: urosis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 20, 200 207. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper. Dawis, R. V., & Lofquist, L. (1984). A psychological theory of work adjustment. Minneapolis: University of Minne sota Press. Dawson, J. (2005). A history of vocation: Tracing a keyword of work, meaning, and moral purpose. Adult Education Quarterly, 55 (3), 220 231. doi:10.1177/0741713605274606 Detailed Findings. (2012). Retrieved April 23, 2012 from http://www.usna.c om/Document.Doc?id=1370 Derogatis, L. R., & Spencer, M. S. (1992). The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) administration, scoring, and procedures manual I. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Clinical Psychometrics Unit.
278 Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71 75. Diener, E., Smith, H., & Fujita, F. (1995). The personality structure of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1 30 141. Dierendonck, D. V., Garssen, B., & Visser, A. (2005). Rediscovering meaning and purpose at work: The transpersonal psychology background of a burnout prevention programme. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.), Research companion to organizational health psycholog y. (pp. 623 630). Northampton, MA US: Edward Elgar Publishing. Dik, B.J., & Duffy, R.D. (2009). Calling and vocation at work: Definitions and prospects for research and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 37 (3), 424 450. Dik, B. J., Eldridge, B. M., & Duffy, R. D. (2009). Calling and vocation in career counseling: Recommendations for promoting meaningful work. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 40 (6), 625 632. doi:10.1037/a0015547 Dillman, D. A. & Bowker, D. (2001). The Web Questionnaire Chal lenge to Survey Methodologists. In U. D. Reips & M. Bosnjak (E ds.), Dimensions of Internet Science Lengerich Germany: Pabst Science DiStefano, C., Zhu, M, & Mindrila, D. (2009). Understanding and using factor scores: Considerations for the Applied Resea rc h er. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation 14 (20). Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=14&n=20. Dorn, F.J. (1992). Occupational wellness: The integration of a career identity and personal identity. Journal of Counseli ng and Development, 71 176 178. Dream. (2011). In Merriam Webster.com Retrieved March 16, 2011, from http://www.merriam webster.com/dictionary/dream Duffy, R. D., & Sedlacek, W. E. (2007). The work values of first year college students: Exploring group d ifferences. Career Development Quarterly, 55 (4), 359 364. Duffy, R. D., & Sedlacek, W. E. (2010). The salience of a career calling among college students: Exploring group differences and links to religiousness, life meaning, and life satisfaction. Career D evelopment Quarterly, 59 (1), 27 41. Ebersole, P., & DeVogler, K. L. (1985). Meaning in life of the eminent and the average. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 1 83 94. Edwards, A. (1957). The social desirability variable in personality assessmen t and research. New York: Dryden.
279 Elizur, D. (1984). Facets of work values: A structural analysis of work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology 69, 379 389. Elizur, D. & Sagie, A. (1999). Facets of personal values: A structural analysis of life and work values. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48 (1), 73 87 Emmons, R. A. (1986). Personal striving: An approach to personality and subjective well being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (5), 1058 1068. doi: 10.1037/0022 3518.104.22.168 58 Ethington, C. A., Thomas, S. L., & Pike, G. R. (2002). Back to the basics: Regression as it should be. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research, Vol. 17 Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1964). Manual of the Eysenek personality inventor y. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service. Fields, D. L., (2002). Taking the measure of work: A guide to validated scales for organizational research and diagnosis Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Fox, L.A. (2003). The role of the church in career guidance and development: A review of the literature 1960 early 2000s. Journal of Career Development 29, 167 182. Frankl, V. E. (1963). Man's search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy. New York: Simon and Schuster. Frankl, V. E. (1978). The unheard cry for meaning New York: Simon & Schuster. Fordyce, M. W. (1978). Prospectus: The self description inventory Unpublished paper, Edison Community College, Ft. Myers, FL. Ganellen, R. J. & Blaney, P. H. (1984). Hardiness and social support as moderators of the effects of life stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47 156 163. George, D. & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simpl e guide and reference. 11.0 update (4 th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. George, J. M. & Jones, G. R. (1996). The experience of work and turnover intentions: Interactive effects of value attainment, job satisfaction, and positive mood. Journal of Applied Psych ology, 81, 318 325. Gilbert, M. (1998). Take this job and love it: How to find fulfillment in any job you do. New York: Daybreak Books. Gilman, C. (1997). Doing work you love: Discovering your purpose and realizing your dreams. Chicago: Contemporary Books
