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Living on the Border

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045035/00001

Material Information

Title: Living on the Border Health, Environment, and Multiculturalism in 19th Century Tucson
Physical Description: 1 online resource (652 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Pye, Jeremy W
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: archaeoparasitology -- bioarchaeology -- biocultural -- cemetery -- tucson
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The great disparities in health and unequal distributions of health care benefits between the various subsets of the population in the United States are of great concern to policy makers and scholars in public health fields. There have been many theories posed about various mitigating factors of differential patterns of health, but the situation is more effectively understood by acknowledging that the health of individuals or groups is the result of a complex, interacting system that must be viewed holistically.  The central focus of this dissertation is an innovative biocultural study of human health highlighting the relationship between social, cultural, and environmental variables, using data from the 19th century Alameda-Stone Cemetery in Tucson,Arizona, which with 1386 individuals exhumed was the subject of an intensive archaeological investigation between 2006 and 2008. The Alameda-Stone Cemetery was in use between the early 1860s and 1882 before being closed, and during that period, it served as the only municipal cemetery for Tucson, a city which acted as a hub of interaction between national influences from Mexico and the United States. The community was multi-ethnic, consisting of Hispanics, Native Americans (Tohono O’odham, Akimel O’odham, Yaqui, and Apaches), Anglo-Americans, African-Americans and recent migrants from Europe, Canada, South America, and Asia. Drawing on historical, archaeological, osteological, parasitological, and environmental information, this dissertation investigates how the state of health was impacted by changes that took place in both the physical and cultural landscape..This project represents a singular and unique occurrence in the field of historic cemetery studies in regards to scope and research potential.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jeremy W Pye.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Davidson, James M.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2015-05-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045035:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0045035/00001

Material Information

Title: Living on the Border Health, Environment, and Multiculturalism in 19th Century Tucson
Physical Description: 1 online resource (652 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Pye, Jeremy W
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: archaeoparasitology -- bioarchaeology -- biocultural -- cemetery -- tucson
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The great disparities in health and unequal distributions of health care benefits between the various subsets of the population in the United States are of great concern to policy makers and scholars in public health fields. There have been many theories posed about various mitigating factors of differential patterns of health, but the situation is more effectively understood by acknowledging that the health of individuals or groups is the result of a complex, interacting system that must be viewed holistically.  The central focus of this dissertation is an innovative biocultural study of human health highlighting the relationship between social, cultural, and environmental variables, using data from the 19th century Alameda-Stone Cemetery in Tucson,Arizona, which with 1386 individuals exhumed was the subject of an intensive archaeological investigation between 2006 and 2008. The Alameda-Stone Cemetery was in use between the early 1860s and 1882 before being closed, and during that period, it served as the only municipal cemetery for Tucson, a city which acted as a hub of interaction between national influences from Mexico and the United States. The community was multi-ethnic, consisting of Hispanics, Native Americans (Tohono O’odham, Akimel O’odham, Yaqui, and Apaches), Anglo-Americans, African-Americans and recent migrants from Europe, Canada, South America, and Asia. Drawing on historical, archaeological, osteological, parasitological, and environmental information, this dissertation investigates how the state of health was impacted by changes that took place in both the physical and cultural landscape..This project represents a singular and unique occurrence in the field of historic cemetery studies in regards to scope and research potential.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jeremy W Pye.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local: Adviser: Davidson, James M.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2015-05-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID: UFE0045035:00001


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1 LIVING ON THE BORDER: HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT, AND MULTICULTURALISM IN 19 TH CENTURY TUCSON By JEREMY W. PYE A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREME NTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 201 3 Jeremy Pye

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3 To Xiao Foo Ma, NaNa, and Little ZhuZhu

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First, and foremost, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to the M arlesa Gray, Statistical Research Inc. (SRI) Project Director of the Joint Courts Complex (JCC) Archaeological Project, for working hard to make me part of the project. I appreciate that she also took my advice seriously about collecting soil samples from burials and waste disposal features for parasite analysis. Furthermore, I would like to thank all of the SRI personnel who worked on the archival research, excavation, analysis, and reporting phases of the JCC project, who aided in providing me with a soli d base upon which to develop my research. The JCC project was funded in its entirety through Pima County Contract Number 07 73 S 138479 0806. majority of the background archival research deserves a great deal of pr aise for his role in the project. I would also like to express my appreciation to the staff of the Pima County Cultural Resources and Historic Preservation office, Pima County Board of Supervisors, and all stakeholders or participating offices and organiza tions, for supporting the project and subsequent research. John Madsen, Arizona State Repatriation Coordinator, Arizona State Museum (ASM), provided me with the official permission to take possession of the parasite soil samples which had not been subjecte d to analysis for the official report. Finally, many thanks are extended to my SRI colleagues, Kristin Sewell, Shannon Acothley, Charlotte Cable, and Erica Young, for their roles in preparing soil samples to ship to me. Subsequent to the ending of the JCC project, many people have aided in my research, far too many to mention. Teresita Majewski, Vice President of SRI, served as point of contact for my JCC data requests. Kristin Sewell provided me with archaeological data and field forms. Mitch Keur provided me with osteological data.

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5 Stephen McElroy provided me with GIS data layers from the project. Shari Tiedens and Scott Plumlee graciously conducted research for me at the Arizona Historical Society (AHS). Valuable information and consultation have been pro vided by Homer Thiel (Dessert Archaeology, Inc.), John McClelland (ASM), Mike Fink (Arizona Department of Health Services), Kate Reeve (AHS), Wayne Dawson (Volunteer, AHS), Vernica Reyes Escudero (Special Collections, University of Arizona Libraries), She rry Daniels and Anissa Taylor (Pima County Health Department), Jonathan Mabry (Historic Preservation Officer, City of Tucson), the City of Tucson GIS Department, the City of many others. Immunological testing kits for pilot testing were graciously provided by TECHLAB (Blacksburg, VA), Standardia, Inc. ( Yongin si, Kyonggi do, Korea), Cellabs Biotechnology (Brookvale, New South Wales, Australia), and SciMedX Corporation (Denville, NJ). I would like to thank the many people a t the University of Florida who have supported me throughout my tenure in the Department of Anthropology. James Davidson has acted as my committee chair and has allowed me to explore my research interests freely. My other committee members, Kenneth Sassama n, John Krigbaum, Alyson Young, and Jon Sensbach, deserve my appreciation to for being quite flexible and maintaining interest in my research. David Reed and Candace McCaffery deserve thanks for allowing me to utilize their lab in the Florida Museum of Nat ural History for soil testing. Of course, the Department of Anthropology office staff, Karen Jones, Pat King, Pam Freeman, and Nita Bagnall, deserve more appreciate than can reasonably be expressed here. Without these individuals, it would not be possible to make it through the degree process.

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6 I want to thank my wife Li Bai for suffering through the birth of our two kids, Lena and Julius, and for supporting me in my studies. She has stuck with me since our meeting at the University of Arkansas and our eve ntual marriage in 2007. She joined me at SRI in Tucson, Arizona, to work on the JCC project for parts of two summers. Only minimal complaining resulted from being pregnant during our second summer in Tucson as we were plagued by a car with faulty air condit ioning. I am thankful for my children while we are in school, and for my own parents, who have always supported my pursuit of advanced degrees (even if they hoped the degre es would have been in a more financially lucrative field) Finally, I would like to thank my children, who provide constant distractions from my work, even if those distractions are eight hour visits to the emergency room or persistent coercion into acting that we are able to instill in them a love for education and research as they grow. I suppose we are off to a good start; Lena has asked me several times upon my return

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7 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 12 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 14 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 20 CHAPTER 1 SETTING THE STAGE ................................ ................................ ........................... 22 Health Inequity a nd Inequa lity ................................ ................................ ................. 22 Bioarchaeology a nd Health ................................ ................................ ..................... 23 Joint Courts Archaeological Project ................................ ................................ ........ 27 Organization o f Dissertation ................................ ................................ .................... 28 2 MODELING THE STATE OF HEALTH ................................ ................................ ... 35 Exploring Biocultural a nd Biohistorical Frameworks ................................ ............... 37 Health Frameworks from Ecology a nd Medical Geography ................................ .... 41 Constructing an Integrated State o f Health Model ................................ .................. 43 Habitat ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 45 Natural e nvironment ................................ ................................ ................... 45 Built e nvironment ................................ ................................ ....................... 46 Social e nvironment ................................ ................................ .................... 47 Human Biology ................................ ................................ ................................ 48 Genetic p redisposition ................................ ................................ ............... 48 Age ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 49 Sex ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 50 Psychological s tate ................................ ................................ .................... 50 Nutritional and immunological s tatus ................................ ......................... 52 Culture ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 53 Belief and p ractice ................................ ................................ ..................... 54 Technology ................................ ................................ ................................ 56 Time ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 57 3 TUCSON AND ITS ENVIRONS ................................ ................................ .............. 63 Physical Setting ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 63 Climate ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 63 Contemporary a nd Historical Vegetation ................................ .......................... 65 Fauna ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 67 Hydrology and Hydrogeography of t he Santa Cruz River ................................ 70

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8 Soils ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 71 Culture History In The Tucson Basin ................................ ................................ ...... 72 Spanish Colonial Period (1539 1821) ................................ ............................... 73 The Mexican Period (1 821 1854) ................................ ................................ ..... 78 The U.S. Period (1854 Present) ................................ ................................ ...... 81 4 DATA SOURCES AND METHODS ................................ ................................ ........ 90 Archival Data Sources ................................ ................................ ............................ 90 Federal Censuses a nd Mortality Schedules ................................ ..................... 91 U.S. Military a nd Climatological Records ................................ ......................... 92 County, City, a nd Hospital Records ................................ ................................ .. 95 Tucson Diocese Burial Register ................................ ................................ ....... 98 Obituaries a nd Newspaper Records ................................ ................................ 99 ................................ ................................ ...................... 100 Archaeological Methods ................................ ................................ ........................ 102 Grave Pit and Burial Discovery a nd Removal ................................ ................. 102 Laboratory Processing ................................ ................................ ................... 104 Burial Container a nd Hardw are Analysis ................................ ........................ 105 Methods f or Archaeoparasitological Analysis ................................ ....................... 107 Alameda Stone Cemetery Parasite Sample ................................ ................... 108 Microscope Testing of the Alameda Stone Cemetery Parasite Samples ....... 108 Immunological Testing of t he Alameda Stone Cemetery Parasite Samples ... 112 E. h istolytica ELISA ................................ ................................ .................. 112 G iardia ELISA ................................ ................................ .......................... 113 M alaria ELISA ................................ ................................ .......................... 114 Osteological Methods and Indicators o f Health ................................ ..................... 114 Inventory ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 115 Taphonom y ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 115 Age Assessment ................................ ................................ ............................ 116 Sex Assessment ................................ ................................ ............................. 117 Dentition ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 117 Craniometrics a nd Postcranial Metrics ................................ ........................... 118 Nonmetric Observations ................................ ................................ ................. 119 P athology Trauma, Cranial Deformation, a nd Degenerative Skeletal Changes ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 119 Assessing Biological Affinity ................................ ................................ ........... 120 Assessing Cultura l Affinity ................................ ................................ .................... 121 Archaeological Evidence ................................ ................................ ................ 121 Osteological Evidence ................................ ................................ .................... 122 Historical Evidence ................................ ................................ ......................... 122 Making Determinations ................................ ................................ ................... 123 5 WATER RELATED AND WATER/FOOD BORNE DISEASE ............................... 129 Malaria ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 130 Pathogenesis and S urvivability ................................ ................................ ....... 131

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9 E pidemiology ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 133 Osteological I ndicators ................................ ................................ ................... 133 M alaria in 19 th Century T ucson ................................ ................................ ....... 134 Statistical Modeling of M alari a Patterns at Camp L owell ................................ 136 M alari a Risk Mapping ................................ ................................ ..................... 136 T echnology and data used in study ................................ ......................... 138 S patial layers preparation ................................ ................................ ........ 139 D iscussion of risk model ................................ ................................ .......... 142 Archaeological Evidence of M alaria ................................ ............................... 144 G iardiasis ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 145 Pathogenesis and S urvivability ................................ ................................ ....... 146 E pidemiol ogy ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 148 Osteological I ndicators ................................ ................................ ................... 149 Amoebic D ysentery ................................ ................................ ............................... 150 Pathog enisis and S urvivability ................................ ................................ ........ 150 E pidemiology ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 152 Osteological I ndicators ................................ ................................ ................... 152 Dysentery and Diarrheal D isease in 19 th Century T ucson .............................. 153 Archaeological E vid ence of Giardiasis and Amoebic D ysentery .................... 154 6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES ................................ ................................ .............. 180 Smallpox ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 180 P athogenesis and S urvivability ................................ ................................ ....... 182 E pidemiology ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 187 I ndividual susceptibility and genetics ................................ ....................... 187 P hysiological factors ................................ ................................ ................ 187 S ocial factors ................................ ................................ ........................... 188 V ector borne transmission ................................ ................................ ....... 189 Controlling the D isease ................................ ................................ .................. 190 Avoidance/Isolation/Q uarantine ................................ ............................... 190 V ariola tion (inoculation) ................................ ................................ ........... 191 V accination ................................ ................................ .............................. 192 Osteological I ndicators ................................ ................................ ................... 194 Smallpox in the T ucs on B asin ................................ ................................ ........ 194 Agent Based S imulation ................................ ................................ ................. 204 S imulation methodology ................................ ................................ ........... 206 D iscussion of simulation results ................................ ............................... 210 Evidence of Smallpox in the Alameda Stone C emetery ................................ 213 S yphilis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 214 Pathogenesis and S urvivability ................................ ................................ ....... 215 E pidemiology ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 217 O steological I ndicators ................................ ................................ ................... 218 G onorrhea ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 220 Pathogenesis and S urvivability ................................ ................................ ....... 220 E pidemiology ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 222 Osteological I ndicators ................................ ................................ ................... 223

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10 Venereal Disease and Prostitution in 19th Century T ucson ........................... 223 Prostitution in T ucson ................................ ................................ .............. 223 Statistical analysis of venereal disease at Camp L owell .......................... 229 Evidence of V en ereal Disease in Alameda Stone C emetery .......................... 231 7 GRAPPLING WITH SOCIAL IDENTITY AND HEALTH IN 19TH CENTURY TUCSON ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 264 Creating a Historical Picture of Society and Health in T ucson .............................. 264 Social Identity and Maintenance of I ntere thnic R elationships ......................... 264 Cultural Theories of Disease C ausation ................................ ......................... 271 Reforms to Public Health and S anitation ................................ ........................ 2 76 Creating a Bioarchaeological Picture of Society and Health in T ucson ................ 278 Development of the Socioeconomic Approach to Historic Mortuary A rchaeology ................................ ................................ ................................ 279 B urial container shape and construction ................................ .................. 282 C onstruction hardware ................................ ................................ ............. 285 D ecorative hardware ................................ ................................ ................ 286 S urface treatments ................................ ................................ ................... 287 Osteological Indicators of Nutritional H ealth ................................ ................... 289 E vidence o f Parasitism and Its Affect on H ealth and B ehavior ....................... 292 8 PARTING WORDS ................................ ................................ ............................... 316 APPENDIX A TUCSON MORTALITY SCHEDULE FROM THE 1870 U.S. FEDERAL CENSUS (PERSONS WHO DIED IN THE YEAR PRIOR TO JUNE 1, 1870) ...... 328 B TUCSON MORTALITY SCHEDULE FROM THE 1880 U.S. FEDERAL CENSUS (PERSONS WHO DIED IN THE YEAR PRIOR TO JUNE 1, 1880) ...... 332 C SAN XAVIER MORTALITY SCHEDULE FROM THE 1870 U.S. FED ERAL CENSUS (PERSONS WHO DIED IN THE YEAR PRIOR TO JUNE 1, 1870) ...... 334 D POST HOSPITAL LEDGER BOOK 118, CAMP LOWELL, TUCSON, ARIZONA TERRITORY (AUGUST 1866 AUGUST 1868) ................................ ..................... 335 E SUMMARY OF POST HOSPITAL LEDGER BOOK 119, CAMP LOWELL, TUCSON, ARIZONA TERRITORY (AUGUST 1867 DECEMBER 1874) ............. 357 F POST HOSPITAL LEDGER BOOK 120, CAMP LOWELL, TUCSON, ARIZONA TERRITORY (JANUARY 1875 NOVEMBER 1879) ................................ ........... 396 G POST HOSPITAL LEDGER BOOK 121, CAVALRY CAMP, TUCSON, ARIZONA TERRITORY (JULY 1872 JULY 1873) ................................ ............. 423

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11 H POST HOSPITAL LEDGER BOOK 122, FORT LOWELL, TUCSON, ARIZONA TERRITORY (NOVEMBER 1879 DECEMBER 1883) ................................ ....... 432 I CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF UNITS POST ED AT CAMP/FORT LOWELL ... 456 J SUMMARY TABLE OF HISTORICAL CLIMATE DATA AND FORT LOWELL POST HOSPITAL RECORDS ................................ ................................ .............. 487 K PIMA COUNTY NO TICES OF DEATH (1887 1898) ................................ ............. 495 L SUMMARY OF INFORMATION IN THE TUCSON DIOCESE BURIAL R EGISTER (1863 1887) ................................ ................................ ....................... 498 M DEATHS RECORDED 872 1887) .................. 559 N SUMMARY TABLE OF IMMUNOLOGICAL TESTING RESULTS ........................ 574 O SUMMARY TABLE OF OSTEOLOGICAL DA TA AND AFFINITY ASSESSMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 577 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 607 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 652

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12 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Nutritional influence of diseases on outcomes of infection. ................................ 61 4 1 Parasites identif ied in preliminary analysis ................................ ...................... 124 4 2 Step by step laboratory analysis for macrofossils, starches, pollen, and pa rasites ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 125 4 3 Step by step proces s for performing ELISA tests for E. histolytica. .................. 125 4 4 Step by step process for performing ELISA tests for Giardia spp. ................... 127 4 5 Step by step process for performing ELISA tests for P.f Malaria. ..................... 128 5 1 Nave model normality test section. ................................ ................................ .. 161 5 2 Nave mod el regression equation section. ................................ ........................ 161 5 3 Log model regression equation section ................................ ............................ 162 5 4 Log model normality tests section ................................ ................................ .... 163 5 5 Demographic profile and frequencies for individuals with cribra orbitalia or porotic hyperostosis in the Alameda Stone Cemetery. ................................ ..... 171 5 6 Statistical significance between demographic categories for cribra orbitalia and porotic hyperostosis in the Alameda Stone Cemetery ............................... 172 5 7 Survivability of Giardia lamblia and Giardi a muris cysts under varying environmental conditions. ................................ ................................ ................. 174 5 8 Survivability of Entamoeba histolytica cysts under varying environmental conditions. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 176 5 9 Demographic profile and frequencies for individuals testing positive for giardiasis or amoebic dysentery in the Alameda Stone Cemetery. .................. 178 6 1 A classification of c linical types of Variola major ................................ ............... 236 6 2 Estimates of death rate generated by sinusoida l regression analysis .............. 236 6 3 Survivability of smallpox virus in various environmental conditions. ................. 237 6 4 Outcomes for ten Tucson simulations. ................................ ............................. 248 6 5 Summary of individu als with osteomyelitis in the Alameda Stone Cemetery. ... 250

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13 6 6 Survivability of Treponema pallidum in the environment. ................................ 252 6 7 Su rvivability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the environment. .............................. 254 6 8 betw een 1875 and 1878 ................................ ................................ .................. 256 6 9 List of names and demographic of prostitutes and madams active in Tucson between 1875 and 1878 as recorded in Geor ...................... 257 7 1 Demographic distribution of burial container types. ................................ .......... 299 7 2 Distribution of decorative burial container hardware types. .............................. 301 7 3 Wholesale c osts of decorative burial container hardware recovered from Alameda Stone Cemetery. ................................ ................................ ............... 312 7 4 Demographic distribution of decorative hardware in Alameda Stone Cemetery. ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 314 7 5 Demographic distribution of exterior cloth covering observed on burial containers in Alameda Stone Cemetery. ................................ .......................... 315

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14 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Location of the Joint Courts Complex Archaeological Project in downtown Tucson, Arizona. ................................ ................................ ................................ 31 1 2 Plan map of graves and other archaeological feature s in the Joint Courts Archaeological Project area. ................................ ................................ ............... 32 1 3 Map of the Joint Courts Complex projec t area, showing grave features. ............ 33 1 4 Locations of historic burials in the Tucson area. ................................ ................. 34 2 1 Generalized model for the biocultural analysis of skeletal remains. ................... 58 2 2 The First African B aptist Church Biocultural Model ................................ ............ 58 2 3 Host environment interaction model. ................................ ................................ .. 59 2 4 Generalized risk model ................................ ................................ ....................... 59 2 5 Generalized risk m odel of biocultural interaction ................................ ................ 60 2 6 Triangle of Human Ecology. ................................ ................................ ............... 60 2 7 Triangle of Human Ecology. ................................ ................................ ............... 61 2 8 Reconceptualized triangular model of health. ................................ ..................... 62 3 1 T ucson Basin, showing, watercourses, settlements, and irrigated fields of 19th century. ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 84 3 2 Santa Cruz River Basin with physiographic features. ................................ ......... 85 3 3 Aquatic and semiaquatic habitats in the Santa Cruz Valley before 1890 inferred from historic records ................................ ................................ .............. 86 3 4 Process of arroyo downcutting an d widening of alluvial chan nels ...................... 87 3 5 Perennial and intermittent research of the Santa Cruz River before 1890. ......... 88 3 6 The missions, presidios, and racheri as of the Spanish Colonial Period. ............ 89 5 1 Mode of transmission of food borne enteric pathogens. ................................ ... 158 5 2 Life cycle of Plasmodium spp. ................................ ................................ .......... 158 5 3 Movement of Anopheline mosquito over life course. ................................ ........ 159

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15 5 4 Line chart showing pattern of malaria cases at Camp Lowell from August 1866 until January 1879. ................................ ................................ .................. 160 5 5 Line chart showing pattern of malaria cases at Camp Lowell from August 1866 until January 1879 compared to maximum, mean, and minimum monthly temperature, as well as monthly mean precipitation. .......................... 160 5 6 Box plot and means plot of malaria ratio means for the Tucson and Rillito subsets of Camp Lowell. ................................ ................................ .................. 161 5 7 Normality and residual plots for nave model. ................................ ................... 162 5 8 Normality and residual plots for log malaria model. ................................ .......... 163 5 9 DEM derived layers in malaria risk model. ................................ ....................... 164 5 10 Soil derived layers in malaria risk model. ................................ ......................... 164 5 11 ields d rawn by Ferguson in 1862 ....................... 165 5 12 Vegetation derived layers in malaria risk model. ................................ .............. 166 5 13 Reclassified vegetation layer. ................................ ................................ ........... 166 5 14 Model Builder illustration of malaria risk model. ................................ ................ 167 5 15 Final malaria risk model showing 19 th century settlements, agricu ltural fields, and waterways. ................................ ................................ ................................ 168 5 16 Occiptal bone presenting porotic hyperostosis from Individual P, Grave Pit 13706, Burial 26489, a child of indeterminate age and biological affinity. ........ 169 5 17 Cribra orbitalia present in right eye orbit of Individual P, Grave Pit 13509, Burial 21998, an infant of indetermin ate age and biological affinity .................. 170 5 18 Life cycle of Giardia spp. ................................ ................................ .................. 173 5 19 Life cycle of E. histolytica ................................ ................................ ................. 175 5 20 Bar chart showing pattern of diarrhea and dysentery cases at Camp Lowell from August 186 6 until December 1882. ................................ .......................... 177 5 21 Women doing laundry in the acequia (irrigation ditch) just outside of Tucson. 179 6 1 Image of Shitala ................................ ................................ ................................ 234 6 2 Stages of the smallpox rash ................................ ................................ ............. 234 6 3 Model of Variola virus (VARV) pathogenesis ................................ .................... 235

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16 6 4 Graph showing the number of vi able Variola spp particles found in scabs in the 1968 study by Wolff and Croon. ................................ ................................ 238 6 5 Early Chinese illustration showing inoculation method ................................ ..... 238 6 6 Ivory points with storage bo x ................................ ................................ ............ 239 6 7 del Bac ..... 239 6 8 Google map showing current route between Tucson, Arizo n a, and Altar, Mexico ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 240 6 9 ollas (jars), which Tucsonans filled with water and hung in their breezeways. ................................ ................ 240 6 10 Smallpox deaths recorded in the 187 0 Mortality Schedule for Tucson ............. 241 6 11 AgentSheets conceptual model ................................ ................................ ...... 241 6 12 AgentSheets condition and action palettes. ................................ .................... 242 6 13 AgentSheets conversational programming flow chart ................................ ..... 242 6 1 4 Agent Gallery. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 243 6 15 Tucson Smallpox worksheet depicting 3100 healthy Tucsonans, one pre symptomatic (and therefore infectious) individual and one doctor. ................... 243 6 16 Temporal control method block governing initial agent statuses. ..................... 244 6 17 ........................ 244 6 18 ................................ .... 245 6 19 si mulation. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 245 6 20 simulation. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 246 6 21 simulation. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 246 6 22 simulation. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 247 6 23 Simulation properties. ................................ ................................ ....................... 247

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17 6 24 Plot of susceptible, deaths, and immune classes in one run of the Tucson smallpox simulation. ................................ ................................ ......................... 248 6 25 Simulated Tucson environmen t during one of the simulations ........................ 249 6 26 Frequency of skeletal eleme nts affected by osteomyelitis ................................ 250 6 27 Left ulna of Individual P from Grave Pit 13654, Burial 27544, showing proliferative periostitis and osteomyelitis ................................ .......................... 251 6 28 Pat hogenesis of e arly syphilis ................................ ................................ .......... 251 6 29 Patho genesis of gonorrheal infection ................................ ............................... 253 6 30 19th century Tucson prostitute ................................ ......................... 255 6 31 Example of health certificate issued to a Tucson prostitute in the 1910s. ........ 258 6 32 Bar graph showing total monthly cases of gonorrhea a nd syphilis at Camp Lowell from August 1866 until January 1879. ................................ ................... 258 6 33 Bar graphs showing ratios of monthly syphilis and gonorrhea counts to mean garrison strength at Camp Lowell from August 1866 until January 1879. ......... 259 6 34 Box plot and means plot of gonorrhea ratio means for the Tucson and Rillito subsets for Camp Lowell. ................................ ................................ ................. 260 6 35 Box plot and means plot of syphilis ratio means for the Tucson and Rillito subsets for Camp Lowell. ................................ ................................ ................. 260 6 36 Cranium of Individual P from Grave Pit 10078, Bur ial 14566, showin g caries sicca ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 261 6 37 Tibiae of Individual P from Grave Pit 7720, Burial 16836, showing anterior bowing. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 262 6 38 Distal end o f right femur of Individual P from Grave Pit 29282, Burial 28 755, exhibiting osteochondrosis ................................ ................................ ............... 262 6 39 Mandible of Individual P from Grave Pit 13926, Burial 28294, exhibiting Mulberry molars. ................................ ................................ ............................... 263 7 1 Common shapes of burial containers. ................................ .............................. 295 7 2 Exterior face of ferrous metal plate (Miscellaneous Hardware Type 1) ............ 295 7 3 Ferrous metal strap from exterior of burial container (Miscellaneous Hardware Type 2). ................................ ................................ ............................ 296

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18 7 4 Ferrous metal strap from exterior of burial container (Mis cellaneous Hardware Type 3) ................................ ................................ ............................. 296 7 5 Ferrous metal strap fragments from exterior of burial container (Miscellaneous Hardware Type 4). ................................ ................................ ... 297 7 6 Latch from exterior of burial container (Miscellaneous Hardware Type 5). ....... 297 7 7 Ferrous metal ring from exterior lid of burial container (Miscellaneous H ardware Type 6). ................................ ................................ ............................ 298 7 8 Diagram of construction of a coffin with kerfed shoulders. ............................... 298 7 9 Furniture/Drawer pull (Handle Type 1 ). ................................ ............................ 302 7 10 Single lug swing bail handle (Handle Ty pe 2) ................................ .................. 302 7 11 Single lug swing bail handle (Han dle Type 3) ................................ .................. 303 7 12 Double lug swing bail handle (Handle Type 4) ................................ ................. 303 7 13 Bail handle f ragment (Handle Type 5) ................................ .............................. 304 7 14 Double lug swin g bail handle (Handle Type 6) ................................ ................. 304 7 15 Double lug sw ing bail handle (Handle Type 7) ................................ ................. 305 7 16 Double lug swing bail handle (Handle Type 8) ................................ ................. 305 7 17 Double lug swing bail h andle with tips (Handle Type 9) ................................ ... 306 7 18 Wh ite metal coffin tack (Ornamental Tack Type 1). ................................ .......... 306 7 19 White metal coffin tack (Ornamental Tack Type 1.1). ................................ ....... 307 7 20 White meta l coffin tack (Ornamental Tack Type 2) ................................ ........... 307 7 21 White metal coffin tack (Ornamental Tack Type 3). ................................ .......... 307 7 22 White metal coffin ta ck (Ornamental Tack Type 4). ................................ .......... 308 7 23 Stamped, cuprous metal diamond tacks (Ornamental Tack Type 5). ............... 308 7 24 Stamped, cuprous m etal tack (Ornamental Tack Type 6). ............................... 309 7 25 White china nails with cuprous shafts (Ornamental Tack Type 7). ................... 309 7 26 White meta l coffin screw (Coffin Screw Type 1). ................................ .............. 310

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19 7 27 White metal coffin screw (Coffin Screw Type 2). ................................ .............. 310 7 28 White metal coffin screw (Coffin Screw Type 3). ................................ .............. 311 7 29 White metal coffin screw (Coffin Screw Type 4). ................................ .............. 311 7 30 White metal coffin screw (Coffin Screw Type 5). ................................ .............. 311 7 31 Distribution of graves containing s ome form of decorative hardware ............... 313

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20 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the Univ ersity of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy LIVING ON THE BORDER: HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT, AND MULTICULTURALISM IN 19 TH CENTURY TUCSON By Jeremy W. Pye May 2013 Chair: James M. David son Major: Anthropology The great disparities in health and unequal distributions of health care benefits between the various subsets of the population in the United States are of great concern to policy makers and scholars in public health fields. There have been many theories posed about various mitigating factors of differential patterns of health, but the situation is more effectively understood by acknowledging that the health of individuals or groups is the result of a complex, interacting system tha t must be viewed holistically. The central focus of this dissertation is an innovative biocultural study of human health highlighting the relationship between social, cultural, and environmental variables, using data from the 19 th century Alameda Stone Ce metery in Tucson, Arizona, which with 1386 individuals exhumed was the subject of an intensive archaeological investigation between 2006 and 2008. The Alameda Stone Cemetery was in use between the early 1860s and 1882 before being closed, and during that period, it served as the only municipal cemetery for Tucson, a city which acted as a hub of interaction between national influences from Mexico and the United States. The community was multiethnic, consisting of Hispanics,

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21 Americans, African Americans and recent migrants from Europe, Canada, South America, and Asia. Drawing on historical, archaeological, osteological, parasitological, and environmental information, this dissertatio n investigates how the state of health was impacted by changes that took place in both the physical and cultural l andscape This project represents a singular and unique occurrence in the field of historic cemetery studies in regards to scope and research potential.

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22 CHAPTER 1 SETTING THE STAGE The great disparities in health and unequal distributions of health care benefits between the various subsets of the population in the United States are of great concern to policy makers and scholars in numerous fi elds Many have theorized that the mitigating factor in health inequity is socioeconomic status; however, others have shown that substantial ethnic disparities in health remain even after controlling for socioeconomic variables like income and education (E dwards 2010). One must account for the social history and social climate that is responsible for disparity (Shavers and Shavers 2006:386). The situation is more effectively understood by acknowledging that the health of individuals or groups is the result of a complex, interacting system that must be viewed holistically (Keifer 2007). Usin g a bioarchaeological and biocultural lens this dissertation seeks to address health disparities between ethnic populations in the past (using variables such as: gender, age, ethnicity, religion, occupation, income, education, diet, hygiene, public sanitation, as well as cultural and environmental vectors of disease) in such a way that one can more effectively understand th e historical development of modern structural disp arity. Health Inequity and Inequality Health inequities are systematic differences in health status in society which are sustained through time. Inequities are typically beyond the control of each individual and ances, based on growing social and economic some levels can be used interchangeably, although there is a difference between the two. Inequity refers to a situation o f unfairness or injustice, which can be described

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23 measures (Asada 2010:112 113; Hofrichter 2010:3). Income inequality, for instance, is a quantifiable type of disparity that results from various inequities in society, such as gender or racial biases in the work place. While biased attitudes or discrimination contribute to social inequalities, it is the exercise of unequal power within the social, economic, or political spheres of society that most affect health inequity. As Hofrichter (2010:3) points out, negative conditions in childhood, quality of housing, occupational conditions, position o f power in the workplace, socioeconomic standing and security, racial or gender biases, and unhealthy conditions of the natural environment are all factors in health inequity. The concept of health, however, is a social construct. Population sub groups def ine ill health in different ways. These different culturally derived definitions of health and the causes of ill health are important One must be able to grasp the complexities of health as a concept before determining what fuels health inequities (Hofric hter 2010:3). Bioarchaeology and Health Bioarchaeology, generally, is the contextual analysis of human populations from archaeological sites (Buikstra 1977). It uses a combination of archaeology and skeletal biology to ask questions about how people lived in the past and to understand the relationship between health, culture, and environment (Shuler 2005:24). Bioarchaeology is premised on three primary components, as outlined by Zuckerman and Armelagos 2011:21): the application of a population perspective ;

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24 the recognition that culture is an adaptive force within human environments that is inextricably linked to biological adaptation; the existence of methods for testing alternative hypotheses on the interaction between biological and cultural dimensions o f the adaptive process While past environments cannot be directly observed, archaeological and historical investigations can provide clues to environmental context. Attention is directed largely toward human skeletal remains because human remains from a rchaeological contexts are a unique source of information about past quality of life and the responses past communities had to social and natural stimuli (Shuler 2005:24; Walker 2008). Through an archaeological lens, researchers attempt to focus on populat ion biocultural adaptation and Though the term, bioarchaeology, has emerged relatively recently, the precepts of the approach are deeply rooted in American archaeology (Beck 2006). In 1930, E. A represents a mature, integrative analysis, which emphasized archaeological context when referencing the human skeletal remains. This project, when examined in detail, reveals a partnership between A.V. Kidder and E. A. Hooton as pioneers in developing an integrated, interdisciplinary perspective on the past (Beck 2006:83). The bioarchaeological collaboration may have been born with Hooton, but the catalyst to its development wa s the emergence of the New Physical Anthropology and processual archaeology, or New Archaeology, in the 1960s (Binford 1962). Significantly, the processual school adopted a positivist and ecological approach to the study of adaptive relationships between c ulture and the environment (Zuckerman and Armelagos 2011:21). Buisktra (1977) emerges as the first official contribution to the

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25 bioarchaeological literature through multidisciplinary research on mortuary behavior, social organization, health, demography, p opulation history, and activity in the lower Illinois River Valley grounded in scientific method. Larsen and Walker (2010:380) cite two papers of particular importance in defining the scope of the field. Huss Ashmore et al. (1982) was focused on diet and n utrition, while Larsen (1987 1997 ) on bioarchaeology in general. These scholars understood that the human skeleton is dynamic throughout the life course, forming and remodeling bone tissue, developing and wearing down teeth, growth and development. Furth er, that the processes that controlled these dynamic qualities of the skeleton could be affected by circumstances of life, such as health and lifestyle (narrowly defined by Larsen and Walker (2010) as activity and workload). Health and evidence of skeletal stress are largely a reflection of quality of life (Davidson et al. 2002). H uman variation and adaptation as expressed by skeletal remains are best understood, not through the previous typology racial paradigm of the old physical anthropology but as the 1979; Larsen and Walker 2010:379). The biocultural framework, itself, provides a means of investigating how th e interaction of the social and natural environmental induces biological stress, thus affect ing health outcomes. This concept has become the backbone of medical anthropology due to the implicit understanding that an understanding of health and disease is p resent in every culture (Kiefer 2007; Moore et al. 1980; Wood 1979), as well as bioarchaeology, wherein skeletal health is assessed through the analysis of

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26 characteristic pathologies resulting from infection or degeneration (Goodman et al. 1984, 1988 ) In their analysis of a skeletal sample from Dickson Mounds, Goodman and Armelagos (1989) suggest that the environment acts as a baseline for all factors affecting health, while cultural adaptations serve as a buffer. Culture, however, often produces its own s et of stressors, including those factors dealing with warfare and poor sanitation, where particular groups within a population may be at an elevated risk because they may have disparate access to suitable sanitation, access to resources, or education (Good man et al. 1988). While still being applied to prehistoric site materials, Cook (1981) suggested that historic factors associated with status and resultant biological difference should be incorporated. Corruccini et al. (1982), Owsley et al. (1987), Rose (1983, 1985, 1989), and Kelly and Angel (1983) later used historical documents in their interpretations of skeletal pathologies and environmental stressors from historic mortuary contexts from the Caribbean, Louisiana, Maryland, and Arkansas, respectively. Rankin Hill ( 1990, 1997) work on the First African Baptist Church Cemetery, Philadelphia, PA, was one of the most prominent studies of health in historic mortuary archaeology to use the ical approach attempts to move beyond traditional historical literature by understanding how the evolution of the Earth and the adaptation of humans biologically to environmental conditions have affected the development of culture and society. Within mortu ary anthropology, the biohistorical approach is that the information derived from skeletal or other biological analyses must be placed within historical context in order to understand community lifeways and in order to be able to explain the conditions tha t might have contributed to

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27 ill health (de la Cova 2011:526). There are two ways, therefore, that a biohistorical approach can be implemented: 1) skeletal and archaeological data from a wide temporal span could be used along with archaeologically derived cu ltural interpretations to make observations about temporal (historical) trends (Larsen et al. 2002), or 2) skeletal and archaeological data could be synthesized along with cultural interpretation derived through the lens of historical documents (Rankin Hil l 1997). Joint Courts Archaeological Project Because this type of bioarchaeological approach depends on variable factors rooted in local context, it is necessary to select a case study. This dissertation will use data derived from the archaeological reloc ation of the Alameda Stone Cemetery, Tucson, Arizona (Figure 1 1). Statistical Research, Inc. (SRI), Tucson, Arizona, conducted the project, which took six years to complete from initial archival research in 2004 to the completion of the final report in 20 10 (Heilen and Gray 2010). With 1386 individuals recovered during burial excavations along with over a century of post cemetery disturbances, the Alameda Stone Cemetery stands as one of the largest and most archaeologically complicated historic cemeteries to be relocated in the United States (Figure 1 2 and Figure 1 3) The Alameda Stone Cemetery was in use from the early 1860s to 1882, and served as the only municipal cemetery for Tucson until 1875 when it was officially closed and replaced by the openin g of the Court Street Cemetery (Beck et al. 2006) (Figure 1 4) The community was multiethnic, consisting of individuals of a number of lo Americans, African Americans and recent migrants from Europe, Canada, South America, and Asia. During this period,

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28 Tucson acted as a hub of interaction between national influences from Mexico and the United States, and the time period in question spans the time between acquisition of the territory by the United States; the spread of the sanitation reform movement in the 1870 s; the establishment of transportation networks, such as the wagon trains in the early days, and the railroad in 1880, which introdu ced greater amounts of industrial/mass produced goods and consumer culture in to the region (Heilen and Gray 2010; Walker 1973). This project represents a singular and unique occurrence in the field of historic cemetery studies in regards to scope and resea rch potential. Organization of Dissertation Data is drawn from historical, archaeological, osteological and envir onmental contexts to address how the cultural landscape, t he negotiation of cultural identity, socioeconomics ethnicity, and belief affected the state of health. Several questions arise, therefore, in this context: How exactly did the various ethnic groups of Tucson coexist and interact within the community? To what degree did the ethnic groups maintain their distinctiveness, and to what exte nt were they influenced by one another? To what degree did ethnic relationships affect or reflect living conditions, quality of life, and responses to health concerns? How did the social and natural environments within the Tucson Basin affect the overall state of health within the population? This dissertation provide s new data to explore the interrelationship between indicators of health, agents of disease, cultural identity and practice, and socially constructed, structural differences between subsets o f the Tucson population. The data resulting from this study will show whether or not there exist ed health disparities between ethnic groups in a context where a multicultural population is represented in one complete

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29 sample. Clarifying this relationship br ings the disconnected studies of population groups and households into a more encapsulating interpretive perspective. This dissertation is divided into eight chapters. To foreground the discussion of health disparities and ethnic relationships in the late 19th century in Tucson, one m ust first be able to model the a ffect of pertinent variable s on the state of health of an individual Therefore, Chapter 2 further explores the biocultural and biohistorical modeling frameworks and the health modeling of a num ber of health related fields. Finally this chapter discussed the creation of a holistic model for understanding the state of health in historic mortuary settings This model acts as a lens through which the historical, archaeological, osteological, and env ironmental data can be interpreted in the framework of health studies. Chapter 3 contains an in depth discussion of the environmental and historical setting of the Tucson Basin in the late 19th century. Chapter 4 describes the numerous primary historical s ources used in this analysis, as well as th e methodologies for the archaeological, osteological, and paleoparasitological analyses used in this dissertation. Chapters 5 and 6 are the most substantive and analytical chapters as they present the disease cas e studies. Generally speaking, they explore the biology, pathogenicity, and epidemiology of a variety of disease agents before analyzing how these pathogens are represented in the historical and archaeological record of Tucson. Chapter 5 explores several w ater/food borne and water related diseases, specifically, malaria, giardiasis, and amoe biasis. Chapter 6 focuses on communicable diseases specifically, smallpox, venereal syphilis, and gonorrhea. Chapter 7 pr esents a discussion of the final results and i nterpretations about the negotiation of multiculturalism, the environment,

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30 and health. Finally, Chapter 8 provides a synthesis of the work and provides a personal voice to the Tucson pioneers. This research fulfills haeologists to focus on facets of life in the past for which there are insufficient documentation and where a more complete understanding can only be formed through addressing questions no line of evidence can answer alone. The analytical techniques applie d in this study and the interpretive framework in which these techniques are used attempt to maximize the amount of information gleaned from this archaeological project. Many of the issues pertaining to public health, disease and cultural demographics, wh ich I plan on discussing in this dissertation, are still pertinent topics in public policy today. This project promotes an approach not often used in archaeological discussions o f public health and demonstrates the multilayered nature of cultural identity, as well as the importance of socia l and environmental interactions.

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31 Figure 1 1. Location of the Joint Courts Complex Archaeological Project in downtown Tucson, Arizona. [Reprinted with permission from Gray, Marlesa A., and Roger Anyon. 2010. Planni ng is Everything: The Administrative Context for the Joint Courts Complex Archaeological Project In Context and Synthesis From the Joint Courts Complex Archaeological Project, Tucson, Arizona edited by M ichael P. Heilen, and Marlesa A. Gray. (Page 32, Figure 30) Technical Report 10 95. Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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32 Figure 1 2. Plan map of graves and other archaeological features in the Joint Courts Archaeological Project area. [Reprinted with permission from Gray, Marlesa A., and Roger Anyon. 20 10. Planning is Everything: The Administrative Context for the Joint Courts Complex Archaeological Project In Context and Synthesis From the Joint Courts Complex Archaeological Project, Tucson, Arizona edited by M ichael P. Heilen, and Marlesa A. Gray. (Page 4 4, Figure 32) Technical Report 10 95. Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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33 Figure 1 3. Map of the Joint Courts Complex project area, showing grave features. [Reprinted with permission from Heilen, Michael P., and Marlesa A. Gray. 2010. Introduct ion In Context and Synthesis From the Joint Courts Complex Archaeological Project, Tucson, Arizona edited by M ichael P. Heilen, and Marlesa A. Gray. Technical Report 10 95. (Page 5, Figure 3) Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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34 Figure 1 4. Locations of historic burials in the Tucson area. [Reprinted with permission from Heilen, Michael P., and Marlesa A. Gray. 2010. Introduction In Context and Synthesis From the Joint Courts Complex Archaeological Project, Tucson, Arizona edited by M ichael P. Heilen, an d Marlesa A. Gray. Technical Report 10 95. (Page 26, Figure 29) Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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35 CHAPTER 2 MODELING THE STATE O F HEALTH It has long been realized that cultural, geographical, and environmental influences were important in the deve lopment of disease. Descriptions and explanations for diseases varied from culture to culture and region to region. Physicians in the 18th and type of miasma emanating f rom swampy areas with high levels of rotting vegetation (Agnew 2010). So, while they had the correct idea about the environmental or geographical context of the disease, they did not know the exact vector for the disease. The rise of bacteriology and the v alidation of the germ theory in the late 19th century drove scholars to the develop sterilization procedures, embalming, vaccination, antibiotics, chlorination of water, treatment of sewage, and a significant overall increase in life expectancy for people in developed countries (Meade and Emch 2010). The negative result, however, was that the medical community largely grew to ignore or disparage the idea that cultural and environmental factors are important variables in the state of health. Scholars in var ious disciplines, including epidemiology, ecology, public health, anthropology, geography, and sociology, have attempted to better understand the various influences on human health. Many of the studies coming out of epidemiological, biological, and public health disciplines put forth explanatory models for disease outbreaks that focus largely on risk factors to health and are hierarchical or directional. This view gives precedence to certain factors whereas in many cases the interaction is much more complex Moreover, many approaches to health from these disciplines gloss over or misrepresent the influences of cultural and social factors. Medical geographers

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36 and other environmental scientists interested in health problems typically focus more on climate and geographic patterns of disease. Similarly, sociologists and anthropologists tend to focus heavily on cultural or social factors. Bioarchaeology, historical epidemiology, and paleoepidemiology extend the interest in human health into past populations, but o ften do not, or more commonly cannot, provide a sufficient historical and cultural contextualization to understand the multitude of factors that influence health. The inherent interdisciplinary nature of anthropology places anthropologists in a prime posi tion to contribute to the discourse on human health studies. It is problematic however, that few scholars within these disciplines have attempted to create a synthetic visual model of human health. There are even fewer who have attempted to apply a holisti c health model to archaeological or historical settings. This is due to the fact that applying a holistic approach requires a vast amount of information, which is often absent or inaccessible. Many studies, therefore, focus on research questions of narrow scope out of necessity. This chapter attempts to present a theoretical and conceptual framework that can be used to understand the state of human health and disease throughout the world. The biocultural and biohistorical approaches to bioarchaeology, whic h have been used to understand past health patterns, will first be discussed. Then, a brief discussion of the disease ecology and medical geography is followed by the exploration of the modeling approach employed in this dissertation. Admittedly, due to th e inherent gaps in both archaeological and historical data I too have not been able to collect enough information

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37 to fully explore the model, but I have attempted to come as close as possible to the principles of the biocultural model. Exploring Biocultu ral and Biohistorical Frameworks As discussed in Chapter 1, the bioarchaeological approach to health in past populations uses aspect of biocultural and biohistorical frameworks. Within this bioarchaeological context, it has long been recognized that human behavior and adaptation to cultural, social, and environmental conditions affect health and social well being (Goodman and Leatherman 1998; Leatherman and Goodman 1997; 2011). A number of visual models associated with the bioarchaeological approach are di scussed below. A biocultural model provides a simplified means of visually conceiving of how environmental, cultural, and biological factors interact and are reflected in the health status of past and contemporary populations. One of the earliest visual m odels of the biocultural approach was prepared by Goodman et al. (1984:14) and attempts to illustrate the relationship between environmental constraints, cultural systems, and host biological resistance, and how environmental stressor work to induce biolog ical stress, thereby influencing skeletal health (Figure 2 1) (de la Cova 2008:11; Goodman et al. 1984; Goodman et al. 1988; Rankin Hill 1997). The first component of the Goodman et al. (1984) biocultural model is s of two components, stressors and limiting resources, both of which vary over time and space (Goodman et al. 1984:15). Rankin sors in this model refer to forces to which people must adapt in order to survive, such as climate, geography and topography,

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38 urban versus rural communities, etc. (Goodman et al. 1984). Limiting resources include food availability and socioeconomic immobil ity, among other things. Environmental constraints can be buffered through cultural systems, such as family arrangements, education, health care knowledge, sanitation, technology, etc. In some cases, however, environmental constraints may not be buffered b y cultural systems, rather, they might be magnified, or new stressors might be produced. If new stressors are produced, then they are open to buffering by the cultural system. If culture is not able to adapt to the immediate stressors, it depends on indiv idual host resistance to buffer disease agents. Individual host resistance factors include biochemical, genetic, immunological, and physiological constitutions. When resistance or susceptibility to stressors results in physiological disruption the indicato rs of stress might manifest as growth disruption, disease, or even death according to the biocultural model (Goodman et al. 1984). Biological anthropologists in the 1980s began to realize the importance of a biohistorical approach to the study of disease in historic mortuary sites (Angel et al. 1987; Corruccini et al. 1982; Handler and Lange 1978; Kelley and Angel 1983, 1987; Martin et al. 1987; Owsley et al. 1987; Rathbun 1987). De la Cova (2008:16) asserts an American cemetery at Catoctin Furnace, Maryland, was the first study to successfully integrate history, the interaction of environmental stressors, and host resistance as a means of understanding skeletal health and provide a context for osteological an alysis. Watkins (2003:15), however, argues that Kelley and Angel (1987) did not sufficiently interrelate osteological and

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39 storical context coupled with a heavier focus on the relationship between environmental stressors and physiological change results in a study that appears to be environmentally deterministic (Watkins 2003:16). While other scholars during the late 1980s we re more successful in integration of the historical and the biological contexts of mortuary sites (e.g. Owsley et al. 1987), the next important study to present a visual biocultural/biohistorical model came from the work of Rankin Hill (1990) on the First African Baptist Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As seen in Figure 2 2, Rankin Hill (1990:281) has adopted the biocultural framework introduced by Goodman et al. (1984) and added specific lists of constraints, stressors, buffering systems, host resistan ce factors, as well as the resultant skeletal stress indicators. Rankin information to create a synthesis that was better able to understand the cultural, political, social, and environmental c ontext of Philadelphia African American community. The next visual model of interest within the biocultural realm comes from Armelagos et al. 1992 (Figure 2 3). Armelagos et al. (1992:35) assert that biological anthropologists most often take an ecological perspective that investigates the interaction of the population with the environmental stressors leading to disease. Cultural anthropologists argue that the biological approach is too dependent on the Western biomedical model and therefore do not account for many aspects of cultural influence or non Western medical concepts. Cultural anthropologists have traditionally focused on an ethnomedical perspective interested in the cultural definition of and social response to disease and illness (Armelagos et al. 1992:35). Armelagos et al. (1992)

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40 criticize the limited successes in attempts at the integration of the biological and cultural approaches to the study of health and disease within medical anthropology. Figure 2 3 illustrates the Host Environment Interact ion Model presented by Armelagos et al. (1992:41). It is a circular model with two primary interacting vertices. interact with the natural, biophysical, and cultural environments. Various insults and resource limiting factors sit opposite individual host and social responses to disease agents, or environmental stressors. Armelagos et al. (1992:42) assert that this m odel follows the biocultural framework as it can be used to show that health and disease are influenced by the, therefore, a step closer toward integration. Schell (1992) focusing framework for socioeconomic status (Figure 2 4) illustrates the influence of socioeco nomic status on risk of exposure to stressors, which contribute to poor qualifications, occupational status, and lastly, socioeconomic status. Schell (1997) later published an expanded biocultural interaction model (Figure 2 5) incorporating the risk alloc ation and risk focusing concepts. Like the original visual model by Goodman et al. cultural buffering systems, as well as biological responses, all of which influence other aspects of the model to varying degrees. The difference between this model and those

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41 developed previously is the presence of the risk allocation element as a resource and focusing agent for buffering systems affecting health and disease (Schell 1997: 76). Health Frameworks from Ecology and Medical Geography One of the earliest geographically oriented epidemiological studies was John 1950s that epidemiologists began t o contribute an analytical perspective, which later populations of man with special reference to environment and to populations of all other organisms as they affect his healt (1950, 1950 1954, 1954, 1958), the so of time and space within the person of t he patient of environmental stimuli (organic, the melding of medical geography and medical ecology is the focusing of questions on place, time, and the manifestatio n of disease within the social environment (Trostle 1986:76 77). ecology of disease is concerned with how human behaviors and practices interact with environmental conditions and biological variables promote or prevent the spread of disease in populations. While it is not the earliest explanatory model to attempt a holistic yet holistic approach. The triangle of human ecology defines health as the complex interrelationship of three vertices: habitat, demography, and behavior, which form a

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42 triangle connecting th e centers of overlaying Venn diagram type circles representing the larger categories of environment, population, and culture (Figure 2 6). Time is a final disease, the seasona lity of disease, and the establishment of disease agents in the body (Meade 1977). In 2010, Meade and Ench updated the model by specifying sub level interaction triangles stemming from the three primary vertices: habitat, population, and behavior (Figure 2 7). Habitat refers to the environment within which people live, work, and interact, and which has a direct influence of the health of target individuals. Habitat can be subdivided into natural, social, and built environments, all of which will be discuss ed in more detail in the remainder of this chapter. Factors of the natural environment which can influence health could be geology, geography, flora, fauna, or weather patterns. The built environment refers to those environmental components that are the pr oducts of human society, including houses and other structures, settlement patterns, transportation, government and legal systems, schools, and health care systems. Social environment refers to those influences on health which are the products of specific social networks or exposures resulting from participation in social relationships. A good example is the spread of sexually transmitted diseases through selected sexual networks (Meade and Emch 2010:30). Population is concerned with people as biological c reatures, or as the potential hosts for disease agents. Individuals within a given population are differentially susceptible to various insults depending on genetic predisposition, immunological status and resistance, and nutritional status. The effects of age, sex (misidentified as gender in

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43 continually interrelated with the other spheres of the model. Behavior or practice, is the observable aspect of culture. It is develop ed over time and is the learned, shared beliefs and behaviors of a society, encapsulating social norms/organization and explaining individual psychology and technological innovation. Education can also fall into this category being a product of the interac tion of the built environment, which involves behavioral exposures to knowledge within a learning environment that can influence behavior in a way that improves health status by reducing risk of exposure and development of technology. Within the sub catego ry of social organization, behavior interacts with the built and social environments and population categories to construct social perspectives of race and gender, social class, and politics (Meade and Emch 2010:30). Constructing an Integrated State of Hea lth Model According to Dufour (2006), it may be difficult to assess the effects of certain, individual, culturally defined variables on human biology, and may be that much harder to operationalize when composed of multiple, intertwined ecological, social, and economic variables. Location specific historical or ethnographic knowledge is needed to successfully operationalize variables in a way that is valid and replicable (Dressler 1995). In order to address an issue like health disparities or poverty, one m ust understand first that this is a multidimensional social, economic, material, and psychological phenomenon that emerges out of complex historical, epidemiological, and nutritional contexts, which exist within both the human built and the physical enviro nments simultaneously (Dufour 2006). In most historic settings, we are lucky enough to have a fair amount of contextual information at our disposal. A holistic health

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44 model focuses on the overall connections among major determinates of quality of life or w ell being. To visualize the system in this manner may shed light on the linkage between sociopolitical processes and biological effects on past populations, revealing too the causes of and patterns related to health disparities. It is my contention that h uman health is best understood from a perspective of (2010). These models are preferable to me bec ause they do not explicitly imply that there are direct hierarchical or causal/deterministic relationships between all elements of the model. In this dissertation, I have chosen to use the triangular model as a base. A number of alterations have been made, however, from the model presented by Meade and Emch (2010) in order to better adapt it to the biocultural approach within anthropology. Most of these alterations are additions of elements within the sub level interaction spheres, but there are a few chang es made to the main body of the model. The first changes to the reconceptualized model (Figure 2 8) are to two of the three vertices of the triangle. The Population vertex consisted of biological factors and therefore this vertex has been renamed Human Bi ology. The Behavior vertex in the triangular model was changed to Culture. The remainder of the chapter explores the three vertices (human biology, culture, and habitat), outlines the important elements that fall within each, and discusses the interrelatio nships existing between the various many aspects of the triangle but which is not easily visualized at its many scales of influence.

