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Archaeology, Satellite Imagery, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in the Llanos De Mojos, Bolivia

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045086/00001

Material Information

Title: Archaeology, Satellite Imagery, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in the Llanos De Mojos, Bolivia
Physical Description: 1 online resource (100 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Boothby, Stephanie M
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: amazon -- arcgis -- archaeology -- bolivia -- columbian -- earth -- gis -- google -- imagery -- llanos -- mojos -- pre -- satellite
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Popular portrayals of the Amazon traditionally depict Pre-Columbian people as small groups of hunter-gatherers; however, recent scientific research has proven that the Amazon basin was home to a myriad of agricultural and sedentary societies.The archaeological studies conducted within the past few decades have established the presence of large and socially complex Pre-Columbian populations living in the Amazon long before the arrival of Europeans. In particular, research in the region of the Llanos de Mojos in the Bolivian Amazon have revealed thousands of earthworks, including raised fields, mounds, ring ditches, causeways, canals, and fish weirs. These earthworks are visible on satellite imagery available through Google Earth, which provides tools for digitally mapping them. Those digital files are then transferred to ArcGIS, a Geographic Information System computer program which conducts spatial analyses.When combined with data from archaeological excavations, the digital map is infused with contextual data and reveals information about settlement patterns,spatial organization, agricultural production, transportation, and serves as a practical means of identifying and assessing archaeological sites. The final product is a digital map of a select area of the Llanos de Mojos, an example of how researchers in multiple fields of study can utilize modern technology to further their understanding of the cultural activity taking place on the ground by analyzing the landscape from an aerial perspective. By combining the spatial information from satellite imagery and GIS with the cultural information from archaeological studies, Pre-Columbian earthworks can be further investigated for information on the cultural and political aspects of these Amazonian societies.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Stephanie M Boothby.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Heckenberger, Michael J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0045086:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045086/00001

Material Information

Title: Archaeology, Satellite Imagery, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in the Llanos De Mojos, Bolivia
Physical Description: 1 online resource (100 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Boothby, Stephanie M
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: amazon -- arcgis -- archaeology -- bolivia -- columbian -- earth -- gis -- google -- imagery -- llanos -- mojos -- pre -- satellite
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Popular portrayals of the Amazon traditionally depict Pre-Columbian people as small groups of hunter-gatherers; however, recent scientific research has proven that the Amazon basin was home to a myriad of agricultural and sedentary societies.The archaeological studies conducted within the past few decades have established the presence of large and socially complex Pre-Columbian populations living in the Amazon long before the arrival of Europeans. In particular, research in the region of the Llanos de Mojos in the Bolivian Amazon have revealed thousands of earthworks, including raised fields, mounds, ring ditches, causeways, canals, and fish weirs. These earthworks are visible on satellite imagery available through Google Earth, which provides tools for digitally mapping them. Those digital files are then transferred to ArcGIS, a Geographic Information System computer program which conducts spatial analyses.When combined with data from archaeological excavations, the digital map is infused with contextual data and reveals information about settlement patterns,spatial organization, agricultural production, transportation, and serves as a practical means of identifying and assessing archaeological sites. The final product is a digital map of a select area of the Llanos de Mojos, an example of how researchers in multiple fields of study can utilize modern technology to further their understanding of the cultural activity taking place on the ground by analyzing the landscape from an aerial perspective. By combining the spatial information from satellite imagery and GIS with the cultural information from archaeological studies, Pre-Columbian earthworks can be further investigated for information on the cultural and political aspects of these Amazonian societies.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Stephanie M Boothby.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Heckenberger, Michael J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0045086:00001


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1 AR C HA E O L O G Y S ATE LL I T E I M AG E R Y A N D G E O G RA P HIC IN F OR M A T I O N S Y S T E M S (G I S) IN THE LL AN O S DE M O J O S B O L I V IA By STE P HANIE BO O T H B Y A T H E SIS PRE S E N T E D T O T HE G RAD U A TE SC H O O L OF T HE UNIVERS I T Y OF FL O RIDA IN PA R TI A L FULF I LL M E N T OF T HE RE Q UIREM E N T S FOR T HE DE G R EE O F M AS T E R OF A R T S U N I V ERS I T Y O F F L O RIDA 20 1 2

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2 2 0 1 2 St e ph a n ie B o o t hb y

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3 ACKN O W L E D GMENTS I t h a n k m y c o m m itt e e m y f a m i l y an d m y f r ie nd s f o r t he ir s up p o rt. I d a lso l i ke t o t ha n k Dr. J o h n W a lk e r f o r allo w ing m e t o a cc o mp a n y h im a n d a ssist i n a rch a eo lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s in Moj o s d u r i n g s u m me r f ield s e a s on s 2 01 0 a n d 2 0 1 1

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4 T A B L E OF CON T ENTS pa g e ACKN O W L E D GMENTS ............................................................... ... ............................ .. 3 L I S T O F TA B L ES ............................... ............................... ............................... ............ 5 L I S T O F F I GURE S ............................... ............................... ............... ................ .......... 6 AB S T RA C T ............................... ............................... ..................................................... 8 C H AP T ER 1 IN T ROD U C T I ON ............................... ............................... ....... ........................ .... 10 2 T HE LL AN O S DE M O JOS ............................... ...................................................... 13 H i st o r y Land sc a pe a n d A rch a eo lo g y ............................... ............................... .... 13 S u m ma ry ............................... ............................... ............................... ................ 27 3 G O O G L E E A R T H ............................................................... ................................ 29 An I n tro d u cti o n t o G o og le E a rt h ............................... ............................... .......... 29 M e t hod s ............................... ............................... .................................................. 32 S u m ma ry .......................... ..... ............................... ............................... ................ 51 4 G E O G RA P HIC INFO R M A T I O N S Y S T E M S (GIS) .................................................. 53 ArcGI S ............................... ............................... ............................... ................. 53 M e t hod s ............................... ............................... .................................................. 53 S u m ma ry ............................... ............................... .... ........................... ................ 60 5 FIN D INGS A ND A NA L Y SI S ............................... .................................................... 61 A na l y sis o f Rais e d Fiel d s a n d F o re s t Isl a n d s .................................................. ....... 61 Ri n g Ditc he s ............................... ............................... ............................... ........... 8 0 S u m ma ry ............................... ............................... ............................... ................ 8 1 6 CON C L USIONS A ND FU T U R E RE S E AR C H ......................................................... 86 Co n clusi on s ............................... ............................... ............................... ............ 86 Fu tu re R e s ea rch ................. .............. ............................... ............................... ..... 91 L I S T O F RE F EREN C E S ............................................................... ............................... 9 3 BI O GRAPHIC A L S K E T CH ............................ ................................... .......................... 10 0

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5 L I S T O F TA B L ES T a b le pa g e 3 1 I n f o r ma ti o n a bo u t t h e Fe a t u re s ............................... ............................... ........... 3 6

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6 L I S T O F F I GURES Fi g u r e pa g e 3 1 An e x a m p le o f G o o g le E a rt h t oo l s ............................... ............................... ... 3 0 3 2 E x amp les o f p o l y g o n an d line f i l e s ............................... ............................... ..... 3 1 3 3 A scre en s ho t o f t h e s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry in th e G o o g le E a rt h p ro g ra m ............... 3 2 3 4 T h e l a ti t ud i n a l a n d l o ng it ud in a l b o u n da r i e s o f th e s t ud y a rea ............................. 3 3 3 5 T h e S t ud y A rea an d maj o r g eo g ra ph ical f ea t u res ............................... .............. 3 4 3 6 All fea t u res ma p p e d ............................................................... ............................ 3 5 3 7 For e st is l an d a n d ring d itch ............................... ............................... ................ 3 7 3 8 For e st is l an d w ith m ap pe d ring d it c h ............................... ............................... .. 3 8 3 9 Isla E st a n cita ............................... ............................... ............................... ...... 39 3 1 0 Rais e d f iel d s a n d f o re s t is l and s ......... ...................... ............................... .......... 4 0 3 1 1 Rais e d f iel d s (or an g e po l y g on ) a n d f o rest is l and s ( g re e n po l y g on s) .................. 4 1 3 1 2 B od ies o f w a t e r ............................... ............................... ....... ........................ ... 4 2 3 1 3 Ro ad s an d f o rest isla n d s ............................... .................................................... 4 3 3 1 4 For e st, ri v e r, an d s a v ann a o n t h e Moj o s l a n d sc ap e ............................... ........... 4 4 3 1 5 S ma ll f o rest isl a nd s a lo n g a ri v e r ............................... ............................... ........ 4 5 3 1 6 B od ies o f w a t e r in t h e St ud y A rea ............................... ............................... ...... 4 6 3 1 7 Ro ad s in th e S t ud y A r e a ............................... ..................................................... 4 7 3 1 8 M ode rn r o ad s an d ra n c he s in t h e St u d y A rea .................................................... 4 8 3 1 9 R i n g d itc he s in t h e St u d y A rea ....................... ........ ............................... ........... 49 3 2 0 For e st is l and s a n d r a n c he s............................... ............................... ................. 50 3 2 1 Rais e d f iel d s a n d f o re s t in t h e S t ud y A re a ............................... ... ....................... 5 1 4 1 ArcGI S l ip p ed f ea t u res ............................... ............................... ................ 5 5 4 2 T h e U n i o n t o o l in Arc G I S ............................... ............................... ................. 5 6

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7 4 3 Forst is l and s an d b o d i e s o f w a t e r in ArcGI S ................................................... 5 7 4 4 A cl o s e u p o f Isla E s t a n cita in ArcGI S ............................... ............................. 5 8 4 5 S w amp y re g ion in A rcGI S .......... ..................... ............................... ............... 59 5 1 Rais e d f iel d s a n d f o re s t is l and s bo r d e r i n g g a l le ry f o rest ............................... .... 6 2 5 2 Rais e d f iel d s b y ri v e rs ............................... ................... ..................................... 6 3 5 3 Rais e d f iel d s a l o n g rivers an d g a l l e ry f o rest i n A rcGI S ............................... .... 6 4 5 4 Rais e d f iel d s a l o n g river, w ith l o c a ti on s o f a rch a e o lo g i c a l e x c a v a ti on s b y W a l k e r (2 00 4 ) .................... ........... ............................... ............................... ..... 6 5 5 5 Rais e d f iel d s l o c a t e d n ea r t h e Ma mo r r i v e r ...................................................... 6 6 5 6 Rais e d f iel d s (or an g e ) an d s ou rces o f w a t e r ( b lu e ) ........ ....................... ............ 6 7 5 7 Rais e d f iel d s n e a r t h e s w am p y a re a ............................... ............................... ... 6 8 5 8 For e st is l an d Cer r o e x c a v a t e d b y W a l k e r (2 004 ) w ith rais e d f i e lds .................. 70 5 9 For e st is l an d C e r r o w ith rais e d f i e ld s ............................... ............................... .. 7 1 5 1 0 For e st is l and s s u r r o un de d b y rais e d f iel d s ......................................................... 7 2 5 1 1 St ud y A re a s ho w ing th e I n t e rsect i o n o f rais e d f iel d s an d f o re s t is l a n d s ............ 7 3 5 1 2 Ce n tral S t ud y A rea s h o w ing th e r e s u lts o f t h e In t e rsect t oo l u sing rais e d f ie l d s a n d f o rest isl a n d s ............................... ...................................................... 7 4 5 1 3 Nor t hea st S t ud y A rea s ho w ing th e res u lts o f t h e I n t e rsect t o o l u sing raised f ie l d s a n d f o rest isl a n d s ............................... ...................................................... 7 5 5 1 4 Rais e d f iel d s in t h e N o rth ea st c o rn e r o f t h e S t ud y A rea ..... .......................... ..... 7 6 5 1 5 ArcGI S i ma g e o f f o r e st is l a n d s a n d rais e d fi e lds in s o u t h e rn r e g i o n o f St ud y A re a ............................... ............................... ............................... .......... 7 8 5 1 6 ArcGI S i ma g e o f f o r e st is l a n d s a n d r a is e d fi e lds n e a r ce n t e r o f S t ud y A rea ... 7 8

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8 A b stract o f T h e sis Pr e s en t e d t o t h e G r a du a te S c h o o l o f t h e U n i v e rs i ty o f Fl o r i d a in P a rtial F u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e Re q u i r emen ts f o r t h e De g ree o f M a s t e r o f Arts AR C HA E O L O G Y S ATE LL I T E I M AG E R Y A N D G E O G RA P HIC IN F OR M A T I O N S Y S T E M S (G I S) IN THE LL AN O S DE M O J O S B O L I V IA By St e p han i e B o o t h b y Dec e m be r 2 01 2 Ch a i r : M ich ae l Hec k e n be r g e r M a jor: A n t h ro po l o g y P opu l a r p o rt r a y a ls o f t h e A ma z o n tra d iti o na l l y dep ict P r e Col u mb i a n p e op le a s s ma ll g ro up s o f h un t e r g a t he rers; h o w e v e r, r e c en t sci e n t i f ic res e a rch ha s p ro v e n t h a t t h e Am a z o n ba sin w a s h o m e t o a m y r i a d o f ag r i c u lt u ral an d s e d e n t a ry s o cie t ies. T h e a rch a e o lo g ical s tud ies c on d u ct e d w it h in t h e p a st f e w de c ade s ha v e e st ab l i s h e d t h e p res en c e o f lar g e a n d s o c i a l l y c omp lex P r e Col u m b ian p o pu la t i o n s l i v ing in th e A m a z o n lo n g b e f o r e t h e a r r i v a l o f Eu r op e an s. I n pa rti c u lar, r e s e a rch in t h e r e g ion o f t h e L la no s d e Moj o s i n t h e B o l i v i a n A ma z o n h a v e re v ea led t hou s and s o f ea r t h w o rks, incl ud ing raised f iel d s m o u nd s r in g d itc he s, c a u s e w a ys, c a n a ls, a n d f ish w e i r s. Th e se ea rth w o rks are v is i b le o n s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry a v a i l ab le t h ro u g h G oo g le Ea rt h w h ich p ro v id e s too ls f o r di g it a l l y m app ing t h e m T h o se d i g it a l f i l e s a re t h e n t ra n s f e r r e d t o ArcGI S a G eo g ra ph i c I n f o r ma t i o n S y st e m c om p u t e r p ro g ram w h ich c o n du cts s p a ti a l ana l y s e s. W h e n c o mb i ne d w ith d a ta f r o m a r c ha e o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s, t h e d i g it a l map is in fu s e d w ith c on t e x t ua l da t a a n d re v ea ls i n f o r ma ti o n a b o u t s e t t l e m e n t p a t te rn s s p a ti a l o r g an i z a ti on a g r i c u lt u ral p ro d u cti o n tra n s po r t a ti on a n d s e r v e s a s a p ractical me a n s o f id en t i f y ing an d a ss e ss i n g a rch a e o lo g ical sit e s The f i na l p r odu ct is a d i g it a l ma p o f a

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9 s e lect a r e a o f t h e L l a n o s d e Moj o s, a n e x a m p le o f ho w res ea rc h e rs i n multiple f i e lds o f st ud y c a n u til i z e m o d e rn t e c hno lo g y t o f u r t he r t he ir u n de rst a nd ing o f t h e c u l t u ral a cti v ity t a king p lace o n t h e g ro un d b y ana l y z i n g th e l a nd sc a p e f r o m a n ae r i a l pe rsp e c ti v e By c omb i n ing th e s p a ti a l i n f o r m a ti o n f r o m s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry an d G I S w ith t h e c u l t u ral in fo r m a ti o n f r o m a rc h a eo lo g ical s tud i e s, Pr e Col umb i a n ea rth w o rks can b e f u rth e r in v e sti g a t e d f o r i n f o r m a ti o n o n t h e c u lt u ral a n d po l i tic a l a s pe c ts o f t h e se A ma z on i a n s o cie t ies.

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10 C H AP T ER 1 IN T ROD U C T I ON T h is t he sis is m e an t t o add ress s e v e ral q ue sti on s re g a rding P r e Co l u mb i a n s e t t l e me n ts in t h e re g i o n o f t h e L l ano s d e M o jos, in B o l i v ia. W h i l e th e res ea r c h c on d u ct e d f o r t h is t h e s is p ro v id e s s o m e o f t h e an s w e rs to t ho s e qu e sti on s, ma n y m o re q ue sti on s w e re r a ise d I t is h op e d t ha t t h is t h e sis w i l l a ct a s a p re c u rsor an d a p r o po s a l to o t he r sc h o lars in bo t h Bo l i v ian a rch a eo lo g y an d o t he r f iel d s t o c o n du ct f u t u re res ea rch u til i z ing th e i n t e rdisc i p l i na ry m e t hod s a s d e m on str a t e d he r e W h i l e t ra d iti o na l a rch a e o lo g y ha s p ro du c e d mu ch i n f o r ma t i o n ab o u t Pr e Col u mb i a n l i f e w a y s, it is t h ro u g h t h e c o m b in a t i o n o f a rch a eo lo g ical f ie l d w o rk a n d r e mo t e s en sing u sing too ls s u ch a s G o o g le E a rth a n d G e o g ra ph ic I n f o r ma t i o n S y st e m s t ha t e v e n f u rt h e r d a ta c a n b e re v ea le d For t h is t h e sis, I w i l l dem o n stra t e ho w s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry an d G I S c a n re v ea l in fo r m a ti o n r e g a rding th e p r e Col um b ian ea r t h w o rks in M o jos, a n d i n pa rticu l a r, t h e raised f iel d s W h i l e t h e re is still c on tro v e rsy o v e r t h e o r ig ins o f f o r e st isla nd s, rai s e d f ie l d s a re c l ea r l y an t h r opo g en ic in o r ig in an d ea sy t o i d e n t i f y o n t h e s a t e l l ite i ma g e r y By u sing re m o t e s e n sin g in fo r m a ti o n a b ou t t h e rais e d f i e lds c a n b e o b t a in e d s u ch a s t he ir s pa ti a l pa t t e rns a n d a s s o cia t io n s w ith o t he r e a rth w o rks. In o r d e r to un d e rsta n d t h e c on structi o n a n d l o c a t i o n o f t h e se ea rth w o rks, ho w e v e r, a tho r o u g h ba c k g ro un d in t h e en v i r onme n t a n d h ist o r y o f t h e re g ion is re q u i r ed T h e L l a no s d e Mo j o s i s a s e a s o n a l l y f lo o de d s a v anna lo c a t e d in t h e d e pa r t me n t B en i in t h e Bo l i v ian A ma z on I t is a d y nam ic la nd sc a p e s ha p e d b y th e a nn u a l o v e r f low o f t h e ri v e rs, s h ifti n g f r om a p a rch e d l a n d sc a p e t o b e ing nea r l y c o m p le te ly i nun d a t e d w it h in a m a t t e r o f m on t h s. On a v e ra g e s ea s o na l f l o od s c o v e r u p t o a th i r d o f t h e la nd sc a pe f o rc i n g p eo p le a n d a n i m a ls to h i g h g ro un d a n d res t r i cti n g t ra v e l to th e u se o f

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11 c an o e s ( D ene v a n 19 6 6 ). T o d a y t h e re g ion is s pa rsely po p u la t e d w ith c a t t l e ra n c he s, bu t re c en t a rch a eo lo g ical res ea rch ha s r e v ea led t h a t lar g e p r e Col u mb i a n p opu l a ti on s on ce i nh a b it e d th is s a v an n a As m o re i n f o r m a ti o n is re v ea led a b ou t t he se s o cie t ies, t h e role o f t h e l and s c a p e h a s c o m e i n to q ue s ti on W h i l e it is no w cl ea r t h a t a n cie n t p e op les c e rtai n ly ha d a n e f f e c t o n t h e f o r m a ti o n o f l an d sc a p e f e a t u re s t h e i d e a o f a p r i sti ne en v i r onme n t h a s b ee n re p lac e d w ith a n a n t h r opo g en ic l a nd s c ap e w i th e a rth w o rks w ho se c u r r en t mo r p ho l o g y is d u e t o t h e c on s t ructi v e e f fo rts o f a v a r i e ty o f Pr e Col umb i a n g ro up s th r o u g h t i m e B u t h o w c a n t he se l and s c a p e f o r m a ti on s re v ea l in fo r m a ti o n a b ou t t h e p eop le w h o he l p e d s h a pe d t h e m ? T o w ha t deg ree a re t h e y an t h r o po g en ic o r n a t u r a l? Do t h e d istr i bu ti o n o f l a n d sc a p e f ea t u res an d c on stru c t e d ea rth w o rks r e f l e ct s o c i opo l i tic a l v a r i ab i l it y re g io na l bo u n d a r i e s o r reg io na l ne t w o rks? T h e se a re a ll q ue st i o n s w h ich a re a p p ro a c he d in t h is t h e sis, th r o u g h t h e u s e o f b o th a rch a e o lo g ical da t a an d rem o te s en sin g A rch a e o lo g ists ha v e o n ly rec en tly w it h in t h e pa st f e w de c a d e s tu r n e d t he ir a t t e n ti o n t o t he s e q ue s ti on s in t h e L la n o s d e M o jos. A re v iew o f t h e c h ro no lo g y an d d istr i bu ti o n o f a rt i f ic i a l ea rth w o rks a n d f e a t u r e s, a lo n g w ith e v id en ce o f v a r i a ti o n in ea rth w o rks f o r m a n d f un cti o n c o u ld re v ea l i n f o r m a ti o n ab o u t t h e s o cial an d po l i tic a l struct u res t h ro u g h o u t M o jos. E v id en ce o f s t y l i stic v a r i a ti on incre a s e d d e f en si v e struct u res, a n d l en g th o f s e t tl e m en t o cc u pa t i o n c o u ld rel a te t o c u l t u ral a s pe cts s u ch a s po p u la t i on mo v em e n t, mob i l it y si z e an d e x pan sio n a l o n g w ith i n c rea s e d w a r f a re, l o c a l id en titi e s o r p o l i tic a l o r g an i z a ti on s. Th e s e re s ea rch q ue st i on s an d t h e me t h odo l o g ies o f t h is p rojec t w h i l e pe rt a ini n g t o t h e re g ion o f th e L l a no s d e Moj o s c o u ld b e a p p l i e d to a v a r i e t y o f si t e s a c r o ss t h e w o r l d The de b a te a bou t ho w m u c h o f a t u p r i sti n e o r

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12 a f f e c t e d b y m an k i n d c ou ld b e a n s w e red b y l oo king a t ho w pe o p le ha v e i n t e rac t e d w ith t h e l a nd sc a p e t h r o u g h t i me T h is p ro p o s e d s t ud y h a s si g n i f ic a n t in t e l l e ct u a l m e r i t b e c a u se t h e p r o ject in te g rat e s t w o d i f fe re n t a c a d em ic a p p ro a c h e s t o t h e s t ud y o f pa st l i f e w a y s u sing t w o v a st l y d iff e re n t t y pe s o f da t a a rc h a e o lo g ical a n d d i g it a l. W h i l e i n f o r m a ti v e o n t he ir o w n w he n c o m b in e d sc h o lars a re g i v e n th e op po rtu n ity t o v iew a la nd sc ap e an d a rch a e o lo g ical site n o t on ly f r o m t h e d i r t, b u t from t h e a ir a s w e l l T h i s t y p e o f app r o a c h o f c o mb in i n g a rch a e o l o g y w ith re m o te s en si n g ha s h a d s u cc e ss in o t he r p rojects in t h e A ma z o n (Hec k en b e r g e r 2 006 ). T h is p roje c t w i ll re v ea l ho w a rch a eo l o g ical da ta a n d s pa ti a l pa t t e rns c a n b e j u x t apo s e d t o s h e d li g h t o n P r e Col u mb i a n s o cio po l i tic a l struct u res, re g io n a l n e t w o rks, t h e rel a ti on s h ip be t w ee n o r g an i z e d s e t tl em e n ts, a n d t h e de g ree o f m ob i l ity a c r o ss th e l and s c ap e T h is re s ea rch p res e n ts a n a pp r o a ch to an s w e r i n g a rch aeo lo g ical qu e sti on s, w h ich c ou ld b e a p p l i e d t o man y a rc h aeo lo g i c a l a re a s o f i n t e rest a c r o ss t h e w o r l d The p roject w i l l r e s u lt in a d a t a b a se o f d i g it i z e d f e a t u res in t h e f o r m o f s h ap e f i l e s a n d v e ct o r da ta t h a t c o u ld b e u s e d f o r a n s w e r i n g an y numbe r o f s c ho lar l y q ue sti on s t ha t a re rela te d to s pa ti a l a n a lys i s fo r t h is re g io n L e a rning m o re a b ou t t h e r o le a n d u se o f a n an t h r o po g en ic l a nd s c a p e in Pr e Col u m b ian t i me s ma y a ssist c u r r e n t la w ma k e rs, a cti v ists, an d i n hab i t a n ts o f t h e A m a z o n in m a king de cis i on s re g a rdi n g c u r r en t la n d u se an d c on s e r v a ti o n

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13 C H AP T ER 2 T HE LL AN O S DE M O JOS Hi s t o r y Land sca pe, a nd A r c ha e olo g y St ud ies in t h e A m a z o n ha v e h ist o r i c a l l y bee n f o c u s e d o n t h e s t a te o f t h e en v i r onme n t a n d its e f fe cts o n p a st a n d p re s e n t h u m a n po p u la t i o n s. For th is t h e sis, a t heo r e tic a l a pp ro a c h is ne e de d t h a t c a n a p tly i n t e rpret t h e l and s c a p e a s s e e n o n s a t e l l ite i ma g e r y T o u nde rst a n d ho w th is r e mo t e l y s en s e d ima g e ry f its in w ith h ist o r i c a l e v en ts a n d p r e Col um b ian c u lt u re s a t ho ro ug h ba c k g ro un d in g eo g ra ph ical cli m a t e h ist o r i c a l e v en ts, a n d a rch aeo lo g ical res e a rch o n p r e Col u m b ian c u l t u res is ne c e ss a r y A f rame w o rk f o r int e rp r e ti n g ho w th e l a nd s c a p e is a p ro du c t o f t h e se f a ct o rs c a n b e f ou n d in h ist o r i c a l e c o lo g y H i st o r i c a l e c o lo g y de v e lo p e d f r o m t h e ne e d t o a d d ress n o tic e ab le s ho rtc o m in g s in o t h e r a n t h ro p o lo g ic a l app r o a c he s w he n c o n sid e r i n g th e rel a ti o n s h ip b e t w ee n h u m an s an d t h e en v i r on m en t. H i st o r i c a l e c o lo g y ha s ro o ts in s e v e ral o f t h e s e a p p ro a c he s, na m e ly c u lt u ral e c o l o g y c u lt u ral e v o lu t io n is m c u lt u ral m a t e r i a l i s m an d e c o lo g ical s y st em s th e o r y It is e s s en ti a l l y a n i n t e rdisc i p l i na ry app ro a c h d r a w i n g o n d i f fe re n t pa ra d i g m s an d c o mb i n ing a s pe cts o f bo th s o c ial an d life sci en c e s. H i st o r i c a l e c o lo g y e s t h e l a nd sc a p e t o b e t h e c e n tral u n it o f ana l y sis an d h u ma n b e in g s a s t h e p r i n cip a l mec h an ism f o r ch an g e in t h e en v i r o n me n a le a n d E r i c k s o n 2 00 6 :i x x ). T h e A ma z on i a n l a n d s c ap e is o f t e n m isco n c e i v e d a s w ha t De ne v a n ( 19 9 2 ) t e r m s h e p r i sti n e m y t h a s n a t u r a l en v i r onm e n ts un t o u c he d an d u n t a in t e d b y m an k i nd In c on tras t D e n e v a n (1 9 92 ) ar g ue s t ha t the r e a re f e w en v i r onme n ts o n ea r t h t h a t ha v e n o t be e n i n f l u en c e d o r c h a n g e d t o s o m e de g ree b y hum a n kin d De n e v an on c ep t is c r u cial t o h is t o r i c a l e c o lo g y be c au se it is a n a n t h ro p o c e n t r i c a p p ro a c h re g a rding

