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Can Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Participate in Physical Activity Predict Health Related Quality of Life in Girls?

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045218/00001

Material Information

Title: Can Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Participate in Physical Activity Predict Health Related Quality of Life in Girls?
Physical Description: 1 online resource (173 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Buckley, Taryn Alyssa
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: adolescents -- autonomy -- girls -- healthrealtedqualityoflife -- motivation -- physicalactivity -- recreationalsport -- selfdeterminationtheory -- selfefficacy -- volleyball
Health Education and Behavior -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: A steady increase in the number of obese children over the past decade has led to an outpouring of social and political support to find ways to keep the youth of America healthy. Inadequate PA has been targeted as a key factor causing the obesity problem. In an effort to maintain or achieve good health,many parents enroll their children in recreational and competitive sports leagues in their local community. Many parents of females seek an opportunity for their daughters to participate in a recreational sport environment without the pressures of competing against males. These all female programs have emerged in cities across America, but very little research exists to support the impact of female participation in recreationally structured PA on participant health related quality of life (HRQoL).  The purpose of this research is to determine if motivation and self-efficacy of physically active young females can predict their HRQoL. A convenience sample of females (n=167) aged 8-18 at an all-girls recreational facility in northwest Florida were recruited to voluntarily participate in the study. Research participants were asked to complete a packet of surveys including the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), Self Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-E) and Self Efficacy Questionnaire for Children(SEQ-C) which have been validated in previously published research. The surveys were administered in person, with pencil and paper. All participants were given the opportunity to participate in a one-on-one tape-recorded interview to provide greater detail on the motivational factors contributing to self-efficacy and the social and emotional aspects of HRQoL. Twenty- one young females provided insight on their specific experiences. Thematic analysis, constant comparison,analysis and code intensiveness were used to derive themes from the interview data. The following themes emerged as contributing factors to motivation and self-efficacy: exercise outside of volleyball, coping with stressful situations, network of friends, extrinsic motivators, intrinsic motivators, and self-efficacy through leadership and experience. The mean HRQoL score for this sample was 88.26 (on a scale from 0 to 100), indicating good HRQoL level for female PA participants. There was a moderate, positive correlation between self-efficacy and HRQoL( r=.35, p p pp= .004) and skill level (r=-.162, p= .035) were found to make significant, unique contributions to the prediction of HRQoL. Results of an ANOVA indicated HRQoL decreased as participants got older, and HRQoL increased with self-reported skill level, yet these results were not statistically significant. Relative autonomy was moderately, positively correlated with intrinsic motivation (r= .54) and identified regulation (r=.20) and strongly, negatively correlated with introjected regulation (r= -.54), external regulation (r= -.670) and amotivation (r= -.075). All subscales of autonomy were significantly correlated to one another, with the exception of amotivation which was not significantly correlated to any other autonomy subscale. Mixed methods demonstrated support between the quantitative and qualitative data. Qualitative data provided specific intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for youth sport participation, which include financial compensation, parental support,knowledge of the coach and memorable moment recall.  These findings support the need for special consideration of motivation—most notably intrinsic and extrinsic motivators—and self-efficacy of participating in sport when planning PA programs for girls.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Taryn Alyssa Buckley.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Stopka, Christine Boyd.
Local: Co-adviser: Chaney, Jerry Don, Jr.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2015-05-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045218:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045218/00001

Material Information

Title: Can Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Participate in Physical Activity Predict Health Related Quality of Life in Girls?
Physical Description: 1 online resource (173 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Buckley, Taryn Alyssa
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: adolescents -- autonomy -- girls -- healthrealtedqualityoflife -- motivation -- physicalactivity -- recreationalsport -- selfdeterminationtheory -- selfefficacy -- volleyball
Health Education and Behavior -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: A steady increase in the number of obese children over the past decade has led to an outpouring of social and political support to find ways to keep the youth of America healthy. Inadequate PA has been targeted as a key factor causing the obesity problem. In an effort to maintain or achieve good health,many parents enroll their children in recreational and competitive sports leagues in their local community. Many parents of females seek an opportunity for their daughters to participate in a recreational sport environment without the pressures of competing against males. These all female programs have emerged in cities across America, but very little research exists to support the impact of female participation in recreationally structured PA on participant health related quality of life (HRQoL).  The purpose of this research is to determine if motivation and self-efficacy of physically active young females can predict their HRQoL. A convenience sample of females (n=167) aged 8-18 at an all-girls recreational facility in northwest Florida were recruited to voluntarily participate in the study. Research participants were asked to complete a packet of surveys including the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), Self Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-E) and Self Efficacy Questionnaire for Children(SEQ-C) which have been validated in previously published research. The surveys were administered in person, with pencil and paper. All participants were given the opportunity to participate in a one-on-one tape-recorded interview to provide greater detail on the motivational factors contributing to self-efficacy and the social and emotional aspects of HRQoL. Twenty- one young females provided insight on their specific experiences. Thematic analysis, constant comparison,analysis and code intensiveness were used to derive themes from the interview data. The following themes emerged as contributing factors to motivation and self-efficacy: exercise outside of volleyball, coping with stressful situations, network of friends, extrinsic motivators, intrinsic motivators, and self-efficacy through leadership and experience. The mean HRQoL score for this sample was 88.26 (on a scale from 0 to 100), indicating good HRQoL level for female PA participants. There was a moderate, positive correlation between self-efficacy and HRQoL( r=.35, p p pp= .004) and skill level (r=-.162, p= .035) were found to make significant, unique contributions to the prediction of HRQoL. Results of an ANOVA indicated HRQoL decreased as participants got older, and HRQoL increased with self-reported skill level, yet these results were not statistically significant. Relative autonomy was moderately, positively correlated with intrinsic motivation (r= .54) and identified regulation (r=.20) and strongly, negatively correlated with introjected regulation (r= -.54), external regulation (r= -.670) and amotivation (r= -.075). All subscales of autonomy were significantly correlated to one another, with the exception of amotivation which was not significantly correlated to any other autonomy subscale. Mixed methods demonstrated support between the quantitative and qualitative data. Qualitative data provided specific intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for youth sport participation, which include financial compensation, parental support,knowledge of the coach and memorable moment recall.  These findings support the need for special consideration of motivation—most notably intrinsic and extrinsic motivators—and self-efficacy of participating in sport when planning PA programs for girls.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Taryn Alyssa Buckley.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Stopka, Christine Boyd.
Local: Co-adviser: Chaney, Jerry Don, Jr.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2015-05-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045218:00001


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1 CAN SELF EFFICACY AND MOTIVATION TO PARTICIPATE IN PHYSICAL ACTIV I TY PREDICT HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN GIRLS? By TARYN RIVERA BUCKLEY A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 2013 Taryn Rivera Buckley

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3 To my inspiration and greatest accomplishment yet, my son Xavier. To my supportive and lovin g husband Dante, you're next! To my Girls Place girls, may you always be motivated to achieve your dreams. To Mama, my guardian angel, forever in my heart.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Three degrees, many roadblocks turned triumphs, and ten years later, I sit here a humbled woman who knows it takes a village to complete a PhD. Though I will undoubtedly miss some, I would like to take the time to properly thank some important members of my village. My committee members Dr. Christine Stopka, Dr. Don Chaney, Dr. Beth Cha ney, Dr. Michael Stellefson and Dr. Rosemary Barnett thank you for contributing countless hours of your precious time to make sure I made the absolute most out of this experience. You taught me how to become a better researcher, how to balance my personal and professional life and how to maintain composure during my moments of uncertainty. My parents Butch and Yamile Rivera have been my biggest academic advocates since grade school. When my 8th grade science teacher told me I wasn't smart enough for a magne t high school, they discarded that opinion and encouraged me to try my best. Every time I felt that I wasn't good enough, I channeled that moment in time and allowed that to propel me to push forward. They were the first ones to believe and fully invest in me. They knew my potential. It's only fair that they get to share in this triumph. My family aunts, uncles, cousins, grandparents and great grandmother, Mama who tolerated my absence during all those important family events because they wanted the best fo r me. My siblings Cassidy, Zachary and Gabriel were my original source of inspiration. As an older sibling, it's your job to set an example. I strive every day to be the sister they can be proud of, and I hope in finishing my PhD they are also inspired to reach their academic potential.

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5 My other family at Girls Place played an important role in my village. My co workers and partners in crime, Christi Arrington and Sara Stallings are such role models to our girls. I greatly admire their kindness, patience, p oise and advice and could not have finished this dissertation without them. My athletics committee, especially Dr. Abby Wagner, Josh Hellstrom, Francisco Oquendo, Cari Sancerni and Craig Watts provided so much support and advice. Our health education inter ns, especially Brittany Libbey, Alex Rabre, and Jessica Marzi helped tremendously in preparing the data. My Girls Place girls taught me compassion, humor, and resilience in spite of tough times. Thank you ladies. This dissertation could not have been done without your cooperation and willingness to share your personal experiences with me. My friends who were always there when I needed advice whether it was school, work or family related, especially Janelle Garcia, June Carrington, Cinthia Satornino, Monica Webb, Holly Moses, Kristina Fletcher, and Natacha Cyran. Ladies, your wisdom, kind actions and words led me through this lonely, yet fulfilling process. The Florida Education Fund has funded my doctoral studies, thereby providing me with the time and finan cial support needed for me to finish this dissertation. Their commitment and support to their fellows through conferences, workshops and mentoring is astounding and unmatched. Credit is especially due to Dr. Lawrence Moorehouse and Mr. Charles Jackson for all of their hard work with the McKnight Doctoral Fellows. The Department of Health Education and Behavior, especially Dean Kelli McCorkmick Brown and Melissa Naidu, have been extraordinarily helpful and supportive as I worked through each one of my degre es.

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6 Finally heartfelt thanks to the most critical pieces of my village: my husband Dante and son Xavier. They have made the ultimate sacrifices through this process. They spent many difficult nights on their own, and always without complaint. Their love, support and encouragement have been the main reason why it was even remotely possible to complete this research.

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7 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 10 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 12 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 13 CHAPTER 1 IN TRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ..................... 16 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 16 Research Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 22 Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 25 Social Cognitive Theory ................................ ................................ .................... 25 Self Determination Theory ................................ ................................ ................ 27 Qualitative Interviews ................................ ................................ ....................... 30 Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 31 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 33 Si te ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 33 Site Geographical Makeup and Demographics ................................ ................ 33 Procedures ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 34 Instrument Selection ................................ ................................ ......................... 35 PedsQL ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 35 SRQ E ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 37 SEQ C ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 39 Demographic Information ................................ ................................ ................. 40 Qualitative Interviews ................................ ................................ ....................... 41 Analytic Techniques ................................ ................................ ................................ 42 Delimitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 43 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 43 Assumptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 44 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 44 Summary, Conclusion, and Implications for Future Research ................................ 45 2 SELF EFFICACY, MOTIVATION AND HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE GIRLS ................................ ................................ ........... 46 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 46 Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 50 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 51

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8 Site ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 51 Procedures ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 51 Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 52 Variables ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 52 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ 52 PedsQL Inventory ................................ ................................ ............................. 53 Self Regulation Questionnaire ................................ ................................ .......... 53 Self Efficacy Questionnaire for Children ................................ ........................... 54 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 55 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 59 Summary, Conclusion, and Implications for Future Research ................................ 60 3 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PARTICIPATION IN RECREATIONAL SPORT AND YOUNG FEMALE HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE ................................ ................................ 64 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 64 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 69 Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 6 9 Site ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 71 Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 71 Procedure and Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ........... 72 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 74 Theme 1: Exercise outside of volleyball ................................ ........................... 74 Theme 2: Coping with stressful situations ................................ ........................ 76 The me 3: Network of friends ................................ ................................ ............ 79 Theme 4: Extrinsic motivators ................................ ................................ .......... 82 Theme 5: Intrinsic motivators ................................ ................................ ........... 87 Theme 6: Self efficacy through leadership and experience .............................. 90 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 92 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 100 Summary, Conclusion, and Implications for Future Research .............................. 100 4 USING THE SELF DETERMINATION THEORY TO UNDERSTAND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWE EN MOTIVATION IN RECREATIONAL SPORT AND HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF YOUNG FEMALES. ......................... 103 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 103 Physical Activity fo r Girls ................................ ................................ ................ 104 Benefits of Sport Involvement ................................ ................................ ......... 105 Self Determination Theory ................................ ................................ .............. 107 Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 110 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 111 Site ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 111 Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 111 Procedures ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 112 Variables ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 112

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9 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ............................... 113 PedsQL ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 113 SRQ E ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 115 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ 117 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 118 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 119 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 121 Summa ry, Conclusion, and Implications for Future Research .............................. 122 5 CONCLUSIONS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS ........................... 125 Background and Conc lusions ................................ ................................ ............... 125 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 128 Implications of this Research ................................ ................................ ................ 132 Implic ations for Future Research ................................ ................................ .......... 133 A PARENTAL CONSENT ................................ ................................ ........................ 137 B ASSENT SCRIPTS ................................ ................................ ............................... 139 C CONSENT FORM FOR INTERVIEWS ................................ ................................ 140 D INTERVIEW SCRIPT ................................ ................................ ............................ 142 E SELF EFFICACY SCALES ................................ ................................ ................... 144 F MOTIVATION SCALES ................................ ................................ ........................ 146 G PEDSQL INVENTORY ................................ ................................ ......................... 149 H DEMOGRAPHICAL DATA QUESTIONS ................................ .............................. 155 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 156 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 173

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10 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Sample demographics by grade level ................................ ................................ 62 2 2 Relationship between Grade Level, Skill Level, Self Efficacy and Motivation to HRQoL. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 63 2 3 Independent Variable Strength of Relationships with HRQoL ............................ 63 2 4 Relationships between all independent variables and HRQoL ........................... 63 2 5 Grade and Skill Level composite score and HRQoL ................................ ........... 63 4 1 Mean, min and max scores, and standard deviation for HRQoL and SDT subscales ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 124 4 2 Intercorrelations between the continuous variables ................................ .......... 124

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11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 5 1 Lunch Status Income Eligibility Guidelines (U S Department of Education, 2011) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 135 5 2 Conceptual hypothesis ................................ ................................ ..................... 135 5 3 Soc ial Cognitive Theory Conceptual Model (Bandura & Schunk, 1981) ........... 136

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12 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CET Cognitive Evaluation Theory ; a mini theory within the Self Determination Theory where intrinsic motivation is emphasized (R. M. Ryan & Deci, 2000) GCT Goal Contents Theory; a mini theory within the Self Determination Theory that grows out of the distinctions between intrinsic and extrinsic goals and their impact on motivation and wellness (R. M. Ryan & Deci, 2000) HHS Department of Health and Human Services HRQ O L Health Related Quality of Life; A subset of general quality of life, focusing on elements of health including physical, social, emotional levels (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012) OIT Organismic Integration Theory; a mini theory within the Self Determination Theory where extrinsic motivation and consequences are determined (R. M. Ryan & Deci, 2000) P EDS QL Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory; an instrument used to measure health related quality of life in participants (Varni, Seid, & Rode, 1999) PI Principal Investigator; the lead researcher of the project. Q O L Quality of Life multidimensional concept that can be defined as general well being of individuals and societies. The term is used in the fields of international development, healthcare, and politics (Siegrist & Junge, 1989) SCT Social Cognitive Theory; developed by Albert Bandura, explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns (Bandura & Schunk, 1981) SDT Self Determination Theory; a broad framework for the study of human motivation and personality (R. M. Ryan & Deci, 2000) SEQ C Self Efficacy Questionnaire f or Children; an instrument used to measure participant overall self efficacy in performing tasks related to social and emotional aspects of life, applied to a specific sport (Muris, 2001) SRQ E Self Regulation Questio nnaire on Exercise; an instrument used to measure motivation of participation in physical activity and specific sport (Deci & Ryan, 1985)

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13 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy CAN SELF EFFICACY AND MOTIVATION TO PARTICIPATE IN PHYSICAL ACTIV I TY PREDICT HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN GIRLS? By Taryn Rivera Buckley May 2 013 Chair: Christine Stopka Cochair: J. Don Chaney Major: Health and Human Performance A steady increase in the number of obese children over the past decade has led to an outpouring of social and political support to find ways to keep the youth of Ameri ca healthy. Inadequate PA has been targeted as a key factor causing the obesity problem. In an effort to maintain or achieve good health, many parents enroll their children in recreational and competitive sports leagues in their local community. Many paren ts of females seek an opportunity for their daughters to participate in a recreational sport environment without the pressures of competing against males. These all female programs have emerged in cities across America, but very little research exists to s upport the impact of female participation in recreationally structured PA on participant health related quality of life (HRQoL). The purpose of this research is to determine if motivation and self efficacy of physically active young females can predict th eir HRQoL. A convenience sample of fe males (n=167) aged 8 18 at an all girls recreational facility in northwest Florida were recruited to voluntarily participate in the study. Research participants were asked to complete a packet of surveys including the

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14 Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), Self Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ E) and Self Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQ C) which have been validated in previously published research. The surveys were administered in person, with pencil and pa per. All participants were given the opportunity to participate in a one on one tape recorded interview to provide greater detail on the motivational factors contributing to self efficacy and the social and emotional aspects of HRQ o L. Twent y one young fema les provided insight on their specific experiences. Thematic analysis, constant comparison, analysis and code intensiveness were used to d erive themes from the interview data The following themes emerged as contributing factors to motivation and self effi cacy: exercise outside of volleyball, coping with stressful situations, network of friends, extrinsic motivators, intrinsic motivators, and self efficacy through leadership and experience The mean HRQoL score for this sample was 88.26 (on a scale from 0 t o 100), indicating good HRQoL level for female PA participants. There was a moderate, positive correlation between self efficacy and HRQoL( r=.35, p < .0005) with high levels of perceived self efficacy associated with high levels of HRQoL. There was a weak positive correlation between HRQoL and motivation (r=.21, p < .0005), with high levels of perceived autonomy marginally associated with high levels of HRQoL. Additionally, moderate correlation was also found with the intrinsic motivation subscale of auto nomy and HRQoL, r= .31, p <.0005, with high levels of perceived intrinsic motivation correlated with high levels of HRQoL. After running a multiple regression analysis on lunch status, grade level, skill level race, ethnicity and length program participatio n only grade level

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15 (r= 0.21, p = .004) and skill level (r= 162, p = .035) were found to make significant, unique contributions to the prediction of HRQoL. Results of an ANOVA indicated HRQoL decreased as participants got older, and HRQoL increased with self reported skill level, yet t hese results were not statistically significant. Relative autonomy was moderately, positively correlated with intrinsic motivation (r= .54) and identified regulation (r=.20) and strongly, negatively correlated with introjec ted regulation (r= .54), external regulation (r= .670) and amotivation (r= .075). All subscales of autonomy were significantly correlated to one another, with the exception of amotivation which was not significantly correlated to any other autonomy subs cale. Mixed methods demonstrated support between the quantitative and qualitative data. Qualitative data provided specific intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for youth sport participation, which include financial compensation, parental support, knowledge of the coach and memorable moment recall. These findings support the need for special consideration of motivation most notably intrinsic and extrinsic motivators and self efficacy of participating in sport when planning PA programs for girls.

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16 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines HRQoL as a broad multidimensional concept that usually includes self reported measure s of physical and mental health (Centers for Disease Control, 2010) HRQoL encompasses the perceived, valued health attributes such as the sense of comfort or well being, the ability to maintain good physical, emotional, and intellectual functions, and the ability t o satisfactorily take part in social activities (Bize, Johnson, & Plotnikoff, 2007) It also serves as an index of physical and psychological functioning in youth (Sawyer et al., 2004; Williams, Wake, Hesketh, Maher, & Waters, 2005) and is positively associated with PA (Vuillemin et al., 2005) Measuring and tracking HRQ o L is an important way to bridge the gap betwee n research and application of health related programs in a community. Evaluating their own well being and functioning within the different domains comprising the overall construct (Solans et al., 2008) Research in the area of HRQoL is new and plentiful in the areas of specific adult and child disease morbidity. A testament to this rapid growth is the production of over 65 instruments in the last decade alo ne for self reporting HRQoL in children and adolescents (Quittner, Davis, & Modi, 2003) The majority of instruments created were developed to address specific diseases and their impact on youth HRQoL. Several stu dies found direct correlation of low HRQoL and those children who have chronic diseases such as diabetes, cystic fibrosis, cancer, hypertension and asthma (Schwimmer, Burwinkle, & Varni, 2003; Sikdar, Wang, MacDonald, & Gadag, 2010; Soni, Porter, Lash, & Unruh, 2010; Ziaian et al., 2006)

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17 This research suggests that the rapidly growing area of health promotion is taking its aim at exploring and identifying early factors specific to children that could impact their quality of life. Following this trend, there is now literature documenting a strong and consistent relationship between deteriorating HRQoL and obesity in children and adolescents. Much of this res earch links youth obesity to poorer youth HRQ o L, and youth PA to better youth HRQ o L, including effects on self reported health, as well as physical, emotional, and social health and functioning (Friedlander, Larkin, Rosen, Palermo, & Redline, 2003; Sagatun, Sgaard, Bjertness, Selmer, & Heyerdahl, 2007; Swallen, Reither, Haas, & Meier, 2005; J. Williams, Wake, Hesketh, Maher, & Waters, 2005) Prev ious work has quantified the impact of specific illnesses and examined potential strategies to improve HRQoL. Among those strategies, Speyer et al. (2010) found that participation in adapted PA during hospital stays increased HRQoL among children and adole scents with cancer. Similarly, a systematic review of the literature found seven cross sectional studies that showed a consistently positive association between PA level and HRQoL, indicating that PA could have a positive impact on HRQoL (Bize, Johnson, & Plotnikoff, 2007) Longitudinal data has found the majority of overweight youth remained overweight as adults; however, the majority of overweight adults were not overweight youth (Herman, Craig, Gauvin, & Katzmarzyk, 2009) In an effort to address this crisis and get Americans healthy, many people including parents, teachers, community leaders and even policy makers decided to first start fighting the obesity battle with the nex t generation of leaders: American youth. As America witnessed an upward trend in the

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18 proportion of obese children and adolescents, Healthy People 2020 a federal interagency workgroup designed to address and establish science based, 10 year national objec tives for improving the health of all Americans addressed this concern by adding specific objectives for PA and childhood development. It has long been noted that exercise is scientifically linked with health benefits for most who participate in regular P A Studies involving children and adolescents found that those who participate in frequent PA have improved cardio respiratory and muscular fitness, improved bone health, favorable body composition, a reduction in symptoms of depression, and positive influ ences on concentration, memory, and, classroom behavior ( S trong, et al., 2005; Trudeau & Shepard, 2008; U S Department of Health and Human Services, 2011; Warburton, Nicol & Bredin, 2006 ). The Healthy People 2020 objective PA 3, aims at increasing the pr oportion of adolescents and elementary school children to meet current federal PA guidelines for aerobic PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012) This objective stems from data from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), which showed that only 18 % of adolescents met current PA guidelines for aerobic PA Healthy People 2020 has set an objective to increase this percentage to 20.2 % by empowering commun ity partners like schools and youth recreation centers to develop programs based around these objectives (U.S. Department of Health and H uman Services, 2012) Unfortunately, current trends depict a different story than the recommended guidelines. Over the last decade, there has been no significant change in the number of adolescents reporting 60 minutes of daily PA (23.1% reported no exer cise at all in