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45 Habitat Natural environment Natura l environments or ecosystems, from marshes and wetlands to forests and mountains, each contain their own distinct set of occupants and characteristics, which radiation in to the soil or ground water, which could lead to increases in cancers and other diseases. Certain minerals in drinking water could lead to toxicity ailments or death. The climate and hydrography of a region are of particular importance as well as because t hat determine the types and survivability of biota present in a region. The biotic environment includes the plants, animals, insets, parasites, bacteria, viruses, and fungi in a region. All of these biotic agents are connected in different ways. Precipita tion and evaporation in a region, for example, is a climatic variable affecting the nature of the hydrological system. Various trees and other vegetation might line the water courses. These trees provide shelter for certain animals who can act as reservoir s for infectious agents like Giardia spp ., which can contaminate water and food sources. The use of human and animal fertilizers in agricultural fields, as well as contaminated water sources for irrigation further contribute to foodborne illness. Settlemen t proximity to mosquito breeding areas, as well as irrigation agriculture, could increase risk of contracting and spreading the malaria parasite, or the virus which causes dengue or yellow fever. Ren Dubos (1980) noted that humans have always attempted to alter their environments. This increasing alteration of the environment in the modern era (e.g. land clearing, urbanization, industrialization) and its ultimate impact (e.g. global climate change, local environmental change, animal habitat destructions, s pecies extinctions,

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46 pollution, poor sanitation) has inevitably led to increases in contact with disease causing agents. Built environment Dubos (1965) claimed that more health altering stimuli come from the habitat or environment that humans have constru cted than occur in nature. I would argue that it is the interaction of various arbitrarily distinguished vertices within the habitat interaction sphere that are to blame. In regard to the built environment, Meade and Emch multi scalar influence of the built environment on health. Humans are the cause of a good portion of their disease environment. The types of houses that people construct, the types of animals (and their parasites) that we domesticated and maintain, methods of waste disposal, and methods of food procurement all affect health outcomes. There are some types of insects and plants that prefer to live in human disturbed areas. The presence or cleanliness of a c himney could also affect transmission of mosquito borne diseases because excess smoke in and around a house could repel insects. Screens on windows and doors provide barriers to entry of mosquitoes. Some insect vectors of disease live well in thatch roofs, but obviously not on tin roofs. Some insects, like Triatoma infestans which transmits the parasite responsible for Chagas disease, live in the cracks of mud packed walls (Bogitsh et al. 2005:402). The presence of kitchens and restrooms inside of dwelli ngs rather than outside also attracts pests and brings people into greater contact with contagions. The waste disposal system in place within a society can act as a buffer to disease if it works efficiently, or it may be a detriment to health if it is poor ly constructed or maintained.

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47 Some aspects of waste disposal measures are individual, others exist at a neighborhood level, and still others are governed by sanitation ordinances or other laws. People who do not follow prescribed sanitation standards are a hazard to community health, but this interrelates closely with aspects of the following vertex. Social environment The social environment refers to the groups (familial, ethnic or racial, occupational, class, religious, etc.) within which people particip ate, and the communities or societies within which people live (Meade and Emch 2010:34). Proximity is a major factor in the spread of communicable diseases among family or household members. People who share meals are at a greater risk of contracting the s ame water or food borne diseases. Institutional settings, like schools and hospitals, are proven breeding grounds for infectious agents because children are often more susceptible and less likely to practice good hygiene. Festivals (religious or social), r eligious services, funerals, town meetings, and many other types of events where large numbers of people come together are significant locales for transmission of infectious disease. Socioeconomic status, social class, and perceived racial classification are other major sources of health disparities, as are the structural disparities associated with class or racial biases. Gravlee (2002, 2009) and Gravlee et al. (2009) for instance shows that even unconscious stress over direct and structural racism cause s an increase in hypertension among African Americans in the US and people of African descent in Puerto Rico. When differential stressors act on individuals from varying social and cultural groups people within those groups manifest different diseases, pe rceived illness differently, and cope differently. These aspects of social organization reach into the interaction sphere of culture under the behavior and belief vertices, which

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48 is where Meade and Emch (2010) would have placed them, but while they are int imately connected to the cultural sphere, they are more effectively conceptualized as environmental elements. Human Biology Genetic predisposition There are some behaviors, such as the drive to reproduce and to find food and water to sustain life, which a re influenced by biological instinct and genetics. Certain aspects of personality and behavior are also influenced by genetics. However, personalities and behaviors of all kinds are molded by both the natural and social environments. Meade and Emch (2010:3 containing all of the genetic information contained within an organism, is quite complex. Even though a great deal of rese arch has been conducted on the human genome, the effects of certain genes on the susceptibility to certain diseases are not well understood (Tarlov 1996:72 73). While in most cases, specific genes do not cause disease, certain genes do affect the susceptib ility or immunity of individuals to specific diseases. Most genetic diseases are associated with recessive traits that do not significantly affect large populations, but are important for individuals and for families. Among the royal families of 19th and early 20th century Europe, inbreeding resulted in the genetic form hemophilia. Sometimes, however, genetic mutations can be maintained within larger portions of a population if the mutations bestow some type of advantage (Meade and Emch 2010:36). The sick le cell trait is a good example; sickle cell anemia results in high mortality among the African populations in which it is common. When two sickle cell genes are inherited death is likely to occur as a result of persistent anemia;

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49 however, if only one sick le cell gene is inherited, it provides a measure of protection against malaria (Bogitsh et al. 2010:151). Lastly, some scholars have suggested that the genes responsible for blood type can also affect the susceptibility to certain diseases (Anstee 2010). T he DNA of all humans on Earth is 99.9% similar, but there is a great amount of genetic variation regionally, which accounts for differences in skin, hair, and eye color, among other features. These differences were largely explained through racial classifi cation in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Meade and Emch (2010:37 38) note that the concept of race has largely become discredited as a biological concept, being more accurately conceived of as a cultural construct. Race, as has been mentioned previousl y, is a classification that has physiological consequences through stress associated with structural disparities and social marginalization (Gravlee et al. 2009). Meade and Emch (2010:38) observe that race has largely been replaced with ethnicity as a clas sification concept in scientific literature. It is my opinion, however, that ethnicity, being the sharing of certain religious, linguistic, and cultural backgrounds, is far from biological. Age Age is a pivotal variable for health. It is well known that y ounger and older sectors of the population tend to have a lower immune system than people in early and middle adulthood. Young individuals have a more vibrant immune system and are better able to fight off certain infections and recover from disease more q uickly. Additionally, some metabolism changes with age and growth, hormone and enzyme levels change, and organ functions and bodily systems are worn down over time. Previous exposures and

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50 life experiences accumulate and allow the immune system to recognize a greater variety of disease agents and foreign substances. In short, with age come s bodily wisdom, but less efficiency (Meade and Emch 2010:42). Sex is a major flaw in the conceptualization of the model, because gender is a social construct which dete rmines social roles, identity, and suitable behaviors. Sex, on the other hand, is biological, being a determination of male, female, or intersex, on the basis of chromosomes (Hock 2010). Gender affects health through differential exposure to harmful agents resulting from social, residential, or occupational behaviors or roles, and therefore should be based in the behavioral or cultural vertex of the triangle. Biological sex can affect health because of increased risk of certain diseases through variation in hormones, bodily functions, or variable interaction during stages in the pathogenesis of certain diseases. For instance, the mucosal nature of the inner surface of the vagina combined with its larger surface area compared to the male penis provides an eas ier location of entry to various types of sexually transmitted diseases. Because the vagina is concealed, STDs or STIs presenting in the vagina are also more difficult to diagnose and treat (Hock 2010). Psychological state Individual psychological state o r personality characteristics contribute to the risk of morbidity and mortality. Both negative and positive emotions are important, although negative emotions are often the most discussed because of their greater impact on morbidity or mortality statistics Depression and hostility are the two most common

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51 psychological states which are discussed in the literature and are either produced by socially induced psychological stress or by chronic disease (Adler et al. 1994:19). Depression and hostility have been shown to increase the risk of heart disease, as well as increasing the risk for self destructive behaviors, including increased drug or alcohol abuse, cigarette smoking, interpersonal violence, high risk sexual activity, etc. The psychological stress that leads to these negative emotions has been classified into two categories: 1) acute stressors, which include life events that require adaptation (e.g., natural disasters, war, being the victim of violent crime, death of a friend or family member, divorce, j ob loss, etc.), or 2) chronic stressors, which refer to factors which are persistent and in place in the structure of society, in the social roles held by individuals, or in the long reaching circumstances of life (Adler et al. 1994:19 20; Dressler 1996:25 6 258). People who have experienced sudden stressful life events exhibit altered neuroendocrine and immune responses that increase risk of various ailments, such as gastrointestinal disorders, heart attacks, menorrhagia and secondary amenorrhea, as well a s increased susceptibility to infectious agents (Adler et al. 1994:20; DeLongis et al. 1988). Some acute stressors, such as having an increased likelihood of being the victim of a violent crime, or suffering the death of a family member, are influenced by structural social elements (Gallo and Matthews 2003). Large numbers of people of low socioeconomic status with little education in urban environments often find themselves living in poor neighborhoods with high crime rates. Such environments, mixed with lo w income and low education levels contribute to a lower health status and a higher mortality rate.

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52 Higher placement in the social, or socioeconomic, hierarchy can effectively reduce psychological stress in a number of ways. Higher socioeconomic status red uces the likelihood that people will encounter negative structural disparities that might affect health. These people are likely to encounter fewer negative life events like the loss of a job, foreclosure on a home, etc., and they may have greater access t o resources or social networks to aid in the adaptation to the acute stressor (Adler et al. 1994:20). That said, the depression or self destructive behaviors associated with sudden change from life long fortune to bust might greatly increase consequences o n health. Nutritional and immunological status A poor or incomplete diet can lead to a number of direct protein, vitamin, and mineral deficiencies resulting in kwashiorkor, marasmus, scurvy, rickets, beriberi, pellagra, etc. (Wood 1979:68 94). These type s of maladies, while important in the discussion of overall health, are not the focus of the current discussion. A focus on infectious disease reveals that all systemic infections are detrimental to nutritional status through a number of mechanisms as per the Journal of Interdisciplinary History (1983:505): Reduced appetite Lessened quality of diet Increased metabolic loss of nutrients Increased metabolic needs and internal diversion and sequestration Decreased absorption when gastrointestinal tract is affected. Malnutrition, or nutritional deficiencies, conversely, plays an important role in the susceptibility of an individual to infection, the intensity of the clinical presentation of disease, as well as the duration and outcome of infection (Bogit sh et al. 2005:340; Livi

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53 Bacci 1983:293). Mechanisms involved in this process include ( Journal of Interdisciplinary History 1983:505): Reduced production of humoral antibodies Impaired cell mediated immunity Less effective phagocytosis Weakened epitheli al barriers Lower lysozyme production Various other non specific effects Table 2 1 shows a number of diseases that are known to be influenced by nutritional status, or not, based on assertions by the Journal of Interdisciplinary History (1983:506) and L ivi Bacci (1983:294). While it has been suggested that all systemic infections affect nutritional status and malnutrition plays role in infection through the weakening of the immune system, it is not always true that nutritional status affects all diseases Some disease agents have a high virulence that would be able to produce disease regardless of nutritionally affected immunological resistance. Culture The root of human behavior lies in culture. According to Meade and Emch (2010:40), culture interacts with other elements of the state of health model in four primary ways: 1. Humans are responsible for the creation of many habitat conditions. 2. Practices expose people and communities to some hazardous elements and protect them from others. 3. Movements of peop le additionally transmit agents of disease. 4. Behavior affects the health of the population by controlling genetics through (Mead and Emch 2010:40) marriage customs, nutritional status through food customs, and immunological status through the technology of vaccination and customs of deliberate childhood exposure.

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54 Additionally, culture guides rules of social organization and structural power relationships as mentioned previously. Similarly, culture is responsible for the development of belief systems, incl uding religious beliefs and traditions, social norms and values, as well as gender and social roles and social biases. Culture and, to a large extent, culture contact and educational exchange, drives technological innovations as well. Each of these aspects will be discussed briefly below. Belief and p ractice While belief and practice are separated in the state of health model, belief and practice are intimately related, and therefore, are discussed here together. Behavioral roles within a given social syst em, varying by age, gender, occupation, ethnicity, race, and class, largely determine who is exposed to what and what kind of treatment or care that person will receive if they are stricken with any given infection. There is great variation in cultural and social norms in regard to these categories. For instance, in some cultures, men tend to the animals and are therefore more likely to come into contact with animal parasites or zoonotic diseases, while in some cultures this role may fall to the women (Bo gitsh et al. 2005). People of lower socioeconomic classes are far more likely to be called upon to clean out latrines or perform other unclean activities and come into contact with fecal borne contagions. While confounded by issues of class, in settlements where racial or ethnic groups are confined to certain poor neighborhoods, they are more likely to suffer from poor education, poor nutrition, and high levels of interpersonal violence related to poor psychological state. Religious or cultural proscription s about diet also influence health. According to both Jewish and Islamic law, followers are not allowed to eat pork. Pigs are seen as unclean animals, and the avoidance of pigs benefited people because it cut them off

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55 from pork tapeworms and other harmful disease agents carried by pigs. In the same way, the seafood diet of coastal peoples exposes them to a very different array of parasites and disease agents than the diet of peoples living on inland prairies. How people eat or cook foods is important as wel l. Eating some foods raw is customary in many areas, while people in other places would never consider it (Bogitsh et al. 2005:12). These cultural traditions, which were developed over hundreds, or thousands, of years are carried with people through migrat ions. However, a practice which was practical in one area may end up being harmful in another (Trostle 2005). Practice and custom can affect genetics through marriage and sexual reproduction. Most societies forbid incest, and some prohibit racial, religiou s, or status based intermarriages. Cultural beliefs about beauty and beneficial abilities or attributes further influence genetics through sexual selection (Hock 2010). Health services and technology now enable people to reproduce who would have o therwise not been selected as suitable mate s in the past, or who would have died prior to maturation. This has greatly affected the frequency and maintenance of chronic diseases within a population (Mead and Emch 2010:42 43). Value systems dictated by religious or social norms also influence the types of leisure activities in which people engage, as well as the types of sexual behaviors exhibited by individuals within the group. Typically, increased levels of sexually transmitted diseases would be associated with d eviant behaviors. Substance abuse, particularly the abuse of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs, greatly enhances the chance that the user would take sexual risks that they would not have taken under normal circumstances. Poor psychological states often contribute to increases in risky

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56 sexual behaviors either directly, or through similar increases in substance abuse. Gender and socioeconomic inequality or stressors, or human trafficking, might force some women into prostitution. These negative activities or emotions might compel a person to engage in unsafe sexual activities with a multitude of partners, and may deter them from practicing good sexual hygiene (Hock 2010:270 272). Mortuary practices a re yet another type of behavior governed by cultural and r eligious proscriptions that might affect individual or community health. Inhorn and Brown (1990:100) mention the case of the Fore in the eastern highlands of New Guinea where they surmise that the deadly virus, kuru is transmitted via broken skin on the h ands of the women pre paring the deceased for burial. Infectious diseases can be transmitted during the act of preparing the body, during the wake or funeral, or through disturbance of buried remains at a later time by accident or as a result of the intenti onal reuse of grave shafts. The interaction with biology here is important because disease agents have different means of transmission, virulence, and varying abilities to survive in different in environments over time. Technology Humans have altered muc transportation routes. Land cover and vegetation have been stripped, burned, or replanted. Water has been redirected to irrigate fields and to satisfy the needs of people in urban environments. The composition of the air and water has been changed through the addition of pollutants and waste products. Buildings, industrialization, vehicles, and transportation networks all create hazards that people need to navigate. For example, in the northeastern p ortion of the U S since the founding of the first colonies, people cleared the land for agriculture and growth of settlements and animals that lived in those

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57 habitats were killed or moved on. The reclamation of fields by new growth forests in recent deca des has led to the reintroduction of the deer population without large predators to control them. This has led to an increase in the population of deer ticks, and thus, an increase in cases of Lyme disease (Meade and Emch 2010:41). Cultural practices rel ated to technological achievement and education can also serve to protect people from disease. The custom of wearing shoes protects against hook worm infection. The washing of hands and coughing or sneezing into a sleeve or tissue limits the spread of comm unicable diseases. Washing, inspecting, and properly cooking foods limits bacterial and parasitic infection as well. Sanitary measures in hospitals, especially during surgeries, and the development of vaccines for dreaded diseases in the past have drastica lly altered the mortality rate in developed countries (Mead and Emch 2010:41). Time Time is the final variable that needs brief discussion here. While it is not visually manifest in the reconceptualized model (Figure 2 8), it effects a great influence on t he multiple variables within the model, and the state of health overall. Time exerts its influence at multiple scales. Time affects seasonal patterns in climatic variables, thus the survivability of pathogens and pathogen vectors, as well as food productio n and, consequently, malnutrition. Movements of people, and therefore, communicable disease, are governed by the seasons and the timing of cultural, social or religious rites, which also bring people together. Time affects the individual physiological stat e through the age associated degeneration of the body. Finally, time also affects the processes of disease: recovery, control measures, death and burial.

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58 Figure 2 1. Generalized model for the biocultural analysis of skeletal remains. [Reprinted with pe rmission from Goodman, Alan H., Debra L. Martin, George J. Armelagos, and George Clark. 1984. Indications of Stress from Bones and Teeth In Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture edited by M. N. Cohen, and George J. Armelagos, pp. 13 49. (Page14, F igure 2.1). Academic Press, Orlando, FL.] Figure 2 2. The First African Baptist Church Biocultural Model. [Reprinted with permission from Rankin Hill, Lesley M. 1990. Afro American Biohistory: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations Doctoral diss ertation, (Page 281, Figure 7.2). Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.]

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59 Figure 2 3. Host environment interaction model. [Reprinted with permission from Armelagos, George J., Thomas L. Leatherman, Mary Ryan, and Lynn Sib ley. 1992. Biocultural Synthesis in Medical Anthropology. Medical Anthropology 14(1):35 52. (Page 41, Figure 1).] Figure 2 4. Generalized risk model [Reprinted with permission from Schell, Lawrence M. 1997. Culture as a Stressor: A Revised Model of Bio cultural Interaction. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 102(1):67 77. (Page 71, Figure 1).]

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60 Figure 2 5. Generalized risk model of biocultural interaction. [Reprinted with permission from Schell, Lawrence M. 1997. Culture as a Stressor: A Revised Model of Biocultural Interaction. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 102(1):67 77. (Page 74, Figure 3).] Figure 2 6. Triangle of Human Ecology. [Reprinted with permission from Meade, Melinda S. 1977. Medical Geography as Human Ecology: The Dime nsion of Population Movement. Geographical Review 67(4):379 393. (Page 383, Figure 1).]

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61 Figure 2 7. Triangle of Human Ecology [Reprinted with permission from Meade, Melinda S., and Michael Emch. 2010. Medical Geography 3rd ed. (Page 31, Figure 2.2). G uilford Press, New York, NY.] Table 2 1. Nutritional influence of diseases on outcomes of i nfection. Definite Equivocal or Variable Minimal Measles Typhus Smallpox Diarrheas Diptheria Malaria Tuberculosis Staphylococcus Plague Most Respiratory Infec tions Streptococcus Typhoid Pertussis Influenza Tetanus Most Intestinal Parasites Syphilis Yellow Fever Cholera Systemic Worm Infections Encephalitis Leprosy Poliomyelitis Herpes Gonorrhea *Adapted from Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 1983. T he Relationship of Nutrition, Disease, and Social Conditions: A Graphical Presentation. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 14(2):503 506. (Page506, Figure 3).

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62 Figure 2 8 Reconceptualized triangular model of health Built Environment Social Environment Natural Environment Human Biology Culture Habitat State of Health Belief Technology Practice Age Immunological Status Sex G enetic Predisposition Nutritional Status Psychological State

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63 CHAPTER 3 TUCSON AND ITS ENVIR ONS In order to properly apply the previously discussed health model to a specific purpose, one must understand the local historical and environmental setting of the study area This chapter, therefore, presents the environme ntal and historical context of Tucson. The first section deals with the general physical setting of the project area and includes discussion s of soils, hydrology, vegetation, climate, and fauna. The second portion of the chapter discusses the general hist ory of the region, including a brief discussion of pre history and a more detailed segment on the historic period because that is the time period of study. Physical Setting The Tucson Basin (Figure 3 1) covers a 1,000 square mile area bounded by the Tucso n Mountains to the west, the Santa Catalina Mountains to the north, the Tanque Verde and Rincon Mountains on the east, and the Santa Rita, Sierrita, and Whetstone Mountains on the south (Davidson 1973). All of the major tributaries of the basin drain to th e north northwest and coalesce into the Santa Cruz River (Heilen and Sewell 2012:53; Windingstad and Hall 2010:82). The Tucson basin forms a gentle northwest sloping plain with an elevation of about 2,900 feet above sea level on the south to 2,000 feet abo ve sea level to the north (Davidson 1973; Windingstad and Hall 2010:82; Youngs et al. 1936:3). Climate The Tucson Basin, being part of the Sonoran Desert is considered semiarid, and is characterized by low annual precipitation, rapid evaporation, low humi dity, mild winters, and long, hot summers (Heilen and Sewell 2012:53; Youngs et al. 1936:6). The

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64 highest recorded temperature in Tucson as between 1894 and 2007 was 117F (June 26, 1990) (Windingstad and Hall 2010:82), and the lowest was 6F (January 7, 19 13) (Youngs et al. 1936:6). The mean annual temperature is 67.3F, while the average diurnal temperature fluctuations are about 30F (Windingstad and Hall 2010:82 84; Youngs et al. 1936). The daily minimum temperature in Tucson is slightly cooler nearer th e Santa Cruz River drainage compared to the more elevated locations in the valley because of the result of cold air drainage along the water courses (Windingstad and Hall 2010:82). Temperatures are also cooler in the surrounding mountain ranges (Youngs et al. 1936:8). The majority of the annual precipitation, which amounts to about 12 inches, in the Tucson Basin occurs in a unique bi seasonal rain pattern (Hull 2009). The heaviest rains make up more than 50 percent of the annual precipitation and occur in t he late summer (July 1 to September 15) (Hull 2009; Sellers and Hill 1974:530; Windingstad and Hall 2010:82; Youngs et al. 1936:7). The summer rains develop due to moist winds from the Gulf of California and/or the Pacific that travel inland and interact w ith the warm continental air mass that builds up over the mountains (Hull 2009; Ingram 2000:43; are characterized by localized thunderstorms that pop up in the late afterno on and early evening (Sellers and Hill 1974:530). These rains can fill up the dry river beds quickly resulting in violent flash floods. The waters are, however, absorbed or evaporate relatively quickly, and are the primary means of recharge of groundwater in the region (Ingram 2000:44).

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65 The winter rains, which make up about 20 percent of the annual precipitation occurs between December and March, and are characterized by low intensity storms that may last for several days (Hull 2009; Youngs et al 1936: 7). In Sonora, Mexico, these winter rains are called las equipatas These storms result from migrating low pressure systems from the Pacific Ocean (Ingram 2000:44; Sellers and Hill 1974:530; Windingstad and Ha ll 2010:82). As with the temperature, levels of precipitation vary with elevation. The surrounding mountains have been known to receive as much as 30 inches more precipitation annually than in the valley (Gelderman 1972). El Ni o Southern Oscillation (ENS O) events (or also El Ni o/La Nia) are quasiperiodic naturally occurrin g weather patterns that develop roughly every five years. During El Ni o events warm water builds up in the western Pacific Ocean due to the weakening of oceanic trade winds. The warm water begins to move eastward causing atmospheric pressure to weaken along the equator in the eastern Pacific. The interplay between ocean temperature and atmospheric pressure along the Equator pulls the northern Pacific jet stream further south. As a res ult, higher intensity storms form in the eastern Pacific and more moisture is carried into northern Mexico and the American Southwest during the winter rain season. This increases the severity and duration of the winter storms in the Sonoran Desert. The El Ni o events are often followed in subsequent seasons by La Ni a, which is characterized by low oceanic surface temperatures that result in drier conditions in the Sonoran Desert (Ingram 2000:45 46). Contemporary and Historical Vegetation T he Lower Sonoran Life Zone dominates in the Tucson Basin under 3,500 feet below sea level (Hull 2009). This major plant community consists of creosote, palo

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66 verde, greasewood, and mesquite trees in the non irrigated, drier portions of the valley floor (Medical History of Post, 1869 1872, Book 13, pg.69, National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 94, Entry 547; Hull 2009; Seller and Hill 1974:530). As one moves to higher elevations a greater variety of cacti can be found, including the Saguaro and prickly p ear. The Upper Sonoran Life Zone lay between 4,500 and 7,000 feet, and is characterized by the presence of scrub oak, pi on pine, juniper, manzanita, and sagebrush grasslands (Hull 2009). The mountains to the north and east of Tucson contain this plant com munity, known as the chaparral, but after 6,500 feet it gives way to yellow pine forests (Hull 2009; Sellers and Hill 1974:530). Dense riparian communities, which have largely been lost over the last century due to land clearing, climate change, and erosio n, existed along the Santa Cruz River and its tributaries. These riparian habitats were dominated by galleries of cottonwood, ash, broad mesquite, seep willow, hackberry, and desert willow (Medical History of Post, 1869 1872, Book 13, pg.1, National Archiv es and Records Administration, Record Group 94, Entry 547 ; Windingstad and Hall 2010:83). In addition to the natural vegetation in the riparian zone, the lands adjacent to the Santa Cruz in the Tucson Basin have been used for agricultural pursuits since at least 800 B.C. Archaeological and tobacco. Evidence for the first irrigation canals may date to before A.D. 750, but most of the prehistoric canals have been dated to b etween A.D. 950 and 1100 (Mabry and Thiel 1995:1). Irrigation farming persisted in the Tucson Basin through the 19 th century after which the deepening of the river channel and lowering of the water table made irrigation through gravity alone impractical (Y oungs et al. 1936:44).

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67 Fauna Fauna that inhabited the Tucson Basin in the 19 th century included a variety of arthropods, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals, as well as a number of animal and human parasites. Arthropods common in the Tucson Basin incl ude the bark scorpion, the grand western cicada, the desert tarantula, black widows, brown recluse spiders, a variety of ants and beetles, as well as gnats and mosquitoes around water sources (Hull 2009; Phillips and Comus 2000). Birds that live in the Tuc son Basin mockingbirds, curve billed thrashers, turkey vultures, American kestrel, roadrunners, common raven, and sparrows. In addition, numerous water birds, such as the Gre at Blue Heron and different species of ducks would have been supported along the Santa Cruz in time periods or locations exhibiting perennial flow, or in the cinegas (marshes) which once stretched out along some reaches of the river (Krebbs and Kaufman 20 00; Windingstad and Hall 2010:84). Reptiles, some potentially hazardous to humans, are abundant in the Tucson Basin. Lizard species include the whiptail lizard, horned lizard, side blotched lizard, the zebra tailed lizard, and the venomous Gila monster. S nakes that are potentially dangerous to humans include the western diamondback rattlesnake, the Mohave rattlesnake, the western rattlesnake, and the Arizona ridge nose rattlesnake. The area is also home to the desert tortoise and several species of amphibi an including the Arizona treefrog, the western spadefoot toad, and the Sonoran Desert toad. Many of the amphibian species are most active during the summer monsoons when water is pooled in greater areas on the valley floor, while they spend the remainder o f the time burrowed

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68 in the ground for estivation (Hull 2009; Ivanyi et al. 2000; Windingstad and Hall 2010:84). Small mammal species commonly found in the Tucson Basin and the greater Sonoran Desert include the desert cottontail, black tailed and antelo pe jackrabbits, packrats, Harris ground squirrels, kangaroo rats, pocket mice, and deer mice. Larger mammals historically known to live in the region include the mule deer, javelin, coyote, gray and kit foxes, as well as the predatory bobcat and mountain l ion (Hull 2009; Merlin and Siminski 2000; Windingstad and Hall 2010:84). Pronghorn antelope and black bear are also known to live in the higher elevation mountains surrounding Tucson. Various species of bats also live in the area and are responsible for po llinating cactus flowers (Hull 2009; Merlin and Siminski 2000). Prior to historic intensification of water usage for irrigation and other purposes, and the subsequent lowering of the water table in the Santa Cruz River and its tributaries several species of low desert fishes, such as the Gila topminnow, desert pupfish, and Sinaloan cichlid may have been present (Gelt et al. 1999:61; Ivanyi 2000:513; Windingstad and Hall 2010:84). However, no historic documents have been located to corroborate the presence of fish in the Santa Cruz or other water courses near Tucson. The beaver, muskrat, and turkey are a few other animals that made their home in the riparian habitats along the Santa Cruz historically (Gelt et al. 1999:61; Logan 2002; Webb and Leake 2006:306 ). Changes in the availability of adequate water supply and over hunting led to the demise of these animals and the habitat in which they lived (Carrillo et al. 2009; Gelt et al. 1999:61).

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69 The physical environment greatly influences the nature and intensi ty of the host parasite interaction, the types of parasites which are present, as well as the likelihood and rate of direct or indirect transmission (through parasite vectors) (Bogitsh 2005:6). Many parasites prefer warm temperatures and moist conditions o f the tropics or subtropics. One might, therefore not think that parasites are a problem in the desert. It is beyond the scope of this work to discuss all of the animal and human parasites that exist within the Tucson Basin, therefore only a few will here be mentioned that are infective to humans. Some parasites, like the malaria parasite ( Plasmodium spp. ) require an intermediate host (i.e., the mosquito) in order to complete their life cycle (Reinhard 1988). Environmental conditions historically in the Tu cson Basin, with a higher water table, perennial flows and cinegas in some reaches of the Santa Cruz and its tributaries provided an excellent breeding ground for malaria mosquitos (Roberts and Ahlstrom 1997:126). Parasites that rely on external develop ment or external transmission, such as Giardia Entameoba histolytica and Ascaris lumbricoles are limited to areas in which the environment is suitable to cyst, egg, or larval survival or dispersal (Reinhard 1988:15 16). Environmental factors have little impact on other parasites that have developed a special relationship with their hosts. Trichinella spiralis Taenia solium (pork tapeworm), and Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm), for example, are transmitted to humans through consumption of pork or beef, res pectively (Bogitsh 2005). Both cows and pigs are known to have been sources of meat during the historic period in Tucson (Diehl et al. 1998; Jones 1997:469).

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70 Hydrology and Hydrogeography of the Santa Cruz River The Santa Cruz River is the major drainage course in the Tucson Basin. It has its source in the Canelo Hills, which are part of the Mexican Highlands that extend into southern Arizona (Wood et al. 1999:2). It runs south into Sonora, Mexico, loops around and runs back into the United States six mile s east of Nogales, Arizona, continuing to run north until it eventually enters the Gila River in the Phoenix Basin (Hendrickson and Minckley 1985:151) (Figure 3 2). The upper Santa Cruz River has intermittent flow during part of the year, while some reache s flow perennially. The lower Santa Cruz River has ephemeral flow resulting from precipitation (Wood et al. 1999:14). Historically, the Santa Cruz River has been impacted by both natural and human driven changes. Prior to 1871, the Santa Cruz River was ch aracterized by a shallow, narrow channel with an active floodplain consisting of low ridge and swale topography (Parker 1995). Cinegas (wetlands) fed by perennial flow and occasionally springs were located at various places throughout the Santa Cruz River Valley (Wood et al. 1999:14) (Figure 3 3). A cinega was located along the Santa Cruz near the base of Sentinel Peak ( A Mountain ) west of downtown Tucson, as well as near the confluence of the Santa Cruz and the Rillito Creek (Hendrickson and Minckley 1985:151). Cinegas ( Agua de la Mis in and the Punta de Agua ) were also present about 10 miles south of Tucson above the San Xavier Mission (Betancourt 1990; Betancourt and Turner 1990; Hendrickson and Minckley 1985:151; Wood et al. 1999:14). Beginning in the early 1870s in the San Xavier reach, south of Tucson, an arroyo started to form along the Santa Cruz. Arroyo formation (Figure 3 4) reached Tucson in the late 1880s. Headcuts, or erosional features characterized by an abrupt vertical drop in stream be d, began to affect the water courses in the Tucson region in 1890 as a

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71 result of summer monsoon floods combined with poorly engineered waterworks (Windingstad and Hall 2010:85; Wood et al. 1999) (Figure 3 5). Seeps or springs, where groundwater makes its w ay to the surface often appear near these headcuts, but i t is the groundwater stored in the thick sedimentary layers underlying the Tucson basin that dominates the hydrological system. The aquifer is recharged mainly from precipitation infiltrating along the mountains and through the stream channels, or from snowmelt along the foot of the mountain ranges (Davidson 1973:E9; Gelt et al. 1999:25). The high degree of infiltration can also be problematic due to the fact that flash flooding from summer rains sco ur the valley picking up a variety of pollutants along the way, carrying them to the rivers, and eventually into the aquifer (Gelt et al. 1999:41). Soils Soils of the Tucson Basin have been described by Cochran and Richardson (2003), Gelderman (1972), R ichardson et al. (1979), Windingstad and Hall ( 2010 ) and Youngs et al. (1936). Windingstad and Hall (2010) provide a much more technical description of soil formation processes and characteristics, so only a simplified description of soils is provided her e. The soils in the basin share certain characteristics with other areas in the Southwest due to similar environmental influences. The soils have a red or pink coloration due to a variable level of the oxidation of contained iron compounds. They also exhi bit a relatively low amount of organic matter and high levels of lime and al so occur in the soils, which grow th. The surface of older soils has been slightly leached resulting in an accumulation

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72 of lime carbonate and other compounds in the subsoil resulting in the production of a hard, cemented layer known as caliche (Youngs et al. 1936:11 12). The soils in the b asin are represented by two general characterizations: (1) the older, upland soils with heavy concentrations of caliche in the subsoil, and (2) those more recently deposited soils along the floodplains of the river courses and in the alluvial fans. The bes t soils are in the stream valleys and bottom lands along the Santa Cruz and the Rillito Creek, which contain deposited alluvium from floods and are those most used and best adapted for agricultural use (Youngs et al. 1936:11 12). Culture History in the T ucson Basin Human occupation in the Tucson Basin has varied over the course of prehistory, but the areas along Santa Cruz, particularly the area immediately run just west of Tucson was the most heavily used from as early as the Paleoindian period (10,500 8 area of what is now known as San Xavier del Bac when the Sp anish first visited the found along the base of the Tucson Mountains. According to Greenleaf and Wallace 1962:18), Amer ican settlements, specifically at the base of Sentinel Peak. For a more detailed discussion of prehistoric occupation of the Tucson Basin see the overview provided by Torrelo and Swanson (1997). The historic per iod cultur e history of Tucson can be divided into three primary periods according to the controlling governmental body: the Spanish Colonial period (1539 1821), the Mexican period (1821 1854), and the U.S. period (1854

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73 Spanish Colonial Period (1539 1821) Marcos de Niza, a Franciscan friar, is the first known directly documented European to enter the area that became southern Arizona. Niza set out in 1539 from Culiacn with a small company to visit what is now the pueblo of Zuni in western New Mexico and gather information about the northwestern frontier of New Spain. On his way to Zuni, Niza most certainly passed through southeastern Arizona along the San Pedro River and possibly reaching the Gila River. One of the most important outcomes of th Cbola (the name which Niza heard referring to Zuni), which was later exaggerated in the public mindset into the legend of the Seven Cities of Gold. This legend led the viceroy of New Spain to commission a large expedition in 1540 led by Francisco Vsquez de Coronado, along with approximately 300 Spaniards, 1,000 Native American guides and porters, and 1,500 horses, mules, and cattle. Coronado made it all the way into the Great P lains before turning around in disappointment. Even though some minor Spanish expeditions did pass through southern Arizona in the years following 150 years (Officer 1987; Intensive ex did not take place until the end of the 17 th century when Father Eusebio Francisco Kino attempted to extend the efforts of the Jesuit missionaries northward from Sonora into the Pimeria Al ta (Bannon 1955; Ortega Noriega 1985a). The Jesuits had been working to convert the native groups in northwestern New Spain since 1591. However, Kino did not arrive in Mexico until 1681 and did not focus his efforts on the Pimeria Alta until 1687 when he f ounded a series of missions along the major rivers of the region, the

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74 most important of which was the Mission Nuestra Seora de los Dolores on the Rio San Miguel, near what is now Magdalena, Sonora (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson 1997; From his home base at Mission Nuestra Seora, Father Kino spent the next 24 years further exploring southern Arizona, making contact with native Piman groups, and establishing missions in many locations, including along the Santa Cruz River. Kino first entered t he Santa Cruz valley in 1694, and by 1701 Kino had identified several core groupings of native settlements along the Santa Cruz (in the area of present day Tucson): San Xavier del Bac, San Cosme del Tucson, and San Agustn del Oyaur (alternatively, Oyaut or Oiaur) (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson 1997; Ortega Noriega 1985b) (Figure 3 6) Kino established his headquarters at San Xavier del Bac, as Kino believed it to be the cultural center of the dispersed Sobaipuri settlements in the Santa Cruz Valley (Greenle af and Wallace 1962). reduccin or contraction of disperse settlements into istration, both spiritual The reduction efforts of the Jesuits were aimed at religious conversion and instruction, abandonment of activities not in agreement with Catholic practice, assess acceptance of Catholic doctrine, and promote development projects, such as the construction of irrigation systems and other works. The response from the native groups in northern New Spain varied from violent rejection to peaceful acceptance. By Spanish accounts, the Sobaipuri of the Santa C ruz Valley were amenable to conversion efforts. No corresponding native account has been located to

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75 (2005) suggests that the increasing threat of Apache attacks in the early 18 th century, the military escorts of the Jesuit missionaries, the introduction of a variety of suitable cultigens and livestock, and potentially the devastating impact of European diseases on the native population may have contributed to Sobaipuri accept regime. Reff (1990:268 271) asserted that the native acceptance of Jesuit religious, social, and economic regimes in New Spain was superficial, as complaints about difficulties in native conversion can be found in historical docum ents for more than a century after initial contact. 11, the remaining Jesuits had a difficult time maintaining the mission system established by Kino and left many posts unfilled for long periods (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson 1997; D obyns 1976; Officer 1987) It was not until the settlement in the research saw a significant increase (Kessell 1970:51 52). Spanish settlers searching for grazing pasture, irrigable fields, and minerals began to enter the region, sometimes setting up operations nearby the missions. The encroachment of the Hispanics on native lands strained relations between the natives and the missionaries and eventually led to the Piman Re volt in 1751, which resulted in the killing of more than 100 settlers and serious damage to missions throughout the region, as well as the expulsion of all of the Spaniards for a short time (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson 1997:29; Dobyns 1976:10 17; Ewing 194 5; Officer 1987). Both the Jesuits and other Hispanics returned to the area a year later and built a small mission at San Agustin del Tucson. In May of 1757 the Pima revolted again and the Jesuits and the 10 man protective detail

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76 were forced to leave for f ive months. The Pima grew increasingly dissatisfied with concentrated, settled life and large numbers began to move back to the desert by the early 1760s leaving the Spanish and other native groups more exposed to Apache attacks. The resettlement of the ea stern Sobaipuri at the Tucson mission for safety purposes had the unintended consequence of removing the first line of defense and subsequently the full brunt of the Apache raids down on the Tucson mission. This prompted the Jesuits to suggest the building of the Royal Presidio at Tucson, but they were ultimately expelled from all Spanish colonies in 1767 before the presidio was built (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson 1997:30). The mission system was subsequently inherited by the Franciscan order. The Francisca ns began their work in central Mexico in 1524. After they inherited the Jesuit mission system it took them one year to send friars to the northern frontier. The populations at the native settlements around the missions in the Santa Cruz during this time ha d become further diminished due to disease and abandonment of fields by many of the mission Sobaipuri (Kessell 1976:11 25; Officer 1987:45 Franciscans focused their attentions on the Piman speaking desert peoples the Tohono ose lands lay to the west of the Santa Cruz. These peoples soon took up sedentary river farming and quickly became the largest population group in the Santa Cruz mission, specifically San Xavier del Bac Apache attacks in the late 1760s promp ted the remaining Sobaipuri to plan a move to the Gila River. Father Francisco Garcs, who was in charge of the Santa Cruz missions, and Captain Juan Bautistia de Anza, the military commander of the garrison at the Tubac presidio persuaded the natives to s tay with the promise of building a

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77 church and fortification at San Agustin del Tucson. A crude fortification was constructed by 1771 in time to fend off an Apache attack, but building of the church was not completed until 1773 (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson 1997:32; Kessell 1976:56; McCarty 1976:16 With the addition of new land acquired from France at the end of the Seven Years War, Spain sought to reorganize its defenses on the northern frontier, wishing to move the garriso n from the Tubac presidio to Tucson to protect the road to California as was suggested by the Jesuits before their departure from New Spain The first fortifications a wooden palisade, of the new Tucson presidio were in place by 1777 By the end of 1783 t he palisade had been replaced by a 10 12 foot high adobe wall (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson 1997:33) The chapel for the presidio was constructed around 1779, while a new church was constructed largely through native labor at San Xavier del Bac between 1781 and 1797 At San Agustn del Tucson, on the west side of the Santa Cruz from Tucson a new church and convent o were built sometime between 1797 and 1810 (Ciolek From the time of the arrival of the Spanish garriso n at the Tucson Presidio the of life, but not an agricultural existence. They became i ntimately linked to the presidio, depending on the rations and subsidies provided to them by the Spaniards (Dobyns 1976:82 105 13 ). The Apaches had tenuous relations with the pueblo and mission at San Xavier del Bac San Agust in del Tucson because of the mistrust felt towards them by the Piman groups.

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78 A number of censuses were taken of populations in the Tucson region. In 1797, one census listed 395 people within the Tucson presidio: 102 soldiers, 25 servants, and 21 civilian household members (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson 1997:35; Officer 1987:71). A similar census was taken of the residents of the San Agustin mission, which also possibly includ ing remnants of the Sobaipuri population (Officer 1987:77). In 1804, one of the most comprehensive censuses of the area indicated that there were 1,015 people living in or around the Tucson presidio, San Agustin del Tucson, and San Xavier del Bac. Most of the individuals were engaged in ranching or farming exploits as there were also 3,500 cattle, 2,600 sheep, 1,200 horses, 120 mules, and 30 burros also living in the valley. Six hundred bushels of corn and 2,800 bushels of wheat were also reported to have b een harvested, although the census does not report who was growing the majority of these crops (Sheridan 1986:14). In 1819, some 236 Pinal Apaches had joined the peaceful Apaches who lived near the Tucson presidio, effectively doubling the native populatio n. By 1820, the Hispanic population of the Santa Cruz valley had risen to about 1,000 and with the Apache threat more or less contained, the settlement of Tucson began to spread beyond the presidio with ranching and mining operations expanding (Officer 198 7:2). The architectural and population presence of the Spaniards was still relatively small; they left their mark, however, on the culture of the region, although the native and Spanish communities largely maintained their separate identities throughout th is period (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson 1997:35). The Mexican Period (1821 1854) In 1821 the Spanish colonial period ended with the coming of Mexican independence as a result of the Napoleonic Wars. Initially, the northern Mexican frontier

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79 underwent econ omic prosperity due to increased foreign trade, which had been limited under Spanish rule. The full impact of Mexican control was not felt immediately in the northern frontier. The central Mexican government, however, was unable to sustain support for thei r frontier institutions ( Sheridan 1995:45). Supplies and reinforcements at the Tucson presidio became scarce and the rations and subsidies for the peaceful Apaches were withdrawn. The local Hispanics began to encroach on native lands for agricultural, ranc and the questionable purchase of the tract known as the Tucson Fields, which had been granted to the peaceful Apaches in 1796. Apaches began to move away from the settlements as tensions inc reased, and soon the Apache raids began once again and With the adoption of the Mexican constitution in 1824, the first official civil government was established in Tucson to keep re cords and maintain the peace through military presence. The Sonoran missions were secularized in 1828 and the Franciscans and other Spaniards were expelled from Mexican territories. The regular parish priests who took over the empty seats of the missionari es in some locations centered their operations on the Hispanic settlements leaving the Native American communities around the old missions to officiate for themselves (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson ack 2005). San Agustin del Bac. However, no priest ever took up residence again at San Xavier mission during the 19 th century (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson 1997; Officer 1987).

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80 The expansion of Hispanics on native lands also led to the brief 1840 1841 The Mexican government could not fully stabilize the unrest due to infighting of the Mexican officials (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson 1997:37). The feuding continu ed until interrupted by the Mexican War (1846 1848) and the entry of the Americans into the Southwest. U.S. troops only entered Tucson twice, however, during the war. The first was in December of 1846 when the Mormon Battalion passed through town en route to the Pacific coast unopposed by the Mexican troops at the Tucson presidio (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson 1997:37; Greenleaf and Wallace 1962:23; but the Mexican troops remaine d in control of the presidio. The war ended in 1848 with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which granted California and much of the now U.S. Southwest to the Americans. The Gila River acted as the international border, so Tucson was still a Mexican frontier town. The only significant difference in Tucson after the war was the greater numbers of Anglo Americans coming to or passing through the area, many on their way to California to take part in the gold rush in the 1840s and 1850s. These new arrivals brough t a greater measure of economic prosperity to Tucson, but even after Tucson became part of the U.S. with the Gadsden Purchase in 1854, the Mexican character of Tucson changed little. In 1856, the Mexican garrison at the presidio, who had remained at the pr citizens, turned over control of the community to the U.S. troops (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson 1997:37; Faust and Randall 2002:62; Officer 1987:262 Sheridan 1995:49 57; Wagoner 1975:259 297).

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81 The U.S. Period (1854 present) Following the incorporation of southern Arizona into the United States, many of the prominent Mexican families in the Santa Cruz valley, as well as Mexican laborers decided to stay, or they moved into Tucson from outlying areas t o avoid Apache raids. Even many of the Mexican troops who had been stationed at the Tucson presidio American settlers, who followed the U.S. troops to Tucson, opened businesses, purch ased and established mines or ranches, and to a degree had integrated themselves into the Mexican social structure of Tucson (Sheridan 1986). At the time the U.S. took control of Tucson there were an estimated 300 400 Mexicans and 50 Anglo Americans in tow n. By the collection of the 1860 U.S. Federal census the population of Tucson was 925, 653 of which were Mexican and 168 being Anglo Americans. Even though they retained minority status (the population ratio between Hispanics and Anglos being four to one) the Anglo American newcomers soon played a large role in the regional economy. Considerable amounts of land were Anglo owned by 1862, although much of the agricultural land was still owned by Hispanics. Because of the remoteness of the frontier outpost, ho wever, the people of Tucson relied heavily on the link with Sonora, which Torrello and Swanson 1997:38; Officer 1987:290; Sheridan 1986:63 65). With the opening of the Civil War in 1861 most of the U.S. troops in Arizona were recalled to fight in the east. In February of 1862, Confederate President Jefferson Davis proclaimed the Arizona Territory to be part of the Confederacy and soon a small group of Confederate soldiers occupied Tucson (Fau st and Randall 2002:63). However, the Confederate occupation was short lived; a group of California Volunteers scattered the

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82 small Confederate force at Picacho Pass. The Union soldiers subsequently entered Tucson in May of 1862 setting up camp along the Sa nta Cruz River (Wagoner 1975:443 452). A more permanent military post, Camp Lowell, was established on the eastern edge of Tucson in 1866. The military rented buildings in town to serve as the supply depot and the post hospital, and they set aside a porti on of the city cemetery (Alameda Stone Cemetery) as the National Cemetery to be used for military burials. The post garrison was tasked with the protection of U.S. citizens from Native American attacks. They also served to protect overland mail and supply trains, as well as other travelers and settlers in the region. They also acted as a supply post for other army posts and military operations in south of the Gila River (Faust and Randall 2002:63). The presence of Camp Lowell in Tucson was an economic boon to Tucson businesses, particularly the saloons and houses of ill repute. The people of Tucson came to accept the presence of the soldiers and were grateful for the protection they had from hostile Apaches (Faust and Randall 2002:64). In March of 1873, the post was moved seven miles to the northeast near the Rillito River. Even though this distance did make Tucson citizens nervous about their security from attacks, but it did not generally deter the enlisted men from taking part in leisure activities in town and bolstering the economy. The military fort continued to be an important part of the social fabric of the community until its closure in 1891 (Faust and Randall 2002:64). In 1871, a group of Anglo American merchants requested a donation of lands from the U.S. Government for a town site and Tucson was officially incorporated as an American city. As per the provisions of the 1867 Congressional Town Site Act, town

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83 officers were elected and an official survey and map of the Village of Tucson was prepared ( Bufkin 1981:68 the formal establishment of a town with a grid of streets and blocks, and ownership regulated by a city council, ensured that the steady transfer of lands from Mexican Americans to Anglo Americ ans underway since the Gadsden Purchase in 1854, would only quicken. Sonnichsen (1982:91) asserted that at the point that Tucson was incorporated it Tucson continued to grow through the 1870s a nd officially became a city according to the town charter in 1877. The railroad first became a presence in Tucson in January 1877, when the city donated about 200 acres to the Southern Pacific Company in anticipation of construction, a portion of which had previously been part of the Alameda Stone Cemetery lot (Devine 2004:163 Southern Pacific Railroad was greeted with enthusiasm by almost everyone in Tucson. Sheridan (1986:55 56) has noted the excitement generated by th e railroad, including in 2006:11). The railroad ushered in national reform movements aimed towards improving health infrastructures. The railroad also increased Anglo American population and improved the economic links between Tucson and the eastern United States (Ciolek Torrello and Swanson 1997:46; Greenleaf and Wallace 1962:26). Although improvements in healt h care and sanitation might have come slowly, the coming of the railroad opened a new phase in the development of Tucson, one which was not, in fact, beneficial for all parties involved, as will be left for further discussion in Chapter 7.

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84 Figure 3 1. Tucson Basin, showing, watercourses, settlements, and irrigated fields of 19th century.

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85 Figure 3 2. Santa Cruz River Basin with physiographic features. [ Reprinted with permission from Wood, Michelle Lee, P. Kyle House, and Phillip A. Pearthree. 1999. Historical Geomorphology and Hydrology of the Santa Cruz River. Open File Report 99 13. (Page 3, Figure 1). Arizona Geological Survey, Tucson, AZ.]

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86 Figure 3 3. Aquatic and semiaquatic habitats in the Santa Cruz Valley before 1890 inferred from historic records. [ Reprinted with permission from Hendrickson, Dean A., and Wendell L. Minckley. 1985. Cinegas -Vanishing Climax Communities of the American Southwest. Desert Plants 6(3):131 175. (Page 151, Figure 13).]

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87 Figure 3 4. Process of arroyo downcutti ng and widening of alluvial channels. [Reprinted with permission from Webb, Robert H., and Stanley A. Leake. 2006. Ground Water Surface Water Interactions and Long Term Change in Riverine Riparian Vegetation in the Southwestern United States. Journal of Hy drology 320(3 4):302 323. (Page 307, Figure 2).]

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88 Figure 3 5. Perennial and intermittent research of the Santa Cruz River before 1890. [Reprinted with permission from Wood, Michelle Lee, P. Kyle House, and Phillip A. Pearthree. 1999. Historical Geomorpho logy and Hydrology of the Santa Cruz River. Open File Report 99 13. (Page 15, Figure 4). Arizona Geological Survey, Tucson, AZ.]

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89 Figure 3 6. The missions, presidios, and racherias of the Spanish Colonial Period. [Reprinted with permission from Heilen, Michael P., with contributions by Scott O'Mack. 2010. Life in Southern Arizona and Tucson Before the Opening of the Alameda Stone Cemetery In Context and Synthesis From the Joint Courts Complex Archaeological Project, Tucson, Arizona edited by M ichael P. Heil en, and Marlesa A. Gray. Technical Report 10 95. (Page 89, Figure 47) Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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90 CHAPTER 4 DATA SOURCES AND MET HODS Archival Data Sources The archival research for the Alameda Stone Cemetery project, conducted primarily by the University of Arizona Library, the Arizona State Museum (ASM) Library and Archives, the Arizona Historical Society (AHS) Library and Archives, the Records Office of the City Cl Library and Archives, and the Arizona Daily Star Library and Archives. In addition, sources were sought at the Arizona State University Library; the Arizona State Library, Archive, and Pub lic Records offices; Beinecke Library of Rare Books and Manuscripts, Yale University; and the Old Military and Civil Records, National Archives and Records archival research wa s to seek information on the period of use of the cemetery; determine which segments of the community used the cemetery; ascertain whether there was specific organization within the cemetery based on religious, ethnic or other affiliations; elucidate indiv idual identities of people buried in the cemetery; establish the spatial limits of the cemetery; and the extent of past disturbances within the cemetery area (Heilen and Hall 2010:121). Because the research presented in this dissertation focuses on the st ate of health in the Tucson community at large during the later 19 th century, further archival research was necessary. Specifically, archival searches were aimed at uncovering individual doctor or hospital records of disease cases, information about diseas e epidemics, information about climatic patterns, and information about human activities and

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91 settlement patterns that may have affected disease outcomes. Therefore, I personally visited the National Archives in Washington, D.C., and worked with research co ntacts at Arizona, Special Collection Library; Office of the City Clerk (City of Tucson); Historic Preservation Office (City of Tucson); Geographic Information Systems Office (City of Tucson); Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA); SRI; and Desert Archaeology, Inc. Some historical documents and data were also obtained from online resources, such as Ancestry.com National Climate Data Center, and the United States Historical Climatology Network. Federal Censuses and Mortality Schedules The decennial federal censuses are valuable records to use in conducting demographic analyses of the Tucson popula tion. They provide personal information about name, age, sex, race, marriage status, birthplace, occupation, and property. Additionally, they provide valuable information about the size of the Tucson population during census years. During the years 1850, 1 860, 1870, and 1880, the US Federal census also contained mortality schedules (lists of people who had died in the year prior to the enumeration of the census). For Tucson, only the 1870 and 1880 mortality schedules exist and can be accessed via Ancestry.c om mortality schedule may have been prepared in Tucson during the 1860 census, but at that point Tucson was part of the New Mexico Territory, and the whereabouts of the New Mexico mortality schedules are unknown. Transcrip tions of the 1870 and 1880 Tucson mortality schedules are presented here in Appendices A and B of this work. The

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92 1870 mortality schedule provides a record of 139 individuals, while the 1880 schedule records 47 individuals. The lists contain information on the name, age, sex, occupation, place of birth, marriage status, race, cause of death, and date of death for individuals who live and died in Tucson from up to 12 months before June of the schedule year. Although an interesting sample of deaths that occur red in Tucson over the course of the year, the 1870 list shows a number of biases, one of which is that it probably places a somewhat greater focus on non Hispanic, Euroamericans than people of other backgrounds. Although the percentages of non Hispanic, E uroamericans (23 percent) and Hispanics (73 percent) in the 1870 schedule are roughly consistent with what we might expect based on and evaluation of the census records, 1870 was a year when a large number of Hispanic children died from smallpox. Smallpox also appeared in San Xavier del Bac, about 10 miles to the southwest of Tucson. This is shown in the 1870 San Xavier mortality schedule included here as Appendix C. Seventy eight smallpox deaths were recorded in the 1870 Tucson mortality schedule, which t hrough comparison with other historical records does not reflect the full number of smallpox deaths. The smallpox epidemic of 1870 will be discussed is greater detail in Chapter 6. U.S. Military and Climatological Records It is fortunate that Tucson was h ome to Camp Lowell (later Fort Lowell) for the majority of the late 19th century. List of burials in the military section of the Alameda and Hall 2010:138), but this resource will not be further discussed here as there is little information presented about causes of death in these records. A much more useful resource for a treatise on disease patterns are the post hospital records, which are located in the National Archives, Wa shington, D.C. (Record Group 94, Records of the

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93 were not transcribed in full for it did not serve their focus of a general discussion of disease epidemics during the per iod of use of the Alameda Stone Cemetery (Heilen and Hall 2010:138). In January 2012, I visited the National Archives, photographed, and subsequently transcribed each book of the title, Field Records of Hospitals Compiled 1821 1912 (National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 94, Entry 544) and Medical History of Posts Compiled 07/1868 1913 (National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 94, Entry 547) (Appendices D H). These books (No. 118 122) cover the period from August 1866 until December 1883, and provide valuable information about cases of disease and other ailments, patient information (name, rank, company, etc.), physician notes about epidemics and vaccinations, as well as sporadically recording garrison strength. The R eturns From U.S. Military Posts, 1800 1916 (National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 94, M617) (also available through Ancestry.com ) contain a much more thorough record of garrison strength, which is a critical piece of information for t he assessment of disease impact when given case occurrences from the hospital records. The post returns, much like the post hospital records are inconsistently recorded and are at times open to variable interpretations of what companies are present or what certain enumeration styles indicate. Because of the discrepancies, this dissertation uses the transcription of garrison strength taken from Hostile Land, Fort Lowell, A.T ., 1866

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94 Historic meteorological and hydrological data was also sought because weather and river conditions are often important to the spread of certain diseases (i.e., malaria). The Army Surgeons or physicians at the post hospital rout inely recorded data about temperature and rainfall in monthly, or sometimes weekly, reports copied in the patient ledgers, but there are large gaps in this information. A U.S. Signal station was established at Camp Lowell, and was later maintained in Tucso n. Although the main purpose of the U.S. Army Signal Corps was to maintain communications and information systems for the armed services, a congressional mandate in 1870 required that the Signal Corps establish a National Weather Service. Its purpose was t o record meteorological information throughout the country. Therefore, there should be a complete record of weather conditions in Tucson during the late 19 th century, but the location of those U.S. Signal Station records is unknown. Fortunately, G. E. P. Smith Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station in 1910. Smith (1910:102 103) provides a more or less complete transcription of rainfall data from the Fort Lowell weat her station and later the Tucson weather station from 1867 until 1909. Appendix J provides a meteorological account of Fort Lowell for the period covered by the post hospital records for statistical comparison to disease patterns. Included also are mean, minimum, and maximum temperatures taken from post hospital records or from an average of the earliest five year span of online historical data (1895 1900) obtained from the websites of the National Climate Data Center and the United States Historical Clima tology Network. Also included in Appendix J is the average rate of monthly evaportation (1891 1895) (Smith 1910:106), as well as the average

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95 discharge rate (1905 1909) of the Santa Cruz River (Smith 1910:115 116). The final column of the table includes val ues of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) which can be used to observe patterns of El Nio and La Nia events. The SOI is the normalized pressure difference between the Tahiti and Darwin weather station measurements. SOI values appearing in Appendix J co me from the Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia (Norwich, UK) derived from the data and methods published by Ropewski and Jones (1987), Allan et al. (1991), and Knnen et al. (1998). County, City, and Hospital Records It was hoped that s ome city or county records survived that would provide information about deaths, causes of death, as well as patterns of illness in the Tucson County were the verdicts reach ed by the juries of the coroner, which were first recorded suspicious, and it was not until 1887 that the Arizona Territory legislature required counties to record births and deaths systematically. The earliest known register of Pima County deaths covers the period 1887 1898 and is held by AHS (MS0183, Box 4a, Ledger of Births and Deaths in Pima County, Vol. 1), but the ledger itself does not provide a complete record of a ll deaths during the indicated period. The State of Arizona has established a genealogy website ( http://genealogy.az.gov/ ) through which the death certificates of the 107 Pima County entries listed in the above regi ster can be viewed. These records have been transcribed and are presented in Appendix K. The city also was slow to require systematic recording of deaths. SRI consulted the minutes of the Tucson City Council (Records Office, City Clerk, Tucson, Arizona ),

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96 1876, as a result of an outbreak of infectious disease (particularly smallpox), no requirement was included to maintain a register of deaths. It was not until February 2 1880, that the Tucson City Council recommended that burials be recorded and supervised by a city sexton. Burials also required a permit from the city recorder and a certificate of cause of death from a physician, but this ordinance was in all respect dis regarded until the passing of Ordinance No. 42 on May 8, 1883. On February 6, death cer tificate. The certificate was to include personal information, such as name, age, sex, color, nativity, as well as place of death and the cause of death, which was of particular importance to the city health officer in times of epidemic disease. While Ordi nance No. 51 seems to have formalized the recording of deaths and burials, the ordinance does not seem to have been followed as another ordinance was passed in of the city to record deaths makes it not the least bit surprising to find that few official city death records exist from the late 19 th century in Tucson. Another potentially useful source of information is the Quarterly Reports to the Pima County Board of Supervis ors. The reports are mentioned in the text of the book, "A Faithful Account of the Life and Death of Dr. John C. Handy," by Sister Alberta Cammack. Dr. Handy was a prominent physician in Tucson from his arrival in 1871 until his death in 1891, and for an u nknown portion of that time Handy served as the City Physician, County Physician, Medical Examiner, Coroner, County Supervisor, as well as being appointed to the first County Board of Health (Cammack 1997). Cammack

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97 (1997:4 5) notes that the Quarterly Repo including notes on disease epidemics, vaccination attempts, and sanitation problems. the Special Collections Department of the Univ ersity of Arizona Libraries. It does not, however, mention how many documents are supposedly present, or if the run is complete. Unfortunately, the archivists who combed their collections at the UA Special Collections Library in early 2012 were unable to l ocate any 19th century Quarterly Reports, although some 20th century reports were located. Similarly, the Tucson City Health Department reported that no such documents exist i n their collections. No non military hospital was built in Tucson until Bishop Salpointe requested the managed by the Sisters of St. Joseph and was a small building wit h only twelve beds located about a 1.5 miles west of Tucson across the Santa Cruz River. In times of flood, the town was cut off from access to the hospital and the hospital was cut off from the supplies in town. Dr. Handy served as the only physician at t he hospital for its first year of existence (Cammack 1997:11 12). Notably, Cammack reports that during her running from 1880 until 1895. The register listed complaints ranging from trauma, diseases, or other ailments common for the period. Unfortunately, Cammack passed ledger.

