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Non-Orchestral, Pre-Service Teachers Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Teaching Strings in the Public Schools

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045308/00001

Material Information

Title: Non-Orchestral, Pre-Service Teachers Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Teaching Strings in the Public Schools
Physical Description: 1 online resource (116 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Marshall, Adrianna A
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: attitudes -- beliefs -- education -- efficacy -- experience -- field -- methods -- music -- non -- orchestra -- orchestral -- playing -- pre -- public -- questionnaire -- schools -- self -- service -- strings -- survey -- undergraduate
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Music Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine the attitudes and beliefs of non-string playing, preservice teachers regarding string education,and their outlook on potentially accepting a string teaching position in the public schools after graduation. The participants for this study included (N=128) preservice teachers from thirteen universities who have enrollment status exceeding 150 undergraduate music education majors. During the 2012-2013academic school year, participants completed an online questionnaire, Survey of String Methods Courses for Non-String Playing, Preservice Music Education Majors. Participants’ specialization areas varied among band, choral, and general music, which completed between one to three string methods courses.   The questionnaire was comprised of 29 items regarding self-efficacy in string teaching ability, attitudes and beliefs of string education, willingness to teach orchestra in a public school setting, and attitudes towards completing afield experience in strings. A one-way ANOVA test and Tukey test was used to calculate differences between specialization areas. Results showed that general music preservice teachers had significantly more positives attitudes towards teaching strings in the public schools than pre service band teachers. Results also revealed that preservice teachers who specialize in band have significantly more positive attitudes for accepting a job position to teach strings than those specializing in choral music education. Results of the Tukey test indicated that the respondents who completed two string methods courses had significantly more positive attitudes towards teaching strings than those who only completed one course. Respondents identified their particular areas of strengths and weaknesses related to their abilities to teach strings. Areas of strength included conducting a string ensemble, accompanying a beginner or intermediate orchestra on the piano, and diagnosing and remediating student’s string playing. Areas of weakness included demonstrating on all string instruments for students, and selecting suitable literature for a string ensemble.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Adrianna A Marshall.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Hoffer, Charles R.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2015-05-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045308:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045308/00001

Material Information

Title: Non-Orchestral, Pre-Service Teachers Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Teaching Strings in the Public Schools
Physical Description: 1 online resource (116 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Marshall, Adrianna A
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: attitudes -- beliefs -- education -- efficacy -- experience -- field -- methods -- music -- non -- orchestra -- orchestral -- playing -- pre -- public -- questionnaire -- schools -- self -- service -- strings -- survey -- undergraduate
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Music Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine the attitudes and beliefs of non-string playing, preservice teachers regarding string education,and their outlook on potentially accepting a string teaching position in the public schools after graduation. The participants for this study included (N=128) preservice teachers from thirteen universities who have enrollment status exceeding 150 undergraduate music education majors. During the 2012-2013academic school year, participants completed an online questionnaire, Survey of String Methods Courses for Non-String Playing, Preservice Music Education Majors. Participants’ specialization areas varied among band, choral, and general music, which completed between one to three string methods courses.   The questionnaire was comprised of 29 items regarding self-efficacy in string teaching ability, attitudes and beliefs of string education, willingness to teach orchestra in a public school setting, and attitudes towards completing afield experience in strings. A one-way ANOVA test and Tukey test was used to calculate differences between specialization areas. Results showed that general music preservice teachers had significantly more positives attitudes towards teaching strings in the public schools than pre service band teachers. Results also revealed that preservice teachers who specialize in band have significantly more positive attitudes for accepting a job position to teach strings than those specializing in choral music education. Results of the Tukey test indicated that the respondents who completed two string methods courses had significantly more positive attitudes towards teaching strings than those who only completed one course. Respondents identified their particular areas of strengths and weaknesses related to their abilities to teach strings. Areas of strength included conducting a string ensemble, accompanying a beginner or intermediate orchestra on the piano, and diagnosing and remediating student’s string playing. Areas of weakness included demonstrating on all string instruments for students, and selecting suitable literature for a string ensemble.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Adrianna A Marshall.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Hoffer, Charles R.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2015-05-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045308:00001


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2013 Adrianna Andrews Marshall

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For Jerry and Elizabeth Riley

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to acknowledge the Lord, my savior Jesus Christ who has strengthened me with h is love and wisdom This journey has be en made possible and achievable with the love, support, and encouragement from the following: my church home, Church of Faith International, my parents, Thomas and Brenda Andrews, my husband, Jason Marshall, and my aunt, Barbara Ashby, and family and friends. I would also like to thank my chair and committee for their guidance throughout my dissertation process. My committee chair, Dr. Charles Hoffer Dr. Russell Robinson, Dr. Anthony Offerle, and Dr. Linda Beh ar Horenstein (external member). Also, a special thanks to Dr. Timothy Brophy, Dr. Laurence Alexander Dr. Henry Frierson Dr. Bertha Cato, and Dr. Charles Pickeral for their continued support during my doctoral studies.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 Need for Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 13 Statement of t he Problem ................................ ................................ ....................... 15 Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 15 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 16 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 16 Delimitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 17 Statistical Analysis a nd Method ................................ ................................ .............. 17 Definitions of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ 18 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 18 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ... 20 Philosophical Rationales ................................ ................................ ......................... 20 Experiential Learning Theo ry ................................ ................................ .................. 22 Pre ................................ ................................ 26 Pre ................................ ........... 30 Strings Teacher Shortage in the Public School ................................ ....................... 32 Pre ................................ .......... 34 Pre ................. 37 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 41 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 41 Preliminary Research ................................ ................................ .............................. 42 Research Questionnaire ................................ ................................ ......................... 43 Survey Construction ................................ ................................ ................................ 44 Selection of Pilot Study Participants ................................ ................................ ....... 46 Test Pilot Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 47 Selection of Research Participants ................................ ................................ ......... 48 Treatment of Data ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 49 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 50 Attitudes Towards Teaching Strings in a Public School Setting .............................. 51 Attitudes and Beliefs Towards Accepting a Strings Teacher Position ..................... 54

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Self Efficacy in String T eaching ................................ ................................ ............. 58 Field Experiences in String Teaching ................................ ................................ ..... 60 5 SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ....... 62 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 62 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 63 Theoretical Implications ................................ ................................ .......................... 66 Discussion and Potential Implications for Music Education ................................ .... 67 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ................................ 68 APPENDIX A UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD 02 APPROVAL DOCUMENTS ................................ ................................ .................... 70 B ERVIEW RESPONSE .................... 73 C SURVEY OF STRING METHOD COURSES FOR NON STRING PLAYING, PRE SERVICE MUSIC EDUCATION MAJORS ................................ ..................... 75 D STRINGS METHOD COURSE INSTRUCTOR PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW REQUEST LETTER ................................ ................................ ................................ 80 E PERMISSION REQUEST LETTER FOR USE OF SURVEY ................................ .. 81 F IN TERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION SOUTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY #1 ................... 83 G INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION MIDWESTERN UNIVERSITY #2 ........................ 88 H INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION SOUTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY #3 ................... 91 I INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION MIDWESTERN UNIVERSITY #4 ........................ 94 J INTERVIEW TRAN SCRIPTION SOUTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY #5 ................... 98 K INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION SOUTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY #6 ................. 101 L INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION MIDWESTERN UNIVERSITY #7 ...................... 104 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 108 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 115

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LIST OF TABLES Tables page 2 1 Five Propositions About Learning from Experiences ................................ .......... 25 2 2 Characteristic of Experiential Learning ................................ ............................... 25 2 3 Responses Concerning Strengths and Weaknesses When Teaching Strings ... 39 3 1 Open Ended Survey Items Non String Players (Mishra, 2006) .......................... 43 3 2 Outline for Survey of String Method Courses For Non String Playing, Pre Service Music Education Majors ................................ ................................ ......... 44 3 3 Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Teaching Strings ................................ .................. 45 3 4 Identification of String Teacher Efficacies as Strengths/ Weaknesses ............... 46 3 5 Identification of String Teacher Qualities ................................ ............................ 46 3 6 Field Experience in Orchestral T eaching ................................ ............................ 46 3 7 Results of the Test Pilot Data for Teacher Efficacy ................................ ............ 47 4 1 Status in Music Education Program for the 2012 2013 Academic Year ............. 50 4 2 Specialty Area in Music Education ................................ ................................ ..... 50 4 3 Competed Courses in String Methods ................................ ................................ 50 4 4 Attitudes Towards Teaching Strings on Various Playing Levels ........................ 51 4 5 Mean Differences of Attitudes among Special Areas of Study ........................... 53 4 6 Mean Differences of Attitudes Among Sophomores, Juniors, and Seniors Non String Playing, Pre Service Teachers ................................ ......................... 53 4 7 Mean Differences of Attitudes Among Number of String Method Courses Completed ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 54 4 8 Job Acceptance in Varied Settings including Strings ................................ .......... 55 4 9 Mean Differences of Job Acceptance Among Different Specialized Areas in Mu sic Education Band, Choral, and General Music ................................ .......... 56 4 10 Mean Differences of Attitudes among Sophomore, Junior, and Senior Non Strin g Playing, Pre service Teachers ................................ ................................ 57

