Faculty Perceptions of Methods for Teaching Ethical and Moral Leadership Principles and Behaviors in Undergraduate Colle...

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Title:
Faculty Perceptions of Methods for Teaching Ethical and Moral Leadership Principles and Behaviors in Undergraduate College of Agriculture Courses
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1 online resource (126 p.)
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english
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Smith, McKenzie Watkins
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University of Florida
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Degree:
Master's ( M.S.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Agricultural Education and Communication
Committee Chair:
Carter, Hannah Sewell
Committee Members:
Stedman, Nicole Lamee Perez

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agriculture -- business -- development -- education -- ethical -- leadership -- management -- moral -- teaching
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, M.S.
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Abstract:
Society has experienced an increasing number of ethical and moral scandals over the past decades and as a result, has called for an increase in the teaching of ethical and moral leadership within educational institutions. This study sought to determine how faculty teach ethical and moral leadership, specifically, what instructional methods they perceive to be effective for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership within undergraduate courses. For this study, a population of faculty within colleges of agriculture was used. Participants were administered a researcher-designed survey that measured four specific constructs. The four constructs consisted of: what instructional methods faculty members perceive to be effective for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles, what instructional methods faculty members perceive to be effective for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors, demographic characteristics and lastly, faculty members’ definitions of the terms “ethics” and “morals” when judging student behaviors. This study found that when teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles, faculty members perceive instructor-led discussion,traditional lecture, and activities to be most effective. When teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors, faculty members perceive instructor-led discussion and activities to be most effective. Related to demographic information, a key finding was that the majority of participants attend/practice religious services 4-10 times per month and thus, may be better enabled to educate their students on ethical and/or moral leadership. Lastly,faculty members do not have a consistent, clear understanding of the terms“ethics” and “morals” and they perceive their students’ individual cognitive moral development to drastically increase as a direct result of their instructional methods.
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local:
Adviser: Carter, Hannah Sewell.
Statement of Responsibility:
by McKenzie Watkins Smith.

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1 FACULTY PERCEPTIONS OF METHODS FOR TEACHING ETHICAL AND MORAL LEADERSHIP PRINCIPLES AND BEHAVIORS IN UNDERGRADUATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE COURSES By MCKENZIE WATKINS SMITH A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UN IVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 McKenzie Watkins Smith

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3 To Mom my biggest fan and hero, my encourager an d friend

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost, I thank my Heavenly Father for giving me wisdom, passion and determination to pursue and complete this thesis. Without Him, I am nothing. Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own unde rstanding; in all your ways Proverbs 3: 5 6. Secondly, to the faculty members who participated in my study thank you. I learned much from each of you and appreciate your willingness to participate i n my study. I literally could not have done this without each of you. I am grateful for your participation and insight into how to teach ethical and/or moral leadership. My committee provided much insight, encouragement and support to this process. Dr. C arter, thank you for serving as my rock during my graduate program Your experience and wisdom steered me clear of many storms. You kept me grounded and reminded me of the most important things in life such as fam ily, love for others, hard work and relatio nships Than k you for being honest, genuine and for helping me to succeed. You were there from the beginning and saw me through to the finish line. I hope that I can someday impact others as you have impacted me. Dr. Stedman, thank you for always being ava ilable when I needed some feedback or advice at the drop of a hat Your spirit and enthusiasm for me as a person and my thesis was welcomed and appreciated. You were always so willing to do whatever it took to make sure I graduated early and always seemed to make research fun! Thank you both for the lessons you taught me and the encouragement you gave me along this incredible journey I could Th ank you to all my colleagues, mentors and Rolfs Hall friends for th eir encouragement and for helping me through this. Special thanks to Dr. Osborne you

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5 too were there from the beginning. Thank you for your thoughtful words, your encouragement and your genuine hospitality and positivity. Sarah thank you for yo ur stead fast friendship You gave me more than I ever imagined and I feel incredibly blessed to know you. Avery thank you for your genuineness, kind words and passionate heart. Quisto t hank you for listening, encouraging and your excellence in APA style. Each of you helped me along this journey and I am forever grateful. My family thank you for your support in this endeavor; you sacrificed much so I that I could pursue an education and succeed. It was always encouraging to hear your pported me every step of the way. Thank you for listening even if you may not have understood a word it meant the world to me. To my mother, thank you for being my hero. You had one of the hardest jobs of all, raising me on your own, th ough you had some help along the way. You continue to give more to me than can ever po ssibly Thank you for always listening and believing in me. Your support helped me dream bigger and achieve more than I ever would have without it. Someday I hope to be as incredible of a mother as you were to me Lastly, t o my husband, Embre y ou were and always will be my supporter, my confidant, my best friend, my soul mate. Thank you for the countless hours you spent editing and for listening to all my ideas. You pushed me to give my best and I am better because of it. You always understood my deep love for learning and knowledge and encouraged me to follow my heart and perhaps more importantly, my true north This the sis is just as much yours as it is mine. Thank you. I love you.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 9 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 13 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 13 Educational Institutions Responsibility ................................ ............................. 14 Leadership Instruction in Colleges of Agriculture ................................ ............. 15 Teaching Ethical and Moral Leadership Principles and Behaviors ................... 17 Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ 20 Purpose and Objectives ................................ ................................ .......................... 21 Significance of the Problem ................................ ................................ .................... 21 Definition of Ter ms ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 23 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 24 Basic Assumptions ................................ ................................ ................................ 24 Chapter S ummary ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 25 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ............ 27 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 28 Theoretical Foundation ................................ ................................ ........................... 29 Theory of Cognitive Moral Development ................................ .......................... 29 The Four Component Model ................................ ................................ ............. 32 Social Learning/Cognitive Theory ................................ ................................ ..... 33 Conceptual Model ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 35 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 38 Factors Influencing the Development of Ethical and Moral Standards and Behaviors ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 38 Literature Supporting Formal Education as an Influencing Factor .................... 43 Current Teaching Practices for Ethical and Moral Leadership .......................... 47 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 50 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 53 Research Perspective ................................ ................................ ............................. 53 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 53 Dat a Sources ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 56

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7 Instrumentation and Data Collection ................................ ................................ ....... 56 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 59 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 59 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 60 Objective 1: To Identify Effective Methods for Developing Student Knowledge of Ethical and Moral Le adership Principles as Reported by College of Agriculture Faculty. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 61 Objective 2: To Identify Effective Methods for Developing Student Knowledge of Ethical and Moral Leadership Behaviors as R eported by College of Agriculture Faculty. ................................ ................................ .............................. 63 Objective 3: To Determine the Demographic Characteristics of Faculty who Teach Ethical and Moral Leadership in Colleges of Agriculture ........................... 64 Experience Teaching Some Component of Ethics and/or Morals as Related to Leadership ................................ ................................ ................................ 66 Stand Alone Versus Embedded ................................ ................................ ....... 66 In what specific ways have you taught ethics as related to leadership? .... 66 In what specific ways have you taught morals as related to leadership? ... 66 Offerings of ethical and/or moral leadership as a stand alone course ....... 67 Offerings of ethical and/or moral leadership as an emb edded course ....... 67 Changing teaching style ................................ ................................ ............. 67 Specific stand alone leadership courses taught ................................ ......... 68 Specific embedded leadership courses taught ................................ ........... 68 Time Spent Teaching Specific Leadership Courses ................................ ......... 68 P ........................... 69 Average Number of Students Enrolled in Courses ................................ ........... 69 Use of Outside S ources for Curriculum/Course Development .......................... 69 ................................ ..................... 70 Description of Students Before and After Taking a Course in Ethical and/or Moral Leadership ................................ ................................ .......................... 70 ................................ ................. 70 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 71 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ....................... 78 Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 78 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 78 Summary of Findings ................................ ................................ .............................. 79 Objective 1: To Identify Effectiv e Methods for Developing Student Knowledge of Ethical and Moral Leadership Principles as Reported by College of Agriculture Faculty ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 79 Objective 2: To Identify Effective Methods for Developing Student Knowledge of Ethical and Moral Leadership Behaviors as Reported by College of Agriculture Faculty. ................................ ................................ .............................. 80

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8 Objective 3: To Determine the Demographic Characteristics of Faculty who Teach Et hical and Moral Leadership in Colleges of Agriculture. .......................... 81 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ......................... 82 In what specific ways have you taught ethics as related to leadership? .... 82 In what specific ways have you taught morals as related to leadership? ... 82 Offerings of ethical and/or moral leadership as a stand alone course ....... 82 Offerings of ethical and/or moral leadership as an embedded course ....... 83 Changing teach ing style ................................ ................................ ............. 83 Specific stand alone leadership courses taught ................................ ......... 83 Specific embedded leadership courses taught ................................ ........... 83 Average Number of Students Enrolled in Courses ................................ ........... 84 ........................... 84 Use of Outside Sources for Curriculum/Course Development .......................... 84 Student Behaviors. ................................ ..................... 85 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 87 Discussion and Implications ................................ ................................ .................... 90 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 98 Recommendations for Practice ................................ ................................ ........ 98 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ......................... 100 APPENDIX A PANEL OF EXPERTS ................................ ................................ .......................... 104 B INSTRUMENTATION ................................ ................................ ........................... 105 C SURVEY COMPLETION REQUESTS ................................ ................................ .. 115 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 120 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 126

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9 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Specific Instructional Techniques used for Teaching Ethical and/or Moral Leadership Principles. ( n = 18) ................................ ................................ ........... 72 4 2 Three Most Often Used Instruct ional Techniques for Teaching Ethical and/or Moral Leadership Principles ( n = 18) ................................ ................................ .. 72 4 3 Specific Instructional Techniques used for Teaching Ethical and/or Moral Leadership Behaviors. ( n = 18) ................................ ................................ .......... 73 4 4 Three Most Often Used Instructional Techniques for Teaching Ethical and/or Moral Leadership Behaviors. ( n = 18) ................................ ................................ 73 4 5 P n = 18) ................................ ................ 74 4 6 Offerings of Ethical and/or Moral Leadership as a Stand Alone Course. ( n = 18) ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 74 4 7 Offerings of Ethical and/or Moral Leadership as an Embedded Course. ............ 75 4 8 .......... 75 4 9 .............. 75 4 10 n = 18) ................................ ....................... 76 4 11 n = 18) ................................ ...................... 77 5 1 n = 18) ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 102 5 2 n = 18) 103

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10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Development of Moral Standards and Ethical Behaviors in College Students .... 52

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfi llment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science FACULTY PERCEPTIONS OF METHODS FOR TEACHING ETHICAL AND MORAL LEADERSHIP PRINCI PLES AND BEHAVIORS IN UNDERGRADUATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE COURSES By McKenzie Watkins Smith December 2012 Cha ir: Hannah S. Carter Major: Agricultural Education and Communication Society has experienced an increasing number of ethical and moral scandals over the past decades and as a result, has called for an increase in the teaching of ethical and moral leadersh ip within educational institutions. This study sought to determine how faculty teach ethical and moral leadership, specifically, what instructional methods they perceive to be effective for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership within undergraduate cour ses. For this study, a population of faculty within college s of agriculture was used. Participants were administered a researcher designed survey that measured four specific constructs. The four constructs consisted of: what instructional methods faculty members perceive to be effective for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles, what instructional methods faculty members perceive to be effective for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors, demographic characteristics and lastly, fa culty when judging student behaviors This study found that when teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles, faculty members perceive instructor led discussion, traditional lecture, and acti vities to

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12 be most effective. When teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors, faculty members perceive instructor led discussion and activities to be most effective. Related to demographic information, a key finding was that the majority of partici pants attend/practice religious services 4 10 times per month and thus, may be better enabled to educate their students on ethical and/or moral leadership. Lastly, faculty members do a direct result of their instructional methods

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background Society has seen an ever increasing decline in the ethical and mora l behavior of its leaders over the past few decades. The now infamous scandals and poor leadership behavior of Enron, Arthur Andersen, Martha Stewart, and of late, the Yahoo! Chief Executive Officer, Scott Thompson, and former CIA Director General David P etraeus Trevio & Harrison, 2005, p. 117). These scandals have become increasingly outrageous in terms of freque ncy, magnitude, and scope of negative impact on individuals, communities, and society as a whole. Ethical scandals, such as those mentioned above, have led to corporate investigations, research on the ethical and moral behavior of business leaders, demands for justice, and of most importance to this study, action from educational institutions in preparing sound ethical and moral leaders for society. In a study conducted by The Conference Board, Corporate Voices for Working Families, Partnership for 21 st Cen tury Skills, and the Society for Human Resource Lotto Bar rington & Wright, 2006, p. 9). The report concluded with a Workforce Readiness Report Card which showed that two year college graduates were deficient in many applied skills, ethics and social responsibility included (Casner Lotto et al. 2006). As the re port showed, college graduates are lacking in their ability to apply ethics and social responsibility skills

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14 reflected in a report by Eisner (2010) where 62 percent of U.S. voters cited ethics and Additionally, unethical behavior was listed as the most employer identified attribute for top reasons new college graduates are fired ( Casner L otto & Silvert 2008 ). The overall survey results Lotto et al. 2006, p. 7). Perhaps the results of th e report do not come as a surprise as society has seen the widespread repercussions of graduates who have lacked the ethical skills required for leadership positions (Alsop, 2003). Educational Institutions Responsibility Facing scrutiny from the press, cor porations, and society for not preparing ethically and morally sound leaders, not valuing ethics, and after accusations of being just as blameworthy as the wrong doers (Alsop, 2003; Ghosal, 2003; Willen, 2004), educational institutions have begun to take a closer look at how ethics and morals play a role in their curriculum and what steps they can take to ensure those skills are taught to students. Liddell recent events and public debate have renewed the focus of higher educat ion toward a consideration of moral This had led to a new emphasis on ethical coursework as many research scholars have noted (Bazerman & Gino, 2012; Canales, Massey, & Wrzesniewski, 2010 ; Clayton, 1999; Merritt, 2003; Pennington, 2006; Peppas & Diskin, 2001; Sims & Sims, 1991). Plinio (2009) noted that toward the top of national and international agenda

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15 Many educational institutions have been pressed to change their priorities and conscientiously make ethics and morals a part of their agendas as well, which according to Normore (2004), should have always remained the top priority of those age ndas. that if higher education faculty members do not attempt to change their priorities they should honestly say that making it possible for students to learn ethics and to keep e was considered to have a special and leading role to perform in the shaping of societal ethics, national goals and values, and therefore, it should be the logical location for ethics and value Scholars and researchers have supported t his viewpoint (Als op, 2003; Sims & Felton, 2005). Whiteley (2002) noted that this historic perspective of institutional responsibilities is also applicabl one of the fundamental obligations of the modern college and university is to influence intentionally 5). Leadership Instruction in Colleges of Agriculture Universities have been working hard to meet those perceptions of their respon sibilities through what has become a public, and somewhat transparent, lens of the inner workings and course offerings of universities (Alsop, 2003). Though many of the aforementioned ethical scandals have occurred in the business world of management and c orporate governance, much of the root of the problem has been

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16 (Ghosal, 2003). As a result, much of the research and mentioned emphasis on ethics education relating to leadership has stemmed from business schools or business related journals. the realms of Ivy League bu siness schools. Many leadership programs are housed within other colleges, departments, or academic units. Learning leadership skills should not be reserved solely for corporate managers and business gurus. As the report published by Corporate Voices for A merica (2010), stated leadership is another applied skill in which college graduates are deficient. This report suggested that the teaching of leadership, namely ethical leadership, should not be confined to business schools, but rather included in all ac ademic units. Sims and Sims (1991) hinted that reserving ethics education for business schools alone would not ensure an even distribution of ethically advocates of teaching e thics have suggested that ethics courses should not only be included in business curricula but also in other undergraduate and professional curricula Colleges of agriculture are examples of academ ic units that have traditionally taught leadership. As such, colleges of agriculture may be overdue for including ethics and morals education into their curriculum, as Murphy and Townsend (1994) suggested in their recommendations section of a study analyzi ng the important relationship need for the recognition of the relationship between ethics and leadership within the

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17 Just as other educational units hope to resolve the concerns of ethical leadership in society, so does agricultural agriculture, they must begin to recognize the relations hip between agricultural Current research (Pennington, 2006) has suggested that colleges of agriculture may be beginning to address ethics in their leadership courses. As noted by Pe nnington values n leadership (Pennington, 2006), which, as stated by Avolio, Luthans, and Walumbwa course s with an ethical component, such as the course mentioned above, has shown that colleges of agriculture are interested in pursuing ethical and moral leadership education. Teaching Ethical and Moral Leadership Principles and Behaviors As various departments work to recognize the mentioned relationship between ethics, morals, and leadership by including ethical/moral coursework or leadership training into their programs, a larger question has surfaced: What are the most effective ways to teach ethical leaders hip to ensure graduates will be ethically and morally sound leaders for the future? Several opinions have formed on this topic, and the small amount of research that has been conducted seems to have offered mixed conclusions, as researchers Dean & Beggs (

