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Green Infrastructure on Campus

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045107/00001

Material Information

Title: Green Infrastructure on Campus Does Green Infrastructure Help Water Sustainability?
Physical Description: 1 online resource (47 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Xu, Chensi
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: campus -- green -- infrastructure -- sustainability -- water
Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Architecture thesis, M.S.A.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Water is one of the main issues in a sustainable built environment. This thesis is studying green infrastructure related to water treatment on a campus scale within the United States of America.Through the study of this subject, this thesis is attempting find out how much progress green infrastructure has made towards campus sustainability.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Chensi Xu.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.A.S.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Tilson, William L.
Local: Co-adviser: Ries, Robert J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0045107:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045107/00001

Material Information

Title: Green Infrastructure on Campus Does Green Infrastructure Help Water Sustainability?
Physical Description: 1 online resource (47 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Xu, Chensi
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: campus -- green -- infrastructure -- sustainability -- water
Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Architecture thesis, M.S.A.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Water is one of the main issues in a sustainable built environment. This thesis is studying green infrastructure related to water treatment on a campus scale within the United States of America.Through the study of this subject, this thesis is attempting find out how much progress green infrastructure has made towards campus sustainability.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Chensi Xu.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.A.S.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Tilson, William L.
Local: Co-adviser: Ries, Robert J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0045107:00001


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1 GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE ON CAMPUS: DOES GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE HELP WATER SUSTAINABILITY? By CHENSI XU A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DE GREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Chensi Xu

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3 To my family and friends

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my parents, who have given me a family full of love, supported me for everything I have eve r dreamed to do. I thank my chair William Tilson for his inspire which helped me found a perfect field to study. I thank my co chair Dr. Robert Rie s for his generous help on every step of my thesis and his patience through the thesis writing process. I tha nk my committee member Dr. Ruth Steiner for her kindness guidance and encourage ment I th a nk P rofessor Acomb and Pro fessor Barha. They have offered me a lot of help in the case study. I thank Tom Ratican who offered me enormous help both in my English stud ying and my life living in a foreign country, my thesis has turned out very much better with his help.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 Research Question ................................ ................................ ................................ 12 Importance of the Research ................................ ................................ .................... 12 Study Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 13 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 15 Green Infrastructure ................................ ................................ ................................ 15 What is Green Infrastructure? ................................ ................................ .......... 15 Rain garden ................................ ................................ ............................... 15 Green roof ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 17 Bioswale ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 19 Permeable paving ................................ ................................ ...................... 20 Infiltration ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 21 What are the Impacts from Green Infrastructure? ................................ ............ 22 Green infrastructure help build Low Impact Development ......................... 22 Green infrastructure helps land conservation ................................ ............. 22 Green infrastructure change the climate ................................ .................... 23 Stormwater Management ................................ ................................ ........................ 25 Campus Water Sustainability ................................ ................................ .................. 26 Brown University ................................ ................................ .............................. 26 University of Florida ................................ ................................ .......................... 27 Stanford University ................................ ................................ ........................... 27 University of California Berkeley ................................ ................................ ....... 28 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 29 Case Study Selection ................................ ................................ .............................. 29 Analysis Methodology ................................ ................................ ............................. 29 Case Study Design ................................ ................................ ........................... 29

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6 Study of the standards ................................ ................................ ............... 2 9 Comparison between goals and the as built project ................................ .. 30 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ 30 4 CASE STUDY ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 31 University Of Florida ................................ ................................ ............................... 31 Perry Construction Yard Green Roof ................................ ................................ 31 Bioswale -Southwest Recreation Center Expansion ................................ ........ 34 University of Maryland ................................ ................................ ............................ 36 Ohlone College ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 38 5 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 39 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 39 Stormwater Quality Standards ................................ ................................ ................ 41 General Standard ................................ ................................ ............................. 41 Sustainable Site: Water Quality Control ................................ ........................... 41 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 41 Education and Enjoyment of Green Infrastructu re ................................ .................. 42 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 43 6 RECOMMENDATION ................................ ................................ ............................. 44 Development of Campus Green Infrastructure ................................ ....................... 44 Building a Complete Standard of Stormwater Treatment ................................ ........ 44 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 45 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 47

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 General data of Perry Yard Construction green r oof ................................ .......... 32 4 2 Average amount of rain in a year ................................ ................................ ........ 33 4 3 Existing imperviousness is less than or equal to 50% ................................ ........ 35

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Building energy use comparison between conventional roof and green roof ...... 18 2 2 Stormwater retention comparison between conventional roof and green roof .... 19 2 3 Surface temperature comparison in residential ................................ .................. 24 2 4 Surface temperature comparison in town ................................ ........................... 24 2 5 Surface temperature when all roofs are greened ................................ ................ 25 2 6 Temperature when grass are dry out ................................ ................................ .. 25 4 1 Construction drawing ................................ ................................ .......................... 33 4 2 Constr uction plant planning in 2007 ................................ ................................ ... 34 4 3 Construction drawing of bioswale ................................ ................................ ....... 35

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9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AASHE The Association for the ad vanced of sustainability in higher Education BMP Best Management Practices CACS Chancellor's Advisory Committee on Sustainability CWA Clea n Water Act ICPI Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LID Low Impact Development NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System TSS Total Suspended Solids UNESCO United Nations Educational, Sci entific and Cultural Organization WQS World Qualifying Series

