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The Cultural Adaptation Process of Agricultural and Life Sciences Students on Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045269/00001

Material Information

Title: The Cultural Adaptation Process of Agricultural and Life Sciences Students on Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences
Physical Description: 1 online resource (222 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Conner, Nathan W
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: abroad -- adaptation -- agricultural -- cultural -- education -- short -- study -- term
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore how undergraduate students in a college of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation during short-term study abroad programs. The specific objectives of this study were to describe how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences experienced culture throughout short-term, study abroad programs, to describe how the participants were affected by their cultural surroundings while participating in the program, and to propose a theory of cultural adaptation. The methodological approach used for this study was the case study and more specially, the collective case study. Three short-term study abroad programs were used and included programs located in France, Swaziland, and Costa Rica. Data collection methods included pre-travel questions, reflective journaling, post-experience questions, photographs, and participant observation. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory analysis method. The grounded theory analysis method used open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. The analysis allowed for the emergence of eight categories and 35 sub-categories. Results of this study indicated that participants in each of the case studies experienced cultural adaptation differently. Many of the participants experienced initial feelings that emerged prior to traveling to the destination country. Participants experienced varying levels of cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, and cultural negativity while traveling abroad. Additionally, many of the participants experienced academic and career growth while experiencing different types of feelings throughout the program. Cultural growth was also a finding from this study. The extent to which each participant experienced the identified stages and sub-stages of cultural adaptation depended on the individual participants’ and the short-term study abroad program.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Nathan W Conner.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Roberts Ii, Thomas G.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045269:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045269/00001

Material Information

Title: The Cultural Adaptation Process of Agricultural and Life Sciences Students on Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences
Physical Description: 1 online resource (222 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Conner, Nathan W
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: abroad -- adaptation -- agricultural -- cultural -- education -- short -- study -- term
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore how undergraduate students in a college of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation during short-term study abroad programs. The specific objectives of this study were to describe how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences experienced culture throughout short-term, study abroad programs, to describe how the participants were affected by their cultural surroundings while participating in the program, and to propose a theory of cultural adaptation. The methodological approach used for this study was the case study and more specially, the collective case study. Three short-term study abroad programs were used and included programs located in France, Swaziland, and Costa Rica. Data collection methods included pre-travel questions, reflective journaling, post-experience questions, photographs, and participant observation. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory analysis method. The grounded theory analysis method used open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. The analysis allowed for the emergence of eight categories and 35 sub-categories. Results of this study indicated that participants in each of the case studies experienced cultural adaptation differently. Many of the participants experienced initial feelings that emerged prior to traveling to the destination country. Participants experienced varying levels of cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, and cultural negativity while traveling abroad. Additionally, many of the participants experienced academic and career growth while experiencing different types of feelings throughout the program. Cultural growth was also a finding from this study. The extent to which each participant experienced the identified stages and sub-stages of cultural adaptation depended on the individual participants’ and the short-term study abroad program.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Nathan W Conner.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Roberts Ii, Thomas G.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045269:00001


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1 THE CULTURAL ADAPTATION PROCESS OF AGRICULTURAL AND L IFE SCIENCES STUDENTS ON SHORT TERM STUDY ABROAD EXPERIENCES By NATHAN WILLIAM CONNER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PA RTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 2013 Nathan William Conner

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3 To my wife Cristin Conner

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Attending graduate school and earning a Ph.D. has been a dream of mine for the better part of my adult life. The journey to earn a Ph.D. has been an amazing adventure with many bumps along the road. My experience gave me the opportunity to meet, work and develop relationships wit h many amazing individuals. I would like to thank God for allowing me to successfully complete a doctoral program and for providing me with a career I truly love. I will always be grateful for my wife, for allowing me to uproot our comfortable life and ba sically start all over in an unfamiliar State. Cristin was there for me every step of the way and showed support and encouragement even when I was not the easiest person to get along with. I t hank her for tol erating the countless hours I spent working on my dissertat ion. I will never forget how she how she would occasionally post ed d o n Facebook. I could have no t completed my Ph.D. without Cristin. I love and appreciate her with all my heart and I look forward to our next journey together! I also thank my parents for instilling in me the drive to continue my education and become a lifelong lea rner. I always knew I had to attend college; it w as an unspoken decision made long befor e I selected a university to attend. I thank my parents for guiding me in the right direction and supporting my goals and dreams. Despite the distance between us, I love them both very much an d appreciate everything that they have done for me. I also thank my brother, Brian for constantly reminding me that the doctoral degree will be worth it in the end. I t hank my amazing committee, especially my chair, Dr. Grady Roberts. I am thankful for the experiences he provided and his willingness to work with me ev ery step of th e way. I appreciate the time he spent helping me grow as a researcher, teacher, and person. He was always there to answer my many questions and help me stay on track. I thank him for being an

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5 amazing mentor, colleague, and friend! I thank Dr. Amy Harder, for being there for me when needed. When I was stressing out over my qualifying exams (primarily her s ection) she was my voice of reason I appreciated her constantly telling me that everything would b e alright. I did not believe her at the ti me, but I do now. I thank Dr. Kirby Barrick, fo r allowing me to barge into his office unannounced and just talk. His advice, knowledge, and guidance always helped me relax and put things in perspective. I thank Dr. James Stearns, for agreeing to be on my c ommittee and allowing me to collect data on his study abroad program. I also th ank Dr. Ed Osborne for giving me the oppo rtunity to work in a wonderful department ( Agricultural Education and Communication ) My peers offered support and friendship throughout my time at the University of Florida. I thank Dr. Christopher Stripling for continuing to answer all my questions, even when I already know the answer. I thank Dr. Chris Estepp for b eing an excellent mentor and helping me figure out the daily operations o f the department. I thank Dr. Kate Shoulders for always being there to make me laugh. I will always value Eric Rubenstein friendship and the laughs we had along the way. I also thank all the AEC graduate students : in particular, Austin Moore, Jessica Gould thorpe Joy Goodwin, Jessica Holt, Mary Rodriguez, Cathy Benedetto, and Milton Newberry. In case I have forgotten anybody, I would like to thank all of my family, friends, mentors, and professors.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 13 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 14 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 17 Globalization ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 17 Globalization o f Higher Education ................................ ................................ ..................... 18 Globalization of the Undergraduate Curriculum ................................ .............................. 19 Methods of Globalizing the Undergraduate Curriculum ................................ ................. 19 Study abroad Programs in General ................................ ................................ ................... 20 Participation in Study Abroad Programs ................................ ................................ .......... 22 Cultural Adaptation Processes ................................ ................................ ........................... 22 Levels of Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 24 Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 25 Purpose and Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 25 National Research Agenda for Agricultural Education ................................ ................... 25 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 26 Definitions ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 27 Assumptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 27 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 28 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 28 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ................................ 30 Conceptual Framework ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 30 Constructivism ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 31 Social Cognitive Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 34 Enactive and Vicarious Learning ................................ ................................ ................ 38 Learning and Performance ................................ ................................ .......................... 39 Experiential Learning ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 39 A Model of Experiential Learning ................................ ................................ ............... 41 Reflection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 41 Generalization ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 41 Intercultural Proficiencies ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 42 Cultural Adaptation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 42 The U Curve of Culture Shock ................................ ................................ .................... 42

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7 The Dynamic Model of Cult ure Confusion ................................ ................................ 45 Anxiety/Uncertainty Theory ................................ ................................ ......................... 46 Intercultural Sensitivity ................................ ................................ ................................ 47 Current Intercultural Proficiency Models ................................ ................................ ... 49 Global Education ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 49 Study Abroad Programs ................................ ................................ .............................. 49 Long Term/Permanent Study Abroad ................................ ................................ ........ 50 Intercultural Sensitivity ................................ ................................ ................................ 53 Short Term Study Abroad ................................ ................................ ............................ 55 Global Agricultural Emphasis ................................ ................................ ...................... 57 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 63 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS ................................ ................................ ........... 67 Researcher Subjectivity ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 68 Theoretical and Epistemologic al Perspective ................................ ................................ .. 70 Design of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 70 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 71 Case Study One: Paris, France ................................ ................................ ......................... 71 Sample Selection ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 72 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 72 Data Collection Procedures ................................ ................................ ........................ 73 Pre Travel Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 73 Post Experience Reflection Questions ................................ ................................ ...... 74 Participant Obser vation ................................ ................................ ................................ 75 Reflective Journaling ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 76 Photographs ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 76 Data Analysis Procedures ................................ ................................ ........................... 77 Trustworthiness for Case Stud y One ................................ ................................ ......... 78 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 78 Case Study Two: Swaziland, Africa ................................ ................................ .................. 79 Sample Selection ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 79 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 79 Data Collecti on Procedures ................................ ................................ ........................ 80 Pre Travel Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 80 Post Experience Reflection Questions ................................ ................................ ...... 81 Reflective Journaling ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 82 Photographs ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 82 Data Analysis Procedures ................................ ................................ ........................... 83 Trustworthiness in Case Study Two ................................ ................................ .......... 83 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 84 Case Study Three: Costa Rica ................................ ................................ .......................... 84 Sample Selection ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 84 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 84 Data Collection Procedures ................................ ................................ ........................ 85 Pre Travel Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 85 Post Experience Reflection Questi ons ................................ ................................ ...... 86

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8 Reflective Journaling ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 86 Photographs ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 88 Data Analysis Procedures ................................ ................................ ........................... 88 Trustworthiness of Case Study Three ................................ ................................ ....... 89 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 89 Cross Case Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 89 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 90 4 FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 92 Case Study One : Paris, France ................................ ................................ ......................... 92 Initial Feelings ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 93 Initial Concerns ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 93 Negative Cultural Views ................................ ................................ ............................... 94 Initial Excitement ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 94 Need for Personal Growth and Cultural Growth ................................ ...................... 95 Anticipation of Cultural Acceptance and Integration ................................ ............... 96 Cultural Uncertainty ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 96 Focus on Life in the United State s ................................ ................................ ............. 96 Cultural Surprises ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 97 Confusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 98 Lack of Cultural Understanding ................................ ................................ .................. 98 Comparisons ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 98 Cultural Barriers ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 99 Cultural Negativity ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 100 Negative Experiences ................................ ................................ ................................ 100 Frustration ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 102 Cultural Avoidance ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 102 Group Dynamics ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 103 Academic and Career Growth ................................ ................................ .......................... 104 Academic Focus ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 104 Professional Growth ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 104 Classroom Issues ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 105 Feelings throughout the Program ................................ ................................ .................... 105 Excitement ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 105 Need to Fit in ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 105 Negative Attitude toward the United States ................................ ............................ 106 Cultural Growth ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 107 Overcoming Language Barriers ................................ ................................ ................ 107 Cultural Respect and Acceptance ................................ ................................ ............ 107 Positive Cultural Exp eriences ................................ ................................ ................... 108 Cultural Identification and Recognition of Culture ................................ ................. 109 Cultural Integration ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 110 Increased Interest in Future Experiences Abroad ................................ ................. 111 Case Study One Summary ................................ ................................ ............................... 111 Case Study Two: Savannah Wildlife Ecology ................................ ............................... 111 Initial Feelings ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 111

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9 Initial Concerns ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 111 Initial Excitement ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 112 Need for Personal Growth and Cultural Growth ................................ .................... 113 Expects Culture Shock ................................ ................................ ............................... 114 Cultural Uncertainty ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 114 Cultural Surprises ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 114 Compari sons ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 115 Cultural Barriers ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 116 Cultural Negativity ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 116 Academic and Career Growth ................................ ................................ .......................... 117 Academic Focus ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 117 Professional Growth ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 118 Feelings throughout the Program ................................ ................................ .................... 118 Excitement ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 118 Discomfort ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 119 Negative Attitude toward the United States ................................ ............................ 119 Cultural Growth ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 120 Overcoming Language Barriers ................................ ................................ ................ 120 Cultural Respect and Acceptance ................................ ................................ ............ 120 Positive Cultural Exp eriences ................................ ................................ ................... 121 Cultural Identification and Recognition of Culture ................................ ................. 122 Cultural Learning ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 123 Personal Growth ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 124 Increased Interest in Future Experien ces Abroad ................................ ................. 124 Case Study Two Summary ................................ ................................ ............................... 124 Case Study Three Leadership Institute Study Abroad Program ............................... 125 Initial Feelings ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 125 Initial Concerns ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 125 Initial Excitement ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 126 Need for Personal Growth and Cultural Growth ................................ .................... 126 Expects Culture Shock ................................ ................................ ............................... 127 Expects Discomfort ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 128 Anticipation of Cultural Acceptance and Integration ................................ ............. 128 Cultural Uncertainty ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 129 Cultural Surprises ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 129 Comparisons ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 130 Cultural Barriers ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 132 Cultural Negativity ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 132 Group Dynamics ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 133 Academic and Career Development ................................ ................................ ............... 134 Academic Focus ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 134 Professional Growth ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 135 Feelings throughout the Program ................................ ................................ .................... 135 Excitement ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 135 Discomfort ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 136 Safety Concerns ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 136

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10 Thankfulness for the United States ................................ ................................ .......... 137 Cultural Growth ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 137 Overcoming Language Barriers ................................ ................................ ................ 137 Cultural Respect and Acce ptance ................................ ................................ ............ 138 Positive Cultural Experiences ................................ ................................ ................... 139 Cultural Identification and Recognition ................................ ................................ .... 139 Cultural Learning ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 140 Personal Growth ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 140 Increased Interest in Future Experiences Abroad ................................ ................. 141 Cultural Integration ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 141 Case Study Three Summary ................................ ................................ ............................ 142 Cross Case Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 142 Initi al Feelings ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 143 Cultural Uncertainty ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 143 Cultural Barriers ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 144 Cultural Negativity ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 144 Group Dynamics ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 144 Academic and Career Growth ................................ ................................ .......................... 144 Feelings throughout the Program ................................ ................................ .................... 144 Cultural Growth ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 145 Cross Case Analysis Summary ................................ ................................ ....................... 145 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 145 5 DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ .. 152 Initial Feelings ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 153 Initial Concerns ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 153 Negative Cultural Views ................................ ................................ ............................. 154 Initial Excitement ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 155 Need for Personal Growth and Cultural Growth ................................ .................... 156 Anticipation of Cultural Acceptance and Integration ................................ ............. 157 E xpect Culture Shock ................................ ................................ ................................ 159 Expects Discomfort ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 160 Cultural Uncertainty ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 161 Focus on Life in the United States ................................ ................................ ........... 161 Cultural Surprises ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 1 62 Confusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 163 Lack of Cultural Understanding ................................ ................................ ................ 164 Comparisons ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 165 Cultural Barriers ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 166 Cultural Negativity ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 166 Negative Experiences ................................ ................................ ................................ 166 Frustration ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 167 Cultural Avoidance ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 168 Group Dynamics ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 169 Group Issues ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 169 Relat ionship Growth ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 170

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11 Academic and Career Growth ................................ ................................ .......................... 170 Academic Focus ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 170 Professional Growth ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 171 Feelings throughout the Program ................................ ................................ .................... 171 Excitement ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 171 Need to Fit In ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 172 Negative Attitude Toward the United Sta tes ................................ .......................... 173 Discomfort ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 174 Safety Concerns ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 174 Thankfulness for the United States ................................ ................................ .......... 175 Cultural Growth ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 175 Overcoming Language Barriers ................................ ................................ ................ 175 Cultural Respect and Acceptance ................................ ................................ ............ 177 Positive Cultural Experiences ................................ ................................ ................... 177 Cultural Identification and Recognition of Culture ................................ ................. 178 Cultural Integration ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 178 Increased Interest in Future Experiences Abroad ................................ ................. 180 Cultural Learning ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 180 Personal Growth ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 181 Summary of Practitioner Recommendations ................................ ................................ 181 List of Practitioner Recommendations ................................ ................................ ............ 184 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ................................ ........ 186 APP ENDIX A PRE TRAVEL QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 188 B REFLECTION JOURNAL GUIDING QUESTI ONS ................................ ...................... 191 C POST EXPERIENCE REFLECTION EXERCISE ................................ ......................... 192 D PHOTOGRAPH PROMPT ................................ ................................ ................................ 194 E PRE TRAVEL QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 195 F REFLECTION JOURNAL GUIDING QUESTI ONS ................................ ...................... 198 G POST EXPERIENCE REFLECTION EXERCISE ................................ ......................... 199 H PHOTOGRAPH PROMPT ................................ ................................ ................................ 201 I PRE TRAVEL QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 202 J REFLECTION JOURNAL GUIDING QUESTIONS ................................ ...................... 205 K POST EXPERIENCE REFLECTION EXERCISE ................................ ......................... 206 L PHOTOGRAPH PROMPT ................................ ................................ ................................ 208

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12 M IRB APPROVAL ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 209 N INFORMED CONSENT ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 210 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 212 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 222

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13 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Number of participants in each short term study abroad program ................................ .... 91 4 1 Shared stages and sub stages between the three case studies ................................ .......... 150

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14 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Conceptual model of the cultural adaptation process of agricultural students during short term study abroad programs ................................ ................................ ..................... 64 2 2 Triadic reciprocality (Bandura, 1986, p. 24) ................................ ................................ ...... 65 2 3 Model of the experiential learning process (Roberts, 2006, p. 22). ................................ ... 65 2 4 The U curve of culture shock (Oberg, 1960) ................................ ................................ ..... 65 2 5 Initial culture confusion and adaptation/oppositio n (Hottola, 2004) ................................ 66 4 1 Cultural adaptation stages and sub stages for the Agricultural and Food Marketing in France short term study abroad ................................ ................................ ....................... 147 4 2 Cultural adaptation stages and sub stages for the African Savannah Wildlife Ecology short term study abroad program ................................ ................................ ..................... 148 4 3 Cultural adaptation sta ges and sub stages for the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Leadership Institute short term study abroad program ................................ ..... 149 5 1 Cultural adaptation stages of College of Agricultural and Life Sciences short term study abroad programs ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 187

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15 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doc tor of Philosophy THE CULTURAL ADAPTATION PROCESS OF AGRICULTURAL AND L IFE SCIENCES STUDENTS ON SHORT TERM STUDY ABROAD EXPERIENCES By Nathan William Conner May 2013 Chair: T. Grady Roberts Major: Agricultural Education and Communication The purpose of this study was to explore how undergraduate students in a college of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation during short term study abroad programs. The specific objectives of this study were to describe how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences experienced culture throughout short term, study abroad programs, to describe how the participants were affected by their cultural surroundings while participating in the program, and to propose a theory of cultural adaptation. The methodological approach used for this study was the case study and more specially, the collective case study. Three short term study abroad p rograms were used and included programs located in France, Swaziland, and Costa Rica. Dat a collection methods included pre travel questions, reflective journaling, post experience questions, photographs, an d participant observation. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory analysis method. The grounded theory analysis method used open codi ng, axial coding, and selective coding. The analysis allowed for the emergence of eight categories and 35 sub categories Results o f this study indic ated that participants in each of the case studies experience d cultural adaptation differently. Many of the participants experienced initial feelings that emerged

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16 prior to traveling to the destination country. Participants experienced varying levels of cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, and cultural negativity while traveling abroad. Additionally, many of the participants experienced academic and career growth while experiencing different types of feelings throughout the program. Cultural growth was also a finding from this study. The extent to which each participant experienced the identified stages and s ub stages of cultural adaptation term study abroad program.

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17 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Globalization The world has seemingly become a smaller place in which people interact with people from all over the world (National Research Council, 2009). The television, the Internet, and even the shelves at the grocery store, which consist of produc ts from all over the world, constantly remind us of the global society we live in (Boyd, Felton, & Dooley, 2004). Howev er, globalization is also evident through the population of the United States. Simultaneously, foreign trade, the creation of an increasingly diverse consumer base, and extended efforts at (Clark, Flaherty, Wright, & McMillen, 2009, p. 1 73). Held, McGrew, Goldblatt, and economy, cultures, and all other aspects of interdependent, int ernational travel has increased and people from all over the world have been regularly interacting with one another (Anderson, Lawton, Rexeisen, & Hubbard, 2006). However, globalization ha s expanded beyond world trade and has affected people in other professions and in everyday life. J ohns and Thompson (2009) said globalization will alter healthcare in the sense that healthcare professionals will likely fi nd themselves working outside the U nited States or with a variety of racial and ethnic groups within the Unit ed States. This has affec ted healthcare providers, and has also exposed patients to a diverse population of healthcare providers. The agricultural industry has not been exempt from globalization. The U.S. agricultural industry has been operating within a global marketplace and has relied on inputs from around the

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18 globalized marketplace has c hanged the way business is conducted and has altered the way people interact with other countries. T o help people adapt and operate within a globalized community and world, an emphasis on globalization and cultural awareness must be recognized and examined at the university level (Longview Foundation, 2008). Globalization of Higher Education exposure, and experience are c onsidered prerequisites to succeed within a professio n (Op en Doors, 2006). T o prepare students to operate within a global society, calls have been made for the globalization of higher education (Longview Foundation, 2008; National Research Council, 2009; Pickert, 1992). The National Association of State Universit ies and Land Grant Colleges (NA SULGC) (1997) said an educated person in the 21st century must be able to successfully operate within a global environment. Duffy, Tones, and Christiansen (1998) said internationalization through the land grant university sys tem is a critical component in the process of building human capacity in an effort of sustainable development. The NASULGC said it is the responsibility of land grant institutions to expose students to a globalized education. T his type of exposure will all ow citizens to bring global ideas to local settings, which will contribute to the sustainability of their local community. The Globalizing Agricultural, Science, and Education Programs for America Committee (GASEPA) called for a world in which faculty and students are globally competent and are qualified to compete in an interdependent world (CSREES/USDA, 2002). The Longview Foundation (2008 p. 7) said universities must produce graduates that are globally competent Global competence is defined as follows : and economic systems, and current international issues Language and cross cultural skills to communicate effectively with people from other countries, understand mul tiple perspectives, and use primary sources from around the globe.

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19 A commitme nt to ethical citizenship Bobby D. Moser, chairman of the GASEPA Task Force acknowledged that higher education must actively be involved in creating, United States citizens tha t are cognitively prepared and willing to become globally educated citizens. Moser (CSREES/USDA, 2002, p.64) said As we position U.S. agriculture for the 21st century, we are cognizant that higher education, research, and outreach programs at our land gr ant and similar universities will need to address global issues more than in the past. We urgently need to find ways to increase the level of engagement of our resident teaching faculty, research scientists, and extension agents in addressing global dimens ions of food and fiber industries, and the natural resource base on which they rely. Globalization of the Undergraduate Curriculum Globalization of the undergraduate curriculum has been a challenge, and faculty members have not alt ered the way they teach courses and operate programs (Gorki & Niesenbaum, 2001). Navarro and Edwards (2008) acknowledged that the internationalization of the undergraduate curriculum is often viewed as a separate entity instead of a pivotal part of every program in the college. Internationalization of the undergraduate curriculum should be a joint effort shared by departments : should emphasize globalization (Gorki & Niesenbaum, 2001; Navarro & Edwards, 2008). Wingenbach, Boyd, Lindner, Dick Arisoe, a nd Haba (2003) said agricultu ral education students have narrow perspectives and lack understanding of international agriculture and culture. University professors have been presented with an increasingly difficult challenge as they strive to educate the ir students and help them become successful in a global community (Zhai & Scheer, 2002). Methods of Globalizing the Undergraduate Curriculum [es] on three key areas: integration of international exa mples and activities in the curriculum, short and long term student

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2 0 (Bruening & Frick, 2004, p. 90). The NASULGC (1997) said there are many ways for professors to expand their knowled ge of international agriculture: intern ational research, involvement in international projects, and sabbaticals. International travel for f aculty members may take the form of international study abroad experiences in which participants are exposed to tec hnical content as well as culture (Conner, Roberts, Harder, Gouldthorpe Moore, & Hurst, 2012). Faculty study abroad trips ( in which the faculty members are exposed to culture and then expected to create a culturally based reusable learn ing object to aid in their course inst ruction ) have provided a more affordable means of internationalizing the curriculum and have exposed students to different cultural perspectives (Conner, Harder, Gouldthorpe & Roberts, 2012). Another method of provid ing cultural exposure was pointed out by Boyd, Felton, and Dooley (2004). They encouraged the use of virtual international expe riences for students, to affect a large number of students at a relativel y low cost. However, Boyd and colleagues said authentic learning in the form of study abroad programs has been the best method of exposing students to different cultures and globalizing the curriculum. Win genbach et al. (2003) said agricultu ral students should be exposed to some type of int ernational experience outside the United States. International experiences may take on many different forms (Boyd et al., 2004). exchanges travel abroad or study abroad and (Boyd et al., 2004, p. 64). Study abroad Programs in General One of the most popular methods of internationalizing the undergraduate curriculum has been study abroad programs (Zhai & Scheer, 2002). Lutterman Aguila r and Gingerich (2002) said programs have increased and gained reco gnition, attitudes towards study abroad programs have

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21 changed. Recently, two views have emerged: (a) studying abroad has allowed the studen t to be exposed to and learn things in ways that cannot be provided in the classroom on the home campus ; and (b) instructors must intervene and facilitate learning before, during, and after the study abroad program (Vande Berg, 2009). Many study abroad pro grams have gone through a metamorphosis over the years and evolved from the traditional yearlong programs, in which the student explores Europe, to short term study abroad programs (Bennett, 2009; Vande Berg, 2007). Historically, study abroad programs in t he 20th century were for wealthy, upscale Americans P articipants traveled to places like the United Kingdom for an upscale experience (Vande Berg, 2009). Study abroad evolved from the 20th century grand tour to the junior year abroad (Vande Berg, 2004). V ande Berg described the junior year abroad as a trip that is elitist and focused on cultural enhancement s through destinations filled with culture. Long term study abroad programs are still popular today, but the cost and time commitments of these programs have prohibited many students from participating (Sacha u, Brasher, & Fee, 2010). Because of the high cost of long term, study abroad programs, some universities emphasize shorter study abroad programs (Arenson, 2003; Koernig, 2007). The 1970s and 1980s b rought change in study abroad programs. Vande Berg (200 7) recognized that students who studied the humanities and the social sciences participated in study abroad programs, but these programs were much shorter in length than in the past. Many study abroad programs were sho rtened to one semester but there was still very little involvement from basically sent to another country with the expectation that they would mirac ulously learn another language and gain something from some form of cultural exposure (Vande Berg, 2007).

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22 Study abroad programs have evolved i nto structured programs designed to expose students to the culture within the country (Bennett, 2009), and the pr ograms have expanded beyond the traditional program in Europe (Chin, 2006). Study abroad programs have also expanded to include non traditional disciplines, such as the sciences, business, and engineering (Van de Berg, 2007). Well structured study abroad pr og rams have provided active learning and the skills and values necessary to thrive upon graduation (Vande Berg, 2009). Participation in Study Abroad Programs The Institute of International Education has published the Opendoors report on a yea rly basis. Thi s report gives a statistical overview of study abroad programs. During the 2009/2010 academic year, 270,604 students fro m universities and colleges in the United States received academic credit for participating in a study abroad program : a 4% increase in participation from the previous academic year (Opendoors, 2011). The most popular locations for study abroad programs have been in Europe. However, non European locations have become more popular and today account for 14 of the top 25 locations for study abroad programs (Opendoors, 2011). Non English speaking countri es have been more prevalent in study abroad, and short term study abroad programs have been increasing i n popularity, because of the lower costs and time commitments associated with the short term programs (Opendoors, 2011). Cultural Adaptation Processes Study abroad programs have intentionally or unintentionally exposed students to unfamiliar culture. Culture has been extremely complex and has encompassed many ideas, includi ng space, time, l anguage, social relations, food, clothes, body, everyday life, religion, and rituals (Delaney, 2011). Gorka an d Niesenbaum (2001) said traditional study abroad programs and literature. In the agricultural sciences, culture has typically not been the main focus of the

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23 program The technical content has usually been the focus of thes e trips. Kelly (1963) said students can experience study abroad trips without experiencing or adapting to the culture around them. The National Research Council (NRC) (2009) called for cultural infusion through study abroad programs in agriculture. Undergraduate students in agricultural study abroad programs have been exposed to a variety of c ul tures (Bruenning & Frick, 2004b). Cultural differences encountered while traveling abroad have often been confusing and tiring for travelers (Hottola, 2004). Cultures holistically adapt to press ures from their environment and people alter the way they comm unicate and think (Lustig & Koester, 2006). People who are part of a particular culture typically have not recognized the cultural changes because of the conti nuous external pressure placed on the culture o function effectively in an environment depends upon our skill in recognizing and responding appropriately to the values and agreed that individuals go through c hallenges when exposed to new cultural environments (Gudykunst & Hammer, 1988). However, researchers have not always agreed on how individuals experience and cope with cultural adaptation (Gao & Gudykunst, 1990). The U curve of the culture shock model (Obe rg, 1960) has become a popular method of explaining the intercultural adaptation process for tourists and has been depicted in various travel guidebooks (Kolanad & Kolanad, 1999 ). The U curve has been used to outline the experiences of tourists ssion to recovery through the stages of euphoria, disillusionment, hostility, curve of culture shock has been updated to provide possible stages of cultural confusion and learning (Hot tola, 2004). Additionally, Gud ykunst and Hammer (1988) said that individuals encounter difficulties when

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24 e xperiencing a new culture because of the lack of certainty and security, which cause individuals t o become cognitively uncertain how to behave. Theref ore, the anxiety/uncertainty theory has been an additional way to explain cultural adaptation. Bennett (2004) used the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity to explain how people handled and dealt with cross cultural experiences. The Development Model of Intercultural Sensitivity has six different stages that a person may experience: d enial, defense, minimization, acceptance, adaptation, and integration (Bennett, 2004). The existing literature has focused on the cultural adaptation of internatio nal travelers and explored the adaptation processes they go through. However, the existing literature has not examined how undergraduate agricultural students have dealt with cultural adaptation while participating in study abroad programs that emphasize scientific content. There needs to be a balance between cultural learning and scientific learning in order for students to gain as much knowledge as possible when participating in the study abroad program. This study began to examine this issue. Levels o f Theory There are many differ ent definitions for 6) that has been used to describe a pattern. Additionally, there are different types of theories including grand theories and middle range theories (Bryman, 2008). Grand theories are often abstract in nature and make it challenging for social scientist s connect theory and reality (Merton, 1967). According to Bryman (2008), Merton used middle range theories to work w ithin a particular context or s ituation. Middle range theory 7). However, Glaser and Strauss (1965) elaborated on the final product of some qualitative resear ch and indicated it as substanti ve theory. According to Glaser and Strauss (1965)

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25 Substantive theory is more often than not the end product of research within a substantive area beyond which few, if any, research sociologists are motivated to move. Second it is the basis upon which grounded formal theory is generated. obtaining the type of information required and for contending with the difficulties of an empirical resear ch situation. Fourth, sociologists (and informed laymen) manage often to profit quite well in their everyday work life from substantive theory based on qualitative research (p. 5). This study does not strive to generate grand theory or middle range theor y. However, in accordance with Glaser and Strauss (1965), the dev elopment of substantive theory will occur due to the qualitative methodology used for this study. Problem Statement The lack of attention and preparat ion given to the culture and cultural ada ptation i n many short term study abroad programs prevents students from fully experiencing the program and adapting to the culture. Purpose and Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore how undergraduate students in a college of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation during short term study abroad programs. The specific objectives of this study were as follows : Describe how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences experience d culture throughou t short term study abroad programs. Assess how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences were affected by their cultural surroundings while participating in short term, study abroad programs. Propose a conceptual framework of cultural adaptation for undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences on short term study abroad programs. National Research Agenda for Agricultural Education This study aligns with priority area four of the National Research Ag enda for Agricultural Education (Doerfert, 2011) Priority area four focuses on active learning within all

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26 areas of agricultural education and within all learning environmen ts. This study focuses on short term study abroad programs in agriculture and life sciences and focuses on learning through cultural adaptation. This study will help strengthen short term study abroad programs and h elp facilitators develop short term study abroad programs that enhance overall learning. Significance of the Study Finding s of this study will benefit study abroad instructors, study abroad students, and administrators who coordinate study abroad programs. For instructors charged with designing and implementing study abroad programs findings of this study will provide with a possibl e cultural adaptation process for undergraduate student participants. Instructors will benefit because it will allow them to better understand the cultural adaptation process their students will experience. It will also allow them to integrate pos itive cultural experiences into the study abroad program to help ensure that students are positiv ely experiencing culture and are able to focus on the technical knowl edge and concepts being taught. Instructors will also benefit by introducing the cultural adap tation process into pre travel exercises to help prepare the students for what they may experience. Study abroad students will benefit from exposure to the c ultural adaptation process before the study abroad program because it will allow them t o thin k about possible ways cultural exposure may affect them and also to identify ways to handle their feelings. An increased personal awareness of their cultural adaptation process and the in creased knowledge and skill the students would gain from increased c ultural awareness will allow the students to have a positive cultural experience, which will allow the students to increase their cultural awareness. In addition, administrators will indirectly benefit from an understanding of the cultural adaptation proc ess through the previously identified benefits of the instructors and the students.