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98 Tucson Diocese Burial Register Heilen and Hall (2010:136) records that informs us about the identity of people likely to have been buried in the Alameda record was provided to Pima County an d SRI by Los Descendientes del Presidio de Tucson ( Los Descendientes ), a local group dedicated to studying and preserving burial register is available on microfilm at the University of Arizona, Special Collections Library (Records of the Catholic Church, Diocese of Tucson, Ms. 296, 1721 1957, has been included here as Appendix L. The dio cese register does not represent the entire community, much like the mortality schedules do not reflect the full community. The diocese record listed only those individuals whose burials were attended by the priests of the San Agustn Cathedral, which like ly did not include Protestant, Jewish, or other non Catholic burials. Information fields contained variably in the different parts of the record include name, age, sex, mother, father, spouse, date of burial. Some parts of the document include information The diocese record covers 1863 1887, with considerable gaps possibly reflecting lost portions of the manuscript. There are two distinct parts of the surviving document: 1) an incomplete run of 1, 772 handwritten entries on plain paper from May 28, 1863 to January 3, 1880, the early part of which is recorded in Latin, transitioning later to English; and 2) a section of 542 entries covering the period from January 3, 1883, to January 24, 1887 written

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99 (2006:54) attributes the change in format to the increased availability of commercial goods following the arrival of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1880. Obituaries and Newspaper Records During the archival research phase of the Joint Courts Cemetery Project (2004 2006), SRI located many pertinent obituary records in the numerous English and (2006:4) reports that archaeolog ist James Ayers aided in this endeavor by supplying SRI with many important cemetery related references from his Tucson historical newspaper indexing project. After fieldwork was completed in 2008, SRI obtained from Homer Thiel, Desert Archaeology, Inc., a systematic transcription of newspaper snippets discussing deaths in Arizona that occurred anywhere from 1859 through 1880. from available issues of The Weekly Ariz onian (also The Weekly Arizonan ), The Southern Arizonian The Mesilla Times, Arizona Citizen Arizona Miner, Weekly Arizona Miner Daily Arizona Miner Arizona Free Press Arizona Sentinel Weekly Arizona Citizen, Arizona Weekly Citizen Daily Arizona Citi zen, The Daily Bulletin, Arizona Star, Arizona Weekly Star, Arizona Daily Star, Las Dos Republicas, El Fronterizo, Arizona Silver Belt, Tombstone Epitaph, Arizona Gazette, and the Arizona Mining Index Because full runs of many of the newspapers examined h ave not survived, the compilation is by no means comprehensive. Beyond the spotty coverage mentioned above, further biases should be exposed. If it is an obituary that was located, unless it was of a prominent citizen, the notice would be brief and rarely mentioned much about the individual, circumstances of death, or place of burial. Additionally, the notices often were sensationalistic, reporting deaths of

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100 a violent nature, such as those resulting from Apache attacks or criminal homicides. Notably, the de aths of regular townspeople, largely made up of Mexican Americans, are underrepresented. Heilen and Hall (2010:133 134) surmise that this may be because the majority of the newspapers available for review are English speaking documents, or because the majo rity of deaths in Tucson were of Mexican Americans and as a result minority deaths were reported more often. George Hand (1830 1887) was a sergeant in the California Column, the volunteer Union force that marched into Tucson in May, 18 62, after its abandonment by the Confederates (Carmony 1996; Norman 2009). He spent the remainder of the year in Tucson before moving on with the rest of the column to a new post in New Mexico. Hand was discharged from the Army in 1864 and eventually retur ned to Tucson in 1867 where he spent the remainder of his life. Hand died in Tucson in 1887 at the age of 57. 67) diary, The Civil War in Apa cheland edited by Neil Carmony (1996), records events that picked up the habit again in 1872, and at some point after that he jotted down a scant few notes about his life during the interim in the back of the Civil War journal. Hand maintained his diary from 1872 until his death in 1887. Carmony (1994) published 1878 as, Whiskey, Six Guns & Red Light Ladies: George ving original diaries, covering periods 1861 1864, 1875 1878, 1882 1883, and 1885 1887, are housed in the archives of AHS in Tucson (Carmony 1996:177).

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101 because Hand was obsessed with recording deaths and making notes about epidemics in Tucson. Even though not all of the diaries have survived, Carmony (1994:213) reports that in the back of his 1885 diary, and subsequently in the backs of the 1886 and 1887 journals, Hand compiled a list of deaths and deadly events that occurred in Southern Arizona, and even abroad (but mostly in Tucson) beginning in the year 1872 until 1887. The notes in the list for the period 1875 1878 show that the list was compiled er, the information was often altered or abbreviated. (Carmony 1994:136, 21 8). This was a significant piece of pertinent information, and therefore, it is unfortunate that many of the journals have been lost and that the death lists is presented in Appendix M, but does not include deaths noted by Hand which did not occur in Tucson or surrounding areas of southern Arizona. appeared in the newspapers, the Diocese Recor d, and the U.S. Federal Mortality deaths resulting from epidemic disease drew mor e comment. Many of the individuals in the death list were non Hispanic, Euroamericans, with far fewer mentions of Hispanics or Native Americans. Heilen and Hall (2010:134 uggests that the list forms a kind of

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102 counterpoint to the burials listed in the diocese register, the vast majority of which were reconstruction of disease patterns ( compared with its usefulness to the reconstruction of demographic and mortality patterns) because the cause of death was seldom recorded by the church. Archaeological Methods The Joint Courts complex project was a complicated archaeological excavation b ecause even though the Alameda Stone Cemetery was the focus of the endeavor, the site had both prehistoric and post cemetery components. Throughout the Joint Courts an site this dissertation is primarily concerned with health patterns seen historically and in the archaeological record and is not concerned with in depth description of archaeological methods or recovered artifacts and their analyses, only a brief description of archaeological methods surrounding grave pit discovery and burial recovery and associ ated terminology is discussed here. Grave Pit and Burial Discovery and Removal Because of the heavily disturbed nature of the Alameda Stone Cemetery site, it is necessary to first differentiate between grave features and burial features as distinct featu re types. The grave features are simply defined as pits excavated in the ground which were used for burials. The designation of a burial feature depended on the overall context and articulatory integrity of human remains, burial container, and associated f unerary artifacts within a grave feature. Burial features could be articulated or

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103 disarticulated. Grave pits could be reused, and thus contain multiple burial features (Hall et al. 2010:24). Archaeological work in the cemetery proceeded in three main stag es: (1) grave pit identification and excavation; (2) burial container recovery and burial definition; and (3) burial removal. Stage 1 commenced with the identification of a grave feature through mechanical stripping of the upper most layers of soils to exp ose the characteristic grave pit stains. Four mapping nails and a vertical elevation nail were placed beyond the corners of the features. The features were then mapped in using a total mapping station and given feature numbers. The fill of a grave pit was generally excavated as Level 1 using shovels until evidence of the burial container (or human remains) was encountered. Grave fill was screened through inch mesh unless human bone was encountered at which point the screen was switched to 1/8 inch mesh fo r recovery of smaller skeletal elements or fragmentary bone. Typically, a soil sample was collected from the grave fill atop the burial container for pollen analysis (Hall et al. 2010:25) In Stage 2 of the process an outline of the burial container was def ined and mapped. The soils within the burial container and the grave pit fill immediately to the sides were designated as Level 2 unit but were excavated separately and placed through 1/8 inch screen for adults and 1/16 inch screen for juveniles. The grave pit fill would be first removed so as to pedestal the burial container if it was in good condition. Once the excavator made requisite notes about the construction and decorative characteristics of the burial container, Level 2 was taken further down parti ally to determine whether articulated skeletal remains were present and a second pollen sample was collected from within the burial container. If a primary burial was present, a

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104 burial feature was assigned and the burial container fill was removed taking c are to contour the human remains leaving then unexposed because exposed bone will begin to dry out and deteriorate (Hall et al. 2010:25 26). Exposure and removal of the human remains made up Stage 3 of the excavation process and was only started if enough time remained in the work day to complete the task. An osteologist always assisted the archaeologist in this phase of the work by fully exposing the remains. Mortuary artifacts recovered in this stage were mapped and collected and a third soil sample was c ollected from atop the sacrum (or generally in the sacral area when the sacrum was not intact) for parasite analysis. Four additional map nails were placed in the bottom of the grave pit at this point and the exposed skeleton was recorded through three dim ensional scanning and photogrammetric images. Once the three dimensional scanning and photogrammetry imaging was completed, the remains were collected by the osteologist, who made in field observation and measurements if preservation was poor. Once all hum an remains were removed from the grave pit, the archaeologist finished removing the burial fill, bottom of the burial container, and remaining mortuary artifacts adding to the hand drawn map when necessary. A cross sectional drawing of the grave pit was in cluded on the hand drawn map as a final step in the excavation process (Hall et al. 2010:26). Laboratory Processing All artifacts and soil samples recovered during excavations were placed in paper bags bearing their proper provenience information. Skeletal remains were wrapped in tissue paper and were similarly labeled. Human remains and artifacts were placed in separate plain cardboard boxes by feature and brought in to the laboratory. Following initial laboratory processing, the human remains and mortuary artifacts were moved to

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105 ASM approved boxes and each box was assigned a container and bar code number storage location, corresponding to its physical location in the on site s torage units. Laboratory analyses of both human remains and mortuary artifacts ran concurrently with fieldwork. Soil sample and artifact processing followed guidelines established by SRI to conform to the standards of the ASM. Lab analysts entered data in to a computerized database, which served to track all artifacts and skeletal remains throughout the project (Hall et al. 2010:32). While a brief discussion of the methodology of osteological analyses is contained within this chapter, a more detailed discus sion of laboratory and analytical procedures for the recovered human remains and artifacts can Burial Container and Hardware Analysis The methods established by Davidson (1999) for the class ification of hardware Alameda Stone Cemetery materials. Essentially, a new type number was designated when a new hardware type (or combination of elements) was encountered. David son (2006:120 with an even slightly different design motif, [then] it was assigned a new type number (e.g., T handles) were designated by numerical suffixes (e.g., Handle Type 12.1). The Tucson burial excavations revealed a relatively small sample of coffin hardware, consisting of nine handle types, five coffin screw types, and eight ornamental tack types. There are numerous cut nails, lining tacks, gimlet screws, and other miscellaneous

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106 utilitarian/functional hardware that were also recovered from excavations, but will not be specifica lly discussed in this hardware schema. Following Davidson (1999; 2006:121), it is acknowledged that these pieces of coffin hardware should be dated and contextualized through three lines of evidence: patent dates, dates derived from period hardware catalo gues, and known dates of cemetery use. A fourth line of evidence can be included, but must be critically analyzed based on the previous lines of evidence the estimated interment ranges of burials from previously excavated cemeteries. The fact that Alameda Stone Cemetery was in use for a relatively short period, 1862 to 1881, would seem to negate the utility of such a chronological exercise; however, there are important observations to be made about the interplay of chronology with consumerism and economics in Tucson. Specifically, what types of meanings and value were applied to these artifacts displayed on the coffin during the funeral prior to the arrival of the Southern Pacific Railroad and easier access A total of 127 reports of excavated historical period cemeteries were also consulted (Pye 2010a:Appendix 2) as were numerous design and utility patents available online through the U.S. Patents Office website. When possible, identical matches to each har dware type were identified. In some instances, similar matches were recorded as well, and it should be noted that even though they are not listed, most pieces of hardware have contemporary similar forms (Pye 2010a). A total of 121 period mortuary hardware trade catalogues, spanning the period between 1853 and 1928 were consulted for comparative purposes. These catalogues (Pye 2010a:Appendix 3) were collected from or viewed at a number of different

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107 repositories, including the Library of Congress; University of Delaware Libraries, Special Collections Department; Yale University Libraries; Henry Ford Library; Winterthur Museum; Hagley Museum; Ohio Historical Society; as well as the Connecticut Historical Society. Many catalogues and valuable interpretive mater ials were also provided by James Davidson from his personal collection. Catalogs were also used in the proper identification and description of burial container construction and interior or exterior surface treatments. All of these observations have import ant socioeconomic implications, which will be discussed in Chapter 7. Methods for Archaeoparasitological Analysis The identification of parasitic infection in archaeological samples from burial contexts yields direct evidence of ill health of individuals, of certain demographics, and of the community at large, yet there are few scholars who have conducted parasite analyses in historic burial contexts. Because there are a variety of parasites that afflict humans, identification techniques must be specific. T he search for the correct detection method in archaeological samples begins with asking a series of questions about the target organism, the type of archaeological sample available for testing, and the effect of taphonomic processes within the feature. Fi rst, one must ask of the life cycle of the organism. For example, if the goal is to identify a case of malaria, one would not be looking for the presence of parasite eggs in soil samples. Malaria parasites live in the blood, not in the bowels, and they do not produce eggs. Second, one must consider which type of archaeological sample would be best to use for identification. For example, if one were looking for evidence of intestinal parasites which produce eggs, it would not be useful to test bone samples. Robust parasite eggs could be identified using chemical and microscope techniques.

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108 Finally, one must take into account the environment of the burial and the taphonomic processes that may be at play. The cysts of certain protozoa, such as Giardia are small er and more fragile that other intestinal parasites. In burial contexts, these cysts are likely to be destroyed by the weight of the soil upon the collapse of the burial container. In this case one would likely not be able to identify Giardia cysts through microscopic techniques; instead, it would be best to use immunological techniques to detect certain specific cyst wall proteins that would survive in the soil (Sturbaum and DiGiovanni 2006:231). Alameda Stone Cemetery Parasite Sample Archaeologists collec ted 1,070 soil samples from 546 primary burials, which had not been disturbed by post cemetery activities or subsequent interments within Alameda Stone Cemetery. There were also 233 samples recovered from various stratigraphic layers of the seven post ceme tery privies/cess pits. The archaeologists typically collected two soil samples, each consisting of roughly 100 mL of sediment, from burial contexts, one from the pelvic girdle of the individual and one control sample from beside the head or the feet. In t he privies/cesspits, similarly sized samples were collected from levels exhibiting evidence of active human waste deposition (green staining, brown crumbly fill, or night soil) because these levels were most likely to contain parasite remains. Microscope Testing of the Alameda Stone Cemetery Parasite Samples Preliminary development of archaeoparasitological methods were outlined by Reinhard (1988) based on multidisciplinary analysis of sediments from Providence, Rhode Island (Reinhard et al. 1986). Later, Warnock and Reinhard (1992) formalized a method for simultaneous recovery of seeds, parasite eggs, and pollen grains from the

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109 same samples. Reinhard (2008) and Reinhard et al. (2008) have further refined the analysis of archaeological soil samples. Drisco ll (1994), Bain (2001), and Mitchell, et al. (2008) have confirmed the utility of the simultaneous recovery method. See Table 4 2 for a detailed step by step of the simultaneous recovery technique) During preliminary processing, macrofossils on the screens can be examined for identifiable floral remains, reflecting the diet of the individuals in the last day of their life (Reinhard et al. 2006). After treatment with acids and preparation of slides, both parasite egg casings and starch grains can be observed through microscopy. If a parasite egg is identified, the researcher must then decide whether the egg represents a human infection, or if it is an incidental inclusion of a paras ite non infective to humans. Non human parasites could be introduced into the human system or into the burial through contact with domestic animals, or through the movements of rodents in habitation or burial settings. Starch grains can be identified by co mparison to known collections of starch grains from tubers and seeds. After parasitological and starch analysis is completed, the samples can be further processed for pollen. Then microscope slides should be prepared and examined at 400x magnification (Re inhard et al. 2006). Pollen types can be identified based on published keys and identification guides. Tablets of known quantities of Lycopodium plant spores can be added to thirty milliliters of sediment during processing as a quantification marker. Conc entrations of microfossils, parasites, pollen grains, and starch grains can then be calculated with the following formula: Y = ((y/m) x e)/ v, where Y= the microfossil, parasite, pollen or starch concentrations present, y = microfossils, parasite eggs, pol len grains, or starch grains

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110 counted, m = marker Lycopodium spores counted, e = Lycopodium spores added, and v = volume of sediment. As per the treatment plan prepared by SRI (Beck et al. 2006), the collected soils were sorted and 220 burial samples and 20 privy samples were sent to Karl Reinhard (PathoEcology Services, Lincoln, Nebraska) for processing and analysis. The 220 samples represent 110 individual burials, representing 20% of the total burial samples collected. The archaeological sediment samples submitted for parasitological analysis should have been large enough to identify parasite infections. Sediments from seventy five burials showed sufficient preservation of organics for parasite egg recovery. No definite infections with common human intesti nal worms were found. One burial contained a possible ascarid egg, one burial contained possible eggs of an infective fluke, and one burial contained eggs of a parasite non infective to humans (Table 4 1). With such data, care must be taken not to over int erpret the finds (Reinhard 2009). No parasite eggs were found in any latrine sediments, even those that contained abundant evidence of night soil origin. Therefore, Reinhard (2009) suggested that intestinal worms were rarely, if ever, a problem for the sub set of historic Tucsonans represented by the latrine samples. The latrines would have been used largely by Euroamerican, middle class individuals who lived in the residential dwellings build Reinh ard (2009) posits that some sort of barriers existed to the establishment of intestinal parasite transmission in Tucson. Foremost would have been effective sanitation systems. A simple latrine system is effective if the system is used by the population. In his work with sediments from 19th century Five Points, New York,

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111 Reinhard (2000) discovered that even though effective latrines were built and used by some households, not all individuals used them. Moreover, latrine systems do not work where environmenta l conditions result in the flooding of latrines or mixture of latrine effluent with drinking water sources, as was the case in 19 th century Albany, New York (Fisher et al. 2007). Latrine systems also fail if nightsoil from the latrines is used to fertilize yard gardens as was shown to be a common practice in Revolutionary War period Newport, Rhode Island (Reinhard et al. 1987). Failure will also result from simple systems that do not adequately separate feces from surrounding sediments. Several barrel latri nes recorded by Rosenwig (1999) in Albany, New York, were not deep enough to prevent contamination of the environment with parasite eggs. Furthermore, there were spaces apparently opened between the staves to allow for drainage of liquid, which also allowe d parasite eggs to leak into the surrounding soils. The latrines tested in Tucson were simple latrines that would have been flooded during heavy rains and would not have necessarily been adequate means of sanitation as per this train of logic. Reinhard (2 009) concludes that the environment of Tucson may have not been completely favorable for the transmission of parasites. Whipworm eggs embryonate best in warm, moist, shaded soils. Ascaris roundworms are only partially resistant to ironment may have limited the infectivity of eggs that may have escaped the latrine sanitation system (Reinhard 2009). Sanitation and environment are the two aspects of Tucson in the late 19th century that limited infection. That said, it is known from his torical records that parasitic infection was a problem for Tucson as shown by the recording of malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, and tapeworms in Fort Lowell Hospital records and the U.S. Federal Mortality Schedules. The results

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112 acquired by Reinhard indicate t hat further microscopic analysis would not be fruitful; therefore, immunologically based tests were used on another subset of the soil samples. Immunological Testing of the Alameda Stone Cemetery Parasite Samples A statistically representative sub sample c onsisting of 94 soil samples from the Alameda Stone Cemetery burials was selected based on biological affinity, sex, age classification, and cemetery area (Appendix N). Eleven of the burials which fell out in this sub sample were classified by SRI osteolog ists as Native American; therefore, the soil samples from those burials were not subjected to the immunological testing as per the burial agreement. For the remaining 83 samples, f ive grams of soil was crushed using a mortar and pestle and rehydrated prior to being subjected to immunologically based tests. Pre made enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits from TECHLAB (Blacksburg, VA) were used to test for antigens of the enteric protozoa Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia duodenalis(lambli a). Additio nally, the Malaria Ag P.f. ELISA from Standardia, Inc. ( Yongin si, Kyonggi do, Korea) was used to test for the presence of the antigens specific to Plasmodium falciparum The testing kits contain instruction booklets for analysis with guides to the interpr etation of the results. E. histolytica ELISA The E. histolytica II ELISA from TechLab, Inc., is an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the rapid detection of the adhesin of E. histolytica in human fecal specimens (Haque et al. 1993; Jelinek et al. 1996 ; and Schunk et al. 2001), but has been proven to be effective in testing of archaeological soil samples from waste disposal and burial features (LeBailly et al. 2006; Mitchell et al. 2008). The microassay wells contain immobilized polyclonal antibodies th at bind to the adhesins of E.

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113 histolytica/dispar The conjugate is a monoclonal antibody peroxidase conjugate specific for E. histolytica adhesion. In the assay, the soil specimen is emulsified in diluent and the diluted specimen is transferred to the micr oassay well. If the specific antigen is present in the sample, it binds to the conjugate and the immobilized polyclonal antibody during the incubation period. Any unbound material is removed during washing stages. Subsequent to the addition of the substrat e, a color change occurs due to the enzyme antibody antigen complexes that form in the presence of adhesin. The testing process is described in full in the following table (Table 4 3). The E. histolytica II ELISA has a 100% specificity to E. histolytica an d a 96.9% sensitivity to the presence of E. histolytica antigen (TechLab, Inc. 2009). Giardia ELISA The Giardia II ELISA from TechLab, Inc., is an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the rapid detection of Giardia duodenalis (lamblia) cyst antigen in hu man fecal specimens (Boone et al. 1999; Ungar et al. 1984; and Vinayak et al. 1991), but has been proven to be effective in the testing of archaeological soils from waste disposal and burial features (Gonalves et al. 2002; Gonalves et al. 2004; and LeBai lly et al. 2006). The Giardia II ELISA microassay plate contains immobilized monoclonal antibodies while the conjugate consists of polyclonal antibodies, both of which are specific for the cell surface antigen of Giardia In the assay, a portion of diluted specimen is transferred to a microassay well. The immobilized monoclonal antibody binds the Giardia antigen if present. Any unbound materials are removed during washing stages of the process. Subsequent to the addition of substrate, a color change is prod uced due to the enzyme antibody antigen complexes that form in the presence of Giardia antigen and conjugate. The testing process is described in full in the following

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114 table (Table 4 4). The Giardia II ELISA has a 100% specificity to Giardia and a 100% sen sitivity to the presence of Giardia antigen (TechLab, Inc. 2006). Malaria ELISA The SD Malaria Antigen P.f. ELISA from Standardia, Inc., is an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum antigen in human whole blood (Jamsh aid et al. 2001). While this testing has never been previously attempted with archaeological soil samples, Bianucci et al. (2008) obtained positive results in an Egyptian mummy sample using an immunochromatographic assay, and Fornaciari et al. (2010) obtai ned positive results using similar methods with 16 th century skeletal samples from Florence, Italy. The SD Malaria testing kit contains two microassay plates, one is uncoated for lysis of whole blood samples, and the other is pre coated with histidine rich protein II (HRP II) antibodies. After the lysis reaction in the first plate, and transfer of the sample to the second plate, the HRP II in the sample is bound to antibody specific to HRP II on the well and the horseradish peroxidase conjugate. Following t he incubation stage, all unbound materials are removed through washing and aspiration phases. The residual HRPO enzyme activity bound up on the wells contributes to a color change after the addition of the substrate. The testing process is described in ful l in the following table (Table 4 5). The SD Malaria Antigen P.f. ELISA has a 100% specificity to P. falciparum and a 98% sensitivity to the presence of the HRP II antigen (Standardia, Inc. 2006). Osteological Methods and Indicators of Health The osteologi cal analyses of the Alameda Stone Cemetery population were conducted by SRI staff and were focused on paleodemography (including age, sex, and biological affinity), biological distance and geospatial analysis, postcranial morphology

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115 of juveniles and adults pathological conditions, trauma, dental health, and spatial patterns (see Appendix O for osteological inventory). Like many other bioarchaeological projects, the osteologists on this project generally followed the procedures and protocols, outlined in St andards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994); however, SRI found that the methods sometimes needed to be expanded in order to accommodate the data collection requirements and research goals specific to the Joint Cour ts Complex project (Hall et al. 2010:39). For brevity, this section will mention only the basic methods used during the osteological data collection process. Inventory The first step in all osteological analyses is to prepare a detailed inventory of the c ollected remains. The purpose of the inventory is to first determine the completeness of individuals, and to ascertain the number of individuals represented by discrete elements among comingled remains. For each individual and set of discrete elements from comingle contexts, skeletal inventory forms were completed as per the standard collection protocols outlines by Buisktra and Ubelaker (1994) (Hall et al. 2010:39). Taphonomy After the above inventory was completed, SRI osteologists assessed skeletal eleme nts for taphonomic effects, both natural and anthropogenic. Osteologists made notes about the chemical and physical preservation of each set of remains as a whole. Surface changes due to plant or animal activity were documented as was weathering, and stain ing from soils, metals, lime, or other elements. Thermal alterations to the skeletal remains were also recorded as per Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) (Hall et al. 2010:39). In general, the skeletal remains recovered from the Alameda Stone Cemetery

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116 were in an excellent state of chemical preservation, and in most cases the physical preservation of the remains was also good. Age Assessment Skeletal remains of juveniles were examined for age related changes shown in the formation of primary and secondary centers of ossification and degree of fusion (Hall et al. 2010:40). The measure of epiphyseal fusion of left side extremities was recorded on a three point scale: 0 = open/no union; 1 = partial union; and 2 = complete union. Similarly, the union of the ilium, isc hium, and pubis was assessed for the left innominate, if present. The degree of fusion of the various parts of the vertebra, as well as the cranium was also observed. Because age related fusion of the various elements occurs in a regular, though often unp redictable, course, each element was considered individually. Composite age ranges were created based on comparison to published comparative manuals (i.e., Baker et al. 2005; Bass 1995; Scheuer and Black 2000, 2004; Steele and Bramblett 1988; White 2000). Skeletal remains of adults were examined for evidence of age related and degenerative changes (Hall et al. 2010:40). First, the pubic symphyses of the innominate were evaluated according to both the Todd (1920, 1921) and the Suchey Brooks (Brooks and Such ey 1990; Suchey and Katz 1986) methods (Meindl et al. 1985). Age related changes to the auricular surfaces of the ilia were also examined as per Lovejoy et al. (1985), Meindl and Lovejoy (1989), and Osborne et al. 2004). Age related changes to the sternal rib ends of ribs 3, 4, and 5 were scored according t o (1994) and Meindl and Lovejoy (1985), cranial suture closure was assessed at 17 diagnostic locations on the external vault, internal vault, and palatine and were scored:

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117 0 = open/no fusion; 1 = minimal fusion; 2 = significant fusion; and 3 = complete fusion. Similarly to that described for juveniles, the degree of epiphyseal union was observed and scored as above (Scheuer and Black 2000). Composite age ranges were created based on comparison to published comparative manuals (i.e., Bass 1995; Scheuer and Black 2000, 2004; Steele and Bramblett 1988; White 2000). Sex Assessment Subsequent to the age assessment, skeletal sex characteristics were identified. Because sexually d imorphic traits of the cranium and the innominate appear reliably only in more mature individuals, the sex of most juveniles is indeterminate. The following features were examined and scored for diagnostic sexual dimorphism: innominate greater sciatic no tch, ischiopubic ramus ridge, preauricular sulcus, subpubic concavity, ventral arc; cranium glabella, mastoid process, nuchal crest, supraorbital margin; mandible mental eminence. Dimorphism was scored along an ordinal scale following Buikstra and Ubel aker (1994:16) (Hall et al. 2010:41). Dentition Analysis and documentation of dental remains was conducted separate from the remainder of the skeletal analyses by specifically trained dental anthropologists. The first step in dental documentation was the cleaning off of the adhering sediment with brushes and water, after which the presence or absence of individual teeth within the mandible or maxilla, or the presence of alveolar bone on loose teeth. Subsequently, notes and measurements were recorded on dev elopment and eruption status, occlusion patters, crown measurements, morphological non metric variables of roots and crowns, wear, taphonomic conditions, dental restorations, and pathology (i.e., abscesses,

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118 caries, calculus, enamel hypoplasias), following guidelines set forth by Hillson (1996) and Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) (Hall et al. 2010:41 42). Craniometrics and Postcranial Metrics Cranial measurements are of paramount importance in determining ancestry and biological distance. Therefore, 24 standard cranial and 10 standard mandibular measurements as described by Moore Jansen et al. (1994) were made on all intact adult crania. These measurements and their corresponding landmarks are listed in erence, but they will not be specifically discussed here because their importance lies instead in their use for determination of biological ancestry. Tools, such as digital sliding calipers, spreading calipers, and the mandibulometer were used to measure t he incomplete crania. A MicroScribe G2 digitization tool was used in conjunction with the 3Skull computer program to create a three dimensional version of each intact adult crania. Juvenile crania were measured according to Fazekas and Ksa (1978) and Buik stra and Ubelaker (1994). Linear, diametric, and circumferential postcranial measurements were then taken to establish stature in all individuals and to a certain degree of certainty, age in juvenile individuals. Equipment, such as digital sliding calipers spreading calipers, and osteometric boards, were used in the collection of the 43 standard adult (Moore Jansen et al. 1994) and 24 standard juvenile (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994; and Fazekas and Ksa 1978) postcranial measurements. All postcranial metrics were recorded for both left and right elements for all individuals when possible (Hall et al. 2010:42 43).

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119 Nonmetric Observations Nonmetric observations, including both epigenetic and morphoscopic traits were recorded as per Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) and Hefner (2007). Twenty four standard epigenetic traits described by Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994), one additional cranial epigenetic trait described by Hauser and De Stefano (1989), and 15 morphoscopic (13 cranial and 2 mandibular) traits (Hefner 2003, 2 007; and Parr 2005) were observed in total. et al. 2010:76 77) for reference, but they will not be specifically discussed here because their importance lies instead in th eir use for determination of biological ancestry Pathology, Trauma, Cranial Deformation, and Degenerative Skeletal Changes During the Joint Courts Complex project, osteological analysts were instructed to focus on the recording of pathological symptoms r ather than the development of disease diagnoses. This approach allowed analysts of varying levels of experience to adequately record skeletal pathology without presenting differential diagnosis. Diagnosis could then be left to interpretation based on compa rison of notes to published paleopathology guidebooks (i.e., Aufderheide and Rodrguez Martin 1998; Ortner 2003; Ortner and Putschar 1985; Steinbock 1976; Zimmerman and Kelley 1982). Documentation of trauma, cranial deformation, and degenerative skeletal c onditions of the skeleton proceeded in a similar fashion. The analyst would separate the skeleton into four regions: cranial, axial, appendicular, and the extremities. General classes of bone responses, such as periosteal, proliferative, or lytic reaction s, were observed in each region, as were region specific conditions like cribra orbitalia, vertebral ankylosis, or femoral bowing. Analysts

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1 20 based on standards of SRI and the ASM and noted whether the conditions were ante or perimortem. Noteworthy pathological conditions were photographed, noted on diagrammatic representations of elements, or scanned using a 3D imaging device (Hall et al. 2010:44 45). Assessing Biologic al Affinity As part of the repatriation efforts, SRI made an attempt to establish a determination of biological ancestry for each primary burial. Archival research and consultation with descendant groups led to the development of a list of most probable bi ological groups that would be encountered. These included African American, Yaqui, other Native American, and the indeterminate category (Hall et al. 2010:48). The first approa ch to the biological affinity assessment was based on craniometric analyses described above. Craniometric data were entered into a database and biological affinity was interpreted by a variety of statistical software packages, including FORDISC 3.0 and SYS TAT 12.0 (2007, Windows standard version, SPSS, Inc., Richmond, California). The second method for determining biological affinity was epigenetic/morphoscopic evaluation of the cranium. The examination of dental morphological characteristics analyzed usin g a modified discrete function analysis (Krzanowski 2000) was used as the third method for assessing biological affinity. The fourth method used was the postcranial metric analysis. The results of each of these methods were compared to reference samples fr om variety of geographical and temporal contexts, which had been gathered by the Smithsonian Institution National

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121 2010:49). Using a variety of statistical methods describe d by Hefner (2010) the final determinations of biological affinity were made and are presented in Appendix O. Assessing Cultural Affinity Due to the multiethnic context of the Tucson community, the scholars at SRI in consultation with descendant groups dev eloped a novel approach to the assessment of cultural affinity. These assessments were based on a careful comparison of three lines of evidence: archaeological details of placement of burial within cemetery and the types of items found in association wi th the burial; osteological or the morphological characteristics of the skeletal remains; and historical evidence. For each individual these three lines of evidence were assessed and given an objective weight of (1) highly likely, (2) likely, and of cou rse not applicable. Combining then the weighted assessments of these three lines of evidence ideally removes some of the subjectivity inherent in the process of determining cultural affinity (Goldstein et al. 2010:144). Archaeological Evidence The Alamed a Stone Cemetery excavation burial agreement included lists, provided by the descendant groups, of associated, distinguishing cultural artifacts or other contextual cultural indicators. In many cases, the aforementioned indicators were not exclusive to one group, which is why it is important to consult multiple lines of evidence before making an assessment. Eventually, 10 broad classes of archaeological indicators were identified: burial orientation with respect to cardinal directions; burial position withi n the grave; grave architecture; grave markers (though none were present due to obliteration of original ground surface by later construction activities); burial container construction, form, and decoration; clothing; religious artifacts (and spatial relat ionship of artifacts to the body within the grave); natural materials, which refers to

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122 intentional inclusions of unmodified materials; personal artifacts; and location of burial within the cemetery (Goldstein et al. 2010:145). Osteological Evidence The a ssessment based on osteological evidence points toward certain biological affinities, or the nearest biological group of ancestry, for each individual. In the Alameda Stone Cemetery project, osteological analysis considered five categories of data upon whi ch to make classifications (references below are those cited in Goldstein et al. 2010:145 146): dental wear and dental morphology (using the Turner system, as laid out by Scott and Turner 1988, 1997; Turner 1979, 1986, 1998); non metric, or epigenetic, tra its of the crania and postcrania (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994; Hefner 2003, 2007); cranial and postcranial metrics (cf. Devor 1987; Jantz 1970; Relethford 1994, 1996, 2001a, 2001b, 2004), with reference to large comparative collections; c ranial modification or the intentional alteration of the shape of the skull during life (Ossenberg 1970); and s tatistical methods and reference samples, which are dependent on the investigation of osteological data in multivariate analyses to determine statistically signifi cant biological differences among groups (cf. Krzanowski 2000; Ousley and Jantz 2005). Historical Evidence Available historical evidence was used to create a baseline of expectations about cultural affinity of the individuals buried in the cemetery in reg ard to the following elements: s ocial and ethnic identity ; marriage and kinship patterns ; d emography or the structure and distribution of populations according to age, sex, cultural identity, and other factors (as derived from Tucson Diocese burial record s, newspaper accounts, census data, as well as marriage, birth, and death records); and m ortuary treatment and

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123 material culture, which might be indicative of certain religions, ethnic, or social groups (Goldstein et al. 2010:146). Making Determinations SR I was able to assess the cultural affinity for 1,091 individuals recovered during excavations at the Alameda Stone Cemetery. Of these, one was considered highly likely to be African American, one was highly likely to be Apache, 99 were highly likely to be Euroamerican, 233 were highly likely to be Hispanic, five were highly likely to be as culturally indeterminate (Goldstein et al. 2010:148) (Appendix O). This method of determining cultural affinity is especially insightful due to the fact that many citizens of Tucson confound standard classifications. The problem with comparing historical, archaeological and osteological information is that there are many different t ypes of information present that cross cut biology, culture, ethnicity, and religion. For example, there were some individuals who had Native American biological ancestry, but were practicing Catholics and shared a similar life and belief system as their H ispanic neighbors who migrated to the area from further south in Mexico. It is for this reason that SRI took this approach to cultural affinity, so that no one line of evidence would be given precedence. (Goldstein et al. 2010:148).

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124 Table 4 1. Parasit es identified in preliminary analysis. Sample Burial No. Parasite Identified No. of Eggs Notes 11 7552 9623 Ascaris lumbricoides 1 Not enough eggs to represent active infection 19 7935 18847 Dicroelium dentriticum 2 Humans not definitive hosts 175 785 3 16850 Trichuris spp. 1 Contaminant from burial fill *Adapted from Reinhard, Karl J. 2009. Archaeoparasitology Report Joint Courts Archaeological Project, Tucson. PathoEcology Services, Lincoln, NE. Prepared for Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.

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125 Table 4 2. Step by step laboratory analysis for macrofossils, starches, pollen, and parasites. 1 Place three Lycopodium spore tablets, along with ten drops of hydrochloric acid, in a 400 mL beaker. 2 When tablets are completely dissolved, place 30mL of sediment into beaker and label with sample number. 3 Add five drops of 40% hydrochloric acid. If reaction occurs, the sample should be treated with HCl until reaction ceases. After reaction stops, or if no reaction occurred, 200 mL of distilled water is added to the beaker. 4 The sample is then swirled until all particles are in suspension, after which the beaker is placed on a flat surface for 30 seconds. 5 a 600 mL beaker labeled with appropriate sample number. This is repeated three times. 6 The screened macroscopic remains are dried and transferred to Petri dishes marked with 1 cm grids. The macro remains are distributed over the grid, counted, and identified. 7 Screened fluids are concentrated by centrifugation in 50mL centrifuge tubes. After centrifugation, the sediments are washed three times in distilled water. 8 The sediments are then transferred to labeled 500 mL polypropylene beakers to which 50 mL of 48% hydrofluoric acid is added. The sediments should be mixed thoroughly with the acid and left to sit for 24 hours, stirring occasionally. 9 After 24 hours, the sediments should be concentrated by centrifugation in 50 mL and washed with distilled water until the supernatant in clear. 10 Drops of sediments should be transferred to glass microscope slides using Pasteur pipettes. The sediment drops are then mixed with glycerin and covered with glass cover slips. 11 Parasite eggs and added Lycopodium spo res are counted and the concentrations of eggs are determined by mathematical ratio of eggs to the known number of Lycopodium spores. Identifications of parasite eggs are made by morphological analysis. 12 After identification of parasite remains, the se diments should be examined for starch grains using 400 magnification with polarized light. Identification of starch grains follows along with quantification in the same manner as with the parasites. 13 The remaining sediment in the 50 mL centrifuge (Step 9) should be centrifuged and the water poured out. 14 Thirty milliliters of Glacial acetic acid should then be added to tubes and stirred until all particles are in suspension. 15 The tubes should be centrifuged and the acetic acid poured into a waste disposal container. 16 Acetolysis solution (8 parts acetic anhydride to 1 part sulfuric acid) should be added to the centrifuge tube. 17 The tube should be stirred and placed in a water bath at 99 C for three minutes followed by a cool water bath at 21 C for five minutes. The tubes should be centrifuged and the acetolysis solution poured into a waste disposal container. 18 Sediments are then washed in Glacial acetic acid and subsequently distille d water until the supernatant in clear. 19 Drops of sediments should be transferred to glass microscope slides using Pasteur pipettes. The sediment drops are then mixed with glycerin and covered with glass cover slips. Slides should be examined at 400 ma gnification for pollen and quantified as with starches and parasites. *Adapted from Reinhard, Karl J. 2009. Archaeoparasitology Report Joint Courts Archaeological Project, Tucson. PathoEcology Services, Lincoln, NE. Prepared for Statistical Research, In c., Tucson, AZ.

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126 Table 4 3. Step by step process for performing ELISA tests for E. histolytica. 1 Five grams of sediment should be crushed using a mortar and pestle, placed in a labeled test tube, rehydrated with distilled water and placed in refrigeratio n for three days. 2 Set up one dilution tube for each tube. Label the tube directly on the side. 3 suspended (vortexed) before transferring. 4 Vortex again before transferring dilute d specimen to microassay well. 5 Prepare a wash solution by adding 50mL of 10x concentrated wash solution to 500mL of distilled water. 6 Two control wells must be used each time the test is performed. These wells serve as positive and negative controls. One well is needed for each patient sample. Additional Conjugate (red cap) to a positive control well, negative control well, and patient sample well. Hold the Conjugate bottle vertically when adding the d rops. Identification marks may be written directly on side of well. 7 Transfer 200 size necessary to cover the wells. Cover wells and incubate them at room temperature for 2 hours. 8 Shake out the contents of the assay wells into a discard pan. Wash each wel l using the diluted Wash Solution (50mL WS and 950mL distilled water)in a squirt bottle with a fine tipped nozzle, directing the Wash Solution to the bottom of the well with force. Fill the wells, then shake the wash solution out of the well into a discard pan. Slap the inverted plate on a dry paper towel and repeat the washing step four times using a dry paper towel each time. If any particulate matter is in the wells, continue washing until all the particulate matter is removed. 9 After washing, complete ly remove any residual liquid in the wells by striking the plate once again onto a dry paper towel until no liquid comes out. Dispose of paper towels and specimen containers properly. 10 p the wells initially and again at 5 minutes to mix the substrate. Incubate the wells at room temperature for 10 minutes. 11 wait 2 minutes before reading. The additio n of the Stop Solution converts the blue color to a yellow color, which may be quantitated by measuring the optical density at 450 nm on a microplate ELISA reader. Read within 10 minutes after adding Stop Solution. Alternatively, a visual assessment may be made. *Adapted to soil samples from Techlab, Inc. 2009. E. histolytica II: A 2nd Generation Monoclonal ELISA for Detecting E. histolytica Adhesin in Fecal Speciments. Test Kit Information Insert. RMS #92 010 01. Techlab, Inc., Blacksburg, VA.

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127 Table 4 4. Step by step process for performing ELISA tests for Giardia spp. 1 Five grams of sediment should be crushed using a mortar and pestle, placed in a labeled test tube, rehydrated with distilled water and placed in refrigeration for three days. 2 Set up o ne dilution tube for eac each tube. Label the tube directly on the side. 3 suspended (vortexed) before transferring. 4 Vortex again before transferring dilu ted specimen to microassay well. 5 Prepare a wash solution by adding 50mL of 10x concentrated wash solution to 500mL of distilled water. 6 Two control wells must be used each time the test is performed. These wells serve as positive and negative control (i.e., Diluent) to the negative control well. 7 each test well already containing diluent and gently tap the wells to mix. Seal with a plate sealer and incubate 1 hour at room temperature. 8 Shake out the contents of the assay wells into a discard pan. Wash each well using the diluted Wash Solution (5 0mL WS and 950mL distilled water) in a squirt bottle with a fine tipped nozzle, directing the Wash Solution to the bottom of the well with force. Fill the wells, then shake the wash solution out of the well into a discard pan. Slap the inverted plate on a dry paper towel and repeat the washing step three times using a dry paper towel each time. If any particulate matter is in the wells, continue washing until all the particulate matter is removed. 9 After washing, completely remove any residual liquid in t he wells by striking the plate once again onto a dry paper towel until no liquid comes out. Dispose of paper towels and specimen containers properly. 10 Seal with the plastic adhesive sheet and incubate the wells for 30 minutes at room temperature. 11 Repeat washing procedure (Steps 7 and 8). 12 e (blue cap) to each well and gently tap the wells to mix. Incubate wells at room temperature for 10 minutes. 13 mix, waiting 2 minutes before reading. The addition of the S top Solution converts the blue color to a yellow color, which may be quantitated by measuring the optical density at 450 nm on a microplate ELISA reader. Read within 10 minutes after adding Stop Solution. Alternatively, a visual assessment may be made. *A dapted to soil samples TechLab, Inc. 2006. Giardia II : A Monoclonal ELISA for Detecting Giardia lamblia Antigen in Fecal Specimens. Test Kit Information Insert. RMS #P92 006 03. TechLab, Inc., Blacksburg, VA.

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128 Table 4 5. Step by step process for performing ELISA tests for P.f Malaria. 1 Five grams of sediment should be crushed using a mortar and pestle, placed in a labeled test tube, rehydrated with distilled water and placed in refrigeration for three days. 2 Remove both coated and uncoated plates and p lace at room temperature. 3 Prepare a wash solution by adding 50mL of 10x concentrated wash solution to 500mL of distilled water. 4 Prepare a working substrate solution by mixing 0.2mL of 101x concentrated substrate solution with 20mL of substrate diluen t and place at room temperature 5 Prepare a working enzyme conjugate by mixing 0.2mL of 101x concentrated enzyme concentrate with 20mL of lysis buffer and place at room temperature. 6 microplate. 7 remaining well and mix well by tapping the plate gently on the table or by us ing a vortex mixer at low speed. 8 Place the microplate at room temperature (15~30 o C) for 15 30 minutes. 9 to the respective wells of the coated microplate 10 Cover th e microplate with an adhesive plate sealer and incubate the wells at 37 1 o C for 90 minutes. 11 Shake out the contents of the assay wells into a discard pan. Wash the wells six s. 12 mix. Cover the microplate with adhesive plate sealer and incubate the wells for 30 minutes at room temperature (15~30 o C). 13 well and gently tap to mix, waiting 2 minutes before reading. The addition of the Stop Solution converts the blue color to a yellow color, which may be quantitated by measuring the optical density at 450 nm with a reference wavelength at 620 nm on a microp late ELISA reader. Reading must be completed within 30 minutes of the assay. Alternatively, a visual assessment may be made. *Adapted to soil samples from Standard Diagnostics, Inc. 2006. SD Malaria Antigen P.f. ELISA: Enzyme Immunoassay for the Detection of P.f. HRP II Antigen. Test Kit Information Insert. Standard Diagnostic, Inc., Hagal Dong, Korea.

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129 CHAPTER 5 WATER RELATED AND WATER/FO OD BORNE DISEASE Water and food sources are related to the topic of health and disease in several important ways. Adeq uate food and potable water are necessary for the maintenance of all life; however, as Whiteford and Padrus (2011:201) point out, we often do not fully study the beliefs, behaviors, and resultant diseases associated with human interaction with water and fo od sources. It is through this interaction, either natural or culturally induced environmental changes or contamination that people are often infected with a variety of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminthes known to cause enteric illness (B hunia 2008) (Figure 5 1). There are a number of important distinctions that reflect the role that water or food has in the process of transmission. Water or food borne disease refers to infections resulting from the ingestion of food or water containing pa thogenic agents, usually contaminated by human or animal excrement. Cholera, typhoid, bacillary and amoebic dysentery, as well as giardia sis and other diarrheal diseases fall into this category. Water based diseases, which include dracunculiasis, schistoso miasis, and some helminth infections, result from parasites which have water dwelling intermediate hosts. Finally, water related diseases are those infections caused by microorganisms which utilize intermediate insect hosts that live or breed in water (i.e ., the mosquito). Diseases in this category include dengue fever, yellow fever, malaria, filariasis, and onchoceriasis (Whiteford and Padrus 2011:201). This chapter focuses on only a few protozoan parasites that have made appearances in historical records in the American Southwest. Protozoa are single celled organisms containing a cell nucleus. Many species of protozoa exist with widely variable

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130 life cycles. Some live portions of their lives intracellularly, while others live extracellularly. They live in different organs throughout the body at different stages of their life cycle, and some hitch a ride on insect vectors or intermediate species. Protozoan infections are often chronic and are difficult to resolve (Wiley and Allen 2009:222). Among the most co mmon protozoan infection that will be discussed here is malaria, which Wiley and Al l en (2009:222) claim to cause approximately 300 million cases of disease, resulting in one million deaths per year in the modern world. Giardia (a waterborne parasite causin g the diarrheal disease Giardiasis), and Entamoeba histolytica (another gastrointestinal parasite causing amoebic dysentery) are two other protozoa which will be discussed in this chapter. Malaria iseases. The disease is believed to have originated in Africa and was probably brought to the New World by European colonists and later by enslaved Africans. Fink (1998:67) reports that during the American Civil War, approximately two million Union and Con federate troops were infected with malaria resulting in 20,000 deaths. Malaria is caused by four species of a parasite known as Plasmodium including P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. vivax (Bogitsh et al. 2005:131). The parasite spends part o f its life cycle within the blood cells of the human host and the rest of the life cycle with the body of the female Anopheles mosquito. The mosquito becomes infected after feeding on an already infected human. After a two week incubation period within the mosquito, it becomes infective and can then transmit the parasite to a new human host when it takes its next blood meal (Fink 1998:68).

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131 Pathogenesis and Survivability The Center for Disease Control (CDC) developed a life cycle illustration (Figure 5 2) w hich starts with the passing of Plasmodium sporozoites from an infected mosquito to an unsuspecting human host (1). The parasites then go through a process called the Exo form schizonts (2). When the hepatic schizonts burst they release between 10,000 and 30,000 merozoites (4) into the bloodstream marking the transition to the blood stage of the infection, known as the Erythrocytic Cycle (B). During this part of the life cy cle, the merozoites in the blood invade the erythrocytes (5) and transform into immature trophozoites. At this point the trophozoite could take two paths. In the first, they could mature, form a new schizont within the red blood cell, and repeat the proces s of asexual reproduction producing a new generation of between eight and 32 merozoites (6) The second option is for them to differentiate into sexually mature gametocytes (7) While consuming a blood meal, the Anopheles mosquito takes up the male and fem ale gametocytes (known as microgametocytes and macrogametocytes, respectively) (8) In the midgut of the mosquito the Plasmodium gametocytes form a diploid zygote (9). After 12 to 24 hours, the zygote undergoes meiosis and produces motile, elongated ookinet es (10) oocysts (11) approximately 40 hours after the mosquito took the blood meal The oocysts mature, divide, burst, and release as many as 8,000 sporozoites (12) These sporozoites migrate to the mosquito's salivary glands, where they are injected into a new host (1) sporogonic phase (C) of the life cycle can take between 10 and 24 days after ingestion

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132 of the gametocy tes by the mosquito (Bogitsh et al. 2005:132 140; Oaks et al. 1991:25 27). Although the various species of the malaria parasite have different incubation periods in the human host, and different levels of virulence and mortality, the most diagnostic charac teristic of all malaria infections is their cycle of chills, shaking, and fever (also referred to as fever and ague), interspersed with periods of remission. Tertian malaria refers to an infection where fever cycles recur every 48 hours, and is attributabl e to cases of falciparum, ovale, and vivax malaria. Quartan malaria refers to an infection where fever cycles recur every 72 hours, and is caused by P. malariae In areas of high endemicity, individuals may become infected with multiple species of Plasmodi um or may be struck by several waves of the same species. In this case, the malaria symptoms might present themselves everyday with little reprieve. This is known as quotidian malaria (Bogitsh et al. 2005:140 143; Fink 1998:68 69). People who suffer from P vivax or P. ovale malarias are known to suffer relapse sometimes months or years after apparent recovery. While some parasites live out their full life cycle and are eventually dealt with by the host immune system, immature generations of the parasite, k cells effectively protected from the immune response. Upon sensing a suitable physiological change in the host the parasites emerge and precipitate another round of the disease (Bogitsh et al. 2005:1 45). In contrast people who suffer from P. malariae malaria can exhibit a reemergence of symptoms known as recrudescence, where there is a sudden increase in what was a continual low level merozoite population in the blood (Bogitsh et al. 2005:146; Oaks et al. 1991:27).

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133 Malaria is a blood borne infection that requires both the human and mosquito host to complete the life cycle. Malaria can only be acquired through the bite of the mosquito. If the malaria parasites were to be expelled into the environment t hey would not be able survive for an extended period of time. Their ability to survive outside of the host is somewhat irrelevant also because they would no longer have a means of infecting human hosts. Epidemiology The key component in the epidemiology of malaria is the presence of the Anopheles mosquito. If no mosquito is present, then malaria cannot be maintained within a region. In the absence of a control regime, three main environmental factors affect the breeding and life cycle of the mosquito, as well as the triggering of the sporogonic cycle within the mosquito. Those factors are temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity. Immune response and genetic susceptibility determine the effect of the parasite once inside the human host. Many other social variables, such as agricultural development, population movements, living and working conditions, urbanization, and socioeconomic status play a part in putting people and mosquitos together. (Committee on Climate, Ecosystems, Infectious Diseases, an d Human Health 200:48 49; Committee on Indicators of Waterborne Pathogens 2004:125; Oaks et al. 1991:32). It should also not be forgotten that the behavior of the mosquito itself also plays a key role in the prevalence and seasonality of malaria (Figure 5 3) (Rozendaal 1997:13 14). Osteological Indicators Malaria does not result in unequivocally diagnostic skeletal alterations. Infections with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax do, however, often lead to a

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134 hemolytic anemia caused by destruction of circulating erythrocytes in the bloodstream (hemolysis) by the parasites, as well as a systemic suppression of the production of erythrocytes (dyserythropoiesis) in the bone marrow (Haldar and Mohandas 2009:87; Wickramasinghe and Abdalla 2000:294). This ty pe of hemolytic anemia can contribute to the formation of the skeletal pathologies known as cribra orbitalia and porotic hyperostosis. Cribra orbitalia occurs on the roof of the eye orbits, while porotic hyperostisis occurs on the external surface of the c ranial vault. Both conditions are characterized by areas of small porosities caused by the expansion of the diplo resulting from marrow hypertrophy, as well as the thinning of the outer table of the cranium. (Gowland and Western 2012:301; Leher et al. 201 0:535; Walker et al. 2009). Malaria in 19 th Century Tucson There are two relevant types of information that can aid in the historical reconstruction of malaria transmission patterns in Tucson following Roberts and Alhstrom ( 1997:125). One line of informat ion relates to the presence of suitable habitats, and to suitable climatic conditions for the mosquito vector. The second line of evidence that can aid in the historical reconstruction of malaria transmission patterns includes historical and archival accou nts of the presence of malaria in certain regions, communities, or among a certain demographic. Heilen et al. (2010:168 170) cite newspaper accounts that by January 1869, an as of that time undiagnosed disease, characterized by fever and ague (which is oft en symptomatic of malaria), had hit nearly th e entire population of Tucson. The local Weekly Arizona Miner 2 January 1869:2). Apache prisoners held at Camp Lowe ll succumbed to intermittent fevers around this time, perhaps in response to the

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135 Weekly Arizona Miner 20 November 1869:3). It is possible, though not confirmed, that these aforementioned events were the result of infection with the malaria parasite. The mortality schedule of the 1870 U.S. Federal Census clearly lists malarial fever as the cause of death for 11 individuals out of 140 (with an additional individual dying of fever and ague w hich likely was also malaria ) (Appendix A) Five of these individuals were adults, of which three were Hispanic females, one Hispanic male, and one Euroamerican male. One Euroamerican male infant was among the group along with the remaining six Hispanic in fants and children (three males and three females). This sample is certainly not representative, but would seem to suggest that Hispanics, both children and adults were more likely to die as a result of infection with the malaria parasite. Only one individ ual, a Euroamerican adult reportedly died of malarial fever in the 1880 mortality schedule (Appendix B). While no reported deaths occurred as a result of malaria at Camp Lowell, review of hospital records reveals that for soldiers, fevers were the most co mmon health complaints requiring medical attention (National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 94, Entry 544, Volumes 118 121). Post hospital physicians often attributed cases of fevers to miasmas, heavy rains, or visitation of soldiers to such as was prevalent at some of the picket posts frequented by troops on patrols (Heilen et al 2010:168 170). Though it was not known at that time that mosquitos spread malaria, observations linking accumulated r ainfall from heavy rains, as well as wetland regions, to malaria were astute.