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18 the literature examining whether college level ethics courses, and/or courses in which ethics is incorporated into course content, have an impact on attitudes toward ethics shows that the results of t Included in the debate over how to best teach ethics and morals in leadership have been issues of whether or not ethics should be integrated into departmental or college wide curricula, or if ethics sh ould be taught as a stand alone course (Alsop, 2003; Murray, 2004); the disconnect between ethics and leadership (Canales, et al., 2010); how best to teach ethical leadership (Reeves, 2002); ethical frameworks to use (Oddo, 1997; Begley & Stefkovich, 2007) ; determining effective pedagogical approaches (Dean & Beggs, 2006); and different learning theory bases for ethical leadership curriculum (social learning theory, experiential learning, etc.) (M urray, 2004, Wilcox & Ebbs, 1992 ). Some of the aforementione d issues have been visible even to the public eye, such as a disconnect between ethics and leadership, as illustrated in a Wall Street things as social influence and publi c speaking, while ethics courses often focus on legal aspects. This leaves the connection between values, leadership and action disconnect, albeit a different one. In their future research section, Dean and Beggs (2006) implied that the need for more research is apparent from the disconnect between he business world thinks, or

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19 Academia could work to resolve the noted disconnect by taking a broader view of at (Sims & Felton, 2005, p. 46). By doing so, inter departmental and inter collegiate collaboration could spur research scholars and faculty alike to build knowledge reta ining leadership programs that emphasize ethical and moral actions in leadership positions. This idea of collaboration between different academic units is not new. Scholars such as he right direction in order to better understand how to teach ethics and morals in leadership. Additionally, Alsop (2003) indicated a lack of research and agreement amongst e mbedding ethics in the curriculum. Should schools require students to take courses focused primarily on ethical responsibilities? Or is it better to sprinkle ethics lessons throughout all of the major courses those presented focus on the best interests of the students and their future responsibilities and not on the best interests of the department or college as suggested by Ghosal (2003). The need for more research in this area is pressing, and the effects of academic institutions not effectively educating students on ethics and morals and effective leadership have dominated recent headlines about business and shaken public confide nce in many organizations. Now, more than ever, rigorous systematic research Trevio & Harrison, 2005, p.132). As ethical

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20 scandals and immoral leaders continue to plague our society with unethical actions, more res earch is needed to formulate solutions to the questions presented above and to bridge the gap between age old theories and effective application. More research is also needed on how to effectively teach ethics and ethical leadership (Brown & Trevio 2006; Brown, Trevio & Harrison, 2005; Peppas & Diskin, 2001, Sims & Felton, 2005). Problem Statement Employers and society in general have been seeking more ethically and morally sound leaders in response to the ethical scandals that have continued to weaken our unethical and immoral leadership behavior in our society, and a lack of knowledge and competency on how ethical and moral leadership knowledge and behavior can be effectiv ely taught. Canales, et al. (2010) suggested that by universities reclaiming their role as places of moral scholarship and ethics in congruence with leadership research in ethic s and leadership is expanding, there are still many gaps to be filled of what educators and stakeholders know about ethics, morals, and leadership and how to teach those in a manner where it is encouraged and allowed for application in a real world setting Peppas and Diskin (2001), along with other scholars (Murray, 2004; Reeves, 2002) noted that more research is needed on different a pproaches to teaching future researchers may wish to gather additional empirical evidence in terms of the effects o of effective teaching methods for ethical and moral leadership could help clear misconceptions, bridge disconnects, and in turn, help to resolve the problem of unethical leaders i n the 21st century.

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21 Purpose and Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine faculty perceptions of methods for teaching ethical and moral leadership principles and behaviors in undergraduate college of agriculture courses. Although a growing fie ld of research, it has still been in its infancy. Research objectives of this study included: Objective 1: To identify effective methods for developing student knowledge of ethical and moral leader ship principles as reported by c ollege of agriculture facu lty. Objective 2: To identify effective methods for developing student knowledge of ethical and moral leadership behaviors as repo rted by c ollege of agriculture faculty. Objective 3: To determine the demographic characteristics of faculty who teach e thic al and moral leadership in c olleges of agriculture. Objective 4: Significance of the Problem A clear societal need for more ethically and morally so und leaders exists (Casner Lotto et al. 2006; Reeves, 2002). More effective instruction in college classrooms has been identified as one avenue to strengthen the preparation of ethical and moral leaders in the public and private sector (Canales, et al, 20 10; Reeves, 2002; Sims & Sims, 1991; Willen, 2004). This study will help to fulfill that need by examining how ethics and morals are effectively taught in college of agriculture courses. Information from this study can be used to improve existing leadershi p programs and to create a starting point for fledgling leadership programs or institutions that wish to offer ethics and morals in a leadership curriculum but who seek guidance on where to begin. Stakeholders who can specifically benefit from this study include collegiate educators, especially university faculty who teach leadership courses that include an

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22 ethics and moral leadership component. Such individuals will be better able to understand how to best teach ethics and morals as related to leadership by insights provided from this study. The findings of this study could help, in part, to transform ethics and morals in leadership curricula and provide evidence on specific effective ods of teaching. Others stand to benefit from the findings of this study, albeit indirectly. Discovering effective teaching methods for ethics and morals in leadership could help collegiate administrators, such as academic deans, to further analyze the tr ue purpose of their course offerings and effective teaching methods for those courses. As a result, teaching refinements could be made to current courses. New courses could be developed with effective teaching methods for ethics and morals in leadership to use as a tool to ensure transferability of ethical and moral principles to students. Therefore, students, too, could benefit from the findings of this study, as they could become more competent and prepared for leading in ethical and moral ways as a resul t of enhanced teaching. Furthermore, employers who have been seeking students with sound ethical and moral leadership skills can reap the benefits from this study, as they could be provided with a more capable and ethically aware applicant pool of qualifie d, prospective employees. As noted, research in the area of ethics and morals in leadership is fragmented. This study will, in part, contribute to the existing body of knowledge on ethics and morals in leadership by asking faculty perceptions on how they t hink ethical leadership should be taught. Acquiring differing opinions from various academic fields could lead to

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23 more sound research measuring the effects of teaching ethical and moral leadership in the classroom and could lend much insight into already e ffective teaching practices, especially nontraditional teaching practices. By obtaining more information about faculty perceptions of their teaching methods, researchers and faculty alike could hope to answer bigger questions, such as how they can improve their courses, curricula, teaching methods, and retention and application of ethical and moral leadership principles. Measuring faculty perceptions, as noted by Sims & Felton (2005) in their conclusion, could lead to a sort of chain reaction for more ethic ally sound leaders: If more professors seriously consider the question of how students learn and the importance of teaching ethics, we will all help build an effective environment for teaching and learning ethics, and the rewards for us and our students wi ll be exhilarating with fewer individuals committing ethical missteps like those highlighted in the recent wave of corporate scandals (p. 46). acts nor rid it of immoral le aders. However, this study can contribute to address the educational gap that exists about effective methods for teaching ethical and moral leadership. Definition of Terms f agricultural and life sciences within a university established by the Land grant Act will mean all universities represented by faculty participating in the study, not solel y Land grant Act universities. Effective teaching: "Let us begin, therefore, with a statement that is likely to receive a high degree of agreement, namely that effective teachers are those teachers whose students learn and grow the most. Therefore, to asse ss teaching effectiveness, all we need to do is measure learning and growth across all of th e students in the class" (Tuckman 1995, p. 127). In this study, effective teaching learning and growth among undergraduates.

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24 normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers t hrough two way communication, reinforcement, and decision 120). behavior is right or wrong . ethics, which they [philosophers] define as the sy stematic study of the principles of right and wrong behavior, and morals, which they [philosophers] describe as specif ic standards of right and wrong 2012, p. xxi). In this study, ethics and morals were operationally defined as meaning the ident ification of right and wrong principles, and the application of those principles according to moral standards (i.e. the application resulting in and/or researc hers. The term also includes professors of various ranks, usually tenured or tenure track in natu ). For the na ture of this study, land grant c ollege of agriculture faculty who teach some component of ethics and morals in lead ership were used as participants in the study. Undergraduate ethics course: Defined as an undergraduate credit offering c ourse with ethics or morals in the title and/or course description/s. Limitations of the Study This study includes some limitations that need to be acknowledged. One limitation was the spe cificity of the study: not all c ollege of agriculture faculty teach ing leadership could be identified, as a master list of such faculty did not exist. The study time, the study did not capture trends. Additionally, the researcher did not examine course syllabuses to analyze ethics and morals in leadership curricula. Basic A ssumptions Honest perceptions and responses from faculty participants were critical to the validity and soundness of this study. An assumption was that survey questi ons were

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25 answered truthfully and kept confidential, so as to lend accurate information and avoid sharing of information with other participants, also known as subject effects. The researcher also assumed the contact e mail addresses provided for the study by or any variation of the two in the course title, the course instructor devoted time to teaching these topics. Lastly, the researcher assumed that participants will b e able to Chap ter Summary Over the past few decades, society has seen an increase in the number of high profile scandals involving its leaders. As these ethical and moral trends have continued to happen in all sectors, they have suggested a lack of ethical and moral lea dership education. These trends have created a two part problem: increasing unethical and capability on how ethical and moral leadership knowledge and behaviors can be effe ctively taught and in turn, applied. In response to the mentioned decline leadership behaviors in society, many educational institutions are starting to encourage the teaching of ethical and moral leadership behaviors within their classrooms, including lea dership departments within colleges of agriculture. The purpose of this study was to measure faculty perceptions of methods for teaching ethical and moral leadership principles and behaviors in undergraduate college of agriculture courses. Chapter 1 descr ibed the significance of the study and how more effective methods of instruction for teaching ethical and moral leadership could be

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26 identified from the findings of this study. In turn, more effective instruction could lead to better transferability of ethi cal and moral leadership knowledge to leadership behaviors, 1 also operationalized terms significant to this study and acknowledged limitations and basic assumptions of the study.

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27 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERA TURE central goal of the curriculum and even the entire college environment was to develop sensitivity to moral responsibilities, to teach ethical t hought and action, and to develop of academic institutions in current literature as well (Brown, Trevio, & Harrison, 2005, Swanson, 2004). The academic study of ethi cs and morals is not new. Scholars as old as Aristotle have long been questioning ethics and morals of society and individuals (Dean & Beggs, 2007). Ethical scandals and immoral behavior are perhaps just as old, but the recent ethical breaches plaguing all sectors of American society from major corporations to small businesses have caused administration and faculty members alike to revisit the moral education and leadership of their students (Dean & Beggs 2006; Pennington, 2006). Winston (2007) also noted the attention that moral education has been receiving: while there is a documented need for ethics education, the business educators have indicated the need to understand how to incorporate ethical pri nciples into coursework methods to help revise or create ethical and moral leadership curricula (Sims & Felton, 2005). This educational preparation was precisely what Winston (200 7) suggested for ethical, and more conscious of their ability to make sound decisions highlights the importance of well following literature

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28 clarified some of the present educational theories being used in ethical and moral education. Overview C hapter 1 illustrated the significance of unethical and immoral leadership in society and the lack of knowledge and competency surr ounding how ethical and moral lack of ethical and moral leaders has been effective teaching and application of ethical and moral leadership in the classroom. This study p rovided more information on how ethical and moral leadership curricula is currently taught, specifically, educational frameworks and pedagogies faculty members have been using to teach ethical and moral leadership, and particular influences that affect ind ividual cognitive moral development and behavior development. C hapter 2 provided a literature review of some of the educational frameworks that have been used to develop ethical and moral leadership curricula. The educational frameworks discussed were com bined into a theoretical foundation that was utilized in this study. A conceptual model that suggested a relationship between individual helped illustrate the theoretical founda tion presented. The purpose of this study was to leadership principles and behaviors in undergraduate college of agriculture courses. The findings of this study will identify perceived effective teaching methods for ethical and moral leadership, and in turn, will help faculty members and other stakeholders to develop ethically and morally sound leaders resulting in more ethical and moral leadership for society.

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29 Definitions After reviewing the literature, some inconsistencies were found in Liddell and Cooper (2012) confirm the As previously defined and for the purposes of this study, ethics and morals were operationally defined as: the identification of right and wrong principles, and the application of those principles according to moral standards. Ethic al leadership was actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two way communication, reinforcement, and decision 2005, p. 120). Theoretical Foundation Theory of Cognitive Moral D evelopment According to Ambrose, Arnaud, and Schminke (2007), Beggs and Dean (2007), Ferris (1996), and Wright (1995), a theory that has h ad an impact on individual ethical ethical issues can develop later in life use to reach an ethical or moral decision (Brown & Trevio 2006) and have concluded cognitive moral development theory suggests that principled reasoning is based upon

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30 Trevio 2006, p. 604). This theory consists of six stages, separated into three levels: pre conventional level, conventional level, and post conventional level. Each level indicates increased moral development from a prior level; the first level concerning personal gain or loss according to the outcomes of behavior, the second terms of the rules and laws that govern society, and the third level concerning justice and universal laws applicable to everyone (Hren, et al., 2006). Within each level of morality are two stages. These stages are illustrative of the personal moral development stage an individual is currently at while progressing through the levels. Within preconventional morality, stage one is punishment orientation and stage two is reward orientation (Baxter & Rarick, 1987). Punishment orientation is directly reflected in the behavior of obeying rules to avoid punishment, while reward orientation is directly reflected in the behavior of conforming to obtain rewards and to have favors returned (Baxter & Rarick, 1987). The next level, conventional morality, houses two stages: good boy/good girl orientation, which is illustrated when individuals conform to avoid disapproval of others; and authority orientation, which is illustrated avoid censure of authorities and p. 244). The last and highest level of indiv idual moral development is postconventional

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31 morality. The two stages present in this level are social contract orientation, where an to the public welfare; principles u pheld to retain respect of peers and, this, self self chosen ethical principles (that usually value justice, dignity, and equality); principles upheld to avo id self is its unique attention to individual moral growth development and processes. As Sims and Felton (2005) pointed out, stages of growth occur in many things, and moral development, the ability to think morally also develops in stages (preconventional, ). Though many factors may influence personal moral growth and development, Kohlberg found that one of the most crucial factors is education (Sims & Felton, 2005). development to theoretical foundation, and as a result, its conceptual model. In their study focusing on a review of ethical leadership and its future direction, Brown and Trevio (2006) stated s theory of cognitive moral development suggested principled reasoning, or the rational decision and method ologies have yet to be identified (Beggs & Dean, 2007).

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32 The Four Component M odel component model of moral reasoning. Wright (1995) stated that further defin and further application of the selection to a situation to determine morally appropriate action; moral will (also known as moral motivation) which is the resolution to act in accordance with the judgment made; and lastly, moral action, which is the Liddell and Cooper described the relationship between check of moral action the compass, the conscience, and the will to put aside personal the assumpti ons of the four component model is that moral behavior results from moral development (Brown & Trevio 2006; Hren e t al. 2006; Sims & Felton, 2005), however, some important distinctions should be recognized. As stated by Brown and Trevio cognitive moral development, is more schema based than Koh hierarchical progression, which is based on philosophical theories of justice and rights. Dean and Beggs (2006) also emphasized key theoretical differences between the

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33 morality implicat ions, the formal Beggs, 2006). Hren et al. (2006) noted the distinction between the two models, highlighting that the difference lies in the process of development which can allow for more than one easoning] as an additive process occurring through two shifts in the proportional use of 3 moral r easoning schema from the lowest Though much of the two models are based upon the same core principles of Ko Trevio 2006, p. 605), the differences between the two, such as attention to moral reasoning versus moral founda tion. Social Learning/Cognitive T heory A third contributing theory that may influence ethical and moral leadership curricula, teaching practices, and help provide a medium for understanding ethical leadership is social learning theory. Gibson (2004) note d that social learning theory, SLT/SCT, although applicable to learning in all age groups, is shown to be especia lly relevant to adult learning, as it helps to explain the modeling function of observational learning; emphasizes the interaction of the person, behavior, and environment; and accounts for motivational aspects of learning (p.199).