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE ON CAMPUS: DOES GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE HELP WATER SUSTAINABILITY? By Chensi Xu December 2012 Chair: William Tilson Cochair: Rob e rt Ries Major: Architecture Water is one of the main issues in a sustainable built environment This thesis is studying green infrastructure related to water treatment on a campus scale within the United States of America. Through the study of this subject, this thesis is attempting find out how much progress green infrastructure has made towards c ampus sustainability.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Purpose of Study UNESCO gives this definition for education: The goal of education is to make people wiser, more knowledgeable, better informed, ethical, responsible, critical and capable of continuing to learn Were all people to possess such abilities and qualities, the world's problems would not be automatically solved, but the means and will to address them would be at hand. Education also serves society by providing critical reflection on the world, especia lly its failings and injustices, and by promoting greater consciousness and awareness exploring new visions and concepts, and inventing new techniques and tools. Education is also the means for disseminating knowledge and developing skills, for bringing a bout desired changes in behaviors, values and lifestyles, and for promoting public support for the continuing and fundamental changes that will be required if humanity is to alter its course, leaving the familiar path that is leading towards growing diffic ulties and possible catastrophe, and starting the uphill climb towards sustainability. Education, in short, is humanity's best hope and most effective means in the quest to achieve sustainable development (UNESCO, 1997). If education benefits sustainable d evelopment, then campuses, where higher education takes place, will make more efforts to achieve sustainable development, once they become more sustainable themselves. Looking through the history of US campus planning development, the environments of camp uses are becoming as beautiful as those of cities ( Turner 1995) Campuses in the U.S. were first copied from English colleges, and then developed with their own character. Studying sustainability on America campuses helps not only build the en vironment but also develop American culture. Campus environments are the most direct way to show the level of the university besides the quality of education. The campus has a very comprehensive scale, as it can be both a community for students and staffs to study and work in, and at the same time a large scale community for people to build and live in. Sustainability on campus has

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12 become the most important component of campus development nowadays and it includes aspects of construction (building) design, l andscape (green infrastructure) design, transportation planning, and policy making. By developing sustainable strategies and doing green projects, universities and colleges work toward the goal of sustainable campuses. Focusing on the green infrastructure is one effective way to accomplish such a goal. By studying the value, impact and efficiency of green infrastructure and its dependence on water management, the present study attempts to determine the value of green infrastructure in campus sustainability. Research Question Beginning with an understanding of what green infrastructure is and how it works, the present study is then developed through an investigation of green infrastructure in a campus context. By analyzing the green infrastructure in projects on campus, we can gain a better understanding of the function of green infrastructure. Following this investigation and analysis, the present study continues with an evaluation of the green infrastructure aspects of water for water treatment, potable wate r and storm water management. How have campuses become more sustainable by building green infrastructure? How can an existing campus be made into a more sustainable one based on building green infrastructure? Importance of the Research According to archit ect Daniel E. Williams (2007) sustainable design creates solutions that solve the economic, social, and environmental challenges of the project simultaneously, which makes sustainable development become a trend, that plays a very eventful role in both the development of the university and the quality of the

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13 Green infrastructure acts as a connection with the entire green system on campus. It can act in such a way that every infrastructure works in harmony with nearby constr uction and affects the climate in a certain area, or it can act as a whole, meaning that enough green infrastructure covers the entire campus such that the climate at the university changes due to the function of every single component of the infrastructur e. Water is a basic part of the human body, averaging 57 % of a body weight. Water is a basic part of the planet. About 70 % of the Earth's surface is water covered, and the oceans hold about 96.5 % of all the earth's water. Water, however, also exists in the air as water vapor in r ivers and lakes in icecaps and glaciers in the ground as soil moisture and in aquifers ( U.S. Geological Survey ,1984) Water is the basic requirement of every living creature. Water is fundamental to photosynthesis and respiration. Water is an electron source of photosynthesis, the process in plants to make their food. Finally, water can be a very good way to test green infrastructure. People are already aware of the importance that green infrastructure plays on the scale of a city. In cities with green infrastructure, it is possible to find, for example rain gardens, gr een roofs, storm water parks, bioswale, and other related structures. Studying the green infrastructure on a campus scale gives us an idea of how it works and affects a smaller scale environment. Therefore, it offers a better model and solution for campus development and small s cale neighborhood development. It also encourages more institutions to build green infrastructure and to make their neighborhoods reach toward the sustainable. Study Design The present study has been designed to address several rela ted aspects of green infrastructure. First, we consider the concept of green infrastructure, along with its

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14 function and importance. Secondly, we investigate the basic concept of water, and study the American standard of evaluating water quality. This, in turn provides a method for studying the efficiency of green infrastructure as we consider such structures as rain gardens, and green roofs which depend on storm water collection and water quality. Third, we discover a standard for evaluating green infrast ructure as an aspect of storm water management on water quantity, water quality, and the energy used to collect water, and qualitative. A related aspect here is water quality that is based on effluent quality, and the energy used for cleaning the water. Finally, we consider water usage which keeps green infrastructure running.

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15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Green Infrastructure What is Green Infrastructure? Nevin Cohen (2010 ) gave the definition of green infrastructure like this: It constitute a health y ecosystem by interconnecting systems of soils, water, a ir, vegetation, and animal life Green infrastructure provides services to humans that would perfered be provided by constructed nature elements. Examples of green infrastructure include wetlands and trees that provide stormwater filtration and cool buildings by providing shade. The green infrastructure, to common understanding s, serves as an urban landscape exist at the expense of natural ones. Green infrastructure serves for the low impact developme nt within the various functions of managing stormwater, changing climate. Rain garden, green roof, bioswale, permeable surface and infiltration are all the will be discussed below Rain garden The rain garden is an ecological approach, using plantings tha t require little or no irrigation for successful growth, as an alternative to the traditional water hungry landscape. Rain gardens optimize the value of any rain that does fall. It is sound environmental practice to reduce or eliminate dependence on irriga tion water in areas with regular water shortage, while at the same time introducing landscape design elements that will deal with periods of heavy rainfall that might normally give rise to flash flooding ( Dunnett and Clayden, 2007) Water brings ga rdens and landscapes to life. Sustainable landscapes are often discussed for purely in terms of environmental sustainability, but to be purely sustainable they must also be acceptable to the people