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27 to contribute to the globalizat ion of the curriculum and providing cultura l experiences to their studen ts to help create graduates who are ready to work in a diverse globalized workforce. Definitions Culture: An established framework of expectations and values in which a person views the world (Brislin & Yoshida, 1994). Cultu re is extremely complex and encompasses many ideas including, but not limited to: space, time, language, social relations, food, clothes, body, everyday life, religion, and rituals (Delaney, 2011). Cultural awareness : The process of learning about cultural similarities and cultural differences among various cultures (National Center for Cultural Competence, n.d.) Cultural adaptation : In this study, cultural adaptation was operationalized as when individuals and behavior appropriate to that established framework of expectations and values in which a person views the world (Brislin & Yoshida, 1994) allows for a change in t, 2004, p. 7). Global competence : The Longview Foundation (2008) def ined global competence as the and economic systems, and current international issues; Language an d cross cultural skills to communicate effectively with people from other countries, understand multiple perspectives, Globalization : The interconnectedness of the aspects of life (Held, McGrew, Goldblatt, & Perraton, 1999) Intercultural Sen sitivity: 179.) Internationalized curriculum : Curricula with an internatio nal orientation in content, aimed at preparing students for performing (professionally/socially) in an international and van der Wende, 1995, p. 10). Short term, s tudy abroad program : In this study short term, study abroad program was defined as a study abroad program lasting between one and three weeks in length and taken for course credit. Assumptions The following assumptions were made for the purposes of this st udy: Participants responded truthfully. Participants thoughtfully considered their responses to the questions and writings.

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28 Limitations The results, conclusions, and implications from this study wer e exposed to the following limitations: Short term study abroad selection does not represent all disciplines in the college of agricultural and life sciences. All short term study abroad programs selected came from the University of Florida. Chapter Summa ry As the world becomes more interconnected, the way people live, work, and interact with economy has created a society that regularly interacts with one anothe r (Anderson, Lawton, Rexeisen, & Hubbard, 2006). However, globalization does not only affect business and the economy; it affects the everyday lives of people. Even a routine visit to a healthcare provider might provi de interactions with people who are of a different race and ethnicity (Johns & Thompson, 2009). interacting with people from around the world (Opendoors, 2006). The NASULGC (1997) said United States land gra nt institutions have a responsibility to provide an internationalized education to their students, and th is will help ensure that future leaders see and think thro ugh a global lens while working in their local communities. One way to internationalize the c urriculum has been through stu dy abroad programs (Bruening & Frick, 2004). Study abroad programs have expanded to include nontraditional disciplines, as well as locations outside of Europe and the United Kin gdom (Vand e Berg, 2007). However agricultural st udy abroad programs have typically f ocused on technical content.

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29 The tourist industry has proposed several different cultural adaptation processes that c urve of culture shock, Hottola s (2004) cultural /uncertainty theory. However, the previously mentioned theories and models do not consider how students participating in study abroad programs go through cultural adaptation. The pur pose of this study was to explore how undergraduate students in a college of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation during short term study abroad programs Faculty members charged with designing and implementing agricultural study abroad programs need to have an understanding of how students experience and adapt to the culture around the m. This knowledge will help faculty members design and implement a study abroad program that help s students positively adapt to cultures different f rom their own and thus be better prepared to work in a global society.

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30 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Chapter one of this study introduced the need for undergraduate students to be globally competent. Study abr oad programs have been one way o f globalizing the undergrad uate curriculum and exposing students to a different culture. Over the years study abroad programs have evolved from yearlong programs to shorter programs that are much more affordable Because of increased undergraduate parti cipation in short term study abr oad programs (Open Doors, 2011), there has been a growing opportunity to expose undergraduate s tudents to various cultures in the con text of another cou ntry. However agricultural study abroad programs have often focused on the technical content and have not purposefully integrated cultural learning experiences into the program The purpose of this study was to identify how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation when on a short term study abroad program. The purpose of chapter two was to provide a conceptual framework for this study. Empirical evidence was obtained from prev ious research to show what is currently known about the cultural adaptation of agricultura l undergraduates in a study abroad program. Grounded theo ry methodology was used to develop a theory to explain the cultural adaptation process of agricultural undergraduates on a short term study abroad program. Existing literature was used to provide a c onceptual framework for the theo ry developed. Conceptual Framework Because of the nature of this study, existing theory was used to constr uct a conceptual framework to guide the development of a substantive theory A researcher developed conceptual framewo rk (Figure 2 1) was created consisting of contextual variables, student variables, input processes, and produ cts or outcomes. This study focus ed on the intercultural proficiency

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31 outcomes section of the conceptual framework mod el. Specifically, a substanti ve cu ltural adaptation theory was developed Based on the researcher developed conceptual framework model, both contextual variables and student variables affect how students learn and adapt to culture during a short term study abroad experience. Country a nd culture have been labeled contextual variables and affect the learner throughout the study abroad program. King and Young (1 994) found that the culture the students are exposed to while living in another country prevents some students from participating in a study abroad program. In addition, age, gender, nationality, and previous travel experience have been identified as student variables. King and Young found that a higher percent age of females pl an to study abroad; however, it i s more likely for a mal e to have previous foreign travel experience than a female. Rodriguez and Roberts (2011) reported greater female participation in study abroad programs, compared to males. Constructivism Construc tivism has been considered an epistemology or philosophy th at explains how people learn; not a learning theory (Simpson, 2002). In the technical sense, constructivism is not (Schunk, 2004, p. ypotheses to be generated and tested (p. 286). The epistemology of constructivism says people create their own knowledge and learning (Schunk, 2004; Fosnot, 1996). However, fo r this study constructivism was considered a learning theory in order to stay con sistent with the terminology of other learning theories and so predictions could be made and objectively tested (Schunk, 2004). Therefore, the ter used for this study, because of Constru ctivis m as a learning theory says learners constru ct their own knowledge based on personal experiences (Fosnot, 1996). The active construction of knowledge from personal experiences has been at the heart of constructivism (Fosnot, 1996; Steffe & Gale, 1995). Von

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32 Glaserfeld (1984, 1995, 1998) acknowledged the following as central tenets to const ructivism: (a) learner play an active role in constr ucting their own knowledge, (b) the gathering of knowledge is an adaptive process, (c) individual and or social experien ce is a vital part of knowledge creation of reality. Doolittl e and Camp (1999) suggested constructivism does not fit into one solid package; instead, constructivism should be desc ribed a s a continuum, because different assumptions are associated with the various types of constructivism. According to Doolittle and Camp there are three different types of constructivism: cognitive constructivism (Anderson, 1993), radical constructivi sm (Piaget, 1973; von Glasersfeld, 1995), and social constructivism (Vygotsky, 1978). C ognitive constructivism was built around the process of cognition (Dole & Sinatra, 1998) and allows learners to acquire and construct their own knowledge through active cognizing and individual adaptability (Doolittle & Camp, 1999). Learning takes place through authentic experiences in which the learner is challenged to begin the cognition process by revisiting knowledge structures and analyzing prior knowledge and exper ience (Doolittle & Camp, 1999). Cogn itive constructivism claims there is a true external reality, and it is knowable to the learner (Doolittle & Camp, 1999). Therefore, in cognitive constructivism internalization and (re)construction of ex 5). However, all forms of constructivism do not share the same view toward an external reality. Radical constructivism adheres to the first three tenants of constructiv ism and says an external realit y is subjective in nature (Doolittle & Camp, 1999). Learners have the ability and

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33 freedom to deci de what the external reality is. H owever, the learner can never know the true s of the true von Glaserfeld, 1998). Knowle dge acquisition is guided by its adaptive nature This implies t hat the knowledge learners possess is their person al knowledge and should be used as a model of experience, based on the belief that personal knowledge does not mirror true external reality (von Glasersfeld, 1995). Doolittle and Camp said personal models of experience are heavily in fluenced by the context where the knowledge acquisition takes place. Social constructivism adheres to all four central tenets of constructivism and says learning is an adaptive process, in whi ch the learner uses active cognition to acquire knowledge, external reality is sociall y agreed upon, and knowledge acquisition is done through social interactions (Doolittle & Camp, 1999). The emphasis of social constructivism is the re creation of knowledge and the belief that meaning is constructed by a group of people rather than the ind ividual (Doolittle & Camp, 1999). All three types of constructivism were used for this study because of the nature of study abroad experiences. Based on Estepp and Roberts (2011a) said there were three commonalities among cognitive constructivism, radical constructivism, and social constructivism. Each form of constructivism requires active cognition from the learner, some type of interpretation of reality, and an experience of some kind (Estepp & Roberts, 2011a). The agricultural undergra duate study abroad programs provided an experience for each participant, allowed for active cognition from the learner in order to acquire knowledg e, and allowed learners to interpret reality. Therefore, all

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34 three forms of constructivism (Doolittle & Camp, 1999) were combined holistically and used in the conceptual representation. Social Cognitive Theory The social cognitive theory was used as an additional conceptual component to establish a complete framework for the process of cultural adaptation. Th e social cognitive theory says learning takes place socially through observation, imitation, and modeling (Ormrod, 2008) Learning is the product of interactions between internal processes and external factors (Bandu ra, 1986, 1989a, 1989b, 1999; Ormrod, 2008; Schunk, 2004). Schunk said various learning assumption s and performance behaviors are associated with the social cognitive theory : vicarious learning (i.e., the ways learning occurs); and the d istinction between learning and (p. 84). T he assumptions of social cognitive theory align well with constructivist theory because many of the assumptions have overlapping princip les. As mentioned constructivism requires active cognition from the learner, requires some type of interpretation of reality, and requires an experience of some kind (Estepp & Roberts, 2011a). When examining the commona lities of constructivism and social cognitive theory, it is evident that both theories expect the learner to have some form of experience in which the learner is actively involved in the learning process. Constructivism uses experiences to allow the learner to draw connections from past expe riences in order to learn from present and future experience s (Dewey, 1938). Similarly, social cognitive theory uses experiences as learning opportunities in which active or vicarious learning takes place (Schunk, 2004). Experiences have are pivotal aspec ts of both learning t heories, because experiences allowed the learners to acquire new knowledge; ther efore, experiences were central to the acquisition of knowledge. Additionally, both theories v alue social interactions among

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35 learners and have acknowledged that learning is a cognitive process (Bandura, 1986; Doolittle & Camp, 1999). Constructivist theories say learners may develop a view of external reality through social interactions that lead to the social construction of a commonly accepted external rea l ity (Bandura, 1999). S ocial cognitive theory says construction of reality/learning occurs through the triadic reciprocality model through bi directional interactions among the cognition of the person, behaviors, and the environment (Bandur a, 1986). Construc tivism and social cognitive theor y share many similarities, thus complementing one another; therefore, constructivism and the social cognitive theory were both selected as a conceptual framework for the process of cultural adaptation. 2001) social cognitive theory focused on what and how people learn from each other (Ormrod, 20 08). Bandura (1986) said cognitive development is multifaceted and most often involves the social construction of cognitive skills. F or learning to take place Bandura (1986) said a learner must have prior capabilities The capabilities included symbolizing capability, forethought capability, vicarious capability, self regulatory capability, and self reflective capability (Bandura, 1986). According to Bandura (1 986) symbolizing is the first capability learners must negotiate. S ymbolizing capability allows learners to adapt to and alter their surrounding environment and to assign meaning to the experience (Bandura, 198 6). The second capability learners experienc e is forethought (Bandura, 1986). F orethought capability allows learners to think about their own actions and the consequenc es to their actions before executing the action (Bandura, 1986). F orethought capability also allow s learners to prepare themselves for learning by setting goals that will help third capability vicarious capability allows learning to occur without any type of reaction

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36 V icarious capability is one o f the m ain principles behind social cognitive theory (Ormrod, 2008). The fourth capability self regulation, allows learners to evaluate their own reactions and guide their behaviors (Bandura, 1986). The fifth and final capability self reflective capability all ows learners to think abo ut their own actions, reflect on their reactions, and change their behaviors if (1986) five learning capabilities form the basis for the previously mentioned assumptions an d performance behaviors associated wit h social cognitive theory: learning (i.e., the ways learning occurs); and the disti nction between learning and (p. 84). Triadic Reciprocality The firs t assumptions of reciproc ality. Bandura (1986, 2001) used the model of triadic reciprocality as a framework for describing human functioning. Bandura (1986 p.18 ) said In the social cognitive view people are neither driven by inner forces not automatically shaped and controlled by external stimuli. Rather, human functioning is explained in terms of a model of triadic reciprocality in which behavior, cognitive and other personal factors, and env ironmental events all operate as interacting det erminants of each other. F igure 2 2 shows the three components of the triadic reciprocality mo del This model was used as a frame work to help establish the process undergraduate students in agricultural an d life sciences experience, when participating in short term study abroad programs. The model is a representation of the general bidirectional determinants that will affect the process the students go through during the study abroad program. Bandura (1986) provided the model of triadic reciprocality to offer an alternative explanation of learning that d eviated from traditional single determinant learning. Alterna tively, Bandura (1989) said any determinant in the model of triadic reciprocality may exert an in fluence

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37 on one or both o f the other determinants, and Bandura called this reciprocal causation. However, reciprocal causation does not mean that the determinants equally influence one another (Bandura, 1989). The determinants may have more or less influenc e on one another at various times throughout the learning process, but the three determinants are often highly interdependent (Bandura, 1989). The following paragraphs examine factors and characteristics of each determinant as well as reciprocal causation The environment includes the physical and social environment and is one of the interdependent determinants. The environment is not constant and can change at any given time. Therefore, people have the ability to alter or change their environment through personal agency (Bandura, 2006). The behavior determinant consists of t he action or experience the leane r goes through The personal factors determinant focuses on how lear ners think or feel the cognitive competencies of the learners, social status, self e fficacy, and physical characteristics such as sex, age, and race (Bandura, 1989b). Because of exam ine how the determinants affect one another. The reciprocal causation between the pers on the b idirectional interaction of and actions (Bandura, 1989b; Schun k 2004). Bandura (1986) said the emotions and thoughts of learners affect how they behave ; and in return, the behavior o thoughts and emotions. In a study abroad program some form of cultural adaptation would be the behavior exhibited by the learners Personal factors would comprise thoughts, emotions, and self efficacy In turn, the env ironment would consist of the study abroad program as a whole, and would affect the le and cognitive competencies are shaped by the physical and social environmen t (Bandura, 1986).

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38 Likewise, physical traits of learners can affect the social environment. However, behavior may also influenc ability of individuals to ad ap t or change their environment. This in mind, behaviors of learners may lead to an adjustment or alteration within the environment. If the student posi tively experiences culture throughout the study abroad program and cultural adaptation takes place, the study abroad program. However, if the study abroad enviro nment is negative, the student may exhibit signs of a lac k of cultural adaptation. Because of the bidirectional influence of behavior and (Bandura, 1986). Enactive and Vicarious Learning Additionally, the assumption of enactive and vicarious learning was asserted in the social cognitive theory (Schunk, 2004) Bandura (1986) said processing activity in which information about the structure of behavior and about environmental enactive assumption of le arning says learners cognitively think about positive or negative consequences and act on th eir cognition rather on the consequence itself (Schunk, 2004). Schunk (2004) al consequences, rather than strengthening behaviors as postulated by operant theory, serve as sources of dition to learning by doing, social cognitive theory assumes that learning takes place vicariously through observation (Schunk, 2004). In addition, vicarious learning is one o for learning to take place. Vicarious learning allows learners to learn through observation wit hout having to test each behavior they witness and potenti ally risk experiencing negative consequences (Schunk, 2004). Vicarious

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39 learning has often taken the form of models. Schunk said models may take the form of live people, nonhuman sources such as television or the radio, and nonhuman symbols that convey mess a ges and consequences. F or complex learning to take place, learners typically require a combination of enactive and vicarious learning (Schunk, 2004). Learning and Performance ion regarding learning under so cial cognitive theor y differentiates learning from performance Learning is the process in which new knowledge is acquired. However, because of the emphasis on vicarious learning; the learner may never exhibit the acquired knowledge (Schunk, 2004). Schunk said a learner may n ot immediately or may never demonstrate the knowledge learned. S ocial cognitive theory is a complex theory that describes learning as a multifaceted process ; learning happens through direct and indirect actions (Bandura, 1986). Because of the emphasis on bi directional interactions among the environment, person, and behavio rs (Bandura, 1986, 1989a), S ocial cognitive theory provides a solid framework for this study. Experiential Learning According to the researcher developed conceptual model for this study experiential learning was used as the third and final learning theory to act as a conceptual process theory for this study. Dewey (1938) said learning should take place in the form of experiences and it should incorporate and build on past learning experie nces. Beard and Wilson (2006) described making process of active engagement between the inner world learning based on concrete exp eriences allows the learner to experience authentic learning Experiential learning helps solidify the researcher developed conceptual framework by providing

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40 an additional process theory that incorporates learning through cognition with an experience, refl ection, and generalization (Roberts, 2006). Experiential learning fits neatly into the framework of constructivism and the social cognit ive theory. As mentioned, both constructivism and social cognitive theory require active cognition from the learner and involve some form of experience (Bandura, 1986; Doolittle & Camp, 1999; Estepp & Roberts, 2011a). E xperiential learning also promotes learning from some form of experience and active cognition (Dewey, 1938; Kolb, 1984; Roberts, 2006). Beard and Wi lson (20 06) called experiential learning making process of active engagement bi directional interactions of person, behavior, and environment (Bandura, 1986, 1989a). The philosophy of experience in education gained attention through the writings of John Dewey (1925, 1931, 1938). Dewey (1938) said learning should take place around an authentic experience and should b e connected to past, present and future experiences. Ov er the years, scholars described the role of experie nce in education. As mentioned, Beard and Wilson (2006) called expe making process of active engagement between the inner ng four adaptive learning modes concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active bed experiential learning as a continuous cycle in which the learner navigates through an initial focus, an experience or experimentation, reflect ion, a nd generalization

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41 A Model of Experiential Learning Roberts (2006) learning cycle was used to describe the experiential learning process for this study. Figure 2 3 shows the learning cycle model (Roberts, 2006). model of experiential learni ng is in the form of a continuous spiral to symbolize the continuous process of the learning cycle and to indicate that learners may enter the learning cycle at any stage (Roberts, 2006). The initial focus consists of any activity that initiates or enga ges learners in an educative experience. According to Dewey (1938), an educative experience may be any type of experience as long as it is educative In this study, the short term study abroad programs serve as the overarching experience. However, a large experience may be broken down into smaller more comprehendible experiences (Roberts, 2006). Reflection Reflection has been described as the internalization of an external reality (Dewey, 1933, 1938; Doolittle & Camp, 1999; Kolb, 198 4). Fosnot (2005) sai d reflection drives the experiential learning process, while providing the learner with meaning between the internal and external worlds (Dewey, 1933). Kolb (1984) described reflec tion as the intention to or internalizing process of knowledge in which lear ners attempt to understand the experience. Regardless of which definition is used, reflection is a critical part of the experiential learning cycle and ample time should be allocated for learners to think about and reflect on their experiences (Fosnot, 200 5; Roberts, 2006). Reflection allows l earners to draw connections between th e present learning experience and past experie nces (Dewey, 1938) and this propel s the learner into the generalization stage of the experiential learning cycle (Roberts, 2006). Ge neralization In t he generalization stage the learner constructs rules regarding the experience (Kolb, 1984). In theory, the generalization stage is where the learners think about and decide how new

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42 knowledge can be applied to future experiences (Stripling & Roberts, 2010). Learners must move beyond the concrete experience to the abstract (Dewey, 1938). The cr itical thinking that occurs in the generalization process allows learners to assimilate generalizations that can be tested through future experimentat ion and learning cycles (Roberts, 2006). Experiential learning fits nicely within the process th eories of constructivism and social cognitive theory because of its emphasis on the experience and cognitive learning. The experiential learning cyc le adds de pth to the researcher de veloped conceptual model, because of its use of experiences, reflection, and generalization (Roberts, 2006). Intercultural Proficiencies Cultural Adaptation The process of cultural adaptat ion has been debated in the literature on tourism for more than 50 years (Hottola, 2004). However, a variety of terms were used to describe cultural a daptation. Equivalent terms in the literature include cross cultural adaptation, cross cultural transition, intercultural adaptation, and acculturat for cultural adaptat ion, cultural adaptation was operationalized by how people change their personal behavior to fit into the cult ure around them. According to Hottola (2004) many theories have been sugges ted to explain the processes or stages of inter cultural adaptation of tourists; howeve r, no one theory is recognized. Possible theories of cultural adap (1960) U curve of culture shock, the dynamic model of cultural confusion (Hottola 2004), and the certainty/uncertainty theory (Gudykunst & Hammers, 1988). The U Curve of Culture Shock The U curve has been used recovery through the stages of euphoria, disillusionment, hostilit (Hottola, 2004, p. 448). The U cu rve of culture shock is based on the anthropological definition

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43 of culture shock ; (Oberg, 1960, p. 177). Despite t he negative co nnotations of the words culture shock Oberg said tourist s typically follow and experience the depicted stages of culture shock (Ward, Okura Kennedy, & Kojima, 1998). Figure 2 4 for The U curve of Culture Shock (Oberg, 1960). Oberg (1960) sa id tourists e xperience stage of culture shock and most usually adjust to the ir cultural surroundings (Ward et al. 1998). Within the U curve of culture s hock, tourists experience an initial stage of euphoria which often includes a period of excitement and fascination in the new environment (Ward et al. 1998). The tourist is genuinely happy to emerge in a new culture and country (Hottola, 2004). However, the feeling of joy dissipates and the tourists begin to enter the stage of disillusionment. During the di sillusionm ent stage, the tourists become confused and misread cultural cues Tourists often avoid situations that expose them to cultural differences or cultural confusion (War d et al. 1998). This stage lead s to the hostility stage in which tourists feel anger and hostility toward the culture (Ward, et al., 1998). However, tourists typically make it through the first three stages and begi n to experience the upswing of the U Curve of Culture Shock Model (Ward et al., 1998 ). In the adaptation stage, tourists begin to adapt to their new cultural environment accept the differences and eventually integrate the cultural differences and customs into their personal actions when they enter the final stage of integration (Ward et al., 1998). The U Cur ve of Culture Shock is still hea vily used as the model to show and explain intercultural adaptation of tourists (Hottola, 2004; Molinsky, 2009). According to Kolanad and Kolanad (1999) the U curve of Culture Shock is represented in many travel preparation guides and is commonly known amongst the general population. However, it is not only tourists that rely on the U curve of Culture Shock ; the academic tourism literature uses the U Curve of

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44 Culture Shock to build upon intercultural adaptation (Hottola, 2004). Even thoug h the U Curve of Culture Shock is often used, there are disputes reg arding its use because of the lack of empirical evidence (Hottola, 2004; Molinsky, 2009; Reisinger & Tur ner, 2003; Ward et al., 1998). In a survey conduc ted by Kealey (1989) only 10% of t he travelers experienced the U curve of C ulture shock in its entirety. Ward et al. (1998) found that the psychological and curve of Culture Shock model. The Japa ne se students did not feel euphoria on entering the country and experienc ing a different culture (Ward et al., 1998). Ward, Brochner and Furnham (2001) found that tourists often experience f rustration and negative moods on arrival in the country, unlike the euphoria. The initial feelings of frustration led some travelers to alter their travel plans and go home early (Iyer, 1988). The U Curve of Culture Shock focuses on depression c aused by cultural experience. This has been found to be incorrect. Travelers do not typically experience shock or depression when traveling abroad (Kealy, 1992; Ward & Kennedy, 1993). Alternatively, travelers experience periods of stress and confusion beca use of the cognitive l earning process when the traveler is atte mpting to understand and fit into the new environment (Kealy, 1992; Ward & Kennedy, 1993). Although evidence exists of depressio n experienced by travelers, it is typically at the begin ning of t heir experience (Kealy, 1989; Ward et al., 1998). Kealey (1989) also found that only 10% of the sample ever reached feelings of satisfaction. Additionally, the U Curve of Culture Shock focused on the attainment of cultural adaptation and in tegration, but travelers only in a country for a short time do not typically have goals of cultural adaptation and integration in mind (Hottola, 2004). Hottola (2004) said the

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45 ground of short 51) does not match goals and expectations for the trip. Therefore the U Curve of Culture Shock model is limited when used to outline the cultural adaptation process of the short term travelers. Another discrepancy is that U Curve for Culture Shock is describ ed as a linear process in which all travelers go through the stages of intercultural adaptation in a neat an orderly proc ess. Hottola (2004) said the stages of intercultural adaptation happen abruptly and do not follow a linear progression model. A survey conducted in South Asia (Hottola, 2004) found that travelers could be making positive progress toward cultural adaptation and then experience a traumatic event that completely alters the direction o f their progress. Likewise, travelers could experience a p ositive event that quickly improve s their progress toward adaptation and integration (Hottola, 2004). The Dynamic Model of Culture Confusion Hottola (2004) modified the U Curve of Culture Shock (Oberg, 1960) an d developed two models to show cultural confusion and adaptation. Hottola conducted a study on 110 well educated backpackers traveling within South Asia. Interviews, surveys, and participant a, 2004). Two models were created to explain the intercultural adaptation process T he models focused on the emotions as well as learning and confusion people experience when exposed to cultural differences (Hottola, 2004). Figure 2 5 shows the model. Duri ng initial cultural confusion, tr avelers typically experience euphoria stage during the plan ning stage of the trip, before entering the country (Hottola, 2004). Travelers experience d that initial cultural confusion most often influenced the traveler for only a few days. Backpacker s in India and Sri

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46 Lanka reported that arrival in the country and the beginning part of the experience was the most stressful time (Hottola, 2004). Througho ut the initial cultural confusion process, whether they needed a break from the countries culture to enter a metaworld (Hottola, 2004). Hottola described a met aworld as a safe retreat simila r to the culture the traveler is accustomed to. As travelers learn from thei r experiences, they move toward the adaptation or opposition stages of the diagrams (Hottola, 2004). Hottola found that backpackers in South Asia typically did not evolve and grow within the area of adaptation or opposition because of their consistent movement among geographical regions. Instead, the backpackers managed their cultural confusion by escaping into their metaworld for a break from cultural reality (Hottola, 2004). Acc ording to Hottola, th e retreats to the metaworld allowed the backpackers to continue traveling. Hottola used circles for the model to emphasize the continuum of the intercultural adaptation process and to show that travelers may go ba ck and forth between opposition and adaptation durin g the experience of cultural confusion. Anxiety/Uncertainty Theory Another theory within the intercultur al adaptation literature was anxiety/uncertainty theory. Gudykuns t and Hammer (1988) said individuals encounter difficulties when experiencing a new cu lture because of the lack of certainty and security, which causes individuals to become cognitively uncertain of how to behave. Intercultural adaptation can always be increased by reducing uncertainty and anxiety (Gud ykunst & Hammer, 1988). A nxiety/uncert ainty management theory assumes Burschke (1998) found that uncertainty and anxiety are interdependent of one another and both affect intercultural adaptation. However, this finding was inconsistent with the results of Gao

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47 and Gudykunst (1990). Gao and Gudy kunst reported that decreasing uncertainty and anxiety do es l of cultural adaptation and that some level of necessary for sojourners to perceive the need to adapt in the first Intercultural Sensitivity Milton J. Bennett (1986, 2004) developed the Development Model of Intercultural Sensitivity to describe how people deal with cross cultural experiences. Bennett (2004) described a continuum in which the person moves from ethnocentrism toward ethno relativism. Ethnocentrism is rience of on 62). Ethnorelativism is Bennett (1986, 2 004) described six stages of a ethnorelati vism: denial, defense, minimization, acceptance, adaptation, and integration. D enial the first stage is associated with ethnocentrism (Bennett, 1986, 2004). During this s tage, people are likely to discount any cultural differences because they lack physical or social contact that would subject them to any major cultural differences (Benn ett, 1986, 2004). D enial also presents as a lack of ability to distinguish among ethnic ities (Benne tt, 2004). Bennett (2004) said Defense, the second stage indiv iduals believe theirs is the only acceptable culture (Bennett, 2004). The defense stage is characterized by negative stereotypes applied to everyone in the new culture (Bennett, 1986). Cultural superiority is also a characteristic of the defense stage (Bennett, 1986). Interesting ly, there is a variation of

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48 the defense stage identif ied as reversal (Bennett, 2004), their own people hold ing the new culture as superior to the culture in which they connect with (Bennett, 2004). Minimization, t he third stage is the last stage before a person moves out of the ethnocentric stages and into the ethnorelati ve part of the continuum ( Bennett, 1986, 2004). During minimization, cultural diff erences are recognized, but are not considered important (Bennett, 1986) Bennett (1986) said a person in the minimization stage strives to find cultural similarities and does not focus on cultural differences. A cceptance the fourth stage, starts the ethnorelativism part of the continuum ( Bennett, 1986, 2004), just one of a number of ennett, 2004, p. 68). This is when people begin to recognize and respect cultural differences (Bennett, 1986). A daptation the fifth stage represents a development stage in which individuals allow thei r cultural experiences to influence their perception s and behavior in order to exhibit appropriate behaviors in the particular culture (Bennett, 1986, 2004) Bennett (2004) describes not a substitution of one t he adaptation stage shows an increased intercultural sensitivity toward cultural adaptation. Integration, the sixth and final stage al lows individuals to work within multiple worldviews and cultures (Bennett, 2004). According to Bennett (2004) individual s in t he integration stage see themselves as belonging to multiple identities and being able to negotiate among the multiple identities when developing personal ide ntity. During integration, the person views cultural difference as necessary aspect s of life (Bennett, 1986).