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19 2009), but there has been an increase in the number of obese and overweight (12% and 15.8% in 2009, respectively) adolescents (Centers for Disease Control, 2008) In 2008, HHS issued PA Guide lines for Americans, paying particular attention to children and adolescents. The guidelines recommend 60 minutes of daily, moderate to vigorous PA with an emphasis on aerobic activity, and muscle and bone building (Centers for Disease Control, 2009) A popular way for children and adolescents to meet the recommended PA guidelines is through participation in organized team sports. The 2011 YRBSS indicate s that 52.3% of females surveyed in 2009 participated in an organized s port team in the past 12 month s. T his number was down 5% from the previous year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Se rvices, 2012) There are a plethora of benefits linked with team sport participation. The most obvious benefit is the health effect PA has on team sport participants. For example, children who regularly participate in recreational sports throughout the ye ar may gain higher levels of muscular strength and anaerobic power, than their non physically active counterparts (Hoffman, Kang, Faigenbaum, & Ratamess, 2005) Additionally, there is new research that studied the i mpact that team sports have had on health behaviors of their participants. Bruner & Spink (2011) found evidence for the positive influence of a group based team building intervention on the PA adherence of youth. They found support for the positive relatio nship between team building and work out session attendance in a youth population. This supports the notion that youth who exercise in a team setting, as opposed to exercising on their own, are more likely to adhere to routine PA which supports the impact that team sports can have on PA

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20 Early research supports the concept that sports involvement is related to positive youth development. Some of the outcomes associated with adolescent sports involvement include higher self esteem and self efficacy, more i ntimate and supportive peer relationships, lower rates of sexual activity, enhanced social skills, and greater academic achievement (Eccles & Barber, 1999; Hoffman, Kang, Faigenbaum, & Ratamess, 2005; Larson, 2000; Miller, Sabo, Farrell, Barnes, & Melnick, 1998; Patrick et al., 1999; Pedersen & Seidman, 2004; Richman & S haffer, 2006; J. Williams, Wake, Hesketh, Maher, & Waters, 2005) Delisle et al. (2010) suggested that adolescents participating in increased levels of PA especially team sports would be less likely to engage in health risk behaviors and more likely to e ngage in health promoting behaviors, demonstrating that adolescents who engaged in high levels of vigorous PA via team sports, were using less marijuana, had a healthier dietary intake, greater stress management skills, and healthier sleep patterns than t hose engaged in low or no PA The benefits of sport related PA are tremendous and have the ability to impact HRQoL at multiple levels, but still a large segment of youth choose not to p articipate in team sports. The barriers to team sport participation an d reasons for abandoning team sports have been previously studied among youth; h owever there is a gap in the literature that fails to examine reasons why youth who are current participants choose to remain active as team sport participants. Some prelimin ary research has suggested considering self efficacy and motivation as possible factors influencing continued participation in sport. Motl and Snook (2008) examined the relationship between PA and Qo L and found PA to be positively associated with Qo L in m ultiple sclerosis through an indirect

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21 association, accounted for by self efficacy. McAuley and Knopach (2006) studied a sample of older adult women and also found that PA is related to physical and psychological aspects of QOL through a path way that includ es self efficacy. Furthermore, to support the idea that youth sport participation has a reciprocal impact on self efficacy Ashford, Edmunds and French (2010) found that PA self efficacy was significantly higher when vicario us experience was included as an efficacy building technique. This specifically supports the view that watching a similar other (i e ., teammate) perform the behavior (i e ., playing recreational sport) can raise the e same activity (Bandura & Schunk, 1981) These findings emphasize how PA programs might be more strongly linked with Qo L under conditions that maximize the likelihood of improvements in self efficacy. This can be add ressed at the planning and implementation phase of programming, by designing developmentally focused youth PA programs that maximize performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, and verbal encouragement as sources of efficacy for its participants. The concept of motivation as a vehicle to youth PA participation has been studied extensively over the years, with results indicating that peer relationship s have some impact on participation rates Salvy et al. (2009) investigated how the presence of peer s and friends impact youth's motivation to be physically active as well as their actual physical activity levels. They found that the presence of a friend increased youth motivation to be physically active, and in turn increased the amount of time spent pa rticipating in PA Stunz and Weiss (2009) found that participants measure of success and continued motivation in sport was greater when factors such as having

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22 meaningful friendships, being accepted by a peer group, and receiving praise from a coach (alongs ide learning, mastery, and improvement) These factors predicted greater perceived physical competence, enjoyment, and preference for optimally challenging tasks. Ullrich French and Smith (2006) found that having two or more positive relationships ( i.e., w ith parent, peer or coach) corresponded with more optimal motivational outcomes. The ir follow up study in 2009 confirmed previous findings from the three way interaction between perceived peer acceptance, friendship quality, and mother relationship quality Interestingly, they also found that when perceived mother relationship was low, the probability of continuation in sport was low except when both peer acceptance and friendship quality were high (Ullrich Fren ch & Smith, 2009) adding yet another dimension to the complicated area of youth motivation to participate in PA but more specifically team sport participation. M otivation and self efficacy to participate in team sports play a critical role in achieving recommended levels of PA needed to impact HRQoL among youth Research Problem Determinants of youth participation in PA have been studied in the literature and can vary widely, with a few of the most frequently explored areas including gender, age, race, and income. It is of specific interest of the researcher to explore how these determinants combined with self efficacy and motivation of the participant to engage in PA play a rol e in overall HRQoL among youth female participants Research suggests th at a decline in PA from childhood into adolescence is a trend that is more prominent in girls (Centers for Disease Control, 2010; Pate et al., 2002) Although the causes of gender related differences in PA remain unclear, several factors have been suggested to contribute to lower PA levels that are commonly observed in

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23 girls These include low self esteem and body image, lack of motivation, enjoyment, interest or valuation of PA lo w athletic competence, and lack of parental and peer support (Camacho Miano, LaVoi, & Barr Anderson, 2011; Debate, Pettee Gabriel, Zwald, Huberty, & Zhang, 2009; Dwyer et al., 2006; Vu, Murrie, Gonzalez, & Jobe, 2006) Youth physical activity is a major indicator of adult physical activity (Kjnniksen, Fjrtoft, & Wold, 2009) ; thus it is critical to identify the gender related differences in PA since its implications can have lifelong effects Race and family income also play a role in PA throughout childhood and into adulthood. S tudies of African American girls found that in comparison to their white counte rparts, they experience a steeper drop in PA report higher levels of physical inactivity in middle adolescence and are at even greater risk for low levels of PA and engagement in team sports (Kimm et al., 2002; National Center for Youth Statistics, 2012) Additionally, low income girls tend to participate in team sports at relatively low rates (Quinn, 2004) One explanation of this may be the cost of equipment. Studies indicate that mothers and fathers purchase more equipment for boys than girls for sport related activity (Fredricks & Eccles, 2005). The long term beneficial consequences of reducing financial barriers to activity during childhood are the development of positive activity related memories, which may contribute to greater levels of adult activity participation, especially for women (Thompson et al., 2003). Research has found that for young female minorities, some important predictors of self efficacy to participate in future PA include access to community PA outlets and positive beliefs regarding PA are especially important for minorities, including girls (Debate, Pettee Gabriel, Zwald, Huberty, & Zhang, 2009; Trost et al., 1997)

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24 V ery little evidence exists that examines the relationship between self efficacy, motivation and overall QoL when controlling for a s tatus Furthe rmore, research studies in the aforementioned areas are virtually nonexistent in all girl populations, especially in populations that have diverse incomes and races. Recent reports of longitudinal, cohort studies suggest that declines in PA during the per iod from late middle school through late high school are inversely associated with self efficacy for overcoming barriers to PA and also with perceived support from family (Dowda, Dishman, Pfeiffer, & Pate, 2007) and friends (Duncan, Duncan, Strycker, & Cha umeton, 2007). These studies did not examine whether the relations hips were direct or indirect, as posited by socia l cognitive theory (Dishman, et al., 2008). Qualitative methods, such as interviews, can help to closely examine and explain these associatio ns with early and middle adolescents who are currently participating in team sports Additionally, the need to collect rich qualitative data in this subject area is important to support and help explain quantitative findings. Schunk explored different mode ls and goal setting ideas and how they affect ed self efficacy. He found that regardless of the domain, research shows that self efficacy helps to predict motivation and performance. (Shunk & Zimmerman, 2008). In his conclusion he states: Researchers typi cally have conducted short term correlational or collection (e.g., case studies, oral histories). Although such studies might include fewer subjects, they would yield rich data. This st udy aims to further close the gap in the literature by providing some insight both quantitatively and qualitatively into young female self efficacy and

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25 motivation to participate in PA and how these factors affect their overall health related quality of lif e. Theory It is generally agreed that QoL is a multidimensional concept that can be defined as general well being of individuals and societies. The term is used in a wide range of contexts, including the fields of international development, healthcare, a nd politics (Siegrist & Junge, 1989) HRQoL is defined as the physical, psychological, and social domains of health, influenced by personal experience, beliefs, preferences, and expectations (Testa & Simonson, 1996) HRQOL is acknowledged as an essential health outcome measure in clinical trials and health services research and evaluation. It status as a whole, and not in just terms of physically health status (Varni, Seid, & Rode, 1999) HRQOL reflects the individual's subjective evaluation of their own well being and functioning (Zeller & Modi, 2012) The researcher will use a calculated score of participant self reported HRQoL as the dependent variable of measure. Social Cognitive Theory Another theory component utilized in this study i s the self efficacy constr uct in SCT was developed by Albert Bandura, and explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns, while also providing the basis for intervention strategies (Bandura & Schunk, 1981) The basis of SCT is that three general factors environment, people and behavior are all connected to one another constantly influencing each other (Bandura, 1997) There are several concep ts that help explain SCT more thoroughly, but for the purposes of this research, the construct of self efficacy will be used to predict and explain behavior. Self

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26 efficacy is defined as can be achieved when the learner identifies his or her ability to perform the behavior (Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2008) In this case, the behavior to be performed will be participation in PA Bandura found that by making se lf satisfaction conditional on a certain level of performance, individuals create incentives for themselves to persist in their efforts until their performances match internal standards (Bandura & Schunk, 1981) Self efficacy refers to one's beliefs about accomplishing a task and can influence choice of activities, effort, persistence and achievement. People enter activities with varying levels of self efficacy derived from prior experience, personal qualities, and soc ial support (Schunk, 1995) As they work on tasks, they obtain information about their progress. This information influences their self efficacy for continued learning and performance. These experiences also have the ability to translate over time and impact future feelings and decisions. For example, a volleyball player might successfully make the game winning serve over the net during a very challenging match, where many of her teammates missed their serves. Her tea mmates, coaches and the fans will all cheer and congratulate her on this accomplishment and she will internalize this information. When feelings and become confident tha t she has the ability to help her team win a game. This confidence can carry through with her over the course of her volleyball career. A good example of this type of process can be observed with the Richman and Schaffer (2006) study, which found evidence to suggest that athletic engagement was positively associated with long term self esteem development among adolescent girls. Not to be

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27 confused with the concept of self efficacy, self esteem a youth's perception that they have some control over the things that happen to them (Muris, 2002) is another indicator of participant desire to take part in PA Pedersen & Siedman (2004) also found girls' team sports achievement experiences in early adolescence are positively assoc iated with self esteem in middle adolescence, supporting other findings that depict the trend of increased self efficacy through PA Interestingly, these achievement experiences have the ability to translate into life lessons outside of the sport atmospher e, allowing the participant to feel high self efficacy when performing tasks as a part of a group project at school or work. These experiences ultimately shape adolescent youth development and potentially their adulthood (Debate, Pettee Gabriel, Zwald, Huberty, & Zhang, 2009) Self Determination Theory Self Determination Theory (SDT), developed by Deci and Ryan (Figure 3), represents a broad framework for the study of human motivation and personality (Deci & Ryan, 1985) Perhaps more importantly SDT focuses on how social and cultural volition and initiative in addition to their well being and the quality of their performa nce (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Deci & Ryan, 2012) SDT differentiates types of behavioral regulation in terms of the degree to which they represent autonomous or self determined (versus controlled) functioning. Intrinsic motivation is the driving force behind autonomous activity; when people are intrinsically motivated, they are by definition self determined. Extrinsically motivated activity, in contrast, is often more controlled (i.e., less autonomous) (Deci & Rya n, 2012; Levesque et al., 2007; Ryan & Patrick, 2009)

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28 Formally, SDT comprises five mini theories, each of which was developed to explain a set of motivationally based phenomena. Those theories are: Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET), Organismic Integration Theory (OIT), Causality Orientations Theory, Basic Psychological Needs Theory, and Goal Contents Theory (GCT) (Ryan & Patrick, 2009) A combination of three mini theories will be used for this study: CET, OIT and GCT. The remaining mini theories are outside of the scope of this study. In CET, intrinsic motivation is emphasized. The general idea behind intrinsic motivation is that there is some reason that motivates a person to participate in an activity. Typically these reasons include the idea that participation in the particular activity is enjoyable, challenging and interesting to the in dividual (Frederick & Ryan, 1995) CET is a social psychology of intrinsic motivation; it is not concerned with what causes intrinsic motivation, but rather the conditions that facilitate intrinsic motivation ver sus those that diminish or undermine it (Ryan & Patrick, 2009) The theory argues i.e., drills at practice are too challenging, leaving roo m for low success rate) will diminish intrinsic motivation, where as events that support feelings of autonomy ( i.e., practices that involve all players, regardless of skill level) will enhance it. The concepts of integration ( i.e., identifying one's self a s a participant of PA ) and identified regulation ( i.e., accepting the value of participation in sport as personally important) are considered relatively autonomous (Deci & Ryan, 2000) OIT addresses the topic of extri nsic motivation in its various forms, with their properties, determinants, and consequences (Deci & Ryan, 2000) Broadly speaking, extrinsic motivation is behavior that aims toward outcomes outside of the behavior itse lf

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29 ( i.e., participation to improve health/looks, stay in shape or impress a friend). Extrinsically motivated activity is often more controlled by something or someone other than the participant (i.e., less autonomous). However, SDT differentiates types of extrinsic motivation in terms of the degree to which it has been internalized, suggesting that the more fully it is internalized and integrated with in one's self, the more it will be the basis for autonomous behavior. (Ryan & Patrick, 2009) External regulation ( i.e., rewards or punishments for performance) and introjected regulation ( i.e., behaviors that make an individual feel better about their self worth or to avoid disapproval from someone) are considered to be at extrinsic motivation spectrum. The final mini theory GCT grows out of the distinctions between intrinsic and extrinsic goals and their impact on motivation and wellness (Ryan & Deci, 2000) Extrinsic goals such as financial success, appearance, and popularity/fame have been specifically contrasted with intrinsic goals such as community, close relationships, and personal growth, with the latter more likely associated with greater wellness and greater well being (Deci & Ryan, 2000) The researcher will use the concepts of this mini theory to help guide the questions for the interview process, in order to get a better understanding of specific intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and how those factors impact HRQoL. SDT has helped make great empirical strides in the area of motivation and sport participation. Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, & Briere (2001) found that elite swimmers who were more autono mously motivated persisted at their sport longer than those who were more controlled in their motivation. This indicates the need for developmentally focused

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30 youth sport (DYS) programs to address the motivations of its participants, so that they can achiev e autonomy. Additionally, research has shown how autonomy has the power to guide health behaviors that impact general wellness. For example, autonomous motivation (as well as perceived competence) in both German and American college students positively pr edicted their well being (Levesque et al., 2007) Furthermore, there are outcomes specifically related to HRQoL. Studies have shown that when people are more autonomously motivated for changing their health risk be haviors (ie stopping smoking, adopting a healthier diet, exercising more regularly) they are more successful in changing such behaviors and maintaining those changes over time (Deci & Ryan, 2012) These concepts i mply that motivation and self efficacy together could impact participation in PA thereby affecting o verall HRQoL in the participant. Qualitative Interviews Just as quantitative research uses theory to guide the researcher with a frame work or model for b ehavior change, so does qualitative research. A critical step to selecting a qualitative theory for research design and analysis is to take into consideration the approach, or role the researcher wishes to play in the research proc ess. For example, one ap proach is constructivism. In constructivism, the researcher understands that the learner is an information constructor where people actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality (Fosnot, 2005) New information is linked to prior knowledge, thus mental representations are subjective. For example, when asking a question the researcher might already know find a way to the answer they believe to be correct based off of their past experiences and prior

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31 beliefs. It recognizes that learning is an active process of piecing together information, rather than being told a piece of information is valid (Bereiter, 1994; Phillips, 1995) This knowledge is constructed based on personal experiences and hypotheses of the environment. Learners continuously test these hypotheses through social negotiation (Fosnot, 2005) Each person has a different interpretation and construction of knowledge process. J ean Piaget and John Dewey developed theories of childhood development and education that led to the evolution of constr uctivism. The constructivist approach is an ideal approach to use for children because it is primarily based off of solving a real life problem ( Huang, Rauch, & Liaw, 2010) Dewey believed that problem solving and free discovery were joined together; in other words, knowledge is a dynamic quality, built around the process of discovery (Hickman & Reich, 2009) These same concepts are the foundation of popularly used theories surrounding youth development and education. Purpose There is a gap in the literature when it comes to HRQ o L of healthy children and factors that influence health status Th ere are factors such as motivation and self efficacy to participate in PA which may play a large part in overall physical health of young children An even larger gap exists when th e child population is narrowed down to only females. Although some resear ch does exist, it fails to support quantitative findings with qualitative data to further explain motivation and self efficacy among young PA participants. The purpose of this study is to close the gap in the literature by exploring factors and determinant s of young female athlete participation in structured PA This will allow the possibility for creating comprehensive programming by

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32 determining physical, social, emotional HRQoL and motivational factors of participation in recreational sports programs. Thi s comprehensive programming, also referred to as a DYS program is critical to address the total health of the individual, not just specific dimensions of wellness. By exploring participant extrinsic and intrinsic motivations and self efficacy programming for all female sports leagues can address a wide variety of program participant needs, so that participation in team sports impacts participant HRQoL. Research Questions This study seeks to provide evidence that may explain the following research question s (RQ): RQ1: Is there a relationship between self efficacy in performing physically active tasks and young female HRQoL ? RQ2: Is there a relationship between motivational factors (autonomy) and self reported HRQoL of physically active young females? RQ3: Which construct of the Self Determination Theory ( external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation or amotivation ) is a better predictor of HRQoL among young female athletes ? RQ4 : Is there a relationship between HRQ o L and independent variables ( i.e., grade level, income (lunch status), race, length of time participated in recreational programming, reported skill level, etc.) ? RQ5 : Which is the best predictor of perceived HRQoL: Does motivation to participate in physi c al activity or self efficacy for participating in physical activity predict HRQoL among young females participating in a recreational sports league ? RQ6 : How do physically active young females perceive their HRQoL? What factors contribute to physically act ive young females HRQoL? RQ7 : How do HRQoL factors affect young female self efficacy to participate in physical activity? RQ8 : How do young females perceive their extrinsic and intrinsic motivational experiences when participating in physical activity?

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33 Me thodology S ite The research took place at an all female organization in North Central Florida. The organization serves approximately 650 girls annually through three programs: after school, athletics and summer day camp. The study consists of the athletics program participants who play volleyball, although there was some cross over with girls who participate in two (n=54) or all three programs (n=22) For the purposes of this research, volleyball players are referred to as PA participants. An all female sit e was selected to help close the gap indicated previously in the literature review. Additionally, an athletics program was selected to target physically active girls who already might be meeting the PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily PA The athletics program has been well established in the community as a prominent facility for all girl, recreational sports programs. Over that last 15 years, the organization has served over 10,000 area girls athletic needs. Site Geographica l Makeup and Demographics In comparison to the study site, t hese demographics reflected slightly different patterns In 2011, the facility served 566 girls aged 5 18; 41% were black, 36% white, 14% mixed race with the remaining 9% of races falling into His panic, Asian, other or unknown categories. A large number of family income goes unreported due mostly in part to parent/guardian refusal to report income but of the reporting group (84% of members) the median family income is $35,000 $38,000 annually. An interesting dynamic exists between members of different programs within the organization. For example, in the athletics program 68% of the athletes are white, with 49% of families reporting an income over $50,000 annually. In the after school program

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34 61% o f members are black, with 56% of families reporting annual income under $30,000. Procedures The appropriate paperwork was submitted and accepted by (UF) Institutional Review Board 02 in early May 2012 Data collection was com pleted in June 2012. Research participants were recruited from the largest program within the organization, the volleyball program. In the spring volleyball season 237 participants were given information about taking part in the study. Of this co nvenience sample, 167 girls aged 8 17 decided to participate. Participants were asked to complete three sets of surveys: the PedsQL(Appendix G) to determine health related quality of life, the Self Regulation Questionnaire (Appendix F) on Exercise (SRQ E) to determi ne motivation to participate in exercise and sport, and finally the Self Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQ C) (Appendix E) to determine social and emotional self efficacy of the participants. UF IRB 02 states that individuals under the age of 18 can not legally consent to participate in research, therefore a parent or legal guardian must supply consent. However, the researcher felt that the child should be involved in the consent process in some way. UF suggests that at a minimum, children should be t old that research is voluntary, and their verbal assent to participate should be obtained. In accordance with these guidelines, written parental informed consent (Appendix A) was first obtained, followed by verbal assent from each individual child particip ant After consent was obtained, t he surveys were administered in person, with pencil and paper. Proctors were present to help any child who could not read or understand questions in the surveys. Children who were interested in participating in a tape reco rded, one on

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35 one personal interview had the option to select a check box at the end of their survey to follow up on any potential findings the researcher had after preliminary data analysis The PI then schedule d a 1 0 2 0 minute tape recorded, one on one, s emi structured interview for those who were interested. These follow up interviews were scheduled to provide in depth insight into specific reasons for motivation and self efficacy for young females participating in PA In an effort to reduce interviewer r esponse bias, the researcher trained two health education interns in constructivist interview styles and approaches (Knapik, 2008) Unlike the PI, both interns had limited prior experience with the population and ther efore were able to elicit honest, unbiased responses from the participants. Informed consent (Appendix C) and verbal assent (Appendix B) were also obtained prior to the start of the interview Questions were read off of an interview script (Appendix D). All responses w ere kept confidential and participants w ere given a unique randomly assigned participant number to ensure confidentiality The researcher and supervisor have exclusive access to study data and will destroy all recordings and surveys after the completion of the study. Instrument Selection Since combinations of constructs in different theories were utilized for this study, three instruments were needed to conduct this study: PedsQL, SRQ E and SEQ C. PedsQL To determine participant HRQoL the PedsQL Inventory was used. Varni developed this modular approach to measuring HRQoL in healthy children and adolescents and those with acute and chronic health conditions (Varni, Seid, & Rode, 1999) In this ins

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36 for me to run; I have trouble getting along with other kids, etc.) and respond to the statement using a Likert scale to determine how much they agree with the statement (i.e., 0= nev er, 1= almost never, 2= sometimes 3= often and 4= almost always). Multiple researchers found this instrument to be valid and reliable for child self assessment of HRQoL (Amiri et al., 2012; Carle, Dewitt, & Seid, 2011; Davis et al., 2010; Seid et al., 2010; Varni, Limbers, & Burwinkle, 2007) the four PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales (Physical, Emotional, Social, School) were administered to 963 children and 1,629 parents (1,677 subjects accrued overall) recruited from pediatric child, 0.90 parent report), Physical Health Summary Sco for group comparisons. Validity was demonstrated using the known groups method, correlations with indicators of morbidity and illness burd en, and factor analysis (Varni, Seid, & Rode, 1999) This scale has been used in other published research because of its accessibility, readability and ability to expand its questions to children from ages 2 18 (Amiri et al., 2012) In the child self assessment instrument of HRQoL, questions are broken up into four subscales of functioning: physical, emotional, social and school. These scales are then scored into three separate cat egories: physical health summary, psychosocial health summary and total health summary. The items are reversed scored, where higher scores indicate better HRQ o L (Varni, Seid, & Rode, 1999) For the purposes of this re search, these scores were then assigned a number to correspond with level of HRQoL. Scores between 0 10 were assigned the number 4 and

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37 25 were assigned the 50 were assigned the number 2 75 were assigned the 100 were assigned a 4 and those participants were deemed to have of the scores allowed the researcher to make inferences between HRQoL level and self efficacy/ motivation. The PedsQL Measurement Model used for this research design was the basic generic core scale, since the purpose of this research is to determine general HRQ o L of healthy participants and not HRQ o L for a specific disease or condition. SRQ E The SRQ E questionnaires developed by Deci & Ryan (1985) assess domain specific individual differences in the types of motiva tion or self regulation (Levesque et al., 2007) That is, the que stions assess the regulation of a particular behavior (e.g., exercising regularly) or class of behaviors (e.g., engaging in team sport activities) This scale has frequently been used to have participants assess their reasons for exercising or playing a sport. Other researchers have noted its consistency and validity in PA motivation (Puenta & Anshel, 2010; Saebu & Srensen, 2010; Silva et al., 2010) Validation of the scale conducted recently by Levesque in 2007 to find if the scale was suitable for use across sites and health behaviors (tobacco use, diet and exercise) was obtained from four different geographical sites with a total of 2731 participants completing the SRQ E Invariance analyses support ed the validity of the SRQ across all four sites and all three health behaviors. Overall, the internal consistency of each su bscale was acceptable (most a values >0.73) (Levesque et al., 2007) The scale has

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38 also been used to help identify sedentary behaviors and barriers to PA for children and minority girls, making this scale a suitabl e choice to help determine young female motivation to participate in exercise or specific sport (Spruijt Metz, Nguyen Michel, Goran, Chou, & Huang, 2008; Wang, Chia, Quek, & Liu, 2006) The format for these questionnaires was introduced by Ryan and Connell in 1989. Each questionnaire asks why the participant does a behavior (or class of behaviors) and then provides several possible reasons that have been preselected to represent the diffe rent styles of regulation or motivation For example, on the then answers follow up question with a Likert scale to offer their feedback ( i. e., I would feel bad about myself if I was not taking time to play volleyball). The answer options are on a seven point Likert scale with not at all true, somewhat true and very true at the beginning, middle and end.) It is structur ed so that it asks one question and provides responses that represent amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation ( taking in a regulation but not accepting it as one's own) identified regulation ( accepting the value of the activity as personally important) and int rinsic motivation ( Ryan & Patrick, 2009) The amotivation subscale measures not being motivated; t he remaining four subscales are combin ed to determine the degree to which one feels autonomous with respect to engagi ng in PA The more internalized the motivation, the more autonomous the person will be when enacting the behaviors (Ryan & Deci, 2000) to engage in PA can be cons idered synonymous with one another.