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14 hu m an s a s t h e me c ha n ism o f e n v i r onme n t a l d y nam (B a le a n d Er i cks o n 2 0 06 : 2 ) w ho se d ist u rb a n ce c a n e it he r de g ra d e o r e n r i ch a n en v i r on m en t. T h e l a n d sc a p e is a bu i l t e n v i r onmen t e n c od e d w ith c u lt u ral i n f o r ma ti o n a n d p ro d u c e d b y i n t en ti ona l man i pu la t i o n an d m a n a g em e n t o f n a t u ral re s ou rces, f l o ra, an d f a un a Na t u re a n d c u lt u re a r e n o t e x clusiv e ; rat h e r, t he y a re d e e p ly i n t e g rat e d w ith ea c h o t he r. Cul t u ral id ea s an d c on c ep ts a r e e x p ress e d t h ro u g h h um a n a c ti v ities an d cr e a ti on s, w h ich a re i mp r i n t e d o r mo l d e d o n to t h e l a nd sc a pe N a t u re is no t a p r i sti n e hu ma n f r e e w i ld e rn e ss, a s it is o f t e n pe rcei v e d in R o m an t i c w e st e rni z e d v i e w s. R a t he r, it is i mpo r t an t to v iew th e l and s c ap e a s a p r o du ct o f h u m a n e n v i r onme n t a l r e la t i o n s, a n d a s s u ch is o pe n t o s tud y a n d i n t e rpre t a ti o n r e g a rding pa st c u lt u res a n d t he ir a cti v ities. T h e L l a no s d e Mo j o s ( o r M o jos, f o r sh o rt) is l o c a t e d in t h e D epa r t m en t o f B en i, in no rth e a st e rn Bo l i v ia in S ou t h A me r i c a A s p a rt o f t h e A m a z o n w a t e rsh ed it o c c up ie s o v e r 90 0 0 0 s q ua re m i l e s in t h e m id d l e o f t h e B en i B a sin, be t w ee n t h e f o o t h i l ls o f t h e A nde s a n d t h e B r a z i l i a n h i g h la nd s (De ne v a n 19 6 6 ; W a lker 2 0 0 4 ). It is c ha ract e r i z e d b y s e v e ral g eo g ra ph ic a n d g eo lo g ical f e a t u res, w h ich c r ea te a un i q u e en v i r onme n t s e e n on ly a f e w t i me s t h ro ug hou t S ou t h A me r i ca ( C l ea ry 2001 ; H a m i l t o n 20 0 2 ). T he re a re s e v e ral na t u ral e leme n ts o f t h e L la n o s d e Mo j o s w h ich mu st b e ta k e n i n to c on si d e rati o n w he n v i e w ing th e l an d sc ap e o n s a t e l l ite i ma g e r y T h e f o rce o f ri v e rs a n d t h e a nn u a l f l o od ing c r e a te a h i g h ly v a r i ab le en v i r onm e n t an d t h e ir e f f e c ts s h a p e t h e l a n d sc a p e incl ud ing res u lting in th e f o r ma ti o n o f le v ee s. T h e te r r a in is a lso v a r i ab le, de p e n d ing o n t h e l o c a ti o n a n d d is t a n ce f r o m w a t e r so u rces. T h e re g ion is d r a in e d b y f ou r r i v e r s a n d t h e ir t r i bu t a r i e s: t h e Rio G u a po re, R i o M amo r, Rio B e n i, a n d th e Rio Ma d re d e Dio s All o f t he s e ri v e rs j o in t h e Rio Ma de i r a i n

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15 t h e no rt h e rn p a rt o f t h e re g io n T he re a re a lso fou r lar g e l a k e s : t h e R o g a g ua Ro g oa g uado Y a c ha ja, an d S a n L u is (Block 1 994 ). T h e se l a k e s a re a v a i l ab le y ea r ro un d a s s o u rces o f w a t e r. R i v e rs i n th e A ma z o n ba sin a r e h i g h ly m ob i l e an d c a n c han g e t he ir c o u rses w it h in a ha nd f u l o f y e a rs ( C l ea ry 2001 ; L a t h r a p 1 9 68 ). This mob i l ity o f t h e ri v e rs c r ea t e s a d y nam ic l a nd s c ap e t h a t is c o n st a n tly c han g in g The r i v e rs of t h e A ma z o n a re n o t me re g eo g r a ph ical c u r i o sitie s T he y fo r m e d t h e ba sis o f a n e x t en si v e s y st e m o f tra d e r ou t e s p r i o r to t h e si x t een th c e n t u ry th a t l i n k e d t h e A ma z o n to t h e Or i no c o t h e C a r i bb e an a n d th e A n de (C l e a ry 200 1 : 66 ). W a t e r w a y s w e re th e p r im a ry m ea n s o f t r a n s po r t a ti o n c o m m un ic a ti on a n d a c t e d a s a si g n i f ic a n t f oo d s ou rce (De ne v a n 19 6 6 ). T h e o v e r f low o f t h e ri v e rs dr a ini n g f rom t h e A n d e s, c omb i ne d w ith th e i m p e r v io u s s o i l s, poo r d rain a g e a n d t h e f l a t n e ss o f t h e t e r r a in, res u lts in t h e i n u n da ti o n o f t h e L l a no s e v e ry y ea r. T h e d ry s ea s o n l a sts f rom a ro u n d M a y t o Sep t e m be r, a n d is c ha ra c t e r i z e d b y m u ch l o w e r le v e ls o f w a t e r a n d t h e la nd sc a p e s t a y s in a s t a te o f d r o u g h t. The w e t s ea s o n l a s ts f r o m D e c em b e r to Marc h On a v e ra g e s e a s o n a l f l o od s c o v e r up t o a t h i rd o f t h e l a nd s c ap e f o r cing peop le a n d an i m a ls to h i g h g ro un d an d res t r i cti n g t ra v e l to t h e u s e o f c a n oe s ( D ene v a n 1 9 6 6 ). De pe n d ing o n t h e mo n t h t h e a ct u a l a mo u n t o f l an d a b o v e w a t e r is var i ab le. The f l o od ing o f M o jos c re a t e s a h i g h ly v a r i ab le e n v i ro nm e n t, in w h ich t h e e le v a ti o n o f g ro un d h i g h ly de t e r m i n e s t h e v e g e t a ti o n g ro w t h M in u t e d i f fe re n c e s i n e le v a ti o n c a n s pe ll t h e d i f fe re n c e b e t w ee n f l oo d e d an d d ry l and so k no w ing w ha t kind o f v e g e t a ti o n g r o w s o n c e rta i n l an d is i mpo r t an t f o r t h e pu r po s e s o f t h is p roje c t. G ro un d o v e r o n e me t e r hi g h is f lo o d e d o n o cc a s i on is u s ua l l y fo rest e d a n d o f t e n c o n s ists o f t h e r e ma i n s o f n a t u ral le v ee s. L a n d tha t is o v e r t h ree me t e rs hi g h no r m a l l y on ly c on sists o f m a n

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16 ma d e m o und s a n d s h i e ld o u tcro p s t h a t a re f o un d a t t h e ma r g in o f t h e B e n i B a sin (a n d in t h e no r t he rn an d e a st e rn p a rts o f t h e L l a n o s d e Moj o s ) D u e to th e l o w d iff e re n c e in e le v a ti o n b e t w ee n t h e ba se o f t h e A n d e s m o un t a i n s a n d t h e m o u th o f t h e A ma z on a g re a t e r am o u n t o f s e d i me n t is d epo si t e d a lo n g th e ri v e r b an ks, a n d s ma l l e r a m o un ts o f t h e s ed i m en t is c a r r ied ou t to s ea The L la n o s d e Moj o s ha s v e ry l ittle v is i b le bed rock o n its s u rface be c au se o f t h is h e a v y depo sition o f s ed i me n ts, so an y o u tcrop o f rock o n t h e s a v ann a f o r m s a rare h i l l, an d a ll a re w e l l k no w n in th e a rea (D e n e v a n 1966 ). G a l l e ry f o rest o cc u rs a lo n g ri v e rs, is s ea s ona l l y f lo o d ed a n d is r i ch in fo rest res ou rces, tro p ical p l a n ts a n d an i m a ls. T h is i s w he re s w id de n c u ltiva t ion is mo s t o f te n p r actice d Th e o p e n s a v ann a is c ha r a ct e r i z e d b y cl a y pa n s o i l s, a n d i s s ub jec t e d to t h e an n ua l f l o od in g T h e d r y g ras s y s a v ann a is k ep t cl e a r o f tre e s b y ma n p ea t e d u se o f cl ea r i n g a n d p rescr i be d bu rnin g s ( D e n e v a n 1 9 66 O i e n 20 0 1 ). T h e ri v e r f ro n t la n d o r t h e v r z ea is n o t e d a s t h e b e st site f o r s e t t le m e n t a n d a g r i c u lt u re (Block 1 9 94 ). T h e le v ee s tha t n a t u ral l y f o rm a l o n g side ri v e rs ( du e t o t h e d e po siti o n o f s ed i m en ts f r o m t h e r i v e r) p ro v ide h i g h g r o un d t h a t is p ro t e ct e d f r o m f l ood i n g an d f i r e s. Le v e e s a re na t u ral l y e le v a t e d l a n d l o c a t e d a lo n g th e b a n ks o f r i v e rs. T h e y a re f o r me d a s s ed i m en ts f r o m t h e r i v e r are d e po sit e d a l o n g its ban k s a cc um u l a ti n g i n to a h i g h g ro un d t ha t bo r d e rs t h e r i v e r ( Er i cks o n 20 0 6 ; W a l k e r 2 0 0 4 ). Ol de r l e v ee s ten d t o b e f r a g m e n t e d s u r r o u nd e d b y s a v ann a a n d w e tl a n d s. Le v ee s a l o n g a cti v e ri v e rs e x c lu d e t h e g a l l e ry f o rest, w h ich is a t a l o w e r el e v a ti o n a n d pe r i od ically f l o od e d The n a t u ral h i g h g ro un d o f l e v ee s is i d ea l f o r s e t t l e me n ts, b o th an c i en t an d mo de r n d u e t o t h e p ro t e ct i o n f r o m f l ood w a t e rs. L e v ee s a re s o me t i me s a ss o ci a t e d w ith rais e d f i e lds a n d a n t h r o po g en ic s o i l s ( W a lker 2 004 ).

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17 Alo n g w ith th e n a t u ral en v i r onme n t, p r e Col u mb i a n a n d h ist o r i c a l h um a n a cti v ities ha v e s ha p e d t h e l a nd sc a pe I n o rd e r t o u n d e rsta n d h o w th e l an d s c ap e ha s c han g e d s i n ce t h e a r r i v a l o f E u ro p ean s in M o jos, it is cr i tic a l to l oo k a t t h e h is t o ry o f t h e a re a S p a n ish e x p e d itio n s, m iss i o n e st a b l i s h me n ts, sl a v e rai d in g a n d E u ro p e a n s e t t l e me n t a re a ll f a c t o rs t ha t ha v e a lt e r e d t h e w a y th e l a n d sc a p e w a s u s e d a n d v i e w ed Na t i v e s e t t leme n t p o l i tic a l, a n d a g r i c u lt u ral s y st em s w e re f un d a m en t a l l y a lt e red b y th e in t ro du ct i o n o f E u ro pe a n p eop l e g o o d s, a n d id ea s. S e v e ral sc ho lars h a v e wr i t te n o n t h e e a r l y Span ish e x p lora t ion o f M o jos (Block 19 9 4 ; C l ea ry 20 0 1 ; D e ne v a n 1 9 6 6 ) ba s e d o n h ist o r i c a l do c u m en t s T h e se do c u m e n ts c om e f r o m t w o maj o r s ou rces: S p a n ish e x p lo r e rs a n d J e s u it m iss ion a r i e s, in t h e f o rm o f le t t e rs, s u r v e y s, an d r e po rts. T h e se s ou rces d ep ict t h e E u ro p ean a n d J e s u pe rsp e cti v e o n t h e n a t iv e c u l t u res a n d l a nd s c ape T h e ea r l iest re c o rds t h a t c o n t a i n in fo r m a ti o n a b ou t t h e L la no s d e Moj o s c o m e from t h e S p a n iards w h o w e re e x p lor i n g S ou t h A me r i ca (Bl o ck 19 9 4 ). Most o f t h e m w e re in p u rsuit o f El Do r ado a n d s o m e ta les de scr i be d t h e L l a no s d e Moj o s a s b e i n g th e c i ty o f g o ld a n d rich e s ( B lock 1 9 94 ). Alt hou g h t he y w e re d isa p p o in t e d w ith th e l a ck o f g o ld an d ma te r i a l r i c he s in t h is re g io n t he y w e re i m p ress e d with t h e n u m be r o f p e op l e t h a t w e re th r i v ing in l a r g e t r i be s o n t h e s a v anna W h i l e na v i g a ti n g do w n s tre am t h e S pan iards de scr ib e t h e r i v e rb an ks a s c r o w de d w ith peop le a n d t h e p r e Col u m b ian s e t t l e me n ts e x t e n d ing nea r l y c on ti n u ou sly do w n th e ri v e r ( Block 1 994 ). T h e n e x t pe o p le t o w r i t e a b ou t th is re g ion w e re t h e J e s u it m iss io na r i e s. W h a t Block c a l l s t h e M iss i o n P e r io d w a s a pe r i o d o f J e s u it o c c u p a ti o n t h a t las t e d f r o m 16 6 8 to 1 76 7 A D. T h e y e st a b l i s he d m iss i o n c o mp l e x e s, w ith c hu rch e s, h ou s e s, a n d ra n c he s.

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18 T h e J e s u its l ea r n e d t h e l o c a l l a n g ua g e s, a n d s en t re g u lar r e po rts b a ck t o t he ir he a d q ua rters in L i m a (Bl o ck 1994 ). I n a l l t he re w e re abou t 2 1 s e m i pe r m an e n t m iss i on s in Moj o s e s t a b l i s he d du r i n g th e M i ssion Pe r io d (De n e v a n 1 966 ). By th e 1 720 s t h e J e s u its ha d e x t en d e d t he ir m iss io n s y st e m a c r o ss t h e e n ti r e e x pan s e o f M o jos. T h e ne w l y i n tro du c e d m iss i o n l i f e f u n d a m e n t a l l y c han g e d ho w th e na ti v e po p u la t i o n s li v ed a lt e r i n g the ir f o r m s o f ag r i c u lt u re, e c o n om y a n d s o c i opo l i tic a l s y st e m s. T h e J e s u its h a d b ro u g h t w ith th e m a l o n g w ith the ir reli g io n Old W o r l d pa t ho g en s F o l l o w ing th e J e s u a r r i v a l, pe r i od ic ou t b r e a ks o f s ma l lp o x m e a sles, i n f l u en z a a n d o t he r dis ea s e s de ci m a t e d l a r g e p ro po rtio n s o f t h e p o pu l a ti o n T h e c h a n g e in n a ti v e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e rns ha d g re a tly a f fe ct e d t h e w a y th e na ti v e s w e re e x po s e d to E u ro p ea n d ise a s e s W h e n d isp e rsed t r i be s g a t he r e d t o l i v e in on e s e t t l e me n t (t h e m iss io n ), t h e m o re i n timate in te racti o n b e t w ee n th e p e op les r e s u lt e d in mo re v u ln e r a b i l ity t o d ise a se ou t b re a ks. E v en t ua l l y na ti v e s li v i n g o n t h e m iss i on s de v e lo p e d s o m e im mun ity t o E u ro p ea n d ise a s e s b u t s p o ra d ic ou t b r e a ks s t i l l c o n ti n ue d (Bl o ck 1 994 ). T h e e n d o f t h e J e s u it p res en c e in Moj o s c a m e in 1 7 6 7 AD, w he n t h e cl e r g y o f t h e S o cie t y o f J e s u s w e re e x pe l l e d f r o m S pan ish do m a ins b y o rd e r o f a ro y a l de c r ee I n t h e ir a b s en c e t h e m iss i o n s y st em s c on t i nu e d ; t h e ir i n f l u en ce c a n s t i l l b e s ee n t o d a y a s a ll ma j o r t o w n s in th e L la no s d e M o jos w e re p re v io u sly m iss i on s ( D ene v a n 1 9 6 6 ). T h e B o l i v ian R epub l i c w a s cre a t e d in 1 8 25 The c h an g e in t h e i n t e r n a ti o n a l e c o n om y g re a tly a f fe c t e d t h e m iss i on s a n d t h e ir i nhab i t an t s T h e s u dd e n d em an d f o r p ro du cts f r o m t h e ru bb e r tree re s u lt e d in t ho u s and s o f pe o p le l e a v ing f o r t h e r u b b e r ba r r a c a s o f t h e B en i f o rests ( D ene v a n 1 9 6 6 ). Ec on o m ic f o c u s t h e n t u rn e d to t e n d ing l i v e st o ck, e x po rting g ood s, c o m me rc i a l a g r i c u lt u re, an d te x tile m a nu f a c t u r i n g (C l ea r y

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19 20 0 1 ). L a t e r, a v ia t ion h a d a s ub s t a n ti a l e f fe ct o n B o l i v e c on o m y ( De ne v a n 1 966 ). B y 19 5 2 c om me rce w a s ma inly t ra n s p o rted b y a i r a v o idi n g th e ob s t a cles o f t ra v e l i n g o n t h e g ro u n d d u r i n g th e r a iny s ea s on B ee f be c am e a ma jor e x po rt, a n d c a t t le r a n c h i n g be c a m e a l i f e st y le t h a t is still c on ti n u e d t o t h is da y The J e s u its ha d i n tro du c e d c a t t l e an d t h e s a v anna s w he re the y g ra z e d th e m a r e s t i l l u s e d f o r t ha t s a m e pu r p o se t oda y in man y a r e a s o f M o jos. All m o de rn a g r i c u lt u re is no w p racticed o n f o r e st e d h i g h g ro un d an d v e ry rar e ly o n th e s a v anna s (Bl o ck 1 9 94 ) O the r d o c u m e n ts t ha t a re h i g h ly u s e f u l f o r s t ud y ing th e L l a no s d e M o jos be c a m e a v a i l ab le w ith th e u s e o f a i r p l a n e s u r v e y s b y t h e S t a n da rd O il C o mp an y A e r i a l pho t o g ra ph s, w h i l e i n t en d e d f o r sur v e y ing pu rp o s e s, a lso p ro v ide a un i q u e l oo k a t t h e la nd sc a pe Arch a eo lo g ists ha v e f o un d th e m p a rticularly i n f o r m a ti v e in p ro v idi n g a n ae r i a l v iew o f t h e s a v a nna s, re v ea l i n g wide e x pan s e s o f p r e Col um b ian ea rth w o rks ( D ene v a n 1 9 66 ; L a t h r a p 1 9 68 ; P l a f k e r 1 9 63 ). It w a s th e d isco v e ry o f t he se ae r i a l l y v i e w e d ea rth w o rks t ha t f i r st b ro u g h t M o j o s t o a rch a e o lo g a t t e n ti o n Arch a e o lo g ical s tud ies ha v e b e e n t h e p r i ma ry s ou rce o f i n f o r m a ti o n re g a rding p re Col u m b ian c u lt u r e s in t h e A ma z on an d in t h e L l a no s d e Mo j o s in p a rticular. Arch a e o lo g ical app r o a c he s, w h i l e t ra d iti o na l l y f o c u s e d o n c u lt u ral ma t e r i a l r e m a ins, mu st i n clu d e a b ro a de r pe rsp e c ti v e in th e Am a z on As de mon st r a t e d b y m a n y a rch a e o lo g ists (B a le an d Er i cks o n 2 0 0 6 ; Er i cks o n 2 00 6 a 20 0 8 ), a n a p p ro a c h in h ist o r i c a l e c o l o g y i n c orpo rat e s a n u n de rst a nd i n g o f t h e l a nd sc a p e a s th e p ro d u ct o f c en t u r i e s o f h ist o r i c a l a n d p r e Col um b ian i n t e r a cti o n an d mo d i f ic a ti o n W h i l e h ist o r i c a l e v en ts a n d a c ti v ities a re a p pa r e n t in t h e to w n s, ro ad s, c a t t l e ra n c h e s, a n d o t he r mo re mo d e rn m a n m ad e f e a t u res, p r e Col u mb i a n f e a t u res o n t h e l and s c a p e t e n d t o b e mo re

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20 s ub tl e A s m e n ti o n ed ea rth w o rks w h ich c a n b e s e e n f r o m a i r c ra f t t en d to d isa p p ea r a t g ro un d l e v e l, d u e t o t h e ir v er y sl i g h t d iff e r e n c e s in e l e v a ti on Y e t t h e s tud y o f p r e Col umb i a n ea rth w o rks h a s y iel de d m o und s o f i n f o r m a ti o n re g a rding ho w p r e Col umb i a n c u lt u res s h a p e d t he ir l and s c ap e to c u lti v a te ag r i c u lt u re, c r ea te l a r g e s e t t l e me n ts, a n d to ma n a g e t h e ir en v i r on m en t a l an d a q ua tic r e s o u rces. O n e o f t h e f i r st a rch ae o lo g ical s tud i e s i n t h e A ma z o n w a s c o n du c t e d b y Me gg e rs (1 971 ), w h o a r g u e d th a t in d i g e n ou s po p u la t i on s, bo t h p r e Col u mb i a n a n d c u r r en t, w e re restr i ct e d in t he ir si z e an d c u lt u ral c o m p le x ity du e t o t h e li m iting f a c t o rs o f t h e en v i r onme n t. T h is en v i r on m en t a l de t e r m ini s m w a s w id e ly p ro m o t e d b y sc ho lars, w h o c ha ract e r i z e d i nd i g e no u s A ma z on ian c u lt u res a s p r i m iti v e h u n ti n g a n d g a t h e r i n g t r i be s w ho se a g r i c u lt u ral po t en ti a l w a s s t r i ctly li m it e d t o w ha t t h e en v i r on m en t c ou ld p ro v ide ( M e gg e rs 1 971 ). Ho w e v e r, a rch aeo lo g ical d i s c o v e r i e s wit h in t h e pa s t f e w de c a de s no w s up p o rt a t h e o ry c oun t e r to t h e on e t h a t h a s be e n w id e s p re a d f o r d e c a d e s. It is no w be l i e v e d t h a t t h e r a p id de p opu l a ti o n a n d a ba n do n m e n t o f p r e Col um b ian s e t t l e m e n ts an d ea rth w o rks at t h e t i m e o f E u ro p e a n c o n t a ct ha v e led t o t h is m is l ead ing b e l ie f in v o l v ing s t r i ct en v i ro nme n t a l d e t e r m inism (De ne v a n 1 9 9 2 ). T h e ea r l i e st h ist o r i c a l do c u m e n ts d e scr i b e l a r g e am o un ts o f pe o p le o cc up y ing th e A ma z o n ian b a sin be f o re an d a t t h e po int o f S pa n ish Co n t a ct (Block 1 9 94 ; D e n e v a n 1 9 6 6 ), a n d a rch a eo lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s si n ce t h e 19 7 0 s ha v e re v ea led e v id en ce o f e x t en si v e hu m a n h a b it a ti o n w ith a s oph istica t e d c u lt u re (De ne v a n 19 6 6 ; Do u g he rty 198 4 ; Er i c k s o n 1 99 5 2 00 6 b ; Heck en b e r g e r et al 1 9 99 ; Ma n n 20 0 8 ; Ne v e s 20 0 6 ; W a lker 20 0 0 2 004 2 0 08 a ). T he s e a rch a e o lo g ical app r o a c he s g ene r a l l y i n t e g rate a h ist o r i c a l e c o lo g ical pe rsp e cti v e w h ich a l l o w s sc ho lars to v iew th e l and s c ap e a s t h e r e s u lt o f lo n g t e rm i n t e r a cti on s be t w ee n

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21 hu m an s a n d t h e e n v i r onm e n t. R a t h e r t h a n p r e Col umb i a n c u lt u r es be ing li m it e d b y en v i r onme n t a l c o n stra i n ts, t he y a re s e e n a s a cti v e a g en ts in a f fe cti n g an d f o r m ing t h e ir en v i r onme n t in t o a c u l t u ral l y en c od e d l a n d sc a p e t ha t r e f l e cts t h e h is t o ry o f c u l t u ral a cti v ities. T h is i d e a o f t h e l a nd sc a p e is e x em p l i f ied th r o u g h ou t t h e A ma z on ian re g io n Sc ha a n (2 0 10 ) a r g ue s t ha t p r e Col u mb ian s o cie t ies in t h e A m a z on an d o n Mar a j o Isl an d i n pa rti c u lar, ha d d e e p i m p a cts o n t he i r e n v i r onme n ts, h r o ug h d y nam ic man i pu la t i o n o f cro p s an i m a ls a n d l a nd sc a p e T h e a n cie n t Mar a jo a ra n s on c e b u i l t t he ir o w n e c o lo g y e x p loiti n g na t u r a l r e s ou rc e s in s u s t a in ab l e w a y s, an d l ea v ing u s lesi on s w h ich a re s t i l l i mp r i n t e d in t h e l a n d s c ape ( Sc h a a n 2 01 0 : 2 0 0 ). Er i cks o n (2 0 08 ) a dd r e ss e s a n iss u e in en v i r onm e n t a l s t ud i e s t h a t h a s i m p o rta n t i mp l i c a ti o n s f o r a rch a e o l o g ists: f o rests i n Am a z on ia. W h i l e A ma z on i a n f o rests a r e tra d itio n a l l y v i e w e d a s p r i sti n e e n v i r onmen ts t ha t a re e nd a n g e red b y c u r r en t h u ma n a cti v ities an d cli m a tic c han g e s, Er i cks o n e x p l a ins h o w the se f o rests a re l a r g e ly h e c u lt u ral p r o du cts o f h u ma n a ct i v it y ( E r ickson 20 0 8 : 1 75 ). T r e e c u lti v a ti o n an d f o re s t ma n a g e m en t a re c u r r en tly p ractice d an d w er e p ractic e d b y p r e Co l umb i a n c u lt u res a s w e l l W h i l e e v id en ce f o r a n t h r o po g en ic f o rests c o m e s l a r g e ly f rom a r c ha e o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s o f e a rth w o rk s, t h e e v id e n ce t ha t Er i cks o n p re s en ts i n t h is st ud y is f r o m t h e ana l y sis o f po l le n opa l ph y t o l i t h an d s ed i m e n t f r o m l a k e s in t h e A m a z on This e v id en c e re v ea ls t ha t p rescr i be d bu rnin g cl e a r i n g f a r m in g an d a g rof o restry ha s b e e n o cc u r r ing f o r t h o u s a nd s o f y ea rs o n b o th a l o c a l a n d a re g io na l sc a le. C e rtain s pe cies w h ich w e re o f p a rticular u se t o p r e Col umb i a n s o ci e ti e s w e re en c ou ra g e d to f l o u r i sh b y tra n s p l a n ti n g t h em f e r t i l i z in g an d w eed in g Th e se d o me sti c a t e d o r s em i d o me s tic a t e d p la n ts no w w e re i n c r ea sin g l y de p e n d e n t o n h um a n s f o r t h e ir s u r v i v a l, re p ro d u cti on a n d

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22 s ee d d isp e rsal. W h i l e t he se a cti v ities s o m e t i me s l o w e r t h e b i o d i v er sity o f a n e c o s y st e m b y f o c u sing o n pa rticu l a r sp e cies, E r i cks o n st a t e s t ha t t h e o v e rall b i od i v e rs i ty m a y a ct ua l l y b e i n c re a s e d in t h e se an t h ro po g en ic f o rests. N o t o n ly a re t h e b i o d i v e rs i t y o f t h e f lora e n h a n c e d b u t a l s o o f t h e f a un a d u e t o t h e a g r o f o re s try an d f a r m ing a re a s a t t racting g a m e a n i m a ls (E r ickson 2 0 08 ). This a rch a e o lo g ical i n f o r m a ti o n is cruc i a l w he n s tud y ing m o d e rn fo rests in t h e A ma z on si n ce cro p s s u ch a s f r u it t re e s s till c on stit u te a si g n i f ic a n t po rtion o f t h e f o rest s a n d t he ir e x t en t c a n b e a t t r i bu t e d t o t h e p ractices o f p r e Col um b ian s o cie t ies t ha t p ra c tic e d t he se l and s c a p e a lt e r i n g fa r m ing t e c hn i q ue s. T h e c o n struc t i o n s o f m ou n d s a re o n e o f t h e mo st c o m m o n ad a p t a ti on s t o t h e an n ua l f l o od ing in t h e r e g ion o f t h e L la n o s d e M o jos ( D ene v a n 1 9 6 6 ; E r i cks o n 2 00 0 ; Er i cks o n 2 0 06 ; E r i cks o n a n d B a le 2 0 06 ; La ng stro t h 1 9 96 ). B y p i l ing ea rth i n to a p la t f o r m p r e Col u m b i a n p e op le w e re a b le t o bu i l d h ou s e s a n d li v e o n t h e mo u nd s abo v e t h e f l o od w a t e rs. E r i cks o n a n d B a l e ( 2 006 ) h a v e s ho w n th r o ug h a rch a e o lo g ical in te rpre t a ti on s t h a t m o und s w e re o r ig in a l l y u s e d a s s e t t l e m en ts, bu r i a ls, a n d imp o rt a n t r i t ua l f un c ti on s. S o m e a re u s e d c u r r e n tly f o r a v a r i e ty o f f un cti o n s: a s s w id de n f iel d s g a rd en s, t e m po rary h u n ti n g c a m p s, o r f a r m s t ead s. S o m e o f t h e ea r t h w o rks t he y a re a ss o cia t e d w ith a re b a r r o w pu ts, c au s e w a y s, an d c ana ls. A cc o rd i n g t o t h e e x c a v a ti on s c on d u ct e d b y E r i cks o n (2 0 00 ), n e a r l y a ll o f t h e smal l e r m ou n d sit e s t ha t h e s t ud i e d c on t a i ne d po t t e r y w h i c h a re cl e a r in d ic a t o rs o f h u m a n a cti v it y A mo n g Ama z on ian a rch a e o lo g ists, ho w e v e r, t he r e a re s till de b a t e s a b ou t t h e o r ig in, pu r po s e c on s truc t ion an d a rt i f ic i a l i ty o f t h e mo u n d s (Er i ck s o n 20 0 0 ). W h i l e p e op le w e re o c c up y ing th e mo u nd t h e re w a s likely v er y little v e g e t a ti o n p res en t o n it d u e t o t h e den sity o f t h e