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49 Current Intercultural Proficiency Models The cultural adaptation models described in the intercultural proficiencies section may be inadequate m odels for the College of Agricultural 1960) U curve of Culture S hock was developed for tourists and may not be appropriate for students on a short term study abroad program because of the aca demic nature of the program. Additionall y, the U curve of Culture S hock has undergone much scrutiny in the literature. Similarly, the Dynamic Model of Culture Confusion (Hottola 2004) was based on the U curve of culture shock (Oberg, 1960), and focused on travelers, not students participating in a short term study abroad may not be relev ant to College of Agricultural and Life Sciences short term study abroad programs b ec ause students are often given information to help ease anxiety and uncertainty, bu t there is no guarantee lopment Model of Intercultural S ensitivity provides great insight to the cultura l adaption process. However, it was not developed based on student experience s i n short term study abroad programs. Global Education Study Abroad Programs A study by King and Young (1994) found that some students were hesitant to participate in a study ab road program because of apprehension about learning a foreign language. King and Young attributed that to the additional finding that many students have not been exposed to non Unit ed States cultures. They found that over half the students who participated in a study abroad program had taken three to four years of foreign lang uage classes before enrolling in the study abroad program (King & Young, 1994). King and Young administered a second survey that gathered information regarding the attitudes and opinio ns of students who had already

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50 participated in a study abroad program. They found that past participants felt the study abroad program was well worth the money and the cost of the program was only slightly more than studying on their home campus (King & Yo ung, 1994). Past participants said study abroad programs would have an impact on their future careers, but the cross cultural learning and the educational opportunity were the most significant experiences received from the study abroad programs (King & You ng, 1994). Goldstein and Kim (2006) conducted a study to identify predictors that influence wheth er United States college students participated in study abr oad programs. They found that expectations of study abroad programs formed shman year played a significant role in their decision to participate (or not) in a study abroad program. They also found that participants who studied abroad were less conce rned with finishing their major; and had lower ethnocentrism, lower prejudice, and a greater interest in learning a foreign lan g uage than the participants who did not complete a study abroad program. Long Term/Permanent Study Abroad Additionally, Chirkov, Vansteenkiste, Tao, and Lynch (2007) conducted a study t o identify the motivation for Chinese students to leave their country to permanently study abro ad in Belgium or Canada. They found that students who participated were motivated to permanently study abroad and attributed this to preservation factors. The preservation factors were found to They also found that self development goals se rved as an intrinsic motivation but had no effect on Carlson and Widaman (1 988) investigated international underst anding of American students who completed a junior year study abroad program. The ir stud y consisted of 304 students studyin g abroad and 519 students studying on their home campus during their junior

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51 year (Carlson &Wid aman, 1988). Carlson and Widaman found no attitudinal differences between the study abroad group and the control group on the following measures, before the study abroad year: a) awareness of problems common to many nations; b) concern wi th problems of th ird world countries; (c) desire for international peace; d) wish to help find solutions to global problems ( such as hunger, disease, etc. ); e) respect for historical and cultural traditions and achieve ments of nations other than their own; f) need for c los er cooperation among nations; g) desire to meet and int eract with persons not from their home country; and h) actual participation in activities aimed at effecting greater international understanding. However, after e positive attitudinal differences and the study abroad cultural interest, and Additionally, Carlson and Wida man found that the students who studied abroad for one year in Eur ope became more critical of the United States and also had a more positive attitude toward the United States. These findings were consistent with findings from previous studies (Car lson & Jensen, 1984; Carlson & Yachimowicz, 1985; Klineberg & Hull, 1979). A yearlong study abroad program in Ireland found eviden ce of cultural learning taking place outside the classroom through non academic activities and living arrangements (Langley & Breese, 2005). Analysis of the interviews and focus groups revealed that participants learned about the Irish culture through participant observation, interactions, and travel (Langley & Breese, 2005). Participants ga ined cultural knowledge by observing a nd participating in organized extracurricular activities in the university, and by living with a host family (Langley & Breese, 2005). Interestingly, Langley and Breese (2005) the influence that their experiences as p articipant observers, interacting sojourners, and travelers

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52 using past participants of the program as ambassadors was an effective way to encourage participants t o engage in the cultural surroundings (Langley & Breese, 2005). McLeod and Wainwright (2009) conducted focus groups with two different groups of students to investigate and under the study abroad program, as well as what the students actually experienced. One focus group was conducted with U.S. students in Scotland and the other consisted of U.S. students in France (Mcleod & Wainwright, (2009 p. 68 ) a) Stude nts experienced stressful situations that s everely violated expectancies, b) successful experiences led to feelings of increased self confidence, c) successful experiences led to c hanges in self perception, and d) successful experiences led to changes in s McLeod and Wainwright reported that students experienced unpleasant events on arrival and during the initial stay in the country. However, most of the students were able to overcome the initial negative experiences by le arning about the culture and engaging in activities in the community, which ultimately led to an explanation of how the student viewed the world (McLeod & Wainwright, 2009). Additionally, McLeod and Wainwright (2009) found that the students ended the progr increased confidence in their ability to have an effect on their environment, a feeling state Clarke and Flaherty (2009) investi gated whet her business students participated in a semester long study abroad program had greater intercultural proficiency than students who di d not participate in a semester long study abroad program. The study focused on global mindedness, cultural communication s kills, openness to diversity, and intercultural sensitivity.

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53 Clarke and Flaherty used the following instruments: Global M indedness Scale (Hett, 1993); an eight item Openness to Diversity Scale (Pascarella, Edison, Nora, Hagedorn, & Tere nzini, 1996); and t he Intercultural Sensitivity Index (O lson & Kroeger, 2001). They concluded that semester long study abroad programs helped to pr oduce business students more globally minded than business students who did not participate in the study abroad program (Clarke & Flaherty, 2009). F indings from Clarke and Flaherty concur with the findings of Douglas and Jo nes Rikker (2001) that study abroad students identify themselves as being globally engaged. Clarke and Fl aherty said the findings sug gest study abroad students h ave a greater understanding of culture than non study abroad students Study abroad students study were also found to have increased intercultural comm unication skills ( to interact with other p eople ) and a great acceptance of cultural diversity. Study abroad participants also exhibited an increased level of adaptation and integration according to the Intercultural Sensitivity Inventory (Clarke & Flaherty, 2009). A study by Morgan (1975) found t hat students adapt to culture differently based on their classification as cultural relativist or cultura l opposite. The student classified as cultural relativist adapted through immediate interactions with Fren ch natives, conversations, home st ay living c onditions, and a new felt freedom (Morgan, 1975). Howeve r, the student classified as a cultural opposite had initial feelings of isolation, and showed no interest in being part of the group at s chool or within his host family. B ut after one semester in Fra nce the student began to engage with Fre nch natives, and to realize the culture in France operates differently than the culture in the United States and he needed to adjust (Morgan, 1975). Intercultural S ensitivity Pedersen (2010) conducted a study to as sess the intercultural effectiveness of yearlong study abroad programs. Pedersen used a pre/post control group repeated measures design. Three

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54 groups were used for comparison : a) students enrolled in a psychology of group dynam ics study abroad course struc tured around an intercultural ef fectiveness training pedagogy, b) a group of students enrolled in a psychology of group dynamics study abroad course without the intercultural effect iveness training pedagogy, and c) a group of student s who studied at the ho me campus. Pedersen (p. 76) found that of all of the variables present and measured during the study abroad experience, previous travel experience and the presence of intercultural pedagogy had an impact on whether a student moved along the development mo del of intercultural sensitivity (DMIS) as measured by the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) during their year long study abro ad. extra curricular activities, part icipation in a family stay, whether they spoke a second language, whether they kept a journal, and their report of significant friends their scor e on the IDI. Interestingly, study did not change scores on the IDI simply by participating in a st udy abroad program: the data revealed the need for study abroad programs to incorporate an intercultural pedagogy. results contradicted previous assertions that students who participated in study abroad programs without an intercultural pedagogy increase d their intercultural effectiveness ( according to the IDI ) when compared to students who did not participate in a study abroad program (Paige, Cohen, & Shively, 2004; Vande Be rg, 2008) A study conducted by Paige, Fry, Stallman, Josic, and Jon (2009) focused on the long term impacts of study abroad programs base d on global engagement. A mixed methods approach was used and had a sample size of 6391 participants from 2 2 dif ferent institutions (Paige et al., 2009). Participants surveyed on the impact of specific college experien ces on their lives reported that study abroad programs had the strongest impact. Additionally, participants reported that study abroad programs influe nced their involvement in the following areas: a) c ivic

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55 engagement (domestic), b) civ ic engagement (international), c) voluntary simplicity, d) knowl edge production (traditional), e) knowledge production (other), f) philanthropy (volunteer work), g) phil an thropy (monetary donations), h) social en trepreneurship, i) social entrepreneurship, j) educational d ecision (advanced degree), and k) occupation/ca reer choice. Additionally, results from the qualitative portion of the ir study indicated th at study abroad p rograms helped influence global engagement in civic organizations and influence d career choice of the participants i nterviewed. Short Term Study Abroad Anderson (2003) investigated a short term study abroad program in Costa Rica that took place over winte environmental issues, national issues, and cultural learning; howeve r, the content that students were evaluated on was langu age improvement. Anderson used field journals to help gauge the and researcher field notes and reflection journals were the primary methods of data collection. Anderson found that students often viewed short term study abroad programs as vacations rather than learning experiences. Anderson found that participants often need help distinguishing cultural traditions from cul tural stereotypes promoted through the media and popular culture. Anderson found that some students h ad difficulty moving beyond cultural fantasies and looking deeper into the actual culture. Anderson et al. (2005) investigated the effects of a short term study abroad program effect on intercultural sensitivity. A pre test, post test design was used and s tudy abroad (Anderson et al., 2005). There was weak statistical evidence that the participants significantly increased their level of intercultural sensitivity based o n the me asurements of the IDI (Anderson

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56 than their own (Reversal) and improved their ability to accept and adapt to cultural differences (Acceptance/Adaptati 2006, p. 464). However, their study also showed no s ignificant changes in n sections of the IDI (Anderson et al., 2006). Lombardi (2011) examined whether term study abroad programs scored higher on the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale and Openness to Diversity Scale after having participated in a S tudents who participated in short term study abro ad programs showed increased intercultural sensitiv ity and openness to div ersity compared to students who did not complete a short term study abroad program. Interestingly, Lombardi found that prior exposure to cultural differences a nd diversity positively affected students on the short term study abroad programs. In addition, students who were culturally predisposed reported an increase in confidence when interacting with people from other cultures (Lombardi, 2011). Gorka and Niesenbaum (2001) found that short term study abroad programs in Latin America b egan to change cultural misconceptions Gorka and Niesenbaum reported that students with a science background began to focus on the culture in Cost Rica and realized the Costa Rican culture was interconnected with the science and conservation practices used for sea turtle conservation. One part icipant said she did not understand what culture had to do with sea turtle conservation ; by the middle of the trip she said that conservation is embedded in the Costa Rican culture, and it is simply a w ay of life (Gorka & Niesenbaum, 2001). The same of the town or the country w hen

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57 Niesenbaum found that exposure to their short term study abroad program helped to make students Spanish class relevant E xposure to the language, culture, and other academic discipline s once in the country helped students shift from the viewpoint of becoming language proficien t through several semesters of Spanish courses on the home campus, to bec oming culturally competent and being able to evaluate perspective through the eyes of another culture (Gorka & Niesenbaum, 2001). A study by Ingram (2005) examined the effects of a sh ort term study abroad program on increased enrollment in advanced French courses as well as integrating language development the short term study a broad program enrolled in a 200 level French course. In comparison, students who did not participate in the study abroa d experience, enrolled in a 200 level French course only 12% of the tim e (Ingram, 2005). In a ddition, students reported an interest in continuing to le arn about the culture and i ncorporating what they learned from their cultural immersion experience into their future careers (Ingram, 2005). Global Agricultural Emphasis A study by Brooks, Frick, and Bruening (2006) sought to evaluate the status of land g rant institutions r egarding internationalization of t he undergraduate curriculum in agricultural departments. A Web site conte nt analysis was conducted on randomly selected agriculture department websites from randomly selected land grant institutions (Broo ks et al., 2006). The researchers found that study abroad programs were the only international programs present at each institution in the sample (Brooks et al., 2006) A study by Bruening and Shao (2005) sought to identify topics and methods of teaching t hat should be incorporated into an international agriculture course for undergraduates. It was left up to the expert panel to decide on the framework of the international agriculture course.

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58 e should provide a study abroad program for the students. Study abroad programs come in a variety of forms including but not limited to semester programs, short term programs, and service learning programs (Sachau et al., 2009). A study by Boyd, Felton, an d Dooley (2004) focused on how virtual international experiences with in agricultural courses affected learners. Students participated in simulatio ns on the I nternet and focused on a banana farm in Peru (Boyd et al., 2004). The researchers use d a qualitativ e approach to inductively analyze participa et al. (p. 66) making, 2) Life is very difficult in developing countries with few choices for opening privileges and prosperity that they enjoy, and 5) Students were motivated to want to help thos e in It was found that international s imulations are an effective way to expose agricultural students to another cult ure, and to increa se cultural understanding (Boyd et al., 2004). Wingen bach, Chmielewski, Smith, Pia and Hamilton (2006 p. 82) aimed Texas The ir study was conducted in Mexico at a field da y, and included university students from the United States as well as Mexico (Wi ngenbach et al., 2006). Before the field day experience, Wingenbach et al. found that U.S. students felt they would not be accepted by students in Mexico because they were from the United States. In addition, students from the United States felt Mexico was a corrupt country that relied on subsistenc e

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59 farming to survive (Wingenbach et al., 2006). United States students noted concern for thei r safety and described concern f or safe ty as a reason not to participate in an international experience (Wigenbach et al., 2006) A fter th e field day experience, student s acknowledged that Mexican students and producers were very friendly and acknowledged that the country has some great univers iti es. However, students said cultural barriers, costs, and safety concerns would still prevent them from participating in a long term international experience (Wigenbach et al., 2006). Irani, Place, and Friedel (2006) also conducted a study that identifi ed perceptions and barriers that prevented participation in study ab road experiences. Findings indicated that students were somewhat knowledgeable about opportunities to participate in international activities (Irani et al., 2006). However, time restraints and financial costs of programs prevented participation in international activities (Irani et al., 2006). Briers, Shinn, and Nguyen (2010) found that students in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Texas A&M University positively perceived int ernation al experiences and believed the experiences would increase their employability. They f ound that students preferred faculty led programs or internships, but would be willing to consider other types of international experiences. However, findings reg arding financial cost were congruent with the findings of Irani et al. (2006), Shinn et al. (2008), and Shinn et al. (2009). Harder and Bruening (2008) investigated whether on line videos would alter agricultural ternational experience. Findings indicated that on line videos did not alter Bruening, 2008). A study by Robbins and Orr (2004) focused on the outcomes of short term student exch ange programs designed for bot h United States students and students from Thailand. The

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60 exchange programs were designed for agricultural students and each group of students spent one month in the host country (Robbins & Orr, 2004). Findings revealed that th e students showed a significant growth in knowledge about the co untry, culture, society, and agricultural industry (Robbins & Orr, 2004). Bruening and Frick (2004) conducted a study to identify how an international agricultural field based course benefited the participants. Students enrolled in a semester long course at their home campus and participated in a 10 day experience in Puerto Rico as part of the se mester long course (Bruening & Frick, 2004). A q ualitative approach was used and allowed the partici pants to express their thoughts and feelings (Bruening & Frick, 2004). Bruening and Frick (2004) cultural appreciation, and students effectively used rapid appraisal methods to collect data from local Zhai and Scheer (2002) sought to determine if undergraduate agricultural students alter their behavior due to participation in a study abroad program Zhai and Scheer found that most part icipants experie nced a positive change in the ir global perspective. Students became focused more on the global economy and international issues (Zhai & Scheer, 2002). According to Zhai and Scheer, the experience helped students feel connected to the world. Zha i and Scheer also found that participants increase d in self confidence through the study abroad program and gain d an understandi ng of the culture around them. Students also reported gained knowledge and skills in the following areas: h istory, host culture, coping skills, tr avel skills, and communication skills (Zhai & Scheer, 2002). Zhai and Scheer reported different motiv ational reasons to participate in a study abroad program : personal interest in the host country, interest in new cultural

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61 experiences, timing and cost of the study abroa d program, and persuasion from form er study abroad participants. Harder, Bruening Graham, and Drueckhammer (2009 ) studied the benefits students received from a service learning program in Costa Rica. Harder et al. (2009 p. 240 ) found that interactions with local people happened because of the se rvice lear ning project. Additionally, the international ser vice learning project helped students expa nd their world views through exposure to various agricultur al production systems (Harder et al., 2009 ). Fabregas Janeiro, Kelsey, and Robinson (2011) assess ed the effect of international experiences on the intercultural sensitivity of agricultural students. The two interna tional experiences used for their study were in ternational courses and faculty led short term study abroad programs (Fabregas Janeiro et al., 2011). They Development Inventory to measure intercultural sens itivity and a used. Pre experience and students change (Fabregas Janeiro, 2011). The ir results concur with previous findings (Altshuler, Sussman, & Kachur, 2003; Ayas, 2006; Keefe, 2008; Patterson, 2006). A short term agricultural study abroad program in Costa Rica sought to evaluate the impact of a field intensive study abroad program in technical content, culture, and pursuit of learni ng (Gibson, Benjamin, Oseto, & Adams, 2012). They found that the short term study abroad program increased student knowledge of technical agriculture (cropping systems), culture, and race in Costa Rica. Additional findings sho wed that most studen ts felt the short term

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62 study abroad program incr eased their personal interest in participating in longer study abroad programs or other types of international experiences (Gibson et al., 2012). Roberts and Jones (2009) developed a framework for a gricultura l educators to use to develop and implement study abroad programs based on experiential learning. Through content analysis and synthesis of the cognitive science and experiential learning literature, Roberts and Jones concluded that study abr oad programs s hould include pre flection, activities during the actual study abroad experience, and activities aft er the study abroad experience. Jones and Bjelland (2004) defined pre expectations associated wit Rodriguez and Roberts (2 011) agreed with the use of pre flection, activities during the actual study abroad experience, and activities after the study abroad experience. In addition, Rodriguez and Roberts said it was im portant to incorporate lesson/activities that deal with the cultural differences and safety concerns of the students in the pre session meetings. Rodriguez and Roberts findings also concurred with Roberts and Jones regarding to the importance of using th e experiential learning cycle during the study abroad and makin g sure to provide an educative experience (Dewey, 1938). In addition, R odriguez and Roberts included the need for reflection after the study abroad experience and also concluded that reflectio n should be an important part of a study abroad program Through an in depth review of the study abroad literature, specifically in the fiel d of agriculture, there has been a lack of information addressing the cultural adaptation process of an agricultural and life sciences student while on short term study abroad programs. The process theories and the intercultura l proficiency outcomes identified in the conceptual model now been explored in depth. The ident ified process theories were used to

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63 guide this st udy and have been deemed a s guiding theories Possible intercultura l proficiency outcomes identified through the conceptual model were explored through existing research in the area of cultural adaptation and cultural sensitivity. This study can serve as a foundation f or how agricultural students experience culture during short term study abroad programs. Chapter Summary Chapter two introduced the researcher developed conceptual framework for the study, which included contextual variables, student variable s, process variables which include constructivism, social cognitive theory, and experiential learning, and intercultural proficiency outcomes which include cultural adaptation and cultural sensitivity. Chapter two also included an in depth look at how the tourist indust ry and literature described the cultural adaptation process. was conducted on stud y abroad programs, intercultural sensitivity, and specifically agricultural focused international programs. The review of literature showed a need for the internationalization of the curriculum and identified study abroad experiences as an authentic learn ing experience for students to submerge themselves in the culture of another country. Study abroad programs have allowed students to increase their cultural awareness, cultural proficiency, and technical knowledge. However, an in depth review of the litera ture revealed a gap in the literature. Previous literature has not been clear on how agricultural students in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences go through the cultural adaptation processes while on short term study abroad programs. This researc h will help to identify how these students experience cultural adaptation during a short term study abroad program.

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64 Figure 2 1. Conceptual model of the cultural adaptation process of agricultural students during s hort term study ab road p rograms Contextual Variables Country Culture Subject Matter Student Variables Age Gender Nationality P revious Travel Experience Process T heories Constructivism Social Cognitive Experiential Learning Intercultural Proficiency Outcomes Cultural Adaptation Cultural Sensitivity

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65 Figure 2 2. Triadic r eciprocality (Bandura, 1986, p. 24) Figure 2 3 Model of the experiential learning p rocess (Roberts, 2006, p. 22). Figure 2 4 The U curve of culture s hock (Oberg, 1960) Experience: Initial or Experimentation Reflection Generalization Initial Focus Next Iteration of Cycle

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66 Figure 2 5. Initial culture confusion and adaptation/o pposition (Hottola, 2004)

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67 CHAPTE R 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Chapter One of this study introduced and established the need for short term study abroad programs, as well as introduced the co ncept of cultural adaptation. The purposes, objectives, limitations, and assumptions of the study were also presented in Chapter O ne. The conceptual framework for this study was introduced in Chapter Two and included contextual variables, student variables process theories, and intercultural proficiency outcomes. A literature review of the components of the conceptual model was provided in order to establish a basis for this study. The purpose of this study was to explore how undergraduate students in a c ollege of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation during a short term study abroad program. The specific objectives of this study were to: Describe how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences experien ced culture throughout a short term, study abroad program. Assess how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences were affected by their cultural surroundings while participating in a short term, study abroad program. Propose a conceptual framework of cultural adaptation for students in the college of agricultural and life sciences on short term study abroad programs. In an effort to understand the cultural adaptation process that agricultural and life sciences students experienc e on short term study abroad programs, a qualitative approach was used for this study. Creswell (1998 p. 15 ) stated, Qualitative research is an inquiry process of understanding based on distinct methodological traditions of inquiry that explores a social or human problem. The researcher builds a complex, holistic picture, analyzes words, reports detailed views of informants, and conducts the stu dy in a natural setting.

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68 More specifically, Chapter Three provide s further detail on researcher subjectivity, t he epistemological and theoretical perspective, the design of the study, the sample, data collection methods, data analysis methods, and trustworthiness. Researcher Subjectivity The subjectivity statement allows for the presentation and documentation of pe rsonal knowledge, beliefs, and experiences that may affect the research study (Glense, 1999). Here I provide an in depth subjectivity statement s degree. I met a professor who tal ked to me about the possibility of teaching high school agriculture. At this point I had already decided I wanted to become a high school teacher, but I wanted to become a science teacher. The agricultural education professor continued to encourage me to become an agriculture teacher, and h e emphasized the science involved in teaching agriculture courses. Since I was about to co echnology, I decided to enroll in the Master of Science program in the agriculture d epartment and simultaneously work toward teacher certification in agricultural education. When completing my student teaching I had the opportunity to teach at a high school in Corazal, Belize for 25 days. This experience exposed me to many different cu ltures. I taught students who spoke multiple languages and came from diverse backgrounds. I had the opportunity to see how people lived in a different part of the world than I was used t o. I was able to identify cultural differences between my students and myself. I had to identify cultural differences and then adjust in order to educate my students. My experiences in Belize made me realize how important it is for an educator to be willing and able to seek out and understand cultural differences. I felt th at my experience in the Belize study abroad program was beneficial because as an educator, I will constantly be exposed to different cultures.

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69 Upon returning from Belize I accepted a high school agricultural teaching position at a school south of Atlant a, Georgia. The school had approximately 1600 students and represented over 78 different cultures. This was another eye openi ng experience for me. T o educate the students I had to learn about each acknowle dged all cultures and hosted a large multicultural festival each year. I enjoyed being in a diverse environment and the challenges that it brought. When I transitioned from the high school to the University of Florida my enthusiasm for educating student s continued. I had the opport unity to teach students preparing to become teachers and also to teach an oral communication course. I shared my experiences of working with students with different cultural backgrounds with the pre serv ice teachers in my clas s. T his made me quickly realize not everyone has been exposed to people from around the world. I continued to use my personal expe riences to show the students they may have to adjust their teaching to fit the needs of their students. I focused my research on globalization of the undergraduate curriculum. I have conducted research in the area of agricultural teacher preparation, as well as international agricultural extension and development. I have been involved in two different study abroad programs. I hav e already mentioned the Belize study abroad program in which I taught at a local school. The second study abroad program I participated in was a 10 day program in Trinidad and Tobago. That program allowed me to visit and interact with agriculture teachers, extension personnel, farmers, and college students. I valued the interactions with the lo cal people, because it let me better understand their culture and country. I am also involved in a research project regarding agricultural education in Trinidad and T obago.

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70 I am a part of an agricultural education and communication department involved with international agricultural development and education. The interest of faculty members in the department helped me to focus on international agricultural education an d allowed me the opportunity to travel to Canada and Thailand to present my research. My experience in Thailand exposed me to many more cultures and allowed me to experience a different part of the world. Theoretical and Epistemological Perspective This s tudy was built around the theoretical perspective of constructivism. Crotty (2004 p. 3 thus providing a context for the process and groundin g its logic and crite In addition, the epistemological perspective for this study was constructionism. Crotty described an olo gy of constructionism says that humans give meaning to the world through interaction with the external environment, and the individual constructs meaning fr om the interaction (Crotty, 2004 ). Constructionism merges objectivity and subjectivity and allows th e environment and the individual to become partners and creat e meaning or truth (Crotty. 2004 ). The external world of the short term study abroad program and the individual particip ant merge to allow construction of meaning. Therefore, constructionism is a n appropriate epistemology for this study. Design of the Study The methodological approach used for this study was the case study. The case study allowed for a holistic depiction and analysis of one or more bounded systems (Merriam, 1998). According to Cr eswell (1998), a bounded system is required for a case study and signifies a qualifies as the case being studied (Creswell, 1998). Case studies allow researcher s to vicariously

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71 experience the phenomenon and to understand meaning as if the researcher were part of the phenomenon (Stake, 1994). The use of case studies allow s the researcher to focus on the context of the bounded system and to analyze the relationship between conditions and events (Dooley, 2002). Dooley (2007 p. 35) said a solid case study should include rich descriptions of the Three short term study abroad prog (1998) asserti on that typically no more than four case studies should be used Creswell said the use of more than four case studies may dilute the findings. The three case studies used for this study comp rise a collective case study according to Stake (1995) After each case study was analyzed, the researcher will provide d a cross case analysis to discuss similarities and differences of the three case studies. The following sections of the methods chapter will be separated into sections and organized through each of the three case studies and a section for cross case analysis. Each case study will be described in the appropriate section. Limitations Case Study One may not have been a typical study abroad program due to the six international students enrolled in the study abroad program. The lack of reflec tive journaling in Case Study One may have skewed the results and conclusions. Variance in methodology in the three case studies may have reduc ed transfer ability among the case studies. Case Study One : Paris, France The short term study abroad program for Case Study One was called Commodities to Cafes Agricultural and Food Marketing in France. This short term study abroad program was

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72 conducted i n Paris, Fr ance and lasted seven days. Approval from the University of Florida Internal Review Board was obtain ed before beginning the study. Sample Selection Purposeful sampling was used to select the Commodities to Cafes Agricultural and Food Marketing in France s hort term study abroad program as Case Study One. Merriam (1998) said purposeful sampling is based on the assumption that the investigator wants to discover, understand, and gain insight and therefore must select a sample from which the most can be learne abroad program was used. The Commodities to Cafes Agricultural and Food Marketing in France program was selected ba sed on the following criteria: a) must be a short term study abroad program that is between on e and three weeks in duration, b) the short term study abroad program course must be held within the College of A gricultural and Life Sciences, c) the short term study abroad program participants must b e undergr aduate students, and d) the faculty member facilitating the program must be willing to allow his or her students to participate in the study. The Commodities to Cafes Agricultural and Food Marketing in France short term study abroad program met the sele ction criteria with the exception of two graduate student participants. However, the researcher decided to deviate from the sample criteria and to select the Commodities to Cafes Agricultural and Food Marketing in France sho rt term study abroad program as Case Study One, for this study Participants Case Study One cons isted of 17 students : seven female and 10 males Fifteen of the participants were underg raduate students, and two participants were graduate students. This group consisted of three students w ho had never traveled outside the United States. Countries students had previously visited included the Bahamas, Belgium, Belize, Brazil, Columbia, Costa

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73 Rica, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Spain, and Zimbabwe. Participants who noted in ternational travel also listed the following continents without reference to the countries visited: Asia, and South America. In addition, the group included five international students. Data Collection Procedures Case Study One involved five types of data collection methods administered at various times throughout the short term study abroad program. Data collecti on methods included pre travel questions, post experience reflection questions, participant observation, reflective journaling, and the co l lection of photographs from student participants. In order to introduce the student participants to the research, the researcher attended pre session class meetings on March 28th, 2012 and April 11th, 2012. Each meeting lasted approximately one hour. The r esearcher introduced the research study to the students and answered any questions they had con cerning the research study o r their participation. Each of the data collection p rocedures is explained in the following paragraphs. None of the data collection m ethods were part of the p articipant s grade s for the course. P rogram dates were May 6th through May 12th, 2012. Pre T ravel Q uestions Pre travel questions (Appendix A) were used as a method of data collection to unde rstand and gain insight from participant s on their perceptions of the c ulture in Paris, France before their i nternational experience According to Jones and Bjelland (2004 p. 963 ), Pre flection is a process of being consciously aware of the expectatio ns with the learning experience it in creases the readiness capacity for learning from the experiences, thereby increasing the capacity to reflect upon the concrete experience and actually le arning from the experience. The following four questions were modified from questions originally deve loped by Wingenbach, Chmielewski, Smith, Pia E dgar, and Hamilton Edgar (2006) and later modified by Dooley, Dooley, and Carranza (2008), then Edgar, Edgar, Lawver, and Briers; 1) What are

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74 your initial attitudes, beliefs about visiting Paris, France? Plea se describe your pre trip thoughts about Paris, while concentrating on and describing your top five attitudes /beliefs; 2) W hat are your initial attitudes/beliefs about Paris culture? Please describe your thoughts in terms of your top five attitudes/belief s about cultural (language, customs, etc.), social, e conomic, or political issues; 3 ) How do you expect the culture in Paris to affect you during your experience?; and 4 ) How do you think the culture in Paris will influence your thinking both personally an d professionally? The pre travel questions were electronically mailed to all 17 students before the international experience. Four emails with the pre travel questions attached were sent out to the students. The first email was sent on Tuesday April 10th, 2012, the second Thursday April 16th, 2012, the third Thursday April 19th, 2012, and the final email Th ursday May 3rd, 2012. Twelve of 17 participants completed the pre travel questions and emailed their responses back to the researcher. One participant completed the pre travel questions and turned them in upon arrival in Paris. Therefore, 13 of 17 participants completed the pre travel questions. Originally, the researcher intended to have the students who had not completed the pre travel questions do so at the third pre session meeting. However, the third pre session meeting was cancelled so the researcher was unable to do so. Post Experience Reflection Questions P ost experience questions were modified from questions originally developed by Wingenbach, Chmielewski, Smith, Pia Edgar, and Hamilton Edgar (2006), later modified by Dooley, Dooley, and Carranza (2008), then Edgar, Edgar, Lawver, and Briers ( Appendix C ) In o rder to understand and interpret how ns of the culture changed b ecause of the short term study abroad experience, the st udents completed the following four post experience questions: 1 ) What are your post experience attitudes/beliefs about visiting Paris? Please

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75 describe your thoughts about Paris, while concentrating o n and describing your top five attitudes/beliefs; 2 ) What are your post experience attitudes/beliefs about Paris Culture? Please describe your thoughts in terms of your top five attitudes/beliefs about cultural (language, customs, etc.), social e conomic, or political issues; 3 ) How did the culture affect your experience in Paris? Describe the emotions that you experienced during your trip and how you dealt w ith cultural differences; and 4 ) Did your cultural experiences in Paris influence your thinking both personally and professionally in the way t hat you anticipated it to? The post experience reflection questions were administered on the last day of the short term study abroad exp erience in Paris The students completed the questions using paper and penci l Q uestions we re administered in Paris, because the students were still together as a group and it would allow for increased participation. All 17 students completed the post experi ence reflection questions. R esponses to the post experience reflection que stions we re transcribed using Microsoft W ord. Participant Observation Observation was used in to allow the researcher to capture the beliefs, feelings, and motives of the participants (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Participant observation was selected for this ca se study due to its ability to allow the researcher to begin the study without knowing the participants and then progress to a participatory role in which the researcher is actively invo lved in the activities taking place (Jorgensen, 1989). Observation be gan at the first pre session meeting March 28, 2012 and continued throughout the short term study abroad program in Paris, France. The researcher observed the participants in order to understand and interpret how they experienced cultural differences thro ugh their short term study abroad program in Paris Observations were recorded in a field notebook and were gathered through direct observation and discussions with the participants. Member checking wa s done periodically based on direct

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76 observations and di scussions. At the end of each day, the researcher transcribed the field notes were obtained from Case Study One. Reflective Journaling Reflective journaling w as used to allow participants to write dow n and their thoughts and feelings while critically analyzing them (Russell & Vallade, 2010 ). Patton (2002) said these are valuable sources of data because they are the direct thoughts and feelings of the participan t. P articipants were given the following five questions to guide them through the reflective journaling process: 1. What were your observations about the culture in Paris? (think about how the people approach relations, language, clothing, time, space, food, bodies, and important people, places, things). 2. Did your perceptions of the culture in Paris change today? If so, how? Why do you think your perceptions changed? 3. What activities of the day had the greatest significance to you? Why? 4. What did you learn tod ay? How will this influence you professionally and/or personally? 5. What do you hope to learn tomorrow? P articipants were instructed (Appendix B) to respond to the five questions each day and to type their responses in Microsoft Word. At the end of the pro gram participants emailed their reflection journals to the researcher. Two participants completed and re turned the reflection journal. Photographs particular contex p. 155). Participants were asked to submit five photographs they took while in Paris and include a brief caption for each photograph. The following prompt

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77 (Appendix D) was given to the participants: When you return from your trip, please submit 5 photographs that capture your cultural experience as well as your emotions throughout the experience. Please write a brief caption for each photograph explaining why you included that particular photograph. Three emails reminding the participants to submit their photographs were sent to the participants. Two participants submitted photographs with captions. Data Analysis Procedures In order to analyze the data a constant comparative method was used. According to Dooley (2007 p. 37 ) the constan discovery of regularities and the patterns or connections between and a However, this study will refer to the data analysis procedure as the grounded theory analysis method according to Koro Ljungberg, Yendol Hoppey, Smith, and Hayes (2009 ). The researcher analyzed the data using a systematic process of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding (Corbin & Strauss, 1990). Line by line open coding was used to label and ca tegorize each line of data (Glaser, 1978). Coding was done as quickly as possible to prevent making comparisons to any pre conceived ideas (Charmaz, 2006). Axial coding was used to categorize and separate out the codes that emerged from the initial stage of open coding (Grbich, relating it to the other categories, validating those relationships, and filling in categories that (Strauss & Corbin, 1990, p. 116). Photographs allow ed the researcher to see reality through the eyes of the participant in a particular context and can be used in conjunction with the previously mentioned data collection methods and data analysis method (Grbi ch, 2007). However, only the captions from the photographs were analyzed using the grounded theory analysis method (Koro Ljungberg et al., 2009 ).

