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The Impact of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support on Number of Office Discipline Referrals and the Financial Impact It...

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045226/00001

Material Information

Title: The Impact of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support on Number of Office Discipline Referrals and the Financial Impact It Has on the Allocation of Funds in Both High and Low Socioeconomic Status School Settings
Physical Description: 1 online resource (100 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Kinsley, Sean C
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: behavior -- discipline -- education -- nclb -- pbs -- positive -- ses
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Educational Leadership thesis, Ed.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of participation in school-wide positive behavior support on the number of office discipline referrals and the financial impact it has on the allocation of funds in both high and low socioeconomic status schools in the selected school district.  The top 10 percent of elementary schools with low and high socioeconomic status, as determined by the percentage of students who received a free or reduced-cost lunch, were chosen to participate in the study.  The impact of school-wide positive support in regard to various demographic factors, such as race/ethnicity and gender, also was determined. The methodology involved a post-hoc data analysis of the relationship between the implementation of the school-wide positive behavior support strategy and the number of office discipline referrals at the identified schools.  Data were collected from three Title I schools in the 2003-2004 school year, prior to the implementation of school-wide positive behavior support implementation, and from three Title I schools in the 2004-2005 school year, after implementation.  Also included were data from three non-Title I schools in the 2004-2005 school year, prior to implementation of the school-wide positive behavior support strategy, and from three non-Title I schools in the 2005-2006 school, after implementation.  The analysis involved a search for patterns and relationships between the implementation of the school-wide positive behavior support strategy and the number of office discipline referrals at the designated schools and by demographic sub-groups.  It was hoped that the results of this study would be used to guide the district’s decision-making process in regard to the allocation of funds to the highest-need schools to enable them to meet the mandates of Title IV of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.  These mandates indicate that a school district must provide resources to support the goal of creating a safe and drug-free learning atmosphere for all schools as a means to foster academic growth for all students.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sean C Kinsley.
Thesis: Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Wood, R C.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045226:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045226/00001

Material Information

Title: The Impact of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support on Number of Office Discipline Referrals and the Financial Impact It Has on the Allocation of Funds in Both High and Low Socioeconomic Status School Settings
Physical Description: 1 online resource (100 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Kinsley, Sean C
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: behavior -- discipline -- education -- nclb -- pbs -- positive -- ses
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Educational Leadership thesis, Ed.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of participation in school-wide positive behavior support on the number of office discipline referrals and the financial impact it has on the allocation of funds in both high and low socioeconomic status schools in the selected school district.  The top 10 percent of elementary schools with low and high socioeconomic status, as determined by the percentage of students who received a free or reduced-cost lunch, were chosen to participate in the study.  The impact of school-wide positive support in regard to various demographic factors, such as race/ethnicity and gender, also was determined. The methodology involved a post-hoc data analysis of the relationship between the implementation of the school-wide positive behavior support strategy and the number of office discipline referrals at the identified schools.  Data were collected from three Title I schools in the 2003-2004 school year, prior to the implementation of school-wide positive behavior support implementation, and from three Title I schools in the 2004-2005 school year, after implementation.  Also included were data from three non-Title I schools in the 2004-2005 school year, prior to implementation of the school-wide positive behavior support strategy, and from three non-Title I schools in the 2005-2006 school, after implementation.  The analysis involved a search for patterns and relationships between the implementation of the school-wide positive behavior support strategy and the number of office discipline referrals at the designated schools and by demographic sub-groups.  It was hoped that the results of this study would be used to guide the district’s decision-making process in regard to the allocation of funds to the highest-need schools to enable them to meet the mandates of Title IV of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.  These mandates indicate that a school district must provide resources to support the goal of creating a safe and drug-free learning atmosphere for all schools as a means to foster academic growth for all students.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sean C Kinsley.
Thesis: Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Wood, R C.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045226:00001


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1 THE IMPACT OF SCHOOL WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ON NUMBER OF OFFICE DISCIPLINE REFERRALS AND THE FINANCIAL IMPACT ON THE ALLOCATION OF FUNDS IN BOTH HIGH AND LOW SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS SCHOOL SETTINGS By SEAN CHRISTOPHER KINSLEY A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR TH E DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 2013 Sean Christopher Kinsley

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3 To my family for their endless support

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am forever indebted to my family for providing the support necessary to help me accomplish this monumental task. As a lifelong learner, my ultimate goal was to achieve the highest education possible as a means to be the best in my field. I am thrilled to finally complete this challenging endeavor. I thank my parents for teaching me the value of life and the importance of working hard to accomplish my goals. It is these lessons in life that have given me the ability to achieve success at so many levels. I am grateful to Dr. R. Craig Wood whose support and guidance as my committee chairperson allowed me to complete this amazing but challenging process. I also want to thank Dr. Bruce Mousa for constantly providing support and words of wisdom over the l ast five years. Lastly, a special thank you to Dr. Cynthia Garvin whose amazing flair for understanding numbers allowed me to truly analyze the data collected and understand its significance

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5 TA BLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY ................................ ................................ ......... 10 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 10 Inception of School Wide Positive Behavior Support ................................ .............. 21 Implementation of School Wide Positive Behavior Support ................................ .... 22 Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 25 Method of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 26 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 28 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 29 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ............ 32 Parameters of Literature Review ................................ ................................ ............ 32 History of Discipline ................................ ................................ ................................ 33 Socioe conomic Status ................................ ................................ ............................ 38 No Child Left Behind ................................ ................................ ............................... 41 School Wide Positive Behavior Support ................................ ................................ 43 School Wide Positive Behavior Support Implementation ................................ ........ 45 Effectiveness of Implementing School Wide Positive Behavior Support ................. 46 3 RESEARCH DESIGN ................................ ................................ ............................. 49 Parameters of Research Design ................................ ................................ ............. 49 Theoretical Framework for Data Collection and Analysis ................................ ........ 49 Research Methodology ................................ ................................ ........................... 50 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 52 Access and Entry ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 53 Variables of the Study ................................ ................................ ............................. 53 Instru mentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 53 Validity and Reliability of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support Strategy ..... 54 Assumptions and Limitations ................................ ................................ .................. 57 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 58 4 OBSERVATIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 60 Descriptive Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ 61

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6 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 61 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 64 5 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 66 Summary of Res ults ................................ ................................ ................................ 67 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 69 Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 70 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 71 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 72 APPENDIX A SCHOOL WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT IMPLEMENTATION .............. 78 B SUB GROUP O FFICE DISCIPLINE REFERRAL RESULTS ................................ .. 79 C UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL ....... 86 D SCHOOL WIDE EVALUATION TOOL (SET) FORM ................................ .............. 87 E OUTCOME DATA SUMMARY FORM ................................ ................................ .... 89 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 90 BIOGRAPHIC AL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 99

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Alternative Schools Student Enrollment ................................ ................................ 75 4 2 Alternative Schools Staff Enrollment ................................ ................................ ...... 76 4 3 Safe School Assistants ................................ ................................ .......................... 77

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8 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education THE IMPACT OF SCHOOL WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ON NUMBER OF OFFICE DISCIPLINE REFERRALS AND THE FINANCIAL IMPACT ON THE ALL OCATION OF FUNDS IN BOTH HIGH AND LOW SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS SCHOOL SETTINGS By Sean Christopher Kinsley May 2013 Chair: R. Craig Wood Major: Educational Leadership The purpose of this study was to determine th e effect of participation in School Wide Po sitive Behavior Support on the number of office discipline referrals written and the financial impact it had on the allocation of funds in both high and low soci oeconomic status schools in the selected school district. The top 10 percent of elementary sch ools with low and high socioeconom ic status, as determined by the percentage of students who received a free or reduced cost l unch were chosen to participate in the study The impact of school wide positive support in regard to various demographic factor s, such as race/ethnicity and gender, also was determined. The methodology involved a post hoc data a nalysis of the relationship between the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy and the number of office discipline referrals a t the identified schools Data were collected from three Title I schools in the 2003 2004 school year, prior to the implementation of School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation, and from three Title I schools in the 2004 2005 school year, afte r implementation. Also included were data from three non Title I schools in the 2004 2005 school year, prior to implementation of the School

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9 Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy and from three non Title I schools in the 2005 2006 school after impleme ntation. The analysis involved a search for patterns and relationships between the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy and the number of office discipline referrals at the designated schools and by demographic sub groups. decision making process in regard to the allocation of funds to the highest need schools to enable them to meet the mandates of Title IV of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. These mandates indicate that a school district must provide resources to support the goal of creating a safe and drug free learning atmosphere for all schools as a means to foster academic growth for all students.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Background A quality education is considered by many to be the gateway to living the American dream. Research has identified a significant correlation between the quality of the school that delivers this education and the future potential earnings of the student receiving that education. 1 Nevertheless, in 1998, almost half of grade four students in the st ate of Florida, which is considered to deliver an excellent education, could not read. 2 The legislature of the state of Florida has attempted to improve the levels of reading proficiency by passing the Third Grade Retention Law, wh ich requires students in g rade three to meet a certain level of proficiency on the Florida Comprehensive Achievemen t Test to be promoted to grade four 3 Students in grade three who did not meet the minimum level of proficiency would be required to successfully complete summer sc hool in order to advance to grade four. 4 This proficiency requirement based solely on age. The Florida statute is Public school student progression; remedial inst 5 1 r? Returns to Educaton and the Characteristics of Publ ic Schools in the United States, The Journal of Political Economy 1992: 1 40. 2 Sheida White, "1998 Reading Results for Low Performing Students The National Center for Educational Statistic s 2000:1 4. 3 Florida Statute, § 1008.25. 4 McGill Franzen, Anne, Solic, Katie, Zeig Jacqueline Love and Zmach, Courtney. Two Policy Mandates: Core Reading Programs and Third Grade Retention in Florida The Elementary School Journal 2006: 67 91. 5 Ibid.

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11 Proficiency is determined by the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test in Reading. 6 On this test, students must receive a score of at least 2, on a scale of 1 5, to be promoted to grade four. Students who do not achieve at least a 2 are provided with a progress monitoring plan to identify specific needs to be met to be reading independently by the end of grade three. 7 If students do not meet these requirements by the end of grade three, they have the opportunity to go t o summer school. 8 If the requirements are not met in summer school, they must repeat grade three. 9 The Florida Legislature identified certain circumstances that would allow a stude nt to be exempt from the Grade Three Retention Law. These circumstances w ere referred to as the Good Cause Exemptions. 10 Good Cause Exemptions allow a school district to exempt students from mandatory retention. Exemptions include an English Language Learner who had less than two years of instruction in English; a student with a disability whose individual educational plan indicated that participation in the state assessments was not appropriate; a student who performs at an acceptable level on an alternate standardized assessment approved by the state; a student who, through a portfolio, is able to demonstrate that he or she is at a reading level equivalent to Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test level two on a 5 point scoring rubric; a student with a disability who has an individual education plan or a Section 504 plan, who has been 6 Valerie Wright, Stakes Testing in Florida: An Interactive Website, Florida Journal of Educational Research 1999: 79 94. 7 Florida Statute, § 1011.62 8 Florida Statute, § 1008.25 9 Ibid. 10 McGill Franzen, Anne, Solic, Katie, Zeig Jacqueline Love and Zmach, Courtney. Two Policy Mandates: Core Reading Programs and Third Grade Retention in Florida The Elementary School Journal 2006: 67 91.

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12 receiving intensive reading support for at least two years, and who was retained once in a previous year; and a student without a disability who has received intensive reading for at least two years and has been retained twice in the previous year s. 11 A student with such an exemption could be promoted to grade four. The ability of students to learn can be affected by many outside factors, such as language barriers and parent involvement. 12 These factors can ultimately lead to behavior issues in the school setting. 13 Additional factors that contribute to these poor student results may be associated with socioeconomic status of the family, low expectations from parents, and lack of accountability of the student, as well as the concerns. 14 Research that deals specifically with low socioeconomic status of families suggests that, as these students progress through their grade levels, their grade point average will decrease. 15 A further study stated that students in low socioeconomi c status families displayed significant correlations between support at home and academic achievement. 16 Federal and state regulations and laws 11 Florida Statute, § 1008.25 12 Sandra L. Christenson, Theresa Rounds, and Deborah Gorney, Achievement: An Ave nue to Increase Student Success, Journal of School Psychology Quarterly 1992: 178 206. 13 Judith Rich Harris, New York: W.W. Norton, 2006. 14 C. Leroy and B. Symes, "Teacher's Perspectives on the Family Backgrounds of Children at Risk McGill Journal of Education 2001: 36, 45 60. 15 Brody, Gene, Fauber, Robert Foreman, Rex and Long Nicholas. "Home Predictors of Young Adolescents School Be havior and Academic Performance, Child Development 1986: 1528 1533. 16 Michele Kilpatrick Demaray and Christine Keeres Malecki, "Social Support as a Buffer in the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Academic Performance, School Psychology Quarterly 2006: 375 395.

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13 address this issue by providing support to school districts in the form of Title I to meet the needs of these identified students. 17 The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) was proposed by President George W. Bush in 2001. 18 This Act funds many programs to improve academic performance in all schools by increasing the accountability standards. The NCLB addres ses issues that range from student achievement and quality teachers in every classroom to funding and school choice for students who live in a zone of low performing schools. 19 In addition, the legislation provides parents with more options when choosing t he best school for their child. 20 Finally, the intent of the NCLB is to ensure that students meet their full potential as well as meet established academic standards across the subject areas, 21 particularly Science and Math. 22 The funding for the No Child Left Behind Act of 200 1 is divided among its various programs, 23 including Title I Part A, Title I Part D, Title II Part A, Title II Part D, and Title IV. 24 Title I Part A affects disadvantaged students by providing funding to districts to 17 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. § 6319. 18 Suzanne Heath, Pamela Wright, and Peter W. D. Wright, Wrights Law: No Child Left Behind Hartfield VA : Harbor House Law Press, 2003. 19 M. Yell and E. Drasgow, No Child Left Behind: A Guide for Professionals. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pe a rson/Merril l /Prentice Hall, 2005 20 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. § 6319. 21 Ibid 22 Jeanne H. Ballatine and Joan Z. Spade Schools and Society A Sociological Approach to Education. Thousand Oaks CA : Sage, 2008. 23 Stephanie Mencimer, "Children Left Behind, The American Prospect accessed November 3, 2002: http://search.proquest.com/docview/201121311?accountid=10920 24 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. § 6319.