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16 who use them on daily basis. Rain gardens are good for wil dlife and biodiversity. Rain gardens promote planting and that can only be a good thing. The most effective wildlife woodlands and scrub. Rain garden provide an oppor tunity to work with this framework. Rain gardens provide visual and sensory pleasure, it is true that our fascination with water is with us as a result of our evolutionary history as a species, when in the distant past, humans developed from apelike creatu res that lived a semi aquatic life around African lake and sea shores, existing on a very mixed diet of fish, hunted meat and fruits. We are left with an instinctive attraction to water in all its forms. Whatever the reason, if there is a lake, pond, strea m, or other water feature with in a garden or park, that is one of the things people especially the children are head for. Rain Gardens are good for play, one of the most rewarding aspects of designing with water is its huge potential to both animate and b ring life to a landscape. The most important qualities to 1979). Rain garden is equally called bioretention, the basis of low impact development. Bioretention is a land based prac tice that uses the chemical, biological and physical properties of plants, microbes and soils to control both the quality and quantity of water within a landscape (Coffman and Wingogradoff, 2002). A wide range of applications for bioretention have been dev eloped that can be placed throughout a garden. Although designed primarily for water management, making use of bioretention through a landscape brings with it all the advantages of a more environmentally friendly design philosophy. Bringing plats, water an d soil into built development has many other advantages, for example, environmental benefits, such as increased wildlife value, and

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17 reduced energy use and pollution, because atmospheric pollutants and captured in leaf canopies and the soil. One the other h and, it promotes a sense of place and local distinctiveness, by responding to site topography and drainage, and by the use, where appropriate, of native plants. Third, it helps the built surroundings become more visually stimulating and dynamic. Green roof The defenition giv e n by Florida Field Guide to Low Impact Development (University of Florida,2008): Green roofs are planted roof tops that provides benefits of water harvesting, storm water management, energy conservation, pollution abatement, and aesthe tic value. Green roofs vary in depth of growing media, types of plants (climate dependent), infrastructure, and intended use. Green roof also stands for roofs that use green technology, for example a roof with solar thermal collectors or photovoltaic modu les. Green roofs are also referred to as eco roofs, v egetated roofs and living roofs (Eagle Rivet Roof Service Corporation) Reduction in heat transfer between building and outside environment provided by green roofs lead to energy savings and cost reducti on for the building owner. A study in Ottawa, ON, which compared building energy use for space conditioning with a green roof and one with a conventional roof has proved green roo f energy efficiency. (Figure 2 1) Over the entire year, total energy deman d is estimated to decrease by 1% with a 0.5 % reductio n in fall/winter season and a 6 % reduction in the spring/summer months(Alcazar and Bass, 2005).

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18 Figure 2 1. Building energy use c omparison between conventional roof and green roof Both Liu & Bass (2003) and Del Barrio (199 7) demonstrated that green roofs have a better ability of reducing heat gain. Green roofs can reduce total stormwater runoff volume on average by 50% 60% (VanWoert et al., 2005; TRCA, 2006; Carter & Rasmussen, 2006) and in certain conditions can fully re tain individual storm events (VanWoert et al., 2005; Bengtsson et al., 2005). Recent ongoing field research at Roof Greening Systems has shown that their green roof system has an average water retention capacity of 89.6% after 7 rain events.

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19 Figure 2 2 St ormwater retention c omparison between conventional roof and green roof Bioswale Bioswales are landscape elements designed to remove silt and pollution from surface runoff water. They consist of a swaled drainage course with gently sloped sides (less than 6 % ) and filled wit h vegetation, compost and/or riprap (Loechl 2003). The water's flow path, along with the wide and shallow ditch, is designed to maximize the time water spends in the swale, which aids the trapping of pollutants and silt. Depending upon the geometry of land available, a bioswale may have a meandering or almost straight channel alignment. Biological factors also contribute to the breakdown of certain pollutants (Hogan 2010). There are several classes of water pollutants that may be arrested with bioswales. These fall into the categories of silt, inorganic contaminants, organic chemicals and pa thogens In the case of silt, these effects are resultant turbidity to receiving waters. Inorganic compounds may be metallic compounds such as lead,

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20 chromium, cadmium and other heavy metals from automotive residue. Other common inorganic compounds are mac ronutrients such as phosphates and nitrates. Principal sources of these nutrients are excess fertilization, which can cause eutrophication in receiving waters. Chief organic chemicals are pesticides, frequently over dosed in agricultural and urban landscap ing. These chemicals can lead to a variety of organism poisoning and aquatic ecosystem disturbance. Pathogens typically derive from surface runoff containing animal wastes and can lead to a variety of diseases in humans and aquatic organisms.( Francis, 2008) Permeable paving Entering a parking lot should be the beginning of a pleasant experience creating a sustainable drainage system that supports plants. ( Womack 2009 ) ICPI provides this definition: Permeable paving is a range of sustainable materials and techniques for permeable pavements with a base and subbase that allow the movement of stormwater through the surface. In addition to reducing runoff, this effectively traps suspended solids and filters pollutants from the water. Examples include roads, paths, lawns and lots that are subject to light vehicular traffic, such as car/parking lots, cycle p aths, service or emergency access lanes, road and airport shoulders, and residential sidewalks and driveways. The environmental effects of porous paving materials are qualitatively eventful. Whether pervious concrete, porous asphalt, paving stones or conc rete or plastic based pavers, all these pervious materials allow stormwater to percolate and infiltrate the surface areas, traditionally impervious to the soil below. The goal of the permeable

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21 paving is to control stormwater at the source, reduce runoff an d improve water quality by filtering pollutants in the substrata layers. Infiltration Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil Infiltration is governed by two forces: gravity and capillary action While smaller pores offer greater resistance to gravity, very s mall pores pull water through capillary action in addition to and even against the force of gravity. Infiltration is governed by two forces: gravity and capillary action. The rate of infiltration is affected by soil characteristics including ease of entry, storage capacity, and transmission rate through the soil. The soil texture and structure, vegetation types and cover, water content of the soil, soil temperature and rainfall intensity all play a role in controlling infiltration rate and capacity. For ex ample, coarse grained sandy soils have large spaces between each grain and allow water to infiltrate quickly. Vegetation creates more porous soils by both protecting the soil from pounding rainfall, which can close natural gaps between soil particles, and loosening soil through root action. Once water has infiltrated the soil it remains in the soil, percolates down to the ground water table, or becomes part of the subsurface runoff process. The process of infiltration can continue only if there is room available for additional water at the soil surface.( Hogan 2010 ) The available volume for additional water in the soil depends on the porosity of the soil and the rate at which previou sly infiltrated water can move away from the surface through the soil. The maximum rate that water can enter a soil in a given condition is the infiltration capacity. If the arrival of the water at the soil surface is less than the infiltration capacity, a ll of the water will infiltrate. If rainfall intensity at the soil surface occurs at a rate that exceeds the