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78 Trustworthiness for Case Study One According to Dooley (2007 p. 38 ) gree of confidence that the findings of the study represent the respon and includes credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability. Credibility was achieved by implementing the following strategies: prolonged engag ement, persistent observation, triangulation, referential adequacy materials, and member checking (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Prolonged engagement and persistent observation were practiced during the short term study abroad program in Paris which consisted of seven days of intense observation lasting 12 to 17 hours per day. Triangulation was achieved through multiple sources of data collection. The dequacy materials, because they are an unobtrusive method of data collection (Erlandson Harris, Skipper, & Allen, 1993 ). Member checking was achieved by verbally confirming the meaning of the participants statement before adding the data to the field notebook. Transferability of the findings to other contexts w ith similar characteristics was ensured through adequate description. Thick descriptions of the context and data were used to vicariously enter the setting and make decisions regarding the transferability of the fin dings (Dooley, 2007). T o ensure dependabi lity of the research, the researcher used a methodological journal to provide was also used to provide documentation that could be used to trace the data back to its raw sources in order to provide evidence that objectivity or conformability is being met (Dooley, 2007). Limitations Case Study One may not have represented the typical short term study abroad program because the six international students enrolled in the program.

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79 The la ck of reflective journaling in Case Study O ne may have skewed the results and conclusions. The lack of photographs may have skewed the results and the conclusions. Only 13 of 17 particip ants completed and submitted pre travel percept ions. Case Study Two : Swaziland, Africa The short term study abroad program for Case Study Two was called African Savannah Wildlife Ecology. This short term study abroad program was conducted in Swaziland, Africa and lasted 19 days. Permission was granted from the Instituti onal Review Board before beginning the study. Sample Selection The African Savannah Wildlife Ecology short term study abroad program was selected because it included 15 undergraduate students in the College of Agricultural and Life Scien ces, the program had a duration of 19 days, and the faculty member was willing to allow the students in his program to participate in this study. All of the documents provid ed by the participants were used in the data analysis process. Participants Case S tudy Two included 15 students : Thirteen females and two males All of the students were undergraduates in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. Four of the 15 participants ha d previously traveled outside the United States. The countries those stud ents had traveled included Belize, France, and Switzerland. N one of the participants were classified as International students. The P articipants had currently been studying wildlif e ecology and conservation a nd had aspirations of obtaining employment in th e field.

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80 Data Collection Procedures Case Study Two used four different methods of data collection. Data were collected before the short term study abroad progra m and throughout the rest of the program. Data collection methods included pre tr avel questions, post experience reflection questions, reflective journali ng, and photographs. Each data collection method is explained in the following paragraphs. The African Savannah Wildlife Ecology shor t term study abroad took place f rom May 23 throug h June 10, 2012. Pre T ravel Q uestions Pre travel questions students an opportunity to think about future learning and to prepare for later experiences (Jones & Bjelland, 2004). This study used four pre travel questions to encourage the students to begin t hinking about the culture they would experience in Swazil and, ing culture in Swaziland Each student received a prompt (Appendix E) that included four questions. The questions were m odified from questions developed by Wingenbach, Chmielewski, Smith, Pia Edgar, and Hamilton Edgar (2006), later modified by Dooley, Dooley, and Carranza (2008), then Edgar, Edgar, Lawver, and Briers. The questions were as follows : 1. What are your initial attitudes/beliefs about visiting Swaziland? Please describe your pre trip thoughts about Swaziland, while concentrating on and describing your top five attitudes/beliefs. 2. What are your initial attitudes/beliefs about Swaziland culture? Please describe yo ur thoughts in terms of your top five attitudes/beliefs about cultural (language, customs, etc.), social, economic, or political issues. 3. How do you expect the culture in Swaziland to affect you during your experience? 4. How do you think the culture in Swaz iland will influence your thinking both personally and professionally?

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81 The pre travel questions were administered face to face during a pre session meeting on May 3, 2012. The students completed the four quest ions by hand. Fourteen of 15 students were pre sent at the pre session meeting and completed the pre travel questions. Two sets of pre travel questions were distributed to the faculty instructor to give to the missing student at a later date. The missing student did not return the pre travel questions P re travel questions were transcribed verbatim in preparation for the analysis process. Post Experience Reflection Q uestions P ost experience questions were modified from original questions developed by Wingenbach, Chmielewski, Smith, Pia Edgar, and H amilton Edgar (2006), later modified by Dooley, Dooley, and Carranza (2008), then Edgar, Edgar, Lawver, and Briers, (Appendix G). Post experience re flection questions were given to the students at the end of their short term study abroad program in Swazila nd The questions were administered while the students were still in Swaziland, to ensure that all 14 students responded to the pos t reflection questions. The ions had cha nged because of the short term study abroad program. On the last day of the program the faculty instructor gave the students the four questions and the students answered the questions by hand in their field notebooks. The questions included were as follow s : 1. What are your post experience attitudes/beliefs about visiting Swaziland? Please describe your thoughts about Swaziland, while concentrating on and describing your top five attitudes/beliefs 2. What are your post experience attitudes/beliefs about Swazilan d Culture? Please describe your thoughts in terms of your top five attitudes/beliefs about Swaziland cultural (language, customs, etc.), social, economic, or political issues 3. How did the culture affect you experience in Swaziland? Describe the emotions tha t you experienced during your trip and how you dealt with cultural differences.

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82 4. Did your cultural experiences in Swaziland influence your thinking both personally and professionally in the way that you anticipated it to? Thirteen out of 15 students comple ted the post experience reflection questions, and all of the responses were transcribed verbatim. Reflective Journaling Russell and Vallade (2010) described reflective journa ling as a method that allows individual s to analyze and document their feelings. Participants in the Swaziland case study were instructed to use the reflective journaling prompt to guide their w riting throughout the program. Because of the wishes of the study abroad facilitator, participants were given the following two questions to pr ompt (Appendix F) their reflection: 1. What were your observations about the culture in Swaziland? 2. What activities of the day had the greatest significance to you? Why? Participants made entries in their reflection journal s on an every other day basis f or a total of seven entries. P articipants used field journals to h and write their entries. All 14 participants completed the reflective journaling and turned in their responses in to the instructor of the program. R esponses were then given to the research er. The journal entries were transcribed verbatim by a third party. Photographs Participants were asked to provide the resea rcher with five photographs they took during the short term study abr oad program in Swaziland. P articipants were also asked to pro vide a brief caption for each photograph. Participants received the following prompt (Appendix H) to guide them in this task: 3. When you return from your trip, please submit 5 photographs that capture your cultural experience as well as your emotions throug hout the experience. Please write a brief caption for each photograph explaining why you included that particular photograph P articipants were asked to provide photographs, because photographs allow for a glimpse into the participant s reality in a part icul ar context (Grbich, 2007). P articipants were sent an

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83 email message asking them to email their photographs/captions to th e researcher. Only one out of 14 participants sent the researcher photographs with captions. Data Analysis Procedures In an effort t o identify patterns, similarities, and differences in the data the constant comparative method was used (Dooley, 2007). More specifically, a ground ed theory analysis was used (Koro sis method was used and included open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. In agreement with Glaser (1978), line by line coding was selected in order to categorize each individual data line. Line by line coding allowed the r esearcher to categorize b ased solely on the data and not preconceived notions. In order to avoid preconceived notions the researcher conducted open coding as quickly as possible (Charmaz, 2006). The second stage of coding was axial coding allowed for categorization of the pre e xisting codes (Grbich, 2007). The final stage selective coding allowed for further delineation of categories (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The researcher used the photographs as an opportunity to visualize the participa reality (Grbich, 2007). However, t he researcher only interpreted the captions from the photographs and used the grounded theory analy sis method (Koro Ljungberg et al., 2009 ). C aptions provided by the single participant were subjected to the same grounded theo ry analysis procedures used to analyze the other data. Data analysis findings from the photograph captions were combined with t he findings from the other data collection methods and used for the grounded theory analysis (Koro Ljungberg et al., 2009) Trustworthiness in Case Study Two In order to achieve trustworthiness, the following four areas were considered throughout the research study: credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Credibility was addressed through triangulation and referenti al adequacy materials.

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84 Multiple data collection methods were used to triangulate the data to help ensure credibility. Reflective journals were used as refer ential adequacy materials because of their unobtrus ive ability to collect data in the context of th e study. Transferability was achieved by the use of thick descriptions throughout the case study (Dooley, 2007). T o address dependability and conformability, a methodological journal was used to record methodological decisions in order to provide a depend ability audit and a confirmability audit (Dooley, 2007) Limitations Case Study T wo may be limited by the absence of participant observation data to provide depth and context. All data collection methods provided self reported data. The lack of 100% complet ion of the pre travel questions in Case Study Two may have skewed the results and conclusions. The lack of photographs may have skewed the results and conclusions. Case Study Three : Costa Rica Sample Selection The College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Leadership Institute (CALS) was chosen as Case Study Three. This group met the criteria for participation. The CALS Leadership Institute consisted of undergraduate agricultural students. T he group participated in a ten day short term study abroad program t o Costa Rica, and the coordinator agreed to allow her students to participate in the study. All documents submitted by the participants were used for data analysis. The program took place fro m August 8, 2012 through August 17, 2012. Participants The CALS L eadership Institute group consisted of 12 undergraduate agricultural students. Nine were female and three were male. To become part of the CALS Leadership Institute students had to be nominated, interviewed, and se lected to participate in the 17 month

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85 pro gram. M embers of this group developed leadership skills through exposure to leadership modules, mentor relationships, and international travel Data Collection Procedures Case Study Three used four different data collection methods. Data were collected fro m participants throughout the entire short term study abroad program from pre session meetings to post sessions meetings. Data were collected through pre travel questions, post experience reflection questions, reflective journalin g, and photographs. All d ata were collected by the facilitator of the program. The researcher did not have any contact with the participants at any t ime during the study. Each data collection method is explained in the following paragraphs. Pre T ravel Q uestions The questions were modified from questions originally developed by Wingenbach et al. (2006), later modified by Dool ey et al. (2008), and then Edgar et al. (Appendix I). The d ata collection method used before the study abroad experience was pre travel questions. The pre trave l questions allowed part icipants to take a little time to think about what they might learn during the short term study abroad experien ce (Jones & Bjelland, 2004). P articipants were given a set of four pre travel questions. P articipants answered the questi ons using Microsoft W ord and emailed their responses to the facilitator of the course. The facilitator gathered all of the responses and emailed them to the researcher. The questions were as follows : 1. What are your initial attitudes/beliefs about visiting C osta Rica? Please describe your pre trip thoughts about Costa Rica, while concentrating on and describing your top five attitudes/beliefs. 2. What are your initial attitudes/beliefs about Costa Rican culture? Please describe your thoughts in terms of your t op five attitudes/beliefs about Latin American cultural (language, customs, etc.), social, economic, or political issues. 3. How do you expect the culture in Costa Rica to affect you during your experience?, and

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86 4. How do you think the culture in Costa Rica wil l influence your thinking both personally and professionally? All 12 participants completed the pre travel using Microsoft Word. The participants submitted the ir response s to the facilitator, and then the facilitator sent the responses to the researcher. Post Experience Reflection Q uestions P articipants completed a set of four post experience questions in order for the researcher to gain an understanding of the thoughts and feelings after experiencing Costa Rica. The four questions (Appen dix K) were modified from questions originally developed by Wingenbach et al. (2006), later modified by Dooley et al. (2008), and then E dgar et al The questions were as follows : 1. What are your post experience attitudes/beliefs about visiting Costa Rica? Pl ease describe your thoughts about Costa Rica, while concentrating on and describing your top five attitudes/beliefs. 2. What are your post experience attitudes/beliefs about Costa Rican Culture? Please describe your thoughts in terms of your top five attitud es/beliefs about Costa Rican cultural (language, customs, etc.), social, economic, or political issues. 3. How did the culture affect your experience in Costa Rica? Describe the emotions that you experienced during your trip and how you dealt with cultural di fferences, 4. Did your cultural experiences in Costa Rica influence your thinking both personally and professionally in the way that you anticipated it too? All 12 participants completed post experi ence questions using Microsoft W ord. P articipants emailed th e responses to their facilitator, and then the facilitator compiled and sent the re sponses to the researcher. Reflective Journaling Reflective journaling was used to allow participants to document and critically analyze their feelings and experiences (Russ ell & Vallade, 2010). The participants were given two

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87 questions to use as prompts (Appendix J) to guide them through the reflective journaling process. The questions were as follows : 1. What were your observations about the culture in Costa Rica? 2. What activi ties of the day had the greatest significance to you and did your perceptions of Cost Rican c ulture change today? Why or why not? Additionally, the short term study abroad facilitator provided the participants with additional reflective journaling que stions. The additional questions were collected from participants and analyzed. The questions were as follows: 1. What were your first impressions of Cost Rica? (What amused, frustrated, bewildered, delighted you, etc.?) 2. What are the top 5 things you learned about sustainable agriculture today? 3. What did you learn about yourself through our adventure experience? About at least two of your peers specifically? 4. What is one thing you have learned about two different peers? 5. How long do you think it takes to understa nd the culture of Costa Rica? 6. What is one thing you have learned about two of your peers not previously mentioned? 7. What did you learn through our service experience today? 8. What assets might this experience yield in the workplace/your future career? 9. What wa s the most significant thing you learned about yourself through your stay in Costa Rica? 10. What is one thing you learned about each of your peers through the trip? P articipants were instructed to write in their reflective journal s each day and to use Micros oft Word to create their journal s The reflection journals were emailed to the facilitator of the course and then sent to th e researcher.

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88 Photographs P articipants were asked to take photographs throughout the short term study abr oad program in Costa Rica. P articipants were given the following prompt: When you return from your trip, please submit five photographs that capture your cultural experience as well as your emotions throughout the experience. Please write a brief caption for each photograph explain ing why you included that particular pho tograph. The photographs and captions were emailed to the facilitator of the program a nd then sent to the researcher. Collecting of the photographs allowed the researcher t o view the experience through the lens of th e participant (Grbich, 2007). All 12 participants submitted photographs Data Analysis Procedures The constant comp arative method was used to find pa tterns in the data that (Dooley, 2007). T o provide a substantive theory, the grounded analysis m ethod was used for this case st udy (Koro Ljungberg et al., 2009 ). The researcher used a process that involved open coding, axial coding, and selective coding ( Corbin & Strauss, 1990). A line by line coding process (Glaser, 1978) was used during the open coding stage. Quickly coding each line of the data allowed codes to emerge that were directly tied to the data (Charmaz, 2006). The researcher proceeded with axial coding and categorized the codes that were established during the open cod ing stage (Grbich, 2007). The findings from axial coding were then used to identify selective codes (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). Photographs provide a glimpse into the reality of the participant in the context of the short term study abroad program (Grbich, 2 007). The researcher interpreted only the captions from the photographs using the grounded theory analy sis method (Koro Ljungberg et al. 2009 ). Findings resulting from analyzing the photo captions from the photographs were used as an additional source of d ata to add depth to the findings.

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89 Trustworthiness of Case Study Three To ensure that study findings were actual representations of the participants and their context, the researcher addressed credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformabilit y (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Credibility was by using triangulation. Using m ultiple sources of data allowed the researcher to triangulate the findings and make sure the theory that emerged was representative. In addition, participant s used reflective journals that served as referential adequacy materials and helped to establish credibility (Dooley, 2007). The use of thick description of this case study allows reader s to vicariously enter the short term study abroad program and decide for themselves whether the findings are transferable to a similar context (Dooley, 2007). The researcher kept a methodological journal to record why methodological decisions were made This also served as the dependability audit and the confirmability audit (Dooley, 2007). Limitat ions Case Study Three may be limited by the absence of participant observation data to provide depth and context. All data were self reported Cross Case Analysis Cross case analysis was done in an effort to compare and contrast the three case studies. Usi ng the collective case study (Stake, 1995) allowed the researcher to identify the similarities and differences of the cases (Creswell, 2007). The researcher examined the three cases and used the findings from each round of the grounded theory data analysis to create a cultural adaptation theory for CALS students on short term study abroad programs including findi ngs from all three case studies (Table 3 1).

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90 Chapter Summary This chapter outlines the qualitative research approach, researcher subjectivity, the oretical and epistemological views, the methodological approaches, data collection methods, and data analysis methods. A qualitative paradigm was used to allow the researcher to phenomenon (Denzin & Lincoln, 1994). The case study approach was used in order to contextualize three short term study abroad programs, while constructing a substantive theory through the use of the grounded theory analysis method. In order to construct t he theory of cultural adaptation for undergraduate agricultural and life sciences students on short term study abroad programs the following data collections were used in at least one of the three case studies: pre travel questions, post experience questio ns, participant observation, reflective journaling, and photographs with captions. The data were analyzed using a ground theory analysis approach (Koro Ljungberg et al., 2010) in which the researcher used a combination of open coding, axial coding, and sel ective coding.

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91 Table 3 1. Number of p articipants in e ach s hort term study a broad program Female Male Total Participants Case Study One 7 10 17 Case Study Two 13 2 15 Case Study Three 9 3 12

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92 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS The need for short te rm study abroad programs and the concept of cultural adaptation was introduced in Chapter One of this study. Chapter One also included the purposes, objectives, limitations, and assumptions of the study. The purpose of this study was to explore how undergr aduate students in a college of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation during a short term study abroad program. Additionally, Chapter Two included the conceptual framework for this study, which included contextual variables, studen t variables, process theories, and intercultural proficiency outcomes. In an effort to further establish the need for this study, an in depth literature review of the components of the conceptual model was provided. Chapter Three served to introduce the q ualitative methods and procedures that were used to conduct this study. F indings o f this collective case study were separated into sections and organized through each of the three case studies and an additional section for cross case analysis The coding p rocess allowed stages and sub stages of cultural adaption to emerge. Each case study is presented according to the identified stages and sub stages. To ensure the privacy of participants, names were not used and participants were assigned a number. Case St udy One : Paris, France Case Study One was entitled Commodities to Cafes Agricultural and Food Marketing in France This short term study abroad program was conducted in Paris and lasted for seven days. Findings were organized by the identified stages and s ub stages and are presented in Figure 4 1 I dentified stages include: Initial feelings, cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, cultural negativity, group dynamics, a cademic and career development feelings throughout the program and cult ural gro wth

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93 I nitial Feelings Initial Concerns Before leaving the United States, participants experi enced a plethora of concerns regarding their upcoming travels. Participant CS1 1 (P re experience ) expressed concern over the monetary sys tem in France and w hether the exchange rate would cause the expenses in the prog ram to cost more than in the United States. L ack of understanding about laws and regulations was also concerning and was compounded by the language barrier (CS1 1 P re experience ). Additionally, participant CS1 14 (P re experience) was concerned about not The language barrier was of g reat concern to participant s (CS1 1; CS1 3; CS1 4; CS1 5; CS1 7; CS1 8; CS1 9; CS1 10; CS1 12 P re experience ). Participant CS1 4 (P re experience) expected to be overwhelmed by the language barrier P articipant CS1 7 (P re experience) wa s concerned about not being able to quickly learn French words in order to complete simple tasks. However, participant CS1 8 (P re experience) had a different type of language concern; CS1 8 (P re experience) previously learned French in high s chool and was concerned about being able to decipher the different dialects. The language barrier brought on ma ny additional conce rns influenced by lack of understanding of the French language. Self doubt regarding their ability to attempt the French language resonated through many of the participants. Participant CS1 3 (P re experience) said One of my main concerns is the language as I understand people in Paris appreciate when you make an effort to speak French but for some reason I find the out what to eat at a restaurant or how to go to a certain p lace. Additionally, f eelings of nervousness emerged during the preparation stages of the program. Navigation throughout P aris made some participants nervous (CS1 3; CS1 4 P re experience ).

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94 Participant CS1 14 (P re experience) was nervous about being immedi ately jud ged by Parisians CS1 14 (P re experience) portray themselves in such a manner that it leaves a bad impression on the people of Paris . CS1 8 (P re experience) also was concerned with being judged negat ively and eati ng food that he was not accustomed to. Negative Cultural Views Negative views and opinions of the culture made it challenging for some participants to positively view the culture. Participant CS1 13 (P re experience) previously had a negativ e experience in Paris and said Similarly, preconceived notions of the people in Paris were abundant and participants were concerned about being treate d rudely by Parisians (CS1 3; CS1 6; CS1 7; CS1 8; CS1 12 P re experience ). Participant CS1 12 (P re experience) I hear from other trav elers that French people tend t o be snobbish to non speakers One participant anticipated expe riencing his negative preconception s of the French people (CS1 2 P re experien ce ). He said taken aback by impoliteness of the culture and amazed at the selfishness of the people, just as I 2 P re experience ). Additio nall y Participants believed the French people looked down on Americans and felt the French were superior (CS1 10; CS1 12 P re experience ). Initial Excitement Despite the initial concerns, excitement grew as participa nts prepared for t he study ab road program. P articipation in this program allowed participants to think about fulfilling lifelong dreams of traveling abroad while building up excitement for learning about other cultures (CS1 4; CS1 5; CS1 8 P re experience ). Participant CS1 5 (P re exp erience) rejoiced in

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95 the belief that traveling abroad is something that everyone should do : excited about trying (CS1 5 P re experience ). High expectations and in creased levels of e xcitement gre w as the participan ts thought about the endless beauty of Paris, France (CS1 8; CS1 9 P re experience ). CS1 12 (P re experience) anticipated the liberating feeling he will experience when leaving his responsibilities in the United States Parti cipants of this study abroad were full of excitement as they prepare d for their departure. Participant CS1 13 (P re experience) said and I learn as if I was to live forever Excitement abounds no whether a self proclaimed world traveler (CS1 13 Pre experience ), or a first time international traveler (CS1 4 P re experience ). Need for Personal Growth and Cultural Growth Participants preparing for the st udy abroad program realized the world has many different cult ures and customs that may be recognized and internalized in order to develop as a person (CS1 8; CS1 13 P re experience ). Learning about another culture allowed participant CS1 4 (P re experience) to analyze differences between French and American culture in order to understand how she is viewed by other cultures. CS1 4 (P re experience) stated [study abroad program] will open me up to realizing how I portray myself to others and what will be appropriate to do in the future A feeling of pers onal growth and developm ent through cultural exposure was needed and required from this program (CS1 3; CS1 4; CS1 5; CS1 6; CA1 11 P re experience ). T he study abroad program aimed to fulfill a need for personal awareness, development, and growth. Partici pants expected to learn about the cultur e of Paris to broaden their view of the world and other cultures, and to enhance their critical thinking skills (CS1 7 P re experience ). Participant CS1 14 (P re experience) said; e of my own

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96 opinions on cultures unlike my own and how I analyze them, ultimately allowing me to grow as a person There was a strong need to learn about Parisian culture in an effort to grow as a human being (CS1 1; CS1 5; CS1 8; CS1 12; CS1 14 P re expe rience ) Anticipation of Cultural Acceptance and Integration A couple of the participants enrolled in the study abroad program with an open mind and the anticipation of welcoming new experiences (CS1 3; CS1 6 P re experience ). The initial openness to new e xperience s showed that p articipants anticipated being open to the culture in way s that allow them to accept cultural differences (C S1 3; CS1 7 P re experience ). Participants fully anticipate d experiencing different customs throughout the program. CS1 4 (P r e experience) said correct way to live your life, and I am anxious to see firsthand and witness how the French go about their daily lives There was anticipatio n about accepting the Parisian custom of consuming wine at meals ( CS1 4; CS1 7 P re experience ). Even though the consuming wine at meals was a new concept for P articipant CS1 7 (P re experience) she was open minded and not critical of Parisians for their c ustom. Additionally, many of the participants anticipated moving beyond cultural acceptance to integrating some of the French customs into their lives. Participant CS1 12 (Pre experience) said think I will be much more tuned in to European customs an d might even have to readjust after I come back to the U.S. In agreement, P articipant CS1 7 (Pre experience) indicated that she will allow her experiences in Paris influence her development as a person Cultural Uncertainty Focus on L ife in the United States As participants arrived at the hotel in Paris many of them decided to stay in the hotel lobby and wait several hours for their room to become available. The focus of their conversation

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97 was not on Paris, but on various aspects of life in the United States. Participants discussed who they were g oing to email or F ace book (Field notes D ay 1 ) There was also a discussion about final grade s for the spring semester. When two of the participants were as ked if they were going to go into the city and explor e, they said they were not going to leave the lobby and they continued talking about friends at home (Field notes D ay 1 ) While at dinner on the first night of the program, a group of six participants had a lively conversation (Field notes D ay 1 ) Howev er, the conversation focused on their college experience in the United States (Field notes D ay 1 ) The participants seemed very comfortable when talking ab out normal aspects of their lives in the United States. Cultural Surprises Once the participants ar rived in Paris, they quick ly felt uncertainty because of cultural surprises When the program facilitator announced that there were not many public restroom s in Paris, P articipant CS 4 (D ay 1) had a shocked/surprised look on her face. After entering the h o tel rooms for the first time, P articipant CS1 1 (D ay 1) expressed displeasure in the unexpected smallness of the hotel room. He (CS1 1 D ay 1 ) was surprised by the size of the room and did not comprehend how they were going to fit three people into the roo m. In addition, participant C S1 10 (D ay 1) complained and acknowledged that he was shocked that the room was so small When traveling around the outskirts of Paris, P articipant CS1 14 (D ay 1) was surprised by the amount of graffiti that was present on the buildings. CS1 14 (D ay 1) inquired about the graffiti and was told the graffiti wa s not removed beca feelings. As the group traveled throughout Paris P articipant CS1 10 (D ay 2) said he was surprised by the lack of atten tion to personal hygiene. However, one of the cultural differences a Parisian shared with the group seemed to surprise the entire group. The participants learned that the primary school system in France expects all students to fit one mold and for that re ason al l

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98 students are treated the same (Field notes D ay 2 ). The participants sat quietly with stunned looks on their faces. Additionally, the group was shocked with how willing ly the French discussed anti Semitism (Field notes D ay 2 ) Confusion P arti cipants were intermittently confused d uring the study abroad program. S ilence fell over the room when one of t he study abroad facilitators explain ed the subway system (Field notes Day 1 ) Several of the participants looked lost and confused about how to navigate the public transportation system. The facilitator then change d subjects and began to tell participants (Field notes D ay 2 ) P articipants had a diffic ult time grasping the idea that a waiter should not be seen until needed. This concept appeared to challenge the participant s thinking (Field notes D ay 2 ) Lack of Cultural Understanding Participants continuously asked the Parisian study abroad facilitator clarifying questions regarding service. A lack of cultural understanding emerged as ma ny of the participants continued to struggle with the concept of French service. A few of the participants got frustrated with the idea of service, we re insulted by the idea of French service, and quit partici pating in the group discussion over what service is like in Paris (Field notes D ay 2 ) Comparisons P arti cipants made compared the United States and France throughout the study abroad program fro m the pre session meetings to the end of the program. Before leaving the United States participants acknowledged there would be cultural differences between the United States and France. Particularly, the pace of living would be much more relaxed in Franc e than in the United States (CS1 4; CS1 7; CS1 14 Pre experience ). Participant CS1 4 (Pre experience) said

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99 Additionally, participants thought about possibl e differences in the way busi ness is done and how France would not focus on franchised busi nesses as the United States has done (CS1 4; CS1 7 Pre experience ). Upon arriving at the hotel, p articipants immediately began comparing it to hotels in the United States. The lobby at this particular hotel was more like a U.S. hotel because it was large. However, upon entering the hotel rooms, the participants quickly real ized a noticeable size difference between room sizes in France and in the U.S. (Field notes, D ay 1). Participant CS1 1 (D ay 1) led a group discussion on how U. S. hotels do not always have win dows that open completely. P articip attitude s toward personal responsibility f or actions (Field notes D ay 1 ) Additionally, participants compared French store hours U.S., store hours, differences in drinking water, and the lack of public restrooms (Field notes D ay 1 ) The meaning of good service in the two countries allowed for much comparison of cultural norms. Compariso ns were m ade when the group was submersed in learning about and tasting cheese ( Field notes, D ay 3) P articipan ts said that the cheese was much better than the Kraft Singles found in the United States (Field notes, D ay 3) Participants seemed comfortable c omparing the two countries and continued to c ompare economies (CS1 13 D ay 3 ). Additionally, P articipant CS1 14 compared religion in the coun tries and concluded that Pari sians have more dedication to religion than Americans do (Field notes, D ay 3) Further comparisons were made regarding the sale of alcohol, the idea of service, the focus on relationships, and everyday living (Field notes, Day 3) Cultural Barriers Language b arrier Upon arrival in Paris, participants immediately noticed the prevalence of the French language. Communication challenges were immediately experienced

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100 Participant CS1 5 (D ay, 1) said she wished she had learned French before the program. P articipants go t an opportunity to practice some common French sayings at the beginning of th e program, but many participants were too apprehen sive to attempt the phrases they learned. (Field notes, D ay 1 ). Some participants refrained from attempting to order dinner using French phrases, thus affecting the full cultural experience (Fie ld notes, Day 1) Participant CS1 8 (D ay 2) stated, There is a language barrier to the level that it was difficult for me to get anything to eat today While visiting a trade show, P articipant CS1 7 (D ay 2) told a n employee she only spoke English. The employee walk ed away and never returned. The language barrier prevented P articipant CS1 7 (D ay 2) fr om getting service and asking about the food being sold. The language barrier was also an issue while visiting the Eiffel Tower (Field notes, D ay 2) T wo of the participants were receiving instructions from the security guard in the line and could not understand what the security guard was saying. The communication barrier seemed to irritate the security guard as well as the two participants (Field notes D ay 2). Participant CS1 14 (D ay 2) said she did not know how to respond to the security guard because of her lack of language skills. Participant CS1 16 (Post experience) said not interact with any French p eople. We should have a background knowledge Similarly, P articipant CS1 14 said not being able to understand the French language made it difficult to fully experience the culture around her (Post experience) Cultural Negativity Negative Experiences At various times throughout the program, participants had experiences that left negative perceptions of Paris and the people of Paris. T he experience of staying at the hotel was a negative experience for many of the participants (Field notes D ay 1 ) The onsi te study abroad