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4 11 Mean Differences of Attitudes among Number of String Method Courses Completed ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 57 4 12 Strengths and Weaknesses Regarding String Teaching Ability .......................... 58 4 13 Self Efficacy Questions Of Non String Playing, Pre Service Teacher Regarding String Teaching Ability ................................ ................................ ...... 59 4 14 Results of the Levels of Preparedness of Non string Playing, Pre Service Teachers Who Completed a Field Experience in Strings ................................ ... 61 B 1 ................................ ............. 74

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The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes and beliefs of non string playing, pre service teachers regarding string educati on, as well as, their willingness to potentially accept a string teaching position in public schools after gra duation. The participants for this study included (N=128) from thirteen universities who have enrollment status exceeding 150 undergraduate music education major s P articipants completed an online questionnaire entitled, Survey of String Method Courses for Non String Playing, Pre Service Music Education Major s Their spe cialization areas varied among band, choral, and general music. Participants had completed one t o three string methods courses, prior to completing the surveys. The questionnaire was comprised of 29 items regarding self efficacy in string teaching ability, attitudes and beliefs of string education, willingness to teach orchestra in a public school setting, and attitudes towards completing a field experie nces in st rings. A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Tukey test was used t o calculate differences among specialization areas. Results showed that general music pre service teachers had significantly more positives attitudes toward teaching strings in th e public schools than pre service band

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teachers. Results also revealed that pre service teachers who specialize in band have significantly more positive attitudes toward accepting p o sition to teach string than those specializing in choral music education. Results of the Tukey test indicate that the respondents who completed two string methods courses had significantly more positive attitudes toward teaching strings than those who only completed one course. Respondents who completed three courses also had si gnificantly more positive attitudes than those who only comple ted one string methods course. Respondents identified particular strength s and weakness es related to their abilities to teaching strings Areas of strength included conducting a s tring ensemble accompanying a beginner or intermediate orchestras on piano, and diag nosing and string playing. Areas of weakness included demonstrating all string instruments for students, and selecting suitable literature for a string ensemble.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION School strin g orchestra programs in the United States are faced with shortages of qualified music teachers. Some school districts desire strings programs, yet continue to have unfilled positions each school year. When these position s r emain unfilled, they risk reduction of course offerings or elimination. In many cases, non string players fill the position in order to preserve instrumental music instruction (Gillespie & B ergonzi, 2002; Mishra, 2008) In other instances the administration may decide to reallocate funding for string instruction to another subject when a specialist cannot be re cruited. The question that many administrators ask Brenner (2010) pointed out that qualified st ring specialists often choose not to study music education. In a study by Lesniak (2007), string faculty respondents reported that overall the undergra duate music education curricula lacks strings pedagogy course. Due to the limited teacher training course offerings, st ring performance majors are often dis inclined to consider teaching music in K 12 public school settings as a potential care er choice. Upon graduation as many as one third of all music majors chose a ca r eer outside of music education, which in cludes teaching strings (Kruger, 2000; Madsen & Hancock, 2002). Recent investigations about public school strings instruction show that 33 states have implemented new string ( Gillespie, 2010), a trend that affirms the importance of string education in Ame rican schools. While most schools desire to have a thriving music program, which include s choir, band, and orchestral course offerings, many schools struggle to maintain at least one music course This situation may be caused by a lack of funding or a lac k of qualified music teachers. In other instances, school administrators will attempt to

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expand music course offerings by requesting that their music teacher fill an additional music course even if the teacher lacks an ability to play those particular mus ical instruments (Gillespie & Hamann, 2002; Russell, 2008, Mishra, 2008). Some string positions are filled b y string players, nearly one in four, and as high as one in t hree, are filled by non string players (Gillespie& Bergonzi, 2002). M ost music educati on undergraduate students are requi red to complete method courses in strings, brass, woodwinds, and percussion, only a small percentage of strings positions are filled b y string specialists. In 2002, T he National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) esti mated that there were about 3,000 undergraduate string education majors. Approximately 800 music e ducation graduates each year, although, less than two thirds start teaching after graduation (Gillespie, 2006). Moreover, from 2002 2004, 57% of current strin gs teachers predicted that positions in their schools would be available. Many pre service non string playing teachers are reluctant to accept a position as an orchestra director (Gillespie, & Hamann, 2002). In the ir study the number of strings teachers declined while string student enrollment the public school system increased. Nearly one fourth of the public and private school s in 1999 2000 and over 43% in all fifty states of t he schools in 2000 2001 were un able to recruit qualified music teachers or string specialist for their string programs. Understanding why non string playing, pre service teachers are unwilling to teach strings in elementary, middle, and high school, and whether their attitudes can be altered by actual teaching assignments is nece ssary to find a solution to this problem (Mishra, 2006). Instilling a sense of

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efficacy and confidence in non string majors is critical for those who seek job opportunities that require a broad musical competence. The general goal of a string methods cour se is to enhance the non basic technical competency and acquire effective pedagogical techniques for teaching stringed instruments. To assess the effectiveness of this course, a study conducted at a m id western university examined the attitu des of non string playing pre service teachers who were currently enrolled in a string methods course. The participants expressed awkwardness with teaching strin gs even after completing the string method s course, and reported weaknesses in playing ability ability to rehearse, lack of teaching experience, personality, and lack of knowledge (Mishra, 2006, 2008). Furthermore, t he participants reported a need for additional train ing after completing the string method s course. N o additional information was pro attitudes changed after supplementing the string methods course with an actual string teaching assignment or field experience. However, research suggests that pre service teachers typically express anxiety regardi ng their ability to function as a competent prospective music teacher (Bergee & Grashel 2002). Need for Study As studies have shown, factors such as a lack of string playing ability, a strong desire to teach band exclusively or insufficient strin g traini ng may contribute to pre service reluctance to t each strings. However, the pre position may also originate from not having the opportunity to teach an actual string ensemble in a public school setting while taking a string method s course. Findings from this study may demonstrate the important role that experiential education plays in

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developing pre service teacher self efficacy. The results of this study may guide changes in pre service teacher training in string methods cou rses. According to Brenner ( 2010 ) finding ways to improve public school string education and teacher education programs must be addressed. The researcher probed how the profession effectively trains and recruits quality strings teachers. Another question that warrants investigation is, how does the profession convey the importance of string e ducation to pre service teachers ? I f the profession is without quality public school strings teachers there might be less skillful string performers and professors i n the future. Cole ( 2005 ) stated that music departments, as well as top tier music conservatories, have always fought for their share of the small amount of talented string players who hold interest in becoming music majors. If string education instructio n continues to decline in secondary schools, universities will undoubtedly have a smaller string s student pool to recruit to for performance and music education majors. The relationship between public school string programs directly impacts the potential f or recruiting string majors (performance or music education), and producing string specialist available to teach in the public schools, which in turn will decrease opportunities for students to have strin g instruction. A shared belief among teachers, paren ts, and administration is that string education provides significant societal benefits for children. Many parents perceive string education to be survey by the American Strings T eacher Association (ASTA, 2 002) parents of students who participate in strings projects were asked how string instruction affects the ir child. More than two thirds of the respondents 69% (n=920) stated that having their child learn how

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to read and play an instrument was a very valua ble opportunity; 97% (n=920) stated esteem, feelings of self worth, feeling of belonging, good wo r (p.11) Both string and non string playing pre service teachers need motivation and inspi ration to consider public schools strings teacher positions The societal benefits should be stressed within mu sic teacher education programs. Statement of the Problem This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of non string playing, pre service teachers regarding their string education within their undergraduate music education completing the required strin g method courses, and investigated their willingness and desire to accept a strings teaching position in elementary, middle, and or high school. Studies have indicated that teachers feel unprepared to teach string instrument classes. Also, many schools ar e not able to offer relevant classes (Teachout & McKoy, 2010; Lesniak, 2007). Few studies have investigated how non string playing, pre service teachers feel towards teaching strings in the public schools and how the ir teaching efficacy directly relates to their willingness to accept a position outside of their primary instrument. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investig ate the attitudes and beliefs of non string playing, pre service teachers regarding str ing education and their willingness to acc ept a string teaching positions within the public school system This study examined differences in non string playing teachers area of specialization, college grade level, and the number of string methods courses they

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completed This research self efficacy and string skills after completing string education courses, and preparedness before and after a having a field experiences in string orc hestra. The following research questions and limitations were addressed: Research Questions 1. What are the beliefs among non string playin g, pre service teachers' on becoming a public school strings te acher after completing a string method s or string skills course? Limitations of the Study Limitations of this research included the following: 1. 2. 3.