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34 Brown, et al. (2005) s 130).Using social learning theory as a foundation to better understand ethical leadership will include leaders influencing the ethical co nduct of followers through modeling, such as observational learning, identification, and imitation (Brown, et al., 2005). Social learning theory, as developed by Bandura (1977, 1986), will contribute to ed a lens for understanding relationships, situations, and influences between followers and ethical leaders, and the interactions between the two. Brown and Trevio (2006) emphasized again the earning theory (Bandura 1977, 1986) is based on the idea that individuals learn by paying attention to and (Brown & Trevio 2006, p. 597). This modeling behavior was als o supported by Lee and Cheng (2012) who noted that learning occurs from direct experience, but also from As shown, social learning theory has been an educational framework heavily dependent upon psychological ma tching processes such as imitation (Brown, et al., 2005) and role modeling (Brown & Trevio 2006; Lee & Cheng, 2012). Since followers often learn from leaders, social learning theory posits that ethical behaviors and practices could also be learned from p sychological matching processes such as observation, substitution of behaviors, and mimicking. In a later study, Brown and Trevio (2006) specifically identified social learning theory and its components, including role modeling, as an approach for educati onal institutions to develop and train

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35 future leaders. However, Brown and Trevio (2006) also noted that there has not been much research conducted on the transferability of social learning theory directly to course design: Thus far, little research has f ocused on how to design (e.g. frequency, duration, specific content, pedagogy) an ethical leadership development program based upon role modeling; or, on whether such an intervention approach might also be used for ethical leadership in instruction in educ ational institutions. (p. 609) Nevertheless, Brown and Trevio (2006) concluded that role modeling and vicarious learning might be essential to the learning process of ethical and moral earning about ethical Trevio 2006, p. 598). Conceptual Model The theoretical foundation for this study consisted of three theories: theory of cognitive moral development, the four component theo ry, and social learning theory. In particular, the theory of cognitive moral development and the four component theory contributed much to the theoretical foundation and conceptual model of this study. Social learning theory helped to support the researche r developed conceptual model. These theories have been depicted in t he adapted conceptual model represented in Fig ure 1 at the end of Chapter 2 As the model has shown, each of the presented foundational theories has been perceived to influence the develop ment of ethical and moral development, and the model as the external influences, including family, community, non formal learning experiences (i.e. Girl Scouts of Ameri ca, etc.), and workplace environment. These

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36 Social cognitive theory, 2001). For this conceptual model, the researcher defin value system is an enduring organization of beliefs concerning preferable modes of 1973 no page) are the core of who people are. They influence the choices they make, the people they trust, the appeals they For this study, belief was incorporated into the conceptual model based on Ashkanasy, Windsor, and Trevio cognitive moral development and belief in a just world on ethical decision making suggests that ethical decision making involves a complex interacti on of cognitive styles the formal education process. As depicted in the model, ethical and moral leadership curriculum directly in fluence effective teaching methods (the highlight of this study), hand side of the conceptual mode individual cognitive moral development (Level I, II, and III, and Stages 1 6). Within those component model of behavior development. These four components: moral sensitivity (MS), moral judgment (MJ), moral will (MW), and moral action (MA), represent the process an individual takes to reach a certain moral

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37 behavior. As the model shows, the process an individual takes to reach a moral action ry) directly influences the level of cognitive moral development values and beliefs. It is noted in the model that an individual must progress through all of the four components of moral reasoning (MS, MJ, MW, and MA) and achieve both cognitive moral development and behavior development also influence the formal education process. As a ethical and moral leadership curriculum, effective teaching methods, and behavior could change to suit the increased moral reasoning/learning style, consequently affecting the beliefs. In this way, the conceptual model has a cyclical component. This model is meant to represent the myriad of teaching practices available and non traditio nal (i.e. guest speakers, internships, role modeling, etc.) teaching practices. As depicted in the conceptual model, the avenues through which the development of moral standards and ethical behavior in college students are affected are quite extensive. Th ese influences are expected to have a direct relationship to the outcome of student behavior. For the purpose of this study, the researcher focused development and beha vior development; namely, faculty perceptions of methods for teaching ethical and moral leadership principles and behaviors.

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38 Literature Review As evident in the literature that follows, much of the theoretical foundation and conceptual model was based upo n empirical findings. The conceptual model illustrated material presented hereafter has provided more information on those influences and development. Factors Influencing the Development of Ethical and Moral S t andards and B ehaviors One influence that was presented i n the conceptual model was workplace environment. Workplace environment was presented as an external influence that study that examined this relationship was conducted by Amb rose et al. (2007). Ambrose et al. (2007) noted that while most research on cognitive moral development in organizations focused on the relationship between cognitive moral development and anization [workplace In their study, Ambrose et al. (2007) examined levels of moral develop ment to s

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39 cognitive moral development (Ambrose et al. 2007). Their findings suggested that an Workplace environmen t was presented as only a small component of what may development and behavior development. Other external influences have also been shown to influence cognitive moral development and behavior, like those reported in the thorough review of empirical ethical decision making literature from 1996 to 2003. In their review, they reported findings from studies they had analyzed by dependent variable, such as, awareness, judgment, behavior, etc. These findings by dependent as seen by the direct relationship in the dependent variables previously mentioned (awareness, judgment, behavior). d the following findings Their finding reflects a positive relationship to this st conceptual model, namely that a component of workplace environment, job satisfaction, directly affects the moral sensitivity or a person. Organizational ethical climate was

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40 previously mentioned (Ambrose et al. 2007); organiz ational factors, such as ethical and Butterfiled (2005) study. Among their review, they reported findings from Singhapakdi, Karande, Rao, and Vitell (2001), which include Table III), and findings from Christie, Kwon, Stoeberl, and Baumhart (2003), which luence on attitudes toward Butterfield (2005) reported the findings of three studies whic h supported positive influence of ethics education: Kracher, Chatterjee, and Lundquist (2002) found that Butterfield, 2005, p. 381, Table III); Razzaque and Hwee (2002) found t was a significant difference in ethical recognition after recei ving a Business ethics relationship between education and moral development. Relate between higher stages of moral reasoning and higher degree of religious commitment 5, Table III). This finding was consistent with the external influence of

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41 conceptual mode l, but with a dependent variable of awareness, was Singhapakdi, and perception o behavior development were overarching outcomes of the conceptual model. Among our studies pertinent to ead to more 3, Table V). The last two studies, conducted by Greenberg (2002), and Abdolmohammadi and Sultan the empirical lite is positively related to ethical decision

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42 showed prom ise as a contextual moderating variable and that other studies have found making process framewo (2012) also reported findings from studies that looked at other variables such as significant others, nationality, and age. Though important for a review of the literature, thes e variables were not mentioned above as they have not been explicitly included in conceptual model included family, comm unity, peers, and media. In a 2005 article, authors Hart and Carlo discussed some of these variables as impacting moral development in adolescence. Though no specific experimental findings were presented, the authors noted that several variables and cultur development including peers, parents and family, work environment, social institutions, media, and non formal learning experiences, such as volunteering and extracurricular eoretical framework and conceptual model has shown, multiple influences, like those previously mentioned, can affect an as having moral dimensions of their own that co nstituents have to (to some extent) peer demands, and the demands placed on them by the broader society (e.g. school rlo mentioned, those different

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43 functioning (2005). Literature Supporting Formal E ducation as an Influencing F actor As noted by several scholars, the formal education process has also affected King & Mayhew, 2002; Maeda et al., 2009; Sims & Felton, 2005). In a study analyzing judgment, Jagger (2011) used the previously mentioned DIT test to determine changes in moral judgment specifically sensitivity can have a significant impact on the ability of a person to develop moral a connection to and interpret the ethical issues to a reasonably high level were les s able to make different methods for teaching ethical and moral behavior, but strongly suggested that in based approaches (i.e. criti cal analysis, logic based exercises, case studies, debates, discussions), rather than rules based suggests that skills based approaches, which motivate and engage to devel op ethical

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44 has had an impact on individual cognitive moral development and behavior development. An additional study that linked formal education to individual moral development d that lum, both formal (e.g., coursework highlighting moral issues) and informal (the social environment that foste rs a discussion of moral issues. ment is associated with educational environments. These statements and the findings that 2 (a version of the original DIT Test) to measure a component of Koh significant variation in the average DIT 2 scores across groups obtained from different nt with e educational context should be taken into account to understand variation in the formal education as a large component of the conceptual model.

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45 An additional finding by King and Mayhew (2002) of particular importance to this types of educational experiences) are also associated with growth in moral judgment and with the product ion of moral notable finding, as this study measured faculty perceptions of methods for teaching ethical and moral leadership in a specific context: colleges of a griculture. A study that differed from the ones previously ment ioned, but which still conducted by Cloninger and Selvarajan (2010). As opposed to an overall general view of ethics education or ethical and moral leadership education, Cl oninger and decision uals with an primarily in business (Cloninger & Selvarajan, 2010). After completing a course in business and society with a focus on ethics, the individuals were asked to ra te an ethical vignette (Cloninger & Selvarajan, 2010). Cloninger and Selvarajan (2010) found hat re asoning (Cloninger & Selvarajan). Along with the other findings presented in this

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46 individual cognitive moral development and behavior development and formal education. Eth ical Framework (BELIEF) program; both studies looked at a more narrow view of ethical and moral leadership and behaviors in the context of a classroom. As noted by curricula a nd course content that reflect the importance of ethical leadership and ethical developed BELIEF to address and ( 2) strengthen their decision (Dzuranin, Shortridge, and Smith, 2012, In press). The first objective of the program, fram sensitivity. After measuring improvement from before implementation of BELIEF (2005) to after implementation (2011), the researchers Dzuranin et al. (2012) found that the BELI EF program has had a positive impact and has met its two learning objectives: making skills regarding ethical dilemmas improved post i mplementation of the Program about 90% of NIU COB students meet or exceed expectations for ethical awareness and decision BELIEF program has been nationally recognized as a best practice for ethics education

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47 by the AACS B, who first called for like programs to address the shortage of ethical leaders in society ( Alsop, 2003 ). Current Teaching Practices for Ethical and Moral L eadership Many scholars have written about the beneficial effects of college education on moral and ethical judgments (Dean & Beggs, 2006). The teaching of ethics in institutions of higher education has been debated (Peppas & Diskin, 2001; Sims & development of students c regards to the debate, Rya it is not that ethics cannot be taught, but rather, how ethics education is delivered which might be the reason for poor ethical attitude among teaching practices has been identified as effective for teaching ethical and moral leadership, numerous studies have been conducted (Dean & Beggs, 2006; Ferris, 1996; Sims & Felton, 2005, Sims & Sims, 1991; Winston, 2005; Wright, 1995) that have provided evidence of the specific teaching practices used in classrooms. The following are teaching practices that have been mentioned in the literature as current educational practices used for teachin g ethics and morals in a leadership related context or setting. One current teaching practice is the development of personal managerial codes, or codes of ethics, as suggested by Ferris, 1996; Sims & Felton, 2005; and Conroy & Emerson (as cited by Dean an d Beggs, 2006). Ferris stated that these codes focus who had previously complete d an ethics course and produced a personal code of

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48 had taken a course in ethics. Though Ferris (1996) argued that personal ethical codes are central to building a well developed moral sense that goes beyond a gut that numerous teaching elements would be required to develop such a moral sense. Another of these teaching elements is role modeling, as reported by Wright (1995) and Sim playing also provides students with the opportunity to participate mentioned, role modeling is a component of social learning theory (Brown & Trevio 2006). Thr ough interview analysis, Sims and Felton (2005) found several practices that current ethics instructors (though no relationship to leadership was identified) perceived as effective in their teaching experience. These teaching practices included storytellin g, dialogue, and specific practices, such as defining ethics. An interesting conclusion by Sims and Felton (2005) was that ethics education should be treated as a holistic process, one where the responsibility for learning should be shared amongst the teac hers and students. In another study involving ethics instructors, Dean and Beggs (2006) reported the following responses as teaching practices used by the survey participants: sharing newspaper articles, stories, and real world situations; sharing theoret ical frameworks and stakeholder analysis models; and lastly, using critical reflection exercises and case study analyses to recommend courses of action and justification for proposed actions. Sims (1991) reinforced the use of case studies in his report sta ting that they provide

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49 another teaching vehicle for analyzing ethical problems and crafting resolutions. Other scholars such as Begley and Stefkovich (2007) have also noted the use of case studies as a resource and teaching strategy. Similar to Dean and B and Bisson (2011) also found a myriad of teaching practices to be in use, including videotapes, recommended readings, lectures, essays, group discussions, and exams. Other teaching practices mentioned in the literature have include d discussions (Sims, ethics, students can be faced with ethical dilemmas that encourage them to react and act on the problems as though they were in a real Sims, 1991, p. 399). These studies reflect a wide variety of ethical and moral instructional methods in use. Relevant to teaching practices, Keller (2007) noted the difference between straight lecture and transformational instructional methodologies. Kell er (2007) stated that direct presentations of class concepts and information (i.e., lecture) was an example of transactional instructional methodologies, whereas critical reflection and discussion were deemed as transformational instructional methodologies In his straight lecture. Much of the context of the presented literature has not been directly related to leadership or leadership educators, which presents a notable ga p in the research covering ethical and moral leadership. Though some of the literature has tied in to ethical leadership and managerial leadership, much of it has been based on business ethics courses. While not theoretical in nature, leadership content ta ught in business

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50 schools was still applicable to the nature of this study. However, a lack of literature tied to specific pedagogical practices for ethical and moral leadership should be noted. Summary In summary, there are two overarching theories, Kohlbe component model; and one contributing theory, standards and ethical behaviors. These theories, along with the evi dence that supports strong foundation from which this study was formed. This study helped to identify relationships between the theories presented and the impact of fo rmal education on individual cognitive moral development and behavior development, namely through the avenue of faculty perceptions of teaching methods for ethical and moral leadership. C hapter 2 provided recent literature addressing the components of the conceptual model and influences to individual development. As Begley and Stefkovich (2007) noted, understanding student development and the use of educational theories to help student development may be critical in determining how to best design ethical a conscientious of developmental stages is as relevant to the sensitive design of 405). Sims and Felton (2005) also noted that th e use of educational theories as frameworks for developing curricula should be a top priority for faculty members: Equally important, we want to build a framework upon which ethics can be taught, and we cannot leave it to the specialists alone, good as the y may be. We the teachers, are those responsible for teaching ethics, need to articulate what we do. If more professors seriously consider the question of how students learn and the importance of teaching ethics, and the

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51 rewards for us and our students wil l be exhilarating with fewer individuals committing ethical missteps like those highlighted in the recent wave of corporate scandals. (p. 46). The lack of research on pedagogical practices in ethical and moral leadership is of methods for teaching ethical and moral leadership, will help contribute to the knowledge base and provide a starting point for more research in this area.