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101 facilitator addressed concerns about the group s behavior at the hotel (Field notes, D ay 5) When the group was accused of noise violations, many of the particip ants got defensive and said it was not the group s fault because Parisians do not know how to design a hotel (Field notes D ay 5 ) Complaints about the broken air conditioner were also addressed (Field notes, D ay 5) Once again, participants got de fensive when they were told air conditioning in May was not a p riority to the hotel staff. In addition to the hotel b eing a negative experience, conversation with a native of Paris also seemed to be a negative experience (Field notes D ay 5 ) During an excursion to an old market, vendors got upset with a participant and push ed him out of the store for making such a small purchase bread purchase (CS1 2 D ay 5 ). He said made an effort to be polite to all the vendors, and the politeness was seldom returned ( CS1 2 D ay 5 ). Participant CS1 8 (Post experience) concurred: shoulder at all shops and businesses and were not made to feel welcome. I did not deal with that well 7 Post experience ) Participant CS1 14 (Post experience) had negative experiences in many of the shops because she felt the shop owners did not accept people browsing through the merch andise. She felt she had to make a purc hase if she went into a shop (CS1 14 Post experience ). Additionally, P articipant CS1 8 (Post experience) felt that the staff at the restaurants and shops treated her rudely and that there was a lack of familiar food for her to eat. Several o f the participants felt that Parisian people and culture ruined the entire program (CS1 1; CS1 2; CS1 10 Post experience ). The French made the trip worse, the people here are s 10 Post experience ). Participant CS1 1 shared the previous sentiment: H e was hoping to break down his preconceived notion s of the French,

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102 but the French people proved that the negative stereotypes were true (Post experience ) Simila rly, P articipant CS1 2 said (Post experience ) I will probably never re turn to France unless I have to I have been physically assaulted by all g result of traveling here, the cultural stereotypes that the trip was supposed to erase have only been reinforced. Negative intera ctions with the people of Paris seemed to resonate with some of t he participants and aided in confirming negative stereotypes. Frustration Many of the participants experienced frustration from time to time. The language barrier was one area that caused frustration. C S1 7 and CS1 14 (day 2) experienced frustration when attempting to follow instructions from the security guard at the Eiffel To wer. They were frustrated by the confusion and embarrassment of the situation. Once again, frust ration with the language and service was experienced when visiting a large wholesale f ood distribution center (Field notes, D ay 4) Several participants were frustrated when the food distribution center ran out of En glish translators. They felt this was rude and would never happen in the United States. However, the part icipants experienced an English speaking tour guide at one of the art museums and this was also a frustrating experience for some (Field notes, D ay 4) Participant CS1 13 (Day 4) felt the tour guide treated the group like children. Another P articipant (CS1 2, D a y 2 ) was frustrated by the behavior of Parisians o n the subway system. He was irritated because he was continuously pushed out of the way (CS1 2, D ay 2 ). Cultural Avoidance Some of the participants purposefully avoided cultural interactions during the prog ram. Two of the participants decided to stay at the hotel instead of visiting the Eifel Tower (Field notes, D ay 2) Of the group visiting the Eiffel Tower, the participants did not interact with

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103 any of the Parisians surrounding them (Field notes, D ay 2) However, the participants did start a conversation with three other Americans (Field notes, D ay 2) Similarly, participants who decided to go on a boat tour avoided sitting by Parisians and isolated the mselves by sitting in a group. P articipants d id not mingle with anyone on the boat tour except people from their own group (Field notes, D ay 2) Group Dynamics Group i ssues Tensions a rose among group members during the program. Many participants criticized their peer s actions and were upset when t hree group members left with three Univers ity of Florida students they met while visiting the Eiffel Tower (Field notes, D ay 2) Several participants said their peers should not be leaving with three girls they just met. Additional ly, P articipants CS1 7 and CS1 14 (D ay 2) were upset with the group for letting them struggle to understand the directions from the security guard at the Eiffel Tower. The security guard incident at the Eiffel Tower caused CS1 7 and CS1 14 (D ay 2) to leave the group in an attempt to calm down. Once again, tensions a ros e among group members when they decided t o sit on the steps and watch street performers (Field notes, D ay 3) CS1 14 (D ay 3) felt frustrated with the decision to sit on the steps for so long because it was a waste of time and prevented her from exploring the culture of Paris. However, P articipant CS1 10 (D ay 3) disagreed with her and was frustrated that the group did not decide to stay longer on the steps He felt sitting on the steps was an e xcellent way to experience the culture of Paris (CS1 10 D ay 3 ). Participant CS1 6 a greed with CS1 10 (D ay 3) and wished they had stay ed longer. Tensions rose when the group took part in a scavenger hunt throughout the city (Field notes, D ay 5) CS1 7 (D ay 5) began to feel frustrated by the lack of clear directions from the facul ty study abroad facilitator. This lack of clarity made her group face challenges when

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104 completing the scavenger hunt and made it hard to get along with team members (CS1 7 D ay 5 ). One team on the scavenger hunt had a particularly nega tive experience and let all the other participants know it. The team with t he negative experience felt the people in Paris were rude to them and the language barrier made it difficult to successfully complete the academic portion of the scavenger hunt (Field notes D ay 5 ). CS1 2 (D ay 5) yelled at the other participants when another team offered to share their food with him. The upset team got angry when other participants asked them what was wrong, and this led to the upset team leaving the scavenger hunt activity and going off on their own. Academic and Career Growth Academic Focus Participants acknowledged that this study abroad program was more than an opportunity to explore Paris ; it was an academic experience for which college credit would be received (CS1 12 D ay 2 ). Participants spent time discussing the academic newsletter assignment and scheduling time to complete the assignment (Field notes, D ay 2) Participant CS1 6 (D ay 6) said ay. It made me feel so relieved. pressure was lifted off and now I am smiling A ttention was also given to other academic activities through the program. S tudents participate d in an academic scavenger hunt though Paris. Many of the participants took the scavenger hunt seriously because it taught them about food labeling in France, and it was a required activity (Field notes, D ay 5) Participants also focused on academic learni ng while touring a food who lesale distribution center and trade show (Field notes, Day 2; D ay 4) Professional Growth As the y experienced academic activities and the culture of Paris, the participants experienced professional growth. The experience in Pari s helped participant CS1 16

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105 (Post experience) to learn about the food marketing system of another country while taking into consideration various cultural perspectives. CS1 16 (Post experience) said that he will be able to use what he learned f rom this program to better und erstand the clientele he will be working with. Participant CS1 6 (D ay 4) felt that she gained knowledge about employment in her field and that she would be able to use this knowledge to advan ce in her field. Classroom Issues Participants spent a portion of the time in Paris in side a classroom learning about Paris culture and the academic content of the program. Participant CS1 14 (D ay 6) felt most of the classroom learning should have taken place before leaving Gainesville a lectures in Paris, they should be done in an interactive way and outside Part icipants showed signs of boredom through their facial expressions and by telling each other the classroom portion was boring (Field notes D ay 6 ). M any of the participants did not enjoy learning in a con tained environment and would rather have been lea rning while exploring the city (Field notes, Day 3; D ay 6 ). Feelings t hroughout the Program Excitement E xcitement resonated throu ghout the s tudy abroad program. P articipants were smil ing and laughing while attempting to learn French phrases (Field notes D ay 1 ) P articipants continued to p ractice the phrases in hopes they would be able to use them in a real conversation with someone who spoke F rench. Excitement about the scavenger hunt was evident in some of the participants (CS1 6; CS1 13; CS1 15; CS1 16 D ay 5 ). Need to Fit in The need to fit in was felt by many of the participants at various times during the program. Initially, there was a need to attempt French communication sp Parisians would be

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106 understanding of the participants (CS1 4 D ay 1 ). Participant CS1 12 (Pre experience) was concerned with sticking out and b eing deemed different. He said of French customs and language will make me stick out as a tourist but after the first few days I should be okay Several of the participants were nervous about ordering food at a restaura nt because they were afraid th ey would make a mistake the Parisians would jud ge them negatively (Field notes, D ay 1) However, participants were not only concerned with fitting in through the use of the French language. Participant CS1 2 and CS1 14 (D ay 2) wanted to know how the French drink wine. They intently watched participant CS1 13 (D ay 2) as he showed them how to properly drink wine. In an effort to fit in, CS1 13 (D ay 2) spoke softly a nd politely reminded others they were not in the United States and it was not cu lturally acceptable to speak loud ly The need to fit in see med to grow stronger when participants broke off into pairs or small groups to explore the city (Field notes, D ay 2) Participant CS1 7 and CS1 14 were hungry at 10:00 pm one evening and were concerned that it was not cultur ally appropriate to visit a c afe that late in the evening (Field notes D ay 2 ) The two participants did not want to stick out like American tourists, so they asked the hotel staff if Parisians ate at cafes late at night (CS1 7; CS1 14 D ay 2 ). Upon rec eiving the okay to eat at a cafe the particip ants proceeded to the cafe (CS1 7; CS1 14 D ay 2 ). Participant CS1 14 (D ay 2) felt that the experience of visiting the cafe late at night was an authentic experience : she was proud of her effort to fit in with Parisians. Negative A t titude to ward the United States Throughout the program, some of the partic ipants felt negatively about the United States. Participant CS1 15 (Post experience) felt as if peopl e in France were better than people in the United States. He focused on what he deemed po sitive aspects of France and did so in a way that allowed him to view the United States negatively (CS1 15 Post experience ). CS1 15 (Post

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107 experience) focused on the increased social time, the quality of food, increased environmental efforts, and the conse rvative economy. Similarly, participant CS1 9 (Post experience) felt France had a much better appreciation for food and health than the United States does. Additionally, P articipant CS1 6 (D ay 5) felt negatively toward American culture when the group was c omplaining about the lack of air conditioning in the hotel room. She did not understand how he r peers could complain about Parisians being r ude when they were expecting Parisians to alter their culture for them (C S1 6 D ay 5 ). Cultural Growth Overcoming L anguage Barriers Experiences during the program encouraged some of the participants to attempt to speak French and communicate with Parisians. The s cavenger hunt activity allowed P articipant CS1 3 and CS1 6 (D ay 5) to interact with Parisians an d to success fully communicate using the French language. Participant CS1 4 (Post experience) acknowledged that she was initially challenged by the language barrier. However, interaction with the group made her feel more comfortable ; she began to attempt the French lan guage and it became much easier to communicate (CS1 4). Participant CS1 5 (Post experience) agreed that relaxing and feeling comfortable was the first step in overcoming the commun ication barrier. Additionally, P articipant CS1 13 (Post experience) felt the language bar rier was easy to overcome and communication with Parisians was possible Cultural Respect and Acceptance Participants showed signs of cultural respect and acceptan ce at different times during the program. When some participants were frustrated by the small room size at the h otel, P articipant s CS1 7 and CS1 14 (D ay 1) de cided to respect the fact that h otel room s in France are traditionally much smaller than rooms in the United States. They quickly accepted this fact and

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108 said they were ok with th e room size (CS1 7; CS1 14 D ay 1 ). Respect and acceptance for the food traditions of France were also demonstrated. Participant CS1 14 (D ay 2) said she expected different food than she was accustomed to ; the food was traditional to France and lived up to her expectations. Instead of simp ly relaxing in the hotel room, P articipant CS1 13 (D ay 2) realized the cafes were the appropriate plac e to sit and relax. Similarly, P articipant CS 10 (D ay 3) accepted the slower pace of the Parisian lifestyle and simply enjoyed his time sitting on the steps taking in the culture. Additionally, respec t and acceptance of the culture was shown through the participants visiting a non tourist area of Paris ( CS 4; CS1 15 D ay 5 ) CS1 4 (Day 5) said I really enjoyed today! It was ni ce to be outside of the tourist populated area, and feel surrounded by real Parisians. It was a fun challenge and did not make me feel nervous or uneasy at all. I would recommend this to future students. Being a ble to explore outs ide the tourist areas while focusing on academic content allowed participants to really feel what it was like to be a Parisian and to accept the culture in Paris (CS1 13 day 5 ). E xposure to Parisian dining, art and the people helped participant CS1 6 (Post experience) realize she respects th e culture of Paris. Similarly, P articipant CS1 5 (Post experience) accepted the culture by learning about life in Paris. She was impressed with the quality of the food and intrigued by the lifestyle (CS1 5 Post experience ). The lifestyle impressed participant CS1 17 (Post experience) so much that he showed respect and acceptance of the Parisian culture : in Paris is sweet, people really know how to live the good life Positive Cultural Experiences P ositive experiences during the study abroad program allowed participants to submerge in the culture around them. Participant CS1 7 and CS1 14 (D ay 2) experience d idea of a perfect waiter. This allowed them to experience authentic French serv ice while

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109 practicing appropriate behavior in the restaurant (CS1 7; CS1 14 D ay 2 ). CS1 14 (D ay 2) said that her positive experience with the waiter, the French language, and the food were her most memorable experience s of the program Similarly, participa nt CS1 6 (D ay 5) had a positive experience at a restaurant when the owner brought out a free appetizer because the participant attempted to speak French. Participation in the cheese tasting course was a lso a positive experience (Field notes, D ay 3) It allowed participants to gain an understanding of the tradition behind purchasing cheese. The cheese course all owed participants to understand that Parisians a re serious about cheese and it is a part of their culture (Field notes D ay 3 ) Two of the participants (CS1 3; CS1 9 Post experience ) had a positive in teraction with three middle aged French women. The two participa nts were struggling to read a map when the three women approached them and began to help them interpret the map (CS1 3; CS1 9 post experience ). The participants were pleasantly surprised They di d not feel this would happen in the United States. Another positive experience allowed cultural exposure : the participants were sitting on the step s watching str eet performers (Field notes, D ay 3) Participant s CS1 6 and CS1 10 (D ay 3) felt sitting on the steps allowed them to take in the culture around them and enjoy the moment. Additionally, the scavenger hunt activity allowed for positive interac tions with employees and customers at local Parisian stores (CS1 6; CS1 13 D ay 5 ). Cultural Identific ation and Recognition of Culture During the program, participants were continuously making an effort to point out and recognize the culture of Paris. Participan ts noted the prominence of cafe s and the fact that people seemed to hang out in cafes and relax (D ay 1) Participant CS1 15 (D ay 1) said Parisians en joy simply sitting around a cafe, drinking coffee and socializing. Parisians al so have an expectation

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110 for high quality food (CS1 15 D ay 1 ). definition and approach to service ( CS1 2; CS1 12; CS1 15 D ay 1 ). Participant CS1 12 (Post experience) felt the service he observed was not servic e and Pari sians do not have any service. Additionally, participants noticed that the French value fashion and dressing nicely (CS1 12 Post experience ). Cultural Integration Throughout the study abroad p rogram many of the participant s integrated aspects of the Parisian culture into their daily routine during the program. Some participants even said they were going to continue some o f the Parisian customs upon return ing to the United States. Participant CS1 6 (D ay 4) integrated French phrases into her voca bulary. This helped her to interact with Parisians on her own wit hout the help of someone fluent in French (CS1 6 D ay 4 ). CS1 6 (D ay 4) planned to spend the rest of the summer learning French Participants did not hesitate t o attempt communication with P arisians and were encouraged when communication was successful (CS1 6; CS1 13 Day, 1; D ay 4 ). Exploration of the foo d marketing system and the food quality expectation in France led participant CS1 3 (D ay 6) to say am going to try to eat fresh food e ven though it is difficult to get in the United States and you cannot get the same freshness as you can in France Participant CS1 6 (D ay 6) plan n ed to integrate cheese i nto her regular diet once she returned to the United States. Participants noted the French presentation of food (Post experience) Participant CS1 4 (Post experience) said, like their idea of presentation being very important: I will probably take that with me to America Additionally participant CS1 9 (D ay 6) n oticed that Parisians live a n active lifestyle and the increased activity she has experienced during the program wa s something she will strive to integrate into her daily life back at home.

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111 Increased Interest in Future Experiences Abroad The experience made many of the participants think about and aspire to travel internationally in the future. Participant CS1 4 (Post experience) I am inspired to travel more in the future e very minute. I hope that in the future I am able to travel abroad again (CS1 5 Post experience ). Case Study One Summary Case Study One was titled Commodities to Cafes Agricultural and Food Marketing in France The progr am was conducted in Paris, France and lasted seven days. Findings from Case Study One led to the development of stages and sub stages for the cultural adaptation process of undergraduate college of agricultural and life sciences students during short term study abroad programs. The stages identified were not listed in a particular order and included: Initial feelings, cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, cultural negativity, group dynamics, academic and career growth, feelings throughout the program, an d cultural growth. Case Study Two: Savannah Wildlife Ecology Case Study Two was titled African Savannah Wildlife Ecology. This short term study abroad program was conducted in Swaziland, Africa and lasted 19 days. F indings were organized by the identifie d stages and sub stages and are presented in Figure 4 2 The identified stages include: i nitial feelings, cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, cultural negativity, academic and ca reer development f eelings throughout the program and cultural growth. I nitial Feelings Initial Concerns Many of the participants experienced feelings of concern while preparing for this study abroad program. Nervousness abounded because of the long airplane flight and navigation

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112 through the airports (CS2 12 Pre experience ). Participant CS2 2 (Pre experience) about traveling internationa articipant CS2 13 (Pre experience) expressed concern over cultural differences he believed he may experience. The fact that he was visiting a part of the world for the fi rst time made him nervous because of his unfamiliarity with Swaziland (CS2 13 Pre experience ). There was also concern about the political turmoil in Swaziland (CS2 6 Pre experience ). Additionally, participants were concerned with i nteracting with the locals in a way that would not be offensive (CS2 4 Pre experience ). Si milarly, P articipant CS2 12 (Pre experience) expected to feel increased anxiety a nd to be unsure how to appropriately interact with locals. Initial Excitement Befo re leaving the United States, many of the participants experienced great excitement at the prospect of the upcoming study abroad program. Participant CS2 5 (Pre experience) said ce a new culture and country P articipant CS2 4 (Pre experience) said Anticipation was building at thoughts of interacting with children and giving them gifts (CS2 4 Pre experience ). E xpect ations of friendly people in Swaziland were prevalent (CS2 3; CS2 6; CS2 8; CS2 13 Pre experience ). Participant CS2 1 (Pre experience) so excited! I look forward to being in the village mostly, interacting with the people Overall there was genuine exci tement about traveling internationally in an effort to widen personal views (CS2 12 Pre experience ). Additionally, participants were excited about the academic focus of this study abroad program. Participants were very exc ited about working in the field and viewing wildlife (CS2 1; CS2 2; CS2 3; CS2 15 Pre experience ) E xcitement about viewing wildlife in its natural habitat was experienced before leaving the United States

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113 (CS2 1; CS2 3; CS2 15 Pr e experience ). Participant CS2 1 (Pre experience) wildlife and habitats should invigorate my passion for wildlife Learning about wildlife ecology excited participant CS2 13 (Pre experience) and led him to conclude that he was going to retur n from the program with stories to share with his friends for the rest of his lifetime. A feeling of enthusiasm and excitement encom passed the participants before leaving the United States. Participant CS2 4 (Pre experience) was happy to be leaving the Uni ted States. Need for Personal Growth and Cultural Growth Participants of this study abroad program expressed a need for both personal and cultural growth. There was anticipation of the culture influencing the participant and allowing the p articipant to kee p an open mind in an effort to grow as a person (CS2 7 Pre experience ). Interactions with the people and culture of Swaziland enhance d the cultural knowledge and allow ed them to enhance the ir world view (CS2 8; CS2 9 Pre experience ). Parti cipant CS2 9 (Pre experience) said ut it will help me be aware that different cultures have different customs However, P articipant CS2 1 (Pre experience) acknowledg ed her lack of understanding of other cultures and wanted this program to positively change her as a human b eing. Participant CS2 13 (Pre experience) aspired to learn from the experience and become a more balanced person. One participant wanted to experie nce emotional changes from exposure to the people and culture of Swaziland (CS2 14 Pre experience ). Participant CS2 6 (Pre experience) felt she could be shut off to others and hoped this program would help her become more aware of the needs of other peopl e. Cultu ral differences were considered when deciding how to behave and react to the surrounding culture (CS2 7 Pre experience ). Addit ionally, participant CS2 4 wanted to become thankful for what she has in the United States. Participants also a felt need to make friends with

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114 the people of Swaziland (CS2 3 Pre experience ) and learn about the country to expand their world view ( CS2 2; CS2 15 Pre experience ). Expects Culture Shock Participants anticipated experiencing culture shock upon entering the count ry. CS2 15 (Pre experience) said The culture shock was expected, but welcomed by some of the participants (CS2 14 Pre experience ). Participant CS2 14 (Pre experience) said rience another culture and environment. I really want to meet people and learn about their way of life. I believe it may be a bit of a cultural The cultural customs of S waziland were discussed befor e entering the country, but participants d id not believe lea rning about the culture before the program would ease the culture shock experienced once entering the country (CS2 9 Pre experience ). Cultural Uncertainty Cultural Surprises Throughout the program, participants had experiences that were unexpected and different than their preconceptions. Participant CS2 1 (D ay 5) expected the natives to dress differently than Americans. She thought that the dress would be unique to the location. However, P articipant CS2 4 (Post experience) was surprised by the traditional culture, ceremonies, dances, clothes that were observable throughout the region. Participants also noted that the people of Swaz iland enjoy music that is r or has been popular in the Unit ed States (CS2 7 D ay 16 ). Additionally, c ell phone technology common in developed countries was also present in Swaziland (CS2 2; CS2 11 Day 4; D ay 11 ) Participant CS2 11 (D ay 4) said found it odd that the houses and communities were so old/had few technological items yet most of the citizens could be seen carrying cell phones

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115 P articipant CS2 2 (D ay 3) focused on the behaviors of the people and was surprised how friendly the child ren were. The children were eager t o wave to the group and say hel lo (CS2 2 D ay 3 ). Once participants began a conversation with Swazi college students, P articipant CS2 13 (D ay 6) realized that Swazi college students knew much more about American s than he anticipated. Participant CS2 13 (D ay 6) said teresting to hear their views on things. They actually know quite a bit about American culture, which was surprising to me When learning about the people of Swaziland, P articipant CS2 8 (Post experience) was surprised when she learned about the treatment of wome which I found surprising. Cattle can apparently compensate the father for his financial/emotional 8 Post experience ). Additionally, pol ygamist views and practices were difficult to c omprehend and were perceived as disrespect ful to women (CS2 8 Post experience ). Comparisons While participating in the study abroad program, participants continually compared Swaziland and the United States Participant CS2 6 (Post experience) said parts of Swaziland reflect a mixture of traditional Swazi and non traditional western influences The people of Swaziland cherish traditions and emphasize t heir customs while integrating W estern influence into their culture (CS2 10 Post experience ). Com parisons were made among styles of clothing worn in each country (CS1 1 D ay 4 ). Participant CS2 11 (D ay 4) felt that the culture in Swazi land was both similar and different than American culture. However, P articipant CS2 5 (Post experience) felt there was a vast difference between urban lives in the Unite d States co and to urban life in Swaziland. Participant CS2 1 (D ay 7) noted the lack of large vehicles parked in driveways. Comparisons were m ade regarding the friendliness of Americans vers us Swazis. Pa rticipants felt people of Swaziland were much friendlier than people in the United States (CS2 13 D ay 8 ). Fri endliness prevailed even though P articipant CS2 9 (Post experience) felt

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116 e pretty run down T hat in mind, the people of Swaziland assumed all Americans were wealthy (CS2 11 Post experience ). Additionally, P articipant CS2 9 (day 14) compared the custom of looking each other in the eye when communicating to one another. She st 9). P articipants noticed that children in Swaziland were treated differently than children in the United State s. The children seem ed to have much more free dom to go where they please and do what they want ed (CS2 13 D ay 4 ). It was also noted that every mal family wa s responsible for providing for the child (CS2 12 D ay 10 ). This was very dif ferent than the United States. Cultural Barriers Language b arriers P articipants did not report many issues with the language barrier However, several participants did admit that the language barrier presented challe nges when communicating with locals P articipant s CS2 5 and CS2 13 felt the Swazi language was difficult to learn (Post experience). The language patterns were challenging for participant CS2 13 (Post experience) to master and he believed the Swazi language would be challeng ing to learn fluently. Participant CS2 14 (D ay 8) said Tod ay I finally felt the awkwardne ss that come s with lack of a common language whe n a group of students and I rode in the back of a pickup with a group of Swazi construction workers. We had only lear men knew more than greeting in English. Cultural Negativity Frustration Frustration was experienced throughout the study abroad program. Two female p articipants CS2 1 and CS2 8 (Post experience) were frustrate d with the polygamist lifestyle present in Swaziland. CS2 8 (Post experience) said

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117 views it kind of disrespected women Additionally, P articipant CS2 12 (D ay 4) was frustrated by the cultural meanings of body language. She expected the meaning of body language to be univers al and she discovered it was not F rustration added to the difficulty of interpreting body language (CS2 12 D ay 4 ). One participant seemed frustrated with the way organizations come to Swaziland and provide aid (CS2 1 Post experience ). She felt the handouts were stifling economic growth in Swaziland and that was frustrating to her (CS2 1 Post experience ). Academic and Career Growth Academic Focus Participants focused on academic content throughout this study abroad experience. Participants spent time in the field conducting wildlife research (CS2 13 D ay 8 ) and learning about native wildlife. Conversations with locals seemed to focus on wildlife or wild life conservation. Participant CS2 6 (D ay 6) di scussed poaching with the local s to better understand the issues that go a long with poaching. Exploring protected conservation land and the non protected land allowed P articipant CS2 2 (D ay 17) to visually observe the importanc e of setting asi de land f or conservation to protect wildlife Visiting nature reserves allowed them to learn about the wildlife and the issues that come with protecting wildlife (CS2 4 Day 17 ). Participant CS2 13 (Post experience) learned that lifestyles clash wi th wildlife m odernization is leading to habitat destruction and fragmentation, similar to everywhere else During the program participants learned about native birds. Participant CS2 8 (P ay 14) said I really enjoyed going out with the bird group and lea r ning some calls Participant CS2 12 (D ay 9) said gnize a few of the bird species. Participants also learned to identify and track wildlife based on feces and tracks (CS2 9 D ay 6 ) Excitement was shown toward t he field exam at the end of the study abroad program. Participant CS2 9 (D ay 6)

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118 said nt in what I had learned Professional Growth Professional growth took place throughout the program. Experiencing the culture of Swaziland allowed participants to learn about a different way of life and to become more aware of other people and their perso nal beliefs (CS2 7 Post experience ). While working within the communities, participant CS2 10 (Post experience) realized the importance of gainin g the respect of the people in the community and becoming accepted by that community. It is also important for lo cal people to be involved in conservation work for the community to buy into the project (CS2 13 Post experience ). The experience in Swaziland allowed participants to realize the need for international conservation work a nd helped them realize they wa nt to have a role in future conservation efforts (CS2 6; CS2 11 Post experience ). Feelings t hroughout the Program Excitement E xcitement was experienced during the study abroad program. Excitement was felt after interacting with the people of Swaziland ( CS2 6 D ay 4 ) Participant CS2 6 (D ay 4) m excited to meet more Swazis, and lean about more of their culture As participants interacted with locals they built relationships. Participant CS2 6 (Post experience) was excited about the relationship s she formed during the study abroad program. The experience in another country encouraged her to graduate as quickly as possible to get a job working in countries similar to Swaziland (CS2 6 Post experience ).

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119 Discomfort Interactions with people in Swazi land allowed participants to come out of their comfort zone and experience discomfort CS2 3 (Post experience ). Participant CS2 3 (Post experience) said way to live life to the fullest Disc omfort when interacting with locals was minimal because of the friendly people of Swaziland; but discomfort was still present when int eracting with people (CS2 12 Post experience ). Participant CS 2 4 (Post experience) felt discomfort when visiting the villages for the first time. This experience took her out of her comfort zone and forced her to relax and let her guard down when visiting the villages (CS2 4 Post experience ). Another participant felt discomfort when the men in the vil lage continued to stare at the women and offer cows for the women (CS2 2 Post experience ). Participant CS2 2 (Post experience) also felt uneasy about the amount of trash present in the village and the presence of sick children leaking bodily fluids. Exper iences in the village made P articipant CS2 10 (Post experience) say constantly pulled out of you comfort zone and you have to adapt to a situation quickly Negative Attitude t oward the United States During the study abroad program some of the p articipants experie nced a negative attitude toward the United States. Participant CS2 7 (D ay 11) was impressed with how people in Swaziland held onto cultur al traditions. She felt that Americans do not value tradit ions in the same manner and upholding cult u ral traditions is something Americans should do (CS2 7 D ay 11 ). Similarly, P articipant CS2 1 (D ay 11) beings. CS2 1 said I think the lack of resources and unnecessary ite ms make the people happier here. I t seem s we, as in people in the U.S., are so caught up in enjoying our possessions we that aspect that we are poor.

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120 As some of the participants learned more ab o ut the culture in Swaziland, attitude s about th e United States changed and beca me negative (CS2 1; CS2 7 D ay 11 ). Cultural Growth Overcoming Language Barriers Throughout the study abroad program, participants worked on overcoming the langua ge barrier to effectively communicate with the people of Swaziland. Participant CS2 12 (D ay 10) stated, I think it was really neat to watch the Swazi child ren and ourselves overcome the gestures. I even mad a poorly molded play dough cow and managed to convey that Efforts were made to communicate by any means n ecessary even if it was not with verbal language (CS2 12 D ay 10 ). However, attempts were made to learn and speak the Swazi language. The Siwati language was c onsidered unique and this made P articipant CS2 9 (Post experience) interes ted in learning the language Participant CS2 13 (D ay 6) learned common Siwati phrases in an effort to communicate with the locals However, particular Siwati words have various meanings used in different contexts (CS2 1 Post experience ). Cultural Respec t and Acceptance Participants were subjected to many cultural traditions and customs different than in the United States. Cultural respect was given shown throughout the pr ogram w hen the participants showed they were willing to embrace the local customs A group of Swazi women wanted to dance with some of the participants and instead of being shy or embarrassed, the participants showed respect for the Swazi women and took turns dancing with them (CS2 8 D ay 9 ). e ceremony was al so menti oned by P articipant CS2 8 (Post experience)

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121 many family members and was a huge celebration Participant CS2 4 said (Post experience) are very tradition civilization not that they should Similarly, P articipant CS2 1 (Post experience) accepted the traditions of the Swazi people and felt that they should continue Positive Cultural Experien ces Positive cultural experiences throughout the study abroad program led to cultural growth of the participants. P articipants were happily welcomed into the village and the children w ere eager to hold hands with participants (CS2 6 D ay 4 ). Visiting villa ges allowed participants to experience friendly people, happy people, and another way of life (CS2 2; CS2 3 ; CS2 4 ; CS2 9 D ay 3 ). Interacting with children in the villages was a pos itive experience f or many participants. Participant CS2 3 (D ay 7) helped to teach the children of the village to play a game using empty soda cans. Another positive cultural experience was visiting the markets. CS2 7 (D ay 14) said was impressed by the amount of things [to buy: so many] stalls for food, crafts, fabric everything! So much culture in one place! It was so cool! The experience of negotia t ing the price for an item was positive for P articipant CS2 3 (D ay 16) Visiting the markets w ere a positive experience s that allowed interaction s with different people and cultural traditions (CS2 7 D ay 14 ). P articipants were able to interact with college students from Swaziland. The conversations turned into a positive experience and allo we d participants to realize they were similar to the Swazi students (CS2 6 D ay 10 ). Participant CS2 12 (Post experience) said my understanding of Swaziland Additionally, v isiting a school in Shewela was a positive experience because it allowed them to see the disparity in Swaziland and to brighten the

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122 day by playing with them (CS2 2 D ay 9 ). Participants a ppreciated all of t he cultural experiences offered and did not believe the program would have been as meaningful without the experiences (CS2 8; CS2 13 Post experience ). Cultural Identification and Recognition of Culture During the study abroad program participants were continuously identifying and giving recog nition to the cultural traditions that surrounded them. From the beginning participants noted that Swazi s were social people who focused on relationship building (CS2 3; CS2 7 Post experience ). The people were welcoming and friendly toward the participan ts (CS2 2; CS2 3; CS2 4; CS2 5; CS2 8; CS2 10; CS2 11 Post experience ). However, it was noted that men and women do not socialize much (CS2 5 Post experience 11 Post experience ). The practice of poly gamy is present in Swaziland and exacerbates gender inequality (CS2 12 D ay 19 ). Desp ite the poverty many Swazi s live in, the people of Swaziland seem happy (CS2 11 Post experience ). but (CS2 4 Post experience ). Participant CS2 8 (Post experience) said money, but seem to have a positive outlook on lif e The cultural traditions and customs of Swaziland are passed down from one generation to the next (CS2 11 Post experience ) and can be seen in everyday life (CS2 13 Post experience ). CS2 7 (Post experience) said is very rich and vibrant. especially in everyday wear for opinion that traditions are so old here Additionally, the children are extremely appreciative of the gifts that they receive d (CS2 6 D ay 4 ).