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Delimitations of the Study Statistical Analysis and Method Data from the questionnaire were imported from SurveyMonkey to SPSS Statistical Software (Version 20.0) in order to accomplish various statistical tests. A series of one way analysis of variance ( ANOVA ) test s was used to test for differences in responses Tukey test s w ere used to confirm significant differences for al l three research questions. An alpha level of p< .05 was used to accept or reject the null hypothesis. In addition, L ikert scale items were used to measure attitudes and beliefs among band, general music, and choral per service teachers. Results were pr esented in total sum of the responses and percentages, as well as in descriptive statistics

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Definitions of Terms 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Summary This research was designed to investigate non string playing, pre serv ice attitudes and beliefs towards teaching strings in the public schools upon graduation. U sing Survey Monkey, the participants (N=128 ) anonymously reported their beliefs regarding the importance of string method courses, evaluate d their strength s and weakness of string playing an d pedagogies, a s well as their probability of accepting a strin gs teaching position at an elementary, middle or high school. In addition, the participants rated their willingness to accept a teaching position that included various combinations of teaching beginner, intermediate, and or advanced orchestra students while comparing that to achieving the string methods course objectives. This research also sought to understand the relationship in rating teacher ef ficacy between non string playing, pre service teachers who participated in an orchestral teaching field

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experiences while taking string m ethods, and those do not have such an experience in their stri ng methods course requirements.

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The discussion of related literature is organized by (a) philosophical rationales, (b) experiential learning theory, (c) pre pre rceptions of music teaching, ( e) strings teacher shortages in the public schools, (f) pre f string education, and (g) pre and beliefs towards teaching strings. Philosophical Rationales In his book Ability Development from Age Zero (1981), Shinichi Suzuki asserts that education has been based on i ntelligence. New knowledge constantly reshape s and expand s basic knowledge. The survival instinct shows its innate versatility as it adapts to ever changing environments (p.9).While completing a mu sic education program, non string playing, pre service teachers are indeed developing the foundati on needed to teach strings. Often these individuals do not plan to teach strings during their music teaching career. However, due to the lack of employment opportunities materialized, music educators may be obligated to take an unwanted strings teaching position due to the lack of a band teaching position s In other instances, the band or choir teacher must replace a strings teacher who resigned. According to Gillespie & Hamann (2002), when a string teacher leave s, schools must find a qualified individual to replace the outgoing teacher, a practice that is increasingly difficult unless the number of students entering undergraduate string education programs increase. Why are strings teaching positions not desired in the first place? Technical ability may serve as a basis to this question. In his article, The Projected Career Plans of String Music Educators: Implications for the Profession Jos hua Russell (2 008)

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addressed the issue, band director or other music educator outside of string music education to replace the In A Philosophy of Music Education, the author, Bennett Reimer (1989) states that in musical training, There should be no opposition between the technical musical needs of college students and their needs as potential aesthetic educators. These needs are interdependent. It is time high time for music education profession to concern itself with an equitable balance of emphases in teacher education programs (p.138). Th ere may be an unequal balance in training students on primary and secondary instruments a mong music education majors. As result, the pre service students may feel unprepared to teach primarily a secondary instrument. Acco rding to (Bandura, 1977) efficacy expectations determine how much effort people will expend and how long they will persist when faced with obstacles and aversive experiences. Thus, the stronger the perceived self efficacy, the more active the efforts may be. Therefore, pre service teachers who have a higher degree of ef ficacy will be more eager to fill a teaching position out side of their specialist. In the area of music and teaching, David Elliott (1995) A ll music education programs share the same aims [ and ] ought to provide the same basic conditions (1) genuine musical challenges and (2) the musicianship to meet these challenges through An important goal of undergraduate music education studies is to become competent on stringed instruments, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments. Mishr a (2006, 2008) explained that music teachers who possess a high level of self efficacy for teaching stringed instrument s are more likely to consider

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applying for string teaching positions in the schools system. In terms of attaining efficacy in teacher education and in service programs, Tsch annen Morana & Hoy (2007) pointed that efficacy beliefs increase if a teacher perceives her or his teaching performance to be a success, because those feelings contribute to the expectations that future performances w ill li kely be proficient. Efficacy beliefs are lowered if a teacher perceives the performance a failure, because they are likely to expect that future performances will also fail (p. 945). Therefore, the belief of a future positive teaching experience is perceived to be unlikely. The extent to which teachers believe they can affect student learning (teacher efficacy) may influence teacher/student interactions and successfully facilitate gains in student achievement (Leithwood & Jantz, 2008). Experiential Learning Theory In his book, Experience and Education John Dewey (1938), elaborated that The history of educational theory is marked by opposition between the idea that education is developed from within and that it is formation from without; that it is b ased on natural endowments and that education is a process of overcoming natural inclination and substituting in its place During the undergraduate program future teachers learn general concepts of a parti cular subject. For them effective communication of the principles of teaching and learning is essential. Growth through experience imparts additional preparation for t eaching. These experiences then allow students to develop competency for future teachi ng. Klassen, Tze, Betts & Gordon, (2011) defined teacher efficacy as the Moreover, the knowledge obta ined by the pre service teacher primarily stems from classroom instr uction Thus, the pre service teacher becomes conversant with the methods of learning. Thereafter, the newly acquire subject matter is achieved.

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and of organization within ex periences? (p.22). There must be a structured learning experience associated with the new knowledge so that the subject matter significantly registers with the pre service teacher. In the rationales of adult educat ion, Kolb (1984 a four stage cyclical theory of learning beliefs. Kolb stated that learning encompasses a four part cyclical form: (1) concrete experiences, (2) observatio n and reflection, (3) formulation of abstract concepts and generalizations, and lastly (4) testing the implications of concepts in either new situations or active experimentations. Kolb stated that each phase in the cycle of how a guiding concept influence s experim entation. L philosophy, thus the student learner will then create coping strategies for future experiences in teaching. Schmidt (2010) stated that theory of learning model is an effective tool for pre se Thus, learning from educational experiences may increase the value of teacher education programs from the p erception of the student, which in turn, also increases the probability of becoming an effective teacher. In addition, Schmidt examined the previous teaching experiences of recent music education learning theory incre ased the meaning and value of their pre service teaching

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experiences: peer teaching, school required field experiences, student teaching practicum, and other voluntary teaching experiences. She found that the participants conceptualized their own meaning o (teaching) principles, understandings, and attitudes towards teaching and learning from discussed experiential learning and teach ing modeling called Service Learning, in which pre service music teachers appear to have become more confident from peer teaching elementary general music classes. As a result, the participants expressed an increased sense of commitment to music teaching d ue to having additional teacher training opportunities. Experiential education is defined as any form of education that stresses individual experiences and meaning making as a studen t learner, which is not directly from classroom lectures and or textbooks (Schmidt, 2010; Miettinen, 2010). Therefore, field experiences and student teaching practicums are acceptable forms of experiential theory and practice, action and reflecti on. Learning involves much more than an interaction with an extant body of knowledge; learning is all around us, it shaped and s about learning experiences (see Table 2 1 ). These propositions a re comparable to the principles of Carl R. Rogers in his book, Freedom to Learn from the 80s. Rogers emphasized that education should be experiential learning experiences for ad ult learners (Jarvis, 2002) see Table 2 2.

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Table 2 1 Five Propositions About Learning from Experiences 1. Experience is the foundation of, and the stimulus for, learning. 2. Learners actively construct their experience. 3. Learning is a holistic process. 4. Learning is socially and culturally constructed. 5. Learning is influenced by socio emotional context in which it occurs Table 2 2 Characteristic of Experiential Learning 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. According to Rogers and Boud, experiential experiences are important in the learning progression of pre service teachers. Hence, the educational process that promotes creation and assessment through experiences guided this learning theory can be adapted for use in music teacher education programs.

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Pre Cutietta (2000) classified field experiences in music education as any experience which happens in a school setting instead of a college classroom, including observation, tutoring, m ini teaching, no n hand s activity related to teaching, including operating media, planning instruction, designing materials, peer teaching/conducting, or music education departments, not a ll method courses require pre service students to complete a field experience. Instead in class teaching demonstrations are often carried out among groups of students. (Paul, Teachout, Sullivan, Kelly, Bauer & Raiber, 2001) examined the relationship betwe en authentic context learning activities and an initial music teaching performance in pre service instrumental music teachers. In music, authentic context learning activities include field exp eriences, student teaching, peer teaching, and the observation a nd evaluation of pre researchers found that pre service music teachers who participated in a high number of authentic context learning experiences scored considerably higher in teacher effectiveness ratings than tho se who reported a lower amount of teaching experiences. The researchers also stated that authentic context learning activities provided pre rceiv ed development as a music teacher. Conseque ntly, the partic ipant developed a heightened self image and greater confidence in facing future teaching situations. Madsen and Cassidy (2005) conducted a study of pre practicum, post practicum and experienced undergradu ate and graduate music students in which the partici pants were asked to evaluate recorded teaching episodes (both student focused or teacher focused) for levels of teaching effectiveness and student learning. The researchers

