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Imagery Processing and Incidental Feelings

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045304/00001

Material Information

Title: Imagery Processing and Incidental Feelings An Investigation of Sport Tourists Decision Making Process During Planning Stage
Physical Description: 1 online resource (104 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Wang, Tzushuo
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: emotion -- imagery -- processing -- sport -- tourism
Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study examined how decision makers’ use of imageryprocessing and unrelated incidental feelings can affect potential sport tourists’travel decisions. Five research hypotheses were developed after a review ofliterature on imagery processing, human affect, and travel-related studies.More precisely, the effects of prospective tourists’ reliance on imageryprocessing on their evaluation of advertised travel destinations were directlycompared in study 1. In addition, study 2 and study 2(a) examined the biasedeffect of individuals’ preexisting affective state on potential tourists’travel decisions. Additional mediation analyses were conducted to test the underlyingprocess through which incidental feelings impact travel decisions. Resultssuggest that the biased travel decision caused by potential tourists’incidental feelings is mediated by the vividness of consumption vision.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Tzushuo Wang.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Kaplanidou, Kyriaki.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2015-05-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045304:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045304/00001

Material Information

Title: Imagery Processing and Incidental Feelings An Investigation of Sport Tourists Decision Making Process During Planning Stage
Physical Description: 1 online resource (104 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Wang, Tzushuo
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: emotion -- imagery -- processing -- sport -- tourism
Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study examined how decision makers’ use of imageryprocessing and unrelated incidental feelings can affect potential sport tourists’travel decisions. Five research hypotheses were developed after a review ofliterature on imagery processing, human affect, and travel-related studies.More precisely, the effects of prospective tourists’ reliance on imageryprocessing on their evaluation of advertised travel destinations were directlycompared in study 1. In addition, study 2 and study 2(a) examined the biasedeffect of individuals’ preexisting affective state on potential tourists’travel decisions. Additional mediation analyses were conducted to test the underlyingprocess through which incidental feelings impact travel decisions. Resultssuggest that the biased travel decision caused by potential tourists’incidental feelings is mediated by the vividness of consumption vision.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Tzushuo Wang.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Kaplanidou, Kyriaki.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2015-05-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045304:00001


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1 I MAGERY PROCESSING AND INCIDENTAL FEELINGS : AN INVESTIGATION OF SPORT TOURIST S DECISION MAKING DURING PLANNING STAGE By TZUSHUO WANG A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 2013 TzuShuo Wang

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3 To my family

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I first want to thank my parents for the endless suppo rt throughout the time pursuing my doctoral degree in sport management in the United States. I love you Mom and Dad. I also want to show my deepest appreciation to Dr. Kaplanidou, who took me on and became my academic adviser during the third year of my do ctoral study when my previous advis o r left the University of Florida. In addition, I want to thank all my committee members and peers for your support. I really appreciate all the inputs and suggestions provided by my current and previous committee members including Drs. Kyriaki Kaplanidou, Alan Cooke, Michael Sagas, Heather Gibson, and Shannon Kerwin. I especially want to thank Dr. Cooke, my external committee member from the Department of Marketing, for his assist in designing my experiments. I also need to acknowledge the Bill Sims Doctoral Research Funding granted by the Eric Friedheim Tourism Institute, which provide d a great financial resource for my dissertation data collection. Lastly, I want to thank Sophia for her care, love, and patience.

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5 TABL E OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 LIST OF OBJECTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 10 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 11 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 13 Worldwide Travel and Tourism ................................ ................................ ............... 13 Sport Related Travel and Tourism ................................ ................................ .......... 14 Current Research on Consumer Behavior in Sport Tourism ................................ ... 15 Statement of Problem 1 Confusion between Image and Imagery Processing ..... 17 Statement of P roblem 2 Biased Travel Decision Making Caused by Incidental Feelings ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 20 Structure of Dissertation ................................ ................................ ......................... 22 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ................................ ................................ .............. 23 Destination Image ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 23 Imagery Processing ................................ ................................ ................................ 25 Benefits of Using I magery Processing ................................ .............................. 27 Increased behavioral intention and actual behavior ................................ ... 27 Improved product evaluation ................................ ................................ ...... 28 Likelihood of positive bias ................................ ................................ .......... 28 Effect of Imagery Processing on Travel Decision ................................ ............. 29 Impa ct of Emotion ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 30 Biased Travel Decisions Caused by Emotion and Imagery Processing ........... 32 The Underlying Process in Which Incidental Feelings Can Bias Travel Decisions ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 35 3 METHOD ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 42 Study 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 42 Par ticipants and Design ................................ ................................ ................... 42 Stimuli ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 42 Manipulation of Information Processing ................................ ............................ 43

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6 Procedure ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 43 Measurement ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 44 Study 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 44 Participants and Design ................................ ................................ ................... 44 Stimuli ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 45 Measures ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 45 Procedure and Manipulation ................................ ................................ ............. 46 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 50 Study 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 50 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 50 Manipulation Checks of Processing Style ................................ ......................... 50 Hypothesis 1a and 1b ................................ ................................ ....................... 51 Default Processin g Mode ................................ ................................ ................. 52 Study 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 54 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 54 Manipulation Checks ................................ ................................ ........................ 54 Potential Causes of Ineffective Manipulations ................................ .................. 55 Study 2(a) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 55 Proce dure ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 56 Manipulation Check ................................ ................................ .......................... 56 Feelings of excitement and peace ................................ ............................. 57 Information processing ................................ ................................ ............... 57 Hypothesis Testing ................................ ................................ ........................... 58 Matching emotion and attitudes ................................ ................................ 58 Matching emotion and visiting intention ................................ ..................... 59 Matching Emotions and Vividness ................................ ................................ .... 61 Quality ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 61 Completeness ................................ ................................ ............................ 61 Mediation Effect of Vividness Completeness ................................ ................. 63 Matching emotion Peace and hot spring resort ................................ ....... 63 Mismatching emotion Excitement and hot spring resort .......................... 64 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 73 Theoretical Contributions ................................ ................................ ........................ 73 Information Processing Mode and Destination Marketing ................................ 75 I magery Processing and Emotion ................................ ................................ ..... 75 Mediation Effect of Vividness/Completeness in Imagery Processing ............... 77 Differences from the feelin g belief evaluation mode ................................ .. 78 do I feel about ............................. 79 Managerial Contributions ................................ ................................ ........................ 80 .......................... 80 Improving Vividness of Consumption Vision ................................ ..................... 82 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 84 Future Research Directions ................................ ................................ .................... 85

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7 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 87 APPENDIX A MANIPULATIONS FOR INFORMATION PROCESSING STYLES ........................ 89 B STUDY 1 STIMULI ................................ ................................ ................................ 90 C STUDY 2 STIMULI ................................ ................................ ................................ 93 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 95 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 104

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Summary of Research Hypotheses ................................ ................................ .... 40 3 1 Summary of Measurement Items Used in Study 1 ................................ ............. 48 3 2 Summary of Measurement Items Used in Study 2 ................................ ............. 49 4 1 Descriptive Statistics for Study 1 ................................ ................................ ........ 66 4 2 Six steps used to of their attitude and visiting intention towards the two Canadian resorts. ........... 66

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Illustration of the hypothesized mediation effect of vividness on the ................................ ............... 41 4 1 Results of H1a and H1b ................................ ................................ ..................... 67 4 2 Comparisons among control, imagery, and analytical condition ......................... 67 4 3 Results of H2a and H3a showing a significant two way interaction effect matching emotions on their visiting intention. ................................ ..................... 68 4 4 Results of H2b and H3b showing a significant two way interaction effect matc hing emotions on their attitude ................................ ................................ ... 69 4 5 imagined future trip to the Canadian Ski Resort following the proposition network illustrated by Lang (1977). ................................ ................................ ..... 70 4 6 Results of H4 showing a significant two way interaction effect between feelings and travel destinations on the vividness/completeness ................................ ................................ .......... 71 4 7 In the figure, b denotes the standardized indirect effects of (mis)matching emotion on attitude and visiting intention through the completeness of mental imagery.. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 72

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10 LIST OF OBJECTS Object page 3 1 Computer based experiment of study 1 ................................ .............................. 49 4 1 Computer based experiment of study 2(a) ................................ ......................... 66

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11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ANOVA Analysis of Variance MANOVA Multivariate Analysis of Variance SD Standard Deviation SOP The Style of Processing Scale developed by Childers, Houston, in formation in a visual or verbal fashion

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12 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy IMAGERY PROCESSING AND IN CIDENTAL FEELINGS : AN INVESTIGATION OF SPORT TOURISTS DECISION MAKING DURING PLANNING STAGE By TzuShuo Wang M ay 2013 Chair: Kyriaki Kaplanidou Major: Health and Human Performance This study examine d un related incidental feelings can affect potential sport research hypotheses we re developed after a review of literature on imagery processing, human affect, and travel related studies. More precisely, the effect s of prospect ive imagery processing on their evaluation of advertised travel destinations were directly compared in study 1. In addition, study 2 and study 2(a) examine d travel decisions. Additional mediation analyses we re conducted to test the underlying process through which incidental feelings impact travel decision s Results suggest that gs is mediated by the vividness of consumption vision.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Worldwide Travel and Tourism ravel & Tourism Council, 2012 b ). Travel and tourism have become an important part of modern lifestyles as exem plified by the increasing number of international and domestic tourists. For instance, according to the United Nations World Tourism Organization ( UN WTO), there were 940 million tourists traveled internationally in the year 2010. The total number of international travelers grew by 43 million people reaching 983 million in 2011 ( United Nations W orld Tourism Organization, 2012 ). Global travel and t our ism continuously exhibits a promising future; that is, the numbers of tourists who travel internationally was projected to increase at a rate of 43 million people per year between 2010 and 2030 ( United Nations World Tourism Organization, 2011). Owing to th e heightened interests and great popularity, travel and tourism have become profitable industr ies that ha ve the potential to create significant economic impacts around the globe. The economic impacts generated by the travel and tourism industry can largely contribute to several primary and direct economic activities, such as In addition to these direct economic impacts, travel and tourism can also create various indirect econom ic values including public and private investments and employment opportunities. Moreover travel and tourism could also generate induced economic impacts, including local expenditures on food, beverages, other household related necessities, and personall y desired products by employees who work directly and

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14 indirectly for the travel industry (Heng & Low, 1990; Kurtzman, Upper, & Charumbarum, 1994; C. Lee & Taylor, 2005). In 2011, it was reported that worldwide travel and tourism generated $6.3 trillion U.S dollar worth of economic activities, which roughly equaled to 9% of the global gross domestic product (GDP) (World Travel & Tourism Council, 2012b). The economic contribution to the global GDP made by travel and tourism has surpassed several long establi shed traditional industries, such as automobile manufacturing and mining (World Travel & Tourism Council, 2012a). Travel and tourism now have become one of the global leading employers that accounted for 8.7% of the workforce worldwide. More than 98 millio n of individuals were directly hired by the travel and tourism industry in 2011, and the total number of employees was projected to exceed 120 million by the year 2012 (World Travel & Tourism Council, 2012b). Sport Related Travel and Tourism Over the pa st few years, sport related travel ha s gradually been recognized as a crucial revenue source for the global travel and tourism industry (Research Unit Sports Tourism International Council, 1994; Ritchie & Adair, 2010). Sport tourism is defined as based travel that takes individuals temporarily outside of their home communities to participate in physical activities, to watch physical activities, or to venerate attractions associated with phy p. 49). Sport tourism coul d be classified into three primary groups: 1) event sport tourism, 2) active sport tourism, and 3) nostalgia sport tour ) definition. Many continents of the world are now sharing this growing trend for tourists to partake in s port related activities either actively or passively during their trips. For example, holidays taken by Europeans have become more sport oriented due to the growing emphasis on health and quality of life ( United Nations World Tourism Organization,