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39 Scoring the SRQ E can be done in two different ways: computing one of the five subscale scores (external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation or amotivation) or by finding the Relative Autonomy Index (RAI) The amotivation subscale is not used in RAI, because the RAI concerns the degree to which determined, and the amotivation subscale measures not being motivated (Ry an & Deci, 2000) To form the RAI, the external subscale is weighted 2, the introjected subscale is weighted 1, the identified subscale is weighted +1, and the intrinsic subscale is weighted +2. In other words, the controlled subscales are weighted nega tively, and the autonomous subscales are weighted positively. The more controlled, the larger its negative weight; and the more autonomous, the larger its positive weight (Deci & Ryan, 2012) The formula used to calcu late RAI is: 2x Intrinsic+ Identified Introjected 2X External (R. M. Ryan & Patrick, 2009) SEQ C T he SEQ C, developed by Paul Muris in 2001, explores three main areas of self efficacy: academic self efficacy that academic affairs; social self social challenges; and emotional self deal with emotional c hallenges (Muris, 2001) For the purposes of this study, only social self efficacy and emotional self efficacy were measured. A factor analysis in a recent study which examined the reliability and validity of the SEQ C in a sample of young adolescents ( n =330) revealed three factors that were in keeping with the intended subscales: social self efficacy, academic self efficacy, and emotional self efficacy. Furthermore, results showed that the SEQ C has satisfactory inte 0 .88 for the total self efficacy

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40 score, 0.86 for the emotional self efficacy subscale and 0.85 fo r the social self efficacy subscale (Muris, 2001) Several other studies that assessed self efficacy in children also used these two subscales of measurement to determine the role of participant self efficacy in regards to specific HRQoL concerns ( i.e., anxiety, learning disabilities, adolescent alcohol consumption, mental health of high ac hieving students) which further supports (Lackaye, Margalit, Ziv, & Ziman, 2006; Land on, Ehrenreich, & Pincus, 2007; McKay, Sumnall, Cole, & Percy, 2012; Suldo, Shaunessy, & Hardesty, 2008) Participants answered situational questions on a likert scale. ( i.e., How well can you tell other youth that they are doing something that you do In the scoring process of the SEQ C, the responses for items range from 1(not very well) to 5 (very well). There are no items that need ed to be reversed scored. Responses are summed to produce the total score. Scores were broken down by subscale s and as a total self efficacy score. Higher scores were associated with higher self efficacy (Muris, 2001) Demographic Information Grade level, race, length of time participating in programming, type of program parti cipation ( i.e., athletics, after school or summer camp) self assessment of skill level ( i.e., beginner, intermediate or advanced), and socioeconomic status (based on school lunch status free, reduced or regular pay) was collected fr om each child participa nt. Since many children are unaware of their actual family income level, but aware of the price they pay for school lunch on a daily basis, school lunch status was used to determine their socioeconomic status This status directly reflects family income. T he School Board in which the county is located follows federal guidelines on free or reduced lunch status provided by the U S Department of Agriculture (USDA) The

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41 USDA take into consideration a ll income before taxes and number of people liv ing in the hom e before applying a sliding scale to determine eligibility status for free or reduced lunch. Qualitative Interviews The interviews are a critical component of the research because they allow more in depth responses to the issues surrounding motivation and self efficacy for young female athletes The questions asked in the surveys are specific and pre determined; the interview process will allow the researcher help explain trends found in the survey data by eliciting detailed responses from th e participant with regard to engaging in PA Tape recorded, semi structured interviews were used to determine the factors associated with HRQ o L in young female PA participation and to assess the factors contributing to athlete movitation/amotivation t o participate in PA Interviews were conducted on a volunteer basis and continued until saturation of themes occurred. A semi structured interview design was used to elicit honest responses and to allow the participants to discuss topics of importance tha t may be unknown to the researcher. Participants who completed the series of quantitative surveys were given an option at the end of the survey to take part in an interview. The researcher contacted interested participants within 48 hours of completing the survey and scheduled facility. In order to reduce bias, the researcher trained two volunteers to conduct the interview process using the constructivist approach when el iciting answers. Prior to the start of the interview the researcher collected signed parental consent forms and provided the participant with a unique identifier, so to keep the recording the session

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42 upon giving the participant their identifier and prefaced the interview by reading the interview script listed in Appendix D. The participant was asked to read the informed consent and to ask any questions if they arise. At the completion of t he interview the researcher thanked the participant and reminded them to contact the researcher with any questions or concerns. Analytic Techniques To better understand if self efficacy and motivation play a role in young female PA participant HRQoL, the following statistical analyses were conducted. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for all quantitative data analysis. First, descriptive statistics determined frequencies, measures of central tendency (mean, median), and spread (s tandard deviation) of the surveyed population. Second, multiple regression assessed whether demographical data ( i.e., grade level, income (lunch status), race, length of time participated in recreational programming, reported skill level, etc.) predicted H RQoL. Third, multiple regression was used to determine if motivation (autonomy) or self efficacy and which SDT subscale better predicted perceived HRQoL. Fourth, Spearman correlations were performed to assess associations between participant self efficacy and HRQoL and participant motivation and HRQoL. Fifth, thematic and constant comparison analysis were performed to derive themes from the qualitative interviews and code intensiveness was done to illustrate quantitative saturation of common data across the interviews. Finally, the themes found during this analysis were compared to the survey data to determine if the qualitative data supported the quantitative data.

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43 Delimitations The following delimitations should be considered when interpreting results of t his investigation: This study was delimited to female participants, in grades 4 12, who took part in a volleyball program in North Central Florida. This population was selected because it was a convenience sample that the researcher had access to. This s tudy does not assess motivation or self efficacy of young males, of physical activity participants outside of the organization, or children who do not participate in physical activity. Respondents in this study agreed to voluntarily participate and may n ot be representative of those who chose not to participate. Limitations The following limitations should be considered when interpreting results of this investigation: Data collected from this cross sectional study reflects responses from participants at a specific point in time. It will not follow respondents longitudinally to view personally normative behaviors and therefore direct causation cannot be established. Selection bias may occur with the population of interest, because it is a convenience sam ple of young females at an organization familiar to the researcher. Because of this, generalizing is a major limitation of this study. Though the researcher feels confident that this study can be replicated in many all female, youth athletic programs throu ghout the country, the results may not be the same for every community. This organization is different in that it belongs to a very large network of collaborating nonprofit organizations. Communities wishing to replicate this design might not get the same results if they lack the resources needed to collaborate with other non profit agencies. It is important to note that the researcher has a very close relationship with the organization and is well respected and trusted within the community. This could p lay a role in participant responses during surveys and interviews, as participants may not be forthcoming with information to the researcher. The researcher will attempt to remain neutral during the course of the survey and interviews. Participants may ex perience recall bias, as a bad recollection of events could overshadow the good events, and vice versa. Just as bias can occur in volunteering

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44 participants, it can also be present in those participants who chose not to take part in the interview portion. Nonrespondent bias could impact the information collected during interviews because participants with valuable information could have refuse d to participate in the study. Every effort was made by the researcher to schedule interviews with any willing part icipant. Assumptions For the purposes of this investigation, the following assumptions were made: The children who participated in the study answered the survey questions honestly. The parental consent form, verbal assent from children and email reminder s assured participants of their anonymity and encouraged them to answer truthfully. Every participant of the study had some experience participating in physical activity. Some participants were brand new to team sports, but had at least participated in so me type of physical activity either at home or at school. The foundation of this study is sound. The theoretical framework is assumed to be an accurate reflection of the phenomena bein g studied, the variables have been clearly defined and are measurable, and the instruments being used are valid and reliable. The data was normally distributed and the size of the sample is sufficient to detect significant differences/relationships if they exist in the population. Definition of Terms H EALTH R ELATED Q UALI TY OF L IFE refers to the subset of Quality of Life directly related to an Organization includes physical, mental, and social well being G RADE LEVEL Elemen tary, middle or high school L UNCH S TATUS (I NCOME ) Free, Reduced or regular rates for lunch status at public school. R ACE Hispanic, White (non Hispanic), American Indian/ Alaska Native, Asian, Black/ African American, Native Hawaiian/ Other Pacific Is lander Y EARS P ARTICIPATED IN P ROGRAMMING New participant, less than a year, more than a year.

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45 T YPE OF P ROGRAM P ARTICIPATION After School, Summer Camp, Athletics programs M OTIVATIONS external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulat ion, intrinsic motivation and amotivation (R. M. Ryan & Deci, 2000) S ELF E FFICACY S elf efficacy is a person's level of confidence in their ability to perform particular behaviors to produce desired outcomes (Bandura, 1997) Summary The purpose of this research is to determine if motivation and self efficacy of physically active young females can predict their HRQoL. This will ultimately explore social and emotional HRQoL and guide programming for comprehensive, health conscious, all female recreational PA programs. This chapter describes the overall focus of this research and includes a description of the research problem, purpose of the study, significance, applicable theori es, research questions, statistical analyses, delimitations, limitations, assumptions, and definition of terms. The present study provided a comprehensive description of motivation and self efficacy of young female PA participants, and the factors that cau se or contribute to their HRQoL statuses. The results help to provide a clearer understanding of the relationship between HRQoL and self efficacy/motivation and will aid in the planning and implementation of Developmental focused Youth Sport (DYS) program s.

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46 CHAPTER 2 SELF EFFICACY, MOTIVATION AND HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE GIRLS Background In an effort to get Americans healthy, many people including parents, teachers, community leaders and even policy makers decided to first sta rt fighting the obesity battle with the next generation of leaders: American youth. As America witnessed an upward trend in the proportion of obese children and adolescents, Healthy People 2020 a federal interagency workgroup designed to address and esta blish science based, 10 year national objectives for improving the health of all Americans addressed this concern by adding specific objectives for PA and childhood development. It has long been noted that exercise is scientifically linked with health ben efits for most who participate in regular PA Studies involving children and adolescents found that those who participate in frequent PA have improved cardio respiratory and muscular fitness, improved bone health, favorable body composition, a reduction in symptoms of depression, and positive influences on concentration, memory, and, classroom behavior The Healthy People 2020 objective PA 3, aims at increasing the proportion of adolescents and elementary school children to meet current federal PA guidelin es for aerobic PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012) This objective stems from data from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), which showed that only 18 % of adolescents met current PA guidelines for aerobic PA. Healthy People 2020 h as set an objective to increase this percentage to 20. 2% by empowering community partners like schools, and youth recreation centers to develop programs based around t hese objectives (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012)

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47 Unfortunately, current trends depict a different story than the re commended guidelines. Over the last decade, there has been no significant change in the number of adolescents reporting 60 minutes of daily PA (23.1% reported no exercise at all in 2009), but there has been an increase in the number of obese and overweight (12% and 15.8% in 2009, respectively) adolescents (Centers for Disease Control, 2008) In 2008, HHS issued PA Guidelines for Americans, paying particular attention to children and adolescents. The guidelin es recommend 60 minutes of daily, moderate to vigorous PA with an emphasis on aerobic activity, and muscle and bone building (Centers for Disease Control, 2009) The YRBSS results indicate that 52.3% of f emales surveyed in 2009 participated in an organized sport team in the past 12 months, this number was down 5% from the previous year (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012) There are a plethora of benefits from team sport participation. The most obvious benefit is the health effect PA has on team sport participants. For example, children who regularly participate in recreati onal sports throughout the year may gain higher levels of muscular strength and anaerobic power, than their non physically active counterparts (Hoffman, Kang, Faigenbaum, & Ratamess, 2005) Additionally, there is ne w research that studied the impact that team sports have on health behaviors of their participants. Bruner & Spink (2011) found evidence for the positive influence of a group based team building intervention on the PA adherence of youth. They found support for the relationship between team building and work out session attendance in a youth population. This supports the idea that youth who exercise in a team setting, as opposed to exercising

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48 on their own, are more likely to adhere to routine PA which valid ates the impact of team sports on PA Early research supports the concept that sports involvement is related to positive youth development. Some of the outcomes associated with adolescent sports involvement include higher self esteem and self efficacy, mo re intimate and supportive peer relationships, lower rates of sexual activity, enhanced social skills, and greater academic achievement (Eccles & Barber, 1999; Hoffman, Kang, Faigenbaum, & Ratamess, 2005; Larson, 2000; Miller, Sabo, Farrell, Barnes, & Melnick, 1998; Patrick et al., 1999; Pedersen & Seidman, 2004; Richman & Shaffer, 2006; J. Williams, Wake, Hesketh, Maher, & Waters, 2005) Recently, Delisle et al. (2010) reconfirmed that adolescents participating in increased levels of PA especially team sports would be less likely to engage in health risk behaviors and more likely to engage in health promoting behaviors. The main findings of this research demonstrated that adolescents who engaged in high levels of vigorous PA via the avenue of team sports, were using less marijuana, had a healthier dietary intake, great er stress management skills, and better quantity of sleep than those engaged in low or no PA The most obvious benefit of increased PA is improved physical health. However, physical health is only one part of the six dimensions that comprise general welln ess (Hettler, 1979) The other dimensions include intellectual, emotional, social, occupational, and spiritual. Quality of Life is another way to have these six dimensions of wellness represented, as they apply not o manner in which it was lived. Health related quality of life (HRQoL) helps to narrow down wellness to only dimensions of health. The Centers for Disease Control and

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49 Prevention (CDC) defines HRQoL as a broad multidim ensional concept that usually includes self reported measures of physical and mental health. (Centers for Disease Control, 2010) HRQoL encompasses the perceived, valued health attributes such as the sense of comfort or well being, the ability to maintain good physical, emotional, and intellectual functions, and the ability to satisfactorily take part in social activities (Bize, Johnson, & Plotnikoff, 2007) The benefits of sport related PA are tremendous and have the ability to impact HRQoL at multiple levels, but still a large segment of youth choose not to participate in team sports. These barriers to participation and reasons for abandoning team sports have been previo usly studied. However there is a gap in the literature that fails to examine the reasons why youth who are current participants choose to remain active team sport participants. Some preliminary research has identified reasons for considering self efficacy and motivation as a possible intermediates of the PA and HRQOL relationship. Motl and Snook (2008) examined the relationship between PA and QOL and found that PA might be positively associated with QOL in multiple sclerosis through an indirect association accounted for by self efficacy. McAuley and Knopach (2006) studied a sample of older adult women and also found that PA is related with physical and psychological aspects of QOL thr ough a path that includes self efficacy. Furthermore, to support the ide a that youth sport participation has a reciprocal impact on self efficacy, Ashford, Edmunds and French (2010) found that PA self efficacy was significantly higher when vicarious experience was included as a technique. This specifically supports the view th at watching a similar other ( i.e., teammate) perform the

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50 behavior ( i.e., possess the capabilities to master the same activity (Bandura & Schun k, 1981) These findings emphasize how PA programs might be more strongly linked with QOL under conditions that maximize improvements in self efficacy. The concept of motivation as a vehicle to youth PA participation has been studied at length over the ye ars, with results mostly indicating peer relationship having some impact on participation. Salvy et al. (2009) investigated how the presence of peers and friends impact youth's motivation to be physically active and their actual activity levels. They found that the presence of a friend increased overweight and non overweight youth's motivation to be physically active as well as the amount of time spent participating in PA Stunz & Weiss (2009) found that participants measure of success and continued motivat ion in sport was greater when factors such as having meaningful friendships, being accepted by a peer group, and receiving praise from a coach (alongside learning, mastery, and improvement) These factors predicted greater perceived physical competence, en joyment, and preference for optimally challenging tasks. Ullrich French and Smith (2006) found that having two or more relatively positive relationships ( i.e., with parent, peer or coach) linked with more optimal motivational outcomes. Purpose This study s eeks to close gaps in the literature by answering the following research questions (RQ): RQ1: Is there a relationship between self efficacy in performing physically active tasks and young female HRQoL?

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51 RQ2 : Is there a relationship between HRQoL and indepe ndent variables (i.e., grade level, income (lunch status), race, length of time participated in recreational programming, reported skill level, etc.)? RQ3 : Which is the best predictor of perceived HRQoL: Does motivation to participate in physical activity or self efficacy for participating in physical activity predict HRQoL among young females participating in a recreational sports league? Methods Site The research took place at an all female organization in North Central Florida. The organization serves ap proximately 650 girls annually through three programs: after school, athletics and summer day camp. The study consists mostly of the athletics program participants who play volleyball, although there was some cross over with girls who participate in two (n = 54) or all three programs ( n= 22). For the purposes of this research, volleyball players are referred to as PA participants. An all female site was selected to help close the gap indicated previously in the literature review. Additionally, an athletics p rogram was selected to target physically active girls who already might be PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily PA The athletics program has been well established in the community as a prestigious facility for all gi rl, recreational sports programs. Over that last 15 years, the organization has served over 10,00 0 area girls athletic needs. Procedures A cross sectional, descriptive research design was used. The University of view Board and the the researcher permission prior to the start of the study. Surveys were administered to convenience samples of girls who gave verbal assent, were present at practice on the

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52 data collection day, and had submitted p arental consent. Proctors were present to help any child who could not read or understand questions in the surveys. Sample Research participants were recruited from the largest program within the organization, the volleyball program. In the spring 2011 vol leyball season 237 participants were given information about taking part in the study. Of this convenience sample, 167 girls (70% response rate) ages 8 17 submitted parental consent and verbally assented to participation in the study. An almost even repres entation of elementary (n= 78 46.7% ) and middle school girls (n=74 44.3 % ) participated in the study. A small number of high school girls (n=15, 9%) also participated in the study. The majority of participants had played volleyball at the organization for over a year (n= 80, 47.9%) and described themselves as having intermediate skill level (n= 95, 56.9%) of playing the sport. Variables The independent variables included motivation ( i.e., to participate in PA or to participate in volleyball itself as a for m of PA ), self efficacy ( i.e., social and emotional), and other demographical data including lunch status, race, length of time participated in recreational programming, reported skill level. Th e dependent variable was HRQoL. Instrumentation A survey book let was developed using a compilation of items selected from pre established surveys. All surveys have been used with similar populations and were (.88 (PedsQL), .73 (SRQ E), AND .88 (SEQ C). Internal consistency across these three scales was also measured and found the 65 item scale to have good internal

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53 selection of the instrumentatio n follows. PedsQL Inventory To determine participant HRQoL, the PedsQL Inventory was used. Varni developed this modular approach to measuring HRQoL in healthy children and adolescents and those with acute and chronic health conditions (Varni, Seid, & Rode, 1999) This 23 item, 5 point Likert scale ranging from 0 (never) to 4 (almost always) measures physical and psychosocial health. After reverse scoring, the sum total was Self Regula tion Questionnaire The SRQ E questionnaires developed by Deci and Ryan, assess domain specific individual differences in the types of motivation or self regulation (Levesque et al., 2007) It is structur ed so that it asks one question and provides responses that represent amotivation (not being motivated ), external regulation ( i.e., rewards or punishments for performance) introjected regulation ( i.e., behaviors that make an individual feel better about their sel f worth or to avoid disapproval from someone) identified regulation ( i.e., accepting the value of participation in sport as personally important) and intrinsic motivation ( some reason that motivates someone to participate in an activity) (R. M. Ryan & Patrick, 2009) The amotivation subscale measures not being motivated ; T he remaining four subscales combined help determine the degree to which one feels autonomous with respect to engaging in PA The 27 item Likert sc ale, ranges from 1 (not at all true) to 7 (very true) measures autonomy. After weighing internal regulations (more autonomy) positively and external regulations (less

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54 autonomy) negatively, a total Relative Autonomy Index is found for each participant. The formula used to calculate RAI is: 2x Intrinsic+ Identified Introjected 2X External (R. M. Ryan & Patrick, 2009) Self Efficacy Questionnaire for Children T he SEQ C, developed by Muris in 2001, taps three main areas of self efficacy: academic self affairs; social self challenges; and emotional self efficacy that has to do with with emotional challenges (Muris, 2001) For the purposes of this study, only social self efficacy and emotional self efficacy were measured. Participants answered 15 situational questions on a Likert scale, ranging from 1 (not very well) to 5 (very well). In the scoring process of the S EQ C responses are summed to produce the total score. Data Analysis Data were imported into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 items, therefore listwise deletion method was employed to analyze complete cases. A significance value of = 0.05 was set for analyses in this study. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all independent variables and determined frequencies, measures of central tende ncy (mean, median), and spread (standard deviation) of the surveyed population. Second, standard multiple regressions, and their respective assumptions testing (sample size, multicolinearity and singularity, outliers, normality, linearity, homoscedasticity and independence of residuals) were performed to assess