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52 Figure 2 1. Development of Moral Standard s and Ethical Behaviors in College Students

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53 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY C hapter 3 discusses the methodology of the study focusing on faculty perceptions of methods for teaching ethical and moral leadership principles and behaviors in undergraduate college of a g riculture courses. In C hapter 3 the researcher will discuss the research perspective and specific methods used to measure faculty perceptions and the objectives outlined in Chapter 1 The researcher will also discuss the instrument utilized and address va lidity and reliability issues related to the study. Finally, the researcher will discuss the data sources used and explain how data were analyzed and summarized. Research Perspective This study was exploratory in nature, questioning faculty perceptions of methods for teaching ethical and moral leadership principles and behaviors. In essence, this study sought to quantitatively describe a phenomenon in order to learn more about it and provide sound findings for more experimental research to be conducted on the same phenomena in the future. From a researcher perspective, a quantitative approach seemed most appropriate for this study, as the researcher would be describing a phenomenon deductively and be removed from personal interaction with the participants o f the study. As outlined in Ary, Jacobs, and Sorenson (2010) these are determining characteristics for quantitative approaches to research. Research Design This study was conducted in a descriptive manner. According to Ary et al. (2010), descriptive resear

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54 was faculty m Further, a descriptive survey was used to measure faculty perceptions of methods for teaching ethical and moral leadership principles and behaviors. The survey was constructed according to Dillman, Smyth, and Christi an (2009) and was distributed in an electronically formatted questionnaire to study participants. The questionnaires decided upon the use of electronic mail survey q uestionnaires for several reasons, as described by Ary et al. (2010): the reduced time required for assembly and mailing, no postage costs, ease for researcher, low social desirability bias, and anonymity for participants (increasing participant safety). The researcher also considered advantageous reasons for electronic mail questionnaires. As stated by Dillman et al. (2009), electronic mail questionnaires have distinct advantages over regular mail, encouraged prompter returns, lower non response rates, an d allowed for more complete answers to open ended questionnaire items. A disadvantage that Ary et al. (2010) pointed out was that electronic mail surveys have only been appropriate for use when the researcher has valid electronic mail addresses for all mem bers of a finite population. Since this study involved faculty members at land grant colleges, and valid electronic mail addresses were required of each faculty member, this disadvantage was addressed. A potential validity threat for research studies, exte extent to which the findings of a particular study can be generalized to other subjects,

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55 Because of the census nature of the study, no generalizations were appropriate. Thus, external validity was not a concern. As identified by Dillman et al. (2009), four main types of errors that descriptive survey research studies should seek to address are: coverage error, sampling error, non resp all members of the population have a known, nonzero chance of being included in the sample for the survey and when those who are excluded are different from those who are included census study and utilized an entire population, coverage error did not present a major issue, but the researcher did made every attempt to include all members of the population, however, some members of the population were not able to be determined based on lack of contact information. Dillman et al. defined to which the precision of the survey estimates is limited because not every person in the popu eligible survey participants were encouraged and provided the chance to response to the survey. A third source of error, non response, comes from not receiving responses f rom all participants that were included in the sample (Dillman et al. 2009). For this study, non response was addressed using procedures recommended in the Tailored Design Method (Dillman et al. 2009). The researcher also interviewed a sample percentage of the non respondents to determine if a calculable difference or possible bias between the original population and the non respondents was present. Finally, stems from poor questions wording, survey mode effects, or aspects of the

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56 test prior to final survey distribution. Data Sources This study was constructed to serve as a census study, which, Ary et al. defined of the study was within land gr ant colleges of agriculture The data sources utilized for this study were all lea dership education faculty in departments of agricultural education within colleges of agriculture that have taught some component of ethical and moral leadership in their undergraduate leadership education courses. As a current list of the described population did not exist, a res earcher developed list of all eligible participants for this study was constructed. The list was partially developed by land grant universities listed on the Association of Leadership Educators (ALE, 2012) website, the Association of Public and Land Grant Universities (APLU, 2012) official website, and the American Association for Agricultural E 2012) website This list, comprised of 77 separate colleges or schools of agriculture, provided the study w ith an overall population of 32 individu als As a census, the entire population was asked to participate in the study. Instrumentation and Data C ollection The survey questionnaire was developed in Qualtrics, an online survey software. Because a current instrument that measured faculty percepti ons of teaching methods for ethical and moral leadership did not exist at the time of the study, the instrument was researcher developed. Great care was taken in the overall look and appeal of the survey design, as these elements are critical to high resp onse rates (Dillman et al. 2009). Official University of Florida logos were represented on all materials associated

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57 with the study to legitimize the source, provide a sense of professionalism to study participants, and maintain accordance with the Universi ty of Florida Institutional Review Board. In accordance with the Tailored Design Method (Dillman et al. 2009), the survey was developed for a sixth grade reading level and was comprised of only questions that represented the conceptual domains. A panel of experts, composed of leadership survey questions and provide a validity check of the instrument. The researcher submitted a proposal of the instrument to the University o f Florida Institutional Review Board (IRB 02) for approval before any data collection occurred. After gaining approval from the IRB 02, the researcher conducted a pilot test, consisting of eleven individuals, to help determine the reliability and validity of the instrument. This pilot test was conducted three weeks prior to questionnaire distribution to allow ample time for revisions. After completion of the pilot test and instrument changes, the survey questionnaire was then distributed to all valid partic ipant e mail addresses that were obtained. Data were collected on years of teaching experience, age, gender, race, and educational level achieved. As suggested by Dillman et al. (2009) demographic questions were presented to participants at the end of the survey. The final version of the survey instrument can be found in Appendix B. An e mail notify them of the upcoming survey, provide study information, including its purpose, en courage their participation by assuring them that the results of the study would be provided and show appreciation for their assistance with the study. The promise of providing results was the only incentive used in this study. Each e mail included the

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58 par questionnaire would be confidential developed and included a m ixture of close ended questions and open ended questions At least four questions were formulated in order to measure each of the four objectives listed in Chapter 1 Reminder e mails were sent out according to the Tailored Design method (Dillman et al. 2009) at varying times past the initial survey distribution. These attemp ts at addressing non response were all personalized. The e mails were sent to initial non respondents over a period of two weeks Follow up telephone calls were made as an attempt to reach non respondents, answer any questions the y may have had and to enco urage them to complete the survey. Several types of validity threats exist with survey questionnaires. As explained by Ary et al. (2010), construct validity is the extent to which a construct actually measures what it was designed to measure. To address th is threat, the study utilized a panel of objectives. Criterion related validity is based upon the relationship between the participants and other variables (Ary et al. 2010). Included in criterion related validity threats are five problems that could influence the overall validity of a questionnaire: respondents reporting false information, respondents reporting false information that is more socially acceptable than true infor mation, respondents reporting what they think the researcher wants to hear, respondents giving thoughtless responses to get the study over with, and respondents giving safe answers because they are unsure of their anonymity (Ary et al. 2010). Because of th e nature of the study, the researcher was only able to address the last problem (anonymity) by assuring the participants by cover letter

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59 and e mail correspondence that their responses would be completely anonymous. As personal interviews were not a part of this study, other criterion related validity threats were unable to be addressed and remained as limitations of this study. Data Analysis The survey was distributed electronically, and all numerical data were processed through data processing software, St atistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) important observations, descriptive statistics (frequencies) were calculated on all study variables. The open ended questio ns on the instrument were analyzed through content analysis, using comparative coding, which helped in identifying similar themes among responses. Demographic information was obtained to determine if any significant relationships existed between leadership perceptions of teaching methods for ethical and moral leadership. Summary C hapter 3 described the descriptive survey process used to determine leadership education faculty perceptions of methods for teaching ethical an d moral leadership in undergraduate courses. The population of college of agriculture leadership education faculty who had taught some component of ethical and moral leadership within an undergraduate course was defined and described. The researcher develo ped instrument was presented and explained, and threats to reliability and credibility were discussed and addressed. This study modeled and explained research methods prescribed in the Tailored Design Method (Dillman et al. 2009) in the survey instrumentat ion creation and distribution process. Finally, the researcher explained the data analysis techniques to assess survey data

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60 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The previous chapters have defined and described the problem of unethical and y. Chapter 1 presented the problem of unethical and immoral leaders and a brief history of ethical and moral leadership instruction within colleges of agriculture. Because of the increasing demand for educational institutions to produce ethi cally and mora lly sound leaders, scholars have begun to evaluate how well business schools and leadership programs are implementing ethical guidelines as suggested by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (Dey & Associates, 2010 ). Though researched prev iously among business schools, the research suggested many scholars have overlooked other academic fields where lead ers are be ing produced, namely c o lleges of a griculture. Chapter 1 presented the problem along with the purpose, objectives and definitions f or this study. By researching fac ulty perceptions of methods for teaching ethical and moral leadership principles and behaviors in undergraduate college of agriculture courses, the results will enable educators, practitioners, employers, administrators, an d the like to positively affect the next crop of leaders for our society to lead in an ethical and moral manner. Chapter 2 presented and discussed previous research in this area, presented the theoretical framework for this study and provided a visual rep resentation of the framework in the conceptual model. Major theories that contributed to the theoretical Four Component Model and Social Learning/Cognitive Theory. These theories were discussed and depicted in the conceptual model. Chapter 2 also provided literature on the following sub sections: f actors influencing the development of ethical and moral

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61 standards and behaviors l iterature supporting formal education as an influencing factor and c urrent teaching practices f or ethical and moral leadership. Chapter 3 discussed the methodolo gy used for the study including specific methods used to measure faculty perceptions. The quantitative research design was described and data sources, instrumentation and methods for data analysis were presented and described. C hapter 4 will focus specifically on the results of this study, categorized by research objectives. The population for this study consisted of 32 individuals who tau ght some component of ethical and moral leadership within undergraduate courses in colleges of agriculture. The study was conducted following the procedures outlined in Chapter 3 The initial response rate consisted of 25 participants After determining th at only 18 participants were qualified, a response rate of 56% ( n = 18) resulting in 18 number of cases ( n ) was obtained. Based upon the recommended response rate of 28.6% for a finite population (Israel, 2009), this deemed acceptable. Objective 1: To I dentify E ffective M ethods for D eveloping S tudent K nowledge of E thical and Moral Leadership P rinciples as Reported by College of Agriculture F aculty. The questionnaire contained four items that specifically address ed effective methods for developing student knowledge of ethical and moral leadership principles. Participants were asked to select specific instructional techniques they used when teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles All 18 participants responded. The responses follow and are also recorded in Table 4 1: traditional lecture, exams, quizzes, instructor led discussion, student led discussion, discussion groups, activities, videos, social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter), guest lecturers, current event/s acti vities,

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62 journals, role playing/role modeling, popular press (e.g. newspaper articles, magazine articles, etc.), simulations, case studies, and other. As the table shows, two participants category. These two participants gory. Participants were then asked to choose their three most often used instructional techniques for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles The top three most o ften used instructional techniques for teaching ethical and/or moral principles were reported by 61.1% ( n = 11) of participants who chose instructor led discussion, 50% ( n = 9) of participants chose traditional lecture and 50% ( n = 9) chose activities. The se responses are recorded in Table 4 2 From their three most often used instructional techniques for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles, participants were asked to determine which specific instructional technique they perceived to be the most effective. Of the 18 participants, 17 responded. Using analysis procedures outline in Chapter 3 seven techniques were chosen (some participants listed more than one technique) : activities ( n = 5) instructor led discussion ( n = 4) student led discu ssion ( n = 3) case studies ( n = 3) current events ( n = 3) videos ( n = 2) and guest lecturers ( n = 2) Lastly, participants were asked to share specific ways in which they effectively used their chosen method/s for teaching ethical and/or moral leadershi p principles Content analysis was used to categorize the re sponses. Of the 18 participants, 16 responded. Each response was listed by one participant ( n = 1 for each response). : YouTube and video clips, class deba tes and

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63 presentations, popular culture items, ethics panel, service work including work with the homeless, prisoners, etc.; political role models such as presidents; industry representatives, personal journaling and mission/vision statement construction, a nd what would you do themed activities such as specific scenarios, case studies, and game theory activities. Objective 2: To Identify E ffect ive Methods for Developing Student Knowledge of Ethical and Moral Leadership Behaviors as Reported by College of A griculture F aculty. The questionnaire contained four items that specifically addressed effective methods for developing student knowledge of ethical and moral leadership behaviors. Participants were asked to select specific instructional techniques they us ed when teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors The instructional techniques participants could choose from were identical to the instructional techniques for Objective 1 (traditional lecture, exams, quizzes, instructor led discussion, etc.) A ll 18 participants responded. The responses are recorded in Table 4 3. As the table shows, one participant category. Participants were then asked to choose their three most often used instructional techniques for teaching ethical and/ or moral leadership behaviors These responses are recorded in Table 4 4 The top three most often used instructional techniques for teaching ethical and/or moral behaviors were reported by 44.4 % ( n = 8 ) of participants who chose activities and 44.4 % ( n = 8 ) of participants chose instructor led discussion. From their three most often used instructional techniques for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors, participants were asked to determine which specific instructional technique they perceived to be the most effective. Of the 18 participants, 16 responded. Using analysis procedures outline in Chapter 3 ten techniques were

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64 chosen (some participants listed more than one technique): activities ( n = 4), case studies ( n = 2), discussion groups ( n = 2), guest lecturers ( n = 2), instructor led discussion ( n = 2), role playing/role modeling ( n = 2), current events ( n = 1), debates ( n = 2), ethics panel ( n = 1) and popular press ( n = 1). Lastly, participants were asked to share specific ways in which they effectively used their chosen method/s for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors Content analysis was used to categorize the responses. Of the 18 participants, 14 responded. Each response was listed by one participant ( n = 1 for each res ponse). playing with ethical scenarios, debates, have had different experiences with different companies, news articles in cluding recent ethical scandals such as the Penn State and UNC scandals, hot topics issues such as animal rights versus animal welfare, use of provocative videos of individuals or events, what would you do themed activities. Objective 3: To Determine the D emographic Characteristics of Faculty who Teach Ethical and Moral Leadership in Colleges of A griculture Demographic information was collected as part of the survey instrument Twelve questions regarding demographics were used in the survey instrument. The demographical information collected was gender, age, religious attendance/affiliation, number of years teaching in a faculty position, length of time teaching ethical and/or moral leadership units, sub units, and/or courses; whether or not participants had ever taught some component of ethics and/or morals as related to leadership; whether or not participants had taught ethical and/or moral leadership as a stand alone or embedded course ; specific embedded leadership courses participants taught; specific sta nd alone

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65 leadership courses participants taught ; how long participants had taught each specific course, when participants have offered their ethical and/or moral leadership courses; the average number of students enrolled in their courses; changes in the w ay participants have taught ethics and/or morals as related to leadership; and l astly, education, training, or background participants received in ethical and/ or moral leadership Of the demographic information asked of each participant, gender, age, rel igious attendance/affiliation, number of years teaching in a faculty position and length of time teaching ethical and/or moral leadership units, sub units, and/or courses are reported in Table 4 5 When asked to report gender, age, religious attendance/aff iliation and number of years teaching in a faculty position, all 18 participants responded. When asked to report length of time teaching ethical and/or moral leadership units, sub units, and/or courses, one participant did not respond. Key findings include : 55.6% ( n = 10) of participants were male, the majority of participants were between the ages of 26 40, the m ajority of participants, 61.1% ( n = 11) attend/practice religious services 4 10 times per month, the majority of participants have been teachi ng in a faculty position for 1 9 years, and nearly half of the participants, 44.4% ( n = 8), have been teaching ethical and/or moral leadership units, sub units/courses for 4 6 years. Other demographic information obtained from participants is provided in the following paragraphs.

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66 Experience Teaching Some Component of Ethics and/or M orals as R elated to L eadership When asked if they had ever taught some component of ethics and/or morals as related to leadership in their leadership courses, all 18 particip ants, 100% ( n = 18) Stand Alone Versus E mbedded Participants were asked to respond to four questions pertaining to the difference in teaching style: stand alone versus embedded. These four questions determined specific ways in which partic ipants had taught ethics and/or morals as related to leadership (stand alone versus embedded), when they offered their respective course, and if they had ever changed the way they taught (stand alone to embedded, etc.) ethics and/or morals as related to le adership. In what specific ways have you taught ethics as related to leadership? For this question, 72.2% ( n = 13) of the 18 participants selected that they teach ethics as related to leadership as an embedded course only (as a unit or s ub unit within anot her course), 16.7% ( n = 3) selected that they teach ethics as related to leadership as both a stand alone and an embedded course and 11.1% ( n = 2) selected that they One of the participants listed t hat they were in the process of teaching a stand category In what specific ways have you taught morals as related to leadership ? The results for this question were identical to the previous question. Seventy two p ercent ( n = 13) of the 18 participants selected that they teach morals as related to leadership as an embedded course only (as a unit or su b unit within another course),

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67 16.7% ( n = 3) selected that they teach morals as related to leadership as both a stand alone and an embedded course and 11.1% ( n = 2) selected that they teach morals as Offerings of ethical and/or mora l leadership as a stand alone course If participants had taught ethical and/or moral leadership as a stand alone course they were asked to select specific times of the year when they offered the course The times were categorized according to a general ac ademic calendar (fall semester, spring semester etc.). The responses varied among participants, although taught in semester. Fall, spring, and summer The se responses are recorded in Table 4 6 Offerings of ethical and/or moral leadership as an embedded course If participants had taught ethical and/or moral leadership as an embedded course they were asked to select specific times of the year when they off ered the course (fall semester, etc.) The choices for this question were: fall semester, spring semester, full summer semester, partial summer semester, and other. The majority of responses selected that they had offered ethical and/or moral leadership as an embedded course in the fall ( n = 14, 56%) and spring semesters ( n = 16, 64%). R esponses are recorded in Table 4 7 Changing teaching style Participants were asked if they had ever changed the way they taught ethics and/or morals as related to leadersh ip All 18 participants responded. Of the 18, 22.2%

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68 ( n = 4) had changed from an embedded course to a stand alone course, 5.6% ( n = 1) n = 13) had not changed at all. Specific stand alone leadership courses taught Participa nts were asked to list specific stand alone leadership courses that they had taught. Using analysis methods outline in Chapter 3 23 different leadership courses were identified. These courses included: Introduction to Leadership, Personal Leadership Devel opment, Organizational Culture and Ethics, Leadership and Imagination; Power, Motivation, and Influence; Youth Leadership Theory, Agricultural Leadership Development, Heroic Leadership, Environmental Leadership, and Team and Group Leadership. Specific emb edded leadership courses taught Participants were also asked to list specific embedded course s they had taught that included some component of leadership. These responses were categorized according to procedur es outlined in Chapter 3 Eleven different embe dded courses were identified. These courses included: Team Learning, Communicating agriculture to the Public, Critical and Creative Thinking, Ethics from a World View Perspective, Conflict Management, Humanity in the Food Web and Time Management. Time Spen t Teaching Specific Leadership Courses After providing specific courses they had taught, participants were asked to list how long they had taught each course. All 18 participants responded. The average number of years spent teaching specific leadership cou rses was 11.5. The least amount of time spent teaching s pecific leadership courses was one year and the greatest amount of time spent teaching a specific leadership course was 23 years.