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15 2001) A ccording to the World Travel Monitor commissioned by the ITB Berlin, the 9 million holidays taken by Europeans recently were sport related holidays with hiking (38%), cycling (23%), and motor sports (14%) being the top th ree most popular activities (ITB Berlin, 2011). Addi tionally, in North America, Canadian sport tourism generated $3.6 billion dollars of spending in 2011 according to a recent survey commissioned by the Canadian Sport Tourism Alliance ( 2012). The growing p opularity of sport tourism could also be seen in passive sport tourism as demonstrated by the increasing number of tourists who are now traveling to spectate in various sporting events, such as the Olympic Games and the World Cup Soccer. With regard to the World Cup Soccer the 2010 FIFA World Cup, South Africa attracted more than 8 million visitors in 2010 a 15% increase compared to 2009 (South Africa Tourism, n.d.). Moreover, about 680,000 international travelers visited the United Kingdom due to the 2 012 London Olympics and Paralympics between July and September 2012 ( Office for National Statistics, 2012 ). Current Research on Consumer Behavior in Sport Tourism Since the mid 1990s, sport tourism has been receiving growing interest from practitioners as well as academics due to its impacts on various economic and social aspects that could be brought to travel destinations (Gibson, 2005; Ritchie & Adair, 20 02 ). Different theoretical accounts and constructs have been proposed to understand consumers and to develop effective managerial and marketing strategies for the three types of sport tourism. For example, Kaplanidou and Gibson (20 12 ), based on the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), surveyed 370 parents of junior female soccer players an image on their subjective beliefs in social norms with regard to attending sporting

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16 events. These subjectively perceived social norms could subsequently shape parents intentions to visit simil ar sport events in the future. The second common method to study sport tourists behavior relates to the concept of push and pull factors (Yu, 2010). People usually travel for two reasons push and pull factors. To be more precise, according to Yoon and Uy due to their internal needs and desires, such as the needs for escape from daily routines or mental and physical relaxation. On the other hand, individuals sometimes to a particular travel destination by its features and attractions (e.g., resorts and natural scenes). Another stream of research relies on push factors (i.e., fan motives and travel motives) to study tourists who travel to actively participate in (e.g., G illett & Kelly, 2006; Nogawa, Yamaguchi, & Hagi, 1996) and/or to passively spectate sporting events (e.g., N. Kim & Chalip, 2004). Additional include, among other destination sites and socio demographic background of travelers (e.g., Filo, Chen, King, & Funk, 2011; N. Kim & Chalip, 2004; C. Lee, Lee, & Lee, 2005) Recently, many scholars have approached tourism related studies from the viewpoint of destination and event image. According to Chen and Hsu (2000) and Gartner (1993), destination images are considered as the pull factors; that is, factors related to destinations that can draw or pull potential tourists to visit. More precisely, d destination (Fakeye & Crompton, 1991; Kaplanidou, 2010; Kaplanidou & Gibson, 2012; C. Lee et al., 2005) and is usually composed of many att ributes uniquely or commonly

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17 associated to certain destinations (Echtner & Ritchie, 1993). These attributes could refer to the cognitive domain, such as infrastructure, cultural attractions, historical remains, and people, as well as various affective feat ures, including excitement and friendliness (e.g., Gibson, Qi, & Zhang, 2008; Kaplanidou & Vogt, 2007; Kim & Yoon, 2003). In addition to the cognitive and affective components, destination image also contains ntention to visit or revisit a place (Gartner, 1996). The concept of image has also been applied to event sport tourism. As suggested by Kaplanidou and Gibson (2012), t he structure of event image is similar to the structure of destination image because sp ort events can be considered as local attractions for tourism destinations. Accordingly, sport tourists are presumably able to develop an overall event image pertaining to the cognitive, affective, and conative aspects of sport events (Kaplanidou, 2010; Ka planidou & Gibson, 2012). Both destination and event image s have been found to serve as influential antecedents of various tourists behaviors, such as attitude, (re)visiting intentions, and willingness to engage in word of mouth behavior (e.g., Baloglu, 19 99; Gibson et al., 2008; Ka planidou & Gibson, 2012; C. Lee et al., 2005). Statement of Problem 1 Confusion between Image and Imagery Processing Despite the rising emphasis on using destination and event image to study sport tourism, there still are issue s related to the conceptualization of destination and event image. Fir st of all, according to Echtner and Ritchie ( 200 3), it is important to distinguish the difference between concept ualizing image as stored information and beliefs (Fakeye & Crompton, 1991 ) and as a style of information processing (e.g., MacInnis, 1987; MacInnis & Price, 1987)

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18 person that may or perceptions and impressions of a destination/sport event (Fakeye & Crompton, 1991; Hallmann, Ka planidou, & Breuer, 2010; Kaplanidou, 2010; Kaplanidou & Gibson, 2012; C. Lee et al., 2005). According to Echtner and Ritchie ( 1993; 2003 ), a destination image could range from attribute based image regarding individual characteristics of destinations (e. g., atmosphere, climate, security, cleanness, and comfortableness of destinations) to a more holistic destination image. The el aboration of destination image can potentially be determined by the use of two different styles of information processing. To be more precise, tourists could adopt two modes of information processing to perceive destination information. The first mode of information processing is analytical processing that help s tourists develop destination image at the individual attribute level. O n the other hand, the second information processing strategy is called imagery processing. The use of imagery processing is suggested to help people develop a holistic mental representation of future consumption scenario (MacInnis & Price, 1987). Although image could range from the attribute based to holistic level, with a few exceptions, such as Baloglu and McCleary (1999a) and Kaplanidou and Gibson (2012), the majority of existing studies (e.g., Byon & Zhang, 2010; Crompton, 1979) heavily rely on using in dividual level destination and event image predominantly use attribute s to measure image which is

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19 more closely a ssociated with analytical information processing. Yet many scholars (e.g., Fakeye & Crompton, 1991; C. Lee et al., 2005) still argue that destination image could allow potential tourists to operatio nalization of destination image is often executed at the attribute level. Considering the inconsistency of how destination image has been conceptualized this dissertation argues that it is not the perception or beliefs of a certain destination/event at th e attribute level that enables tourists to pre experience their potential trips. Instead, it tourists forming a consumption vision to try out their future trips Unlike general consumer products, the nature of tourism is characterized as unique, innovative, complex and experiential (W. Lee, Gretzel, & Law, 2010; Ye & Tussyadiah, 2011). Thus, actual visitation is suggested to be predominantly driven by mental visualization of his/her anticipated itinerary (Oh, Fiore, & Jeoung, 2007). The process of visualizing product features allows consumers to try out a vivid visua l image depicting their own future consumption scenarios ( Phill ips, Olson, & Baumgartner, 1995; Walker & Olson, 1997). According to previous literature, the creation of a consumption vision allows consumers to vicariously experience what future consumption actually feels like and, in turn, develop s destinations (Goossens, 2000; Walters, Sparks, & Herington, 2012). Therefore, tourism imaginatio n of anticipated travel experience s (Ye & Tussyadiah, 2011). One potential method to facilitate the formation of consumption vision is using imagery processing.

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20 Imagery processing is conceptualized as a unique style of information processing that is more e motionally involved and closely reflective of multiple bodily senses, such as olfactory, visual, and auditory (Lang, 1977; Lutz & Lutz, 1978; MacInnis & Price, 1987). As a result, the use of imagery processing is expected to help potential tourists develop a more holistic destination image that consists of various attributes of travel destination s and depicts multisensory information that are anticipated to emerge during their actual trip. Individuals who use imagery processing have been found to exhibit mo re positive attitude s and higher purchase intentions towards many consumer products or travel related products particularly (e.g., W. Lee et al., 2010; MacInnis & Price, 1990). Despite it was not until recen tly that travel and making at the planning stage (Walters et al. 2012). In addition, to the best of our knowledge, there is lack of research that examines the effec t of imagery processing in the area of sport tourism. As a result it is important to directly compare the effects of analytical travel decision making. Hence, this dissertation was developed with the aim to travel decision making Statement of Problem 2 Biased Travel Decision Making Caused by Incidental Feelings Notably, there are both adv antages and disadvantages associated with using imagery processing. That is, imagery processing might be more prone to the influence ive state. The impact of human affective state could

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21 best be exemplified by Schwarz an induced by different weather conditions. The extraneous moods elicited by two different weather conditions rainy vs. sunny were erroneously deemed representative for their judgment of life satisfaction and mistakenly incorporated by research respondents into the overall evaluation. In other words, people may ask themselves the question heir judgments on unrelated objects/people in a mood consistent way. Since then, i as product evaluation (Bosmans & Baumgar tner, 2005; Gorn, Goldberg, and Basu, 1993) and impulse buying behavior (Weinberg & Gottwald, 1982). Due to the fact that imagery processing is inherently more emotional, it is s (Pham, 1998). According to Baloglu and McCleary (1999a), prospective tourists could receive information about travel destinations through multiple channels, such as personal communications and advertisements (printed and/or broadcast media). However, dif ferent media could vary in their abilities to elicit emotional responses. For example, advertisements were found to engender stronger emotional responses when show n in broadcast media (television) than show n in printed media (magazines) (Chaudhuri & Buck, 1995). Many existing studies have documented the effect of TV induced emotions TV programs themselves (Murry & Dacin, 1996). In this sense, using imagery processing may resu lt in uncontrollable or even undesirable marketing effects when

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22 to through media channels that could induce incidental feelings that are essentially unrelated to the emotional claims made by travel destina tions. As a result, the second goal of this dissertation aims to examine whether prospective tourists would make irrational travel decisions caused by their incidental affective states that are irrelevant to travel destinations when using imagery processin g. In sum, this dissertation intends to answer two research questions: 1) the effect of using imagery versus analytical processing heir travel decisions when using imagery processing to evaluate travel destinations. Structure of Dissertation The remainder of the study is organized as follows. The next chapter titled uding destination image, imagery processing, and human affect. Five research hypotheses are then nd visitation intention towards advertised travel decisions. Chapter 3 Method develops two studies and discusses the designed experimental procedures that were carried out to results of data analyses from the designed experiments. The last chapter Discussion represents the expected results of the five proposed hypotheses and gives potential theoretical and managerial implications accordingly.