280 Ginzberg, E., Ginsburg, S.W., Axelrod, S., & Herma, J.L. (1951). Occupational choice New York Columbia University Press. Gorsuch, R. L., & McPherson, S. E. (1989). Intrinsic/extrinsic measurement: I/E Revised and single item scales. Journal for the Scie ntific Study of Religion, 28 348 354. Greenhaus, J.H., Parasuraman, S., Wormley, W.M. (1990). Effects of race on organizational experiences, job performance evaluations, and career outcomes. Academy of Management Journal 33 64 86. Guion, R. M., & Landy, F. J. (1972). The meaning of work and the motivation to work. Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 7 (2), 308 339. Guttman, L. (1968). A general nonmetric technique for finding the smallest coordinate space for a configuration of points. Psychometr ika, 33, 469 506. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16 250 279. Hair J F., Anderson R .E., Tatham, R L. & Black, W.C. (1998). Multivariate Da ta Analysis Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Haldane, B. (1974). Career satisfaction and success: A guide to job freedom. New York: Amacom. Hansen, L. S. (1997). Integrative life planning: Critical tasks for career development and changing life patter ns. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Hansen, L. S. (2001). Integrating work, family, and community through holistic life planning. Career Development Quarterly, 49 (3), 261 274. Hansen, L. S. (2002). Integrative life planning (ILP): A holistic theory for career counseling with adults. In S. G. Niles (Ed.), Adult career development: Concepts, issues and practices (3rd ed.). (pp. 57 75). Columbus, OH US: National Career Development Association. Harding, S. D., & Hikspoors, F. J. (1995). New work values: In theory and in practice. International Social Science Journal, 47 441 455. Harlow, L. L., Newcomb, M. D., & Bentler, P. M. (1986). Depression, self derogation, substance use, and suicide ideation: Lack of purpose in life as a mediational factor. Journal of Clini cal Psychology, 42 (1), 5 21. Hatfield, J. D., Robinson, R. B., & Huseman, R. C. (1985). An empirical evaluation of a test for assessing job satisfaction. Psychological Reports, 56 39 45.
281 Hattie, J. A., Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J. (2004). A factor stru cture of wellness: Theory, assessment, analysis, and practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82, 354 364. Hermon, D. A., & Hazler, R. J. (1999). Adherence to a wellness model and perceptions of psychological well being. Journal of Counseling & Devel opment, 77, 339 343. Hettler, B. (1980). Wellness promotion on a university campus. Family and Community Health, 3 77 95. Hettler, B. (1986). Strategies for wellness and recreation program development. In E. Leafgren (Ed.), Developing campus recreation an d wellness programs. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Hochwarter, W. A., Perrew, P. L., Ferris, G. R., & Brymer, R. A. (1999). Job satisfaction and performance: The moderating effects of value attainment and affective disposition. Journal of Vocational Behavi or, 54 296 313. Hofmans, J., Dries, N., & Pepermans, R. (2008). The career satisfaction scale: Response bias among men and women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73 (3), 397 403. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2008.08.001 Holland, J. L. (1966). The psychology of vocat ional choice: A theory of pers onality types and model environments. Waltham, MA: Blaisdel. Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resource s. Hulin, C. L. (1991). Adaptation, persistence, commitment in organizations. In M. Dunnette & L. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2 nd ed., pp. 445 507). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Hulin, C. L., Roznow ski, M., & Hachiya, D. (1985). Alternative opportunities and withdrawal decisions: Empirical and theoretical discrepancies and an integration. Psychological Bulletin, 97 233 250. IBM (2011). IBM SPSS Missing Values 20. Retrieved December 12 2012, from ft p://public.dhe.ibm.com/software/analytics/spss/documentation/statistics/20.0/en/ client/Manuals/IBM_SPSS_Missing_Values.pdf James, L., & James. L. (1989). Integrating work environment perceptions: explorations into the measurement of meaning. Journal of App lied Psychology, 74 739 751. Jin, J. & Rounds, J. (2012). Stability and change in work values: A meta analysis of longitudinal studies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 326 339.