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55 associations between motivational factors, self efficacy and HRQoL (Pallant, 2010) Third, a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to find if there are any differences in HRQoL between groups in which a relationship was present. Results This group was made up of 167 female participants. An almost even representation of elementary (n= 78, 46.7% ) and middle school girls (n=74, 44.3%) participated in th e study. A small number of high school girls (n=15, 9.0%) also participated in the study. The majority of participants had played volleyball at the organization for over a year (n= 80, 47.9%) and described themselves as having intermediate skill level (n= 95, 56.9%) of playing the sport (Table 2 1 for more demographic information) Comparable to the demographics of the county in which the organiz ation operates, 61% of the all female sample was white, while 29.5 % described themselves as black or mixed ra ce. Surprisingly, a large number of participants did not know their lunch status (n= 83, 49.7%), while the next largest part of the sample reported paying regular prices for lunch (n= 50, 29.9%) and a smaller portion on the sample reported paying free/ or reduced fees for lunch (n= 33, 19.8%). The majority of the participants had some experience playing volleyball (n= 114, 68.3%), while this was the first season playing volleyball for some (n= 51, 30.5%). Multiple regression was used to determine if a rel ationship existed between HRQoL and self efficacy, motivation and other demographical data (Tables 2 2 and 2 3 for complete statistics) The relationship between perceived HRQoL (as measured by the PedsQL Inventory) and perceived self efficacy (as measured by the SEQ C) was investigated using Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. Preliminary analyses were performed to ensure no violation of the assumptions of normality,

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56 linearity and homoscedasticity. There was a moderate, positive correlation be tween the two variables, r=.35, p < .0005, with high levels of perceived self efficacy associated with high levels of HRQoL. Similar analysis was run to determine motivation (autonomy as measured by SRQ E) and HRQoL. Results found there was a weak, positiv e correlation between the two variables, r=.21, n= 167, p < .0005, with high levels of perceived autonomy weakly associated with high levels HRQoL. The total variance explained by the model as a whole was 19%, F (5, 161) = 7.56, p<.001. Of these two variab les, self efficacy made the largest unique contribution (beta= .325) at a significant level. After running a multiple regression analysis on demographical data, only grade level (r= 0.21, p= .004) and skill level (r= .162, p= .035) were found to have si gnificant, unique contributions to the prediction of HRQoL (Pallant, 2010) A one way ANOVA was run to determine HRQoL differences between grade level (elementary, middle and high school) and skill level (beginner, in termediate, experienced). Results showed that elementary students had the best HRQoL (M=89.46, p=.173), followed by middle school (M= 87.68, p= .173), then high school students (M= 84.90, p= .173); indicating HRQoL decreased as participants got older. Thes e results, however, were not statistically significant. ANOVA results for skill level proved similar results. Advanced skill participants had the highest HRQoL scores of the group (M= 90.17, p= .078), followed by intermediate players (M= 88.43, p= .078) th en beginners (M= 85.07, p= .078); indicating HRQoL increased with skill level. These results, however, were also not statistica lly significant ( Table 2 5 for ANOVA results ) Effect size (partial eta 2 ) was also determined using ANOVA in order to estimate th e variability of HRQoL that could be attributed to participant grade and skill level (Trusty, Petrocelli,

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57 Petrocelli, & Thompson, 2004) Grade level explained 2% (p = .173) of variability in HRQoL scores, while skill l these both would be considered a small effect size, and were also not stati stically significant (Pallant, 2010) Discussion : The physically active girls in this study exhibited very good levels of HRQoL, and high scores in social and emotional self efficacy. Youth HRQoL research tends to focus in the area of children that have a disease or cond ition which limits their HRQoL (Quittner, Davis, & Modi, 2003) This study contributes to the field of HRQoL, as it provides insight into behaviors and levels of health for relatively healthy young populations. It also provides more information on how self efficacy and motivatio n have the ability to impact HRQoL. Self efficacy does play a role in performing physically active tasks. This study found that self efficacy could be used to predict HRQoL in young female PA participants. This information is important to those practitione rs planning Developmentally focused Youth Sports programs (DYS). These programs teach sport and life skills concurrently, using sport as a medium for providing youth with opportunities for psychological, emotional, social, and intellectual growth (Debate, Pettee Gabriel, Zwald, Huberty, & Zhang, 2009) Using DYS in the development and implementation of programming, will help achieve good HRQoL for its participants. Hartwig and Meyers (2003) observed that the real str ength as well as popularity of these approaches lies in their ability to address both healthy and unhealthy behaviors while simultaneously empowering clients to build upon their own strengths and develop in positive ways (Watson & Lemon, 2011)

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58 Interestingly elementary students were more likely to have a better HRQoL, and as females grew older, their HRQoL decreased. A possible explanation of this phenomena can potentially be addressed by the growing number of youn g girls that stop participating in sports and other physically active extracurricular activities as they age (Centers for Disease Control, 2010; Pate et al., 2002) Since PA has di rect implications on the physical health dimension of HRQoL, Another explanation of this pattern of behavior might lie within the other dimensions of health more notably emotional and social health. Adolescence is a challenging time marked by myriad psycho logical, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive changes (Rowley, Roesch, Jurica, & Vaughn, 2005). Many adolescents manage these changes successfully. However, a growing number of adolescents are finding that the stress associated with these changes proves to o much to handle, leaving them susceptible to future problems (Watson & Lemon, 2011) Understanding the patterns of risks to good HRQoL and teaching young females how to identify and problem solve these risks, can h elp circumvent future health problems. This idea is illustrated by the findings in this study that as youth continue to master their skills ( i.e., progress from beginner to advanced volleyball player) they have the opportunity to continually improve their HRQoL. This study found that when comparing self efficacy and motivation to participate in PA self efficacy was the better predictor of HRQoL. This relationship has been hypothesized before, but has never been confirmed in a study of all females. In addi tion to the direct and positive association between self efficacy and different health outcomes, Bandura has suggested that self effi cacy might function as a media tor between stress experience and negative health and well being outcomes (Kvarme,

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59 Haraldstad, Helseth, Srum, & Natvig, 2009) This concept is critical to understand for development of future PA programs. Limitations There were several limitations to this study. First, data collected from this cross secti onal study reflects responses from participants at a specific point in time. It will not follow respondents longitudinally to view personally normative behaviors and therefore direct causation cannot be established. Additionally, selection bias could have occurred with the population of interest, because it was a convenience sample of young females at an organization familiar to the researcher. Because of this, generalizing is a major limitation of this study. Though the researcher feels confident that this study can be replicated in many all female, youth athletic programs throughout the country, the results may not be the same for every community. This organization is different in that it belongs to a very large network of collaborating nonprofit organizat ions. Communities wishing to replicate this design, might not get the same results if they lack the resources needed to collaborate with other nonprofit agencies. It is suggested that a longitudinal study of the population be observed for direct causatio n. If possible, it would also be ideal to survey a similar sample of non physically active female youth as a control group for a more experimental design. Additionally, further groups of comparison might include an all male population, a broader variety of sports, and different levels of play ( i.e., recreational versus competitive sports). Finally, the reasons behind lack or excess of self efficacy and motivation need to be explored further to fully understand from the participant point of view what drives or deters them from participating in PA especially team sports. Interviews and focus groups with players, parents and coaches could help investigate this issue further.

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60 Summary, Conclusion and Implications for Future Research The physically active girls in this study exhibited very good levels of HRQoL, and high scores in social and emotional self efficacy. This supports the idea that PA has a proven impact on HRQoL, which means the self efficacy needed to participate in PA also plays a critical role in achieving high levels of PA This study found that self efficacy could be used to predict HRQoL in young female PA participants. This information is important to those practitioners planning Developmentally focused Youth Sports programs (DYS). Using DYS i n the development and implementation of programming, will help achieve good HRQoL for its participants. Elementary students were more likely to have a better HRQoL, and as females grew older, their HRQoL decreased. This could be due to a multitude of reas ons, but most importantly it highlights the problems with retention rate of young female athletes and the social and emotional changes they go through as they age. It is important to give young females the tools they need to cope with these issues as they arise, since these issues have the ability to affect long term HRQoL. This study found that when comparing self efficacy and motivation to participate in PA self efficacy was the better predictor of HRQoL. This relationship has been hypothesized before, but has never been confirmed in a study of all females. This concept is critical to understand for development of future PA programs. It is suggested that a longitudinal study of the population be observed for direct causation. If possible, it would also be ideal to survey a similar sample of non physically active female youth as a control group for a more experimental design. Finally, the reasons behind lack or excess of self efficacy and motivation need to be explored further to fully understand from the participant point of view what drives or deters them

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61 from participating in PA especially team sports. Interviews and focus groups with players, parents and coaches could help investigate this issue further.

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62 Table 2 1. Sam ple demographics by grade level Total Sample K 5 th Grades 6 8 th Grades 9 12 th Grades n 167 78 (46.7%) 74 (44.3%) 15 (9%) Hispanic No: 148 (88.6%) Yes: 17 (10.2%) No: 72 (92.3%) Yes: 5 (6.4%) No: 65 (87.8%) Yes: 8 (10.8%) No: 11 (73.3%) Yes: 4 (26.7%) Race White: 102 (61. 1%) Black: 28 (16.8%) Mixed: 21 (12.6%) Asian: 10 (6%) Am. Indian: 3 (1.8%) Native Hawaiian: 1 (0.6%) White: 44 (56.4%) Black: 19 (24.4%) Mixed: 8 (10.3 %) Asian: 4 (5.1%) Am. Indian: 1 (1.3%) Native Hawaiian: 1 (1.3%) White: 46 (62.2%) Mi xed: 11 (14.9%) Black: 8 (10.8%) Asian: 6 (8.1%) Am. Indian: 2 (2.7%) White: 12 (80%) Black: 1 (6.7%) Mixed: 2 (13.3%) Indian: 3 (1.8%) Native Hawaiian: 1 (0.6%) Lunch status Not Sure: 83 (49.7%) Regular Pay: 50 (29.9%) Free/ Reduced: 33 (19.8 %) Not Sure: 41 (52.6%) Free/ Reduced: 20 (25.6%)Regular Pay: 16 (20.5%) Not Sure: 40 (50.4%) Regular Pay: 23 (31.1%) Free/ Reduced: 11 (14.9%) Regular Pay: 11 (73.3%) Not Sure: 2 (13.3%) Free/ Reduced: 2 (13.3%) Years playing volleyball at org anization More than a year: 80 (47.9%) First Season Playing: 51 (30.5%) Less than a year: 34 (20.4%) More than a year: 31 (39.7%) First Season Playing: 27 (34.6%) Less than a year: 19 (24.4%) More than a year: 37 (50.0%) First Season Playing: 22 (29.7 %) Less than a year: 14 (18.9%) More than a year: 12 (80%) First Season Playing: 2 (13.3%) Less than a year: 1 (6.7%) Skill level Intermediate: 95 (56.9 %) Advanced: 39 (23.4%) Beginner: 32 (19.2%) Intermediate: 38 (48.7%) Beginner: 23 (29.5%) Advanced: 16 (20.5%) Intermediate: 48 (64.9%) Advanced: 18 (24.3%) Beginner: 8 (10.8%) Intermediate: 9 (60%) Advanced: 5 (33.3%) Beginner: 1 (6.7%)

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63 Table 2 2. Relationship between Grade Level, Skill Level, Self Efficacy and Motivation to HRQoL. Model R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics R Square Change F Change df2 Sig. F Change 1 .066 .049 9.10690 .066 3.841 163 .011 2 .190 .165 8.53253 .124 12.342 161 .000 Table 2 3 Independent Variable Strength of Relationships with HRQoL Variable Standardized Coefficient (Beta) Significance Level GradeLevel .211 .004 SkillLevel .115 .207 VolleyballatGP .028 .754 RAIvball .103 .175 SEtotal .325 .000 p<.05 Table 2 4 Relationships between all independent variables and HRQoL Variable Pearson Correlation (r) Self Efficacy 0.350* Motivation (autonomy) 0.214* Experience 0.071 Skill Level 0.162* Grade Level 0.210* Race 0.079 Lunch Status 0.173 p<.05 Table 2 5 Grade and Skill Level composite sc ore and HRQoL Independent Variable Between Groups Sum of Squares (df) Within Groups Sum of Squares (df) Total Sum of Squares (df) F Significance Mean (Standard Deviation) of variables Grade Level 306.856 (2) 14167.267 (164) 14474.123 (166) 1.78 .173 Ele mentary (n= 78) 89.46 (8.57) Middle School (n= 74) 87.68 (9.92) High School (n=15) 84.91 (9.75) Skill Level 591.971 (3) 13882.152 (163) 14474.123 (166) 2.32 .078 Beginner (n= 32) 85.07 (9.19) Intermediate (n= 95) 88.43 (9.44) Advanced (n=39) 90.19 (8.1 7) A mean score of 80 indicates a good HRQoL.

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64 CHAPTER 3 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PARTICIPATION IN RECREATIONAL SPORT AND YOUNG FEMALE HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE Background : PA and its benefits, especially via the avenue of tea m sports has the ability to impact health on multiple levels. This multilevel approach is a popular dimensions on physical, intellectual, emotional, social, occupational, an d spiritual health (Hettler, 1979) Quality of Life is another way to have these six dimensions of wellness was lived. Healt h Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) encompasses the perceived, valued health attributes such as the sense of comfort or well being, the ability to maintain good physical, emotional, and intellectual functions, and the ability to satisfactorily take part in s ocial activities (Bize, Johnson, & Plotnikoff, 2007) It has long been noted that exercise is scientifically linked with health benefits for most who participate in regular PA Studies involving children and adolescents found that those who participate in frequent PA have improved cardio respiratory and muscular fitness, improved bone health, favorable body composition, a reduction in symptoms of depression, and positive influences on concentration, memory, and, classroom behavior ( Strong, et al., 2005; Trudeau & Shepard, 2008; U S Department of Health and Human Services, 2011; Warburton, Nicol & Bredin, 2006). In 2008, Health and Human Services issued PA Guidelines for Americans, paying particular attention to children and adolescents. The guidelines recommend 60 minutes of daily, moderate to vigorous PA with an emphasis on aerobic activity, and muscle and bone building (Centers for Disease Control, 2009) Unfortunately, current

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65 trends depict a different story than the recommended guidelines. Over the last decade, there has been no significant change in the number of adolescents reporting 60 minutes of daily PA (23.1% reported no exercise at all in 2009), but there has be en an increase in the number of obese and overweight (12% and 15.8% in 2009, respectively) adolescents (Centers for Disease Control, 2008) Of those children that do exercise, one of the popular ways for t hem to meet the recommended PA guidelines is through participation in organized team sports. Participants can reap a plethora of benefits from team sport participation. The most e, children who regularly participate in recreational sports throughout the year gain higher levels of muscular strength and anaerobic power, than their non physically active counterparts (Hoffman, Kang, Faigenbaum, & Ratamess, 2005) Research in this area has also found evidence for the positive influence of a group based team building intervention on the PA adherence of youth. There is support for the relationship between team building and work out session attendan ce in a youth population. This supports the idea that youth who exercise in a team setting, as opposed to exercising on their own, are more likely to adhere to routine PA (Bruner & Spink, 2011) In turn, the youth wh o adhere to routine physical activities are more likely to continue PA into their adulthood (Kjnniksen, Fjrtoft, & Wold, 2009) Additionally, there is new research that studied the impact that team sports have on social and emotional health behaviors of their participants. Early research supports the concept that sports involvement is related to positive youth development. Some of the outcomes associated with adolescent sports involvement include higher self es teem

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66 and self efficacy, more intimate and supportive peer relationships, lower rates of sexual activity, enhanced social skills, and greater academic achievement (Eccles & Barber, 1999; Hoffman, Kang, Faigenbaum, & Ratamess, 2005; Larson, 2000; Miller, Sabo, Farrell, Barnes, & Melnick, 1998; Patrick et al., 1999; Pederse n & Seidman, 2004; Richman & Shaffer, 2006; J. Williams, Wake, Hesketh, Maher, & Waters, 2005) Some preliminary research has identified reasons for considering self efficacy and motivation as possible intermediates of the PA and HRQOL relationship. Motl and Snook (2008) examined the relationship between PA and quality of life and found that PA might be positively associated with quality of life in multiple sclerosis through an indirect association, accounted for by self efficacy. Furthermore, to support the idea that youth sport participation has a reciprocal impact on self efficacy, Ashford, Edmunds and French (2010) found that PA self efficacy was significantly higher when vicarious experience was included as a technique. This specifically supports the view that watching a similar other ( i.e., teammate) perform the behavior ( i.e., playing recreational the same activity (Bandura & Schunk, 1981) Research has found that some of the important predictors of self efficacy to participate in future PA include the social cognitive constructs, such as self efficacy in performing the actual task, access to community PA outlets, and posit ive beliefs regarding PA are especially important for minority children including females (Debate, Pettee Gabriel, Zwald, Huberty, & Zhang, 2009; Trost et al., 1997) These findings emphasize h ow PA programs might be more strongly linked with HRQoL under conditions that maximize improvements in self efficacy (Ashford, Edmunds, & French, 2010)

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67 The concept of motivation as a vehicle to youth PA participatio n has been studied at length over the years, with results mostly indicating peer relationship having some impact on participation. Salvy et al. (2009) investigated how the presence of peers and friends impact youth's motivation to be physically active and their actual activity levels. They found that the presence of a friend increased overweight and non overweight youth's motivation to be physically active as well as the amount of time spent participating in PA Stunz and Weiss (2009) found that participant s measure of success and continued motivation in sport was greater when factors such as having meaningful friendships, being accepted by a peer group, and receiving praise from a coach (alongside learning, mastery, and improvement) These factors predict ed greater perceived physical competence, enjoyment, and preference for optimally challenging tasks. Ullrich French and Smith (2006) found that having two or more relatively positive relationships ( i.e., with parent, peer or coach) linked with more optimal motivational outcomes. The follow up study in 2009 confirmed previous findings from the three way interaction between perceived peer acceptance, friendship quality, and mother relationship quality. Interestingly, they also found that when perceived mother relationship was low, probability of continuation was low except when both peer acceptance and friendship quality were high (Ullrich French & Smith, 2009) adding yet another dimension to the complicated area of youth motivation to participate in PA but more specifically team sport participation. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System results indicate that 52.3% of females surveyed in 2009 participated in an organized sport team in the past 12 months d own 5% from the previous year (U.S. Department of Health and Human

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68 Services, 2012) Research suggests a decline in PA from childhood int o adolescence is a trend that is more prominent in girls (Centers for Disease Control, 2010; Pate et al., 2002) Although the causes of gender related differences in PA remain uncl ear, several factors have been suggested which contribute to lower PA levels that are commonly observed in girls, including low self esteem and body image, lack of motivation, enjoyment, interest or valuation of PA low athletic competence, and lack of par ental and peer support (Camacho Miano, LaVoi, & Barr Anderson, 2011; Debate, Pettee Gabriel, Zwald, Huberty, & Zhang, 2009; Dwyer et al., 2006; Vu, M urrie, Gonzalez, & Jobe, 2006) It is critical to address the issues and identify the gender related differences in PA since its implications have lifelong effects, as youth PA is a major indicator of adult PA (Kj nniksen, Fjrtoft, & Wold, 2009) Race and family income equally play a role in PA throughout childhood and into adulthood. In comparison to their white counterparts, studies of African American girls found that they experience a steeper drop in PA repo rt higher levels of physical inactivity in middle adolescence (56% vs. 31%) and are at even greater risk for low levels of PA and engagement in team sports (Kimm et al., 2 002; National Center for Youth Statistics, 2012) Additionally, low income girls tend to participate in team sports at relatively low rates (Quinn, 2004) The short term and long term benefits of PA are understood, an d barriers to participation and reasons for abandoning team sports have been identified, but still a large segment of youth choose not to p articipate in team sports. It is necessary to close the gap in the literature and examine the reasons why female yout h who are current participants choose to remain active team sport participants. This information could lead an understanding of how to keep youth engaged throughout their childhood, so that they

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69 can remain physically active young adults. Qualitative method s, such as interviews, can help to closely examine and explain these associations with early and middle adolescents who are currently participating in PA Additionally, the need to collect rich qualitative data in this subject area is in demand to support and help explain quantitative findings. Purpose This study hopes to accomplish this through one on one interviews with young female PA participants by answering the following research questions (RQ): RQ1 : How do physically active young females perceive th eir HRQoL? What factors contribute to physically active young females HRQoL? RQ2 : How do HRQoL factors affect young female self efficacy to participate in physical activity? RQ3: How do young females perceive their extrinsic and intrinsic motivational expe riences when participating in physical activity? Methods Design The first component, a quantitative HRQoL study conducted by Buckley, Stopka, Chaney, Chaney, Stellefson and Barnett (2013a), sought to assess the relationship between self efficacy, motivati on and HRQoL of young female PA participants, via three instruments: Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (Varni, Seid, & Rode, 1999) Self Regulation Questionnaire (Deci & Ryan, 1985 ) and the Self Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (Muris, 2001) Interested participants were then interviewed for their thoughts on the factors that cause or contribute to self efficacy, motivation and HRQoL and how i t contributed to their PA These interviews occurred in private conference rooms at a mutually convenient time.