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23 CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Destination Image Tourism s cholars have relied on the role of destination image in sport selections of travel destinations ( e.g., Kaplanidou & Vogt, 2007 ) According to previous tourism related research (Baloglu & McCleary, 1999a; Crompton, 1979 ; Kotler, Haider, & Rein, These mental images formed by travelers could represent two distinct but also interrelated cognitive and affective components of certain destinatio ns. In other words, while perceptual/cognitive quality refers to the appraisal of physical features of The cognitive image is usua knowledge of the affective quality of certain places (Gartner, 1993; Genereux, Ward, & Russell, 1983). In addition, as su ggested by previous studies, affective responses are essentially caused by the cognitive evaluations of various properties objects and places. Accordingly, affective image is conventionally viewed as a product of cognitive image (Baloglu & McCleary, 1999a; Russell & Pratt, 1980). Furthermore, accordin g to Echtner and Ritchie ( 1993 ; 2003 ), people could also develop a holistic image of travel destinations. To be more precise, the overall image of a destination is a result of the interaction between various as pects, such as the cognitive and feature s of the destination in question (Gartner, 198 9 : Baloglu & McCleary, 1999b). After a review of literature, one potential mechanism that allows various cognitive and affective attributes

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24 to interact and lead to a hol istic image of travel destinations is imagery processing a type of information processing that can represent various bodily sensory information men tally (Echtner & Ritchie, 1993; 2003; MacInnis & Price, 1987). The formation of destination image can hav e three stages, namely organic, induced, and complex image (Fakeye & Crompton, 1991). At the organic stage, by destination sites or promotion agencies (Beerli & Martin 2004; Gunn, 19 72 ). This non commercial information can be further classified as unsolicited organic image consisting of unrequested information acquired through personal communication, solicited organic image pertaining to information actively searched b y prospective tourists, and autonomous image including information (e.g., news and movies) that is not delivered by destination promotional activities (Gartner, 1993). In addition to organic image, potential tourists could also incorporate commercial infor mation disseminated by travel destinations and/or intermediary travel agencies to develop an induced image (Beerli & Martin, 2004; Gartner, 1993; Gunn, 19 72 ). The final stage of destination image is the complex image developed after actual visitations. To make it more confusing, travel destination image (i.e., organic and induced image) based on perception instead of actual their future trips. In other words, the major distinction between complex image and two re credible and detailed compared with organic and induced image (Fakeye & Crompton,

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25 1991). Hence, except returning visitors, first time travelers often have to make travel decisions based on organic and induced images that are characterized as lacking in details and credible personal experience. In light of this inherent disadvantage associated with marketing tourism or sport tourism to first timers, this study identified imagery processing as a potential method that can be utilized by first time tourists to develop a consumption vision to pre experience or test drive the ir anticipated trips before making travel decisions. Imagery Processing MacInnis and P rice (1987) conceptualized imager y as a process by which different sensory informati on can be represen ted in human working memory That is, imagery is not just a for m of mental structure or schema in which knowledge is stored. Rather, mental imagery is conceptualized as a process of visualizing and representing concepts o r sensory information in human work ing memory. By conceptualizing imagery as a mental process, people are able to interpret the same information previously stored in schemas or to process incoming information in a mechanism that is distinct from analytical processing a processing style us ually requires individuals to systematically weight product attributes (MacInnis & Price, 1987; Thompson & Hamilton, 2006). Imagery based processing mode is fundamentally different from analytical processing. On the one hand, analytical processing is more verbal and semantic and less attached to sensory information and can include verbal encoding and retrieval, for example. On the other hand, imagery processing is more holistic and more closely associated with sensory information. Feelings, emotions, and id eas could be represented in mental image ry resulting from using imagery processing (MacInnis & Price, 1987; Yuille & Catchpole, 1977). Yet, the two types of processing are complementary rather than

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26 mutually exclusive. In other words, individuals could simu ltaneously employ both processing styles; however, one processing style usually dominates at any given time (MacInnis & Price, 1987; Oliver, Robertson, & Mitchell, 1993; Thompson & Hamilton, 2006). Since social psychologists started to pay attention to the role of imagery processing, its effect has been tested in various topics, such as fear therapy, incidental learning, problem framing, and probability assessment (for a review, see MacInnis & Price, 1987). Furthermore, the use of imagery processing has also been demonstrated to impact diverse consumer behaviors and effectiveness of advertisements (e.g., Petrova & Cialdini, 2005; Zhao, Hoeffler, & Dahl, 2009). For example, with regard to tion s to advertisements featuring products that are relatively new to consumers. The results of use of imagery processing but negatively related to the use of analytica l processing. In turn, these aroused affective responses became the most important predictor of react ions to comparative versus non comparative commercials in relation to the use of different strategies to process commercial information. According to their study, when people adopted imagery processing as opposed to analytic processing, non comparative adv ertisements were found to be more effective with regards to the towards advertised products. The use of imagery processing has also been employed to

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27 investigate the use of the ef fectiveness of nostalgic advertising (Bambauer Sachse & Gierl, 2009) and to reduce the negative effect of country of origin by encouraging consumers to imagine themselves ow n ing the product made by the manufacturing country (B. A. S. Martin, Lee, & Lacey, 2011). Benefits of Using I magery Processing and judgment, such as perception of likelihood and product evaluation (e.g., MacInnis & Price, 1990). Furthermore, the role of image ry processing has also been shown to that children who were instructed to imagine their reward s expedited their consumption and ascribed c g ratification to their mental imagination of the actual consumption of the rewards. More importantly, these biases resulting from the use of imagery processing usually move towards the positive direction and could potentially be employed by destination prom otion agencies to increase targeting Increased behavioral intention and actual behavior information o f travel destinations or destination advertisements might serve as a preferable destination marketing strategy due to several reasons. First, imagery behaviors. For instanc e, Gregory, Cialdini, and Carpenter (1982) found that compared to those who simply read commercials, participants who imagined using the advertised cable television service not only exhibited better attitude toward the cable television but also expressed t hat they were more likely to subscribe to the advertised cable service.

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28 More importantly, almost half (47.4%) of the research participants who were instructed to imagine using cable television during the research procedure subsequently subscribed to the ad vertised cable service after the research was finished. On the contrary, without imagining, only 19.5% of subjects signed up for the advertised cable television. Improved product evaluation ttitude towards nov el products. According to Zhao et al. (2009), consumers who imagine using an innovative product visually indicated a better product evaluation and higher perceived value of product benefits. On the other hand, this effect of visualizatio n prior experience. As a matter of fact, novelty is a main element of tourism (E. Cohen, 1974). Many first time travelers would only possess very limited information based on either non commercial sources (i.e., organic image) or de stination initiated advertising (i.e., induced image) b efore their actual visitation of travel destinations ( Fakeye & Crompton, 19991; Gunn, 19 72 ). Based on the results from Zhao and colleagues ( 2009), destinations. Likelihood of positive bias In addition to positively biased product evaluation and behavioral intention, the last benefit of imagery processing pert that a future event will indeed occur. There is a positive relationship between imagery processing and perceived likelihood of future event s taking place In other words, imagining an event could increase i

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29 (Carroll, 1978). With regard to travel related situations, MacInnis and Price (1990) found that students who imagined their spring break trip prior to their actual trips expected the outcomes of their trip to be positive In addition those who had a chance to engage in imagining their spring break a priori were also more satisfied with their actual trip. In sum, destination marketing organizations could potential ly benefit from the above mentioned bias effect processing. Effect of Imagery Processing on Travel Decision A handful of research studies on the relationship between imagery processing and travel related products have been published recently (i. e., W. Lee et al., 2010; MacInnis & Price, 1990; Walters et al., 2012). W. Lee et al. (2010) examined the effect of imagery processing on the effectiveness of Web based destination marketing and found that participants formed a desirable attitude towards a hypothetical destination (La Moana Island Resort) when the Web site of the destination could assist consumers to visualize the advertised destination by providing rich sensory descriptions (i.e., text descriptions and pictures). More direct evidence betwe and the use of imagery processing was offered by Walters and colleagues (2012), who to the advertised destination (a fictitious isla nd). More precisely, people who formed a more elaborated and refined mental image ry not only exhibited a stronger interest in visiting advertised destinations but also intended to expedite their future visits. On the contrary, analytical processing is less attached to sensory information and is more verbal in nature (Oliver et al., 1993; Thompson & Hamilton, 2005). In this sense, using

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30 analytical processing would not allow prospective tourists to generate a consumption vision that relays more detailed infor mation about their future travel experience. Nevertheless, in both studies (W. Lee et al., 2010; Walters et al., 2012), participants were given different types and amount of information (i.e., descriptions of destinations, presence of destination pictures and matching sounds) about travel destinations. Hence, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that purely increasing the use of attitude when identical destination inform ation is provided. Moreover, it is regrettable processing in the context of sport tourism given the increasing importance of the industry segment Consequently, this proposed research speculates that, with regard to an identical destination or destination ad vertisement consumers who predominantly use imagery processing will exhibit a better evaluation of travel destinations than those who use analytical processing. The corresp onding hypothes e s emerge: H1a: When imagery processing is the dominant approach used by prospective tourists to evaluate travel destinations, a most positive attitude towards travel destinations should be observed H1b: When imagery processing is the domi nant approach used by prospective tourists to evaluate travel destinations, a stronger visiting intention towards travel destinations should be observed Impact of Emotion Lately significant research efforts have been made to investigate the role of human affect in judgment and decision making related to consumer behavior and social psychology (for a review, see J. B. Cohen, Pham, & Andrade, 2008). These feelings,

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31 including a specific feeling toward an object as well as a sudden mood state, can skew people in multiple ways (Pham, 2004). The first mechanism takes place in a non inferential and automatic fashion; for example, a positive feeling c lassical conditioning (Gorn, 1982). Another mechanism follows a feeling belief colored indirectly by their feelings through changing their beliefs and perceptions of th e identified object (Fishbein & Middlestadt, 1995 ; Pham, 2004 ). In other words, one possible mechanism to retrieve mood consistent beliefs or perceptions in memory, and consequently make mood consistent evaluations (Isen, Shalker, Clark, & Karp, 1978). A more current view suggests that emotions are essentially informative. In other words, people can cognitively appraise their affective states while making judgments based on the theory of affec t as do I feel about do I feel about treating their feelings as ac tual sources of information and incorporating these feelings into judgments and evaluations directly (Pham, 2004). To this effect, people may mistakenly ascribe their incidental feelings to objects that are actually unrelated to their feelings. Based on th e affect as information, human emotions have been demonstrated nt affective states evoked by disliked music played

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32 by the stereo speaker bei stereo speaker in question (Gorn et al., 1993). Biased Travel Decisions Caused by Emotion and Imagery Processing One of the important features of imagery processing is the ability to induce emot io nal responses as demonstrated by the study conducted by Oliver et al. (1993) Hence, people could use imagery processing to generate emotional responses and evaluate the sensory aspect of an object accordingly. In fact, the emotional response aroused by using imagery processing is the key factor creating behavioral changes al intentions were determined by the emotional responses that emerged in mental visualization of behaviors in question. M ore direct evidence of imagery and emotion regarding travel planning was provided by Kwortnik and Ross (2007), who conducted 32 in depth interviews and unobtrusively observed 234 consumers in order to identify the role of imagery and emotions i n consumer decision making involving experiential products, such as dining and travel. Their results demonstrated that consumers can visualize their future consumption experience and generate both conscious and subconscious emotional responses. These emoti ons and feelings subsequently serve as the decision criteria for consumers to make a purchase decision. Considering imagery processing is inherently more emotionally involved (MacInnis & Price, 1987), it is reasonable for one to conjecture that, when u sin g imagery processing, human incidental affective states. In other words, the emotional responses generated by incidental feelings unrelated to focal travel destinations that are being evaluated. This

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33 notion has gained some preliminary support from existing research For example, Pham (1998) suggested that the reliance on incidental mood to make consumption decisions was most evident among consumers who were visualizers rather than verbalizers. More specifically, Pham (1998) showed that research participants whose behavioral intentions were biased by their incidental mood states also exhibited the tendency to process external information visually. When participants were instructed to use a more analytical processing style by listing the pros and cons that could be provided by the products, the effect of incidental mood dissipated. g resides in the ability of imagery processing to generate emotional reactions of an anticipated consumption. That is, people may misattribute a positive mood state in their consumption vision and, in turn, develop a stronger purchase intention accordingly Nevertheless, several products, such as novels and vacation packages (e.g., L. L. Martin, Abend, Sedikides, & Green, 199 7 ; H. Kim, Park, & Schwarz, 2010), could contain specific emotional components that are expected to be experienced during the actual c onsumption scenarios. As a do I feel about people may consume products featuring specific or even negative emotional claims such as horror movies and tragic novels (e.g., Andrade & Coh en, 2007; L. L. Martin et do I feel about result in mood affective state and the expected consumption experience should pos itively bias A sad story could be deemed as more appealing to readers who felt sad as opposed to

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34 happy (L. L. Martin et al., 1997). In the same vein, H. Kim and colleagues ( 2010) is, subjects who were feeling peaceful displayed a less favorable att itude towards adventurous than serene vacation package s Based on the findings from H. Kim et al. has the potential to create a positive product evaluation. On the other h and, this study proposes that claim is expected to disappear if imagery processing is not employed by potential tourists as the primary information processing mode to evaluate their future trips. incidental feelings and the emotional reactions depicted in their consumpt ion vision could improve their attitude and visiting intentions towards advertised destinations. Conversely, a mismatch could result in a deteriorated attitude and reduced visiting intention towards advertised destinations. Moreover, the effect of trip pla incidental feelings on their travel decisions is determined by the different processing strategies use d during the time of destination evaluation Two corresponding hypotheses arise: al feelings and travel destinations is moderated by the use of imagery processing.