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examined the effect of various levels of teaching experience and the perceptions of teaching effectiveness and student learning. The results revealed that pre practicum and post practicum students were less critical in their comments from observing the teaching episodes than experienced teachers due to having more teaching experiences to base upon their judgment. Thompson (2007) opined the process of preparing pre service music teachers is often grounded in a belief that learning to teach will materialize once they have obtained an actual teaching position. Moreover, it is not uncommon f or students to exhibit development. Frequently pre realistic after participating in a field experience. McDowell (2007) stated that eacher preparation programs must provide their students with the best knowledge and experiences possible so that their students can be succes sful, productive educators; many teacher training programs now attach a field experience component to their method courses to allow pre service teachers to apply their Hourigan and Scheib ( 2009) examined the skills, abilities, and understandings that can be acquired through field experiences. Six inst rumental music education pre service teachers were placed in an urban or small rural public school K 12 setting, in which the students assisted in instrumental and or general music classes through a 16 week collective case study. The themes from this study revealed that administrative, interpersonal skills and classroom management skills are very impo rtant. The music related ideas were associated with music content knowledge of music theory, music history, and pedagogical knowledge. The participants stated that pedagogical skills

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pertained not only to tea ching strategies, but were relevant to concrete technical information regarding each instrument, such as fingerings. Killian and Dye (2009) conducted a study in which 43 pre service students were observed for three semesters of peer teaching, field experiences, and student teaching practicum. The researchers implemented a reflective practice model, that included the sequence of pla n/ teach/ archive/reflect/ as a guiding procedure. The researchers discovered that the participants experienced higher levels of confidence, and increased preparedness to teach music, as well as a more focused perception of their individual teaching skill s and abilities. Teachout and McKoy (2010) examined the relationship between the teacher role development and teaching effectiveness of pre service music education majors. Through two surveys, Concerns, Attributions, and Confidence Measure, (CACM) (Campbell and Thompson, 2007) and the Survey of Teac her Effectiveness, (STE) (Hamman and Baker, 1996), the researchers found that there were no significant differences betwee n the two groups with regards to effectiveness in teaching. However, a related the me emerged in both experimental gro ups was that teaching ability contributes to successful music teaching. Henninger and Scott (2010) explored the perceptions of pre service teachers during two field experiences in an elemen tary school setting. They found that the pre service students felt more positive and encouraged by their teaching strategies, the second field experience when compared to the first experience. The researchers stated he m ajority of pre service music teachers, the development of effective teaching skills is a gradual process. Students in the early stages of pre service careers

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demonstrate and perceive teaching and learning differently than those who are approaching the comp Conversely, Schmi dt (2010) stated that it is common for teachers to assert that their learning increases by teaching experiences rather than coursework. She also considers early teaching experiences more valuable than method co urses that lack applied music teaching activities. McDowell (2007) observed 10 pre service music teachers through the stages of their field experiences. The researcher found that a majority of the participants reported a desire for additional field experie nce to more thoroughly prepare for student teaching experiences for pre service teacher vastly contrast among universities that offer bachelor degrees in music education in the United In the 201 0 2011 National Association of School of Music (NASM) Handbook, the standards and guidelines stated that the competencies for music education majors instrumental are: (a) Knowledge of and performance ability on wind, string, and percussion instruments su fficient to teach beginning students effectively in groups. (b) Knowledge of content, methodologies, philosophies, materials, technologies, and curriculum development for instrumental music. (c) Experiences in solo instrumental performance, as well as in b oth small and large instrumental ensembles (d) Laboratory experience in teaching beginning instrumental students individually, in small groups, and in larger classes (p.99 100).

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Pre s Many studies have been conducted to investigate why undergraduate music majors consider a career in music edu cation. Previous findings suggest that reasons include an aspiration to : (1) foster talent or make a positive difference (Hoffman & Newton, 2002), (2) work with children (Thornton & Reid, 2001), (3) achieve a rewarding career (Richardson & Watt, 2005; Thornton & Reid, 2001), (4) impart knowledge (Richardson & Watt, 2005), and (5) gain employment family oriented environment (Richardson & Watt, 2005; Thornton & Reid, 2001). In general, m usic education majors tend to pursue music studies before focusing on music education (Bergee et al., 2001). A deeper sense of commitment to the study of music rather than the preparation to teach persists through the pre student practicums experiences (Cox, 1997; Roberts, 1993). A lthough Allen (2003) found that pre service music teachers strengthen th eir teacher personalities during freshman through junior

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year. Other researchers found that they more inclined to develop a personal orientation during the student teaching practicum e xperience of teaching and or performance (Hamann, Baker, McAllister & Bauer, 2000). Individuals who are more focused on teaching consider themselves more talented in performances, whereas music education majors who are more focused on performance consider themselves a good teacher as well as a professional performer (B ouj, 2004). In contrast to other careers, music disti nctiveness as a musician has significant effects for ident ity devel opment and teacher efficacy (Roberts 2000, 2004). T o examine the particular motivations that influence music education career choices among music performance and music education undergraduates, Jones and Parkes (2010) surveyed music students from seven universities that award music education bachelor degrees in the United St ates. The y found that one of the primary reasons undergraduate students choose a career in music teaching relates to their belief that music educato rs can act as role models. R e spondents also indicated that positive exper iences with past m usic teachers was a motivation may explain why some non string playing students exclusively desire to te ach band. The researchers state that tudent s choose a career in music education for a variety of reasons, including that they enjoy music and/ or teaching music, they have high abilities in teaching music, they believe that teaching music is useful to them and or society, and they view teaching classroom music as a part of their identity Consequently, if a pre service non string playing student has developed the identity than brass, woodwind, and percussion may be a casual factor.

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Fajet, Bell o, Leftwich, Mes ler, & Shaver (2005) reported pre service teachers hold firm beliefs about the teaching profession long before they enter the classroom and .... that (these beliefs ) persist throughout their teacher preparation and into their early years of service education students regarding their perceptions of the characteristics and qualities associated with effective teaching. The y found five common beliefs of successful teaching affect ive personal characteristics, pedagogical and classroom management, attitudes and behaviors towards students, attitudes towards job and teaching, and know ledge of subject matter. Berg and Miksza (2010) also examined the trends related to teacher developme nt of pre service instrumental music education majors. M ost common ly reported concerns were task related, such as conducting, repertoire knowledge, and instrument specific techniques. Strings T eacher Shortage in the Public School Researchers have assessed the shortage of string specialists through qualitative and quantitative research. The ongoing teacher shortage in many areas o f the United States can partially explain why music educators find themselves teaching outside their specialty. The American Association for Employment in Education (2002) reported that a moderate to considerably larger range of shortages in the majority of regions in the United States. (Teachout, 2004; Lindemann 2002), reported that an estimated 11,000 music educator s resign each year because of retirement o r burnout. Teachout calculated that based on HEADS data and statistics from Lindemann, that only 5,000 new music education graduates become eligible to enter the job market each year. Given this statistical inform ation, the lack of strings teacher shortage becomes apparent through out the United States. Madsen and Hancock (2002) explored teacher

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retention and attrition of music teachers who graduated in the past ten years. In a survey of 137 music teachers they fo und that 50% (n=69) were band teachers, 10% (n=14) were orchestra teachers, and 20% (n=27) were general music and or choral music teachers. A large perc entage of new music teachers decide to leave music education career the profession within a few yea rs of teaching. In their study, they found 34.4% (n=47) were no longer teaching music in public schools or privately after six years in the profession. T hornton & Bergee (2008) explored a study by (Gillespie & Hamann; 1998) relating to influences effecting the career choices of students majoring in m usic. Out o f 242 surveyed respondents, 70% (n=169 ) specified plans to obtain a music teaching position upon graduation. The respondents were also asked about grade level preferences : 50% (n=121) desired to teach in a high school setting, 18% (n=44) plan to teach in middle school, and 12% (n=29) as their primary preference. With regards to instrumental or chorus, 51% (n=123) of the respondents chose teaching band as their fi rst preference, 10% (n=24) selected orchestra, 9% (n=22) elected general music teaching, and 23% (n=56) of respondents indicated that teaching chorus was their first preference for a career in music education. Gardner (2010) explored the preferen ces of m usic teachers to explore certain factors that influence why music teachers decide to leave the profession. The researcher surveyed 1,903 music teachers, in which 13.2% (n=251 ) instructed elementary school students, 58.6% (n=1115) taught middle school, and 25.7% (n=489) instructed i n high school. Their findings were similar to those given by teachers of other academic subjects. In past studies, Scheib (2004) surveyed instrumental music

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teachers who were in the process of pursuing al ternate employment or locating a new music teaching position. The researcher found that the most common response was d or maintain class sizes. Thus, some music teachers are forced to add music classes in order to sustain funding and job security. Teachin g additional music classes that specialty is a typical strategy used to validate th e existence of music instruction during (2010) stated that because of a surplus of r etiring teachers (Hamann, Gillespie & Bergonzi, 2002) and unfilled string teaching positions, there are new employment opportunities for new teachers (p.45). Yet, the most qualified teachers are not seeking emplo yment in the public schools. As result, scho ol districts have resorted to filling the positions with less competent music teachers. The overall result is that the status of strings programs being saturated within American schools are more likely to be perceived as less valuable and therefore more s u sceptible to being terminated (p. 46) Pre s S ome s tudies in music research have focused on identifying attitudes among students towards becoming teachers, as well as the reasons to study music education or m usic performance. Other studies have explored undergraduate experiences among music education and music performance students. Findings show that while there are some differences between music performance and music education students, both exhibit more simi larities than otherwise (Herkstroeter, 2001). Both performance and music education students have identified their private studio teachers and their public