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23 hou sing a n d t h e a mo u n t o f a cti v ity (Er i cks o n 20 0 0 ). Ho w e v e r, w he n p r e Col u m b ian pe o p le b e g a n mo v ing f rom t h e s a v an na s t o th e m i ssi o n sit e s a f t e r t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e J e s u its, t h e h o u s e s an d mo u n d s w e re a b an d on e d T h is ab s e n ce h a d a l a r g e e f fe ct o n t h e v e g e t a ti o n w h ich q u ick l y c o lo n i z e d th e ab an d on e d mo u nd s a s w e ll a s t h e ab a nd o ne d rais e d a g r i c u lt u ral f iel d s T he s e e l e v a t e d a r e a s w e re i d e a l, a s t h e p la n ts w e re s uppo rt e d b y an t h ro po g en ic an d a rt i f ic i a l l y en r i c he d s o i l s a n d p rot e c t e d f r o m f i r e s b y th e w a t er f i l led p its s u r r ound ing t h e m o u n d s. T h e f o re s t c o v e red m o und s a re t o d a y c a l l e d f o re s t is l and du e to t he ir a pp e a ra n c e a s is o l a t e d p a tc he s o f f o rest th r o u g hou t t h e s a v anna Ba l e an d E r i cks o n ( 2 0 0 6 ) b e l ie v e tha t mu ch o f t h e p r e s en tly fo rest e d a re a s in t h e L l a no s w e re on ce o p e n s a v ann a g rassla nd a n d t ha t v e g e t a ti o n ha s be e n incre a sin g ly ad v an cing a c r o ss t h e s a v a n n a a f t e r t h e d is p e r s a l a n d a b s en c e o f p r e Col umb i a n pe o p le. Er l an d Nor d en skild ( 1 802 1 857 ) is c on si d e r e d t h e p i o nee r o f a rch a eo lo g y in th e L la no s d e M o jos. He w a s a S w ed ish e t h no lo g ist, a rch a eo lo g ist, a n d an t h r o po lo g ist, an d h e w a s th e f i r st to c o n du ct a rch a e o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s in Moj o s B e t w ee n 19 0 8 a n d 19 0 9 A D h e e x c a v a t e d th ree m ou n d s s o u th o f t h e city o f T r i n i d ad d i sc o v e r i n g e vid en ce o f h u m a n o cc u p a ti o n i n t h e f o r m o f c e r a m ics an d c u lt u ral deb r i s ( De ne v a n 1 9 66 ). A f t e r h is initi a l w o rk, it w a s n t un til t h e 1 9 60 s t h a t f u rth e r r e s e a rch w a s c o ndu c t e d in t h e re g ion (De ne v a n 1 966 ) H i s e x c a v a ti on s w e re a m on g t h e f i r st, an d p ro v e d th e e x ist en ce o f s o ph istica t e d c u lt u r e s th r i v ing in Moj o s p r i o r to Eu r o p e a n a r r i v a l an d c o n structi n g t he se l a r g e ea rth w o rks. F u rth e r e x c a v a ti on s i n Moj o s w ou ld n o t t a ke p lace un til De ne v an 9 66 ) g ro u ndb r e a king w o rk.

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24 Since t h e 19 6 0 s sc h o lars ha v e c o n du c t e d a rch a e o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s o n mo u nd s p res e n t in t h e L la no s d e M o jos, d em on stra t ing t ha t t h e f re q uen t p res e n ce o f c e ra m ics an d a lt e r e d s o i l s i nd ica t e h u m a n p r e s en c e h ab it a ti on a n d mo d i f ica t i o n (Arn o ld e t a l. 19 8 8 ; Ca l and ra e t a l 2 00 4 ; De n e v a n 19 6 3 19 7 0 ; D o ug he rty 1981 ; Er i cks o n 2 0 00 ; N e v e s 20 0 6 ; Nor d en skild 2 0 09 ; P l a f k e r 19 6 3 ; W a l k e r 2 0 0 0 20 0 4 20 0 8a 20 0 8b ). O t h e r pl a c e s o f a rc h a e o lo g ical i n t e rest o n t h e l a n d s c ap e i n clu d e mo u nd s, f o re s t is l and s a n d a g r i c u lt u ral f iel d s Dur i n g e x c a v a ti on s a t the s e f e a t u re s s e v e ral sc ho lars ha v e d isco v e red t h e p re s e n ce o f t e r r a p r e t a a n a n t h ro po ge n ic s o il t h a t in d ica te s h u m a n h ab i t a ti o n an d mo d i f ic a ti o n o f t h e s o i l s (Gla s e r a n d W o od s 2 0 04 ; W a l k e r 2 0 0 4 ). R i n g d itc he s a re a n a r c ha e o lo g ical fea t u re h a v e bee n res e a rch e d s u r v e y ed a n d e x c a v a t e d in o r d e r to d em o n stra t e t he ir f u n ct i on s a s d e f en si v e s t ruc t u res s u r r o u nd ing mo u nd s (Er i cks o n 2 0 1 0 ; W a lker 2 00 8 b ). F o r th e mo st pa rt, t h e se ri n g d itc he s h a v e be e n e x c a v a t e d a s s t a n d a lo n e e x c a v a ti on s, o r n o t e d a s a f e a t u re d u r i n g s u r v e y s o f mo u nd s (Er i cks o n 2 0 1 0 ; W a lker 2 00 8 b ). E r i c ks o n a t e d a n a d d itio na l 1 5 u n s u r v e y e d r i n g d itch sit e s in re c e n tly de f o rest e d a r e a s (Er i c ks o n 2 0 10 : 625 ) u si n g Goo g le E a rt h de m on st r a ti n g th e p ra c tic a l i ty an d p r o du cti v ity o f u til i z ing s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry t o re m o t e ly id en t i f y a rch a eo lo g ical sit e s. Alt h ou g h t h is st u d y an d s e v e ral o t he rs l i ke it, e mp lo y s G oo g le E a r t h t o s om e e x t en t f e w s tud ies p u t a ma j o r e mp h a sis o n u til i z ing Goo g le E a rt h in c o n ju n ct i o n w ith a rch aeo lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s. It is cr i tic a l f o r arc h a eo lo g ists t o t a ke ad v an t a g e o f m od e rn te c hno l o g ies, e s pe cially o f a d v an c e s in s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry an d G I S p ro g r a m s. Us i n g t h e se t oo ls c on tr i b u t e s a un i q u e a p p ro a ch t o a rch aeo lo g y : b y v i e w i n g an d a na l y z ing a rch a e o lo g ical f ea t u r e s an d l and s c a p e s f r o m th e a i r rat h e r t h a n

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25 f r o m t h e d i r t. Fr o m th is ae r i a l p e rsp e cti v e a r c ha e o lo g ists c a n i n c l u d e s p a ti a l i n f o r ma t i o n in w ith th e t e m po ral da ta t h a t is c o l l e ct e d f r o m a rc h a e o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s, a l l o w ing t h e m t o s e e ho w a rch a eo lo g ical f e a t u res ha v e c h a n g e d n o t on ly th ro u g h t i m e bu t o v e r a l a n d sc a p e a s w e l l In th e A m a z on it ha s b e e n w e ll do c u m e n t e d t h a t s p a ce is a f un d a m en t a l me d i u m i n w h ich s o cie t ies e x p ress a n d de f ine c u lt u r a l c ha rac t e r i stics s u ch a s i d e n tit y po l i tic a l st r u ct u re an d s o cial o r g an i z a ti on Rais e d f iel d s a re a d is t inc t i v e t y p e o f a g r i c u lt u re tha t is s pe c i f i c a l l y adap t e d to t h e an n ua l f l o od ing o f t h e s a v anna s, an d a re f o u n d t h ro u g h o u t M o j o s. W h i le s i m i l a r f iel d s ha v e be e n s t ud i e d in c en tral M e x ico a n d b y L a ke T iticaca in t h e A n d e s, t h e f ie l d s f o un d in M o jos a re s o m e o f t h e mo st e x t en si v e e v e r r e c o rd e d (D e ne v a n 1 966 ). The f i r st e x t en si v e s tud ies o f t h e rais e d f i e lds w e re c o n du c t e d b y D ene v a n ( 19 6 6 ) w h o pho t o g ra ph e d a n d m a pp e d t h e m du r i n g a e r i a l r e c o n na iss a n c e T h e re a l i z a ti o n t ha t p re h ist o r i c e a rth w o rks co v e red th e maj o r i ty o f t h e re g ion l a u n c h e d a r c ha e o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s tha t u lti ma t e ly p ro v e d th e po p u lar no ti o n o f t h e A ma z o n w r on g ; t ha t t h is re g ion w a s no t s p a rsely popu la t e d b y simple t r i be s, b u t h o m e t o l a r g e a n d c o mp l e x s o cie t ies c a p a b le o f la r g e sc a le la n d sc a p e r e no v a ti on s. Since t he ir l o w relief ma k e s t h e m h a rd t o s e e a t g ro u n d l e v e l, ae r i a l a n d s a t e l l ite pho t o s h a v e b e e n t h e p r i ma ry w a y o f c a t a lo g u ing th e m R a ised f i e lds a re g e ea rth e n p l an ti n g s u r f a c e s e le v a t e d a b o v e t h e s ea s o na l l y f l o od e d s a v anna s a n d w e tl a nd ( Er i cks o n 20 0 6b : 2 51 ). Se v e ral d i f f e r e n t t y pe s o f rais e d f iel d s h a v e bee n rec o r d ed b a s e d o n s h ap e le n g t h w id th an d de p t h P opu l a ti o n e st i ma t e s h a v e bee n p r o po s e d ba s e d o n t h e e x t en t o f ra i s e d f ie l d s a n d t h e po t e n ti a l am ou n t o f la b o r r e q u i r e d f o r t he ir c o n structi o n a s w e ll a s t h e p o t e n ti a l a m o un t o f f o o d t h a t c o u ld h a v e be e n p r o du c e d (De ne v a n 1966 ) W h i l e t h e re a re a l a r g e v a r i e ty

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26 o f rais e d f iel d s, it is c u r re n tly un k no w n ho w t h e y rel a te t o s pe c i f ic s e t tl em e n ts o r cult u ral g ro up s. H i st o r i c a l do c u m e n ts c laim t h a t lar g e p o p u la t i on s i n hab i t e d t h e A ma z o n a t t h e ti m e o f t h e a r r i v a l o f th e S p an ish. J e s u it do c u me n ts d e t a il t h e l i v e s, c u lt u res, a g r i c u lt u ral me t hod s a n d n u mbe rs o f t h e p r e Col u m b ian pe o p le l i v ing in th e L l a no s d e Moj o s. Arch a e o lo g ical e v id e n ce s u p po rts t h e c l a i m s o f l a r g e c o mp lex s o ci e ti e s li v ing in th e A ma z o n a t t h e ti m e o f an d b e f o re S pan i s h c o n t a ct, b y re v ea l i n g e v i d en ce s u ch a s t e r r a p ret a m a n m ad e ea r t h w o rks, an d rais e d a g r i c u lt u ral f iel d s Arc h ae o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s ha v e a lso s h o w n tha t c e rtain t y pe s o f f o rest i s la nd s an d m ou n d s w e re p ro b ab ly sit e s o f p re Col u m b ian hab i t a t i on T h is e v id en ce h a s l e d sc h o lars t o p ro p o se a n u m be r o f t heo r i e s a b ou t s e t t l e m en t pa t t e rns. It is t h ou g h t t ha t h u m a n s s e t t l e d in t h e a r e a o f M o jos b y 5 0 0 B .C. T h is t e m po rary s e t t l e me n t is ma rked b y w a v e s o f m i g rati on s w ith th e most re c en t o n e b e ing o f Ara w a k o r ig in (Block 1994 ). T h e re a re s e v e ral t h e o r i e s ab o u t t h e s e t t l e m e n t pa t t e rns o f t h e na ti v e pe o p le l i v ing in Moj o s. O n e t h eo r y a c c o rding t o B lock (1 9 9 4 ), is t ha t t r i be s f ou g h t to li v e o n t h e ri v e r f ro n t la nd a s it w a s th e mo s t v a lu ab le f o r a g r i c u lt u re a n d s e t t l e me n t. T h e w ea k e r tr i be s u na b le to g a in an y ri v e r f r o n t la n d a s it b e c a m e m o re p o pu l a t e d w ith stro n g e r tr i be s, w e re f o rced t o li v e o n t h e o p e n s a v ann a Ho w e v e r, e v e n thou g h t h e s a v ann a w a s no t o r ig in a l l y a s f e rti l e a s t h e ri v e r f r o n t, p r e Col u mb ian t r i be s d e v e lo pe d a s oph istic a t e d c u lt u re b a s e d o n m a n ioc c u lti v a ti on c on struct i n g ea rt h w o rks a n d rais e d f ie l d s t o a d ap t t o t h e s ea s o na l f l o od ing t h a t w ou ld o t he r w ise ruin t he ir cro p s (Bl o ck 19 9 4 ). De n e v a n (1 9 94 ) h a s n o t e d t h a t v i l la g e sit e s w e re no t pe r ma n en t; r a t he r, t h e y s h ift e d f re q u e n tly be c a u se o f t h e h a z a rds o f t h e a nn u a l f l o od ing a n d th e c h a n g ing r i v e r

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27 c ou rses. Vi l la g e s l o c a t e d o n ri v e rb an ks, in t h e re ed s in t h e f o res t o r n ea r la g o o n s h a v e a cc e ss t o b e t te r s o i l s, a v enue s o f c om mun i c a ti on b e t te r f ish i n g a n d t h e a v a i l ab i l ity o f w a t e r. Pre v io u s res ea rch c o n du ct e d b y t h e a u t ho r, a n d c o n s u lt e d f o r t h is t h e sis, incl ude s a p rel i m in a ry s u r v e y an d ma p p ing o f g eo g ra ph ical f e a t u res w it h in a s pe c i f ied a rea in t h e L l a no s d e M o jos u sing G o o g le E a rt h Th e se f i l e s, w h ich inc l u d e t h e g eo g ra ph ic i n f o r m a ti o n fo r f o re s t is l a n d s, r i v er s, a n d ra n c he s, a re u s e f u l a s a ba se f o r w h ich to c on ti n u e m a p p ing a much l a r g e r ar ea T h is initi a l w o rk w a s do n e a s pa rt o f The Arch a e o lo g ical G IS P r o ject o f t h e B en i, w h ich is c o n du c t e d b y W a l k e r ( 20 1 0 ), a n d it a i m s t o ma p a ll si g n i f i c an t na t u ral, a rt i f ic i a l, a n cie n t an d mo d e rn g e og ra ph ical a n d struct u ral f ea t u res in t h e L l a no s d e Moj o s re g ion u s i n g Goo g le E a rt h in c o m b in a t i o n w ith a rch aeo lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s c o n du c t e d i n th e re g ion ( W a lker 2 0 10 ). T h e s um me r 20 1 0 f i e ld s ea s o n f o c u s e d o n e x c a v a ti n g a n a rch a e o lo g ical site in t h e f o rest isla n d Is l a Est an ci t a lo c a t e d a l o n g th e Y a c u m a Ri v e r just no rth o f t h e to w n o f S an t a A n a in th e B en i D e pa r t me n t o f B o l i via. P rel i m in a ry s u r v e y s r e v ea led a ring d it c h t e r r a p ret a c a rb o n ( c u r r en tly und a t ed ) a n d c e ra m ics w it h in t h e f o re s t is l a n d a ll e v id en ce o f Pr e Col umb i a n l a nd sc a p e mod i f i c a ti o n o c c up a ti o n a n d e x t end e d u s e F u rth e r e x c a v a ti o n a t t h is l o c a ti o n w i l l p ro v ide tem p o ral a n d c on t e x t ua l i n f o r m a ti o n a b o u t t h e c o n structi o n f un cti o n an d role o f r in g d itc he s in Pr e Col u m b ian s o cie t ies ( W a lker 20 1 1 ). Summ a r y T h is p roject u til i z e s th e e v id en ce f r o m h ist o r i c a l a n d a rc h aeo lo g ical s ou rces t o c on d u ct a ne w t y p e o f e x pe r i men t. B y u sing c om p u t e r p ro g ra m s s u c h a s G o o g le E a rt h ( w h ich p r o v id e s s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry an d t oo ls t o map it) an d A r cG I S ( w h ich up lo a d s G o o g le E a r t h f i l e s, c on v e rts t h e m to v e ct o r d a t a a n d c on du cts s pa ti a l

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28 ana l y s e s ) s e v e ral t y pe s o f s p e c i f ic n a t u ral a n d ma n m a d e f e a t u res w it h in a s tud y a rea w i ll b e m a p p e d an d a n a ly z e d The l o c a ti o n s o f t he s e f ea t u res w i l l b e c om p a red t o on e ano t he r, t o d e t e r m ine if t h is s p a ti a l ana l y sis c a n s u ppo rt o r re f u te p a t te rns o f s e t tl e me n t p ro po s e d b y sc ho lars (Er i cks o n 2 0 00 ). I f e a rth w o rks w e re be ing pu rp o s e ly l o c a t ed a lt e re d a n d c u lti v a t e d b y na ti v e po p u la t io n s t h a t l i v e d o n t h e s a v an n a be f o re S pan i s h C o n t a ct, t h e n it is po ssible t h a t b y ana l y z i n g the ir s pa ti a l pa t t e rns, s om e i n f o r m a ti o n c a n b e i n f e r r e d ab ou t ho w peop l e a r r an g e d t he m s e l v e s p h y sical l y an d s o ciall y It is po ssible t h a t f o re s t is l and s a n d rai s e d f ie l d s may b e l o c a t e d i n rel a ti o n t o res ou r c e s s u ch a s w a t e r, to a cc e ssible a re a s f o r tra n s po r t a ti o n o r t o o t he r soci o po l i tic a l g ro u p s. The g oa l o f t h is p ro j e ct is to a n a l y z e ho w th e d istr ib u ti o n a n d s p a ti a l p a t te rns o f l a nd sc a p e f ea t u res a n d c on struc t e d ea rth w o rks r e f l e ct s o c i opo l i tic a l v a r i an c e s, r eg io na l bo u n d a r i e s, o r r e g io na l n e t w o rks. A m o n g th e ob je c ti v e s a re: to d e f i n e ho w a l a nd sc a p e c a n b e u til i z e d s h ap e d an d re f le c ti v e o f i n t an g ible s o cial f e a t u res; t o i n v e sti g a te ho w th e a lt e r e d l and s c ap e a f fe ct e d t h e m o b i l ity o f pe o p le t h ro u g h t h e re g io n ; to s he d li g h t o n t h e p r i sti n e / a n t h ro p o g en ic de b a t e ; t o p res e n t a n i n t e rdisc i p l i na ry app r o a ch t o s t ud y ing a rch a eo lo g ical sit e s, w h ich c omb i ne s a rch a e o lo g ical da t a s a t e l l ite i ma ge r y an d G IS p ro g ra m s; an d to c on struct a da t a ba se o f d i g iti z e d fea t u re s b a s e d o n t h e l and s c ap e s e e n in s a t e l l i te i ma g e r y It is h y po t h e si z e d th a t t h e p o l i tic a l a n d s o c i a l r e la t io n s o f Pr e Col u mb ian s o cie t ies w i l l b e v is i b le t h ro u g h t h e i mp r i n ts t h e y ha v e l e ft o n t h e l a n d sc a p e S i m i l a r to ho w o t he r A ma z on i a n s o cie t ies a r r an g e t h e m s e l v e s s pa ti a l l y in s t r i ct an d c a rdi n a l l y o r i en t e d w a y s, t h e s o c i e ti e s o f t h e L l ano s d e M o jos w i l l b e s ho w n t o ha v e s e t t l e m en ts an d c on stru c t e d ea r t h w o rks w h ich re v ea l ins i g h t in t o t he ir s o cial a n d po l i tic a l s y st e m s.

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29 C H AP T ER 3 G O O G L E E A R T H A n I n t roduction t o Google Ea rt h G oo g le E a r t h be c am e a v a i l ab le t o t h e p ub l i c in J u n e 2 00 5 Sin c e t hen t h e d i v e rs i t y o f its u s e rs a l on g w ith its p ractical a pp l i c a ti on s ha s i n c r e a s e d d r a m a tic a l l y G oo g le E a r t h is a c o mp u t e r pr o g r a m t h a t u s e s s a t e l l ite ima g e ry t o cre a te a d e t a i le d p rojecti o n o f t h e Ea r t h T h is t he sis u s e d t h e f r e e v e rs i o n o f G o o g le E a rt h w h ich is a v a i l ab le to t h e p u b l i c t o do w n lo a d a t t he ir w eb sit e 1 T h e s a t e l l i te i m ag er y a v a i l ab le f o r t h e r e g ion o f t h e L la no s d e Moj o s w a s l a st u p da t e d O c t o b e r 3 1 2 01 1 c o v e r i n g th e re g ion w ith Spo t I ma g e i ma g e ry 2 G oo g le E a r t h is a c on v en i e n t p r o g ram f o r a rch a e o lo g ists t o u se be c a u se it p ro v id e s t o o ls f o r di g iti z ing an d cre a ti n g d i g it a l s p a ti a l da ta ba s e d o n t h e s a t e l l ite i ma g e s. T h is p ro g ram is a lso h e l p f u l f o r a v a r i e ty o f o t he r f ie l d s o f st u d y a s rem o te s en sing ha s ma n y be ne f its o v e r o t he r m e an s o f g a t h e r i n g g eo g ra ph ical da t a W h i le G oo g le E a rt h ha s s e v e ral f e a t u res w h ich a re u s e f u l, t h is p r o ject o n ly r e q u i r e d th e t oo ls u s e d fo r c r ea t i n g d i g it a l s h a p e f i l e s o v e r t h e p r e C o lu m b i a n a n d ma nm ad e f e a t u res v is i b le o n t h e s a t e l l ite i m ag er y T h e G o o g le E a r t h p ro g r a m incl ude s 3 ma jor t oo ls t ha t en a b le t h e m a pp i n g o f f e a t u res o n t h e s a t e l l ite i ma g e r y : t h e P o l y g o n t o o l, t h e P a th t oo l, an d t h e P la c e m a rk t oo l. The P o l y g o n to o l is u s e d to t ra c e ob jec t s, b y e it he r c l ick i n g t o cre a t e p o in t s o r d ra gg i n g th e c u rsor f o r a c o n ti nu o u s lin e T h e P a th t oo l trac e s a l i ne in c u st o m i z ab le w i d th an d l en g t h The Plac e m a rk t o o l marks a po i n t o f in t e rest o n th e i ma g e r y w ith a v a r i e ty o f s y m b o ls a v a i l ab l e 1 ht t p: / /e a r t h. g o o g l e.co m / 2 ht t p: / / ww w a s tr i u m g e o.c o m /e n /1 4 3 s p o t s at e l l i te i m a g e r y

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30 Fi g u re 3 1 An e x amp l e o f G oo g le E a rt h t o o ls. T h is s nap s ho t (F ig u re 3 1 ) dis p la y s th e t h r e e t y pe s o f t oo ls u s ab le i n Goo g le E a rt h : p la c e m a rk, po ly g on an d p a t h The y e l l o w thum b t a ck is on e o f t h e m a n y s y mbo ls a v a i l ab le f o r t h e P la c e ma rk t o o l. T h e t w o g re e n Po l y g on s a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e i ma g e s h o w ho w po lyg on s c a n b e c u s t o m i z e d a s f i l led i n o r a s j u st a n o u tlin e The r e d l i n e a c r o ss t h e c en t e r o f t h e ima g e is a n e x a mp le o f t h e P a t h t oo l, w h i ch c a n b e u s e d t o trace lin e s t h a t a re e it h e r curvy o r strai g h t

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31 Fi g u re 3 2 E x amp l e s o f p o l y g o n an d line f i le s. T h is i ma g e in Fi g u re 3 2 d e p icts t h e po l y g o n an d li n e s h ap e f i l e s t h a t w e re c r ea t e d t o m a p t h e s tre am s f o r e st is l a n d s, a n d r a is e d f iel d s t h a t a r e v is i b le in t h is i ma g e Here, it is e a si e r to s e e w he re th e sm a ll ro un d f o rest isl a nd s a re l o c a t e d a lo n g t h e s t r e a m T h e f o r e st is l and s a re o u tlin e d i n g re en T h e rais e d f i e l d s a re o u tlin e d in o ra n g e in t h e u p pe r l e f t si d e o f t h e i ma g e T w o b lue s t re a m s r u n t h ro u g h th is i m a g e T h e rest o f t h e s a v an n a ha s sli g h tly i r re g u lar c o lor c h a n g e s, d u e t o a v a r i e ty o f f a ct o rs no t d i r e ctly rel e v an t to t h e s t ud y o f t h e Pr e Col u m b ian s e t t l e m e n ts ( c u r r en t l a n d u s e b y ra n c he rs, d i f f e r e n c e s i n v e g e t a t i o n g ro w t h a n d t h e u se o f c o n troll e d f i r e b y ra n c h e rs to ma in t a in t h e s a v anna ).