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14 25 Title I Part D provides funding for students, in need of more academic and behavioral support than a traditional school setting could provide, to attend youth institutions, day programs, and correcti onal facilities. 26 To maximize teacher and administrator quality at the school setting, Title II Part A provides funds to recruit and retain high quality professional staff and to provide continuous staff development. 27 Title II Part D states that technolo gy utilization in the school setting will support the learning process by providing additional resources for both teachers and students. 28 Finally, Title IV, the Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, fosters academic growth for all students by pr oviding funds to create a safe and drug free learning atmosphere in all schools. 29 In an effort to increase the levels of academic achievement in the school setting, while satisfying the regulations under NCLB many schools have focused on creating a sc hool climate conducive to learning. One important area that schools are concentrating on is appropriate student behavior in the school setting. Schools across the country have employed a variety of strategies to address undesired student behavior, includ ing models designed to modify behavior. Behavior modification, as defined by Merriam Webster, addresses empirically demonstrated behavior change 25 Ibid. 26 Robert D. Barr and William H. Parrett, Saving Our Students, Saving Our Schools: 50 Proven Strategies for Revitalizing At Risk Students and Low Performing School s, Glenview, Illinois: Sky Ligh t Professional Development, 2003: 474. 27 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. § 6319. 28 Ibid 29 Denise D. Hallfors Melinda Pankratz, Does Federal Policy Support the Use of Scientific Evidence in School Based Prevention Programs? Prevention Science 2005: 75 81.

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15 techniques to increase or decrease the frequency of an identified behavior. 30 Following are examples of these behavior modification strategies. Assertive Discipline, a model developed in 1976 by social worker Lee Canter, is a strategy used by classroom teachers. This model supports the idea of maintaining clear expectations in the classroom while providing posit ive reinforcement to the students who follow those expectations and providing consequences to students who consistently break the established rules. 31 Effective Momentum also is a behavior management technique used by teachers. This strategy stresses the importance of the teacher to keep classroom instruction going while addressing problem behaviors in the classroom. 32 Contingency Management is an approach that emphasizes behavior as a function directly correlated to the consequence of that behavior. Whe n students learn that a certain behavior that they exhibit will result in a positive reinforcement, that identified behavior will become more desirable to the student. In this model, students will learn how to replace negative outcomes with positive outco mes by being exposed to more positive reinforcements while focusing on the elimination of negative reinforcements in the classroom setting. 33 The Logical Consequences model is a strategy used by teachers to help students identify their own behavioral motiva tions. Once students are able to connect with their 30 Merriam Webster Dictionary, accessed October 30, 2012, http://www.meriam webster.com/ 31 Lee Canter and Marlene Canter, Assertive Discipline for Parents, New York: Canter and Associates, 1985. 32 Edward Wyn ne An Overview of Major Discipline Programs in Public Schools since 1960 (Reality Therapy, Group Management, Assertive Discipline Teacher Effectiveness, Jacob Kounin) The University of Oklahoma 1985, accessed September 3, 2012 http://search.proquest.com/docview/ 33 Spencer J. Salend, Contingency Management Academic Therapy 1987: 245 253.

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16 unconscious needs, they are more likely to express those needs to the teacher. Teachers who are able to provide students with choices based on those identified needs will increase the chances of student classroom setting while limiting the inappropriate behaviors. Teachers who use this strategy discover that choices offered to the students will assist them with controlling their own behavior. 34 Reality Therapy is a strategy based on the idea that students can manage their own behavior. Teachers who employ this technique will review with students a variety of consequences associated with inappropriate behaviors as a means to help them understand outcomes of the ir actions. The goal is to be proactive, not reactive, when addressing inappropriate student behaviors in the classroom setting. 35 The Love and Logic model is a strategy used to assist students in self control. The objective is to provide students with o pportunities to be responsible and to empower them to make their own decisions while exposing them to the natural consequences of those decisions. When students make a mistake, teachers are empathetic toward the students by addressing their frustrations a nd disappointment without resorting to actions that will affect students in a negative way. The Love and 34 Rudolf Dreikurs and Loren Grey, Logical C onsequences: A New A pproach to D iscipline New York: Plume 1968 35 Robert E. Wubbolding, Reality Therapy for the 21st C entury Philadelphia: Brunner Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group 2000

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17 inappropriate behaviors in a positive way, and the students learn how to solve problems and acqui re the tools needed to be successful in the classroom setting. 36 The Ginott model is a strategy that focuses on positive communication between the teacher and the student. Positive communication by the teacher improves how a student feels about him or herself. Positive communication avoids criticism and shows are encouraged to foster student independence and to assist students with takin g responsibility for their actions in the classroom setting. These goals are accomplished when the teacher establishes two way communications with the student and is able to reason with the student. Successful implementation of the Ginott Model will ulti mately increase positive classroom discipline by creating a positive relationship between the teacher and the student. 37 The Kounin model is another strategy used by classroom teachers. This strategy focuses on the idea that any action that the teacher tak es, both positive and negative, to monitor student behavior and engagement while, at the same time, to deliver a planned lesson. In addition, students who are engaged in the classroom lessons and activities tend to display a positive attitude toward both the teacher and other classmates. 38 36 Foster W. Cline, Jim Fay and Bob Sornson, Meetin g the Challenge: Using Love and Logic to Help Children Develop A ttention and Behavior S kills. Tope ka, KS: The Love and Logic Press, 2000 37 Robert J. MacKenzie, Setting Limits in the Classroom: How to Move Beyond the Dance of Discipline in Today's Classrooms Roseville CA : Prima Pub ., 2003 38 Jacob S. Kounin, Classrooms: Individuals or Behavior S ettings? Bloomington IN : School of Education, Indiana University 1983

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18 The Jones model is a classroom management technique that emphasizes the physical presence of the teacher. In this model, the teacher achieves classroom control through verbal and nonverbal cues. Techniques include stopping instruction, starring, and close proximity to a student. The objective for these techniques is to stop students from misbehaving. 39 The Character Education model is a strategy that promotes values and ethics and supports the idea that a direct relationship exists between character education and student achievement. 40 A caring school community is a major part of the success of this model. The School Wide Positive Beh avior Support model is a strategy that uses positive interventions and systems to change an identified behavior. 41 The original intention of School Wide Positive Behavior Support was to offer a way to address extreme behaviors in students with severe disabilities. 42 However, as the need to expand support beyond students with disabilities to all students grew, the ability to ascertain indicators to address undesired behaviors among identified students school wide became paramount. In 1999, a group of researchers established a center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and support with the backin g of a grant of nearly $600,000 39 Fredric H., Jones, Patrick Jones, and Jo Lynne Talbott, Tools for Teaching: Discipline, Instruction, M otivation Santa Cruz, CA: F.H. Jones & Associates 2007 40 Cami Berry et al., Implementation of a School Wide Adolescent Character E ducation and Prevention Program: Evaluating the R elation ships between Principal Support, Faculty Implementation, and Student Outcomes, Journal of Research in Character Education, 2001: 71 41 J. C. Gagnon, C. M. Nelson, and T. Scott, School W ide S ystems of P ositive B ehavior S upport : A Framework for Reducing School Crime and Violence, Journal of Behavior An alysis of Offender and Victim Treatment and Prevention 2008: 259 272. 42 Robert Horner and George Sugai, ehavioral Assessment in Schools, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2000: 131 143.

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19 dollars from a partnership between the United States D of Special Education Programs and the Office of Safe and Drug Free Schools. 43 These researchers determined that assessment of school wide office discipline referral data should be done before positive interventions could be established. 44 Office discipline referral data are collected using the School Wide Information System (SWIS). SWIS is a standardized computer database used to collect office discipline referrals. 45 SWIS has the ability to electronically record and organiz e office discipline referrals into categories to provide important data on amount and types of referrals collected. School Wide Information System is currently being used in almost 9,000 schools across the world, including Australia, Canada, Iceland, New Zealand, and the United States. 46 The Individual with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 recommended that the School Wide Positive Behavior Support Model was the best form of intervention for students with disabilities who display behaviors that are proble matic or challenging. 47 Further, the U.S. government funded a program at the University of Kansas that uses School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategies with children who are disabled and 43 School Wide Positive Behavior Support University of South Florida, accessed November 1, 2012, http://flpbs.fmhi.u sf.edu 44 T. J. Lewis and George Sugai Proactive Schoolwide Management, Focus on Exceptional Children 1999: 24 47. 45 Boland, Joseph B., Horner, Robert H., Irvin, Larry K. Lewis Palmer, Teri Sugai, George and Todd Anne W ehavior in Elementary and Middle Schools: An E mpirical Evaluation of Validity, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2006: 10 23. 46 School Wide Information Database information obtained from the Identified website, accessed October 30, 2012 : http://swis.org. 47 T. M. Scott, Making B ehavior I ntervention P lanning D ecisions in a S choolwide S ystem of P ositiv e B ehavior S upport Focus on Exceptional Children 2003: 1 18

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20 who display challenging behaviors in the school setting. 48 Based on the endorsement earned by this model, researchers sought to expand this model to all students who might benefit from this type of support. The identified school district implemented School Wide Positive Behavior Support as the strategy to support behav ior modification. As a result, the researcher focused on this strategy throughout the study. The focus, likewise, was geared toward the impact that School Wide Positive Behavior Support had on office discipline referrals as opposed to determining whether the model was the best strategy to support behavior modification available to the identified school district. The identified school district also allocated funds to assign each elementary school one full time position of Safe School Assistant. The main responsibility of the Safe School Assistant was to work with students who were displaying behaviors that violated the discipline policy adopted by the identified school district. With support from the Safe School Assistant, these students were able to fun ction in the normal school setting. The average salary for this position was $31,518.00 dollars The identified district had twenty nine elementary schools, for a total cost of $914,022 dollars per year. 49 The identified school district similarly alloca ted funds to support nine different alternative school programs within the district. These programs were designed to meet the needs of students who displayed behaviors that violated the discipline policy adopted by the district and were not able to remain in the normal school setting. These 48 Beach Center on Disability University of Kansas, accessed November 4, 2012, http://www.beachcenter.org/ 49 B udget department of the selected district accessed on September 14, 2012 http://collierschools.com

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21 nine alternative school settings cost the identified school district approximately $5,560,342 dollars per year. 50 Inception of School Wide Positive Behavior Support School Wide Positive Behavior Support is a research based program that is used 51 The Positive Behavior for Effective Schools Act of 2007 was an amendment to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, which gave educational agenc ies opportunities to use early intervention programs such as School Wide Positive Behavior Support s to address inappropriate behaviors in the school setting. 52 School Wide Positive Behavior Support offers educators and parents who are dealing with challeng ing behaviors the strategies to teach a child new skills to replace the undesired behaviors. 53 School Wide Positive Behavior Support is an approach that considers all the has the ability to address a variety of behaviors, ranging from tantrums and aggression to bullying and repetitive behaviors that have a negative impact on the school setting. 54 School Wide Positive Behavior Support was developed to assist with students wh o 50 Budget department of the selected district, accessed on September 14, 2012, http://collierschools.com 51 Cathy F Telzrow, Journal of School Psychology 1999: 7 2 8. 52 Anthony Biglan, Julie C. Rusby, and Jeffrey R Sprague, Behavior Management Program to Improve School Wide Positive Behavior Support Education and Treatment of Children 2001: 448 480. 53 Robert Horner and George Sugai, ehavioral Assessment in Schools, Jou rnal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2000: 131 143. 54 T. J. Lewis and George Sugai Proactive Schoolwide Management, Focus on Exceptional Children 1999: 24 47.

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22 displayed extreme behaviors, including self injury and aggression. 55 This model uses strategies in a proactive approach to address these challenging behaviors displayed by students. 56 The School Wide Positive Behavior Support Model has been gaining momentum across the nation, as the use of it has proven an ability to reduce undesirable behaviors in the school setting. 57 Implementation of School Wide Positive Behavior Support Educators who implement a School Wide Positive Behav ior Support program must recognize the relationship between academic achievement and student behavior. Students who struggle with the academic curriculum tend to show increased levels of inappropriate behaviors in the school setting, which, generally, are an avoidance strategy used by the students to cope with academic pressure they may feel. 58 To address this issue school wide, faculty and staff must have a shared belief that a change is needed. 59 This shared belief must be followed by a commitment to use the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy by at least 80 percent of the staff and to have active involvement by site based and district level administration in the implementation and monitoring of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support 55 Anthony Biglan, Julie C. Rusby, and Management Program to Improve School Wide Positive Behavior Support, Education and Treatment of Children, 2001: 448 480. 56 Carr, E., G. Dunlap, R. Horner, A. Turnbull, W. Sailor, J. Anderson, R. Albin, L. Koegel, and L. Fox. ence, Journal of P ositive Behavior Interventions 2002: 4 16. 57 Lewis, T. J., S. Hudson, M. Richter, and N. Johnson Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Proposed Approach and Brief Review of Current Practices Behavior Disorders 2004: 247 259. 58 Karen Elfner Childs, Rachel Cohen, and Don Kincaid, Wide Behavior Support Implementation: Development an d Validation of the Benchmarks of Quality, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2007: 203 213. 59 Ibid.

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23 strateg y 60 A commitment of at least three years is the recommended amount of time required to successfully implement this strategy as well as for the data management system to track and monitor the amount and types of office discipline referrals written. 61 Finall y, a school based team comprised of faculty and staff is formed and meets on a monthly basis. 62 The goal of this team is to discuss topics directly related to the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy Recommendations and decisions from the team are then shared with the entire school. 63 The School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy contains four critical elements: (a) outcomes, (b) data (c) systems, and (d) practices 64 Outcomes are goals that can be measured by using office discipline refer ral data; the data collected is used to determine where priorities lie in relation to the overall climate of the school. 65 Systems are the structures put in place to support the implementation of School Wide Positive Behavior Support whereas the practices are used by faculty and staff when implementing the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy 66 The School Wide Positive Behavior Support team monitors referral data and brings the results and recommendations to their monthly meeting. Recommendations for improvement 60 Ibid. 61 Ibid. 62 Ibid. 63 Wide Behavior Support Implementation: Development and Validation of the Benc hmarks of Quality, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2007: 203 213. 64 ehavioral Assessment in Schools, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2000: 131 143. 65 Ibid. 66 Ibid.

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24 regarding the effectiveness of School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation are made during the monthly meeting. The se recommendations are shared with the entire staff throughout the school year. School Wide Positive Behavior Support can be applied at a school wide level, a classro om level, and an individual level. Administrators and educators can implement intervention strategies at school wide and classroom levels that become more frequent and individualized to address the undesirable behaviors. 67 At the school wide level, this strategy relies on accurate and reliable discipline referral data to learn and u nderstand better the behaviors that occur across the sc hool setting. A nalysis of t his referral data allow s an identified group, referred to as the School Wide Positive Behavior Support Team, to identify problem areas and research interventions that will c orrect the problems. 68 Findings from the team are communicated to all stakeholders associated with the school. 69 Effective implementation of this strategy at the school wide level should ha ve an impact on at least 80 percent of the total student population including students who did not exhibit behavioral problems. 70 When addressing the classroom level, users of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy target a specific group of students who are not responding at 67 L. Eber and T. Scott, Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary System Examples Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2003: 131 143. 68 Boland, Joseph B., Horner, Robert H., Irvin, Larry K., Lewis Palmer, Teri, Sugai, George, and Todd, Elementary and Middle Schools: An Empir ical Evaluation of Valid ity, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2006: 10 23. 69 Robert Horner and George Sugai, ehavioral Assessment in Schools, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2000: 131 143. 70 T. Scott, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2001: 88 94.

