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1 SHAPING THE SUSTAINABLE CITY THROUGH WATER ORIENTED URBAN DESIGN By SIYU YU A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 201 2 Siyu Yu
3 To m y f amily
4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank those who have always been a great help in my life, including my family, teachers and friends. Foremost, I should thank my parents, without their understanding and support, I cannot seize this opportunity to study in the United States. When I was young, my mother taught me English. It was the f irst time that I could get a chance to learn a second language, which finally facilitated to bring me here in the United States. My gratitude also extends to professor Walters, Professor Carr and professor Tilson. They helped to make this thesis possible. I do appreciate that Professor Walters teach ing me so much on sustainable design studio class and also thanks a lot for all the help he offer ed me for every problem he solve d for me during the whole semester. For this thesis, every time when I came up with some ideas about study points of the case that I chose, Professor Walters helped me to figure out logic of the study, which do help me to grasp the general direction of the study sectors. It made a big progress of my thesis Secondly, I should thank Professor Carr to give me some new ideas on water oriented design and urban eco space shaping. Thirdly, Professor Tilson provided me great help to study more about sustainable design, and gave me many chance s to get into connect with new idea s about sustainable design. I should thank for my friends and relatives who give me great courage and help me to accomplish this thesis.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS p age ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ............................... 4 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 10 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ........................... 15 Understanding Sustainable Design ................................ ................................ ......... 15 Understanding Urban Design ................................ ................................ .................. 17 Urban Spatial Form ................................ ................................ .......................... 17 Urban Design Goal ................................ ................................ ........................... 18 Emotional experience and place making ................................ ............... 18 Organizing urban spatial structure ................................ ......................... 19 Understanding Water Oriented Urban Design (WOD) ................................ ............ 23 Relationship between the WOD and Sustainable Design ................................ ....... 25 3 CASE STUDIES ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 28 Seattle Waterfront From Commerce to Recreation ................................ ................. 28 Singapo re Potable Water Supply and Storm W ater M anagement .......................... 29 Venice Flooding Control and Transportation ................................ .......................... 31 Historical Development of Venice ................................ ................................ ..... 31 Sufficient Methods to Solve Water Issue ................................ .......................... 32 Water governa nce improvement ................................ ............................ 32 Water collection of Campo ................................ ................................ ..... 32 Best Practices of Case Studies ................................ ................................ ............... 33 4 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 36 5 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 37 Water Oriented Management of Wuhan ................................ ................................ 37 Description of Wuhan ................................ ................................ ....................... 37 The context of Wuhan ................................ ................................ ............ 37 The context of the nature environment ................................ .................. 38 Metropolitan Design ................................ ................................ ......................... 39 Urban growth boundary ................................ ................................ ......... 39 Mix land use ................................ ................................ .......................... 39
6 Preserve open space and critical environm ental areas ......................... 40 Water Issue Management ................................ ................................ ................ 40 Permeable storm water system ................................ ............................. 42 Green strategies for watershed ................................ ............................. 43 Governance decision and actors for protection ................................ ..... 44 Water Oriented Design of East Lake ................................ ................................ ...... 44 Overview of Lakefront L andscape of East Lake ................................ ............... 44 Single view of lakefront landscape ................................ ........................ 44 Flat shoreline desi gn of lakefront ................................ ........................... 45 The plain lakefront facade landscape ................................ .................... 45 Summary of Lakefront Problem in East Lake ................................ ................... 45 Water Oriented Design of East Lake ................................ ................................ 46 Multi view shorelin e landscape design of East Lake .............................. 46 Geometry graphic reconstruction of the East Lake landscape design ... 47 Fluctuating elevation designs for East Lake ................................ .......... 47 Bright colorway for landscape of East Lake ................................ ........... 47 6 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 52 Best Practice to Guide Wuhan ................................ ................................ ................ 52 Characteristics of Urban Flooding ................................ ................................ ........... 54 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 58 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 60
7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Four types of organizational model of urban eco spatial structure.. ..................... 27 2 2 Urban s tructure form s in China.. ................................ ................................ .......... 27 3 1 Survey of design points of Seattle Waterfront.. ................................ .................... 35 3 2 Water use in Venice. ................................ ................................ ............................ 35 5 1 The geographic location of Wuhan.. ................................ ................................ ..... 49 5 2 The land use context of Wuhan.. ................................ ................................ .......... 49 5 3 The outer ring road and the urban growth boundary of comprehensive plan o f Wuhan (2009 2020). ................................ ................................ ........................... 50 5 4 Mix land use layout of comprehensive plan of Wuhan (2009 2020). .................... 50 5 5 Water protection sector of Wuhan City.. ................................ ............................... 51
8 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School Of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies SHAPING THE SUSTAINABLE CITY THROUGH WATER ORIENTED URBAN DESIGN By Siyu Yu December 2012 Chair: Bradley Walters Major: Architecture There are many water issues in our lives, ranging from regional planning to local planning, from city scale to neighborhood scale, there is no denying that water has influenced every aspect of urban construction environment. So water serves as a kind of infrastructure to guide the urban design and construction, that is to say, the water issue should be taken into main consideration in deci sion making and urban design. Water can serve as a kind of infrastructure to guide the planning of urban space. Water environments such as waterways and coastal waters, and water supply catchments are key areas where urban development can have significant impacts. Accordingly, different urban space will be formed in terms of the water infrastructure design. Water oriented urban design has 3 main goals: to improve the sustainability of urban recycle, to sustain the development of urban built environment and to provide the emotional experience of users. Firstly, the main point of water oriented urban design is sustainability, that is, water serves as a factor to guide the development, which not only enhances the quality of urban built environment, but also hel ps the circulation of culture and econom y Secondly, water as a way of life and also a kind of infrastructure; it is a
9 importance of green infrastructure. The Low Impact Deve lopment solutions can also be taken as function of the green infrastructure to reduce the volume of storm water run off, which to some extent solves water resource issues. Thirdly, different regions have varied waterfront conditions, which can form the par ticular feature of a unique site.
10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The greatest global challenge is to balance the expanding human needs with shrinking resources and a changing world climate. Failure to find a balance threatens sustainable design and planning. We are all tryi ng to address critical issues: s tudy the methods to plan, design, and build healthy and smart cities as the burgeoning population overburd ens the infrastructure system; f ind the solution to provide food, energy, and transportation in an ecological friendly and r esource saving way. Today, even with conventional water supply strategies and technologies, water shortages commonly plague communities around the globe. The world Health Organization (WHO) reports that over two billion people roughly one out every three people on the planet live in a water stressed area. ( http://www.sherwoodinstitute.org/research ) Urban design is to give users different experiences and sense of placing while physically constructs the place to support the need of function and structure in general. The emotional demands of the sense of placing are the final goal of the designer. But what is sense of placing? The sense of placing is the emotional experience of users in a particular place such feelings as excit ement and delight which contains the spirit of place and place attachment Firstly, the spirit of place is the fundamental characteristic of the place, which endows the site with the specific emotion and feature, such as the imag e of the site. Secondly the place attachment, for instance, our memory and image of the community can help us to build the relationship between the community and the residents. As is known to all different sites can bring us various sense s of place which c an give us varied experience. For instance, the urban area can give us feelings that may
11 be totally different from what we experience in rural zone. Moreover, different urban sectors can give us a variety of experiences: the central business district bring s us the senses of high speed development and modern atmosphere, while the natural reserve park take s us back into nature to enjoy peaceful life. As the re are water issues in our lives, ranging from regional planning to local planning, from city scale to n eighborhood scale t here is no denying that water has influence d every aspect of urban construction environment. So water serve s as a kind of infrastructure to guide the urban design and construction, that is to say, the water issue should be taken into main consideration in decision making and urban design. The word means environmentally friendly and eco responsible. In terms of sustainable design, we mostly focus on how to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels, the use of renewable energ y t he use of sustainable materials and so forth. Sustainable design is a three dimension issue W hat we have to do is to design the connection between community, economy, and environment. It is the human awareness, which is the core of community rather than t he high tech and economic support, that play s a vital role in sustainable design and material recycle. The sustainable design for the building may take the weather data and other parameters into consideration. From the point of weather data, parameters suc h as the temperature, humi dity, sunlight, and wind speed are the primary index for the sustainability of a building design. In order t o achieve sustainability, we should first take advantage of the local resource s to meet the need of the community. And we must figure out what is the appropriate scale for the self sufficient community. As what is usually done in the urban
12 regional planning, we settle the planning unit as the administrative region of the city area. As for the issue of sustainable community, I think it all depends on the local land resources, geographical environment and the urbanization level of the community. Rega r ding to the urbanization level, the higher urbanized region may divide the community into narrower area s such as blocks. Howeve r, for the less urbanized parts, the community maybe kept as the union of several provinces to help each other to meet the fundamental need of the resource supply. In the mean time, water can serve as a kind of infrastructure to guide the planning of urban space. Water environments such as waterways and coastal waters, and water supply catchments are key areas where urban development can have significant impacts. Acco rdingly different urban space will be formed in terms of the water infrastructure design. W ater oriented urban design has 3 main goals: to improve the sustainability of urban recycle, to sustain the development of urban built environment and to provide the emotional experience of users. Firstly, the main point of water oriented urban design is s ustainability, that is, water serve s as a factor to guide the development, which not only enhances the quality of urban built environment, but also help s the circulation of culture and econom y Secondly, water as a way of life and also a kind of infrastruc ture; it behavior and awareness of importance of green infrastructure. The Low Impact Development solutions can also be function ing as the green infrastructure to reduce the volume of storm water run off, which to some extent solves water resource issues. Thirdly, different region s ha ve varied waterfront conditions, which can form the particular feature of unique site.