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32 M e t h ods A k e y c o m po n en t to t h i s the sis w a s t h e a p p l i c a ti o n o f s a t e l l ite i ma ge ry ana l y sis, u sing th e i ma g e ry a v a i lab le in Goo g le E a rt h G oo g le E a rt h i m ag er y o f t h is re g ion cl ea r l y s ho w s th e p r e Col umb i a n ea rth w o rks as c o n tras t e d a g a in s t t h e l a nd sc a pe This en a b les t h e m a pp ing a n d d i g iti z ing o f b o th p r e Col umb i a n an d mo d e rn f e a t u re s T h e f i r st f ea t u re ma pp e d w a s th e S t u d y A re a Fi g u re 3 3 A scr e en s h o t o f t h e s a t e l l ite im a g e ry in th e G o o g le E a r t h p ro g r a m f o c u sing o n t h e c o un t r y o f B o l i v ia. T h e s t u d y a rea f o r t h is t he sis is t h e red s q ua re, loc a t e d in t h e no rt h ea s t re g ion o f B o l i v ia. T h e st u d y a re a a s s ee n in Fi g u re 3 3 is l o c a t e d in t h e re g ion o f t h e L la no s d e M o jos, in n o rth e a st e r n B o l i v ia. T h e pe r i me t e r o f t h e S t ud y A rea is 4 0 4 k m T h e si de s o f t h e rec t an g u lar s t ud y a rea a re t h e f o l l o w ing in l en g t h : t h e no rt h e rn s i d e is 1 0 3 k m t h e w e st e rn si d e is 9 9 km, t h e s ou t he rn si d e is 10 3 k m a n d t h e ea s t e rn side is 9 9 km. T h e a rea o f t h e S t ud y A rea is 10 19 7 k m W h i l e n o t a pe r f e c t s q ua re, a t t em p ts w e re m a d e

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33 to k e e p t h e s t ud y a rea a s re g u la t e d a s po ssib l e T h e b o u n da r i e s o f t h e s t ud y a rea w e re no t de t e r m in e d in an y w a y b y g eo g ra ph ical f e a t u res, t h o u g h t h e a r e a w a s c ho s e n be c a us e o f t h e k n o w n a rch a e o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s c o ndu c t e d i n t h e a re a g i v ing s uppo rt to a rc h aeo l o g ical i n t e r p ret a ti o n s ma d e re g a r d ing th e g eo g ra p h ical l and s c ape T h e c o o rdin a t e s o f t h e f ou r cor n e rs o f t h e s t u d y a rea a re a s f o l l o w s: N W : 13 0 8 6 52 66 09 28 7 3 W NE: 13 0 8 6 52 65 11 54 6 2 W SE: 14 0 2 2 02 65 11 54 6 2 W SE: 14 0 2 2 02 66 09 28 7 3 W 13 0 8 6 52 S t u d y A r e a 66 0 9 8 73 W 65 1 1 4 62 W 14 0 2 2 02 Fi g u re 3 4 T h e l a tit u d in a l a n d l o n g it ud in a l b o un d a r i e s o f t h e s t u d y a re a T h e S t ud y A rea l i e s w it h in t h e se l a tit ud i na l an d l on g it ud i n a l l i ne s. T h i s w a s in ten t i ona l, to k ee p it a rec tan g u lar s h a p e f o r c a lcul a ti n g t h e a r e a o f t h e S t ud y A re a

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34 Fi g u re 3 5 T h e S t u d y A rea a n d ma j o r g eo g ra ph ical f ea t u r e s. T h e S t ud y A rea is t h e a rea o u tlined b y t h e r e d po l y g on T h e f o l l o w ing i ma g e s w i l l s h o w th e m a pp e d s h a pe f i l e s in t h is a r e a c a t e g o r i z e d b y t y pe s o f f ea t u res. O n ce t h e St u d y A rea w a s in p lac e t h e re s t o f t h e d i g iti z i n g c ou ld beg in. A ha nd f u l o f d i g iti z e d f i le s w e re a l r ead y a v a i l ab le f r o m p r e v io u s w o rk i n t h e s a m e r e g io n an d t he r e f o re c ou ld b e re u s e d T h e re a re 3 t y pe s o f f e a t u res ma p pe d : Pr e Col u mb i a n M ode rn, an d L a nd s c a p e f e a t u res. P r e Col um b ian f ea t u res incl u d e R ing Ditc he s a n d Rais e d F iel d s. Mo de rn fea t u res incl u d e R oa d s, Ra n c h e s, an d A rch a eo lo g ical E x c a v a ti on s. La n d sc a p e f ea t u res incl u d e L a k e s, R i v e rs, F o rest I sl a nd s a n d G a l l e ry For e st. T h e S t ud y A rea is c ha r a ct e r i z e d b y s e v e ral maj o r r i v e rs r unn ing th ro u g h it. T h e M amo r ri v e r ru n s N o r t h S o u th a lo n g t h e ri g h t side o f t h e S t ud y A r e a T h e Ro g oa g u a d o lak e s a re p res e n t in t h e no r t he rn pa rt, a n d t h e I ru y ae z Y a c u m a a n d A pe re ri v e rs r u n t h ro u g h t h e s t ud y a re a In t h e c en t e r o f t h e s t ud y a rea is a s w amp y re g io n t h a t t e nd s to

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35 st a y w e t te r d u r i n g th e d ry s ea s o n c o m p a red t o t h e s a v an n a a n d f i l l s w ith w a t e r d u r i n g t h e w e t s e a s o n T h is s w amp y re g ion ha s b ee n ma p p e d a s a b l u e p o ly g on an d is c a t e g o r i z e d w ith th e l a k e s. Fi g u re 3 6 All f e a t u res m a pp e d This scre en s ho t dep icts a ll o f t h e f e a t u r es t ha t w e re ma p p e d Fi g u re 3 6 d ispl a y s a ll o f t h e ma p p e d f e a t u r e s. Th e y a re e a ch a d i f f e re n t c o lor, in o rd e r to ea si l y d iff e r e n t ia t e b e t w ee n t h e m R a n c he s a re r e d p la c e ma rks, A rch a e o lo g ical E x c a v a ti on s a re da rk p u rple p la c e m a rks, R i n g Ditc he s a re da rk b lue p lac e ma rks, R o ad s a re li g h t pu rple p a t h s, R i v e rs are l i g h t b lue p a t h s, L a k e s a re li g h t b l u e po l y g on s, Rais e d Fields a re o r an g e p o ly g on s, For e st Isl and s a r e b r ig h t g re e n p o l y g on s, G a l l e ry F o rest a re o l i v e g re e n po l y g on s, a n d t h e St u d y A rea is a red po l y g on

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36 T a b le 3 1 I n f o r ma ti o n ab o u t t h e F ea t u r e s. Fe a t u re Class # o f Fi l e s T y p e o f Fi l e s T o t a l L en g th (km) T o t a l Ar e a (k m ) Arch a e o lo g ical E x c a v a ti on s 27 P o int n /a n /a R i n g Ditc he s 16 P o int n /a n /a Ra n c he s 201 P o int n /a n /a Ro ad s 304 P a th 14 8 4 4 2 n /a R i v e rs 455 P a th 34 5 4 4 5 2 n /a Rais e d Fields 653 P o l y g o n n /a 678 1 2 For e st Isl a nd s 22 1 7 P o l y g o n n /a 211 3 1 La k e s 422 P o l y g o n n /a 446 5 4 G a l l e ry F o rest 48 P o l y g o n n /a 15 3 9 4 1 St ud y A rea 1 P o l y g o n n /a 10 2 86 4 9 T a b le 3 1 s ho w s th e d a ta f o r e a c h f ea t u re cl a ss tha t w a s m a p p e d in G oo g le E a rt h a n d s u b s e q u e n tly u s e d in ArcGI S T h e d a ta i n clu d e s t h e nu m be r o f n u m be r o f f i l e s in ea c h f ea t u r e class, t h e t y p e o f f i l e a n d t h e t o t a l l en g th o r a rea f o r ea ch f e a t u re class. F o r p o int f i l e s l i ke t h e o ne s in th e f e a t u re cl a ss e s Arch a eo l o g ical E x c a v a ti on s, R i n g Ditc he s, a n d R a n c he s, t he re a re n o l e n g th o r a r e a m e a s u r e m e n ts a v a i l ab le. L ine f i l e s, f o r t h e f ea t u re cl a ss e s o f R oad s a n d Rivers, ha v e mea s u reme n ts f o r o n ly l en g t h P o l y g o n f i l e s, f o r f e a t u r e cl a ss e s o f R a is e d F i e lds, F o re s t Isl a nd s, L a k e s, G a l l e ry For e st, a n d St u d y A rea ha v e mea s u r e me n ts f o r ar e a

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37 Fi g u re 3 7 F o rest isl a n d Isla S a n P ab lo an d r i n g d itc h T h is r i n g d itch is k no w n f r o m p re v io u s a rc h a e o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s ( W a l k e r 20 0 8b ). T h e n e x t i ma g e d e p i c ts a red po l y g on o v e r t h e v is i b le r i n g d itch i n t h is i m a g e T h e ring d itch c a n b e s ee n a s t h e c u r v e d line o f t re e s e x t end i n g ou t f rom t h e s ou t he rn side o f t h e f o re s t is l a n d r e f lec t i n g th e e le v a ti o n c h an g e in t h e d e p r e ssio n s o f t h e d itch an d e le v a t e d a re a s a l o n g side w he re e x c a v a t e d ea r t h w a s p i l e d This is a n e x amp le o f ho w o t he r r i n g d itc h e s c a n b e id e n t i f i e d o n t h e s a t e l l ite ima g e ry t h ro u g hou t t h e re g io n

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38 Fi g u re 3 8 For e st is la n d Isla S a n P ab lo w ith ma p p e d ring d itc h The red p o l y g o n m ap s t h e ring d itch t h a t is v is i b le o n th e s a t e l l ite im a g er y T h is is a n e x am p le o f ho w on ce id en t i f i e d r i n g d itc h e s an d o t h e r f e a t u res a re ma p p e d

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39 Fi g u re 3 9 Isla Est an c i t a T h e f o r e st is l a n d l o c a t e d in t h e c e n t e r o f Fi g u re 3 9 is t h e f o rest isl a n d E s t an ci t a It w a s e x c a v a t e d b y W a lker (2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 ), an d f o un d t o b e a P r e C o lu m b i a n sit e s w ith e v id en ce o f h a b it a t i o n (cera m ics, c h a rco a l) a n d a ring d itc h I t is lo c a t e d no r t h o f t h e t o w n o f S a n ta A n a d e l Y a c uma a n d t h e Y a c u m a ri v e r. B y i n clu d ing th is s ite in t h e St u d y Are a t he re is no w th e a rch a e o lo g ical da t a t o ba ck u p i n t e rpre t a ti on s o f t h e f o rest is l and s a s s e t t l e m en t mo u nd s. I t a lso a ssists in l o c a t i n g o t he r s i m i la r f o rest isla n d s f o r p re d icting s e t t l e m en t s i t e s. T h e ring d itc h t ho u g h no t v is i b le in t h e s a t e l l ite i ma g e r y is k no w n t o b e l o c a t e d w i t h in t h e f o rest e d b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e f o rest isla n d O t he r r ing d itc he s w e re i d e n t i f ied an d ma r k e d o n t h e s a t e l l ite i ma g e r y to n o te an y pa t t e rns in t he ir s pa ti a l lo c a ti on s W i t h t h e d a ta f r o m I sla Est a n cit a it c a n b e cl a i m e d tha t w he re ring d itc he s a re l o c a t e d t h e re is l i k e ly a lso e v id en ce o f a s e t t l e m e n t m o und

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40 Fi g u re 3 10 Rais e d f i e lds a n d f o re s t is l a n d s. S o m e f o rest isla n d s a r e k no w n t o b e l o c a t e d o n rais e d f iel d s rat h e r t ha n e le v a t e d m o und s Ac c o rding t o W a r ] a i s e d f ie l d isla nd s re ta in t he ir s h a p e f r o m t he ir c on s truc t ion a s r a ised f iel d s T h e d i m en s io n s o f raised f i e ld is la nd s a re c on sis t en t w ith th e me a s u r e d d i m en sio n s o f rai s e d f i e ld s ( W a l k e r 2 0 04 : 1 0 5 ). I f t h e rais e d f ie l d s ap p ea r i r re g u lar o n t h e l and s c ape t h e n t h e f o rests th a t g row a t o p th e m w i ll b e i r re g u lar s ha p e d a s w e ll. T h is i ma g e s h o w s ho w t re e s an d v e g e t a ti o n g ro w ing o n rais e d f i e lds be c o m e c l u m pe d to g e t he r to f o rm f o re s t is l a n d s; h o w e v e r, t he y ha ve a n i r re g u lar s hap e du e to t h e i r re g u l a r p a t t e rns o f t h e rais e d f iel d s. B a s e d o n t h is i ma g e an d o t he r k n o w n e x amp les, it c a n b e i n f e r r e d t h a t f o rest isl a n d s g r o w ing in i r re g u lar p a t te rns w ith lin e a r c ha ract e r i stics a r e m o st l i k e ly l o c a t e d o n a n c ie n t rais e d f iel d s T h is a ss u m p ti o n c o u ld he lp re s ea rch e rs l o c a t e rais e d f i e lds, e v e n i f t he y a re n o t v is i b le un d e r t h e tree c o v e r on t h e s a t e l l ite i ma g e r y This m e t h o d o f id e n t i f y ing rais e d f iel d s, ba s e d o n t h e i r re g u lar

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41 s ha p e o f t h e f o re s t, is e s pe cially ha n d y w he n e x am ini n g s a t e l l ite ima g e r y tha t is n o t a s de t a i le d a s t h is i ma g e ry a v a i l ab le f o r t h e Mo j o s re g io n T h is i ma g e a lso i n f e rs t h a t n o t a ll fo rest e d a r e a s in M o jos a re s e t t l e m e n t m o und s; it w ou ld b e v e ry c on v en ie n t f o r res ea rch e rs t o b e a b le to d i f fe re n t i a te be t w e e n s e t t l e m en t m ou n d s a n d c o v e red r a i s e d f ie l d s b a s e d s o lely o n s ha p e Fi g u re 3 11 Rais e d f i e lds (ora n g e p o l y g on ) a n d f o rest i sla n d s ( g re e n po l y g on s ) B a s e d o n t h e p re v io u s ob s e r v a ti on s ab o u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s in f o rest isla nd s, t en t a ti v e cl a ssi f ic a ti on s c a n b e m a d e t o d i f fe r e n ti a te b e t w ee n d i f fe re n t ty pe s o f f o rest is l and s. Fi g u re 3 1 1 d i s p la y s th e t h ree ma in t y pe s o f f o re s t is l a n d s e n c o u n t e r e d w h i l e ma p p ing f e a t u res i n G oo g le E a rt h Th e se t y pe s w e re no tic e d w h i l e ma pp i n g bu t t h e f i l e s w e re n o t c a t e g o r i z e d s e pa ra t e ly du e t o to o ma n y f i les ha v ing a n amb i g u o u s ap p ea ra n c e t ha t w e re no t cl e a r l y on e t y pe P r e Col umb i a n s e t t l e m e n t mo u nd s, w h ich a re o v e r g r o w n w ith s e c on d a ry v e g e t a ti on o f t e n a pp e a r l i ke F o re s t I sla n d 1 (F ig u re 3

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42 11 ). T h e f o re s t is d a rker t h a n t h e g a l l e ry f o r e st, a n d t h e isl a n d h a s a more cl ea r l y d e f i n e d b o u nda r y It c a n b e a circular, o v a l, o r s l i g h tly i r r e g u lar s hap e (b u t is m o st o f t e n a ro u n d e d s h ape ). F o rest t h a t g ro w s o n t o p o f r a ised f i e lds a p p ea rs l i ke F o rest I sl a n d 2 w ith a m o re d i spe rs e d s ha p e ( Fi g u re 3 1 1 ) Th e se f o res t e d a re a s r a n g e in si z e f r o m a f e w t re e s t o v e ry l a r g e a re a s, an d d o n o t h a v e cl ea r l y de f i ne d b o un d a r i e s, m a king th e m d if f i c u lt t o a c c u rat e ly map a s a s ha pe f i l e F o r e st Isl a n d 3 i n Fi g u re 3 1 1 is a n e x a m p le o f t h e s ma l l ci r c u lar f o r e st is l a n d s. T he s e n ea r l y pe r f e ct circ l e s o f f o r e st a re cl e a r l y d e f i n ed an d o f t e n o c c u r al on g smal l e r stre a m s o r in t h e m i dd le o f t h e s a v an n a Th e y a re r a rely l o c a t e d a lo n g g a l l er y f o rest o r t h e l a r g e r r i v e rs. T h e si g n i f i c an ce o f t h e t y pe s, a lo n g w ith the ir s p a ti a l o r g an i z a ti on is a n a lyzed in C hap t e r 5. Fi g u re 3 12 B od ies o f w a t e r. T h e ima g e in Fi g u re 3 1 2 d ep icts s e v e ral t y pe s o f b od ies o f w a t e r f o un d i n t h e re g ion o f Moj o s. S e mi rect an g u lar lak e s a re l o c a t e d o n t h e l e ft si d e o f t h e ima g e A ri v e r

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43 ru n s no r t h t o s o u th o n t h e ri g h t sid e w ith s m a l l e r r i v e rs a n d s t r e am s em p t y ing i n to it. I n t h e t o p ri g h t c o r ne r, o x bo w l a k e s a re f o u n d th ro u g hou t t h e f lo o dp lain ad ja c en t to t h e ma jor r i v e rs. F o r di g itiz i n g the se na t u ral f e a t u r e s, p o l y g on s w e re u s e d f o r t h e l a k e s a n d pa t h s w e re u s e d f o r t h e ri v e rs. A lt hou g h t he y w e re m ap p e d a s s e pa r a te f ea t u res in G oo g le E a r t h t he y a re c o m b in e d u sing a u f f e t oo l in ArcGI S to ana l y z e th e g eo g ra ph ic loc a ti o n o f w a t e r so u rces in g e n e ral (see C h ap t e r 4). Fi g u re 3 13 R o ad s a n d f o rest isla nd s M ode rn da y ro ad s a re v is i b le o n t h e s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry in Fi g u re 3 1 3 a s w h ite l i ne s crossing a c r o ss t h e l a nd sc a pe In t h is i ma g e r o ad s tra n s e c t t w o f o rest isl a nd s a n d a re s u r r o u nd e d b y rais e d f ie l d s. T h is o cc u rs o f t e n t h ro u gh ou t t h e re g i o n Sin c e f o rest is l and s a n d rai s e d f ie l d s a re o f te n t h e h i g he st g ro un d o n t h e s a v an na it w ou ld m a ke s en se to c on struct ro a d s a c r o ss t he s e e le v a t e d a r e a s t o a v o id t h e l o w l ying f lo o de d po rtio n s o f t h e s a v an n a T h is is g o o d n e w s f o r arc ha e o lo g ists, in t h a t a cc e ss to f o rest

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44 is l and s w i l l b e fa ci l it a t e d b y th e p ro x i m ity o f t h e f o rest isla nd s t o t h e ma in r oad s. I t is a lso u s e f u l t o k n o w th e d i f f e r e n ce in a p p e a ra n ce b e t w ee n ro a d s, rai s e d f ie l d s, a n d trails ( ma d e b y e it he r c o w s o r h u m a n s ) a s t he y a ll ha v e l in ea r s ha p e s an d a pa le c o lor o n t h e s a t e l l ite i ma g e r y In Fi g u re 3 1 3 e s p e ciall y t h e d i f fe re n c e s b e tw ee n t h e ro ad s a n d raised f iel d s c a n b e s u b tl e Fi g u re 3 14 For e s t, river, a n d s a v an n a o n t h e Moj o s l a n d sc a p e T h is i ma g e in Fi g u re 3 1 4 d ep icts a l a r g e a r e a o f t h e l a nd s c ape I t s h o w s a m a jor r i v e r r unn ing f rom l e f t t o ri g h t, a n d t h e f o rest an d f l oo d p lain ad ja c e n t to it. T h is p a rticular a rea o f t h e s t ud y a rea be c a m e mo r e d i f f i c u lt t o map an d c a t e g o r i z e M o st o f t he s e f o rest e d a r e a s d o n o t s ee m t o b e s i n g u lar c o h e re n t s e cti on s o f f o res t ; rat he r, th is i ma g e s u gg e sts t ha t t h e f o re s t e d a re a s a re a res u lt o f t h e e ros i o n o f ri v e r le v ee s, w h ich w e re o r ig in a l l y a ll c o v e red in fo rest.

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45 Fi g u re 3 15 S ma ll f o r e st is l and s a lo n g a ri v e r. Alo n g ma n y o f t h e s m a l l e r stre a m s in t h e s t u d y a re a s ma ll f o re s t is l and s o cc u r a t re g u lar int e r v a ls. D i f fe re n c e s b e t w ee n t h e s e small ro u n d f o r e st is l and s an d t h e l a r g e r one s w ou ld s u gg e st a d iff e re n c e in c on stru c ti on u s e a n d f u n cti o n An imp o rt a n t a s pe c t o f m o und s in rel a t i o n t o t h is t he sis is t he ir l o c a t i on Er i cks o n (2 000 ) no t e s t h a t mo st m o und s a re r a rely is o la te d a n d t ha t t he y o c c u r in clus te rs o r g ro up s. He n o t e s t h a t t h e mo u nd s a lo n g ri v er s (b o th a cti v e a n d o ld) ap p ea r to b e re g u lar l y s pa c e d f r o m on e an o t he r. S ma ll m o und s c o v e r less t ha n 1 he c t a re and a re o f t e n l o c a t e d in t h e op e n s a v an n a s o r o n o ld ab a nd o ne d ri v e r ch an n e l le v ee s a s f o re s t is l and (is l a s) an d a re o f t e n a s s o cia t e d w ith rais e d f i e ld a g r i c u lt u ( Er i cks o n 2 0 00 : 5 6 ). In add it i o n t o s ma ll mo u nd s, E r i cks o n d e s c r ib e s l a r g e m o und s t o c o v e r a t le a st s e v e ral he ct a [ a n d ] t e n d to b e l o c a t e d o n t h e f o re s t e d h i g h g ro un d e it he r a lo n g t h e ed g e s o f f lo o dp lai n s o r o n l e v ee s o f t h e Rio M amo r, o r i m po rt a n t t r i bu t a r i e

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46 (Er i cks o n 2 0 00 : 5 ). T h e m o und l o c a ti o n n e x t t o a r e a s r i ch in na t u ral res ou rces, f i s h in g hun t i n g g a t he r i n g a n d fa r m ing ma k e s t h e m i dea l pe r f e ct f o r s e t t l e m en t. C on ti n ue d o cc u p a ti o n w ou ld ha v e ad d e d a cc u mu l a ti o n s o i l a n d t h e se a re a s w ou ld c on ti n u e t o b e re u s e d o v e r t h e y ea rs du e to t h e be ne f its o f t he ir a rt i f ic i a l e le v a ti o n (Er i cks o n 2 0 00 ). T h e res u lts f r o m th is p roject ma y s up p o rt E r i c ks on o n clusi on s. T h e f o rest isla nd s ob s e r v e d in t h e St u d y A rea h a v e si m i l a r s i z e s an d l o c a ti o n s t ha t f i t Er i cks on de scr i p ti on s incl ud i n g bo th t h e l a r g e a n d s m a l l f o re s t is l a n d s. Fi g u re 3 16 B od ies o f w a t e r in t h e St u d y A re a Fi g u re 3 1 6 s h o w s th e St ud y A rea ( re d o u tline po l y g on ) a n d s ou rces o f w a t e r (blue p o l y g on s f o r la k e s, b lue lin e s f o r r i v e rs an d s tre a m s ) T h e Rio M amo r f l o w s no rth w a rd a lo n g t h e ri g h t s ide o f t h e i ma g e The s ma l l e r r i v e rs f low ea st w a rd, f r o m t h e le f t side o f t h e i ma g e t o w a rds t h e ri g h t. I n t h e c en t e r o f t h e i ma g e is a s w amp y a re a id en t i f i a b le b y its d a rk e r col o r. T h e l a k e s in th i s re g ion m o s tly o cc u r in t h e n o rth w e st

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47 (top l e f t) po rti o n o f t h e i ma g e in t h e s o u t h e a s t (b o t t o m ri g h t) po rtio n an d a lo n g ri v e rs as o x bo w l a k e s. Fi g u re 3 17 R o ad s in t h e S t ud y A re a Fi g u re 3 1 7 d ispl a y s t h e S t u d y A rea ( r e d ou tl i ne d po l y g on ) a n d m od e rn da y c on struc t e d r o ad s ( p u rple l i n e f ea t u res). T h e s e re p re s en t on ly th e r o ad s t ha t w e re cle a r l y v is i b le o n th e s a t e l l ite i ma g e r y I t p ro b a b le t h a t m a n y m o re ro ad s e x ist be sid e s t he s e b u t i f t he s e a re t h e o n ly one s v is i b le t h e n t he y a re mo st l i k e ly th e r o ad s t ha t a re u s e d mo s t o f te n (a n d k ep t cl e a r a n d ele v a t ed ) M o st o f t h e ro a d s c on ne ct ma jor t o w n s an d m a n y l ea d t o ra n c he s. T h e re a re s e ct i o n s o f t h e s a v ann a t h a t s ee m t o l a ck a n y ro ad s o r c on stru c ti o n w ha ts oe v e r. T h is ma y b e d u e to t h e l o w l y i n g re g ion be ing t o o s w amp y o r just d u e t o th e d ist a n ce an d i s o la t i on f r o m t h e t o w n s an d ri v e rs.

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48 Fi g u re 3 18 M o d e rn r o ad s a n d r a n c h e s in t h e S t ud y A re a Fi g u re 3 1 8 s h o w s th e St ud y A rea ( re d o u tlin e d po l y g on ), m o de rn d a y c on struc t e d r o ad s ( p u rple l i ne s ) an d mo de rn ra n c he s ( re d p o in t s ) This i ma g e s ho w s ho w r an c he s a re c o n n e ct e d b y m a jor r o ad s. T h e se m o de rn da y f e a t u res a re i m p o rta n t f o r arc h a eo lo g ists p l a n n ing t o v is i t t h e re g ion an d c oo rdi n a te t ra n s p o rta t ion t o t o w n s an d e x c a v a ti o n sit e s. I t is a lso i m po rt a n t to i d en t i f y l an d o w ne rship t o i n q u i r e a b ou t pe r m issio n s t o s u r v e y and / o r e x c a v a t e

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49 Fi g u re 3 19 R i n g d itc h e s in t h e S t ud y A re a Fi g u re 3 1 9 s h o w s th e St ud y A rea ( re d o u tlin e d po l y g on ) a n d Ring Ditc he s ( d a rk pu rple po in t s ) The ri n g d itc he s a re d is p e rs e d o v e r t h e s t ud y a re a an d on ly s e e m t o clus te r in o n e o r t w o a re a s. T h e re doe s no t s e e m to b e a c on sis t en t pa t t e rn, just ba s e d o n a v isu a l ana l y sis o f t h is i ma g e T he s e a re on ly th e ring d itc h e s v is i b le o n th e s a t e l l ite i ma g e r y ; it is po ssible t ha t t he re a re m a n y m o re ring d itc he s t ha t a re c o v e red b y f o rest a n d v e g e t a ti o n an d t h e r e f o re no t v is i b le. A lt h ou g h t h e se ring d it c h e s a re i d e n t i f i e d ba s e d o n t h e c h a ract e r istics o f k n o w n ring d itc he s ( W a l k e r 2 0 1 1 a ), g ro un d tru th ing w i l l b e re q u i r e d t o v e r i f y if t he se a re in f a ct p r e C o lu m b i a n b u i l t r i n g d itc h e s.

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50 Fi g u re 3 20 For e s t is l and s an d ra n c he s. Ra n c he s ha v e b ee n f o un d to b e si t ua t e d o n f o rest isla n d s t h a t re v e a l Pr e C o l umb i a n o cc u p a ti o n I n Fi g u re 3 2 0 t h e f o r e st is l a n d l o c a t e d i n t h e c e n t e r is h o m e t o a ra n c h a s v is i b le b y t h e s ma ll w h ite it e m s ( b u i l d in g s an d c on stru c ti on s ) a n d t h e s q ua hun t a k e n ou t o f t h e f o rest isl a n d a re a r e a s cl ea r e d b y t h e ra n c h e r. T h is f o rest isla n d is l o c a t e d just s o u th o f a ri v e r. A ro a d r u n s f r o m b o t t o m le f t to u p pe r r i g h t in t h is i ma g e ( t h e w h ite l i ne ), tr a n s e c ti n g o r c l o s e ly pa ssing s e v e ral f o r e st is l a n d s. T h e re a re s e v e ral re a s o n s w h y a ra n ch ma y b e c o n struct e d o n a f o rest is l and T h e e le v a ti o n w ou ld p ro v ide relief f r o m t h e a n n ua l f l o od in g a s it d id f o r Pr e Col um b ian po p u la t i o n s. T h e s o i l s in a f o rest is l an d a re o f t e n f o u n d t o b e c o m p o s e d o f t e r r a p ret a a rich an t h r o po g en ic s o il c h a ract e r i z e d b y a da rk c o lor, b rok e n c e r a m ics, a n d c h a rco a l ( Gl a s e r an d W oo d s 20 0 4 ). T he se s o i l s a re rich i n n u trie n ts an d u s e d b y mo d e rn p e op le f o r lo c a l a g r i c u lt u re.