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123 Cultural Learning Cultural learning took place throughout the stu dy abroad program and helped participants gain a better understanding of the culture in Swaziland. Cultural learning started at the beginning of the program when the students were visiting the villages. Participan t CS2 12 (D ay 10) learned that the Swazi s valued family and lived in close proximity to their extended family. Swazi children are highly prized and viewed as a blessing no matter how many c hildren are in the family (CS2 9 D ay 6 ). Swazis were unconcerned about whether the family could provide for the children (CS2 9 D ay 6 ). If the family could not feed their children, they would send the childre n to eat at a community daycare (CS2 10 D ay 9 ). T he food habits of the Swazi s provided another opportunity for cultural learning Participant CS2 9 (D ay 8) said mealy pop is the main cultural food dish Meals are often consumed as an entire family out of one bowl T he family used their fingers to cons ume the meal (CS2 4 D ay 8 ). However, p articipant CS2 10 (D ay 12) learned that when Swazi s grill food they eat it right over the fire pit. Par ticipants also learned about traditional Swazi wedding ceremonies Y ounger Swazi colle ge students do not want a traditional Swazi wedding (CS2 10; CS2 11 D ay 6 ). Participant CS2 10 (D ay 6) said a white wedding than a traditional Swazi wedding. This deviation from t radition is being seen more and more in Swaziland as western culture pushes more for influence Learning about Swazi traditions continued throughout the entire program through the interactions with the locals and the visits to their villages

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124 Personal G rowth Personal growth took place throughout the study abroad experience. Th e study abroad program helped broaden the wor ld view of participants (CS2 1 Post experience ) and increase d their personal confidence so they could become more independent (CS2 2 Post experience ). CS2 2 (Post experience) said Interacting with the people of Swaziland allowed many participants to gain a sense of appreciation for what they have in the United States and to be tha nkful for their lives ( CS2 4; CS2 7; CS2 9; CS2 11 Post experience ). Additionally, P articipant CS2 1 (Post experience) enhance d her listening skills through the program and P articipant CS2 3 (Post experience) discovered the importance of cultural interactions. Increased Interest in Future Experiences Abroad The experience in Swaziland made many of the participants decide that they want to travel internationally in the future. Partic ipant CS2 6 (Post experience) Swaziland made me feel very refreshed, I realized just how unique this country was, and unique come back Simil arly, participant CS2 9 (Post experience) was interest ed in returning to Swaziland because of the positive experience she had. Future international tra vel is not limited to tourism; P articipant CS2 12 (Post experience) wanted to travel in a professional effort to help other countries. Case Study Two Summary The short term study abroad program titled African Savannah Wildlife Ecology was used as Case Study Two The program was conducted in Swaziland, Africa and lasted 19 days. S tages and sub stages of cu ltural adaptation emerged from the data Identified stages include

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125 i nitial feelings, cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, cultural negativity, academic and career development, feelings throughout the program and cultural growth. Case Study Three Lead ership Institute Study Abroad Program Case Study Three was comprised of the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Leadership Institute study abroad program This short term study abroad program was conducted in Costa Rica and lasted for seven days. The findings have been organized based on the identified stages and sub stages and are presented in Figure 4 3 The identified stages include: Initial feelings, cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, cultural negativity, academic and career development, fee lings throughout the program, and cultural growth. Initial Feelings Initial Concerns Participants in this study abroad program were initially concerned about their anticipated experience in another country. Participant CS3 10 (Pre experience) said little scared, f unknown elements in this trip. Concern raised by P articipant CS3 10 (Pre experience) was the issue of safety. She was concerned that the group may be visiti ng areas of Cost a Rica not considered safe and she was praying for safety throughout the entire program. Similarly, P articipant CS3 13 (Pre experience) believed Costa Rica would be a safe place to travel, but her nerves caused her to over think and become concerned with s afety. Participants were also concerned about the service learning project that w as part of the program. They were uncertain what the project would entail which led to anxiety (CS3 12 Pre experience ). Participant CS3 4 (Pre experience) was concerned wi th the risk involved in the ser vice learning project. He said adverse person and it will be interesting to see how the group interacts in the field 4 Pre experience ). Participant CS3

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126 7 (Pre expe rience) expressed c oncern about working with small animals, especially monkeys. She did not want to interact with animals during the service learning project (CS3 7 Pre experience ). Initial Excitement Despite initi al concerns participants showed excitement about upcoming program. They were excited about the travel experience and the opportunity to learn about a different country and cult ure (CS3 7 Pre experience ). The opportunity to explore exploration of Costa Ri can food stirred excitement (CS3 9 Pre experience ) and the thought of tou ring a coffee plantation excited P articipant CS3 12 (Pre experience) because coffee is a product of Costa Rican agriculture. Participants were initially excited about the opportunit y of interacting with Costa Rican natives in an effort to build relationships (CS3 6 Pre experience ). Participant CS3 6 (Pre experience) said think there is a lot to be gained by visiting another country, because it gives us a more global perspective on society and the relationships between people The opportunity to visit Costa Rica and observe a different culture would be an eye opening exper ience and w ould allow for new experiences (CS3 1; CS3 5 Pre experience ). Participant CS3 3 (Pre experience) said not sure what features Costa Ricans share, but I am excited to see what the population looks like Participants we re excited to meet and interact with the people of Costa Rica (CS3 3; CS3 8 Pre experience ). Additionally, participants looked forward to adventure (CS3 3 Pre experience ), the service learning project (CS3 7 Pre experience ), and the unkno wn (CS3 10 Pre experience ). Need for Personal Growth and Cultural Growth Before participating in the study abroad program, participants felt a need for personal growth and cultural g rowth. Participant CS3 2 (Pre experience) expected the program to provid e

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127 an opportunity for her to observe the culture of Costa Rica and compare it to the United States. Cultural exposure was anticipated and expected throughout the program (CS3 3 Pre experience ). Potential imm ersion in the culture would help P articipant CS3 3 (Pre experience) to experience the culture around her and to increase her understa nding of how other people live. I nteract ions with people in Costa Rica we re expected to help participants improve their li ves (CS3 8 Pre experience ) and expand their world view (CS3 6 Pre experience ). Participant CS3 6 (Pre experience) said believe that seeing the differences between the culture in Costa Rica and the culture in the US will help me understand that there are many different ways of thinking in the world Participants thought they needed these e xperiences in Costa Rica to help refocus how the participant s viewed their personal lives Participant CS3 8 (Pre experience) said I think the culture of Costa Ric a will open my eyes to how lucky we are in America. It will be an experience that I can look back on when the going gets rough about life in America and make me aware of the blessings in America that are not given to everyone Addit ionally, P articipant CS3 8 (Pre experience) wanted this study abroad experience to enhance h er leadership skills making her better able to help people in her future career. Increased patience was a nother product expected from this program (CS 3 5 Pre experience ). Participant CS3 5 (Pre experience) thought increased patience would make her more tolerant of other cultures. Similarly, P articipant CS3 9 (Pre experience) believe d it would be beneficial to be around another cul ture and the experience would help him learn to interact with different types of people. Expects Culture Shock Before leaving t he United States, several participants anticipated experiencing culture shock u pon entering Costa Rica (CS3 3; CS3 8; CS3 11 Pre experience ). Participant

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128 CS3 3 (Pre experience) said shock when I get off to experience something vastly different than what she wa s used to in the United States (CS3 3 Pre experience ). Another participant (CS3 8 Pre experience ) had past international trav el experiences and fully expected to be overwhelmed by the culture of Cost a Ric a. Participant CS3 8 (Pre experience) said I think I will probably go through an adjusting period and then by day five I will be comfortable with the Costa Rican culture Addition ally, P articipant CS3 11 (Pre experience) expected to experience some level of culture shock but not as great as if he were visiting Brazil or Honduras Expects Discomfort Many of the participants expect ed to initially experience a feeling of discomfort. Participant CS3 3 (Pre experience) said [expect] to feel a littl e uncomfortable in the beginning because of the unfamiliar atmosphere, but I hope that I can let go of the discomfort and enjoy everything and everyone around me The study abroad experience force d participants out of their comfort zone by removing them f rom constant access to technology (CS3 4 Post e xperience ). Participant CS3 10 (Pre experience) expected the study abroad experie nce to push her to new limits by removing her from her comfort zone and helping her find her limits. Anticipation of Cultural Acceptance and Integration One initial expectation of participants w as to accept the culture present in Costa Rica and integrate it into their live s. Participant CS3 4 (Pre experience) anticipated bringing home a new perspective on life overall culture will probably allow me to open up, relax, and 10 Pre experience ). Immersion in the culture would allow participants to experience Costa Rica and to continue Costa Rica n customs after returning to the United States (CS3 10 Post experience ). Participant CS3 7 (Pre experience) said

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129 I have always imagined the Costa Rican culture to be very laid back and relaxed, I think this will run off on me. I tend to worry a great deal about schedules and timelines, and I am looking forward to simply enjoying the experience. I hope to be open minded about the things I can learn while in Costa Rica. Addition ally, P articipant CS3 12 (Pre experience) expected to be af fected by the food culture and to incorporate Costa Rican cooking into her life in the United States. T o fully experience the culture of Costa Rica, partici pant CS3 11 (Pre experience) said that he would effort to learn about and respect the culture that surrounds him. Cultural Uncertainty Cultural Surprises During the program, participants experienced cultural surprises that made it challenging to fit in with the culture around them. Participant CS3 4 (D ay 1) was surprised by Costa Rica ns responses and actions when trying to arrive at a particular location. There is no formal address for directions, which are based on landmarks (CS3 4 D ay 1 ). I t was astonishing to participant CS3 4 (D ay 1) that using landmarks for directions still worked today. The horseback riding experience surprised participant s CS3 6 and CS3 12 (D ay 5) because the concern for safety during the ride. Participant CS3 6 (D ay 5 ) said Today was our free day in Jaco, and we went horseback riding in the mountains. This experience showed me the differences in safety regulations between Costa Rica and the US. We were not given a helmet for the trip, and we galloped with no prior ho rseback riding experience. The tour guides were not as scared of liability issues and getting sued as t h ey would have been in the US My perception of on Costa Rican safety values did change to a degree. Similarly, the driving in Costa Rica surprise d some participants (CS3 6; CS3 10 D ay 1 ). Participant CS3 10 (D ay 1) said D riving habits in Costa R ica seemed to be accepted by locals and were common practice (CS3 10 D ay 1 ). The bus driver acted completely at ease in the hectic driving conditions (CS3 10 D ay 1 ).

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130 Participants were also surprised by the eating habits of the people in Costa Rica (CS3 4; CS3 10 D ay 2 ) Participant CS3 10 (D ay 2) did not expect to be served rice and bean s fo r almost every meal of the trip, somehow these being served at breakfast never occurred to me P overty was another surprise for some participant s (CS3 3; CS3 9 D ay 1 ). Participant CS3 3 (D ay 1) said I tru ly did not realize the extent of the poverty present in Costa Rica P articipant CS3 9 (D ay 1) was also surprised by the amount of poverty and the stray dogs that ro amed the roads. Upon learning of the ave rage wage for a coffee picker, P articipant CS3 3 (D ay 9) was surprised by the low wages and had trouble understanding how a person could li ve on that wage. Additionally, P articipant CS3 12 (D ay 9) was surprised to lear how some Costa Ricans view N icaraguans. She was not expect ing Nicara guans to be treated like second class citizens. Comparisons Comparison s to the United States and the cultures within the United States were made throughout the stud y abroad program. The food in Costa Rica was appreciated, but compared to the foo d in the United States. Participant CS3 1 (Post experience) said Although I enjoyed the food in Costa Rica, having rice and beans was starting to definitely more appreciative of my Chick Fil A sandwich and fries when I returned D ifferences in the type of food were also pointed out. People in Costa Rica typically eat Hispanic meals I n the United States, Americans eat food from all over the world (CS3 3 Post experience ). Additionally, the food in Costa Rica is much less processed than the food in the United States (CS3 12 Post experience ). Comparisons were also made about the different interpretations of food items and how food items may share names but look and taste

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131 different in Costa Rica (CS3 3 D ay 1 ). It was also noted that there were no food courts in shopping malls or play areas for childre n (CS3 3 D ay 6 ). Participants also compared the pace of life in the two co untries. Americans rush to complete task s Costa Ricans are more relaxed about completing tasks, but it i s the rushed 7 Post experience ). The lifestyle in Costa Ric a seemed to accept socializing with friends during the midd le of the week (CS3 10 Post experience ). There is not as much focus on completing tasks (CS3 10 Post experience ). The pe ople in Costa Rica were less safety minded than peop le in the United States (CS3 10 D ay 4 ). C hildren in Costa Rica had much more freedom to roam around and do as they please (CS3 10 D ay 4 ). Simil arly, the people in Costa Rica we re not concer ned with the safety of clients when they we re ri ding horses (CS3 2; CS3 8 D ay 5 ). One participant came close to falling off a cliff while riding on a horse and the employees laughed at her (CS3 8 D ay 5 ). Additionally, there was a huge difference in the treatment of animals. The horses were overwor ked and did not receive water during the day hike (CS3 8 D ay 5 ). P articipant CS3 2 said she did not like how women were treated in Costa Ri ca: Participant CS3 2 (D ay 4) said I noticed that men have completely different demeanors toward women than what is t ypical in the U.S. Wherever we went guys thought it was acceptable to stare at you like you were a piece of meat and make comments about your appearance P articipants also noticed that the Costa Ricans negatively view ed Nicaraguans and hire d th em to compl ete jobs they did not want to complete themselves (CS3 7; CS3 8; CS3 11 D ay 7). Participant CS3 7 (D ay 7) said Participant CS3 1 (D ay 7) found similarities in the way Costa Rica and the Unit ed States treat people who enter the country looking for employment.

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1 32 Cultural Barriers Language b arrier The language barrier prevented many of the participants from fully communicating with the locals and made it challenging to fully engage in the culture of Costa Rica. It was difficult t o communicate with people because of the language barrier (CS3 12 Post experience ). Apprehension about attemp ting the Spanish language was caused by fear of messing up t he language and offen ding someone (CS3 12 D ay 1 ). The language barrier made checking into the hotel challenging because of the confusion with room numbers (CS3 12 D ay 1 ). Additionally, P articipant CS3 12 (D ay 5) felt it was to understand the culture wit hout being able to speak Spanish because there is limited communication which is such an important part of learning culture Upon arriving in Costa Rica, P articipant CS3 3 and CS3 10 (Post experience) regretted not learning Spanish before this pr ogram. L ack of ability to speak Spanish frustrated participant CS3 5 (D ay 1) because many of the Costa Ricans she encountered assumed she spoke Spanish. The language ba rrier was also frustrating for P articipant CS3 3 (D ay 1) and became an issue when she wanted to order food at a restaurant. When she received her food, it was nothing like wh at she expected she realized the language barrier was an issue (CS3 3 D ay 1 ). However, t he group was fortunate to have so me people who spoke varying levels of Spanish (CS3 12 P ost experience ). Cultural Negativity Frustration Frustration was experienced at different points throughout the study abroad program. The laid back atmosphere in Costa Rica was frustrating at times (CS3 12 Post experience ). Participant CS3 12 (Post exper ience) said, In the beginning of the trip I liked having loose meeting times and impromptu bus rides her e and there. As the trip continued I found myself over thinking everything arrival times, sanitation, schedules, food services and handling, etc. I thi nk I was worrying more than normal because the culture around me was less structured than what I was used to.

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133 The relaxed culture and time schedules were challenging for P articipant CS3 12 (Post experience) to adj ust to and she realized that she would not be able to live in Costa Rica. The serv ice learning project brought frustrations for some participan ts. There was frustration about the money being spent to rehabilitate wild animals. Participant s CS3 1, CS3 7 and CS3 12 (Post experience) felt resources were being wasted on animals when they could be used to directly benefit the people of Costa Rica. Participant CS3 7 (Post experience) said rous animals when there are children starving around the world Similarly, participant CS3 1 (Post experience) felt there were better organizations to choose for the service learning project and the service learning project should focu s on humans instead of animals. The service learning project focused on care and rehabilitation of monkeys ( CS3 1 Post experience ). Additionally, fr ustration was experienced about the lack of an army in Costa Rica. Participant CS3 7 (Post experience) I think it is re ckless for Costa Rica, or any country for that matter not to have an army. They may be fine now, but we live in a volatile world and each country should be prepared However, the Costa Ricans had intense security at the a irport which was frustrating beca use of the general laid back nature of the country (CS3 2 D ay 10 ). Group Dynamics Relationship g rowth P articipants were focused on building meaningful relationships with the other group members. T o get to know one another better, participants spent time playing games that allowed them to learn about each other (CS3 7 Post experience ). Conversations about cultural differences also helped the group to build relationships with their peers (CS3 7 Post experience ). The act of experiencing a new cou ntry with other people helped solidify friendships an d helped participants learn about their peers Participant

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134 CS3 4 (Post experience) i t was an incredible opportunity to explore a new country together The program allowed participants to bond with their peers as they participated in a life changing experience (CS3 5 Post experience ). Participant CS3 5 (Post ex perience) felt much closer to her peers at the end of the program. Additionally, this program incorporated relationship growt h into the daily activities and participants were expected to l earn about their peers. The zip line exper ience was an excellent tea m building experience (CS3 6 D ay 3 ). Participant CS3 6 (Post experience) this activity allowed us to come closer together as a group while experiencing the beauty of the rainforest and the element of adventure seen in Costa Rican culture Similarl y, participant CS3 10 (D ay 3) appreciated the suppor t she receive d from her peers during the zip line experien ce. Throughout the program, participants continued to learn new things about their peers. For exampl e, P articipant CS3 8 (D ay 6) le arned that P articipant CS3 12 aspires to intern in a monkey sanctuary. This study abroad program brought the participants closer together and that was expressed by participant CS3 5 (Post experience) everyone was a lot closer and we were much better friends Academic and Career Development Academic Focus During this study abroad program, the participants focused on academic content. The academic content for this particular program was in the form of leadership development through service learni ng and agricultural tours. Participants focused on learning about sustainable agriculture and how to conserve soil (CS3 8 D ay 2 ). Learning how sustainable ag riculture is used in Costa Rica and how it can be used elsewhere was a focus of the agricultural tours (CS3 1; CS3 6 D ay 2 ). Additionally, the service learning project taught participants about

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135 wild life, plants, and each other (CS3 6; CS3 10 D ay 2 ). Participant CS3 9 (D ay 7) was happy to learn about wildlife and conserva tion because it was a part of the Costa Rican culture. Professional Growth Some of the participants experience d professional gr owth by participating in the program s activities Participant CS3 6 (D ay 8) aspires to become a veterinarian and the experien ce of preparing food for the monkeys aligned with her career goals and helped her to grow professionally. Participant CS3 6 (D ay 8) said want to be an exotic animal veterinarian in the future, so this experience was extremely helpful to me Similarly, participant CS3 12 (D ay 8) felt working with food preparation for the monkeys helped her grow professionally. Additionally, P articipant CS3 5 (D ay 8) felt the experience of working with people from a different culture was benefi cial because it would allow her to effectively work with people from around the world in the future. Feelings t hroughout the Program Excitement landing in Sa n Jose, I wa prom inent emotion I felt upon arriving (CS3 1 D ay 1 ). P articipant s immediately felt excitement because the o pportunity to actually view the landscapes of Costa Rica (CS3 5; CS3 6 ; CS3 8 Post experience ). Participant CS3 7 (Post experience) said amazing Additi onally, the activities s cheduled for the pr ogram stirred excitement among the participants. Participant CS3 2 (Post experience) said Rica, I was so excited for the new experiences I was going to be a part of The h orseback riding adventure was exhilarating (CS3 2 Post experience ). Two other activities also stirred excitement

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136 for some of the participants. The zip line allowed P articipant CS3 5 (Post experience) to view the beautiful scenery ; and the jungle hike was filled with excitement fo r P articipant CS3 2 (D ay 8) Discomfort During the program a certain level of discomfort was experienced by many of the participants. Some of the activities experienced during the program pulled the participants out of their com fort zone s The horseback riding activity was uncomfortable for P articipant CS3 4 (D ay 5) He described the experience as scary because the horse could not speak to him (CS3 4 Day 5 ) The zip line experience also stirred discomfo rt ( CS3 1 ; CS3 8; CS3 10 D ay 3 ). Participant CS3 8 (D ay 3) I would have to quit after the practice lines numbers 1 5 The zip line also removed P articipant CS3 1 (D ay 3) from her comfort zone, but sh e felt the discomfort led to a memorable experience. Safety Concerns There were a few safety concerns while visiting Costa Rica. The commonly a ccepted driving practices made P articipant s CS3 8 and CS3 9 (D ay 1) concerned about safety while traveling in Costa Rica. Participa nt CS3 10 (D ay 1) said safety Safety concerns were also expressed during the hot springs tour because of the weather and the people they met along the way (CS3 12 D ay 2 ). Similarly, P articipant CS3 8 (D ay 8) fe lt unsafe hiking in the forest because there were spiders and tour guides using machetes. The tour guides during the horseback riding experience were a concern for participant CS3 10 (D ay 5) The guides did not seem concerned about potential accidents nor did they actively seek to prevent accidents (CS3 10 Day 5 ). L ack of sanitation prac tices was a safety concern for P articipant CS3 12 (Day 1) Costa Ricans prepared food for customers in open air kitchens and allow ed dogs to roam a round inside the kitchen (CS3 12 D ay 1 ).

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137 Thankfulness for the United States Throughout this study abroad program, some of the participants felt thankfulness for the Unit ed States. The program allowed P articipant s CS3 1 and CS3 8 (Post experience) to conf irm that they are grateful to be citizen s of the United States. Edu cational opportunities available in the United States were one reason to be thankful (CS3 8; CS3 12 Post experience ). The government system and safety the United States provides we re also reasons to be thankful (CS3 12 Post experience ). The program affected P articipant CS3 8 (Post experience) on a personal level by making me a much more grateful citizen of America Participant CS3 12 (Post experience) realized she is thankful for grocery stores, nice housing, and educational options prevalent in the United States. Cultural Growth Overcoming Language Barriers During this study abroad program, many of the participants attempted to overcome the language barrier Participant CS3 3 (D ay 10) made sure to attempt Spanish when speaking to the staff at each location they visited. The language barrier was a challenge, bu t participants tried out newly learned words and phrases (CS3 12 Post experience ). Participant CS3 9 (D ay 5) attempted Spanish when communicating with the horse back riding instructors. She also laughed at herself each time she attempted to speak Spanish, but her lack of fluency did not prevent her from attempting the language. Particip ant CS3 4 (Post experience) said at how much we could communicate without language Similarly, P articipant CS3 4 (Post experience) come a team very quickly Participant CS3 3 (Day 4) noticed that the Costa Ricans appreciated attempts at speaking Spanish no matter how Spanish speaking skills were

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138 Cultural Respect and Acceptance Throughout the study abroad experien ce the participants increased their cultural respect and acceptance of the people of Costa Rica. Participant CS3 4 (Post experience) said the group did very well adapting to the Costa Rican culture. After we got over the bright, early mornings a nd the lack of hot water we began to really appreciate the world around us Participant CS3 7 (D ay 7) learned to respect the people of Costa Rica because of their attitude, acceptance, and contentment living without hot water, access to modern grocery sto res, and other modern conveniences. Despite the lack of modern grocery stores, P articipant CS3 12 (D ay 3) was impr essed with the fresh produce was available at roadside markets. The experience of purchasing fresh fruit helped P articipant CS3 12 (D ay 3) res roadside vendors selling affordable produce Another experience that h elped P articipant CS3 8 (D ay 4) respect and accept the culture of Cost a Rica took place in a souvenir shop. Participant CS3 8 (D ay 4) broke a magnet that she was attempting to purchase and when she offered to pay for the broken magnet the shop owner did not make her pay because he said that he appreciated her honesty. Participant CS3 8 (D ay 4) said This, again, affirmed my perception that Costa Ricans are v ery kind hearted people, valuing relationships more than business This experience helped the participant accept the kind nature of the Costa Rican culture. Additionally, the rainforest hike helped participant s CS3 6 and CS3 12 (D ay 6) learn to respect t he Costa Rican s connection with a nd understanding of the land P articipant CS3 12 (D ay 5) gain ed a respect for people who live off of the land. Another parti cipant quickly realized having carefree attitude towards me and the caring attitude towards friends were 9 Post experience ). T he presence of the Costa Rican culture

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139 made the program a wonderful experience (CS3 9 Post experience ). In an e ffort to accept the culture of Costa Rica, P articipant CS3 7 (Post experience) talked through cultural differences Positive Cultural Experiences Experiences throughout the program allowed participants to positively experience the culture around them. Trips to the grocery store allowed participants to see different types of food that are part of the Costa Rican culture (CS3 5 D ay 2 ). Interactions with the locals led P articipant CS3 11 (D ay 4) to realize Costa Ricans were friendly people who appreciated the presence of tourists. The waitress at the first restaurant w as very friendly to the study abroad group and brought each participant a free piece of flan (CS3 6; CS3 8 D ay 1 ). When visiting a c offee plantation, P articipant CS3 7 (D ay 9) was amazed by how large a n industry coffee productions is for Costa Ric a. Simi larly, P articipant CS3 11 (D ay 9) was impressed with the tour guide at the coffee plantation and was happy with the experience. Positive experiences took place throughout the program and contributed to the cultural growth of the participants. Cultural Ide ntification and Recognition Througho ut the study abroad program, participants were continually observing, identifying, and recognizing th e culture around them. First, participants realized the people of Costa Rica were friendly caring people (CS3 1; CS 3 2 ; CS3 11 D ay 1 ). Participant CS3 1 (D ay 3) also realized open air restaurants are acceptabl e in Costa Rica a nd they did not seem concerned when dogs walked into restaurant s While eating in restaurants, P articipant CS3 5 (D ay 2) noti ced that the pe ople of Costa Rica eat everything on their plate. She quickly realized it was important for her to eat all of her food to not offend anyone (CS3 5 D ay 2 ). Additionally, P articipant CS3 5 (D ay 3) noticed that the culture accepts eating the same meals over and over again. There is not much variety in the Costa Rican diet (CS3 5 D ay 3 ).

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140 The people in Costa Rica value a culture that respects and encourages human relationships (CS3 3 D ay 1 ). Participant CS3 5 7 (Post experience) fe lt the coun try of Costa Rica valued personal relationships. The people we re very friendly and exhibit ed a carefree attitude (CS3 2 D ay 2 ). The c arefree laid back attitude stayed with the people even when they we re working (CS3 12 D ay 2 ). Participant CS3 7 stated ( D ay 1) seemed eager to help us, but did not seem to be as stressed as waiters in the US do Similarly, the lifeguards at the beach seemed very calm despite the fact that there could be a deadly situation (CS3 12 D ay 5 ). C ultural Learning During the study abroad program participants had the opportunity to i nteract with Costa Ricans. I nteractio ns with Costa Ricans allowed participants to learn about the Costa Rican culture. Participant CS3 12 (Post experience) learned about balance traditions with modern society Conversations with the tribe showed how the tribe has incorporated tourism into their lives to provide for their families and altered their traditional dress because it was end angering trees (CS3 12 Post experience ). Additionally, P articipant CS 1 (Post experience) learned that the culture changes depending on the geographic region of Costa Rica. Personal Growth E xperiences th roughout the program allowed many of t he participants to experience personal growth. Participant C S3 1 (Post experience) said Rica did influence my thinking, personally and professionally, in the way that I had anticipated The experience in Cos ta Rica helpe d P articipant CS3 1 (Post experience) realize people are important and time should be taken to build quality relationships. Interacting with th e people of Costa Rica allowed P articipant CS3 6 (Post experience) to realize there are differe nt ways of

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141 doing t hings and there is not necessarily a right or wrong way. This program helped P articipant CS3 9 (D ay 8) to become more open minded to other cultures. Participant CS3 7 (Post experience) discovered her attitude play e d a large part in whether she was going enjoy an experience. Additionally, the zip line experience made many of the participants more adventurous (CS3 3; CS3 5; CS3 10; CS3 12 D ay 3 ). Increased Interest in Future Experiences Abroad The experiences during this study abroad program helped a couple of the participants to look f orward to future international travel experiences. Participant CS3 5 (Post experience) said the cultural experience during t he program made her realize she was interes ted in future tra vel. She said 5 Post experience ). Similarly, P articipant CS3 9 (Post experience) was impressed with the relaxed culture of Costa Rica and will be looking for opportunities to travel abroa d in the future. P articipant CS3 11 (Post experience) plans to return to Costa Rica to travel on his own time schedule in order to become submersed in the culture. Cultural Integration Participants showed evid ence of cultural integration during the program as well as aspirations to integrate particular aspects of the Costa Rican culture into their everyday lives. During the program participant CS3 8 (day 3) learned to be more relaxed than normal. Upon returning the United States participant CS3 8 (Post experience) indicated that when she gets stressed, she will pause to reflect upon her time in Costa Rica in an attempt to remember how to live a carefree relaxed lifestyle. The relaxed time schedule taught partici pant CS3 4 (Post experience) s wa s something that participant CS3 4 (D ay 7) wants to take back wi th him.

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142 Additionally, the Costa Ricans taught P articipant CS3 3 (Post experience) to live life to the f ullest and to make sure she fully immerse s her self in the experience. Ba sed on her time in Costa Rica, P articipant CS3 3 (Post experience) said will always immerse myself as much as possible and experience all that is put before me Similarly, P articipant CS3 9 (Post experience) would like to continue to be more social upon returning home. The friendly pe ople of Costa Rica helped him stop being shy a nd work on building relationships (CS3 9 Post experience ). Participant CS3 12 (Post experience) realized Costa Ricans are extremely thankful for what they have. Exhibiting thankfulness is somethi ng P articipant CS3 12 (Post experience) plan n ed to incorpora te into her life in the United States. Additionally, exposur e to the Spanish language made P articipant CS3 11 (Post experience) aspire t o continue learning Spanish after retuning home. Case Study Three Summary Case Study Three comprised the College of Agri cultural and Life Sciences Leadership Institute study abroad program The short term study abroad program was located in Costa Rica and lased for seven days. F indings were organized by identified stages and sub stages. Identified stages included i nitial fe elings, cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, cultural negativity, academic and career development, feelings throughout the program, and cultural growth. Cross Case Analysis Analysis of the three case studies revealed both similarities and differences Table 4 1 shows commonly shared stages and sub stages the three case studies. The overarching categories that emerged from the analysis were shared among the three case studies. However, some variance in the sub categories emerged from the findings. This section outline s the major diff erences and similarities in the findings of the three case studies.