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25 the school wide level. These stu dents tend to need more specialized and direct support to address the undesired behaviors. This targeted group makes up approximately 15 percent of the student population. 71 Finally, School Wide Positive Behavior Support contains more advanced strategies to address those students who have not responded to support at either the school wide or classroom levels. A team of professionals, including classroom teachers, support staff, and appropriate community members, meet to discuss these strategies that will assist in creating a behavior plan that wil l help meet the needs of this 5 percent of the student population. 72 Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to determine the effectiveness of participating in a School Wide Pos itive Behavior Support 73 program school wide as determined by the number of office discipline referrals written in both high and low socioeconomic status 74 school settings in the selected school district. Further, to establish which schools to use in this st udy, the r esearcher identified the top 10 percent of elementary schools with the lowest socioeconom ic status as determined by the f ree and reduced l unch pe rcentage, as well as the top 10 percent of elementary schools with the highest socioeconomic status a s determined by the f ree and reduced l unch percentage provided by the school 71 Primary, Secondar y, an d Tertiary System Examples, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2003: 131 143. 72 Ibid. 73 Positive Behavior Support (PBS) is a term used to describe the application of evidence based strategies and systems to assist schools to increase academic performance, increase safety, decrease problem behavior, and establish positive school cultures. 74 Robert H. Bradleym and Robert F. Corwyn, ic Status and Child Development, Annual Review of Psychology 2002: 371 399.

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26 district. In addition to the socioeconomic status of students, various sub groups were examined, including gender, r ace, ESE 75 and ELL 76 to determine whether specific groups had better responses to this program. Finally, the results of the study could guide the decision making process on how to allocate funding throughout the identified district based on how effective the schools are utilizing the School Wide Positive Behavior Su pport program as a strategy to address challenging behaviors. Method of Study This study was designed as a post hoc data a nalysis of the relationship between the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy and the number of discipline referrals writte n at the identified school s. 77 Data were collected and analyzed for the school year before implementation and the school year after implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy To maintain consistency, the researcher identified three Title I schools that represented the lowest Socioeconomic Status that implemented School Wide Positive Behavior Support during the same school year as well as three non Title I schools that repres ented the highest Socioeconomic Status that implemented School Wide Positive Behavior Support during the same year. This would ensure all schools involved received the same materials and training at the same time. T he identified district did not implement School Wide Positive Behavior Support at all schools simultaneously. However, t he three identified Title I schools implemented School Wide Positive Behavior Support during the 2004 2005 school year, while the 75 ESE is a term used to describe students who have specific learn ing disabilities. 76 ELL is a term used to describe students whose native lan guage is not English. 77 Schuyler W. Huck, Reading Statistics and Research Knoxville TN : Pearson Education, 2008.

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27 three identified non Title I schools implemen ted School Wide Positive Behavior Support during the 2005 2006 school year. These schools represent the only two clusters of three schools in the identified categories that implemented School Wide Positive Behavior Support in the same school year. In add ition, this p ost hoc data a nalysis was conducted to search for patterns and relationships between the School Wide Positive Behavior Support model and the number of referrals written at the designated schools and within the designated sub groups. T hrough t his study the researcher analyzed the number of re ferrals documented over the two year span at each of the identifi ed schools. In addition information collected from this study provided district administrators and Board of Education members with valuab le information on the effectiveness of implementing this model as well as determined its efficacy at both high and low socioeconomic school settings. Research Questions To accurately assess the impact of implementing the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy at each of the schools in the selected school district, as well as the financial impact of implementing this strategy on allocation of school funds, the researcher addressed the following research questions: (a) What is the relationship be tween the number of referrals and the socioeconomic status of the school when compared by sub groups pre and post School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation?; meet the needs o f Title IV? Title IV, as defined by NCLB requires the district to provide resources to support the goal of creating a safe and drug free learning atmosphere for all schools to foster academic growth for all students.

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28 To address these questions, the resea rcher reviewed the history of discipline in the school setting, as well as factors that have influenced the need for educators to focus more on the growing issue of undesired behaviors by students in the school setting. The following null hypotheses guide d this research: H o 1 : There were no statistically significant relationships between implementing School Wide Positive Behavior Support for Title I schools and number of referrals. 78 H o 2 : There were no statistically significant relationships between impleme nting School Wide Positive Behavior Support for non T itle I schools and number of referrals. Limitations of the Study Th e researcher examined a strategy implemented by the identified school district to address the increasing demands by state and federal governments to create a safe and secure school environment for all students. The primary focus was on the impact of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support program and its effect on the number of office discipline referrals written. This study was limi ted to specific elementary schools within the selec ted school district. The top 10 percent and the bottom 10 percent of schools was selecte d based on socioeconomic status These specific elementary schools in the select ed school district were examined to determine whether the impact of implementing School Wide Positive Behavior Support as mea sured by number of office discipline referrals was evident at each of the schools. Specific sub groups also were analyzed to determine whether School Wide Positive Behavior Support had a greater impact on one sub group over another sub group. 78 H o i s another way to represent the null h ypothesis

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29 Summary The School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy was adopted by the selected school dist rict to meet the needs of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 One of the se ctions of the NCLB, referred to as Title IV, required school districts to implement procedures to create a safe and drug free learning atmosphere for all schools to foster academic growth for all students. 79 A directive from the identified school district required all elementary schools to implement the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy over a five year period (Appendix A). Professional training and staff development were provided by the district during the implementation period. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy and the number of office discipline referrals at each of the identified Title I and non Title I schools. It also examined the School Wide Positive Beh avior Support strategy School Wide Positive Behavior Support is a research based strategy that addresses behavior modification within the school setting. 80 The identified school district has decided to adopt and implement this specific strategy across the school district. Accordingly, the researcher has identified specific elementary schools in the selected school district, bas ed on socioeconomic status. 10 percent of the elementary schools with the highest socioe conomic status and 10 percent of the elementary schools with the lowest socioeconomic status were chosen for this study. 79 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. § 6319. 80 and Behavioral Disorders: A Proposed Approach and Br ief Review of Current Practices, Behavior Disorders, 2004: 247 259.

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30 Office discipline referrals were analyzed for the selected schools before implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy and after the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy to determine whether a change occurred in the number of office discipline referrals written. Office discipline referrals were used as the vehicle to docume nt challenging behaviors and assist with making decisions on how to address these behaviors. 81 Results from this study could also guide the decision making process on funding allocation thr oughout the identified district based on the effectiveness of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support program. The district is currently allocating funds to address discipline issues in the school setting by assigning a Safe School Assistant to each elementary school. The main responsibility of the Safe School Assist ant is to work with students who are displaying behaviors that violate the discipline policy adopted by the identified school district. These students are still able to function in the normal school setting with support from the Safe School Assistant. Th e identified school district also allocated funds to support nine different alternative school programs within the district. These programs are designed to meet the needs of students who have displayed behaviors that violate the discipline policy adopted by the district and are not able to remain in the normal school setting. 82 If the results of this study could demonstrate that the strategy implemented t o modify undesired behaviors had a 81 Boland, Joseph B., Robert H. Horner, Larry K. Irvin, Teri Lewis Palmer, George Sugai, and Anne W. Wide Positive Behavior Support, Journal of Pos itive Behavior Interventions, 2004: 3 12. 82 Information accessed from the budget department of the selected district on September 14, 2012, http://collierschools.com

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31 positive impact, a potential financial savings could be achieved from the $6.5 million dollars currently being allocated. 83 83 Ibid.

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32 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERA TURE Parameters of Literature Review This review of literature focuses on the issues that surround the school climate, specifically discipline, and approaches taken to decrease discipline issues while improving the school climate in both high and low socioeconomic status school settings. In addition, the literature review explores how resources were allocated, based on th e socioeconomic status of the school. To effectively address those discipline issues, it was important to first understand the history of school violence, as well as discipline procedures and practices implemented to combat this increasing problem. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 1 was enacted to improve outcomes in edu cation, and school districts were required to have systems in place to meet the needs of the many sections addressed in NCLB. T his res earch study focused on the safe schools section o f NCLB To that end, the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy was being used in school systems to promote a safe school environment 2 The objective of this strategy is to teach students how to make better choices. As students learn ed how to make better choices, their undesirable behaviors should decrease, ultimately improving the overall atmosphere of the school. This literature review identified the g oals of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support program and how it could be imple mented s chool wide. It addressed the impact that the program could have on the climate of the school setting which ultimately affects the levels of student development and achievement within the school setting In addition, this review 1 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. § 6319. 2 What is Positive Behavior Support? University of South Florida, accessed May 19, 2012, http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu

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33 attempted to iden tify how funds were being distributed among schools to create a safe and positive learning environment for all students to be successful academically. History of Discipline Discipline issues in the school setting have made dramatic changes since the middle of the 20 th C entury In the 1950s, school officials were dealing with issues such running in the halls and the occasional cigarette in the school bathroom In the 1970s, they were contending with the concept of unif orms in the school setting. 3 G ang activity was the focus of school administrators in the 1980s, while the late 1980s through the early 1990 s saw violence in the schools isolated mainly in the inner city schools which were plagued with poverty, poor scho ol funding and a high minority rate. 4 In 1995, however, school violence spread to suburban and rural settings. Issues that triggered this violence included bullying, peer pressure and labeling of certain students a utcasts 5 acts on school campuses. 6 To address this issue properly, researchers needed to 7 According to Watkinson and Epp violence in schoo ls occurs when the school is identified as a physical location 3 Michael Furlong and Gale Morrison, Violence: Definitions and Facts, The Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 2000: 71 82. 4 R. Curtis, City Neighborhoods: Crime, Violence, Drugs, and Youth in the 1990 s The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 1998: 1233 1276 5 Violence: Definitions and Facts, The Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2000: 71 82. 6 Eber, Lucille, Carl R. Smith, Terrance M. Scott, and George Sugai. "Wraparound and Positive Behavioral Interv entions and Supports in Schools, Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2002: 171 181. 7 Henry Stuart, American Academy of Political and Social Science 2000: 16 29.

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34 for violence that stems from conflicts that occur in the community and are brought to the school setting. 8 School v iolence in comparison, occurs when the school is viewed as the system that c auses the proble ms that a student experiences. 9 Researchers have identified inner city schools as places where violence is most common and which is directly related to the community whose culture, norms and value s support the use of violence to resolve c onflicts. 10 Devine described schools in which the culture of violence has infiltrated every aspect of the school setting, and, as a result teachers have defined their role strictly as teaching within the classroom walls. 11 Watkinson and Epp noted: School violence is an important component of the daily lives of children in schools It affects where they walk, how they dress, where they go and who their friends someone calling, the shoving, the fighting, the harassment, they are condoning it. Children see teachers walking by, pretending not to notice, and they learn that the way we business but our own. Teachers must talk about violence, they must recognize it, examine it, dissect it and let children see and understand its secrets and its sources. Without this examination, it remains an ugly secret that society cannot understand or control 12 8 Ailsa M. Watkinson and Juanita Ross Epp, Critical Factors in the Formation of Character and Community in American Life Albany NY : State University of New York Press, 1997. 9 Ibid. 10 Robert Horner and George Sugai, Discipline Practices: School Wide Positive Behavior Supports, Child and Family Behavior Therapy 2002: 23 50. 11 John Devine, The Culture of Violence in Inner City Schools Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. 12 Ailsa M. Watkinson and Juanita Ross Epp, Critical Factors in the Formation of Character and Community in American Life, Albany NY : State University of New York Press, 1997.

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35 As tensions increase d about the roles that educators play in violent situations, it was imp ortant to go back to how school violence was defined If educators considered the definition of school violence instead of violent acts that occur in schools, they would be better able to focus their attention on the role that school plays as a physical, educational, and social environment where violence occurs between students 13 As researchers attempt ed to make a connection between violence in the schools and the responsibility of t he school itself to address the violence, it became very clear that both have a relationship that cannot be separated or pushed onto another agency to address. 14 Watkinson and Epp made this connection v iolence 15 In the school s etting, systemic violence referred to any rule or procedure cr eated by the school that affected student learning in a negat ive way. This ultimately placed a student in a negative situation that could result in that st udent being hurt physically and/or mentally. Examples related to the concept of systemic violence were exclusio nary practices, overly competitive learning environments, toleration of abuse, school disciplinary polices rooted in exclusion and punishment and discriminatory guidance policies. 16 To better understand systemic violence in the school setting, perceptions of what violence in the school means needs to be clarified. For many years, researchers who explored the issues of violence in the school setting were in non academic, often medic al, fields and 13 Furlong, Michael, and Gale Morrison. "The School in School Violence: Definitions and Facts, Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 2000: 71 82. 14 Devine, John. The Culture of Violence in Inner University of Chicago Press, 1996. 15 Watkinson, Ailsa M., and Juanita Ross Epp. Critical Factors in the Formation of Character and Community in American Life. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1997. 16 Ibid.

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36 addressed specific vi olent issues that affected youths in the United States As researchers from outside the school setting started to work collaboratively with educators to address violence in the school setting, data were obtained. Enoug h data have been collected over the last two decades to support this collaborative approach to addressing violence in the school setting. 17 Data found in the annual school safety reports created by school districts across the nation were analyzed by researc hers to further understand school violence. 18 The report contained categories that included non fatal student victimization, violence and crime at schools, violent deaths at school s and non fatal teacher victimization at school s 19 Subsequently, researche rs compared these categories in both the school s etting and other settings and discovered that schools are the safest public setting for children and adolescents. 20 However, even though research showed that schools were considered to be safe places for chi ldren compared to ot her, non academic settings, it was important to identify factors that fostered the violence that occurred in the school setting. One of the mo st telling factors was gender, specifically, males. In a study conducted bet ween 1993 and 19 95, it was discovered that nine out of ten deaths involved a male as both the perpetrator and the victim. Another important factor was 17 Watkinson, Ailsa M., and Juanita Ross Epp. Critical Factors in the Formation of Character and Community in American Life. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1997. 18 Kaufman, P., Chen, X., S. P. Choy, J. K. Fleury, A. K. Miller, S. A. Rud dy, K. A. Chandler, M. R. Rand, P. Klaus, and M. G. Planty. Indicators of School Crime and Safety. Statistical Analysis Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education, and U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000. 19 Ibid 20 Irwin A. Hyman and Donna C. Perone, ducator Policies and Practices t hat May Co ntribute to Student Misbehavior, Journal of School Psychology 1998: 7 27.