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22 infiltration capacity, ponding begins and is followed by runoff ove r the ground surface, once depression storage is filled. What are the Impacts from Green Infrastructure? The USEPA defines low impact developemt in this way : Low impact development is an approach to land development that works with nature to manage stormw ater as close to its source as possible. LID employs principles such as preserving and recreating natural landscape features, minimizing effective imperviousness to create functional and appealing site drainage that treat stormwater as a resource rather th an a waste product. By implementing LID principles and practices, water can be managed in a way that reduces the impact of built areas and promotes the natural movement of water within an ecosystem or watershed. Green infrastructure help build Low Impact Development EPA intends the term "green infrastructure" to generally refer to systems and practices that use or mimic natural processes to infiltrate, evapotranspir e or reuse stormwater or runoff on the site where it is generated. Green infrastructure can be used at a wide range of landscape scales in place of, or in addition to, more traditional stormwater control elements to support the principles of LID. There are many practices that have been used to adhere to these principles such as bioretention faci lities, rain gardens, vegetated rooftops, rain barrels, and permeable pavements. Green infrastructure help s land conservation A comprehensive, proactive, green infrastructure approach to land conservation and development provides a number of immediate bene fits to communities and regions. Green infrastructure networks ensure that critical habitats and the connections between them are protected, conserving the rich biodiversity present on Earth today. Green infrastructure helps to sustain forests, farms and o ther working lands and slows nature system to function as intend, saving communities millions of dollars in flood mitigation,

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23 water purification, and a host of other savings resulting from avoiding expensive man made solutions. Green infrastructure also pr ovides people with mental and physical health benefits derived from living near nature. Green infrastructure provides opportunities for outdoor recreation, from biking to fishing, and protects valuable natural amenities that attract tourists and the dollar s they have to spend. Green infrastructure also helps to direct growth away from areas prone to forest fires, floods, and other nature hazards, saving lives as well as the millions of dollars needed for recovery. Finally, by providing predictability and ce rtainty about growth and the patterns of development, green infrastructure helps reduce opposition to development and mediate the opposing viewpoints of "developers" and "conservationists." ( Benedict and McMahon 2006) Green infrastructure change the climat e conserves natural ecosystem values and functions and provides associated benefits to operate at al l spatial scales from urban cent res to the surrounding countryside (URBED, 2004).

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24 Figure 2 3 Surface temperature comparis on in residential Figure 2 4. Surface t emperature c omparison in town

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25 Figure 2 5. Surface tempera ture when all roofs are gre ened Figure 2 6. Temperature when grass are dry out From the figures above we can conclude that the impacts of green infrastructure on changing the climate is significant. However the impact of the green infrastructure varies in different landuse types Stormwater Management and science of mimicking nature to counter the effects of land disturbance and im pervious cover by conveying, retaining, infiltrating, and treating the stormwater where

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26 the runoff originates, and using vegetation to slow and treat the water: Nature knows best. Randolph, 2004) Before 1970s, stormwater management was trying to provid e adequate stormwater drainage from developed land and try to cont rol flood flows. By the end of drainage, manage new floodplain development, mitigate storm flows closer to the sources, apply erosion and sediment controls and best management pr actices for runoff pollution. Low impact stormwater management was the theme of 1990s 2000s, the main focusing of that period were adequate drainage by one site mitigation of stormwater flows, infiltration to support baseflows and low flow runoff treatment non erosive channel velocities, protect natural drainage channels and floodplain management. In the current decade, the new goal is all about sustainable stormwater management, the new objectives are to use a watershed and subwatershed approach to integr ate stormwater management, flood damage mitigation, water quality, stream restoration, and sustainable and livable community design ( Randolph, 2004) Campus Water Sustainability Brown University Many universities have realized that sustainability on c ampus plays an eventful role. Brown University (1996) gave its seven big principles towards sustainability, which can be summarized as: 1. T he university should invest in resource conservation projects which have an expected return on investment (ROI) greate r than the current borrowing. 2. C hoose architects and engineers who are expert at resource conservation design. Make sure the proposal of the project has a det ailed life cycle cost analysis that satisfies the ROI policy.

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27 3. Purchasing items with significant resource impact should favor resource efficiency except when special need is demonstrated. 4. Decision makers should be made aware of and consider the economic and environmental costs of their decisions. 5. C onserving energy in University buildings should be a priority. First heating systems should be upgraded and, second lighting systems should be upgraded to provide more efficient illumination. 6. Improving resource efficiency in University communications should be a priority. 7. Resource efficiency and environme ntal considerations should be incorporated in student orientation and employee training University of Florida University of Florida developed a s torm d rain s ystem on c ampus Storm drains were designed to help alleviate potential flooding problems after a r ain event by transporting rain water quickly off paved areas. When leaves, sediments, car oil, paints or other materials are improperly disposed into drains, the drains can become clogged and can carry contaminants directly into local bodies of water. Alth ough each storm drain inlet contributes only a small amount of pollution, collectively, community storm drain pollution can exceed safe levels. If the pollutants entering each inlet can be reduced, the pollution in local streams and lakes will be reduced a s well. Stanford University Stanford University takes a sustainable approach to water management by trying to meet its own needs and make sure there is enough to go around in the years to come. The university gets its drinking water from the San Francisco Public Utilities commission. More interesting, though, is the fact that Stanford gets 75% of its water for irrigation from its own resources including creeks and wells on its own land. The