282 Judge, T. A., & Bretz, R. D., Jr. (1992). Effects of work values on job ch oice decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77 261 271. Judge, T. A., Cable, D. M., Boudreau, J. W., & Bretz, R. D. Jr., (1995). An empirical investigation of the predictors of executive career success. Personnel Psychology 48 (3), 485 519. Judge, T. A ., & Klinger, R. (2007). Job satisfaction: Subjective well being at work. In M. Eid & R. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well being (pp. 393 413). New York: Guilford Publications. Kashdan, T. B., & Steger, M. F. (2007). Curiosity and pathways to w ell being and meaning in life: Traits, states, and everyday behaviors. Motivation & Emotion, 31 (3), 159 173. doi:10.1007/s11031 007 9068 7 Kelley, K. & Maxwell, S. E. (2010). Multiple Regression. In G. R. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), de to quantitative methods in the social sciences (pp. 281 297). Knoop, R. (1994a). Relieving stress through value rich work. Journal of Social Psychology 134, 829 836. Knoop, R. (1994b). Work values and job satisfaction. Journal of Psychology: Interdisc iplinary and Applied 128 683 690. Koivula, N., & Verkasalo, M. (2006). Value structure among students and steelworkers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36 1263 1273. Leider, R.J. & Shapiro, D.A. (2001). Whistle while you work: Heeding your life's calling. San Francisco: Berrett Koehler. Leite, W. L. & Beretvas, S. N. (2005). Validation of scores on the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirabiliy Scale and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65 140 154. doi: 10.1177/0013164404267285 Levoy, G. (1997). Callings: Finding and following an authentic life. New York: Harmony. Lightsey, O. R, Jr. (1997). Stress buffers and dysphoria: A prospective study. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 11, 263 277. Lips Wier sma, M., & McMorland, J. (2006). Finding meaning and purpose in boundaryless careers: A framework for study and practice. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 46 (2), 147 167. doi:10.1177/0022167805283776 Locke, E. A., (1976). The nature and causes of job sati sfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.) Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1297 1343). Chicago: Rand McNally.
283 Locke, E. A. (1991). The motivation sequence, the motivation hub, and the motivation core. Organizational Behavior and Human Deci sion Processes, 50 288 299. Loo, R., & Thorpe, K. (2000). Confirmatory factor analyses of the full and short versions of the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability scale. Journal of Social Psychology, 140 628 635. Lopez, S. J., Magyar Moe, J. L., Peterson, S functioning. The Counseling Psychologist, 34 (2), 205 227. doi:10.1177/0011000005283393 Lyons, S. T., Higgins, C. A., & Duxbury, L. (2010). Work values: Development of a new three dimensional structure based on confirmatory smallest space analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31 969 1002. Mack, M. L. (1994). Understanding spirituality in counseling psychology: Consideration s for research, training, and practice. Counseling and Values, 39 15 31. Maglio, A. T., Butterfield, L. D., & Borgen, W. A. (2005). Existential considerations for contemporary career counseling. Journal of Employment Counseling, 42 (2), 75 92. May, R. & Yalom, I. (2005). Existential psychotherapy. In R.J. Corsini & D. Wedding, Current Psychotherapies (7 th ed). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. Meyer, J. P., Irving, P. G., & Allen, N. J. (1998). Examination of the combined effects of work values and early work exp eriences on organizational commitment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19 29 52. Michalos, A. C., (1986). An application of multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) to seniors. Social Indicators Research, 18 349 373. Mission of USNA. (2012). Retrieved Fe bruary 29, 2012, from http://www.usna.edu/mission.htm Mission of United States Naval Academy Alumni Association (USNAAA). (2012). Retrieved February 29, 2012, from https://www.usna.com/SSLPage.aspx?pid=448 Mosak, H. H., & Dreikurs, R. (1967). The life task s III, the fifth life task. Individual Psychologist, 5, 16 22. Mottaz, C. J. (1985). The relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards as determinants of work satisfaction. Sociological Quarterly, 26, 365 385. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/s table/4106221