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69 Participa nts were asked to list any education, training, or background they might have had in ethical and/or moral leadership. Fourteen different answers pertaining to education, training or background in ethical and/or moral leadership were identified. Each respon se was listed by one participant ( n = 1 for each response). Included in business ethics, undergraduate and graduate coursework, church seminars, FFA leadership training opportuniti es, faculty/staff advancement seminars, community service, conference presentations, serving in administrative roles, personal advancement/education and volunteer organizations. Average Number of Students Enrolled in Courses Participants were asked to prov ide an average number for the amount of students enrolled in each leadership course they taught that included some component of ethics and morals. The lowest average number of students reported was 12. The highest average number of students was 120. Other participants responses ranged from about 20 responses were higher than 40, but less than 75. Use of Outside Sources for Curriculum/Course Development If participants had sought any type of outside source for kn owledge, guidance, help etc., for ethics and/or morals in leadership curriculum and/or course development, they were asked to list those sources. Of the 18 participants, eight responded. The following are outside sources that were provided: consulting with philosophy professors, mirroring aspects of other ethics courses, such as business courses, consulted with other colleagues, references texts, articles, and case studies from other fields of study.

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70 Objective 4: Identify Facul Description of Students Before and After Taking a Course in Ethical and/or Moral Leadership A pair of questions that addressed the relationship between faculty perceptions and demographic char acteristics asked participants to describe the majority of their prior to taking their course, the majori ty of participants, 33.3% ( n = 6), described them as conforming to obtain rewards, to have favors returned. It should also be noted that 22.2% ( n = 4) of The additional pa recorded in Table 4 8 after taking their course, the majority of participants, 66.7% ( n = 12), described them as actions guided by principles commonly agreed on as ess ential to the public welfare; principles upheld to retain respect and peers and, thus, self respect. None of the participants described responses are recorded in Tab le 4 9 Participants were asked at the beginning of the questionnaire to give their personal defin To determine if there were any consistencies within the definitions, each d efinition was placed in a category that best The categories for the definitions were researcher developed using a content analysis and were based on findings in the literature ( Brown et al., 2005 ; Liddell and Cooper, 2012; Johnson 2012 ). Within the committee, inter

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71 reliability was confirmed on the categories that were constructed. The categories for and guidelines, rules. definitions are: behavior, practices; conceptualization; and guidelines, rules and beliefs. All categories presented are representative of the literature used to determine the categories ( Brown et al., 2005 ; Liddell and Cooper, 2012; Johnson 2012 ) The r esponses are recorded in Tables 4 10 and 4 11 respectively. As the tables show, some definitions fa ll into more than one category. The categories and their summative definitions are further explained in Chapter 5. Summary In C hapter 4 results of the sur vey analyzing the four research objectives were presented. Effective methods for developing student knowledge of ethical and/or moral leadership principles and behaviors were identified. Demographic characteristics of respondents and their relationship to their perceptions were also identified. Chapter 5 will provide an interpretation of the results and recommendations for future research and practice

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72 Table 4 1. Specific Instructional Techniques used for Teaching Ethical and/or Moral Leadership Princip les ( n = 18) Instructional Technique f % Instructor led discussion 18 100 Traditional Lecture 17 94.4 Activities 17 94.4 Current event/s activities 17 94.4 Case studies 16 88.9 Discussion groups 15 83.3 Videos 13 72.2 Popular press (e.g. newspape r articles, magazine articles, etc.) 13 72.2 Student led discussion 12 66.7 Exams 10 55.6 Guest lectures 10 55.6 Quizzes 9 50 Journals 7 38.9 Role playing/role modeling 7 38.9 Simulations 5 27.8 Social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter) 2 11.1 O ther 2 11.1 Table 4 2 Three Most Often Used Instructional Techniques for Teaching Ethical and/or Moral Leadership Principles ( n = 18) Instructional Technique f % Instructor led discussion 11 61.1 Traditional lecture 9 50 Activities 9 50 Case Studies 6 33.3 Discussion groups 4 22.2 Student led discussion 3 16.7 Videos 4 16.7 Current event/s activities 2 11.1 Guest lecturers 2 11.1 Newspaper articles, magazine articles, etc. 2 11.1 Journals 1 5.6 Role playing/Role modeling 1 5.6 Simulations 1 5.6

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73 Table 4 3. Specific Instructional Techniques used for Teaching Ethical and/or Moral Leadership Behaviors. ( n = 18) Instructional Technique f % Instructor led discussion 14 77.8 Discussion groups 14 77.8 Traditional Lecture 13 72.2 Activities 13 72.2 Current event/s activities 12 66.7 Case studies 11 61.1 Student led discussion 10 55.6 Popular press (e.g. newspaper articles, magazine articles, etc.) 9 50 Videos 8 44.4 Guest lectures 7 38.9 Simulations 7 38.9 Exams 6 33.3 Quizzes 5 27.8 Role playing/role modeling 5 27.8 Journals 4 22.2 Social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter) 2 11.1 Other 1 5.6 Table 4 4 Three Most Often Used Instructional Techniq ues for Teaching Ethical and/or Moral Leadership Behaviors. ( n = 18) Instructional Techn ique f % Activities 8 44.4 Instructor led discussion 8 44.4 Case studies 5 27.8 Current event/s activities 5 27.8 Discussion groups 5 27.8 Traditional lecture 5 27.8 Guest lecturers 3 16.7 Videos 3 16.7 Role playing/Role modeling 2 11.1 Simulatio ns 2 11.1 Student led discussion 2 11.1 Exams 1 5.6 Other 1 5.6 Popular press (e.g. newspaper articles, magazine articles, etc.) 1 5.6 Journals 0 0 Quizzes 0 0 Social Media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter) 0 0

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74 Table 4 5 ormation ( n = 18) f % Gender Male 10 55.6 Female 8 44.4 Age 26 32 2 11.1 33 40 8 44.4 41 48 1 5.6 49 56 6 33.3 57 or older 1 5.6 Religious Attendance/Affiliation Do not attend/ practice religious services 2 11.1 1 3 times per month 5 27.8 4 10 times per month 11 61.1 Number of Years Teaching in a Faculty Position 1 3 years 2 11.1 4 6 years 4 22.2 7 9 years 5 27.8 10 14 years 2 11.1 18 20 years 1 5.6 21 years or more 4 22.2 Length of Time Teaching Ethical/Moral Leadership Units, Sub units/courses 1 3 years 3 16.7 4 6 years 8 44.4 7 9 years 3 16.7 10 or more years 3 16.7 Table 4 6 Offerings of Ethical and/or Moral Leadership as a Stand Alone Course. ( n = 18) Se mester f % Spring 3 16.7 Full summer 3 16.7 3 16.7 Fall 2 11.1 Partial summer 1 5.6

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75 Table 4 7 Offerings of Ethical and/or Moral Leadership as an Embedded Course. ( n = 18) Semester f % Fall 14 56.0 Spring 16 64.0 Full summer 5 20.0 Pa rtial summer 6 24.0 3 12.0 Table 4 8 ( n = 18) Description f % Obeys rules to avoid punishment 4 22.2 Conforms to obtain rewards, to have favors returned 6 33.3 C onforms to avoid disapproval of others 3 16.7 Upholds laws and social rules to avoid censure of authorities and feelings 1 5.6 Actions guided by principles commonly agreed on as essential to the public welfare; princ iples upheld to retain respect of peers and, thus, self respect 3 16.7 Actions guided by self chosen ethical principles; principles upheld to avoid self condemnation 1 5.6 Table 4 9 ( n = 18) Description f % Obeys rules to avoid punishment 0 0 Conforms to obtain rewards, to have favors returned 1 5.6 Conforms to avoid disapproval of others 2 11.1 Upholds laws and social rules to avoid censure of authorities and feelings of g 1 5.6 Actions guided by principles commonly agreed on as essential to the public welfare; principles upheld to retain respect of peers and, thus, self respect 12 66.7 Actions guided by self chosen ethical principles; pri nciples upheld to avoid self condemnation 2 11.1

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76 Table 4 10 D ( n = 18) Participant Definition Behavior, Practices Personal Conceptualizatio n Guidelines Rules 1 Accepted behavior as defined by society X 2 Perso X 3 The way personal morals are translated in situations and applied in society, a set of guidelines created for industries or groups based on shared morals. For example business ethics X X X 4 A set of mo ral principles an individual lives by X X 5 The standard by which a person lives with respect to decision making about people, animals, and the environment X 6 Rules by which individual[s] live X X 7 Values that society believes to be important, rul es that say what is good and bad, right and wrong X 8 Ethics are societal principles for guiding human X 9 Practices X 1 0 The concepts of right and wrong X 11 Doing the right thin g. X 1 2 Ethics reflect the social norms of acceptable behavior X 1 3 Guiding principles that allow an individual to make changes or cho[o]se a specific direction X 14 Ethics is the moral values a person follows in life. What is right and wrong, goo d and bad. It is how a person lives their lives. X 15 Agree d upon guidelines of behavior or practice X X 16 X 17 A set of principles decided upon by society X 18 How a person should behave X Total 9 4 9

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77 Tabl e 4 11 ( n = 18) Participant Definition Behavior, Practices Conceptualization Guidelines, Rules, Beliefs 1 R ight versus wrong behavior X 2 S X 3 P ersonal value based guidelines that direct and dictate how one would act in a situation X X 4 A good and bad X 5 A wrong for given si tuations X X 6 How an individual defines the differences between right and wrong X 7 Y our own set of values that you believe to be important X X 8 Morals are personal values that can be used to guide X X 9 P rinciples values X 1 0 Frame work to implement our belief [of] what is right and wrong. X 1 1 norms X X 1 2 l beliefs and actions and the norms of their social group X X 1 3 F oundational precepts that remain consistent regardless of the situation X 14 Morals [are] the inner rules that a person follows. It is how a person knows what to do in any given circums tance X X X 15 P ersonal beliefs about right and wrong X X 16 P ersonal beliefs about right and wrong (other participant) X X 17 A set of principles decided upon by a higher body X 18 T X X Total 8 9 13

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78 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECO MMENDATIONS The purpose of this study was to determine faculty perceptions of methods for teaching ethical and moral leadership principles and behaviors in undergraduate college of a griculture courses. The dependent vari perceptions Component Model, and Social Learning/Cognitive Theo ry were used to develop the theoretical foundation for this study. poor attitudes towards ethical behavior may be a reflection of how ethics is taught [ i.e. teaching practices]. This study sought to determine taught and the speci fic teaching practices used by college of a griculture faculty. Objectives The following objectives were developed in order to guide the study: Objective 1: To identify effective methods for develop ing student knowledge of ethical and moral leader ship principles as reported by c ollege of agriculture faculty. Objective 2: To identify effective methods for developing student knowledge of ethical and moral leade rship behaviors as reported by c ollege of agriculture faculty. Objective 3: To determine the demographic characteristics of faculty who teach ethical and mor al leadership in c olleges of agriculture. Objective 4 : Identify faculty m p and determi ning student b ehaviors. Methodology The population for this study was college of a griculture faculty within departments of agricultural education who had taught some co mponent of ethics and/or morals. After

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79 a research developed list was defined, 32 faculty were determined to be qualified for participation in this study. As a c ensus study, all 32 individuals were asked to participat e in the study. 25 participants initially responded. The researcher determined that only 18 participants and their entire respon se sets were usable, which resulted in a 56% ( n = 18) response rate. The study used descriptive statistical measurements and content analyses for the purpose of data analysis. Summary of Findings Objective 1: To Identify Effective Methods for Developing St udent Knowledge of Ethical and Moral Leadership Principles as Reported by College of Agriculture Faculty The first objective sought to identify effective teaching methods faculty used to or moral leadership princ i ples. The following are instructional techniques that were used by half or more of the participants : Instructor led discussion (100%), traditional lecture (94.4%), current event/s activities (94.4%), activities (94.4%), case studies (88.9%), discussion gro ups (83.3%) popular press (72.2%), videos (72.2%), student led discussion (66.7%), exams (55/6%), guest lectures (55.6%), and quizzes (50%). The following instructional techniques were used by less than half of participants: Social media, journals, role pl aying/role modeling, simulations The top three instructional techniques used by participants were: instructor led discussion (61.1%), traditional lecture (50% ) and activities (50%). As outlined in Chapter 4, participants were asked to choose which specific instructional technique they thought to be most effective for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles. Seven techniques were identified, with activities ( n = 5) being the most chosen of the instructional techniques. The other te chniques were instructor led discussion ( n = 4), student led discussion ( n = 3), case studies ( n = 3), current events (n

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80 = 3), videos ( n = 2) and guest lecturers ( n = 2). Participants provided many responses to this question. Participants indicated they us e a wide variety of specific methods to eff ectively use their chosen technique /s for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles. and presentations, popular culture items, eth ics panel, service work including work with the homeless, prisoners, etc.; political role models such as presidents; industry representatives, personal journaling and mission/vision statement construction, and what would you do themed activities such as sp ecific scenarios, case studies, and game theory activities. Objective 2: To Identify Effective Methods for Developing Student Knowledge of Ethical and Moral Leadership Behaviors as Reported by College of Agriculture Faculty. The second objective, though similar to the first, sought to identify effective leadership behaviors. Related to behaviors, the following are instructional techniques that were used by half or more o f the participants : discussion groups (77.8%), instructor led discussion (77.8%), traditional lecture (72.2%), activities (72.2%), current event/s activities (72.2%), case studies (61.1%), student led discussion (55.6%) and popular press (50%). The followi ng techniques were used by less than half of participants: Videos, simulations, exams, quizzes, social media, guest lecturers, journals, role playing/role two instructional techniques used by participants were: activities (44 .4%) and instructor led discussion (44.4%). When asked what specific instructional technique they thought to be most effective when teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors activities topped the list ( n = 4) of the ten techniques identified, fol lowed by case studies ( n = 2), discussion groups

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81 ( n = 2), guest lecturers ( n = 2), instructor led discussion ( n = 2), role playing/role modeling ( n = 2), current events ( n = 1), debates ( n = 2), ethics panel ( n = 1) and popular press ( n = 1). For teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors participants listed a wide variety of specific ways in which they eff ectively use their chosen technique /s playing with ethical scenarios, debates, analyzing potential place guest lecturers who have had different experiences with different companies, news articles including recent ethical scandals such as the Penn State and UNC scandals, hot topics issues such as animal rights versus an imal welfare, use of provocative videos of individuals or events, what would you do themed activities. Objective 3: To Determine the Demographic Characteristics of Faculty who Teach Ethical and Moral Leadership in Colleges of Agriculture. The third object characteristics. Of the participants that responded, 55.6% were male, 44.4 % were female. The majority of participants were either 33 40 years in age (44.4%) or were 49 56 years in age (33.3%). The m ajority of participants reported that they attend/practice religious services 4 positions widely ranged from 1 21 years or more. This information can be found in Table 4 5. P teaching ethical and/or moral leadership units sub units/courses was also greatly varied. 8 participants (44.4) reported that they had been teaching ethical and/or moral leadership units, sub units/courses for 4 6 years. All other categories (1 3 yea rs, 7 9 years, 10 or more years) each h ad a response of 16.7% ( n = 3).

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82 Research Questions In what specific ways have you taught ethics as related to leadership? Seventy two percent ( n = 13) of the 18 participants selected that they teach ethics as relat ed to leadership as an embedded course only (as a unit or sub unit within another course), 16.7% ( n = 3) selected that they teach ethics as related to leadership as both a stand alone and an embedded course and 11.1% ( n = 2) selected that they teach ethics category. In what specific ways have you taught morals as related to leadership? R esult s for this question were identical to the previous question. 72.2% ( n = 13) of the 18 participants selected that they teach morals as related to leadership as an embedded course only (as a unit or sub unit within another course), 16.7% ( n = 3) selected tha t they teach morals as related to leadership as both a stand alone and an embedded course and 11.1% ( n = 2) selected that they teach morals as related to related to ethic Offerings of ethical and/or moral leadership as a stand alone course The responses varied among participants of when they offered their ethical and/or moral leadership stand amount of times for the semester in which the ethical and/or moral leadership course (stand alone) was offered. n = 2, 11.1%), spring ( n = 3, 16.7%), or full summer ( n = 3, 16.7%) semesters. Remaini ng

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83 participants indicated they offer the course in the partial summer semester ( n = 1, n = 3, 16.7%). Offerings of ethical and/or moral leadership as an embedded course When asked when they offered their ethical and/or moral leadership course (embedded), th e majority of responses selected that they had offered the course in the fall ( n = 14, 56%) and spring semesters ( n = 16, 64%). Remaining participants indicated they offered their course in the full summer ( n = 5, 20%), the partial sum mer ( n = 6, n = 3, 12%). Changing teaching style Of the 18 participants 22.2% ( n = 4) had changed from an embedded course to a stand alone course, 5.6% ( n n = 13) had not changed their teaching sty le (embedded to stand alone) at all. Specific stand alone leadership courses taught Twenty three different leadership courses were identified from participants responses These courses included: Introduction to Leadership, Personal Leadership Development, Organizational Culture and Ethics, Leadership and Imagination; Power, Motivation, and Influence; Youth Leadership Theory, Agricultural Leadership Development, Heroic Leadership, Environmental Leadership, and Team and Group Leadership. Specific embedded le adership courses taught Eleven different embedded courses were identified from participant responses These courses included: Team Learning, Communicating agriculture to the Public, Critical and Creative Thinking, Ethics from a World View Perspective, Conf lict Management, Humanity in the Food Web and Time Management.