13 S t udy objectives. The main goal of this study is to develop guidelines for urban planners and policy makers to use when planning and designing infrastructure that promote sustainability of the water infrastructure and the urban environment. To achieve this goal, three objec tives are developed. The first i s to develop an understanding of the links between urban water infrastructure and the built environment, second, to examine and measure the impact of the water, using GIS, user surveys, and an inventory of the infrastructure water system which can be used to locate and design new urban areas that promote the sustainability of itself and the urban living environment. Take the WOD (Water oriented deve lopment) mode as the study mode, this thesis will study the water issue in urban design and urban space shaping from the 4 parts of potable water supply, water for commerce and recre ation are selected to be the outline frame of this paper to study the impact of water on the built environment. Water issues in Wuhan, storm water management in Seattle, and water using problems in Venice. Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei Province in Chin a is known as "the nine provinces leading thoroughfare" It is the political, economic cultural center of central China, connecting Nanchang, Changsha, Zhengzhou, and Hefei, which are important cities of central China. The chief water issue of Wuhan is t he city flooding in terms with the urban infrastructure. When the rain y season comes, the city is paralyzed. Population growth, traffic congestion, urban contamination, resources shortage, the gap between the rich and the poor, all these metropolitan issue s in Wuhan could have some relation with the ecosystem and the metropolitan issues that cause city flooding. Based on this
14 information along with environmental factors which will be identified in this research, methods will be chosen to guide Wuhan solving the water issues
15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Understanding Sustainable Design Sustainability as a part of the concept sustainable development that of the Brundtland Commission of the United Nations on March 20, 1987: ble development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet ( World Commission on En vironment and Development (1987). O ur common future. O xford: Oxford University Press p. 43. ) Sustainability is the cooperat ion of the environment, economy and culture, which is not only about the food supply and energy crisis, but also the balance of every aspect of our life demands with the health of nature system. Sustainable developmen t co ncerns about energy, materials, air and water issues, especially the water issue, which is considered to be the choke point of human demands The word means environmentally friendly and eco responsible In terms of sustainable design, we mostly focus on how to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels, the use of renewable energies, the use of sustainable materials and so forth. Sustainable design is a three dimension issue W hat we have to do is to design the connection between the community, e conomy, and environment. It is the human awareness, which is the core of community, more than the high tech and economical support, that play s a vital role in sustainable design and material recycle. To achieve sustainability, we should first take advantag e of the local resource to meet the need of the community. And we must figure out what is the appropriate scale for the self sufficient community. As we usually do in the urban regional planning, we settle the planning unit as the administrative region of the city area. As for the issue of
16 sustainable community, it probably all depends on the local land resources, geographical environment and the urbanization level of the community. Regarding to the urbanization level, the higher urbanized region may divid e the community into narrower area s such as the blocks. However, for the less urbanized parts, the community maybe kept as the union of several provinces to help with each other to meet the fu ndamental need of the resource supply. In te rms with the sustai nable design for the building may take the weather data and other parameters into consideration. From the point of weather data, such as the temperature, humidity, sunlight, and wind speed, which may be the primary index for the sustainability of a buildin g design. The goal of sustainable design consists of 4 points, firstly, to learn the connection of the urban construction environment and the nature system; Secondly, to make full use of the nature to help the urban built environment development, and desi gn architecture that are portion of nature system; Thirdly, to minimize the reliance of the fossil fuel ; Finally, enhance the using efficiency of nature resource. Sustainable development concerns about energy, materials, environment, community and water is sues. Sustainable energy contains carbon footprint eliminat ion, renewable energy, and clean transportation. T he dwindling resources and climate changes are the two major challenges of our future; both of them are related to fossil fuels. There is no denyin g that fossil fuels not only do harm to our environment but also give some negative impact s on our daily lives T hey may release greenhouse gases and definitely can seek out new energ y to replace fossil fuels, such as bio fuels, which can be used for the new
17 drive of the future transportation Sustainable environment includes cycling, system and connection of ecosystem; Sustainable community consists of e conomy d iversification & g rowth place making a esthetic s teady e mployment c apital i mprovements and p ublic h ealth ; Sustainable water system is w aste water t reatment and r euse r ainwater r euse a quifer r echarge & q uality w ater b alance e fficient s ystems and c onservation Water issue is c onsidered to be the choke point of human demands. The problem may come from any aspect : the source of the water, the quality of water, waste water distribution and the interaction between the water system and other infrastructure systems, such as energy su pply system, and environment system. Understanding Urban Design Urban Spatial F orm Urban design is a process of urban space shaping while enhancing the experience and improving the function of it. Th e definition of space originates from the Latin spatium S pace is a set of element and spot in line with the specific geometry environment and location, distance between the two locations or virtual area between the specific boundaries Urban space is the carrier of people s living, work, recreation and transp ortation. The space studied in this paper is a combination of vertical plane, which includes buildings, structures, trees, outdoor dividing wall, etc. and horizontal plane, such as the ground and water. It consists of environmental sculptures, users and s pace elements which is dominated and affected by the vertical plane in urban space. It is a limited area separated from the nature environment and a carrier of people s living, work, recreation and transportation. The planning of urban transportation, org anization of city buildings and urban landscape are always the first impression s of a city. Those impressions and understandings are named as the urban spatial forms.