284 Myers, I. B. (1987). Introduction to type: A description of the theory and applications of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (4th ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Myers, I.B. (1962). Manual: The Myers Briggs Type Indicator Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Myers, J. E., & Bechtel, A. (2004). Stress, wellness, and mattering among cadets at West Point: Factors affecting a fit and healthy force. Military Medicine, 169 475 483. Myers, J. E., Luecht, R. M., & Sweeney, T. J. (2004). The factor structure of wellness: Reexamining theoretical and empirical models underlying the Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (WEL) and the Five Factor Wel. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 36 194 208. Myers, I. B., & McCaulley, M. H. (1985). Manual: A guide to the development and use of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Myers, I.B., McCaulley, M.H., Quenk, N.L., & Hammer, A.L. (1998). MBTI manual: A guide to the developm ent and use of the Myers Brings Type Indicator (3 rd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Myers, P.B. & Myers, K.D. (2004). Myers Briggs Type Indicator Career Report Mountain View, CA: CPP, Inc. Myers, J.E. & Sweeney, T.J. (2005a). Five Fac tor Wellness Inventory: Adult, Teenage, and Elementary School Versions. Retrieved September 9, 2008 from http://www.mindgarden.com/products/5fwels.htm. Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J. (2005b). The Indivisible Self: An evidence based model of wellness. Journ al of Individual Psychology, 61 (3), 269 279. Myers, J. E, Witmer, J. M., & Sweeney, T. J. (1996). The Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle Palo Alto, CA: MindCarden. Newcomb, M. D. & Harlow, L. L. (1986). Life events and substance use among adolescents: Medi ating effects of perceived loss of control and meaninglessness in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 564 577. Nord, W. R., Brief, A. P., Atieh, J. M., & Doherty, E. M. (1990). Studying meaning of work: The case of work values. In Brief A. P. & Nord, W. R. (Eds.), Meanings of occupational work (pp. 21 64). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Nulty, D. D. (2008). The adequacy of response rates to online and paper surveys: what can be done? Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33 (3), 301 314.
286 Prochaska, J. 0., DiClemente, C. C., &: Norcross, J. C. (1992). In searc h of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47 1102 1114. Rath, T. & Clifton, D.O. (2004). How full is my bucket? Positive strategies for work and life. New York: Gallup. Ravlin, E. C. & Meglino, B.M. (1987). Effect s of values on perception and decision making: A study of alternative work values measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 666 673. Reker, G. T., Peacock, E. J., & Wong, T.P. (1987). Meaning and purpose in life and well being: A life span perspective. Journal of Gerontology, 42 (1), 44 49. Reker, G. T., & Wong, P.T.P. (1988). Aging as an individual process: Toward a theory of personal meaning. In J. E. Birren & V. L. Bengston (Eds.), Emergent theories of aging (pp. 214 246). New York: Springer. Reynolds W. (1982). Development of reliable and valid short forms of the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38 (1), 119 125. Richardson, M. W., & Kuder, G. F. (1939). The calculation of test reliability coefficients based upo n the method of rational equivalence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 30 681 687. Robitschek, C., & Woodson, S. J. (2006). Vocational psychology: Using one of The Counseling Psychologist, 34, 260 275. Roberts, J. A. & Clement, A. (2007). Materialism and satisfaction with over all quality of life and eight life domains. Social Indicators Research, 82, 79 92. doi 10.1007/s11205 006 9015 0 Rokeach, M. (1960). The open and closed mind New York: Ba sic Books. Rokeach M. (1967). Value Survey Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press Rokeach, M. (1973). The Nature of Human Values New York: Free Press. Robinson, C. & Schumacker, R. E. (2009). Interaction effects: Centering, variance inflation fa ctor, and interpretation issues. Multiple Linear Regression Viewpoints, 35 (1). Ros, M., Schwartz, S.H., & Surkiss, S. (1999). Basic individual values, work values, and the meaning of work. Applied Psychology: A n International Review, 48 (1), 49 71.