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51 Fi g u re 3 21 Rais e d f i e lds a n d f o re s t in t h e S t ud y A re a T h is i ma g e in Fi g u re 3 2 1 d ep icts t w o t y pe s o f f ea t u res, rai s e d f ie l d s an d f o rest. T h e S t ud y A rea is t h e red o u tlin e d p o l y g on t h e a re a s o f r a ised f i e lds a re t h e o r an g e po l y g on s, an d t h e f o r e st e d a re a s a re o u tlin e d b y th e g re e n po l y g o n It w ou ld b e s en sible i f raised f i e ld s u s e d f o r a g r i c u lt u re, w e re l o c a t e d w it h in a r ea s o nab le d ist a n ce f r o m t h e f o rest isl a nd s o n w h ich t h e P r e Col u mb i a n s o ci e ty l i v ed A c c o rding t o a n i n itial v isu a l ana l y sis o f t h is i ma g e i t a p pea rs t ha t b o th f o rest an d rais e d f i e lds o c c u r al on g ma jor r i v e rs t ha t r u n f r o m w e st to ea s t. H o w e v e r, t he ir s pa ti a l r e l a ti o n s h ip is no t cl e a r in t h is i ma g e a s it a p pe a rs t ha t t he y a re no t d i r e ctly g eo g ra ph ically depe n den t o n ea c h o t he r. Summ a r y G oo g le Ea r t h ha s p ro v e n its e l f u s e f u l a s a r em o te s en sing te c hn i q u e f o r id en t i f y ing an d m a pp i n g bo th en v i r onm e n t a l a n d c u l t u ral f e a t u res o n s a t e l l ite i ma g e r y A

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52 f a i r ly s t rai g h t f o r w a rd m e t h o d t h is a pp ro a c h t o m a pp ing f e a t u res ha s man y b e n e f its b u t a f e w d ra w bac ks. It is t i m e c o n s u m ing t o m a p a ll th e f e a t u res i n a w ide a r e a I t is no r m a l l y u p t o t h e d isc r e ti o n o f t h e u s e r to i d e n t i f y f e a t u res a n d d e t e r m ine t he ir bo u nda r i e s, a n d t h is c ou ld c han g e f r o m u s e r to u s e r. I f mu lt i p le res e a rch e rs w e re in te rest e d in t h e sa m e re g i on o r s a m e me t h o d o f d i g iti z i n g t he n a s t an d a rdi z e d m e t h o d o f i d e n t i f y ing f e a t u res an d m a pp ing t h e m c ou ld b e a r r an g e d s o a s to p romo t e c o n ti nu it y W h i le t h e d i g iti z e d f i l e s p ro v ide i n t e rest i n g v i s ua l in t e rpre ta t i on s, G o o g le E a rt h doe s no t ha v e t o o ls f o r s pa ti a l ana l y s e s. T h e s e f i l e s mu st b e e x po rt e d t h en t o a n o t h e r c om p u t e r p ro g ra m T h e p ro g ram c ho s e n f o r t h is p roject w a s A rcGI S T h e ne x t c hap t e r disc u s s e s t h e me t hod s res u lt s a n d s u m ma ry o f t h e a na l y s e s o f ArcGI S

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53 C H AP T ER 4 G E O G RA P HIC INFO R M A T I O N S Y S T E M S (GIS) A r c G IS O n ce t h e d i g itiz i n g in Goo g le E a r t h is c o m p le te t h e n e x t st e p is t o a n a l y z e th e da ta in A rcG I S 1 This p ro g ram is a n e x a m p le o f G I S, o r G eo g ra p h ic I n f o r ma t i o n S y st em s, w h ich a re c o mp u t e r pr o g r a m s t h a t p ro v ide too ls f o r sp a ti a l l y an a lyz i n g d i g it a l f i l e s. A rcGI S w a s a c c e ss e d t h ro u g h t h e U n i v e rs i t y o f Florid a a lt h ou g h it is pu rch a s ab le f o r d o w n lo a d f r o m t h e w eb sit e T h e re a re o t he r G I S p r o g ra m s a v a i l ab le f o r do w n lo a d o n l i n e t h a t a re f re e i f u s e rs d o no t ha v e a cc e ss to pu rch a se A rc G I S B o th v e ct o r ( s hap e f i l e s) an d ras te r ( i ma g e s) d a ta c a n b e a na l y z e d in G IS p ro g ra m s, b u t f o r t h e pu rp o s e o f t h is p ro j e ct o n ly v e ct o r sh ap e f i l e s w e re u s ed M e t h ods In t h e G oo g le E a r t h p ro g ra m t h e d i g iti z e d f i l e s a re s a v e d in K M L f o r ma t T h e f i l e s w e re s a v e d in g ro up s, a cc o rding t o ea c h c a t e g o ry o f f e a t u re ma p p e d (e x a m p le: Rais e d Field s For e st Isl and s, La k e s, R i v e rs ) This m e a n s t h a t w h i l e a u s e r ca n no t a cc e ss t h e i n d i v id ua l f i l e s w it h in ea ch g ro u p ( f o r e x amp le, a c e rtain f o rest isla n d w it h in t h e F o r e st Isl a n d g ro u p f i l e ), it s a v e s a t r e m e nd o u s a m o un t o f t i m e w he n th e u s e r d oe s no t ne e d t o i nd i v id ua l l y s a v e an d e x po rt t h ou s and s o f f i l e s In A rc M a p t h e K M L f i l e s w e re a dd e d t o a b la n k ma p Ea c h g ro u p w a s adde d a s a si n g le f i l e T h e p r o jec t e d c oo r d in a t e s y st e m u s e d w a s W G S 1 9 84 T h e U T M Z o n e is 1 9 S Ea c h f i l e c a t e g o ry w a s up lo a d e d a s a fea t u re cl a ss. S ince ma n y f i l e s o v e r l appe d ou tsi d e o f t h e s t ud y a re a t he s e f i l e s h a d t o b e i pp e d s o t h a t o n ly th e f i l e s 1 ht t p: / / ww w e sr i c o m / s o f t w are/ar c g i s

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54 ma p p e d w it h in t h e s t u d y a rea we re u s e d f o r a n a l y sis. Fi g u re 4 1 s h o w s th e f i l e s a f te r t h e clip t oo l w a s u s e d E a ch f ea t u re cl a ss is r ep res e n t e d w ith a d i f f e r e n t c o lor, a n d Fi g u re 4 1 incl ude s a k e y o n t h e l e f t si d e f o r i den t i f y ing fea t u res b a s e d o n c o lor a n d f ea t u re t y pe W he n t h e f i l e s w e re i m po r t e d t h e y re ta in e d t he ir t y p e a s po i n t l i n e o r po l y g on W h i le ana l y z ing f i l e s a n d a pp l y ing th e A rcG I S t o o ls, it w a s ne c e s s a ry t o o r g an i z e the m i n to t h r e e f o l d e rs: Or ig in a l F i les, Cl i ppe d Fi l e s, a n d An a l y sis F i les. T h e Or ig in a l F i les w e re th e one s f i r st u p l o a d e d i n t o A rcGIS T h e y o v e r lap p e d t h e St u d y Are a an d n e ed e d t o b e i pped b e f o re a na l y sis. A f t e r ru nn ing t h e C l oo l to i s o la t e on ly th e f ea t u res t h a t w e re l o c a t e d w it h in t h e s tud y a re a t h e res u lt is th e f i l e s in t h e C l i ppe d Fi l e f o l d e r. T h e se w e re t h e f i l e s u s e d f o r r unn ing a na l y s e s. S e v e ral t oo ls w e re u s e d o n t h e se f i l e s, incl u d ing B u f fe r, S e lect b y Lo c a ti o n a n d I n t e rsec t Us i n g t he se t o o ls cre a t e s ne w f i l e s, a n d t he se ne w f i l e s w e re s a v e d un d e r t h e f o l d e r A na l y sis Fi l e s For e x amp le, t h e B u f fe r t oo l w a s u s e d to cre a t e a 1 kil o me t e r u f f e a r ou n d t h e Ri v e rs l ine f e a t u re ( Fi g u re 4 2 ). The re s u lting f i l e a po l y g o n tha t o v e r l a y th e ri v e rs w ith 1 km o n e it h e r s i d e o f t h e Ri v e r l i ne c ou ld l a t e r be u s e d f o r f i nd ing w ha t f o rest isla n d s l a y w it h in 1 kilome te r o f ri v e rs. T h e re w e re s e v e ral q ue sti on s i n m i n d w h i l e a na l y zing th e A rcGI S f i l e s.

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55 Fi g u re 4 1 ArcGI S cl i pped f ea t u res. T h is i ma g e d is p l a y s a ll o f t h e f e a t u re c l a ss e s a f t e r us i n g th e l o o l to f o c u s on ly o n t h e f i l e s t h a t a re c on t a in e d w it h in t h e s t ud y a rea (t h e y e l l o w bo x ). A f t e r t h e o r ig in a l f i l e s i mpo r t e d i n to ArcGI S w e i pped a n a l y s e s c ou l d be g in w ith th e f i l e s a s s ee n i n Fi gu re 4 1 T h e k e y o n t h e l e f t o f t h e i ma g e i d e n t i f ies t h e f ea t u res b y the ir c o l o r an d f i l e t y pe T h e t h ree po int f e a t u res a re a r c ha e o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s (p u rple), r an c h e s ( r ed ), a n d ring d itc he s (p i n k ) T h e t w o line f e a t u res a re r i v e rs ( l i g h t b lu e ) a n d r oad s ( d a rk p u r p le). T h e f i v e po l y g o n fea t u res a re r a is e d f iel d s (ora n g e ), f o rest isla nd s (l i g h t g re en ), lak e s ( l ig h t b l u e ), g a l l e ry f o rest (d a rk g re en ), a n d t h e s t ud y a rea (l ig h t t a n ).

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56 An a d v an t a g e o f v ie w i n g th e l a nd sc a p e i n A r cG I S a s o p p o s e d t o Goo g le E a rt h is t h a t b y re m o v ing th e s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry in th e b a ck g ro und t h e m a p h a s be c o m e c l eare r a n d f o c u s e d o n t h e f e a t u res o f i n t e rest. Now th e f i le s a re cl ea r l y d e f i n e d an d v is i b le, a n d ea ch f ea t u re is c o lo r c o d e d f o r q u ick an d e f f ic ie n t i n t e rpre t a ti o n Ma p s s u ch a s t h e se a re i n v a lu ab le res ou rces f o r s c ho lars in m a n y f iel d s o f st ud y n o t just a r c ha e o lo g y Fi g u re 4 2 T h e U n ion t oo l in ArcGI S T h e scre e n s h o t in Fi g u re 4 2 d i s p la y s th e re s u lt o f u sing t h e n too l t o c omb i n e t h e B u f fe rs o f bo t h t h e Ri v e r a n d L a ke f i l e s. T h is is to cr e a t e a si n g le f i l e f o r do ing a n a l y s e s in w h i c h t h e i nte rest is in w a t e r so u rces in g e n e ral ( a n d n o t r i v e rs or

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57 lak e s in pa rticular ) T h e In t e rsect t oo l is t h e n u s e d to s e e w he re o t h e r f i l e s, s u c h a s For e st Isl a nd s, R an c h e s, o r R i n g Ditc he s, o v e r l a p w ith th e w a t e r f i le The re s u lt is a ll o f t h e f i l e s f o un d w it h in 1 ki l ome t e r ( t h e B u f fe r) o f w a t e r s o u rces ( R i v e rs an d La k e s ) Fi g u re 4 3 For e st is la nd s a n d bod i e s o f w a t e r in ArcGI S T h e scre e n s h o t in Fi g u re 4 3 s h o w s on ly R i v e rs, La k e s, a n d t h e F o rest I sl a nd s w h ich a re w it h in 1 km o f t h o se w a t e r s o u rce s T h e Ri v e rs a n d La k e s a re in b lu e a n d t ho se s e lect F o rest Isl and s a re r e d T h e re a r e 1 6 1 0 F o rest I sl a nd s t ha t a re w it h in 1 k m

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58 o f w a t e r. T h is is a l a r g e maj o r i t y (7 2 6 %) o f t h e f o rest isla n d s. T h e si g n i f ica n ce o f t h is c o r r e la t ion is d iscuss e d in C h ap t e r 5 : F i n d in g s an d A n a l y s e s. Fi g u re 4 4 A cl o s e u p o f I sla Est a n cita in A r c G I S Isla E st a n cita (F ig u re 4 4 ) is a pp ro x i ma t e ly 20 0 me te rs f r o m t h e ed g e o f t h e g a l l er y f o rest (d a rk g r e e n p o l y g on ), an d 90 0 me t e rs f r o m t h e Ri v e rs l ine (bl u e lin e ), w h ich re p res e n ts t h e c en t e r o f t h e ri v e r. T h e r i v e rs are no t a c on sis t en t w id t h t h ro u g h o u t t h e y ea r, a s t h e a nn u a l f l ood i n g res u lts f r o m t h e s n o w m e lting in t h e A nd e a n h i g h la nd s an d t h e ru n o ff c a u s e s t h e o v e r f low o f t h e ri v er s in t h e Bo l i v ian Moj o s. S ince g a l l e ry f o res t a s o ppo s e d to f o rest isla n d s, a re pe r c ep ti b le t o t h is a nn u a l f l ood in g it c a n b e e sti m a t e d t h a t t h e ri v e w id t h c a n b e e st i ma t e d t o b e b e t w ee n t h e R i v e r l ine a n d t h e e x t en t o f t h e g a l l e ry f o r e st t h a t g ro w s a lo n g t h e ri v e rs. T h e r e d po in t s in Fi g u re 4 4 re p res e n t t h e l o c a ti on s o f ra n c he s, a n d t h e p u rple po i n t re p re s en ts t h e ring d itch k n o w n

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59 to b e l o c a t e d in I sla E s t an cit a T h e b l u e p o l y gon s, r e p res e n ti n g l a k e s, s o m e t i me s ap p ea r as c u rvy a lo n g ri v e rs. T he s e t y pe s o f l a k e s a re c a l le d o x bo w l a k e s, a n d t he y a re t h e r e m n an ts f r o m w he re t h e ri v e r us e d t o ru n O v e r ti me t h e ri v e r can g ra dua l l y cl o se o ff a l o o p w he n c h an g ing its c ou rse a c r o ss t h e l a n d s c ape T he s e clos ed o ff l o o p s o f r i v e r w i ll s t i l l r e t a in w a t e r, an d c a n b e s ee n th r o ug hou t t h e g a l l e ry f o r e st a l on g ri v e rs. Fi g u re 4 5 S w amp y re g ion in A rcGI S O the r s ig n i f ica n t f e a t u r e s in t h e s t ud y a rea i n clu d e a l a r g e s w amp y a re a I t w a s ma p p e d a s a l a k e Al t h ou g h it is n o t en ti r e ly fu ll o f w a t e r y ea r r ou n d it remai n s s w amp y e v e n du r i n g t h e d ry s ea s o n I sla E s t an ci t a c a n b e s e e n (F ig u re 4 5 ) bo rd e r i n g t h e G a l l e ry F o rest in t h e l o w e r r i g h t c o rn e r. T h e o r a n g e po l y g on s, re p res e n ti n g th e a re a s w he re r a ised f iel d s a r e v is i b le o n t h e s a t e l l ite i m a g e r y c a n b e s e e n in Fi g u re 4 5 a lo n g t h e s w amp y a rea a n d a l on g

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60 r i v e rs. T h e i n itial v isu a l ana l y sis o f t h e s p a ti a l pa t t e rns o f t h e se rais e d f iel d s, t h a t t he y ap p ea r to b e c on c en t r a t e d a lo n g w a t e r w a y s rat he r t ha n in t h e o p e n s a v anna c a n b e c o n f i rm e d t h ro u g h ana l y s e s u sing th e A rcG I S t o o ls. Summ a r y ArcGI S p ro v id e s t h e ne c e s s a ry too ls f o r c o ndu ct i n g s pa ti a l ana l y s e s o n d i g it a l f i l e s. W i t h its a b i l ity t o op e n G o o g le E a rt h K M L f i l e s, Arc G I S is v er y adap t a b le an d doe s no t re q u i r e a c on v e rs i o n p ro g ra m T h e v a r i e t y o f t oo ls a n d ea se o f u se ma k e t h is p ro g ram i d e a l f o r r e s e a rch e rs st u d y ing s pa ti a l l y rela te d iss u e s. W h i l e a l a r g e r am ou n t o f a rch a e o lo g ists a re l e a rning an d u sing A rcGI S t h e re a re more t ha t c a n be ne f it f r o m i ts app l i c a ti o n s. W h i l e t h is c ha p t e r is a m ode st o v er v i e w o f h o w A rcGI S c a n b e u s e d t o ana l y z e s hap e f i l e s tu t o r i a ls o n t h e o t h e r f u n c ti on s o f ArcGI S a re a v a i l ab le a t t h e ESRI w eb sit e 2 T h e t oo l s a v a i l ab le in t h is G I S p ro g ram a re u s e d f o r c on d u cti n g s pa t i a l ana l y s e s in o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e g eo g ra ph ical c o r r e la t io n s an d p a t te r n s be t w ee n t h e ma p p e d f e a t u res in t h e s tud y a re a T h e res u l t s o f t he se a n a l y s e s a re d iscus s e d in t h e f o l l o w ing c hap t e r. 2 ht t p: / / w e b h e l p e sr i c o m /ar c g i s d e s k to p /9 3 / i n d e x c f m ? To pi c Na m e = t u tor i a l s

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61 C H AP T ER 5 FIN D INGS A ND A NA L Y SIS A n a l y s is of Ra ise d F i e lds a nd For es t I s l a n ds W h i le o t h e r f e a t u res in th e s t ud y a rea w i l l b e d iscuss e d a ma j o r f o c u s is o n t h e raised f i e ld s For e st isla nd s a re s t i l l d eb a t e d a s be i n g an t h r opo g en i c in o r ig in; a lt h ou g h e v id en ce o f h a b it a t i o n i s o f t e n f ou n d t h e na t u re o f t h e m o u n d s is s t i l l de b a t e d b e t w ee n be ing a n a t u r a l o cc u r re n c e i n t e n ti ona l c on st r u c ti on o r u n in t e n ti o na l c o m p i l a ti o n R a ised f iel d s o n t h e o t he r h a nd a re cl e a r l y m an m a d e a n d c l ea r l y an cie n t. W h i l e a rch a e o lo g y o f rais e d fi e lds re v ea l a l o n g o r int e r r up t e d h ist o ry o f u s e du r i n g p r e Col umb i a n t i me s ( W a l k e r 2 0 0 4 ), h is t o r i c a l a n d e t hno g r a p h ic a cc o u n ts in d ica t e t ha t t he se f ie ld s ha v e n o t b ee n c on stru c t e d o r ma i n t a i n e d si n c e a t l ea st t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e J e s u it m iss i ona r i e s. I t i s a lso a r g u e d t h a t t he s e f iel d s ma y ha v e b e e n a b an d o n e d b e f o re E u ro p ean s e v e n a r r i v e d ( W a lker 20 0 0 ) b u t t h e i n tro d u cti o n o f m e t a l t oo ls b y Eu r o pe a n s ins t i g a t e d a f u nd am en t a l c h a n g e in t h e w a y p r e Col umb i a n c u l t u res p racticed a g r i c u lt u r e W i th t h e m o re e f f ic ie n t m e t a l t o o l s, t h e p r im a ry m e t h o d o f a g r i c u lt u ral c u lti v a ti o n tu r n e d f r o m raised f iel d s t o s l a s h a nd bu r n a m e t h o d w h ich a l l o w e d t h e m t o cle a r pl o ts o f l a n d q u i c kly an d is s t i l l c o m m o n ly s ee n t o da y

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62 Fi g u re 5 1 Rais e d f ie l d s a n d f o rest isla n d s b o rd e r i n g g a l l e ry f o rest. T h e R a is e d Fiel d s d o no t ha v e a c on sist e n t s i z e s hape o r orie n t a t i o n t h ro u g h o u t t h e re g i o n T he re a p p e a r to b e d i f fe r e n t t y o f rais e d f ield t h ro u g hou t t h e s t u d y a re a T h e se d i f f e r e n c e s w e re n o t r e f lec t e d i n t h e m ap p e d p o l y g on s, bu t a v isu a l ana l y sis o n G oo g le E a r t h c a n a p p ro x i ma te t h e l o c a ti on s o f d i f fe re n t g ro up s o f y T he se d i ff e re n c e s h a v e b e e n no t e d b y p re v io u s res e a rch e rs ( De ne v a n 19 6 6 ). De ne v a n d istin g u is h e s g e rais e d f iel d a s a d istin c ti v e t y p e o f ea rth w o rk f ou n d in t h e L la n o s d e M o jos (1 9 6 6 ), st a ti n g t ha t t he y t o 8 0 f e e t i n w id t h an d s o m e a re o v e r 1 0 0 0 f ee t l o n g T he y ] o cc u r i n cl u s t e rs o f u p to s e v e ral hu nd re d ; s o m e a re in pa ral l e l a l ig n m en ts a n d o t he rs a n g le o ff ob l iq ue l y ( D ene v a n 19 6 6 : 8 5 86 ). Most o f t h e raised f iel d s ma p p e d i n t h e s t u d y a rea s e e m to ma tch th is de scr i p ti o n Ho w e v e r, in a re a s o f g re a t e r e rosi o n it c a n b e d i f f i c u lt t o t e ll o n t h e s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry if rais e d f i e lds a re sm a l l e r, h a v e be e n e ro d e d a w a y o r s i mp l y d o no t s ho w u p w e ll o n t h e i ma g e r y

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63 W h i le t h e g e n e ral a r e a s o f p r o m i n en t s t y les ha v e bee n de scr ib e d b y D ene v a n (1 966 ), f u t u re r e s e a rch m a y en t a il u sing G IS t o cre a t e a m a p o f w he re d i f fe re n t s t y led f ie l d s a re l o c a t ed D u r i n g th is p rojec t t h e f ie l d s w e re no t m a pp e d o r d i f f e r e n ti a t e d a cc o rding t o t he ir a p pa re n t st y les, so t ha t s p a ti a l i n f o r ma ti o n is n o t c u r r en tly a v a i l ab le. Fi g u re 5 2 Rais e d Fiel d s b y ri v e rs. Or i en t a t i o n o f t h e rais e d f iel d s, w he n l o c a t e d ne x t to a ri v e r, s eem s t o b e in f l uen c e d b y th e s h a p e s a n d c u r v e s o f t h e ri v e r. In m a n y c a s e s, t h e rais e d f i e lds a re e ro d e d cl o se t o t h e river ban k o r jut u p cl o se to o t he r s o u rces o f w a t e r such a s in t h e s w amp y a rea aro u n d t h e c e n t e r o f t h e s t ud y a re a I n s om e i n st a n c e s, t h e rais e d f i e lds a re v is i b le u p t o t h e river ban k s h o w ing tha t t he ir c on stru c ti o n s e em s t o f a n ou t f r o m t h e ri v e r. T h is i nd ica te s tha t t h e c o n structi o n o f t h e rais e d f iel d s w er e i n t e n ti o n a l l y loc a t e d a l o n g the s e m a jor w a t e r w a y s.

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64 Fi g u re 5 3 Rais e d f ie l d s a l o n g ri v e rs a n d g a l l e ry f o rest in A rcGI S T h e rais e d f iel d s a re r ep re s en t e d b y o ra n g e po l y g on s, t h e ri v er s b y b lue lin e s, a n d t h e g a l l e ry f o rest b y da rk g re e n p o l y g on s. The t w o circ l e d a r e a s a r e w he re a rch a eo lo g ic a l e x c a v a ti on s ha v e be e n c o n du c t e d b y W a lker ( 200 4 2 0 0 8 a ). W he n t h e po l y g on s re p res en t i n g th e rai s e d f i e lds (ora n g e ) are v iew e d in ArcGI S it be c o me s ap p a re n t t h a t t h e s p a t i a l pa t t e rn s ee n in G o og le E a rt h is rein fo rced b y th e c o r r e la t i o n be t w ee n r a ised f i e lds a n d ri v e rs i n A rc G I S As c a n b e s ee n i n Fi g u re 5 3 t h e res u lts o f a rc h aeo lo g i c a l e x c a v a ti on s b y W a l k e r ( 20 0 4 2 00 8 a ) c a n b e a pp l i e d t o t h e res u lts o f G I S a n a l y sis be c a u se t he y a re f r o m t h e s a m e l o c a ti on

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65 Fi g u re 5 4 Rais e d f ie l d s a l o n g ri v e r, w ith l o c a ti on s o f a rch a e o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s b y W a l k e r (2 004 ). Rais e d f iel d s w e re cl ea r l y l o c a t e d p u rp o s e f u l ly ad jac en t t o s o u rces o f w a t e r. T h e re is a cl ea r pr e f e r en ce f o r t h e s e c o n da ry o r s m a l l e r r i v e rs, ra the r t ha n t h e Mam o r r i v e r o r t h e l a k e s in t h e re g io n W h i l e t h e re is a h i g h c on c en t r a ti o n o f raised f ie l d s in t h e up p e r r i g h t c o rn e r o f t h e s t u d y a re a t he re a re p ractically n o rais e d f i e lds in o t he r s e cti on s o f t h e s t ud y a re a o t he r t h a n a f e w s e c ti on s o f rais e d f ie l d s (see Fi g u re 5 5 ) T h e u ppe r l e ft c o rn e r o f t h e S t ud y A re a b y th e l a r g e l a k e s, a n d t h e en ti r e w e st e rn si d e o f t h e s t ud y a rea lack rais e d f i e lds ( Fi g u re 5 4 ).

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66 Fi g u re 5 5 Rais e d f ie l d s l o c a t e d nea r t h e Ma mo r r i v e r.

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67 Fi g u re 5 6 Rais e d f ie l d s (or an g e ) a n d s ou r c e s o f w a t e r ( b l u e ). Fi g u re 5 6 s ho w s on ly th e rais e d f ie l d s (t h e o r an g e po l y g on s ) s ou r c e s o f w a t e r (the b l u e p o l y g on s ) a n d t h e s t u d y a rea (t h e r e d p o l y g on ). W h i l e it is no t k no w n i f ma n y a rch a e o lo g ical s u r v e y s ha v e b e e n c on d u ct e d in t h e w e st e rn ha l f o f t h e s t ud y a rea ( mo st a rch a e o lo g y ha s f o c u s e d cl o s e r to t h e M a m o r, o r o n t h e ea s t e rn si d e o f t h e Mam o r R i v er ), it s eem s t o b e a f a ir g ue ss t ha t pe r h a p s n o t a s m a n y a rch a e o lo g ical sit e s w i l l b e f ou n d t he re. The c on c en tra t i o n o f raised f iel d s cl o s e r to t h e Mam o r s u gg e sts t ha t p r e Col umb i a n s o cie t ies l i v e d a l on g th e s e c o n d a ry r i v e rs, ben e f itti n g f r o m t h e u s e o f w a t e r

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68 tra n s po r t a ti o n a n d re s ou rces. W h y w e re n a ised f iel d s c on st r u ct e d ma inly a lo n g t h e M amo r it s e l f ? Alt h o u g h s o m e rais e d f ie l d s a r e v i sible in th e u p pe r r i g h t c o rn e r o f t h e st ud y a rea a s b o rd e r in g th e g a l l e ry f o rest a l o n g th e M a mo r t h e re d o n o t s e e m t o b e raised f iel d s a l o n g th e M amo r be si d e s t ho s e Fi g u re 5 7 Rais e d f ie l d s n e a r t h e s w amp y a re a Due t o t h e e rosi o n o f t h e rais e d f iel d s it is o f t e n d i f f i c u lt t o i d e n t i f y t h e b o un d a ry o f t h e a r e a t h e y c o v e r. T h is i ma g e in Fi g u re 5 7 s ho w s th e rais e d f i e l d s t h a t a re l o c a t e d a lo n g th e s w amp y re g i o n o f t h e s t ud y a re a To e f f ic ie n tly m a p t h e se f ea t u res, lib e rti es w e re ta k e n in s u gg e s t ing po ssible bo u n d a r i e s. W he n m a pp ing f ea t u res in G oo g le E a rt h it mu st b e k e p t in m i n d t ha t ea c h u s e r w i ll like l y ha v e d iff e r e n t id e a s a bo u t t h e bo u nda r i e s o f ob jec t s an d m a p t h e m d i f fe re n tly f rom o t h e r us e rs. P r om o ti n g a st an d a rd i z e d me t h o d o f i de n t i f y i n g an d ma p p ing fea t u res w ou ld h e lp s o l v e th is p ro b l em In th is i ma g e t h e o ra ng e po l y g o n s u gg e sts t h e g ene r a l a rea o f r a ised f ie l d s. T h e

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69 s pe c i f ic b ou n da ry o f t h e g ro u p o f f o r e st is l a nd s is no t d e f i ne d be c a u se in t h is c a se it is t o o v a g u e t o s a y f o r c e rtain w he re th e b o u n d a ry is be t w ee n th e rais e d f iel d s an d t h e s w amp y s a v anna O th e r ar ea s w he re t h e rai s e d f ie l d s a re no t so e r o de d ha v e a h i g h ly v is i b le boun d a ry w he re th e c o lors a n d t e x t u res o n t h e s a t e l l ite i ma ge ry cl ea r l y de f i n e w h e re th e v e g e t a ti o n a n d e l e v a ti o n a re mark e d ly d if f e r e n t. This i m a g e (F ig u re 5 7 ) is a lso a no t h e r e x a m p le o f h o w th e rais e d f iel d s te n d t o b e a l ig ne d cl o s e ly w ith w a t e r s ou rces. There are 27 9 f o rest isl a nd s a re l o c a t e d w it h in 1 k m o f raised f i e lds. T h e re a r e 44 2 in te rsecti o n s o f For e st Isl a nd s an d R a ised Fi e lds, 1 9 o f w h ich a re f r o m t h e s am e f o re s t is l and T h is i nd ica t e s t w o th in g s: t ha t t he s e f o rest isla n d s a re e it h e r f o rest v e g e t a ti o n g r o w ing o n th e e le v a t e d s e cti o n s o f raised f ie l d s, o r t ha t rais e d f i e ld s a re c o n struc t e d r ig h t u p t o t h e f o re s t e d m o und s w he re s e t t l e me n ts o n ce t h r i v ed As d e mon s tra t e d in Fi g u re 3 11 t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w ee n t ho se t y pe s a re v is i b le an d it is po ssible t o d istin g u ish b e t w ee n t h e t w o If f o re s t e d mo u n d s, w h ich ha v e b e e n e x c a v a t e d a n d p ro v e n t o ha v e be e n hab i t a ti o n si t e s, ha v e rais e d f i e lds loc a t e d ad j a c en t t o t h e m is it po s sible t o p re d ict w he re o t he r p r e Col u m b ian s e t t l e m e n t sit e s a re l o c a t e d ?