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37 student age. The level of violence varied based on the age of the student, with the severity of the type of violent act increasing with an increase in student age. 21 Elementary level students use non physical bullying as their main form of aggressive behavior while middle level stude nts engage d in physical contact as their mode of aggre ssion. High school students are more likely to bring weapons to school as well as be involved in drug use. 22 Rac ial and ethnic identification was another element that determined level of viol ence. Researchers have discovered a national trend with African American students being involved more often with violent acts than were Hispanic students. 23 Cornell and Loper discovered that students who held beliefs that favored physical force as a way of solving problems were more likely to be involved as the perpetrator while studen ts who were disconnected from both peers and school personnel fit the category of victim in school violence situations. 24 Finally, students who reported frequent substance ab use in the school setting were more likely t o commit aggressive acts toward other students. 25 21 Callie Marie Rennison, Criminal Victimization 1999. Changes 1998 1999 with Trends 1993 99 Statistical Analysis, Washington, DC : Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000. 22 George M. Batsche and Howard M. heir Victims: Understanding a Pervasive Problem in the Schools School Psychology Review 1994: 165 175. 23 Chandler, Kathryn A., Christopher D. Chapman, Michael R. Rand, an d Bruce M. Taylor. Students' Reports of School Crime. Statistical Analysis, Washington, DC: U.S. Depar tment of Education and Justice, 1998. 24 Dewey G. Cornell and Ann B. Loper, Risk Behaviors with a School Survey, S chool Psychology Review 1998: 317 330. 25 Rolf Loeber, Magda Stouthamer Loeber, and Welmoet B. Van Kammen, Relationship to Conduct Problem s and Delinquency in Young Boys, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1991: 399 413.

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38 Equally important to understanding the reported violent behavior documented by many researchers over the past few decades understands why students are committing these violent acts. Lockwood discovered through many interviews with students that most of the violent acts had a common theme. The theme included the perception by the perpetrator that they or others were the victims and their actions were justified as retaliation. Lockwood continues by saying that in addition to the students feeli ng that their actions were justified, they also felt strongly that this retaliation was part of their value system 26 Socioeconomic Status School violence in the school setting is not the only factor that has affected lly. The socioeconomic status of a student also plays an important role. 27 Numerous research studies have discovered that students who come from a low socioeconomic household have lower school readiness than do students from high socioeconomic households. 28 According to one study, the socioeconomic measures of a student have consistently shown a direct effect on his or her academic success. 29 In another study, the independent factor of socioeconomic 26 Daniel Lockwood, Violence a mong Middle School and High School Students: Analysis a nd Implications for Prevention, Statistical Analysis, National Institute of Justice, Savannah: 1997. 27 Socio Economic Status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined based on income, education, and occupation. 28 Look at Pr eschoolers in the United States, 29 Douglas J. Lamdin, Education Production Functions, The Journal of Educational Research 1996: 1 55 162.

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39 status of a student was significantly related to achievem ent scores; the study further stated that poverty is the common factor that links most troubled schools. 30 One researcher has made the connection between low socioeconomic status and problem behaviors in the school setting as well as poor academic perform ance. 31 Another researcher has discovered that violent peer groups are more commonly found in lower socioeconomic status clusters, which tend to favor violent actions to resolve conflicts; these violent behaviors would often carry into the school setting. 32 S tudents who are exposed to these violent behaviors over a long period of time will find that these behaviors become habit forming and could occur in their view as an acceptable way to act in the school setting. 33 The link between socioeconomic disadvan tage and children's socio emotional functioning appears to be facilitated partly by harsh, inconsistent parenting and elevated exposure to acute and chronic stressors. 34 Children who grow up in families under socio economic stress may be poorly supervised and often gain independence too early 35 Unsupervised adolescents are more likely to smoke cigare ttes, drink alcohol, 30 Irina Soderstrom and Alice Sutton School Related and Demographic Factors, The Journal of Educational Research 1999: 330 338 31 Conger, K. J., R. D. Conger, G. H. Elder, F. O. Lorenz, Economic Stress and Adjus tment of Early Adolescent Girls, Developmental Psychology, 1993: 206 219. 32 Karen Heimer, itions, and Violent Delinquency, Social Forces 1997: 799 833. 33 Karen Heimer, "Gender, Interaction, and Delinquency: Testing a Theory of Differential Social Control, Social Psychology Quarterly 1996: 39 61. 34 Vonnie C. McLoyd, "Socioeconomic Dis advantage and Child Development, American Psychologist, 1998: 185 204 35 Bushwall, P. L., S. J. Carlsmith, S. M. Dornbusch, R. T. Gross, A. H. Hastorf, A. H. Leiderman, and H. and the Control of Adolescents, Child Development, 1985: 326 341.

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40 use drugs, report depressed mood s and engage in risky beh aviors than are supervised children 36 Low family income has been associated wit h early sexual activity, cigarette smoking, adoles cent pregnancy, and delinquency 37 High poverty neighborhoods are more likely to be physically deteriorated and to have more crime and street violence, greater availability of illegal drugs, and more negati ve peer influences and adult role models. 38 These characteristics of high poverty neighborhoods may have deleterious consequences for the cognitive functioning, socialization, physical health, emotional functioning, and academic achievement of children and adolescents. 39 Not surprisingly, low income adolescents have reduced achievement motivation and a much higher risk of educational failure. 40 One researcher has found that, in addition to the socioeconomic status of individuals, difficult behaviors can be connected to specific sub group categories. Male students are more likely to have di scipline referrals than are female students, while African American students are more likely to get discipline referrals and be suspended than are any other ethnic group. The researcher also stated that students who receive special e ducation services are more likely to be suspended than are students who do 36 Dent, C. W., B. R. school Care of Adolescents and Substance Use, Risk Taking, Depresse d Mood and Academic Achievement, Pediatrics, 1993: 32 38. 37 Bearinger, L. H., T. Beuhring, R. W. Blum, M. D. Resnick, M. L. Shew, and R of Race/Ethnicity, Income, and Family Structu re on Adolescent Risk Behaviors, American Journal of Public Health, 1993: 1879 1884. 38 McLoyd, Vonnie, C. "Socioeconomic Dis advantage and Child Development, American Psychologist, 19 98: 185 204. 39 I. G. Ellen and M. A. Turner, Does Neighborhood Matter? Housing Policy Debate 1997: 833 866. 40 G. F. Schultz, Academic Performance in Min ority Children in Urban Schools, Journal of Urban Review 1993: 221 232.

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41 not receive the se services. 41 In addition, children from more affluent neighborhoods with more community resources are less likely to engage in acts of juvenile delinquency 42 In addition, previous research shows that neighborhood disadvantage is one pathway whereby poverty leads to psychological problems, especially delinquency 43 Socioeconomic status and student achi evement have had a strong correlation for many decades; as early as 1966 the Coleman Report stated that socioeconomic status is the best predictor of school success. 44 No Child Left Behind The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was proposed by P resident George W. Bus h. 45 This Act funds many programs to improve academic performance in all schools by increasing accountability standards. In addition, the legislation provides parents with more options in choosing the best school for their child. Finally, NC LB places a large emphasis on core subject improvement particularly in the areas of Science and Math. As NCLB states, no child will be left behind academically. 46 As a result of this goal, the 41 Lisa Santiso, Variables Impacti ng School Discipline Referrals, accessed on November 9, 2012, http://search.proquest.com/docview/924429518?accountid=10920 42 Brooks and Adolescent Develo American Journal of Sociology, 1997: 353 395. 43 B. K. Alter, N. G. Guerra, and P. H. Tolan, Adjustments in Urban Elementary Sc hool Children, Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 1994: 391 400 44 Campbell, E. Q., J. S. Coleman, C. J. Hobson, C. J. McPartland, J. Mood, F. D. Weinfeld, and R. L. tional Opportunities, 2 Volumes, 38001: Superintendent of Documents Catalog No. FS 5.238:38001, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996. 45 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. § 6319. 46 Ibid.

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4 2 inte nt of NCLB is to ensure that all students meet their full potential as well as meet established academic standards across the subject areas. 47 The funding for the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is divided among its various programs, including Title I Part A, Title I Part D, Title II P art A, Title II Part D, and Title IV. 48 Title IV directly supports the essential question asked in this research study and provides resources to support the goal of creating a safe and drug free learning atmosphere for all schools to foster academic growth for all students. 49 The Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act is another resource that supports NCLB. 50 The Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act is the largest single source of federal alc ohol, tobacco, and other drug prevention fundin g for schools in the country. It affects essentially every school district in the natio n and provides approximately 70 percent o f the school based prevention budget 51 programs in schools. In 1999, the Office of Nati onal Drug Control Policy developed goals and objectives that included the provision of drug prevention programs and policies that were based on scientific ev idence of effectiveness. 52 Both t he Department of Educatio n and the Department of Health and Human Services were designated as 47 Ibid. 48 Ibid. 49 Ibid. 50 Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1994, Title IV, § 4111 4116, 20 U.S.C. 7111 7116. 51 Scott Cross and Irene Hantman Progress in Prevention: Report on the National Study of Local Education Agency Activities under the Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, Research, Jessup: ED Pubs, U.S. Department of Education 2000. 52 D. M. Gorman, al izing Research Based Prevention, The US Department of Free Schools Exemplary Programs, Evaluation and Program Planning 2002: 295 302

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43 the reporting agencies for these goals and objectives. The Education Department had previously established school districts to: (a) conduct a needs assessment; (b) establish measurable goals and objectives; (c) implement research based prevention programs; and (d) evaluate progress toward the identified goals and objectives 53 Compliance by the school districts was monitored b y The Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act state offices, which had the authority to deny funding for failure to implement the Principles. 54 The Principles were later assembled into law through the NCLB 55 According to the NCLB school districts must select programs with research evidence of effectiveness or apply for a waiver as a condition of their Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act funding. 56 School Wide Positive Behavior Support School Wide Positive Behavior Support is one of many strategies available that a re research based These strategies attempt based on approaches that have been proven to meet a desired e ffect 57 School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategies offer educators and pare nts who are dealing with 53 United States Department of Education, Notice of Final Pr inciples of Effectiveness, Federal Register, 1998: 29902 29906 54 Crosse, Scott, and Irene Hantman. Progress in Prevention: Report on the National Study of Local Education Agency Activities under the Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act. Research, Jessup: ED Pubs, U.S. Department of Education, 2000. 55 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. § 6319. 56 Yell, M. L., and E. Drasgow. No Child Left Behind: A Guide for Profess ionals. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall, 2005. 57 http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu

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44 challenging behaviors the tools to teach the child new skills to replace the undesired behaviors. 58 School Wide Positive Behavior Support is an approach that considers all the factors that affect a this strategy a teacher has the ability to address a variety of undesired behaviors, which have a negative impact on the school setting. 59 School Wide Positive Behavior Support was developed to assist with students wh o d isplayed extreme behaviors 60 School Wide Positive Behavior Support can be implemented on several levels, including school wide classroom and individually. On a school wide level, School Wide Positive Behavior Support relies on accurate and reliable discipline referral data to learn and understand better the behaviors that occur across the sc hool setting, while a nalysis of t his referral data allow s an identified school team, such as the School Wide Positive Behavior Support Team, to identify problem areas and research interventions that will correct the problems. 61 These interventions could include rewards for students who display appropriate behaviors. The findings from the School Wide Positive Behavior Support Team are then communicated to all stak eholders associated with the school. 62 School Wide Positive Behavior Support methods are research based and 58 B. Simonsen and G. Sugai, School Wide Positive Behavior Support: A Systems Level Application of Beh avioral Principles, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2009. 59 http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu 60 Derby, K. M., W. W. Fisher, G. P. Hanley, K. Hilker, and C. C. Piazza. "A Preliminary Procedure for Predicting the Positive and Negative Effects of Reinforcement based Procedures, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1996: 137 152. 61 Ibid. 62 Wide Behavior Change: Lessons from the Field, Psychology in the Schools, 2007: 41 51.

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45 proven to significantly reduce the occurrence of problem behaviors in the school, resulting in a more positive school climate and increased academic success. 63 School Wide Positive Behavior Support parallels the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which advocates the use of positive behavior interventions and school based disciplinary strategies that reduce or eliminate the need to use suspension and expulsion as disciplinary options. 64 School Wide Positive Behavior Support is cu rrently being implemented in 78 percent of the school di stricts in the state of Florida. 65 School Wide Positive Behavior Support Implementation Schools who use the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy must understand the correlation between student behavior and academic success Students who have difficulties with the academic curriculum tend to become frustrated, resulting in an increase of undesired behaviors in the school setting 66 Undesired behaviors are addressed in the school setting when the faculty and staff agree that these behaviors need to be modified. 67 Finally, a school based team comprised of faculty and staff is formed and meets on a mon thly ba sis. The goal for this team is to discuss topics directly 63 l B ehavioral Assessment in Schools, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2000: 131 143. 64 Reece L. Peterson and Russell J. Skiba, School Discipline at a Crossroads: From Zero Tolerance to Ear Council of Exceptional Children, 2000: 335 346 65 Positive Behavior Support, University of Sout h Florida, accessed February 6, 2013, flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu 66 C. J. Liaupsi n, C. M. Nelson, and T. M. Scott, Education & Treatment of Children 2001: 309 322 67 R. J. Garmston, The Adaptive School: A Sourcebook for Developing Collaborative Groups Norwood MA : Christopher Gordon Publishers, 1999

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46 related to the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy Recommendations and decisions from the team are then shared with the entire school. 68 The School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy is only effective when all components are included including the outcomes of the program, data collected by faculty and staff, best practices on implementing the program and the systems established that best utilize the program 69 As discussed in Chapter One o utcomes are goals that can be measured usin g discipline referral data; data collected were used to determine where priorities lie in relation to the overall climate of the school. 70 Systems are the structures put in place to support the imple mentation of School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy whereas the practices are referred to as the interventions being used by faculty and staff when implementing the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy 71 The School Wide Positive Behavio r Support Team monitors referral data and brings results and recommendations to the monthly meeting. Recommendations for improvement of the effectiveness of the School Wide Behavior Support Strategy implementation are made during the monthly meeting. The se recommendations are shared with the entire staff each month. Effectiveness of Implementing School Wide Positive Behavior Support Research on the effectiveness of implementing School Wide Positive Behavior Support concentrates on the data collected fr om office discipline referrals to determine 68 ng School Wide Behavior Support Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2007: 203 213 69 ehavioral Assessment in Schools, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2000: 131 143. 70 Ibid. 71 Ibid.