18 Urban space may be divided into two parts: urban public space and urban private space. Th is paper focuses on the urban public space. It is the open space among construction entity in a city or agglomeration It is designed to serve the public, which is an open area for urban residents social activities and communications. Urban public space m ainly consists of nature environment such as forests and water. Basically it is the place for people s social lives, and represents the essence of city s actual environment It is a multicultural carrier, which shows the city s unique charm. The overall q uality of urban public space construction has a direct influence on city s competitiveness as well as public s satisfaction. As a result, the city s decision makers, builders and residents all pay specific attention to its urban public space. Urban Design Goal Emotional experience and place making Urban design is to give users different experiences and sense of placing while physically constructs the place to support the need of function and structure in general. The emotional demands of the place making a re the final goal of the designer. But what is sense of placing? The sense of placing is the emotional experience of users in a particular place, s uch feelings as excitement and delight which contains the spirit of place and place attachment. Firstly, the spirit of place is the fundamental characteristic of the place, which endows the site with the specific emotion and feature, such as the image of the site. Secondly, the place attachment, for instance, our memory and image of the community can help us to build the relationship between the community and the residents. As is known to all, different sites can bring us various senses of place which can give us varied experience. For instance, the urban area can give us feelings that may
19 be totally different fr om what we experience in rural zone. Moreover, different urban sectors can give us a variety of experiences: the central business district brings us the senses of high speed development and modern atmosphere, while the natural reserve park takes us back in to nature to appreciate the peaceful life. Organizing urban spatial structure There are 3 main urban forms: Linear city, grid city and highly centralized city. Urban design is a physical planning, aiming at improving the environmental quality of urban spa ce based on the comprehensive planning, civil life, and special art design. The urban ecosystem space interacts with the urban construction space to sustain a multiple urban spatial form. All elements in the urban system stay in harmony, such as moving water, wild life, air circulation, history, culture, politics and technology. The reason why the ecosystem space can play the role to balance the urban construction space is that the eco space interacting with the built space can produce th e spatial mosaic relationship, which can help to define the scope and impact of the urban spatial structure. There are four types of urban eco spatial structure in general: wrap around, wedge style, core type and connected ribbon style ( Fig ure 2 1 ) Wrap around style. The d evelopment of city is focused within certain range, and the ecological space wraps around the core city to limit the expansion of city. Satellite spa ce, in which they are kept certain distance to the core of the city. Settings the greenbelt to control central city spread has become the best practices of ecological space balance metropolis spac e structure. London, Paris, Milan, Melbourne have used this t actic. From the point of landscape ecology, wrap around relations meet the city s needs of gathering both urban construction space and urban ecological space
20 separately And it can also bring lots of ecological benefits from green belt around without brea king the stability of the Green Belt around city. W edge style. The outskirts of the city construction space radiates outward from the central city and are interspersed with urban ecological background, which form s a mode with "green wedge" as the main structural element. Its main function is to introduc e the ecological environment of the suburban urban space to city, and to increase the interface length between the urban ecological space and urban construction space. It also pl ay s a n important role for the urban ecological space to penetrate outside in Copenhagen, Moscow, Melbourne, have applied this tactic. From the perspective of landscape ecology the wedging inlaid relationship does not destroy the continuity of the ecologi cal background when the city construction space continuously extends. At the same time it allows the existence of large ecological area to form ecological source s and protec ts the landscape security pattern in the urban areas. Core style The different fun ctional groups in the city develop around large area s of the ecological core, and each of them is separated by a green buffer zone. Randstad and Singapore follow this structure. From the perspective of landscape ecology, the core type builds large scale ecological source ( g reen h eart) in the center of urban construction space while green buffer zone link s green heart and peripheral ecological background, thereby enhancing the ecological stability and ecosystem service function of the green h eart and forming an open center ecological spatial pattern
21 Connected ribbon style. Urban ecological space and urban construction space forma linear mosaic pattern. As a result, it maintains lateral open between the functional groups in the city, and has a good accessi bility Munich, Milan and Paris are in use of this mosaic relationship. With this the mosaic relationship it will form ecological corridors. Ecological corridor in this linear space organizational model can significantly increase the interface of urban construction space and urban ecological space, contributing to the generation of edge effects on the ecological space. Meanwhile, these ecological corridors are also the most imp ortant structural elements for increasing connectivity in the landscape patterns. The urban structure in China also has typical characteristics, which mainly manifest in the following two forms: strong core cluster composed city and multinucleated cluster composed city ( Figure 2 2 ) Strong core c luster composed c ity The city has a dominant central region, which was relatively high density urban area formed at the undeveloped period before the rapid urbanization and industrialization in 1980s, covering the urban region with the traditional urban boundary. Such cities generally have a long history, good industrial base and other advantages. In 1990s, along with the rapid development of urbanization, industrialization a nd the rapid extension of urban size, relying on the dominant central region and the support of urban transportation and communication technology, the discrete functional group was formed around the outskirts of the urban area. In the way of urban space ex pansion, the strong nuclear cluster city traffic arteries Development District tend to be relying on or connected to township space of the outskirts of the city
22 by transportation artery, the central district of the urban outskirts also has the growth trend of outward nuclear radiation. Lots of big cities in China are typical strong core cluster composed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Chengdu. Multinucleated cluster composed c ity Compared with the strong core cluster composed city, the dominant fea ture of the central region is not that obvious. There is no obvious wrap around feature of outskirt functional group and the central district. The like and multi core scatter ribbon. After y ears, if the multinucleated cluster is formed as the dominant strong core cluster, city may encounter with the same problems as the development of the strong core city, the issue we shou ld give highly concerned is the function of the ecosystem in this urba n extension structure, which may affect the shape changing of the city. Ecosystem is the organi c system of interacting and interdependent relationships in conjunction with the nonliving environment such as water, air. There are lots of processes composing the complexity of the system, including the energy circuits, food chains, natural cycles, species interactions, succession and so on. As the Holocoenotic principle said, the interrelationship of the nature and humankind accounts inevitably for the most of the complexity of the ecosystem. The health of the human communities cannot be separated from the ecosystem service, such as the flooding control, storm protection, the alleviation of the climate change; also the diversity of the ecosystem is in relation to the human activities. We should take responsibility to protect the biodiversity of nature since we are the part of the ecosystem, for instance, creating the greenway to build the ecological network, setting act to fulfill
23 the conservation of the species ; Take more issues into consideration when doing urban planning and design, such as, air circulation, wild life habitat moving water, water edge of the city, etc. Understanding Water Oriented Urban Design (WOD) Water issues nowadays. As there are water is sues in our lives ranging from regional planning to local planning, from city scales to neighborhood scale, t here is no denying that water has influence d every aspect of urban construction environment. So water can serve as a kind of infrastructure to gui de the urban design and construction, that is to say, water issue should be taken into main consideration in decision making and urban design. Today, even with conventional water supply strategies and technologies, water shortages commonly plague communiti es around the globe. The world Health Organization (WHO) reports that over two billion people roughly one out every three people on the planet live in a water stressed area. ( http://www.sherwoodinstit ute.org/research ) In the mean time, water serve s as a kind of infrastructure to guide the planning of urban space. Water environments such as waterways and coastal waters, and water supply catchments are key areas where urban development can have significant impacts. Accordingly, different urban space wi ll be formed in terms of the water infrastructure design. Water oriented urban design has 3 main goals: to improve the sustainability of urban recycle, to sustain the development of urban built environment and to provide the emotional experience of users. Firstly, the main point of water oriented urban design is sustainability, that is, water can be served as a factor to guide the development, which not only enhances the quality of urban built environment, but also help s the cycle of culture and economic. S econdly as a way of life and also a kind of infrastructure water
24 behavior and awareness of importance of green infrastructure. The Low Impact Development solutions can also be function ing as th e green infrastructure to reduce the volume of storm water run off, which to some extent solves water resource issues. Thirdly, different region s ha ve varied waterfront conditions, which can form the particular feature of unique site. Urban Space Shaping i n According to WOD Water may organize the urban space in different scales: Invisible controlling system Water may be worke d as an invisible system for urban system, either in a positive or negative way. Water system is considered to be the link of the urba n construction space and green space to sustain the health of the human communities through ecosystem service, such as the flooding control, storm protection, the alleviation of the climate change Open space Water is an irreplaceable element in our local ecosystem, which reminds us of using it in the open space realm to reconnect the community and natural water cycle. I ntegrat ing urban landscape design with sustainable urban water management may activ at e the landscape and protect the open space as well. Individual building As the individual building scale, the crucial issue s are the water use and recycle in the building, such a s storm water collection, waste water reusing and the water using capacity of the building. Lots of techniques are taken into use to help to reduce the building footprint in a sustainable way, such as the low impact development, rain garden, controlling stormwater quantity and quality of the site.