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136 Statistical Modeling of Malaria Patterns at Camp Lowell Figure 5 4 reveals the total monthly number of malaria cases from August 1866 until January 1879. Although aggregate coun ts are used in this study, both tertian and quotidian mal aria were commonly recorded ( Appendices D H). Both Figures 5 4 and 5 5 reveal that there is a clear seasonality in the malaria case data with spikes occurring in the late summer/early fall, and small er peaks occurring sometimes in the early spring. As mentioned above, previous studies have shown an association between temperature and precipitation and presence of mosquito vectors. A comparison of these variables in Figure 5 5 suggests that such an ass ociation is present with respect to precipitation, but is less clear for temperature. It is necessary, therefore, to statistically investigate the incidence of malaria with respect to the Tucson and Rillito location subsets to determine whether there was a statistically significant change in malaria incidence and what environmental variables might explain bouts of increased malaria. Using the statistical software package NCSS a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was performed using the Tucson (n=7 8) and Rillito (n=69) subsets of the malaria ratios formed by comparison disease and mean garrison strength as described above in the venereal disease section. The locational variables were used as independent response variables and box plots and mean plot s were produced in the resultant analysis (Figures 5 6). The mean for the entire malaria sample is 0.1131. If no significant difference exists between the two subsets, the means should be roughly equal. The Rillito malaria sample yields a mean of 0.0794, while the Tucson sample returns a mean of 0.1430. This suggests that ther e actually is a statistically significant change in malaria cases reported between these two locations. More cases occurred

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137 while the post was located at Tucson than after the move to the Rillito location. But what variables are present that can explain fluctuations in malaria cases? In order to answer this question climatic data (max, mean, min temperatures, and mean precipitation) mentioned previously was included as independent vari ables, along with time and mean garrison strength in a multiple regression model with malaria case counts as the dependent variable. This nave model yielded very poor results with an Adjusted R 2 of just 0.006. Additionally, it failed all normality tests ( Table 5 1) and none of the variables were returned as significant (Table 5 2). The normality plot of the nave model (Figure 5 7) shows a curvilinear pattern suggesting that a transformation of the dependent variable is required to achieve normality. The malaria/garrison ratio was therefore logged and dummy variables for location, peak precipitation (Aug./Sept.), secondary peak precipitation (Feb./Mar.) were added. One and two month lagged variables for mean precipitation and temperature were also included in the model and all of the new and original variables were interacted with the dummy variables. A total of 31 variables including dummies and interacted independent variables were considered using a stepwise variable selection procedure. Six variables w ere identified as significant as seen in Table 5 3. The normality assumptions were satisfied, as seen in Table 5 4 and the upper left graph in Figure 5 8. The residuals (also shown as graphs in Figure 5 8 plot out into a more evenly distributed and normal pattern, and the model resulted in an Adjusted R 2 of 0.2741, which is much improved from the nave model.

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138 The results of this model suggests that raw temperature values at the Rillito location, a two month lagged temperature value at Rillito and the raw p recipitation values at Tucson explain significant portions of the data. There is much room for improvement of this model, however. It should be noted that post hospital records indicate that many of the malaria infections were obtained away from Camp Lowel l while soldiers were on patrol or stationed at various picket posts throughout the region. Little systematic information about these posts is available, otherwise inclusion of dummy variables related to patrols and assignments would be useful. Addition va riables the inclusion of which time did not allow would be stream or river discharge/flow as a proxy of rainfall and water breeding zones for mosquitos, optimal mosquito activity temperature dummies, large cycle event year dummies, such as those suggestive of ENSO events. Malaria Risk Mapping The following discussion outlines the use of ArcGIS to model areas of high potential for flooding and water accumulation, and thus areas which potentially could serve as area of high potential for vector presence an d malaria transmission. Technology and data used i n study Raw data set s used in this study include 10 m eter USGS DEMs obtained from GeoCommunity.com, as well as vegetation, soils, and stream data obtained from the Pima County GIS Office. Additionally, his fields, natural cienegas, Native American villages and irrigated fields, as well as Fort Lowell were digitized and incorporated into this model as overlays or as classes in pertinent layers. Sourc es of historical maps included Eppinga (2000), Getty (1976), and Sheridan (1986). The ArcGIS v 10 software package (including ArcMap and

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139 ArcCatalog), produced by ESRI was used as the primary program to manipulate data; however, Microsoft Excel was also utilized for some tabulations of data. All data manipulation processes were incorporated into a geospatial model developed in ARCGIS ModelBuilder Spatial layers preparation Study area delineation and DEM/topography layers p reparation. At the outset the datafra me and da ta layers were set to the geographic c oordinat e s ystem NAD 1927, UTM Zone 12N using projections and transformation tools available with ArcToolbox Nine DEM p anels were stitched together using the Mosaic osaic boundary was converted to a 10 m cell raster mask that could then be used to generate other GIS layers used in the study. The DEM (see background of Figure 5 9) was used as an input to create Slope and Flow Direction rasters using tools of the same name in ArcToolbox. In each case, the boundary mask was used as the input for e n vironmental v ariables consisting of Processing Extent Cell Size and Mask thus automatically clipping and aligning the output rasters. The Flow Accumulation tool was used with the flow direction raster as input to produce the flow accumulation raster. Each raster (slope and flow accumulation) was then reclassified using the Reclassify tool to assigned class values based on natural breaks in the value distributions. Because this model was not ju st looking more for areas of flood water accumulation, five slope classes were defined with (1) being slope 0 1% (most likely to accumulate water), (2) slopes 1 3%, (3) slopes 3 10%, (4) slopes 10 30%, and (5) slopes 30 81% (least likely to accumulate wate r). Similarly, the flow accumulation layer was reclassified into five classes based on natural breaks corresponding to primary waterways to extremely minor washes.

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140 Soil data layer p reparation. Soil plays a large role in flooding potential and water retent ion, particularly the characteristics soil permeability and available water holding capacity (AWHC). A hydrological soils vector layer was obtained from Pima County, however, it only contained information on the name of the soil s eries and an incomplete re cord of soil slopes. Data on soil permeability and AWHC were added to the attribute table based on regional soil surveys, including Cochran and Richardson (2003), Gelderman (1972), Richardson et al. (1979), and Young et al. (1931). The soil vector data la yer was then converted to two separate rasters (Figure 5 10) (using the Feature to Raster tool) based on the soil permeability and the AWHC, again using the boundary mask to provide the environmental settings mentioned above. Each raster were reclassifie d based on conventions in soil survey reports consulted: (1) s lo w, less than 0.2 in./hour; (2) moderately slow, 0.2 0.6; (3) moderate, 0.6 2.0; (4) moderately rapid, 2.0 6.0; and (5) r apid, more than 6 .0. AWHC was classified as (1) low, 0 0.08 in./in., (2) moderate, 0.09 0.17, and (3) h igh, 0.18 0.5. Vegetation/ l and u s e layer p reparation. Vegetation and land use are determining factors in the creation of runoff during heavy rains. A vegetation vector layer was obtained from Pima County; however, the majori ty of the valley consisted of no data where the modern urban area exists. This layer was converted to raster using the Feature to Raster tool and the environmental variables mentioned previously. It was then reclassified so that values of 0 and areas w ith No Data 10 and vegetation areas were given class values 1 7 Then, a new layer was created as an overlay, and based on the partial vegetation pattern in the original layer new polygons were digitized to more accura tely represent the vegetation

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141 distribution within the empty area, as if the urban extent did not exist. The overlay vegetation po 1 7 to distinguish them from their counterparts. Historical maps, such as the 1862 F agricultural fields (Figure 5 11) were consulted to digitize historical urban extents and agricultural fields and these were given values 8 and 9 respectively. The two layers (Figure 5 12) were then combined in the Raster Calcu lator using the con function Con(A >= B, A, B), where A equals the original reclassed vegetation layer, and B equals the overlay. This effectively fills in the raster with positive values and also incorporates the historical fields and settlements. This combined layer was then reclassified (Figure 5 13) based on the potential for runoff with forested and riparian areas given class (1) for low potential of runoff, grasslands and agricultural lands given (2) for moderate runoff, and sparsely vegetated and urban areas given (3) for high potential. Flood potential model d evelopment. Once, all the five reclassified raster layers (1) Slope, (2) Flow Accumulation, (3) Vegetation/LandUse, (4) Soil Permeability, and (5) AWHC were created they were overlayed t ogether using the Weighted Overlay tool to produce the final flooding/water accumulation potential map of the project area. The five layers were given equal influence in the overlay (20% each), and the classes within each layer were weighted on a scale f rom 1 to 9 to exaggerate class differences. Layers with five classes were given weight values of 1 3 5 7 and 9 while layers with three classes were given weight values of 1 5 and 9 The weighted scales for Permeability, AWH, and Slope were reversed to more accurately reflect the flood potential/water accumulation of thise layers, for instance, slope class 1 was

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142 given a weight of 9 because a 0 1% slope, will accumulate more water than a 80% slope. Finally, once the flood poten tial map of the study area was produced using the model builder function (Figure 5 14), it was reclassified using the Natural Breaks classification technique into five classes, where (1) is very low chance of flood water accumulation, and (5) is very hig h potential. Discussion of risk model Figure 5 15 illustrates the result of the final reclassification of the weighted overlay described above. As expected, the high elevation, high vegetation region in the northeast corner yielded a low potential for flo oding, while a large portion of the alluvial fan in the southern portion has a high potential for water accumulation. Because of the unusually high permeability of the soils making up the areas adjacent to the river bed, lower potentials are often in these locations with the exception of the two primary cienegas on the Santa Cruz and the Rillito Rivers. With the exception of Fort Lowell, all of the areas of settlement are contained within the resultant zones of high risk. The result of the flood/water accu mulation model might shed some light on the impact of malaria on particular demographics in the community even though the entire settlement of Tucson would have been in a high risk area. The 1870 Federal Mortality Schedule suggests that within the Tucson c ivilian population, Hispanics would have been more likley to die as a result of malaria. Drachman (1999) mentions that Tucsonens in the early 20 th century, particulary the Hispanics, had a habit of always sleeping on screened patios due to the heat. Confir mation of this practice comes from 19 th century diarist George Hand, who recorded in his 1875 1878 diaries that on many warm nights he would drag his bed out to sleep on his patio, which he referred to as the ecifically mentioned mosquitoes in his

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143 diary, on occasion he did state that he was not able to sleep because of swarms of flies or other annoying insects. If Hispanic residents of 19 th century Tucson had a similar habit of sleeping on their then unscreened patios, or they lived in hou ses without window glass, which according to Gallego (1935) was largely abscent in the early American period this would have put them at much greater risk of encountering night biting mosquitos. Euroa mericans of the time would have likely been more accustomed to sleeping inside their houses, which increasingly would have been built with glass windows after the arrival of the railroad in 1880. Therefore, one would surmise that they would be less affected. It seems also that occu pation might have put certain demographics at greater risk. According to historical maps, most of the agricultural fields were owned and operated by Hispanic Tucsonens. Hispanics would have also supplied the manpower to work the fields as well. Sheridan (1 986) observes that most of Euroa mericans in Tucson at the time were engaged as merchants or soldiers. Soldiers are the othe r group that would, through their stationing and scouting missions into more frequent contact with infected mosquitos, much like the Hispanic agricultural workers would have. The malaria risk model could be strenghtened if information about precipitation and evaporation were considered. This would be most effective if daily precipitation data wer e used rather than monthly averages, although no daily records for the period are known to exist. Daily precipitation and evaporation rates would be crucial in concretely establishing patterns of water retention that would be important in determining locat ions and times of the year where water would be present long enough for mosquitos to lay

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144 eggs that would then have time to mature. From more recent climatic data, it is known that during the summer monsoons, rains come nearly every day, which would support periods of mosquito breeding. It is possible that precipitation and evaporation data could be used along with the ArcGIS ArcHydro toolkit to more accurately model time series data related to flooding and water retention. Archaeological Evidence of Malar ia A total of 83 soil samples collected from burial contexts in the Alameda Stone Cemetery were tested for the presence of antigens specific to P. falciparum using the Malaria Ag P.f. ELISA from Standardia, Inc. ( Yongin si, Kyonggi do, Korea) as discussed in the immunological testing methods section of Chapter 4. All samples tested negative for P. falciparum These tests have never before been used on soil samples in archaeological contexts, so this technique is not validated as of yet. Therefore, there are a number of reasons that may explain the negative test results. First, it is possible that the tests used are not suited to the testing of archaeological soil samples. Second, the parasite antigen was not able to survive under the soil conditions present in the Tucson burials. Third, the tests are suited to the testing of archaeological soils; however, none of the samples contained the P. falciparum antigen. While it is not possible at this time to determine which of these explanations is correct, historic al evidence suggests that the offending species of Plasmodia is P. vivax rather than P. falciparum If pan malaria immunological tests were conducted, the outcome might be different. As was previously mentioned, malaria infections do not result in unequiv ocal skeletal pathologies. Walker et al. (2009), as well as and Gowland and Western (2012), however, link malaria derived hemolytic anemia with the development of cribra orbitalia

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145 and porotic hyperostosis (Figures 5 16 and 5 17). As can be seen in Table 5 5, observations of the eye orbits could be made for 689 individuals in the Alameda Stone Cemetery sample, while sufficient portions of the cranial vault were present in 890 individuals for observation of porotic hyperostosis. Cribra orbitalia and porotic h yperostisis occurred together in only one burial (Grave Pit 13926, Burial 28294). Leher et al. (2010:535) report that no significant correlation of the two conditions to any other pathology, such as periostitis, proliferative new bone growth, or developmen tal anomalies. About 6.82 percent of the given sample was affected by cribra orbitalia, whereas only 2.7 p ercent exhibited porotic hyperostosis (Table 5 5). Leher et al. (2010:535) assert that n o statistically significant differences were observed in the d istribution of these two conditions between demographic classification groups as a whole (Table 5 6 ). That said, some observable patterns in the data are worth mentioning within the classification framework. Females were slightly less likely to exhibit eit her condition. I nfants and children appear to have been more likely to develop these conditions. The largest difference existed between biological groups, with Euroamericans being nearly two times more likely to exhibit cribra orbitalia. Euroamericans were also more likely to be affected by porotic hyperostosis, but the margin of difference was much smaller. No significant differences between cemetery area were noted except where sample sizes were too small (Leher et al. 2010:535). Giardiasis Giardiasis is a water borne disease caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia (also known as G. duodenalis ) and is the most common parasitic infection in the United States and is one of the ten most prevalent enteric parasites worldwide

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146 according to Sulaiman and Cama (2006: 15). It causes disease not only in humans, but also in a variety of domestic and wild animals, including cattle, beaver, and domestic dogs. I n low number s, the parasite is not especially pathogenic to most human adults; many infected individua ls are in fact, asymptomatic. Pregnant women, infants, and young children are at the greatest risk of developing symptoms (Reinhard 2008:8). The most common symptoms associated with this infection are acute, chronic, or intermittent diarrhea, abdominal cr amps, bloating, flatulence, fatigue, and weight loss resulting from nutrient malabsorption (Bogitsh et al. 2005:87; Reinhard 2008:8; S ulaiman and Cama 2006:15) Pathogenesis and Survivability As was the case with the malaria life cycle discussed above, the CDC has produced an illustration of the life cycle of the Giardia parasite as well (Figure 5 18 ). With this organism, it is the cysts (1) which are the infective stage of the parasite. Infection occurs when a certain number (usually >100) viable cysts, whi ch can survive in the environment for months, are ingested by the host through the consumption of contaminated food or water (2) or through the fecal oral route. The low pH level of the intestinal tract triggers excystation to occur within a few hours of consumption as the parasite reaches the duodenum. Excystation releases two Giardia trophozoites (3) from the cyst, both of which attach themselves to the luminal lining of the small intestine to absorb nutrients from the body often causing diarrhea and mal absorption. While some trophozoites are attached to the lumen, others float freely in the small intestine and multiply through longitudinal binary fission (4) As trophozoites migrate toward the colon the increasing exposure to the variable environments, i ncluding changing levels of acidity, bile salts, and fatty acids, prompts some trophozoites to encyst (5) Both cysts

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147 and trophozoites are then passed out of the body in the feces. In symptomatic individuals, symptoms usually appear one to three weeks afte r infection (Bogitsh et al. 2005; Sulaiman and Cama 2006:15, 25 26). Trophozoites are not able to survive long outside of the host and therefore are not considered to be pathogenic in environmental context. Cysts, however, have been known to remain viable for weeks in natural, tap, or distilled water under optimal environmental conditions. The viability and survivability of Giardia cysts is greatly affected by temperature Generally, as the temperature increases the likelihood that the cyst will remain via ble decreases. Cysts typically survive much better in colder conditions, and are even known to survive the freezing process (Environmental Protection Agency 1998). Only a small portion of cysts, however can withstand the dynamics of the thawing cycle (Wall is 1994:105 106). Table 5 7 shows a sampling of the cyst survivability studies which have been conducted. Data relating to both Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris are shown. G. muris is a parasite of other mammals and is not known to commonly parasitize hum an, but its general similarity to G. lamblia in morphology and environmental resistance earns it a place in this table as a means to further enrich the data. The studies presented by ICAIR as cited by the Environmental Protection Agency (1998:III 62) indic ate that Giardia cysts immediately are inactivated if subjected to boiling. Additionally, less than 1% of cysts survive 14 days at a temperature of 13 o C. Survival is greatest at temperatures just above freezing, with cysts surviving for greater than 84 da ys in one study at 0 2 o C temperature. At 8 o C cysts have been known to survive in water for up to 77 days (Wallis 1994:106). Considering an individual could pass around 200 cysts per

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148 day, this extended period of survival could result in a high contamination count in the environment. Epidemiology Giardia transmission, as mentioned previously depends on consumption of contaminated food and/or water. Therefore, incidence is greater in areas with a high population density, poor sanitation standards, agricultur al exploits where human feces are used as fertilizer, eating habits, and even sexual behaviors that bring one into contact with feces. The host immune status, nutritional status, and the intestinal flora are all factors that influence the susceptibility to infection and the clinical presentation of the disease. (Bogitsh et al. 2005:66 67; Committee on Indicators of Waterborne Pathogens 2004:136; Ortega 2006:2). Environmental or natural factors play an important role in transmission. Insect vectors, such as flies and cockroaches, have also been implicated in the mechanical spread of Giardia cysts in food borne transmission. Animal and human contamination of the water sheds is one of the most important variables in high disease prevalence. Because the types o f insects and animals, and in fact, the presence of water sources is controlled by climatic factors such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, etc. knowledge of these variables is vital. Research has shown that Giardia infection rates vary seasonally, w ith a major spike occurring in late summer between July and October (Sulaiman and Cama 2006:25 26 ) Giardia is ubiquitous in most surface water sources. However, hydrological cycles of groundwater renewal also influence the incidence of Giardia contaminati on as the parasites may contaminate groundwater sources through river bed infiltration or through sheet wash or flash floods contaminating wells (Environmental Protection Agency 1998:III 24 III 25).

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149 Osteological Indicators Much like malaria, giardiasis doe s not result in unequivocally diagnostic skeletal changes. Parasite activity can, however, contribute to the development of nutritional malabsorption leading to metabolic disorders and potentially skeletal involvement. Malabsorption can be effected through gut damage, impairment of gut enzyme efficiency, loss of nutrients prior to absorption through diarrhea cause by Giardia toxins, to emulsify fats, or through nutrie nt competition with the parasites. One final mechanism of malabsorption of critical importance in Giardia infections is the creation of a physical barrier to absorption, such as when large populations of the Giardia parasite line the jejunal surface (Hall 1994:270 272). Giardia infections can wreak havoc on the ability of the body to absorb a wide variety of food products, the most common being fats, Vitamin A, and Vitamin B 12 although deficiencies in these nutrients have not been shown to be consistent a cross Giardia patients (Bogitsh et al. 2005). Individuals who do develop Vitamin B 12 deficiencies often develop a form of acquired anemia called megaloblastic anemia. In this type of anemia, the lack of Vitamin B 12 inhibits red blood cell DNA synthesis lea ding to uninhibited cell growth without cell division, thus reducing the total number of erythrocytes and limiting the function of those that have undergone macrocytosis (Hall 1994:269 270). Walker et al. (2009) argue that the formation of porotic hyperost osis specifically, and potentially cribra orbitalia, result at least in part from megaloblastic marrow response s associated with just such an acquired anemia as described here.

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150 Amoebic Dysentery One of the best known species of amoebic protozoa parasitiz ing humans is E. histolytica. It is the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, formally referred to as amoebiasis. It was first observed and described in 1875 in Russia, but is now known to have a worldwide distribution although the parasite density varies by region (Bogitsh et al. 2005:63; Ortega 2006:2). Up to 50% of people within an endemic region may be infected (Ortega 2006:2). Usually, infections are spread through the ingestion of cysts from contaminated hands, food or water. In urbanized areas with high population density contact with infected individuals or contaminated materials is exacerbated (Bogitsh et al. 2005:63). Care should be taken when conducting a historical study of dysentery incidence through archival sources. It should not be assumed that E. histolytica is the cause of all infections, as dysentery can also be caused by various species of the bacillus Shigella such as S. dysenteriae (which causes dysentery in man and other primates ), as well as S. flexneri and S. sonnei (which cause mi ld to severe dysentery in man and summer diarrhea in children) (Mitscherlich and Marth 1984:446 460). Pathogenisis and Survivability The CDC has produced an illustration of the life cycle of the E. histolytica parasite as well (Figure 5 19 ). Much like with Giardia, it is the mature cyst of E. histolytica which is infectious. The process of infection begins when a mature c yst (1) which had been passed in the feces of an infected individual, is ingested (2) along with fecally contaminated food or water. The cysts are resistant to the high acidity of the stomach and pass through to the ileum of the small intestine where they excyst (3) thus releasing a tetramucleated amoeba. It promptly undergoes binary fission producing

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151 eight metacystic t rophozoites (4) whi ch then travel to the large intestine where they bind to the intestinal mucosa by a galactose adhesion, which is a galactose or N acetyl D galactosamine binding lectin. Some feed here on the intestinal epithelium of the colon while others continue to repro duce themselves through binary fission and produce cysts (5) and both stages travel out of the body in the feces (1) (Bogitsh et al. 2005:63 66; Ortega 2006:2 6; Redondo et al. 2006:37 38). It is the cysts only which are infective to humans. The trophozo ite can survive only a short time outside of the body, and even if it were ingested would be destroyed by the acidic conditions in the stomach. Cooler temperatures are preferred for the survival of cysts in the environment. As can be seen in Table 5 8, cys ts do not survive freezing, nor do they tolerate temperatures above 50 o C. The optimal temperature for survival is from 2 6 o C, a temperature at which cysts can remain viable for as many as 40 days. After 30 o C the cysts death rate increases significantly (Ma rquardt et al. 2000:109). While temperature is a critical factor in cyst survivability, the oxygen saturation of the medium is also influential. Cysts appear to survive better in water than in feces when stored at comparable temperatures. Survival of cyst s in soil appears to be good, but little research has been conducted into this avenue (Marquardt et al. 2000:109). One would need to know a great deal about the characteristics of the soil in question in order to predict survivability. Condition of the soi l would also be a factor in its ability to accommodate cysts. If a portion of land is tilled for the planting of crops that would aerate the soil and perhaps provide a better environment for the survival of E. histolytica cysts. This has important implicat ions for discussions of food contamination from human fertilizer use in agriculture.

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152 Epidemiology E. histolytica transmission, as mentioned previously depends on consumption of contaminated food and/or water. Therefore, incidence is greater in areas with a high population density, poor sanitation standards, agricultural exploits where human feces are used as fertilizer, eating habits, and even sexual behaviors that bring one into contact with feces. The host immune status, nutritional status, amoeba strain variability, environmental conditions, and the intestinal flora are all factors that influence the susceptibility to infection and the clinical presentation of the disease Insect vectors, such as flies and cockroaches, have also been implicated in the me chanical spread of E. histolytica cysts (Bogitsh et al. 2005:66 67; Committee on Indicators of Waterborne Pathogens 2004:136; Marquardt et al. 2000:110; Ortega 2006:2). Two forms of the disease exist influenced by strain vi rility and environmental fact ors influence the virility of the pathogen and the disease proceeds as either a non invasive (where the trophozoites remain in the lumen feeding and producing cysts), or an invasive form (where the trophozoites break through the instestinal epithelium and inv ade the body. The primary culprit in the spread of the disease is the cyst passing, asymptomatic carrier, who can pass thousands of cysts per day. Individuals stricken with the more serious invasive form usually pass only the noninfective trophozoites, whi ch cannot survive in the environment (Bogitsh et al. 2005:66 67). Osteological Indicators Amoebic dysentery is not known to be the direct cause any specific types of skeletal pathologies Loss of nutrients to heavy diarrhea could lead to various types of anemia possibly leading to skeletal alteration. The infection itself could lead to ulcerative lesions and necrosis of the intestine which could allow for the parasites to spread

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153 throughout the body potentially causing non specific skeletal alterations, suc h as periosteal reactions, periostitis, osteomyelitis, and even some types of arthritis. Dysentery and Diarrheal Disease in 19 th Century Tucson urces are plentiful and conveniently distributed there is less of a problem, but when water is scare or concentrated, that leads to an concentration in human populations as well and increases the chance the water source will become contaminated. Reinhard ( 2008) and Gonalves et al. (2002) have identified both E. histolytica and G. lamblia in coprolites of the Ancestral Pueblo and in other places in the America n Southwest, so the se parasites and their associated diseases have likely been endemic in the regio n for hundreds if not thousands of years. Review of hospital records for Camp Lowell in Tucson (National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 94, Entry 544, Volumes 118 122) shows that for the soldiers, gastrointestinal complaints, particularl y diarrhea and dysentery, were the second most prevalent cause for someone to report to the hospital Figure 5 20 shows the case counts of both diarrhea and dysentery at Camp Lowell between August of 1867 and December of 1882 It is impossible to know for sure the etiology of the diseases mentioned in case ledgers as there were few notes about specific symptoms or tests doctors were able to conduct to determine specific cause. Observation of the temporal pattern of disease evident in Figure 5 20 could yiel d minor clues to the causative agent. Diarrhea was most common in the winter and early spring from November to March. Colder temperatures would allow for a greater survival of Giardia cysts in the water or food supplies. However, the peak of diarrhea cases seems to occur more frequently in November and December, months where the

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154 temperature is more likley to drop below freezing at night. The freeze thaw cycle would be detrimental to the Giardia cysts. Colder temperatures would also put a strain on the food supply and it is possible that people were eating spoiled food, or an inadequately balanced diet which might be causing their ailments. Dysentery, on the other hand, occurred more frequently between the months of August and November. If cases of dysentery are attributable to E. histolytica, this would fit well. The temperatures toward the end of August proceeding into the fall would drop to an average suitable for the survival of cysts in the environment. While no comprehensive medical reports or hospital records have been located for Tucson itself for much of the late 19 th century, the 1870 and 1880 mortality schedules reveal that diarrheal infections and dysentery did play a part in the morbidity and mortality of the city in general Two individuals died of dysentery (one Euroamerican adult male and one Euroamerican juvenile male from the same family) and two from diarrhea (one Hispanic male juvenile and one Hispanic female juvenile from the same family) in the 1870 schedule (Appendix A). That the two indi viduals in each of these cases were in the same family is worth noting. It is likely they acquired the diseases through drinking from the same water source, eating the same contaminated food, or through poor personal or home hygiene. O nly one individual a n Hispanic female juvenile, died of dysentery in the 1880 schedule. Very few mentions of diarrhea or dysentery occur in Tucson newspapers suggesting that these ailments were so commonplace as to not warrant discussion. Archaeological Evidence of Giardiasis and Amoebic Dysentery A total of 83 soil samples collected from burial contexts in the Alameda Stone Cemetery were tested for the presence of antigens specific to the cyst walls of E.

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155 histolytica and G. lamblia (duodenalis) using pre made enzyme linked im munosorbent assay (ELISA) kits from TECHLAB (Blacksburg, VA). Thirty eight of the samples tested positive for Giardia, suggesting that approximately 46% of the population could have been infected. Nine samples tested positive for E. histolytica indicatin g approximately 11% of the population were affected by amoebic dysentery (Appendix N). Only five individuals tested positive for both parasites. These results show that t here was significant Giardia contamination of the water supply. Because much of the d rinking water used by Tucson residents was obtained from wells it is likely that the groundwater was also contaminated. This could be the result of infiltration of contaminated cysts through natural processes in river channels, or it could be attributable to flood waters washing surface contaminants into the open wells around Tucson. The lower incidence of amoebic dysentery suggests that the primary groundwater source was likely not responsible for the cases of this parasite otherwise one would expect a hi gher incidence. The dysentery cases could have been the result of a use of a localized contaminated water source, or was the result of food borne contamin ation, or inadequate hygiene or sanitation conditions. Table 5 9 presents the results of the ELISA tes ting broken down into the various demographic categories. Interesting patterns emerge in these data across demographic categories as well as when comparing the two diseases. Men were 4% more likely than females to be infected with the Giardia parasite, whi le females accounted for 3% more E. h istolytica infections than men. This could be due to men being more mobile and potentially acquiring drinking water from contaminated surface sources, while women might be acquiring dysentery during food collection, pre paration, or various domestic

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156 activities. For instance, Figure 5 21 shows women washing clothes in the irrigation ditch which ran around the western edge of Tucson and was less likely to be contaminated by animal reservoirs of Giardia because of its proxim ity to town, but more likely to be contaminated by human waste and possibly E histolytica With both types of infections adults seem to harbor more parasites than juveniles by a significant margin, 49 percent versus 35 percent with Giardia and 12 percent versus five percent with E. histolytica Interestingly, Euroamericans were 11 percent more likely than Hispanics to harbor Giardia but Hispanics were two percent more likely to be infected with E. histolytica This could be due to the fact that the majori ty of Euroamericans in the early period would have been military and therefore might be required to use a variety of water sources during the course of their patrols. Finally, cemetery areas 2 and 5 contained the highest percentages of individuals with the se two diseases; however, no significant spatial patterns are evident. As was previously mentioned, Giardia and E. histolytica infections do not result in unequivocal skeletal pathologies. However, because Walker et al. (2009) asserts that megaloblastic anemia can contribute to the formation of porotic hyperostosis or cribra orbitalia, there is a possibility that the malabsorption of Vitamin B 12 caused by Giardia infections could be to blame. In might, therefore be useful to recap the discussion of cribra orbitalia and porotic hyperostosis in the Alameda Stone Cemetery sample. Observations of the eye orbits could be made for 689 individuals in the Alameda Stone Cemetery sample, while sufficient portions of the cranial vault were present in 890 individuals for observation of porotic hyperostosis (Table 5 5). About 6.82 percent of the

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157 given sample was affected by cribra orbitalia, whereas only 2.7 p ercent exhibited porotic hyperostosis As shown in Table 5 5, females were slightly less likely to exhibit eith er pathology, which would be consistent with the patterns evident in the immunological data. I nfants and children were more l ikely to develop these conditions these skeletal pathologies, which does not conform to the immunological pattern Euroamericans we re nearly two times more likely to exhibit cribra orbitalia and to a lesser extent porotic hyperostisis, than other biological groups, which is supported by the ELISA testing data as well. So then, the question becomes do positive Giardia tests overlap wi th incidence of either cribra orbitalia or porotic hyperostosis. Out of 45 samples which tested positive for Giardia, only two (Burials 14872, a Euroamerican female, and Burial 25451, a Hispanic female) individuals also exhibited cribra orbitalia or cribra orbitalia and porotic hyperostosis. There are a number of reasons why this might be the case. The first reason is that the association between megaloblastic anemia and these skeletal pathologies is dubious. That may be an unfair suggestion, however, beca use not all Giardia infections will result in serious malabsorption and therefore would not contribute to the development of anemia or resultant skeletal involvement. If the association between Giardia megaloblastic anemia, and cribra/orbitalia is sound, another damaging explanation for the lack of correlation is that the ELISA tests are not as sensitive to archaeological soils as they are to modern fecal samples. Alternatively, the problem may not be with the tests, but with preservation of the cysts in t he burial environment.

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158 Figure 5 1. Mode of transmission of food borne e nteric pathogens Figure 5 2. Life cycle of Plasmodium spp. [Reprinted with permission from Center for Disease Control & Prevention. 2009. Malaria CDC, Atlanta, GA. http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/Malaria.htm Accessed 7/13/2012 ]

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159 Figure 5 3. Movement of Anopheline mosquito over life course.

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160 Figure 5 4. Line chart showing pattern of malar ia cases at Camp Lowell from August 1866 until January 1879. Figure 5 5. Line chart showing pattern of malaria cases at Camp Lowell from August 1866 until January 1879 compared to maximum, mean, and minimum monthly temperature, as well as monthly mean precipitation.

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161 Figure 5 6. Box plot and means plot of malaria ratio means for the Tucson and Rillito subsets of Camp Lowell. Table 5 1. Nave model normality test s ection Test name Test value Prob. level Reject H0 at Alpha = 5%? Shapiro Wilk 0.84 69 0 Yes Anderson Darling 4.764 0 Yes D'Agostino Skewness 6.8681 0 Yes D'Agostino Kurtosis 5.1047 0 Yes D'Agostino Omnibus 73.2285 0 Yes Table 5 2. Nave model regression equation s ection Independent variable Regression coefficient b(i) Standard e rror sb(i) T value to test H0:B(i)=0 Prob. level Reject H0 at 5%? Power of test at 5% Intercept 3.3426 4.4304 0.754 0.4518 No 0.1164 Garrison 0.0115 0.0114 1.003 0.3177 No 0.1691 Max_Temp 0.0444 0.1274 0.348 0.7283 No 0.0638 Mean_Precip 0.2006 0.4689 0.428 0.6695 No 0.0709 Mean_Temp 0.1717 0.2591 0.663 0.5085 No 0.1009 Min_Temp 0.0609 0.1492 0.408 0.6837 No 0.069 Obs_ 0.0253 0.0133 1.896 0.06 No 0.4694

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162 Figure 5 7. No rmality and residual plots for nave m odel. Table 5 3. Log m odel regression equation s ection Independent variable Regression coefficient b(i) Standard error sb(i) T value to test H0:B(i)=0 Prob level Reject H0 at 5%? Power of test at 5% Intercept 2.0795 0.2307 9.013 0 Yes 1 Lag2_MeanTemp_Rillito 0.0186 0.0043 4.298 0 Yes 0.9894 Lag2_MeanTemp_Tucson 0.0162 0.0035 4.64 0 Yes 0.9959 MaxTemp_Rillito 0.0438 0.0166 2.637 0.0094 Yes 0.7445 MeanTemp_Rillito 0.1018 0.0355 2.865 0.0049 Yes 0.8115 MinTemp_Rillito 0.0531 0.0204 2.602 0.0104 Yes 0.7329 Precip_Tucson 0.0848 0.0402 2.108 0.037 Yes 0.5526

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163 Table 5 4. Log model n ormality t ests s ection Test name Test value Prob. level Reject H0 at Alpha = 5%? Shapiro Wilk 0.9925 0.706712 No Anderson Darling 0.2838 0.632024 No D'Agostino Skewness 0.3454 0.729813 N o D'Agostino Kurtosis 0.1856 0.852781 No D'Agostino Omnibus 0.1537 0.926019 No Figure 5 8. No rmality and residual plots for log malaria m odel.

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164 Figure 5 9 DEM derived layers in malaria risk model. Figure 5 10 Soil deriv ed layers in malaria risk model

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165 Figure 5 11 [Reprinted with permission from Arizona Historical Society, Tucson, AZ. Map No. 1 of the cultivated fie lds in and about Tucson, A.T., J.B. Mills, Surveyor. Tucson Maps, Case 3, Dr. 3, #456, G4334.T8 G46. 1862. M55 .]

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166 Figure 5 12 Vegetation derived layers in malaria risk model. Figure 5 13 Reclassified vegetation layer.

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167 Figure 5 14 Model Builder illustration of malaria risk model.

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168 Figure 5 15. Final malaria risk model showing 19 th century settlements, agricultural fields, and waterways.

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169 Figure 5 16. Occiptal bone presenting porotic hyperostosis from Individua l P, Grave Pit 13706, Burial 26489, a child of indeterminate age and biological affinity. [Reprinted with permission from Leher, Tamara L., Shannon B. Black, and Patrick B. Stanton. 2010. Pathological Conditions In The History, Archaeology, and Skeletal B iology of the Alameda Stone Cemetery edited by M icha el P. Heilen, Joseph T. Hefner, and Mitchell A. Keur, Technical Report 10 96 (Page 556, Figure 172). Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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170 Figure 5 17. Cribra orbitalia present in r ight eye orbit of In dividual P, Grave Pit 13509, Burial 21998, an infant of indeterminate age and biological affinity. [Reprinted with permission from Leher, Tamara L., Shannon B. Black, and Patrick B. Stanton. 2010. Pathological Conditions In The History, Archaeology, and S keletal Biology of the Alameda Stone Cemetery edited by M ichael P. Heilen, Joseph T. Hefner, and Mitchell A. Keur, Technical Report 10 96 (Page 557, Figure 173). Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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171 Table 5 5. Demographic profile and frequencies for indi viduals with cribra orbitalia or porotic hyperostosis in the Alameda Stone Cemetery. Demographic Categories and Cemetery Areas Cribra Orbitalia Porotic Hyperostosis Observable (Adjusted n) Affected Percent Affected Observable (Adjusted n) Affected Percen t Affected Sex Female 145.80 5 3.43 174.83 3 1.72 Indeterminate 353.40 32 9.05 478.00 13 2.72 Male 194.00 8 4.12 237.50 8 3.37 Subtotal 693.20 45 6.49 890.33 24 2.70 Arizona State Museum Age Category Fetal 35.00 1 2.86 5 0.00 0 0.00 Infant 205.00 21 10.24 282.00 9 3.19 Child 92.40 7 7.58 117.17 5 4.27 Subadult 19.20 2 10.42 24.50 0 0.00 Adult 6.20 2 32.26 84.33 2 2.37 Young adult 144.00 9 6.25 176.50 6 3.40 Middle adult 135.00 3 2.22 160.17 2 1.25 Old adult 5 8.00 0 0.00 70.67 0 0.00 Subtotal 694.80 45 6.48 965.34 24 2.49 Biological Group African 1.00 0 0.00 1.00 0 0.00 Native American 28.40 0 0.00 37.00 1 2.70 European 80.00 9 11.25 100.30 4 3.99 Hispanic 198.00 8 4.04 224.50 3 1.34 Indeterminate 385.80 28 7.26 527.50 16 3.03 Subtotal 693.20 45 6.49 890.30 24 2.70 Cemetery Area 1 3.80 1 26.32 4.16 1 24.04 2 65.40 3 4.59 81.00 2 2.47 3 484.00 29 5.99 614.50 14 2.28 4 112.00 6 5.36 158.00 5 3.16 5 2 5.00 3 12.00 29.70 2 6.73 Subtotal 690.20 42* 6.09 887.36 24 2.70 Total 689.20 45 6.82 890.33 24 2.70 *Three individuals from the Tucson Newspaper building excavations were not included in the cemtery area assessment. A dap ted fr om from Leher, Tamara L., Shannon B. Black, and Patrick B. Stanton. 2010. Pathological Conditions In The History, Archaeology, and S keletal Biology of the Alameda Stone Cemetery edited by M ic h ael P. Heilen, Joseph T. Hefner, and Mitchell A. Keur, Technical Report 10 96 (Page 57 3 Table 17 4 ). Statisti cal Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.

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172 Table 5 6. Statistic al significance between demographic categories for cribra orbitalia and porotic hyperostosis in the Alameda Stone Cemetery Condition Demographic Categories df Porotic hyperostosis sex 0.61 2 age 3.98 6 biological affinity 3.46 3 cemetery are a 4.56 5 Cribra orbitalia sex 0.61 2 age 3.98 6 biological affinity 3.46 3 cemetery area 4.56 5 *A dap ted fr om from Leher, Tamara L., Shannon B. Black, and Patrick B. Stanton. 2010. Pathological Conditions In The History, Archaeology, and S keletal Biology of the Alameda Stone Cemetery edited by M i chael P. Heilen, Joseph T. Hefner, and Mitchell A. Keur, Technical Report 10 96 (Page 574 Table 175 ). Statisti cal Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.

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173 Figure 5 18 Life cycle of Giardia spp. [Reprinted with permission from Center for Disease Control & Prevention. 2009. Giardiasis CDC, Atlanta GA. http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/Giardiasis.htm Accessed 7/13/2012 ]

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174 Table 5 7. Survivability of Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris cysts under varying environmental conditions. Sour ce Temperature ( o C) Survival Time Reference Giardia lamblia Unchlorinated tap water 8 77 Bingham et al. 1979, cited in Wallis 1994:106 21 54 37 4 Tap water 13 14 ICAIR 1984, cited in Environmental Protection Agency 1998:III 62 8 62 21 26 37 6 100 0 Giardia muris Lake water, 4.5 meters 17 20 >28 de Regnier et al. 1989, cited in Wallis 1994:106 Lake water, 9 meters 6 7 >56 Lake water, 4.5 and 9 meters 3 3.3 >56 River water 19 27 <28 0 2 >84 Chlorinated tap wa ter 20 28 7 14 Distilled water 5 7 >56

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175 Figure 5 19 Life cycle of E. histolytica [Reprinted with permission from Center for Disease Control & Prevention. 2009. Amebiasis CDC, Atlanta, GA. http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/Amebiasis.htm Accessed 7/13/2012 ]

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176 Table 5 8. Survivability of Entamoeba histolytica cysts under varying environmental conditions. Temperature o C Medium Time Exposed Result Reference 28 water 7.5 hours dead Mar quardt et al. 2000 15 water 24 hours dead 0 feces 10 days dead 0 water 17 days alive 2 6 water 40 days alive 10 water 30days alive 16 20 feces 10 days dead 16 20 water 10 days alive 20 water 10 days alive 27 30 feces 9 days dead 27 30 f eces 4 days 50% alive 28 34 soil 8 days alive 30 water 3 days alive 37 feces 3 days dead 46 47 water 1 hour alive 52 water 1 minute dead 68 water 5 minutes dead 100 water fly intestine/feces cockroach intestine/feces 5 10 seconds 7 days 2 days dead alive alive Root 1921 Frye and Meleney 1936

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177 Figure 5 20. Bar chart showing pattern of diarrhea and dysentery cases at Camp Lowell from August 1866 until December 1882

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178 Table 5 9. Demographic profile and frequencies for individuals testing positive for giardiasis or amoebic dysentery in the Alameda Stone Cemetery. Demographic Categories and Cemetery Areas Giardiasis Amoebic Dysentery Sampled Affected Percent Affected Sampled Affected Percent Affected Sex Female 29 14 48.2 29 4 1 3.8 Indeterminate 14 3 21.4 14 1 7.1 Male 40 21 52.5 40 4 10.0 Subtotal 83 38 45.8 83 9 10.8 Age Category Subadult 20 7 35.0 20 1 5.0 Adult 63 31 49.2 63 8 12.7 Subtotal 83 38 45.8 83 9 10.8 Biological Group African 1 0 0.0 1 0 0.0 Native American* 0* 0* 0.0* 0* 0* 0.0* European 28 15 53.6 28 3 10.7 Hispanic 49 21 42.9 49 6 12.2 Indeterminate 5 2 40.0 5 0 0.0 Subtotal 83 38 45.8 83 9 10.8 Cemetery Area 1 0 0 0.0 0 0 0.0 2 1 1 7 63.6 11 2 18.2 3 55 25 45.5 55 6 10.9 4 11 3 27.3 11 0 0.0 5 6 3 50.0 6 1 16.7 Subtotal 83 38* 45.8 83 9 10.8 Total 83 38 45.8 83 9 10.8

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179 Figure 5 21. Women doing laundry in the acequia (irrigation ditch) just outside of T ucson. [Reprinted with permission from Arizona Historical Society, F. Buchman Biographic File, B 187 ]

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180 CHAPTER 6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASE S Communicable diseases are infectious diseases that can be transferred from person to person at varying degrees of ease. Within this broad category of disease one could include a variety of pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. Viruses, comprised of only DNA and RNA surrounded by proteins are the simplest form of infective organism, yet they are the mos t numerous, with thousands or even millions of viruses in existence. Viruses are obligate parasites and require a host in order to replicate. Bacteria are classified as a group of single celled prokaryotic organisms containing their own DNA. They are capab le of reproduce on their own through mitosis. There are more than 400 genera of bacteria known to exist, but human bacterial diseases are produced by fewer than 40 genera (Wiley and Allen 2009:221 222). This chapter focuses on only select examples of signi ficant viral and bacterial diseases, including smallpox, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Fungal infections are not addressed in this dissertation, while a discussion of several protozoa was included in the preceding chapter. S mallpox Smallpox, caused by the Vari ola virus, was an old disease of mankind probably making its first appearance around 10,000 B.C. with the increase in sedentism and the rise of urban populations (Agnew 2010:71). The earliest suspected case of smallpox amid archaeological investigations is Ramses V, of Egypt, who died in 1145 B.C. (Ortner 2003:332; Zuckerman 1984:1454). Smallpox is considered to be eradicated today because of prevention through vaccination. The last naturally contracted case being reported in 1977 (Fenner et al. 1988).

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181 Th e disease caused chills, abdominal pain, vomiting, and high fever, then a red rash appeared across the body, followed by crusty skin eruptions, which caused severe itching all over the body. The pus filled blisters swelled and then turned into scabs. Scrat ching to try to alleviate the itching commonly led to secondary infections that were often fatal. If the patient lasted through this stage, the scabs fell off and left scarred and pitted skin. Between 20 and 40 percent of those who caught the disease died. Those who survived were immune to further attacks (Agnew 2010:71). A feature of human reactions to smallpox demonstrates its impact was the association of specific gods, goddesses and saints with the disease (Fenner et al. 1988:219). For example, Shitala Indian subcontinent, where smallpox was endemic for centuries, but she was especially venerated in the delta regions of Bengal (Stewart 1995:389). She roams the countryside, riding an ass, and searches for victims. She is depicted wearing red robes and carrying reeds with which to chastise her victims (Ions 1967:97) (Figure 6 1). Smallpox deities have existed for centuries in various parts of Africa, Japan, China and Europe as well (Fenner et al. 1988:2 19). The disease did not appear in the New World until after the arrival of Europeans in the 15th century (Ortner 2003:334). Dobyns (1983:11) suggests that the first transmission occurred on the island of Hispaniola. Soon it traveled among native populati ons to Puerto Rico and Cuba. When Pnfilo de Narvez was dispatched from Cuba to Mexico in an attempt to take control of the mainland from Hernn Corts, one of the men in his company transmitted active smallpox to the natives in Mexico. The

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182 disease spread rapidly through the virgin population killing millions of Aztec citizens, including so called royals, nobles, and generals. While the high mortality would have been disheartening on its own, the apparent immunity of the invading Spaniards further demorali zed the Aztecs and made many question their religious convictions; transmission of this dreaded disease, therefore, was a significant factor in the fall of the Aztec Empire (Dobyns 1983:11 12). It is not known how far the original smallpox pandemic sprea d from Mexico, but over the next several centuries, smallpox and other European diseases ravaged native groups throughout the Americas (Stearn and Stearn 1945). The surviving populations would have consisted of those individuals who had either escaped init ial infection or had recovered from the disease and acquired immunity. Subsequent to the initial pandemic, therefore, smallpox epidemics were limited by the time required to build up a sufficient population of susceptible individuals (Dobyns 1983:14). P athogenesis and Survivability Smallpox was transmitted through direct contact with an infected person, an infected corpse, or sometimes an object that had been in direct contact with an infected individual, such as a blanket or article of clothing (Agnew 2010:71; Crist 2001:93). The virus could be transmitted through contact with liquid material from broken pustules on the skin or through infective droplets released into the air through coughing or sneezing. The virus could find entry into the new victim through the respiratory tract, the alimentary tract, the conjunctiva, or through intentional inoculation. It could also occasionally be transmitted through droplets introduced into the air through coughing or sneezing. (Agnew 2010:71; Fenner et al. 1988). Congenital infection occasionally

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183 occurred in smallpox as well (Fenner et al. 1988:182). Infection of the fetus depended on the growth of the virus in the placenta and its subsequent release into the cord blood. Its frequency is uncertain since most pregna nt women aborted during the pre eruptive fever. If the mother carried the fetus to term, the infant was often temporarily immune to smallpox because of maternal antibodies (Fenner et al. 1988:42). Once inside the body, the disease progressed through stages (Figure 6 2). The incubation of the disease took anywhere from six to 22 days, but averaged around 10 13 days after which there was a rapid onset of fever, headache, vomiting, body pain, and chills. Viral shedding usually commenced a couple of days prior to the onset of symptoms. As the fever subsided macules would erupt on the skin of the palms, soles, forehead, and the back of the hands. After five or six days the macules would develop into pustules and after 16 days, the pustules would begin to desiccat e and form scabs. Permanent scars were often left by the natural sloughing off of the smallpox scabs. If a person reached the stage where scabs began to form that meant that they were on the road to recovery and would likely possess lifelong immunity to th e disease (Agnew 2010:71; Fenner et al. 1988; Crist 2001:93). Many people were not so lucky, however. Smallpox had a mortality rate between 25% and 100% depending on the severity and type of virus present (Fenner et al. 1988; Riley and Ferguson 2006:12637) Infection usually occurred by the entry of the virus through the oropharyngeal or respiratory mucosa during the first week of infection. No matter which cells were initially infected, soon the macrophages would become infected and after three days the p athogens would have entered the lymphocytes in the regional lymph nodes (Figure 6 3). The virus might have entered the bloodstream at this point, or after the fourth day

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184 viral replication would trigger draining of the lymph nodes and distribution of the pa thogen throughout the body (Fenner et al. 1988:166). Infected macrophages migrate from the dermis into the epidermis, where they proceed to cause infection of the cells throughout the Malpighian tubules. Edema and degeneration of the surrounding cells resu lt in multiloculated vesicle, which become pustular after heavy in migration of polymorphonuclear cells (Fenner et al. 1988:167). An immediate immune response would have been triggered by the early presence of infected macrophages in the lymph nodes, bon e marrow and spleen. The early immune response included the production of cytotoxic T cells, which would have been very effective at neutralizing many of the infective cells prior to the development of neutralizing antibodies. In cases where the early cell ular immune response is aggressive, replication of infected cells is limited and the resultant rash is more discrete. If the cellular immune response was deficient, a more serious infection would be produced (i.e., flat type smallpox). The most severe form of smallpox (haemorrhagic type) resulted from undeterred replication of the virus in both humoral and cellular immune responses (Fenner et al. 1988:167). The severity of symptoms, exact disease presentation, and the outcome of infection varied through t ime due to individual susceptibility or particular viral strain (Table 6 1). The outcome was either death or recovery, although the mortality rate differed by type of infection. Ordinary type smallpox typically had a 25 30% mortality rate, for example, whi le the haemorrhagic type was almost always fatal (Fenner et al. 1988). Exact causes of death for smallpox victims were often obscure. Severe damage

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185 toxaemia in part effecte d by the ciurculating immune complexes. (Fenner et al. 1988:167). Most viral infectious diseases exhibit pronounced seasonal variations in incidence. Cases of arbovirus infections in temperate locales usually increase in frequency in the summer. Enterovir al infections typically occur in summer and autumn. Influenza and other respiratory tract infections are more common in the winter months. Smallpox, as well as measles, chickenpox, and mumps, are more likely to reach epidemic proportions in the winter and spring (Fenner et al. 1988:179). Of course the seasonal variation is largely due to a combination of environmental influences that affect the survivability of the pathogen outside of the host. Upham (1986) determined through sinusoidal regression analysis that mean annual temperature and relative humidity are key determinates (Table 6 2). Elevation was predicted on the basis of these climatic variables and it is apparent that optimal conditions for smallpox survival in the southwest exist between 2,000 and 6,000 ft., with Tucson sitting at about 2,389ft. above sea level. Daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature in lower and higher 1986:124 125). Pox viruses are extreme ly hardy organisms, especially when kept cool and dry (Meeks 1985:1103). While no studies have been located which indicate how long smallpox can survive in buried or entombed human remains, numerous studies have been conducted looking at the survivability of the virus in a number of other mediums and environmental conditions (Table 6 3). In systematic scientific studies, the longest that the smallpox virus has been known to survive in any quantifiable amount is 13

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186 years. This study was conducted by Wolff an d Croon (1968) between 1954 and 1967. Scabs of smallpox patients were collected and stored in a cupboard in small envelopes. The researchers waited for two years before testing the first scab, so the original viral particle load is not known. Upon testing one of the scabs in 1956 Wolff and Croon found 56,000 viable viral particles. Tests were conducted yearly after that point and as one might expect, viral particle counts generally decreased over that time (Figure 6 4), although some spikes in particle coun t were present due to the testing of different scabs which may have originally had different viral loads. Meeks (1985) suggests that if one were to extend the trend line of the graph out it might take up to 25 years before no viable particles could be iden tified among the samples. The possibility of smallpox surviving for longer than 25 years is not an outrageous claim based on historical accounts. Razzell (1976) cited an early 19th century English medical journal that printed the following account origina lly published in the 1784 edition The following very singular occurrence happened in the year 1759 at Chelwood a village near Pensford (Somerset); the sexton of the place opened up the grave in which a man, who died of smal lpox, had been interred near 30 years before. The coffin was of oak, and so firm, that it might have been taken out whole; but the man forced his spade through the lid, when there issued a most nauseous stench. The person who was to be buried being of emin ence, most of the inhabitants of the village attended the funeral: in a few days afterwards, 14 persons were seized with the smallpox in one day; and in three days later, all but two in the whole village, who had not had it, were seized in like manner. It is remarkable, the disease was of so favourable a nature, that no mo re than two persons died of it. While there are likely other historical accounts of corpses transmitting smallpox long after death, this passage argues plainly that in certain burial condi tions the smallpox virus could remain viable for longer than 30 years after burial,

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187 E pidemiology Individual s usceptibility and g enetics In the absence of immunity due to vaccination or prior infection with an orthopox virus, people appear to be universa lly susceptible to the Variola virus infection. While Fenner et al. (1988) admit that there has been no definitive research which suggests that a deleterious genetic susceptibility exists among any population, it seems plausible to them that such a lethal and commonly endemic disease would have produced populations consisting of more resistant genotypes. Individual susceptibility in unvaccinated individuals, however, would have also be affected by physiological factors such as age and pregnancy, as well as social factors (Fenner et al. 1988:194). Physiological f actors Age is an incidental variable affecting the incidence of smallpox infection. In nave population, people from all age groups and from both sexes would be susceptible. However, once several sm allpox epidemics passed through an area, or if smallpox became endemic, children would become the primary victims. This is due to the fact that adults would be more likely to have acquired immunity from previous infections, from variolation, or from vaccin ation. (Fenner et al. 1988:195). Apart from people who are severely immunocompromised, pregnant women were at a much greater risk of infection than other individual due to the strains that pregnancy puts on all bodily systems and on the nutritional requir ements necessary to maintain a healthy balance. If a pregnant woman acquired the infection, she would have a much higher likelihood for miscarriage or a stillbirth. If neither the mother or fetus initially

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188 succumbed to the infection during pregnancy, it wa s also possible that the baby could be born with congenital syphilis (Fenner et al. 1988:195 196). Social f actors The spread of smallpox in a community depends not only on the viability of the pathogen in the environment, or on other biological factors, but also on a variety of social factors (Fenner et al. 1988:203). These social factors affected the opportunities for people to make contact with a source of the infection, be that an infected individual, a corpse with viable viral particles remaining, or contaminated objects, such as blankets, clothes, or even letters (Ambrose 2005). Population density is a prime variable in the maintenance of the virus. Large populations are needed in order for the virus to attain endemicity. Smaller populations are more susceptible to short epidemics brought from outside of the region through travel or migration. Special events, such as religious festivals, fairs, marriages, or funerals sometimes bring people together from a wider geographic area thus increasing chances o f transmission. Because of the long incubation period of smallpox, travelers could cover significant distances before they would become symptomatic (Fenner et al. 1988:203). Because of the importance of person to person transmission, the household or fam ily unit typically is affected greater during smallpox outbreaks. That said, the primary location for children to acquire the infection was in school. By extension, teachers and other school workers were often at greater risk due to their proximity to asym ptomatic school children. Additionally, a high occupational risk was also associated with being a health care worker, undertaker, or grave digger during outbreaks (Fenner et al. 1988:201 202).