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70 Fi g u re 5 8 For e st Isl a nd Cer r o e x c a v a t e d b y W a lker ( 2 004 ) w ith rais e d f i e lds. T h is f o rest isl a nd n am e d C e r r o w a s e x c a v a t e d b y W a l k e r ( 20 0 4 ). E x c a v a ti on s re v ea led e v id en ce o f h ab it a t i on in t h e f o r m o f s he rds, w oo d c ha rc o a l, an d bu r n e d c l a y T h e se a re t h e c o m po n en ts o f a n t h ro s o ls, o r t e r r a p reta w h ich in d i c a te t h e p r e Col umb i a n o cc u p a ti o n o f a l o c a ti o n in t h e pa s t ( W a lker 20 0 4 ). T h is f o rest e d mo u n d is loc a t e d a l o n g th e Iru y ae z Ri v e r, an d bo t h th e e x c a v a ti on s a n d s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry s ho w raised f iel d s s u r r ou n d i n g th e m o un d W he n t he se s ha pe f i l e s w e re o pe n e d in ArcGI S t he y ap p ea r e d a s s h o w n in Fi g u re 5 9

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71 Fi g u re 5 9 For e st isl a n d C e r r o w ith rais e d f i e lds. C e r r o is t h e li g h t g re e n po l y g o n in t h e c en t e r o f t h e i ma g e The y e l l o w po ly g on s a re rais e d f ie l d s. T h e red po l y g on s a re t h e f o rest isla n d s (or p o rti o n s) tha t o v e r l a p w ith r ais e d f iel d s T h e da rk g re e n p o l y g o n is g a l l er y f o res t w h ich f o l lo w s th e I ru y ae z Ri v e r ( l ig h t b lue lin e an d li g h t b lue po l y g on s a re o x bo w l a k e s ) Fi g u re 5 9 is a s n ap s h o t o f ArcGI S a f te r e mp lo y ing th e I n t e rse c t t oo l u s i n g th e raised f iel d s s h a p e f i l e s an d t h e f o re s t is l a n d s ha pe f i l e s. T h is t oo l i d e n t i f ies w he re t h e se t w o s e ts o f s ha pe f i l e s o v e r l ap o r int e r s e ct. The res u lts re v ea l w he re r a ised f i e lds a re loc a t e d ad j a c e n t to f o r e st is l a n d s, s u r r o u nd i n g them o r w he re f o re s t is g row i n g o n to p o f rais e d f iel d s. T h e f o r e st is l a n d s C e r r o w a s am o n g th e f o re s t is l a n d s t h a t in t e rsect e d w ith rais e d f i e lds. I n F i g u re 5 9 o t he r f o rest i sla nd s s ho w u p a s r e d po l y g on s w he re t he y o v e r l a p w ith th e r a ised f i e lds, w h ich a re re p res e n t e d a s li g h t y e l l o w in th is i ma g e It c ou l d b e a s s u m e d th e f iel d s w e re c o n struc t e d so cl o se to t h e C e r r o mo u n d be c a u se t h e s e t t l e m en t w a s l o c a t e d t h e re. I f t h is is tru e t h e n a re o t h e r f o rest isl a nd s, w h ich ha v e rais e d f iel d s l o c a t e d ri g h t ne x t to t he m a lso s e t t l e m en t s i t e s? C a n it b e

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72 p re d i ct e d t h a t e x c a v a t i on s w i l l r e vea l e v id en ce o f h a b it a ti o n a t t h e se t y pe s o f f o rest is l and s w ith rais e d f ie l d s a ro u n d t h e m ? Fi g u re 5 10 For e s t is l and s s u r r ou n de d b y rais e d f ie l d s. T h e re a re t w o t y p e s o f f o rest isla n d s in Fi g u re 5 11 The f o rest isl a n d l abe l e d 1 ap p ea rs to b e a g r o up i n g o f f o re s t t h a t ha s g ro w n o v e r t h e rais e d f i e lds t h a t s u r r o u n d f o rest isla n d s 2 a n d 3 For e st is l an d 1 ha s a n i r re g u lar s hap e an d s e em s t o f o l l o w th e l i nea r p a t te rn o f t h e r a ised f ie l d s, w h i l e fo rest is l and s 2 a n d 3 a re r ou nd e d For e s t is l an d 1 a p pea rs to j u s t b e v e g e t a ti v e g r o w th o n t h e e le v a t e d p a rts o f t h e r a ised f iel d s op p o s e d to t h e o t h e r t w o f o rest isl a nd s w h ich a p pea r to b e f o rest e d mo u n d s a c c o rding to t h e ir s h a p e an d te x t u re. No a rch a e o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s ha v e b ee n c o n du c t e d a t t h is sit e a n d it is un k n o w n w he t he r f o rest isla nd s 2 a n d 3 a re s epa r a te mo u nd s o r p a rt o f t h e s a m e mo u nd W h a t is k no w n is t h a t rais e d f iel d s a re v is i b le in t h is i ma g e s u r r ound ing f o rest isl a nd s 2 a n d 3 a n d j u t t i n g u p ri g h t to t h e b ou n d a ry o f t h e f o rest

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73 islands. If this image is compared to the forest island Cerro and raised fields in Figure 5 8, it appears to be very similar. It can be suggested that forest islands like 2 and 3 in Figure 5 11 may reveal archaeological materials indicatin g a pre Columbian settlement. Figure 5 11. Study Area, showing the Intersect of raised fields and forest islands. Raised fields are yellow polygons, gallery forest are dark green polyg ons, rivers and lak e s a re b lue lin e s an d po l y g on s, a n d t h e s e cti on s o f f o re s t

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74 is l a n d t ha t i n t e rse c t w ith raised f iel d s a re r e d po ly g on s. W he n o b s e r v ing th e e n ti r e S t ud y A rea a f te r app l y ing th e i n t e rsect t oo l u sing t h e raised f iel d s a n d t h e f o rest isla nd s, 4 4 2 i n t e rsectio n s a re s h o w n T h e se a re re p re s en t e d b y th e red po l y g o n s in Fi g u re 5 12 T o u n de r s t an d more a bo u t t h e s i g n i f ica n c e o f t h e se res u lts, a c l o s e r lo o k i s t a k e n a t t w o a re a s in Fi g u re 5 1 3 a n d Fi g u re 5 14 Fi g u re 5 12 C e n tral S t ud y A rea s h o w ing th e res u lts o f t h e In t e rsect t oo l u sing rais e d f ie l d s a n d f o rest i sl a n d s. S a m e r e p res e n t a t i o n s a s Fi g u re 5 1 2 In Fi g u re 5 1 3 f o re s t i sla nd s i n t e rsecting w ith rais e d f i e lds a re s ee n a l o n g th e g a l l er y f o rest a n d a l o n g th e s w amp y a re a s o f t h e s a v ann a M o st o f t he se f o rest isl a nd s a re r o u nd e d i n d ica t ing tha t t h e y a re l o c a t e d o n mo u n d e d o r e l e v a t e d l and A lt h ou g h it is no t k no w n f o r cert a i n i f t h e se f o res t e d m ou nd s h a v e e v id en ce o f p r e Col u m b ian hab i t a ti on t h e ir l o c a ti o n ad j a c en t t o rais e d f i e lds, t h e ir ro un d e d s h ap e a n d t he ir l o c a ti o n

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75 close t o w a t e r so u rces a re s t ro n g i nd i c a t o rs t h a t t h e y a re po ss i b ly p r e Col umb i a n s e t t l e me n t sit e s. Fi g u re 5 13 Nort h ea st S t ud y A rea s ho w ing th e res u lts o f t h e I n t e r s e ct t o o l u sing rais e d f ie l d s a n d f o rest isl a n d s. S a m e r e p res e n t a t i o n s a s Fi g u re 5 1 2 In Fi g u re 5 1 4 t h e re a pp e a rs to b e a d i f fe re n t t y p e o f f o rest isla nd s i n t e rsecting w ith rais e d f i e lds. T h e i n t e rsect t oo l i de n t i f ied t he se red po l y g on s a s f o rest isla n d s. Ho w e v e r, t he y ha v e v e ry i r r e g u lar s hape s t ha t cl o s e ly f o l l o w th e s h a pe s o f t h e g ro up s o f raised f iel d s T he y a re no t clo s e ly a ss o cia t e d w ith w a t e r so u rces s u c h a s t h e ri v e rs. T h is re g io n l o c a t e d i n t h e no rt h ea st s e cti o n o f t h e s t u d y a re a is c ha ract e r i z e d b y l a r g e s w a t he s o f rais e d f ie l d s s p re a d a c r o ss op e n s a v anna Th e se rais e d f i e lds a re n o t loc a t e d cl o s e ly a lo n g ri v e rs or g a l l er y f o res t W h i le it is po ssible t h a t s o m e o f t h e se r e d po l y g on s m a y re p res e n t p r e Col u mb i a n s e t t l em e n ts o n m o und s it i s m o re likely tha t t h e ma jor i ty o f t he se i r re g u lar f o rest isla n d s j u st re p res e n t v e g e t a ti o n g ro w ing o n th e

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76 e le v a t e d s u r f a c e s o f th e rais e d f i e lds. I f t ha t is th e c a s e t h e n it is l e s s likely tha t m u ch a rch a e o lo g ical e v id en c e o f p r e Col u mb ian h a b it a ti o n w i l l b e fou n d in the s e f o re s ts. Fi g u re 5 14 Rais e d f i e lds in t h e N o rt h ea st c o rn e r o f S t ud y A re a In Fi g u re 5 1 5 t h e f o r e st is l an d C e r r o is l o c a t e d in t h e c e n tral ri g h t p o rtion o f t h e i ma g e W h i l e t h e rai s e d f iel d s a re mo stly c o n c en tra t e d a lo n g ri v e rs f o r t h e en ti r e s t u d y a re a in th is re g ion t h e raised f iel d s a re f o u n d a c r o ss t h e s a v an n a This is t h e l a r g e st e x pan se o f rais e d f iel d s in t h e s t u d y a re a a n d may i nd ica t e a l o n g e r h ab it a ti o n b y p r e Col umb i a n s o cie t ies, a m o re i n t e n si v e a g r i c u l t u ral p r o du cti o n o r t h e c on ti n ua l c on structi o n a n d a b a n do n m e n t o f f iel d s T h e re a re 1 6 1 0 F o rest Isl and s t h a t a re w it h in 1 km o f w a t e r ( t h a t inc l ude s bo t h Ri v e rs a n d La k e s ) Th i s is a l a r g e maj o r i ty (7 2 6 %) o f t h e f o rest isl a nd s, i n d ica t ing a c o r r e la t ion be t w ee n f o r e st is l a n d s a n d s o u rc e s o f w a t e r. I f t h is is a si g n i f ica n t

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77 c o r r e la t io n t h e n t he re ne e d s t o b e a cl o s e r l o o k a t t h e p re v io u sly d e scr i be d t y pe s o f f o rest isla n d s a n d ho w the y a re o r g an i z e d o n t h e l a nd sc a pe T h e si z e o f t h e l a r g e r f o rest isla n d s a l o n g th e ri v e r ma y no t a cc u ra t e ly re f lect a sin g le s e t t l e me n t a t o n e po i n t in ti m e A s e t t l e me n t ma y ha v e g ro w n an d s h ru n k o v e r ti me o r m a y ha v e s ta r t e d o ff s ma l l e r a n d m i g rat e d in o n e d i r e cti o n g ra d u a l l y T he r e f o re, t h e t o t a l si z e o f t h e l a r g e fo rest isla n d s c a n n o t b e u s e d f o r ass u m i n g it a s a si n g le s e t t l e me n t f o r pu r p o s e s o f p o p u la t ion si z e Th e y c a n b e u s e d t o s e e ho w lar g e o f a po p u la t i on c ou l d p o t en ti a l l y l i v e o n tha t mo un d b u t t ha t d o e s n o t ne c e ss a r i ly m ea n t ha t t ha t w a s t h e si z e o f t h e po p u la t i o n a t an y g i v e n po i n t in ti m e T h e s t ret c he s o f s a v ann a t ha t o cc u p y th e s pa ce b e t w ee n ri v e rs are do t t e d w ith s ma ll f o r e st is l a n d s. M an y o f t h e se isl a nd s a re n e a r ly circular in s hape s u gg e sti n g e it he r me tic u l ou s e ro d i n g o r a n ci e n t a rt i f ic i a l c on structi o n Ass u m ing a rti f ic i a l c on structi o n o r Pr e Col umb i a n u s e t h e f u n ct i o n a n d pu r p o se o f t he s e mo u n d s is n o t en ti r e ly cl ea r. T he s e d i s pe rsed m o u n d s a re c on sid e r a b ly s m a l l e r t h a n t h e rel a ti v e ly lar g e r mou n d s l o c a t e d a lo n g th e maj o r r i v e rs are k no w n s e t tl e m en t sit e s.

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78 Fi g u re 5 15 ArcG I S i ma g e o f f o re s t is l and s an d rais e d f i e lds in s o u t he rn re g ion o f S t ud y A re a Fi g u re 5 16 ArcG I S i ma g e o f f o r e s t is l and s a n d ra i s e d f i e lds nea r c en t e r o f S t ud y A re a

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79 Fi g u re 5 1 6 a n d Fi g u re 5 1 7 d ispl a y th e h y po t he si z e d s pa t i a l o r g an i z a ti o n o f d iff e re n t t y pe s o f f o r e st isla nd s an d r a ised f i e lds in t h e s t ud y a re a The f o rest isla n d s a re re p res e n t e d b y g re e n po l y g o n s, an d t h e red p o l y g on s a re s e cti o n s o f t h e f o rest isla n d s w h ich in te rsect rais e d fi e lds. R a ised f iel d s a re re p res e n t e d b y th e li g h t y e l l o w po ly g on s, t h e g a l l e ry f o re s t is t h e da rk g re e n po l y g on s, an d ri v e rs are t h e b l u e l i ne s. In ea c h o f t he se i ma g e s, t h e f o r e st is l and s a re d ist i n g u ish ab le be t w ee n t w o t y pe s: lar g e r f o re s t e d mo u nd s w h ich w e re o n ce p r e Col u mb i a n s e t tl em e n ts, a n d s ma l l e r ro un d f o res t e d mo u nd s. T h e l a r g e f o r e st is l a n d s o cc u r a lo n g th e g a l l e ry fo rest a n d r i v e r, an d a re o f t e n loc a t e d o n o r n ea r r a i s e d f ie l d s. A s d iscuss ed e v e n t h ou g h t he se f o r e st is l a n d s in t he se i ma g e s h a v e no t b e e n e x c a v a t ed t h e ir l o c a ti o n n e a r a r i v e r a n d o n r a ised f i e lds is si m i l a r to t h e f o rest isl a nd s w h ich ha v e b ee n a rch aeo lo g ically e x c a v a t e d an d f o un d to b e p r e Col um b ian s e t t l em e n ts. T h e s ma l l r o u n d f o rest isla n d s d o t t i n g th e s a v an n a h a v e a lso b ee n t h e f o c u s o f a rch a e o lo g ical res ea r c h (Er i cks o n 2 0 0 0a ). T h e y a lso ha v e e v id en ce o f h um a n p r e s en c e t h ou g h n o t a l w a y s th e e v id en ce o f l o n g t e rm o r int e n se o cc u p a ti on T he s e t w o t y pe s o f f o rest is la nd s a re m a rke d ly d i f f e r e n t i n t h e ir si z e s hap e an d l o c a ti o n w h ich s ugg e st t ha t t he y w e re c on struc t e d an d u s e d f o r dif fe re n t f u n cti on s T h e se G IS re s u lts l e a d t o a n i n f o r m e d h y po t h e sis re g a rding th e s pa t ial rela t io n s h i p s o f t h e p r e Col umb i a n s e t tl e m en t s an d a g r i c u lt u ral f iel d s in t h e L l a no s d e M o jos. T h e main s e t t l e me n ts w e re f o u nd e d a n d ma in t a in e d o n l a r g e m o und s a l o n g th e r i v e rb an k, s e r v ing a s t h e ma jor hu b o f a cti v ity an d h a b it a ti o n Th e y a re l o c a t e d bo t h ad jac e n t t o t h e ri v e r ( w hich h a s b e n e f its s u ch a s t ra n s po rt a ti on f o o d w a t e r, an d a q ua tic res ou rces) a n d t o t h e w ide e x pan se o f s a v a n n a o n w h ich t he y c on st ruct e d rais e d f ie l d s. W h i le s o m e f iel d s w er e c on s truc t e d d i r e ctly ad jac e n t t o t h e s e t t l e m en ts, m a n y o f t h e

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80 f ie l d s s t ret c h a c r o ss t h e l a n d i n to t h e o pe n s a v anna T h e c o n structi o n ma in t en a n c e an d u se o f t he se f iel d s w ou ld ha v e re q u i r e d b o th a me a n s o f tra n s p o rta t ion t o t h e f i e lds an d a l o c a ti o n f o r t e mp o rary c amp s. The t e m po rary c amp s c ou ld h a v e bee n s ma l l e r ( r u ral) s e t t leme n t s o r s i mp ly a de si gn a t e d p la c e f o r s h e lt e r. Th e se a r ea s w ou ld h a v e re q u i r e d th e c on st r u ct i o n o f small mo u n d s ( f o r sa m e re a s o n s a s t h e s e t t l e me n t mo u nd s, f o r t h e a n n u a l f lo o d in g ). Ring Di t c hes A to t a l o f 1 6 ring d it c h e s ha v e b e e n t en t a ti v e ly id en t i f i e d o n t h e s a t e l l i te ima g e r y V e r i f i c a ti o n t h a t t h e se a re i n d ee d ea r t h w o rks co n struc t e d b y P r e Col umb i a n c u lt u res w ou ld re q u i r e g ro un d tru th in g w ith e it he r su rv e y ing o r t e st p its. This m e t h o d o f u sing G oo g le E a r t h a t e l l ite i ma g e ry t o l o c a te a n d i d en t i f y ring d itc he s ha s b ee n p r a cti c e d b y o t he r B o l i v ian a rch a eo lo g ists (Er i cks o n 20 10 ) w ith s u cc e ss. Alt h o u g h Goo g le E a rt h ha s b ee n p ro v e d u s e f u l a s a t oo l f o r m app i n g da ta po s t e x c a v a ti on t h is p ro a cti v e me t ho d o f f i r st i de n t i f y i n g sit e s o n s a t e l l ite ima g e ry ha s i mpo r t an t b e n e f its. Ring Ditc he s c a n b e i n d ica t i v e o f s e v e ral t h i ng s. As a f un cti o na l str u ct u re, t he y c a n b e u s e d to p r e s e r v e w a t e r d u r i n g a d ry s e a s on D u r i n g th e c on s t ruction o f a ring d itc h t h e e x c a v a t e d s o i l s c a n b e bu i l t i n to t h e m id d le t o rai s e a m ou n d T h e e le v a t e d mo u nd s i n t h e L l ano s d e Moj o s a re r a is e d ab o v e th e an n ua l f l o od w a t e rs, p r o v idi n g a d ry an d s e c u re l o c a t i o n f o r s e t t l e m e n ts. B e sid e s t he ir f un cti o n a l a s pe c t r i n g d itc he s h a v e a lso b e e n s u gg e st e d a s d e f e n si v e m e c han i s m s s o m e t i me s a cc o mp a n i ed b y a pa l i s a d e w a l l ( Er i cks o n 2 0 06 c, 20 0 8 ). W h i l e a rc h aeo l o g ists s ta te t h a t s u c h rin g s an d w a l l s w e re u s e d de f e n si v e ly in M o jos, it is n o t t h e cl ea r case in t h is re g ion a r ou n d t h e t o w n o f S a n t a A n a d e l Y a c u m a o n t h e w e st e rn si d e o f t h e M a mo r ri v e r. In t h e 2 0 1 2 e x c a v a ti on s a t t h e f o rest isl a n d o f

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81 Isla E st a n cit a l o c a t e d j u st n o rth o f S an t a A n a de l Y a c u ma t he re w a s n o cl e a r e v id en ce o f a pa l i s a d e c o n struct i o n ( W a l k e r 2 0 11c ), t h o u g h th e f a ct t h a t t h e e x c a v a ti on s d id no t f i n d e v id en c e d oe s no t m e a n t ha t a pa l i s a d e w a s ne v e r t he re. I f t h e r i n g d itc he s w e re c on struc t e d a s de f e n si v e s t ruct u res, t he re w ou ld b e po l i tic a l i mp l i c a t i on s t ha t c o r r e s po n d w ith th e s e t t leme n t pa t t e rns i d en t i f i e d in t h is G I S p roje c t. T h e ring d itch w ou ld en c o m p a ss a s e t t leme n t t h a t id e n t i f ies i ts e l f a s a p o l i tic a l un i t a t w a r or ha v ing po l i tic a l t e n sio n s w ith o t he r se t tl e me n ts t h a t l e a d t o v iol en c e The n e x t st e p w ou ld b e a n a t t e mp t t o i de n t i f y po l i tic a l a n d c u lt u r a l b o un d a r i e s. W h i l e t h e se w e re c e rtai n ly d y nam ic an d f l u ct u a t e d th r ou g h ti me t h e a d d ition o f a rch a e o lo g ical i n f o r m a ti o n a n d ra d i o c a rb o n da ti n g c ou l d p la c e s e t t l em e n ts in t i m e A n i n c r ea sing a mo u n t o f a rc h aeo lo g ical d a ta is be c o m ing a v a i l ab le, b u t t he re is i n s u f f ic i en t i n f o r ma t i o n o n t h e da t e s o f t h e se si t e s t o be g in a c h r ono lo g y a n d p la c e t h e m i n t i me Summ a r y Re m o t e s e n sing ha s re v o lu t io n i z e d a s p e cts o f a rc h aeo l o g y rel a t e d to s p a ti a l da t a Q u e sti o n s re g a r d ing l a r g e sc a le m o n um en t a l i ty c a n no w b e ad d ress e d u sing re m o t e s e n sing me t ho d s, u sing t e c hn i q ue s s u ch a s s a t e l l ite ima g e ry t o i den t i f y c om p a re, an d a n a l y z e ea rth w o rks all o v e r t h e w o r l d In pa rticular, th i s te c h n i q u e ha s be e n u s e d in t h e L l a n o s d e Moj o s re g ion o f B o l i v ia to res ea rch t h e e x t en t, c a t e g o r i z a ti on c o n str u cti on an d s p a ti a l o r g a n i z a ti o n o f p r e Col u mb ian e a rth w o rks ( W a l k e r 2 01 1 d) T he s e m o n u m e n t a l e a rt h e n c on structi o n s a re f o un d a c r o ss t h e re g io n an d i n clu d e c a n a ls, c a u s e w a y s, f ish w e i r s, s e t t leme n t m ou n d s, r i n g d itc he s, a n d v a r i ou s t y pe s o f a g r i c u lt u ral f ie l d s ( D ene v a n 19 6 6 ). E r ickson (1 9 95 ) u t i l i z e d s e v e ral t e c hn i q ue s o f r e mo t e s e n sing in h i s res ea rch. D u e to t h e lack o f reli a b le a n d a c c u rate m a p s n ee d e d f o r g u idi n g a rch a e o lo g ical s u r v e y s an d l o c a ti n g sit e s, Er i cks o n reli e d o n o t h e r f o r m s o f

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82 na v i g a ti on Er i cks o n s t ud ied ae r i a l pho t o g ra p h s f r o m t h e a rchi v e s o f t h e I n sti t u to G eo g r f ico M i l it a r a n d t h e B o l i v ian A ir F o O f ic i n a d e A e r o f o t o g ra m a T h en u sing a G I S a n d r e m o te s en si n g s o f t w a re p a ck a g e ( I D R I S I) to p r e pa re c om pu t e r g ene r a t e d classi f ic a ti on s o f k e y z one s f r o m d i g it a l L A N DS A T i ma g e r y Er i cks o n w a s a b le to p ro du c e a s e r i e s o f la r g e sc a le en v i r onm e n t a l ba se m a p s f o r g u idi n g g ro un d rec on n a issa n c e a n d f o r loc a ti n g ea rth w o rks. T h is c o m pu t e r p ro g r a m w a s u s e d t o p ro du c e map s o f v e g e t a ti o n c o m m u n ities, l a n d u s e f o re s t a n d s a v ann a bo u n d a r i e s, r i v e r co u rses, a n d r o a d s o v e r lar g e a re a s. I D RISI w a s u s e d to s c a n an d d i g iti z e ae r i a l pho t o g ra ph s, a n d t h e n m a n ip u l a t e d t o i n c r e a se c o n tras t e m pha si z e c e rtain f e a t u res o f t h e l a nd sc a pe i d e n t i f y ea rth w o rks, an d t o p r o du ce f i e ld m a p s. T h e s e rem o te s en sing me t hod s w e re c o m b i n e d w ith g ro un d s u r v e ys, t o p o g ra ph ic ma p p i n g an d a rch a e o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s t o i n t e g rate t ra d iti o na l me t h o d s o f a rch a eo lo g ical res e a rch w ith ne w t e c h n o lo g ical te c h n i q ue s (Er i cks o n 1 9 9 5 ). L o mba r d o e t a l (2 0 1 2 ) a na l y z e d th e s p a ti a l d istr i bu ti o n o f rai s e d f i e lds ( i n clu d ing p l a t f o r m r i d g ed a n d d it c he d f ie l d s ) c a n a ls, d itc h e d f iel d s, ring d it c he s, an d mo n u m e n t a l mo u nd s to o m p a re d i f fe re n t ki nd s o f a rch a e o lo g ical l and s c a pe s a n d t h e links b e tw ee n en v i r onm e n t a l s e t t in g s an d t h e de v e lo p m en t o f c o m p l e x s o c ie t o mba r d o e t a l 2 0 1 2 : 1 2 3 ). T he y l oo k e d a t t w o re g io n s in t h e L l a no s d e Moj o s t o c o m p a re th e d istr i bu t i o n o f e a rth w o rks: t h e p la t f o rm f ie l d s re g ion in t h e no r t h w e st an d t h e mo n um en t a l m o u n d s re g ion in th e s ou t h e a st. S a t e l l ite i ma g e ry w a s a c q u i r e d f r o m G o o g le E a rt h a n d t o po g ra p h ic p r o f i l e s w e re ba s e d o n t h e o r ig in a l S hu t t le R ada r To po g ra p h y M i ssion (SR T M ) D ig it a l El e v a ti o n M ode l ( DEM ) W ha t w a s d iscer n e d f r o m t he s e rem o te s en sing me t h od s w a s th a t t h e re w a s a si g n i f ica n t d i f f e r en ce i n t h e t y pe s o f e a rth w o rks co n struct e d b e t w ee n t h e t w o