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28 university has received many awards regionally for its success in sustainable water management practices. University of California Berkel e y Total potable water usage (including residence halls) dropped 2.4% year of 2010 and is down 4.7% since 2008. In April, the campus set its first water reduction goal, committing to r educe potable water use to 10% below 2008 levels by 2020. At the 2011 Chancellor's Advisory Committee on Sustainability (CACS) 8th Annual Summit, Chancellor Birgeneau announced the first water reduction goal for the campus, committing to reduce potable wat er use to 10% below 2008 levels by 2020. The Chancellor additionally committed to double this target if the local utility can provide a non potable source for irrigation. A study prepared by CACS identified $1.6 million dollars in cost effective central ca mpus water reduction projects saving $250,000 in annual utility costs. Planned implementation projects include upgrading domestic fixtures to lower flow, repairing leaks, and encouraging water conservation.

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29 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This thesis examines ho w much green infrastructure helps campus sustainability, the study is built on the aspect of storm water storage capacity. Case Study Selection Four cases have been selected for the study based on different types of green infrastructure on campus. The stu dy attempts to cover as many different types of green infrastructure as possible. For example, the Perry Construction Yard Green Roof on UF and the bioswale at the Southwest Recreation Center on University of Florida campus. The University of Maryland proj ect is an example of a rain garden. As the cases are all related to water treatment and storm water management, the second level of selection is based on the sustainablility plan for water management on campuses, Ohlone Newark College is the world first ca mpus designed to be sustainable, and its storm drainage system works significant over most the campus. Analysis Methodology Case Study Design Study of the standards Stormwater management standards including water quality and quantity were reviewed for dete rmining evaluation criteria for green infrastructure. For water quality, The Florida Surface Water Quality Criteria contains both numeric and narrative surface water quality criteria to be applied except within zones of mixing landuse. For stormwater qua ntity, the unit water quantity that the most efficient green infrastructure retained is compared to each case study.

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30 Combining the water quality improvement though collection and treatment by the green infrastructure and the storm water quantity that the g reen infrastructure has captured compared to standard practice yields the improvement made by the green infrastructure. Comparison between goals and the as built project This part of the analysis includes four points. First, study the background of the pro ject, collect information on the water quality and quantity before the project was designed. For example the water runoff quantity and pollutant levels in water in each year in the same area on campus. Second document the goal of the project, especially t he water quality improvement of the green infrastructure and the stormwater quantity captured. Third, analyze the available data from the regarding stormwater quality and quantity and disc u ss that stormwater retention and quality. Lastly, analyze the data to develop a recommendation on the benefits of the green infrastructure. Data Collection Data collection for the case studies primarily involved document review. Documents reviewed included newspaper articles, comprehensive plans, website articles, sustai nable organizations, and communications with project leaders. A summary of findings and analysis of data collected is presented in the following chapter.

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31 CHAPTER 4 CASE STUDY University Of Florida The University of Florida, is a typical campus made that h as made great efforts towards sustainability. One of the most effective plan is the reclaimed water system, the university has operated its own wastewater treatment plant since 1948. Furthermore, 99% of the irrigation water used on campus is supplied by th is facility. Another plan is the Conservation Area Land Management (CALM) Plan, which covers all the main wetland conservation area on campus. The Conservation Area Land Management (CALM) plan documents existing conditions and specifies management activiti es for Conservation Areas. These Conservation Areas are defined in the Campus Master Plan as having a Conservation Future Land Use designation. In most cases, the areas are also listed in the 1995 and 2000 Master Plans as Preservation Areas. The CALM plan was designed to be a plan that documents existing conditions of natural areas on campus and makes recommendations to protect these places. The conservation land use has been remapped, the new maps include wetland boundaries, floodplain boundaries, tree can opy coverage, steep slopes, archeological sites and other natural and anthropogenic features that represent logical separation lines between uses. Perry Construction Yard Green Roof The Perry Construction Yard Green Roof is located east of Rinker Hall. The facing third floor classrooms and from the glass sides of the elevator. The Perry Construction Yard is a research project to demonstrate the differences in runoff between a traditional roof and t he eco roof. The roof was first installed in April 2007, and uses engineered planting media

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32 aimed at collecting rainwater for plants, eventually being released back into the air by evaporation and transpiration through the plants. Once the water is release d in to the atmosphere it also helps improve air quality. Table 4 1. General data of Perry Yard Construction green roof The green roof is designed to b while eliminating drainage media through flows two roof drains and is stored in two 1,550 gallon cisterns, the polyethylene cisterns are above ground and located adjacent to Rinker Hall. The Cabbage Palms Water from the cisterns is delivered back to the roof by a 1 hp pump located near the cisterns a nd applied to the planted roof through a drip irrigation system. The drip irrigation system is a single zone system with a rain shut off device located on the roof. The cisterns, sized to handle 3,100 gallons, allow the collection and storage of enough wat University of Florida is in Gainesville, located in north central Florida. This table is showing the average amount of rainfall in a typical year in ten cities in north Florida. The Characteristics of Yard Explanation Green Roof Size 2,600 square feet Type of Roof Flat Media Depth Extensive: 5 inches Public Acc ess None (visible from ground and adjacent building) Water Harvesting 3,100 gal. via (2) 1,550 gal. above ground cisterns Backup Water Supply Reclaimed water Irrigation Automatic drip system with a rain shut off device

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33 table shows that Gainesville has precipitation 114 days a year and a total of 51.1 inches of rainfall annually. Table 4 2 Average amount of rain in a year Days Place Inches Millimeters 114 Gainesville 51.1 1297 101 Glen St. Mary 51.2 1299 114 Jacksonville 52.4 1331 113 Jacksonvi lle Beach 50.0 1269 98 Jasper 51.5 1307 124 Lake City 52.6 1337 84 Live Oak 51.5 1309 98 Madison 52.5 1334 117 Ocala 50.8 1290 113 St. Augustine 49.0 1245 According to the project report, the stormwater collected by the roof supplies 2/3 of w ater for irrigation, the remaind er is supplied by the UF reclaimed water system. Figure 4 1 Construction drawing