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school orchestra director as primary influences in bec oming a strings specialist. R esearch suggests, however, that few teachers discuss career options with their st udents, and participants felt they were encouraged by a strings teacher to enter the field of string education (Gillespie & Hamann, 2002). Current string education curricula in American college s and universities reveal that schools of music offer few classes in string education and string pedagogy, and often lack qualified per sonnel to teach (Brenner, 2010). Similar situations can be seen in public schools throughout the nation. Research indicat es that often teachers feel unprepared to teach string instrument classes, and that many schools do not offer relevant classes (Teachout & McKoy, 2010; Lesniak, 2007). Furthermore, studies on the music s chool environment also suggest that although applied and music education instructors are collegiate music teachers, they view their roles and positions differently, which often can inhibit cooperation between the groups (Lesniak, 2007; Cole, 2005). Thus, many U.S. school s of music are faced with sizable divi sions between performance degrees and music education programs and their respected faculty members. Music education and instrumental performance departments are not only separated by funding and other support, but more significantly by a lack of communicat ion, understanding, and support for each other. An actual teaching assignment or fieldwork can provide insight into teaching strings. Conkling (2003) found that pre service music teachers value observation of interactions with an expert model teacher and p eers, as well as class/rehearsal teaching practices. He also found feedback to be a vital aspect of observation (Reynolds & Conway, 2003). Although fieldwork was a memorable and valuable feature of the pre

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service experience, first year teachers indicated that the value o f this actual ly depended on the quality of the experience. For example, if field observations were unstruct ured, the potential value was compromised. In the proposed question, s he predicts that attitudes change with the personal development of self efficacy participation in a strings method course and with experiencing actual string teaching. Mishra (2008 ) conducted a study on pre towards teaching strings and or choir in the public school in a middle and or high school. She found that a majority of the participants desired to be a high school director. The participants also stated that a choir d irector position was undesirabl e; as well as a position that primarily consisted of teaching orchestra. This may be a result of the s tudents low teacher efficacy with regard to teaching strings, or band student strong desire to emulate their former band teacher. Idealized impressions of music teaching can be strongly entrenched before pre service music teachers even begin their formal enrollment in preparatio n skill courses. T hose impressions often derive from former teachers who pr ovided psychological disadvantages and when students faced negative music teaching experiences (Bergee et al, 2001). An increase in string teaching experiences allowed the pre service, non string player to re examine attitudes towards teaching on secondary instruments. These reflections can facilitate a chan ge in attitude towards teaching strings. Mishra (2006) surveyed 19 non string playing, pre servic e teachers from university. M any participants cited a lack of competence or confidence in strings teaching. However, several string education courses often provide opportunities for pre service teachers to develop significant relationships with practicing teachers through

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formal and informal field experiences. Many researchers have stressed the development of teacher identity during preparation and the cultiv ation of competent musician identity, which is vital for practicing teachers (Woodford, 2002). S hieh & Conway (2004) stated that m usic teaching educators should examine the factors that affect the identities of future music teachers, as well as the psychol ogical barriers that prevent pre service teachers from an occupation in music teaching in the public schools In general, findings on pre s towards teaching beliefs of teaching mu sic in the public schools and accepting jobs in various school settings. Pre Cole (2005) explored various career opportunities for music education string majors. The researcher found that in the past two decades, strings programs in secondary educational level have declined. Consequently, less proficient strings students are seeking higher education for music. This may be a result of the lack of desire on the part of licensed music teachers to teach strings in the public schools. Ferguson (2003) studied the teaching experiences of pre service strings teachers as it related to their progression into becoming a strings specialist. Using case study methods the researcher found that the participan to such ev ents. These experiences transfer to their personal teaching beliefs. Ferguson suggested that field experiences for pre serv ice strings teachers should be designed to encourage effective teaching and foster teacher development. Lesniak (2007) explored how the attitudes of post secondary string faculty members affect the perception of teaching string for pre service music teache rs. The

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researcher attempted to discern (1 ) What are the attitudes toward string education and string performance held by university orchestra conductors, string education, and string performance faculty? (2) How do attitudes towards string education diff er according to teacher type, school size, and presence or lack of string education or string pedagogy special ist at the university, and (3) W hat are the solutions to the strings teacher shortage? (p.40 ) % ( n=146) of the respondent indicated that there is an overall lack of string education/string pedagogy course offerings within the music education and music performance curricula. In addition, respondents stated that string education and str ing pedagogy faculty members were respondents suggested that community outreach programs should be created to provide students with opportunity and support so that their interest in teac hing strings could be nourished. (Lesniak, 2007 ion w It seems that having qualified strings teachers and quality orchestral programs are desired by school administrations, yet finding a solution has become a slow process. Brenne r (2010) explored the rationale fo r including strings in public school education. She indicated that there should be a vision for strings education in which both craftsmanship and ability should be executed at every level of development, inc luding the beginning level Many strings teachers do not have the ability to effectively teach novice students because they lack training in their teaching education programs.

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This viewpoint can be related to the lack of cohesiveness to include field experiences with college music education programs. How ever, Brenner suggested that the ideal training for strings teacher should encompass technical abilities, procedural knowledge and competence to explain and demonstrate fundamental str ing playing to novice students to teaching advanced students. Gillespi e (2010) explored the status of str ings education from K 12 by surveying m embers of the American Strings T eacher Association (ASTA). He found that during 1999 2009, 150 new strings programs were created in th e United States. The new string programs were fo unded in 75 school districts within 33 states, encompassing rural, urban, and suburban residential areas. He found that the three primary challenges in creating new strings programs were lack of funding and other resources, locating a teaching space, and f inding an appropriate strings teacher or specialist. Mishra (2006) conducted an open ended survey of non string pla ying pre service teachers. R according to perceived in their own strin g teaching abili ty (see Table 2 3). Table 2 3 Responses Concerning Strengths and Weaknesses When Teaching Strings Strengths Weakness Playing Ability Playing Ability Teaching Skills Ability to Rehearse Previous Experience with Strings Lack of Experience Personality Personality Knowledge about Strings Lack of knowledge about Strings General Musical Skills Miscellaneous In addition, the study showed t hat most of the pre service teachers would feel competent to teach one string class; although, this competence does not exte nd to multiple string classes. A large number of these teachers r eported having general

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musicality as one of their strengths in teaching strings. With older students, the pre service teachers may be able to utilize this strength, while teaching younger students require s an instructor with additional strings specific kno wl edge. Pre service teachers do not necessarily know the techniques required for teaching a high school level orchestra. This topic is of partic ular importance because it relate s to Hamann, Gillespie, and Bergonzi ( 2002), study who found an increasing percentage of non string players teaching string classes Out of 411 respondents, 12 % ( n= 49) were teac hing at the elementary level. Out of 678 teachers, 16 % ( n=108) taught at the high school level. Moreover, there appears to be a comfor t level pre service teachers acquire t hrough string methods and technique courses. However, the pre service teachers were only comfortable with limited string teaching and/or in conjunction with the more familiar band instruments as found in full an that having the responsibility of a full string program was outside of non comfort zone (Mishra 2006, 2008). The commonalities among strengths and weaknesses ma y stem from the lack of teach er efficacy. Las tly, when respondents were asked to consider the prospect of teaching at various levels, the y expressed attitudes suggest ing that non string playing; pre service teachers need to complete an actual string teaching experience before entering the profession.

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The purpose of this research was to investigate non string playing, pre service teache r string education obtained through undergraduate stu dies, and their willingness to accept a pote ntial public school appointment partially or solely teaching strings A second purpose was to discover whether self efficacy change upon completion of string methods c ourse or when participating in a string field experience while enrolled in a string methods course. Research Design The research design for this study was One Group, Posttest Only, in which a single group is invited to complete an online questionnaire regarding the ir attitudes and beliefs toward tea ching strings after completing the required string education classes The independent variab le (IV) consisted of the completion of a string method s o r skills course. Based on a review of string methods course syl labi and an interview with each string meth od instructors from seven universities : Universities of Florida, University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, University of Kansas, Michigan State University, North Colorado University, Louisiana State Universit y, and Florida State University, all of who m are also m embers of The National Association of Schools of Music (NASM), t heir course objectives typically include d the following : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Preliminary Research T elephone interviews with string methods cou rse instructors were conduc ted to gain insight into their string methods course objectives. Contact was e stablished with the instructor of the string methods from NASM accredited schools of music to conduct interviews requesting the following information: (see A ppendi x D). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

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10. 11. 12. Research Questionnaire The researcher requested permission to adapt survey items from Dr. Jennifer Mishra, who created the original survey for her study Attitudes of Non String Playing, Pre Service Teachers Towards Teaching Strings in 2006 at the University of Houston (See Appendix E for a copy of the letter requesting permis sion for the use of the survey ) In her study, 19 instrumental music majors from one institution participated pretest posttest design study, which included an open ended survey. It consisted of five survey ques tions designed to examine non string playing, pre confidence and attitudes towards teaching strings. P articipants complete the following survey during the first weeks of the semester and again at th e end of the semester (see Table 3 1) T able 3 1 Open Ended Survey Items Non String Players (Mishra, 2006) O pen ended responses were created for non string playing, pre service teachers to rate their willingness of job acceptation, lev el of teacher efficacy, and attitudes regarding the