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83 re g io n s, a n d t h e se d is t r i bu ti o n d i f f e r e n c e s w e re a res u lt o f l o c a l g e o e c o lo g y (L omba r d o e t a l. 2 0 12 ). Hec k en be r g e r et a l (2 0 03 ) disc u ss th e re s ea rch c o n d u ct e d in t h e U p p e r X in g u in s ou t h e rn B ra z i l ian A m a z o n w h ich u t il i z e s s a t e l l ite i ma g e s a c q u i r e d th ro u g h La n d s a t, ae r i a l ph o t o g ra ph y a rch a eo lo g ical a n d e t h n o g ra ph ic f iel d w o rk, g eo g ra ph ic in fo r m a ti o n s y st e m s, t h e p a rtic i pa ti o n o f in d i g enou s K u ikuro s o cie t i e s. T h e l a n d sc a p e in t h e U p pe r X in g u is s h o w n a s th e re s u lt o f i n t e raction b e t w ee n t h e n a t u r a l en v i r on m en t lar g e p r e Col umb i a n s o cie t ies, an d h ist o r i c a l c o lo n ialis m T h e bu i l t e n v i r onmen t p ro du c e d b y p r e Col umb i a n s o ci e ti e s is c h a ract e r i z e d b y pub l i c c on structi on s s u ch a s p la z a s, ro ad s, mo a ts, b r i d g e s, c u lti v a t e d a r e a s, a n d l a r g e s e t t l e m e n ts l i n k e d to g e t he r as g a lac t ic clus te (Heck en b e r g e r et a l 20 0 3 : 17 1 1 ). T h e i de n t i f ica t i o n a n d ma p p ing o f t he se ea r t h w o rks w a s po ssible t h ro u g h t h e r e mo t e s e n sing te c h n i q ue s, a n d t he ir in te rpre t a ti o n w a s g u i d e d b y a rch a eo lo g ical a n d e t h n o g ra ph ic i n f o r m a ti on T he s e re g io na l l y i n t e g rat e d g a lac t ic clus te rs a n d t h e s y st e m o f c on st r u ct e d ea rth w o rks in a n d a ro u n d t h e m b e c ha ract e r i z e d a s s a t u r a t e d a n t h r o po g en ic l a n d sc ape a r e f u l l y en g in ee r e d a n d m a n ag ed ( Heck enbe r g e r et a l 2 00 3 : 1 7 11 ), a s is s ee n e lse w he re in t h e Am a z on In t h e B a u res re g ion in no rt h ea s t e rn B o l i v ia, E r i cks o n a n d W a lker (2 0 09 ) f o c u s e s o n p r e Col um b ian c au s e w a y s an d c ana ls a s pa rt o f t h e bu i lt en v i r onm e n t de m on st r a ti n g th e a ge n cy o f pa st c u lt u re s E r ickson d e scr i be s t h e G eo g ra ph ic I n f o r ma ti o n S y s t e m ( G I S ) o f t h e B au r e s R e g ion p ro j e ct, w h ich in t e g rat e d Di g it a l Ele v a ti o n Mo d e ls, L a n d s a t E T M s c ene s C O RONA i m a g e s, ae r i a l p ho t o g ra p h s, t opo g ra p h ic ma p s, a n d v e ct o r m a p s d e t a i l ing th e s pa ti a l i n f o r m a ti o n f o r cult u ral f ea t u res cl a ss i f i e d v e g e t a ti o n an d l an d u s e T h r o u g h t h e i n t e g rati o n o f t he s e me t hod s an d a rch a eo lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s Er i cks o n an d W a l k e r ( 20 0 9 ) d isco v e red t ha t a lt h ou g h

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84 t h e c ana ls an d c au s e w a y s s e r v e th e ba sic f u n cti on s o f tra n s po rt a ti o n an d c o m m u n ica t ion o f p eo p le, g ood s a n d i n f o r m a ti on t h e s h ap e a n d s t ruct u re o f t h e se ea rth w o rks s u gg e st t h e a g en cy o f i n d i v id ua ls, f a m i l ies, h am l e ts, an d c o m m u n ities w h o a g re e d t o cre a t e a l o c a l an d re g io n a l i n f rastr u ct u re o f d i r e ct c o m m un ica t ion ba s e d o n a s ha red ae s t he tic o f i n t en se s o cial i n t e ractio n strai g h t ne ss, a n d o r d e (Er i cks o n an d W a l k e r 2 0 0 9 : 2 20 ). T he se c ha ra c t e r i stics o f t h e ea r t h w o rks w e re d iscern e d t h ro u g h t h e lar g e sc a le ana l y sis o f re m o t e s e n sin g w h ich w ou ld no t h a v e b e e n p o ssible t h ro u g h a rch a e o lo g ical en d ea v o rs al o n e R e mo t e s en sing t e c hn i q ue s p ro v ide t h e n ee d e d me t hod s t o s t ud y t h e nd s c ape s o f mo v e me n i cks o n a n d W a l k e r 2 0 0 9 ) n o t o n ly in t h e B au res re g ion o f B o l i v ia, bu t w o r l d w i de Ne a r l y a ll a rch aeo lo g ical s tud i e s in t h e A m a z o n u til i z e re m o te s en s i n g t o a de g re e w he t h e r it s c o n s u lting ae r i a l pho t o g ra ph s o r co n du ct i n g a n a l y s e s with s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry an d G I S. C o mp u t e r pr o g r a m s a n d s a t e l l ite i ma g e r y w he n in c on j un cti o n w ith h ist o r i c a l r e s ea r c h le a d t o e x citing ne w w a y s o f i n t e rpre t ing a rc h a e o lo g i cal e v id en ce an d c u lt u ral l a n d sc a p e s. The p ro g ression o f t e c h n o lo g y a l l o w s a rch aeo lo g ists t o ana l y z e i n f o r ma ti o n in ne w an d d i f fe r e n t w a y s a l l o w ing the m t o re v ise o ld t h e o r i e s, c om p a re m o de rn s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry w ith p re v i o u sly d ra w n m ap s o r a e r i a l pho t o s, a n d to v i e w a l and sc a p e a n d e n v i r onme n t f r o m a f r e sh pe rs p e cti v e An imp o rt a n t no t e a n d a p o t e n ti a l p r o b l e m r e g a rding th e u s e o f s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry in m a pp ing t h e ea rth w o rks is tha t s o me t i me s t he y d o no t s ho w u p o n t h e s a t e l l ite i ma g e r y W h i l e t h e s a t e l l i te i ma g e ry no r m a l l y re v ea ls t h e c o n trast b e t w ee n th e d iff e re n c e s in v e g e t a t i o n a n d e le v a ti o n f o r m o st o f t h e c o n struct e d mo u nd s, f iel d s, c ana ls, an d ring d itc h e s, t h is is n o t a l w a y s t h e c a s e A f te r h und r e d s a n d p e rh ap s

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85 t hou s and s o f y ea rs, ma n y o f t h e e a rth w o rks h a v e e ro d e d t o t h e po i n t w he re t h e y a re no t d istin g u ish ab l e f r o m t h e s u r ro und i n g l an d sc ap e o n t h e i ma g e r y For e st c o v e r on t h e is l and s a n d in t h e g a l le ry f o rest a l s o o b sc u res ea rth w o rks. T he r e f o r e w h i l e th is m a p o f d i g it i z e d f ea t u res r e p r e s en ts t h e ge ne ral s p a t i a l la y ou t o f p r e Col um b ian f ea t u res in t h e st ud y a re a it is n o t a l w a y s a cc u rat e F o r e x amp le, g ro un d s u r v e y s a t t h e site o f Isla Est an ci t a re v ea led t h e p res en c e o f raised f i e l d s t o t h e no r t h o f t h e f o rest isla n d ( W a l k e r 20 1 0 ). Ho w e v e r, t he se rais e d f ie l d s a re no t v i sib l e o n th e s a t e l l ite ima g e ry in Goo g le E a rt h Gro u nd tru t h i n g th e l o c a ti o n o f ea r t h w o rks w i ll b e ne c e ss a r y in o rd e r to c o n f i r m t he ir l o c a t i o n an d e x t e n t.

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86 C H AP T E R 6 CON C L USIONS A ND F U T U R E RE S E AR C H Co n c lu s ions T h is p roject is m e an t t o d e m o n stra t e t h e m e t ho d o lo g ies m ad e po ss i b le b y u sing s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry an d A rcGI S W h i l e t h is t he sis po s e s mo re q ue sti o n s t h a n it an s w e rs, it a cts a s a n e x amp l e o f ho w a rch a e o lo g ists c ou ld b e c om b ini n g the i r arc ha e o lo g ical da ta w ith s pa ti a l a na l y s e s f o r a more c om p le t e u n d e rst a nd ing o f t h e ir da t a H o pe f u l l y t h e q ue s ti on s p ro p o s e d in t h is t h e sis w i l l g u ide f u t u re r e s ea rch t o w a rds i mp l e m e n ti n g s u ch me t hod s G I S is i n c r ea sin g ly be ing u til i z e d in a v a r i e ty o f f i e lds, i n clu d ing a rch a e o lo g y H o w e v e r, m a n y res ea rch p ro j e c t s s t i l l d o n o t incl u d e t h e a d d ition o f G I S ba s e d a n a l y s e s, a n d c ou ld g re a tly be ne f it f r o m it. Arch a e o lo g ists w h o h a v e l ea rn e d h o w to u s e G I S a n d a pp ly it to t he ir res e a rch w i l l ha v e th e up p e r h a n d in be ing ab le t o en v is i o n th e b i g g e r pict u re, to l o c a t e t he ir res e a rch w it h in a l a r g e r f r a me w o rk o f g eo g ra ph ical a n d s p a t i a l a n a l y s e s. W h i l e G o og le E a rt h ha s m a n y recr ea ti o na l u s e s, t h e p ro g ra m b en e f i ts a s a re s ea rch t oo l s e e m s t o ha v e b e e n g re a t l y unde rsto o d in a rch a e o lo g y G oo g le E a rt h ha s a p r o m is i n g fu t u re in a r c ha e o lo g ical res ea rch a n d G I S app l i c a ti o n s. The p ro g ram is f r ee u s e r f r i end l y an d a l r e a d y p ro v id e s m a pp ing t o o ls w h ich c a n b e s a v e d an d up l oa d e d i n to o t h e r p ro g ra m s i n clu d ing A r c G I S By c omb i n ing the s e t w o p ro g ra m s, t h is t he s is p res en ts a me t h o do lo g y tha t c a n b e re p l i c a t e d a n d u s e d b y o t h e r arc h a eo lo g ists w h o ha v e q ue sti on s r e g a rding g eo g ra ph ical an d s pa ti a l o r g an i z a ti o n a n d p a t t e rns. O t he r a rch a e o lo g ists ha v e d em o n stra t e d t h e u til i ty o f t he s e p ro g rams ( Er i cks o n 1 9 95 ; L om ba rdo e t a l. 2 01 2 ; He c k en b e r g e r e t a l. 20 0 3 ).

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87 W h i le t h e l a nd s c ap e is o f t e n d e scr i be s a s a n t h ro po g en ic, th is p roje c t c a n e sti m a te j u s t h o w m u c h o f t h e en v i r on m en t i n th e St u d y A rea c o n sists o f p r e Col u m b ian ea rth w o rks a n d s c u lp t e d l a nd sc a pe R e f e r r i n g t o T ab le 3 1 in C ha p t e r 3, t h e t o t a l a rea o f t h e rais e d f iel d s w a s fo u n d t o b e 6 78 1 2 k m W he n d i v id e d b y th e t o t a l a rea o f t h e St ud y A re a t h e raised f ie l d s make u p 6 5 9 % o f t h e e n ti r e e n v i r onm e n t. T h is w ou ld b e t h e l o w en d e st i ma t e f o r t h e t o t a l pe r c en t a g e o f h u m a n mod i f i e d l an d in t h e S t ud y A re a Since f o rest isla n d s r e p res en t a re a s o f a lt e r e d l a n d sc a p e a s w e ll (eit he r g ro w ing o n to p o f rais e d f iel d s, o r g ro w i n g o n to p o f s e t t l e m en t m o und s ) i f t h e t o t a l a rea o f t h o se (2 11 3 1 k m ) is a d d e d t o t h e rais e d f iel d s, t he n t h e c o mb i n a ti o n o f r a ised f iel d s a n d f o rest isla n d s o c c up y 8 65 % o f t h e en ti r e l a n d sc ape T h is p e rce n t a g e is a h i g h en d e sti m a t e w ith a likely re a l v a lue l y ing s ome w he re b e t w ee n 6 5 9 8 6 5 %, b e c au s e n o t a ll f o rest isla n d s ma y a ct u a l l y re p res en t h u m a n mod i f i e d o r occ u p ied a re a s. W h i l e t h is doe s no t s e e m like a l a r g e pe rce n t a g e t h e a c t ua l a m o un t o f a v a i l ab le la n d must b e t a k e n i n to a cc o un t. T h e S t u d y A rea a l s o c on sists o f l a k e s, r i v e rs, an d g a l l e ry f o res t W h i le t h e pa t h f ea t u r e u s e d to m a p ri v e rs d o e s no t r e f l e ct a re a on ly l en g t h t h e pe rce n t a g e o f t h e S t u d y A rea o cc up i e d b y l a k e s c a n b e s u b trac t e d f r o m t h e o v e rall a rea o f t h e S t ud y A rea to m o re a cc u r a t e ly re p res e n t h o w m u ch o f t h e a c t ua l la n d t h a t p r e Col umb i a n pe o p le w e re a lt e r i n g T h e l a k e s ( 4 46 5 4 s q ua re k i lo m e t e r s) c on stit u t e 4 34 % o f t h e S t ud y A re a Ga l l e ry f o rest ( 1 5 3 9 4 1 k m ) occ up ies 1 4 9 6 % o f t h e t o t a l S t ud y Are a W he n l o o king a t ho w m u ch o f t h e s a v ann a w a s mo d i f i e d t h e a rea o f t h e f o rest is l and s a n d rai s e d f ie l d s c a n b e d i v id e d b y th e st ud y a rea ( m in u s t h e lak e s a n d g a l l e ry f o rest). T h is e q ua ti o n (8 89 4 3 / 83 0 0 5 4 ) y iel d s a p e rce n t a g e o f 10 7 2 %. C o m pa r e d t o t h e t o t a l St u d y A re a t h is pe rce n t a g e may b e a much mo re a cc u r a te re p res e n t a ti o n o f

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88 ho w m u ch o f t h e a cc e s sible en v i r on m en t w a s a lt e r e d b y p r e Col u m b ian c u l t u res t h ro u g h e a rth w o rk co n structi o n an d a g r i c u lt u ral f iel d s. Ho w e v e r, t h is res u lt mu st a lso t a ke i n to c on sid e r a ti o n th e en v i r onm e n t a l is s ue s w ith th is re g io n : s e a s o n a l i ty an d an n ua l f l o od in g As d iscuss e d in C ha p t e r 2, t h e L la n o s d e Mo j o s e x pe r i en c e s d rastic c han g e s be t w ee n t h e an n ua l f l o od ing a n d s u b s e q u e n t d ro u g h t l i ke c o n d itio n s Dur i n g th e w e t s ea s o n f l o od w a t e rs c a n c o v e r up t o a th i r d o f t h e l a nd sc a p e (D e ne v a n 1 966 ), t h ou g h t h is le v e l v a r i e s o n a y ea r l y an d re g io na l ba s i s. Th i s me a n s t h a t t h e r i v e rs o v e r f lo w t h e lak e s f i l l, a n d l o w ly i n g a re a s b e c o m e i nu n da t ed T h e S po t I m a g e ry p ro v id e d b y Goo g le E a rt h w a s ta k e n du r i n g th e d ry s ea s on H a d t h e s a t e l l ite ima g e ry be e n ta k e n du r i n g t h e w e t s e a s o n t h e r e s u lts o f d i g itiz i n g f e a t u r e s ma y ha v e be e n ma r k ed ly d iff e re n t S o t h e w a t e r w a y s ( lak e s a n d ri v e rs) tha t h a v e b e e n ma p p e d in t h is p ro j e ct re p re s en t t h e mo re pe r ma n en t s ou r c e s o f w a t e r in t h is re g ion o f M o jos. H o w e v e r, t h is ma pp i n g doe s no t r e f l e ct t h e s ea s o n a l c han g e s a n d t h e l o c a t i on s o f s e a s o n a l ly f lo o de d a re a s o f t h e la nd sc a p e t ha t w ou ld h a v e a lso p ro v id e d a m ean s o f t r a n s p o rta t i o n v ia c ano e a n d a q ua tic res o u rces. I f f u t u re s t u d ies ha v e a cc e ss t o ima g e ry f r o m b o t h s ea s on s, it w ou ld ma ke a n i n t e re s ti n g c o mpa r i s o n t o map t h e t w o s e p a rat e ly an d c o mpa r e h o w d rastic t h e c han g e s a re, an d h o w d if f e r e n t t h e p r e C o lu m b i a n e a rth w o rks are r ep re s en t e d f o r ea ch on e T h is p roject u s e d G oog le E a rt h t o i d en t i f y an d m a p e n v i r onme n t a l an d c u lt u ral f ea t u res, b u t t he re a re o t he r m e t h o d s t ha t c o u ld ha v e b e e n u s e d S u pe r v ised classi f ic a ti o n is a L an d Classi f ic a ti o n m e t h o d t ha t a ssi g n s p i x e ls in a ras te r i m a g e to u s e r d e f i n e d l a n d c o v e r t y pe s. As o ppo s e d to un s u pe r v ised cl a ssi f i c a ti on k no w le d g e

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89 re g a rding cl a ss t y pe s is a l r ead y a c q u i r ed To d o t h is, p i x e l s t y p ical o f ea c h t y p e o f la n d c o v e r t y p e ( f o rest isla n d r i v e r, g a l l er y f o rest, r a ised f i e ld, r o ad r a n c h e tc) a re s e lec t e d an d u s e d t o i de n t i f y w h e re si m i l a r pi x e ls o cc u r in t h e ima g e Sin c e s e cti on s o f t h e L la no s d e M o jos h a v e a l r ead y be e n g ro u n d tru th e d t h ro u g h e x c a v a ti on s u r v e y an d g ene ral tr a v e l, the s e w e l l k no w n a re a s c a n b e u s e d a s t raini n g re g io n s t o e n s u re t ha t t h e cl a ss i f ic a ti o n m e t h o d is mo re a cc u ra t e The c o m p u t e r p ro g ram ENVI u s e s L and s a t T M d a ta to c on d u ct v a r i ou s s u pe r v ised cl a ssi f i c a ti o n m e t h o d s. T h is a pp ro a c h w a s no t u s e d i n th is p roject f o r s e v e ral re a s on s, bu t mai n ly du e t o t h e a u t h o r ha v ing a m o re t ho ro u g h k no w le d g e a n d b a ck g ro un d in ma n ua l l y d i g it i z i n g in Goo g le E a r t h a n d u sing ArcGI S t oo ls. H o w e v e r, a p p l y ing a s upe r v i s e d cl a ss i f ica t i o n m e t h o d t o s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry ras te r d a ta o f t h e L la no s d e Moj o s r e g ion c ou ld p ro v e si g n i f i c an tly i n f o r m a ti v e in f u t u re r e s e a rch. Al r ead y k no w ing th e l o c a ti o n o f r a n c he s a n d r oad s w ou ld b e u s e f u l f o r a rch a e o lo g ists in p l a n n ing the ir e x ped itio n s a n d d e t e r m ini n g w h ich sit e s w ou ld b e t h e mo st e f f ic ie n t, r e a s o na b le, p r u d e n t, an d w it h in t h e ir bud g e t o f ti m e a n d mo n e y This ma y no t b e a n is s u e o f te n d iscuss e d in a c a de m ic p a pe rs, bu t th e b u d g e t o f a p ro j e ct o f t e n d e t e r m in e s t h e e x t en t o f w o rk t ha t c a n b e c o mp l e t e d a n d it is i mpo r t an t t o ma k e t h e mo st o f i t T h e se f a ct o rs c a n b e a c c ou n t e d f o r in t h e G I S ma p o f t h e d i g iti z e d f ea t u res. A n a rc h a e o l o g ist c a n d e f i n e t h e ma x i mu m a m o un t o f d ist a n ce f r o m t h e r o a d o r f r o m a to w n t h a t a site s hou ld b e l o c a t ed Th e y c a n d e f i n e t h e t y p e o f t e r r a in t ha t a si t e is loc a t e d i n Th e y c a n in pu t i n f o r m a ti o n a bo u t th e p ro p e rties in t h e r e g io n m a p ea c h p ro pe rty s epa r a t e l y a n d n o te w h ich p r o pe rty o w ne rs g i v e pe r m iss io n f o r di gg in g W i th

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90 a ll o f t he se d e f i n itio n s g i v en t h e G IS m a p a n d g i v e a n ou t pu t o f t h e mo st i dea l si t e s. T h is t y p e o f app r o a ch c ou ld s a v e t i m e a n d mo ne y w h i l e in th e f i e ld. As th e d e ba t e s o n cli m a te c han g e an d c a rb o n em iss io n s c o n ti n u e m an y e c o lo g ists ha v e tu r ne d the ir a t t e n ti o n to t h e A ma z on Is s ue s o n a p p ro p r i a te l and u s e p ractices c o u ld b e i n f o r me d b y i n v e sti g a ti n g ho w P r e Col umb i a n pe op le i n t e rac t e d w ith t h e l a nd sc a p e l on g b e f o re W e st e rn s o cie t ies a r r i v e d in th e A ma z on Prescr i be d bu rnin g s a re u s e d b y m o d e rn c a t t le r a n c h e s to k e e p t h e s a v anna s cle a r a n d t h e f o re s ts c on t a i ned b u t t h is is n o t a ne w p ractice b y an y m ean s T h e h ist o r i c a l c on t e x t o f t he se a cti on s is critical w he n e x am ini n g s a t e l l ite i m ag er y in o rd e r t o t ruly unde rst a n d ho w a la nd sc a p e ha s be e n s ha p e d n o t on ly rec en t ly bu t o v e r m i l le nn i a o f h u ma n h a b it a t i o n an d i n t e ract i o n In add i ti on a rch a e o lo g y is h ig h ly t ied t o t h e iss u e o f i nd i g enou s pe o p a n d ri g h ts in t h e A ma z on C e rtain l a n d u s e p ra c tic e s b y n a ti v e s, de e me d e structi v e b y W e st e r ne rs, ma y ha v e a ct u a l l y bee n p ra c tic e d f o r t h ou s a nd s o f y e a rs. Arch a e o lo g y c a n s ho w ho w the se l an d u se p r a ctic e s h a v e a f fe ct e d a n d s h ap e d t h e A ma z on i a n e n v i r onm e n t t h r o u g h t i me This i nv e sti g a ti o n w ou ld a lso s he d li g h t o n t h e q ue sti o n o f w ha t p a rts o f t h e A ma z o n a re p r i s ti ne o r a f fe ct e d o r i n f l u en c e d b y m a n kin d An e n v i r onme n t t h a t is tra d itio n a l l y thou g h t o f a p r i sti ne ma y ha v e a ct ua l l y be e n s ha p e d o r i n f lu e n c e d b y an t h ro po ge n ic la n d u se p ractice s a s is be i n g c on ti nu o u sly s ho w n in a rch a eo lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s. T h e imp o rt a n ce o f h i g he r r e s o lu t i o n s a t e l l ite i m a g e ry an d f u rth e r a rch a e o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s ha s b e e n de m on st r a t e d th r o u g h t h e e x p la na ti o n o f ho w the y c a n e n han c e ou r kn o w le d g e o f A m a z on ian P r e Col u mb i a n s o cie t ies. W h i l e r e s ea r ch ha s b e e n c on d u ct e d a b ou t t h e P r e Col umb i a n e a rth w o rks in t h e L l a no s d e Mo j o s in t h e B o l i v ian

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91 A ma z on t h e re a re s till a l o t o f q ue st i on s a b ou t t h e s o ci o po l i tic a l o r g a n i z a ti o n o f t h e d iff e re n t p eop l e w h o lived t he re. W i th t h e u s e o f s a t e l l ite ima g e ry an d a rch a eo lo g y t h is q ue sti o n c a n b e a n s w e red b y fu rt h e r id e n t i f y in g ma p p in g a n d a na l y z ing th e s pa ti a l a n d t e m po ral rel a ti on s h i p s o f t h e e a rth w o rks a n d o t he r l a nd s c ap e f e a t u r e s. Fu t ure R esea r c h I w ou ld rec o mm en d t h a t a ll res e a rch e rs f r o m e v er y f ield o f s t ud y m a ke t h e m s e l v e s f a m i l iar w i t h G o o g le E a rt h a n d i ts m a pp ing t oo ls. Di g it a l m app ing a n d e x am in a ti o n o f s a t e l l ite i ma g e ry app e a rs to b e u s e f u l in e v e ry a s pe ct o f a c ad e m ia, e v e n if it ha s no t b e e n u til i z e d y e t. F o r r e s e a rch e rs o n a b u d g e t, t h is a p p r o a ch t o s p a ti a l ana l y sis is e x tre m e ly e c on o m ical. G oo g le E a rt h is a f ree p ro g ram t ha t c a n b e do w n lo ad e d f r o m t he ir w eb sit e 1 an d t h e re a re f r e e G I S p ro g ra m s a v a i l ab le on l in e No o t he r f an cy e x pen si v e p ro g ra m m ing o r e q u i p me n t is n ee d e d to c o n du ct t he s e a na l y s e s an d ob t a in s p a ti a l i n f o r ma ti o n Th a t ma k e s t h is app r o a ch v e ry e c on o m ical a n d f ea s i b l e T h e s t u d y a rea c h o s e n fo r t h is p roject r e p res e n ts o n ly a s m a ll s e c ti o n o f t h e L la no s d e M o jos, bu t a m a p t h a t inc l ud e d t h e en ti r e re g ion is po ssib l e Furt h e r w o rk on id en t i f y ing an d m a pp i n g p r e Col umb i a n f e a t u r e s, m o d e rn f ea t u res, a n d l a nd sc a p e f ea t u res w it h in t h e e n ti r e L la n o s d e Moj o s re g ion w ou ld re v ea l a l a r g e r pict u re ab o u t ho w c u lt u res in t e ract e d w ith ea ch o t h e r a n d t h e l a nd sc a pe Esti m a ti on s re g a rding p r e Col u m b ian e c o no m ical p r o du cti o n a n d c a r r y i n g c apa city ha v e b e e n p r e v io u sly p ro po s e d ( De ne v a n 1 9 66 ) ba s e d o n t h e s u r v e y o f raised f iel d s f r o m a e r i a l pho t o g ra ph s. An a lt e r na ti v e e stimati o n c o u ld no w b e c o ndu c t e d ba s e d o n t h e v isu a l i m a g e s o f s a t e l l ite ph o t og ra ph s. T he re a re s o m e d i f fe re n c e s in t h e 1 ht t p: / / ww w g o o g l e.co m /e a r th / i n d e x h t m l

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92 me t hod s o f t h e t w o a p p ro a c h e s, a n d it w ou ld b e i n f o r m a ti v e t o s e e ho w th e res u lts d iff e r. T h e G I S i n f o r m a ti o n c ou ld b e u s e d to cr e a te a mo de l f o r pr e d icting t h e l o c a ti on s o f i d e a l a rc h aeo lo g ical sit e s. W h i l e n o t o f t e n d iscuss e d in a rtic l e s, c h oo sing w h ich site to d ig a t is o f t e n i n f l u e n c e d b y s e v e ral f a c t o r s. An a rch a eo lo g ist m a k e s de cis io n s b a s e d on : c on v en ie n c e o f lo c a t e d (inclu d ing w he t h e r t he re is a n a v i g ab le ro a d to t h e si t e t h e t y p e o f t e r r a in, a n d its d ist an c e f r o m a to w n with s u p p l i e s ) t h e p e r m i ssion t o d ig f rom t h e p ro pe rty o w ne r, a n d c e rta i n i nd ic a t o rs t ha t w ou ld ma rk t h e p res e n ce o f a n a rch a e o lo g ical sit e F o r t h is re g io n t h e f o rest is l and s a n d t h e r a ised f ie l d s a re t h e be s t in d ica to rs o f a rc h a e o l o g ical m a t e r i a ls. By cre a ti n g p r e f e r e n c e s o n t h e l o c a t i on s o f c e rtain f i l e s, t h e i d e a l s po ts t o s u r v e y o r e x c a v a te c ou ld b e q u ick l y c a lcul a t e d u sing ArcGI S t oo ls. I en v is i o n a pub l i c s ou r ce o f ge o g ra ph ical i n f o r ma ti o n w he re a rc h a e o lo g ists c a n a c c e ss a map s u ch a s t h e on e cre a t e d in th is p roject. Arch a e o lo g ists c a n c on trib u te t he ir o w n i n f o r ma ti o n w ith g eo g ra ph ical l o c a t io n s o f sit e s t o p in o n to th e m a p w ith th e c o r r e s po n d ing a rcha e o lo g ical i n f o r ma t i on Al t hou g h s om e sit e s o f a rch a e o lo g ical e x c a v a ti on s a re i d e n t i f i ab le o n t h e G oo g le E a rt h i m a g e ry ( W a lker 20 0 8a 20 0 8b ), no t a ll pub l i s h e d re s u lts o f e x c a v a ti on s re v ea l t he i r g eo g ra ph ical i n f o r ma t io n I a ck n o w le d g e t ha t t he re a re a n u m b e r o f f a c t o rs i n v o l v e d in a p u b l i c a l l y a cc e ssible s ou rce o f a rch a e o lo g ical i n f o r ma ti on Re v ea l i n g t h e e x a ct loc a ti o n s o f a rc h aeo l o g ical sit e s c ou ld le a d t o i n c re a s e d l o o t i n g an d i f t h e sit e s a re loc a t e d o n p r i v a te p r o p e rty the re is t h e issue o f p r i v a c y H o w e v e r, t h e b e n e f its o f c r e a ti n g a n op e n s o u rce o f i n f o r ma ti o n in w h ich A ma z on ian s c h o lars c a n s h a re i n f o r m a t ion h a v e p ro m is i n g ad v an t a g e s.