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34 Figure 4 2. Construction plant planning in 2007 Bioswale -Southwest Recreation Center Expansion The facili ty was built in 1994 and went through an addition in 2011. This project stemmed from the success of the facility and the increased student population which resulted in a space shortfall and limited service. By the time of the project initiation in 2009, UF had established a university wide goal for minimum LEED Gold certification for all its projects on campus and off campus. In terms of water susta i nability, 100% of the stormwater is contained on site via a series of bioswales. One hundred percen tage of the plants are nat ive, and the plants are saving 90% of water on the site. Lastly all irrigation water is reclaimed water which comes from the water reclamation system. The p roject captures stormwater runoff and discharges through control structures to the existing dry ret ention basin. The existing retention basin volumes or discharges do not change.

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35 Table 4 3. Existing imperviousness is less than or equal to 50% *The post development rate AND quantity must be equal to or less than the pre development values to earn this credit Figure 4 3 Construction d rawing of b ioswale The figure above is the plan of the bioswale in front of the Southwest Recreation center. Storm water from the roof i s piped and exits at the base of the building into rainwater harvesting system. Six levels of the swale are divi d ed by drains. The drains are connected to the stormwater collection system from the pipe of the construction. Development S ite 1 Year, 24 Hour Design Storm 2 Year, 24 Hour Design Storm Pre Development Site Runoff Rate (cfs) 2.510 cfs 2.880 cfs Pre Development Site Runoff Quantity (cf) 8,257.000 cf 9,483.000 cf Post Development Site Runoff Rate (cfs)* 1.470 cfs 1.590 cfs Post Development Site Runoff Quantity (cf)* 3,892.000 cf 4,392.000 cf

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36 Stormwater that are collected wil l flow in to the six connected swales. The water then will stream and infiltrate into the big g est swale on the southwest co r ner on the site. While the rain water will be h e ld for 72 hours and then flow in to the drainage system of the campus. During the 72 hours the water will be cleaned all by natural process es Conclusion: In summary, this bioswale contain s all the stormwater on the site which has decrease d the water runoff of the area. Second, the rainfall has been cleaned by the swale without costing a ny energy. Third, the penetration is increased which benefits both the soil on the site, and also the water collected. University of Maryland R ain gardens also follow the low impact development paradigm for stormwater management T his project on the Univer sity of Maryland College Park campus in was initiated in 2001 ( Davis, Stack, Kangas, and Angle 2003 ) Of the 10 sub watersheds that drain into the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland, the Anacostia Watershed is the most densely populated, and the most polluted. A combinati on of non point source pollution from the runoff of roads, parking lots and other impervious surfaces, combined with sewer overflows from high volume rain events make this watershed unsafe for swimming and nearly uninhabitable for fish and other wildlife ( University of Maryland, 2009) Most of the rain that falls on parking lots surrounding the Comcast Center ends up in the Anacostia River on its way to the Chesapeake Bay. Storm water runoff sends plastic bottles, fast food wrappers and other litter, as wel l as road pollutants like oil and grime into the local streams. To catch the storm water runoff and treat it before it enters the streams, a network of bioretention sites is located around these Comcast Center parking lots. The rain garden was designed and installed at the campus in 2003 through a partnership

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37 Department of Environmental Resources under a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency grant for experimental technologies. The 30 person coalition of students at the University of Maryland created this rain garden of native plants on the campus. Design features include a b ioretention facility, rain garden, bioswale, and curb cuts. This project was designed to meet the following specific requirements or mandates: To meet funding criteria Impervio us area managed: greater than 5 acres. Amount of existing green space/open space conserved or preserved for managing stormwater on site: 5, 000 sq./ft. to 1 acre. According to a report by Claire Saravia for The Diamondback, this garden helped slow down the flow of rainwater that runs from campus parking lots into a local waterway known as Guilford Run. It minimized erosion on the stream banks caused by fast moving water. It also lessened the amount of pollution flowing into nearby creeks and streams through the use of native plants that feed off nitrogen and phosphorous two chemicals that are picked up by rainwater when it hits pavement. T he plants will filter these chemicals out of collected rainwater before it pollutes area waterways. This garden is almost constantly moist, fed by the water draining from pots resting in the cold frames just behind it. Water drains across the sidewalk on rainy days, no mud flows with it and the walks are dry. The plants drink the runoff. What grows here likes wet feet. The specie are Eutrochium maculatum (Hollow stemmed Joe Pye Weed), Iris versicolor (Blue Flag Iris), Lobelia cardinalis (Cardinal Flower ), and Vernonia noveboracensis (New York Ironweed).

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38 R esearch by the Maryland Water Resources Research Center ( Davis, Stack, Kangas, Angle 2003 ) provided the following information : The inflow and outflow behavior of the Universi ty of Maryland rain gardens has been characterized to date with twelve discrete rain events. These events range in storm duration from eight to sixty hours. The rain events recorded range in total inflow volume from 1000 to 8000ft3 (28 to 226 m3) delivered to each cell. When dry antecedent conditions exist prior to a rain event, outflows typically release around 10% of the inflow by the end of the storm event. The cells can take up to two weeks to release all the stored runoff. When prior conditions were wet the cells released anywhere from 10% to 70% of the inflow by the end of the event. Ohlone College The water management system at Ohlone College is designed in such a way as to ensure that it not only collects water runoff, but also cleans it before it fl ows off again. Their system collects water from various places around campus including the main building roof and landscaping areas and eventually it ends up in an area with substantial vegetation, known as a swale (bioswale), and significant natural clean ing is done by these swales. Although there is also some significant mechanical cleaning done, the majority of the cleaning is done through natural design. There are also retention ponds and pipes designed in such a way as to restrict water flow in order t o minimize the possibility of flooding. What is interesting in this design is that it not only works, but it is actually even visually pleasing.