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143 Initial Feelings Participants in all three of the case studies experienced Initial Feelings before their study abroad experience. All three sets of participa nts had Initial Concerns before leaving the United States and arriving in the host country. However, only the participants involved in Case Study One : France experienced negative cultural views toward the country and people they were visiting. Once again, all three sets of participants experienced initial excitement and a need for personal growth and cultural growth. Additionally, there were three more sub categories in which differences emerged in participant s initial feelings Anticipation of cultural ac ceptance and integration only was evident in Case Study One : France and Case Study Three : Costa Rica. Anticipation of cultural acceptance and integration was not evident in Case Study Two : Swaziland Additionally, the sub category titled expect culture sho ck was evident in Case Study Two : Swaziland and Case Study Three : Cost a Rica and was absent in Case Study One : France Finally, the sub category entitled expects discomfort emerged only in Case Study Three : Costa Rica. Cultural Uncertainty The Category cu ltural uncertainty was also experienced by the participants of all thre e case studies. However, only participants from Case Study One : France experienced the sub category focus on life in the United States However, all three case studies experienced cul tural surprises throughout the study abroad programs. Case Study Two : Swaziland was the only study abroad group that did not experience the sub category of confusion. Case Study One : France was the only group that experienced lack of cultural understanding However, both Case Study One : France and Case Study Two : Swaziland experienced the sub category of comparisons

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144 Cultural Barriers Cultural barriers were experienced by all three study abroad groups. The single sub category that emerged was shar ed by all three study abroad programs. The sub category entit led that was shared was language barrier Cultural Negativity Cultural negativity was an additional category shared by all three case studies. The sub category negative experience was present on ly in Case Study One : France F rustration was present in all three case studies T he sub category entitled cultural avoidance was found only in Case Study One : France Group Dynamics T wo sub categories were identified in t he overarching category group dyna mics Note that Case Study Two : Swaziland was not identified as part of the group dynamics category. However, Case Study One : France wa s the single case study identified as fitting into the sub category group issues. Similarly, Case Study Thre e : Costa Rica was identified as the single study abroad group that included the sub category of relationship growth Academic and Career Growth P articipants of all three study abroad programs experienced academic and career growth throughout the study abro ad programs. All three study abroad programs experienced the sub categor y of academic focus and professional growth. All three study abroad programs experience d each identified sub category of the academic and career growth category. Feelings t hr oughout the Program Each of the three case studies was represented in the category feelings throughout the program. All three case studies were represented in the sub category excitement However, only Case Study One : France was represented within in the sub category need to fit in Case Study

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145 One : France and Case Study Two : Swaziland were both represented in the sub category negative attitude toward the United States Additionally, Case Study Two : Swaziland and Case Study Three : Costa Rica were the only case studies represented under the discomfort sub category. However, the sub categories safety concerns and thankfulness for the United States were solely represented by Case Study Three : Costa Rica. Cultural Growth Cultural growth was anoth er category that evident in all three case studies. Similarly, many identified sub categories shared among the three case studies. S hared sub categories included the following: Overcoming language barriers, cultural respects and acceptance, positive cultur al experiences, and cultural identification and recognition of culture. However, cultural integration was only evident in Case Study One : France, and Case Study Three : Costa Rica. Additionally, the sub category increased interest in future experiences abro ad was evident in each of the three case studies. However, Case Study One : France failed to represent the sub categories cultural learning and personal growth, but the two sub categories were represented in both Case Study Two : Swaziland and Case Study Three Costa Rica Cross Case Analysis Summary All three case studies were compared to one another in the cross case analysis section. Table 4 1 was created to visually represent the stages and sub stages that were present in each case study an d to depict the stages and sub stages in relation to the other two case studies. Additionally, the cross case analysis showed that there were both similarities and differences between the short term study abroad programs. Chapter Summary This chapter desc ribes the stages and sub stages that emerged from the data collected for each one of the three case studies. Case Study One consisted of a seven day short term study

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146 abroad program that took place in Paris, France. The program was entitled Commodities to C afes Agricultural and Food Marketing in France F indings from this case study were o rganized based on the stages and sub stages that emerged from the data. The identified stages include: Initial feelings, cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, cultural negativity, group dynamics, academic and career development, feelings throughout the program, and cultural growth Case Study Two lasted for 19 days and took place in Swaziland, Africa. The particular short term study abroad program was entitled African S avannah Wildlife Ecology. The findings were organized based on the identified stages and sub stages. The identified stages include: Initial feelings, cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, cultural negativity, academic and career development, feelings th roughout the program and cultural growth. The third short term study abroad program took place in Costa Rica and lasted for seven days. The program comprised of the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Leadership Institute study abroad program Fin dings were organized based on the identified stages and sub stages. The identified stages include: Initial feelings, cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, cultural negativity, academic and career development, feelings throughout the program, and cultura l growth. Additionally, a cross case analysis was conducted in order to compare and contrast the findings between each one of the three case studies.

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147 Figure 4 1. Cultural adaptation stages and sub stages for the Agricultural and Food Marketing in Franc e short term study abroad

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148 F igure 4 2. Cultural adaptation stages and sub stages for the African Savannah Wildlife Ecology short term study abroad program

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149 Figure 4 3. Cultural adaptation stages and sub stages for the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Leadership I nstitute short term study abroad program

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150 Table 4 1. Shared stages and s ub stages between the three case s tudies Case Study #1 Case Study #2 Case Study #3 Initial Feelings X X X Initial Concerns X X X Negative Cultural Views X Initial Excitement X X X Need for Personal Growth and Cultural Growth X X X Anticipation of Cultural Acceptance and Integration X X Expect s Culture Shock X X Expects Discomfort X Cultural Uncertainty X X X Focus on Life in the United States X Cultural Surprises X X X Confusion X X Lack of Cultural Understanding X Comparisons X X Cultural Barrier s X X X Language Barrier X X X Cultural Negativity X X X Negative Experiences X Frustration X X X Cultural Avoidance X Group Dynamics X Group Issues X Relationship Growth X

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151 Table 4 1. Continued Case Study #1 Case Study #2 Case Study #3 Academic and Career Growth X X X Academic Focus X X X Professional Growth X X X Feelings Throughout the Program X X X Excitement X X X Need to Fit in X Negative At titude Towards the United States X X Discomfort X X Safety Concerns X Thankfulness for the United States X Cultural Growth X X X Overcoming Language Barriers X X X Cultural Respect and Accep tance X X X Positive Cultural Experiences X X X Cultural Identification and Recognition of Culture X X X Cultural Integration X X Increased Interest in Future Experiences Abroad X X X Cultural Learning X X Personal Growth X X

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152 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSI ON, IMPLICATIONS AND REC OMMENDATIONS The key findings of this study and the implications for the findings have been organized based on the categories that emerged from the analysis. Once again, t he purpose of this study was to explore how undergraduate students in a college of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation during short term study abroad program s. Specific o bjectives of this study were as follows. Describe h ow undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences experienced culture throughout short term, study abroad programs. Describe how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences were affected by their cultura l surroundings while participating in short term, study abroad programs. Propose a conceptual framework of cultural adaptation for undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences on short term study abroad programs Case Study One, Commodities to Cafes Agricultural and Food Marketing in France was conducted i n Paris, France and lasted for seven days. Case Study Two, African Savannah Wildlife Ecology took place in Swaziland, Africa and lasted 19 days. Case Study Three College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Leadership Institute study abroad program took place in Costa Rica and lasted for seven days. T he discussion that follows has been presented as a synthesis of the three case studies. F indings from the three case studie s have been synthesized to compare the case studies and possibly explain the simi larities and differences of the cultural adaptation stages and sub stages experienced by partici pants The lack of participant observation data from Case Study Two and Case Study Th ree may explain why some of the sub stages emerged only in Case Study One. Figure 5 1 shows the stages of cultural adaptation that College of Agricultural and Life Sciences students experience on short term study abroad programs

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153 Participants experienced i nitial feelings prior to entering the destination country and continued to experience additional stages of cultural adaptation once in the destination country. With the exception of the initial feelings stage, identified stages were experienced at various times in the short term study abroad programs. Participants did not progress through the stages of cultural adaptation in a linear fashion, but moved between the stages throughout the program. The experiences and learning activities planned could have dict ated what stage of cultural adaptation the participants experienced at a particular time. Initial Feelings Initial Concerns It was evident that the students began thinking about the short term study abroad programs upon enrolling in the programs. Prior to arriving in the host country, participants in Case Study One felt concerned with their inability to speak the French language. King and Young (1994) found that the nervousness associated with learning another language made some st udents hesitate to enroll in a study abroad program. F ear of learning another language may have prevented some students from enrolling in these short term study abroad programs or similar programs. Before the program, participants involved in Case Study One were extremely concerne d about the language barriers they would face. This concern le d to self doubt and confusion about how to interact with the people in Paris Interestingly, participants in Case Study Two and Case Study Three did not voice the same concern over the language barrier before entering their host countries. Participants in Case Study One may have experienced greater fear of about being unable to speak French because of the location of the program. Case Study one took place in a large city and provided constant in teractions w ith the French people. Case Studies Two and T hree took place in developing countries and participants were in a rural environment. Additionally, Study One participants

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154 may have allowed the stereotype of French being rude to keep them from spea king French. In Contrast, participants in Case Study Two and Case Study Thr ee perceived the people as friendly and understanding. P articipants in Case Study Two recognized the difficulty of speaking the Swazi language This may have relieved many parti cipa nts by giving them a reason not to worry about the language barrier by giving them a reason, to learn porti ons of the Swazi language before entering Swaziland. Despite the lack of concern for the inability to speak the language, it is recommended that sh ort term study abroad programs focus on teaching the participants basic languag e skills before entering the country. Anderson (2003) said short term study abroad participants often felt like the program was a vacation, instead of an academic and cultural l earning experience. Even though there was no specific l anguage preparation may help participants learn commonly used phrases and feel more confident interacting with the people in that coun try. Anderson said language development helps study abro ad participants transition from tourist mode begin to feel connected to the environment around them and focus on academi c and cultural learning. An emphaisi on language development that focused on c ommon words and phrases would help study abroad part icipants realize they enrolled in an academic program with learning as its expectation. Negative Cultural Views Anderson (2003) found that participants on study abroad programs often have difficulties dis tinguishing betwe en cultural stereotyp es portrayed in the media and actual cultural customs and traditions. Similarly, the participants in Case Study One formed negat ive cultural views regarding Parisians before entering Paris, France. The negative views were based on past experiences and what they had heard from other people Similar to findings, the participants of Case Study One seemed to have a difficult time differentiating between

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155 stereotypes and cultural customs and traditions. The focus on negative cultural s tereotypes before arriving i n Paris, may have led the participants to a self fulfilling prophecy in Paris P articipants of Case Study One began the program with cultural stereotypes, which was congruent with 01) assertion of altering misconceptions regarding culture through participation in a short term study abroad program Interestingly, negative cultura l views did not surface before the study abroad program in Case Studies Two and Three. This may be because of the countries that were selected for the study abroad programs. France has been commonly stereotyped by the media and many Americans visit France and then return and share their experiences. However, fewer Americans have visited Swaziland and are more unlikely to hear about Swaziland t hrough media outputs. We are unlikely to form negative cultural views when little is known about the country or culture before visiting the country. P articipants of Case Study Three also di d not exhibit negat ive cultural views before en tering Costa Rica. Costa Rica has been known by Americans to be a w onderful vacation destination need s Positive preconception s of Costa Rica may have prevented the participants from experienc ing negative cultural views. Future study abroad programs should spend time breaki ng down cultural stereotypes to educate participants on the actual customs and cultural traditions of the partic ular country. Learning about cultural traditions and customs before the program may prevent the participants from forming negative cultural views. Initial Excitement Participants in all three case studies felt excitement before entering the de stination country. Participants in Case Study One and Cas e Study Two showe d excitement were excited about trying foods commonly c onsumed in that country They were excited about leaving the United States and exploring anoth er country. Participants in Case Study Two and Case Study

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156 Th ree expressed excitement about interacting with people who live in country they were preparing to visit. Interestingly, participants in Case Study One did not show excitement about interacting with Parisians. This may be due to the negativ e cultural stereotypes expressed by participants in Case Study O ne. Participants in Case Study Two and Case Study Three viewed the local people as friendly welcoming people ; whereas participants attending the Paris, France program viewe d the locals as rude people who disliked Americans. Participants in Case Study Tw o and Case Study Three were excited to participate in the academic portion of the program. Participants in Case Study Two were anxi ous to conduct field work and l earn about native wildlife Similarly, Case Study Three participants were excited to participa te in the service learning project that was a part of the study abroad program However, participants in Case Study One did not show excitement about participating in the academic portions of the program. This may because of the locati on of the program. Si nce Paris, is a large city, it is easy for the students to explore the city. Paris offers the students a plethora of e ntertainment options. T ransportation w as much more challenging for participants the other two programs. Case Study Two and Three were also not lo cated in a large city and had fewer entertainment options for participants Based on all three case studies it could be concluded that participants in Case Study One felt more like the short term study abroad program was a vacation instead of an ac ademic experience (Anderson, 2003). However, participants in Case because they focused on the academic aspects of the program. Need for Personal Growth and Cultural Growth Participants in all three case studies to indicate d they felt a need for both personal growth and cultural g rowth. P articipants wanted to expand their worldview while studying abroad (CS1 7; CS2 1; CS2 8; CS2 9; CS3 6). People today are continuously exposed to people from

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157 around the world (Anderson et al., 2006; Boy d et al., 20 04), which could account for felt need to enhance their worldview. Interactions with people from other countries have become a common occurrence and could be why some participant s w ere concerned about how Parisians viewed Americans. Additionally, the participant s need to experience personal and cultural growth when participating in a study abroad program may derive from the need or ability to operate effectively in an environment. Findings al. (2005 function effectively in an environment depends upon our skill in recognizing and responding 459). Particip ants enrolled in th e study abroad program expect to recognize the culture of the country and in turn learn from the culture in order to br oaden their worldview, grow as human being s and learn about cultural differences. Study abroad facilitators should s trive to effectively educate participants about the culture of the destination country before entering the destination country. A cultural overview will help participants mentally prepare for what they may experience up on arrival in the country and will al low participant s to think about how they may experience cultural and personal growth. Learning activities in which the participants outline how they expect to experience personal and cultural growth could serve as a guide for the partici pant and help the p articipant mentally prepare for the program to receive the most out of the program. Anticipation of C ultural Acceptance and Integration The participant s need for cultural growth led to an anticipation of cultural acceptance and integration. Participants in both Case Study One and Case Study Three expressed interest in accepting the cultur e around them and then integrating the culture in to their lives. Participants in Case Study One and Case Study Three looked forward to being open minded and accept ing th e

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158 culture and customs they may be exposed to while participating in the study abroad program The participants took it a step further and expected to bring home some of the culture and customs the y were exposed to P articipants of Case Study One had many formal and informal conversa tions about the culture before leaving the United States. The focus on Parisian culture may h ave stirred excitement among participants and helped motivate participants to think about their future experience in a way that would b enefit them once the program was completed. Additionally, the study abroad faculty instructor had lived in France for a period of time and was able to acc urately discuss the culture in France. France s eemed to resonate with the participants. This may have le d to increased trust between faculty instructor and participants and may have helped the students view the faculty instructor as credible when educating the participants about the culture and custom s of Paris Similarly, participants in Case Study T hree focused on the culture they would be expos ed to while in Costa Rica. P articipants may have anticipated cultural acceptance and integration because of the focus on the service learning project before traveling to Costa Rica. Working closely with people who live in Costa Rica may have motivated participants to accept the culture and integrate aspects of the culture into their lives. Interestingly, the participants in Case Study Two did not indicate the anticipation of cultural acceptance and integration. This may be because of t he vast differences between American and Swaziland culture. The participants recognized that they were goi ng to be exposed to the culture and customs of Swaziland, but they did n ot focus on the idea of ac ceptance or integration before traveling to Swaziland. Additionally, Swaziland study abroad programs had a much greater focus on academic content than the other two case studies did The increased

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159 emphasis on African wildlife may have encouraged many of the participants of Case Study Tw o to not give much thought to how they would be affected by the culture of the country. In an effort to provide a well rounded learning experience to the participants, study abroad facilitators shou ld strive to educate the particip ants about cultural customs they may encounter. Taking it further, facilitators should raise questions to the participa nts that encourage discussion of the importance of cultural acceptance and integration. Giving the stude nt the opportunity to think about and discuss cultural acceptance and integration will help partic ipants deviate (1963) assertion that participants experience a study abroad program without ever adapting to the surrounding culture. Expect Cu lture Shock Participants in both Case Study Two and Case Study Three expected to go through some type of c ulture shock when traveling in the destination country. The participants anticipat ed experiencing culture shock on entering the country. This anticipa tion of experiencing culture shock immediately upon entry to the country goes against would initially experience euphoria on entering the country. However, the anticipation of culture shock when entering the country al confusion on entering the country. It is important to remember that at this stage in the study abroad program, it is only anticipation of culture shock and not necessarily what happened. Interestin gly, participants in Case Study One did not expect to experience culture shock when entering or traveli ng within the country. This may be because of the amount of time the participants spent dis c ussing the culture before leaving the United Sta tes. Addition ally, Paris has been a popular tourist destination for Americans and thus participants may have had a better understan ding of what to expect regarding the culture of Paris France also receives much more media attention tha n Swaziland or Costa Rica. Differ ent in media coverage may have helped

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160 participants in Case Study One feel more comfor table traveling to Paris. A lso a greater number of par ticipants in Case Study One had international travel experience or were international students. T o eas e the minds of students preparing to travel abroad, it is recommend ed that the facilitator take time to discuss with participants the possibility of experiencing culture shock. That way if participants experience culture shock, they will know what they are going throug h. Further guidance on how to deal with and overcome culture shock may help the participant if it happens while traveling abroad. According to Hottola (2004) a travel er that experiening cultural confusion on entering the country may need to visit a metaw orld that serves as a temporary break from the new culture It is recommend that study abroad facilitators educate their participants about the importance of a metaworld and how the metaworld can be used as safe haven from the su rrounding culture. However, p articipants need to realize the meta world provides only temporary relief from the surrounding culture and students need to leave the metaworld to continue the cultural adaption process (Hottola, 2004). Expects Discomfort Prior to entering the specified country for the study abroad program, only participants in Case Study Three expected to experience discomfort during the program. Participants in Case Study Three anticipated experiencing discomfort on arrival because of th e unfamiliar environment Interes tingly the environme nt was new and unfamiliar to participants in Case Study One and Case Study Three and they did not anticipate discomfort. This could be because of the geographic location of the country visited or the design of the study abroad program s. Case Study One had the opportun ity to learn about Paris, and what they should expect on entering the country. This may have reduced the expectation of discomfort Similarly, participants in Case Study Two recognized the vast difference between the Unite d States and

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161 Swaziland. Recognizing the difference may have helped the participants mentally prepare to enter Swaziland and may have reduced the anticipation of discomfort. One participant anticipated discomfort because of access to the internet and moder n technology. Interestingly, the only case study that showed concern ove r lack of technology access was Case Study Two. However, participants in Case Study One had constant access to computers, the internet, and cell phones. Participants in Case Study Two had no access to technology, but they left the United States knowing that they would be disconnected from technology for the duration of the program. Concern over lack of access to technolog y could be compounded by environmental and cultural differences e xperienced in the host country. According to Hottola s (2004) description of a metaworld, familiar technology could be viewed as a safe retreat fro m the rest of the country. F ear of losing access to something familiar to the reason for the expectation of discomfort. It is recommended that st udy abroad facilitators take time to address the la ck of technology access before leaving the United States. This will help the students mentally prepare for what their life will be lik e during the program when they are disconnected from the rest of the world. Cultural Uncertainty Focus on Life in the United States Interestingly, only participants in Case Study One focused on their life back in the United States It seemed many of th Some of the participants show ed no excitement about exploring the city a nd expressed confusion about what was happening around t hem. Participant choice to stay in the lobby and avoid interactions with Parisians aligns with et al. (1998) assertion that people in the disillusionment stage often attempt to avoid cultural interactions with the locals. Even at dinner, many of t he participants continued to discuss

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162 life in the United States inst ead of focusing on Paris In accordance with Hottola (2004), participant conversation regarding life back home served as their metaworld and was used as an attempt to take a break from cu ltural confusion to deal with their personal cultural confusion. D ata collected did not indicate that participants in Case Studies Two or Three focused on life in the U nited States. This may be because of the par ticipant observation data collection metho d used for Case Study One. Participant observation data c ollected by the researcher allowed for the observation of the program and did not solely rely on what the participants recorded in their reflective journals or post flection questions. The absence o f participant observation data be why the participants focus on life in the United States did not emerge from the data in Case Studies Two and Three. Additionally, Case Study O ne could have been unique because of its geographic location : participants were subjected to a large city with some characteristics of large cities in the United States. Both of the other programs were located in rural areas and lacked mu ch of the modern technology the participants were accustomed to. Cultural Surprises Cultural s urp rises were experienced by participants in all three case studies. The cultur al surprises did not fit into of the participants seemed confused by the cultural surprises. The cultural surprises were simply small observations of what they did not expect to observe or experience. In Case Study Two, several participants were surprised to observe extensive cell phone use by locals. Th is observation did not cause participants world, disillusionment stage, or any other stage in the model. Similarly, the cultural surprises experienced did not cause participants to However, it is recommended that study abroad facilitator s inform participants that cultural surprises will occur throughout the program. This

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163 way the participants will be aware of what may take place and will be better prepared to experience the cultural surprises positively Confusion During Case Study One, participants experience d confusion in the beginning of the program. The transp ortation system of Paris was confusing to many participants as was the con cept of service in France. P e of e uphoria and begin with the stage of disi llusionment. P ar ticipants were disillusioned regarding the concept of service and felt better aligned with the experiences of the participants. The co nfusion stage was experienced on e ntering the country in accordance with on ethnocentrism was evidenced by the confusion experienced by participants. Many of the participants struggled with understanding and valuing the Parisian conce pt of service. T he participants : personal experiences become the basis of their reality. Interestingly, confusion was not evident in either Case Study Two or Case Study Three. This could have been because of the individual students enrol led in the various programs. P articipants in Case Study Two and Three may have been more open minded to the culture around them and more willing to accept a nd adapt to the culture. Study a broad facilitators should outline and discuss some of the potential confusion participants may experience when traveling in the destination country. Prior knowledge will help prepare the students and minimize the confusion experienced during t he program. It wil l also help minimize the duration of the confusion. Additionally providing guest speakers who are natives of the destination countr y to discuss the culture will help participants before entering the country and will help participants gain perspec tive from someone who lives in the particular country.

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164 Lack of Cultural Understanding L ack of cultur al understanding was evident from participants in Case Study One. Neither Case Study Tw o nor Case Study Three showed a lack of cultural understanding. The confusion experienced by participa nts in Case Study One regarding the concept of service in France led to the lack of cultural understanding. P articipants struggled with the idea of a waiter at a restaurant who did not check on the customer every five minutes or a employee at a store that did not immediately help the customer. P articipants continued to struggle with the Parisian s cultural definition and concept of quality service. This led to a lack of cultural understanding that allowed the participants to stay in disillusionment. P articipants began to avoid cultural interactions concept of a metaworld was used by the participants in an effort to avoid the unfamiliar cult ure. avoiding cultura participants denied the cul tural traditions around them. However, participants bega n to show evidence of moving continuum w as by participant s insulting Parisian culture (Bennett, 2004). Ad ditionally, the insults from e of hostility (Ward et al., 1998). Participants in Case Studies Two and Three did not show lack of cultural understanding. This may have been because participants in Case Studies Two and Three did not experience the confusion that leads to a lack of cult ural understanding. To help ensure that participants on future study abroad programs understand the culture, fac ilitators should strive to educate the partici pants about the culture before lea ving the country, and continue to educate the participants abou t the cultur e as they experience it in the new country.

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165 Comparisons Participants of all three case studies showed evidence of making cultural comparisons between their own culture and the new culture Some of the cultural comparisons in each case study fo cused on identif ying the differences between cultures. However, participants in Case Study Two also focused on the similarities between cultures. Cultural comparisons focusing on similarities 2004) stage of minimization Acc ording to Bennett (1986) in the minimization stage is when the participant focuses on cultural similarities. Participants in Case Study Two were focused on similarities between cultures and on integrating W estern cultur e into the Swazi culture P articip ants in all three case studies were at Sensitivity Continuum (1986, 2004) Although comparisons were being made, it did not always mean According to Bennett (1986, 2004) participants may compare their personal culture and the culture surrounding them, bu t simply comparing the culture does not mean the individual must continue to advance o n the continuum and move toward ethnorelativism. Ad ditional ly, participants in Case Study T hree indicated concern for safety throughout their study abroad program. However, the fact that the students decided to participate in the study abroad program despite the safety concern showed disagr eement with the findings of Gorka and Niesenbaum (2001). Gorka and Niesenbaum said that safety concerns often prevented participation in study abroad programs, but participants in Case Study Three expe rienced safety concerns before leaving the United States and decided to participate in the program anyway. Study abroad facilitators should work wit h students on how to compare culture s, throughout the prog ram. This should begin before entering the host country and should continue through th e duration of the program. P artici pants should be guided i nto focusing on dif ferences

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166 between cultures. This will encourage toward ethnor elativism. It will also help participants maintain a positive attitude throughout the entire program Cultural Barriers Langua ge b arriers Language barriers were experienced by participants in all three case studies. Knowledge or fluency of a foreign language was not required for any of the three programs. However, participant s realized that the partici pation in Case Study One stimulated the ir interest to learn F rench after the program ended Ingram (2005) reported that French student s participation in a study abroad program increased their interest in further learning about the culture of a coun try and connecting what they learned to other college courses. However, the findings from this study suggest the opposite. Participants may increase their interest in learning a foreign language after experiencing language barriers on a study abroad program. Int erestingly, particip ants in Case Studies Two and Three expressed no interest in continuing further language development when returning to the United States This may have been because of the impracticality of learning an African language; in contrast lea rning Spanish would be practical. S tudy abroad facilitators should help the participants learn commonly used phrases and words prior to traveling to the destination country. This could be done directly by the study abroad facilitator or the facilitator m ay elect to b for eign language department. K nowledge of commonly used ph rases and words would s anxiety and uncertainty regarding the language barrier (Gudykunst & Hammer, 1988). Cultural Negativit y Negative Experiences Negative experiences were only identified by participants in Case Study One. Participants negative experiences may have been caused by some of the participants

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167 perceptions before par ticipating in the program. Preconceived ideas th at Parisians are rude may have stuck with participant s throughout the program. Participants in Case Study Two and Case Study Three did no t expect to be treated rudely on entering the destination country. P reconce ived notions may have influenced participan ts on entering the country. N e gative experiences in Case Study One rep hostility stage. P articipants were hostile to the people and the culture of Paris. Oberg said feelings of hostility are normal when traveling abroad (Ward et al, 1998). It is recommended that study abroad facilitators share the various models of cultural adaptation with participants before entering the host country. According to Rodriguez and Roberts (2011) reflection sh ould occur throughout the program. Discussi on and reflecti on on the cultural adaptation models should take place during and after the program to help participant s critically analyze their experience. Frustration Frustration was experienced by participants in all three case stud ies and was experie nced a t different times in each program. Although participants in each case study experienced frustration differently, the frustration was not experienced during all segments of the program. Des pite feeling frustration, participants did not always turn the frustration into negative expe hostility stage was not evident when participant s experienced frustration. P articipants had to take the frustration a step further and begin to insult the people and the culture around them to enter O hostility stage The language barrier w as the major frustration for participants in Case Study One Ironically, the language barrier was not a major frustr ation for participants in Case Studies Two or Three This could have been because participant s in Case Study One were more self conscious w hen interacting with people who do not speak English and therefore felt a greater need to successfully communicate with the people they met. Additi onal frustration was felt because of

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168 the lack of diversity of t he food th e meaning of body language and the differ ence in military beliefs. To reduce the frustration experienced during the program, study abroad facilitators should follow the framework provided by Roberts and Jones (2009) and provide experiences befo re, during and after the program. However, some of the experiences may cause participants to feel frustrated and the experiences should then be reflected on and used for future development (Rodriguez & Roberts, 2011). Cultural Avoidance Cultural avoidance was experienced only by participants in Case Study One. It was evident throughout Case Stud y One that participants avoid ed cultural interaction s P articipants Americans instead of in teracting with Parisians. Avoiding the new culture seemed to provide comfort for some of the participants and allowed them to take a break from the culture around them. Participants in Case Studies Two and Three did not show a sign of attempting to use Ho metaworld to escape the culture around them. This could be because of the perceived rudeness or friendliness of the people in the destinati on country. Participants in Case Studies Two and Three felt the people were friendly and welcomed them into t heir culture. Additionally, the lack of participan t observation data from Case Study Two and Case Study Three may have prevented collection of data shown evidence of cultural avoidance Interestingly, the perception of participants in Case Study One was ex actl y the opposite. This may explain why all participants did not experience cultural avoidance. It is recommended that study abroad facilitators educate participants about the culture of t he country throughout the study abroad experience. Re flection shoul d be used to help participants think through the experience and relate it to future situations (Rodriguez & Roberts, 2011). Explanation of Ho participants understand that escap ing the

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169 culture around them is part of international travel. It will als o help participants realize it is possible to move in and out of a metaworld and it is not a permanent stage Group Dynamics Group Issues Participants in Case Study On e were the only participants to experience g roup issues. P articipant s in Case Study One were upset with their group members at different points in the prog ram. The issues varied, but developed because of participants criticized the actions of other partic ipants. Frustrations among the group m embers may have been caused by the continuous interact ions and the large amount of time participants spent together. As the participants began to build relationships, they were more l ikely to show their frustration with each other. Ironically, participants in Case Study Two did not sho w signs of group issues. Participants in Case Study Two were with each other for a much longer duration than Case Study Three, but they seemed to get along .. This could have because of the difference in geographic location difference in academic and cultu ral experiences provided by the program or difference in personalities P articipants in Case Study Three also did not show signs of group i ssues. This may have been because of the emphasis of teambuilding, t eamwork, and leadership place d on participants i n Case Study Three. Case Study Three was specifically designed to enhance group development and therefore the focus of the program centered on positive growth. It recommended that study abroad facilitators focus on group development before entering the h ost country and during the visit. Even though the study abroad program may not be centered on group development, a basic focus on positiv e group development may help participants to better get along with one another.

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170 Relationship Growth Relationship growt h was seen only in Case Study Th ree. This was most likely because of the emphasis on teambuilding, teamw ork, and leadership. P articipants were encouraged to get to know their peers and build deeper relationshi ps with them. The emphasis on relationship buil ding seemed to encourage particip ants to value their peers and take time to get to know them on a personal level. P articipants had been working together in some capacity for the one school year, but participants acknowledge d that the study abroad program a llowed close relationships to develop. Relationship growth was not seen in the other two case studies because of the lack of focus on relationship development and growth. The difference in the focus of the program and the personalities of the participants may have also prevented relationship growth. If a study abroad facil itator wanted to ensure that participants developed meaningful relationships while participating in the program, it is recommended that the facilitator require the participants to work cl osely with one another on academic assignments and to record what they have learned about their peers in a reflective journal. Academic and Career Growth Academic Focus All three study abroad programs focused on academic content throughout the du ration of the program. Participants recognized that there was an academic expectation, focus, and goal for th e program The recognition of the academic expectation and focus of the study abroad view short term study abroad programs as glorified vacations instead of academic learning experiences. To ensure that students view short term study abroad programs as academic learning experiences, it is imperative that the facilitator emphasizes and pro motes the program as an academic experience. This may be done through program advertisements, conversations with potential participants,

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171 and focus on academic content in the following study abroad framework presented by Roberts and Jones (2009): pre flecti on activities the actual experience, and activities after the experience. Academic experiences that take place during short term study abroad programs in the College of Agricultur al and Life Sciences help to ensure that the students meet the National Rese agriculture. Additionally, infusing cultural learning int o academic learning will enhance th e participants learning and help the participant realize that culture is a part of academic learning. Professional Growth Participants in all three case studies experi enced professional growth. P articipants recognized new experiences and newly acquired kno wledge that would help them in their future career as professional growt h. Professional growth should be expected from the short term study abroad programs because the academic content is provid ed in a real world context. P articipants recognized that the experiences during the study abroad program could be applied to their fu ture career s and could expand thei r professional knowledge Study abroad facilitators should strive to provide edu cational opportunities that meet the professional goals of the participants. The facilitator should take extra step s to discus s career goals a nd professional goals with participa nts and make sure participants have the opportunity to experience prof essional growth. This means the facilitator may need to tailor the program to meet the needs of the participants. Feelings t hroughout the Program Exc itement Excitement was evident for the duration of the program, in all three case studies P articipants of a short term study abro ad program should anticipate feeling excitement Excitement may derive from the travel, the academic experience, or the cultur al experience. Excitem ent will help the participant have a positive experience while taking part in the program.