25 Water Issue M anagement through WOD Sustainable water solutions are of reusing, cleaning conserving and protecting. Sustainable water management contains three streams, potable water, waste water and storm water management from regional scale to individual building. Potable water means water that is safe to drink; Waste water management incl udes sewage treatment, waste management, industrial waste water treatment, agricultural wastewater treatment and radioactive waste treatment ; S torm water is captured from the region by the green roof and a subsurface infiltration system, and then via the u sed water recycles to the groundwater after being clea red pollutants. Storm water can help to control flood and sustain water supply. Since reusing is the crucial part of sustainable design, water oriented design solutions for water crisis are reusing, reducing, cleaning and conserving, focusing on water supply, sewers drainage, and waterway health. Firstly, r educe demand of water supply in every aspect of the urban construction and sanitation ; Secondly, use water more efficiently, give full play to the grey water system and improve the black water system; Thirdly, maintain the water infrastructure and keep track of the urban water way, from the perspective of biological, hydrology, sediment quality, geomorphology, water quality and continuity of the waterway. Re lationship between the WOD and Sustainable D esign Ecologically sustainable development is the ultimate goal of the water oriented urban design, which includes built environment forming and water cycle management. at the same time, sustainable design criteria guide the rules of water oriented urban design.
26 Sustainable design takes the built environment as the design objective, concerns about economic, social and ecological sustainability Sustainable design goes beyond the cost, sch e dule and quality, and it also calls for public health, safety and ecology when programming the design. Water oriented urban design focuses on water issue in urban built env ironment, concerning water function in urban space shaping and water management in the urban area, which is a sub discipline of sustainable design. Designing for sustainability is restorative, dynamic and flexible, which is the same as water oriented urban design that is flexible to solve urban issues according to water design and management to some extent. Water issue interacts with other elements when shaping the city, such as, history, culture, politics and technology. Accordingly, water design in the ci ty should be changed with these factors, which is the flexibility of the WOD.
27 Figure 2 1. Four types of organizational model of urban eco spatial structure. Source: A dapted from Du Qi. Figure 2 2. Urban s tructure form s in China. Source: Drawing by Siyu Yu
28 CHAPTER 3 CASE STUDIES Seattle Waterfront From Commerce to Recreation Seattle waterfront experienced two reforms, before the first redevelopment in 2002; there was no public marina and facility equipment. Lots of area lacked r enovation and unity. But with the changing function of the city, the waterfront was no longer just for shipping and transit, there are lots of other uses, such as recreation. Planners redesigned the waterfront area with some improvement and events to attra ct more tourists, adding some commercial activities and developing the boat tour, which substantially increases waterfront activities and greater tourism. At that time, the pedestrian connections, public moorage, Pier Park, aquarium redevelopment and the c onnection of the Washington street boating land have been high concerned by designers. The renovation of this reform is to regulate the function division of the waterfront area, but due to the condition and situation, the issues above have not been deeply solved. As the second renovation c ame the main idea of the James Corner operation was to build the connection between the waterfront and city to the maximum. The design team emphasize d the idea of region sharing. The w aterfront should be linked with other public space to integrate the point, line and aspect elements to build the circulation of the urban landscape of the marine city, which is a city of a riverfront development. On the other hand, water can serve as the link of the culture and art of urban a rea. Waterfront area can be the recreation center to bring about different experience and feelings for citizens to enjoy.
29 Methods Although the second reform of Seattle Waterfront is still at the stage of concept design, water has already been considered to be a kind of infrastructure to guide and sustain the recrea tion design of the marine city: Building the connection between the water and land. Taking the waterfront area as a point, the network and pathway to the waterfront as a line, integrate the point, line and aspect elements to build the circulation of the waterfront and city layout. Design er creates different events and activities to attract people from different place and multiple levels. Take the waterfront as the place for Seattle community and civil life. Use the sculpture to build the identity of the water bay area. Building the connec tion of the waterfront with other parks is to set up the continuity of the waterfront. Design sustainable water infrastructure and create the opportunities to help the public participate in the working process of t he infrastructure ; the scale of water infr astructure is also controlled by the sustainable and green criteria. Use landscape design to settle plaza in harmony with waterfront. The James Corner operation did the survey about the favorite events and designed key points, such as trees, lawn, urban be ach, pier walk, decking, paving, seating, elevation of the pier. The pier walk, river terrace, lawn, raise elevation, paving and seating were selected by public as the crucial renovating part Fig ure 3 1 .Lots of sustainable visions have been settled into the waterfront design. The paving should be designed with solar energy; Singapore Potable Water Supply and Storm W ater M anagement In 1961, Singapore signed a one hundred year agreement with Malaysia through which water, a signify can by Malaysia at $0.03 per 1000 gallons (Branca, 2009). This fixed price is locked in contractually for the full one hundred year term, and does not rise as inflation does. Naturally, this has caused a great deal of friction between Malaysia and Singapore, and when the contract expires in 2061 there is a good chance that Malaysia will be unwilling to renegotiate a new contract. To reduce its dependence on Malaysia, and in an effort to environmentally sustainable, Singapore has gone to great lengths to both conserve its current water resources, and to create more of a resource through a technology it has
30 created called NEWater. In addition to imported water, and NEWater, Singapore obtains some water fro m desalination, and a large portion from rain water reservoirs (Branca, 2009). In response to these challenges, Singapore has developed extensive cutting edge technologies which have dubbed it a global leader in environmental sustainability. There are seve ral strategies and technologies that Singapore has employed; most significant are those related to water usage and conservation, and waste management. Potable water means water that is pollution, harmful organisms technology.net, 2009). In Singapore, the potable water is named NEWater. Currently, Singapore has three water reclamation plants that can hold a total capacity of 20 million gallons of water each day. About 6% of these 20 million g allons of water is used for indirect potable use. It is mixed with water imported from Malaysia, which can afford 1% of water requirement every day. However, the rest of the 20 million gallons that is used as industrial water (Public Utility Board, 2008). Although NEWater is safe to consume, and technically potable, there is still a psychological stigma that the public has attached to consuming reclaimed water. This is why the small amount that is used for potable purposes is diluted with the traditionally filtered potable water at the reservoir site. It is expected that over time, as the technology becomes more widely recognized and accepted, the general public will become more comfortable with consuming NEWater. Water from any Tap in Singapore is Safe to Drink. The g overnment takes the responsibility and ownership of providing safe drinking water to its citizens. So that it
31 takes guarantee of every drop. They are so confident that they are planning to ban bottled water in Singapore in order to avoid pollu tion because of the plastic. Venice Flooding Control and Transportation Historical D evelopment of Venice 100 small islands, canals and bridges. Water is considered to be the most important symbol of the world famous city. The seaways along Venice region are more than 1,000 kil ometers. For centuries, Lagoon and canals provides local people with living source, city defense, transportation, as well as attracts millions of tourists every year. The rece nt years that the balance between local hydrological system and people has been broken down by intense human activities. Floods are the biggest threat to the historical city. On one hand, it has significant hit on the local tourist industry which is the ma jor income of the city. On the other hand, frequent floods cause permanent damage to its historical sites and art works. With more and more severe floods in the last few decades, it becomes a major problem of public health. Big floods sometimes make thousa nds of people become homeless in Venice. There are multiple factors leading to floods problem in Venice, such as subsidence, climate change, erosion, pollution, etc. Some area in the Venice region has already been below the sea levels, which becomes even more vulnerable. The average water level of Venice in 21st century is about 25 centimeters above the water level first measured by a mechanical instrument installed at Punta Della Salute in 1872. Local and global human activities, such as unreasonable land use, poor management of artificial canals, and chemical pollutions, have even increased the vulnerability of Lagoon region.