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47 the impact the program is having on the school setting. Discipline referral data have a direct correlation to student behavior. 72 Researchers identified one middle school of approximately 500 students located in Oregon who had the opportunity to implement the School Wide Positive Behavior Support Model school wide. Results of implementing the School Wide Positive Behavior Support Model school wide showed a 68 percent decrease in office discipline referrals ov er the first five years of implementation. 73 A further example showed a school of approximately 500 students in an inner city of Kentucky that implemented the School Wide Positive Behavior Support Model school w ide. Results indicated that 61 percent of the students spent less time in the office as a result of the decrease of office discipline referrals, providing students with more opportunities to attend class and be exposed to learning opportunities. 74 An additional study looked at a small suburban elementary school that implemented a Positive Behavior Program in specific locations of the campus, including the cafeteria, playground, and hallway transitions. Results concluded that the program was effective in reducing problem behaviors in the design ated areas after implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support Program. 75 72 Susan B. Barrett and Terrance M. Scott, Procedures to E valuate the Impact of School Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2004: 21 27 73 D. T. Kartub and S. J. Taylor Green, ation of School Wide Behavior Support: The Journal of Behavior Interventions 2000: 233 235 74 W ide Examp le of Positive Behavior Support, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2001: 88 94. 75 L. Garrison Harr ell and T. J. Lewis, Effective School Practices 1999: 38 46

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48 The final example concerns two middle schools, one that implemented an intervention program school wide and one that did not. Findings after one year showed that the mi ddle school that established an intervention program decreased of fice discipline referrals by 50 percent while the middle school with no interv ention program revealed a 12 percent increase in office discipline referrals. 76 Research has shown that the imp lementation of a School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy in the school setting will reduce the overall number of office disci pline referrals 77 This study compared the socioeconomic status of schools to determine whether this strategy has an impact on specific students regarding the number of office discipline referrals. This study also looked at specific sub group categories in the identified schools to determine the impact of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy on each group. Final ly, this study recognized how the identified school district was allocating funds to address the expectations of Title IV of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 78 76 G. Colvin, E. J. Kameenui, and G. Sugai Behavior Management and School wide Education and Treatment of Children 1993: 361 381 77 and Behavioral Disorders: A Proposed Approach and Br ief Review of Current Practices, Behavior Disorders, 2004: 247 259. 78 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. § 6319.

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49 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN Parameters of Research Design This chapter presented the research design and methodology used in the study. The chapter included the theoretical fram ework as it related to the design of th e study, research methodology, participants, access and entry, variables, instrumentation, vali dity and reliability of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy assumptions and lim itations. The chapter concluded with a summary. Theoretical Framework for Data Collection and Analysis The theoretical framew ork for this study was a post hoc data analysis Post hoc data analysis is a method used by researchers when analyzing data after a practice has concluded, with the intention of finding patterns in data that were not specified prior to the study. 1 Patterns were identified when the resear cher analyzed sub groups of a sampled population to ascertain previously undetected relationships. 2 T his study focused on the impact of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy on the number of office discipline referrals and the financial impa ct the strategy has on both high and low socioeconomic status school settings. T he researcher collected and analyzed office discipline referral data pre and post implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy using sub group categ ories identified by the Florida Department of Education (Appendix B) 3 1 Huck, Schuyler W. Reading Statistics and Research. Knoxville, TN: Pearson Education, 2008. 2 Ibid. 3 Florida Department of Education. "Critical Information for Parents of Third Graders," accessed July 23, 2011, Justreadflorida.com

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50 Research Methodology The researcher used descriptive statistics to calculate percentages of office discipline referrals received pre and post implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support s strategy. The office discipline referrals of s tudents from both high and low socioeconomic status schools were analyzed and categorized by student demographic informat ion, including gender and race. This post hoc data analysis included the student referral data from the 2002 2003 school year, before School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation at the three Title I schools, and the 2003 2004 school year, after School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation at the t hree Title I Schools. Comparison data included the 2004 2005 school year, before School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation at the three non Title I schools, and the 2005 2006 school year, after School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementati on at the three non Title I schools. A level of significance of .05 was used and all te sts were two sided. All analyses were performed using a current statis tics program, SAS 9.3 4 Research Question One required comparison group testing for both Titl e I and non Title I schools. Chi square tests 5 were used for the binary variables ( T Male before School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation versus T Male after implementation of School Wide Positive Behavior Support ). Female and race sub groups were analyzed similar to the analysis of the male population For the binary 4 SAS stands for Statistical Analysis System an integrated s ystem of software that enables a programmer to perform a variety of tasks including statistical analysis 5 Chi s quare t est uses the chi square statistic to test the fit b etween a theoretical frequen cy distribution and a frequency distribution of observed data

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51 variables, the null hypothesis 6 was written as H o T N and race sub groups (T = Title I School and N = non Title I School). Next, categorical g roups were compared using chi square tests. For the categorical groups, the test of the hypothesis was written as H o 1 : School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy and number of office discipline referrals written at Title I schools are not related ; and H a 1 : School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy and number of office discipline referrals written at Title I schools are related. The Equation for Title I schools was 0 1 (African American 2 ( Haitian 3 (Hispanic 4 (Multi Racial ) 5 ( Caucasian ) + 6 ( Male ) + 7 ( Female ) and the null hypothesis was written as H o 1 : office discipline referrals during the 2003 2004 Title I school year. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum tes t was used to analyze data from Title I schools for research question one 7 The same process described for Title I schools was used for non Title I schools. Chi square tests wer e used for the binary variables ( N Male before School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation versus N Male after School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation). Female as well as race sub groups were analyzed similar to the analysis of the male population. For the binary variables, the null hypothesis was written as H o 2 T N School Wide Positive Behavior Support and number of office discipline referrals written at Non Title I schools are not equal to the Male, Female and race sub groups (T = Title I School and N = non Title I School). Next, categori cal group s were compared using chi square tests. For the categorical groups, the test of the hypothesis was written as H o 2 : 6 Null h ypothesis is used in statistics that proposes no statistical significance exists in a set of o bservations 7 Wilcoxon rank sum t est calculates the difference between each set of pairs an d analyzes those differences

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52 School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy and number of office discipline referrals written at non Title I schools are not related ; and H a 2 : School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy and number of office discipline referrals written at non Title I schools are related. The Equation for non 0 1 (African American 2 ( Haitian 3 (Hispanic 4 (Multi Racial 5 ( Caucasian ) + 6 ( Male ) + 7 ( Female ) and the null hypotheses can be written as H o 2 research question, Y = overall num ber of office discipline referrals during the 2005 2006 Title I school year, after implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy The Wilcoxon Rank Sum test was also used with non Title I schools to analyze data for research questio n one Research Questio n Two identified possible fu nding sources in the school district used for the purposes of meeting the Title IV requirements. These identified funding sources could be considered to be reallocated to meet the needs of Title IV. Tit le IV, as defined by NCLB, requires the district to provide resources to support the goal of creating a safe and drug free learning atmosphere for all schools to foster a cademic growth for all students. Participants The population targeted for this study in cluded elementary school students in Grades 3 5 in both Title I and non Title I schools who were exposed to the introduction of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy adopted by the school district. The identified school district was compris ed of twenty nine elementary scho ols (Pre K 5), ten middle schools (6 8), eight high schools (9 12), and four charter s ch ools. Th e district had approximately 50 percent of students who qualified for the free or reduced lunch program ; with all students qualifying for free breakfast every day.

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53 Access and Entry The resear cher completed the request form for the University of Florida to collect data for the study (Appendix C ). Permission was granted from the institution Permission was also granted f rom the selected school district. The researcher identified the top 10 percent of schools with the highest socioeconom ic status as well as the top 10 percent of schools with the lowest socioeconomic status. Schools also were identified based on when they first implemented the School Wide Positive Behavior Support Program to maintain the same starting point for both groups of socioeconomic status schools. The information was sorted by sub groups and the results were printed in a spreadsheet format as wel l as represented in a chart. This chart presented the data organized in a form that assisted with analyzing the results of the study. Variables of the Study Data collected for this study included the number of office discipline referrals written at both Title I and non Title I schools fo r identified sub groups. These data were collected for two consecutive years both pre and post i mplementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy Student demographic variables included socioeconomic s tatus, gender and race at each of the identified schools. Instrumentation Referrals written and stored on the district s comp uter server in a program known as the database were collected. The analysis of these referrals by sub groups using a quantitative approach was conducted. The number of office discipline referrals in each of the sub group categories for both high and low socioeconomic status schools were recorded in a spreadsheet for analysis. Analysis of data was completed by the statistics program SAS 9.3. Office discipline r eferrals written at the

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54 three Title I schools from the 2002 2003 school year, before School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation, and office discipline referrals written at the three Title I sch ools from the 2003 2004 school year, after School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation, were analyzed to determine whether the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy had an impact on the number of office discipline re ferrals written at the Title I schools. Analysis was also conducted on office discipline referrals written at the three non Title I schools from the 2004 2005 school year, before School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation, and office discipline referrals written at the three non Title I schools from the 2005 2006 school year, after School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation. This was done to determine whether the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy had an impact on the number of office discipline referrals written at the non Title I schools. Validity and Reliability of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support Strategy The School Wide Evaluation Tool (SET) is a research instrument used to assess the eff ect of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy on the overall climate of the school setting. 8 The Sc hool Wide Evaluation Tool has twenty eight items arranged into seven categories that correlate to the seven key features of the School Wide Posi tive Behavior Support Program. 9 These features include the facts that (a) school wide behavioral expectations are defined; (b) these expectations are taught to all 8 Boland, Joseph B., Robert H. Horner, Larry K. Irvin, Teri Lewis Palmer, George Sugai, and Anne W. Wide Positive Behavior Support, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventi ons, 2004: 3 12. 9 Wide Behavior Support Implementation: Development and Validati on of the Benchmarks of Quality, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2007: 203 213.

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55 children in the school; (c) rewards are provided for meeting the expectations; (d) a consis tently implemented continuum of consequences for problem behavior is put into place; (e) problem behavior patterns are monitored, and the information is used for ongoing decision making; (f) an administrator actively supports and is involved in the effort; and (g) the school district provides support to the school in the form of functional policies, staff training opportunities, and data collection options. 10 The School Wide Evaluation Tool uses a scoring guide that allocates a value of 0, 1, or 2 (0=not i mplemented, 1=partially implemented, 2=fully implemented) for each of the twenty eight items. 11 The Reliability of the School Wide Evaluation Tool was evaluated using a variety of correlational analyses that involved test retest and internal consistency of the School Wide Evaluation Tool scores as well as inter observer agreement percentages. 12 The correlational analysis was conducted using the Pearson product moment correlations 13 index on al l scores from the School Wide Evaluation Tool. The results showed an alpha of 0 .96, 10 Stephen R. Lassen, Wayne Sailor, and onship of School Wide Positive Behavior Support to Academic Achievement in an Urb an Middle School, Psychology in Schools June 9, 2006: 701 71 11 D. Chaney, S. Stage, and B. Walker, Validity and Reliability of the Self Assessment and Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2009: 94 104 12 Boland, Joseph B., Robert H. Horner, Larry K. Irvin, Teri Lewis Palmer, George Sugai, and Anne W. Wide Positive Behavior Support, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2004: 3 12. 13 Pearson product moment correlation coefficient is a measure of the co rrela tion or linear dependence between two variables X and Y giving a value between +1 and 1 in clusive. It is mainly used to measure the strength of linear dependence between two variables

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56 which exceeds the standard reliability of an instrument used to conduct research. 14 The test retest reliability of the School Wide Evaluation Tool was conducted in eight e lementary schools in the Pacific Northwe st, with results averaging 97.3 0 percent reliable. 15 The reliability of the School Wide Evaluation Tool using inter obs erver agreement was tested in seventeen elementa ry schools, with a result of 99 .00 percent reliab le. 16 The validity of the School Wide Evaluation Tool was determined by comparing correlated scores from both the School Wide Evaluation Tool and the Effective Behavior Support Self Assessment Survey (EBSSAS); a tool also used to measure implementation of School Wide Positive Behavior Support ). 17 Five middle schools and twenty six elementary schools located in Oregon and Hawaii were used in this analysis. The results of this correlational analysis using the Pearson correlation coefficient, r = .75 ( p < .01 ), 18 yielded the median of the results at r = .65, which indicated a sufficient empirical relationship. 19 The identified school district used a standardized form as part of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy (Appendix D ). 14 ficient of reliability used to measure the internal consistency or reliability of a psychometric test score for a sample of examinees 15 Boland, Joseph B., Robert H. Horner, Larry K. Irvin, Teri Lewis Palmer, George Sugai, and Anne W. strument for assessing School Wide Positive Behavior Support, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2004: 3 12. 16 Ibid. 17 Boland, Joseph B., Robert H. Horner, Larry K. Irvin, Teri Lewis Palmer, George Sugai, and Anne W. t for assessing School Wide Positive Behavior Support, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2004: 3 12. 18 Pearson correlation coefficient is a measure of the relationship between mean values often denoted by a or r which measures the degree of correlation. The Pearson correlatio n coefficient is sensitive only to a linear relationship between two variables 19 Boland, Joseph B., Robert H. Horner, Larry K. Irvin, Teri Lewis Palmer, George Sugai, and Anne W. ch Instrument for assessing School Wide Positive Behavior Support, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2004: 3 12.