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35 H2b: aim on visiting intentions toward travel destinations is moderated by the use of imagery processing. H 3 a: When imagery processing is predominantly used a match between a s towards travel destinations. H 3 b: When imagery processing is predominantly used a match between positive effect The Underlying Process in Which Incidental Feelings Can Bias Travel Decision s The next step is to investigate the underlying process, in which incidental feelings influence tourists Initially, imagery processing was used for therapeutic purposes by psychologists as a method of fear treatment. In order to achieve a successful therapy, two elements the vividness an d the intensity of emotional response of mental imagery need to exist (Lang, 1977). Several existing studies have been conducted to test the mediating roles of emotional intensity in consumption scenarios. For example, Oliver et al. (1993) found that th significantly diminished when affective response was included as a predicting variable. The role of emotional response has also received some preliminary support by tourism related stud ies. In their study, Walters and colleagues (2012) showed that potential their evaluation of tourism destinations. However, these conclusions made by Oliver et

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36 al. (1993) and Walters et al. (2012) may be problematic. According to Lang (1977), mental visualization. An example of this so called emotional image (Lang, 1977; 1979) could incl ude the feeling of fear or even more direct visceral responses, such as increases in heart rate or changes in respiratory frequency. Nevertheless, affective response has been operationalized in a way that is inconsistent with its definition. For example, b emotional response as their reactions to the research stimuli (i.e., whether the advertisement seems appealing or wonderful, or whether you like the advertised product) instead o f the direct emotional responses evoked by their consumption vision. Additional evidence showing that the intensity of emotional response may not be the mediator was given by H. Kim and colleagues (2010), who showed that an incidental feeling of excitement could d product. However, compared to seren ity excitement is actually a more intense emotional response accompanied by a higher level of arousal. Hence, the increased emotional intensity resulting from mi preexisting incidental feelings bias their travel decision. Conversely, the vividness of mental image may provide a more log ical suggested by Carroll (1978), vivid and detailed information are required for mental ts will indeed happen. Vividness is conceptualized as the completeness of the mental image

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37 a propositional network that interconnects various stimulus and response related tive responses respectively (Lang, 1977). As mentioned earlier, when using imagery processing, people are capable of generating emotional responses in their mental visualization. Then, a preexisting feeling that is consistent with the evoked emotional reac and ameliorate the quality of consumption visions, and vice versa. In other words, a matching /mismatching between the anticipated feelings when traveling and potential tour /decrease the vividness of consumption vision and, in turn, improve their attitude and visiting intention towards travel destinations. Although the mediating role of vividness was not directly t ested, the results of H. Kim et al. (2010) may allude to this In their study, a pre existing feeling of excitement and vacation package characterized as adventurous and serene respe ctively because the expectation that the advertised products would deliver on their promises. However, no explanation was provided regarding the effect of matched emotions on exp ectancies. A logical conjecture could be that the incidental feeling of excitement assisted research participants in mentally connecting elements of an adventurous trip and subsequently creating a more concrete and vivid consumption vision. On the contrary an adventurous trip and the feeling of peaceful ness were difficult to be linked together. That is, the

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38 incidental feeling of peaceful ness the adventurous trip. Additional support of the mediating r ole of vividness have been provided by W. Lee and her colleagues (2010), who found that Web based destination marketing that offer s vivid multisensory descriptions of a destination (e.g. colorful and olfactory) to facilitate participants to virtually expe towards the advertised destinations. Therefore, this dissertation hypothesized that a match /mismatch increase / decrease the vividness of mental image and, in turn, improve / attitude and visiting intentions towards destinations (figure 2 1 illustrates the mediation effect of vividness) The last two hypotheses emerge: H4: When using imagery processing, the vividness of consumption v ision is compared with a mismatch H5 a : The vividness of consumption vision mediates the effect of incidental itude s towards destinations. H5b: The vividness of consumption vision mediates the effect of incidental In summary, this dissertation proposes to: (1) directly compare the effect of using ima gery processing incidental feelings can influence their travel decisions (e.g., attitude and visiting in tention) when imagery processing is the dominant mode of information processing

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39 s tyle used to evaluate travel destinations. Table 2 1 summarizes all research hypotheses developed in chapter 2. The next chapter Method discusses two separate studies desi gned to test these hypotheses.

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40 Table 2 1. Summary of Research Hypotheses Hypothesis 1 (a) When imagery processing is the dominant approached used by prospective tourists to evaluate travel destinations, a better attitude towards travel destinations should be observed (b) When imagery processing is the dominant approached used by prospective tourists to evaluate travel destinations, a better visiting intention towards travel destinations should be observed Hypothesis 2 (a) The effect of matching between prospe travel destinations is moderated by the use of imagery processing. (b) destina moderated by the use of imagery processing. Hypothesis 3 (a) nal claim has a positive effect (b) on prosp Hypothesis 4 When using imagery processing, the vividness of consumption vision is higher emotional claim. Hypothesis 5 (figure 2 1) (a) The vividness of consumption vision mediates the effect of incidental feelings on (b) The vividness of consumption vision mediates the effect of incidental feelings on con

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41 Figure 2 1. Illustration of the hypothesized mediation effect of vividness on the feelings and tr

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42 CHAPTER 3 METHOD Study 1 Study 1 was conducted to test hypothesis 1a and 1b which predict that compared with those who do not primarily rely on imagery processing, individuals who primarily use imagery processing to evaluate their future trave l destinations would indicate stronger visiting intention s and more positive attitude s towards these travel destinations. Participants and Design Ninety six undergraduate students at the University of Florida were recrui ted to participate in study 1 in exchange for course credits. A computer based one way between subjects design with three levels (processing style: imagery, analytical vs. no instruction) was carried out to test the effect of imagery processing. The inclusion of the no instruction (control) condition aims to examine the default approach consumers usually employ to process information regarding travel related products. That is, if the dependent measures obtained from participants given no specific instructions rese mble those measures acquired from participants instructed to use imagery processing, it is reasonable to conclude that trip planners voluntarily rely on visualization during the trip planning stage, and vice versa. Stimuli An advertisement featuring a ski resort in Canad a was created as the focal research stimulus This advertisement contain ed a picture of a ski resort and a written description containing six features, including 1) 31 slopes, 2) accommodate all levels of

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43 skiers, 3) a 3.5 mile Rainbow Parad ise course, 4) covered by powder snow, 5) a 5 star hotel, and 6) six on site restaurants and lounges (see Appendix A ). Manipulation of Information Processing Imagery processing can be manipulated by directly instructing research participants to engage in or to refrain from using mental visualization (Keller & McGill, 1994; McGill & Anand, 1989). The manipulation instructions were adapted from Petrova and Cialdini (2005) and Thompson and Hamilton (2006). Participants in the imagery processing condition were told to close their eyes, visualize, and imagine traveling to the advertised Canadian ski resort in their mind as vividly as possible. In contrast, participants in the analytical processing condition were asked to pay attention to the features and attribu tes of the advertised Canadian ski resort and not to let their imagination get the better of them (see Appendix B for the complete processing instructions). There was no instruction given to participants in the control group. To check the manipulation rega rding the use of analytical processing and imagery processing i tems from Thompson and Hamilton, (2006) were used and are listed in Table 3 1. Procedure Research participants were told that the study was commissioned by a Canadian tourism promotion agency that is planning to create a new promotion project to attract visitors from the United States for its new ski resort Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. All research materials, including the cover story of the study, manip ulation instructions, advertisement of the Canadian ski resort, manipulation checks, and dependent measures were delivered through personal computers Object 3 1 contains the link to the computer based experiment.

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44 Measurement Attitude was measured based o n four 9 point semantic differential items, good bad, like dislike, pleasant unpleasant, and favorable unfavorable, adopted from previous research (e.g., MacKenzie & Lutz, 1989; Speed & Thompson, 2000). With regard to visiting intention, the four items cre ated by Petrova and Cialdini (2005) were advertised travel destinations. T he four 9 point semantic differential items exhibited were directly adopted as the dependent measures for visiting intention in s tudy 1 (Petrova & Cialdini, 2005) Table 3 1 lists all the items used in study 1. Study 2 Study 1 test ed intentional evaluations of the two advertised destinations. Furthermore, as suggested by prior studies (e.g., MacInnis & Price, 1987), imagery processing is more related to emo tions. As a resul t, study 2 was designed to examine the hypothesized interaction between incidental feelings and imagery processing (H2 and H3). In addition, the hypothesized mediating effect of vividness (H4 and H5) was also empirically investigated Part icipants and Design Eighty six students at the University of Florida were recruited to participate in the computer based s tudy 2. Subjects were given extra class credits in exchange for their participations. A 2 ( destination : Canadian ski resort vs. Canad ian hot spring resort) x 2 (instruction: imagery vs. analytical) x 2 (incidental feeling: excite d vs. peaceful ) mixed

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45 design with destination being the within subjects factor was utilized to test the four hypotheses. Stimuli Two sets of ad vertisement s we re created for a fictitious Canadian ski resort a nd a fictitious Canadian hot spring resort. The ski resort was described as adventurous and exciting, whereas the hot spring resort was described as peaceful and serene. Both ad vertisement s contain a picture featuring the focal Canadian resorts. In addition to the pictures, the ad vertisement of the ski resort include s a written section introducing five features, including 1) a land of adventure and excitement, 2) 31 slopes, 3) covered in powder snow, 4) accom modating all levels of skiers, and 5) enjoying the thrill of skiing, whereas the written parts of hot spring ad vertisement describe the hot spring resort as 1) slip into the soothing hot water, 2) feel your worries wash away, 3) all natural mineral hot spr in g, 4) cleanest in North America 5) swirl away tension, and 6) peaceful and serene resort. The ski and hot spring resort s were used as the exciting and peaceful travel destinations respectively (see Appendix C). Measures The same items in study 1 were u sed to visiting intention towards the two tourism destinations in study 2. The measure of the vividness of mental image was operationalized in two ways completeness and quality First, according to Lang (1977; 1979), th e vividness of imagery can be determined by the completeness of the propositional structure. To measure completeness, participants were asked to r ecall their mental image ry in written words. Two independent r aters were hired to code the number of thoughts and attributes related to the two Canadian resorts recalled by participants in their mental imagery To prevent these two raters from coding

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4 6 the written descriptions in a way that can either positively or negatively bias the coding results, they were unawa re of the purpose of this study. In addition, four 9 point semantic differential items (i.e., vivid vague, clear unclear, sharp dull, and intense weak) were adapted from previous studies (i.e., Miller, Hadjimarcou, & Miciak, 2000; Walters et al., 2010) to directly measure the quality The measure of emotion manipulation (peaceful vs. excited) follow ed the method used by H. Kim et al. (2010). Participants were asked to indicate their feelings of active, excited, enthusiast ic, tran quil, peaceful, and serene on 5 point Likert scale s Active, excited, enthusiastic were used to indicate the feeling of excitement, whereas the other three items were used to measure the feeling of peace Table 3 2 lists all the items used in study 2 Procedure and Manipulation Study 2 was a computer based experiment Participants were randomly assigned to one of the eight experimental conditions. The within subject s factor was the two travel destinations Each participant was required to evaluate both the Canadian ski resort and the Canadian hot spring resort. The order of these two destinations was c ounterbalanced. R esearch participants were told that they were invited to participate in a twofold study The first part of the study wa s conducted by the College of Human and Health task was adapted from previous stud ies (Bless et al., 1996; H. Kim et al., 2010) to second part of the study wa s to be a marketing project co commissioned by the Department of Tourism, Recreation and

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47 Sport Management and a Canadian tourism promotion agency market The manipulation of incidental feelings follows a two step procedure. The first step contains a filler task requiring participants to rank 10 random words in alphabetic order. The goal of the filler task was to remove any potential mood differences among participants prior to the manipulation procedure ( H Kim et al., 2010; Wegener, Petty, & Smith, 1995). Subsequent to the filler task wa s the incidental feeling manipulation. Participants were asked to list three personal experiences that they perceive as either exciting or peaceful and to describe one of t he se three event s in written words with detailed information. Th is approach to induce incidental feelings has been utilized by previous studies (e.g., Bless et al., 1996; Pham, 1998). The same manipulation for imagery processing in study 1 was used in stud y 2 (see Appendix B) In addition, to further ensure research participants us ed the assigned processing styles, information about the two fictitious Canadian resorts w as displayed in different formats. In the imagery pro cessing condition, information about the two Canadian resorts was given in an easy to imagine descriptive format, whereas information was organized in a feature by feature format using bullet points to encourage attribute based processing in the analytical processing condition (Schkade & Kle inmuntz, 1994; Thompson & Hamilton, 2006). Except for the difference in presentation for mats, all information about the fictitious Canadian ski and hot spring resort s remain ed identical across the two different information processing conditions.