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93 L I S T O F RE F EREN C E S B a l e W i l l iam 20 0 6 T h e R e s e a rch P ro g ram o f Hist o r i c a l E c o lo g y A nnua l Re v iew o f A n t h r o po lo g y 35 : 7 5 98. B a l e W i l l iam a n d Cl a rk L. E r i cks on ed s 19 8 0 I n S e a rch o f El Dora do : S p a n ish E n try i n to Mo x o s, A T r op ical Fro n ti e r, 1 5 5 0 17 6 7 T h e U n i v e rs i ty o f Te x a s a t A u sti n ; Dissert a ti o n 20 0 6 T i m e a n d C om p le x i t y in Hist o r i c a l Ec o lo g y : St ud ies in t h e N e o tro p ical Lo w la nd s. New Y o rk: Colu m b i a U n i v e rs i t y P ress. Block, D a v id 19 9 4 M iss i o n C u l t u re o n t h e U p pe r A ma z on : Na t i v e T ra d iti o n J e s u i t E n t e rpr i s e & S e c u lar P o licy in Mo x o s, 1 6 6 0 1 8 80 L in c o ln: Un i v e rs i t y o f N e b raska P res s B u r g e ss, Ro be rt L a n d D a v id M S ha r p e ed 19 8 1 For e s t Isl a n d D y nam ics i n Ma n D o m in a t e d L a n d sc a p e s. Ec o l o g ical S t ud ies 41 New Y o rk: S p r i n g er V e r l a g B u st o s S a n t e l i c e s, Vic t o r 19 7 6 I n v e sti g a cio ne s a r q ueo l g icas e n T r i n i dad D epa r t a m en t o d e l Ben i. I n sti t u to Naci ona l d e Ar q u e o lo g a P ub l i c a ci n N o 22 L a P a z B o l i v ia. Cal and ra, H o racio, a n d Su s an a Sa lc e d a 20 0 4 A ma z on a b o l i v i ana : a r q ueo lo g a d e l o s L la n o s d e Moj o s. Ac t a A ma z on ica 34 (2): 1 55 1 6 3 C l ea r y David 20 0 1 T o w a rds a n En v i r on m en t a l H i st o ry o f t h e A ma z on : F ro m P r e h i st o ry t o th e N i ne t e e n th C en t u r y La tin A me r i c a n R e s e a rch Re v ie w 36 (2): 6 5 96. De ne v an W i l l ia m M. 19 6 3 A dd iti o na l C o m me n ts o n t h e E a rth w o rks o f Moj o s i n N o rt h e a st e r n B o l i v ia. A me r i c a n A n ti q u ity 28 (4): 54 0 545. 19 6 6 T h e A bo r ig in a l Cult u ral G e o g ra ph y o f th e L l a no s d e Moj o s o f B o l i v ia. Ibe r o A me r i c a n a 48 B e rkel e y: Un i v e rs i t y o f C a l i f o rnia Press. 19 7 0 A bo r ig in a l D r a in e d Field C u lti v a ti o n in t h e A me r i c a s. S cie n c e New S e r i e s, 169 ( 3 946 ) : 64 7 6 54 19 9 2 a The Pr i sti n e M y t h : T h e L and s c a p e o f t h e Am e r i c a s in 1 4 9 2 A nna ls o f t h e Ass o cia t i o n o f A me r i c a n G e o g ra phe rs 8 2 (3): 3 6 9 3 8 5

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94 1 9 9 2 b The N a ti v e Po p u la t ion o f t h e A me r i c a s in 1 4 92 2 n d e d itio n U n i v e rs i t y o f W i s c on sin P ress, Ma d i s on ( E d ). 19 9 6 A Bl u ff Mo de l o f R i v er ine Se t t l e m en t in Pre h ist o r i c A ma z on ia. A nna ls o f t h e Ass o cia t i o n o f A me r i c a n G e o g ra phe rs 8 6 (4): 6 5 4 6 8 1 20 0 1 Cul ti v a t e d L a nd s c ape s o f N a ti v e Ama z on ia an d t h e A n de s. N e w Y o rk: O x f o rd Uni v e rs i t y P res s 20 0 6 Pre E u ro p ea n F o rest C u lti v a ti o n in Am a z on ia n I n T i m e a n d Co m p le x ity in H i st o r i c a l Ec o lo g y : St u d ies in t h e N e o tr o p ical Lo w la nd s. W i l l i a m B a le a n d Clark Er i cks on e d s. P p 5 7 86 New Y o rk: Columbia Uni v e rs i ty P ress. Do u g he rt y B e rn a r d o a n d H o racio C a la n d ra 19 8 1 No t a p rel i m in a r s ob re i n v e sti g a cio ne s a r q ueo l g icas e n l o s L l ano s d e M o x o s, De pa rt a m e n to de l B en i Re p u b l i ca d e B o l i v ia. Revista d e l Mus e o d e la P la t a 8 ( S e ccin An tr o po l g i ca n o 5 3 ):8 7 1 06 L a Pla ta 19 8 4 Pr e h isp a n ic H u ma n S e t t l e me n t in t h e L la no s d e M o jo s B o l i v i a In Q u a t e r n a ry o f S ou t h A me r i ca an d A n t a rct i c P e n ins u l a J o r g e Ra b a ss a ed 2 : 16 3 199 A D. B a lk e m a R o t te r d a m Er i cks on C l a rk L. 19 8 0 Sis t e m a s A g r c o las Pre h is p n icas e n l o s L l a no s d e Moj o s A m r i ca I nd i g en a X 1 (4): 73 1 7 55 19 9 4 Rais e d Fiel d s a s a Su s t a i n ab le A g r i c u lt u ral S y st e m f r o m A ma z on ia. P a p e r p res en t e d i n t h e S y m p o sium R e c o v e ry o f I nd i g enou s T e c h n o lo g y an d R e s o u rces in B o l i v ia a t t h e 1 8 th I n t e r n a ti o na l C o n g ress o f t h e L a tin A me r i c a n S t ud ies Ass o cia t i o n A tl an t a M a rch 1 0 12. 19 9 5 a Arch a e o lo g ical P e rsp e cti v e s o n An c i e n t L and s c ape s o f t h e L la no s d e Moj o s in t h e B o l i v ian A m a z o n I n Arch a eo l o g y in t h e A m e r i c a n Tro p ics: C u r r en t A n a lytical M e t hod s a n d A pp l i c a t i on s ed it e d b y Pe t e r S t ah l, p p 6 6 9 5 C a mb r i d g e U n i v e rs i t y Press, C a mb r i d g e 19 9 5 b Arch a e o lo g ical me t hod s f o r t h e s t ud y o f l a n d sc a p e s o f t h e L l ano s d e Mo j o s in t h e B o l i v ian A m a z on I n Arch a eo lo g y in th e L o w la n d A m e r i c a n T ro p i cs: Cur r en t A na l y t ic a l Met h o d s an d A p p l i c a ti on s P e t e r S t ah l, ed P p 6 6 9 5 C a mb r i d g e U. K .: Ca m b r i d g e U n i v e rs i ty Press. 19 9 9 A g r i c u lt u ra e n c ame l lo ne s p re h is p n i c o s e n l a s t ier r a s ba jas d e B o l i v ia: P o sibil i da d e s d e d e s a r rol l o e n e l tr p ico h m ed o I n Lo s c a m e l l on e s y c h in a m pa s t ro p ica l e s: M e m o r i a s de l Si m po s i o Taller I n t e r n a cio n a l s ob re Ca m e l l one s y Chi na m pa s Tr o p ica l e s e d it e d b y J ua n J o s Jim n ez Orsornio a n d V ro n i q u e M. R o r i v e pp 3 9 52 E d ic i o n e s d e la Uni v e rs i da d Au t no m o d e Y u c a t n M r i da

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95 20 0 0 a Occ u p a ti o n Mo und s ( L o ma s) in t h e L l ano s d e Mo x o s E n g l i sh v e rs i o n o f 20 0 0 pub l i c a ti o n in S p a n ish Lo m a s d e o c u p a cin e n l o s L l ano s d e M o x o s. In Arq u e o lo g a d e Tier r a s Ba ja s ed i t e d b y A l i cia Durn C o i r o lo a n d R o be rto Bracco B o ks a r, pp 2 0 7 22 6 .C om is i n N a cio n a l d e A r q ueo lo g a M inist e r i o d e E du c a c i n y Cult u ra, M o n t e v id eo U ru g ua y 20 0 0 b L o ma s d e o c u p a cin e n l o s L la n o s d e M o x o s In Arq u eo l o g a d e Tier r a s B a ja s ed it e d b y A l i cia Dur n Coirolo a n d R o b e rto B r a c co B o ks a r, pp 20 7 226 C om is i n Naci ona l d e A r q u e o lo g a M inist e r i o d e E du c a cin y C u lt u ra, M o n t e v id eo Uru g ua y 20 0 0 c L o s c a m i n o s p r eh isp n icos d e la a ma z on a bo l i v ia n a In C a m in o s p rec o lo m b in o s: las v a s, los in g en ieros y los viaj e ro s e d it e d b y Le o no r Her r e ra an d Mari a nn e C a rd a l d e S c h r imp f f p p 1 5 42 I n stit u to C o l o m b ino d e An tr o po lo g ia e Hist o r i a B o g o t a 20 0 3 a H i st o r i c a l Ec o l o g y an d F u t u re E x p lora t io n s I n A m a z on ian D a rk E a rths: Or i g ins, P ro p e rties, M a na g e m en t ed i t e d b y J. Le h m a nn D. K e rn, B Gl a s e r, a n d W W oo d s, pp 4 5 5 5 0 0 Klu w e r, Dordrec h t 20 0 3 b A g r i c u lt u ral L a nd sc a pe s a s W o r l d H e r i t a g e : Rais e d Field A g r i c u lt u re in B o l i v ia an d P e r u I n Ma n a g ing C ha n ge : S u s t a in a b le A pp r o a c he s to t h e C o n s e rvation o f t h e B u i l t E n vi r on m en t ed it e d b y J ea n n e M a r i e T eu t on ico a n d Fra n k Ma te ro, pp 181 2 04 G e t t y C on s e r v a ti o n In sti t u t e Lo s A ng e les. 20 0 4 Re v iew o f C u lti v a t e d L a nd sc a pe s o f N a ti v e Ama z on ia a n d t h e A n de s b y W i l l ia m M De ne v a n La tin A m e r i c a n A n ti qu ity 15 (1) : 11 6 1 17 20 0 6 a I n t en s i f ica t i o n P o l i tic a l Ec o n o m y an d th e F a r m ing C o m m un i t y ; In D e f e n se O f A Bo t t o m Up P e r s pe ct iv e O f The P a s t In A g r i c u lt u ral S tr a t eg i e s e d i t e d b y J o y ce M a rcus an d C ha r l e s S t an ish, pp 2 3 3 2 6 5 C o ts e n I n stit u t e Lo s A n g e les. 20 0 6 b The Hist o r i c a l Ec o lo g y o f a C o mp lex La n d sc a p e in B o l i v i a In Ti m e an d Co m p lexity in H i st o r i c a l Ec o lo g y: S t ud ies in t h e N eo tr o p ical L o w l an d s ed i t e d b y W i l l i a m B a le a n d Clark E r i cks on pp 18 7 2 3 4 Col u mb ia U n i v e rs i ty Press, N Y 20 0 6 c T h e D o me stic a t e d La n d sc a p e s o f t h e B o l i v ian Ama z o n I n T im e an d Co m p lexity in H i st o r i c a l Ec o lo g y: S t ud ies in t h e N eo tr o p ical L o w l an d s ed i t e d b y W i l l i a m B a le a n d Clark E r i cks on pp 23 5 2 7 8 Col u mb ia U n i v e rs i ty Press, N Y 20 0 8 A ma z on ia: T h e H i st o r i c a l Ec o lo g y o f a Do m e sti c a t e d L and s c a p e I n T h e Ha nd b oo k o f S ou t h A m e r i c a n A rch aeo l o g y ed it e d b y H e lai n e Si l v e r ma n a n d W i l l i a m I s be l l p p 15 7 183 Sp r i n g e r, New Y o rk.

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96 20 0 9 A g en c y Ca u s e w a y s, Ca na ls, a n d t h e La n d sc a p e s o f E v e r y d a y L i f e in t h e B o l i v ian Ama z on In L a nd sc a pe s o f M o v em en t: T rai l s, P a t h s, an d R o ad s in A n t h r o po lo g ical Pe r s p e cti v e ; J a m e s S ne a d C l a rk Er i cks on J. Dar l i n g (e d s ) Uni v e rs i t y o f P enn s y lva n ia M u s e u m o f Arch a eo lo g y an d A n t h r o po l o g y ; P h i l ade l ph ia. 20 1 0 T h e T ra n s f o r m a t ion o f E n v i r on m en t i n to La n d sc a p e : The Hist o r i c a l Ec o lo g y o f M on u me n t a l E a rth w o rk C on structi o n in t h e B o l i v ian Ama z o n D i v e rs i ty 2 : 61 8 6 5 2 Er i cks on C l a rk a n d W i l l iam Ba l e 20 0 6 a The Hist o r i c a l Ec o lo g y o f a C o mp lex La n d sc a p e in B o l i v i a In Ti m e an d Co m p lexity in H i st o r i c a l Ec o lo g y: S t ud ies in t h e N eo tr o p ical L o w l an d s ed i t e d b y W i l l i a m B a le a n d Clark E r i cks on pp 18 7 2 3 4 Col u mb ia U n i v e rs i ty Press, N Y 20 0 6 b T i m e an d C om p le x ity in H ist o r i c a l E c o lo g y : St ud ies in t h e N eo tro p i c a l Lo w la nds Col u mb ia U n i v e rs i t y P ress, N e w Yo rk. 20 0 6 c T i m e C o mp l e x i t y an d Hist o r i c a l E c o l o g y In Ti m e an d C o m p lexity in H i st o r i c a l Ec o lo g y: S t ud ies in t h e N eo tro p i c a l L o w l a nd s ed it e d b y W i l l iam Ba l e a n d Clark Er i cks on p p 1 20 C o lu m b i a U n i v e rs i ty P res s New Y o rk. Er i cks on C l a rk a n d J o h n W a lker 20 0 9 Pre Col u mb i a n Ca u s e w a y s an d C a n a ls a s L an d e s q u e C a p it a l In L a n d sc a p e s o f M o v e m en t: Trails, P a t h s, a n d R o a d s in A n t h ro po l o g ical P e rsp e ct i v e e d it e d b y J ame s S n ea d C l a rk E r i cks on a n d A n d y D a r l in g pp 23 2 2 52 P e n n Mus e u m Press a n d t h e U n i v e rs i ty o f P e n n s y l v an ia Pr e ss, P h i l a d e lp h i a Er i cks on C l a rk, J a me s Sn e a d an d A n d y D a r l i n g 20 0 9 a L a nd sc a pe s o f Mov e m en t: T h e A n t h r opo l o g y o f Trails, P a t h s, a n d R o a d s P en n Mus e u m Press, P h i l ade l ph ia. 20 0 9 b M a k i n g H um a n Spa c e : T h e A rc h aeo l o g y o f T rai l s, P a t h s, a n d R oad s I n La n d sc a p e s o f M o v e m en t: Trails, P a t h s, a n d Ro ad s in An t h ro p o lo g i c a l P e rsp e ctiv e e d it e d b y J ame s S n ea d C l a rk E r i cks on a n d A nd y D a r l in g pp 1 19 P en n Mus e u m Press a n d t h e U n i v e rs i ty o f Pe nn s y l v an ia Press, Ph i l ade l p h ia. Gl a s e r, B r u n o an d W i l l iam W oo d s 20 0 4 A ma z on i a n Da rk Ea rths: E x p lora t io n s i n S p a ce an d T i m e S p r in g e r V e r l a g : B e r l in. Ha m i l t o n S t ep h e n K, S u z ann e J Si p pe l a n d J oh n M. M e lack 20 0 4 S ea s o na l i n un da ti o n p a t t e rns in t w o l a r g e s a v ann a f l o o d p lai n s o f S ou t h A me r i c a : t h e L l a no s d e Mo x o s (B o l i v ia) an d t h e L l a no s d e l Or i no c o ( V ene z ue la an d C o lombia). H y d rolo g ical P roc e ss e s 18 : 2 10 3 21 1 6

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97 Ha na g a rth, W e r n e r 19 9 3 A c e rca d e la Ge oe c o locia d e l a s s a b an a s de l B en i e n e l Nor e ste d e Bo l i v ia. I n stit u t o d e E c o lo g a L a Pa z B o l i v ia. Ha na g a rth, W e r n e r a n d J a i m e S a r m i e n to 19 9 0 Re p o rte s ob re l a g eoe c o l g ica d e la S a ba n a d e Es p r i tu y s u s a l r ede d o res: L la no s d e M o x o s, d ep a rtam en t o d e l B e n i, Bo l i via. Ec o lo g ia e n Bo l i v ia 1 6 : 4 7 7 5 Heck en b e r g e r, M i c ha e l an d E d u a rdo N e v e s 2 0 0 9 A m a z on ian Arch a e o lo g y A nnua l Re v iew o f A n t h r op o lo g y 38 : 25 1 2 66 Heck en b e r g e r a n d Sc h m idt 20 0 9 A me r in d ian A n t h ros o ls: A ma z on ian D a rk E a rth F o r m a ti o n i n t h e U p p e r X in g u In A ma z on i a n D a rk E a rt h s: W i m S o mb r oe i sio n p p 1 6 3 1 91 Heck en b e r g e r, M i c ha e l, J a m e s P e t e rs e n a n d Ed u a rdo N e v e s 19 9 9 Vi l l a g e S i z e a n d P e r m a n e n ce in A ma z on ia: T w o A rch a e o lo g ical E x amp les f r o m Bra z i l La tin A me r i c a n A n ti q u ity 10 (4): 3 5 3 3 7 6 Heck en b e r g e r, M.J., A Ku ikuro, U. T a b a ta K u ikuro, J.C. Rus s e l l M Sc hm i d t, C. Fa u st o a n d B F r an c h e t t o 20 0 3 A ma z on ia 1 4 92 : P r i sti n e f o re st o r c u lt u ral pa rk l an d ? S ci e n ce 301 : 17 1 0 1 7 14 Heck en b e r g e r, M i c ha e l J, J C h r i sti a n R u s s e l l J o s h u a R T o ne y an d M o r g a n J Sc h m idt 20 0 7 T h e L e g a cy o f C u lt u ral L and s c ape s in t h e B ra z i l ian A ma z on : I mp l i c a ti o n s f o r Bio d i v e rs i t y P h i l o s op h ical T r a n s a cti o n s o f T h e R o y a l S o cie t y B 3 62 ( 14 7 8 ):1 9 7 208. Lan g stro t h R. 19 9 6 For e s t is l and s in a n Am a z on ian s a v a nn a o f no rt h ea s t e rn B o l i v i a P h .D. d issert a ti o n Uni v e rs i ty o f W is c on si n M ad is o n Le h m a nn J o h an n e s, D i rse K e rn, Br u n d Gl a s e r a n d W i l l iam W o od s 20 0 4 A ma z on i a n D a rk Ea rths: O r ig ins, P ro p e rties, Ma na ge m e n t. Sp r i n g e r, Ne the r l a n d s. Lo m ba r d o U mbe r t o a n d H e iko P r u me rs 20 1 0 Pre Col u mb ian H u ma n O cc u pa ti o n P a t te rns in t h e Ea s t e rn P l a ins o f t h e L l a no s d e Mo x o s, B o l i v ian A m a z on ia. J ou r na l o f Arc h aeo lo g ical S ci e n ce 37 ( 8 ):1 8 7 5 1 8 85 Lo m ba r d o C a nal B ee b y Fe h r, a n d V e it 20 1 1 Rais e d Fiel d s in t h e B o l i v ian A m a z o n a p re h is t o r i c g re e n re v o lu t ion o r a f l o o d r i sk m iti g a ti o n s t ra t e g y? J ou r n a l o f Arch a eo l o g ical S cie n ce 3 8 (3): 5 0 2 512. Lo m ba r d o U mbe r t o J a n He nd r i ck M a y a n d Hei n z Ve it 20 1 2 G eoe c o lo g ical S e t t in g s a s a Dr i v ing F a ct o r b e h ind Pr e Col u m b ian H u m a n Occ up a ti o n P a t t e rns in Bo l i v ian A m a z on J o u rn a l f o r A n cie n t S t ud ies 3 : 1 2 3 1 2 9

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98 Lo v e l l G eo r g e W H e n ry F. Do b y n s, W i l l ia m M. D ene v an W i l l iam I W oo d s, C ha r l e s C. M an n 20 0 4 1 49 1 : In S e a rch o f N a ti v e A me r i c a J o u rn a l o f t h e S o u t h w e st 4 6 (3): 4 4 1 46 1 M ann C. C. 20 0 8 A n cie n t Ea r t h mo v e rs of t h e A m a z on S cie n ce 321 : 1 1 4 8 1 1 52 M e gg e rs, Be t t y J. 19 7 1 A ma z on ia: Man an d C u lt u re in a C o un t e rfeit P a ra d ise. C h ica g o : Aldi n e At he r t on I n c. Ne v e s, E dua r d o G an d J a me s B. P e t e rs o n 20 0 6 P o l i tic a l Ec o n om y an d P r e Col u mb i a n L and s c ap e T r a n s f o r ma t i on s in C en tral A ma z on i a In T i m e a n d C o m p le x ity in Hist o r i c a l Ec o lo g y : St ud ies in th e N eo tr o p ical Lo w la nd s. W i l l i a m B a le a n d C l a rk Er i ck s o n ed s. P p 5 7 8 6 New Y o rk: Colu m b ia Uni v e rs i t y P ress. Nord en skil d Er l a n d 20 0 9 I nd ian A d ap t a ti o n s in Flo o d e d R e g io n s o f S o u th A me r i c a J ou r na l o f L a tin A me r i c a n G e o g ra ph y 8 (2): 2 0 9 2 2 4 Pl a f k e r, G eo r g e 19 6 3 O b s e r v a ti on s o n A rch a e o lo g ic a l Remai n s in N o rt h ea s t e rn B o l i v ia. Ame r i c a n A n ti q u ity 28 (3): 3 7 2 3 7 8 Pr m e rs, H e iko, C a r l a J a i me s B e t an c o u rt a n d R ud e n P la z a Marti ne z 20 0 6 Al g u n a s t u m b a s p re h isp n icas d e B e l l a V ist a Pro v I t n e z B o l i via. Z e itc h r i f t f r Arch o lo g ie A u er eu r op isc h e r K u l t u ren 1 : 2 5 1 2 84 Sc ha a n D e n ise 20 1 0 L on g t e rm H u m a n I ndu c e d Imp a cts o n Mar a j Isl a n d L a n d s c ape s, A ma z o n Est ua r y D i v e rs i t y 2 (2): 18 2 2 06 S ua n a lu o m a S an n a 20 1 0 Pre Col u mb i a n E a rth w o rks in t h e Rib e ralta R e g ion o f t h e B o l i v ian Ama z on A ma z n ica Re v ista d e An t r op o lo g ia 2 (1): 1 0 4 138. W a l k e r, J oh n H. 20 0 0 Rais e d Field A b an d o n me n t in t h e U p p e r Ama z on Cult u re & A g r i c u lt u re 22 (2): 2 7 31 20 0 4 A g r i c u lt u ral Ch a n g e in t h e B o l i v ian A m a z on Uni v e rs i ty o f P it t s bu r g h Mem o i r s in La tin A m e r i c a n A r c ha e o lo g y N o 13 Pi t ts bu r g h : Uni v e rs i t y o f Pitts b u r g h De pa r t men t o f A n t h ro p o lo g y

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99 20 0 8 a The L la n o s d e M o jos. In The H an d b o o k o f S o u th A m e r i c a n Arch a e o lo g y P p 927 938 H. Si l v e r m a n a n d W I s be l l e d s. N e w Y o rk: K l u w e r Ac a d em ic/P l en u m Press. 20 0 8 b Pre Col u m b ian Ring Ditc he s a lo n g th e Y a c u m a a n d R a pu lo R i v e rs, Ben i, B o l i v ia: A P rel i m i n a ry Re v i e w J ou rn a l o f Field A rch a eo lo g y 33 : 1 1 4 20 1 0 I n f o r m e p rel i m i n a ry de l tra ba jo 2 0 10 : P ro y e cto S ist e m a d e In f o r ma ci n G eo g r f ic a Ar q ueo l g ica de l B en i. W i t h J a i m e Bo cci e t t i, S t e p han i e B oo t h b y a n d T re n t M cRa e U np u b l i s hed 20 1 1 a A m a z on ian Da r k Ea rth a n d Ring Ditc he s in t h e C e n tral L l an o s d e Moj o s B o l i v ia. C u lt u re, A g r i c u lt u re, F o o d an d En v i r onm e n t 33 (1): 2 1 4 20 1 1 b Ce r am ic Ass e mb la g e s an d L a nd sc a p e in t h e M i d 1 s t M i l le n ium L l ano s d e M o jo s, B e n i, B o l i v ia. J ou rn a l o f Field Arch ae o lo g y 36 (2): 11 9 1 3 1 20 1 1 c I n f o r m e p rel i m i na ry d e la t e m po r a d a 20 1 1 : Pro y e cto S ist em a s d e I n f o r m a cin G eo g r f ic a Ar q ueo l g ica de l B en i. W i t h J u a n Car l o s Ch v e z Qu isp e M abe l Ra m o s F e rn nde z S t ep h a n ie B o o t hb y M a r y Lu z C ho q u e Apa z a an d P a trick Ro h rer. U n p ub l i s h e d 20 1 1 d S o cial I mp l i c a ti on s f r o m A g r i c u lt u ral Tasksc a p e s in t h e S o u t h w e st e rn A m a z on La tin A m e r i c a n A n ti q u ity 22 (3): 27 5 2 95 20 1 2 Re g io na l Ass o c i a ti on s an d a C e r am ic Ass e m b la g e f r o m t h e F o u rte e n th C en t u ry L la no s d e M o jos. A n de a n P a st 1 0 : 2 4 1 2 61

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100 BI O GRAPHIC A L S K E T CH St e p han i e Boothby c o mp l e t e d h e r u n d e r g ra dua t e w o rk at t h e U n i v e rs i ty o f C e n tral Fl o r i d a g ra duat ing w ith hono rs an d a ba c h e lor s de g ree in a n t h ro po l o g y in 2010 T ha t s a m e y ea r, s h e w a s a cc e p t e d i n to t h e U n i v e rs i ty o f Flor i da g ra dua te p r o g ram a n d be ga n c ou rse w o rk a n d re s ea r ch f o r t h e ma s t e de g re e Dur i n g th e s u m me r f ield s ea s on s o f 20 1 0 a n d 2 0 1 1 s h e a c c om p an i e d Dr. J o h n W a lker to t h e t o w n o f S a n ta A n a de l Y a c um a i n t h e L l a no s d e M o jos, Bo l i v ia t o a s sist in a rch a eo lo g ical s u r v e y s an d e x c a v a ti on s in th e f o r e st is l an d E st a n cit a This t he sis p roje c t is t h e p ro du ct o f t ho se f ield s ea s o n s a n d e x p lora t i o n u s i n g Goo g le E a rt h a n d A rcG I S a s r e mo t e s e n sing too ls. S h e c o m p le t e d t h is t he sis an d re c e i v e d a M a s t e r o f Arts de g ree in th e f a ll o f 2 01 2