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57 Assumptions and Lim itations For this research, numerous assumptions were made. The first assumption made was that the i dentified schools both Tit le I and non Title I, implemented the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy with fidelity. The next assumption stated that all schools identified received th e same training on how to effectively implement and use this strategy. The researcher assumed that all the teachers assigned to the identified schools received the same training and support throughout the school year. It also was assumed that because the district mandated every school to imp lement the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy all students would be exposed to the same expectations as well as have access to similar re sources and the same training on how to complete an office discipline referral. F inally, it was assumed that the office discipline referrals documented in the distr ded accurately and consistently among all the selected schools. Limitations for this research included lack of consistency among schools that implemented the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy The selected distr ict gave schools the opportunity to phase in the required School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy over a designated period of time. As a result, the researcher could not identify three Title I schools and three non Title I schools that implemented the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy in the same academic school year. This different presenters. The researcher was able to identify three Title I sc hools that implemented the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy during the 2004 2005

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58 school year as well as three non Title I schools that implemented the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy during the 2005 2006 school year. Summary The idea of implementing the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy in the identified school district was th at students exposed to this strategy would be taught appropriate behavior in the educationa l setting. The student would be remunerated wit h a positive reward who displayed this appropriate behavior In addition, when students displayed inappropriate behavior, they would be taught alternate ways to act. The purpose of this post hoc data a nalysis was to determine whether, a s a result of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support being implemented school wide, the number of office discipline referrals written throughout the school year would decrease, increase or remain the same. Data collected before and after implementation of th e School Wide Positive Behavior al Support strategy were used to determine this. The research also looked at the various sub groups of students identified b y the state to determine whether implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strate gy had an impact on the number of office discipline referrals written for each identified gr oup. Sub groups included socio economic status, gender and race. Students in Title I schools were compared to students in non Title I schools to determine whether implementing the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy had a greater effect on Title I versus non Title I schools. The identified school district, as part of the requirements of implementing this strategy, completed a year end form to assess the effective ness of the strategy (Appendix E ). Results of this study would also guide the designated school district with allocation of funds to support the concept of creating a safe environment for all students that

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59 would meet the needs of Title IV. Title IV, as defined by NCLB, requires the district to provide resources to support the goal of creating a safe and drug free learning atmosphere for all schools to foster a cademic growth for all students. Areas for consideration could include the current alloc ation of funds to provide a Safe School Aide at each of the schools at a cost of almost $1 million dollars annually, as well as the budget established to support the alternative school programs currently established in the district, which allocates funds o f almost $5.5 million dollars annually, for a total cost of approximately $6.5 million dollars per year. 20 20 Information accessed from the budget department of the selected district on November 08, 2012, http://collierschools.com

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60 CHAPTER 4 OBSERVATIONS This chapter presented the results of the research study. The purpose of this data collection was to evaluate the infl uence of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy on the number of office discipline referrals written at both Title I and non Title I elementary schools. Data were collected at elementary schools according to socioeconomic status. T he top 10 p ercent of elementary schools with the lowest socioeconom ic status as determined by the free and reduced l unch percentage, as well as the top 10 percent of elementary schools with the highest socioeconom ic status as determined by the free and reduced l unch percentage provided by the identified school district were identified. The number of office discipline referrals pre and post School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation were compared to determine whether a change in the number of office d iscipline referrals written was observed pre and post School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation. The results of the data collected as well as the analysis of the designated data for the following questions were addressed: 1. What was the rela tionship between number of office discipline referrals at each of the identified Title I schools during the 2002 2003 school year, before implementation of the Positive Behavioral Support strategy, and the 2003 2004 school year, after implementation of the Positive Behavioral Support strategy ? 2. What was the relationship between number of office discipline referrals at each of the identified Non Title I schools during the 2004 2005 school year, before implementation of the Positive Behavioral Support strategy and the 2005 2006 school year, after implementation of the Positive Behavioral Support strategy ?

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61 3. What was the financial impact on the allocation of funds, in both high and low socioeconomic status school settings, of the effectiveness of the implementati on of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy ? Descriptive Analysis The sample group in this study included students in six schools in the designated school dis trict in Kindergarten to Grade five T he average enrollment for each school was appr oximately 719 students. All students in the targeted grades were included in the sample group as well as in the study results. The majority of the analysis was in descriptive form due to the p significance in either the Title I or Non Title I schools. Data Analysis Research Question One addressed the three selected Title I schools: What was the relationship between number of office discipline referrals at each of the identified Title I scho ols during the 2002 2003 school year, before implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy, and the 2003 2004 school year, after implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy ( Appendix B ) ? To address this question, the researcher performed the Wilcoxon Rank Sum procedure to determine whether the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy had a statistical significance on the identified sub groups within each of the th ree Title I schools. 1 The corresponding null hypothesis, H o1 was established to test the first research question: There will be no statist ically significant relationship between the 1 Huck, Schuyler W. Reading Statistics and Research. Knoxville, TN: Pearson Education, 2008.

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62 implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy in Title I schools and the number of office discipline referrals written The percentages of office discipline referrals in each identified sub group were found to be not statistically significant for the variables, with an overall average p value of 0 .50. Due to the levels of significance falling at or above a p value of 0 .50, the results show that it was necessary to fail to reject the null hypothesis for the variables related to the three Title I schools. Research Question 1 also addressed the three no n Title I schools: What was the relationship between number of office discipline referrals at each of the identified non Title I schools during the 2004 2005 school year, before implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy, and the 2005 2006 school year, after implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy ( Appendix B ) ? The null hypothesis, H o 2, wa s established to test this research question: There will be no statist ically significant relationship between the implementation of School Wide Positive Behavior Support for non T itle I schools and the number of office discipline referrals written. To address this question, the researcher again performed the Wilcoxon Rank Sum procedure to determine whether Schoo l Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation had a statistical significance on the identified sub groups within each of the three non Title I schools. The percentages of office discipline referrals in each identified sub group were found to be not s tatistically significant for the variables with an overall average p value of 0 .50. Due to the levels of significance falling at or above a p Value of 0 .50, the results show that it was necessary to fail to reject the null hypothesis for the variables rel ated to the three non Title I schools.

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63 To determine whether or not the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy was cost effective to the identified school district, the researcher analyzed data over a five year period incorpo rating the years identified in the study. The goal was to examine how the identified district was allocating funds to programs that had a correlation to the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy The researcher first looked a t student enrollment at the established alternative schools over a five year period starting with the 2002 2003 school year and ending with the 2006 2007 school year. As presented in Table 4 1, student enrollment almost doubled over the five year span sta rting with 385 students in the 2002 2003 school year and ending with 690 students during th e 2006 2007 school year. The 2005 2006 school year yielded the highest number of students with a 767 enrollment figure. The researcher examined the staff enrollment of the alternative schools over the five year period to determine whether a potential cost savings for the district was apparent. As displayed in Table 4 2, staff enrollment increased by almost 25 .00 percent fr om 76.6 0 positions in the 2002 2003 school year to 104.39 positions in the 2006 2007 school year. The 2006 2007 school year generated the highest number of positions at 104.39. In an effort to establish a cost savings related to the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy the researcher examined the allocation of Safe School Assistants over the identified five year period. Table 4 3 shows a slight i ncrease in Safe School Aides alloc ated to schools starting with 29.0 0 aides in the 2002 2003 school year and incr easing to 31.5 0 aides during the 2006 2007 school year.

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64 Summary The findings showed that a statistical significance was not observed when meas uring the p value of the three Title I schools as well as the three non Title I schools in this study. T he Wilcoxon Rank Sum procedure, which compares two different variables in a small sample population, was used to check the overall difference between t wo sets of variabl es in a small sample population. This establish ed the p values for the variabl es. In addition to looking at the effectiveness of implementing the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy the research er also looked at the potential cost effectiveness of successfully implementing this strategy related to how funds wher e distributed district wide The researcher revealed that t he ident ified school district allocated funds to support nine different alternative school programs within the district. These programs were designed to meet the needs of students who displayed behaviors that violated the discipline policy adopted by the district and were not able to remain in the normal school setting. When analyzing Table 4 1, it could be su ggested that due to the enrollment increasing from 385 students during the 2002 2003 school year to 690 students du ring the 2006 2007 school year t hat a cost savings for the identified school district was not attained when implementing the School Wide Posi tive Behavior Support strategy Table 4 2 supports the idea of a lack of cost effectiveness when looking at the staff enrollment of the alternative schools over the five year period. Staff increased 25 .00 percent over the five year period starting with 76.6 0 staff members during the 2002 2003 sc hool year and ending with 104.3 9 staff members during the 2006 2007 school year.

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65 The researcher also revealed that t he identified school district allocated funds to address discipline issues in the school settin g by assigning each elementary school one full time Safe School Assistant. With support from the Safe School Assistant, students who displayed undesired behaviors were able to function in the normal school setting. Based on the results of Table 4 3, it c ould be suggested that due to the increase of Safe School Assistants from the 2002 2003 school year to the 2006 2007 school year, that the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy was not cost effective to the identified school district when looking at the Safe School Assistant allocations and the correlation between these allocations and the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy in the identified school district

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66 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was created to ensure that all students received a high quality education while holding school districts accountable to accomplish this significant task. 1 An important element of NCLB was the section referred to as Title IV, which provides resources to support the goal of creating a safe and drug free learning atmosphere for all schools to foster academic growth for all students. 2 The selected school district has implemented a strategy titled School Wide Positive B ehavioral Support to address the requirements of Title IV under NCLB. This study examined the relationship between the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavioral Support strategy and the number of office discipline referrals that elementary sc hool students received at both Title I and non Title I schools in the identified school district. In addition, specific sub groups were identified to determine how the School Wide Positive Behavioral Support strategy affected each of them. Sub groups inc luded the African American population, the Haitian population, the Hispanic population, the Multi Racial population, the White population, the Male population, and, finally, the Female population. The top 10 percent of schools with the highest soci oeconom ic status and the top 10 percent of schools with the lowest socioeconomic status were id entified, resulting in a total six schools that were studied. Three of the six schools were identified as Title I schools, and the remaining three were identified as n on Title I schools. 1 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. § 6319. 2 Hallfors, Denise D., Shane Hartman, and Melinda Pankratz. "Does Federa l Policy Support the Use of Scientific Evidence in School based Prevention Programs?" Prevention Science, 2005: 75 81.

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67 Summary of Results The study was conducted based on the following questions: What were the predictors of office discipline referrals at each of the identified Title I schools during the 2002 2003 and 2 003 2004 school years? What w ere the predictors of office discipline referrals at each of the identified non Title I schools during the 2004 2005 and 2005 2006 school years? What was the relationship between the number of office discipline referrals and the socioeconomic status of th e school when compared by sub groups pre and post School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation? How could the Title IV as well as determine if the implementation of the School W ide Positive strategy was cost effective to the identified district ? Title IV, as defined by NCLB, requires the district to provide resources to support the goal of creating a safe and drug free learning atmosphere for all schools to foster academic growt h for all students. Research Question 1 (Title I): What were th e predictors of office discipline referrals at each of the identified Title I schools during the 2002 2003 and 2003 2004 school years? The null hypothesis associated with this research questio n was H o 1 : There was no statisti cally significant relationship between implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy in Title I schools and the number of office discipline referrals documented When analyzing all the variables associated with the three Title I schools, it was determined that, based on the p 0 .05, the relationship was not statistically significant, requiring the researcher to fail to reject the null hypothe sis for Title I schools. Research Question 1 (non Title I): Wh at were the predictors of office discipline referrals at each of the identified non Title I schools during the 2004 2005 and 2005

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68 2006 school years? The null hypothesis associated with this rese arch question was H o 2 : There was no statist ically significant relationship between implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy in non T itle I schools and the number of office discipline referrals documented Similar to the Title I schools, analysis of all the variables associated with the three non Title I schools revealed that, based on the p 0 .05, the relationship was not statistically significant, requiring the researcher to fail to reject the null hypothesis for non Title I schools. Research Question Two funds to meet the needs of Title IV as well as determine if the implementation of the School Wide Positive strategy was cost effective to the identified district? According to the results o f Table 4 1, the district was allocating funds to meet the needs of T itle IV by implementing alternative school programs that support creating a safe school environment. Due to the stu dent enrollment of these alternative schools nearly doubling over the five year period, it could be suggested that the district was increasing funds to meet the needs of this growing population of students. This would indicate that a cost savings did not exist during this five year period when implementing the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy based on the increased enrollment at the alternative school sites. A correlation could also be made when analyzing the results of Table 4 2 which showed a 25 .0 percent increase in staff who were assigned to the se alternative school sites. This increase would likewise suggest that a cost savings did not exist during the five year period when the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy was im plemented based on the increased staff enrollment at the alternative school sites.

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69 Finally, when interpreting the data in Table 4 3, an increase in Safe School Assistants over the five year period may possibly suggest a lack of cost savings to the identifi ed school district when implementing the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy Limitations of the Study The sample population in this study consisted of six schools in an average sized district in Florida. The six schools within the designat ed d istrict represented 10 percent of th e Title I schools as well as 10 percent of the non Title I schools. One potential limitation of this study was the change in student population from the 2002 2003 school year to the 2003 2004 school year in the identified Title I schools as well as the change in student population from the 2004 2005 school year to the 2005 2006 school year in the identified non Title I schools. Factors that affected student population could include school choice as well as movem ent of the migrant student population in and out of the designated school district. 3 Discipline codes identified could have varied from school to school based on the training the instructional staff received, resulting in another potential limitation to t he study. An example of this could include a student who is talking in class. If a referral was written, it could be considered a disruption of class referral or a rules violation (minor) referral. Either category would be correct, according to the desc ription of the category. As a result, referrals could have been coded differently from staff member to staff member and from school to school. Finally, teacher retention could be a limitation of this study. Because the study compared two 3 Booker, Kevin, Brian Gill, J.R. Lockwood III, Paula Razquin, and Ron Zimmer. State and Local Implementation of the No Child Left Behin d Act: Volume I Title I School Choice, Supplemental Educational Services and Student Achievement. Ed.D. Dissertation, Jessup: United States Department of Education: Education Publication Center, 2007.

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70 different schoo l years, turnover of staff could be a factor. Teachers new to the school could have been trained differently on how to write referrals as well as how to implement and interpret the School Wide Positive Behavioral Support strategy. Implications Findings re lated to this study could be useful when determining how to appropriately allocate funds across the district to meet the requirements of the NCLB. Specifically, Title IV, as described previously in this study, provides resources to support the goal of cre ating a safe and drug free learning atmosphere for all schools to foster academic growth for all students 4 Implementing the School Wide Positive Behavioral Support strategy at both the Title I schools and non Title I schools in the designate d school dist rict had no effect based on the levels of significance falling at or above a p value of 0 .50 It could then be suggested that this strategy adopted by the identified school district to eliminate undesired student behaviors at the school settings was not e ffective. Data documented in Table 4 1 and Table 4 2 showed an increase in student enrollment and staff enrollment over a five year period, resulting in an increase in funding to support these programs. It could be suggested that these increases dire ctly correlated to the ineffectiveness of implementing the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy over the same five year period. Table 4 3 displayed information that also showed an increase in the allocation of Safe School Assistants over the same five year period. Based on this increase, and the correlation between the Safe School Assistants and the School Wide Positive Behavior 4 Hallfors, Denise D., Shane Hartman, and Melinda Pankratz. "Does Federal Policy Support the Use of Scientific Evidence in School based Prevention Programs?" Prevention Science, 2005: 75 81.

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71 S upport strategy that this strategy was not effective ultimately causing the district to allocate more funds to support the Safe School Assistant positions. Recommendations This study concentrated on the impact of implementing the School Wide Positive Beh avior Support strategy in one school district in the state of Florida. In addition it focused on the top 10 percent of elementary schools with the highest socioeconomic st atus populations and the top 10 percent of elementary schools with the lowest socio economic status populations Duplicating this study using all of the elementary schools in a designated distric t would potentially yield different results, provided the schools involved implemented the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy simult aneously Additional research studies on this topic could include quantitative research on the makeup of the student population that is being com pared pre and post School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation to determine whether the researcher i s comparing results using the same makeup of students as well as the same percentage of students who attend the designated schools. In addition, quantitative research could be conducted to determine whether the same teacher is pr esent pre and post Schoo l Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation to ensure consistency among staff that is writing office discipline referrals. Finally, qualitative research could be conducted to determine how well the staff has accepted this strategy as well as the level of participation of staff involved. This could assist the researcher with determining whether the strategy is being implemented with fidelity across all schools in the designated school districts.