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70 Just as quantitative research uses theory to guide the researcher with a frame or model for behavior change, so does qualitative research. A cr itical step to selecting a qualitative theory for research design and analysis is to take into consideration the approach, or role the researcher wishes to play in the process. For example, one unique qualitative approach is constructivism. In constructivi sm, the researcher understands that the learner is an information constructor where people actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality (Fosnot, 2005) New information is lin ked to prior knowledge, thus mental representations are subjective. For example, revealing the answer, they help the constructor find a way to the answer they believe to be correct based off of their past experiences and prior beliefs. It recognizes that learning is an active process of piecing together information, rather than being told a piece of information is valid (Bereiter, 1994; Phillips, 1995) This knowledge is constructed based on personal experiences and hypotheses of the environment. Learners continuously test these hypotheses through social negotiation (Fosn ot, 2005) Each person has a different interpretation and construction of knowledge process. J ean Piaget and John Dewey developed theories of childhood development and education that led to the evolution of constructivism. The constructivist approach is a n ideal approach to use for children because i t is primarily based off of childhood development life problem (H. M. Huang, Rauch, & Liaw, 2010) Dewey believed that problem solving and free discovery were joined together; in other words, knowledge is a dynamic quality, built around the process of discovery (Hickman & Reich, 2009) These same concepts

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71 a re the foundation of popularly used theories surrounding youth development and education. Site The research took place at an all female organization in North Central Florida. The organization serves approximately 650 girls annually through three program s: after school, athletics and summer day camp. The study consists mostly of the athletics program participants who play volleyball, although there was some cross over with girls who participate in two (n= 12 ) or all three programs ( n= 7). For the purposes of this research, volleyball players are referred to as PA participants. An all female site was selected to help close the gap indicated previously in the literature review. Additionally, an athletics program was selected to target physically active girls who already might be PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily PA The athletics program has been well established in the community as a prestigious facility for all girl, recreational sports programs. Over that last 15 y ears, the organization has served over 10,000 area girls athletic needs. Sample Research participants were recruited from the largest program within the organization, the volleyball program. In the spring 2011 volleyball season 237 participants were given information about taking part in the study. Of this convenience sample, 167 girls (70% response rate) ages 8 17 submitted parental consent and verbally assented to participation in the quantitative portion of the study. Of this group, 21 girls submitted p arental consent and verbally assented to participation in the interview portion of the study. The interview sample consisted of elementary school (n=

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72 10), middle school (n=7) and high school (n=4) girls. The majority of participants had played volleyball a t the org anization for over a year (n= 18, 86% ) and described themselves as having intermediate skill level (n= 11, 53 %) of playing the sport. Respondent races included White (n= 14, 67%), Black (n=4, 19%), mixed (n= 2, 10%) and Asian (n=1, 4%), with 19% (n=4) identifying Hispanic as their ethnicity. Lunch status which is an easier way for children to define their socioeconomic status without knowing exact parent income was reported mainly as regular pay (n= 15, 71%), with only 29% (n=6) reporting paying a reduced or no cost for lunch. Participants came from 8 different schools within the county in which the organization operates. All participants had at least played in 6 games, and had been practicing for 10 weeks. The combined win vs. loss record for al l of the participants was 74 wins and 63 losses, with 2 (10%) of the participants not having won a game all season. Procedure and Data Analysis After Institutional Review Board (IRB) and approvals were obtained from the parents of participants were sent emails from the athletic director of the organization to participate in the main quantitative study. Participants who completed the booklet of questionnaires were asked if they were interested in completing a follow up int erview. All participants that were interested were sent an email to schedule an interview during a time that was convenient for them. Interviews were scheduled for 21 participants within 48 hours of contact information receipt and completed between May and July 2012. Tape recorded, semi structured interviews were used to determine the factors that cause and/or contribute HRQOL in young female PA participation and to assess the factors contributing to athlete self efficacy and movitation/amotivation. Intervi ews were conducted on a volunteer basis

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73 and continued until saturation of themes occurred. A semi structured interview design was used to elicit honest responses and to allow the participants to discuss topics of importance that may be unknown to the rese archer (Wengraf, 2001) In order to reduce bias, the researcher trained two volunteers to conduct the interview process using the constructivist approach when eliciting answers. Prior to the start of the interview, the researcher collected signed parental consent forms and provided the participant with a unique identifier, so to keep the recording the session upon giving the participant their identifier and prefaced the interview by reading the interview script listed in Appendix D The participant was asked to read the informed consent and to ask any questions if they arise. After all interview prompts were asked, the researcher read aloud their notes to confirm the opinions and ideas of the participant to ensure validity. The participant was also given the option to add or remove any information that was provided. At the completion of the interview, the researcher thanked the participant and reminded t hem to contact the researcher with any questions or concerns. Interviews were transcribed and all transcripts were re read and compared to the Software Development (2 010) was conducted on the transcribed interviews. Transcriptions were uploaded individually into ATLAS.ti and analyzed using constant comparison analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) Each transcript was read and broken into smaller, more manageable chunks. Each chunk was then inductively coded. Once

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74 all data were coded, they were reevaluated to ensure that similar codes were placed together and general themes were made. The frequency of themes within the data was evalua ted using thematic and constant comparison analyses. Code intensiveness was used to examine quantitative saturation of common data across the interviews. This was done to understand which codes were used most, eliciting a greater understanding of the most important concepts reported by the participants. The more information (e.g., data units) contained in a category, the greater relevance of the category. Certain categories were allowed to possess fewer data units, as long as they still possessed enough uni ts to merit exclusive distinction Results From participant data, the following themes emerged as factors that contribute for young female HRQoL, self efficacy and movitatio n/amotivation: exercise outside of volleyball, coping with stressful situations, network of friends, extrinsic motivators, intrinsic motivators, self efficacy th rough leadership and experience ( Table 3 1 for thematic frequencies ) s were either personal accounts and/or what they have witnessed through their peers. Theme 1: Exercise outside of volleyball 93 comments by 21 (100%) respondents. Exercise outside of volleyball i ncluded the following 2 subthemes : Other sports played Physical activity with friends and family members

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75 Since this sample was strictly made up of volleyball players, many of the participants played on other individual or team sports. Comments made about the other forms of PA that impact participant HRQoL: I do all the sports at XXXX. I play kickball, soccer and cheerleading and volleyball. It depends on the time of year it is, but uh I um play volleyball in the fall and spring. In the spring I play her e because of the high school league, but in the fall I play for my actual high school team. If I have time I play for the school basketball in the winter and then I run track in the spring too. ball in my volleyball season. good in my jeans, ya know? My practices and games are on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, so that means I gotta jog every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. year. I did cheerleading, track, basketball, soccer and both volleyballs. One year I even did all the clinics That was something like, um 4 no5 maybe 6 sports in like 5 months. I like to try as much as I can. I played t ball once and it was dumb so I quit. I played soccer for a little bit, but it was too hot. I like playing volleyball now. s thing. I only did sports in PE, but I liked that because we uh get to try um a bunch of different sports in one week. PE is just a variety of sports we learn, and I do that every day. I used to play soccer, but now I play volleyball and I like it becaus e you have to work and practice everything that we know and try our hardest. Its about how hard you practice because then you win games. Several participants mentioned exercising with friends or family members as a way of keeping in shape after the season is over. Comments made about exercising with friends and family, which impacts participant HRQoL include the following responses:

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76 One of my favorite ways to get exercise is by playing with cousins. They are little and love to jump on the trampoline. Beli eve it or not, that is freaking exercise! My mom is really into fitness, so we take walks together or do wall sits outside and in the gym. We even exercise on vacation. My mom likes to take trips that already have exercising included, like skiing. So now I know how to exercise by skiing too. We ski in Colorado every year. I jog ,run and I play and I do exercising at home. Sometimes with my mom, more times with my sister because she plays volleyball too. I go to the gym with my mom. We also go on walks Oh, and we go My mom and my sister and me like to go to gym at my apartment. If the weather is nice, we swim outside in my pool. too young to go by myself. Also sometimes we will ride bikes together if my My mom and dad are fitness nuts. My mom lost a bunch of weight and now we all exercise together. We go swimming running, hiking, and bike Theme 2: Coping with stressful situations s supported by 87 comments made by 21 ( 100 %) respondents. Participants described stressful situations that were outside of volleyball practices and games. Their responses could be broken down into these 2 concepts: Stressful moments outside of volleyball Healthy ways of dealing with stress Mental and emotional health both play a role in participant HRQoL. Participants were asked to recall a time they felt angry and a time they felt sad or disappointed. Comments made about their feelings included:

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77 Okay, my sister was screaming at me. We were playing in the pool and I was splashing some water on her and she says its my fault that she got stung by the bee so she associated me splashing water on her with the bee sting and I was angry. I was angry at my friend because she got really bossy it was at a field trip Last Sunday, it was the day 4 years since my dad passed away. When my mom broke up with her boyfriend I was really sad and angry because I really liked him. And I was super angry at my mom. But we boyfriend) still keep in touch. They were together for 3 years. nt that I finished. It took me a girl mean things to us. One of my best friends killed himself and I was really sad and confused. I actually found out today that my uncle who lives in Venezuela died. It makes me really sad When I get into arguments with my friends. Like we were playing around and we pushed each other around and we got angry at each other and we had to sit out for a few minutes. pover a week ago I was sad and I think angry..it was last season we lost a game and I was kind of Washington D C and I felt kind of bad. was okay. Well, I was buying a dress at F orever 21 for my 9 th grade graduation banquet an d my mom has like this huge thing for not showing my incision from my back surgery so and all of the dresses were strapless or sleeveless she was just freaking out and she was insisting that I wear a

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78 really ugly sweater over every dress and it was just a h igh stress moment you know and we were really just snapping at each other and then she got al but she was really angry about it you know and it made me angry. Well you know we had just lost someone who was like a part of our school you know it was confusion because I never experienced the death of someone so close to my age. It was just like wo w that can actually happen. A little shocking you know. end of the interview, the participant returns back to answer this question) ivorce, but my dad still lives at home freeloading and my mom is dating another guy who lives in the An important way to gauge HRQoL is by how the person copes and responds to stres sful situations. Participants were asked to recall a time they felt angry and a time they felt sad or disappointed. They were then asked how they deal with these types of situations. Comments made about their feelings included: I try to handle my emotions really well like scream a bit in my head. Or scream at her (sister) or go to my room an scream in the pillow and that is what I do to make myself feel better. I walked away and talked to my other friend and ignore the problem and I just talk to my mom about it and stuff like that. I got out and started watching a volleyball game. It reminded me to calm down and relax and have fun. ng or talk to and getting in a fight or anything. So then I cheered up a little, I guess. I talked to friends around me and we would talk about him (friend that committed suicide) tr ying to keep our feelings up instead of being sad all the time.

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79 When I first joined XXX to play volleyball, my mom had just passed away. I moved in with my aunt and I was so confused and hurt and sad. I was taking it out on the court. It felt good and the n I made friends from my team and that way I was able to have people around me to help me get through it. My mom hugged me, we colored together and we went to the cemetery and put flow ers on his grave. and we shared our emotions and I felt a lot better. I draw or maybe write or lie in bed to make myself feel better. down for a while because she cools down pretty quickly and then we talked about it and she said she try to change her feelings Playing volleyball at XXX takes me away from my crazy h ome life. I just get to go out to practice, do my best, get hugs from coaches and sisters to play too so they have sometime to escape also. Well we had like grief counselors and I ta lked to a lot of other students helped me manage my feelings. Theme 3: Network of friends 102 comments made by 21 (100%) respondents Friends and types of friendships have the ability to play a role in social and emotional self efficacy. Characteristics of participants friends and friendships and included these 3 concepts: Ease of making friends Characteristics of Friends Sense of belo nging

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80 The task of forming and maintaining new friendships is a skill that can play a role in self efficacy and motivation to participate in PA Comments supporting the ease of making friends included: ask me to be their friend or I will ask them and they usually will say yes. Easy to make friends. I make friends everyday at school and I just starting people. m very social I just get along with everyone and making them feel included. being friendly. because I personally I am a nice person and when people see someone nice with a smile come towards them, they just immediately want to be friends with them. having friends is important and being on a team helps you with friends who enjoy the same thing. person I am rather loud and very out there and outgoing and stuff and so h new people cause I am very funny person so its pretty easy. I have always been outgoing and am the first to say something so they have no choice but to say something back and it just keeps going you know? Many of the participants friends shared similar characteristics. Many of responses mentioned the PA participants having friends that they shared similar traits with. Several commented on how their friendships began on their sports team and continued at school long after the season was over. Comments su pporting the characteristics of friends included:

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81 play games, sleepovers and stuff. They are smart, really funny, childish sometimes in how they act, but always supportive of me. They are funny and nice and usually into volleyball. Most of my friends are on volleyball teams. We all love it. My friends are funny and they care about all my actions with others and My friends, they are nice, kind and helpful. Fun, they have good personalities and they mainly play sports. some days we are best f secrets when I tell them. My friends are the ones I always go to, to cheer me up. T hey are super funny an d really caring too I mean... I always gravitate you through everything you know. Strong people. The team atmosphere can provide a sense of belonging for the PA participant. Seve ral PA participants mentioned feeling like they belong within their group of friends and with their teammates. The majority of participants (n= 20, 95%) cited examples where they friendship was reciprocal within their group of friends. Some of those exampl My friends always make me feel happy ..sometimes we get on each I always feel included around my friends, and I never feel left out. Even

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82 of friends. They are all outgoing, loud, and fu nny, which means we are all like. Depends on what day it is. (laughs) Sometimes they are very nice and we do what I want, and sometimes we argue a lot. It works a lot better when we do what I want. My friends make me feel happy because they are the ones that cheer me talk about me and stuff. Other people in my school do. People just assume things about me, but th friends understand me. that I have them (my friends) around. They are so cool and Theme 4: Extrinsic motivators 142 comments made by 21 (100%) respondents. Ryan (2009) defines extri nsic motivation as behavior that aims toward outcomes outside of the behavior itself ( i.e., participation to improve health/looks, stay in shape or impress a friend). Extrinsically motivated activity is often more controlled by something or someone other t han the participant (i.e., less autonomous). Characteristics of female PA participant extrinsic motivators included these 4 concepts: Playing for money Parental support Knowledgeable coaches

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83 The with the participants. A few (n= 4, 19%) specifically mentioned winning as an important part of the game, while many (n= 16, 76%) noted that winning or losing a game does not impact how they feel about their team. In fac t, these girls found value in losing W hen we win and it makes me feel happy about myself and how our teammates and me win when they win and we loose and sometimes I feel like I Loosing makes me a little sad. Volleyball is just supposed to be about having fun and wining, but either way its fine that the point that you lose, you feel upset, but it feels the same like winning tend to play not so good but whe better. Winning makes me feel good, like we have improved a lot. Losing, it just means we have to try to improve on things we did wrong. Like, sometimes if I get mad or like just irritated it will help me get more furious and nobody likes that. No one likes ge the way I feel about the team. If we lose a game it gives us motivation to go out there and win the next one. If we win I feel we are doing a great job. If we lose I think we can work hard and get better. are having fun. When we lose I feel we need to keep our heads in the game and prac tice more. And winning makes me feel we accomplished a lot of practice. They (participant teammates and coaches) let me know we can win no matter how hard we try!

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84 can learn from ou team and your attitude. loose and we were playing well, against an undefeated them then we are coping with like you know, if we miss a bunch of serves in a row or s omething, I always stay smiling. But when I was younger and I was first much if we were winning. A few (n= 3, 14%) participants described getting financial compensation from a fa mily member for some measure of success during their volleyball games. All three of these participants were in the youngest age group (elementary school). When asked if they would continue to play volleyball if compensation were taken away, two participant s answered yes, while one participant was unsure if she could continue below: in the 5/6 th grade league because I can get so much money for my serves, Part of my allowance is playing in volleyball games. I have my chores at home (vac u uming and dishes) and then my other chores are good gr ades in school and going to volleyball practices and games. depends on how many games there are in the season. Parental support is paramount for the positive youth development of any child regardless of participation in sport. However, as previously stated, when perceived

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85 mother relationship was low, probability of continuation was low except when both peer acceptance and friendship quality were high (Ullrich French & Smith, 2009) All participants reported the importance of parental support. Most reported positive support and encouragement to participate in sports. A few participants (n= 3, 14%) noted a lack of parental support from one or bot detailed below: Ever since I was little I wanted to play sports because my dad loved at sports. I thought when I played volley ball, I would like be with him all the really come to my games. I would be surprised if he know my coaches sport I did. Like if I quit volleyball and took up something else another plays too, so they like us all playing together. e is really also very helpful and my brother is just helpful too. In the beginning, my mom used to come to all of my games and practices. Now she makes like 5 or 6 out of 10 a year. She My parents like for me to play volleyball because they always help me practice and they cheer me on when we win or lose a game. My parents support me because volleyball is my passion in sports. They ames on Saturday morning The one thing I really need to feel confident in playing a game is my family because they cheer me on better than my friends do. They like that I play sports, because I am doing something instead of being at home all the time.

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86 The y like that I play volleyball because they are like they support me and they cheer me on. My dad lives in another state, my mom is always here and supportive. I think my dad se es like two games a year. grandma and mom pays for all of it. My mom is more supportive. Knowledgeable coaches were a topic in all participant interviews. Many participants had feedback on the experience levels and teaching styles of their coaches. While most (n=20, 95%) discussed ways in which a knowledgeable coach helps their team, one participant mentioned how an ine xperienced coach could ruin an entire us the game last week. He kept this player in and she well, she is not g to her and she shanked them off the side. It was so frustrating. Coach kept her in, even though she wa s costing us the game. We ended up losing, My coach this season is new too. would be hard for them to figure ou t to tell you things to practice. How could you improve? become the volleyball player you are going to be. so she th 6 th someone who actually plays volleyball and not someone who looks up th grade. t really matter to soccer skills during volleyball.

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87 ball coach that knows stuff instead of one that just started that season. eally here playing. If we but Coach Josh, Morgan and Mariah a re all really nice and wonderful. If you had a mean coach it would be a whole lot harder to play because you might get scared and they would be yelling. But if they are nice and they li ke I know nothing or something. my coach for every improvement and suggestions on getting better. Theme 5: Intrinsic motivators 108 comments made by 21(100%) respondents The general idea behind intrinsic motivation is that there is some reason that motivates someone to participate in an activity. Typically these reasons include the idea that participation in the particular activit y is enjoyable, challenging and interesting to the individual (Frederick & Ryan, 1995) Intrinsic motivators were identified in the interviews and included these 2 concepts: Main reason for participation Recall o f meaningful moments Participants were asked to consider all of the reasons they personally play volleyball and were asked to identify the top reason. Most (n= 19, 90%) indicated that the main reason they participate is because the sport and program itse lf are fun. Other

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88 like that becau Probably because I get to work with my team and I become friends with some of them. play mostly for the FUN of it. I find it fun and some o f my friends tried and it was fun so it chose to play volleyball. Now I mostly use it for fun and to meet new people. Because I like to be active. Because I like to play sports and they make me feel comfortable with the rest of my life. Volleyball is fun! rush school. My friend Kayla got me i nto it and everyone said I should play volleyball because I am tall. So I tried it and now I actually like it! Getting into college is easier with a better resume. Volleyball helps me fill s really important for me to have this fun outlet. At the end of the interview, participants were asked to recall times where volleyball made them feel good and bad about themselves. These responses generated a consensus (n= 20, 95%) amongst participants w here meaningful moments were created by one specific event ( i.e., missing an important serve) versus winning/losing an entire game. Only one participant mentioned winning the championship or being t good about themselves as below:

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89 Whenever I hit the ball over the net cause then I know I can hit it over the net and I know I have learned something. When we were playing for the Eastside the team and the score was 22 24 and we were at 24 and I got the final point for my team. That was equally as good as winning. Once I tipped the ball over ooh, nevermind this one is better... So my friend on my team she sends a ball lik gestures hitting a ball) and then it was like Phew because it was almost out. She got the ball back over but the other team thought they won the com ing back down on their side. We got the point and then we WON! Today when we had our game and I got a great hit from the back row great. Today, when I missed the ball they still hel okay and we got the ball back and I felt confident. Like the first time I ever played in a real game and I did my first serve and it went over! hitting t getting enough practice and we now have a practice net at home and I can get the ball over. Last week I got the ball over serving it about 6 times and they were getting it back When I found out in my 1 st season I was an all star for the volleyball team I was happy! When we almost won our first game this season, but we lost it. It makes me feel good that we are learning from it and that my whole team cheers everyone on and its really helpful. I feel good when I get my serves over because I just started overhanding calling the ball and not getting it. I remember the first time I got an overhand serve over the net, it wa s just technique, it was just me personally, but when I did that I actually saw that I had the ability and I knew I just had to work on it and it was just there.

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90 Theme 6: Self efficacy through leadership and experience by 74 comments made by 21(100%) respondents Self efficacy is defined as a person's level of confidence in their ability to perform partic ular behaviors to produce desired outcomes (Bandura, 1997) In applying this theory to team sports, watching a similar other ( i.e., teammate) perform the behavior ( i.e., playing recreational sport) can raise the indi (Bandura & Schunk, 1981) Characteristics of self efficacy demonstrated through leadership and experience examples included these 2 concepts: Playing at a more advanced level (mastery experience) Comparison of self to teammates (modeling) Participants were asked how they felt about their chances of making a competitive level travel team (club or school team), if they were to try out for it. A majority of respondents (n= 18, 86%) stated that they were confident they had the skill level to play for a more advanced team. The remaining respondents were uncertain that their skill levels were good enough to play for a travel team. More spec ific responses for before and our skill levels are pretty equal so if they could make it I think could. probably do it if it were a middle school one. I think there is a lot to be uncomfortable about, but I would try out and if I

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91 girls since the beginning of my volleyball life. Most of my friends play on club teams and on the school teams. I can talk to them and find out what I have to do to make a team. if we did then I feel confident. year. Participants were asked how their skill level compared to that of their teammates. Most respondents (n= 15, 71%) were modest in their self appraisal, gauging themselves as intermediately skilled. Others felt that they were too inexperienced to consider themselves as one of the best players on their team. More detailed comments on They a re a few girls that are better than me, but I think we are all pretty even. I think I am equal with them, but good at serving. I think the team is good at everything. some o f them have good times and bad and some are both. We are pretty equal. Well, everyone else on my team has been on at least one session so I server. Terrible at setting. And and then better than other people depending on the skill. Each of us are different in our own way cause some of us can serve really good others can hit really good. Different but good in their own way. My skills have gotten much better, but they are some girls that are much better than me. We are pretty even throughout. My teammates have some trouble with some stuff and I have some trouble, so we bala nce each other out.