32 Sufficient Methods to Solve Water I ssue Water governance improvement Since Venice is facing all kinds of water problems, such as f loods, and poor water quality, the local government has taken some steps to improve water governance in the city region. The water quality standards are based on standards of Europe with some nationwide and regional regulations. Pollutants discharges and emissions are strictly monitored and controlled by the Venice government and environmental police department. Fresh water quality is monitored daily by the region. Municipalities authorize an inter communal, publicly owned company to deal with Wastewater treatment and sewage discharges, since the sewage coverage in the historical city is only about 70%. The water quality of Venice Lagoon is monitored by the Venice Water Authority with its Anti Pollution Service. Since Marghera industrial zone is the major pollution source in the Lagoon region, the Venice Port Authority is maintaining the canals particularly in this area. Considering the essential cultural and economic role that water plays, it is important to improve the water governance in Venice. Some str ategies can be applied: vertical and horizontal area that can fluctuate in coordination with the flooding ; long term planning; p utting the water and other ecological factors in to policy, from the municipal to the regional scale. Water collection of Campo Campo Santo Stefano is one of the most important urban public spaces in the city of Venice, since it stands for a specific urban value with continuous spatial
33 sequences which taking the water collection issue in designing the public space from the munici pal to the regional scale. Along with a series of open space located in the San Marco Area, it is Campo Sant that runs parallel to the Grand Canal and lies along the path between the Academia Bridge and the Rialto Bridge It is a system of ground infrastructure connecting with other squares system to deal with all the water management issues in Venice. The pavement of the square is higher than the surrounding areas, which was used to collect the rainfalls during the old da ys into the two wells that symmetrically locate in the main path way across the square. The structure of floors and steps built in the late 15th century is of great architectural value, since it connects different levels of the square and the wells ( Figure 3 2 ) Campos are the places for public gathering and water management, which helps to sustain the livings of residents around the squares. At the same time, the public and social aspects of the square should go with the residents s uggestions. Best Practices of Case S tudies Firstly, r ebuild the waterfront into public space with recreation elements River side of Seattle is no t only the commercial transportation hub, but also the green core of the city, which connects lots of other parks and green ways to build up the city eco system. At the same time, waterfront can be adopted into urban public space system to serve as a recreation center for the citizens. W aterfront design m ay also add lots of recreation elements to create energetic public space to provide places for social and culture life of the city. Secondly, s pecif y storm water management system In terms of Seattle and Singapore, the storm water management system is mon itor ed by different water
34 controlling sector s from government to private water company As for Seattle, the city is divided into 4 storm water management sectors, and all of them have different level water tre atment cri terions. T ypically for the Seattle wa terfront, the storm wa ter management contains 4 steps: pre treatment, prima ry treatment, second treatment and tertiary treatment. After the purification, water can be reused. Thirdly, use tributaries, which are the transportation artery to disperse the p ressure of can als o releas e urban flooding The drainage system in the main city area, such as shopping center areas should be highly technically improved. T he method in Venice is that water run off around the shopping center goes directly into the main outlet canal where combined sewers are applied Water management system can be served as a symbol of the public space, which gathers public; Wells of Campos in Venice used to collect water in history and are kept as a symbol of public space now. Inf rastructures that collecting water in waterfront area of Seat tle have been designed to be a symbol of the waterfront square, and also the water recycle process is open to public.
35 Figure 3 1. Survey of design points of Seattle Waterfront. Source: A dapted from James Corner Field Operations A B Fig ure 3 2 Water use in Venice. A) Public space s haping. B) Water collection of C ampo in Venice Source: Photos courtesy of Siyu Yu. trees 7% lawn 9% urban beach 4% pier walk 10% wood decking 7% paving 9% Perennial Plantings 10% river terrace 10% seating at the end of the pier 9% two level pier 8% sloped ramp 8% raise elevation 9% others 34% Favourite design element
36 CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY The thesis first analyzes urban design and urban spatial form, and compare s eco spatial forms of typical cities around the world. Then it analyzes the relationship between urban eco spatial form and urban spatial form and what the function of urban ecosys tem plays on the urban spatial form. Finally, the thesis focuses on water function in shaping ci ties and figure s out what is water oriented design. In this thesis, there are three case studies: Seattle waterfront design potable water and storm water management in Singapore and flooding control and water transportation in Venice. Seattle waterfront analyzes the relationship between the water front design and the public space shaping; Singapore potable water and storm wat er management studies on the urb an invisible system that functions in the urban space shaping and maintains the recycle of the urban system; Venice s transportation is mainly based on water, which suffers the crisis of urban flooding and sea level rise I t is a typical case to find out t he effective methods to deal with urban flooding issues. Comparing water issues in each of the cities with th ose in Wuhan, it summarize s the best practices of these three cities. F inally, it analyze s the context of Wuhan and the main cause of urban flooding in Wuhan, then compare s water issues of each cities in case studies with those problems in Wuhan to find the suitable design solutions of water issue s in Wuhan.
37 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS Water Oriented Management o f Wuhan Description of Wuhan The context of Wuhan The region that has been chosen to analyze for the next two parts is located in Wuhan, which is the capital city of Hubei Province in China ( F igure5 1 ) Wuhan is known as "the nine provinces leading thoroughfare"; because of its key role in domestic It is the political, economic cultural center of central China, connecting Nanchang, Changsha, Zhengzhou Hefei, which are the important cities of central China. The area of Wuhan is 8549.09 kM 2 In 2008, the population of Wuhan was 8 97 million, accounting for the 15.7% of Hubei Province (Census 2011). Serving as a major transportation hub, the transportation of Wuhan city contains bridge, railways, public transit and highway. Two bridges, called the Wuhan Yangtze Great Bridge connect the main metropolitan areas, Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang, which are th e three towns of Wuhan. With dozens of railways, roads and expressways passing through the city, traffic jams are a feature of Wuhan city, which may be not the origins of urban sprawl, but sort of urban low efficiency. Population growth, traffic congestion urban contamination, resources shortage, the gap between the rich and the poor, all these metropolitan issues in Wuhan can be solved by the strategies of smart growth. The red parts in figure 5 2(A) are represented as the suit able construction land. Figu re 5 2 (B) shows the layout of the three towns of Wuhan, each of them is separated
38 by the Yangtze and Han Rivers. Wuhan can be kept as the political and education center of Wuhan ( Figure 5 2 ) Lots of hi tech districts are developed t here to support the technological innovation of the Hubei Province, while Hankou and Hanyang serve as the financial and industrial center. Each town has infrastructure and public services to towns following the nature context, parts of mountains are redeveloped for tourists, and most mountains are protected for nature conservation. The historical districts are strictly protected to link the past and present. The context of the nature environment Wuhan City is located in the center of China, eastern Hubei Province, the interchange spot of Yangtze River and Hanjiang River, its geographical longitude is 113 41 to 115 05', north latitude is 29 58 to 31 22', Administrative Regio n (SAR) area of the municipal area is 8494 square kilometers. The annual average temperature is 16.9C, extreme high temperature can reach 42.2C, and extreme low temperature can be 18.1C. The average annual rainfall is 1280.9 mm, the annual maximum rain fall is 2105.3 mm, heavy rain is mostly concentrated in May to October, during which rainfall accounted for 73.78% of the year. Wuhan City has a total of 166 lakes, the waters area consists of 779.56 square kilometers, and regular lake water level is gener ally 18.6 meters to 20.0 meters with a regulation and storage depth that is generally 0.5 m to 1.0 m. East Lake, which is the largest of the "lakes in city", divides into five scenic areas, more than 100 spots, and has about 33 sq km the vast waters, 12 la rge and small lakes, more than 120 harbors, 111.5 km shoreline. The landscape of East Lake has long coastline and a number of landscape types. On the other hand, the department
39 connected with the city was hardened, and set up walking trails for visitors to rest and entertainment. Moreover, the boardwalk corridor is set in a natural ecological region to maintain the ecological authenticity, and important nodes are also set for larger crowds to gather in public squares. Metropolitan Design Urban growth bounda ry The perspective of smart growth emerges in the comprehensive plan of Wuhan, which has seven wedge shaped green spaces, ten leisure ecological zones, all connected by the outer ring road. The outer ring road can be used as the urban growth boundary of Wu han City to control the urban sprawl ( F ig ure 5 3 ) The core of the urban growth boundary is to delimit the nature resources areas and economically sensitive areas to limit the urban development area. The basis of the smart growth is to take the green infrastructure as the open space to protect the land use. Mix land use The entire Wuhan city is divided into eight parts in the comprehensive plan of Wuhan in 1971, each part contains 1 million inhabitants, green ribbon or wedge shaped s plit areas are connected by Rapid Transit Route. While in the new 2020 comprehensive plan, there are lots of mix use space (th e orange polygon in the figure 5 4 ) intersected with the urban transportation, which fully takes the Transit Oriented Development into practice ( F ig ure 5 4 ) The plan provides a variety of transportation choices for us to use public transportation instead of private cars, which is the cause of the low density development leading to urban sprawl.