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84 Time Spent Teaching Specific Leadership Courses Overall, participants reported an average of 11.5 years spent teaching specific ethical and/or moral leadership courses. This average may be high as one participant reported an average of 23 years for time spent teaching specific ethical and/or moral leadership courses. Average Number of Students Enrolled in Courses The lowest average number of students reported was 12. The highest average number o f students was 120. Other participant s responses ranged from about 20 40 students per course. Four participants reported averages higher than 40, but less than 75. Fourteen different answers pe rtaining to education, training or background in ethical and/or moral leadership were identified from responses Included in these responses were: philosophy courses, workshops and seminars on business ethics, undergraduate and graduate cours ework, church seminars, FFA leadership training opportunities, faculty/staff advancement seminars, community service, conference presentations, serving in administrative roles, personal advancement/education and volunteer organizations. Use of Outside Sour ces for Curriculum/Course Development Of the 18 participants, eight responded and listed the following as ou tside sources they used for curriculum/course development : consulting with philosophy professors, mirroring aspects of other ethics courses, such as business courses, consulted with other colleagues, references texts, articles, and case studies from other fields of study.

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85 Objective 4: Identify Faculty M Perceptions of the T Ethics Morals and Determining Student B ehaviors. The fourth and final objective sought to distinguish if a significant relationship existed between faculty perceptions and their demographic characteristics. Faculty were asked to describe their students prior to taking their ethical and/or moral leadership course a nd after. These two questions specifically identified which level and stage, level of mora l development prior to taking their course are listed below. The 10 faculty members ( n n = 6, 33.3%) fall int lowest level of cognitive moral development: Level I which is an d Stages 1 an d 2, p unishment orientation and reward orientation, respectively Four faculty members n n = 1, 5.6%)., which are categorized in Level II which is Conventional Morality g ood boy/good girl orientation and authority orientation, respectively. The four remaining faculty members principles commonly agreed on as essential to the public welfare; principles upheld to retain re spect of peers, and, thus, self n chosen ethical principles (that usually value justice, dignity, and equality); principles upheld to avoid self n = 1, 5.6%) These fall into t level of cognitive moral development, Level III, called orality and

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86 Stages 5 and 6, social contract orientation and ethical principle orientation, respectively. These responses are reported in Table 5 1. The breakdown of faculty membe development afte r taking their course are listed below. None of the faculty described n = 1, 5.6% ) which falls into the p reconventional morality level and the reward orientation stage ( n n = 1, 5.6%). These responses both fall into the Conventional morality level and good boy/good girl and authority orientations, respect ively. The 14 remaining faculty members described essential to the public welfare; principles upheld to retain respect of peers, and, thus, self n tions guided by self chosen ethical principles (that usually value justice, dignity, and equality); principles upheld to avoid self n = 2, 11.%). These responses fall into the highest level o f cognitive moral development, p ostconventional mo rality and in the social contract orientation stage and the ethical principle stage, respectively. The responses are reported in Table 5 2. development after the students have taken their course. This indicates that faculty members perceive their course on ethical and/or

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87 leadership behavior. This also indicates that faculty members perceive their teaching methods to be effective at teaching ethical an d/or moral leadership principles and (and thus, their behavior) to increase after taking thei r course, supports the claim reported by Green and Weber (1997) as found in This finding that education impacts ethical and/or moral development, also supports the studies of Razzaque and Hwee, 2002; and Wu, 2003. Faculty was asked to determine were consistent with each other and with definitions provided by the literature in this study. As Tables 4 10 and 4 11 show, faculty members have different perceptions of represent Each category highlights the major Because the statement was defining ethics within the context of an entity conceptualizing it, the definition fell within the own set of values tha Because this statement reflected into two categories: conceptualization and guidelines, rules and beliefs. Conclusions The following conclusions were based upon the results of this study:

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88 When teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles most participants (50% or greater) use the following instructional techniques: traditional lecture, exams, quizzes, instructor led discussion, student led discussion, discussion groups, activities, videos, guest lecturer s, current event/s activities, popular press, and case studies Less than half of college of a griculture faculty members use social media, journals, role playing/role modeling, simulations and other. College of a griculture faculty use instructor led discus sion, traditional lecture and activities the most when teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles Participants perceive seven particular techniques to be effective when teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles : activities, instructor led discussion, student led discussion, case studies, current events, videos, and guest lecturers. When teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors participants (50% or greater) use the following instructional techniques: traditional lecture, inst ructor led discussion, student led discussion, discussion groups, activities, current event/s activities, popular press and case st udies. Less than half of college of a griculture faculty members use exams, quizzes, videos, social media, guest lecturers, jo urnals, role playing/role=modeling, simulations, and other. College of Agriculture faculty use activities and instructor led discussion the most when teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors Participants perceive 10 particular techniques to be effective when teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors : activities, case studies, discussion groups, guest lecturers, instructor led discussion, role playing/role modeling, Whe n teaching both ethical and/or moral leader ship principles and behaviors, participants incorporate a wide variety of techniques to effectively use their instructional methods. The majority of participants were male. The majority of participants were betwe en the ages of 26 40. The majority of participants attend/practice religious services. More than half of participants have been teaching in a faculty position 1 9 years. Most participants have been teaching ethical and/or moral leadership units, sub un its/courses for 4 6 years. All participants had some experience teaching a component of ethical and/or morals as related to leadership. The majority of participants teach or have taught ethics and morals as related to leadership as an emb edded course on ly (as opposed to stand alone) The majority of participants taught th ese embedded courses in the fall and spring

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89 semesters. The majority of participants have had some previous teaching experience with stand alone and /or embedded courses. The majority of participants have neve r changed their teaching style. Specific stand alone leadership courses taught: Participants were asked to list specific stand alone leadership courses they had taught. 23 different leadership courses were identified. These courses i ncluded: Introduction to Leadership, Personal Leadership Development, Organizational Culture and Ethics, Leadership and Imagination; Power, Motivation, and Influence; Youth Leadership Theory, Agricultural Leadership Development, Heroic Leadership, Environm ental Leadership, and Team and Group Leadership. Specific embedded leadership courses taught: Participants were also asked to list specific embedded course s they had taught that included some component of leadership. Eleven different embedded courses were identified. These courses included: Team Learning, Communicating agriculture to the Public, Critical and Creative Thinking, Ethics from a World View Perspective, Conflict Management, Humanity in the Food Web and Time Management. The majority of participan ts have spent an average of 11.5 years teaching their respective leadership courses. The majority of participants had some type of background, education, training, etc. in ethical and/or moral leadership. The average number of students enrolled in courses varied: the lowest average number of students reported was 12. The highest average number of students was 120. Other participant s responses ranged from about 20 40 students per course. Four participants reported averages higher than 40, but less than 7 5. students enrolled in their leadership courses that contained some component of ethics and/or morals. The lowest average number of students reported was 12. The highest average number of students was 120. A little less than the majority of participants sought any type of outside sources for knowledge, guidance, etc. wh en developing their ethical and/or moral leadership courses. The outside sources that participants provided were : consulting with philosophy professors, mirroring aspects of other ethics courses, such as business courses, consulted with other colleagues, references texts, articles, and case studies from other fields of study. The majority of participants described t behavior prior to taking their course as punishment and reward oriented, which categorizes the students in the lowest level o f cognitive moral development, p reconventional Morality, according nt.

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90 The majority of participants described their after taking their course as social contract and ethical principle oriented, which categorizes the students in the highest level o f cognitive moral development, postconventional m orality, significantly Discussion and Implications Society continues to demand ethical and moral leaders and academic institutions are revisitin g their ethical and moral leadership education of their students in an attempt to produce to the needs of society. Research studies, similar to this thesis, help institutions, administration, faculty and employers gauge the level of ethical and moral lead ership development in their students, ascertain problems or holes in educational curriculum, and provide solutions for these entities to address these problems and fill the gaps. their business schools, but leadership, especially ethical and moral leadership, should not be confined to a singular academic entity and research has shown that specifi c academic environments, such as different colle ges have a direct impact on individual moral judgment and behavior growth (King & Mayhew, 2002). Learning how to make ethical decisions and practice sound moral principles is important for all members of soci ety and the specific context and environments in which it is taught is a direct reflection of how students learn in an academic setting. In addition, ethical and moral leadership curriculum could benefit from fresh teaching techniques. T his study has sough t to help in this endeavor by provid ing results based on what college of a griculture faculty perceive to be effective teaching methods for ethical and moral leadership principles and behaviors. As described by King and Mayhew (2002), unique academic

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91 enviro nments, like colleges of a griculture, will affect student moral behavior growth, and in turn, affect how they practice ethical and moral leadership behaviors in society. In this s tudy, all 18 participants were college of a griculture faculty within departm ents of agricultural education who had taught some component of ethics and morals as related to leadership. Each participant answered demographic questions and listed specific courses they had taught, whether stand alone or embedded, that were related to e thical and/or moral leadership. In addition, participants also reported how they taught these courses, including if they sought outside help in developing the course, from whom, what instructional techniques they used and how they perceived them to be effe ctive. When asked to report how they specifically taught ethics as related identical. This indicates that no new instructional methods or strategies are being used to differ entiate learning between the two. Since ethical leadership is different from moral leadership (as defined in this study), it seems only logical that faculty members should at least consider using different methods for the different subjects. Using the same instructional methods leaves room for concepts and critical information to fall through the gaps. es and beliefs, which in turn impact their moral development. significant relationship between higher stages of moral reasoning and higher degree o f religious commitment existed

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92 highlighting the connection between religion and moral development. Though no conclusions can be made about the relationship between level of religi ous moral leadership principles and behavior, it should be noted that of the 18 participants, an overwhelming majority of them, ( n = 16) reported that they attend/pr actice religious services 1 10 times per month. This suggests that these participants are involved in some type of religious commitment, and therefore have a higher stage of moral reasoning and can perhaps better articulate and justify that reasoning to their students than those participants who reported that they do not attend/practice r eligious services. was a positive II). Though religion may play a part in ethical and/or moral development, education retical foundation, and ability to deal with ethical issues (Sims and Felton, 2005). A large part of the existing literature on ethical and moral leadership development discuss es how ethical and moral behavior towards ethical and moral leadership. Ryan and Bisson (2011) stated that it is not an issue of whether ethics can be taught, but rather ho w it is delivered that might informed and positive. This study

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93 s ought to determine exactly how college of a griculture fac ulty teach ethical and/or moral ethical and moral leadership principles and behaviors. Of the 18 participants, 72.2% have never changed their tea ching style from an embedde d course to a stand alone course or vice versa. 22.2% have changed from an embedded course to a stand format. These responses spark some interest. Mainly, why did participants switch teaching styles or course forma ts? Was it required by their administration? Did they feel the change was more effective for teaching and learning purposes? More research analyzing the effectiveness of stand alone versus embedded courses is needed. Additionally, key finding s of the demographic information indicated that the majority of faculty members have had some experience and/or background with ethical and/or moral leadership. The majority of faculty members have also been teaching in a faculty position for six or more y ears and have been teaching some component of ethical and/or moral leadership for four or more years. With this information, it seems likely that the majority of faculty members have experience teaching some component of ethical and/or moral leadership, su ggesting they should be well aware of which instructional methods have proven to not be effective in their classrooms, The information reported suggested otherwise: that the majority of faculty members are using the same instructional methods and that they moral development to be dramatically increasing and improving because of their instructional methods.

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94 Participants listed that they use the following methods to teach ethical and/or moral leadership principles : tradit ional lecture, exams, quizzes, instructor led discussion, student led discussion, discussion groups, activities, videos, social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter), guest lecturers, current event/s activities, journals, role playing/role modeling, popular press (e.g. newspaper articles, magazine articles), simulations, and case studies. Of these techniques, the three most often used techniques were reported as instructor led discussion, traditional lecture, and activities. According to Keller (2007), the top two most often used techniques would fall into t preferred by students. This finding suggest s that faculty may be approaching the delivery of ethical and/or moral leadership incorrectly If learning styles, a disconnect or barrier may exist and critical information regarding ethical and/or moral leadership principles, the foundational knowledge, may not reach students. If these foundational eth ical and/or moral leadership principles are not learned and internalized by students, then society cannot expect them to lead in an ethical or moral manner. The majority of faculty listed activities and instructor led discussion to be the most effective in structional techniques for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles. This finding suggests a mix of transactional or traditional and what Keller or non traditional teaching techniques used for teaching ethical an students prefer transformational or non traditional teaching methods, both may be necessary for the delivery of important information, though the transformational teaching

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95 method, in t his case activities, may keep students engaged more and help aid the application process. leadership behavior s are very similar to those of principles Participants listed tha t they use instructor led discussion and activities the most when teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors. Among the least used instructional techniques were transformational instructional techniques: student led discussion, journals, and social media. Also low on the list was role playing/role modeling which Brown and Trevio (2006) unethical behavior in organizational contexts (Brown & Trevio 2006, p. 598). Lee and Cheng (2012) also supported this suggestion and noted that learning occurs from base d learning approaches, such as case studies, are more effective. This study shows that techniques reported to be effective in literature in developing ethical and/or moral leadership principles or behaviors, such as role playing and simulations (Sims, 1991 ); role modeling (Wright, 1995) case studies (Jagger, 2011); and videos (Ryan & Bisson, 2011) are not being used by faculty as top priority teaching methods. What Instructional techniques research is suggesting to be effective and what rceive to be effective are not lining up. This suggests that f aculty should consider placing more emphasis on transformational or non traditional types of instructional techniques when teaching ethical and/or moral leade rship principles and behaviors. As t he literature suggests, transformational instructional techniques may be

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96 the key to bridging the transfer gap between theory and application and can offer better moral Though direct incorporation of these external influences may spur difficult or nontraditional conversations among students, students prefer nontraditional methods and the conversations that take pla ce may help students to better defend their ethical and/or moral judgment in the real world. More research in this area is needed. A large part of this study looked at how faculty members reasoning behind their actions both prior t o completing their course in ethical and/or moral leadership and after completing their course. As briefly suggested earlier, t his study showed that faculty members cognitive moral development to be lower ra nking near the preconventional level of cognitive moral development prior to taking their course The study also found that development to be significantly higher ranking near the postconventional level of cognitive moral development after taking their course study as reported found an increase in ethical recognition after receiv ing a business ethics educa tion. Maeda, 2009 study demonstrating better ethical judgment after a course focusing on ethics. Though faculty may be correct in perceiving an increase in cognitive moral de velopment and reasoning after taking their course, such a drastic increase from a preconventional level to a postconventional level raises concerns. The researcher finds

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97 it unl ikely that in single semester, a student can jump from the earliest stage of pre conventional morality obeying rules to avoid punishment all the way to one of the highest stages of postconventional morality which is described as actions guided by principles commonly agreed on as essential to the public welfare; principles upheld to ret ain self respect of peers and, thus, self respect. As stated in Chapter 2 Kohlberg notes that many individuals never progress beyond Level II (Baxter & Rarick, 1987). the ter As noted in the t ables in Chapter 4 and discussed previously in this chapter a t o each other, suggesting that a clear understanding of these terms among faculty has not yet been reached. Other definitions seem to be the ex act opposite of what the terms ethics and/or morals mean (according to the definitions provided for this study) F or example, this study defined morals as: specific standards [emphasis added] of right and wrong. Johnson 2012, p. xxi). In this study, morals were operationally defined as meaning the application of th ose principles [right and wrong] according to moral standards (i.e. the application resu lting in result or action ). On e participant however, defined morals as: or [emphasis added] what is good This particular definition clearly indicates that the partici pant is meshing the meaning of ethics into the definition of morals, clouding the boundary between the two words. If faculty members are not crystal clear on the subject matter they are teaching, how can they convey the proper definitions for these terms to their students and how can