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92 On a scale of 1 private coach. All of us came not knowing anything, and now we are all at the same level. and some need to practice and work on things. Half the team is about the same level as me and the other half the team just started they really need to work on different things. Li ke I feel like most of us are really good but there are some players that are improving a lot so we are helping them improve. I would be like up in the higher area of a mountain if we ranked it based on a mountain. t the best I think we are all on varied levels. But the people playing now some are better than others on certain things but I think we are all kind of in the same areas. Discussion The research findings highlight factors that cause or contribute to young female self efficacy and movitation/amotivation and the impact it has on HRQoL. The six factor related themes that emerged from participant interviews provide data about exercise outside of volleyball, coping with stressful situations, network of friends, extrinsic motivators, intrinsic motivators, and self efficacy through leadership and experience. The corresponding sub themes provide an in depth analysis of the unique experiences of participants and provide valuable information about where intervention s should be focused. Many participants met the minimum requirements for 60 minutes a day of moderate to vigorous PA by playing in the volleyball program. In addition to this program, the girls also participated in several club or alternative sports such a s soccer, swimming, cheerleading and basketball. It did not seem that girls were purposefully

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93 adding these extracurricular activities to boost their physical health, but rather used these sports as another way to keep busy and out of the house to spend tim e with friends This is aligned with research that found youth were more likely to be active when they are in the company of peers and friends than when they are alone because youth PA typically involves some form of play that requires peers or play partne rs (Salvy et al., 2009) PA for the girls was not only limited to friends, but to parents and siblings as well. Girls reported exercising with a parent in over 37 comments and a sibling in over 14 comments In gener al these young females did not describe these exercise sessions as something forced upon them, but rather a way for them to spend additional time with loved ones. The anticipated benefits of s ocial support are backed by research that has shown that parent and peer suppo rt are associated with higher PA rates among youth (Gustafson & Rhodes, 2006; Hohepa, Scragg, Schofield, Kolt, & Schaaf, 2007; Pugliese & Tinsley, 2007) The role of social support is also demonstrated in results from longitudinal research indicating that lower family support for PA among adolescent girls in 8th grade was associated with a steeper decline in PA between the 8 th and 12th grades (Dowda, Dishman, Pfeiffer, & Pate, 2007) As noted by participants, parental and peer support work hand in hand. Younger respondents reported exercising with parents, while older participants reported exercising in their free time with friends (teammates) or siblings. This trend supports previous research that states as children move into adolescence, the influence of parents on activity levels may be replaced with peer activity involvement, suggesting this form of support may be influe ntial during

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94 childhood, with younger children more likely to report someone in the family being active with them (Lown & Braunschweig, 2008). The girls in this sample faced a wide variety of stressful situations away from the volleyball court. Their experi ences ranged from missing homework assignments, to school bullies to sudden deaths of friends/family. Though it is near impossible to plan for sudden, stressful situations, coping mechanisms can be taught at an early age and can be effective in reducing t he risk of depression and anxiety, that if not treated can follow girls into their adulthood (Lewis, 2012). Typical examples of coping for this sample included ignoring the problem, screaming into a pillow, turning to a parent or friend for comfort, shari ng feelings with a teacher or grief counselor, playing volleyball, or laying down in bed. health of the participants. They described their ease of forming and maintaining new and lasting friendships, by finding friends who shared characteristics similar to themselves. They described their friends as smart, funny, talkative, nice, athletic, helpful, caring and strong. Their relationships with their friends appeared to be mutuall y beneficial, where they felt their friends provided camaraderie and they offered the same in return. Children who have quality friendships have the opportunity to experience cognitive, emotional, and social growth because they engage in greater closeness, loyalty, and equality than in interactions with acquaintances (Moran, 2006). There is research to support the relationship between the sense of belonging and enjoyment of a PA program to retention in the youth sport program (Wright & Weidong, 2009). The m ajority of girls in this sample (95%) reported some sense of belonging

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95 within their groups at school and their teammates. They described only friends being able to understand them, never feeling left out of a group and the pain associated with those feelin gs. The greater sense of belonging described in this research is an important component for planning positive youth developmentally focused sport programs. Extrinsic motivators might be the most difficult area to address since it relies on people and con cepts outside of the control of the participants. From the perspective of the girls, parental support and knowledgeable coaches are areas that have the most direct impact on their sport participation. The coach parent athlete triad has been referred to as (Smith, Smoll, Smith, 1989) The member s of this social system interact with one another in complex ways, and the nature of those interactions can have significant consequences for the psychological development of the child ( Davis & come to a mutual understanding of the important role each one plays in the overall development of the participant. Girls told stories of both the highly supportive parents and the extr emely hands off parents. Those who told stories of positive parental support seemed oblivious of the impact it had on their self efficacy or motivation to participate in sports. However, girls who told stories of unsupportive parents demonstrated a sudden shift in attitude and facial expression when asked the question about parental support. It became evident to the researcher that although the girls might a lack o ethic. For example, one participant even mentioned needing to try harder so her dad

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96 could see how good she plays, in an attempt to have him come out and watch more of her g ames. Continuing around the athletic triangle, girls shared the important qualities of coaches. The most frequent response included that coaches needed experience playing and coaching volleyball in order to be an effective coach. According to participant s, coaches were responsible for modeling behavior and skills and also were responsible for demonstrating best practices of advanced volleyball players. A couple participants stated that since playing volleyball was all about fun, it was important that the coach understand that concept and make practices fun and less disciplinary. Another participant noted how she was the first in her family to play volleyball, so all of the skills she acquired came directly from coaches, teammates and practicing what she le arned. Their feelings echoed what the literature states about the effects of youth coaches. youth sport (Smith & Smoll, 1990; Weiss & Gould, 1986). For example, coaching behavio rs esteem and degree of enjoyment they experience, as well as their desire to continue participating in sport (Conroy & Coatsworth, 2006; Scanlan & Lewthwaite, 1986; Smith, Zane, Smoll, & Coppel,1983; Smoll, Smith, Barnett, & Everett, 1993). On the other hand, undesirable coaching behaviors have been linked to several negative outcomes in youth sport, including decreased sport satisfaction (Fraser Thomas & Ct, 2009) and higher rates of burnout and dropout (Gould, U dry, Tuffey, & Loehr, 1996; Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, & Brire, 2002). PA participation

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97 since participant motivation to play a sport relies heavily on their satisfaction of the sport and continued participation in it. The other concepts identified in the extrinsic motivators theme can be described as products of society: the winning culture and financial compensation for performance. in a wide array of literature, most notably in the context of sport participation. In short, winning should be viewed as a consequence of the athlete's physical and psychological development and not the primary focus of athletic involvement (Cumming, Smoll Smith, 2007). There were a few participants who noted that winning was the most important part of the game and the only take away from participating in a sports league. However, the majority of girls in this study felt that winning was great, but also fo und value in losing games One participant mentioned how losing games actually motivated her team to perform better and work harder and focus during practices. Others made the comment that winning was a direct product of practicing. Overall, this sample ha d good attitudes about winning a losing. Future research should investigate the source of these attitudes. Could they be attributed to parents, coaches, teammates or experience? the concept of a few participants getting financial compensation from a family member for some measure of success during their volleyball games Though very little research exists in the area of monetary compensation for youth sport participants, it seeme d that the general act of paying a child to perform a task negated some of the positive effects of youth sport participation and could impact long term PA participation. All three of the girls who reported receiving financial compensation reported having fun with volleyball,

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98 but two of them reported that one of the main reasons they play is to make money. Longitudinal studies on young participants who receive financial compensation is necessary before making any conclusions on the overall impact this coul d have on motivation and HRQoL. Intrinsic motivation is the driving force behind autonomous activity; when people are intrinsically motivated, they are by definition self determined. The two intrinsic motivation concepts identified during interviews invol ved the main reason for participation and the recall of meaningful moments. When p articipants were asked to consider all of the reasons they personally play volleyball their responses mostly stated that they play because the sport is fun and the environmen t in which they learn the sport is fun. Additionally, they mentioned the opportunity to make new friends and spend more time with old friends as another added bonus of sport participation. A few participants noted the ease of the sport and how it provided the opportunity to stay in shape. A couple participants discussed the future. They mentioned scholarships for college and how they enjoyed participating because it gave them a more rounded resume when applying for college. Meaningful moments responses gene rated a consensus (n= 20, 95%) amongst participants where meaningful moments were created by one specific event ( i.e., missing an important serve) versus winning/losing an entire game. This is a critical finding, as positive activity related memories may c ontribute to greater levels of adult activity participation, especially for women (A. M. Thompson, Humbert, & Mirwald, 2003) Many participants would share a story and immediately follow it up with what they learne d from that moment. For example, one participant described working all season towards getting her overhand serves (a more advanced

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99 volleyball skill) over the net. She described practicing at home and school, and still failing on all of her attempts. On her last try, during a regular season game she was able to successfully get the ball over from her overhand serve. She mentioned how good it made her feel to work so hard for something and finally achieve her goal and immediately applied that to her final exa ms at school. deserve. Maybe my final exams will be just like volleyball. I tried hard all school year and will nail my final exams. Self efficacy is defined as a person's level of c onfide nce in their ability to perform particular behaviors to produce desired outcomes (Bandura, 1997) Characteristics of self efficacy demonstrated through leadership and expe rience examples included the two con cepts of p laying at a more advanced level and the c omparison of self to teammates Participants were asked how they felt about their chances of making a competitive level travel team (club or school team), if they were to try out for it. A majority of resp ondents (n= 18, 86%) stated that they were confident they had the skill level to play for a more advanced team. Their confidence stemmed from having friends who played at a more competitive level and from their own experience in playing volleyball. Additio nally, m ost respondents (n= 15, 71%) were modest in their self appraisal gauging themselves as intermediately skilled. The players who described themselves as intermediately skilled seemed to assume the responsibility of teaching the beginners how to pla y. For example, one participant noted that she was one of those players on her team that came in with a lot of skill, but that she helped her new teammates as much as she could so the whole team could do better. This peer modeling is a popular and effectiv e way for players to gain self confidence in performing tasks. The teams in this league were formed based on skill level, where players were

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100 evaluated preseason and placed on equally skill balanced teams. This procedure could be important for league coord inators to adopt, if the goal is to have a developmentally focused youth sport programs. Limitations Several limitations of the study limit interpretation of the possible findings. For example, the study relies solely on self selected, PA ndividual experiences at one point in time. Volunteer bias the bias that comes from the fact that a particular sample can contain only those participants who are actually willing to participate in the study or experiment (Heiman, 2001) is of concern, but every effort was made to engage all volleyball players to participate. Recall bias may also pose a problem in participants, however, these follow up interviews were conducted within the two months following the orig inal surveys. The use of convenience sampling limits the generalizability of the study findings to other populations of recreational sport participants; however the results may be useful for all female recreational sports leagues. The study was a good repr esentation i.e., Hispanic, Asian and mixed race) were under represented. Future research should focus on recruitment strategies within these underrepresented populations in order to provide a true understanding of the self efficacy, motivation and HRQoL phenomenon of young female recreational sport participants. Summary, Conclusion and Implications for Future Research Self efficacy and motivation are important aspects of programming for PA programs, especially those targeting young females. Since PA has the ability to impact

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101 overall HRQoL during youth and into adulthood, it is critical to examine the reasons why girls continue to participate in PA programs. Some reasons for continued partic ipation described by this sample include the ease of learning the skills of the sport, the fun of playing the sport, the opportunity to network with new and old friends and the added bonus of keeping physically active. Girls identified parental involvement and knowledgeable coaches as extrinsic motivators. This provides an opportunity for league administrators of youth recreational programs an area to improve for their participants, since it is one they cannot directly control themselves. One opportunity to improve the athletic triangle is to invite coaches to participate in workshops to improve coach efficacy and parents to participate in clinics that could offer best practices for providing healthy forms of motivation for their child. Administrators should also consider following a model of peer mentoring for their program participants. This will provide the opportunity for reciprocal developmental growth for both the novice and advanced participants. Future research could explore the areas on the attitudes about winning a losing. More specifically, it should look at the source of these attitudes and whether it could be derived from parents, coaches, teammates or experience. Furthermore, future qualitative research could be more beneficial if conducted in fo cus groups and should include a sample of participants of both sexes, who do not play sports in order to make findings of the impact of PA on self efficacy and motivation more generalizable.

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102 Table 3 1 Themes for factors that affect self efficacy, moti va tion and HRQoL in young girls Factors By Theme Comments Theme 1: Exercise outside of volleyball Other sports played Physical activity with friends and family members 93 42 51 Theme 2: Coping with stressful situations Stressful moments outside of voll eyball Healthy ways of dealing with stress 87 36 51 Theme 3: Network of Friends Ease of making friends Characteristics of Friends Sense of belonging 102 31 50 21 Theme 4: Extrinsic Motivators Playing for money Parental support Knowle dgeable coaches 142 35 4 33 70 Theme 5: Intrinsic Motivators Main reason for participation Recall of meaningful moments 108 42 66 Theme 6: Self Efficacy through leadership and experience. Playing at a more advanced level Comparison of self to teamm ates 74 31 43

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103 CHAPTER 4 USING THE SELF DETERMINATION THEORY TO UNDERSTAND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION IN RECREATIONAL SPORT AND HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF YOUNG FEMALES Background In 2008, Health and Human Services issued PA Guidelines f or Americans, paying particular attention to children and adolescents. The guidelines recommend 60 minutes of daily, moderate to vigorous PA with an emphasis on aerobic activity, and muscle and bone building (Centers for Disease Control, 2009) A popular way for children and adolescents to meet the recommended PA guidelines is through participation in organized team sports. The National Council of Youth Sports reported that in the United States alone, it is estimated that about 60.3 million youth 6 to 18 years old participate in agency sponsored sports (National Council of Youth Sports, 2008). There are a plethora of benefits from team sport participation. The most obvious benefit is the health effect PA ha s on team sport participants. For example, children who regularly participate in recreational sports throughout the year may gain higher levels of muscular strength and anaerobic power, than their non physically active counterparts (Hoffman, Kang, Faigenbaum, & Ratamess, 2005) Additionally, there is new research that studied the impact that team sports have on health behaviors of their participants. Bruner & Spink (2011) found evidence for the positive influence of a group based team building intervention on the PA adherence of youth. They found support for the relationship between team building and work out session attendance in a youth population. This supports the idea that youth who exercise in a team setting, as opposed to exercising on their own, are more likely to adhere to routine PA.

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104 Physical Activity for Girls Research suggests a decline in PA from childhood into adolescence; a trend that is more prominent in girls (Centers for Disease Control, 2010; Pate et al., 2002) Although the causes of gender related differences in PA remain unclear, several factors have been suggested which contribute to lower PA levels that are commonly obse rved in girls, including low self esteem and body image, lack of motivation, enjoyment, interest or valuation of PA low athletic competence, and lack of parental and peer support (Camacho Miano, LaVoi, & Barr Anderson, 2011; Debate, Pettee Gabriel, Zwald, Huberty, & Zhang, 2009; Dwyer et al., 2006; Vu, Murrie, Gonzalez, & Jobe, 2006) It is critical to address the issues and identify the gender rela ted differences in PA since its implications have lifelong effects, as youth PA is a major indicator of adult PA (Kjnniksen, Fjrtoft, & Wold, 2009) Race and family income equally play a role in PA throughout c hildhood and into adulthood. In comparison to their white counterparts, studies of African American girls found that they experience a steeper drop in PA report higher levels of physical inactivity in middle adolescence (56% vs. 31%) and are at even great er risk for low levels of PA and engagement in team sports (Kimm et al., 2002; National Center for Youth Statistics, 2012) Additionally, low income girls tend to partici pate in team sports at relatively low rates (Quinn, 2004) One explanation of this may be the cost of equipment. Studies do indicate that mothers and fathers purchase more equipment for boys than girls for sport relate d activity (Fredricks & Eccles, 2005), and payment of fees has been associated with higher activity levels of boys during a 20 month period (Sallis et al., 1999a). The long term beneficial consequences of reducing financial barriers to activity during chil dhood are the development of positive activity related memories,

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105 which may contribute to greater levels of adult activity participation, especially for women (Thompson et al., 2003). Benefits of Sport Involvement Early research supports the concept that s ports involvement is related to positive youth development. Some of the outcomes associated with adolescent sports involvement include higher self esteem and self efficacy, more intimate and supportive peer relationships, lower rates of sexual activity, en hanced social skills, and greater academic achievement (Eccles & B arber, 1999; Hoffman, Kang, Faigenbaum, & Ratamess, 2005; Larson, 2000; Miller, Sabo, Farrell, Barnes, & Melnick, 1998; Patrick et al., 1999; Pedersen & Seidman, 2004; Richman & Shaffer, 2006; J. Williams, Wake, Hesketh, Maher, & Waters, 2005) Delisle et al. (2010) suggested that adolescents participating in increased levels of PA especially team sports would be less likely to engage in health risk behaviors and more likely to engage in health promoting behaviors, demonstrating that adolescents who en gaged in high levels of vigorous PA via team sports, were using less marijuana, had a healthier dietary intake, greater stress management skills, and healthier sleep patterns than those engaged in low or no PA This wide array of health topics can all be placed under one umbrella: Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). HRQoL is defined as the physical, psychological, and social domains of health, influenced by personal experience, beliefs, preferences, and expectations (Testa & Simonson, 1996) and is acknowledged as an essential health outcome measure in clinical trials and health services research and evaluation. The benefits of sport related PA are tremendous and have the ability to impact HRQoL at multiple level s, but still a large segment of youth choose not to participate in team sports. These barriers to participation and reasons for abandoning team sports have

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106 been previously studied. However there is a gap in the literature that fails to examine the reasons why youth who are current participants choose to remain active team sport participants. Some preliminary research has identified reasons for considering motivation as a possible intermediate of the PA and HRQOL relationship. The concept of motivation as a vehicle to youth PA participation has been studied at length over the years, with results mostly indicating peer relationship having some impact on participation. Salvy et al. (2009) investigated how the presence of peers and friends impact youth's motiva tion to be physically active and their actual activity levels. They found that the presence of a friend increased overweight and non overweight youth's motivation to be physically active as well as the amount of time spent participating in PA Stunz and We iss (2009) found that participants measure of success and co ntinued motivation in sport was greater when factors such as having meaningful friendships, being accepted by a peer group, and receiving praise from a coach (alongside learning, mastery, and im provement) These factors predicted greater perceived physical competence, enjoyment, and preference for optimally challenging tasks. These predictors are linked to highly autonomous behaviors, where participants are taking part in the PA because of their own choosing. Ultimately, this means the individual is highly motivated to participate in PA because of those predictors. Ullrich French and Smith (2006) found that having two or more relatively positive relationships ( i.e., with parent, peer or coach) cor responded with more optimal motivational outcomes. The follow up study in 2009 confirmed previous findings from the three way interaction between perceived peer acceptance, friendship quality, and mother relationship quality. Interestingly, they also found that when perceived mother

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107 relationship was low, probability of continuation was low except when both peer acceptance and friendship quality were high (Ullrich French & Smith, 2009) adding yet another dimens ion to the complicated area of youth motivation to participate in PA but more specifically team sport participation. If PA has a proven impact on HRQoL, then motivation to participate in a sport plays a critical role in achieving levels of PA needed to i mpact HRQoL. The Self Determination Theory is a popular framework that will help explore the role of motivation for young female PA participants. Self Determination Theory Self Determination Theory (SDT), developed by Deci and Ryan, represents a broad fra mework for the study of human motivation and personality (Deci & Ryan, 1985) Perhaps more importantly SDT focuses on how social and cultural factors volition and in itiative in addition to their well being and the quality of their performance (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Deci & Ryan, 2012) SDT differentiates types of behavioral r egulation in terms of the degree to which they represent autonomous or self determined (versus controlled) functioning. Intrinsic motivation is the driving force behind autonomous activity; when people are intrinsically motivated, they are by definition se lf determined. Extrinsically motivated activity, in contrast, is often more controlled (i.e., less autonomous) (Deci & Ryan, 2012; Levesque et al., 2007; Ryan & Patrick, 2009) Formally, SDT comprises five mini theories, each of which was developed to explain a set of motivationally based phenomena. Those theories are: Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET), Organismic Integration Theory (OIT), Causality Orientations Theory, Basic Psychological Needs Theory, and Goal Contents Theory (GCT) (Ryan &

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108 Patrick, 2009) A combination of three mini theories will be used for this study: CET, OIT and GCT. The remaining theories are outside of the scope of this study. In CET, intrinsic motivation is emphasized. The general idea behind intrinsic motivation is that there is some reason that motivates a person to participate in an activity. Typically these reasons include the idea that participation in the particular activity is enjoyable, challenging and interesting to the individual (Frederick & Ryan, 1995) CET is a social psychology of intrinsic motivation; it is not concerned with what causes intrinsic motivat ion, but rather the conditions that facilitate intrinsic motivation versus those that diminish or undermine it (Ryan & Patrick, 2009) The theory argues of autonomy ( i.e., drills at practice are too challenging, leaving room for low success rate) will diminish intrinsic motivation, where as events that support feelings of autonomy ( i.e., practices that involve all players, regardless of skill level) will enhance it. The concepts of integration ( i.e., identifying one's self as a participant of PA ) and identified regulation ( i.e., accepting the value of participation in sport as personally important) are considered relatively autonomous (Deci & Ryan, 2000) OIT addresses the topic of extrinsic motivation in its various forms, with their properties, determinants, and consequences (Deci & Ryan, 2000) Broadly speaking, extrinsic motiva tion is behavior that aims toward outcomes outside of the behavior itself ( i.e., participation to improve health/looks, stay in shape or impress a friend). Extrinsically motivated activity is often more controlled by something or someone other than the par ticipant (i.e., less autonomous). However, SDT differentiates types of extrinsic motivation in terms of the degree to which it has been internalized, suggesting

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109 that the more fully it is internalized and integrated with in one's self, the more it will be th e basis for autonomous behavior. (Ryan & Patrick, 2009) External regulation ( i.e., rewards or punishments for performance) and introjected regulation ( i.e., behaviors that make an individual feel better about their s elf worth or to avoid disapproval from someone) are considered to be extrinsic motivation spectrum. The final mini theory GCT grows out of the distinctions between intrinsic and extrinsic goals and their impact on motivat ion and wellness. Extrinsic goals such as financial success, appearance, and popularity/fame have been specifically contrasted with intrinsic goals such as community, close relationships, and personal growth, with the latter more likely associated with gre ater wellness and greater well being (Deci & Ryan, 2000) The researcher will use the concepts of this mini theory to help guide the questions for the interview process, in order to get a better understanding of specif ic intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and how those factors impact HRQoL. SDT has helped make great empirical strides in the area of motivation and sport participation. Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, & Briere (2001) found that elite swimmers who were more autonomously motivated persisted at their sport longer than those who were more controlled in their motivation. This indicates the need for DYS programs to address motivations of its participants, so that they can achieve autonomy. Additionally, research has shown how autonomy has the power to guide behavior mindset well into adulthood. For example, autonomous motivation (as well as perceived competence) in both German and American college students positively predicted their well being (Levesque et al., 2007) Furthermore, there are outcomes specifically related to

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110 HRQoL. Studies have shown that when people are more autonomously motivated for changing their health risk behaviors ( i.e., stopping smoking, ad opting a healthier diet, exercising more regularly) they are more successful in changing such behaviors and maintaining those changes over time (Deci & Ryan, 2012) These concepts imply that motivation and self eff icacy together could impact participation in PA thereby affecting o verall HRQoL in the participant. Purpose There is a gap in the literature when it comes to HRQ o L of healthy children and factors that influence health status There are factors such as m otivation and self efficacy to participate in PA, which may play a large part in overall physical health of young children. An even larger gap exists when th e child population is narrowed down to only females The purpose of this study is to close the gap by exploring factors and determinants of young female athlete participation in structured PA By exploring participant extrinsic and intrinsic motivations and self efficacy programming for all female sports leagues can address a wide variety of program pa rticipant needs, so that it impacts participant HRQoL. This study seeks to provide evidence that may explain the following research questions (RQ): RQ 1 : Is there a relationship between motivational factors (autonomy) and self reported HRQoL of physically active young females? RQ2: Which construct of the Self Determination Theory ( external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation or amotivation ) is a better predictor of HRQoL among young female athletes?

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111 Methods Site The research took place at an all female organization in North Central Florida. The organization serves approximately 650 girls annually through three programs: after school, athletics and summer day camp. The study consists mostly of the athletics program participants who play volleyball, although there was some cross over with girls who participate in two (n= 54) or all three programs ( n= 22). For the purposes of this research, volleyball players are referred to as PA participants. An all female site was selected to help close the gap indicated previously in the literature review. Additionally, an athletics program was selected to target physically active girls who already might be PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily PA The athletics program has been well established in the community as a prestigious facility for all girl, recreational sports programs. Over that last 15 years, the organization has served over 10,00 0 area girls athletic needs. Sample Research particip ants were recruited from the largest program within the organization, the volleyball program. In the spring 2011 volleyball season 237 participants were given information about taking part in the study. Of this convenience sample, 167 girls (70% response r ate) ages 8 17 submitted parental consent and verbally assented to participation in the study. An almost even representation of elementary (n= 78 46.7% ) and middle school girls (n=74 44.3 % ) participated in the study. A small number of high school girls ( n=15, 9%) also participated in the study. The majority of participants had played volleyball at the organization for over a year (n= 80,

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112 47.9%) and described themselves as having intermediate skill level (n= 95, 56.9%) of playing the sport. Procedures A cross sectional, descriptive research design was used. The University of the researcher permission prior to the start of the study. Surveys were administered to conveni ence samples of girls who gave verbal assent, were present at practice on the data collection day, and had submitted parental consent. Proctors were present to help any child who could not read or understand questions in the surveys. It was emphasized to t he participants that: (a) there were no right or wrong responses to any of the items, (b) their parents or coaches would not see their responses in order to elicit honest responses about their own perceptions of the ir PA experience and (c) the data (i.e., completed questionnaires) would be treated in strictest confidence and remain locked in a filing cab inet at the host university Participants also had the option to withdraw from the study at any time without negative repercussions. To this end, no studen t refused to participate, nor did any withdraw from the study. The questionnaire took approximately 30 minutes to complete, after which the students were thanked for their cooperation. All participants were given a unique identifier, as to ensure confident iality. Variables The independent variables included motivation ( i.e., to participate in PA or to participate in volleyball itself as a form of PA ), and other demographical data including lunch status, race, length of time participated in recreational pro gramming, reported skill level. The dependent variable was HRQoL.