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189 Vector borne t ransmission It is widely agreed that person to person transmission is the most likely means of spreading the smallpox virus. However, some have suggested that arthropod vectors could facilitate mechanical transmission of the virus. Two culprits have accused: the bedbug, and the mosquito. Dr. Charles A. R. Campbell, a physician in San Antonio, Texas, encouraged by the discovery in 1880 that the mosquito was the carrier of malaria and the 1894 realization that the flea could transmit plague, started a series of experiments in 1900 to determine the cause o f smallpox. Believing that smallpox was neither contagious nor infectious, he exposed himself and many other susceptible people [some without their knowledge] to the Variola virus in a variety of contexts simulating the traditional means of transmission. A ccording to his treatise on the topic, Rsum of Experiments on Variola (first published in 1925), not one individual acquired the disease (Campbell 2002). Campbell (2002) observed that the only individuals who acquired smallpox were those whose homes, an d by extension their clothes, were infested with bed bugs. Transmission from house to house could therefore be facilitated by bed bugs being transported on clothing and deposited in the new location to begin an infestation. People who lived in poor housing conditions, who had poor personal hygiene, or who were often visited by, or employed people of lower social classes were, therefore, at community of the time. His experiments were crude and based on limited knowledge of the microbiology of disease and no concrete scientific testing. No modern studies are known to have further investigated the possibility of transmission by bed bugs.

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190 An important study by Sarkar et al. (1973) s uggests that mechanical transmission by mosquito vectors was possible. In this study, laboratory bred mosquitos of the species Culex pipiens fatigans and Aedes aegypti were allowed to feed on Variola infected mice. For 15 days following the blood meal the mosquitos were tested for viable viral agents. The Variola virus remained viable in the proboscis of the Culex spp. mosquito for 72 hours, while the Aedes mosquito can harbor viable virus particles for up to 96 hours. If a mosquito were to feed again withi n that period the virus could be introduced into the new host prompting infection, although Sarkar et al. (1973:782) admit that this method of transmission is of little epidemiological concern because: 1) the time period of viability is short and the mosqu ito might not take another blood meal on a human within that period; and 2) the number of virus particles that would be introduced into a person during feeding would be small and possibly would not be enough to be a catalyst to full blown infection. Cont rolling the Disease Smallpox has ravaged human communities for thousands of years. It is no surprise therefore, that people have developed a number of measures to control outbreaks. Attempts to control the spread of smallpox historically consisted of avoid ance of identified disease cases, isolation of infected individuals, intentional inoculation ( Variola tion), and blanket or targeted vaccination. Avoidance/Isolation/Quarantine It was believed from early times that it might be possible to avoid certain dis eases by ensuring that no contact occurred between the disease and healthy persons. The scientific underpinnings of the concept of isolation and quarantine had to

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191 await the enunciation of the germ theory of infectious disease by Pasteur and Koch, in the la tter half of the 19 th century, but long before this a belief had developed that such diseases were spread by contagion (Fenner et al. 1988:273 274). Because there was no effective treatment for smallpox and it was such a deadly and contagious disease, when doctors diagnosed the disease, they isolated the patients in separate tents, the care of smallpox patients (Agnew 2010:72; Schroeder Lein 2008:279). Variola tion (Ino culation) Variolation is the deliberate inoculation of a person with smallpox virus obtained from an individual with a mild case of the disease. This inoculation had been practiced in China, India, Persia, and Africa for centuries before being introduced in 1721 to Europe by Lady Mary Wortley Mantagu, the wife of British ambassador to Turkey, although it was carried out in Wales and the Highlands of Scotland before the end of the seventeenth century. The Reverend Cotton Mather introduced it in Boston at ab out the same time after learning of the practice from his African slave, Onesimus, who spoke of its wide application in Africa (Fenner et al. 1988:254; Stearn and Stearn 1945:53; Zuckerman 1984:1454). Various methods were used. In China, dried crusts from patients were blown intranas sally through a tube. Figure 6 5 shows a Chinese method of inoculation dating to around 1,000 A.D. In India, children were sometimes wrapped in the clothes of patients with smallpox, and in Persia the scabs of smallpox pustule s were ingested. The inoculation procedure consisted of a person opening a smallpox pustule with a pointed object. The clear liquid from the pustule would then be introduced into a scratch or

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19 2 puncture wound on the in the skin of the person being inoculated In 18 th century Europe, the usual technique was to dip a thread in fluid from a pustule, dry it, scarify the skin of the healthy individual and then bind the contaminated thread on the broken skin (Zuckerman 1984:1454). A person utilizing this method (or similar methods) would then become ill, usually with a less severe infection than a person would if the disease was contracted through a normal method of transmission. Inoculation did have risks, however; because the severity of an infection was the resul t of the relationship between individual immune response and pathogen virulence, some people received no immunity from inoculation, while others contracted a fatal form of the disease (Agnew 2010:71; Fenner et al. 1988). Vaccination A much safer form of prevention was the smallpox vaccine developed by Physician Edward Jenner in England in 1796. Jenner is said to have noticed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox from animals with which they worked were effectively immune to smallpox infection. Cowpox was a different and less severe strain of the disease, but it also produced immunity ag ainst smallpox (Agnew 2010:74). Although several others researchers may have experimented with cowpox before ed not from cowpox, but from an attenuated strain of smallpox, Jenner was the one who reduced the procedure to successful practice and has been given the credit (Razzell 1980:5). Ivory points ( Figure 6 6 ) were often used to give smallpox vaccinations in t he 19 th century. The points of these instruments were covered with lymphatic fluid from calfs infected with the cowpox disease, a milder form of the Variola virus. The points would

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193 then be used to rub, scratch, or insert the vaccine into the skin of the pe rson wishing to be vaccinated. The most important effect of vaccination was a protection of the patient from smallpox infection, although the success of the vaccination varied from person to person due to a physiological factors, method of inoculation empl oyed, strain of vaccine used, and quality of vaccine preparation. Re vaccination was often required every few years to maintain immunity (Fenner et al. 1988:42). Although successful vaccination was developed by Jenner in 1796, Agnew (2010:74) reports that vaccination was not commonly used for a long time afterwards. Many people were not vaccinated in the 19 th century due to religious or cultural resistance, a lack of understanding about germ theory, or simply because of a lack of opportunity. People living in cities in the Northeast for instance had a much greater chance of obtaining a vaccination than people living on the American frontier. some people viewed quarantine or compulsory vaccination as threat to their personal freedoms (Fenner et al. 1988:268) The Surgeon Generals on both sides of the American Civil War, however, saw the benefit of vaccination. Sufficient supplies of vaccine were not always available, and some batches of vaccine were not viable. Complete vaccination of troops did not always t ake place, and doctors often did not realize that revaccination was necessary (Schroeder Lein 2008:278). Robinson (1991:626 627) asserts that statistics indicate that every fourth or fifth soldier in the United States army would have been susceptible. Neve rtheless, the role of the military in extending smallpox vaccinations to civilians on the frontier is vitally important.

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194 Osteological Indicators Because a smallpox infection runs its course relatively quickly, skeletal involvement is not common in adults. Skeletal involvement can occur in juveniles, however, starting between one and four weeks after onset of symptoms. Ortner (2003:334) notes that there are three pathogenic pathways for bone involvement in smallpox. The first of these is a necrotic, non supp ortive Variola osteomyelitis, which commonly affects the upper extremities (particularly the elbow, although any joint, including the knees and ankles can be involved) contrasting with many other skeletal infections. The second type of bone involvement is a supportive arthritis, most likely caused by some secondary infection. The third expression is a non supportive arthritis involving multiple sites bilaterally leading to severe joint damage, joint fusion, and deformity. Skeletal lesions associated with e lbow involvement usually begin in the metaphyseal region near the growth plates. and often spreads to the adjacent joint. There is destruction of metaphyseal bone and the adjacent joint, which leads to separation of the epiphysis and fracture in serious in stances. Significant formation of reactive periosteal bone on the cortical surface of the surrounding long bones is also common. Serious infections often result in arrested growth due to damage to the growth plates and may at times be sufficient to weaken bones to the point that permanent bending deformities may occur in weight bearing bones (Ortner 2003:334). Smallpox in the Tucson Basin Few historical references to smallpox epidemics in Tucson have been located from the period prior to American acquisiti on of the territory. The first epidemic for which a

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195 significant amount of information is present occurred in Tucson from October of 1869 until April or early May of 1870. During this devastating epidemic, Tucson residents worked to establish a temporary ho where every smallpox patient could be taken for treatment ( The Weekly Arizonan 19 February 1870:3) by Dr. E. Phelps (The Weekly Arizonan, 19 March 1870:3). During its height, smallpox was said to have k illed an average of five people per day, mostly children ( Weekly Arizona Miner 26 March 1870:2). Some reports indicated that 13 people had died of the disease in one day ( Weekly Arizona Miner 12 March 1870:3) Military hospital records provide a good bas eline for an understanding of the progression of the disease because Camp Lowell was located in Tucson at the time. The October 1869 Post hospital report notes that the first case of smallpox occurred in discovered and no other case National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 94, Entry 547, Book 13:141) The pause in cases did not last very long however; the December 1869 report indicated that three more cases of smallpox ha d cropped up in Tucson during the month ( National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 94, Entry 547, Book 13:149 ). There was clear indication at this point that an epidemic was developing. The strength of the epidemic increased in severity du ring January of 1870 as shown by the report of the Camp Lowell hospital during that month causing significant concern. Where cases after cases appeared in rapid succession, the commanding officer of the post was notified of the fact, and it was suggested t hat the men of the company be restricted from going into the town and that all unnecessary communications between Tucson and the Camp should

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196 cease. All the men of the company, and such troops as more casually at the post, were at once revaccinated. Owing c hiefly to these precautions only three cases occurred in the command, one of these being an Indian Scout, whose quarters were not in Camp, and over whom consequently, no control could be exercised, all the cases were very slight, and the men soon recovered They were however isolated and treated in a tent pitched 500 yards from the camp. About forty cases occurred in Tucson, of which, as near as could be ascertained, six proved fatal. Among the victims was Mr. Hardenbusy, the chief carpenter at the quarter masters depot in Tucson. Towards the close of the month the disease commenced to abate. [National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 94, Entry 547, Book 13:153] The Post medical officer who wrote these words was deadly wrong on this last poi nt. The month of February actually saw an increase in the number of cases of smallpox. One additional case occurred in garrison at Camp Lowell, but an unknown number of new cases among the general population of Tucson resulted in about 30 deaths, those mos tly being Hispanic children. T he post hospital attendant noted that, the epidemic is confined chiefly to the Mexican population and the percentage of deaths among the children has been very large. It is impossible to arrive at the exact number of cases at present existing, as nothing but a house to house visitation could effect this there are probably 25 or 30 cases. The local authorities take no steps to have the infected removed or isolated, and the Epidemic will in all likelihood probably [sic] continue until it has seized upon all who have not suffered previously or been thoroughly vaccinated. A large number have applied at the Hospital for vaccination and this has in all cases been gratuitously performed. [National Archives and Records Administration, R ecord Group 94, Entry 544, Vol. 118] Continuing along the same culturally biased tone, the medical officer indicates that the, the fact that they received very little care National Archives and Records Administra tion, Record Group 94, Entry 547 Book 13:157). The Mexicans of the period would have not been accustomed to the same concepts of western medicine nursing practices as the military doctors.

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197 The March 1870 medical report claimed that the smallpox epidemic was gradually disappearing. Only two new cases occurred at Camp Lowell, including the case of Silas Beardsley, a Private in Company E of the 21 st Infantry, who was known to have been buried in th e military section of the Alameda Stone Cemetery. They go on to note, however, that 32 deaths were reported among the general population in Tucson, suggesting that the epidemic was, in fact, not waning, but reaching its climax. One case of smallpox occurre d in the garrison in April, and the last remaining case was discharged from the hospital tent on the 15 th of May after which the tent and all bedding was destroyed (likely being burned) ( National Archives and Records Administra tion, Record Group 94, Entry 547 Book 13:161, 165, 169). Never mind the fact that at least one smallpox case was still active at Camp Lowell, On April 9, 1870, the Weekly Arizonan entirely disappeared, and never did a community feel better satisfied at the departure of Disturbingly, only three total cases of smallpox (two in March and one in April were actually recorded in the patient register covering this period ( National Archives and Records Administra tion, Record Group 94, Entry 544 Vol. 119). It is not known why medical attendants failed to record the information for the other five military patients mentioned by the official medical reports from the Post. This omission obviously points to the incomplete nature of the record and further suggests that the disease counts of other ailments are likely also fallible. Theories about the origin of the smallpox epidemic were waged by the post medical officer, as well a s the citizenry of Tucson. The January 1870 post hospital

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198 report hypothesized that the disease had likely been brought to Tucson from Altar a small town in Sonora, Mexico, where it was prevailing at the time ( National Archives and Records Administra tion, Record Group 94, Entry 547 Book 13:153). Residents of the Papago Village next a t San Xavier del Bac (Figure 6 7 ) often made trips into Northern Mexico to visit relatives or obtain seasonal work, so this method of disease acquisition is viable. Altar is 21 1 kilome ters south of Tucson (Figure 6 8 ). If a person had been infected in Altar they would have been able to potentially make the journey back to San Xavier del Bac prior to the onset of symptoms. If San Xavier was the point of entry of smallpox into th e region then the disease would likely have moved from San Xavier up the mission road to the southern port of Tucson via Papago traders (Figure 6 s noted in the February 1870 report of the post hospital (National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 94, Entry 547, Book 13:157). The fact that many Hispanic children would be at risk is not surprising due to the fact that children would no t have established immunity. Additionally, most of the Mexicans lived in the southern portion of Tucson and came into greater contact with the Papago who may have been carriers. An alternative hypothesis of entry is that the disease was brought to Tucson by a Mr. McPherson, who had arrived in Tucson from California and that the disease continued to spread from Tucson to settlements in the region (Weekly Arizona Miner, 23 April 1870:2; Heilen et al. 2010:170). Mr. McPherson apparently had arrived prior to t he epidemic, but his baggage did not arrive from California until six weeks later. It was assumed that the clothes had been contaminated because he wore some of the articles

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199 for only a short period of days before he became ill ( The Weekly Arizonan 20 Nove mber 1869:3). The second hypothesis is also viable because the 1870 mortality schedule (which lists deaths occurring in a town during the 12 months prior to June 1870) for San Xavier records only seven smallpox deaths, all of them occurring in March and A pril of 1870. The mortality schedule for Tucson, on the other hand, provides a record of seventy eight deaths from smallpox starting in October of 1869 and end ing in April of 1870 (Figure 6 10 ). Nearly all of these deaths were Hispanic children, but it als o included the deaths of two Native American children, two African American adults, and seven non Hispanic Euroamerican adults who died from the disease. It is likely that the list has a number of biases, one of which is that it probably places a somewhat greater focus on non Hispanic Euroamericans than people of other backgrounds and the other that not all deaths were likely recorded (Heilen et al. 2010:170; Heilen and Hall 2010:135 136). By April 1870, medical authorities at Camp Lowell estimated that at least 120 (and likely more) fatal cases of smallpox had occurred in Tucson (National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 94, Entry 544, Vol. 118). Another case of smallpox did not occur near Tucson until April of 1876. As a result, Dr. John C Handy offered free smallpox vaccinations for Tucson residents who desired one ( Arizona Citizen 2 April 1876:3). It was not reported exactly where this case appeared near Tucson, but it apparently was singular and did not spread to the general populace i n Tucson. Another case did occur in Tucson in November of 1876. The infected child was quarantined in a temporary hospital two miles outside of town. The road to the hospital had been blocked and a fence had been built around it to protect

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200 passersby from getting too close. When the child died, the clothes of the child and its Arizona Citizen 8 November 1876:3). Just as with the April case, no further cases were reported in Tucson until the end of Ja nuary 1877. The Arizona Citizen (3 February 1877:3) reported that on January 30, 1877, William Teague died of smallpox. Immediately prior to his illness he had made a trip to Los Angeles, and it was suspected that he had brought the disease back with him (Carmony 1994:128). Every effort to contain the disease was made and no other cases were immediately reported. That said, it is likely there was not a long pause before the next case appeared as George Hand recorded in his diary that Apr. 6, 1877 Judge Os April the epidemic had reached the point where Hand reported six funerals taking place in one day ( Carmony 1994:139). By mid May, as many as eleven people died in one day (Ca rmony 1994:141). Some Tucson residents sought to escape the epidemic by leaving town and traveling to California or Sonora. Of course natural instinct would be to try to escape such a scourge, and in fact it might have saved some people, but running would have also further spread the disease. For example, Hand reported that John Hopkins, Dr. 1877 (Carmony 1994:139). On May 12, however, Dave Horton returned to Tucson stricke n with smallpox, and on May 19 news arrived that Hopkins had died in Sonora of the disease (Carmony 1994:141 142). It is likely that the company had been infected

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201 prior to leaving Tucson, or they were exposed along their journey and carried the disease to Sonora. The 1877 epidemic, like most, was widespread, although the extent cannot Walapai Indian Scouts took an extended expedition from Camp Beale Springs on the Colorado River into southeastern Arizona on the trail of renegade Apaches. Thrapp (1965:294) reports that in early May the party arrived at Fort Whipple having avoided the Pima and Maricopa villages [likely near Phoenix] where smallpox epidemics were underway. Stea rn and Stearn (1945:104) report that the U.S. Indian Agent of the Pima Papago) tribes), noted a mild type of smallpox was spreading rapidly among all villages within the agency in t he spring of 1877. Less than 100 deaths occurred it is suggested, although the exact population of the agency is not known. One hundred people had been vaccinated, but many of the tribes were practicing Variola tion, apparently resulting in numerous deaths. People were said to take the bandages taken from the arms of inoculated individuals and place them upon a certain type of mesquite tree which was thought to have some type of supernatural quality of healing or protection. Smallpox was believed by some in the tribes to be an evil spirit that must not be shown fear, and By June of 1877, Mr. John Miller, assigned to the duty of taking a school census, also took up the task o f collecting statistics about the epidemic. He recorded that up to that point there had been 139 cases of smallpox in Tucson. All but ten of these were children, and most of these were likely Hispanic based on observations of the 1870

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202 epidemic. Of the ten adults, however, nine were American and one was Mexican, suggesting that more of the Hispanic adults had acquired immunity. Of the 139 cases reported at this time, only 24 deaths had occurred, 53 individuals had recovered, and the remaining patients were s till ailing (Arizona Citizen, 2 June 1877:3). On June 28, 1877, there was a special meeting of the city council and the Tucson citizens to discuss additional measures to be taken against the raging epidemic. Dr. Handy obtained a small supply of vaccine an d was inoculating as many people as he could without charge. After the council meeting the city officials redoubled their attempts to identify infected or exposed individuals and quarantine them, as well as fumigating infected houses or rooms (Carmony 1994 :148). On August 2, 1877, the Arizona Weekly Star ran the following column, entitled For several weeks we have been afflicted in Tucson, with a terrible scourge of small pox, but, thanks to the vigil a nce of the Board of Health. We can now say the disease is almost entirely obliterated from our midst, and the fears of our citizens are entirely at ease. It was deemed necessary, and an ordinance was passed by the Common Council, to levy a tax upon the property holders to raise mean s for caring for the destitute sick and staying the progress of the disease. There has been expended but about three hundred dollars by the Board of Health, and the deficiency being so small, it can be collected on the streets in a few hours, so that the l evying of the tax is considered unnecessary. We congratulate our people upon their deliverance from the affliction which has hung over us for the past two months, and now, that, the scourge has left us, trade will return, and Tucson will wear the business like appearance which has so long characterized her. Carmony (1994:158) notes that on July 30, 1877, Tucson Mayor John B. Allen prematurely reported the end of the epidemic to the town council as expressed in the above newspaper article, but smallpox cases continued through October before abating. This epidemic had been considerably more devastating than the 1870 epidemic had

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203 been. In total, perhaps 500 cases occurred with approximately 150 deaths (Carmony 1994:158). On December 31, 1877, George Hand raise d the flag to half mast for those individuals who had died during the year (Carmony 1994:166). An isolated case of smallpox occurred in Tucson during January of 1878 when one of the Catholic priests returned from Fort Yuma. No other cases were reported in the Gibson, a policeman, died of smallpox. Carmony (1994:231) notes that many cases of smallpox were in Tucson at that time, but no other mention has been located. Unfortunately, his 1883 diary was not available for perusal for other mentions of the 1883 epidemic. In his August 14, 1884 annual report to the commissioner of indian affairs, A. H. Jackson, U.S. Indian Agent for the Pima, Maricopa, and Papago Agency, Arizona, groups of southern Arizona under his purview he noted their only vice is that during the months of July, Aug ust, and September they gather the fruit of cacti and produce an tiswin 500 to 2,000 people and last over the course of three months. During other times of the year, it is said, that the Indians freely board the freight trains of the Southern Pacific Railroad near Florence or Tempe and ride to Tucson or Yuma to purchase whiskey. During th e winter months of late 1883 and early 1884 Jackson noted that he had succeeded in convincing the officers of the railroad to stop the Indians from riding the

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204 trains through fear of spreading the smallpox epidemic, which was said to have been raging in ev ery native village in the area. (United States Office of Indian Affairs 1884:6). Pima County death notice s report three smallpox deaths in July of 1887, one in August of 1887, and one in April of 1888. All of the July and August cases were Hispanic individ uals, while the April death had been that of a Euroamerican. Interestingly, no newspaper accounts of the smallpox cases during this period have been located. Carmony (1994) suggests that during smallpox epidemics, many newspapers did not run stories about deaths and disease because it was bad for business. This may have been true, but it certainly was not a responsible practice. Agent Based S imulation Although limited statistics have been presented for these several historical Tucson epidemics, it may be useful to create a simulation of an epidemic to explore the disease pathways and extent of epidemic in the community. An a gent based model has, therefore, been created for the 1870 epidemic. Agent based modeling is a spin on the traditional cellular automa ta model greatly enhanced by advancements in computer person within an artificially constructed society. Each agent is a distinct object within the program and they intera ct with one another based on programed individual behavioral codes. One critical characteristic of agent based models is that the individual agents are not classified into homogenous groups; instead, they are highly heterogeneous. Each agent can be modeled and observed independently. A second characteristic quality of agent based models is that events take place in a realistic social space where agents

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205 can interact in dynamic social networks and can move around as if they were moving from home to work or wh erever their day takes them (Burke et al. 2006:1142). Combining Java authoring, end user programmable agents, and spreadsheet technology, AgentSheets 3.0 is a simulation authoring software that is much more user friendly than many simulation platforms tha t require extensive knowledge of vario us coding languages (Figure 6 11 ). AgentSheets enab les users to create simulations using its end user programming language known as Visual AgenTalk This language employs a new approach to end user programming whic 3). Tactile p rogramming is the foundation of AgentSheets While most programming languages are purely textual and have been developed with the end techn olo gical goal in mind, Tactile p rogramming is inherently visual and has been developed with the end user in mind. Tactile p rogramming allows a user to visualize and manipulate conditional rules and actions within the program (Figure 6 12 ) (AgentSheets, Inc. 2 010:3). Conversational p rogramming (Fig ure 6 13 ) is a tool that helps a user create your programs by providing immediate visual feedback on whether or not programmed rules are valid. Individual rules can be tested and AgentSheets will indicate whether or not the rule has the ability to fire. Or, if the entire simulation can be run and conversational programming will indicate by color coding which rule or method is being run at any given time. This informal dialog between user and software allows a user to obtain a better idea of where problems in the program might be and how to fix them (AgentSheets, Inc. 2010:3).

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206 Simulation methodology The simulation, which will here be discussed, attempts to model the ability of the smallpox virus to spread through a sim this simulation does not model the multitude of complex factors that contribute to the spread of infectious diseas e in a real life social network; it instead works to simplify the scenario. In this basic des ign, people will move randomly in a simulated environment. When people reach the highest level of illness they cease to move around. They remain in place until they either recover or die. The simulation terminates automatically when there are no more infec tive agents, either because they have recovered or they have died. Creating a gents. The first step in the simulation process is to create the required number of agents. In AgentSheets every object in the simulation, from the people to the background or other environmental features is an agent. Additionally, an agent could have multiple depictions (e.g., a sick person vs. a healthy person) indicating a s have been created (Figure 6 14 ): Tucso n (person) and Tucson (background). The Tucson (person) agent has six depictions which correspond to the stages in the smallpox disease process: Tucson (healthy/susceptible), Pre Eruptive, Pre Symptomatic, Symptomatic, Immune, and Dead. A third agent, a do c tor (not depicted in Figure 6 14 ) has also been created to announce the end of the epidemic. It has not been programmed to actually cure any illness. Creating the global e nvironment Next the user must create a simulated environment where the agents can interact. In AgentSheets this is referred to as a

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207 worksheet. Simulations can have multiple worksheets that might model different scenarios. Worksheets are designed based on a grid system and agents depict individual cells within this grid. In the Tucson e xample (Figure 6 15 ), a large rectangular grid of Tucson (background) agents were drawn and 3100 healthy Tucson (person) agents (an even approximation of the Tucson population based on 1870 census data) were drawn on top of the background cells. Simulati on properties, the box seen in the lower left corn er of Figure 6 15 allows the user to observe and facilitate changes in the number agents in any given category. These tallies are governed by behavioral rules which will be explained momentarily. At this po int, it is important to note certain agent paramet ers (Figure 6 16 ) that are instituted at the point of creation for individual agent depiction. Because the progression of the disease through stages is temporally governed, initial temporal statuses for eac h stage were set based disease characteristics outlines by Fenner et al. (1988). In this conception, there is a 10 day incubation period associated with the pre eruptive depiction, a two day infectious but pre symptomatic phase, a 16 day symptomatic phase, which either then terminates in immunity/recovery or death, after which the deceased will be removed from the environment after one day. Setting agent b ehaviors Most of the actions within the simulation are controlled by the Tucson (person) behaviors. Methods are like subroutines in a conventional programming language, effectively dividing rules and actions into smaller and more manageable segments. The "while running" method is the only block of rules in an a gent's behavior that is executed

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208 conditions and actions within rules is importan t. Rules which call for exceptional conditions typically precede rules governing base or routine actions. If an agent is set to move randomly around a landscape, but is programmed to undertake a different task exceptional command, otherwise it will be supercede this command and not allow it to fire. Because individuals at different levels of infection have differing levels of viral 1 7) method sets up rules for contact and transmission. If a healthy /susceptible agent in the Tucson model comes into contact with greater than or equal to one infective but pre symptomatic agent or a dead agent fire and control their chance of becoming ill. If the health individual comes in contact with a symptomatic agent they have a higher simulation observes a pre eruptive individ block which ill control when that agent progresses to the next stage of the disease. Similarly, when a pre be called upon to govern the transiti on to the symptomatic stage of the disease. Finally, every one second in the simulation (or one day in the conception of this project) the 18 ) is called upon to govern routine movements, adjust temporal statuses of agents, and test whether an individual can recover from the symptomatic stage or die, and how long the dead agent will remain on the worksheet.

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209 Just because someone is exposed to a viral agent, or in this case, a, infectious agent, does not mean that that person will become sick. Because diseases have different levels of contagiousness and different levels of virulence, and because individual immune system responses vary, whether or not a person becomes ill, method blocks (Fig ure 6 19 ) contain rules repeat commands for random movement, but agent encounters an infectious agent there is given percent chance that the healthy agent will change to a pre eruptive status. There is a 35% of transmission is an agent meets a pre symptomatic or a dead agent and there is a 50% chance of disease transmission if a healthy agent meets a symptomatic agent. In either case, the simulation property tabulations are set to reflect t he change in agent depictions. If a pre block (Figure 6 20 ) will tell the simulation to change that agent to the p re symptomatic will tell the simulation to change a previously pre symptomatic agent to symptomatic when their temporal status is 0 Once an individual achieves th e symptomatic depiction class they have could method blo ck (Figure 6 21 temporal status reaches 0 they have a 60% c hance that they will recover and change to the immune agent depiction. That means they also have a 30% chance that they will

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210 succumb to the illness and die. In either case, the method controls the adjustment of the simulation tallies. If an agent becomes immune then they are again able to move randomly around ethod (also shown in Figure 6 21 ) when a dead agents status is less tha n or equal to 0 the death counter will be altered and after that one time step the agent will be erased from the worksheet, thus simulating the removal of the corpse in a real life scenario. The doctor agent (which is not depicted here) is programmed no t to move. Its only function is to proclaim the outcome of the simulation. If the doctor observes that no more sick or infective agents are present it will stop the simulation and state that the epidemic is over. If any deaths occurred during the course of the epidemic then the doctor will apologize for the deaths. If all of your agents die in the simulation the doctor will again proclaim the end of the epidemic and inform you about the tragedy that occurred. Creating s imulation o utputs During the simula tion, the user can request that graphical plots (Figure 6 22 ) of simulation properties be displayed. This plot, like the simulation properties ( Figure 6 23 ) window itself provides a running total of the number of a selected agent present in the worksheet. After the end of the simulation, the plot data can be exported to Excel for further analysis or visualization. Discussion of simulation results Using the above simulation construction methodology ten simulations were run to determine the range of possible outcomes. Total number of deaths, immune (proxy for

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211 total number infected), and length of epidemic in time steps (assumed to be one day in this case) were tabulated (Table 6 4 ). In these ten simulations, the length of the epidemic in days ranged from 200 to almost 399, the number of deaths rang ed from 700 to 849, and the tot a l number of immune individuals at the end of the simulation ranged from 1600 to 1856. Averages for these figures results in an epidemic length of 311 days, with 779 deaths and 1721 res ultant immune individuals who had been previously infected. Figure 6 24 depicts a graphical plot of deaths, number of susceptible agents, and immune agents in one simulation. Take note that as the epidemic progresses the number of susceptible individuals drops gradually before flattening out. The number of immune cases increases along a similar trend after a certain number of days but never reaches the full population figure because not all people within the population become ill. The chart is somewhat pro blematic because both the deaths and the immune categories are stepped as a result of the simulation deciding on status changes at the same time each time step. Therefore there are significant changes in total category numbers at the same time. Figures 6 2 5 depicts the visual appearance of the simulated Tucson environment during one of the simulations. As previously noted, one pre symptomatic (but already infectious) agent was placed in the southwestern corner of the worksheet to simulate the entry of a Pap agents move around the landscape more people become infected and new cases of infections, and even deaths can already be seen on the leading edge of the epidemic by day 50. In this simulatio n people on the eastern and northern margins were less likely to

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212 come in contact with the disease prior to termination of the epidemic. In reality this would likely not be the case since people can move greater distances in one day than is accounted for in this current simulation. The placement of the first infective individual is very important in this simulation because it decides which area of the city will be hardest and more quickly struck by the epidemic. In this instance, placement of the infecti ve individual at the southern point of Main Street in Tucson would put the Mexican/Hispanic neighborhoods at greatest risk. This is an important implication because the historical data indicates that the Mexican community was in fact hardest hit during thi s particular epidemic. With any simulation it is important to be able to validate your model and verify whether or not it is an accurate representation of an event. Wit h the Tucson s mallpox example it is difficult to conclusively validate the model becau se of the lack of historical information, or the incompleteness or untrustworthiness of the data itself. There are a few measures, however, that can be investigated to determine whether the model is sound. First, based on the population figures (3100 indiv iduals) and utilized mortality deaths in the presented simulations ranged from 700 to 849, the upper margin of which is not too far below the expected average. Second, on e could compare the length of the epidemic as indicated by historical records with the length of the simulated epidemic. The epidemic took place between October of 1869 and April of 1870 for a rough total of 210 days. The simulated epidemic ran its course over a range of 200 to 399 days with an average of 311. This figure, too, is near to the actual statistic. Given that this was a

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213 would be greater overall than the his torical circumstance. In order to more accurately represent the real life context of the 1870 smallpox epidemic, it would be beneficial to simulate the impact of control measures that were known to have been taken, such as case isolation and vaccination. Additionally, be more realistic to include previously immune agents in the simulation from the start of the epidemic. Movements of the agents could be more closely specified. Instead of moving randomly agents could be set on particular paths where they might in one day travel between home and work, or home and school, etc. Contacts within these locations would then have a greater risk than people outside of a given contact circle. Finally, particularly if the Altar, Mexico, epidemic origin hypothesis is valid, the simulation should be expanded to include the neighboring community of San Xavier del Bac to simulate the actual spread from that location to Tucson and the spread of smallpox between Tucson an d adjoining Camp Lowell. E vidence of Smallpox in the Alameda Stone Cemetery As was previously mentioned, skeletal changes resulting from a smallpox infection occur only in juveniles, specifically individuals who fought the infection long enough for skel etal involvement to take place. Therefore, there is less of a chance that smallpox will be identified archaeologically. Additionally Variola osteomyelitis is the most diagnostic osteological indicator of smallpox involvement; however, osteomyelitis can be caused by a number of bacterial infections. The elbow is the most common site of

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214 involvement resulting from smallpox infection; however, all joints could possibly be affected, and therefore location of osteomyelitis is also not necessarily diagnostic. Leh er et al. (2010:519) report that osteomyelitis in general was fairly rare in the skeletal sample recovered from the Alameda Stone Cemetery. Twenty nine elements from 13 individuals exhibited osteomyelit is (Table 6 5 ). Most of the individuals affected were adults, and the most commonly affected skeletal elements were the tibia (n=10) and the femur (n=6) (Figure 6 26 ). Three of the adults had two or more elements affected by osteomyelitis, while all of the juveniles exhibited multiple affected elements su gge stive of systemic infection. Leher et al. (2010) surmised that some of these cases could be the result of tuberculosis (Grave 13614, Burial 21829 P), congenital syphilis (Grave Pit 13573, Burial 25106 P), or the healing of a serious fracture (Grave Pit 780 ). The proximal ulna and radius and/or distal humerus (as well as other elements) were sites of either osteomyelitis or periostit is (Figure 6 27 ) in each of the three infants, all of whom were of undetermined or Hispanic biological affinity, were the site of osteomyelitis in the t hree infants listed in Table 6 5 While definitely not conclusive, it is possible that this represents the effect of smallpox infection. Syphilis Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Trep onema pallidum (Zenilman 2007:978) There has been much debate in recent years about the origins of syphilis. Some scholars believe that syphilis originated in the Americas, as there is some evidence suggesting that it was present among Native Americans at least 500 years before the arrival of Christopher Columbus (Agnew

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215 with the disease through sexual contact with native women during their first expedition and carried it b ack to Europe. Others believe, instead, that syphilis was already present in the Old World in milder forms and that venereal syphilis emerged as a result of African trepen ematosis (Agnew 2010:86; Parascandola 2008). Whatever the point of origin, there is little doubt that by the 19 th century syphilis was a dreaded disease (Agnew 2010) Pathogenesis and Survivability Syphilis is a slow moving disease progressing through several stages. After initial infections, the treponemes multiply at the site of entry from two weeks to three months after infection causing inflammation and the formation of a chancre characteristic of primary stage syphilis. It is during this phase that the immune respons e begins to activate Figure 6 28 illustrates the course of the disea se during this early stage wherein CD4 + T lymphocytses infiltrate the lesion site and become sensitized to the bacteria antigen. Macrophages are then activated and attracted to the site by the T cell production of interferon. B cells are also attracted t o the site to produce antibodies. These T. pallidum specific antibodies then opsonize the bacteria allowing for the macrophages to participate in phagocytosis, thus neutralizing the spirochetes and resolving the primary chancre (Lukehart 2008:4). The seco ndary stage of syphilis typically manifests from four to ten weeks after the first appearance of the primary chancre. This stage is marked by the hematogenous dissemination of the treponeme spirochetes (Radolf et al.2006:207 208). This stage is characteriz ed by a rash appearing over the body (particularly on the palms and soles), and secondarily by sore throat, headaches, joint pain, and a low fever (Agnew 2010:87;

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216 Radolf et al. 2006:208). After two to six weeks these symptoms too are resolved even withou t treatment. If the disease is left to progress to t his point, it enters a latent p h a se which could last from 25 to 30 years. During the latent phase the bacteria could be dormant, or could spend their time silently continuing the penetration of the heart bones, and nervous system (Agnew 2010:87). The complete dissemination of the spirochetes throughout the body prompts the reemergence of the skin ulcers over all of the body which marks the progression in to the tertiary stage of syphilis. There is a wide variety of courses that the disease can take in this third stage, as well a number of complications or secondary infections that can cause problems ( Radolf et al. 2006:210 211). Generally, however, the tertiary stage is marked with the degeneration of the muscles, organs, bones, and the nervous system leading to debility, paralysis, and insanity (Agnew 2010:88). As can be seen in Table 6 6, the syphilis bacteria survive at an optimal temperature between 30 and 42 o C and at an hydrogen ion concentration betw een 6.5 and 8.0 according to sources compiled by Mitscherlich and Marth (1984:510 513). Even in optimal conditions, the bacteria cannot exist outside of the host for very long. For the few reported survivability studies shown in Table 6 6, the treponemes w ere able to survive in water or as bodily secretions on various surfaces for up to four hours. The bacteria are only shown to survive for up to 36 hours in a deceased host. Because the primary means of transmission of syphilis is through direct sexual cont act, even if someone were to handle a contaminated object within that four hour window, it would be unlikely that the disease would be transmitted effectively. Chances of contracting syphilis from a corpse is also relatively low because the general aversio n most people

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217 have to sexual relations with the dead, although necrophilia, or the condition whereby one gains sexual arousal through intercourse with the deceased, is one of many paraphilias noted by Hock (2010:520). Epidemiology Syphilis is most commonly transmitted through direct sexual contact during which the spirochete is able to penetrate mucous membranes or micro abrasions in the skin. Studies, however, have shown that there is on average only a 20% chance of transmission between an infected and an uninfected sexual partner. Reasonably, syphilis transmission increases in settings where individuals have high numbers of sexual partners. Commercial sex worker s and individuals who exhibit reckless sexual behaviors are at a much greater risk. Increased se xual activity or unsafe conditions and therefore higher transmission rates occur in age groups from 19 24 years of age ( Zenilman 2007:978).Syphilis can also be pass through the placenta from mother to fetus and develop into congenital syphilis (Ortner 20 03). Negative emotions or a poor state of psychological health are major factors affecting risk associated with sexual behaviors. Negative emotions, such as guilt, shame, fear of stigma, and embarrassment, often stemming from parental or religious teaching or restrictive cultural expectations, can lead to emotional distress that might people who harbor these negative emotions are more likely to shy away from sexual educatio n, refuse to properly communicate with partners about sexual risks and sexual health, avoid to submit to STI testing, and delay in seeking medical care for STIs. In addition, people who were sexually abused as children, or to a lesser degree as an

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218 adult, a re more likely to hold a poor sexual self image (Hock 2010:270). These individuals, consequently, have a higher likelihood of becoming prostitutes or have problems with substanc e abuse, both of which increase chances of contracting STIs. Osteological Indic ators The primary and secondary stages of syphilis are characterized pri ncipally by superficial or external manifestations of infection. It is only in the tertiary phase that syphilitic involvement escalates to the point where skeletal alterations develop. That said, Ortner (2003:279) cites research that suggests skeletal involvement only occurs in between 1% and 20% of syphilitic patients. Therefore, researchers must be wary when making grand assumptions about disease prevalence in archaeological collectio ns purely from osteological analysis. Of the cases where skeletal involvement does occur, more than 70% of all syphilitic lesions are found on the tibia, the bones surrounding the nasal cavity, and the bones of the cranial vault. Secondary sites of skelet al involvement by frequency include the ribs, sternum, and lastly the long bones. Multiple locations are usually involved at the same time, and the lesions usually occur bilaterally. Tertiary stage skeletal changes are often the result of either granulomat ous processes or chronic nongranulomatous inflammation, both of which can affect localized areas or an entire element. They can also affect only the periosteum, or may extend to the cortex and medullary cavity, but in all cases syphilitic skeletal lesions are marked by excessive osteoscle rosis (Ortner 2003:279 280). Leher et al. (2010:525 526) report that some characteristics of early congenital syphilis include, saber shin, diaphyseal osteomyelitis, osteitis, periosteal new bone

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219 growth, diaphyseal osteomy elitis, and multilaminated deposition of subperiosteal bone. Though it is not diagnostic by itself, the primary marker of congenital syphilis in young children is osteochondritis, or poor bone formation in the areas of endochondrial growth (Leher et al 20 10:525; Ortner 2003:290). The hematogenous dissemination of the syphilis bacteria through the fetal body during gestation is the cause of the osteochondritis. The greatest activity occurs at the distal aspect of the femur and the proximal aspect of the ti bia because these are the sites of the fastest growing metaphyses (Ortner 2003:291). Rose (1989:355) suggested that a series of fetal skeletons at Cedar Grove Cemetery in Arkansas exhibited systemic periostitis, which could be characteristic of congenital syphilis. This observation was in accordance with historical claims that syphilis was responsible for high instance of stillbirths and a high neonatal mortality rate among African American populations in the late 19 th century. Eighty one percent of the fe tal individuals exhibited systemic periostitis, while 48 percent of the individuals between 3 months and 3.5 years did. Systemic periostitis was largely absent after 3.5 years. The location of periostitis was also consistent with reported periosteal involv ement with venereal syphilis, with the tibia, fibula, radius, ulna, and femurs being involved. Periostitis of the arm bones was common at Cedar Grove, and Rose (1989:355) notes that this type of involvement is not common with other types of infectious dise ases. Alterations to the dentition may occur with late congenital syphilis. The central incisors are most often affected because they are the earliest teeth to form. A deep,

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220 Molars may also be affected resulting in smaller overall size with atrophied cusps. 526). Gonorrhea The other venereal disease that was prevalent in cities throughout the West was gono rrhea. Caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae the infection was also and it has been suggested that it is the oldest of the STDs (Agnew 2010:88; Ison 2011:77). According to Agnew (2010:88), gonorrhea was des cribed in the Christian Bible (Book of Leviticus) and in early Chinese writings. It is estimated that between 50% and 80% of all men between the ages of 18 and 30 in the Western U.S. in the 19 th century contracted gonorrhea during their lives (Agnew 2010:8 8). Pathogenesis and Survivability Gonococcal infection (Figure 6 29 ) occurs when the bacterium, discharged from the genitals of a sexual partner, attaches to the mucosal surface inside of the vagina, urethra, throat, or even the eye, although infection o f the genitals is most common. The bacterium is able then to penetrate the columnar epithelial cells and becomes established and multiplies in the basement membrane immune response. Macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) are dispatched to neutralize the invaders (Ison 2011:77; Morse 1996). The Neisseria bacteria have developed ways of subverting the intention of the neutrophils by negating phagocytosis by hitching a ride on the PMN uropod (Sderholm et al. 2011). Ce ll damage is caused by the secretion of gonococcal lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which stimulates the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The resultant cell damage allows necrotic

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221 fluid laden with bacteria to escape the epithelium and exit the body as g onorrheal discharge (Ison 2011:77; Morse 1996). Contracting gonorrhea is not as serious as an infection with syphilis. Gonorrhea victims usually exhibit painful urination and purulent discharge from the urethra two to six days after infection (Agnew 2010:8 9) If left untreated however, the infection can also cause cystitis, proctitis, stomatitis, and sterility (Mitscherlich and Marth 1984:278 284). Less commonly, gonorrhea infection could disseminate throughout the body causing skin rashes, fever, vomiting abdominal distress, eye infections, kidney damage, joint inflammation, and gono ccocal arthritis (Agnew 2010:89). The hematogenous spread of the gonococcal infection occurs in only 0.5 3% of cases. In 60% of those individuals progressing to disseminated g onococcal infections, polyarticular, asymmetric, migratory arthralgias are the most common complaints often accompanied by tenosynovitis and skin lesions. Joint effusion is usually absent in this stage. Arthritic manifestations usually involve the upper ex tremities more than the lower limbs, with the wrists, elbows, ankles, and knees being the most commonly affected sites in order of frequency. Forty percent of disseminated gonococcal infections progress to septic gonococcal arthritis, which typically only affects one joint with manifesting effusion. (Haupt and Rein 2003:556) As can be seen in Table 6 7, the gonorrhea bacteria survive at an optimal temperature between 30 and 38.5 o C and at an hydrogen ion concentration between 5.65 and 8.17 according to sour ces compiled by Mitscherlich and Marth (1984:278 284). Even in optimal conditions, the bacteria cannot exist outside of the host for very long. For the few reported survivability studies shown in Table 6 7, the gonococcal bacteria

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222 were able to survive in b odily secretions from as little as one day, and as many as eight days Epidemiology Gonorrhea is transmitted from infected individual to an uninfected person almost exclusively through direct sexual contact, including contact of contaminated bodily fluids t o the mucous membranes of a susceptible individual Morse (1996) estimates that the likelihood of transmission after one exposure is about 50 60% from an infected man to an uninfected woman, and about 35% from an infected woman to an uninfected man. More t han 90% of men who become infected will develop symptoms, while only 30 50% of women do so (Agnew 2010; Morse 1996). Because of the increasingly intense pain associated with the infection in men, they tend to seek medical care more often than women (Agnew 2010:89). This greatly increases the chance of sterility in the woman and the possibility of spreading the disease to more male partners. Like most sexually transmitted diseases, the young adult between 15 and 29 is at the highest risk statistically (Mors e 1996). Persons who have multiple sex partners, like commercial sex workers, have a much greater risk. Similarly, transmission rates are higher among social groups who regularly engage in reckless sexual behaviors or promote sex with multiple partners (Is on 2011:78; Morse 1996). As was the case with syphilis, negative emotions are major factors affecting risk of gonorrhea transmission. Guilt, shame, fear of stigma, and embarrassment, often stemming from parental or religious teaching or restrictive cultur al expectations, can choices. Hock (2010:270) states that people who harbor these negative emotions are

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223 more likely to shy away from sexual education, refuse to properly communicate with partners about sexual risks and sexual health, avoid to submit to STI testing, and delay in seeking medical care for STIs. In addition, people who were sexually abused as children, or to a lesser degree as an adult, are more likely to hold a poor sexual self image (Hock 2010:270). These individuals, consequently, have a higher likelihood of becoming prostitutes or have problems with substance abuse, both of which increases chances of contracting STIs Osteological Indicators There are no spe cific diagnostic skeletal changes associated with a gonorrheal infection. If left untreated, the skeleton could be subject to some of the same non specific skeletal alterations, including periosteal reactions, periostitis, and o steomyelitis. Gonorrheal inf ections however, have also been known to cause an arthritis known as septic gono ccocal arthritis. Only immunological tests of tissue or effusions from the affected joints can identify the gonorrhea bacteria; pathological presentation of gonorrheal arthrit is on the skeleton does not differ from other types of septic arthritis. Venereal Disease and Prostitution in 19th Century Tucson Prostitution in Tucson Prosti tutes and their customers, who included a fair number of military men, were most likely responsi ble for the majority of new venereal disease cases in Tucson Most prostitutes would have been cognizant of their risk and attempted to douche with antiseptic to try to prevent infection. Many would have also inspected and washed the genitalia of their cus tomers with soap and water, or carbolic acid, prior to engaging in coitus. Some prostitutes, however, ignored the risks, particularly when faced with a

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224 heavy customer demand, or if alcohol or drugs were in constant usage (Agnew 2010:85). Most citizens in Tucson during the mid to late 19 th century accepted prostituti on as an ever present, if not integral part of frontier life (Figure 6 30 ). Carmony (1994:17) casts a rather bleak picture of the scene: Life was hard on the frontier. The golden dreams that bro ught the poioneers to the southwest were rarely realized. Many found only dashed hopes, loneliness, and adespair. It is no wonder that George Hand and his customers sought comfort in oceans of booze, and bought love from the red light district] Little is known about the prostitutes themselves. Many were not listed in federal census as they existed somewhat on the boundary of society (Eppinga 2000:64). A narrow window into prostitution in Tucson during the mid 1870s comes in t he form of diaries written by George Hand, co owner of the Hand and Foster Saloon On Sunday, May 23, 1875, Hand recorded that he ate dinner at the hotel de Neugass, went to a dance, and st of 1875 as is shown in Table 6 8. Whether he was strict in his recording of these encounters cannot be determined for sure. There are periods where Hand meets up with a lady several times per week, but then there are months where no mention is made of his trysts. After the end of 1875, Hand seems to have become less devout in his recording of these social escapades and more cryptic in his description, saying simply that he see a young lady No accounts of meetings with

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225 prostitutes are recorded between January of 1877 and November of 1878, suggesting that Hand did not bother to make mention of these activities during that period. of the prostitute community in Tucson during the late 1870s, or at least of that portion of the comm 1878 diaries (Table 6 9). Full names are given in only two cases, and it is possible that the names of the others are not their real names. Barring that possibility, however, it appears that the majority of these individuals (n = 15) have Hispanic names suggesting they were likely of Mexican or Mexican American heritage. However, local Catholic Native American groups, such as the Tohono names, so it is possible that some of the individuals might belong to those communities. Very few African Americans lived in Tucson during this period, but at least one of the prostitutes m entioned by Hand has an African derived name. Three of the ladies have names derived from other European countries suggesting they were likely European or Euroamerican. Hand had the habit of providing nicknames to some individuals, which helps in identifyi name itself comes from the Native American tribe originally from the Southeastern United States, but one would not expect of someone from that ethnic group to use the tribal name as a personal name. It could potentially be a nickname given by Hand. prominent activities to be hoste

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226 Hispanic females, particularly those who are widows. However, in this case, Hand uses sometimes on a weekly basis at the homes or businesses of Doa Bernanda, Doa Flavia, Doa Juana, Big Carmel, Doa Luisa, among others. These dances were often the sites of drunken brawls not only among the men, but also among the prostitutes. For example, Big Jess, Refugia, and others had a fight at a dance held in an alley on February 15, 1875, after which they were arrested and later fined $7.00 (Carmony 1994:38). Will. C. Barnes, who passed through Tucson in 1880, described the town later in his book, Apaches and Longhorns To me it seemed that every other building on the business street was a saloon everyone packed with a motley crowd of men of many nationalities: teamsters, bull whackers, soldiers Army officers, miners, of every race and color red, white, and black; old ones, middle aged ones, and young lasses of businesses, gambling and prostitution, were evidently on a par as to respectability with the selling of drygoods and groceries. [Lockwood 1941:19] It was perhaps this close association between the saloon crowd and the prostitutes that solidified their place in society, even if that place was on the fringes. They were integral members of the community, forming close relationships with people with whom they break on the little heads of the beautiful (Carmony 1994:35). Eggshells in this case refer to confetti filled cascarones often used during Mexican Carnaval, which apparently were purchased by Davis to engage the prostitutes in the festivities. On

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227 February 8, 1875, Hand notes that several of the men participated in a shivaree, a type of loud musical roast or serenade, when one of the beloved prostitutes got married friends, out of a bout of alcohol withdrawal by bringing him a drink and bowl of soup (Carmony 1994:94). Hand, himself, was known to care to a few of the prostitutes in their time of need, as was the case on January 6, 1875, when Hand found Carmel quite drunk at a restau rant. He took her back to his home and put her to bed to rest while he took a walk around town (Carmony 1994:29). As more Easterners and family men arrived in the late 1870s and 1880s there s night life. The first ment ion of prostitution in the Tucson City Council minutes came during the July 8, 1879 meeting: loud and riotous conduct of the occupants of the premises of the North East corner of Meye r Street and Maiden Lane. One motion ordered that the Marshal be instructed to notify occupant s of said premises and of all houses of ill fame to remove from the central portion of the city within days. [Hardy 1910] egulation of prostitution until four years later in 1883, with the adoption of two important ordinances in May of 1883, including Ordinance Number 44 and Ordinance Number 48 Victorian norms asserted themselves in Ordinance Number 44, which prohibited inde cent or lewd dress, books, plays, banned Ordinance Number 48 attempted to battle the ho uses of ill repute from a health angle : That in order to prevent the spread of contagious or infectious diseases within the city, and to control houses of ill fame, it shall be the duty of the health officer or his deputy to visit monthly all such houses, between the

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228 first and tenth day of each month and examine each female inmate therein for the purpose of ascertaining whether she may be affected with any such disease, the above, and if found free from such disease, the above named officer shall supply th e person examines with a certificate, which certificate shall give the name and residence of the person examined, and also state the fact of her healthful condition. [Hardy 1910:133] For his services in conducting the certifications (Figure 6 31 ), the exam iner received five dollars. Half of the fee went to a hospital fund to pay for the care of women who failed to pass the test. While no health records on the prostitutes or the general population of Tucson have been located for the 19 th century, one side no but Carmony (1994:200) indicates that blue mass was a medicinal preparation containing mercury that sometimes came in the form of a little b lue pill which was used to treat syphilis or other types of venereal diseases. Critics of prostitution and alcoholism in Tucson continued their attack in the to the city co Maish leaned toward leaving the prostitutes alone as long as they followed the previous ordinances and did not engage in public exhibition, pleas from the principal of the Indian Scho ol, as well as several prominent local businessmen coerced the city council to pass Ordinance 72, which made it unlawful to maintain a facility with the intent of using said location for the purposes of prostitution with 750 yards of City Hall, any public school, or any other public building within Tucson city limits (Hardy 1910:144). Ordinance Number 72 did not outlaw prostitution altogether, however, it merely in busi ness with the occupation of a series of small cribs running along a small street

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229 known as Gay Alley running from Ochoa to McCormick streets and between Convent and Meyer Streets. Each of the cribs contained a double bed, a table, and a chair Most of the gi rls would sit in the windows or doors dressed in gaudy attire or make up attempting to entice men into the alley (Leavengood 1996:34 35). It did not long before complaints about the behavior of residents of Gay Alley began again, but the city government wa according to Leavengood 1996:35) which was officially codified as Ordinance 117 in door or wi ndow of any such house or room to remain open for any time or for any and doors, however, did not stop prostitution in Tucson, in fact, law enforcement and government offic ials still battle with this problem today. Statistical a nalysis of venereal d isease at Camp Lowell Prior to the adoption of Ordinance 48 in 1883, there would have been no required health checks among the prostitutes thus leaving the door open for a great er spread of infection. No sign ificant information has been located about potential health records exposing the presence of venereal diseases in the civilian population of Tucson for the 19 th century It is fortunate, however that there was a hospital at Camp Lowell. Case ledgers from August 1866 to December 1883 (National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 94, Entry 544, Volumes 118 121) have been transcribed (Appendices D H) and they report two types of prominent venereal diseases at Camp Lowell -syphilis and gonorrhea.