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172 Need to Fit In The need to fit in was evident only in Case Study One. Participants felt the need to make every attempt to blend in with th e Par isians This may have been because of the common perception that Parisians think Americans are rude. P articipants may have made a conscious effort to blend into the culture because of the Parisian s negat ive perception of Americans. P art icipants were tryi ng to show Parisians th at all Americans do not fit that stereotype. Interestingly, neither participants in Case Study Two nor Case Study Three felt the need to fi t in with the people of the host country. This ma y be because of the apparent racial and ethni c differences between the people of the host country and the participants in Case Studies Two and Three. negative perceptions held toward Americans. Additionally, participants in Cas e Study One may have strived to fit in because they were traveling to a developed country. Many p articipants held Paris to high expectat ions and honored Paris for i t s sophistication and elegance. However, participants in the other two case studies did not hold the destination country to the same standards. Additionally, the need to fit in may not have been seen in Case Studies Two and Three simply because of lack of participant observation data. Short term study abroad facilitators should strive to provide education about the culture and commonly held viewpoints of people living in the destination country. However, it is important to focus on cultural traditions and customs inst ead of cultural stereotypes. P ar ticipants in Case Study One who focused on cultur al stereotypes seemed to get bogged down and had challenges w hen attempting to see beyond cultural stereotypes. Facilitators should strive to identify any cultural stereotypes the participants have and offer clarification and guidance on how to see past th e stereotype. This way participants can have a re alistic idea of the country,

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173 people, and culture. By br eaking down the stereotypes, participants will have a much better idea of what they need to do to fit in with the people of the particular country. N egative Attitude Toward the United States Negative attitude s toward the United States emerged only in Case Studies One and Two. Participan ts in both case studies felt the cultures represented in the destination country were better than the culture and peop le in the Unit ed States N egative attitudes that emerged were on of the defense stage called reversal (2004) stage called reverse culture confusion Participants were giving a higher value to the cult ure and values of another country to their American culture and values. This could be because of the defensive natu re of participants and their need t o view a particular culture as better than their own. E xperiences during the program may have encouraged p articipants to critically analyze the present in the host country and to form negative beliefs and attitu des toward the United States. P articipants in Case Study Three may not have experienced this feeling because of their prior knowledge and e xperience wi th cultures found in Costa Rica. Participants in Case Studies One and Two may have experienced the culture of the destination country for the first time and positive experience may have led to negative attitudes regarding the United States. It is recommend ed that participants of short term study abroad programs be made aware of the importance and value of different cultures. Participants need to understand that cultures are unique, but not better or worse than other cultures. T his may be done by educating s tudents about the culture present in the destination country and the ir own country. Experiences before, while, and after traveling abroad, (Roberts & Jones, 2009) should provide education and ref lection (Roberts, 2006), to help participants understand that cultures are different and equally valued.

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174 Discomfort Interestingly, only participants in Case Studies Two and Three experienced di scomfort during their programs. Case Study One may have avoided the feeling of discomfort because of the location of the st udy abroad program. Case Study One took place in a large ci ty with many similarities to a city in the United States. The location may have made the participants of Case Study One feel more comfortable. However, Case Studies Two and Three took place in rura l areas and may have provided a completely new experience for participants. It is recommended that short term study abroad facilitators monitor participants throughout the program and provide an opportunity for the participants to think about their discomf ort, reflect over it, and find ways to channel the discomfort into positive feelings. Safety Concerns Safety concerns were an issue only for participants in Case Study Three. The safety concerns were primarily due to the culture s lack of safety concern r egarding driving, horseback riding, and food preparation and consumptio n P articipants struggled with the safety concerns because the people in Costa Rica had different vie ws on safety. Interestingly, participants in Case Study Two did not focus on safety concerns. This may have bee n because there were fewer interactions with people in Swaziland compared with Case Study One. Additional ly, participants in Case Study O ne visited a developed country and traveled within a large city. Visiting a city may have p revented participants from fo cusing on safety concerns because of their familiarity with cities in the United States. However, safety did not seem to impact the program in a negative way or to prevent any of the participants from taking part in a particula r experien ce. Despite Wingenbach et al. (2006) assertion that safety concerns prevent study abroad participation, participants in Case Studies Two and Three showed only minor concern for safety ; the concern did not prevent program enrollment.

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175 In accorda nce with Rodriguez and Roberts (2011), it is recommended that safety concerns and issues be addressed by using discussion and ac tivities that tak es place prior to traveling in the host country. In addition, safety concerns should be addressed as needed thr oughout the program. Addressing safety concerns will allow the facilitator to b e aware of any problems that ari se during the program. Regular discussion an d reflection will also allow participants to analyze their safety concerns and evaluate the seriousne ss of the concern. Thankfulness for the United States Thankfulness for the United States emerged only in Case Study Three. Throughout the program participants felt thankful for what they have in the United States. Participants in Case Study One may not h ave felt this because their program took place in a city in a developed county. However, Case Study Two took place in a developing country and participants did not express thankfulness for the United S tates. This may have been because of the differences i n individual participants and the nature of the study abroad program. Case Study Two focused on viewing African wildlife and conducting research. The academic focus stressed the impor tance of wildlife but also provided for interaction with local villagers. Participants in Case Study Three spent a lot of time interacting with the locals while conducting thei r service learning project. S tructural difference s in the programs may have helped create experiences that led participants to focus on being thankful fo r the United States. Cultural Growth Overcoming Language Barriers In order to experience cultural growth, participants in all three case studies strived to overcome the language barrier. This was done through attemp ts to speak the language or attempts to c ommunicate th rough body language Neither the geographic location nor the culture represented in the coun try of destination prevented participants from striving to overcome the

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176 language better in an attempt to achieve cultural growth. The interest in effec tively communicating when interacting with people of a particular country may be due to the need to understand what is taking place in the surrounding area P articipants in all three case studies recognized t native language and made the necessary effort to adapt to the culture around them. Participants of this study adaptation stage adaption stage by attempting to alter their communication methods. Bennett (1986, 2004) described a cu ltural beliefs and values. P adaptation stage ; increasing their intercultural sensitivity by extending their knowledge, acc eptance, and use of a different language and different meanings for commonly used body language. Short term study abroad facilitators should encourage participants to break out of their comfort zone s and attempt the language and body language of the host country. This should be done throughout the program (Roberts & Jones, 2009; Rodriguez & Roberts, 2011). During the international experience, peers should be encouraged to help each other with commonly used phrases and to encourage each other to practice c ommunicating with nat ive speakers. T o help focuses on language development may be used Language skills that consist of learning common words and p hrases should be taught before entering the host country and while in the host country. The focus should not be to become fluent in a foreign language, but to on learn enough words and p hrases to successfully travel in the country. According to Ingram (2005), a focus on language development while visiting another country will aid the participants in wanting to learn

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177 Cultural Respect and Acceptance Participants in all three case studies quickly realized that the people, culture, and c ustoms in t heir respective host country were different than the people, culture, and customs in the United States. As participants in all three case studies recognized and gained respect for the culture, the participants showed evidence of moving out of Be minimization stage and into the acceptance stage Participants in Case Study Three recognized American s view of time, but extended their personal view in order to understand an d operate under the Costa Rican view of time. Participan ts in all three case studies seemed to need to gain respect for the culture of the host country before continuum. In addition, acceptance o f the culture seemed to help participants in each case study s It is recommended that short term study abroad facilitators guide participants in the direction of respecting and accepting the culture. This may be done by having in dividu al or group discussions with participants focusing on their feelings toward the culture and what is preventing them from respecting/accepting the culture or what led them to respect/accept the culture. Positive Cultural Experiences Positive cultu ral experiences were evident in all three case studies and helped the participants experi ence cultural growth. T o encourage cultural growth throughout the program, it is recommended that authentic cultura l experiences be provided to participants. Pa rticipa nts seemed to learn to respect and accept the culture when they were able to experience positive authentic cultural experiences. This could b e visiting local markets, tasting local food visiting agricultura l production operations and any other experience that provides a glimpse of what

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178 living in the cultural framework would be like. P ositive cultural experiences did not specifically relate to any one previously identified cultural adaption model However, positive cultural experiences did help ease the co nfusion experienced by participants helped lead them to the model a nd helped reduce cul tural uncertainty (Gudykunst & Hammer, 1988). Cultural Identification and Recognition of Culture P articipants in all three case stud ies immediately began to observe, identify, and recognize cultural traditions and customs in the ir respecti ve host country Cultural identification and recog nition of culture seemed to confusion stage and direct the participants toward cultural adaptation. However, it is not cultural identification and recognition alone that guide s participants toward positive cultural growth and adaptation. It is a combination of all of the positive growth sub stages iden tified in this study. In accordance with Anderson (2003) it is recommended that the program facilitator help participants distinguish between cultural traditions and cultural stereotypes. If a participant fails to accurately identify the cul tural traditio n or custom, the participant may construct n egative feelings toward the culture and maintain an ethnocentric (Bennett, 2004) view regarding to the surr ounding culture. It is recommended that participants be helped to accurately identify the surrounding cul ture in order to gain a t rue understanding of its people and culture Cultural Integration Cultural integration was evident in both Case Study One and Case Study T hree. Participants who focused on cultural integration took cultural adaptation a step furth er Their actions fit into the culture while visiting the country, and they planned to incorporate portions of ay lives once the program ended Participants in both Case Studies One and Three had plans to continu e learning the respective language after the

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179 program ended. This finding aligned with Ingram (2005) who said cultural learning increased The anticipation of integrating a different culture int o their life signifies that the participant has moved beyond the adaption stage and into the integration or assimilation stage (Bennett, 1986, 2004; Hottola, 2004 ; Oberg, 1960 ). However, it is important to note that findings of this stud y did not analyze w hether the participants worked in a multi cultural framework navigat ing between cultural identities, once returning to the United States (Bennett, 2004). To ensure that participants of short term study abroa d programs continue to work in a cultural integr ation framework, it is recommended that deb riefing sessions occur after participants return to their home country. The post session meetin gs align with Roberts and Jones ( 2009 ) and (2011) recommendation for post experience debriefin g and reflection. Interestingly, participants in Case Study Two did not experience cultural integr ation. This may have been because of the vast differences between the culture and customs in Swaziland and those of the United States. The vast difference s i n marriage ceremonies and treatment of wome n may have prevented participants from integrating the culture and customs of Swazila nd into their daily lives. C ultural differences may have driven opposition stage and to f orm reasons why adaption/integration to the culture should n ot take place. Additionally, lack of discussion of cultural in tegration may have lessened participants focus on str iving for cultural integration. P articipants in Case Study O ne were instructed t o strive to select cultural tradit ions that they liked and then integrate them into their daily lives in the United States. This finding indicates that participants need to be guided in the direction of cultural adaptation and integration. If there is a la ck a focus or guidance, participants may not

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180 integration. In accordance with Anderson (2003), many participants may not enroll in a short term study abroad progra m with the intention of learning about the culture and expanding their cultural framework. It is recommended that short term study abroad facilitators encourage ives. Increased Interest in Future Experiences Abroad Participants in all three c ase studies expressed interest in future travel abroad. Because of the interest expressed by participants, it is recommended that potential experien ces abroad be discussed wi th participants in post sess ion meetings. This will help participants begin thinking about potential experiences and how their past international experience would rela te to future experiences. T he interest in future travel abroad does not i ndicate that the participants are capable of operating integration stage The pa rticipant may be anywhere on continuum. Cultural Learning Participants in Case Studies Two and Three focused on cultural learning while in the host country. Interestingly, participants in Case Study One did not focus on cultural learning while in the country. This may have been because participants in Case Study One had a working knowledge of the culture in Paris before entering the city. P articipants may have been more focused on identifying and recognizing the cult ural traditions and customs they were already aware of, instead of learning about n ew cultures and customs. In contrast, participants in Case Studies Two and Three were f ocused on learning about th e culture. This may have been because Three. In accordance with Anderson (2005), it is recommend that short term study abroad facilitators point out aspe cts Learning about the culture in the country helps pa rticipants to transition through

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181 (1986, 2004) intercultural sensitivity continuum as well as and Gudykunst and Hammer (1988) model. Additionally, participants in Case Study Two learned about traditional Swazi culture through peer interactions. Case Study Two was the only program that provided interactions with c ollege students as part of the short term study abroad program. The interactions with local college students could have encouraged the participants to learn about the culture represented in the destination country. Personal Growth Personal growth was exper ienc ed by participants in Case Studies Two and Three. The focus on leadership and team building skills in Case Study T hree may have encouraged participants to exper ience personal growth through the program. Interactions with the people of Costa Rica and th eir peers allowed participants to expand their world views and to develop as a people Similarly, the isolation of Case Study Two may have helped the students experience personal growth. Interaction with the locals and the ability to thrive in a Third W orl d country may have aided personal growth. Interestingly, participants in Case Study One did not show evidence of personal growth. This could have been because of the location of the study abroad program. Paris offered many entertainment distractions for th e partic ipants which may have kept the participants from focusing on personal growth. It is recommended that short term study abroad facilitators have the participants outline go als for personal growth before the travel experience, monitor the participants progress towards the goals, and allow for reflection regarding goal outcomes after the short study abroad experience has been completed. Summary of Practitioner Recommendations Recommendations for practitioners are discussed in detail throughout the disc ussion/findings/implications section. However, an additional summary of p ractitioner recommendations has been provided. Short term study abroad facilitators are recommended to

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182 structure their programs in a way that allows for learning ex periences to take p lace before arriving at the host country, while visiting the host country and upon returning to the home country. Experiences should focus on both academics and the culture of the county. Connecting cultural traditions and cultural learning to the academi cs will enhance participant learning. The academic focus should not be separated from the focus on cultural learning/cultural growth. An effort should be made to brea k down cultural stereotypes the entering the host country. T his may be done through planned discussions that identify th e cultural stereotypes and participants should be encouraged to reflect on the stereotypes. The facilitator should attempt to break dow n any cultural stereotypes before leaving the home country an d should encourage participants to look past cultural stereotypes. One way to help participants move beyond cu ltural stereotypes is to give them opportunities to learn about the cultural traditions and customs associated with the destination country. Learn i ng activities conducted before le aving the home country should aim at preparing participants to experience cultural growth while in the host country. Learning activities while in the host country should focus on cultural traditions and should be connected to what the participants discussed before entering the host country. T here is a fine line regarding to how much cultural information and foresight short term study abroad fa cilitators should provide to participants before entering the host country. If the short ter m study abroad program lasts only seven days it will be beneficial to heavily emphasize the cultural traditions a nd cultural stereotypes before entering the host country to prepare participants to experience a different culture. The cul tural pr eparation will allow participants to be more comfortable in the county and to positively focus on the culture and the academics of the program. However, if the program las ts multiple weeks, facilitators should tell the

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183 participants less about the cultural tra ditions and stereotypes before entering the host country. Facilitators should allow the participants to experie nce the culture for themselves instead of extensively informing the participants about cultural tradi tions and stereotypes. Since participants will have more time in the country they will have an increased amount of time to focus on both the academic and cultural aspect s of the program. Howev er, it is important to allow participants to briefly explore their preconceptions of the cultural tra dit ions and stereotypes before entering the host country. Short term study abroad facilitators should also discuss cultural acceptance and cultural integration with the participants during each part of the program. This will help the participants understand w hat it means to accept the culture and what it means to integrate the culture. The activities may also be designed to encourage and promote cultural acceptance and integration. During the visit to the host country, the facilitator should make sure to allow time for reflection and generalization in order to help participants hand le culture shock in a positive manner. Reflecti on should take the shape of group and individual reflection. Individual reflection may take place through reflective journaling. Facili tators should also discuss poss ible cultural confusion before entering the host country. Discussion should be enhanced by bri nging in guest speakers from the destination country. The guest speakers may be used to discuss culture and to answer the participa questions. Additionally, short term study abroad facilitators should help the participants understand what a metaworld is and how a metaworld can be appropriately used to manage stress associated with international travel. Throughout the entire short term study abroad program, f acilitators should encourage participants to identify similarities and differences of the culture they are sur rounding by and the culture they are use d to. Cultural similarities and differences may be brought up through

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184 discuss ion, probing questions, reflective journaling, or other assignments administered throughout the program Additionally, it is recommended that facilitators assist the participants in language development in order t o help the participants lear n common words and phrases. Learning commonly used words and phrases should be done before entering the host country and while in the host country in order to help the participants positively adapt to the culture around them. Throughout the entire short term study abro ad program, the facilitator should educate the participants about the various cultural adaptation models and include the models in discussions and lea rning activities. Reflecting about the cultura l adaptation models may help participants to understand what they are experiencing. Additionally, facilitators should provide learning experiences that focus on both academics and cultural learning. Cultural learning should be connected to academic learning and used to enhance overall learning. The entire program s hould be based on learning experiences provided before entering the host country, while in the host country, and upon returning to the home country. F or experiential learning to take place, the facilitator must allow time for reflection and generalization. R eactions of the facilitator throughout the experience may influence partici pants and help determine how participants move through the stages of cultural adaptation. The facilitator should provide the cultural/academic learning experiences and refrain fro m expressing over the top emotions that may alter the participants learning experience and adaptation to the culture. List of Practitioner Recommendations A list of practitioner recommendations has been provided in order to allow the short term study abro ad facilitator to efficiently view and use the practitioner recommendations. Provide opportunity for development of commonly used words and phrases before the program and during the program.

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185 Discuss cultural stereotypes before the program and during the pr ogram. Disc uss cultural traditions before the program and during the program. Educate participants about cultural customs before the program. Raise question s that encourage discussion of the importance of cultural adaptation and integration. Inform partici pants about the potential for fin ding a temporary safe haven from the surrounding culture. Address the potential lack of access to technology. Inform participants that the cultural exposure may surprise them during the program. Outline and discuss potentia l confusion that the participants may experience. Provide guest speakers from the dest ination country to meet with participants to discuss the culture of their country. This shou ld be done before entering the destination country. Help participants focus on and explore the differences between their culture and the culture represented in the destination county. This should take place throughout the program. Expose participants to various models of cultural adaptation. Provide time for individual reflection th roughout the program. Provide time for group reflection throughout the program. Provide learning experiences before, during, and after the short term study abroad program. Provide the participants with activities that promote group developme nt. This should be done before entering and while in the destination country. Have the participants work together on assignments in order to promote positive relationship growth. Infuse cultural learning into academic learning to enhance overall learning. Discuss career goals and professional goals. Help participants understand the value and importance of different cultures. participants handle the discomfort.

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186 Address safety concerns through out the entire program. Encourage participants to attempt the foreign language. Have group discussions that focus on cultural acceptance. Assist the participants in identifying and recognizing the surrounding culture. Encourage participants to take home po their daily lives. H ave the participants outline goals for personal gro wth before the travel experience, monitor th the goals, and all ow for reflection goal regarding outc omes after the short study abroad experience has been completed. Recommendations for Future Research 1. Replication of this study should take place in order to increase the number of short term study abroad programs and the number of participants that have be en examined. The results of the replication should be compare d to the results and findings of this study. 2. Research should be conducted to determine whether or not the geographic location and the culture represented in the geographic locations affect the pa cultural adaptation process. 3. There was a difference in the depth and breadth of reflective journals that were submitted during this study. Further research should be conducted in order to determine how the quality of the reflective journaling a ffects the findings from the study. 4. Research should be conducted to determine whether or not facilitator differences affect the 5. Research should be conducted to determine whether or not programmatic differences aff ect

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187 Figure 5 1. Cultural adaptation stages of College of Agricultural and Life Sciences short term study abroad programs Initial Feelings Cultural Uncertainty Cultural Barriers Cultural Negativity Group Dynamics Cultural Growth Feeli ngs throughout the Program Academic and Cultural Growth Outcomes

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188 APPENDIX A PRE TRAVEL QUESTIONS Preflection Exercise Name : Preflecti on is a process of being consciously aware of the expectations associated with the thereby increasing the capacity to reflect upon the concrete experience and increa se the overall learning. Preflection provides a bridge between thinking about an experience and actually learning from the experience 1 (Jones & Bjelland, 2004, p. 963). Instructions Prior to international experience: 1. What are your initial attitudes /beliefs about visiting Paris, France? Please describe your pre trip thoughts about Paris, while concentrating on and describing your top five attitudes/beliefs 2. What are your initial attitudes/beliefs about Paris culture? Please d escribe your thoughts in terms of your top five attitudes/beliefs about cultural (language, customs, etc.), social, economic, or political issues 1 Jones, L., & Bjelland, D. (2004). International Experiential Learning in Agriculture. Proceedings of the 20 th Annual Conference, Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, Dublin, Ireland 963 964 Retrieved November, 19, 2004 from http://www.aiaee.org/2004/Carousels/jones carousel NEW.pdf

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189 3. How do you expect the culture in Paris to affect you during your experience? 4. How do you think the culture in Paris will influence your thinking both personally and professionally? Thank you!!

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190 This instrument was modified from the original. Credits go to: Leslie McKendrick Edgar; Texas A&M Un iversity Don W. Edgar; Texas A&M University David E. Lawver; Texas Tech University Professor Gary E. Briers; Texas A&M University Professor

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191 APPENDIX B REFLECTION JOURNAL GUIDING QUESTIONS 1. What were your observation s about the culture in Paris? (T hink abo ut how the people approach relations, language, clothing, time, space, food, bodies, and important people, places, things ) 2. Did you r perceptions of the culture in Paris change today? If so, how? Why do you think your perceptions changed? 3. What activities of the day had the greatest significance to you? Why? 4. What did you learn today? How will this influence you professionally and/or personally? 5. What do you hope to learn tomorrow?

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192 APPENDIX C POST EXPERIENCE REFLECTION EXERCISE Post Experience Reflection Exercise Name : Reflection may be defined as firstly, the process by which an experience is brought into consideration, while it is happening or subsequently; and secondly, the creation of meaning and conceptualization from experience. Critical reflection things as other than they are 2 (Brockbank & McGill, 1998, as cited in Gamble, Davey, & Chan, 1999, p. 2). Instructions After completing the international experience: 1. What are your post experience attitudes/bel iefs about visiting Paris? Please describe your thoughts about Paris, while concentrating on and describing your top five attitudes/beliefs 2. What are your post experience attitudes/beliefs about Paris Culture ? Please describe your th oughts in terms of your top five attitudes/beliefs about cultural (language, customs, etc.), social, economic, or political issues 2 Gamble, J., Davey, H., & Chan, P. ( 1999 ) Student experiences of reflection in learning graduate professional education. HERDSA Annual International Conference Proceedings, Melbourne, July 12 15 1999 1 8. Retrieved February 23, 2005 from http://www.herdsa.org.au/branches/vic/Cornerstones/pdf/Gamble.PDF

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193 3. How did the culture affect you experience in Paris? Describe the emotions that you experienced during your trip and how you dealt with cultural differences. 4. Did your cultural experiences in Paris influence your thinking both personally and professionally in the way that you anticipated it to?

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194 APPENDIX D PHOTOGRAPH P ROMPT When you return from your trip, please submit 5 photographs that capture your cultural experience as well as your emotions throughout the experience. Please write a brief caption for each photograph explaining why you included that particular photogr aph.

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195 APPENDIX E PRE TRAVEL QUESTIONS Preflection Exercise Name : Preflection is a process of being consciously aware of the expectations associated with the there by increasing the capacity to reflect upon the concrete experience and increase the overall learning. Preflection provides a bridge between thinking about an experience and actually learning from the experience 3 (Jones & Bjelland, 2004, p. 963). Instruct ions Prior to international experience: 1. What are your initial attitudes/beliefs about visiting Swaziland? Please describe your pre trip thoughts about Swaziland, while concentrating on and describing your top five attitudes/beliefs 2. What are your initial attitudes/beliefs about Swaziland culture? Please describe your thoughts in terms of your top five attitudes/beliefs about cultural (language, customs, etc.), social, economic, or political issues 3 Jones, L., & Bjelland, D. (2004). International Experiential Learning in Agriculture. Proceedings of the 20 th Annual Conference, Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, Dublin, Ireland 963 964 Retrieved November, 19, 2004 from http://www.aiaee.org/2004/Carousels/jones carousel NEW.pdf

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196 3. How do you expect the culture in Swaiziland to affect you during your experience? 4. How do you think the culture in Swaziland will influence your thinking both personally and professionally?

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197 Thank you!! This instru ment was modified from the original. Credits go to: Leslie McKendrick Edgar; Texas A&M University Don W. Edgar; Texas A&M University David E. Lawver; Texas Tech University Professor Gary E. Briers; Texas A&M University Professor

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198 APPENDIX F REFLECTION J OURNAL GUIDING QUESTIONS 1. What were your observations about the culture in Swaziland? 2. What activities of the day had the greatest significance to you? Why?

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199 APPENDIX G POST EXPERIENCE REFLECTION EXERCISE Post Experience Reflection Exercise Name : Reflection may be defined as firstly, the process by which an experience is brought into consideration, while it is happening or subsequently; and secondly, the creation of meaning and s potentiality to look at things as other than they are 4 (Brockbank & McGill, 1998, as cited in Gamble, Davey, & Chan, 1999, p. 2). Instructions After completing the international experience: 1. What are your post experience attitudes/beliefs about visiti ng Swaziland? Please describe your thoughts about Swaziland, while concentrating on and describing your top five attitudes/beliefs 2. What are your post experience attitudes/beliefs about Swaziland Culture ? Please describe your thought s in terms of your top five attitudes/beliefs about Swaziland cultural (language, customs, etc.), social, economic, or political issues 4 Gamble, J., Davey, H., & Chan, P. ( 1999 ) Student experiences of reflection in learning graduate professional education. HERDSA Annual International Conference Proceedings, Melbourne, July 12 15, 1999 1 8. Retrieved February 23, 2005 from http://www.herdsa.org.au/branches/vic/Cornerstones/pdf/Gamble.PDF

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200 3. How did the culture affect you experience in Swaziland? Describe the emotions that you experienced du ring your trip and how you dealt with cultural differences. 4. Did your cultural experiences in Swaziland influence your thinking both personally and professionally in the way that you anticipated it to?

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201 APPEN DIX H PHOTOGRAPH PROMPT When you return from your trip, please submit 5 photographs that capture your cultural experience as well as your emotions throughout the experience. Please write a brief caption for each photograph explaining why you included that particular photograph.

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202 APPENDIX I PRE TRAVEL QUESTIONS Preflection Exercise Name : Preflection is a process of being consciously aware of the expectations associated with the experiences, thereby increasing the capacity to reflect upon the concrete experience and increase the overall learning. Preflection provides a bridge between thinking about an experience and actually learning from the experience 5 (Jones & Bjelland, 2004, p 963). Instructions Prior to international experience: 1. What are your initial attitudes/beliefs about visiting Costa Rica? Please describe your pre trip thoughts about Costa Rica, while concentrating on and describing your top five attitudes/belief s 2. What are your initial attitudes/beliefs about Costa Rican culture? Please describe your thoughts in terms of your top five attitudes/beliefs about Latin American cultural (language, customs, etc.), social, economic, or political issues 5 Jones, L., & Bjelland, D. (2004). International Experiential Learning in Agriculture. Proceedings of the 20 th Annual Conference, Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, Dublin, Ireland 963 964 Retrieved November, 19, 2004 from http://www.aiaee.org/200 4/Carousels/jones carousel NEW.pdf

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203 3. How do you expect the culture in Costa Rica to affect you during your experience? 4. How do you think the culture in Costa Rica will influence your thinking both personally and professionally?

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204 Thank you!! This instrument was modified from the original. Credits go to: Leslie McKendrick Edgar; Texas A&M University Don W. Edgar; Texas A&M University David E. Lawver; Texas Tech University Professor Gary E. Briers; Texas A&M University Professor

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205 APPENDIX J REFLECTION JOURNAL GUIDING QUESTIONS 1. What were your observations about the culture in Costa Rica? 2. What activities of the day had the greatest significance to you and did your perceptions of Costa Rican Culture change today? Why or why not?

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206 APPENDIX K POST EXPERIENCE REFLECTION EXERCISE Post Experience Reflection Exercise Name : Reflection may be defined as firstly, the process by which an experience is brought into consideration, while it is happening or subsequently; and secondly the creation of meaning and things as other than they are 6 (Brockbank & McGill, 1998, as cited in Gamble, Davey, & Chan, 1999, p. 2). Instructions After co mpleting the international experience: 1. What are your post experience attitudes/beliefs about visiting Costa Rica? Please describe your thoughts about Costa Rica, while concentrating on and describing your top five attitudes/beliefs 2. What are your post experience attitudes/beliefs about Costa Rican Culture ? Please describe your thoughts in terms of your top five attitudes/beliefs about Costa Rican cultural (language, customs, etc.), social, economic, or political issues 6 Gamble, J., Davey, H., & Chan, P. ( 1999 ) Student experiences of reflection in learning graduate professional education. HERDSA Annual International Conference Proceedings, Melbourne, July 12 15, 1999 1 8. Retrieved F ebruary 23, 2005 from http://www.herdsa.org.au/branches/vic/Cornerstones/pdf/Gamble.PDF

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207 3. How did the culture affect you experience in Costa Rica? Describe the emotions that you experienced during your trip and how you dealt with cultural differences. 4. Did your cultural experiences in Costa Rica influence your thi nking both personally and professionally in the way that you anticipated it to?

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208 APPENDIX L PHOTOGRAPH PROMPT When you return from your trip, please submit 5 photographs that capture your cultural experience as well as your emotions t hroughout the experience. Please write a brief caption for each photograph explaining why you included that particular photograph.

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209 APPENDIX M IRB APPROVAL

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210 APPENDIX N INFORMED CONSENT

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211

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212 LIST OF REFERENCES Altshuler, L., Sussman, N. M., & Kachur, E. ( 2003). Assessing changes in intercultural sensitivity among physician trainees using the intercultural development inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27 (4) 387 401. Anderson A. (2003) Women and cultural learning in Costa Rica: Reading the contexts. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 9 21 52. Anderson, P. H., Lawton, L., Rexeisen, R. J., & Hubbard, A. C. (2005). Short term study abroad and intercultural sensitivity: A pilot study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30 457 469. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.10.004 Arenson, K. W. (2003, November 17). Gains seen in short study abroad trips. The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com Ayas, H. (2006). Assessing intercu ltural sensitivity of third year medical students at the George Washington University. (Doctoral Dissertation, George Washing ton University). Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1251814741&Fmt=7&clientId=4653&RQT=309&V Name=PQD Bandura, A. (19 86). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Bandura, A. (1989a). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44 (9), 1175 1184. Bandura, A. (1989b) Social cognitive theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development. Vol. 6. Six theories of child development (pp. 1 60). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Bandura, A. (1997). Self efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman. Bandura, A. (1999) Social cognitive t heory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 154 196). New York, NY: Guilford Publications. (Reprinted in D. Cervone & Y. Shoda [Eds.], The coherence of personality. New York, NY: Guilford Press.) Bandura, A (2006) Toward a psychology of human agency. Perspective of Psychological Science, 1 164 180. Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (2001). Self efficacy beliefs as Chi ld Development, 72 187 206. Beard, C., & Wilson, J. P. (2006). Experiential learning: A best practice handbook for educators and trainers (2nd ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page.

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222 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Nathan grew up Carbondale Illinois and had an interest in becoming a biology teacher at the secondary level. Upon entering college, Nathan pursued a bachelor t echnology at Murray State University Murray, Kentucky and earned the degree in 2005. Experience with agriculture and the agricultural education faculty at Murray State University led ram in agriculture with an emphasis in agricultural comple tion, he taught agriscience at Dutchtown High School located in Hampton Georgia. After teaching agriscience ctoral program. After completing the program, Nathan will start his career as an assistant professor of agricultural education at an institution to be determined.