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72 Conclusions The purpose of this study was to determin e whether implementing the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy would affect the number of office discipline referrals that the teachers were completing. The study looked at both Title I and non Title I schools to determine whether one type of s chool, based on socioeconomic status, responded b etter than another. The top 10 percent of schools with the lowest socioeconomic status (Title I) and the top 10 percent of schools with highest socioeconomic status (non Title I) were chosen for the study. The number of office discipline referrals pre and post School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation were compared to determine whether a change in the number of office discipline referrals written was observed pre and post School Wide Positiv e Behavior Support implementation. To determine whether or not the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy was cost effective to the identified school district, the researcher looked at data over a five year period incorporat ing the years identified in the study. The goal was to examine how the identified district was allocating funds to programs that had a correlation to the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy The researcher first looked at s tudent enrollment of the nine alternative schools starting with the 2002 2003 school year and ending with the 2006 2007 school year. According to Table 4 1, student enrollment almost doubled over the five year span starting with 385 students in the 2002 2 003 school year and ending with 690 students during the 2006 2007 school year

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73 The researcher examined the staff enrollment of the nine alternative schools to determine whether a potential cost savings for the district was present Table 4 2 shows that staff enrollment increased by almost 25 percent from 76.6 0 positions in the 2002 2003 school year to 104.39 positions in the 2006 2007 school year. In an effort to establish a cost savings related to the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavi or Support strategy the researcher examined the allocation of Safe School Assistants over the identified five year period. Table 4 3 displayed a slight increase in Safe School Aides allocated to schools starting with 29 .00 in the 2002 2003 school year, a nd increasing to 31.5 0 in the 2006 2007 school year. Data located in Table 4 1, 4 2 and 4 3, unanimously suggested that the implementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy had no cost effective value to the identified school distri ct w hen looking at how funds were allocated to support both the alternative school programs and the Safe School Assista nt positions. This could also be validated when looking at the levels of significance falling at or above a p value of 0 .50 when analyzing t he impact of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy on the number of discipline referrals written at both Title I and non Title I schools in the identified school district It is important to note that the study was not suggesting that the impl ementation of the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy was not effective based on the data obtained. The study did however tr y to identify a positive impact if any the strategy had on office discipline referrals written in a variety of school set tings. It is also imperative to remember that the study investigated a one year snapshot of data only It could be

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74 proposed that a different outcome may possibly occur when analyzing data over a longer period of time. It could also be suggested notwithstanding, that a gr eater increase in office discipline referrals might have been incurred by the selected school district if the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strategy was not implemented in the selected school district.

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75 Tabl e 4 1. Alternative Schools Student Enrollment School Year Number of Students 2002 2003 2003 2004 385 541 2004 2005 2005 2006 2006 2007 636 767 690

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76 Table 4 2 Alternative Schools Staff Enrollment School Year Number of St aff 2002 2003 2003 2004 76.6 107 2004 2005 2005 2006 2006 2007 101.7 100.53 104.39

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77 Table 4 3 Safe School Assistants School Year Number of Safe School Assistants 2002 2003 2003 2004 29 28 2004 2005 2005 2006 2006 2007 30.2 30 31.5

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78 APPENDIX A SCHOOL WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVI OR SUPPORT IMPLEMENTATION Description of Data : The plan. Section 1b is the directive by the Superintendent for School Wide Positive Behavior Support implementation. The Selected S chool District FY11 FY13 Strategic Plan Goal: To provide a safe, caring, rigorous learning environment, f o r a diverse student bo d y that offers multiple opportunities for success and supports student achievement and development. QUALITY LEARNING EXPER I E NCES Objective 1: Create and maintain a safe, caring learning environment with min i mal disruptions w here all students have a sense of belonging, and are respected and accepted by teachers, peers and the communit y Year 1 (2011) Indicator Year 1 (2011) Baseline Data Year 2 (2012) Target Year 3 (2013) Indicator 1a. Number of students who indicate that they have a sense of belonging and they are accepted and respected by teachers, peers, and the community (Gallup Student Poll results and baseline data). *Based on student n a five point Likert scale Item % of Students Caring Adult 94% Feel Safe 75% Received 56% Recognition/ Praise School 68% Commitment to students Treated with 66% Respect Increase percentage of students responding with a 4 or 5 on a five point Likert Scale in 3 of the 5 categories. Increase the percentage of students responding with a 4 or 5 on a five point Likert Scale in 4 of the 5 categories based on FY11 data. 1b. N umber of School Wide Positive Behavior Support (PBS) schools: 100% Discipline referral baseline data to be calculated in Summer 2011 100% of Coll i er County Public Schoo l s are PBS schoo l s. 90% have achieved mo d el sc h ool stat u s as ca l c u l ated in Octo b er 2 0 10. 22% of all students h ad o n e or m o re refe r ra l s. Increase the number of schools eligible for model school status by 2%. D e cr e ase by 1%. Maintain number of Positive Behavior Support (PBS) Model Schools. D e cr e ase in discipline ref e rra l s

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79 APPENDIX B S UB GROUP OFFICE DISCIPLINE RE FERRAL R ESULTS Sub Group: African American Population All Mean Non Title I Mean Title I Mean B African American AZ A African American AZ B African American BV A African American BV 01.83 00.67 19.17 08.33 01.00 00.00 04.67 08.33 002.67 001.33 033.67 008.33 B African American DC A African American DC B African American RV A African American RV B African American TSP A African American TSP 03.50 03.00 51.17 09.83 67.67 53.00 03.33 03.33 08.33 06.00 27.00 30.67 003.67 002.67 094.00 013.67 108.33 075.33 Key: All = All students in the six identified schools Non Title I = All students in the three Non Title I schools (A, B, D) Title I = All students in the three Title I schools (E, F, G) Mean = The Mean is the arithmetic average B = The Number of R eferrals written before Positive Be havioral Support Implementation A = The Number of Referrals written after Positive Be havioral Support Implementation AZ = Discipline referral code representing the infraction BV = Discipline referral code representing the infraction DC = Discipline referral code representing the infraction Disruption of Class RV = Discipline referral code representing the infraction Rules Violation (minor) TSP = Total Student Population in the school of the identified Sub Group

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80 Sub Group: Haitian Population All Mean Non Title I Mean Title I Mean B Haitian AZ A Haitian AZ B Haitian BV A Haitian BV 01.00 00.33 02.83 02.00 00.33 00.00 02.00 02.00 01.67 00.67 03.67 02.00 B Haitian DC A Haitian DC B Haitian RV A Haitian RV B Haitian TSP A Haitian TSP 03.00 02.17 12.83 03.83 30.17 38.00 00.33 01.67 03.67 01.00 09.33 11.33 05.67 02.67 22.00 06.67 51.33 64.67 Key: All = All students in the six identified schools Non Title I = All students in the three Non Title I schools (A, B, D) Title I = All students in the three Title I schools (E, F, G) Mean = The Mean is the arithmetic average B = The Number of R eferrals written before Positive Be havioral Support Implementation A = The Number of Referrals written after Positive Be havioral Suppor t Implementation AZ = Discipline referral code representing the infraction BV = Discipline referral code representing the infraction DC = Discipline referral code representing the infraction Disruption of Class RV = Discipline referral code representing the infraction Rules Violation (minor) TSP = Total Student Population in the school of the identified Sub Group

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81 Sub Group: Hispanic Population All Mean Non Title I Mean Title I Mean B Hispanic AZ A Hispanic AZ B Hispanic BV A Hispanic BV 004.67 004.50 019.00 015.83 005.00 007.00 026.33 022.33 004.33 002.00 011.67 009.33 B Hispanic DC A Hispanic DC B Hispanic RV A Hispanic RV B Hispanic TSP A Hispanic TSP 015.17 011.17 051.50 027.17 285.50 275.67 022.33 019.67 026.33 020.00 250.33 289.00 008.00 002.33 076.67 034.33 321.00 262.33 Key: All = All students in the six identified schools Non Title I = All students in the three Non Title I schools (A, B, D) Title I = All students in the three Title I schools (E, F, G) Mean = The Mean is the arithmetic average B = The Number of R eferrals written before Positive Be havioral Support Implementation A = The Number of Referrals written after Positive Be havioral Support Implementation AZ = Discipline referral code representing the infraction BV = Discipline referral code representing the infraction DC = Discipline referral code representing the infraction Disruption of Class RV = Discipline referral code representing the infraction Rules Violation (minor) TSP = Total Student Population in the school of the iden tified Sub Group

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82 Sub Group: Multi Racial Population All Mean Non Title I Mean Title I Mean B Multi Racial AZ A Multi Racial AZ B Multi Racial BV A Multi Racial BV 0.50 0.50 1.00 3.00 0.00 0.67 2.00 4.00 1.00 0.33 0.00 2.00 B Multi Racial DC A Multi Racial DC B Multi Racial RV A Multi Racial RV B Multi Racial TSP A Multi Racial TSP 3.00 2.00 7.83 3.83 20.67 23.50 1.33 3.33 3.67 1.67 20.67 25.67 4.67 0.67 22.00 12.00 20.67 21.33 Key: All = All students in the six identified schools Non Title I = All students in the three Non Title I schools (A, B, D) Title I = All students in the three Title I schools (E, F, G) Mean = The Mean is the arithmetic average B = The Number of Referrals written before Positive Behavioral Support Implementation A = The Number of Referrals written after Positive Behavioral Support Implementation AZ = Discipline referral code representing the infraction BV = Discipline referral code representing the infraction DC = Discipline referral code representing the infraction RV = Discipline referral code representing the infract ion TSP = Total Student Population in the school of the identified Sub Group

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83 Sub Group: White P opulation All Mean Non Title I Mean Title I Mean B White AZ A White AZ B White BV A White BV 004.50 005.33 033.17 020.67 004.67 009.67 042.67 038.00 004.33 001.00 023.67 003.33 B White DC A White DC B White RV A White RV B White TSP A White TSP 028.50 013.17 083.50 037.50 344.50 295.33 038.33 021.67 070.33 056.00 492.00 469.00 018.67 004.67 096.67 019.00 197.00 121.67 Key: All = All students in the six identified schools Non Title I = All students in the three Non Title I schools (A, B, D) Title I = All students in the three Title I schools (E, F, G) Mean = The Mean is the arithmetic average B = The Number of R eferrals written before Positive Be havioral Support Implementation A = The Number of Referrals written after Positive Be havioral Support Implementation AZ = Discipline referral code repres enting the infraction BV = Discipline referral code representing the infraction DC = Discipline referral code representing the infraction Disruption of Class RV = Discipline referral code r epresenting the infraction Rules Violation (minor) TSP = Total Student Population in the school of the identified Sub Group

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84 Sub Group: Male P opulation All Mean Non Title I Mean Title I Mean B Male AZ A Male AZ B Male BV A Male BV 009.00 009.17 066.33 038.50 008.00 014.00 063.00 055.33 010.00 004.33 069.67 021.67 B Male DC A Male DC B Male RV A Male RV B Male TSP A Male TSP 032.67 027.83 171.33 071.67 394.83 357.50 031.67 044.33 085.33 071.67 423.67 437.33 033.67 011.33 257.33 071.67 366.00 277.67 Key: All = All students in the six identified schools Non Title I = All students in the three Non Title I schools (A, B, D) Title I = All students in the three Title I schools (E, F, G) Mean = The Mean is the arithmetic average B = The Number of R eferrals written before Positive Be havioral Support Implementation A = The Number of Referrals written after Positive Be havioral Support Implementation AZ = Discip line referral code representing the infraction BV = Discipline referral code representing the infraction DC = Discipline referral code representing the infraction Disruption of Class RV = Discipline referral code representing the infraction Rules Violation (minor) TSP = Total Student Population in the school of the identified Sub Group

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85 Sub Group: Female P opulatio n All Mean Non Title I Mean Title I Mean B Female AZ A Female AZ B Female BV A Female BV 003.50 002.17 008.83 003.33 003.00 003.33 014.67 019.33 004.00 001.00 003.00 011.33 B Female DC A Female DC B Female RV A Female RV B Female TSP A Female TSP 019.33 003.50 035.50 010.33 353.67 328.00 032.00 005.33 027.00 013.00 375.33 388.33 006.67 001.67 044.00 007.67 332.00 267.67 Key: All = All students in the six identified schools Non Title I = All students in the three Non Title I schools (A, B, D) Title I = All students in the three Title I schools (E, F, G) Mean = The Mean is the arithmetic average B = The Number of R eferrals written before Positive Be havioral Support Implementation A = The Number of Referrals written after Positive B e havioral Support Implementation AZ = Discipline referral code representing the infraction BV = Discipline referral code representing the infraction DC = Discipline referral code representin g the infraction Disruption of Class RV = Discipline referral code representing the infraction Rules Violation (minor) TSP = Total Student Population in the school of the identified Sub Group

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86 APPENDIX C UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONA L REVIEW BOARD APPRO VAL

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87 APPENDIX D SCHOOL WIDE EVALUATION TOOL (SET) FORM Description of Data : The charts below represent the School Wide Evaluation Tool (SET), which is a research instrument used to assess School Wide Positive Behavior Support

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88

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89 APPENDIX E OUTCOME DATA SUMMARY FORM Description of Data : The chart below represents the Outcome Data Summary, which is an end of the year summary of the effectiveness of implementing the School Wide Positive Behavior Support strate gy Only the first page of the 36 page document is included. To access the entire document, refer to the link: http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/

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90 LIST OF REFERENCES Alter, B. K., N. G. Guerra, and P. H. Tolan. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustments in Urban Elementary School Children Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 1994: 391 400. Ballatine, Jeanne H., and Joan Z. Spade Schools and Society A Sociological Approach to Education. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage, 2008. Barr, Robert D. and William H. Parrett Saving Our Students, Saving Our Schools: 50 Proven Strategies for Revitalizing At Risk Students and Low Performing Schools. Glenview Illinois : SkyLight Professional Development, 2003 : 474 Barrett, Susan B., and Terrance M. Scott Using Staff and Student Time Engaged in Disciplinary Procedures to E valuate the Impact of School Wide PBS Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2004: 21 27. Batsche, George M., and Howard M. Knoff. "Bullies and their Victims : Understanding a Pe rvasive Problem in the Schools ." School Psychology Review 1994: 165 175. Beach Center on Disability University of Kansas, accessed November 4, 2012, http://www.beachcenter.org/ Bearinger, L. H., T. Beuhring, R. W. Blum M. D. Resnick, M. L. Shew, and R. E. Sieving The Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Income, and Family Structure on Adolescent Risk Behaviors American Journal of Public Health 1993: 1879 1884. Berry, Cami, Kathleen Cirillo, Suzy J. Griswold, Caro l K. Holtzapple, Caro l Nouza, and Jim Rosebrock Implementation of a School Wide Adolescent C haracter Education and Prevention Program: E valuating the R elationships between P rincipal S upport, F aculty I mplementation, and S tudent O utcomes Journal of Research in Character Education, 2001: 71. Biglan, Anthony, Julie C. Rusby, and Jeffrey R Evaluation of a Comprehensive Behavior Management Program to Improve School Wide Positive Behavior Support Education and Treatment of Childre n 2001: 448 480. Boland, Joseph B., Robert H. Horner, Larry K. Irvin, Teri Lewis Palmer, George Sug a i, and Anne W. Todd. School Wide Positive Behavior Support Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2004: 3 12.