40 Preserve open space and critical environmental areas The city is building a leisure park and an urban landscape park on both sides of the linear ecological corridor along the river of the city. This creates the axis wedge urban space for residents, workers, visitors, ch ildren, families, single people, and older adults to get around and interact with the people around them in order to protect the environment while stimulating economic growth. The comprehensive plan of Wuhan (2009 2020) won the Global Planning Outstanding Contribution Award. The success of the plan is to build the city into the nature environment and find a suitable structure of its own the development of urban construction, the nature resource s are also protected. A city shou ld pursue development rather than growth, the best and most efficient development is the pursuit of quality, rather than the pursuit of speed. To pursue the development of qualit y, we should not only value the economic indicators of growth as present but i n the future. While the pursuit of speed makes us concer n about the GDP, give up the environmental protection and also neglect the quality of urban nature. Water Issue M anagement Population growth, traffic congestion, urban contamination, resources shortage, the gap between the rich and the poor, all these metropolitan issues in Wuhan could be some relation with the ecosystem and the metropolitan issues to cause city water logging. Last year, Wuhan was hit by a heavy rainstorm, and also Beijing, the capital city of China has been caught in a hea vy rainstorm these days. These entire rainstorms cause the urban flooding problems of both cities. What really matter s is that we should tak e measures to face with the problems rat her than saying that these urban flooding
41 issues have something to do with the old urban water infrastructure, the increasing population as well as the unbalance of the nature environment and urban development. As fo r the situation of the infrastructure now, we cannot replace the whole system of the water infrastructure of Wuhan. And the infrastructur e issue may not be the only cause for the urban flooding of the city. The weakness of storm water system may be another reason for the flooding The balance of nature environment and urban development is not just to protect the environment but we should take advantage of conserving the nature to help build a br ight future, such as to reduce the runoff of storm water. The c ity is an important carrier of human production and life. Meanwhile city has always been a vulnerable place where all kinds of disasters, accidents and risk s happen. China is one of the countries that most affected by disasters, especially urban flooding In China over 70% of the major cities, 50% of the population and 75% of the industrial and agricultural output are in the coast lands, eastern plains and hilly areas where they are severe flooding problems. F acing the increase of urban flooding despite the government in China has increas ed investment in urban drainage, radical treatment of flooding cannot always achieve. Instead the cit ies caused by urban flood s increas e with the continuous economic and social development of China. This prompt s us to rethink about how to deal with flooding problem and how to keep a long term coexistence with urban flooding In recent years t he idea of disaster mitigation is to adjust the relationship between human and water T hrough switching from flooding defense mode to flooding management mode it attempt s to coordinate r elationship between human and water under the precondition for sustainable development.
42 Dialectically, the urban flooding itself also has two sides: i t is not only a disaster caused by natural phenomena, but also an ecological process that is indispensable to maintain the natural ecological balance Therefore, the complete elimination of water disasters is impossible and unwise. What we should do is to minimize the disaster los s caused by flooding when we are seek ing for social and economic development and try to keep as much beneficial functions that flooding play s in the natural ecological environment such as groundwater purification and recharge, lakes maintenance, and soil improvement T herefore we should abandon the confrontation al relationship between people and flooding in the past and establish a new relationship namely: under the precondition for sustainable development we should learn to coexist with flooding. Instead of simple, brutal control of flooding, we should both control the flooding in an appropriate way, and take the initiative to adapt to and coexist with flooding. Water oriented development have three meanings: first the original meaning of the wate r drainage ; second, management and utilization of flood ing ; third, to maintain ecological processes of flooding The urban drainage planning strategy based on the new human water relationship is to purse comprehensive benefits of the urban economy, society environment, ecology while protect s the safety of the lives and property of the people at the same time Permeable storm water system The rigid pavement cannot stop the rainwater, that is to say, rainwater runs more quickly into drainage often without f iltering through the ground unless under natural pavement and green infrastructure. The running rainwater without filtering and cleaning by the soil may cause sewer blockage. Concentrated runoff can lead to high peak flows
43 causing flooding, erosion and cit y water logging. Wuhan should change permeable construction materials for roofs, roadways and parking lots. As for the community, the most efficient measurement is to reduce parking requirements and narrower road widths, which helps to create more walkable and interactive neighborhoods. Green infrastructure can be widely adopted into communities to build the bridge of smart growth and smart conservation to enhance the permeability of the green roof and help protect the storm water from run off. Green strate gies for watershed Wuhan East Lake is the biggest natural lake of National Scenic Area in the city The scope of protection for the scenic spot is 88.2 sq. km and the water area is 33 sq. km, which is more than six times the West Lake in Hangzhou Zhejiang Province of China The length of the shoreline is 111.5km. East La ke is an important part of the lakefront landscape is focus and difficulty of East Lake scenic spot image creation. On the other hand, because of the wide water surface and long coastline, lakefront landscape design a l so becomes a significant issue of the East Lake scenic landscape planning and design. The water strategy in terms with the comprehensive plan of Wuhan divides the water resource region into 4 sectors, which are water protect region, wetland protect region, water recreation region and harbor water area ( F ig ure 5 5 ) As shown in figure 5 5 the yellow polygons represent the parks that I propose to build along the watershed, which play the same role as the Campos in Venice. These park s can be public spaces that connect the waterfront space with the urban construction sect or, and they also release the flooding crisis for urban space.
44 There are lots of lakes in Wuhan. Rebuild ing t he conjunction s of river to lake and river to river to release the flooding crisis of the river this is similar to the relationship between artery and canals in Venice. Relying on the construction of water recreation belt of Wuhan, it build s an interwoven Governance decision and actors for protection The measures governors take to confront with the urban flooding issue, rainwater and waste water should be divided. Pay more attention to use green infrastructure and enhance the awareness of the public to protect the natur al environment. Education can be used as a way to inform the public of how to reduce waste water and why it is important to recycle water, to teach children the importance of storm water management at an early age. Water Oriented Design of East Lake Overview of Lakefront L andscape of East Lake Because of East lake is vast and adjacent to many around the city, it is not only a scenic spot on function, but also serves the surrounding community. So the waterfront coastline is a corridor by which people could apperceive and admire the landscape of East Lake, and the lan dscape design directly affects landscape character and atmosphere of East Lake Scenic Area. R esearch ing and analy zing landscape situation there it is easy to find the following problems on landscape of East Lake. Single view of lakefront landscape The lak efront landscape passageway of East Lake is mostly straight. It is close to the lake, but is straight Some Lake Parkway even changed twists and turns coastline to be come straight. Monotonous direction of straight passageway of lakefront landscape
45 makes the view of the landscape single. Th is lakefront landscape is simple an d plain, and can only be called can be admired, and the lake is vast, but only has a monotonous way to see. Flat shoreline d esign of lakefront Only when the lakefront landscape ha s rich and varied plan, the richness of the lakefront landscape can be shown The shoreline plan of East Lake is a single and uninteresting, such as single flat space composition of shoreline, landscap e sketches, pavement, roads, etc. From a height overlooking the lakefront landscape, the first reaction is that there is no wave in shorelines as in lake surface. A vast expanse of lake needs to be supplemented landscape of lakefro nt shoreline. Only in thi s way can improve the overall Lakefront landscape image of East Lake. However, the existing landscape design on Lake Shoreline failed to enrich East Lake's lakefront landscape. The plain lakefront facade landscape Most of the shoreline use hardening revetment with the wall perpendicular to the surface, rigidly set apart the natural water and artificial distinction shore district. It is not only anesthetic, but also affects the continuity and fluidity of the eco system. The revetment facade lacks flu ctuations as well as volatility, and the trees are neat and uniform. Its unchanged lakeside Summary of Lakefront Problem in East Lake divided into five scenic areas, more than 100 spots, and has about 33 sq. km the vast waters, 12 large and small lakes, more than 120 harbors, 111.5 km shoreline. Landscape of East Lake has long coastline and a number of landscape types. On the other hand, the department connecte d with the city was hardened, and set up walking trails for vi sitors to rest and entertai n
46 Moreover, set boardwalk corridor in natural ecological regions to maintain the ecological authenticity, and important nodes characteristic attributes to the defect of the lake since the view node cannot fully cover the landscape. Walking in the lakeshore, one feels that it is endless; for the lake visitors will naturally be discouraged. At the same time, the overall style of East Lake lacks change a s traight road with hard surfac e and artificial walls, which may deeply strengthen its largest features. Water Oriented Design of East Lake The perception of the lakefront area is far more than the area of attractions, and most of the East Lakeside view can be watch ed along the shoreline. Meanwhile, East ; therefore, it should offer a variety of lakeside view sites. Unfortunately, such places are rare. The green strategies to keep balance of the nature watershed with the urban construction is to restore the nature form of the urban lake and river, maintain the integrity of watershed vegetation, hydrological systems and water quality to protect the nature resource. At the same time, improving rainwater management and flooding protection can be crucial for East Lake. We should regularly clean up the lake bed and protect the natural reservoir. Multi view shoreline landscape design of East L ake Landscape design should be close to nature The design techniques of a single line sight cannot create a rich landscape space while in the space of a rich landscape, people's attention will shuttle from the vertical and attention is always motive.