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230 Figure 6 3 2 shows the number of cases of syphilis (aggregating aforementioned types) and gonorrhea recorded in the Camp Lowell hospital ledgers between August 1866 and January 1879. If given only this data, there appears to be a significant increase in both the density and magnitude of cases after the move of Camp Lowell to the Rillito River location in March of 1873 Pure case totals, however, are not accurate representations of the frequency of the disease because the numb er of men stationed at the fort also fluctuated over this time period. It, therefore, becomes necessary to interact disease case number with mean garrison strength, which was obtained from 1866 December 1891 (National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 94, Entries 617 653) (Figure 6 33 ). When this selected STD/Garrison ratio is charted, one can make the visual observation that gonorrhea appears more consistently in the Tucson period, but has at least one instance of great increase in the Rillito period. The impact of syphilis appears to be much greater and more frequent in the Rillito period. But are these observations statistically accurate? In order to determine whether ther e is a significant difference between the incidence of syphilis and gonorrhea among the soldiers at Camp Lowell prior to and after the March 1873 move to the Rillito River, the means of the two samples must be compared. Using the statistical software pack age NCSS, a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was performed using the Tucson (n=78) and Rillito (n=69) subsets of the gonorrhea and syphilis ratios as independent response variables (Figures 6 34 and 6 35 ). The mean for the entire syphilis sample i s 0.00539. If no significant difference

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231 exists between the two subsets, the means should be roughly equal. The Rillito syphilis sample, however, yields a mean of 0.0081, while the Tucson syphilis sample has a mean of 0.0030. This lends support to the hypot hesis that syphilis cases significantly increased after the move to the Rillito camp. What was the cause of this increase, however? Because of the long term nature of the disease, it is difficult to attribute this increase to infection of the prostitutes i n Tucson in this later time period. It is likely that the increase in disease cases in reflective of an increase in garrison strength and the importation of a greater number of previously infected enlisted men. Isolating cases of primary syphilis associate d with men of long tenure at Camp Lowell could provide a more telling image of syphilis in this context. Gonorrhea is a much better indicator of whether the move of Camp Lowell actually benefited the sexual health of the soldiers due to the short incubat ion period of the disease and the likelihood that new infections were not imported from elsewhere. The means between the two subsets do not differ a great deal. The overall sample mean is 0.0070. The mean for the Rillito subset is 0.0077 and the mean for t he Tucson subset is 0.0065, suggesting that there is actually a slight increase in the incidence of gonorrhea after the move to the Rillito location. If one ignored the effect of the apparent outliers and focus only on the confidence band of the box plot i t would appear that there is actually a decrease in the mean gonorrhea incidence after the move to the Rillito location. Evidence of Venereal Disease in Alameda Stone Cemetery Two adults recovered from the Alameda Stone Cemetery were identified as having definite lesions associated with treponemal infection. A male, aged 45 65 years (Grave

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232 Pit 10078, Burial 14566 P) of indeterminate biological ancestry presented with healed and remodeled caries sicca on the frontal bone suggesting that he had been living w ith the infection for some time. A second individual, a female (Grave Pit 10103, Burial 11970 P) of indeterminate ancestry between 25 and 35 years of age, exhibited evidence of caries sicca on the right parietal (Figure 6 36) There was some weathering on the parietal, but remodeled gummatous lesions were apparent. Periosteal new bone growth was also recorded on the right ulna, right radius, left femur, right fibula, and both tibiae of the same individual. A Hispanic male (Grave Pit 7720, Burial 16836 P) be tween the ages 35 and 45 exhibited no syphilitic lesions, but had periosteal new bone growth on both tibiae, the right fibula, and the left fifth metatarsal, and anterior bowing of the tibiae (Figure 6 37) (Leher et al. 2010:525) Leher et al. (2010:526) id entified four infants with evidence of congenital syphilis. Three of these individuals were listed in Table 6 5 as they had exhibited osteomyelitis and multilaminated circumferential periosteal new bone on a few of the long bones. Possible osteochondrosis appeared on the distal metaphysis of the right femur of the fourth infant who was of indeterminate ancestry (Grave Pit 29282, Burial 28755 P) (Figure 6 38) A child (Grave Pit 13926, Burial 28294) of Euroamerican ancestry between ages 10.5 and 12, display for lateral incisors, peg shaped mandibular central incisors, and Mulberry molars ) (Figure 6 39) suggestive of congenital syphilis. Periosteal new bone growth also appears on the visceral surface of a number of sternal rib ends of this individual (Leher et al. 2010:526). Indirect evidence of possible venereal disease appeared in the grave of a young Euroamerican female aged 25 30 years (Grave Pit 7695, Burial 14872 P) This female

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233 displayed skeletal changes n ot entirely consistent with treponemal infection, but analysis of hair and soil samples from the burial reveal high levels of mercury in the pubic region. Steele (2005:117) notes that mercury was a common ingredient in topical salves used for treatment of venereal diseases (including both syphilis and gonorrhea) in the 19 th century. It is possible that this individual was suffering from such a malady (Leher et al. 2010:526).

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234 Figure 6 1. Image of Shitala. [Reprinted with permission from Peter Blohm. Kali ghat Collection http://www.indianminiaturepaintings.co.uk/ Kalighat_collection_31110.html Accessed 5/15/2012.] Figure 6 2 Stages of the smallpox rash [Reprinted with permis sion from Anderson, Phil. 2011. Smallpox: Causes, Diagnosis, Symptoms St. Rosemary Educational Institution. May 21, 2011. http://schoolworkhelper.net/2011/05 /smallpox causes diagnosis symptoms /. Accessed 4/26/2012.]

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235 Figure 6 3. Model of Variola virus (VARV) pathogenesis. [Reprinted with permission of Wahl Jensen, Victoria, Jennifer A. Cann, Kathleen H. Rubins, John W. Huggins, Robert W. Fisher, Anthony J. Johnson, Fabian de Kok Mercado, Thomas Larsen, Jo Lynne Raymond, Lisa E. Hensley, and Peter B. Jahrling. 2011. Progression of Pathogenic Events in Cynomolgus Macaques Infected with Variola Virus. PLoS ONE 6(10):e24832. (Page 10, Figure 7).]

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236 Table 6 1. A classification of clinical types of Variola major Ordinary type Raised pustular skin lesions. Three subtypes: confluent confluent rash on face and forearms; semiconfluent confluent rash on face, discrete elsewhere; discrete areas of normal skin between pustules, even on face. Modified type Like ordinary type but with an accelerated course. Variola sine eruption Fever without rash caused by Variola virus; serological confirmation required. Flat type Pustules remained flat; usually confluent or semiconf luent. Usually fatal. Haemorrhagic type Widespread haemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes. Two subtypes: early, with purpuric rash; always fatal; late, with haemorrhages into base of pustules; usually fatal. *Adapted from Fenner, Frank, Donald A. Smallpox and Its Eradication World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Table 6 2 Estimates of death rate generated by sinusoidal regression analysis. [Reprinted with permission from Upham, St eadman. 1986. Smallpox and Climate in the American Southwest. American Anthropologist 88(1):115 128. (Page 123, Table 5). ] Mean annual temp. ( o F) Mean annual relative humidity (%) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 10 Loss of infectivity at 32 o F 20 30 7.84 6.75 5.67 4.58 3.50 2.41 1.33 0.24 40 8.54 7.46 6.37 5.29 4.20 3.12 2.03 0.94 50 9.25 8.17 7.08 5.99 4.91 3.82 2.74 1.65 0.57 60 9.96 8.87 7.79 6.70 5.62 4.53 3.45 2.36 1.28 0.19 70 10.66 9.58 8.49 7.41 6.32 5.24 4.15 3. 07 1.98 0.89 80 11.37 10.28 9.19 8.11 7.03 5.94 4.86 3.77 2.69 1.60 90 Loss of infectivity at 86 o F 100 *Bold text indicates optimal conditions for the survivability of the smallpox virus.

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237 Table 6 3 Survivability of smallpox virus in various environ mental conditions. Organism Infective Medium Survival Time Reference Variola spp. Scabs collected from smallpox patients, kept in dark room between 15 and 30 o C with 35 98 relative humidity 13 years Wolff and Croon 1968 Scabs collected from smallpox p atients, kept in dark at room temperature 97 417 days Walther and Ewald 2004 Scabs from smallpox patient, exposed to indirect light and stored between 20 and 24 o C 530 days Walther and Ewald 2004 Scabs from smallpox patient, exposed to indirect light at room temperature 196 days Walther and Ewald 2004 Scabs from smallpox patient, kept in dark at 30 o C 60 185 days Walther and Ewald 2004 Variola tion scabs collected in Afganistan, Ethiopia, and Pakistan kept in untold conditions 9 months Zuckerman 1984 Vesicle fluid smeared on glass slide, kept in dark room at room temperature 84 days Walther and Ewald 2004 Vesicle fluid smeared on glass slide, exposed to indirect light at room temperature 35 days Walther and Ewald 2004 Urine 19 days Sinclair et al. 2008 Smallpox scabs dried in peat smoke, covered with camphor, and stored underground 8 years Razzell 1977 Corpse buried in England in an oak coffin 30 years Razzell 1976 Vaccinia Virus Storm water stores at 4.5 o C 29.8 59.5 days Sinclair et al. 2008 Storm water between 19 and 23 o C 72 144 hours Sinclair et al. 2008 Storm water with fetal calf serum stored at 4.5 o C 29.8 59.5 days Sinclair et al. 2008 Storm water with fetal calf serum between 19 and 23 o C 5 13.9 days Sinclair et al. 2008 Storm wat er and soil stored at 4.5 o C 5 10 days Sinclair et al. 2008 Storm water and soil between 19 and 23 o C 24 29 hours Sinclair et al. 2008 Tap water between 9 and 15 o C 110 120 days Sinclair et al. 2008 River water/sea water between 9 and 15 o C 110 160 days Sinclair et al. 2008

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238 Figure 6 4. Graph showing the number of viable Variola spp particles found in scabs in the 1968 study by Wolff and Croon. Figure 6 5 Early Chinese illustration showing inoculation method [Reprinted with permission by t he His torical Medical Library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia History of Vaccines Project. http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/smallpox Accessed 4/26/2012. ]

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239 Figure 6 6 Ivory points with storage box. [Reprinted with permission from Science Museum London, Science & Society Picture Library, Inventory No. A60244. http: //www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/objects/display.aspx?id=5290 Accessed 7/13/2012 ] Figure 6 n church at San Xavier del Bac [ Reprinted with permission from Powell, H.M.T., and Douglas S. Watson. 1931. The Santa Fe Trail to California, 1849 1852: The Journal and Drawings of H.M.T. Powell Book Club of California, San Francisco, CA.

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240 Figure 6 8. Google map showing current route between Tucson, Arizona, and Altar, Mexico (Accessed 4/15/2012). Figure 6 filled with water and hung in their breezeways. [Reprinted with the permission from San Xavier Mission.]

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241 Figure 6 10. Smallpox deaths recorded in the 1870 Mortality Schedule for Tucson. (H = Hispanic, NHW = Non Hispanic White, NA = Native American, B = Black. Numbers in legend refer to age categories.) Figure 6 11 AgentSheets conceptual model [Reprinted with the permission of AgentSheets, Inc., Boulder, CO.]

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242 Figure 6 12 AgentSheets condition and action palettes. Figure 6 13 AgentSheets conversational programming flow chart [Reprinted with the permission of AgentSheets, Inc., Boulder CO.]

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243 Figure 6 14 Agent Gallery. Figure 6 15 Tucson Smallpox worksheet depictin g 3100 healthy Tucsonans, one pre symptomatic (and therefore infectious) individual and one doctor.

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244 Figure 6 16 Temporal control method block governing initial agent statuses. Figure 6 17 Tucson s mallpox simulation.

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245 Figure 6 Figure 6 19 s mallpox simulation.

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246 Figure 6 20 ks in Tucson s mallpox simulat ion. Figure 6 21 s mallpox simulation.

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247 Figure 6 simulation. Figure 6 23. Simulation properties.

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248 Table 6 4 Outcomes for ten Tucson simulations. Simulation Days Deaths Immune 1 200 745 1647 2 246 800 1700 3 350 767 1856 4 398 779 1653 5 289 700 1601 6 399 849 1810 7 267 823 1744 8 323 798 1712 9 290 721 1687 10 345 812 1799 Avg. 311 779 1721 F igure 6 24. Plot of susceptible, deaths, and i mmune cl asses in one run of the Tucson s mallpox simulation.

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249 Figure 6 25. Simulated Tucson environment during one of the simulations. From left to right the figures show the w orksheet at day 1 (A), day 50 (B), day 100 (C), day 150 (D), and day 200 (E). E B A D C

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250 Table 6 5. Summary of i ndividuals with osteomyelitis in the Alameda Stone Cemetery. Grave pit no. Burial Cemetery area Age (years) Sex Biological affinity 826 6825 2 25 30 mal e European 829 6904 2 35 45 male European 3244 3417 P3 2 40 60 male Hispanic 7553 9721 3 50+ male Hispanic 7578 9871 3 18 35 female Native American 7695 14872 3 25 30 female European 7809 4 18 99 indeterminate indeterminate 7957 19539 3 0.25 0.42 indeterminate indeterminate 13573 25106 3 0.67 1.33 indeterminate indeterminate 13600 28511 4 6 10 indeterminate Hispanic 13611 21790 3 25 30 female Native American 13614 21829 3 30 40 male European 13654 27544 4 0.00 0.50 indeterminate indeterminate *A dap ted fr om from Leher, Tamara L., Shannon B. Black, and Patrick B. Stanton. 2010. Pathological Conditions In The History, Archaeology, and S keletal Biology of the Alameda Stone Cemetery edited by M i chael P. Heilen, Joseph T. Hefner, and Mitchell A. Keur, Technical Report 10 96 (Page 5 62 Table 1 60 ). Statisti cal Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ. Figure 6 26 Frequency of skeletal elements affected by o steomyelitis. [ Reprinted with permission from Leher, Tamara L., Shannon B. Black, and Patrick B. Stanton. 2010. Pathological Conditions In The History, Archaeology, and Skeletal Biology of the Alameda Stone Cemetery edited by M ichae l P. Heilen, Joseph T. Hefner, and Mitchell A. Keur, Technical Report 10 96 (Page 543, Figure 151). Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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251 Figure 6 27 Left ulna of Individual P from Grave Pit 13654, Burial 27544, sh owing proliferative periostitis and osteomyelitis [Reprinted with permission from Leher, Tamara L., Shannon B. Black, and Patrick B. Stanton. 2010. Pathological Conditions In The History, Archaeology, and Skeletal Biology of the Alameda Stone Cemetery ed ited by M ichael P. Heilen, Joseph T. Hefner, and Mitchell A. Keur, Technical Report 10 96 (Page 543, Figure 152). Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 6 28. Pathogenesis of early syphilis [Reprinted with permission from Lukehart, Sheila A. 2008. Scientific Monogamy: Thirty Years Dancing with the Same Bug. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 35(1):2 7. (Page 4, Figure 2).]

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252 Table 6 6. Survivability of Treponema pallidum in the environment. Organism Infective Medium Survival Time in Hours Optimal Growt h Temperature ( o C) Optimal Hydrogen Ion Concentration Treponema pallidum Secretions Mixture of equal parts testicular juices rich in treponemata and physiological saline solution exposed to daylight at room temperature (Reasoner 1917) 4 30 42 (Smibert 1 974) 6.5 8.0 (Smibert 1974) Secretions infectious secretions dried on sponges (Neisser 1911) 90 min Water Mixture of equal parts of testicular juice rich in treponemata and sterile distilled water stored exposed to daylight at room temperature (R easoner 1917) 4 Corpse material recovered from syphilitic autopsy patient (Kratzeisen 1923) 12.0 24.0 Corpse material recovered from syphilitis fetuses post mortem. The bacteria multiply in bodies of fetuses that remain devitalized in utero for long periods (Hoffman 1926). 24.0 36.0 *Adapted from Mitscherlich, Eilhard, and Elmer H. Marth. 1984. Microbial Survival in the Environment: Bacteria and Rickettsiae Important in Human and Animal Health Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

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253 Figure 6 29 Pathogenesis of gonorrheal infection. [Reprinted with permission from Morse, Stephen A. 1996. Neisseria, Moraxella, Kingella and Eikenella In Medical Microbiology edited by S. Baron. 4th ed. University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX. (Figure 14 2).]

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254 Table 6 7. Survivability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the environment. Organism Infective Medium Survival Time in Days Optimal Growth Temperature ( o C) Optimal Hydrogen Ion Concentration Neisseria gonorrhoeae Pus Purulent discharge kept at room temperature (Morton 1977) 24 hours 30 38.5 (Reyn 1974) 5.65 8.17 (Engering 1923) Semen collected by masterbation from 13 men 18 31 years of age placed in vials and kept at 22 o C (Sherman and Rosenfeld 1975) 1.0 8.0 Urine collected fr om seven infected men placed in vials and stored at 22 o C (Sherman and Rosenfeld 1975) 1.0 5.0 *Adapted from Mitscherlich, Eilhard, and Elmer H. Marth. 1984. Microbial Survival in the Environment: Bacteria and Rickettsia e Important in Human and Animal He alth. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

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255 Figure 6 Arizona Historical Society, Tucson, AZ. Schneider Papers, 1867 1949, MS0715, Box 1, Folder 12, #99894.]

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256 Table 6 8. List een 1875 and 1878 Page Date Prostitute Name Expense 30 Jan. 13, 1875 Cruz $5.00 31 Jan. 17, 1875 Carmel $3.00 31 Jan. 18, 1875 (Unknown Girl) $2.00 32 Jan. 22, 1875 Jess (Big) $2.00 32 Jan. 24, 1875 Cruz $2.00 33 Jan. 28, 1875 Carmel $2.00 33 Jan. 31, 1875 Jess (Little) $1.00 43 Mar. 19, 1875 Maria $2.00 43 Mar. 22, 1875 Cherokee $2.00 44 Apr. 10, 1875 Refugia (Big) [Revira} $2.00 48 May 13, 1875 Cruz $2.00 48 M ay 16, 1875 Carmel (Big) $2.00 49 May 23, 1875 Cruz $4.00 50 May 29, 1875 Cruz $2.00 51 June 3, 1875 Carmel (Big) $2.00 51 June 7, 1875 Louise $1.00 53 June 15, 1875 Louise $2.00 53 June 23, 1875 Juana $2.00 56 July 16, 1875 Louise $2.00 58 Aug. 10, 1875 Carmel (Big) $1.00 59 Aug. 13, 1875 Juana (New) $1.00 59 Aug. 15, 1875 Juana $1.00 59 Aug. 17, 1875 (New Girl) $2.00 60 Aug. 26, 1875 Refugia (New) $1.75 60 Aug. 30, 1875 Refugia $1.00 63 Sept. 22, 1875 Refugia $1.00 68 Oct. 2 6, 1875 Carmel (Big) $1.00 68 Oct. 26, 1875 Juana (Little) $1.00 68 Oct. 29, 1875 Carmel (Big) $1.00 68 Nov. 1, 1875 Carmel (Big) $1.00 68 Nov. 2, 1875 Jess (Big) $1.00 68 Nov. 6, 1875 Juana $1.00 86 Feb. 4, 1876 Carmel 98 Apr. 12, 1876 (Unk nown) 100 Apr. 30, 1876 (Unknown) 107 July 5, 1876 (Unknown) 109 July 16, 1876 (Unknown) 109 July 17, 1876 (Unknown) 112 Aug. 8, 1876 (Lady in Black) 118 Oct. 27, 1876 (Unknown)

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257 Table 6 8. Continued. Page Date Prostitute Name Expense 123 De c. 22, 1876 Pancha $10.00 123 Dec. 27, 1876 (Unknown) 204 Nov. 6, 1878 (Unknown) 206 No. 26, 1878 (Unknown) 207 Nov. 29, 1878 (Unknown) 208 Dec. 6, 1878 (Unknown) 208 Dec. 7, 1878 Lola (Big) *Compiled from Carmony (1994). Table 6 9. List of names and demographic of prostitutes and madams active in Tucson Name General Name Origin Possible Ethnicity Bernanda (Doa) Spanish Mexican American Carmel Hebrew Mexican American Chata Africa n African American Cherokee Native American Native American? Cleopha (Big) French Euroamerican Cruz Spanish Mexican American Flavia (Doa) Spanish Mexican American Jess (Little) Spanish Mexican American Jess (Big) Spanish Mexican American Juana (D oa) Spanish Mexican American Juana (Little) Spanish Mexican American Kendall Gaelic Euroamerican Lola (Big) Spanish Mexican American Louise (the Squaw ) German/French Native American Luisa Spanish Mexican American Maria Spanish Mexican American Panc ha Spanish Mexican American Refugia Revira ( La Churra or the Roadrunner ) Spanish Mexican American Refugia (New) Spanish Mexican American Teresa Spanish Mexican American Zella Johnson German/English Euroamerican *Compiled from Carmony (1994).

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258 Figur e 6 31. Example of health certificate issued to a Tucson prostitute in the 1910s. [Reprinted with permission from Arizona Historical Society, Tucson, AZ. Schneider Papers, 1867 1949, MS0715, Box 1, Folder 11.] Figure 6 32 Bar graph showing total month ly cases of gonorrhea and s yphilis at Camp Lowell from August 1866 until January 1879.

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259 Figure 6 33 Bar gr aphs showing ratios of monthly syphilis and g onorrhea counts to mean garrison strength at Camp Lowell from August 1866 until January 1879.

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260 F igure 6 34 Box plot and means plot of gonorrhea ratio means for the Tucson and Rillito subsets for Camp Lowell. Figure 6 35 Box plot and means plot of syphilis ratio means for the Tucson and Rillito subsets for Camp Low ell.

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261 Figure 6 36 Cranium of Individual P from Grave Pit 10078, Burial 14566, showing caries sicca. [Reprinted with permission from Leher, Tamara L., Shannon B. Black, and Patrick B. Stanton. 2010. Pathological Conditions In The History, Archaeology, and Skeletal Biology of the A lameda Stone Cemetery edited by M ichael P. Heilen, Joseph T. Hefner, and Mitchell A. Keur, Technical Report 10 96 (Page 548, Figure 158). Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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262 Figure 6 37 Tibiae of Individual P from Grave Pit 7720, Burial 16836, showing anterior bowing. [Reprinted with permission from Leher, Tamara L., Shannon B. Black, and Patrick B. Stanton. 2010. Pathological Conditions In The History, Archaeology, and Skeletal Biology of the Alameda Stone Cemetery edited by M i chael P. Heilen, Joseph T. Hefner, and Mitchell A. Keur, Technical Report 10 96 (Page 549, Figure 159). Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 6 38 Distal end of right femur of Individual P from Grave Pit 29282, Burial 28755, exhibiting osteochondrosis. [Reprinted with permission from Leher, Tamara L., Shannon B. Black, and Patrick B. Stanton. 2010. Pathological Conditions In The History, Archaeology, and Skeletal Biology of the Alameda Stone Cemetery edited by M ichael P. Heilen, Joseph T. Hefner, and Mitchell A. Keur, Tech nical Report 10 96 (Page 549, Figure 160). Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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263 Figure 6 39 Mandible of Individual P from Grave Pit 13926, Burial 28294, exhibiting Mulberry molars. [Reprinted with permission from Leher, Tamara L., Shannon B. Black, and Patrick B. Stanton. 2010. Pathological Conditions In The History, Archaeology, and Skeletal Biology of the Alameda Stone Cemetery edited by M ichael P. Heilen, Joseph T. Hefner, and Mitchell A. Keur, Technical Report 10 96 (Page 550, Figure 161). Statisti cal Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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264 CHAPTER 7 GRAPPLING WITH SOCIA L IDENTITY AND HEALT H IN 19TH CENTURY TU CSON In the two preceding chapters I have explored the biology, history, and archaeology of a number of diseases which played a significant role in th e health patterns of 19 th century Tucsonans. As was discussed in Chapter 2, in order to more fully understand the state of health of an individual or a community one must be able to explore and integrate every aspect of the interaction between environment, culture, society, and health. While I do not have household level data at my disposal, and therefore, am not able to realize the full idea of the model, this chapter does push the application of the health model further by exploring the both the historica l and the bioarchaeological pictures of Tucson. Creating a Historical Picture of Society and Health in Tucson Identification of pos sible health disparities in the Tucson population hinges on the appropriate application and interpretation of theories pert aining to the construction of social identity social interaction, and societal infrastructure While there are many aspects of social identity that are important in this discussion (and were considered in the formal cultural affinity assessment prepared b y SRI (Goldstein et al. 2010) ), I will here focus the negotiation of social identity and interethnic relationships, cultural conception of health and disease, as well as the reform of ideas and practice surrounding public health and sanitation from a histo rical perspective. Social Identity and Maintenance of Int erethnic Relationships The study of identity, as it pertains to the definition of ethnicity in culture contact situations, is directed toward several questions: How do people view their own identitie s? How do they frame their identities in reference to the identities of others?

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265 How does one group of people identify another group of people when the latter group is removed from the former by time, space, and/or background? These studies have tended to f colonizer dichotomy as a fundamental axis of effect on indigenous populations (Voss 2005:461; 2008). This view, as expressed in assimilationist l iterature (Cusick 1998; Estrada 1995; Staski 1987) is limiting in that identity in Spanish colonial contexts, for instance, was complex and multidimensional and involved a wide array of interactions among people of Native American African, and European de scent Sexual reproduction and social interaction among populations resulted in mixed heritage offspring and the development of new, racialized social identities (Deagan 1998). Genetic and cultural blending between groups had the potential to create a fair degree of ambiguity in social classification and status (Voss 2005:462). Spanish colonial identities in the Americas were categorized according to the sistema de castas a racialization project aimed at classifying identities according to a blood quantum scheme. Native American, African, and European individuals were race or heritage (Loren 2007; Voss 2005, 2008). To organize people in status levels, as many as 40 different classifications of casta identities were legally codified. Lighter skin was generally social status (Voss 2005:463).

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266 Despite the complex layers of racialized identities used in differentiating people according to social status, archaeological evidence from the Presidio de San Francisco (California), which acted as a Spanish colonial outpost between 1776 and 1821, minimized the racial and cultural distinctions among themselves through shared practices related to material culture, dress, and foodways while avoiding associations with Native American foodways and material cultu re (Voss 2005:457). Voss (2005) argues that colonists had repudiated the sistema de castas and instead developed common status over individual casta terial technologies and foodways is at odds with findings from other colonial contexts in the public European and female Spanish social hierarch ies were apparently preserved to some degree in Tucson. In the 1830s, the area around Tucson was made up of wealthy ranches that were destroyed by fierce Apache attacks in the 1840s and early 1850s (Greenleaf and Wallace 1962). Officer (1960:13) asserted t attitude which contrasted drastically with that of the Mexican aristocracy in New Mexico or California. Tucson was a remote, front ier outpost, with many of its soldiers and citizens coming from non aristocratic backgrounds; the necessities of survival in the face of Apache attacks and the sometimes harsh desert environment may have instilled a level of solidarity and commonality amon g its inhabitants particularly the Anglos and the Mexicans in the 1860s and 1870s (Herring 2009 ; Officer 1960:13 ). It is certain that

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267 the solidarity achieved was not reflective of assimilation (though some people may have chosen this route); instead, the continual renegotiation of identity likely led on a case by case basis to a creolization (Braithwaite 1971; Cusick 2000) or a hybrid effect (Bhabha 1994, 2002) wher e new cultural forms emerged or social identities were reconceptualized. The harsh nature of the frontier and the threat of Apache attacks helped unify the for an eastern only eight women with An glo names were recorded in the 1860 federal census, while that number had increased to 37 by 1870, although a number of these newcomers were nuns of St. Joseph of Carondelet (Officer 1960:13). Even though Arizona miscegenation laws existed from 1864 (until they were abolished in 1962), which prohibited the marriage of whites with blacks, Chinese, or Native Americans, Mexicans held an federal authorities, and therefore (at least in the early days of the miscegenation laws) were allowed to marry whites. Growing anti Mexican rhetoric in much of the United States, however, viewed such unions as social transgressions (Acosta 2010:10 work questi ons the notion that the influx of more Anglo women into the territory and the rising anti Mexican rhetoric curtailed Mexican white marriages. Such marriages continued in high numbers through to the 20 th century (Acosta 2010:14). Acosta (2010:10) asserts th at the disconnect between the national anti Mexican rhetoric and

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268 Anglo men were working class men, and not members of the biased middle or upper classes, although s ome did gain great wealth and prominence in Tucson. Officer (1960:13) reports that seven interethnic marriages were recorded in the 1860 federal census, while 43 were recorded in 1870. Most of the Anglo men involved in these marriages became prominent citi zens in Tucson, partly through their linkage with sometimes wealthy families established in northern Sonora for decades (Officer 1960:13). While it is no doubt true that political or economically motivated marriages did take place between enterprising Angl os and women from old Mexican aristocratic families, the vast majority of unions took place between working class men and women who were not looking for, and did not attain great wealth or notoriety (Acosta 2010:13). routes provided another reason that good relations were maintained between Anglos and Mexicans during this period. Anglos in Tucson were somewhat dependent on the established trade networks of the Mexican merchants and freighters who ran goods from the ea st in New Mexico by wagon train, the west in California either by wagon train or by ship to the port of Guaymas in Sonora and then by wagon, or from the south in Mexico by wagon, or later by train. Most of these shipments depended on the protection of the U.S. Army against Apache raids, but the connections of the Spanish speaking merchants were vital in obtaining the required goods, particularly from Mexico (Officer 1960:14). The importance of both the Mexican and Anglo American citizens of Tucson made the upper classes of each community virtually indistinguishable during the 1860s and early 1870s. In 1880, several important things happened which would bring about social change and enhance growing inequality between the ethnic groups of Tucson. The first

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269 wa s the pacification of the majority of the hostile Apaches, which removed part of the comradeship brought about by the threat of constant attack from outside. Military activity in the region, along with the commerce and capital carried with the army, also b egan to wane. The coming of the Southern Pacific Railroad was the lynchpin in the unraveling of social relations. The trains destroyed the previous cultural isolation, brought more Anglo nd ultimately biased, Victorian ideals about society and cultural practice (Carmony 1994:247). The early Anglo American settlers understood that to survive in Tucson they must adapt to the predominately Mexican way of life; these later settlers had no conc ept of, or care for Here we see a clear difference between the previous Spanish approach to frontier was one of assimilation and inclusion of Native Americans and other Spanish citizens. The American policy, however, was largely focused on development, and the exclusion and elimination of competition for land and resources (Ciolek Torrelo and Swanson 1997:28). The increased shipments of goods a nd cattle from the eastern United States also dealt a heavy blow to the Mexican merchant class, many of whom could no longer compete with growing number of Anglo American capitalists entering the region (Officer 1960:13 14). Sonnichsen (1982:10) asserts th at even the early Anglo American entrepreneurs felt economic pressure from post railroad arrivals and political stress from displacement in t railroad (after 1880) arrivals. The political and economic flux brought on in the early 1880s led to an economic depression where many important businesses closed and competition for

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270 jobs increased, during which time the relations between the Mexican and Anglo communities became strained and the community was divided increasingly along ethnic and racial lines ( Getty 1976; Sheridan 1986; Sonnichsen 1982). In the late 1880s and 1890s, Hispanic identity in Tucson had been fused with racialized overtones by the non Hispanic community something which had afflicted the small African A merican, Chinese, and Native American communities in and around Tucson for some time An influx of a greater number of Anglo American Protestants, and people of other religious affiliations, into the predominately Catholic community added an additional lay er of contention (Officer 1951:13). Anglo Americans, who now dominated much of the economic and political atmosphere of the town (Getty 1950; Sheridan 1986:57 59), sought to solidify the privileges gained by this rise in strength and created a new social p aradigm in which Hispanics were no longer considered to be members of the Economic and political success became tied to the newly created social divide between English speaking descendants of western European immigrants and Spanish sp eaking Tucsonans many of whom were of mixed Spanish, African, and Native American descent. Spanish names appeared with decreasing frequency in Anglo newspapers. Neighborhoods became increasingly segregated, and Hispanic Tucsonans were consistently relega ted to lesser paying, menial jobs (Kalt 2007:256 258; Sheridan 1986:80, 86, 185 187). Hispanic owned property was appropriated by Anglo Americans and a labor system was developed using immigrants from rural Mexico to provide cheap low skill labor thus in creasing the population of lower class Hispanics and widening the gaps between socioeconomic

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271 classes. The unintended consequence of these actions was the continued maintenance of a strong Spanish speaking Mexican community ( Getty 1950; Sheridan 1986). Cult ural Theories of Disease Causation The type of medicine brought to the southwest by Anglo American pioneers was based largely on the idea of humoralism, a set of anatomical and physical concepts derived from the work of Hippocrates and other early Greek s cholars. While still keeping a place for divine or supernatural causes of disease, the humoralist s believed that many Therefore, early medicine was largely preventative, seeki ng to maintain a good balance between the four humors of the body, thus maintaining health (Fields 2008:3) Atmospheric miasmas, which emanated fr om sewers, cesspools, swamps, and other sources of environmental filth were o ne of the most prevalent environ mental factors battled by 19 th homeostasis, thus causing dis ease (Preston and Haines 1991). C emeteries and other burial locales also came under attack from the medical community and were increa singly seen as dangerous sources of contamination, illness, and putrefaction (Laderman 1996:69 70). Preston and Haines (1991:7) suggest that even though modern germ theory received empirical support in the work of Louis Pasteur in the 1860s, popular belief policies implemented to reduce miasmas often removed the real vectors of diseases (Duffy 1971; Preston and Haines 1991 ; Rosenkrantz 1972). It was not until the 1880s and 1890s, however, with the identification of the anthrax bacillus (1881), the tuberculosis bacillus (1882), Vibrio cholera (1883) and many other

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272 microorganisms that the old Western theories of disease caus ation became untenable (Preston and Haines 1991). While some knowledge about germ theory existed in the 1860s when the Alameda Stone Cemetery was open, little is currently known about the practice of medici ne in the area of Tucson. By the end of the cemete ry period in 1881, however, it is likely that as the population of the city grew so did the number of physicians and the level of knowledge of modern theories of disease transmission. The rise of bacteriology and the validation of the germ theory in the la te 19 th century drove scholars to develop sterilization procedures, embalming, vaccination, antibiotics, chlorination of water, trea tment of sewage, and an overall increase in life expectancy in developed countries (Meade and Emch 2010). The negative resul t, however, was that the medical community largely grew to ignore or disparage the idea that cultural and environmental factors are important variables in health and that there might be alternative explanations and cures for disease other than those of Wes tern science These Western theories of disease causation sit in contrast to those of the Native Papago), who are the descendants of the Piman groups which have lived in southe rn Arizona for centuries. Under assignment from the Bureau of American Ethnology to write a treatise on Papago music, Frances Densmore (1929) also made observation about the traditional beliefs of the tribe regarding health and disease. Densmore (1929:83) reports the Papago origin of disease thus: The Papago have a tradition that sickness was scattered abroad when of sight Elder Brother seized the feathers on top of his head. The down ca

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273 throw it away. He scattered the down to the winds, which carried it everywhere, and sickness became prevalent among the people. Comparison of this belief of a general disposition of people to some kind of environmental disease sounds very similar to the miasma theory presented by Western medicine. Densmore (1929) points out four types of sicknesses that can account for most sicknesses caused by spirit animals or birds, which resulted in functional ailments like coughing, gastrointestinal problems, and sore eyes; (3) accidents or injuries; and (4) sickness caused by the spirits of the dead, which often included nervous disorders. reality, a contest between the psychic power of the medicine man and that of t he person or spirit who was responsible for the evil magic being used against a victim. Luckily, in every instance the cause of the disease could be readily interpreted by a medicine man, who used song as a primary means of treating sickness. Singing produ instructions for the treatment with herbal remedies which had been reveal to the medicine man in dreams (Densmore 1929:82 83). Howard Billman, first superintenden t of the Tucson Indian School (1888 1894), along with missionaries of the period, attempted to change a wide variety of cultural attitudes through assimilation, but at the same time they recorded beliefs of the native groups. Writing about Billman and the Tucson Indian School, Franco (1989:153) notes The latter is considered to be contagious, is

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274 acquired externally, and can afflict anyone. L ittle can be done for these types of and was something that only a Pima or Papago could fall victim to as a result of some This account of Papago belief carries biased religious and Eurocentric overtones and it is unclear whether it is an accurate representation of Papago belief, particularly because it does not entirely conform to the types of sick ness recorded by Densmore (1929). It could be that the beliefs recorded by Billman in the late 1880s were those of individuals who had already been partially assimilated, which would account for the idea of moral transgression, as well as the concept of th e contagiousness of disease. It is also possible that the accounts recorded by Densmore in the 1920s are reinterpreted The Yaqui are another Native American group who resided in the Tucson area i n the late 19 th century, arriving gradually in the 1870s and in larger groups after 1884 when they were displaced from their homelands along the Yaqui River in the Sonoran region of northwestern Mexico. It was not until around the turn of the 20 th century that the Yaqui coalesced to form a distinct community, known as Pascua, located in beliefs about disease during her fieldwork in Pascua during the early 1960s. She identifie d five categories of disease causation: (1) natural causes, which included overexertion, overexposure (primarily the transition between hot and cold mechanical injuries, or ai lments resulting from repetitive occupational tasks; (2)

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275 emotional causes, such as anger, surprise, jealousy, or fear, which can cause nervousness, weakness, diarrhea, fever, convulsions, other minor aches and pains, or ul; (3) sin, resulting in punishment by God in this world and in the next; (4) witchcraft, or sorcery, mainly reflected in the intentional use of also unintentionally cause disease in others because of projected negative emotions; and (5) other magical causes, such as lunar eclipses, the malevolent supernatural powers of plant and animal spirits or the wilderness in general (Shutler 1967:33 50). I n many respects, the Yaqui beliefs recorded by Shutler (1967) are characteristic of the Mexican American community at large in the 19 th and early 20 th centuries. Samora (1961) rightly points out that the Hispanic individuals in Mexico and the American Sout hwest draw their ideas about disease and illness from a variety of sources. Certain beliefs about folk medicine prevalent in Europe during the time of the Spanish invasion of Mexico were brought by subsequent settlers to the region. These individuals, alon g with hordes of Catholic missionaries, further disseminated the teachings of the church, which included religious reference to the causes of disease. In the northern frontiers of Spanish Mexico, however, there were few Catholic priests to preach and maint ain dogmatic purity, particularly after Mexican independence. Therefore, there was a significant amount of blending that took place between traditional Spanish Catholic beliefs and those of various Native American groups that lived in close proximity to th e Hispanic Mexicans. To a lesser extent, Mexicans of the

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276 19 th century in the American southwest were also influenced by the beliefs about medicine and disease brought by American settlers (Samora 1961:315). Sin, and subsequent punishment for said moral tr ansgression ( castigo ), features prominently in the model of disease causation presented by Samora (1961) as being reflective of Mexican disease: those which stem directly from a supreme sourc e beyond human comprehension, and those which stem from conditions or objects present in daily life, including spoiled food, old age, cold wind, temperature changes, poisonous animals or insects, accidents, and harmful emotions (Samora 1961:318 319). While many etiological factors for disease are recognized, even in the latter disease category, the ultimate source of the contagion, contaminant, or other stressor, is the will of God. The family is very important in Hispanic culture and, therefore, it should be no surprise that it plays a key role in the treatment of disease. Families would gather around the sickbed and provide any type of support they could during the course of the disease including, giving advice, material help, assistance with work or hous ehold chores, and most importantly, religious intervention. Because all diseases are natural and ultimately stem from God, or some other spiritual force, prayers to God, prayers to patron saints, pilgrimages to holy sites, and holy relics were often used t o treat disease. Sometimes traditional Mexican folk remedies, often derived from Native American herbal treatments, were also employed by family members or other lay practitioners to ease suffering, or cure ailments (Samora 1961:321). Reforms to Public He alth and Sanitation Duffy (1971) sug gests that the acceptance of the germ theory of disease causation and the miasmatic theories, to a much lower degree, made the members of

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277 lth of others. However, t his was not really a revolutionary idea ; throughout history, sanitation has been an issue for urban residents, where there is a correlation between high population densities and an increase in necessary residential and social intim acy. The habits of daily life begin to penetrate the land, air, water, and the microscopic world of the next door neighbor. Living with people becomes a dangerous activity as cities become decimated by disease. Although it seemed simple enough that good hy giene and sanitation would reduce disease and increase the quality of life in the city, sanitation was perceived differently by urbanites based on a wide range of factors including literacy, education, politics, economics, and cultural tradition (Bain 200 1:1; Preston and Haines 1991). The number of people living in urban areas (with a population more than 2,500) grew from only 18% in 1860 to 40% by 1900 (Preston and Haines 1991). There were multiple interrelated consequences of this increased urbanization The higher concentration of people in smaller areas accelerated the spread of infectious disease through direct contact, as well as through increased contamination of food and water sources. This increased prevalence of filth and disease prompted the dev elopment of programs designed to improve health conditions (Preston and Haines 1991). The implementation of public health measures and sanitary reform became a political process, one that was addressed at a state or territorial level by the creation of boa rds of health, which the Arizona Territory did not have during the use of the Alameda Stone Cemetery (Bowditch 1877).

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278 While states did have some influence on sanitation reform, the greatest burden was placed on municipal governments (Chapin 1901). Eviden ce of sanitary reform in Tucson is evident when privies became regulated in 1877 with the passing of Ordinance No. 6 (Hardy 1910) This city ordinance stipulated that a privy was required at all residences and that each privy required a door, proper ventil ation, and a vault with an escapement chimney. This regulation was followed in 1879 by Ordinance No. 16, which forbade the venting of sewers, ditches, or mains onto city streets (Gray et al. 2010:377; Hardy 1910; Plumlee and Gregory 2010:29 30). Diehl et a l. (2003:24) noted that an almost identical ordinance had been passed in 1871 by the Village of Tucson. Most of the privies thus far identified archaeologically in Tucson dated to the period following enactment of these ordinances, although privies were al most certainly used locally, in an unregulated manner, before 1877. With one exception dating from the Mexican Period (Thiel 1997), however, the available archaeological literature of urban areas of Tucson shows little evidence for the presence of privies prior to the 1870s (Thiel 2005). Moreover, Plumlee and Gregory (2010:30) report that the October 3, 1878, edition of the Arizona Weekly Star reported that people of the city are without [vaults or earthen closets] upon their pre evident that the City of Tucson was attempting to enact legislation to reform sanitary conditions, much of the populous may have been unwilling or unable to follow suit for various reasons, which have yet to be ascertained. Creating a Bioarchaeological Picture of Society and Health in Tucson Identification of pos sible health disparities in the archaeological sample collected from the Alameda Stone Cemetery depends on the appropriate analysis of recovered remains and a proper interpretat ion based on established scholarship and historical

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279 understanding. There are three aspects of the bioarchaeological analysis that must be further explored. These include the socioeconomic analysis of burials, the osteological conclusions drawn from analysi s of the skeletal collection as a whole, and the evidence context. Development of the Socioeconomic A pproach to H istoric Mortuary A rchaeology James Brown (1971) and Arth ur Saxe (1970), following role theory by Ward Goodenough (1965), attempted to relate status in life to mortuary practice and treatment of the dead. Social status, in a definitional sense can be described in terms of political, economic, religious and socia l relationships. Mortuary practices and treatment of the dead are thus structured by social relationships, and act as a means of affirming and maintaining those relationships and social organization upon the event of a death (Braun 1979; Van Gennep 1960). The aim of Goodenough (1965) was to deconstruct status through the use of composite personae and the exchange of cumulative social rights and duties. Around the same time, Lewis Binford (1971) attempted to take these ideas about social personae and apply t hem to ethnographic cases that might then be archaeologically testable. Binford opposed suggestions by Kroeber (1927) that mortuary (Davidson 2004:102). The Saxe Bin ford approach, as it came to be known, attempted to discern the social structure, and the ultimate social complexity of the cultural group from a given testing of hypot heses linking social structure and mortuary practices within Binford

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280 approach, variation in mortuary ritual conducted by a given society reflects the social structure of that society basically a communication system in which certain symbols are employed to convey information about the status of the deceased (Tainter 1978:117). Researchers such as Goldstein (1976, 1981), (1977), Tainter (1975, 1978), and others further investigated the theories presented by Saxe and Binford. However, these scholars did not simply think that status could be represented in the burials of some societies, but tha t status was reflected in all burials. Essentially, funerary objects, energy expenditure (Tainter 1975, 1978), different values for goods from local versus non local sources (Brown 1981), spatial location of burial (Goldstein 1981), and other observable fa ctors could all serve to mark the status of the deceased. Notably, such a view ignores other factors that structure funeral rites, including the manipulation of the dead by survivors. Tainter (1975), Goldstein (1976), Binford (1971) and Saxe (1970) hold t hree basic assumptions: (1) variation in burial treatment serves to partition burial populations into groups that represent different social statuses or classes (Goldstein 1981:54), and grave goo ds, monuments, place of burial, etc may be compar Pearson 1982:99); and (3) the principles which organize the sets of statuses are the same as the organizing social relations in the general society (Goldstein 1981:54; Pearson 1982:99). According to Bell (1994:13), archaeologists working with historic mortuary data applied this processual or functionalist approach (cf. Saxe 1970, and Binford 1971) to

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281 historic mortu ary data without consideration that it had been developed for pre industrial societies. There have been two primary reasons identified why these uncritical applications of mortuary theory from pre industrial to historic mortuary contexts have largely faile d. First, Binford developed models from modern ethnographic contexts and used them as analogs to interpret past behaviors. Such studies, in historic settings, made no attempt to understand the data and behaviors in terms of the social and political context and scale in the time and place being investigated (Bell 1994:14; Davidson 2004:106). Second, the types of material culture most often recovered with historic graves (e.g., coffin hardware and clothing items), cannot be equated in most studied in earlier mortuary contexts (Bell 1994:14). Bell (1994:15) asserted that what was lacking in functionalist, processual approaches was a concern for social context for mortuary practices. Later approaches correc tly realized that the historical mortuary assemblage is the result of a complex of circumstances: mass production, supply, demand, availability, temporal sequences of production, technological advancement, social relationships developed to pool resources t o purchase finer funerary goods; burial insurance programs; consumer preference; differential meanings of symbols among and between various ethnic or social groups; social perception of various contexts of death; and the role of the institution (sometimes literally in institutional cemeteries ) (cf., Richards 1997 and Elia and Wesolowsky 1991). Understanding the development of historic mortuary artifacts, mass marketing and consumption patterns effectively bridges socioeconomic divides through an emic approa ch, which uses period mortuary merchandise catalogs, funeral

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282 home day books, and other historical evidence to reconstruct costs of burials ( cf., Davidson 1999, 2004; Mainfort and Davidson 2006 ; Pye 2007, 2010a 2010b, 2011a, 2011b, 2012). Investigating the intricacies of socioeconomic and representative display and meaning has proved to be a beneficial endeavor (Davidson 2004). This contextual approach looks at the historic mortuary remains through a historical lens rather than through the lens of prehistor ic mortuary theory as was common in earlier approaches. This type of socioeconomic approach was applied to the study of the burials containers recovered from the Alameda Stone Cemetery (Pye 2010a; Sewell et al. 2010). Burial container shape and constructi on technique, construction hardware, decorative hardware, and surface treatments are briefly explored here in as much as they are reflective of socioeconomic patterns evident in Tucson society. Burial container shape and c onstruction Often a particular bu rial container shape (Figure 7 1) might speak to the temporality of the burial, as well as the religious or social aspects of the individual or population. The cultural patterns behind the production and construction of burial containers can also be elucid ated through a demographic and geographic analysis. For example, when addressing temporality in a cemetery context, the growth of a cemetery often can be charted through the geographic distribution of certain burial attributes. Additionally, an understandi ng of the nature of burial container construction can inform economic, technological and transportation concerns. The characterization of 19th century Tucson as a southwestern frontier community weighs heavily on the aforementioned concerns. In most simil ar contexts, little formality existed in the undertaking industry. Local tradesmen, handymen or family members were enlisted to construct burial containers. Ferguson et al. (1993) reproduced portions

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283 of a letter written in 1882, by Frank Rheinboldt, just after he moved to Seven Rivers, New Mexico. Rheinboldt described how the locals coerced him into becoming the coffin maker for a number of burial s in the rural Seven Rivers Cemetery: Soon after I was there, an aged lady died in the neighborhood and I was c alled to make the coffin. It was a surprise to me and I told them I never made a coffin. They asked me if I had a saw, a hammer, and a square and I tools. So I rushed in and made the coffin. In the store, we had black calico and unbleached domestic muslin and I lined it with that. When I finished they complimented me, and from that time on for many years, I had to make all of the coffins. Fortunately our section was a healthy one few deaths occurred. [Katz 1986:18, as cited by Ferguson et al. 1993:V 8] containers was what ever material was readily available to the families either through physical or economic access. The coffins assumed to have been constructed by Rheinbodlt showed a characteristic bent shouldered, hexagonal form with splayed sides and ends. This form of bu rial container may have been his personal choice, developed through desires from family members, through strictures of coffin makers at large, dictated by the materials available, or maybe it developed over time as he learned more through experience. Whate ver the reason, this account makes it clear that even on the frontier burial containers requiring complex carpentry (e.g. bent shouldered hexagonal coffins) were sometimes fashioned by relatively inexperienced craftsmen. The burial containers recovered f rom the Tucson cemetery excavations show a similar type of patterning in construction techniques. No information has been located, however, that might shed light on coffin makers of late 19th century Tucson. What has been learned from the excavations of Al ameda Stone Cemetery is that local woods (i.e.

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284 pine and juniper) were used to construct the containers. Many burial containers were unique in construction techniques employed, and utilized narrow, wide, long and short boards suggesting that available cons truction materials were sometimes scarce. The use of a variety of construction hardware such as iron plates, straps and hinge straps (Figures 7 2 7 6) as devices to join multiple boards is also suggestive of local manufacture. Figure 7 7 is a metal ring affixed to the lid of a coffin as a pull or a device used in lowering the coffin into the grave. Lack of uniformity of nail sizes used in the construction of the burial containers further corroborates this hypothesis. The presence of burial containers req uiring specialized tools and complex carpentry techniques and knowledge (i.e., bent shouldered forms including kerfed forms (Figure 7 8 ) ) alongside roughly constructed containers of all shapes indicates that a number of local individuals (e.g. profession al coffin makers, novice handymen, or family members) were constructing these containers. Rectangular, hexagonal and tapered burial containers were constructed with seemingly little regard for temporality. Frequencies of each type of burial container rema in similar across all cemetery areas in proportion to the number of burials contained within those sections One exception to this observation is Cemetery Area 1, the military section, which contained a disproportionate number of hexagonal burial container s. It may be possible that a certain individual or individuals were commissioned to construct burial containers for military burials and they used a standard hexagonal template. Alternatively, one might argue that a hexagonal burial container at the time t hese individuals were interred was more suitable for the decedents, who were mostly young, adult males.

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285 To further understand the specific distributions of burial container shapes an analysis of the demographic patterns of individuals contained within the burial containers may prove useful. Table 7 1 shows frequencies of burial container shapes across cemetery area in comparison to ASM age categories, biological sex and cultural affinity A comparison to cultural affinity does not yield a significant patte rn. Comparison to ASM age category and sex does produce important viable patterns In general, both adult males and adult females were three times more likely to be buried in a hexagonal coffin as compared to a trapezoidal coffin or a rectangular casket. J uveniles, which includes the ASM age categories of child and subadult, were almost equally likely to have been buried in a hexagonal or a trapezoidal coffin, while they were slightly more likely to be buried in a rectangular casket. Roughly equal numbers o f hexagonal and trapezoidal burial containers appeared with infant and fetal rem ains. Infants were, however, 36 percent more likely to have been buried in a rect angular casket. Fetuses were 50 percent more likely to have been buried in rectangular burial c ontainers. This general trend is supported by similar comparisons in other historic cemetery settings (i.e., Ferguson et al. 1993:V 8 V 9). Construction h ardware All burial containers recovered in the Tucson cemetery were constructed using common cut nail s and therefore no demographic conclusions can be draw from an investigation of them. Similarly, the use of utilitarian screws follows a seemingly normal demographic distribution. Miscellane ous Hardware T ypes 2, 3, 5 and 6 occurred in only one burial each within the cemetery, and therefore did not produce a discernible pattern Joining plates (Miscellaneous Hardware Type 1) were recovered in 21 burials. Iron straps (Miscellaneous Hardware Type 4) were collected from seven burials. Both types

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286 of hardware wer e recovered from burials cutting across demographic boundaries, multiple types of burial containers and burial contexts. Decorative h ardware Approximately 36 burial containers in the Tucson ceme tery were adorned with some type of formal decorative mortuar y hardware, such as handles, coffin screws and ornamental tacks (Figures 7 9 7 30). Table 7 2 reveals the total number of artifacts per hardware type. The presence of decorative mortuary hardware in this period in Tucson history is a clear economic indi cator. The railroad did not enter Tucson until 1880 when the cemetery had already been officially closed to burial though at least a few burials took place after closure Therefore, the hardware that did show up in the cemetery would have had to travel by train to Texas, New Mexico, or through to California, from the manufacturers in the eastern United States, and then by wagon train into Arizona Since no records have been located for general hardware distributors in Tucson, it is unknown the actual retai l cost that would have been incurred with the addition of decorative hardware on burial containers. However, w holesale costs of the Tucson cemete ry hardware types can be estimated from period hardware catalogues ( Table 7 3). If the inclusion of decorative hardware reflects on the apparent wealth of the families of the individuals interred, then one might expect the members of the same family to be buried with similar embellishment. As family members were often buried nearby one another in historic cemetery contexts, a look at the geographic distribution of decorative hardware might elucidate patterning. Figure 7 31 shows the distribution of all decorative hardware. As can be seen, there is a relatively even distribution across the cemetery with three except ions. First, no pieces of decorative hardware were

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287 recorded in Cemetery Area 4. Second, grave features 3083 and 3084 are immediately adjacent to one another, yet while they both contain decorative hardware, hardware style types do not overlap. Without a cl ear indication of overlap, it is difficult to make a correlation between the two. Grave features 28076 and 28077 on the other hand share proximity and several decorative hardware types. The two adults buried in these grave features were possibly related th rough familial or fraternal ties. Overall, most pieces of decorative hardware were found on the burial containers of adults ; however, a number of entries occurred in each ASM age category. Additionally, hardware appeared on the burial containers of indiv iduals who exhibited cultural, religious and biological affinities of all types. Native American burials were more likely to contain at least one type of decorative hardware with 9.3 percent of total Native American burials. At least 8 percent of Hispanic burials contained at least one type of decorative hardware. Only 7.4 percent of total Euroamerican burials contain at least one type of decorative hardware. These figures alone do not reflect a great disparity in wealth between these three communities. Whi le estimated total costs of burials were not determined, the inclusion of multiple types of hardware including handles, screws and ornamental tacks would incur a higher cost. Four Hispanic burials contained multiple types of hardware, as did three Euroamer ican burials and only one Native American burial. Overall, there seems to be relatively little socioeconomic variability based on presence of decorative hardware. Surface t reatments A few consistencies in exterior surface treatments were noted in the Tucso n cemetery sample. As show n in Table 7 5, approximately 217 cloth covered burial containers were recorded. The majority (n=128 ) of these occurred in Cemetery Area 3.