287 Rosso, B D., Dekas, K. H., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. Research in organizational behavior, 30 91 127. Rounds, J. B., Dawis, R. V., & Lofquist, L. H. (1987). Measurement of person environment fit and p rediction of satisfaction in the theory of work adjustment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 31 297 318. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L., (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well being. Annual Review of Psyc hology, 52 141 166. Ryff, C D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57 (6), 1069 1081. Salthouse, A. R (1998). The role of meaning in stress manag ement. The International Forum for Logotherapy, 21, 100 110. Sartre, J.P. (1943). Being and Nothingness New York: Philosophical Library. Satisfaction. (2011). In Merriam Webster.com Retrieved March 16, 2011, from http://www.merriam webster.com/dictionary /satisfaction. Saucier, G. (1994). Mini Markers. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63 506 516. Savolaine, J., & Granello, P. F. (2002). The function of meaning and purpose for individual wellness. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 41 (2), 178 189. Schwartz, S.H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental soci al psychology, 25, 1 65. New York: Academic Press. Schwartz, S. H. (2005). Basic human values: Their content and structure across countries. In A. Tamayo, & J. B. Porto (Eds.), Values and behavior in organizations (pp. 21 55). Petrpolis, Brazil: Vozes. Sc hwartz, S. H., & Sagiv, L. (1995). Identifying culture specifics in the content and structure of values. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 26 92 116. Seligman, M.E.P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your poten tial for lasting fulfillment. New York: Simon & Schuster. Serow, R. C., Eaker, D., & Ciechalski, J. (1992). Calling, service, and legitimacy: Professional orientations and career commitment among prospective teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 25, 136 141.
288 Sharf R.S. (2006). Applying Career Development Theory to Counseling Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadswoth. Sinetar, M. (1989). Do what you love, the money will follow: Discovering your right livelihood. New York: Random House. Sinetar, M. (1995). To build the life you want, create the work you love: The spiritual dimension of entrepreneuring. Sirgy, M. J. (1998). Materialism and quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 43 227 260. Smith, P. C., Kendal l, L. M., & Hulin, C. L. (1969). The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally. Sommer, K.L., & Baumeister, R.F. (1998). The construction of meaning from life events: Empirical studies of personal narratives. In T.P. Won g & P.S. Fry (Eds.), The human quest for meaning: A handbook of psychological research and clinical applications (pp. 143 162) Mahwah, NJ US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Sousa, L., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2001). Life satisfaction. In J. Worell (Ed .), Encylopedia of women and gender: Sex similarities and differences and the impact of society on gender (Vol. 2, pp. 667 676). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Steers, R. M., & Mowday, R. T. (1981). Employee turnover and the post decision accommodation pro cess. In Shaw, B. M. & Cummings L. L. (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior, Vol. 3 (pp. 235 281). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Steger, M. F., & Dik, B. J. (2010). Work as meaning: Individual and organizational benefits of engaging in meaningful work. I n Linley, P. A., Harrington, S. & Page, N (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology and work (pp. 131 142). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Steger, M. F., Dik, B. J., Duffy, R. D. ( 2012 ). Measuring Meaningful Work: The Work and Meaning Inventory (WAMI). Journal of Career Assessment. doi 10.1177/1069072711436160 Retrieved April 26, 2012, from http://jca.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/02/15/1069072711436160 Steger, M. F., Dik, B. J., & Shim, Y. ( 2010 ). Assessing meaning and satisfaction at work. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of positive psychology assessment (2nd Ed.). Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press. Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The Meaning in Life Questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meanin g in life. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 80 93.
289 Steps for Admissions. (2012). Retrieved April 17, 2012, from http://www.usna.edu/Admissions/steps.htm Stevens, J. (1986). Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Sciences Hillsdale, NJ: Lawren ce Erlbaum Associates. Strahan, R., & Gerbabi, K. C. (1972), Short, homogeneous versions of the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28 191 193. Sweeney, T. J. (1998). Adlerian counseling: A practitioners approach (4 th ed.). Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis. Sweeney, T. J., & Witmer, J. M. (1991). Beyond social interest: Striving toward optimum health and wellness. Individual Psychology, 47, 527 540. Tellegen, A. (1979). Differential personality questionnaire Unpublished materials, University of Minnesota. Thompson, B., Levitov, J. E., & Miederhoff, P. A. (1982). Validity of the Rokeach Value Survey. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 42, 899 905. Tourangeau, R., Couper, M. P., and Steiger, D. M. (2001, November 1 4 16). Social Presence in Web Surveys Paper presented at the 2001 Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology Conference Arlington, V A Umbach, P. D. (2004). Web surveys: Best practices. New Directions for Institutional Research 121, 23 38. Vansteenkis te, M., Neyrinck, B., Niemiec, C. P., Soenens, B., De Witte, H., & Van den Broeck, A. (2007). On the relations among work value orientations, psychological need satisfaction and job outcomes: A self determination theory approach. Journal of Occupational an d Organizational Psychology, 80 251 277. Wallace, B.A. (2007). Contemplative science: Where Buddhism and neuroscience converge. New York: Columbia University Press. Warner, R.S. (1976). The Nature of Human Values by Milton Rokeach [Book Review]. Contempor ary Sociology, 5 (1), 13 16. Waterman, A.S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 678 691. Westgate, C. E. (1996). Spiritual wellness and depression. Journal of Counseling & Development, 75 26 35. Witmer, J. M., & Sweeney, T.J. (1992). A holistic model for wellness and prevention over the lifespan. Journal of Counseling and Development, 71, 140 148.