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48 Table 3 1. Summary of Measurement Items Used in Study 1 Manipulation check Information processing 9 point Likert Scale 1 In making my evaluations, I focused more on my personal impressions and feelings rather than on complex tradeoffs between features 2 I t ried to use as much information about the features as possible 3 I evaluated the advertised resort feature by feature rather than evaluating the Canadian resort as a whole 4 My evaluations were based on careful thinking and reasoning 5 I imagined myself visiting the ski resort in the ad 6 I experienced a sense of fun in thinking about the ski resort while reading the ad 7 I savored visions of visiting the Canadian resort while reading the ad Visiting Intention 9 point Likert Scale 1 Likelihood of con sidering the advertised Canadian ski /hot spring resort as vacation destination in the future 2 Likelihood of requesting a brochure with further product information 3 Likelihood of visiting the Web site shown on the ad 4 Likelihood of visiting the adver tised Canadian ski /hot spring resort Attitude 9 point semantic differential Scale 1 good bad 2 like dislike 3 pleasant unpleasant 4 favorable unfavorable Note. denotes reverse coded items

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49 Table 3 2. Summary of Measurement Items Used in Study 2 Manipulation check Information processing 9 point Likert Scale 1 In making my evaluations, I focused more on my personal impressions and feelings rather than on complex tradeoffs between features 2 I tried to use as much information about th e features as possible 3 I evaluated the advertised resorts feature by feature rather than evaluating the Canadian resort(s) as a whole. 4 My evaluations were based on careful thinking and reasoning 5 I imagined myself visiting the two resort s in the ad s 6 I experienced a sense of fun in thinking about the two resorts while reading the ad s 7 I savored visions of visiting the two resorts while reading the ad s Manipulation check Emotion 5 point Likert Scale 1 Indicated the extent you feel Active 2 Indicated the extent you feel Excited 3 Indicated the extent you feel Enthusiastic 4 Indicated the extent you feel Relaxed 5 Indicated the extent you feel Peaceful 6 Indicated the extent you feel Calm Visiting Intention to Canadian ski (hot spring) resort 9 point Likert Scale 1 Likelihood of considering the advertised Canadian s ki ( hot spring ) resort as vacation destination in the future 2 Likelihood of requesting a brochure with further product information 3 Likelihood of visiting the Web site sh own on the ad 4 Likelihood of visiting the advertised Canadian s ki ( hot spring ) resort Attitude 9 point semantic differential 1 G ood B ad 2 L ike D islike 3 P leasant U npleasant 4 F avorable U nfavorable Vividness Quality 9 point semantic diffe rential 1 clear unclear 2 Intense Weak 3 Vivid Vague 4 Sharp Dull Note. denotes reverse coded items Object 3 1. Computer based experiment of study 1 (Hyperlink)

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50 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Study 1 Participants Ninety six students at the University of Florida participated in study 1. Among them, 55 were males and the majority (55%) was white. Participants ranged from 18 to 29 years old, and 40% of them were 20 years old. In brief, pa rticipants reported positive attitudes and visiting intentions towards the Canadian ski resort despite the different treatment conditions. Table 4 1 summarizes the mean scores of the dependent, independent variables and items for the manipulation checks. Manipulation Checks of Processing Style Prior to checking the effectiveness of the manipulation items measuring analytical and imagery processing were first examined for reliability. The three imagery processing items were averaged into a single imagery processing score due to adequate reliability score ) Nevertheless, the four items measuring analytical processing did not exhibit adequate reliability 6 2 ) The low reliability score could be caused by the inclusion of a reverse coded item. After deleting this reverse coded item, the remainin g three items measuring analytical processing met the suggested .70 cutoff (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994) indicat ing adequate internal consistency 7 5 ) and were then average d into a single analytical processing score. To check whether the procedure in imagery processing, a difference score between their reported reliance on imagery processing and analytical processing was created and submitted to a one way ( processing style: imagery vs. analytical) between subj

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51 equality of variance ( F (1, 62) = .62, p > .1) found no violations of the homogeneity of variance assumption The results of ANOVA suggested that imagery processing was the predominant approach used by participants in the imager y group to evaluate the Canadian ski resort but not by those in the analytical group. To be more precise, participants in the imagery condition indicated a higher reliance on using imagery processing usage ( M imagery = 7. 2 1 ) than analytical processing ( M ana lytical = 5.21 ; F (1, 31) = 64, p < .001). No differences between ( M imagery = 6.27 ) and analytical processing ( M analytical = 5.93 ; F (1, 31) = 0.91, p > .1) were found in the analytical condition. Hypothesis 1a and 1b The four items measuring attitude were first reverse coded with nine (9) indicating the highest value. These reversed attitude score s and the four indicators of visiting intention were further averaged 7 ) and visiting intention 90 ) variable s due to their adequate scale reliability. Two independent samples t tests were conducted to test the effects of different toward s the Canadian ski re sort. of variance assumption were found either for attitude ( F (1, 62) = .62, p > .05) or visiting intention ( F (1, 62) = 1.62, p > .05) In terms of attitudes towards the Canadian ski resort, a better att itude was found in the imagery condition ( M = 7.94) than in the analytical condition ( M = 7.30 ; t (62) = 1.77 p < .05 d = 0.44 ) Similarly, p articipants in the imagery processing condition exhibited a better visiting intention towards the Canadian ski resort ( M = 7. 0 4 ) than participants in the analytical condition ( M = 6.02 ;

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52 t (62) = 2.20, p < .05 d = 0.55 ). H1a and H1b were both supported. Results were illustrated in Figure 4 1. Default Processing Mode Two separate ANOVA analyses with att itude and visiting intention being the dependent variable s reported attitude and visiting intention towards the Canadian ski r esort with those in the other two conditions. With regard to attitu indicated a violation of the homogeneity of variance assumption ( F (2, 93) = 4.34, p < .05). As a result, the Welch statistic was employed, and the three conditions ( i.e., control, imagery, vs. analytical) found to significant ly differ in the attitude ratings ( F (2, 56.976) = 3.34, p < .05). The Games Howell post hoc test further suggested that control participants reported a higher level of attitude ( M = 8.16) than those in the analytical condition ( M = 7.30). No difference in attitude was found between the control and imagery condition s ( M = 7.94). A second ANOVA was conducted to test whether participants in the three conditions ( i.e., control, imagery, vs. analytical) exhibited different degrees of visiting intention towards the Canadian ski resort. The equal ity of variance was assumed ( Levene F (2, 93) = 0.86, p > 05 ), and the r visiting intention ( M = 6.59) were found to differ ( M = 7.04) no r the analytical condition ( M = 6.02). In addition, two multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to test the usage of the two information processing styles and their attitude and visiting intention towa rds the Canadian ski resort. Attitude was first regressed on imagery and analytical

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53 processing. and kurtosis values and normality was assumed A scatter matrix was constructed and suggested the patter n s between dependent (i.e., attitude and visiting intention) and ind ependent variables (i.e., imagery and analytical processing) were approximately linear. Regarding attitude, a linear regression with s tepwise selection only retained imagery processing and a robust linear regression that did not assume homoscedasticity (Hayes & Cai, 2007) suggested that imagery processing ( b = 0.17, p < .05) explained 16 accounted for by their usage of imagery processing. Similarly, the second linear regression with stepwise selection again only retained imagery processing, and a robust linear regression that did not assume homoscedasticity (Hayes & Cai, 2007) suggested th at 32% of variance in imagery processing ( b = 0.57, p < .01 ). A further analysis of control group s for processing style was conducted. Based on Childers, Houston, a (1985) 22 item scale called the control condition was calculated by taking the difference between the sum of the 11 visualizer items and the sum of the 11 verbalizer items. Among all 32 subjects in t he control group, 29 of them who had a difference score greater than zero were identified as visualizer s Moreover, when evaluating the Canadian ski resort, control participants agreed that they relied more on im agery processing ( M = 6.63) than analytical processing ( M = 5.55; F (1, 31) = 10.061, p < .01). As a result, the majority of subjects were visualizers and imagery processing was the dominant approach utilized by control

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54 participants to evaluate the advertis ed Canadian ski resort. This might provide a plausible explanation for the towards the Canadian ski resort compared with that of participants in the analytical group In a similar vein, the lack of differences in a ttitude and visiting intention reported by participants in the control and in the imagery processing condition could also be explained by the fact that imagery processing was the primary style used by participants in both conditions to evaluate the Canadia n ski resort. Figure 4 2 illustrates the comparison among control, imagery, and analytical conditions. Study 2 Participants A total of 86 students at the Univers ity of Florida participated in s tudy 2. Approximately equal numbers of male ( N = 41) and fema le ( N = 45) participated. The average age of study 2 participants was 21.4 years old with 88% of them ranged between 20 and 23 years old. Manipulation Checks The items measuring the feeling of excitement (i.e., active, excited, & enthusiastic), peace (i.e ., relaxed, peaceful, & calm), imagery processing, and analytical processing were averaged to form four new variables due to adequate internal A 2 (emotion: excitement vs. peace) X 2 (information processing: imagery vs. analytical) MANOVA peace imagery processing, and analytical processing a s dependent variables was conducted to test the effectiveness of the two manipulations. According to equality covariance ( = 37.48, F ( 30, 17498.12) = 1.14, p > .1), t he homogeneity of covariance was assumed The results of the MANOVA r evealed that neither the

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55 emotion manipulation procedure ( F ( 4 79 ) = 1. 17 94 p > .1) nor the manipulation for information processing styles ( F ( 4 79 .98, p > .1) worked Furthermore, t he interaction between emotion and information processing manipulation was also insignificant ( F ( 4, 79 = .96, p > .1). Hence, all manipulations failed in study 2. Potential Causes of Ineffective Manipulations Both procedures have been successfully used by previous studies to manipulate & Hamilton, 2006). As a result, the main cause of the ineffective manipulation might not be related to the manipulation procedures per se. Perhaps, the reason causin g the failures in manipulations could potentially be ascribed to the execution of the computer based study 2. The computer lab reserved for study could accommodate no more than 26 participants at any given time. During several sessions of data collection, the computer lab was running nearly at its maximum capacity with only one experimenter monitoring the entire process, and several data collection sessions were not well managed. In fact, many subjects were spotted using cell phones and/or chatting with eac h other while participating in study 2 A decision was made to redo the study 2 with a better execution. Study 2(a) Sixty three students at the University of Florida were recruited to participate in the computer based s tudy 2 (a) Among them, 42% were fema les and 73% were between 20 and 23 years old. Participant s were given extra class credits in exchange for their participation. A 2 (within subjects: Canadian ski resort vs. Canadian hot spring resort) x 2 ( information processing : imagery vs. analytical) x 2 (incidental feeling:

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56 excited vs. peaceful ) mixed design was utilize d to test the four hypotheses Object 2 2 contains the link to the computer based study 2(a). Procedure All procedures in study 2(a) were identical with study 2 except for the inclusion of a provision that clearly instructs participants to turn off their cell phone s and refrain from talking to each other bef ore they started the experiment In addition, no more than half of the computers (13) were actually used at any given time and parti cipants were not allowed to sit side by side. These features were added to improve the execution of study 2(a). Manipulation Check The three items (i.e., active, excited, & enthusiastic) measuring the feeling of excitement, and the other three items (i.e., relaxed, peaceful, & calm) measuring the s due to appropriate internal consistency. The same three items from on analytical processing were averaged into a The three imagery processing items .67), although did not meet the conventional .70 threshold, were still averaged to processing because many scholars have items exhibit good content validity (Palanisamy, Verville, Bernadas, & Taskin, 2010; Schmitt, 1996). Because t hese three items hav e been shown as good measures of imagery processing in previous studies (Keller & McGill, 1994; Thompson & Hamilton, 2006), a decision was made to retain them for further analysis.