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39 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Data Analysis The two case studies from the University of Florida are focused on stormwa ter collection. The Perry Construction Yard green roof supplies 2/3 of its irrigation water through the stormwater collection system. By building this green roof, the reflection of the roof is decreased, the green surface is enlarged, and the heat island e ffect is decreased. Although water runoff is significant in Gainesville, the runoff collection system is not enough for th is green roof irrigation. Additionally, although there is a backup source of irrigation for the roof which also comes from stormwater collection, this green roof also has an additional cost in the sense that 1/3 of its water must come from the main UF water system. Ideally, this would not be the case and the roof would supply all of its own water. The le is outstanding because it collect s 100% of the stormwater onsite by connecting to the drainage system of the construction beside it. The bioswale keeps the water for more than 72 hours. During the 72 hour period, the swale cleans the stormwater to some extent by infiltration and purification by microbes. After purification, the water is then transported into the drainage system of the university. Meanwhile, the site does not save the water for irrigation but uses reclaimed water from the university. Thus this bioswale is a good example of the use of natural processes to clean and purify rain water. From the testing of water quality of t he rain garden at the University of Maryland, insignificant differences were noted between the two cells for all pollut ants tested The m edian values for effluent event mean concentrations and percent removals based on

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40 combined data sets (both cells) were TSS, 17 mg/L and, 47% total phosphorus, 0 .18 mg/L and 76%, copper, 0.004mg/L and 57%, lead, 0.004 mg/L and 83%, z inc, 0 .053mg/L and 62%, and 0.02 mg N/L and 83% removal of nitrate ( Davis, 2005 ).It can be inferred from the data that the pollutant removal ha s been improved significantly. The case from Ohlone College demonstrates a very well functioning system includ ing the construction, landscaping and drainage system on the same campus. All the different parts work together as a whole infrastructure dealing with stormwater management. The lesson that can be learned from this case is that this new form of green infra structure should be encouraged to lead a new trend in the development of stormwater treatment. As the discussion and data above demonstrates the rain garden, green roof and bioswale all address the storm water issue in different way s. When comparing the di fferent kinds of green infrastructure from the cases studied above in terms of stormwater treatment, we are led to a number of conclusions. First, all the green infrastructure contributes to the environment, especially with regard to stormwater management. Secondly, all three infrastructures are good at collecting stormwater, especially the green roof. Third, the ability of the rain garden and bioswale to purify stormwater is better than that of the green roof due to the different conditions on the site of the soil and drainage system. Finally, creating new ways to deal with stormwater management is necessary in order to truly develop efficient and environmentally friendly ways to treat stormwater.

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41 Stormwater Qua lity Standards General Standard Florida Surfac e Water Quality Criteria (Rule 62 302.530), and Classification of Surface Waters, Usage, Reclassification, Classified Waters (Rule 62 302.400 ) provide the standard for surface water quality in Florida, and also show the classification of waterbodies. Accor ding to Rule 62 302.400 there are six classes of water and almost all waterbodies in Florida are in the best two classes namely Class I Potable Water and Class II Shellfish Propagation or Harvesting Sustainable Site: Water Quality Control LEED sustainabl e site storm water design credits on quality control (SS C 6.1) requires sites to treat and capture 90% of storm water runoff, and remove 80% of TSS Results Green infrastructures use the power of nature e.g., plants, soil, and microorganisms. W ith collec ting and cleaning stormwater green infrastructure has played an important role in improving both the quality and quantity of stormwater on campus. As green infrastructure has a large impact on the environment, study ing and impr oving it helps campuses achi eve more goals in sustainability. With regard to improving water quality, rain gardens and bioswale s are the better choice. Rain gardens and bioswales keep stormwater for a certain period s of time, and plants, soil and microorganisms work their natural fu nction of helping filtration. At the same time the process does not require any electrical power, so energy is saved as well as irrigation water. Green roofs are better at stormwater collection by largely collecting stormwater on campus, and reducing a la rge part of the runoff. Building green roof s enlarges the

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42 surface for collecting runoff T he storm water collected is at the same time used for irrigat ing green roof s On the other hand rain garden s do more for decreas ing the heat island effect, which i s beneficial for the climate. The lesson we learned from the Ohlone College cas e is that campuses can be desig ned as stormwater management systems themselves Every part from construct ed facilities through landscap ing can be built and work together as a w hole system I n that case, the management of the stormwater contributes to mak ing campuses more sustainable. When we look at the scale of a campus, it can be compared to a neighborhood community. In ways similar to those demonstrated in the campus cases of the present study, it should be possible to expand green infrastructure in neighborhood communities as well as practice and improve stormwater management. g lo ba l then develop ing more green infrastruct ure to the extent possible is one of the most efficient and greenest way s of not only managing stormwater but also allowing people to live and work sustainab ly. Education and Enjoyment of Green Infrastructure Green infrastructure not only functions as a me thod of stormwater treatment and a contribution to the environment on campus, but also as something that contributes to the education and enjoyment of the natural environment on campuses. As green infrastructure is one part of the campus landscape, the mo st direct use of it is in making for a more attractive environment. Besides the visual pleasure it brings to the public the way in which it works can be perfect for education al use. Th is use can basically be divided into two aspects O ne aspect is exhibit ion use which is a display of the way in which infrastructure works. Taking the Ohlone College example, students

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43 there study sustainable design because they live and study on a campus which itself is designed sustainably Another aspect of educational use is the practice of building green infrastructure, such as the rain garden case from the University of Maryland. M any rain gardens were built by teachers and students themselves. The campus becomes more sustainable by gaining more green infrastructure and b y saving the costs of professional workers. Green infrastructure is also a good method of enjoying the campus. When putting it into a campus scale, different kinds of green infrastructure can be connected as a landscape system which increas es the joy of vi siting the campus. S ites where there is green infrastructure are also great place s for students to enjoy the beau ty of nature. Limitation s of the Study There are s everal limitations to this research that should be borne in mind The first is the lack of ce rtain data. In all the campuses involved with sustainable development, green infrastructures have been fully designed and developed. However the stormwater management data collection is not well developed. The study needs more objective evidence to show t he effects of green infrastructure on water sustainability. Second ly the study is limited by the analysis of water quality standards. Only the standard in Florida for surface water quality classifications is discussed. Furthermore, the study lacks data fo r comprehensiv e comparison of the water quality resulting from green infrastructure.