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288 Cloth coverings occurred with burial containers of all shapes in roughly the same proporti ons. Juveniles, particularly infants, were the ones most commonly associated with cloth covered burial containers. That said, expensive types of fabrics such as velvet, embossed felt, or embossed plush were almost exclusi vely associated with adult males. S imilar tendencies exist in presence of certain types of paints with regards to patterning along the age and sex categories. The use of green and blue paints was identified for graves associated largely with infants and children. Though it is difficult to a ssign biological or cultural affinity to the remains of juveniles, the overall sample of individuals with burial containers covered with green and blue paints show a tendency towards Hispanic origins. White paint was also frequently encountered but did no t show any distinction between sex or age categories, though it tended to be present on more hexagonal coffins. Interior surface treatments followed similar strictures as those described above with relationship to paints. Interior fabric linings, however, were extremely common, being identified with 500 burial containers in all cemetery areas, across demographic boundaries. Again, however, as with the exterior fabrics mentioned above, velvets were seen with a couple of adult males, while fine cotton, silk or satin fabrics were associated with females and juveniles. The presence of fine fabrics, such as velvet, silk and satins in burials are in some cases indications of wealth. Silk, for example, was produced in limited quantities in the United States duri ng the mid to late 19th century. Most silk garments and textiles were imported from Europe at that time, and therefore would have been more costly than

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289 locally produced materials (Buikstra et al. 2000:68). Acquisition of fine imported fabrics would have be en that much more difficult for Tucson residents due to location on the frontier. Fabrics do not always preserve; therefore, observations of demographic distribution are somewhat biased from the beginning. Those few examples of finer fabrics present in Ala meda Stone Cemetery were most commonly associated with Euroamerican males, but this may be more indicative of individual wealth rather than demographic socioeconomic disparity. Osteological Indicators of Nutritional Health The osteological analysis of th e Alameda Stone Cemetery population conducted by SRI focused on paleodemography (including age, sex, and biological affinity), biological distance and geospatial analysis, postcranial morphology of juveniles and adults, pathological conditions, trauma, den tal health, and spatial patterns. For brevity, I will mention here only a few results of this initial study that did not feature in my previous discussions of infectious disease, and are tantalizing in terms of their potential to inform the ultimate questi on about health disparities and cultural distinction in the Tucson community. Paleodemographic analysis revealed distinct differences in the distribution of individuals according to age, sex, and biological affinity between cemetery areas. Individuals in the northern areas of the cemetery were more evenly distributed according to age and sex, with a somewhat greater predominance of Hispanic individuals, whereas individuals in the southern areas were mostly adult males with a larger percentage of Anglo Amer ican individuals. These data support the idea that the northern area of the cemetery represented the local community, whereas the southern area was more representative of recent migrants to Tucson. Biological distance studies

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290 suggested relatively high leve ls of heterogeneity for the population as a whole, consistent with the multiethnic nature of the cemetery, but relatively little variation within biological groups (Heilen 2010:407 408). Observation of defects of enamel of the dentition is considered to b e one valuable way to ascertain nutrition, diagnose various metabolic conditions and shed light on environmental stresses that occur during the formation of the deciduous and permanent tooth crowns (Duray 1996). Frequencies of enamel defects or enamel hypo plasias in a study population can suggest compromised nutrition and/or poor health for a percentage of the people within that sample (Duray 1996; El Najjar et al. 1978; Goodman et al. 1980; Goodman and Rose 1991; May et al. 1993). Studies of postcranial m orphology within the Alameda Stone Cemetery population revealed that juveniles and Hispanic adults were typically smaller in stature than contemporaneous groups and that individuals growing up in Tucson may have experienced dampened growth followed by a pe riod of catch up growth, possibly due to the combined effects of nutritional stress and infectious disease (Heilen 2010:410) Relatively high i nstances of cribra orbitalia, porotic hyp erostosis, and linear hypoplasias within the cemetery population are fur ther suggestive of the presence of nutritional deficiencies or nutritionally induced stress caused by either by poor diet, or by infectious or parasitic disease (Heilen 2010:410). The observation of nutritional or metabolic disorders necessitates an under standing what particular deficiencies were problems. For a long time, many scholars suggested that cribra orbitalia resulted from iron deficiency anemia during childhood, while porotic hyperostosis reflects anemic stress int o adulthood (Wright and Chew 200 8; Larsen 1997). Walker et al. (2009) instead

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291 claims that iron deficiency anemia could not possibly produce such pathologies. Instead, they suggest that megaloblastic or hemolytic anemias are the causes, suggesting that porotic hyperostosis is m ore likely to be the result of V itamin B 12 deficiency, while cribra orbitalia might be cause b deficiency of V itamin C and B 12 The interpretation of the frequency and distribution of these conditions within the Alameda Stone Cemetery sample does no t suggest widespread dietary or nutritional deficiencies. Heilen (2010) state that osteological analysis revealed that cribra orbitalia or porotic hyperostosis affected only a fraction of the individuals interred in the Alameda Stone cemetery. In fact, a l ittle less than seven percent of the sample had evidence of c ribra orbitalia and less than three percent were affected by porotic hyperostosis. In part because of the low incidence of either condition, significant differences within the cemetery were rare when comparisons were made with one exception. Anglo Americans were more likely to be affected by these nutritional conditions than Hispanics in a direct comparison (Heilen 2010). Further investigation into the archaeological literature about the refuse as sociated with food preparation may help interpret these findings and the reasons why differences in pattern may be observable within the population. The presence and frequency of t rauma including fractures or dislocated bones, could be indicative of quali ty of life or access to medical resources. Unset fractures might indicate that the individual did not have access to proper medical care possibly as a result of being of low socioeconomic status or rural residence. T he presence of unhealed fractures or tra uma suggests that they occurred around the time of death, and

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292 therefore could have resulted from the death event or be related to cause of death. Tucson appears to have been a hazardous place to live for both men and women, with broken bones and dislocated joints appearing in the skeletal sample in high frequencies. Men seemed to have experienced more trauma than women. Most of these traumas were ante mortem and about one third of fractures had been misaligned, suggesting poor medical care. Another 25 perce nt of individuals with trauma exhibited fractures which had become infected resulting in the presence of secondary osteomyelitis (Heilen 2010). Evidence of Parasitism and Its Affect on Health and Behavior Reinhard and Bryant (2008) have observed that relat ive to other parts of the United States, the Southwest has greater diversity of parasites that yield conditions ideal for interpretive approaches of archaeoparasitology. One problem associated with archaeological parasite studies, however, is interpretatio n. Parasitic infection, or the presence of a parasite, however, is not the same thing as parasitic disease, which is the resultant outcome of the competition between parasite and host immune system, and the modification of the normal system (Arajo et al. 2003:7). Furthermore, interpretations of the epidemiological significance and consequence of infection is challenging (Bouchet et al 2003, Reinhard and Buikstra 2003). In an attempt to identify the aforementioned consequence of infection, scholars have a ttempted to find a correlation between parasite activity and physiological changes that affect supposed skeletal health. It has been posited that the virility of the parasite and the length of infection can eventually leave evidence on the skeleton. What f orm that evidence takes, however, is not agreed upon. As has been mentioned several times, porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia h ave traditionally been viewed by

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293 archaeologists and bioarchaeologists as nutritional stress indicators of chronic iron def Macadam (1992), however, attributed the conditions to evolutionary responses to the presence of intestinal parasites, which severs the well known link between diet and iron deficiency anemia. Reinhard (1992) and Reinhard and Bryant (2008) have shown a consistent, though not a direct relationship, between these conditions, iron malabsorption, and chronic parasitic disease. Ara jo et al. (2008) suggest that a direct correlation between parasitic infection and porotic reactions is tenuous and deserve s further study. Research by Walker et al. (2009) indicates that iron deficiency anemia hypothesis rated loss and compensatory overproduction of red blood cells seen in hemolytic and (Walker et al 2009:109). Many intestinal parasites, such as Giardia which has been discus sed here, do inhibit absorption of nutrients if the parasite population is large and would contribute to nutritional deficiencies that could be evident on skeletal remains Hemolytic anemia resulting from malaria infections have also been implicated in the development of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia as well. For both malaria and Giardia, however, the immunological testing used in this dissertation and the analysis of the skeletal remains do not seem to support such a link. The marriage of the hi storical, osteological, archaeological, and parasitological data in this case study, therefore, is a valuable addition to the study of these pathologies These new findings may force bioarchaeolgists to reconsidering the

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294 etiology of skeletal conditions lik e porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia, as well as interpretations of malnutrition and infectious disease in skeletal populations. This does not negate the link between diet, presence of parasites and the development of a variety of anemia s but it d oes highlight the fact that in all cases we must use multiple lines of evidence when making our interpretations. More advanced and efficient techniques for the recovery and identification of parasite remains like those immunological methods utilized in th is dissertation may help in developing more dependable inter pretations of skeletal health.

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295 Figure 7 1. Comm on shapes of b urial c ontainers Figure 7 2. Exterior face of ferrous metal p late (Miscellaneous Hardware Type 1) [Reprinted with permiss ion from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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2 96 Figure 7 3. Ferrous metal strap from exterior of b urial c ontainer (Miscellaneous Hardware Type 2) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 7 4. Ferrous metal st rap from exterior of b urial c ontainer (Miscellaneous Hardware Type 3) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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297 Figure 7 5. Ferrous metal strap fragments from exterior of b urial c ontainer (Miscellaneous Hardware Type 4) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 7 6. Latch from exterior of burial c ontainer (Miscellaneous Hardware Type 5) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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298 Figure 7 7. Ferrous metal ring from exterior lid of burial c ontainer (Miscellaneous Hardware Type 6) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 7 8. Diagram of construction of a coffin with kerfed shoulders. [Adapted from Plume, Sable ca.1880 1890. Coffins and Coffin Making Undertakers' Journal, London, UK.]

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299 Table 7 1. Demographic distribution of burial container t ypes. Cemetery Area Name Total 1 2 3 4 5 Burial Container Shape Burial Container Shape Burial Container Shape Burial Container Shape Burial Container Shape Cultural Affinity ASM Age Category Sex Hex Rect Trap Shape Undet Hex Rect Trap Shape Undet Hex Rect Trap Shape Undet Hex Rect Trap Shape Undet Hex Rect Trap Shape Undet African fet al Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 infant Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 child Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 subadult Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 young adult Male 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 middle adult Male 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 old adult Male 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Native American fetal Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 infant Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 child Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 subadult Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 young adult Male 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 middle adult Male 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 old adult Male 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 European fetal Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 infant Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 child Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 7 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 subadult cf. Male 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 cf. Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 young adult Male 1 0 0 0 13 2 0 0 3 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 24 Female 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 Indeterminate 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 middle adult Male 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 Female 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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300 Table 7 1. (Co ntinued). Cemetery Area Name Total 1 2 3 4 5 Burial Container Shape Burial Container Shape Burial Container Shape Burial Container Shape Burial Container Shape Cultural Affinity ASM Age Category Sex Hex Rect Trap Shape Undet Hex Rect Trap Shape Undet Hex Rect Trap Shape Undet Hex Rect Trap Shape Undet Hex Rect Trap Shape Undet old adult Male 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 adult Indeterminate 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Hispanic fetal Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 child Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 7 7 0 2 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 26 subadult Male 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 young adult Male 1 0 0 0 8 2 0 0 7 3 4 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 30 Female 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 14 4 9 2 2 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 37 Indeterminate 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 middle adult Male 1 0 0 0 12 1 0 0 9 5 7 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 39 Female 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 11 3 4 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 old adult Male 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 5 2 2 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 15 Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 adult Indeterminate 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Male 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Indeterminate fetal Indeterminate 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 9 15 7 1 2 2 1 2 0 2 0 0 44 infant Indeterminate 0 2 0 0 3 4 0 0 56 84 63 14 14 19 15 6 1 5 0 0 286 child Indeterminate 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 15 21 15 2 3 4 3 3 1 1 0 0 70 subadult cf. Male 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 cf. Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Indeterminate 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 young adult Male 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 4 1 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 15 Indeterminate 10 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 4 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 23 middle adult Male 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 7 6 4 1 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 3 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 18 Indeterminate 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 4 old adult Male 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 13 Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 adult Male 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 Female 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 Indeterminate 9 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 2 3 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 21 Indeterminate indeterminate Indeterminate 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 n/a n/a n/a 1 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 3 3 4 9 2 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 30 Total 44 4 2 7 65 18 1 3 218 191 157 38 45 42 29 20 12 10 1 2 909

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301 Table 7 2. Distribution of decorative burial container hardware types. Grave Feature Bur ial Feature Cem. Area ASM Age Sex Cultural Affinity Coffin Screw Type 1 CST2 CST3 CST4 CST5 Orn. Tack Type 1 OTT1.1 OTT2 OTT3 OTT4 OTT5 OTT6 OTT7 Handle Type 1 HT2 HT3 HT4 HT5 HT6 HT7 HT8 HT9 512 1 7 16 17 11 6 55 2 2985 3 infant Indet. Indet. 5 556 3571 3 middle adult Female Hispanic 12 45 4 557 3553 3 young adult Indet. Indet. 5 7 10 3 567 2728 3 young adult Female Na tive American 2 122 6 688 18655 5 young adult Female Hispanic 11 839 6779 2 infant Indet. Indet. 1 850 2762 3 infant Indet. Hispanic 6 948 6919 2 child I ndet. Indet. 2 3035 6985 2 old adult Male Indet. 2 3083 3421 2 adult Indet. Indet. 2 4 13 3084 3980 2 young adult Male European 16 10 8 8 2 6 3280 7383 2 middl e adult Female Hispanic 24 4 3281 6946 2 young adult Male European 3 3310 6876 2 middle adult Male Indet. 1 5389 8501 3 adult cf. Male Indet. 1 5392 8899 5 old adult Male Indet. 1 7525 8991 3 infant Indet. Indet. 10 4 7681 16802 3 infant Indet. Indet. 2 7750 11771 3 young adult Male European 12 79 16 18863 3 young adult Female Native American 7 7964 19658 3 child Indet. Indet. 10 4 7975 19585 3 infant Indet. Hispanic 12 10136 21859 3 young adult Female Hispanic 7 10144 21881 3 old adult Male Hispanic 5 10188 16817 1 adult Indet. Indet. 2 19 4 10430 16942 3 young adult Female Hispanic 4 4 2 3 10431 16943 1 middle adult Male Hispanic 1 13 13522 21602 3 infant Indet. Hispanic 5 1 13541 21826 3 infant Indet. Indet. 6 8 2 13595 21858 3 young adult Female European 1 4 4 13963 3 2 14 22157 21848 3 young adult Female European 6 4 21848 3 middle adult Male Indet. 6 4 24493 25383 3 adult Indet. Indet. 10 28076 28559 1 young adult cf. Male Indet. 9 79 4 28077 28535 1 adult Indet. Indet. 2 5 2

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302 Figure 7 9. Furnitu re/Dra wer p ull (Handle Type 1). [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 7 10. Single lug swing bail h andle (Handle Type 2) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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303 Figure 7 11. Single lug s wing bail h andle (Handle Type 3) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 7 12. Double lug s wing bail h andle (Handle Type 4 ). [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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304 F igure 7 13. Bail h andle f ragment (Handle Type 5) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 7 14. Double lug swing bail h andle (Handle Type 6) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ .]

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305 Figure 7 15. Double lug swing bail h andle (Handle Type 7) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 7 16. Double lug swing b ail h andle (Handle Type 8) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, In c., Tucson, AZ.]

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306 Figure 7 17. Double lug s wing bail handle with t ips (Handle Type 9) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Fi gure 7 18. White metal c offin t ack (Ornamental Tack Type 1) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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307 Figure 7 19. White metal c offin t ack (Ornamental Tack Type 1.1) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 7 20. White metal coffin t ack (Ornamental Tack Type 2) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 7 21. White m etal c offin t ack (Ornamental Tack Type 3) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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308 F igure 7 22. White m etal c off in t ack (Ornamental Tack Type 4) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 7 23. Stamped, cuprous m etal d iamond t acks (Ornamental Tack Type 5) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ .]

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309 Figure 7 2 4 Stamped, c uprous m etal t ack (Ornamental Tack Type 6) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 7 25. White china nails with cuprous s hafts (Ornamental Tack Type 7) [Reprinted with permission fro m Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

PAGE 310

310 Figure 7 26. White m etal c offin s crew (Coffin Screw Type 1) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 7 27. White m etal c offin s crew (Coffin Screw Type 2) [Reprinted w ith permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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311 Figure 7 28. White m etal c offin s crew (Coffin Screw Type 3) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 7 29. White m etal c offin s crew (Coffin Screw T ype 4) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.] Figure 7 30. White m etal c offin s crew (Coffin Screw Type 5) [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

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312 Table 7 3. Wholesale costs of decor ative burial container hardware recovered from Alameda Stone Cemetery. Hardware Type Catalogue Match Catalogue Page (Item No.) Given Cost Cost per Unit Coffin Screw Type 1 *No price list available, refer to general costs of screws Hamilton, Lemmon, Arnold & Co. 1879 $.90 to $1.00 per gross $0.007 Coffin Screw Type 2 Similar Markham & Strong 1865 6 (No. 30) $1.43 to $1.52 per gross $0.01 Coffin Screw Type 3 Similar Sargent & Co. 1871 281 (No. 16, 18) $1.23 to $1.26 per gross $0.009 Coffin Screw Type 4 *No price list available, refer to general costs of screws Hamilton, Lemmon, Arnold & Co. 1879 $.90 to $1.00 per gross $0.007 Coffin Screw Type 5 Similar Sargent & Co. 1871 281 (No. 24). $1.30 per gross $0.009 Ornamental Tack Type 1 *No price list av ailable, refer to general costs of tacks Hamilton, Lemmon, Arnold & Co. 1879 $0.50 to $0.55 per gross $0.003 Ornamental Tack Type 1.1 Similar Sargent & Co. 1871 281 (No. 30) $0.62 per gross $0.004 Ornamental Tack Type 2 Similar Markham & Strong 1865 6 (No. 34) $0.62 per gross $0.004 Ornamental Tack Type 3 Similar Sargent & Co. 1871 281 (No. 24) $0.56 per gross $0.003 Ornamental Tack Type 4 *No price list available, refer to general costs of tacks Hamilton, Lemmon, Arnold & Co. 1879 $0.50 to $0.55 pe r gross $0.003 Ornamental Tack Type 5 Identical Sargent & Co. 1871 278 (No. 72) $1.10 per gross $0.008 Ornamental Tack Type 6 Identical Sargent & Co. 1871 279 (No. 94) $1.40 per gross $0.01 Ornamental Tack Type 7 Identical Sargent & Co. 1888 919 (No. 13 6) $0.70 per thousand $0.0007 Handle Type 1 *No Match Found Handle Type 2 Identical Sargent & Co. 1871 264 (No. 240) $10.25 per dozen $0.85 Handle Type 3 Identical Sargent & Co. 1866 111 (No. 58) $10.75 per dozen $0.89 Handle Type 4 Identical Sar gent & Co. 1871 265 (No. 100) $3.80 per dozen $0.31 Handle Type 5 *No Positive Match Handle Type 6 Identical Sargent & Co. 1866 119 (No. 1160) $5.60 per dozen $0.46 Handle Type 7 Identical Markham & Strong 1865 13 (No. 7) $4.22 per dozen $0.35 Handle Type 8 Identical C. Sidney Norris & Co. ca. 1880 57 (No. 96) $4.50 per dozen $0.38 Handle Type 9 Identical Meriden Britannia Co. ca. 1880 9 (No. 72) $7.00 per dozen $0.58

PAGE 313

313 Figure 7 31. Distribution of graves containing some form of decorative hardware. [Reprinted with permission from Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, AZ.]

PAGE 314

314 Table 7 4. Demographic distribution of decorative hardware in Alameda Stone Cemetery. Cemetery Area Cultural Affinity Sex ASM Age Category 1 2 3 4 5 Total Total by C ultural Affinity European Female young adult 0 0 2 0 0 2 9 Indeterminate child 0 0 1 0 0 1 Male middle adult 0 2 0 0 0 2 old adult 0 1 0 0 0 1 young adult 0 2 1 0 0 3 Hispanic Female middle adult 0 1 1 0 0 2 20 old adult 0 0 1 0 0 1 subadult 0 0 1 0 0 1 young adult 0 1 2 0 1 4 Indeterminate child 0 0 1 0 0 1 infant 0 0 3 0 0 3 Male middle adult 1 1 2 0 0 4 old adult 0 1 1 0 0 2 young adult 0 1 1 0 0 2 Indeterminate Indeterminate adult 2 1 2 0 0 5 31 child 0 1 1 0 0 2 infant 1 3 8 0 1 13 young adult 0 0 1 0 0 1 Male middle adult 0 1 2 0 0 3 old adult 0 1 2 0 1 4 young adult 1 0 0 0 0 1 cf. Male adult 0 0 1 0 0 1 young adult 1 0 0 0 0 1 Native Americ an Female young adult 0 0 2 0 0 2 4 Indeterminate child 0 1 0 0 0 1 subadult 0 0 1 0 0 1 Total 6 18 37 0 3 64

PAGE 315

315 Table 7 5. Demographic distribution of exterior cloth covering observed on burial containers in Alameda Stone Cemetery. Cem etery Area Totals Totals by Cultural Affinity 1 2 3 4 5 Burial Container Shape Burial Container Shape Burial Container Shape Burial Container Shape Burial Container Shape Cultural Affinity Sex ASM Age Category Hex. Rect. Hex. shape undet. Hex. Rect. shape undet. Trap. Hex. Rect. Trap. Hex. Rect. Native American Female middle adult 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 10 young adult 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Indet. child 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 subadult 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 European Female middle adult 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 31 subadult 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 young adult 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Indet. child 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 subadult 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 young adul t 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Male middle adult 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 old adult 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 young adult 0 0 6 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 Hispanic Female middle adult 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 5 38 old adult 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 4 subadult 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 young adult 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 Indet. child 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 6 Male middle adult 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 old adult 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 6 yo ung adult 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 cf. Female young adult 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Indeterminate Female adult 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 138 middle adult 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 7 old adult 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 young adult 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 Indet. adult 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 child 0 0 0 1 5 8 0 6 1 0 0 0 1 22 fetal 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 7 indeterminate 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 infant 0 0 1 0 21 23 2 22 2 1 1 1 1 75 young adult 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Male middle adult 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 7 old adult 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 4 young adult 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 cf. Male subadult 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Totals 2 1 12 1 7 2 51 5 55 5 5 5 1 2 217

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316 CHAPTER 8 PARTING WORDS I began this dissertation by highlighting the fact that significant disparities in health exist between social groups in the United States. Policy makers and scholars from numerous fields are focused o n the study of the contributing causes of these disparities. It was my contention that one must account for the social history and social climate that is responsible for the disparity (Shavers and Shavers 2006:386) and acknowledge that health is the result of a complex, interacting system that must be viewed holistically (Keifer 2007). T his dissertation therefore, sought t o develop a model by which one can attempt to understand the complex relationship between biology, culture, environment, and human healt h using historical and bioarchaeological data. The specific focus of my research question was whether or not I could identify health disparities between ethnic groups represented by the historical and archaeological records of the late 19 th century citize ns of Tucson, Arizona, specifically the individuals buried in the Alameda Stone Cemetery, which was relocated by SRI from downtown Tucson between 2006 and 2008. Significant disparities exist is modern day Tucson, but why should policy makers in Tucson toda y care about the study of health in the 19 th century? Well, I hoped that my research would be able to highlight the origins of the social and health disparities that have carried through to the present day. If policy makers can more simply identify a time period where health disparity was not as large of an issue we might learn from the past and be able to institute more effective public health policy. To this effect, what then has been learned from the present study? The community of Tucson, during the l ate 19 th century was a multiethnic locale on the frontier of the United States. Historical and bioarchaeological evidence suggests

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317 that the nature of cultural and environmental interaction was complex. Before the arrival of the Southern Pacific Railroad i n 1880, Tucson was a community that lay on multiple geographic and cultural frontiers, being a combination of Spanish, Sonoran and American influences (Getty 1976:13; Sheridan 1986:29 40). The community was uniquely multi cultural with Anglo Mexican a nd Native American groups interacting on a regular basis. These interactions worked to spread cultural influences throughout the community, while paradoxically working to maintain cultural distinction in some aspect s of society because of the developing di sparities and segregation of groups from each other For example, Getty (1976:13) reports that Mexican Americans in 1950s Tucson adhered to traditional Mexican values in regards to kinship, devotion to Catholicism, music, recreation, marriage, and social c lasses, while adopting Anglo American perspectives on clothing, home furnishings, occupations and education. This same type of interaction was already at play in Tucson during the usage of the Alameda Stone C emetery. Clear indications of the influence of t he American Beautification of Death Movement are reflected in the use of mass produced decorative hardware and rectangular burial containers. Patterns of surface treatments and container construction, however, are more reminiscent of Mexican influence and regional vari ation. What existed before 1880 therefore, is a locus of cultural interaction, but not clear structural disparity. After 1880, however, clear social disparities began to form as more and more Anglo American settlers moved to town and took ove r the city hierarchy, businesses and culture. This project promotes an approach not often used in bioarchaeological discussions and demonstrates the multilayered nature of cultural identity, as well as the

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318 importance of socia l and environmental interactio ns. Archival, osteological, immunological, and archaeological observations were brought to bear on discussions of six significant diseases in 19 th century Tucson: malaria, giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, smallpox, syphilis, and gonorrhea. The exploration of the biology and history of these diseases revealed that an understanding of the relationships in the triangular model of human health is crucial. Malaria is an excellent example. The biology of the malaria parasite requires a intermediate host (i.e., the mosquito) to complete its life cycle. The mosquito, and by extension the parasite, can only survive under certain environmental conditions. The parasite is only passed to the definitive human host when the human behaviors, cultural beliefs, or social circu mstances are such that they are placed in a situation of high risk of becoming a meal for a hungry infected mosquito. Once infected with a given disease, cultural and social tradition determines your course of treatment and altered status within society. The analytical techniques applied in this study and the interpretive framework in which these techniques are used attempt to maximize the amount of information gleaned from this archaeological project. When faced with a large cemetery of unidentified huma n remains, clear and sound archaeological recovery and osteological analysis methods are critical. The osteological analysts and archaeologists who worked on the Alameda Stone Cemetery Project used standard techniques for traditional data recovery that can not be faulted. Furthermore, they acknowledged the limitations involved in some analysess, such as the problematic nature of making biological affinity determinations when faced with a multicultural environment. A novel approach to determining cultural aff inity, as opposed to biological affinity, was developed in

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319 conversation with descendant groups. This approach used both osteological and archaeological data to make determinations, but admittedly was still essentialist because of the types of data involved History suggests that social identities were much more fluid. The number of specific human diseases that can actually be observed osteologically is very limited. With the exception of syphilis, none of the disease investigated in this dissertation leave definitive evidence on the skeleton. Therefore, it is important that we continually attempt to develop new techniques to expand the range of our abilities to investigate historical patterns of disease. Traditional archaeoparasitological analyses of soil s amples from burials in the Alameda Stone Cemetery suggest that parasitism was negligible in Tucson. This only accounts for a small number of parasites of humans. I have used immunologically based ELISA tests to attempt to detect evidence of several parasit es which are rarely identified through traditional means. It is through these analyses that we learn something which could never be known through historical records alone. The water (likely both ground and surface water) of the Tucson Basin was heavily con taminated with the Giardia spp. parasite. Infections with this parasite likely account for a good portion of the cases of diarrheal complaints among the citizenry. E. histolytica was also implicated as the specific causal agent of at least some of the case s of dysentery which plagued Tucson, as opposed to bacterial cases of the disease. ELISA testing for P.f malaria was not successful, but due to the fact that Tucson malaria cases were likely caused by P. vivax rather than P. falciparum the potential for positive identification of the malaria parasite from burial samples is still fair if conditions are suitable.

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320 While the practice of medicine, the knowledge of disease transmission, the presence or absence of sanitary reforms, personal hygiene, nutrition a nd diet, socio economics, cultural tradition, and the presence or absence of social and environmental vectors each had important impacts on the instance of disease and death and the evaluation of the quality of life in the 19 th century, disentangling the d iverse influences is practically impossible. It is most commonly the simultaneous interplay of multiple factors at differing scales that has the greatest affect, which is why it is important to view state of health within a holistic interpretive framework. With in this context, this dissertation really served to shed light on the monumental effect s ocial interaction has on the individual health (and potential health disparity) as evidenced by the life histories of the individuals buried in the Alameda Stone Cemetery and those reflected in historical accounts of disease in Tucson. Part of the job of an archaeologist is to give voice to the past, so I will leave you with the parting words of a fictitious Tucson pioneer to illustrate and summarize my findings. My name is Teodoro Jimenez, and I was born during a summer monsoon inside the walled city of Tucson on July 24, 1850. I came out several weeks early because my mother was suffering from a severe bout of fever and chills, an illness which swept through the population every year with regularity. The midwife was unsure if I was going to survive, but I managed to pull through. My father was Juan Jimenez, a farmer who owned some land to the west of town across the Santa Cruz. He had a few cows, a burro, and two little Apache boys who worked for him in the fields. Our fields were the farthest downstream from the city and often did not have much water for irrigation because of the diversion of most of the water upstream. Many of our crops did not fare

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321 well, but we did manage to grown decent watermelons and had some success with tepary beans. One of the well to do Mexicans in town owned a store inside the wall, and there was also a saloon. Some people lived outside of the wall and had a few stores, but often provisi ons were scarce. I remember helping my mother make rag dolls as a child, which we took over to San Xavier to trade to the Papago for corn, wheat, and black eyed peas. We also collected mesquite and sold it in town as firewood and harvested the mesquite bea ns, which we dried and ground into penole. The valley had a variety of cacti that were good to eat, such as the nopal, sahuaro and tasejo fruits. The two little Apache boys sometimes sold us wild turkeys that they killed up in the Santa Ritas, as well a s rabbits, squirrels, and quail that they were able to trap elsewhere. Game is less abundant now, but in those days deer, wild sheep, goats, and other animals lived all around. The Indians used to live all over the valley, but now there are mainly just tho se who live down at San Xavier and a few peaceful Apaches camping out south of town. There was always a sentinel on the pointed hill to the southwest of Tucson looking for dust clouds from the wild Apaches who were always on the war path. The wild Apaches them if they had the chance. Sometime in the late 1850s they killed the two boys who worked for my father, and they stole a lot of his cattle too. The abode wall around the city was abou t six feet high and two feet thick. There was an entrance facing west, somewhat back of the present city hall. It was just an open space and formed the entrance through which teams passed, and there was always a guard of soldiers stationed there. On the ea st side, back of where the old city

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322 hall stood, but toward the north from the center of the wall, was a small gate for the heavy wooden door that had been chopped out with axe s. At each of the entrances there was a canon which was used when the Indians got too near the city. In the northeast corner of the wall there was a round tower with portholes. Inside the east entrance but toward the north of it was an old ruined church. I n the very early times there was a cemetery inside the wall near this church, but as far back as I can remember they were burying people outside the wall near what is now Alameda and Stone Avenue. There was a connected chain of little one room houses all around the inside of the wall that had been built for the soldiers and their families and a few other people. There were no Americans here then. The houses had openings or doorways and some of e a storehouse. Oh no, none glasses. The nights were often plagued by mosquitos and flies, as we almost always slept out of doors in the summer time if rain was not expected. Every six months or so the government would send to Hermosillo and bring back manta or unbleached cotton cl oth fro The women wore long skirts and shawls or scarfs. Our shoes were mostly taguas or rough shoes made of buck skin, and guaraches which were flat pieces of leather tied to the foot with buck skin strings which ran up between the big toe and the next Many of

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323 strings wear of course, because it would have been miserably hot in the summer wearing more than this. The women washed what clothes t hey had out in a ditch that ran along the nea r the west wall. Whenever they went out to do their washing the guards always went with them. For washboar ds they used big rocks. Papago women from San Xavier were often seen in town selling ollas a type of cla y pots that can keep water cool in the summer. At school we kept an olla from which everyone drank from a common cup. Just like we did in those days, Papago men also occasionally loaded up their burros with mesquite to sell in town as firewood. Inside the wall of the town there was a well and folks had plenty of water to use. In later years when the town began to grow several more wells were dug and the abandoned wells were left open causing quite a few accidents that I recall. It was a problem when someo ne got hurt in those early days because we had no doctors ; the people just doctored themselves with herbs and roots according to Mexican traditions or the advice of knowledgeable Papago medicine men. A burnt draft of greasewood, a nasty little shrub that g rew in the valley, was one of the best remedies for diarrhea, which was so common a problem during those days that people would start We had church services once in four or five years just when the priest would come this way. There was no padre in the church; people used to go to Hermosillo once in a while, and occasionally a priest would come to us. When they would come there would be services and marriages and the children would be baptized. The San Xavier

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324 mission was in the charge of altar boys or caretakers, but th ere were no services held in it, nor were there services in the church across the valley [San Agustin del Tucson] Once in a great while there would come a romeriomaras ( traveling circus ). Thes e were com also known as titiris, came to town a few times that I recall. They would para de around the streets with those little do l ls and at the show would make them dance and do funny things. When they ha d evening shows they made light by setting chollas on fire. Sometimes we had dances; our music would be a harp, a violin, a banjo, and a drum, or sometimes just one or the other of these. Dances were sometimes held in the square, but I often heard the men made a living at prostituting themselves to men who paid money for their services. There were only a few prostitutes in town in those days, all of them Mexican women of low social cl ass who frequented the saloons in town. While my mother did not have a high opinion of the Papago, in general, she did comment once that in some ways most of the Papago were more devout and pure because not a one of their women would have sunk so low as to sell themselves. At the time of the Gadsden Purchase when Mexican soldiers were withdrawn, General Hilario Gar cia was in command. Most of the soldiers had wives or lady friends in town and came back after being discharged from service in Mexico. The Mex ican Tucsonans had confidence in the Americans and most of those who we re not soldiers stayed. In 1862, a ragtag group of Confederates entered the presidio and claimed Arizona as part of the Confederacy. There were many southern sympathizers in town in

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325 tho se days, but little animosity was evident when the California Column came int o T ucson soon thereafter and routed the rebels. As the war played out during my school days very little of note occurred except for the continued pursual of the Apaches by the U. S. military based out of Camp Lowell. The town grew up significantly with the increase in the garrison, which also brought the post hospital, army surgeon, and several private doctors. By the end of the 1860s I was working as a laborer in the fields, but a lso assisted with digging of graves in the Catholic cemetery. I had plenty of work at that point because the smallpox came back to town in the late winter of 1869. There were no particular regulations as to quarantines for contagious diseases, such as meas les, diphtheria and chicken pox, except in the case of smallpox, when a yellow flag was hung out of the door of the house. I well remember the smallpox epidemic in 1870 because my youngest sister, Rosario, was stricken and was not expected to live. She wou ld have died if it had not been for the fine care of Dr. Goodfellow. I do not know if any of you have been through a smallpox epidemic. Well, you cannot imagine the horror of it. The situation was somewhat tense because the Army doctor blamed the Mexicans to worry about such nonsense because there were many people in addition to myself who were drafted into digging graves. Funerals went by our home at all times of the day on their way to the cemete ry Old rickety wagons would go by the house carrying four and five coffins. Those who were too poor to hire a wagon had relatives and friends to carry the coffin s covered in blue or black silesia on their shoulders to the church for services, and from the re to the cemetery. Ther e were no professional undertaker's here

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326 in those days. Coffins had to be made when deaths occurred and you could hear the sounds of hammering and sawing day and night. I had my fill of deaths, and after the end of the epidemic I t ook up a job as an apprentice with the Mexican butcher. I spent much of my free time in the saloons trying about were more plentiful now, and I often called on one young seorit a named Jess. After several of the boys complained of being stricken with adverse consequences of such trysts with other girls, I swore off the red light ladies, who at that time had grown much more diverse in assortment with Mexicans, Indians, Americans, and even a couple of Europeans. The butcher, for whom I worked, went out of business because of competition with George Foster, one of the many American businessmen who started taking over a lot of the businesses in town. Foster, along with George Hand, owned one of the saloons in town. I hooked up with the Tucson volunteers, who under the command of the officers from Camp Lowell struck out on the path of the remaining hostile Apaches. After an uneventful campaign we returned to Tucson at which time I too k over management of Concepcion, the daughter of a well to do Mexican merchant from northern Sonora. She soon blessed me with a son, who we named Pancho. We managed to we ather the smallpox epidemic of 1877 by taking a trip to visit distant relatives in Sonora, which it turned out was also badly afflicted with the disease. The local Papagos suggested that we inoculate our son with the disease so he could develop resistance, but feeling as though this would be against the will of God, and for fear of his death, we did not.

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327 The waters of the Santa Cruz dropped further underground and irrigation of the fields became harder and harder forcing us to depend more and more on my fa ther in the railroad from the east, the greater population of Americans destroyed the Mexican merchants in Tucson. The character of the town changed becoming more like an American town. The Mexicans were essentially segregated in the Barrio Libre where we had our residence, while the Americans built finer houses in the northern part of town. Our families decided to seek our future elsewhere on the ranches of Sonora. Before our departure, however, Pancho, fell sick with the dreaded cholera. The rest of the family escaped infection, but our young son did not survive and we laid him down to his eternal rest in the city cemetery.

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328 A PPENDIX A TUCSON MORTALITY SCH EDULE FROM TH E 1870 U.S. FEDERAL CENSUS (PERSONS WHO DIED IN THE YEAR PRI OR TO JUNE 1, 1870) Page Line No. of Family on Schedule 1 Surname Given Name Age Estimated Birth Year Gender Race Marital Status Birthplace Occupation Month of Death Cause of Death Census Year 1 1 14 Martinez Ignacia 1 abt 1869 Female White Arizona Jul Malarial fever 1869 1 2 42 Zecedo Petre 2 abt 1868 Female White Arizona Apr Smallpox 1870 1 3 54 Assuni Cruz 15 abt 1855 Male White Sonora, Mexico Apr From a pistol shot 1870 1 4 54 Assuni Petre 7 abt 1863 Female White Sonora, Mexico Feb Smallpox 1870 1 5 55 Carto Creotildo 3 abt 1867 Female White Arizona Feb Smallpox 1870 1 6 65 Lopez Besenta 9 months abt 1869 Female White Arizona Feb Smallpox 1870 1 7 69 Valdez Grabeela 9 abt 1861 Female White Sonora, Mexico Feb Smallpox 1870 1 8 77 Parras Patricia 1 abt 1869 Female White Arizona Feb Smallpox 1870 1 9 77 Parras Tomasita 2 abt 1868 Female White Arizona Dec Smallpox 1869 1 10 133 Gonzales Jaronimo 1 abt 1869 Male White Ariz ona Apr Malarial fever 1870 1 11 146 Hardenberg Charles 39 abt 1831 Male White Married New York Carpenter Jan Smallpox 1870 1 12 147 Gowna Ceveranna 25 abt 1845 Female White Married Sonora, Mexico Keeping House Apr Malarial fever 1870 1 13 147 Gowna Jo aquin 8 abt 1862 Male White Sonora, Mexico Mar Smallpox 1870 1 14 154 Fernandez Manuella 1 abt 1869 Female White Sonora, Mexico Feb Smallpox 1870 1 15 157 Granillo Mechula 7 abt 1863 Female White Sonora, Mexico Feb Smallpox 1870 1 16 157 Granillo Trinidad 4 abt 1866 Female White Sonora, Mexico Feb Smallpox 1870 1 17 162 Gomez Ignacio 1 abt 1869 Male White Arizona Apr Smallpox 1870 1 18 164 Sawyer Maria 1 abt 1869 Female White Arizona Feb Smallpox 1870 1 19 167 Barsuto Dolores 8 abt 1862 Fe male White Sonora, Mexico Mar Smallpox 1870 1 20 171 Hughes Samuel 1 month abt 1870 Male White Arizona May Malarial fever 1870 1 21 223 Elias Caitano 5 abt 1865 Male White Arizona Apr Smallpox 1870 1 22 226 Brown Ambrosio 45 abt 1825 Male Black Ma rried Texas Farmer Mar Smallpox 1870 1 23 245 Uries Maria 2 abt 1868 Female White Arizona Apr Smallpox 1870 1 24 247 Romero Tomas 1 month abt 1870 Male White Arizona Apr Malarial fever 1870 1 25 248 Burrueles Manuella 50 abt 1820 Female White Widowe d Arizona Keeping House Jun Malarial fever 1869 1 26 254 Carmarcho Antonio 30 abt 1840 Male White Arizona Laborer Nov Malarial fever 1869 1 27 272 Leon Juan 2 months abt 1870 Male White Arizona Nov Malarial fever 1869 1 28 279 Acedo Gregorio 7 abt 18 63 Male White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 1 29 279 Acedo Ramon 2 abt 1868 Male White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 1 30 307 Duffield Minnie J 28 abt 1842 Female White Married Scotland Keeping House May Aneurism 1870 1 31 352 Yanes Jose 35 abt 1835 Male Wh ite Married Sonora, Mexico Wagon Master Sep Killed by Indians 1869 1 32 374 Telles Francisca 8 abt 1862 Male White Arizona Feb Smallpox 1870 1 33 374 Telles Manuel 3 abt 1867 Male White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 1 34 421 Rodriges Incarnacion 7 abt 1 863 Female White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 1 35 421 Rodriges Delfina 5 abt 1865 Female White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 2 1 423 Soza Maria 4 abt 1866 Female White Arizona Jan Smallpox 1870 2 2 457 Sarzuela Macario 5 abt 1865 Male White Sonora, Mex ico Feb Smallpox 1870 2 3 459 Salazar Victoria 3 abt 1867 Female White Sonora, Mexico Mar Smallpox 1870

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329 Page Line No. of Family on Schedule 1 Surname Given Name Age Estimated Birth Year Gender Race Marital Status Birthplace Occupation Month of Death Cause of Death Census Year 2 4 Israel Newton 32 abt 1838 Male White Missouri Farmer May Killed by Indians 1870 2 5 Kennedy Hughes 30 abt 1840 Male White Ireland Farmer M ay Killed by Indians 1870 2 6 473 Valdez Paule 5 abt 1865 Female White Sonora, Mexico Mar Smallpox 1870 2 7 Jarvis Jackson 38 abt 1832 Male White Kentucky Laborer Mar Smallpox 1870 2 8 Smith William 36 abt 1834 Male White Illinois Baker Dec Infilt ration of urine from unicary fistula 1869 2 9 Leard Frank 24 abt 1846 Male White New York Clerk in Store Feb Congestion of the lungs from malarial fever 1870 2 10 259 Dublin James 28 abt 1842 Male Black New York Cook Mar Smallpox 1870 2 11 243 Kelsey Benjamin 25 abt 1845 Male White Missouri Gambler Dec Syphilitic laryngitis 1869 2 12 Sloan William 40 abt 1830 Male White Ohio Gambler Nov Suicide pistol shot in the head 1869 2 13 Dick Albert 30 abt 1840 Male White Switzerland Watch Repairer Nov A poplexy 1869 2 14 389 Flournoy M J 44 abt 1826 Male White Missouri Retail Merchant Jun Delirium Tremens 1869 2 15 Caldwell J B 32 abt 1838 Male White Ohio Laborer Jan Smallpox 1870 2 16 504 Pennington E G 60 abt 1810 Male White Widower South Carolina Freighter Jun Killed by Indians 1869 2 17 504 Pennington E G 20 abt 1850 Male White Texas Freighter Jun Killed by Indians 1869 2 18 504 Barnet U C 38 abt 1832 Male White Married Arkansas Carpenter Nov Chronic dysentery 1869 2 19 504 Barnet Lora C 34 a bt 1836 Female White Widowed Tennessee Dec Pneumonia 1869 2 20 504 Barnet James P 4 abt 1866 Male White Arizona Dec Acute dysentery 1869 2 21 506 Eluroa Beatricea 6 abt 1864 Female White California Mar Smallpox 1870 2 22 506 Eluroa Alberto 2 abt 18 68 Male White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 2 23 506 Eluroa Tomas 1 month abt 1870 Male White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 2 24 515 Thorpy John 9 abt 1861 Male White New Mexico Mar Smallpox 1870 2 25 524 Seis Juan 40 abt 1830 Male White Married Arizona L aborer Apr Killed by Indians 1870 2 26 534 Teran Albina 5 abt 1865 Female White Sonora, Mexico Dec Smallpox 1869 2 27 538 Gonzales Jose 4 abt 1866 Male White Arizona Jan Smallpox 1870 2 28 539 Lopez Jose 35 abt 1835 Male White Married Sonora, Mexico Laborer Sep Killed by Indians 1869 2 29 541 Biestera Bartola 35 abt 1835 Female White Married Sonora, Mexico Keeping House Dec Malarial Fever 1869 2 30 543 Beiteras Refugia 4 abt 1866 Female White Arizona Oct Smallpox 1869 2 31 543 Beiteras Maria 1 a bt 1869 Female White Arizona Apr Smallpox 1870 2 32 544 Escobosa Refugia 3 abt 1867 Female White Arizona Feb Smallpox 1870 2 33 544 Escobosa Marita 9 months abt 1869 Female White Arizona Feb Smallpox 1870 2 34 546 Coronado Jose 26 abt 1844 Male Wh ite Married Sonora, Mexico Dec Pneumonia 1869 2 35 546 Coronado Jesus 22 abt 1848 Female White Married Sonora, Mexico Dec Pneumonia 1869 3 1 548 Michalena Ramona 4 abt 1866 Female White Sonora, Mexico Dec Malarial Fever 1869 3 2 554 Bia Cornelio 30 abt 1840 Male White Sonora, Mexico Day Laborer Oct Pneumonia 1869 3 3 562 McKenna Michael Jr. 1 month abt 1870 Male White Arizona Feb Smallpox 1870 3 4 570 Andraga Tomasa 1 abt 1869 Female White Arizona Nov Smallpox 1869 3 5 593 Gonzales Sacramento 22 abt 1848 Male White Sonora, Mexico Laborer Jul From a pistol shot hom 1869 3 6 598 Basques Torevio 80 abt 1790 Male White Married Sonora, Mexico Brick Mason Apr Pneumonia 1870 3 7 611 Campo Rafail 9 months abt 1869 Male White Arizona Jan Chronic D iarrhea 1870 3 8 611 Campo Elena 4 abt 1866 Female White Sonora, Mexico Jan Chronic Diarrhea 1870

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330 Page Line No. of Family on Schedule 1 Surname Given Name Age Estimated Birth Year Gender Race Marital Status Birthplace Occupation Month of Death Cause of Death Census Year 3 9 620 Parral Francisco 1 month abt 1870 Male White Arizona Feb Smallpox 1870 3 10 648 Iacona Jesus 2 months abt 1870 Female White Arizona Apr Chole ra Infantum 1870 3 11 656 Vasques Luis 3 months abt 1869 Male White Arizona Mar Cholera Infantum 1870 3 12 660 Giardo Guadalupe 5 abt 1865 Female White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 3 13 660 Giardo Ramona 1 abt 1869 Female White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1 870 3 14 661 Ordunia Jesus 8 abt 1862 Female White Sonora, Mexico Mar Smallpox 1870 3 15 662 Montiges Juana 4 abt 1866 Female White Arizona Apr Smallpox 1870 3 16 663 Constine Frederico 3 abt 1867 Male White Arizona Dec Cholera Infantum 1869 3 17 670 Gallego Polmia 8 abt 1862 Female White Sonora, Mexico Feb Smallpox 1870 3 18 677 Pania Romanito 5 abt 1865 Male White New Mexico Apr Smallpox 1870 3 19 677 Pania Francisca 2 abt 1868 Female White Arizona Apr Smallpox 1870 3 20 681 Perris Mart in 3 abt 1867 Male White Sonora, Mexico Mar Smallpox 1870 3 21 681 Perris Nativita 1 month abt 1870 Female White Arizona Mar Fever and Ague 1870 3 22 701 Maralis Eselsio 7 abt 1863 Male White Sonora, Mexico Mar Smallpox 1870 3 23 703 Peralto Zenon 1 month abt 1870 Male White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 3 24 708 Castro Dolores 6 abt 1864 Male White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 3 25 708 Castro Victoria 1 month abt 1870 Female White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 3 26 710 Castro Telespiro 2 abt 1868 Ma le White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 3 27 712 Salazar Antonio 7 abt 1863 Male White Sonora, Mexico Mar Smallpox 1870 3 28 713 Romero Miguel 8 abt 1862 Male White Sonora, Mexico Feb Smallpox 1870 3 29 713 Romero Alberto 6 abt 1864 Female White Sonor a, Mexico Mar Smallpox 1870 3 30 723 Carrillo Jesus 30 abt 1840 Male White Married Sonora, Mexico Farm Laborer Aug Inflammation of stomach 1869 3 31 724 Bilderry Mariata 8 months abt 1869 Female White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 3 32 735 Usarago Manuel 9 months abt 1869 Male White Sonora, Mexico Mar Smallpox 1870 3 33 744 Gomez Librada 7 abt 1863 Female White Sonora, Mexico Dec Smallpox 1869 3 34 748 Leon Francisco 1 abt 1869 Male White Arizona Jan Smallpox 1870 3 35 769 Renteria Santiago 8 mon ths abt 1869 Male White Arizona Apr Smallpox 1870 4 1 773 Shibell Teresa 13 abt 1857 Female Indian Arizona Domestic Servant Mar Smallpox 1870 4 2 Stone John F 33 abt 1837 Male White New York Miner Oct Killed by Indians 1869 4 3 Kader Joseph 25 abt 1845 Male White Ohio US Mail Carrier Oct Killed by Indians 1869 4 4 Morales Demasio 45 abt 1825 Male White Sonora, Mexico Laborer May Pneumonia 1870 4 5 777 Ortez Louisa 4 abt 1866 Female White Arizona Jun Pneumonia 1869 4 6 783 Calles Francisco 1 1 abt 1859 Male Indian New Mexico Feb Smallpox 1870 4 7 795 Montiel Bernava 35 abt 1835 Female White Widowed Sonora, Mexico Seamstress May Pneumonia 1870 4 8 804 Telles Gapita 16 abt 1854 Female White Arizona Oct Pneumonia 1869 4 9 804 Telles Juanit a 5 abt 1865 Female White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 4 10 809 Iovanita Ramon 2 abt 1868 Male White Sonora, Mexico Mar Smallpox 1870 4 11 809 Iovanita Bijinia 1 month abt 1870 Female White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 4 12 226 Brown Samuel 39 abt 1831 Male White Kentucky Farmer Jan Killed by Indians 1870 4 13 Sims John 35 abt 1835 Male White Illinois Farm Laborer Jan Killed by Indians 1870

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331 Page Line No. of Family on Schedule 1 Surname Given Name Age Estimated Birth Year Gender Race Marital Status Birthplace Occupation Month of Death Cause of Death Census Year 4 14 Jackson John 35 abt 1835 Male White Illinois Farm Laborer Apr Killed by Indians 1870 4 15 Brainerd Da niel 30 abt 1840 Male White Missouri Laborer Dec From a pistol shot 1869 4 16 Gaige A J 38 abt 1832 Male White New York Photographer Jan Delirium Tremens 1870 4 17 Ward Henry MC 33 abt 1837 Male White Maryland Customs Inspector Jan Delirium Tremens 1870 4 18 817 Robles Demetricia 25 abt 1845 Female White Widowed Sonora, Mexico May Pneumonia 1870 4 19 821 Moresco Feliz 1 abt 1869 Male White Arizona Mar Pneumonia 1870 4 20 837 Dorme Carlos 2 abt 1868 Male White Arizona Jan Smallpox 1870 4 21 8 37 Dorme Pasqual 12 abt 1858 Male White Sonora, Mexico Feb Smallpox 1870 4 22 838 Valenzia Jesus 5 abt 1865 Female White Sonora, Mexico Feb Pneumonia 1870 4 23 838 Valenzia Antonia 6 months abt 1869 Female White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 4 24 839 Romero Manuella 59 abt 1811 Female White Widowed Arizona Keeping House May Pneumonia 1870 4 25 855 Purjado Tomas 5 abt 1865 Male White Sonora, Mexico May Pneumonia 1870 4 26 858 Barcelo Jesus 3 abt 1867 Male White Sonora, Mexico Apr Smallpox 1870 4 27 860 Galindo Merced 4 abt 1866 Female White Sonora, Mexico Mar Smallpox 1870 4 28 861 Orosco Julian 25 abt 1845 Male White Sonora, Mexico Farm Laborer May Killed by Indians 1870 4 29 862 Domingues Francisco 18 abt 1852 Male White Sonora, Mexico Far m Laborer May Killed by Indians 1870 4 30 887 Miles Ella 32 abt 1838 Female White Married New York Keeping House Sep Puerperal peritonitis 1869 4 31 899 Girardot Isan B 32 abt 1838 Male White France Soldier US Army Nov Anasarca 1869 4 32 900 Oneil Mary 30 abt 1840 Female White Married Ireland Keeping House Feb Smallpox 1870 4 33 907 Beardsley Selas 23 abt 1847 Male White New York Soldier US Army Mar Smallpox 1870 4 34 907 Hogan Bernard 24 abt 1846 Male White Canada Soldier US Army Apr Smallpox 1870

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332 APPENDIX B TUCSON MORTALITY SCH EDULE FROM THE 1880 U.S. FEDERAL CENSUS (PERSONS WHO DIED IN THE YEAR PRIOR TO JU NE 1, 1880) Page Line No. of Family on Schedule 1 Surname Given Name Age Estimated Birth Year Gender Race Marital Status Birthplace Occupatio n Month of Death Death Year Cause of Death Name of Attending Physician 1 1 Begley Thomas 48 abt 1832 Male White Married Ireland May 1880 Pneumonia Dr. Handy 1 2 Massey Francis 32 abt 1848 Male White Single England May 1880 Dropsy Dr. Handy 2 1 381 C astro Jesus 69 abt 1811 Male White Married Arizona Farmer Apr 1880 Remittent Fever No Physician 2 2 383 Preciado B 53 abt 1827 Male White Married Mexico Laborer Sept 1879 Enhozmart of rast Dr. Watson 2 3 3 Herrao F 30 abt 1850 Female White Married Mexico Feb 1880 Colic Dr. Watson 2 4 382 Marina Manuel 60 abt 1820 Male White Married Mexico Laborer Jul 1879 Remittent Fever None 2 5 362 Ghantto J Z 10 abt 1870 Female White Single Arizona Jun 1879 Dysentery Dr. Watson 2 6 367 Carrillo Jesse 33 abt 1847 F emale White Married Mexico Wife Jun 1879 Child Birth Dr. Handy 2 7 Spulinda Petria 36 abt 1844 Female White Married Arizona Sept 1879 Lung Fever 3 1 Begley Thomas 48 abt 1832 Male White Single Ireland Laborer Dec 1879 Pneumonia C.J. Holbrook 3 2 Ma ssey Frank 32 abt 1848 Male White Single England Laborer Feb 1880 Dropsy C.J. Holbrook 3 3 Chancux Maria 33 abt 1847 Female White Widowed France Dress Maker Nov 1879 Consumption C.J. Holbrook 3 4 McCarty Owen 66 abt 1814 Male White Widowed Ireland Lawy er Mar 1880 Typhoid Fever C.J. Holbrook 3 5 Trafas Gregorio 24 abt 1856 Male White Single Mexico Laborer Jan 1880 Nove fellon nine C.J. Holbrook 3 6 Roberts William 31 abt 1849 Male White Single England Laborer Dec 1879 Typhoid Fever J.C. Handy 3 7 D alin Michael 42 abt 1838 Male White Married Ireland Blacksmith Nov 1879 Typhoid Fever J.C. Handy 3 8 Nieto Jose 24 abt 1856 Male White Single Mexico Laborer Oct 1879 Consumption J.C. Handy 3 9 Wenchill Philip 53 abt 1827 Male White Widowed New York Car penter Feb 1880 Abscess of the Liver J.C. Handy 4 1 Michalson Nellie 2 abt 1878 Female White Single Arizona Jun 1879 Scarlatina J.D.B. Gardiner 4 2 Hakrer Orth 1 abt 1879 Male White Single Arizona Aug 1879 Cholera morbus J.D.B. Gardiner 4 3 Valle T eresa 11 abt 1869 Female White Single Sonora, Mexico Nov 1879 Cholera morbus J.D.B. Gardiner 4 4 Shofford Leander 24/30 abt 1880 Male White Single Arizona May 1880 Colic Dr. Joseph 4 5 Beltida Janna 30 abt 1850 Female White Married Sonora, Mexico Min er Nov 1879 Fever Dr. Joseph 4 6 Macino Joaquim 50 abt 1830 Male White Married Sonora, Mexico Laborer May 1880 Fever Dr. Watson 4 7 Sato Not Named 3 Months abt 1880 Female White Single Arizona Apr 1880 Did Not Know Dr. Watson 4 8 Llgar Barone 8 Mont hs abt 1880 Female White Single Arizona Oct 1879 Teething J.C. Handy 4 9 Llgar Seraflina 8 Months abt 1879 Female White Single Arizona Mar 1880 Teething J.C. Handy 4 10 Barba Janna 2 abt 1878 Female White Single Arizona Jul 1880 Typhoid Fever Saimen ago 4 11 Santiago Elena 2 abt 1878 Female White Single Arizona Dec 1879 Typhoid Fever J.C. Handy 4 12 Romaro Fredosa 45 abt 1835 Male White Married Sonora, Mexico Laborer Feb 1880 Typhoid Fever J.C. Handy 4 13 Bertram Jose 17 abt 1863 Male White Sin gle Sonora, Mexico Laborer Mar 1880 Typhoid Fever J.C. Handy 4 14 Martma Francesco 2 abt 1878 Male White Single Arizona Dec 1879 Typhoid Fever J.C. Handy 4 15 Romo Merguil 24 abt 1856 Male White Single Sonora, Mexico Laborer Aug 1879 Typhoid Fever 4 16 Ramoz Teressa 40 abt 1840 Female White Widowed Sonora, Mexico House Worker Aug 1879 Typhoid Fever 4 17 Ramonez Senora 7 abt 1873 Female White Single Sonora, Mexico Nov 1879 Run over by wagon 4 18 Jacobs Frederick 20/30 abt 1880 Male White Singl e California Mar 1880 Malarial Fever Dr. Tucker 4 19 Albaras Jose M 100 abt 1780 Male White Widowed Sonora, Mexico Shoemaker Aug 1879 Old Age

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333 Page Line No. of Family on Schedule 1 Surname Given Name Age Estimated Birth Year Gender Race Marital Status Birthplace Occupatio n Month of Death Death Year Cause of Death Name of Attending Physician 4 20 Gordon R 41 abt 1839 Male White Married United States Carpenter Apr 1880 Angina Pectoris Dr. Davis 4 2 1 Baily W L 18/30 abt 1880 Male White Single Arizona May 1880 Convulsions Dr. Davis 4 22 Larker F M Male White Single United States Aug 1879 Debility Dr. Emch 4 23 Moraga Mary 25 abt 1855 Female White Married United States Life of Ind. Aug 1879 Pu erperal Fever Dr. Emch 4 24 Santon 26 abt 1854 Male White Single United States Life of Ind. Jul 1879 Consumption Dr. Emch 4 25 Boy Indian 12 abt 1868 Male Indian Single United States Life of Ind. Feb 1880 Pneumonia Dr. Emch 4 26 Marcopa Gul 17 abt 1 863 Female Indian Single United States Life of Ind. May 1880 Syphilis Dr. Emch 4 27 Puia Indian Male Indian Single United States Life of Ind. Sep 1879 Skull Fracture Dr. Emch 4 28 Paia India 35 abt 1845 Indian Single United States Life of Ind. May 1 880 Railroad Accident Dr. Emch

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334 APPENDIX C SAN XAVIER MORTALITY SCHEDULE FROM THE 18 70 U.S. FEDERAL CENS US (PERSONS WHO DIED IN THE YEAR PRIOR TO JUNE 1, 1870) Page Line No. of Family on Schedule 1 Surname Given Name Age Estimated Birth Year Gender Race Marital Status Birthplace Occupation Month of Death Cause of Death Census Year 1 1 3 Gonzales Agada 2 abt 1868 Female White Arizona Sep Pneumonia 1869 1 2 4 Tanlles Noberta 6 abt 1864 Female White Arizona Aug Pneumonia 1869 1 3 4 Tanlles Brijida 7 months abt 1869 Female White Arizona Jul Pneumonia 1870 1 4 4 Tanlles Eulogia 7 abt 1863 Female White Arizona Apr Smallpox 1870 1 5 4 Tanlles Juanita 1 month abt 1870 Female White Arizona Apr Pneumonia 1870 1 6 8 Heredia Mogona 8 months abt 1869 F emale White Arizona Aug Pneumonia 1869 1 7 8 Heredia Maria 6 abt 1864 Female White Arizona Apr Smallpox 1870 1 8 11 Bedoia Josepha 7 abt 1863 Female White Arizona Sep Pneumonia 1869 1 9 11 Bedoia Santiago 1 abt 1869 Male White Arizona Mar Smallp ox 1870 1 10 12 Castillo Domingo 8 abt 1862 Male White Sonora, Mexico Mar Smallpox 1870 1 11 15 Ramirez Jose 1 abt 1869 Male White Arizona Apr Smallpox 1870 1 12 18 Burruel Cecilio 1 abt 1869 Male White Arizona Mar Smallpox 1870 1 13 19 Errcas Ca rmil 1 month abt 1870 Female White Arizona Apr Smallpox 1870 1 14 20 Moralis Sosto 30 abt 1840 Male White Sonora, Mexico Laborer May From a pistol shot 1870 1 15 25 Rodrigues Pablo 30 abt 1840 Male White Sonora, Mexico Laborer Mar Killed by Indians 1 870 1 16 32 Palominia Polonia 22 abt 1848 Female White Sonora, Mexico Seamstress Apr Pneumonia 1870