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57 Feelings of excitement and peace A 2 (emotion manipulation : excitement vs. peace) X 2 (information processing: imagery vs. analytical) MANOVA rating as dependent variables was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the emotion manipulation and no violation of the homogeneity of covariance assumption w as found ( = 9.61, F (9, 18659.47) = 1.00, p > .1). As expected, a significant main effect of emotion manipulation ( F p < .01) was found indicating that participants who were asked to recall three exciting life events reported significantly higher rating s of excitement ( M excitement = 3.38) and lower rating s of peace ( M p eace = 3.13) than those who were asked to recall three peaceful life events in the past ( M excitement = 2.68, t (61) = 3.39, p < .001; M peace = 3.53, t (61) = 1.75, p < .05). Moreover, neither the main effect of information processing ( F (2, 58) = 0.23, Wilk p < .01) nor the two way interaction ( F (2, p < .01) was significant. Therefore, and th Information processing A second 2 (emotion manipulation : excitement vs. peace) X 2 (information processing: imagery vs. analytical) MANOVA i magery and analytical processing as dependent variables was carried out to check the effectiveness of the manipulations for the two information processing styles and no violation s of the homogeneity of covariance assumption w ere s tatistics ( = 17.99, F (9, 18659.47) = 1. 87 p > 05 ). The results of MANOVA showed that the information processing manipulation was effective ( F (2, 58) = 6.35,

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58 82 = .22 p < .01). Participants who were in the imagery condi tion reported higher reliance on imagery processing ( M imagery = 7.30 ) and less usage of analytical processing ( M analytical = 6.03) than those in the analytical condition did ( M imagery = 6.78 t (61) = 1.934, p < .05; M analytical = 7.08, t (61) = 2.418, p < .05). Furthermore two planned contrasts found that imagery is the dominant processing style used by participants in the imagery condition ( F (1, 38) = 17.79, p < .001) but not in the analytical condition ( F (1, 23) = 1.00, p > .1). In addition, n either the main effect of emotion manipulation ( F p > .1) nor the two way interaction between emotion and information processing ( F (2, 58) = 0.88, p > .1) were significant. Hence emotion manipulation ha d no the information processing manipulation did not depend on different emotion conditions. Hypothesis Testing Matching emotion and attitudes Following the six step procedure provided by Keppel and Wickens (2004), the counterbalancing effect on attitude scores caused by the order of the two destinations shown to participants wer e directly removed Table 4 2 lists the six step s directly adopted from Keppel and Wic kens (2004). This six step procedure was also used to adjust for the ordering effect in the following analyses. The new adjusted attitude values were used as dependent variables and subsequently submitted to a 2 (emotion: excitement vs. peace) X 2 (informa tion processing: imagery vs. analytical) X 2 ( destination : ski vs. hot spring) repeated ANOVA with different destinations being the within subjects factor. No violation s of homogeneity of covariance w ere found ( = 16.08, F (9, 18659.47) = 0.91, p > 05). A significant three way emotion information

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59 processing destination interaction was identified ( F (1, 58) = 11.289, p < .05). No other effects (i.e ., main and two way interaction) were found to be significant. Because neither the main effect of destinat ion nor the destination by emotion interaction were significant, attitude scores of the two destinations were collapsed across diff erent emotions to become the new matching (excitement/ski and peace/hot spring) and mismatching (excitement/hot spring and pe ace/ski) variables. A subsequent 2 (between subjects: imagery processing vs. analytical processing) X 2 (within subjects: matching emotion vs. mismatching emotion) repeated ANOVA was conducted to test hypothesis 2a. No violation s of homogeneity of covaria nce w ere found ( = 2.04, F (3, 90358.69) = 0.65, p > .1). The results of ANOVA indicated a significant two way interaction ( F (1, 60) = 4.58, p < .05) and support ed hypothesis 2a. Regarding hypothesis 3a, the results of a planned contrast provided sup port for hypothesis 3a by showing a positive effect caused by the matching l ing and emotional claim s when participants used imagery processing ( M matching = 7.79, M mismatching = 7.33, t (60) = 1.70, p < .05). This positive effect disappeared under analytical processing ( M matching = 7.13, M mismatching = 7.60, t (60) = 1.38, p > .05). The ef fect of matching emotion s on s the travel destinat ions is illustrated in Figure 4 3. Matchin g emotion and visiting intention Adjustment for th e ordering effect followed the six step procedure provided by Keppel and Wickens (2004) were again made to account for the ordering effect on destinations. A 2 (emotion: excitement vs. peace) X 2 (information processing: imagery vs. analytical) X 2 (destination: ski vs. hot spring) repeated ANOVA with destination being the within

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60 subjects was conducted, and no violation s of homogeneity of covar iance w ere found ( = 2.24, F (3, 90358.69) = 0.72, p > .1). A significant three way emotion information processing destination interaction ( F (1, 58) = 9.11, p < .05) was identified by the three way repeated ANOVA Nevertheless, p intentions did not differ according to either the main effect of destination or the destination emotion interaction. As a result, visiting intentions towards the two destinations were collapsed across different emotional conditions to form the two new var iables representing either when there was a match (excitement/ski and peace/hot spring) or mismatch (excitement/hot spring and peace/ski) between The new m atching and mismatching scores were then submitted to a 2 (wi thin subjects: matching emotion vs. mismatching emotion ) X 2 (between subjects: imagery processing vs. analytical processing) repeated ANOVA to test the effect of matching emotions on participant visiting intentions towards the two travel destinations. According to ( = 7.70, F (3, 90358.69) = 2.47, p > .05). A significant two way interaction ( F (1, 60) = 9.311, p < .01) indicated t information processing styles. Furthermore, a planned contrast showed a positive effect condition. That is, emotional claim is consistent with their induced feelings ( M matching = 6.67, M mismatching = 6.03, t (60) = 2.11, p < .05). M ns was reversed in the analytical processing condition ( M matching = 6.23, M mismatching = 7.08,

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61 t (60) = 2.22, p < .05). T he significant two way interaction and planned contrast provided evidence supporting hyp othesis 2b and 3b (see Figure 4 4). Matching Emotions and Vividness Quality terms of two aspects quality and completeness With regard to the quality of consumption vision, the four items measuring vividness regarding quality were first avera ged to form the due to adequate internal consistency T he quality rating reported by participants in the imagery processing condition was first adjusted for ordering effect based on the six step procedure (Keppel & Wickens, 2 004) and subsequently submitted to a 2 (within subjects: ski resort vs. hot spring resort) X 2 (between subjects: excitement vs. peace) repeated ANOVA No violation of homogeneity of covariance assumption was found ( = 1.224 F (3, 271286.85) = 0.382 p > .1). Nevertheless, the insignificant two way interaction ( F (1, 36) = 0.71 p > 1 ) provided no support for the hypothesized effects of matching emotions on the quality Ne ither the main effect of emotion nor the ma in effect of different resort was significant and these effects were not the main interests and were not discussed. Completeness The second approach measure d the completeness aspect of vividness P were coded in two ratio scales in relation to the number of product related thoughts and the number of product related attributes by t wo independent rater s who were unaware the purpose of this Product related thoughts and attributes represent the activiti es ( e.g., skiing, singing, or diving)

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62 and features (e.g., slope, powder snow, or soothing water) mentioned by participants in their verbal reports respectively Inter rater agreement on both ratings were deemed tentative acceptable (Krippendorff, 2009) in relation to product related thoughts and attributes Taking one I pictured slopes of all different heights. Ski t eachers showing beginners how to ski. I pictured people falling but still trying again to get it right. I pictured myself being really scared to get off the ski lift, considering that I don't know how to ski and have never even seen snow. But then I also p ictured cute cabins and fireplaces in the lobby with board games and hot chocolate to enjoy at the end of the day. and seven attributes emerged. In addition, the valen ce of their mental imagery was also rated (80% agreement) because one can have a complete but negative consumption vision The disagreements were further settled by the experimenter. These three coding guidelines were adopted from Petrova and Cialdini (200 5) to examine the appeals of Furthermore completeness was operationalized by summing the thoughts and attributes mentioned in the written descriptions to reflect the number of propositional units gery. According to the coding results, on average there were seven ( M ski = 7.15, SD = 3.57) and six propositions ( M hot_spring = 5.85, SD = respectively. The most complete ment al imagery contained 19 propositions, whereas the least complete imagery contained zero aspects related to the two Canadian resorts.

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63 Figure 4 the description shown above (on page 61) by one of the his/her mental imagery. In addition, the resultant completeness values were multiplied by minus one if the valance of mental imagery was rated as negative by the two independent coders. The final complete ness scores were used as dependent variables and submitted to a 2 (within subjects: completeness of ski resort vs. completeness of hot spring resort) X 2 (between subjects: excitement vs. peace) repeated ANOVA. statistics ( = 0.87 F (3, 271286.85) = 0.273 p > .1), homogeneity of covariance was assumed Furthermore, a significant two way interaction was identified ( F (1, 3 7 ) = 5.15 p < .05). Two subsequent planned contrasts showed that participants formed a more complete consumptio n vision of the hot spring resort after being induced with peaceful feeling ( M = 6. 53 ) compared with exciting feeling ( M = 3.35 F ( 1, 37 ) = 6.26 p < .05). In contrast, the consumption vision of visiting the Canadian ski resort was reported to be relativel y less complete in terms of the number of product related thoughts and attributes when experiencing peace ( M = 4.90 ) than excitement ( M = 6. 75 ) although this difference did not reach significance ( F (1, 37) = 1.04, p > .1 ). Hence hypothesis 4 was pa rtially supported (see Figure 4 6 ). Mediation E ffect of Vividness C ompleteness Matching emotion Peace and hot spring resort The next step was to test hypothesis 5a and 5b, which predict that the vividness of potentia attitudes and visiting intentions towards travel destinations. Due to the insignificant