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importance of string education. The adapt ed survey included 29 items which were transformed from the coded qualitative responses from the original survey into L ikert scaled survey items. Survey Construc tion The adapted 29 item online questionnaire used in this study, Survey of String Method Courses for Non String Playing, Pre Service Music Education Major included three were introductory q uestions: (1) What is your status in your music education program? (2) What is your specialty area of study? (3) How many strings method OR string skills courses have you completed? These items were created in order to find relationships within the participants from each university. The survey was co mprised of 5 sections (see Table 3 2). Table 3 2 Outline for Survey of String Method Courses For Non String Playing, Pre Service Music Education Majors The questionnaire was formatted in relation to each research questions .The open ended questions were modified into quantifiable items for this study. All survey items were weighted in order to address the disproportionate respondent rates from positive to negative degrees of attitudes and teacher efficacy The resp ondents were asked to choose an option that best s upported their viewpoints. The L ikert scaled it ems were on a five point scale. Positive viewpoints regarding string education received the most points (5 or 4), whereas negative viewpoint received the least amount of points (2

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or 1), and viewpoints that expressed uncertainty or a neutral stance received t hree points. The total sum scores were used to comp are groups on the defined response s The first questions dealt with attitudes and beliefs towards teachin g strings. The second set of questions was related to teacher efficacy levels in teaching strings; and the third research question covered completing a string teaching field experience while taking a st r ing methods course (see Table 3 3, 3 4, 3 4, 3 5, and 3 6). Table 3 3 Attitudes and Belief s Toward Teaching Strings Highly Likely Likely Uncertain Unlikely Highly Unlikely 1. Do you feel that string method courses are a vital course in your plan of study as a music education major? 2. If the only music teacher position unfilled were at a typical elementary school teaching strings to beginner students, would you accept the position? 3. If the only music teacher position unfilled were at a typical middle school teaching strings to beginners or intermediate students, would you accept the position? 7. Would you accept a teaching position that was primarily band, but included one strings class? 8. Would you accept a teaching position that primarily consisted of you teaching beginner and intermediate strings? 9. Would you accept a high school band teaching position that included conducting rehearsals for full symphony orchestra?

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Table 3 4 Identification of String Teacher Efficacies as Strengths/ Weaknesses Table 3 5 Identification of String Teacher Qualities 1 Advanced string playing ability 2 Sight reading on a stringed instrument 3 Rehearsal techniques for a string ensemble 4 Knowledge of pedagogies for upper strings (violin and viola) 5 Knowledge of pedagogies for lower strings (violoncello or double bass) Table 3 6 Field Experience in Orchestral Teaching Selection of Pilot Study Participant s Pilot p articipants w music education program during the 2011 2012 acade mic year. All participants completed a string skills course that met twice each week, in which the first se mester focused on upper string instruments (violin and viola). The subsequent se mester focused on lower string instruments (cello and double bass.) Sixteen non string playing,

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pre service teachers were in the course, from which nine completed the survey. In total, the response rate was 56%. All p articipants specialized in brass, woodwind or percussion in which 44.4% (n=4) were freshmen, 33.3% (n=3) were sophomores, 11.1% (n=1) was a junior, and 11.1% (n=1) was a senior. The initial survey design which included 29 items remains un changed as a resu lt of the pilot results. Test Pilot Results All of the participants were required to complete two string skills courses, in which 44.4% (n=4) believed that the courses were vital for their plan of study; and 66.7% (n=6) responded that they were likely to a ccept an elementary music position teaching beginner strings. Eighty eight percent (n=8) stated that they would accept a teaching position that was primarily band, w hich included one string course, as well as accepting a high school band teaching position that included conducting a full sy mphony orchestra. Lastly, t hree out of the nine participants stated that they completed a field experience in strings while enrolle d in their course. Table 3 7 presents the results to the self efficacy items in which the participant s stated what they believed were their strengths and weaknesses as abilities for teaching strings Table 3 7 Results of t he Test Pilot Data for Teacher Efficacy

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Selection of Research Participants This research was conducted using participants from music. One criterion for participants was that hools of music enrollment exceed 150 undergraduate music education majors in instrumental or general mus ic. According to NASM, there were 16 universities that met this criterion during the 2012 2013 academic school year. However, 13 schools accepted the in vitation to participate in this study. The participating universities were located in : Midwest (1), Southwest (8), Northeast (3), and Southeast (1) regions of the United States This information for enrollment rates was obtained from NASM, and used to veri fy that particular music education programs met the requirements for the study. In addition, t he researcher obtained approval from the University of Florida Institutional Revie w Board (See Appendix A) In order to establish initial contact with each string methods instructor, a cover letter was sent through electronic mail that explained the purpose of the study and indicated that information from the survey would be only used for educational purposes. In addition, the letter stated that the identity of partic ipants would remain anonymous, and the findings will be reported as aggregate only S tudents who responded to the survey consisted of pre service teachers who are currently enrolled in music educat ion progr ams. All participants (sophomore, junior, and senior) were non string players whose primary instrument are voice, brass, piano, woodwind, or p ercussion. Data from the preliminary research and pilot, an estimate of 10 20 participants per school wer e included in this study The students were notified through email that they had been chosen to participate and asked to complete an online survey. Notification emails were sent through SurveyMonkey and or

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string methods i nstructor. Comp letion of the survey approximately took 15 20 min utes ( S ee Appendix C) Treatment of Data The quantitative data were collected using SurveyMonk ey.com. Data from the survey were imported into SPSS statistical software (Version 20.0) .The quantitative surv ey responses of each participant were analyzed for descriptive statistics; and the responses from the quantifiable survey data were tallied. A Tukey test was used to determine if the mean scores of the students with strin g field experience there significa ntly different than students who did not have the string field experience. In addition, participants were compared by grade level, major, and number of strin g method courses. D ifferences were analyzed with a one way ANOVA and a po st hoc Tukey test

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS One hundred twenty eight respondents drawn from 13 universitie s within the United States participated in this survey Section A of the survey contained three introduct (1) colle ge grade level, (2) music education specialty areas, and (3) number of complete string methods courses The majority 91.3% (n= 117) of respondents were upper level undergraduate students who had completed one st ring methods course Seventy three percent (n= 93) of respondent s reported band as their area of specialty in music education All respondents attend institutions in which Music K 12 certification standards are met (see Tables 4 1, 4 2, and 4 3). Table 4 1 Status in Music Education Program for the 2012 2013 Academic Year Table 4 2 Specialty Area in Music Education Table 4 3 Competed Courses in String Methods

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Attitudes Towards Teaching Strings in a Public School Setting N ine survey items were apportioned for attitudes and beliefs toward teaching strings in the public schools. R espondents were asked to indicate their attitudes toward teaching string respondents in various settings from elementar y to high school that involves teaching different student playing abilities (see Table 4 4). Table 4 4 Attitudes Towards Teaching Strings on Various Playing Levels Fifty two percent of the respondents stated that they would accept an elementary school pos ition teaching novice students rather than teaching intermediate and

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advanced students in secondary school. Further examination revealed that the respondents were also more likely to accept a middle school string teaching position over teaching o n the high school level. In addition respondents were likely to accept a band position that includes only teaching one strings course. Yet, participants reported that teaching all level s of string playing was unlikely For deeper understanding, analyses of variance (ANOVA) w ere applied for sur vey items related to attitudes. There was no significant difference among beliefs on becoming a public school strings teacher after completing a string methods course To determine whether significant differences were present, the differences of the means of attitudes for three categories of special area of study were calculated One way ANOVA test was used to compare group differences, and an additional Tukey test was used to confirm each pair of the three groups. As is show n in the Table 4 5, there was significant difference s at the 0.05 level between groups of special ization area (band, general music, and choral) on attitudes toward becoming a public school strings teacher after completing a string methods course ( F = 3.886, p = .023). Result s of the Tukey test indicate that the non string playin g, pre service teachers specializing in general music have significantly more positive attitudes than those specializing in band. In Table 4 6, the means of att itudes toward becoming a public school string teacher after completing a string methods course among college grade levels were compared There was no significant differences ( F = 1.460, p = .236).