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98 students gain a strong understanding of how to apply these terms to their reasoning and behavior? Because these terms seemed to be used interchangeably often should academia stop trying to differentiate between the terms? A note about the research process: while collecting population information, it was surprising to lea rn that a complete list of all college of a griculture leadership faculty members did not e xist. As noted in Chapter 3 the researcher was unable to include some leadership faculty in the study if there was not any contact information available pages or departmental pages w ere outda ted and/or did not provide any contact information for appropriate persons. As a researcher, this was a hindrance as resources to learn of the population (specific persons) and how to contact them were limited. Recommendations Recommendations for practice and future research are provided as a result of and/or moral leadership principles and student Recommendations for Practice In developing course content, faculty members should continue to seek outside help and guidance and offer to collaborate with other sources of knowledge, such as schools of business and philosophy, to better develop ethical and moral leadership curriculum Faculty members should work to integrate and base their curriculum development on sound ethical or moral developmental theories. Many theoretical foundations exist within the literature and faculty members should research these theories to gain a deeper understanding of what ethical and moral leadership means, how individual ethical and moral growth occurs, and to identify specific

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99 theories that are particular relevant to their course objectives, curriculum, and end of course goals. Ethical and/or moral leadership should be taught as a stand alone course to ensure that enough attention is given to the topic, ample time is provided for developed discussions and t ransformational learning techniques (e.g. role playing) and students have the opportunity to complete a long term ethical and/or moral leadership activity (e.g. personal code of ethics, etc.). Faculty members should clarify their own understanding and def initions of the their ethical and moral leadership course content. Educational administration at all levels (departmental, university, etc.) should provide educational workshops, programs and resources to faculty members who have some connection with ethical and/or moral leadership through teaching or otherwise. University provided educational programming should be accessible to all faculty members throughout the year (as opposed t o offering a single workshop at the beginning of a semester). Enrollment limitations resulting in smaller course sizes should be considered to promote active discussion, teamwork, transfer of knowledge, to encourage the sharing of personal situations or e xamples that theory could be applied to, and to better prepare students for real world scenarios in which they might have to base their ethical and/or moral decisions off the opinions or moral stage of a group. Faculty members should consider using more tr ansformational teaching styles to appeal to their students, engage them in discussion and behavior related and skills based activities, and communicate ethical and moral leadership principles and behaviors clearly. An additional teaching practice that facu lty members should consider for their students is the development and use of personal managerial codes or personal codes of ethics. Faculty members should find ways to directly integrate external influences shown religion, into their course content. Faculty members might consider inviting peers or family members to present on protocol, analyzing workplace codes of ethics, having stud ents design an ethical and/or moral leadership activit y for the Boy Scouts of America, etc. development level prior to and after taking their course on ethical and/or moral leadership de velopment. This could be done through a pre test and post test of students prior to and after taking their course. Faculty members should work

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100 increasing their awareness of et hical issues and ethical responses to those issues. Recommendations for Future Research how the meanings of these terms can change according to context. Research should be conduc ted on what instructional techniques are most effective for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles and behaviors. This study focused solely on faculty perceptions of methods for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership practices and behaviors ; a follow up study should be conducted to determine student teaching ethical and/or moral lead ership practices and behaviors. Exit interviews may be useful for the follow up study. Exit interviews would allow st udents to share what they learned and their perceptions of what they believed to be effective teaching methods for the course. More research should be conducted to find out why faculty members use the ethical and moral leadership instructional techniques t hey do and why they perceive them to be effective. Larger sample sizes or populations could aid in this research. More research is analyzing the differences and effectiveness of stand alone course versus embedded courses is needed. Additional research shou ld be conducted to specifically measure if and how individual ethical and/or moral leadership behavior is impacted by taking a course or unit in ethical and/or moral leadership. There were many external influence s More research is needed to analyze what effect these influences have on an adership reasoning and behavior and if they adequately account for personal experiences. Future studies should further explore the conceptual mo del presented within this study and work with employers and other stakeholders to confirm and improve the model. Additional research studies should be conducted among other academic units that teach ethical and moral leadership such as schools of business or liberal arts colleges and compared to this study. Academic units that are thought to have not traditionally taught ethical and moral leadership should also be explored as the teaching of ethical and moral leadership is not confined to just business sch ools.

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101 More research is needed in order to effectively evaluate if academic institutions are preparing ethically and morally sound leaders tor society. This study National Research Agend a: Agricultural Education and Communication 2011 2015 by furthering Research Priority Area (RPA) 3 : Sufficient Scientific and Professional Workforce that Addresses the Challenges of the 21 st Century. This ng the models, strategies, and tactics that best prepare, promote, and retain new professionals who demonstrates content knowledge, technical competence, moral boundaries and cultural awareness coupled with communication and interpersonal skills st udy aided the RPA 3 by identifying faculty perceptions of effective teaching methods for ethics and morals in leadership. Identification of these methods will help in developing stronger curriculum and will, in turn, prepare, promote, and help new professi onals retain moral boundaries.

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102 Table 5 1. n = 18) Levels and Stages of Cognitive Moral Development Description f % Level I: Preconventional Morality Stage 1 : Puni shment orientation Obeys rules to avoid punishment 4 22.2 Stage 2 : Reward orientation Conforms to obtain rewards, to have favors returned 6 33.3 Level II: Conventional Morality Stage 3 : Good boy/good girl orientation Conforms to avoid disapproval of others 3 16.7 Stage 4 : Authority orientation Upholds laws and social rules to avoid censure of authorities and 1 5.6 Level III: Postconventional Morality Stage 5 : Social contract orientation Actions gui ded by principles commonly agreed on as essential to the public welfare; principles upheld to retain respect of peers and, thus, self respect 3 16.7 Stage 6 : Ethical principle orientation Actions guided by self chosen ethical principles; principles upheld to avoid self condemnation 1 5.6

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103 Table 5 2 n = 18) Levels and Stages of Cognitive Moral Development Description f % Level I: Preconventional Morality Stage 1 : Pun ishment orientation Obeys rules to avoid punishment 0 0 Stage 2 : Reward orientation Conforms to obtain rewards, to have favors returned 1 5.6 Level II: Conventional Morality Stage 3 : Good boy/good girl orientation Conforms to avoid disapproval of oth ers 2 11.1 Stage 4 : Authority orientation Upholds laws and social rules to avoid censure of authorities and 1 5.6 Level III: Postconventional Morality Stage 5 : Social contract orientation Actions guided by principles commonly agreed on as essential to the public welfare; principles upheld to retain respect of peers and, thus, self respect 12 66.7 Stage 6 : Ethical principle orientation Actions guided by self chosen ethical principles; principles upheld to avoid self condemnation 2 11.1

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104 APPENDIX A PANEL OF EXPERTS 1. Dr. Nicole Stedman, Faculty member, University of Florida 2. Dr. Hannah Carter, Faculty member, University of Florida 3. Avery Culbertson, Doctoral candidate, University of Florida 4. Brittany Adams, Doc toral candidate, University of Florida 5. Dr. David Jones Faculty member, North Carolina State University 6. Dr. Edward Osborne, Faculty member, University of Florida 7. Dr. Andrew Thoron, Faculty member, University of Florida 8. Dr. Brian Myers, Faculty member, Univ ersity of Florida 9. Josh Funderburke Executive Director, University of Florida Leadership and Service Center 10. Marianne Lorenson, Graduate student, University of Nebraska Lincoln

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105 APPENDIX B INSTRUMENTATION Please read the following consent document caref ully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to determine faculty perceptions for teaching ethical and moral leadership behaviors in undergraduate college of agriculture courses. What yo u will be asked to do in this study: You will be asked to complete the Ethical and Moral Leadership Perceptions Instrument (Smith, 2012). Time required: The Ethical and Moral Leadership Perceptions Instrument will take about 10 minutes to complete. Risk s and Benefits: There are no anticipated risks or benefits to participating in this study. Compensation: There is no compensation for participating in this study. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Y our information will be assigned a code number which will not be connected to any identifiers. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study : You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: McKenzie W. Smith, Graduate Assistant, Department of Agricultural Education and Communication, P.O. Box 11 0540 Gainesvi lle, FL 32611 0540. Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: UF IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone (352) 392 0433

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106 Q1 Ethical and moral leadership is a relatively new field within leadership. Have you ever taught some component of ethics and/or morals as related to leadership in your leadership courses? Yes No Q2 In your own words, please define "ethics." Q3 In your own words, please define "morals." For the purposes of this survey, please use the following definitions: Ethical Leadership normatively appropriate conduct through persona l actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two way communication, reinforcement, and decision Ethics ehavior is right or principle s of right and wrong behavior, was operationally defined as meaning the identification of righ t and wrong principles. Morals : "and morals, which they [philosophers] describe as specific standards of right and wrong" (Johnson, 2012, p. xxi). In this study, morals was operationally defined as the application of ethical principles to moral standards. Course : A full course devoted to the teaching of one subject. Unit : A part of a course devoted to the teaching of a subject, or theory, etc. Sub unit : A component that comprises a full unit; where additional subjects, theories or knowledge are presented. Stand alone: A course is devoted entirely to the teaching of one subject (i.e. Leadership 101). Embedded: A subject is embedded as a unit or sub unit within another course (i.e. Teamwork or Communication). Ethical and/or moral leadership principles : Ideas, theories, or information related to ethical and/or moral leadership. Ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors: The application of ethical and/or moral leadership principles Q4 What stand alone leadership courses have you taught? Q5 What embedded leader ship courses have you taught?

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107 Q6 How long have you been teaching each of the leadership courses you listed in the previous question? Q7 Please describe any education, training, or background you have had in ethical and/or moral leadership. If none, please write "None." Q8 In what specific ways have you taught ethics as related to leadership? As a stand alone course (taught as the sole subject of a course) As an embedded course (as a unit or sub unit within another course) Both Other Q9 In what specific ways have you taught morals as related to leadership? As a stand alone course (taught as the sole subject of a course) As an embedded course (as a unit or sub unit within another course) Both Other Q10 In regards to the previous questions, have you ever changed the way you teach ethics and/or morals as related to leadership ? (E.g. changed from a stand alone to embedded) Stand alone to embedded. Embedded to stand alone. Other I have not changed. Q11 If you have taught ethical and/or moral leadership as a stand alone course please select when you have offered the course. Yes No Fall semester Spring semester Full summer semester

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108 Yes No Partial summer semester (e.g. "mini mester") Other Q12 If you have taught ethical and/or moral leadership as embedded within another course please select when you have offered the course. Yes No Fall semester Spring semester Full summer semester Partia l summer semester (e.g. "mini mester") Other Q13 How long hav e you been teaching ethical and/or moral leadership units, sub units and/or courses? < 1 year 1 3 years 4 6 years 7 9 years 10+ years Q14 In developing your ethical and/or moral leadership unit or course curriculum and instructional techniques, have you ever sought knowledge, guidance, help, etc. from sources outside o f the college or school that you teach in? For example, if you teach in the College of Agriculture and you seek/have sought guidance from the Business School, etc. Yes No

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109 Q15 Ple ase explain how you have sought knowledge, guidance, help, etc. from outside sources. Q16 Please explain how you have sought knowledge, guidance, help, etc. from outside sources. Q17 Please explain how you have sought knowledge, guidance, help, etc. from outside sources. Q18 When teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles what specific instructional techniques have you used? Remember to use the following definition: Ethical and/or moral leadership principles: Ideas, theories, or information re lated to ethical and/or moral leadership. Yes No Traditional lecture Exams Quizzes Instructor led discussion Student led discussion Discussion groups Activities Videos Social Media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter) Guest lecturers Current event/s activities Journals Role playing/ Role modeling Popular press (e.g. Newspaper articles, magazine articles, etc.) Simulations Case studies Other:

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110 Yes No Q19 Of the activities yo u previously chose for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership principles which THREE do you use the most often? Please click and drag your choices into the box on the right. Items Traditional lecture Exams Quizzes Instructor led discussion St udent led discussion Discussion groups Activities Videos Social Media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter) Guest lecturers Current event/s activities Journals Role playing/ Role modeling Popular press (e.g. Newspaper articles, magazine articles, etc. ) Simulations Case studies Other: Q20 Of the specific instructional techniques you chose, which do you perceive to have been the most effective for developing student knowledge of ethical and/or moral leadership principles ? Please explain why you feel they are effective. There is not a numerical limit, please explain all techniques you feel are most effective. Remember to use the following definition: Ethical and/or moral leadership principles: Ideas, theories, or information related to ethical a nd/or moral leadership. Q21 Related to the previous question, please share a few specific ways you eff ectively use each chosen method

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111 Q22 When teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors what specific instructional techniques have you used? Remember to use the following definition: Ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors: The application of ethical and/or moral leadership principles. Yes No Traditional lecture Exams Quizzes Instructor led discussion Student led discussion Discussion groups Activities Videos Social Media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter) Guest lecturers Current event/s activities Journals Role playing/ Role modeling Popular press (e.g. Newspaper articles, magazine articles, etc.) Simulations Case studies Other:

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112 Q23 Of the activities you previously chose for teaching ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors which THREE do you use the most often? Please click and drag your c hoices into the box on the right. Items Traditional lecture Exams Quizzes Instructor led discussion Student led discussion Discussion groups Activities Videos Social Media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter) Guest lecturers Current event/s acti vities Journals Role playing/ Role modeling Popular press (e.g. Newspaper articles, magazine articles, etc.) Simulations Case studies Other: Q24 Of the specific instructional techniques you chose, which do you perceive to have been the most e ffective for developing student knowledge of ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors ? Please explain why you feel they are effective. There is not a numerical limit, please explain all techniques you feel are most effective. Remember to use the followi ng definition: Ethical and/or moral leadership behaviors: The application of ethical and/or moral leadership principles. Q25 Related to the previous question, please share a few specific ways you effectively use each chosen method: Q26 Please choose a selection that BEST describes the majority of your students PRIOR to taking your course (whether stand alone or embedded). Obeys rules to avoid punishment Conforms to obtain rewards to have favors returned Conforms to avoid disapproval of others

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113 Upholds laws and social rules to avoid censure of authorities and feelings of guilt about not "doing one's duty" Actions guided by principles commonly agreed on as essential to the public welfare; principles upheld to retain respect of peers and, thus, self respect Actions guided by self chosen et hical principles; principles upheld to avoid self condemnation Q27 Please choose a selection that BEST describes the majority of your students AFTER taking your course (whether stand alone or embedded). Obeys rules to avoid punishment Conforms to obtain rewards, to have favors returned Conforms to avoid disapproval of others Upholds laws and social rules to av oid censure of authorities and feelings of guilt about not "doing one's duty" Actions guided by principles commonly agreed on as essential to the public welfare; principles upheld to retain respect of peers and, thus, s elf respect Actions guided by self chosen ethical principles; principles upheld to avoid self condemnation Q28 Gender: Male Female Q29 Age: 18 25 26 32 33 40 41 48 49 56 57+ Q30 Please choose from the following to describe your religious attendance/participation: None

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114 Attend or practice religious services 1 3 times per month Attend or practice religious services 4 10 times per month Attend or practice religious services 10 20 times per month Attend or practice religious services 20+ time s per month Q31 Number of years teaching in a faculty position: < 1 year 1 3 years 4 6 years 7 9 year s 10 12 years 12 14 years 15 17 years 18 20 years 21+ years T hank you for completing the survey! Your participation is greatly appreciated and valued!