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64 differences between the completeness scores of the ski resort across the two different emot ion conditions, the mediation analysi s w as only conducted for the hot spring resort. As suggested by Zhao, Lynch, and Chen (2010), a bootstrapping procedure with 1,000 bootstrap samples and 95% confidence interval (CI) was conducted in AMOS to examine the hypothesized mediation effects regarding the hot spring resort. A structural model was conducted to test the mediation effect of vividness/completeness on the towards the Canadian hot spring resort, The result of mediation analysis suggested that model did not fit the data well ( 2 = 18.39 df = 9, p < .05, CFI = .91, RMSEA = .1 7 ). To improve model fit, correlated residuals were added to the two dependent variables (i.e., attitude and visiting intention) based on the modification indices. In addition, adding correlated residuals h ave been suggested as an adequate approach when these correlations between residuals were driven by the design of the study (Cole, Ciesla, & Steiger, 2007) In study 2 (a) participants were required to report their visiting intentions immediately after ind icating their attitudes towards the two resorts. As a result, it was likely that the pattern of which visiting intention was correlated with the pattern of their reported attitudes towards the two resorts. The modified model exhibite d good model fit ( 2 = 9.08, df = 8 p > .05, CFI = .9 9 RMSEA = .06 ). Nevertheless, matching emotions (i.e., peace/hot spring resort) showed no direct effect on the vividness/completeness of mental imagery. As a result, n o evidence was found to support th e hypothesized mediation effect of vividness/completeness. Mismatching emotion Excitement and hot spring resort A second structural model (nested model) was further constructed to test whether vividness/completeness of mental imagery can in fact mediate the effect of

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65 visiting intention towards the Canadian hot spring resort. The result of the second mediation analysis indicated inappropriate fit ( 2 = 14.09, df = 9, p > 1 CFI = .91, RMSEA = .1 2 ) Similar to the previous analysis, correlated measurement residuals were added in order to improve the model fit. The resultant model with correlated residuals between items measuring attitudes and visiti ng intentions subsequently indicated goodness of fit ( 2 = 4.79, df = 8 p > 05 CFI = 1.0 RMSEA = 00 ) More importantly, two significant indirect effects ( b excitement vividness/completeness attitude = .15; b excitement vividness/completeness vi siting intention = .08 ) suggested that vividness/completeness of s towards the Canadian hot spring resort. In additio n, to test whether these mediations were indirect only mediations attitude and visiting intention we re allowed to directly regress on excitement in the structural model. Th is more complex model again fit the data well ( 2 = 4.32 df = 6 p > 05 CFI = 1.0 RMSEA = 0 0 ) Nevertheless, neither the direct effect of excitement on attitude nor the direct of excitement on visiting intention were significant. Furthermore, no statistical evidence was found to suggested that the more complex model fit better 2 = 0.4 7 df = 2, p = 79 ). As a result, the more parsimonious nested model was adopted suggesting vividness/completeness of mental imagery fully mediates the effect of mismatching emotions on partici intention towards the Canadian hot spring resort R esults of the mediation analyses are illustrated in Figure 4 7

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66 Object 4 1 Computer based experiment of study 2 (a) Table 4 1. Descriptive Statistics for Study 1 Condition Imagery Control Analytical Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Imagery processing 7.21 1. 47 6.63 1.76 6.27 1.97 Analytical processing 5. 21 1. 53 5.55 1.66 5.93 1.51 Attitude 7.94 1.12 8.16 0. 77 7.30 1.72 Visiting Intention 7.04 1.71 6.59 1.79 6.02 1.99 Note: All mean scores were measured on 9 point Likert Scales. Table 4 of their attitude and visiting intenti on towards the two Canadian resorts. 1. Organize the data by the levels of the nuisance factor P and calculate the individual means and the grand mean Use these values to determine the effects 2. Subtract the appropriate incidental effect from each of the original scores to equate the levels of the nuisance facto. Verify that the P means are identical and that the means (or sums) for the other factors have not changed. 3. Reorganize the adjusted data by the treatment factor (or fac tors). 4. Calculate the sums of square for any effects to be tested and for their error terms using the standard formulas. 5. Adjust the degrees of freedom for each error term by subtracting the degrees of freedom for the effect from its original value. 6. Using the adjusted degrees of freedom, calculate means squares and F ratios as usual. This information was directly adopted from the Table 17.3 in the Design and Analysis The nuisance factor P in this dissertation is the order of the two Canadian resorts shown to research participants. The order in which participants evaluated the two resorts was counterbalanced.

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67 Figure 4 1. Results of H1a and H1b Figure 4 2. Compar isons among control, imagery, and analytical condition

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68 Figure 4 3. R esults of H2a and H3a showing a significant two way interaction effect matching emotions on their attitudes tow ards the two Canadian resorts.

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69 Figure 4 4. R esults of H2b and H3b showing a significant two way interaction effect matching emotions on their visiting intentions towards the tw o Canadian resorts.

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70 Figure 4 5. An example of one imagined future trip to the Canadian Ski Resort following the proposition network illustrated by Lang (1977).

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71 Figure 4 6 Results of H4 showing a significant two way interaction effect between t ravel destinations with mental imagery.

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72 Figure 4 7 In the figure b denotes the standardized indirect effects of (mis)matching emotion on attitude and visiting intention through the completeness of mental imagery. The dotted lines indicate ins ignificant paths, whereas the solid lines represent significant paths.

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73 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The purpose of this dissertation was 1) to examine the effect of using imagery on e travel attitude and visiting intentions towards potential travel destinations when imagery processing is used as the primary approach to evaluate their future trips. The results from a series of three studies disclosed a positive effect of using imagery processing to destinations. Moreover, considering imagery processing is inherentl y more related to emotio ns th e present research empirically investigated the interaction between ir incidental feelings experienced during destination evaluations. A dditional mediation analyses further indic ated the process in which incidental feelings impact the vividness /completeness of consumption vision and in turn, detailed discussions on theoretical contributions and marketing implic ations are provided. Theoretical Contributions Different modes of information processing could purchase for identical product offers because, i n many occasions human behavi ors are determined by the combination of different strateg ies (e.g., weighted additive rule or lexicographic) employ ed to process information and the environment in which people make decisions (Bettman, Johnson, & Payne, 1991; Bettman, Luce, & Payne, 1998) For example, the

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74 importance of a product price could become more significant when shopping environments allow consumers to make comparisons between different product alternatives (Nowlis & Simonson, 1997). As a result, consumers may receive and interpr et identical product information in different ways and subsequently make different purchase decisions. Nevertheless, the fields of tourism in general and sport tourism in particular have ir judgment of travel destinations. According to Jun and Holland (2011) existing travel related studies overemphasized using extrinsic (i.e., trip related elements) and/or intrinsic variables (i.e., socio demographic background) on making process. This similar emphasis on using product related features (e.g., service quality, see Thwaites, 1999) and factors (e.g., fan and travel motives, see N. Kim & Chalip, 2004) to study traveler behaviors a lso manifests in the context of sport tourism. For instance, Chalip, Green, and Vander Velden (1998) primarily demographic variables, including age, gender, and education level, to predict their intent to, interest in, and awareness of visit ing Olympic Games. With regard to extrinsic variables, Thwaites (1999) strongly advocated enhancing the resort based sport tourism experience by delivering satisfactory service qualities tailored to different consumer sectors. Accordingly Jun and Holland argued that it is also important to investigate different information processing strategies that can be utilized by tourists to make travel decisions. T his study extends this line of research by suggesting that travelers can also employ a unique i nformatio n processing strategy imagery processing that can result in different travel decisions about an identical travel destination

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75 Information Processing Mode and Destination Marketing I n light of the shortcoming of the existing research in this area, s tud y 1 was conducted to directly examin e the role of information processing style decision making T he empirical support for hypothesis 1a and 1b was expected to improve existing theory by contrasting the effects of two different modes of information processing imagery and analytical processing on travel decisions. That is, study 1 shed some light on current understanding of destination image by distinguishing attribute based and holistic image. The results of hypothesis 1a and 1b sugge st that image s of a certain destination at the attribute level cannot enable tourists to pre experience their potential trips. On the contrary it is the use of imagery processing that allows prospective tourists to visualize holistic manner to try out their future trips toward the said destination. Therefore people who use d imagery processing can actually develop ed a more favorable attitude and heightened vi siting intention towards the identical travel destinations compared with those who use d analytical processing to evaluate individual attributes of the advertised destination The result of study 1 echoed what E chtner and Ritchie ( 200 3) stated in their stud y. That is, rather than invariably operationalizing image at individual attribute level, it is important for future research to consider destination image at the more holistic level. Imagery Processing and Push/Pull Fit The results of study 1 could potent ial contribute to existing literature on the interrelationship between push and pull factors. Ac cording to Pan and Ryan (2007), push factors related to internal motives, wh ereas pull factors refer to the chances for travel destinations to fulfill

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76 attributes. A more interactive view suggests that destination marketing could significantly benefit from identifying fit between pull and push factors (Oh Uysal, & Weaver, 1995). For example, tourist s who primarily consider trip safety would choose a travel destination that can be entirely different from tourists who value the adventurous and novel aspects of destinations. Nevertheless, existing literature has not taken into consideration the role o f uses of imagery processing in the formation of push and pull factor fit into account. Considering a safety /comfort seeker who encounters multiple vacation products could utilize imagery processing to mentally visualize his/her future visit to these travel destinations. The travel destination(s) offering attractions and features that are most consistent with his/her internal needs for safety could potentially assist this trip planner in developing a more complete and concrete consumptio n vision that can in turn, result in actual visitation. On the contrary, those destinations containing themes and attractions unrelated to safety would prevent the same trip planner from developing a vivid consumption vision. Consequently, it is reasonabl e to conjecture that the fit between push and pull factors determines the vividness of consumption vision and subsequent travel decisions. Hence, this dissertation contributes to existing literature by identifying one of the plausible underlying mechanisms through which the fit between push and pull factors can influence traveler behaviors. Imagery Processing and Emotion Another contribution made by this dissertation related to the boundary condition in which matching or mismatching emotions can bias poten travel destinations. Being more emotionally involved, imagery processing may increase ihood to rely on their incidental feelings to evaluate objects or products

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77 that are essentially unrelated to their incidenta l feelings (MacInnis & Price, 1987; Pham, 1998). Hence, using imagery processing may not always result in satisfactory mark eting outputs. As a result study 2 was designed to empirically identify the boundary condition roduct evaluation. According to previous studies, consumers might ask themselves if the pro duct can live up to its claim and compare their concurrent feelings to the feelings they expect to experience after using th e product in question. Therefore, an adv enturous vacation package should be perceived as more desirable by individuals whose incidental feeling is excitement rather than peace ( L. L. Martin et al., 1997; H. Kim et al., 2010). Nevertheless, based on the results from hypothesis 2 and 3, the positi ve effect of judgments regarding travel destinations emotional claim was only observed when imagery processing is the predominant approach used to evaluate the destinatio ns Mediation Effect of Vividness /Completeness in Imagery Processing The present research also empirically test ed the underlying process through evaluations of travel destinations under the imagery processing c ondition. Demonstr ated by a significant two way interaction claims hypothesis 4 suggested that vividness in terms of the completeness of is affected by That is individuals who felt excited at the time evaluating the hot spring resort stated th at their consumption vision s about their potential trip to the focal hot sp ring resort were less complete and vivid than those who experienced peaceful ness

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78 Differences from the feeling belief evaluation mode Moreover the mediation ana lysi s contributed to the current understanding of how distinct emotions bias t evaluations when imagery is the primary style of processing First of all, i n study 2, the completeness of consumption vision was found to fully mediate the effect of excitement but not attitude and visiting intention towards the focal hot spring resort. That is the reduction in completeness was actually driven by the mis match rather than the match between Therefore a mis match between p could in fact refrain one from generating product related thoughts and, in turn, deteriorate the completeness of consumption vision This reduction in completeness then results in a decreased product evaluation A lthough t he number of product related thoughts and attributes that emerged in and visiting intention toward s potential future travel destinations, this mechanism is fundamentally different from the feeling belie f evaluation se quential mode which suggests that feelings indirectly bias evaluated (Fishbein & Middlestadt, 1995 ; Pham, 2004 ). The sequential mode suggests that people s could actually encourage them to generate more thoughts that are consistent with their affective state. On the contrary, this study did not find any increases in the thoughts and attributes related to the Canadian hot spring resort that were pr oduced (i.e., peace) matched the hot stimulus (hot spring ) contained a total of six features and activities. When there is a