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Table 4 5 Mean Differences of Attitudes among Special Area s of Study Table 4 6 Mean Differences of Attitudes A mong Sophomores, Juniors, and S eniors Non String Playing, Pre S ervice Teachers

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In Table 4 7, th e results indicate that there was a significant difference at the 0.05 level between the numbers of completed courses on attitudes towards becoming a public school strings teacher after completing a string methods course ( F = 10.756 p = .0 00 ). Result s of the Tukey test show that the respondents who completed two course s of string method s or skills had significantly mo re positive attitudes. In addition, respondents who completed three courses have significantly more positive attitudes than those who only completed one string methods course. Table 4 7. Mean Differences of Attitudes Amon g Number of String Method C ourses C ompleted Attitudes and Beliefs Towards Accepting a Strings Teacher Position T hree survey items related to accepting band t eaching position, the number of string courses that participants took The data is presented among the three groups of non strin g playing, pre service teachers by college grade level, specialty area in music education, and number of s tring methods courses completed (see Table 4 8 )

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Table 4 8 Job Acceptance in Varied S et tings including Strings More t han 76% o f respondents felt highly likely or likely prepared to teach string classes that are exclusi vely beginner level strings in an elementary school setting. Similar willingness was reported for teaching strings to intermediate students in middle school. However 56% of respondents feel uncert a in to highly unlikely to teach all playing levels beginner, intermediate and advanced string students in a high school setting. In addition, 72 % of r espondents were highly likely or likely to accepting a high school position directing band and full orchest ra. A o ne way ANOVA test was used to test group differences, and additional Tukey test was run in order to con firm each pair of three groups (see Tables 4 9 through 4 11 ).

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Table 4 9 Mean Differences of Job Acceptance A mong Different Specialized Area s in Music Education Band, Choral, and General Music Table 4 9 indicate that there w ere significant difference s at the 0.05 level between groups of special area of study on job acceptance ( F = 5 044 p = 008 ). The results of the Tukey test revealed that pre service teac hers who specialize in band have significantly more positive attitudes for accepting job position to teach string than the those specializing in choral music education Table 4 10 presents the results of the m ean differences in relation to job acceptance in string teaching among three college grade level s The results indicated no significant differences ( F = .433, p = .649). As shown in the Table 4 11 there was a significant difference at the 0.05 level between the number of string method courses completed on job acceptance to teach string ( F = 4.375 p = .0 15 ). Result of the Tukey test showed that the respondents who completed two course s of string method or skills have significantly mo re positive

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attitudes to ward accept ing a job position to teach string than the respondents who completed one course. However respondents who completed three courses were not significantly different from the respondents who completed two courses in terms of accepting job position to teach string. Table 4 1 0 Mean Differences of Attitudes among Sophomore, Junior, and Senior Non S tring Playing, Pre service Teachers Table 4 11 Mean Differences of Attitudes among Number of String Method Courses Completed

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Self Efficacy in String Teaching Participants responded to survey items regarding their perceived string teaching ability in relation to their level of self efficacy In total the teacher efficacy questions were comprised of 12 items. Through statistical analysis, the n ull hypothesis was accepted. T hus there was no significant relationship among their degree of self efficacy in becoming a string te acher after completing a stri ng method s course. T he results indicate how the participants evaluated their string teaching abilities after taking a string method s co urse. Table 4 12 examined self efficacy levels in relation to the typical course objectives included in a string methods course. The respondents reported their level of efficacy in teaching strings by rating the objectives as a respective strength or weakness Table 4 12 Strengths and Weaknesses Regar ding String Teaching Ability

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Table 4 13 Self Efficacy Questions Of Non String Playing, Pre Service Teacher Regarding String Teaching Ability

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Field Experiences in String Teaching A restatement of the third research question what is the relationship between those who partic ipate in an orchestra teaching field experience while taking string methods a nd those who do not have field experience while taking a string methods course? Out o f (N =128) respondents only six stated that a field experience in strings was a part of the requirements in their string methods course. Due to the small survey size, the results did not reveal any significance, thus the null hypothesis was accepted (see Table 4 14) Levels of preparedness for teaching strings were high sixty seven percent of respondents believed that they were prepared for their field experience and tha t they understood the job description and responsibilities o f a strings teacher. However, 3 3.3% of respondents reported that they were uncertain that they would need addit ional training in order to teach strings in a public school setting after graduation

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Table 4 14 Results of the Levels of Preparedness of Non string Playing, Pre S ervice Teachers Who C ompleted a Field Experience in Strings

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CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of this research was to investigate the attitudes and beliefs of non string playing, pre service teachers regar ding string methods courses, as well as their outlook on potentially acc epting a strings position after graduation. Summary This study was inspired from previous research on the attitudes of non string playing, pre service teachers toward teaching strings. Due to the need for more orchestra teachers in the public schools the re was a need to examine undergraduate music education level of string teaching ability as well as their willingness to teach on secondary instruments This research examined how music education majors perceive the importance of string edu cation and their level of preparation to teach strings that was obtained in their plan of study. By collecting preliminary data from several string methods courses and conducting interviews with string method instructors, a list of typical course objecti ves was created as guidelines that most non string players required to complete in the string education for Music K 12 certification. The string method s course objectives were converted into survey items that were used to measure attitudes and beliefs among band, general music, and choral per service teachers. music with enrollment status exceeding 150 undergraduate music education students were selected to participate in survey regardi ng string education called the Survey of String Method s Courses for Non String Playing, Pre Service Music Education Major s All participants were non string playing, pre service teacher s who had completed the string education courses required within their plan of study

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The online questionnaire was distributed on SurveyMonkey and consisted of 29 items, in which three introductory items were used to gather demographic information for comparison purposes. The demographic characteristics of participants focus ed music education maj ors by college grade level ( sophomores, juniors, and seniors ) who had a number of string methods courses completed (one to three), and their s pecialty in music education( choral, band, or general music ) The participants were asked qu estions regarding their attitudes and beliefs concerning the importance of string education i n their plan of study, likelihood of teaching orchestra after graduation, and their preparedness to teach strings on various level s of student playing ability. The participants were also asked teacher efficacy questions intended to evaluate their particular areas or strength and weakness in string teaching. In addition, the participants were also asked question regarding completing a field study in strings while en rolled in their string method course. For all three research questions, a series of one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests were used to calculate differences among specialization areas An alpha level of p< .05 was used to accept or reject th e null hypothesis. Conclusions Conclusion Research Question 1 What are the beliefs among non string playin g, pre service teachers' on becoming a public school strings te acher after completing a string method s or string skills course? The results indicate that there were significant differences at the 0.05 level between groups of specialization area ( F = 3.886, p = .023). T he Tukey test indicated that the non string playing, pre service teachers specializing in general music had significantly more positive attitudes than the respondents specializing in band. In

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addition, 75% of respondents felt string met hods courses were highly vital to vital pa rt in their music education plan of study. Forty six percent of respondents were also unlikely to highl y unlikely willing relocate to avoid teaching strings. These findings show a more positive attitude towards teaching strings than previous studies on non stri ng playing pre service teachers. Respondents w ere asked to rate their willingness with rega rd to accepting various instrumental teaching settings which include d teaching strings as well Sixty percent reported high levels of prepared ness to teach string classes that are exclusi ve ly beginner level strings at the elementary school level Similar likelihood was reported for teaching strings to intermediate students in middle school. However almost 80% of respondents feel uncertain to highly unlikely to teach beginner, intermediate and advanced string students in a high school setting. Additional findings indicate that there are significant difference s in job acceptance ( F = 5 044 p = 008 ). Results from the Tukey test revealed that pre service teachers who specialize in band have significantly more positive attitudes for accepting job position t o teach stri ng than those specializing in choral music. Therefore, pre service teachers who have previous experiences in playing musical instruments seem more willing to learn additional instruments such as strings, than those who primary instrument is the ir voice. This finding also show s that there is a significant difference between the number of string method courses completed on job acceptance to teach string ( F = 4.375 p = .0 15 ). Result of the Tukey test indicate that the respondents who completed t wo courses of string methods have significantly mo re positive attitudes on accepting a job position to teach strings than the respondents who completed one string

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metho ds course. Participants with more string education training attribute to this finding; t h us those pre service teachers are becoming m ore knowledgeable on string pedagogies appear to be more prepared to teach strings i n a public school setting. Conclusions: Research Question 2. What are the changes among non string playing, pre service teachers' self efficacy compared by ( college grade level, special area of study, and number of string method courses completed ) after completing a string methods course? Participants responded to 12 survey items regarding their perceived string teaching ability in relation to their level of efficacy. The n ull hypothesis was accepted. T hus there was no significant relationship among their degree of self efficacy in becoming a string teacher after completing a string method s course However, the results indicate how respondents evaluated their abilities to play string instruments, as well as teaching strings. The findings indicated that 72% of respondents perceived demonstrating on any string inst rument as a weakness. In addition, 61% believed selecting suitable literature for a string ensemble was a weakness as well. Respondents reported areas of strength in string teaching in conducting, piano accompaniment, and diagnosing and remediating probl e playing Respondents responded to survey items regarding the qualities a teacher should possess in order to be a successful orchestra teache r. Some of the results appear to be in reflection to the findings on particular weaknesses in respo Ninety percent of respondents expressed positive beliefs that having rehearsal techniques for a string ensemble was a needed teaching abilit y. Results show that 56.4