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91 Boland, Joseph B., Robert H. Horner, Kimberly Ingram, Larry K. Irvin, Nadia Katul Sampson, George Sugai, and Anne W Todd. iscipline Referral Data for Decision Making about S tudent Behavior in Elementary and Middle S chools: An Empirical Evaluation of V Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2006: 10 23. Bradleym Robert H. and Robert Corwyn. "Socioeconomic Status and Child Development." Annual Review of Psychology 2002: 371 399. Brody, Gene, Robert Fauber, Rex Foreman, and Nicholas Long. "Home Predictors of Young Adolescents School Behavior and Academic Performance." Child Development 1986: 1528 1533. Brooks Gunn, J., G. J. Duncan P. K. Klebanov and N. Sealand Influence Child and American Journal of Sociology 1997: 353 395. Bushwall, P. L., S. J. Carlsmith S. M. Dornbusch, R. T. Gross, A. H. Hastorf, A. H. Leiderman, and H. Ritter C hild Development 1985: 326 341. Campbell, E. Q., J. S. Coleman, C. J. Hobson, C. J. McPartland, J. Mood, F. D. Weinfeld, and R. L. York OE 380 01: Superintendent of Documents Catalog No. FS 5.238:38001, Washington DC : U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996. Canter, Lee and Marlene Canter Assertive Discipline for Parents, New York: Canter and Associates 1985. Does School Quality Matter? Returns to Education The Journal of Political Economy 1992: 1 40. Carr, E., G. Dunlap, R. Horner, A. Turnbull W. Sailor, J. Anderson, R. Albin, L. Koegel, and L. Fox School Wide Positive Behavior Support : Evolution of an Applied Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2002: 4 16. Chandler, Kathryn A., Christopher D. Chapman Michael R. Rand and Bruce M. Taylor. Students' Reports of School Crime. Stat istical Analysi s, Washington, DC : U.S. Department of of Education and Justice, 1998. Chaney, D., S. Stage, and B. Walker A ssessment and Program Review: Assessing School Pr ogress in School Wide Positive Behavior Support Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2009: 94 104.

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92 Childs, Karen Elfner, Rachel Cohen, and Don Kincaid Wide Behavior Support Implementation: Development and Validation of the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2007: 203 213 Christenson, Sandra L., Deborah Gorney and T heresa Rounds. "Family Factors and Student Achievement: An Avenue to Increase S tudents' S uccess." School Psychology Quarterly 1992: 178 206. Cline, Foster W., Jim F ay, and Bob Sornson Meeting the Challenge: Using Love and Logic to Help Children Develop Attention and Behavior S kills. Tope ka, KS: The Love and Logic Press, 2000 Collins, M., E. G. Hausken, J. West, and N. Zill Approaching Kindergarten: A Look at Preschoolers in National Center of Education, Washington DC : 1995. Colvin, G., E. J. Kameenui, and G. Sugai and School Education and Treatment of Children 1993: 361 381. Compas, B. E., and M. E. Wadsworth Journal of Research and Adolescence 2002: 243 274. Conger, K. J., R. D. Conger, G. H. Elder, F. O. Lorenz, R. L. Simons, and L. B. Whitbe ck Developmental Psychology 1993: 206 219. Cornell Dewey G., and Ann B. Loper. Risk Behaviors with a School Survey School Psychology Review 199 8: 317 330. Crosse Scott, and Irene Hantman Progress in Prevention: Report on the National Study of Local Education Agency Activities under the Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act. Research, Jessup: ED Pubs, U.S. Department of Education, 2000 Curtis, R. obable Transformation of Inner c ity Neighborhoods: Crime, Violence, Drugs, and Youth in the 19 90 The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 1998: 1233 1276. Demaray, Michele Kilpatrick, and Christine Keeres Malecki. "Social Support as a Buffer in the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Academic Performance." School Psychology Quarterly 2006: 375 395.

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93 Dent, C. W., B. R. Flay, B. Radziszewska, and J. L. Richardson. fter s chool Care of Adolescents and Substance Use Risk Taking, Depressed Mood and Academic Pediatrics 1993: 32 38. Derby K. M., W. W. Fisher, G P. Hanley, K. Hilker, and C. C. Piazza. "A Preliminary Procedure for Predicting the Positive and Neg ative Effects of Reinforcement b ased Procedures." Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1996: 137 152. Devine, John. The Culture of Violence in Inner City Schools. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Dreikurs, Rudolf, and Loren Grey. Logical Consequences: A New Approach to D iscipline New York: Plume 1968 Eber, L. and T. Scott Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2003: 131 143. Eber Lucille, Carl R. Smith Terrance M. Scott and George Sugai. "Wraparound and Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports in Schools." Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 2002: 171 181. Ellen, I. G., and M. A. Turner Housing Policy Debate 1997: 833 866. Florida Department of Education. "Critical Informati on for Parents of Third Graders, accessed May 19, 2012, Justreadflorida.com Fla. Stat. § 1008.25 Fla. Stat. § 1011.62 Furlong, Michael, and Gale Morrison "The S chool in S chool V iolence: Definitions and F acts." J ournal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 2000: 71 82. Gagnon, J. C., C. M. Nelson, and T. Scott School W ide S ystems of School Wide Positive Behavior Support : A Framework for R educing S chool C rime and V Journal of Behavior An alysis of Offender and Victim Treatment and Prevention 2008: 259 272. Garmston, R. J. The Adaptive School: A Sourcebook for Developing Collaborative Groups. Norwood MA : Christopher Gordon Publishers, 1999. Garrison Harrell, L., and T. J. Lewis vior Support: Designing Setting Effective School Practices 1999: 38 46.

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94 George, Michael P., Joseph J. Schlaffer, and George P. White Wide Behavior Change Psychology in the Schools 2007: 41 51. Gorman, D. M. The US Free Schools Exemplary Programs Evaluation and Program Planning 2002: 295 302. Hallfors, Denise D., Shane Hartman, and Melinda Pankratz. "Does Federal Policy Support the Use of Scientific Evidence in School b ased Prevention Programs?" Prevention Science 2005: 75 81. Harris, Judith Rich. No Two Alike. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006. Heath, Suzanne, Pamela Wright, and Peter W. D Wright. Behind Hartfield VA : Harbor House Law Press, 2003. Heimer, Karen. "Gender, Interaction, and Delinquency: Testing a Theory of Differential Social Psychology Quarterly 1996: 39 61. Heimer, Karen. Social Forces 1997: 799 833. Horne Wide Evaluation Tool (SET): A Research Instrument for Assessing School Wide Positive Behavior Support Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2004: 3 12. Horner, Robert, and George Sugai School Wide Positive Behavior Support Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2000: 131 143. Horner, Robert, and George Sugai Journal of Positive Behavior Interventio ns 2000: 231 232. Horner, Robert, and George Sugai "The Evolution of Discipline Practices: School Wide Positive Behavior Support s." Child and Family Behavior Therapy 2002: 23 50. Huck, Schuyler W. Reading Statistics and Research. Knoxville TN : Pearson Education, 2008. Hudson, T. J., N. Johnson T. Lewis, and S. Richter in Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Proposed Approach and Brief Review Behavior Disorders 2004: 247 259. Hyman Irwin A ., and Donna C. Perone. "The Other Side of School V iolence: Educator Policies and Practices t hat May Contribute to Student Misbehavior." Journal of School Psychology 1998: 7 27.

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95 Jones, Fredric H., Patrick Jones, and Jo Lynne Talbott Tools for Teaching: Discipline, Instruction, M otivation Santa Cruz, CA: F.H. Jones & Associates 2007 Kartub, D. T., and S. J. Taylor Green Wide Journal of Behavior Interventions 2000: 233 235. Kaufman, P., Chen, X., S. P. Choy, J. K. Fleury, A. K. Miller, S. A. Ruddy, K. A. Chandler, M. R. Rand, P. Klaus, and M. G. Planty. Indicators of School Crime and S afety. Statistical Analysis, Was hington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education and U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000. Kounin, Jacob S. Classrooms: Individuals or Behavior S ettings? Bloomington IN : School of Education, Indiana University 1983. Lamdin, Douglas J. The Journal of Educational Research 1996: 155 162. Lassen, Stephen R., Wayne Sailor, and Michael M. Steele ionship of School Wide Positive Behavior Support to Academic Achievement in an Urban Middle Psychology in Schools June 9, 2006: 701 712. Leroy, C., and B. Symes. "Teacher's Perspectives on the F amily B ackgrounds of C hildren at R isk." McGill Journal of Education 2001 : 36, 45 60. Lewis, T. J., and George Sugai Proactive Schoolwide M anagement Focus on Exceptional Children, 1999: 24 47. Lewis, T. J., S. Hudson, M. Ric hter, and N. Johnson Practices in Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Proposed Approach and Brief Review of Current Practices Behavior Disorders 2004: 247 259. Liaupsin, C. J., C. M. Nelson, and T. M. Scott Com Education & Treatment of Children 2001: 309 322 Lockwood, Daniel. Violence Among Middle Sch ool and High School Students: Analysis and Implications for Prevention. Statistical Analysis, Savannah GA : National Institute of Justice, 1997.

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96 Loeber Rolf, Magda Stouthamer Loeber and Welmoet B Van Kammen "Substance U se and its R elationship to C onduct P roblems and D elinquency in Y oung B oys." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 1991: 399 413. Loper, Dewey G., and An n B. Cornell "Assessment of Violence and Other High Risk Behaviors with a School Survey." School Psychology Review 1998 : 317 330. MacKenzie, Robert J Setting Limits in the Classroom: How to Move Beyond the Dance of Discipline in Today's Classrooms Roseville CA : Prima Pub 2003. McGill Franzen, Anne, Katie Solic, Jacqueline Love Zeig, and Courtney Zmach Confluence of Two Policy Mandates: Core Reading Progra ms and Third g rade The Elementary School Journal 2006: 67 91. McLoyd, Vonnie, C. American Psychologist 1998: 185 204. Mencimer, Stephanie "Children Left Behind." The American Prospect accessed November 3, 2012, http://search.proquest.com/docview/201121311 ? accountid= 10920 Merriam Webster Dictionary A ccessed October 30, 2012, http://www.meriam webster com/ No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2008). n.d. Peterson, Reece L., and Russell J. Skiba School Discipline at a Crossroads: From Zero Tolerance to Early Response Council of Exceptional Children 2000: 335 346. Rennison, Callie Marie. Criminal Victimization 1999. Changes 1998 1999 with Trends 1993 99. Statistical Analysis, Washington, DC : Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000. Santiso, Lisa. Variables Impacti ng School Discipline Referrals. University, 2011, accessed November 9, 2012, http://search.proquest.com/docview/924429518?accountid=1 0920 Salend, Spencer J. Academic Therapy 1987: 245 253. School Wide Positive Behavior Support University of South Florida, accessed November 1, 2012, http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu Schultz, G. F. Journal of Urban Review 1993: 221 232.

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97 Scott, T. School Wide Positive Behavio r Support Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 2001: 88 94. Scott, T. M. Making B ehavior I ntervention P lanning D ecisions in a S choolwide S ystem of School Wide Positive Behavior Support Focus on Exceptional Children 2003: 1 18. Simonsen, B., and G. Sugai. School Wide Positive Behavior Support : A Systems Level Applic ation of Behavioral Principles. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association, 2009. Soderstrom, Irina, and Alice Sutton Achieveme nt with School The Journal of Educational Research 1999: 330 338. Souto Manning, Mariana and Kevin J. Family Involvement: Rethinking our Family Involvement Paradigm ." Early Childhood Education Journal 2006: 187 193. Stuart, Henry. American Academy of Political and Social Science 2000: 16 29. Telzrow, Cathy F. cation Journal of School Psychology 1999: 7 28. United States Department of Education. Notice of Final Principles of Effectiveness Federal Register 1998: 29902 29906. Watkinson, Ailsa M ., and Juanita Ross Epp. Critical Factors in the Formation of Character and Community in American Life. Albany NY : State University of New York Press, 1997. What is School Wide Positive Behavior Support ? University of South Florida, accessed November 25, 2011, http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu White, Sheida. "1998 Reading Results for Low Performing Students." National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). N/A: The National Center for Educational Statistics, September, 2000. r High Stakes Testing in Florida: An Interactive Florida Journal of Educational Research 1999: 79 94. Wynne, Edward. An Overview of Major Discipline Programs in Public Schools since 1960 (Reality Therapy, Group Management, Assertive Discipline Teacher Effectiveness, Jacob Kounin) The University of Oklahoma, 1985, accessed November 3, 2012, http://search.proquest.com/docview/

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98 Wubbolding, Robert E. Reality Therapy for the 21st Century Philadelphia: Brunner Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2000. Yell, M. L., and E. Drasgow No Child Left Behind: A Guide for Professionals. Upper Saddle River NJ : Pe a rson/Merri l l/Prentice Hall, 2005.

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99 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Sean Christopher Kinsley was born in 1969 in Buffalo, New York. Sean was raised in Lockport, New York throughout his childhood. He graduated from Lockport Senior High School in 1987 and was recruited to play college hockey ; he played four years a s well as participated on the track and field team. A change in his major allowed him to fulfill a lifelong dream in the science field Sean graduated from th e State Universit y of New York College at Fredonia in 1992 with a major in b iology as well as a certification to teach science Sean relocated to the east coast of Florida to teach high school science in 1994. Upon completion of his first year of teaching biology and o ceanography, he had the opportunity to r eturn to his hometown to teach at the high school from which he graduated. Over the next five years, he had the opportuni ty to teach many science course s at the high school level During this time, Sean also completed two Master o f Science degrees in both education and school administration from Niagara University. In February of 1992, he became the Assistant Principal at the Royalton Hartland Junior/Senior High School. He eventually became an Elementary School Principal and Mid dle School Principal. He is currently an Elementary School Principal in Naples, Florida. In 2007, Sean had the opportunity to join a cohort of school administrators who were participating in a doctoral program through the University of Florida. He focuse d his doctoral studies on school leadership with an emphasis on studying the effects of implementing a School Wide Positive Behavior Support program at the school setting. Upon completion of his degree, Sean plans to continue his career as a K 12 school

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100 a dministrator. In addition, he plans to teach education courses at the post secondary level.