290 Witmer, J.M., Sweeney, T.J., & Myers, J.E. (1998). The wheel of wellness Greensboro, NC. Author. Wong, (1998). Meaning centered counseling. In T.P., & Fry, P.S. (Eds.), The human quest for meaning: A handbook of psychological research and clinical applications (pp. 395 435) Mahwah, NJ: Lawr ence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Worthington, R. L., Flores, L. Y., & Navarro, R. L. (2005). Career development in context: Research with people of color. In S. D. Brown & R. L. Lent (Eds.), Career development and counseling: Putting theory and researc h to work (pp. 225 252). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Wright, T. A., & Bonett, D. G. (1992). The effect of turnover on work satisfaction and mental health: Support for a situational perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13 (6), 603 615. Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J. E. (2001). Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of Management Review, 26, 179 201. Wrzesniewski, A., McCauley, C., Rozin, P., & Schwartz, B. (1997). Jobs, careers, and their work. Journal of Research in Personality, 31 21 33. Yalom, I. D. (1980). Existential Psychotherapy New York: Basic Books. Young, R. A., & Valach, L. (2004). The construction of career through goal directed action. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64 499 514. Zika, S. & Chamberlain, K. (1987). Relation of hassles and personality to subjective well being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 155 162. Zika, S., & Chamberlain, K. (1992). On the relation between meaning in life and psycholog ical well being. British Journal of Psychology, 83 (1), 133.
291 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Dr. Cheryl Pence Wolf joined the U.S. Navy in 1988 and received her Bachelor of Science degree in e conomics from the United States Naval Academy (USNA) in May 1995. She served a total of 11 years in the U.S. Navy which included two years of service before attending the USNA, four years of education during her time at the USNA, and five years after graduation as a naval officer serving onboard two ships and a joint military comm and In July 2000, she completed her Master of Science degree in h uman r esource m anagement and pursued a corporate career as a human resource executive recruiter and later, a financial counselor. In Ma y 2008, she received her Master and Specialist of Edu ca tion degrees in m ental h ealth c ounseling from the University of Florida. In May 2013, she obtained her Doctor of Philosophy in counselor education from the University of Florida. Dr. Wolf maintain ed active certifications as a Nationally Certified Counselor (NCC), Certified Professional in Human Resources (PHR), and Certified Clinical Hypnotherapist (CHt). While completing her degrees, she worked part time in various clinical capacities including the U niversity of Florida Career Resource Center as a career c ounselor, the Alachua County Crisis Center as a crisis counselor, and the Counselor Education program as the assistant clinical coordinator In addition, she taught an undergraduate career development course for more than two and a half years co taught fi ve graduate counseling courses, supervised nine masters level counseling interns, conducted research in career meaning, wellness, and spirituality published in peer reviewed academic journals, and presented her research at numerous state, regional, and na tional conferences
292 Additionally, she was actively involved Chi Sigma Iota (CSI), the counseling academic and professional honor society, locally and international ly In CSI Beta C hapter at the University of Florida, she served as the Wellness C hair, Gran ts C hair, President E lect, President, and Past President, where she mentored junior counselors in training to become more involved in professional leadership. At the international level, she served as a Leadership Fellow and part time Web Administrator. D uring her time at the University of Florida, she was awarded an Alumni Pre doctoral Fellowship, teaching assistant ship, four College of Education and Counselor Education scholarships seven funded research grants, and several awards recognizing her service within the C ounselor E ducation program UF Career Resource Center, Alachua County Crisis Center, and CSI at the local and international level