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% of respondents were uncertain to strongly disagree t hat advanced playing ability is not a musical skill needed in order to successfully teach strings as a non string player. However, 58% viewed sight reading on strings as a need ed ability. Items that indicate similar findings above 80% were shown in possess ing knowledge of pedagogies in upper and lower string instruments. The major limitation of this question was the relatively small sample size. Less than 6% of respondents reported having a field experience as part of the requirements for their string methods course. The findings did not show any significant differences among pre service teachers who completed a field study and those who did not. Results also va ried in the amount of hours completed in their field experience. Forty three percent completed 1 3 hours, 29% completed 4 7 hours, and 14% completed 8 11 hours, and 14% of completed 12 15 hours. High degrees of preparedne ss were reported as 67% for teachin g strings. Similar finding s were indicated in having the understanding of the job description and duties as a string teacher as a level of preparedness for their field experience. Yet 50% of the respondents believed they will need for additional training in strings in order to teach in a public school setting. Theoretical Implications This study has implications in th e experiential learning t heory in that it explored how string methods courses facilitate pre utilizi process of learning by doing is

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executed through the course objectives and course activities such as teaching demonstrating learning to play stringed instruments, and field experiences. Pre service teach they are learning by conducting the string methods class orchestra and by playing as an ensemble Within most undergraduate music education programs, pre service teachers participate in a student teaching pract icum which then allows them to demons trate their teaching abilities obtained throughout their plan of study. This study adds to the theoretical b ase by providing evidence that e xperiential learning is foundational in the curriculum of undergraduate music education programs students are provided with additional preparation for future teaching. These experiences allow pre service teachers to develop compet encies for job pre paredness. In addition, these experience help facilitate understandings of the responsibilities for a public school music educator, as well as a becoming a competent musician. Discussion and Potential Implications for Music Education Within t he sample, 47.1 % of non string, playing pre service teachers do not have the desire to sole ly teach strings to all levels, even though all of the participants will obtain a state teaching certification which states that they are qualified to do so. Thus, there is a need for further investigation into how string method instructors should prepare the students for the reality of career choices in music teaching. It is possible that all music will become a string instructor in the future due to the nature of career choi ces in music teaching. In addition, there is a need to further explore instructors of string methods courses in order to ensure that pre service students are being taught by

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highly qualified string pedagogues who have past experiences teaching in a music K 12 public school environment. F urther study of pre service music education majors should explore their beliefs about teaching on secondary instruments. Additional r equirements in secondary instruments may help pre service teachers become more prepare d for teaching in the public schools. In addition, all music education m ajors should complete a field experience while enrolled in instrument understanding of the duties and responsibilities associated with being a public school music teacher. Method courses should include course objective that allow pre service teachers the opportunity to teach students on the elementary, middle, and high school level students. This requirement may also help students to fee l more competent to teach music in varied specialty areas in music. Sixty four percent of respondents stated that they are only required to take one string method s course It can be assumed within this sample that method s courses in brass, woodwinds percussion, and voice may also include one semester of study as well. The result s of this study indicate d that pre service teachers who had completed more than string methods course had a more positive attitude toward teaching strings. There is a need fo r more method courses within the curriculum; in addition, t here is a need for further examination on how amount of instrumental method s courses affects prepare dness to successfully teach in various specialty areas. Recommendations for Future Res earch

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1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

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APPENDIX A UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD 02 APPROVAL DOCUMENTS

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APPENDI X B

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Table B 1. interview response

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APPENDI X C SURVEY OF STRING METHOD COURSES FOR NON STRING PLAYING, PRE SERVICE MUSIC EDUCATION MAJORS Survey Questions Section A Introductory Questions: Please check what best identifies you in your music program A What is your status in your music education program? 1 2 3 4 Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior B What is your specialty area of study? 1 2 3 Band Chorus General Music C How many strings method OR string skills courses have you completed? 1 2 3 One Two Three Directions: Please check the answer that best rates your attitude and or belief regarding your experiences from the strings method OR string skills course completed at your university. 1 Do you feel that string method courses are a vital course in your plan of study as a music education major? 1 2 3 4 5 very vital uncertain unnecessary very unnecessary vital 2 If the only music teacher position unfilled were at a typical elementary school teaching strings to beginner students, would you accept the position? 1 2 3 4 5

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Highly likely likely uncertain unlikely highly unlikely 3 If the only music teacher position unfilled were at a typical middle school teaching strings to beginners or intermediate students, would you accept the position? 1 2 3 4 5 highly likely uncertain unlikely highly unlikely likely 4 If the only music teacher position unfilled were at a typical high school teaching strings to all levels (beginners, intermediate, and advanced), would you accept the position? 1 2 3 4 5 highly likely uncertain unlikely highly unlikely likely 5 Would you relocate to avoid teaching strings? 1 2 3 4 5 highly likely uncertain unlikely highly unlikely likely 6 Overall, do you feel more prepared to teach beginning strings after completing your str ings method OR string skills course? 1 2 3 4 5 highly likely uncertain unlikely highly unlikely likely Section B 7 Did your strings method OR string skills course require you to complete a field experience? 1. Yes (continue to question # 8) 2. No (skip to section C) 8 How many hours have you completed in your field experience? 1 2 3 4 5 1 3 4 7 8 11 12 15 16 hrs +

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9 Do you feel more prepared to teach strings after completing your field experience? 1 2 3 4 5 highly prepared uncertain unprepared highly prepared unprepared 10 Do you feel you will need additional training in string playing to teach strings in a public school setting after completion of your field experience? 1 2 3 4 5 Highly likely likely uncertain un likely highly unlikely 11 How well did your field experience prepare you in understanding what responsibilities? 1 2 3 4 5 highly prepared uncertain unprepared highly prepared unprepared Section C 12 Would you accept a teaching position that was primarily band, but included one strings class? 1 2 3 4 5 highly likely uncertain unlikely highly unlikely likely 13 Would you accept a teaching position that primarily consisted of you teaching beginne r and intermediate strings? 1 2 3 4 5 highly likely uncertain unlikely highly unlikely likely 14 Would you accept a high school band teaching position that included conducting rehearsals for full symphony orchestra? 1 2 3 4 5 highly likely uncertain unlikely highly unlikely likely

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Section D Please check what best identifies your abilities for teaching strings as a strength or weakness. 15 Demonstrating on any stringed instrument 1 2 Strength Weakness 16 17 18 19 20 21 Selecting suitable literature for the string ensemble 1 2 Strength Weakness ability 1 2 Strength Weakness Conducting a s tring ensemble 1 2 Strength Weakness Providing rudimental piano accompaniment for beginners or intermediate strings 1 2 Strength Weakness Demonstrating on upper strings (violin and viola) 1 2 Strength Weakness Demonstrating on lower strings (cello or string bass) 1 2 Strength Weakness

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Section E Directions: Please check the answer that best rates the following qualities a non string player should possess in order to successfully teach strings in a public school setting. 22 Advanced string playing ability 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly disagree disagree uncertain agree strongly agree 23 Sight reading on a stringed instrument 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree uncertain agree strongly agree disagree 24 Rehearsal techniques for a string ensemble 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree uncertain agree strongly agree disagree 25 Knowledge of pedagogies for upper strings (violin and viol a) 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree uncertain agree strongly agree disagree 26 Knowledge of pedagogies for lower strings (violoncello or double bass) 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree uncertain agree strongly agree disagree

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APPENDI X D STRINGS METHOD COURSE INSTRUCTOR PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW REQUEST LETTER Adrianna Andrews Marshall

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A PPENDI X E PERMISSION REQUEST LETTER FOR USE OF SURVEY Adrianna Andrews Marshall

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Research Perspectives in Music Education

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APPENDI X F INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION SOUTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY #1

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APPENDI X G INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION MIDWESTERN UNIVERSITY #2

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APPENDI X H INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION SOUTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY #3

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APPENDI X I INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION MIDWESTERN UNIVERSITY #4

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APPENDI X J INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION SOUTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY #5

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APPENDI X K INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION SOUTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY #6

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APPENDI X L INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION MIDWESTERN UNIVERSITY #7

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LIST OF REFERENCES

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH As of writing this, Adrianna Andrews Marshall is a dissertation fellow/ professor at Western Illinois University in Mac omb, Illinois, where she teaches undergraduate music education courses. Adrianna is a violist, originally from Kansas City, Mis souri. She received a Bachelor of Science degree in music liberal arts and min ored in business administration from Xavier University of Louisiana in 2003. She was also an orchestra teacher in the New Orleans Public Schools, as well as a music theory tutor for the N ew Orleans String Project. Adrianna established The Andrews String Studio in New Orleans, Louisiana to provide supplementary string instruction to public/private school students K 12, home schooled children, and adult students. She is a trained Suzuki viol in teacher registered with the Suzuki Association of the Americas. From 2006 2007, Adrianna continued her post baccalaureate music education studies at the University of New Orleans and at the University of Mis souri Kansas City. In 2009, Adrianna complet ed her Master of Music degree in music education at the Peabody Conservatory o f Johns Hopkins University. Her Instruction: Benjamin Franklin High School 1957 2009 completing her coursework, Adrianna tau ght strings and general music at Saint Michael Episcopal Church in Baltimore, Maryland. During her doctoral studies at the University of Florida, she created a curri culum opera department community outreach program She served as the Graduate Student Council representative for the school of music, and taught several undergraduate courses in music education including; String

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Skills I, Strings Skills II, Elementary Music for the Classroom Teacher, and Strings C lass Teaching.