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115 APPENDIX C SURVEY COMPLETION RE QUESTS Pre Survey Email Good afternoon [name of faculty member]! My name is McKenzie Smith and I am a graduate student in the Depa rtment of Agricultural Faculty Perceptions of Methods for Teaching Et hical and Moral Leadership in Undergraduate Colleges of Agriculture Courses. My study has been approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board 02. Because of your knowledge and experience with leadership/leadership education, I would gre atly appreciate your participation in my study. To measure faculty perceptions of methods for teaching ethical and moral leadership, I will be distributing an electronic survey next week This email is a pre notice to inform you of my study and alert you to your selection in my study. Your participation is completely voluntary and all identifying information will be kept confidential. In accordance with IRB policy, any identifying information about you will be destroyed upon the completion of my study. Once the survey is distributed, you will have until midnight, Thursday, October 4, to complete the survey To thank you for your participation in my survey, I promise to share the results of my study with you upon its completion. Should you have any qu estions about my study, please contact me directly at the information listed below. Thank you, McKenzie W. Smith McKenzie W. Smith Leadership Development Graduate Assistant Wedgworth Leadership Institute Department of Agricultural Education and Commu nication College of Agricultural and Life Sciences | University of Florida

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116 Initial Contact Email Good morning [name of faculty member] I hope you are doing well! I contacted you earlier this week about participating in a survey for my thesis resea rch. I just wanted to send out a friendly reminder for you to complete the survey by midnight, Thursday, October 4 Because of your knowledge and experience with leadership/leadership education, I would greatly appreciate your participation in my study. Your participation is completely voluntary and all identifying information will be kept confidential. In accordance with IRB policy, any identifying information about you will be destroyed upon the completion of my study. Survey Link: https://ufaecd.qualtrics.com/SE?Q_DL=0fyTOf4hAmK1ykd_6wXDRHggIKpNoi1_ MLRP_exkJdC 2pp0H5Etn Please complete the survey no later than: midnight, Thursday, October 4 To thank you for your participation in my survey, I promise to share the results of my study with you upon its completion. Should you have any questions ab out my study or any problems with the survey, please contact me directly at the information listed below. Thank you, McKenzie W. Smith McKenzie W. Smith Leadership Development Graduate Assistant Wedgworth Leadership Institute Department of Agricultur al Education and Communication College of Agricultural and Life Sciences | University of Florida

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117 First Follow u p Email Good afternoon [name of faculty member]! I hope you are doing well! I recently contacted you about participating in a survey for my thesis research. I just wanted to send another friendly reminder for you to complete the survey by midnight, Thursday, October 4 Because of your knowledge and experience with leadership/leadership education, I would greatly appreciate your participation in my study. Your participation is completely voluntary and all identifying information will be kept confidential. In accordance with IRB policy, any identifying information about you will be destroyed upon the completion of my study. Survey Link: https://ufaecd.qualtrics.com/SE?Q_DL =0fyTOf4hAmK1ykd_6wXDRHggIKpNoi1_MLRP_exkJdC 2pp0H5Etn Please complete the survey no later than: midnight, Thursday, October 4 To thank you for your participation in my survey, I promise to share the results of my study with you upon its completion. Should you have any questions about my study or any problems with the survey, please contact me directly at the information listed below. Thank you, McKenzie W. Smith McKenzie W. Smith Leadership Development Graduate Assistant Wedgworth Leadership I nstitute Department of Agricultural Education and Communication College of Agricultural and Life Sciences | University of Florida

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118 Second Follow u p Email Good afternoon [name of faculty member]! I hope your day is going well! I was just writing to le t you know that I am wrapping up my thesis survey and was hoping you might still be interested in completing the survey. I did call your office and left a voicemail. Feel free to call me if you have any questions or concerns. Because of your knowledge an d experience with leadership/leadership education, I would greatly appreciate your participation in my study. As a reminder and to thank you for your participation in my survey, I will be distributing my thesis results, once available, to you via email. Your participation is completely voluntary and all identifying information will be kept confidential. In accordance with IRB policy, any identifying information about you will be destroyed upon the completion of my study. Survey Link: https://ufaecd.qualtrics.com/SE?Q_DL=0fyTOf4hAmK1ykd_6wXDRHggIKpNoi1_ML RP_cCTgp O2T9M3bp8p Please complete the survey at your earliest convenience. Should you have any questions about my study or any problems with the survey, please contact me directly at the information listed below. Thank you, McKenzie W. Smith McKenzie W. Smith Leadership Development Graduate Assistant Wedgworth Leadership Institute Department of Agricultural Education and Communication College of Agricultural and Life Sciences | University of Florida

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119 Third Follow up Email Good afternoon [name of faculty member]! I hope your day is going well! I was just writing to let you know that I am wrapping up my thesis survey and was hoping you might still be interested in completing the survey. I did call your office in an attempt to contact you but I received a message that your mailbox was full. Because of your knowledge and experience with leadership/leadership education, I would greatly appreciate your participation in my study. As a reminder and to thank you for your participation in my s urvey, I will be distributing my thesis results, once available, to you via email. Your participation is completely voluntary and all identifying information will be kept confidential. In accordance with IRB policy, any identifying information about you will be destroyed upon the completion of my study. Survey Link: https://ufaecd.qualtrics.com/SE?Q_DL=0fyTOf4hAmK1ykd_6wXDRHggIKpNoi1_MLRP_exkJdC 2pp0H5Etn Please complete the survey at your earliest convenience. Should you have any questions about my study or any problems with the survey, please con tact me directly at the information listed below. Thank you, McKenzie W. Smith McKenzie W. Smith Leadership Development Graduate Assistant Wedgworth Leadership Institute Department of Agricultural Education and Communication College of Agricultural a nd Life Sciences | University of Florida

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120 LIST OF REFERENCES Alsop, R. (2003, September 17). The top business schools (a special report); Right and wrong: Can business schools teach students to be virtuous? In the wak e of all the corporate scandals, t hey have no choice but to try. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=7877218 Ambrose, M. L., Arnaud, A., & Schminke, M. (2007). Individual moral development and ethical climate: The influence of person organization fit on job a ttitudes. Journal of Business Ethics 77, 323 333. DOI: 10.1007/s10551 007 9352 1 Ashkanasy, N. M., Windsor, C. A., & Trevio L, K. (2006). Bad apples in bad barrels revisited: Cognitive moral development, just world beliefs, rewards, and ethical decision making. Business Et hics Quarterly 16 (4). 449 473. Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., & Sorenson, C. (2010). Introduction to research in education 8th edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. Association of Public Land Grant Universities. (May 2012). Abou t APLU, APLU Members. http://www.aplu.org/page.aspx?pid=249 Avolio, B. J., Luthans, F., & Walumbwa, F. O. (2004). Authentic Leadership: Theory building for veritable sustained performance. Working paper. Lincoln: Gallup Leadership Institute, University of Nebraska. Bandura, A. ( 2001). Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective. Annual Review Psychology. 52: 1 6. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Baxter G. D. and Rarick, C. A. (1987). Education for the moral development of Journal of Business Ethics 6 (3), 243 248. Bazerman, M. H. & G ino, F. (2012). Behavioral ethics: Toward a deeper understanding of moral judgment and dishonesty. Manuscript in preparation. Harvard Business School. Beggs, J. M. and Dean, K. L. (2007). Legislated ethics or ethics education?: Faculty views in the post En ron era. Journal of Business Ethics 71 (1), 15 37. DOI 10.1007/s10551 006 9123 4 Begley, P. T., & Stefkovich, J. (2007). Integrating values and ethics into post secondary teaching for leadership development. Journal of Educational Administration 45 (4), 39 8 412.

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121 Birkenholz R. J., & Schumacher, L. G. (1994). Leadership skills of college of agriculture graduates. Journal of Agricultural Education 35 (4), 1 8. Blackburn, T. R. & Lawrence, H. J. (1995). Faculty at work: Motivation, expectation, satisfaction Ba ltimore: John Hopkins University Press. Brown, M. E., Tevio, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 97 (2), 117 134. Ca nales, R., Massey, B.C., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010, August 23). WSJ Executive Adviser (A Special Report):Ethics --need to do a better job teaching students values. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://search. proquest.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/docview/746396871 Casner Lotto, J., & Barrington, L. & Wright, M. (2006). Are they really ready to work ( BED 06 Workforce) ? The Conference Board. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/FINAL_REPORT_PDF09 29 06.pdf Casner Lotto, J. & Silvert, H. M. (2008). s ( R 1413 08 RR) The Conference Board. Retrieved from http://www.conference board.org/publications/publicationdetail.cfm?publicationid=1422 Clayton, M. (1999, June 15). Cultivatin g character [:] Colleges are taking the teaching of ethics and morals more seriously. The Christian Science Monitor Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/docview/405649808 Cloninger and Selvarajan. 2010. Can ethics education improve et hical judgment? An empirical study. Advanced Management Journal 75 (4), 4 49. Corporate Voices for Working Families. (2010). What are business leaders saying about workforce readiness? Retrieved from http://www.corporatevoices.org/system/files /Business+Le aders+and+Workforce+Readiness+Survey+Final.pdf Dean, K.L. & Beggs, J. M. (2006). University Professors and teaching ethics: Conceptualizations and expectations. Journal of Management Education 30 15 44. DOI : 10.1177/1052562905280839 Dey, E .L., and Associ ates. (2010). Engaging diverse viewpoints: What is the campus climate for perspective taking? Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities. Dillman, D. A., Smyth, J. D., & Christian, L. M. (2009). Internet, mail, and mixed mode surv eys: The tailored design method. 3 rd edition. Wiley. Dzurnanin, A. C., Shortridg e, R. T., and Smith, P. A. (In Press ). Building ethical leaders: A way to integrate and assess ethics education Journal of Business Ethics DOI: 10.1007/s10551 012 1371 x

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123 Liddell, D. L. & Cooper, D. L. (2012). Moral development in higher education. New Directions for Student Servi ces 2012 (139). Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ss.20018/pdf Normore, A. (2004). Ethics and values in leadership preparation programs: Finding the north star in the dust storm. Values and Ethics in Educational Administration 2 (2 ), 1 8. Retrieved from http://csle.nipissingu.ca/VEEA/VEEAFrameset 1.htm McNeel, S. P. (1994). College teaching and student moral development In J.R Rest & D. Narvaez (Eds.), Moral development in the professions: Psychology and applied ethics (pp. 27 49) Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Merritt, J. (2003, January). Why ethics is also B school business. Business Week 105. Murphy, P.K. & Townsend, C. D. (1994). Leadership and ethics: A relationship important to agricultural educatio n. Journal of Agricultural Education. 35 44 49. doi: 10.5032/jae.1994.02044 Murray, S. (2004, March 8). Debate rages over how to teach ethics: Some MBA schools have separate courses, others try integration. National Post (Canada) Retrieved from http://uh 7qf6fd4h.search.serialssolutions.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/?ctx_ver=Z39.88 2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF 8&rfr_id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:jo urnal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Debate+rages+over+how+to+teach+ethi cs%3A+ Some+MBA+schools+have+separate+courses%2C+others+try+integration&rft.jtit le=National+Post+%28Index only%29&rft.au=Murray%2C+Sarah&rft.date=2004 03 08&rft.issn=1486 8008&rft.spage=SR01&rft.externalDBID=NPST&rft.externalDocID=579746481 & Butterfield, K.D. (2005). A review of the empirical ethical decision making literature: 1996 2003. Journal of Business Ethics 59, 375 413. DOI: 10.1007/s10551 005 2929 7 Oddo, A. R. (1997). A framework for teaching business ethics. Journal of Business E thics 16 (3), 293 297. Peppas, S. C., & Diskin, B. A. (2001). College courses in ethics: Do they really make a difference? The International Journal of Educational Management, 15 (7), 347 353. Pennington, P. (2005). The leadership pie: Grab your piece befor Journal of Leadership Education 4 (1), 75 78. Retrieved from http://www.leadershipeducators.org/Default.aspx?pageId=1089874 major for undergraduate students. Nor th American Colleges and Teachers of

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124 Agriculture Journal 50 (4). 42 46. Retrieved from http://www.nactateachers.org/attachments/article/281/Pennington_December_20 06_NACTA_Journal 9.pdf Phipps, L. J., Osborne, E., Dyer, Ball, (2008 ) Handbook on agricultural education in public schools. 6th ed. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Plinio, A. J. (2009). Guest Editorial: Ethics and leadership. International Journal of Disclosure and Governance 6 277 283. doi:10.1057/jdg.2009.20 Posner, B. Z. (2010). Val ues and the American Manager: A three decade perspective. Journal of Business Ethics 91, 457 465. DOI: 10.1007/s10551 009 0098 9 Qualtircs [Computer Software]. Statistical Packages for the Soc ial Sciences [Computer Software] Reeves, F. (2002, November 10 ). Teaching of ethics sparks national campus debate: Business schools try to find ways to guide. Pittsburgh Post Gazette. Retrieved from http://uh7qf6fd4h.search.serialssolutions.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/?ctx_ver=Z39.88 2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF 8&rfr _id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:jo urnal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=TEACHING+OF+ETHICS+SPARKS+NATIONA L+CAMPUS+DEBATE+BUSINESS+SCHOOLS+TRY+TO+FIND+WAYS+TO+G UIDE&rft.jtitle=Pittsburgh+Post+ +Gazette&rft.au=FRANK+REE VES%2C+POST GAZETTE+STAFF+WRITER&rft.date=2002 11 10&rft.issn=1068 624X&rft.spage=B.1&rft.externalDBID=PITT&rft.externalDocID=234832091 Rokeach, M. (1973). The Nature of Human Values. New York. Free Press. Ryan, T. G., & Bisson, J. (2011). Can ethics be ta ught? International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2 (12), 44 52. Schumacher L.G., & Swan, M. K. (1993). Need for formal leadership training for students in a land grant college of agriculture. Journal of Agricultural Education 34 1 9. doi: 10.50 32/jae.1993.03001 Sims, R. R. & Felton, E. L. (2005). Successfully teaching ethics for effective learning. College Teaching Methods and Styles Journal 1 (3), 31 49. Retrieved from http://cluteonline.com/journals/index.php/CTMS/article/view/5237 Sims, R. R. & Sims, S. J. (1991). Increasing applied business ethics courses in business school curricula. Journal of Business Ethics 10 (3), 211 219. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/docview/198001707 Swanson, D. L. (2004). The buck stops h ere: Why universities must reclaim business ethics education. Journal of Academic Ethics, 2 43 61.

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125 Tuckman, B. W. (1995). Teacher effectiveness: A look at what works. Peabody Journal of Education 70 (2), 127 138. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stabl e/1492851?origin=JSTOR pdf vo nStein, M. F. ( 2008 ). Undergraduate student involvement in collegiate student organizations in colleges of agriculture Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida Whiteley, J. M. (2002). Exploring moral action in the context of the dilemmas of young adulthood. Analytic Teaching 20 (1), 4 25. Retrieved from http://www.viterbo.edu/analytic/vol%2020%20no%201/Exploring%20Moral%20A ction%20in%20the%20Context%20of%20the%20Dilemmas%20of%20young%20 Adulthood.pdf Wilcox, J R. & Ebbs, S. L. (1992). The leadership compass. Values and ethics in higher education ERIC Digest.7 (1), 1 6. Willen, L. (2004, March 23). Seeking to shame: Scandals turn up heat on business schools to accept responsibility and incorporate more ethics into courses. Pittsburgh Post Gazette. Retrieved from http://uh7qf6fd4h.search.serialssolutions.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/?ctx_ver=Z39.88 2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF 8&rfr_id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:jo urnal&r ft.genre=article&rft.atitle=SEEKING+TO+SHAME+SCANDALS+TURN+U P+HEAT+ON+BUSINESS+SCHOOLS+TO+ACCEPT+RESPONSIBILITY+AND+ INCORPORATE+MORE+ETHICS+INTO+COURSES&rft.jtitle=Pittsburgh+Post+ +Gazette&rft.au=LIZ+WILLEN+BLOOMBERG+NEWS&rft.date=2004 03 23&rft.issn=1068 624X&rft.spage=C.10&rft.externalDBID=PITT&rft.externalDocID=586357331 Winston, M. D., (2007). Ethical leadership and ethical decision making: A meta analysis of research related to ethics education Library and Information Science Research, 29 ( 2 ), 230 251 DOI: 10.1016/j.lisr.2007.04.002 Wright, M. (1995). Can moral judgment and ethical behavior be learned?: A review of the literature. Management Decision 33 (10), 17 28. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00251749510100212 Zimdahl, R. L. (2000). Teac hing agricultural ethics. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 13 229 247. DOI : 10.1023/A:100959673244

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126 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH McKenzie Watkins Smith is originally from Sonora, Texas. Being raised around agriculture, McKenzie quickly developed a n appreciation for the agriculturalist an d learned how far hard work, determination and passion can take a person who is willing to go the extra mile to serve others. McKenzie graduated from Sonora High School in 2007, where she was actively involved in FF A, Band, 4 H FCA and other extra curricular programs. McKenzie graduated from Texas A&M University in 2011 with a B achelor of S cience in agricultural communications and journalism and a minor in human resources While at Texas A&M, she served as editor i n chief for the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences magazine, The AgriLeader McKenzie also served as a public relations, editorial and executive intern for the Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo community c hair for the Aggie Access Learning Comm unities a student director for the and was privileged to study photography and business abroad in Vinovo, Italy. In August 2011, McKenzie began her graduate studies in the Department of Agricultural Education and Co mmunication at the University of Florida McKenzie specialized in leadership development and served as a graduate assistant for undergraduate leader ship and communication courses as well as for the Wedgworth Leadership Institute Alumni Association. She gra duate d in December 2012. McKenzie now lives in Ponder, Texas, with her husband