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79 ma tching, participants mentioned an average of six and a half thoughts and features related to the hot spring resort In other words the number of thoughts and features cal with th e number of features and activities provided by the advertisement of the hot spring resort. In contrast contained about three t houghts related to the hot spring resort. This reduction in thought generation is the opposite of the feeling be lief evaluation sequential mode which should actually suggest an increase in the number of excitement related thought s generated by participants who were induced with the feeling of excitement Differences from do I feel about According to the result s incidental feelings on their evaluations of future travel destinations was found to be determined by the type of information processing sty le primarily used at the time of evaluation. This boundary condition created by different information processing styles could further advance the current understanding of the process through which emotions play a role in human judgment and decision making been found to influence their evaluations of objects unrelated to their feelings in two ways. The first do I feel about evaluations of objects (e.g., life satis faction or stereo speaker) could be biased towards their diffused mood state (i.e., negative or positive feeling). The second approach suggests that with more specific emotions, individuals may shift to the this product likely to live up to its claims? heuristic and change their product evaluations based on whether there is a match or mismatch between their incidental this product likely to live up to

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80 its every p articipant in study 2 should have all exhibit ed more desirable attitude s and heightened visiting intention s towards the two Canadian resorts w phenomenon was only obs erved with participants who used imagery processing as the dominant processing style at the time of destination evaluations. In the analytical condition, there were no differences found in attitudes despite matching or mismatching emotions and visiting in tentions were actually higher among those who experienced mismatching emotions As a result, it is possibly that do I feel about this product lik ely to live up to its is determined by the types of information strategy used. All in all, the combined result s of hypothesis 4 and 5 indicated that when using imagery processing to make product evaluation s human emotions may bias indi judgment and decision making in a way that is completely different from the sequential model (Fishbein & Middlestadt, 1995). Furthermore, a boundary condition based on the do I feel ab out this product likely to live up to its heuristic (H. Kim et al., 2010) is identified. Managerial Contributions Use of Imagery Processing Existing studies suggest that travel destination s could entice more visitors by effectively maintaining a positive destination /event image Consequently, fostering desirable images of various dimensions of destinations and sporting events such as local cultures, attractions, and infrastructures through destination and event initiated

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81 advertisements has now become a popular method to lure more tourism activities (e.g., Byon & Zhang, 2010; Gibson et al., 2008; Green, Lim, Seo, & Sung, 2010). Nevert heless, the results of study 1 ar gued that merely improving (e.g., physical infrastructures) of tourism destinations may not suffice. In other words, advertisements and commercials of destinations to encourage pote ntial tourists to mentally visualize and pre experience their future trip during the pre trip planning periods Therefore instead of invariabl y improving the physical infrastructures of travel destinations, a more desirable and c ost efficient approach to allure more people to visit can simply be done by designing an advertisement that can instigate the use of imagery processing. This study may also help destination marketers have a better grasp of decision making process by examining participant W ithout being provided with any specific instructions individuals predominantly utilized imagery processing when encountering and evaluating travel related products However the results should be interpreted with caution. According t o the the SOP visualizer verbalizer s cale (Childers et al. 1985), the majority of participants in the control group were self identified as visualizer s It is plausible that the control relatively higher level of attitude s compared with those indicated by the to being a visualizer Subsequently, these visualizers were expected to rel y on imagery processing when evaluating the Canadian ski resort. That bein g said, it is unlikely to see that all potential tourists are visualizers. Therefore destination marketing agencies should be cautious about assuming imagery processing as the default model used by prospective tourists

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82 to evaluate travel related products (Oh et al., 2007). S imilar to the suggestion made by Ye and Tussyadiah (2011), this study suggest s that all destination marketers should strive to design their advertisements and marketing campaigns in a way that encourage s thei r target consumers to adopt imagery processing as the dominant processing style to evaluate potential travel destinations. Improving Vividness of Consumption Vision S port tourism and destination advertisements should be wary of media channels that could elicit significant emotional reactions among targeted potential travelers. That emotions experienced while evaluating travel products emotional claim as exemplif ied by the indirect effect of mismatching emotion (i.e., in study 2(a) Nevertheless, it would be unwise for destination marketing organizations to prevent their ta rgeting customers from using imagery processing considering the destinations found in study 1 Rather, destination marketers should be more particular about the mediums used to c ommunicate to their potential customers. Several solutions were developed by this dissertation to cope with emotions b y strategically placing the ad vertisement of destinations in the right place or directly counteract the negative eff ects caused through mismatching emotions by providing more vivid sensory descriptions. For example, broadcast media has been known to induce affective reactions towards televised programs among viewers (Coutler, 1998). Consequently, destination

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83 marketers should strategically place their advertisements after the TV programs that are anticipated to evoke emotions that are claims. Another way to counteract the negative effects of mismatching emotions caused by achieved through directly improving the quality of consumption vision A ccording to W. Lee et al. mental visualization by offering rich descriptions of multisensory information such as color and descriptions of smell. As a result, when matching emotions cannot be assured, sport tourism and destination marketers should concentrate on providing more des tination related sensory information that can be used by consumers to develop a more complete and vivid consumption vision even in mediums, such as broadcast media or TV, through which destination advertisements are delivered to prospective consumers. More over, according to Pham (1998), consumers would only incorporate their incidental feelings to their product evaluations when these incidental feelings were deemed representative and relevant to the product being evaluated. As a result, when matching emotio ns cannot be ensured, another method for destination marketers to minimize the using emotio nal related product information in their advertisements and other promotional materials. In sum, s everal marketing implications were derived from the results of this dissertation. D estination marketers should design their advertisements and commercials in a way that can encourage potential tourists to adopt imagery processing as the

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84 predominant approach to evaluate travel destinations. Furthermore, it is more important to ensure that the emotional states experienced by potential tourists during product eval When matching emotions are unwarranted, destination marketers then need to ensure their target consumers receive detailed and rich information a bout their travel destinations in order to devel op a more complete consumption vision. Limitation s Although this dissertation provided empirical evidence showing how matching few limitations were identified. First of all, b ased on study 2(a), mismatching emotions towards the hot spring resor t. Nevertheless, hypothesis 4 was only partially supported because incidental feelings had no effect on the number of thoughts related to the ski resort reported by participants. Nonetheless t his result was not completely unexpected because compared with a hot spring resort, a ski resort can potentially be a more familiar travel destination. This conjecture was preliminarily supported by a post hoc t test showing the total numbers of product mental imagery were higher in ski resort ( M = 7.15) than hot spring resort ( M = 5.85, t (38) = 2.41, p < .05). T he reduction in the completeness or vividness of consumption vision regarding ski resorts might be relatively small because ski resorts are more commo nly seen. Consequently, the results of this study might be limited to novel and new travel destinations and to the situation whe re prospective tourists often

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85 rely on the less concrete and credible organic and induced images to make their travel decisions a bout unfamiliar travel destinations Furthermore, the generalizability of the research findings could be sacrificed for ensuring internal validity. Using homogeneous student samples allowed this dissertation to infer causal relationship between the interac tion of imagery processing and As a result, more field studies with more representative samples should be conducted to improve external validity. In addition, in study 2(a), the sample size used for the mediation analyses did not meet the suggested sample size requirement (Hair Black, Babin & Anderson 2006). Consequently, future work is needed to replicate the current findings with larger sample sizes. Another limitation is related to the operationalization of vividness in terms of the completeness aspect The method summed the numbers of thoughts and attributes recalled by research participants. Nevertheless, this method was developed for use in this dissertation, and future validatio n is needed. The last limitation was related to the research subjects. In study 1, the majority of participants in the control condition were self reported as visualizers. As a result, the results of the two regression analyses could be less generalizable without being replicated with representative samples that contain a more balanced distribution of visualizers and verbalizers Future Research Direction s Several fruitful future research directions were identified. First of all only destination images of active sport tourism destinations were used in the dissertation. Future study can extend the current findings to event sport tourism and associated event image Second, a greater generalizability can be achieved if the same positive

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86 effect caused by match emotional claim can be applied to negative emotions. Consumers have been shown to voluntarily consume products featuring negative emotions (Andrade & Cohen, 2007). In sport, the World Wrestlin g Entertainment (WWE) and National Hockey League (NHL) both feature various negative emotional claims such as anger and hostility Therefore f uture studies should aim to exten d the existing findings to products making negative emotional claims, such as hor ror movies and sports featuring negative emotional connotations Another fruitful area of research could relate to identify methods to cancel out the al claim. Previous studies (e.g., W. Lee et al., 2010) have suggested that destination marketers should provide more vivid and detailed feelings experienced while mak ing travel decisions. It would be fruitful to empirically examine whether the thought suppression can be cancel out by a more detailed destination marketing ad vertisement In addition, the results of study 2(a) indicated that the effect of mismatching emo from utilizing imagery processing to evaluate the two Canadian resorts. Recently, consumer researchers (i.e., Di Muro & Murray, 2012) have found that people not only active ly manage their affective valance but also arousal levels. Based on the reversed results identified in study 2(a), it is likely that the shift in information processing strategy y change

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87 their arousal state by selecting a travel destination whose emotional theme is different Although this unexpected result could be simply ascribed to Type I error, it will be interesting for future studies to directly investigate whether mismatching emotions can in decision making when a more analytical and less imagery processing strategy is employed. In the similar vein, future research should consider the direc t relationship between the two distinct information processing modes. According to previous studies (e.g., Oliver et al., 1993), imagery and analytical are two complementary processing modes that can be simultaneously utilized at any given time. Based on t he current findings, the two processing modes could in fact compete against each other for cognitive resources. Consequently, future work is needed to examine where the effect ely by Finally, according to Rusting (1998), personality traits could moderate how people process emotional related information. Consequently, it is important to empiri cally destinations that make specific emotional claims. A broader examination of consumers with different socio demographic backgrounds should be conducted in future resea rch Conclusion A total of five hypotheses were empirically tested in this current research. Study 1 found that merely encouraging potential tourists to use imagery processing while evaluating travel destinations could significantly improve their attitude and visiting intentions compared with analytical processing. S tudy 2 further suggested that destination marketers should pay more attention to ensure that the background feelings

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88 of potential tourists are consistent with the emotional claims made by travel destinations. That is, strategically avoiding mis matching emotions could be a useful tool to help potential tourists develop a more vivid consumption vision of their future trip and, in turn result in a more desirable attitude and higher visiting intenti on.

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89 APPENDIX A MANIPULATIONS FOR INFORMATION PROCESSING STYLES Imagery Processing Note there is no right or wrong answer here. Please just respond to each question according to your feeling of the advertised ski resort. We do request that you rely on feel that you have to be coldly analytical in making your decision. Rather, close your eyes and visualize the ski resort described. Utilize the power of your imagination to envision yourself visiting the a dvertised ski resort. Analytical Processing Note there is no right or wrong answer here. Please just respond to each question according to your feeling of the advertised ski resort. We do request that you be careful and well reasoned in making your eval uation. Don't let your imagination get the better of you. Rather, try to make a logical and rational evaluation.

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90 APPENDIX B STUDY 1 STIMULI Stimulus used in imagery condition

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91 Stimulus used in analytical condition

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92 Stimulus used in control condition

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93 APPENDIX C STUDY 2 STIMULI Imagery Peaceful Analytical Peaceful

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94 Imagery Exciting Analytical Exciting

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104 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH TzuShuo Ryan Wang is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Exercise Science and Sport Management at Kennesa w S t a t e University TzuShuo r eceive d his Ph.D. in Human and Health Performance with major in Sport Management and minor in Marketing TzuShuo completed his Bachelor of Science from the National Dong Hwa University in Taiwan and received his Master of Science in Education from the University of Miami before he joined the Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management (TR SM) at the UF. TzuShuo and sport consumer beh avior and consumer psychology. He primarily focuses on the TzuShuo is also participation.