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44 CHAPTER 6 RECOMMENDATION Development of Campus Green Infrastructure Should we bring more green infrastructure onto campuses? The answer is a resounding yes. Because susta inability has been taken more and more seriously, by living sustainably we contribute not only to the natural environment in which we are living at the present time, but also to that of the next generation and future generations. In the campus environment where higher education takes place, making efforts toward the sustainability of the environment helps all students and faculty to have a better community in order to create a brighter future. Green infrastructure is, on the one hand, the hardware of the community that students, faculty and staff cannot live without. On the other hand, it also plays a very important role in the campus environment. Building a Complete Standard of Stormwater Treatment Because standards for the quality and quantity of stormwa ter management are lacking, building a complete criteria system to test the quality and detect the quantity of stormwater purification and harvesting is necessary and would be helpful. If given a finer and better examination of stormwater purification usin g a completely developed and agreed upon system, campuses would better develop sustainability more quickly. Standards to be developed should take into consideration different climates and different natural resources on different campuses. Developing differ ent standards in different areas also realistically helps to further sustainable development.

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45 LIST OF REFERENCES Benedict M A ( 2000 ). Green Infrastructure: A Strategic Approach to Land Conservation Retrieved from http://www.nh.gov/oep/resourcelibrary/re ferencelibrary/g/greeninfrastructure/docu ments/pasmemo1000_000.pdf Benedict M A. and McMahon E T. (2006). Green Infrastructure: Linking Landscapes and Communities. Washi ngton, D.C.: Island Press Blockstein D. E. Biodiversity in a Rapidly Changing World (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ncseonline.org/ Cho P. LID Pilot Project at University of Maryland (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.asla.org/uploadedFiles/CMS/Advocacy/Federal_Government_Affairs/ Stormwater_Case_Studies/Stormwater%20Case%20433%20LID%20Pilot%20Pr oject%20at%20Uni versity%20of%20Maryland,%20College%20Park,%20MD.pdf Davis A P., Stack R Kangas, P and Angle J. S ( 2003 ). Water Quality Improvement Using Rain Gardens: University Of Maryland Studies Retrieved from http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/sanfranciscobay/water _issues/programs/stormwa ter/muni/mrp/Rain%20Garden%20Quality%2004 11.pdf Dunnett N and Clayden A ( 2007 ) Rain gardens : Managing Water Sustainably In The Garden And Designed Landscape Portland, OR: Timber Press. Eagle Rivet Roof Service Corporation (n. d.). Definitions of Roofing Terminology Retrieved from http://www.eaglerivet.com/roofing glossary terms/ EPA. (n.d.). Stormwater Management Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/oaintrnt/stormwater/index.htm Florida Field Guide to Low Impact Development (20 08). Bioretention Basins Rain Gardens. Retrieved from http://buildgreen.ufl.edu/Fact_sheet_Bioretention_Basins_Rain_Gardens.pdf France, R L. (2002). Handbook of Water Sensitive Planning and Design. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Francis, J ( 2008 ). Philosoph y of mathematics, New Delhi, India: Global Vision Pub. House Gill,S., Handley,J. Ennos,R. and Pauleit,S. (2012). Adapting Cities for Climate Change:The Role of the Green Infrastructure. Retrieved from http://intranet.catie.ac.cr/intranet/posgrado/recurso s_naturales_2/Respaldo%202

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46 010/Economia/Documentos%20ejercicio%20final/Urban_corridor/Urban CCH Gill%20etal %20Green%20infrastructure 08 06.pdf How much water is the re on, in, and above the Earth? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthho wmuch.html Hogan, C. M (2010). Water Pollution: Bioswale Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/article/Bioswale?topic=58075 The Rain Garde n at The University Of Maryland (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.chesapeakenatives.org/Chesapeake_Natives/UMD_Rain_Garden Stumpf, A. Loechl, P Johnson, E. Scholze, R. Deal, B. and Hanson, M. (2003). Design Schematics for a Sustainable Parking Lot. Champaign Retrieved from http://www.cecer.army.mil/techreports/Stumpf_SustainableParkingLot/Stumpf_Su stainableParkingLot__TR.pdf Turner P V (1984). Campus: An American Planning Tradition New York: A rchitectural History Foundation. Cambridge, Mass, MIT Press University of Maryland School of Architecture. (2009). Greening Wheaton: Opportunities f or Water and Was te Conservation Retrieved from http://www.arch.umd.edu/images/student work/documents/It's%20Not%20Easy%20Being%20Green %20Final%20Report.pdf University of Maryland (n.d.). Edmonston Rain Garden Retrieved from http://www.se.umd.edu/projects/edmonston 20 09.html University of Florida. (n.d.). Conservation Area Land Management (CALM) Plans Retrieved from http://www.facilities.ufl.edu/planning/calm/index.php Williams D E. Sustainable Design Ecology, Architecture, and Planning (2007). New York: John Wiley and Sons. Why do plants need water? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.letusfindout.com/why do plants need water/

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47 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Xu Chensi graduated with honors from Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) in 2010 with a Bachelor of Art and Design. In the same year, she enrolled in the Graduate School of College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, majoring in art and design. She then enrolled in the College of Design, Construction, and Plann ing at the University of Florida, majoring in architecture. She graduated in December 2012 from the University of Florida with a Master of Science in Architectural S tudies with a concentration in sustainable design. She graduated from HUST in March 2012 wi th a Master of Art and Design. Xu Chensi resided in Gainesville, Florida and spent most of her time studying, reading and enjoying life.