47 East Lake landscape design should use the multi perspective and multi line as the design method guide to open up a variety of viewpoints and visions to separate lake landscape and shuttle various sight channel. P eople's view of space shuttle among the various landscapes aim ing at providing a different perspective for peop le to watch the landscape space This creates a rich and various landscape corridor and landscape. Geometry graphic reconstruction of the East Lake landscape design T he East Lake landscape graphic design should select more split view, and reconstruct the geometry. Waterfront landscape design creates different patterns of small spaces through the split and reconstruction of the geometry, which display a lively s ense of rhythm and pace, and constant change between the space and place. At the same time, combined with the lake landscape graphic design, lakeside landscape boundary is expressed by geometry after being separated. According to landscape design in East Lake, we may as well use triangular patterns to form multidirectional space and a variety of spatial effects such as retaining walls, pavement, pieces, and squares Fluctuating elevation designs for East Lake To solve the problem that the landscape of East lake elevations are too flat, we should add arbitrary altitude variation to the elevation according to their reconstruction performance. For example, we can apply triangular bulkhead to the conjunction of the landscape channel and water surface, which can produce not only transitional space from path to water level, but also altitude variation through triangles in different shapes. Bright colorway for landscape of East Lake The design can adopt fresh pavement on its solid landscape, which make landscape sp ace vivid and interesting. To find more feasible suggestion for the
48 innovation of waterfront landscape of East Lake, we should start from the influence of cubism on modern sight design, turn to the multi viewport and abundant forms of cubism in composition explore the style and image of the simplified landscape carefully and try to figure out various design methods and forms on planar, vertical and color design.
49 A B Figure 5 1. The geographic location of Wuhan. A) The geographic location of Wuhan in China. B) The geographic location of Wuhan in Hubei Province. Source: Wuhan City Planning Bureau t he comprehensive planning of Wuhan (2009 2020). A B Figure 5 2. The land use context of Wuhan. A) The sustainability of Wuhan B) T he land use of Wuhan Source: Wuhan City Planning Bureau t he comprehensive planning of Wuhan (2009 2020).
50 Figure 5 3. The outer ring road and the urban growth boundary of comprehensive plan of Wuhan (2009 2020) Source: Wuhan City Planning Bureau t he comprehensive planning of Wuhan (2009 2020). Figure 5 4. Mix land use layout of comprehensive plan of Wuhan (2009 2020) Source: Wuhan City Planning Bureau t he comprehensive planning of Wuhan (2009 2020).
51 Figure 5 5 Water protection sector of Wuhan C ity. Source: A dapted from Wuhan City Planning Bureau
52 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION Best Practice t o Guide Wuhan Planning Principles and Strategies of Urban Flooding Control through WOD. The water oriented urban drainage planning should follow the principles of sustainability, the principle of comprehensive benefits, systematic principle and dynamic principle, and based on watershed drainage principle T he principle of sustainability From the spatial scale of development sustainable development advocates that the specific region does not harm the ability of other regions to meet their needs. Sustainable principle requires harmony between man and nature according to the relationship between them. In terms of urban drainage planning terms, the principles of sustainability reflects: urban construction should coexist with floods and water, the construction of the urban drainage system should control the risk of flood water in the affordable limits target rather than eliminating urban flood water. In short, the sustainable principle emphasizes promoting the development of the urban flood control model. T he principle of comprehensive benefits With t he development of urban economy socialization and the improvement of the living standard, the requirement of water environment has also changed. Urban drainage system should be modified from the original single drainage project into the multi objective comprehensive management for the purpose of prot ecting water environment, combining the engineering measures with water environment, social environment and ecological environment. That means grasping the relationship between drainage and prevention drainage and protection in the drainage proces s; considering the present urban development status
53 of our country as well as demands on the environment for the urban long term social development; integrating the drainage with the long term ecological environmental protection. Like Germany, Holland and other countrie s adopt such initiatives as restoring floodplain natural storage conditions, keep ing appropriate living conditions for aquatic plants and animals, and creat ing a good environment It represents the ir significant switch on the concept of urban drainage, reflect ing the new relationship b e tween human and flood T he systematic principle W e should establish a system concept for the urban drainage planning, which is b ased on the new relationship between human and flood. C hange the traditional ideas of simple flood control. Combine with the urban drainage planning and coordinat e it well T he dynamic principle In the background of r apid urbanization urban society increases the requirements on water disaster prevention and control As far as the national condition is concerned our city still does not have the power to overcome the difficulties of flood control in the process of urbanization with a high investment in a short period. Therefore, we should realize that urban dr ainage is a long term, dynamic process Urban drainage planning should be carried out on the basis of sufficient argumentation on urban reasonable development stage, the overall layout, water environment capacity, according to the urban development stage, so that the city drainage planning will be flexib le E ach stage drainage planning content embody the rationality, integrity continuity, and dynamic, thus keeping the urban drainage project construction dynamic ally sustainab le At the same time, firmly establish the long term water control thought, set up relatively stable dynamic investment mechanism according
54 to the proportion of urban economic development, and rationally arrange the construction content of each stage, adapting to the construct ion proc ess variability. B ased on watershed drainage principle Urban drainage and watershed drainage are inseparable, and the watershed drainage planning is formulated on the basis of a comprehensive study of the whole watershed. Therefore, the water oriented dra inage planning should carefully handle the relationship between urban drainage and watershed drainage. In principle, urban drainage plan ning further refines the watershed drainage planning. T he correct way is to promote the urban drainage plan ning under th e guidance of the watershed drainage plan ning T he related up and downstream drainage planning should be in accordance with the watershed drainage So is t he watershed drainage project planning in the city Characteristics of Urban Flooding With growing urban population and assets density, the losses of city will be increased even though in the same submerged case. The new expanded urban area used to be agricultural land with low standards of drainage. Therefore, the flooding risk increases after urbanization. With urban spatial development, once flood occurs, not only the various underground facilities are vulnerable to disasters, but also transportation, water supply, gas supply, power supply system of high rise buildings are easy to fail. So the loss is inevitable. Due to the complexity of urban asset types, even when flood water has receded, damage loss caused by flooding such as computer network is immeasurable, and the recovery becomes more difficult. City and its economic activity are strongl y dependent on its lifeline system, once it is subjected to flooding, the loss range would be far beyond the inundated range, and its indirect losses are even more than the direct loss. Due to the urban high temperature and plenty of dust in the air, it fo rms the so -a phenomenon that the frequency and intensity of urban rainstorms are higher than the surrounding areas.