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113 Instrumentation Since combinations of constructs in different theories were utilized for this study, two instruments were needed to conduct this study: Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), and the Self Regulation Questionnaire Sport Specific. A survey booklet was developed using a compilation of items selected from pre established surveys. All surveys have been used with similar populations and were found to be valid and reliable E), AND .88 (SEQ C). Internal consistency across these two scales was also measured and found the 50 score o f .84. A brief description and rational for selection of the instrumentation follows. PedsQL To determine participant HRQoL, the PedsQL Inventory was used. Varni developed this modular approach to measuring HRQoL in healthy children and adolescents and those with acute and chronic health conditions (Varni, Seid, & Rode, 1999) Multiple researchers found this instrument to be valid and reliable for child self assessment of HRQoL (Amiri et al., 2012; Carle, Dewitt, & Seid, 2011; S. E. Davis et al., 2010; Seid et al., 2010; Varni, Limbers, & Burwinkle, 2007) four PedsQL 4.0 Gene ric Core Scales (Physical, Emotional, Social, School) were administered to 963 children and 1,629 parents (1,677 subjects accrued overall) recruited from pediatric health care settings. Item level and scale level measurement properties were computed. Inter

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114 acceptable for group compariso ns. Validity was demonstrated using the known groups method, correlations with indicators of morbidity and illness burden, and factor analysis. In this instrument, participants read statements about their health ( i.e., for me to run; I have troub le getting along with other kids, etc.) and respond to the statement using the likert scale to determine how much they agree with the statement ( i.e., 0= never, 1= almost never, 2= sometimes 3= often and 4= almost always). This scale has been used in other published research because of its accessibility, readability and ability to expand its questions to children from ages 2 18. Although it is not used in this study because is it outside of the scope of the research questions another unique component of t his instrument is the parent proxy instrument that was developed assessment instrument of HRQoL, questions are broken up into four subscales of functioning: physical, emotional, social and school. These scales are then scored into three separate categories: physical health summary psychosocial health summary and total health summary. The items are reversed scored, where higher scores indicate better HRQOL (Varni, Seid, & Rode, 1999) For the purposes of this research, these scores were then assigned a number to correspond with level of HRQoL. Scores between 0 10 scores of 11 scores of 51 scores from 76 100 we re assigned a 4 and those participants were deemed to have

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115 inferences between HRQoL level and self efficacy/ motivation. The PedsQL Measurement Model used for this research design was the basic generic core scale, since the purpose of this research is to determine general HRQOL of healthy participants and not HRQOL for a specific disease or condition. SRQ E The SRQ E questionnaires developed by Deci & Ryan, assess domain sp ecific individual differences in the types of motivation or self regulatio n (Levesque et al., 2007) That is, the questions concern the regulation of a particular behavior (e.g., exercising regularly) or class of behaviors (e.g., engaging in team sport activities) This scale has frequently been used to have participants assess their reasons for exercising or playing a sport. Other researchers have noted its consistency and validity in PA motivation ( Puente & Anshel 2010; Saebu & Srensen, 2010; Silva et al., 2010) Validation of the scale conducted recently by Levesque in 2007 to find if the scale was suitable for use across sites and health behaviors (tobacco use, diet and exercise) was obtained from four different geographical sites with a total of 2731 participants completing the SRQ. Invariance analyses support ed the validity of the SRQ across all four sites and all three health behaviors. Overall, the internal consistency of each subscale was acceptable (most a values >0.73) (Levesque et al., 2007) The scale has also been used to help identify sedentary behaviors and barriers to PA for c hildren and minority girls, making this scale a suitable choice to help determine young female motivation to participate in exercise or specific sport (Spruijt Metz, Nguyen Michel, Goran, Ch ou, & Huang, 2008; Wang, Chia, Quek, & Liu, 2006) The format for these questionnaires was introduced by Ryan and Connell in 1989. Each questionnaire asks why the participant does a behavior (or class of behaviors) and then provides several

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116 possible reas ons that have been preselected to represent the different styles of regulation or motivation For example, on the questionnaire for motivation for volleyball, question w ith a Likert scale to offer their feedback ( i.e., scale with not at all true, somewhat true and very true at the beginning, middle a nd end.) It is structur ed so that it asks one question and provides responses that represent amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation (taking in a regulation but not accepting it as one's own) identified regulation (accepting the value of the activity as personally important) and intrinsic motivation (based on the satisfactions of behaving (Ryan & Patrick, 2009) The amotivation subscale measures not being motivated; T he remaini ng four subscales combined help determine the degree to which one feels autonomous with respect to engaging in PA The more internalized the extrinsic motivation, the more autonomous the person will be when enacting the behaviors (R. M. Ryan & Deci, 2000) PA can be considered synonymous with one another. Scoring the SRQ E can be done in two different ways: finding one of the five subscale scores (exte rnal regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation or amotivation) or by finding the Relative Autonomy Index (RAI) The amotivation subscale is not used in RAI, because the RAI concerns the degree to which is self determined, and the amotivation subscale measures not being motivated. To form the RAI, the external subscale is weighted 2, the introjected subscale is weighted 1, the identified subscale is weighted +1, and the intrinsic

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117 subscale is weighted + 2. In other words, the controlled subscales are weighted negatively, and the autonomous subscales are weighted positively. The more controlled the regulatory style represented by a subscale, the larger its negative weight; and the more autonomous the regul atory style represented by a subscale, the larger its positive weight (Deci & Ryan, 2012) The formula used to calculate RAI is: 2x Intrinsic+ Identified Introjected 2X External (R. M. Ryan & Patrick, 2009) Data Analysis Data were imported into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) items, therefore listwise deletion method was employed to analyze complete cases. A significance value of = 0.05 was set for analyses in this study. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all independent variables and determined frequencies, measures of central tendency (mean, median), and spread (standard deviation) of the surveyed population. Finally s tandard multiple regression, and their respective assumptions testing (sample size, multicolinearity and singularity, outliers, normality, linearity, homoscedasticity and independence of residuals) were performed to assess associations between Self Determi nation Theory Subscales ( external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation or amotivation ) and HRQoL (Pallant, 2010)

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118 Results This group was made up of 167 participants. An almo st even representation of elementary (n= 78 46.7% ) and middle school girls (n=74 44.3 % ) participated in the study. A small number of high school girls (n=15, 9 .0 %) also participated in the study. The majority of participants had played volleyball at the organization for over a year (n= 80, 47.9%) and described themselves as having intermediate skill level (n= 95, 56.9%) of playing the sport. Comparable to the demographics of the county in which the organization operates, 61% of the all female sample wa s white, while 29.5 % described themselves as black or mixed race. Surprisingly, a large number of participants did not know their lunch status (n= 83, 49.7%), while the next largest part of the sample reported paying regular prices for lunch (n= 50, 29.9% ) and a smaller portion on the sample reported paying free/ or reduced fees for lunch (n= 33, 19.8%). The majority of the participants had some experience playing volleyball (n= 114, 68.3%), while this was the first season playing volleyball for some (n= 5 1, 30.5%). The mean HRQoL score for this sample was 88.26, indicating a good HRQoL level for female PA participants. Table 4 1 shows the mean, min and max scores, and standard deviation for each SDT subscale. The mean score for relative autonomy in motiv ation to participate in PA was 4.05 with a standard deviation of 4.84 and a range from 12 to 18. The mean scores across all autonomous subscales were positive and higher than their non autonomous counter parts, indicating some extent of general autonomy f or this sample. Multiple regression was used to determine if a relationship existed between HRQoL, SDT subscales and other demographical data. The relationship between perceived HRQoL (as measured by the PedsQL Inventory) and perceived relative autonomy ( as measured by the SRQ E relative autonomy index) was investigated using

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119 Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. Preliminary analyses were performed to ensure no violation of the assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity. There was a moderate, positive correlation between the two variables, r=.31, p < .0005, with high levels of perceived autonomy associated with high levels of HRQoL. Additionally, moderate correlation was also found with the intrinsic motivation subscale and HRQoL, r = .31, p<.0005, with high levels of perceived intrinsic motivation correlated with high levels of HRQoL. These were the only two variables to make significant contributions to predicting HRQoL. Though not significant with HRQoL, a number of observations ca n be made with the other correlations between the continuous variables. It should be noted that relative autonomy was moderately, positively correlated with intrinsic motivation (r= .54) and identified regulation (r=.20) and strongly, negatively correlated with introjected regulation (r= .54), external regulation (r= .670) and amotivation (r= .075), just as the literature suggested. All subscales were significantly correlated to one another, with the exception of amotivation which was not significantly c orrelated to any other SDT subscale. After running a multiple regression analysis on demographical data, only grade level (r= 0.21, p= .004) and skill level (r= .162, p= .0035) were found to have significant, unique contributions to the prediction of HR QoL. The total variance explained by the model as a whole was 19%, F (5, 161) = 7.56, p<.001 (Pallant, 2010). Discussion This study sought to find out if there was a relationship between perceived motivational factors (autonomy) and perceived HRQoL in you ng female recreational sport participants. It found a moderate, positive association between good HRQoL and high levels of autonomy. This information is provides evidence for how motivation to

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120 participate in PA has a relationship with participant HRQoL. Th ese findings are important for practitioners planning Developmentally focused Youth Sports programs (DYS). These programs teach sport and life skills concurrently, using sport as a medium for providing youth with opportunities for psychological, emotional, social, and intellectual growth (Debate, Pettee Gabriel, Zwald, Huberty, & Zhang, 2009) Using DYS in the development and implementation of programming, will help achieve good HRQoL for its participants. Hartwig an d Meyers (2003) observed that the real strength as well as popularity of these approaches lies in their ability to address both healthy and unhealthy behaviors while simultaneously empowering clients to build upon their own strengths and develop in positiv e ways (Watson & Lemon, 2011) When looking into the relationship between HRQoL and specific subscales of the SDT, intrinsic motivation was the best predictor of HRQoL, as it was the only subscale to make a signifi cant, unique contribution (r=.309, p<.0005). Other subscales followed the norm, where the controlled subscales were weighted negatively, and the autonomous subscales are weighted positively. The more controlled the regulatory style represented by a subscal e, the larger its negative weight; and the more autonomous the regulatory style represented by a subscale, the larger its positive weight (Deci & Ryan, 2012) The controlled subscales (external (r= .106) regulation an d interjected (r= .088) regulation) had a negative correlation, meaning that decreased HRQoL means an increase in external and interjected regulation). The more autonomous subscales (intrinsic (r=.309*) motivation and identified (r=.127) regulation) had a positive correlation, meaning that increased levels of HRQoL means increased levels of autonomy.

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121 Limitations There were several limitations to this study. First, data collected from this cross sectional study reflects responses from participants at a spe cific point in time. It will not follow respondents longitudinally to view personally normative behaviors and therefore direct causation cannot be established. Additionally, selection bias could have occurred with the population of interest, because it was a convenience sample of young females at an organization familiar to the researcher. Because of this, generalizing is a major limitation of this study. Though the researcher feels confident that this study can be replicated in many all female, youth athle tic programs throughout the country, the results may not be the same for every community. This organization is different in that it belongs to a very large network of collaborating nonprofit organizations. Communities wishing to replicate this design, migh t not get the same results if they lack the resources needed to collaborate with other nonprofit agencies. It is suggested that a longitudinal study of the population be observed for direct causation. If possible, it would also be ideal to survey a simil ar sample of non physically active female youth as a control group for a more experimental design. Additionally, further groups of comparison might include an all male population, a broader variety of sports, and different levels of play ( i.e., recreatio na l versus competitive sports). Finally, the specific reasons behind lack or excess of self efficacy and motivation need to be explored further to fully understand from the participant point of view what drives or deters them from participating in PA es pecially team sports. Interviews and focus groups with players, parents and coaches could help investigate this issue further.

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122 Summary, Conclusion, and Implications for Future Research The study found significant correlations to HRQoL with intrinsic motiv ation, relative autonomy, grade level and skill level of females in a recreational sports league. It provides evidence to the idea that motivation to participate in PA can impact participant HRQoL. Though not significant, the study also found that controll ed subscales of autonomy (external regulation and introjected regulation) were negatively correlated, while more autonomous scales (intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) were positively correlated with HRQoL. Of all the subscales, intrinsic motiv ation is the best predictor of HRQoL, as it was the only subscale to make a unique, significant contribution. This information is important to those practitioners planning Developmentally focused Youth Sports programs (DYS). Using DYS in the development an d implementation of programming, will help achieve good HRQoL for its participants In this particular instance, league administrators can address the issues surrounding intrinsic ( i.e., participation in the particular activity is enjoyable, challenging an d interesting to the individual (Frederick & Ryan, 1995) motivation), through way of a focus group or interviews with highly autonomous PA participants. These participants may be able to shed light on what drives them to participate in PA which can aide in the retention and enjoyment of the sport by its participants. This increased enjoyment and prolonged participation can aide in the HRQoL in young females now and as they get older. It is suggested that a longitu dinal study of the population be observed for direct causation. If possible, it would also be ideal to survey a similar sample of non physically active female youth as a control group for a more experimental design. Finally, the reasons behind lack or exce ss of self efficacy and motivation need to be explored

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123 further to fully understand from the participant point of view what drives or deters them from participating in PA especially team sports. Interviews and focus groups with players, parents and coaches could help investigate this issue further.

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124 Table 4 1 Mean, min and max scores, and standard deviation for HRQoL and SDT subscal es Mean SD Min Score Max Score HRQoL 88.26 9.33 54.29 100.00 Amotivation 1.54 .92 1.00 5.67 Intrinsic 4.82 1.40 1.00 7. 00 Identified 5.40 1.27 1.00 7.00 Introjected 3.30 1.48 1.00 7.00 External 3.85 1.71 1.00 7.00 Relative Autonomy 4.05 4.84 12.00 18.00 Table 4 2. Intercorrelations between the continuous variables HRQoL Intrinsic Identified Introjected External Am otivation Relative Autonomy HRQoL 1.00 .309 .127* .088 .106 .162 .314* Intrinsic .309* 1.00 .622 .197* .209* .018 .535* Identified .127 .622* 1.00 .410* .417* .041 .204* Introjected .088 .197* .410* 1.00 .642* .142 .536* External .106 .209* .41 7* .642* 1.00* .045 .670* Amotivation .162 .018 .041 .142 .045 1.00 .075 Relative Autonomy .314* .535* .204* .536* .670* .075 1.00 *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1 tailed).

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125 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS Background and Conclusions Participation in PA has the ability to impact multiple dimensions of health for youth. Evidence based data are strong for beneficial effects of PA on physical health including musculoskeletal health, several components of cardiov ascular health, adiposity in overweight youth, and blood pressure in mildly hypertensive adolescents (Strong et al., 2005) In the realms of emotional and social health, large cross sectional studies have suggested P A level being inversely associated with emotional and behavioral problems among young people (Abu Omar, Rtten, & Lehtinen, 2004; Kirkcaldy, Shephard, & Siefen, 2002; Stept oe & Butler, 1996) It has also been reported that natural change occurring in PA across time during adolescent years is inversely associated with a change in depressive symptoms (Motl, Birnbaum, Kubik, & Dishman, 200 4) and that there is a consistent relationship between PA in adolescence and psychological well being in adulthood (Kantomaa, Tammelin, Ebeling, & Taanila, 2008; Sacker & Cable, 2006) In addi tion to creating an immediate impact on youth health, research shows that those who participate in PA in their childhood are more likely to become physically active adults. A couple longitudinal studies found PA from age 9 to 18 significantly predicted adu lt PA continuous PA at school age considerably increased the probability of being active in adulthood (Telama et al., 2005) and that childhood PA levels were the best predictor of adult PA levels (Kjnniksen, Fjrtoft, & Wold, 2009) The benefits of exercise would then also follow youth into their adulthood, citing yet another reason for youth to become physically active.

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126 One popular way to get youth active is through parti cipation in organized team sports. The National Council of Youth Sports reported that in the United States alone, it is estimated that about 60.3 million youth 6 to 18 years old participate in agency sponsored sports (National Council of Youth Sports, 2008 ). Research supports the concept that sports involvement is related to positive youth development. Some of the outcomes associated with adolescent sports involvement include higher self esteem and self efficacy, more intimate and supportive peer relationsh ips, lower rates of sexual activity, enhanced social skills, and greater academic achievement (Eccles & Barber, 1999; Hoffman, Kang, Faigenbaum, & Ratamess, 2005; Larson, 2000; Miller, Sabo, Farrell, Barnes, & Melnick, 1998; Patrick et al., 1999; Pedersen & Seidman, 2004; Richman & Shaffer, 2006; J. Williams, Wake, Heske th, Maher, & Waters, 2005) These benefits of sport related PA are tremendous and have the ability to impact HRQoL at multiple levels, but still a large segment of youth choose not to participate in team sports. These barriers to participation and reaso ns for abandoning team sports have been previously studied, and some of those barriers are more unique to female populations. The 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System results indicate that only 52.3% of surveyed females participated in an organized sport team in the past 12 months; this number was down 5% from the previous year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012) Research suggests the decline in PA from childhood into adolescence is a trend that is more prominent in girls (Centers for Disease Control, 2010; Pate et al., 2002) Although the causes of gender related differences in PA remain unclear, several factors have been suggested which contribute to lower PA levels that are commonly observed in girls, including low self esteem and

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127 body image, lack of motivation, enjoyment, interest or val uation of PA low athletic competence, and lack of parental and peer support (Camacho Miano, LaVoi, & Barr Anderson, 2011; Debate, Pettee Gabriel, Z wald, Huberty, & Zhang, 2009; Dwyer et al., 2006; Vu, Murrie, Gonzalez, & Jobe, 2006) It is critical to address the issues and identify the gender related differences in PA since its implications have lifelong effects. Race and family income equally als o play a role in PA throughout childhood and into adulthood. In comparison to their white counterparts, studies of African American girls found that they experience a steeper drop in PA report higher levels of physical inactivity in middle adolescence (56 % vs. 31%) and are at even greater risk for low levels of PA and engagement in team sports (Kimm et al., 2002; National Center for Youth Statistics, 2012) Additionally, low income girls tend to participate in team sports at relatively low rates (Quinn, 2004) One explanation of this may be the cost of equipment. Studies do indicate that mothers and fathers purchase more equipment for b oys than girls for sport related activity (Fredricks & Eccles, 2005) The long term beneficial consequences of reducing financial barriers to activity during childhood are the development of positive activity rela ted memories, which may contribute to greater levels of adult activity participation, especially for women (A. M. Thompson, Humbert, & Mirwald, 2003) Some research has explored the idea that self efficacy and mo tivation might be intermediates of the PA and HRQoL relationship. Some of the important predictors of self efficacy to participate in future PA include the social cognitive constructs, such as self efficacy in performing the actual task, access to communi ty PA outlets, and positive beliefs regarding PA are especially important for girls (Debate, Pettee Gabriel, Zwald,

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128 Huberty, & Zhang, 2009; Trost et al., 1997) The concept of motivation as a veh icle to youth PA participation has been studied at length over the years, with results mostly indicating peer relationship having some impact on participation. Ullrich French and Smith (2006) found that having two or more relatively positive relationships ( i.e., with parent, peer or coach) corresponded with more optimal motivational outcomes. The follow up study in 2009 confirmed previous findings from the three way interaction between perceived peer acceptance, friendship quality, and mother relationship q uality. Though many studies have observed common barriers to PA participation and causes behind sport dropout, very few report reasons for continued participation, especially in female populations. Additionally, HRQoL research frequently is studied in popu lations of sick fails to examine physically healthy populations. This study sought to address these issues by investigating the relationship between self efficacy, motivation and HRQoL of young females in a sports league. Results The mean HRQoL score for this sample was 88.26, indicating a good HRQoL level for female PA participants. The relationship between perceived HRQoL (as measured by the PedsQL Inventory) and perceived self efficacy (as measured by the SEQ C) was investigated using Pearson product m oment correlation coefficient. (RQ1) Preliminary analyses were performed to ensure no violation of the assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity. There was a moderate, positive correlation between the two variables, r=.35, p < .0005, with h igh levels of perceived self efficacy associated with high levels of HRQoL. Similar analysis was run to determine motivation to participate in volleyball (autonomy as measured by SRQ E) and HRQoL (RQ2) Results found there was a weak, positive correlation between the two variables, r=.21,

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129 n= 167, p < .0005, with high levels of perceived autonomy weakly associated with high levels HRQoL. Between self efficacy and motivation, the better predictor of HRQoL was self efficacy (RQ5). After running a multiple regr ession analysis on demographical data, only grade level (r= 0.21, p= .004) and skill level (r= .162, p= .035) were found to have significant, unique contributions to the prediction of HRQoL (RQ4). The total variance explained by the model as a whole was 19%, F (5, 161) = 7.56, p<.001. An ANOVA was run to determine HRQoL differences between grade level (elementary, middle and high school) and skill level (beginner, intermediate, experienced). Results showed that elementary students had the best HRQoL (M= 89.46, p=.173), followed by middle school (M= 87.68, p= .173), then high school students (M= 84.90, p= .173); indicating HRQoL decreased as participants got older. These results, however, were not statistically significant. ANOVA results for skill level pr oved similar results. Advanced skill participants had the highest HRQoL scores of the group (M= 90.17, p= .078), followed by intermediate players (M= 88.43, p= .078) then beginners (M= 85.07, p= .078); indicating HRQoL increased with skill level. These res ults, however, were also not statistically significant (RQ4) Effect size (partial eta 2 ) was also determined using ANOVA in order to estimate the variability of HRQoL that could be attributed to participant grade and skill level (Trusty, Petrocelli, Petrocelli, & Thompson, 2004) Grade level explained 2% (p = .173) of variability in HRQoL scores, while skill considered a small effect size and were also statically insignificant (Pallant, 2010) The relationship between perceived HRQoL (as measured by the PedsQL Inventory) and perceived relative autonomy (as measured by the SRQ E relative

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130 autonomy in dex) was investigated using Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. Preliminary analyses were performed to ensure no violation of the assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity. There was a moderate, positive correlation between the two variables, r=.31, p < .0005, with high levels of perceived autonomy associated with high levels of HRQoL. Additionally, moderate correlation was also found with the intrinsic motivation subscale and HRQoL, r= .31, p<.0005, with high levels of perceived intrinsic motivation correlated with high levels of HRQoL (RQ3) These were the only two variables to make significant contributions to predicting HRQoL. Though not significant with HRQoL, a number of observations can be made with the other correlations b etween the continuous variables. It should be noted that relative autonomy was moderately, positively correlated with intrinsic motivation (r= .54) and identified regulation (r=.20) and strongly, negatively correlated with introjected regulation (r= .54), external regulation (r= .670) and amotivation (r= .075), just as the literature suggested. All subscales were significantly correlated to one another, with the exception of amotivation which was not significantly correlated to any other SDT subscale. The six factor related themes that emerged from the 21 participant interviews provide data about exercise outside of volleyball, coping with stressful situations, network of friends, extrinsic motivators, intrinsic motivators, and self efficacy through lea dership and experience. The corresponding sub themes provide an in depth analysis of the unique experiences of participants and provide valuable information about where interventions should be focused.

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131 The majority of girls in the sample (95%) reported s ome sense of belonging within their groups at school and their teammates. (Smith, Smoll, Smith, 1989) were insightful (RQ6) Girls who told stories of positive parental support seemed oblivious of the impact it had o n their self efficacy or motivation to participate in sports. However, girls who told stories of unsupportive parents demonstrated a sudden shift in attitude and facial expression when asked the question about parental support. It became evident to the res earcher that although the motivation and work ethic. Continuing around the ath letic triangle, girls shared the important qualities of coaches. The most frequent response included that coaches needed experience playing and coaching volleyball in order to be an effective coach. According to participants, coaches were responsible for m odeling behavior and skills and also were responsible for demonstrating best practices of advanced volleyball players. concept of a few participants getting financial compen sation from a family member for some measure of success during their volleyball games. Though very little research exists in the area of monetary compensation for youth sport participants, it seemed that the general act of paying a child to perform a task negated some of the positive effects of youth sport participation and could impact long term PA participation (RQ8) When participants were asked to consider all of the reasons they personally play volleyball their responses mostly stated that they play because the sport is fun and the

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132 environment in which they learn the sport is fun. Additionally, they mentioned the opportunity to make new friends and spend more time with old friends as another added bonus of sport participation. A few participants noted the ease of the sport and how it provided the opportunity to stay in shape. A couple participants discussed the future. They mentioned scholarships for college and how they enjoyed participating because it gave them a more rounded resume when applying for college (RQ8) Meaningful moments responses generated a consensus (n= 20, 95%) amongst participants where meaningful moments were created by one specific event ( i.e., missing an important serve) versus winning/losing an entire game. This speaks to the pa rticipants ability to look at the bigger picture and apply what they have learned in the gymnasium to non sport related, everyday experiences (RQ8) A majority of respondents (n= 18, 86%) stated that they were confident they had the skill level to play f or a more advanced team. Their confidence stemmed from having friends who played at a more competitive level and from their own experience in playing volleyball. Additionally, most respondents (n= 15, 71%) were modest in their self appraisal, gauging them selves as intermediately skilled. The players who described themselves as intermediately skilled seemed to assume the responsibility of teaching the beginners how to play (RQ 6,7) Implications of this Research Participation in PA as a child, makes it mor e likely for that child to continue participating in PA as an adult. It is critical to find the reasons why children participate in PA so that these concepts can be built into programs such as developmentally focused youth sport programs that can address total wellness of the participant. The need for DYS programs is critical. These programs teach sport and life skills

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133 concurrently, using sport as a medium for providing youth with opportunities for psychological, emotional, social, and intellectual growth Using DYS in the development and implementation of programming will help achieve good HRQoL during youth for its participants, which can lead to good HRQoL in adulthood. The identification of self efficacy and motivation as vehicles to participate in PA for females will allow program administrators an opportunity to address the recruitment and retention of this population. These findings can help stop or reverse the trend of girls that do not participate in any form of PA It also allows parents and coac hes the opportunity to address problems as they arise, so they can act as an additional level of protection from PA burnout. reasons. First, it is essential to be able to id entify the part if the triangle that needs intervening. For example, if players are reporting a lack of support or encouragement from the coaches, the league administrator can coordinate training or clinics to address o understand that players, parents and coaches all have important roles in the success of the athlete. Players need parents for tangible support ( i.e., paying for fees and equipment, coming to and supporting kids during games and practices, and for transpo rtation to these events), while coaches need both parents and children to work together ( i.e., parents getting kids to practice on time, kids and parents being receptive to constructive criticism during practices and games) in order for their coaching skil ls to be utilized to the fullest. Implications for Future Research It is suggested that a longitudinal study of the population be observed for direct causation. If possible, it would also be ideal to survey a similar sample of non physically

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134 active female youth as a control group for a more experimental design. Finally, the reasons behind lack or excess of self efficacy and motivation need to be explored further to fully understand from the participant point of view what drives or deters them from particip ating in PA especially team sports. Interviews and focus groups with players, parents and coaches could help investigate this issue further. Focus groups made up of parents and coaches could help explore other issues surrounding motivation and self effica Future qualitative research could explore the areas on the attitudes about winning and losing. More specifically, it should look at the source of these attitudes and whether it could be derived f rom parents, coaches, teammates or experience. Furthermore, future qualitative research could be more beneficial if conducted in focus groups and should include a sample of participants of both sexes, who do not play sports in order to make findings of the impact of PA on self efficacy and motivation more generalizable.

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135 Figure 5 1 Lunch Status Income Eligibility Guidelines ( U S Department of Education 2011) Figure 5 2. Conceptual hypothesis

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136 Figure 5 3 Social Cognitive Theory Conceptual Model (Bandura & Schunk, 1981) Figure 5 4. Self Determination Theory Continuum

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137 APPENDIX A PARENTAL CONSENT Department of Health Education and Behavior PO Box 118210 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 8210 Pare ntal Consent Dear Parent/Guardian, I am a graduate student in the Department of Health Education and Behavior at the University of Florida, conducting research on health related quality of life of young female athletes under the supervision of Dr. Christi ne Stopka. The purpose of this study is to determine factors that contribute to health related quality of life for female athletes compared to non athletes. The results of the study may help Girls Place and other all female nonprofit organizations provide insight to practices that aide in health related quality of life. These results may not directly help your child today, but may benefit future students. With your permission, I would like to ask your child to volunteer for this research. The girls will b e asked to fill out a 23 item survey on health related quality of life but, they will not have to answer any question they do not wish to answer. The survey should take approximately 20 minutes and will take place during one of their regularly scheduled vo lleyball practices, or if they are in the after school program, after homework time one day in May. For those children who are interested, there is an additional option to take part in a 15 30 minute interview to discuss some of their responses on the surv ey. With your permission, your child will be videotaped during the interview. The video will be accessible only to the research team for verification purposes. At the end of the study, the tape will be erased. Instead of using names on the surveys, we will use unique code numbers for each child, which will be kept confidential. Results will only be reported in the form of group data. Participation or non participation in this study will not affect the children's placement in any programs. You and your chi ld have the right to withdraw consent for your child's participation at any time without consequence. There are no known risks or immediate benefits to the participants. No compensation is offered for participation. Group results of this study will be avai lable in August upon request. If you have any questions about this research protocol, please contact me at 352 294 1817 or my faculty supervisor, Dr. Christine Stopka, at 392352 294 1814 Questions or concerns about your child's rights as research particip ant may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392 0433. Taryn Rivera Buckley, M.S., CHES

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138 I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily give my consent for my child, ________________ quality of life of young female athletes. I have received a copy of this description. ____________________________ ___________ Parent / Guardian Date ____________________________ ______ _____ 2 nd Parent / Witness Date

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139 APPENDIX B ASSENT SCRIPTS Assent scripts for Children Hello My name is Taryn Buckley and I am a student at the University of Florida. I am trying to learn about the health of female athletes. I will be wo rking with several students in the Girls Place volleyball and after school program If you decide to participate, you will be asked to answer some questions about your feelings and emotions and health related activities. The survey should take about 20 mi nutes to complete. There are no known risks to participation, and most students actually enjoy the tests. You do not have to be in this study if know your ans study. I also want you to know that whatever you decide, this will not a ffect your team. Your [parent / guardian] said it would be OK for you to participate. Would you be willing to participate in this study?

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140 APPENDIX C CONSENT FORM FOR INTERVIEWS Protocol Title: Assessing health related quality of life in young female athle tes Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research: To describe factors that contribute to health related quality of life for female athletes compared to non athletes. What you will do in this research: If you decide to volunteer, you will be asked to participate in one interview. You will be asked several questions. Some of them will be about health related quality of life/ With your permission, I will tape record the interviews so I don't have to make so many notes. You will be asked to state a pseudonym instead of your real name on the recording. Time required: The interview will take approximately 30 minutes 1 hour. Risks: No risks are anticipated. Benefits: This is a chance for you to tell your story about your experiences concerning health related quality of life Compensation: No compensation is offered for participation. Confidentiality: Your responses to interview questions will be kept confidential. At no time will you r actual identity be revealed. You will be assigned a random numerical code. Anyone who helps me transcribe responses will only know you by this code. The recording will be destroyed when my dissertation has been accepted. The transcript, without your name will be kept until the research is complete. The key code linking your name with your number will be kept in a locked file cabinet in a locked office, and no one else will have access to it. It will be destroyed The data you give me will be used for my dissertation and may be used as the basis for articles or presentations in the future. presentations. Participation and withdrawal: Your participation is completely vol untary, and you may withdraw from the study at any time without penalty. You may withdraw by informing me that you no longer wish to participate (no questions will be asked). You may also skip any question during the interview, but continue to participate in the rest of the study. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Taryn Rivera Buckley, Graduate Student, Department of Health Education and Behavior, PO Box 118210, Gainesville, FL 32611, phone 352 294 1817

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141 Dr. Christine Stopka, Professor Department of Health Education and Behavior, PO Box 118210, Gainesville, FL 32611, phone 352 294 1814 Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone 392 0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Participant: ___________________________________________ Date: _________________ P rincipal Investigator: ___________________________________ Date: _________________

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142 APPENDIX D INTERVIEW SCRIPT I NTERVIEW S CRIPT DESCRIBING FACTORS T HAT CONTRIBUTE TO HE ALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE FOR FEMALE A THLETES Introduction The main focus of our interview today is to understand more about the health of young female athletes and how this affects their overall quality of life. There are no wrong answers to any of our questions. Please feel free to be honest and critical. Everything you tell us is st rictly confidential. Any questions before we begin? Warm up Questions How long have you been at Girls Place? What programs do you participate in at Girls Place? What grade are you currently in and what school do you go to? General Questions Do you part icipate in sports activities? If so, what is a typical practice like? What do you do? If not, If so, what are some examples of the chores you do? How long does it take you to do them? Can you walk me through the process of you completing your chores? If not, Think of a time in this past school year when you felt angry. Can you explain what happened to m ake you feel that way? What were your emotions like? What did you do to make you feel better? Think of a time in this past school year when you felt sad. Can you explain what happened to make you feel that way? What were your emotions like? What did y ou do to make you feel better? Think of a time in this past school year when you felt scared or afraid. Can you explain what happened to make you feel that way? What were your emotions like?

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143 What did you do to make you feel better? Think about the fr iends you have (past and present). Is it easy or hard for you to make friends? Why do you feel that way? How would you describe your friends? How do your friends make you feel? Think about this past school year. How did your homework change from last year to this year? How would you describe your schoolwork and tests? Why? How do you feel about the FCAT or other standardized test? What is your favorite part about the school day and why? What are some of the reasons you might have been absent to sc hool? What are some of the reasons you might have been tardy for school? Think about playing volleyball. What are some of the reasons you play volleyball? What reason stands out above the rest? How do your parents feel about your participation in vol leyball? What do you need to feel confident that you can play volleyball? How important is it to have a good, knowledgeable volleyball coach? Why? How do your skills match up to the skills of your teammates? How confident are you that you could make a club or school team if you tried out? Wrap up Questions Give the interviewee a big Thank You! Is there anything else regarding volleyball or physical activity that you would like to add?

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144 APPENDIX E SELF EFFICACY SCALES Social Self Efficacy Scale Circle the answer that best shows how well you can do each of the following things. 1. How well can you express your opinion when your teammates disagree with you? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5 2. How well can you make friends with other youth? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5 3. How well can you have a chat with a person you just met? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5 4. How well can you work with other teammates? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5 5. How well can you tell other youth that like? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5 6. How well can you tell a funny event to a group of youth? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5 7. How well do you succeed in staying friends with ot her youth? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5 8. How well do you prevent arguments among other youth? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5

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145 Emotional Self Efficacy Scale Circle the answer that best shows how well you can do each of the following things. 1. How well do you succeed in cheering yourself up when something unpleasant has happened? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5 2. How well do you calm yourself down when you are very scared? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5 3. How well can you prevent being nervous? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5 4. How well can you control your feelings? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5 5. How well can you give yourself a peptalk when you feel low? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5 6. How well do you succeed in suppressing unpleasant thoughts? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5 7. How well do you succeed in not worrying about things that might happen? Not Very Well 1 2 3 4 Very Well 5

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146 APPENDIX F MOTIVATION SCALES Self Regulation Questionnaire Motivation for Working Out Why Do You Work Out? Circle the answer that best shows how well you can do each of the following things. 1. Because I simply enjoy working out. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 2. Because working out is important and beneficial to my health and lifestyle. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 3. Because I would feel bad it. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewh at True 4 5 6 Very True 7 4. Because it is fun and interesting. Not At All True 1 2 3 4 5 6 Very Well 7 5. Because others like me better when I am in shape. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 6. Because I am afraid of fal ling too far out of shape. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 7. Because it helps my image. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 8. Because it is personally important to me to work out. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7

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147 9. Because I feel pressured to work out. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 10. Because I have a strong value for being active and healthy. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Ver y True 7 11. For the pleasure of discovering and mastering new training techniques. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 12. Because I want others to see me as physically fit. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 Motivation for Volleyball Why Do You Practice Volleyball? Circle the answer that best shows how well you can do each of the following things. 13. For the pleasure I feel when I practice volleyball. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very Tr ue 7 14. I used to have good reasons for playing volleyball, but now I am asking myself if I should continue doing it. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 15. I would feel bad about myself if I was not taking time to play volleyball. No t At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 16. It is a good way to get exercise. Not At All True 1 2 3 4 5 6 Very Well 7 17. My parents or other family members give me money or other rewards when I do it. Not At All True 1 2 3 Some what True 4 5 6 Very True 7

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148 18. For the excitement I feel when I am really involved in volleyball. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 19. I learn valuable lessons from volleyball. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 V ery True 7 20. It is absolutely necessary for me to play volleyball to feel good about myself. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 21. It is not clear to me think volleyball is my sport. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 22. My parents, other family members, or friends tell me to do it. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 23. For the pleasure of discovering new techniques. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 24. practice volleyball, I anywhere in it. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 25. I think volleyball is a useful way to stay healthy. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 26. My parents, family, or friends would be mad if I anymore. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7 27. I would feel awful if I anymore. Not At All True 1 2 3 Somewhat True 4 5 6 Very True 7

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149 APPENDIX G PEDSQL INVENTORY ID#______ Date:__________ Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Child Report (ages 8 12 ) Directions On the following page is a list of things that might be a problem for you. Please tell us how much of a problem each one has been during the past ONE month by circling: 0 if it is never a problem 1 if it is almost never a p roblem 2 if it is sometimes a problem 3 if it is often a problem 4 if it is almost always a pr oblem There are no right or wrong answers. If you do not understand a question, please ask for help.

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150 In the past ONE month how much of a problem Never Almost Never Some times Often Almost Always 1. It is hard for me to walk more than 1 block 0 1 2 3 4 2. It is hard for me to run 0 1 2 3 4 3. It is hard for me to do sports activities 0 1 2 3 4 4. It is hard for me to lift something heavy 0 1 2 3 4 5. It is hard for me to take a bath or shower by myself 0 1 2 3 4 6. It is hard for me to do chores around the house 0 1 2 3 4 7. I hurt or ache 0 1 2 3 4 8. I have low energy 0 1 2 3 4 Never Almost Never Some times Often Almost Always 1. I feel afraid or scared 0 1 2 3 4 2. I feel sad or blue 0 1 2 3 4 3. I feel angry 0 1 2 3 4 4. I have trouble sleeping 0 1 2 3 4 5. I worry about what will happen to me 0 1 2 3 4 Never Almost Never Som e times Often Almost Always 1. I have trouble getting along with other kids 0 1 2 3 4 2. Other kids do not want to be my friend 0 1 2 3 4 3. Other kids tease me 0 1 2 3 4 4. I cannot do things that other kids my age can do 0 1 2 3 4 5. It is hard to ke ep up when I play with other kids 0 1 2 3 4

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151 Never Almost Never Some times Often Almost Always 1. It is hard to pay attention in class 0 1 2 3 4 2. I forget things 0 1 2 3 4 3. I have trouble keeping up with my school work 0 1 2 3 4 4. I miss school because of not feeling well 0 1 2 3 4 5. I miss school to go to the doctor or hospital 0 1 2 3 4

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152 ID#____________ Date:___________ Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Teen Report (ages 13 18 ) Directions On the following page is a list of things that might be a problem for you. Please tell us how much of a problem each one has been during the past ONE month by circling: 0 if it is never a problem 1 if it is almost never a problem 2 if it is sometimes a problem 3 if it is often a problem 4 if it is almost always a problem There are no right or wrong answers. If you do not understand a question, please ask for help.

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153 In the past ONE month how much of a problem ABOUT MY HE ALTH AND ACTIVITIES (problems Never Almost Never Some times Often Almost Always 1. It is hard for me to walk more than 1 block 0 1 2 3 4 2. It is hard for me to run 0 1 2 3 4 3. It is hard for me to do sports activities 0 1 2 3 4 4. It is hard fo r me to lift something heavy 0 1 2 3 4 5. It is hard for me to take a bath or shower by myself 0 1 2 3 4 6. It is hard for me to do chores around the house 0 1 2 3 4 7. I hurt or ache 0 1 2 3 4 8. I have low energy 0 1 2 3 4 ABOUT MY FEELINGS (proble Never Almost Never Some times Often Almost Always 1. I feel afraid or scared 0 1 2 3 4 2. I feel sad or blue 0 1 2 3 4 3. I feel angry 0 1 2 3 4 4. I have trouble sleeping 0 1 2 3 4 5. I worry about what will happen to me 0 1 2 3 4 HOW I GET ALONG WITH OTHERS (problems Never Almost Never Some times Often Almost Always 1. I have trouble getting along with other teens 0 1 2 3 4 2. Other teens do not want to be my friend 0 1 2 3 4 3. Other teens tease me 0 1 2 3 4 4. I cannot do th ings that other teens my age can do 0 1 2 3 4 5. It is hard to keep up when I play with other teens 0 1 2 3 4

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154 Never Almost Never Some times Often Almost Always 1. It is hard to pay attention in class 0 1 2 3 4 2. I forget things 0 1 2 3 4 3. I have trouble keeping up with my schoolwork 0 1 2 3 4 4. I miss school because of not feeling well 0 1 2 3 4 5. I miss school to go to the doctor or hospital 0 1 2 3 4

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155 APPENDIX H DEMOGRAPHICAL DATA QUESTIONS Directions: Please read the following questions and circle the response that best describes you. 1. What grade level are you currently in? A. Kindergarten Fifth Grade B. Sixth Grade Eighth Grade C. High School 2. How would you describe your ethnicity? A. Hispanic or La tino B. Not Hispanic or Latino 3. How would you describe your race? A. American Indian or Alaska Native B. Asian C. Black or African American D. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander E. White F: Other (please explain): _____________________________ ________________ 4. Do you get free or reduced lunch at school? A. Yes, I get free lunch. B. Yes, I get reduced lunch. D. No, I do not get free or reduced lunch at school. 5. How many years have you been in the volleyball program at Girls Place? A. This is my first season playing at Girls Place. B. Less than one year (this is my second season playing at Girls Place) C. I have been playing at Girls Place for more than one year. D. I do not play volleyball at Girls Place 6. How many years have you been in the after school program at Girls Place? A. This is my first year at the Girls Place After School program. B. 2 or more years C. I do not go to the Girls Place After School Program 7. How many years have you been in the summer c amp program at Girls Place? A. One year B. 2 or more years C. I have never gone to the Girls Place Summer Camp 8. Would you describe your volleyball skills as: A. Beginner B. Intermediate C. Advanced 9. Would you be interested in participating in an brief interview about your health in a few weeks? A. Yes B. No

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156 LIST OF REFERENCES Abu Omar, K., Rtten, A., & Lehtinen, V. (2004). Mental health and physical activity in the european union. Sozial Und P rventivmedizin/Social and Preventive Medicine, 49 (5), 301 309. Amiri, P., Eslamian, G., Mirmiran, P., Shiva, N., Jafarabadi, M. A., & Azizi, F. (2012). 4.0 (PedsQ Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 10 (1), 3. Ashford, S., Edmunds, J., & French, D. P. (2010). What is the best way to change self efficacy to promote lifestyle and recreational physical activity? A systematic review with meta analysis. British Journal of Health Psychology, 15 (2), 265 288. Austin, S., Qu, H., & Shewchuk, R. M. (2012). Association between adherence to physical activity guidelines and health related quality of life among individuals with physician diag nosed arthritis. Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care & Rehabilitation, 21 (8), 1347 1357. doi: 10.1007/s11136 011 0046 x Bandura, A. (Ed.). (1997). Self efficacy: The exercise of control. New Yo rk: Freeman. Bandura, A., & Schunk, D. H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal self motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41 (3), 586. Beckemeyer, P. (2009). An intervention study of pr e teen girls to improve eating behavior and physical activity levels growing optimally, girls improving health and raising levels of self efficacy (GO GIHRLS). (M.S., Northern Illinois University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved from http://search.proquest. com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/docview/304964459?accountid=10920 (304964459). Beets, M. W., Cardinal, B. J., & Alderman, B. L. (2010). Parental social supp ort and the physical activity related behaviors of youth: A review. Health Education & Behavior, 37 (5), 621 644. Bereiter, C. (1994). Constructivism, socioculturalism, and popper's world 3. Educational Researcher, 21 23. Bergeron, M. F. (2007). Improvi ng health through youth sports: Is participation enough? New Directions for Youth Development, 2007 (115), 27 41. Bissell, K. L. (2010). Exploring the influence of mediated beauty: Competitive female athletes' perceptions of ideal beauty in athletes and ot her women. In H. L. Hundley,

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173 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Taryn Alyssa Rivera Buckley was born in 1985 in New York C ity, New York. The Kissimmee, Florida, graduating from Bishop Moore Catholic High School (Orlando, Florida) in 2003. She earned her degrees from the De partment of Health Education and Behavior from the University of Florida in 2007 and 2009 respectively. During her m Specialist status through the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing. Upon graduating in 2009, she was awarded the prestigious McKnight Doctoral Fellowship from the Florida Education Fund, along with a Graduate Assistantship from the Department of Health Education and Behavior at the University of Florida, where she continued her studies. Throughout her academic career, Taryn was employed at Girls Place, Inc. a nonprofit organization in Gain esville, Florida dedicated to empowering young ladies to grow confident and strong and independent in the world around them. She currently serves as the athletic director of the organization. Upon completion of her Ph.D. program, Taryn will work in the no nprofit sector, focusing on planning, implementing and evaluating health related programs that serve youth. She also wishes to continue teaching at the collegiate level, where she can share her expertise with other students who desire to work in the commun ity. Taryn has been married to Dante Augustus Buckley, a PhD student in aerospace e ngineering at the University of Florida, for 4 years. They have a son: Xavier Landon, age 2 year s