55 The large scale urban expansion leads to soil erosion, local water system disorders, and blockage of river an d drainage network, resulting in a reduced ability to urban drainage. The security requirements of the urban drainage are greatly improved, and design, construction, and management of urban drainage engineering are more difficult. C ounter measures of urban drainage planning based on WOD Usually, urban drainage is to discharge redundant, useless and harmful flood water in time to avoid the city being flooded. Based on the new relationship between human and flood the urban drainage cannot be simply known as "disaster" to be treated From another point of view, it is also a kind of resource; we cannot neglect its value when making efforts to reduce the "disaster". It should be combined with the urban water demand, taking the environment, ecology, resources an d other aspects into consideration, adopt the way of integrating storage with discharge to control urban drainage Make the best use of soil for storage Study the ground water infiltration capacity, and make the best use of soil for storage. F or example, increas ing the green area in the city, with t he beneficial rain water interception of vertical design, not only beautif ies the urban environment, but reduc es the rainwater runoff; I mprove bicycle lane sidewalk pavement structure design (such as paved perm eable cushion, permeable surface brick) ; by adding rainwater infiltration storage into the soil; Use the infiltration pipe, and build infiltration wells on both sides of higher ground at a regular distance ; construct artificial seepage ground, concave dow n greenbelt, retain or install a storage capacity of water, wetland, utilization of rainwater infiltration to supply groundwater; develop ecological rainwater collection system combining grassed swales and detention pond etc. In part the effect may not b e great, but in terms of the whole city, the underground soil for storage rain water will be very considerable. It is reported that the
56 urban perched water situation will get effectively alleviat ed, when the urban water storage, and the perched water table rate reach es over 15% R echarge groundwater using urban drainage Many cities in China, especially northern cit ies over exploit groundwater, causing the urban ground subsidence, a hidden peril to the urban security. Such as recharge groundwater us ing urba n drainage this will alleviate groundwater overdraft to some extent. If the 100mm rainfall infiltrate through green (grass), or infiltration well s that can significantly reduce the burden of urban drainage, and relieve the influence on groundwater supply by urbanization Wetland protection and reducing urban flooding risk On February 2, 1971 in is as follows: Wetlands are areas of marsh, fen or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary with water that is static or flowing fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six meters, consisting of beaches, estuaries, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, swa mp forests, salt zone between the land and water. The hydrological function of wetland behaves in: serving as the recharge source or discharge area of groundwater; fl ood storage; slowing down the erosion of water waves. The latter two functions are also called the urban flooding drainage function of wetland. All wetlands connected with rivers have storage water logging effect, which is related to the wetland attribute: the bigger the wetland is, the greater its water logging storage capacity is. Based on the new relationship between human and flood, the urban drainage planning should strengthen the water project management of wetland.
57 We should take corresponding measur es to restore wetland and reduce water logging risk: Firs tly, wetland water supplements. Demolition of wetland water engineering, increasing the inlet channels by taking foreign water and storage of surface runoff, while the wetland perennial accumulating more water. the most direct and effective way to restore wetland. We have been reclaiming land from lakes and wetland for a long time Such activities make the wetland area continue to decline and the drainage function degrades Therefore, we should cultivated land and restore wetland to i ncrease the water storage area and ensure t he flood water storage function of wetland.
58 LIST OF REFERENCES Breen A., Rigby D. ( 1987 ) Urban W aterfronts '86: D eveloping D iversity: a s ummary of a conference on September 25 27, 1986, i n Washington, D.C. Wash ington, D.C.: Waterfront Press. Collier, M. 1. (2002). In Webb R. H. (Ed.), Floods, droughts, and climate change / michael collier and robert H. webb. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Retrieved from http://uf.catalo g.fcla.edu/permalink.jsp?20UF002873684 Crawford, J., Davoudi, S. (2009). Planning for C limate C hange: S trategies for M itigation and A daptation for S patial P lanners London; Sterling, VA : Earthscan Donovan M. G.(2010) OECD T erritorial R eviews. Venice, Italy 2010 Paris: OECD. 166 168 Dreiseitl, H., Grau, D. ( 2009 ). Recent waterscapes: planning, b uilding and designing with water. Basel; Boston: Birkhuser, c2009 E nvironmental P rotection A gency .(n.d.). Stormwater Management Best Practices. Retrieved 10 30, 2011, from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: http:/ /www.epa.gov/oaintrnt/stormwater/best_practices.htm Hill, J.( 2012 ) Weather A rchitecture London; New York: Routledge. Hoyer, Jacqueline Wolfgang Dickhaut, Lukas Kronawitter, Bjrn Weber (2011). Water Sensitive Urban Design Principles and Inspiration for Sustainable Stormwater Management in the City of the Future JovisVerlag GmbH, Kurfrstenstrae 15/16, D 10785 Berlin, ISBN 978 3 86859 106 4. Retrieved from: http://www.wsud.org/ James Corner Field Operations (2012). Concept Design and Framework Plan for Seattle s Central Waterfront. Central waterfront committee. Retrieved from : http://waterfrontseattle.org/downloads/Wate rfront_Seattle_Design_Summar y_July2012.pdf Moughtin, C ., (1999) Urban D esign: M ethod and T echniques Oxford, [England]; Boston: Architectural Press. Shirley, P., Moughtin, C. ( 2005 ) Urban D esign: G reen D imensions Oxford [England] ; Burlington, MA : Architectural Press. Spinelli, M., Marzo, M. (2003) VivereVenezia: novescuole di architettura europee per la progettazione degli spazi pubblici veneziani Venezia: Marsilio. Torre L. A.(1989) Waterfront D evelopment New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
59 U.S.C. (2011, 1 4). Federal Water Pollutant Control Act. Retrieved 11 16, 2011, from California Environment Protection Agency: http://ww w.swrcb.ca.gov/laws_regulations/docs/fedwaterpollutioncontrola ct.pdf Wan Yanhua Yu Siyu (2011). Urban Flood Control Strategy Based on New Relationship of Human & Flood Water industry Market.2011(7). Retrieved f rom http://www.jsbwater.com/ Wan Yanhua, Yu Siyu, Dujin (2011). Explore the Lakefront Landscape Design of Wuhan East Lake with Cubism. Multimedia Technology (ICMT), 2011 International Conference Publications 2011(8), 3964 3967. Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?reload=true&arnumber=6003 156&contentType=Conference+Publications Waterman, T ., Wall E (2010) Urban D esign Lausanne : AVA Academia ; La Vergne, TN : Distributed in the USA & Canada by Ingram Publisher Services Watson, D. 1. (2011). In Adams M. (. C. ). (Ed.), Design for flooding [electronic resource] : Architecture, landscape, and urban design for resilience to flooding and climate change / Donald watson and Michele adams. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from http://uf.catalog.fcla.edu/permalink.jsp?20UF00522 8869 ; http://lib.myilibrary.com?id=288366 World Commission on Environment and Development (1987). Our C ommon F uture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 43. Wuhan City Planning Bureau (2009). The C omprehensive P lanning of Wuhan (2009 2020) Wuhan Government.(2011, 1 26). Wuhan Lake Management Approach Retrieved 10 30, 2011, from Find law: http://china.findlaw.cn/fagui/diqufagui/ hubei/257348.html
60 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Siyu Yu was born i n Nanchang, Jiangxi Province of China. She received her b urban planning from Jiangxi Agricultural University She then enrolled the Graduate School of College of Architecture and Urban Planning at Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan, China During this time, she decided to get further education at University of Florida S he will graduate in Decemb er 2012 from the University of Florida with a Master of Sc ience in Architectural Studies d egree with a concentra tion in sustainable design. And she will graduate from Huazhong University of Science and Technology in March 201 3 to get a graduate degree in u rban planning. Siyu Yu participated in the project of the comprehensive plan of North Bole in Xinjiang from Jul y 2010 to September 2011. In the project she worked on renovating the historical district of Bole, plan ning for the land use of different type s urban growth boundary, and ecosystem adaptation network and stormwater management During May 2012 to August 2012, Siyu Yu joined in project of Green Corridor in Singapore. She mainly work ed on water management, corridor design adaptation, and coordination of land use. After finishing her study at University of Florida Siyu Yu wants to work in urba n planning with concentration in Sustainable design.