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335 APPENDIX D POST HOSPITAL LEDGER BOOK 118, CAMP LOWEL L, TUCSON, ARIZONA T ERRITORY (AUGUST 1866 AUGUST 1868) Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 1 George Fieldmann Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Whitlow 4 Aug 66 1 John Finnigan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Diarrhea 4 Aug 66 1 Charles Meyer Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Chronic Rheumatism 4 Aug 66 1 John Sawyer Privat e 1st U.S. Cavalry C Chronic Diarrhea 4 Aug 66 1 Patrick Hogan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Acute Diarrhea 6 Aug 66 1 Charles Reinhardt Bugler 1st U.S. Cavalry C Hepatitis 7 Aug 66 1 Gill Harnhan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Tertian Intermittent Feve r 7 Aug 66 1 Joseph Gondossitr Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Acute Diarrhea 7 Aug 66 1 Henry Baranowsky Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Gonorrhea 8 Aug 66 1 Charles Reinhardt Bugler 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipation 14 Aug 66 1 George Runk Sgt. 1st U.S. Cavalry C Chronic Hepatitis 17 Aug 66 1 Wm. Wallace Private 14th U.S. Infantry Gastritis 17 Aug 66 1 Thomas Lavitch Private 14th U.S. Infantry Tertian Intermittent Fever 19 Aug 66 1 Ebon Hart Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Ophthalmia 22 Aug 66 1 Thomas Smith Private 14th U.S. Infantry Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 Aug 66 1 Henry Baranowsky Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Ophthalmia 24 Aug 66 1 John Murphy Bugler 1st U.S. Cavalry C Acute Diarrhea 27 Aug 66 1 Wm. Rile Private 1st U.S. Cava lry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 28 Aug 66 1 John Hand Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Aug 66 1 Harlin Donnahoe Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Acute Diarrhea 29 Aug 66 1 John Wheeler Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Int ermittent Fever 30 Aug 66 1 Michael Cafs Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Andrea 31 Aug 66 1 Leo Lovitz Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Debility 1 Sep 66 1 Edward Gallaghan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 31 Aug 66 1 Wm. Dody Priva te 1st U.S. Cavalry C Acute Bronchitis 7 Sep 66

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336 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 1 F. Gardessier Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Acute Diarrhea 7 Sep 66 1 Wm. Robbins Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Sep 66 1 Charles Pohinegan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Quoti dian Intermittent Fever 8 Sep 66 1 John Curtis Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipation 10 Sep 66 1 McGrath Sgt. 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 12 Sep 66 1 Wallen Colonel 14th U.S. Infantry Anthrax 12 Sep 66 1 Martin Roche Private 1st U.S. Caval ry C Acute Diarrhea 14 Sep 66 1 Charli Colby Corp. 1st U.S. Cavalry C Scrofulus 15 Sep 66 1 Cornl. Donnovan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 Sep 66 1 Edward Gallaghan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipation 19 Sep 66 1 Patrick Giblin Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipation 20 Sep 66 1 Joseph Dornan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Sep 66 1 Patrick Grogan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipation 28 Sep 66 1 Edward Donera Private 1st U.S Cavalry C Acute Diarrhea 1 Oct 66 1 John Schonigan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 Oct 66 2 John Cady Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipation 2 Oct 66 2 Patrick Giblin Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipation 2 Oct 66 2 John Finnigan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Acute Diarrhea 2 Oct 66 5 Nov 66 2 Charles Fahl Sgt. 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 Oct 66 2 Jacob Gorman Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 Oct 66 2 Cornelius Donnovan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipation 5 Oct 66 2 John Vinnerin Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Tertian Intermittent Fever 6 Oct 66 2 Morris Coffman Corp. 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipation 7 Oct 66 2 Joseph Dornan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quo tidian Intermittent Fever 9 Oct 66 2 James Dunscher Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 Oct 66 2 Wm. Gala Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 Oct 66 2 Patrick Grogan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipati on 9 Oct 66 2 James Dunscher Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 Oct 66 2 Joseph Franey Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Dysentery 10 Oct 66

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337 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 2 Joseph Liday Sgt. 1st U.S. Cavalry C Tertian Intermittent Fever 11 Oct 66 2 Wm. Doyl e Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Rheumatism 11 Oct 66 2 Andrew Murphy Bugler 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipation 12 Oct 66 2 Michael Duffy Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 Oct 66 2 Edward Gallaghan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Chro nic Diarrhea 15 Oct 66 2 Wm. Gala Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Debility 15 Oct 66 2 McGrath Sgt. 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 15 Oct 66 2 Patrick Grogan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Debility 15 Oct 66 2 Franz Smith Private 14th U.S. Infantry Quoti dian Intermittent Fever 15 Oct 66 2 Wm. Gala Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 Oct 66 2 Patrick Crowley Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Debility 22 Oct 66 2 Charli Fahl Sgt. 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 Oc t 66 2 Charles Reinhardt Bugler 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 Oct 66 2 Michael Dorsey Private 14th U.S. Infantry Acute Diarrhea 24 Oct 66 2 James Kelly Private 14th U.S. Infantry D Catarrh 24 Oct 66 2 Wm. Green Private 14 th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 Oct 66 2 Jacob Gorman Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 25 Oct 66 2 Charles Dougherty Private 14th U.S. Infantry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 Oct 66 2 Wm. Green Private 14th U.S. Infantry A Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 Oct 66 2 Wm. Bryan Private 14th U.S. Infantry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 27 Oct 66 2 James Martin Private 14th U.S. Infantry A Hepatitis 28 Oct 66 2 Charles Hardenberg Carpenter Employ by Arch Hepatitis 28 Oct 66 2 Jacob Gorman Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Oct 66 2 Daniel Crowley Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Oct 66 2 Wm. Wallace Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Ophthalmia 29 Oct 66 2 John Finnerin Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Oct 66 2 James Dunscher Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 31 Oct 66 3 Charles Hardenberg Carpenter Chronic Hepatitis 31 Oct 66 3 Wm. Dody Privat e 1st U.S. Cavalry C Catarrh 2 Nov 66

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338 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 3 McDonald Lieut. 1st U.S. Cavalry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 Nov 66 3 Wm. Morgan Sgt. 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 3 Nov 66 3 Charles Meyer Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Diarrhea 5 Nov 66 3 Henry Barano wsky Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 5 Nov 66 3 James Dunscher Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Acute Diarrhea 7 Nov 66 3 Charles Williams Private 1st U.S. Cavalry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Nov 66 3 Charles Donnohoe Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipation 9 Nov 66 3 Fred Ryan Teamster Constipation 9 Nov 66 3 Jos. Daily Private 14th U.S. Infantry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 Nov 66 3 Jos. Liday Sgt. 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 Nov 66 3 Jacob Gardessier Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipation 14 Nov 66 3 Wm. Ornay Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 14 Nov 66 3 Joseph Dornan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 Nov 66 3 Martin Donnahoe Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 Nov 66 3 Wm. Edgar Blacksmith A.G. Mosh Chronic Diarrhea 22 Nov 66 3 Wm. Roche Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 22 Nov 66 3 Wm. Dumond Hosp. Steward 1st U.S. Cavalry C Chronic Rheumatism 24 Nov 66 3 Charli Ochema Pri vate 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 28 Nov 66 3 Jos. Murphy Bugler 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 2 Dec 66 3 Jacob Gardessier Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Tumores 6 Dec 66 3 Daniel Crowley Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 Dec 66 3 Charles Hedman Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Whitlow 8 Dec 66 3 Dunkelburger Capt. 1st U.S. Cavalry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Dec 66 3 Joseph Hermon Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 Dec 66 3 James Dunscher Priva te 1st U.S. Cavalry C Tertian Intermittent Fever 12 Dec 66 3 Wm. Egla Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Dec 66 3 Martin Riche Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Acute Diarrhea 16 Dec 66 3 Derlin Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusi on

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339 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 3 Corr Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Burn 4 1 Joseph Murphy Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 3 Dec 66 4 2 Jacob Gardessier Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Scrofula 6 Dec 66 4 3 Daniel Crowley Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Feve r 7 Dec 66 4 4 Charles Wedman Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Whitlow 8 Dec 66 4 5 Joseph Gorman Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 Dec 66 4 6 Joseph Barker Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Tertian Intermittent Fever 12 Dec 66 4 7 Will iam Egler Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 Dec 66 4 8 Marcus Roach Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Acute Diarrhea 16 Dec 66 4 9 John England Corp. 3rd Battalion D Chronic Diarrhea 19 Dec 66 4 10 Gustus Pittimore Private 3rd Batt alion D Debility from Miasmatic Disease 19 Dec 66 4 11 Richard O'Neil Private 3rd Battalion B Insanity 19 Dec 66 4 12 Daniel Crowley Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Chronic Rheumatism 26 Dec 66 4 13 John Tinnarrin Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Chronic Diarr hea 26 Dec 66 4 14 Corr Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 26 Dec 66 4 15 James Farrell Private 3rd Battalion F Debility from Miasmatic Disease 26 Dec 66 4 16 Colby Corp. 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 30 Dec 66 5 2 John England Corp. 14th U.S. Inf antry A Chronic Diarrhea 19 Sep 66 5 3 Edward Gallaghan Private 14th U.S. Infantry A Debility from Miasmatic Disease 19 Sep 66 5 4 Gustus Pittimore Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Chronic Dysentery 12 Oct 66 5 5 Joseph Gardiner Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Scrofula 5 Dec 66 5 6 John Tinnarrin Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Chronic Diarrhea 26 Dec 66 5 7 Daniel Crowley Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Chronic Rheumatism 26 Dec 66 5 1 Colby Corp. 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 3 Jan 67 5 2 Doyle Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipation 3 Jan 67 5 3 Reinhardt Bugler 1st U.S. Cavalry C England Bris 4 Jan 67 5 4 William Dummond Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Chronic Rheumatism 4 Jan 67

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340 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 5 5 Baronowsky Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 11 Jan 67 5 6 Joseph Bark er Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 25 Jan 67 5 7 Corr Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 26 Jan 67 5 8 Broron Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Constipation 26 Jan 67 5 9 Rolph Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 Jan 67 5 10 Gravis Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Gonorrhea 27 Jan 67 5 11 Lewis Harn Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Diarrhea 28 Jan 67 5 12 Patrick Hart Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Diarrhea 28 Jan 67 5 13 Charles Pomroy Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chro nic Diarrhea 28 Jan 67 5 14 Hansard Williams Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Senility 28 Jan 67 5 15 Cornelius Doyle Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Rheumatism 29 Jan 67 5 16 Henry Brom Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Jan 67 5 17 Frank Doyl Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Contusion 29 Jan 67 5 18 Brom Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 31 Jan 67 5 19 Carr Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 31 Jan 67 6 1 John England Cor p. 32nd U.S. Infantry A Chronic Diarrhea 19 Dec 66 6 Feb 67 6 2 Edward Gallaghan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Chronic Dysentery 15 Oct 66 24 Feb 67 6 3 Charles Pomroy Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Diarrhea 28 Jan 67 26 Feb 67 6 4 Patrick Roark Pri vate 32nd U.S. Infantry C Scurvy 28 Jan 67 6 5 Alexander Wilkins Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Diarrhea 28 Jan 67 6 6 Cornelius Doyle Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Rheumatism 28 Jan 67 6 7 Dixon Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian I ntermittent Fever 29 Jan 67 6 8 Carr Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Jan 67 6 9 Frank Doyle Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Contusion (Face) 29 Jan 67 6 1 William Scott Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Feb 67 6 2 Ferris Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Feb 67 6 3 Edward Wilson Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Diarrhea 6 Feb 67 6 4 William Jones Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Diarrhea 6 Feb 67 6 5 Valentine Green Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry A Chronic Diarrhea 7 Feb 67

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341 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 6 6 Callahan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 Feb 67 6 7 Michael Foley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 Feb 67 6 8 John Casalan Private 32nd U .S. Infantry C Chronic Diarrhea 11 Feb 67 6 9 Jefferson H. Shealy Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 Feb 67 6 10 Henry Carr Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 Feb 67 6 11 Hagerty Corp. 32nd U.S. Inf antry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 Feb 67 6 12 Lewis Goran Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 Feb 67 6 13 William Scott Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 Feb 67 6 14 William Ford Corp. 32nd U.S. In fantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 Feb 67 6 15 Mathew For Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 Feb 67 6 16 Falkner Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 Feb 67 6 17 Harrison Private 32nd U.S. Infan try C Tonsilitis 17 Feb 67 6 18 Edward Wilson Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Dyspepsia 19 Feb 67 6 19 John Ships Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Feb 67 6 20 William Scott Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Bronchitis 21 Feb 67 6 21 Martin Foley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Debility from Miasmatic Disease 23 Feb 67 6 22 Allen Carr Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Bronchitis 24 Feb 67 6 23 F.S. Dixon Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Contusion 25 Feb 67 6 24 Patrick Roark Privat e 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Diarrhea 25 Feb 67 6 25 Adam Flank Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 Feb 67 6 26 Eastman Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Tonsilitis 27 Feb 67 6 27 John Hanlin Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidi an Intermittent Fever 28 Feb 67 6 28 Michael Foley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C 28 Feb 67 6 29 Ferris Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C 28 Feb 67 7 1 Henry Kane Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Bronchitis 2 Mar 67 7 2 Patrick Hart Pr ivate 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Diarrhea 2 Mar 67 7 3 Damas Gonoley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Bronchitis 2 Mar 67 7 4 John Morrell Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 Mar 67

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342 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 7 5 Lewis Storm Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C C onstipation 5 Mar 67 7 6 Francis I. Dixon Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Neuralgia 5 Mar 67 7 7 Matthew Floor Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Scurvy 4 Mar 67 7 8 John Hammolt Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Bronchitis 5 Mar 67 7 9 Henry Floor Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 Mar 67 7 10 Adam Floor Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Mar 67 7 11 Lewis Storm Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Colic 9 Mar 67 7 12 Francis I. Dixon Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Diarrhea 12 Mar 67 7 13 Allen Carr Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 Mar 67 7 14 Henry Floor Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 Mar 67 7 15 Dempsey 2nd. Mast. Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Ne uralgia 15 Mar 67 7 16 John Hagerty Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 Mar 67 7 17 William Scott Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 Mar 67 7 18 Daniel Ever Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Tertian Intermi ttent Fever 18 Mar 67 7 19 James Falkner Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Tonsilitis 18 Mar 67 7 20 John English Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Mar 67 7 21 John Hyate Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 0 Mar 67 7 22 John Edward Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 Mar 67 7 23 Daniel M. Crowley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 Mar 67 7 24 John Tharp 1st Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Absopus 25 Mar 67 7 25 John Enshlish Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 Mar 67 7 26 Charles C. Hoster Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 Mar 67 7 27 Frank Doyle Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Febrous Presentation 27 Mar 67 7 28 James Gromley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Mar 67 8 1 Cornelius Doyle Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Rheumatism 25 Jan 67 8 2 Francis I. Dixon Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Diarrhea 12 Mar 67 8 3 J ohn Hanlin Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Feb 67 8 4 Valentine Green Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry A Chronic Diarrhea 7 Feb 67

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343 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 8 5 James Gromley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Mar 67 8 1 Henry Har rison Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 3 Apr 67 8 2 William Scott Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Apr 67 8 3 Henry Kane Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Delirium Tremons 5 Apr 67 8 4 Richard Crowley Private 32nd U. S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 Apr 67 8 5 Michael Hackitt Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Apr 67 8 6 William Amos Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Apr 67 8 7 Curnton Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Neuralgia 11 Apr 67 8 8 Henry Floor Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Apr 67 8 9 William Scott Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 Apr 67 8 10 Floor Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Debility from Miasmatic Disease 16 Apr 67 8 11 Foley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Tertian Intermittent Fever 23 Apr 67 8 12 Edwards Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Constipation 24 Apr 67 8 13 Greeley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 25 Ap r 67 8 14 Keer Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 25 Apr 67 8 15 Falkner Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 Apr 67 8 16 Morrill Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 Apr 67 8 1 7 Hackett Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 Apr 67 8 18 Wilkins Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Contusion 27 Apr 67 8 19 Farrington Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Gunshot Wound 27 Apr 67 8 20 Thospia Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quoti dian Intermittent Fever 29 Apr 67 8 21 Dennis Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Apr 67 9 1 Michael Hackitt Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 May 67 9 2 Charles C. Foster Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quo tidian Intermittent Fever 6 May 67 9 3 John Hayntz Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Constipation 6 May 67 9 4 Frank Harris Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Constipation 7 May 67 9 5 Henry Floor Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 May 67 9 6 James Devine Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Tertian Intermittent Fever 9 May 67

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344 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 9 7 McCarthy Private 32nd U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 May 67 9 8 Wilkins Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 May 67 9 9 F erris Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 May 67 9 10 Foley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 May 67 9 11 Patrick Grogan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Wound of Knee 12 May 67 9 12 James Falkner Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 13 May 67 9 13 John Leday Sgt. 1st U.S. Cavalry C Intermittent Fever 12 May 67 9 14 Beaft Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 13 May 67 9 15 John Dady Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Intermittent Fever 13 May 67 9 16 Charles Swift Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Intermittent Fever 13 May 67 9 17 Joseph Devlin Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Contusion 13 May 67 9 18 James Burton Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Acute Dysentery 13 May 67 9 19 Michael Doyle Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Rheumatism 14 May 67 9 20 Edam Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Contusion 14 May 67 9 21 Evans Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 15 May 67 9 22 Hallahan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 15 May 6 7 9 23 James Wilson Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Rheumatism 16 May 67 9 24 Browning Lieut. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 16 May 67 9 25 Frank Doyle Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 16 May 67 9 26 Thomas Edward Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 17 May 67 9 27 Patrick Gragley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 18 May 67 9 28 James Wilson Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 18 May 67 9 29 Thomas German Private 1st U.S. Cavalry K Inflamation of Pleura 15 May 67 9 30 Peter Haste Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 23 May 67 9 31 Charles Foster Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 23 May 67 9 32 James Gromley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 24 May 67 9 33 Charles Foster Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 25 May 67 9 34 James Ferris Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 27 May 67 9 35 Thomas Foley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 29 May 67

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345 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 9 36 Jame s Ferris Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 29 May 67 10 1 Hamlin Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Feb 67 10 2 Floor Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 Apr 67 10 3 Meaghan Sgt. Maj. 3 2nd U.S. Infantry R.C.S. Primary Syphilis 17 May 67 10 4 Gormley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Remittent Fever 24 May 67 10 5 Grogan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Gunshot Wound 12 May 67 10 6 Farrington Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Gunshot Wound 27 Apr 6 7 10 7 Evans Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Contusion 27 Apr 67 10 8 Doyle Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Rheum, Inflam 28 Jan 67 10 9 Devon Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Dysentery 12 Mar 67 10 10 Ferris Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Remittent Feve r 29 May 67 10 11 Foley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Remittent Fever 29 May 67 10 12 Thomas Harrison Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Inebriation 3 Jun 67 10 13 Hackett Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 3 Jun 67 10 14 Foster Corp. 32nd U.S. Inf antry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Jun 67 10 15 Scott Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Jun 67 10 16 Evans Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 Jun 67 10 17 Hackett Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotid ian Intermittent Fever 9 Jun 67 10 18 Kane Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 Jun 67 10 19 Evans Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 12 Jun 67 10 20 Gormley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Remittent Fever 15 Jun 67 1 0 21 Harrison Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 Jun 67 10 22 Dennis Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 Jun 67 10 23 Foley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 Jun 67 10 24 B rophy Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 Jun 67 10 25 Harris Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 Jun 67 10 26 Foley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Jun 67 10 27 Ferris Pri vate 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 Jun 67 10 28 Foster Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 Jun 67

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346 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 10 29 Jones Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 Jun 67 10 30 Wilson Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Pleurisy 25 Jun 67 10 31 Morrill Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Gonorrhea 27 Jun 67 10 32 Dennis Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Constipation 5 Jun 67 11 1 Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Feb 67 11 2 Privat e 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 Apr 67 11 3 Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Gunshot Wound 27 Apr 67 11 4 Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Gunshot Wound 13 Apr 67 11 5 Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Inflamation of Pleura 26 Jun 67 1 1 1 Scott Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Jul 67 11 2 Crowley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Contused Wound 10 Jul 67 11 3 Wilson Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Incised Wound 14 Jul 67 11 4 Storme Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Con tusion 15 Jul 67 11 5 Davis Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Contusion 21 Jul 67 11 6 Doyle Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Dysentery 21 Jul 67 11 7 Ford Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Boil 22 Jul 67 11 8 Bowers Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermit tent Fever 23 Jul 67 11 9 Jansen Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Abslingoras 23 Jul 67 11 10 Tharpe Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Boil 25 Jul 67 11 11 Evans Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Remittent Fever 25 Jul 67 11 12 Doyle Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Dy sentery 25 Jul 67 11 13 Drake Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Syphilis 31 Jul 67 11 14 Matthews Lieut. 32nd U.S. Infantry Rheumatic Debility 31 Jul 67 12 1 Havilan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Feb 67 12 2 Floor Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 Apr 67 12 3 Farrington Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Gunshot Wound 27 Apr 67 12 4 Gorgan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Gunshot Wound 23 May 67 12 5 Jansen Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Instongery 23 Ju l 67 12 6 Doyle Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Dysentery 25 Jul 67

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347 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 12 7 Drake Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Syphilis 31 Jul 67 12 8 Matthews Lieut. 32nd U.S. Infantry Rheumatic Debility 31 Jul 67 12 1 Jansen Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Stri 4 Aug 67 12 2 Burqhardt Private 32nd U.S. Infantry H Inebriation 13 Aug 67 12 3 Trout Private 14th U.S. Infantry C Contusion 14 Aug 67 12 4 Harlan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry I Remittent Fever 15 Aug 67 12 5 Jakey Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Remittent Fever 16 Aug 67 12 6 Nelson Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Colica 17 Aug 67 12 7 Conner Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 Aug 67 12 8 Ferrys Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 Aug 67 12 9 Hoffman Private 32nd U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 Aug 67 12 10 Haite Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 Aug 67 12 11 Fahey Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Colica 22 Aug 67 12 12 Johns Private 32nd U.S. Infa ntry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Aug 67 13 1 Havilan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Feb 67 13 2 Floor Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 Apr 67 10 Sep 67 13 3 Farrington Private 32nd U.S. I nfantry K Gunshot Wound 27 Apr 67 13 4 Matthews Lieut. 32nd U.S. Infantry Rheumatic Debility 31 Jul 67 13 1 Hastie Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Sprain 3 Sep 67 13 2 Hackett Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 5 Sep 67 13 3 Faulkner Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 Sep 67 13 4 Means Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 Sep 67 13 5 Harris Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Sep 67 13 6 Carr Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C A cute Diarrhea 11 Sep 67 13 7 Hagerty Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Epilepsy 11 Sep 67 13 8 Jones Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Gunshot Wound 15 Sep 67 13 9 Kane Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 15 Sep 67 13 10 Groves Private 1st U.S. Caval ry Miasmatic Debility 17 Sep 67 13 11 Eias Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Sep 67

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348 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 13 12 Ferrys Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 Sep 67 13 13 Landau Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Inter mittent Fever 20 Sep 67 13 14 Wilson Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Sep 67 13 15 Foster Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Sep 67 13 16 McGnoy Lt. Colonel 32nd U.S. Infantry Quotidian Intermitten t Fever 22 Sep 67 13 17 Sak Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 Sep 67 13 18 English Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 Sep 67 13 19 Crowley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 Sep 67 13 20 Carr Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Gunshot Wound 28 Sep 67 28 Sep 67 13 21 Welsh Private 1st U.S. Cavalry K Gunshot Wound 28 Sep 67 13 22 Scott Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Sep 67 13 23 Kane Private 1st U .S. Cavalry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Sep 67 14 1 Havilan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Sep 67 14 2 Eige Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Sep 67 14 3 Jones Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Gunshot Wound 15 Sep 67 14 4 Farrington Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Gunshot Wound 27 Apr 67 14 5 Welsh Private 1st U.S. Cavalry K Gunshot Wound 28 Sep 67 14 6 Crowley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 Sep 67 14 7 Scott Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Sep 67 14 1 Murphy Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Inebriation 1 Oct 67 14 2 Kane Private 1st U.S. Cavalry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 Oct 67 14 3 Groves Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quoti dian Intermittent Fever 2 Oct 67 14 4 Gorman Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Oct 67 14 5 Winall Private 1st U.S. Cavalry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 Oct 67 14 6 Murphy Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent F ever 5 Oct 67 14 7 Sealy Private 14th U.S. Infantry R Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 Oct 67 14 8 McGnoy Private 14th U.S. Infantry R Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 Oct 67 14 9 Crowley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 Oct 67 14 10 Foley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Tonsilitis 10 Oct 67

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349 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 14 11 Winall Private 1st U.S. Cavalry K Miasmatic Debility 10 Oct 67 14 12 Ross Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Miasmatic Debility 11 Oct 67 14 13 Kane Private 1st U.S. Cavalry K Quotidian I ntermittent Fever 11 Oct 67 14 14 Hartz Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 Oct 67 14 15 Faulkner Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 Oct 67 14 16 Fakey Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Dysentery 27 O ct 67 14 17 Faulkner Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Oct 67 14 18 Harrison Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Oct 67 14 19 Crowley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 31 Oct 67 14 20 Murphy Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Oct 67 15 1 Havilan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Sep 67 15 2 Jones Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Gunshot Wound 15 Sep 67 15 3 Farrington Priv ate 32nd U.S. Infantry K Gunshot Wound 27 Apr 67 15 4 Crowley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 31 Oct 67 15 5 Faulkner Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Oct 67 15 6 Welsh Private 1st U.S. Cavalry K Gunshot Wound 28 Sep 67 15 7 Mahony Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Oct 67 15 1 Harrison Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Contusion 1 Nov 67 15 2 Edward Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Nov 67 15 3 Jo nes Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 Nov 67 16 1 Havilan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Sep 67 16 2 Farrington Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Gunshot Wound 27 Apr 67 16 1 Carr Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Inguinal Hernia 5 Dec 67 16 2 Jones Private 1st U.S. Cavalry C Chronic Diarrhea 15 Dec 67 16 3 Faulkner Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 Dec 67 16 4 Tucker Private 32nd U.S. Infantry Recruit Chronic Diarrhea 26 Dec 67 16 5 Premerick Private 32nd U.S. Infantry Recruit Chronic Diarrhea 26 Dec 67 16 6 Sullivan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry Recruit Chronic Diarrhea 26 Dec 67 16 7 Vogeding Private 32nd U.S. Infantry Recruit Chronic Diarrhea 26 Dec 67

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350 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 16 8 Durnham Private 32nd U.S. Infantry Recruit Secondary Syphilis 26 Dec 67 16 9 Gills Private 32nd U.S. Infantry Recruit Chronic Diarrhea 26 Dec 67 16 10 Shaffers Private 32nd U.S. Infantry Recruit Chronic Diarrhea 26 Dec 67 16 11 Whitemore Private 32nd U.S. I nfantry Recruit Chronic Diarrhea 26 Dec 67 16 12 Henderson Private 32nd U.S. Infantry Recruit Chronic Diarrhea 26 Dec 67 16 13 Hayanckic Private 32nd U.S. Infantry Recruit Chronic Diarrhea 26 Dec 67 16 14 Nell Private 32nd U.S. Infantry Recruit Rheum atism 27 Dec 67 16 15 Scott Private 32nd U.S. Infantry Recruit Dislocation 27 Dec 67 16 16 John King Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry I Chronic Dysentery 26 Dec 67 16 17 Archibald K. Herman Private 32nd U.S. Infantry I Pneumonia 26 Dec 67 1 Jan 68 16 18 Ale xander McDonell Private 32nd U.S. Infantry I Chronic Dysentery 26 Dec 67 28 Dec 67 17 1 Havlin Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C 20 Sep 67 17 2 Farrington Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Gunshot Wound 27 Apr 67 17 3 Scott Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 27 Dec 67 17 4 Archibald K. Herman Private 32nd U.S. Infantry I Pneumonia 18 Jan 68 17 5 John King Recruit 32nd U.S. Infantry I Chronic Dysentery 21 Jan 68 17 6 Benedict Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Dec 67 17 1 Hart Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Jan 68 17 2 Carr Private 5th U.S. Infantry C Hernia 4 Jan 68 17 3 Crowley Private 5th U.S. Infantry Fever 6 Jan 68 17 4 O'Brien Private 5th U.S. Infantry Acute Diarrhea 6 Jan 68 17 5 Monaghan Private 14th U.S. Infantry B Syphilis 9 Jan 68 17 6 Huferly Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Diarrhea 11 Jan 68 17 7 Brian Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Diarrhea 11 Jan 68 17 8 Biscus Ri Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Foot Sore 11 Jan 68 17 9 Monaghan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Bronchitis 12 Jan 68 17 10 Crowley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Auge 12 Jan 68 17 11 Hussey Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Diarrhea 15 Jan 68 17 12 Filfeller Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Diarrhea 15 Jan 68

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351 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 1 7 13 Hagerty Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Diarrhea 16 Jan 68 17 14 English Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Diarrhea 18 Jan 68 17 15 Hussey Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Diarrhea 19 Jan 68 17 16 Harrison Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Rheumatism 23 Jan 68 17 17 Murphy Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Consumption 27 Jan 68 3 Feb 68 17 18 Hart Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Scurvey 29 Jan 68 17 19 Porter Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Diarrhea 31 Jan 68 18 1 Havlin Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Quotidia n Intermittent Fever 20 Sep 67 18 2 Farrington Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Gunshot Wound 27 Apr 67 18 3 Carr Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Inguinal Hernia 4 Jan 68 18 4 Monaghan Private 14th U.S. Infantry B Constitutional Syphilis 9 Jan 68 18 5 Mic hael Murphy Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Consumption 27 Jan 68 3 Feb 68 18 6 Hart Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Scurvey 29 Jan 68 18 7 Porter Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 31 Jan 68 18 8 Anderson Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 1 Feb 68 18 9 Foley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Bronchitis 3 Feb 68 18 10 English Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Bronchitis 3 Feb 68 18 11 Scott Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Tonsilitis 4 Feb 68 18 12 Devine Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Wh itlow 5 Feb 68 18 13 Heir Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 6 Feb 68 18 14 Dixson Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Diarrhea 10 Feb 68 18 15 Quin Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 11 Feb 68 18 16 Crowley Private 32nd U.S. Inf antry C Catarrh 15 Feb 68 18 17 Benedict Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Rheumatism 15 Feb 68 18 18 Greely Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Rheumatism 16 Feb 68 18 19 Cook Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Rheumatism 19 Feb 68 18 20 Mitchel P rivate 32nd U.S. Infantry I Scurvy 20 Feb 68 18 21 Latimore Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Scurvy 22 Feb 68 18 22 Brennan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Catarrh 23 Feb 68

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352 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 18 23 Sidney Private 1st U.S. Cavalry D Gonorrhea 24 Feb 68 18 24 McKee Private 3 2nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Rheumatism 25 Feb 68 18 25 Adams Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Tertian Intermittent Fever 28 Feb 68 19 1 Havilan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Tertian Intermittent Fever 20 Sep 68 19 2 Farrington Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K G unshot Wound 27 Apr 68 19 3 Carr Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Inguinal Hernia 4 Jan 68 19 4 Monaghan Private 14th U.S. Infantry B Constitutional Syphilis 9 Jan 68 19 5 Hart Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Scurvy 29 Jan 68 19 6 Porter Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 31 Jan 68 19 7 Dixson Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Diarrhea 10 Feb 68 19 8 Greely Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Rheumatism 16 Feb 68 19 9 Mitchel Private 32nd U.S. Infantry I Scurvy 20 Feb 68 19 10 Latimore P rivate 32nd U.S. Infantry C Scurvy 22 Feb 68 19 11 Sidney Private 1st U.S. Cavalry D Gonorrhea 24 Feb 68 19 12 McKee Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Rheumatism 25 Feb 68 19 13 Adams Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Tertian Intermittent Fever 28 Feb 68 19 1 McKee Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Chronic Rheumatism 4 Mar 68 19 2 Storm Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 5 Mar 68 19 3 Ford Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Contusion 6 Mar 68 19 4 Shankie Private 32nd U.S. Infantry B Scurvy 6 Mar 68 19 5 Jerome Private 32nd U.S. Infantry I Scurvy 6 Mar 68 19 6 Reily Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Catarrh 7 Mar 68 19 7 Wilson Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Ulcer 7 Mar 68 19 8 Ferrys Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 11 Mar 68 19 9 Storm Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 11 Mar 68 19 10 Kuler Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Rheumatism 13 Mar 68 19 11 Quinn Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Whitlow 15 Mar 68 19 12 Scott Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 25 Mar 68 19 13 Jones Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Burn 29 Mar 68

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353 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 19 14 Harris Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Catarrh 29 Mar 68 19 15 Hahn Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Catarrh 31 Mar 68 20 1 Starlin Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 28 Jan 68 20 2 P orter Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Acute Diarrhea 31 Jan 68 20 3 Mitchel Private 32nd U.S. Infantry G Scurvy 20 Feb 68 20 4 Gerome Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Scurvy 6 Mar 68 20 5 Jones Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Burn 27 Mar 68 20 6 Harris Priva te 32nd U.S. Infantry C Catarrh 27 Mar 68 20 7 Stohn Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Catarrh 31 Mar 68 20 1 Kuler Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Contusion 6 Apr 68 20 2 Faulk Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Pneumonia 12 Apr 68 25 Apr 68 20 3 Wells Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 15 Apr 68 20 4 Shuler Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Conjunctivitis 16 Apr 68 20 5 O'Brien Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 18 Apr 68 20 6 Martin Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Consti tutional Syphilis 20 Apr 68 20 7 Donovan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 21 Apr 68 20 8 Sova Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Acute Diarrhea 22 Apr 68 20 9 Bradley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry A Chronic Diarrhea 24 Apr 68 20 10 Pi erce Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 Apr 68 20 11 DeWitt Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 28 Apr 68 20 12 Miller Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry E Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Apr 68 20 13 Preston Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Apr 68 20 14 George Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Apr 68 20 15 Snow Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Boil 21 1 Havlin Private 32nd U.S. Infantry C Intermittent Fever 20 Sep 67 21 2 Martin Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Syphilis 20 Apr 68 21 3 Donovan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Intermittent Fever 21 Apr 68 21 4 Bradley Private 32nd U.S. Infantry A Chronic Diarrhea 24 Apr 68 21 5 Pierce Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Intermittent Fever 27 Apr 68

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354 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 21 6 DeWitt Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry E Intermittent Fever 28 Apr 68 21 7 Preston Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Intermittent Fever 28 Apr 68 21 8 George Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Intermittent Fever 29 Apr 68 21 9 Snow P rivate 32nd U.S. Infantry E Boil 30 Apr 68 21 1 Sheller Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Conjunctivitis 2 May 68 21 2 Mack Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Acute Diarrhea 3 May 68 21 3 Markell Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Acute Diarrhea 11 May 68 21 4 Well s Corp. 32nd U.S. Infantry E Primary Syphilis 11 May 68 21 5 Blackman Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 May 68 21 6 Smith Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 May 68 21 7 Ryan Private 32nd U.S. Infan try E Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 May 68 21 8 Smit Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 May 68 21 9 Stowe Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Constitutional Syphilis 17 May 68 21 10 DeWitt Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Inter mittent Fever 18 May 68 21 11 Enderlin Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Scurvy 19 May 68 21 12 Miller Private 32nd U.S. Infantry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 19 May 68 21 13 Stowe Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 21 May 68 21 14 St ance Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Chronic Rheumatism 22 May 68 21 15 Reilley Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Acute Diarrhea 23 May 68 21 16 Bowers Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Boil 25 May 68 21 17 Meyers Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Quotidian Intermittent Fe ver 28 May 68 21 18 Nailor Corp. 1st U.S. Cavalry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 May 68 21 19 DeWitt Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry E Neuralgia 30 May 68 21 20 Pierce Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 May 68 21 21 Gilbert Priva te 1st U.S. Cavalry G Boil 31 May 68 21 22 Sullivan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 31 May 68 21 23 Nichols Private 14th U.S. Infantry D Stricture Urethra 31 May 68 22 1 Meyers Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 May 68 22 2 Nailor Corp. 1st U.S. Cavalry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 May 68

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355 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 22 3 Pierce Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 May 68 22 4 Gilbert Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Boil 31 May 68 22 5 Sullivan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 31 May 68 22 6 Nichols Private 14th U.S. Infantry D Stricture Urethra 31 May 68 22 1 Donahue Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 1 Jun 68 22 2 Hahn Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Quotidian I ntermittent Fever 1 Jun 68 22 3 Stevens Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 Jun 68 22 4 Yohn Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 2 Jun 68 22 5 Burnowski Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 5 Jun 68 22 6 Anderson Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Consumption 8 Jun 68 22 7 Neuman Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 9 Jun 68 22 8 Since Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 12 Jun 68 22 9 Maher Private 1st U .S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 13 Jun 68 22 10 Smith Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Constitutional Syphilis 16 Jun 68 22 11 Metcalf Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Incised Wound 17 Jun 68 22 12 Devine Sgt. 32nd U.S. Infantry E Chronic Rheumatism 20 Jun 68 22 13 William N. Arnott Private 32nd U.S. Infantry K Congestion of Lungs 19 Jun 68 22 14 Cranford Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Acute Diarrhea 22 Jun 68 22 15 Brown Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 23 Jun 68 22 16 N euman Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Contusion 23 Jun 68 22 17 Pierce Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 23 Jun 68 22 18 Morlton Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 24 Jun 68 22 19 Huss Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Ter tian Intermittent Fever 26 Jun 68 22 20 Sweeny Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 28 Jun 68 22 21 Stevens Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 28 Jun 68 23 1 Donahue Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermitten t Fever 1 Jun 68 23 2 Metcalf Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Gunshot Wound 17 Jun 68 23 3 Sweeny Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 28 Jun 68 23 4 Anderson Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Consumption 8 Jun 68

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356 Page No. Name Rank Regiment or Corps. Com pany Complaint Admitted Died 23 5 Smith Private 32nd U .S. Infantry E Constitutional Syphilis 16 Jun 68 23 6 Enderlin Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 29 Jun 68 23 1 Since Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 1 Jul 68 23 2 Mouner Corp. 1st U.S. Cavalry G Tertian In termittent Fever 2 Jul 68 23 3 Bohnison Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Piles 3 Jul 68 23 4 Preston Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 3 Jul 68 23 5 Hogan Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Catarrh 3 Jul 68 23 6 Buhtold Private 32nd U.S Infantry E Catarrh 3 Jul 68 23 7 Segreens Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Acute Diarrhea 3 Jul 68 23 8 Sova Private 32nd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 23 9 Sullivan Private 1st U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever *Bold type indica tes that ledger text was difficult to read.

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357 APPENDIX E SUMMARY OF POST HOSP ITAL LEDGER BOOK 119 CAMP LOWELL, TUCSO N, ARIZONA TERRITORY (AUGUST 1867 DECEMBER 1874) Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 1 1 John Havilan Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 20 28 Jul 67 From Field Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 2 Adam Florr Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 45 16 Apr 67 From Field Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 May 67 Died of Acute Dysentery 1 3 James R. Farmington Private R 36 27 Apr 67 From Field Gunshot Wound 1 4 Patrick Yorgen L 1st U.S. Cav. 22 23 May 67 From Field 1 5 Peter Jansen K 32nd U.S. Inf. 36 23 Jul 67 From Field Malingera 1 6 Robert Locke K 32nd U.S. Inf. 24 31 Jul 67 From Field Secondar y Syphilis 1 7 A.T. Matthews Sgt. K 32nd U.S. Inf. 40 31 Jul 67 From Field Miasmatic Debility 1 5 Peter Jansen Private K 32nd U.S. Inf. 36 4 May 67 From Field Striation of Urethra 1 8 William Drew Private C 14th U.S. Inf. 18 14 Aug 67 Fro m Field Contusion near Finger Joint 1 9 Manny Hoffman Private D 32nd U.S. Inf. 25 21 Aug 67 From Field Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 10 John Hagerty Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 26 11 Sep 67 From Field Epileptic 1 11 William James Private C 3 2nd U.S. Inf. 26 15 Sep 67 From Field Gunshot Wound of Right Leg 1 12 Gilbert Polson Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 36 20 Sep 67 From Field Sprain 1 13 Daniel Eur Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 45 20 Sep 67 From Field Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 1 John Havilan Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 20 20 Sep 67 From Field Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 14 James Walsh Private K 1st U.S. Cav. 21 27 Sep 67 From Field 1 15 Patrick Gorg Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 26 27 Sep 67 From Fi eld 27 Sep 67 1 16 James Thimbull Private K 1st U.S. Cav. 24 10 Oct 67 From Field Miasmatic Debility 1 17 Ross Private G 1st U.S. Cav. 11 Oct 67 From Field Miasmatic Debility 1 18 Shane Henry Private K 1 st U.S. Cav. 11 Oct 67 From Field Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 19 Patrick Harle Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 13 Oct 67 From Field Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 20 James Fouldner Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 17 Oct 67 From Field Quotidian Intermit tent Fever 1 21 Startin Fakey Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 27 Oct 67 From Field Acute Dysentery 1 22 Lamar Fouldner Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 30 Oct 67 From Field Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 23 Henry Harrissen Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 30 Oct 67 From Field Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 24 Michael Crowley Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 31 Oct 67 From Field Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 25 Edward Dorhorny Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 30 Oct 67 From Field Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 26 Henry Harrissen Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 1 Nov 67 From Field Contusion 1 27 John Edward Corporal C 32nd U.S. Inf. 4 Nov 67 From Field Intermittent Fever 1 28 James Williams Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 11 Nov 67 From Field Intermitten t Fever 2 29 Patrick Carr Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 5 Dec 67 Inguinal Hernia 2 30 John Grows Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 14 Dec 67 Chronic Diarrhea 2 31 James Fouldner Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 17 Dec 67 Intermittent Fever 2 32 Tucke r Private Band 32nd U.S. Inf. 26 Dec 67 Chronic Diarrhea 2 34 John Sigmund Private Band 32nd U.S. Inf. 26 Dec 67 Chronic Diarrhea 2 35 William Fultran Private Band 32nd U.S. Inf. 26 Dec 67 Chronic Diarrhea

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358 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 2 36 Peter Vigoding Privat e Band 32nd U.S. Inf. 26 Dec 67 Chronic Diarrhea 2 37 James Durham Private Band 32nd U.S. Inf. 26 Dec 67 Secondary Syphilis 2 38 John Gilbo Private Band 32nd U.S. Inf. 26 Dec 67 Chronic Diarrhea 2 39 Andrew Skappy Private Band 32nd U.S. Inf. 26 Dec 67 Chronic Diarrhea 2 40 John Whitiman Private Band 32nd U.S. Inf. 26 Dec 67 Chronic Diarrhea 2 41 John Andiman Private Band 32nd U.S. Inf. 26 Dec 67 Chronic Diarrhea 2 42 Constantine Rizenshu Private Band 32nd U.S. Inf. 26 Dec 67 Chronic Diarrhea 2 43 Philip Noll Private Band 32nd U.S. Inf. 27 Dec 67 Rheumatism Chronic 2 44 William Scott Private Band 32nd U.S. Inf. 27 Dec 67 Dislocation 2 45 John King Sgt. G 32nd U.S. Inf. 28 Dec 67 Chroni c Dysentery 21 Jan 68 Chronic Dysentery 2 46 Archibald Haman Private G 32nd U.S. Inf. 28 Dec 67 Pneumonia 1 Jan 68 Pneumonia 2 47 Alexander McDonnell Private G 32nd U.S. Inf. 28 Dec 67 Chronic Dysentery 30 Dec 67 Died en route from Camp Grant 2 48 Patrick Harl Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 4 Jan 68 Intermittent Fever 2 49 Patrick Carr Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 4 Jan 68 Inguinal Hernia 2 50 James Crowley Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 6 Jan 68 Intermittent Fever 2 51 Ortis Rubrien Pri vate C 32nd U.S. Inf. 6 Jan 68 Acute Diarrhea 2 52 John Monaghan Private B 14th U.S. Inf. 9 Jan 68 Constitutional Syphilis 2 53 F.F. Laferty Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 11 Jan 68 Acute Diarrhea 2 54 James O'Brien Private C 32nd U.S. I nf. 11 Jan 68 Acute Diarrhea 2 55 Constantine Rizenshu Private Recruit 11 Jan 68 Sore Feet 2 56 Michael Crowley Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 12 Jan 68 Intermittent Fever 2 57 Patrick Hussey Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 15 Jan 68 Intermi ttent Fever 2 58 Golfuller Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 15 Jan 68 Acute Diarrhea 2 59 F.F. Laferty Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 16 Jan 68 Acute Diarrhea 2 60 John English Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 18 Jan 68 Acute Diarrhea 2 61 Hussey Pr ivate C 32nd U.S. Inf. 19 Jan 68 Acute Diarrhea 3 62 Michael Murphy Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 27 Jan 68 Consumption 5 Feb 68 Consumption 3 63 Patrick Harl Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 31 Jan 68 Scurvy 3 64 Daniel Porter Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 31 Jan 68 Acute Diarrhea 3 65 John Anderson Sgt. C 32nd U.S. Inf. 1 Feb 68 Acute Diarrhea 3 66 Michael Foley Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 3 Feb 68 Acute Bronchitis 3 67 John English Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 3 Feb 68 Acute Bronch itis 3 68 William Scott Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 4 Feb 68 Tonsilitis 3 69 James Dovoni Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 3 Feb 68 Dhillon 3 70 Henry Star Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 6 Feb 68 Acute Diarrhea 3 71 Francis F. Lyon Private C 32 nd U.S. Inf. 10 Feb 68 Chronic Diarrhea 3 72 Patrick Boren Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 11 Feb 68 Acute Diarrhea 3 73 Michael Crowley Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 15 Feb 68 Catarrh 3 74 John Archibald Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 15 Feb 68 A cute Rheumatism

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359 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 3 75 Robert McSha Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 25 Feb 68 Acute Rheumatism 3 76 Adam Storm Sgt. C 32nd U.S. Inf. 5 Mar 68 Acute Rheumatism 3 77 James Ford Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 6 Mar 68 Contusion 3 78 James Sherma n Private B 32nd U.S. Inf. 6 Mar 68 Scurvy 3 79 Peter Terone Private D 32nd U.S. Inf. 6 Mar 68 Scurvy 3 80 John Reilly Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 7 Mar 68 Catarrh 3 81 James Wilson Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 7 Mar 68 Ulcer 3 82 Andrew Ferris Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 11 Mar 68 Acute Diarrhea 3 83 Adam Storm Sgt. C 32nd U.S. Inf. 11 Mar 68 Acute Diarrhea 3 84 John Keeler Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 13 Mar 68 Acute Rheumatism 3 85 Patrick Owen Private C 32nd U.S Inf. 15 Mar 68 Whiltorn 3 86 William Scott Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 25 Mar 68 Acute Diarrhea 3 87 John Tonie Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 21 Mar 68 Burn 3 88 James Harris Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 23 Mar 68 Catarrh 3 89 John Ro hn Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 31 Mar 68 Catarrh 3 90 John Shuler Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 6 Apr 68 Contusion 3 91 Julius Fould Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 12 Apr 68 Pneumonia 25 Apr 68 Pneumonia 3 92 Curtis Wells Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 1 5 Apr 68 Intermittent Fever 3 93 Francis Schuller Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 16 Apr 68 Conjunctivitis 4 94 Frank O'Brien Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 18 Apr 68 Intermittent Fever 4 95 William Martin Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 20 Apr 68 Co nstitutional Syphilis 4 96 James Donovan Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 21 Apr 68 Intermittent Fever 4 97 Charles Feral Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 22 Apr 68 Acute Diarrhea 4 98 Charles Brachy Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 24 Apr 68 Chronic Diarr hea 4 99 Clemens Since Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 27 Apr 68 Intermittent Fever 4 100 Harry DaWill Sgt. E 32nd U.S. Inf. 27 Apr 68 Intermittent Fever 4 101 Augustus Miller Corporal E 32nd U.S. Inf. 27 Apr 68 Intermittent Fever 4 102 John Preston Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 28 Apr 68 Intermittent Fever 4 103 Adolph George Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 29 Apr 68 Intermittent Fever 4 104 William Snow Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 27 Apr 68 Boils 4 105 William Stout Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 17 May 68 Constitutional Syphilis 4 106 John Michals Private B 14th U.S. Inf. 21 May 68 Stricture of Urethra 4 107 John Anderson Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 8 Jun 68 Consumption 4 108 Hugh Bonahn Private D 1st U.S. Ca v. 1 Jun 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 109 Benjamin Metcalf Private E 1st U.S. Cav. 17 Jun 68 Anursic Wound 4 110 William Smith Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 16 Jul 68 Constitutional Syphilis 4 111 William Arnott Private H 32nd U.S. Inf. 19 Jul 68 Congestion of the Dump 19 Jul 68 Died from congestion of lungs 4 112 Warren Alliron Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 7 Jul 68 Gunshot Wound Left Arm 4 113 Robert Sweaney Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 28 Jul 68 Tertian Intermittent Fever

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360 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 4 114 Timothy Ryan Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 18 Jul 68 Chronic Diarrhea 4 115 James Clark Private B 14th U.S. Inf. 25 Jul 68 Tertian Intermittent Fever 4 116 James More Private B 32nd U.S. Inf. 26 Jul 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 117 Adolph George Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 2 Aug 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 118 William Howe Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 10 Aug 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 119 Patrick Lynch Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 13 Aug 68 Quotidian Int ermittent Fever 4 120 John Tierney Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 14 Aug 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 121 John Spring Sgt. E 32nd U.S. Inf. 14 Aug 68 Acute Diarrhea 4 122 Peter Smith Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 13 Aug 68 Quotidian Inter mittent Fever 4 123 William Smith Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 20 Aug 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 124 James Donovan Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 20 Aug 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 125 Augustus Miller Corporal E 32nd U.S. Inf. 22 Aug 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 126 Facpatrick Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 27 22 Aug 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 127 Door Private B 14th U.S. Inf. 18 27 Aug 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 128 Scalheneyer Private B 14th U.S. Inf. 30 27 Aug 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 129 Charles Mills Private D 32nd U.S. Inf. 24 29 Aug 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 130 Long Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 25 29 Aug 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 131 Williams Private P Hourly 23 30 Aug 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 132 Henry Blout Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 25 30 Aug 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 133 Lewis Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 34 2 Sep 68 Acute Diarrhea 5 134 Smith Sgt. E 32nd U.S. Inf. 34 3 Sep 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 135 Nolan Private D 32nd U.S. Inf. 11 Sep 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 136 Healy Private D 32nd U.S. Inf. 11 Sep 68 Aadi (Sub) Anglib Dunnic 5 137 Morimer Sgt. D 1st U.S. Cav. 16 Sep 6 8 Acute Dysentery 5 138 Holden Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 17 Sep 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 139 Kate Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 19 Sep 68 Acute Dysentery 27 Sep 68 5 140 William Smith Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 25 Sep 68 Quotidian I ntermittent Fever 5 141 Murphy Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 25 Sep 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 142 Kowskill Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 31 Sep 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 143 Schafer Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 2 Oct 68 Acute Diarr hea 5 144 H. Broffin Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 16 Oct 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 145 Sherman Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 15 Oct 68 Alocoler Abcess 5 146 Lynch Corporal E 32nd U.S. Inf. 24 Oct 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 147 Meyer Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 25 Oct 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 148 John Monke Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 5 Nov 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 149 Harry Robinson Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 19 Nov 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fe ver 5 150 Marlton Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 25 Nov 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 151 Hogan Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 26 Nov 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 152 Lindsay Private L 8th U.S. Cav. 25 Nov 68 Contusion

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361 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 5 153 Richar ds Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 5 Dec 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 154 Robinson Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 10 Dec 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 155 Clark Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 13 Dec 68 Piles 5 156 Kenthal Private C 32nd U.S. In f. 15 Dec 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 157 Brobbin Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 16 Dec 68 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 158 Kino Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 19 Dec 68 Stricture No ammortita 6 159 Fry Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 20 Dec 6 8 Varicose Veins 6 160 John Sequince Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 25 Jan 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 161 Overton Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 11 Feb 69 Acute Diarrhea 6 162 Henry Brobbin Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 16 Feb 69 Quotidian I ntermittent Fever 6 163 Frankil Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 17 Feb 69 Scurvy 6 164 Francis Patterson Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 19 Feb 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 165 Krigger Sgt. B 14th U.S. Inf. 6 Mar 69 Inflamation of Testicle 6 166 Charles Shuman Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 23 24 Mar 69 Gunshot perforating right lung and flesh wound of right shoulder 6 167 Michael Xavier Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 31 24 Mar 69 Arrow Wounds of Hip 6 168 Charlie Williams Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 26 3 Apr 69 Inflamed Testicle or Gonorrhea 6 169 Williams Smith Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 21 15 Apr 69 From Field 6 170 Philip Noll Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 22 15 Apr 69 From Field 6 171 Adolph George Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 22 Apr 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 172 Warner Snow Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 19 Apr 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 173 Felix Cacho Indian Scout 28 Apr 69 Inflamation of Lungs 4 May 69 6 174 Benjamin Metcalf Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 23 12 May 69 Gunshot Wound, Flesh of Leg 6 175 Robinson Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 12 May 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 176 Overton Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 28 5 Jun 69 Chronic Dys entery 6 177 Stemmer Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 31 14 Jun 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 178 VanRiper Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 27 18 Jun 69 Urticaria 6 179 William Preston Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 21 18 Jun 69 Quotidian Intermittent F ever 6 180 Maurice Ward Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 23 1 Jul 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 181 Allan Markill Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 22 6 Jul 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 182 William Martin Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 25 12 Jul 69 Gonorrhea 6 183 Francis Patterson Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 23 13 Jul 69 Gunshot Wound 6 183 Kane Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 19 Jul 69 Scurvy 6 184 John Ryan Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 19 Jul 69 Scurvy 6 185 Rooney Private E 32nd U.S Inf. 19 Jul 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 186 Harry Robinson Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 19 Jul 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 187 Francis Schuller Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 25 Jul 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 188 Philip N oll Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 22 2 Aug 69 Eczema 7 189 William Snow Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 20 2 Aug 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 190 Herbert Mellon Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 21 2 Aug 69 188 Hosp Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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362 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 7 191 Ha rvey Broffin Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 23 5 Aug 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 192 Adolph Buchner Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 27 9 Aug 69 Otorrhea 7 192 Samuel Jones Private D 32nd U.S. Inf. 24 10 Aug 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 1 93 Samuel McSwaine Private C 32nd U.S. Inf. 29 10 Aug 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 193 Daniel Rooney Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 27 12 Aug 69 189 Hosp Lacerated Wound 7 194 Samuel VanRiper Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 26 14 Aug 69 Otorrhea 7 195 William Parsslin Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 21 16 Aug 69 190 Hosp Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 196 William Irvin Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 25 16 Aug 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 197 Francis Schiller Private E 32nd U.S. Inf. 16 Aug 6 9 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 198 Thomas Watson Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 18 Aug 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 199 Francis Kana Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Aug 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 200 William Irwin Private E 21st U .S. Inf. 25 21 Aug 69 191 Hosp Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 201 Edward Brannayan Sgt. E 21st U.S. Inf. 25 21 Aug 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 202 David Dunham Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 25 21 Aug 69 Orchitis 7 203 Augustus Miller Sg t. E 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Aug 69 Tertian Intermittent Fever 7 204 Frederick Weiss Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Aug 69 Tertian Intermittent Fever 7 205 John Dix Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Aug 69 Tertian Intermittent Fever 7 205 William Irwin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 27 Aug 69 192 Hosp Tertian Intermittent Fever 7 206 Thomas Madison Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 1 Sep 69 193 Hosp Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 207 William Carter Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 1 Sep 69 194 Hosp Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 208 Warner Snow Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 5 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 209 Subert Private D 8th U.S. Cav. 5 Sep 69 195 Hosp Chronic Rheumatism 7 210 Shelby Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 5 Sep 69 Quotidian In termittent Fever 7 211 Elwood Private D 8th U.S. Cav. 6 Sep 69 7 212 Adolph Buchner Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 7 Sep 69 196 Hosp Gonorrhea 7 213 William Parsslin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 8 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermitt ent Fever 7 214 Nibell Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 8 Sep 69 Tertian Intermittent Fever 7 214 Hardy Private C 8th U.S. Cav. 9 Sep 69 Acute Diarrhea 7 215 Sweeny Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 216 Lohle Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 217 Bryan Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 218 Smith Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 219 Flo od Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 220 Quinan Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 221 Barredish Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 222 Sn ow Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Sep 69 Ulcer 8 223 Kane Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 15 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 224 Newberry Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 15 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 225 Benfer Private C 21st U.S. I nf. 16 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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363 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 8 226 Donahue Sgt. E 8th U.S. Cav. 16 Sep 69 Acute Diarrhea 8 227 Miller Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 228 Parrslin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 229 Ryan Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Sep 69 Abcess 8 230 Bollenger Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 231 Harrison Private D 8th U.S. Cav. 20 Sep 69 197 Hosp Quotidian Int ermittent Fever 8 232 Jonnas Private D 8th U.S. Cav. 22 Sep 69 Boils 8 233 Callaghan Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 20 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 234 George Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 235 Harches Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Sep 69 Conjunctivitis 8 236 Fox Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Sep 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 237 Walch Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Sep 69 Tertian Intermittent Fever 8 238 Nibith Capt. E 21st U.S. Inf. 27 Sep 69 198 Hosp Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 239 Smith Private C 8th U.S. Cav. 28 Sep 69 Acute Diarrhea 8 240 William Irwin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 2 Oct 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 241 Silas Beardsley Priva te E 21st U.S. Inf. 8 Oct 69 Contusion 8 242 John O'Conner Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 8 Oct 69 199 Hosp Chronic Diarrhea 8 243 Francis Patterson Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 8 Oct 69 200 Hosp Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 244 James Walsh Pri vate E 21st U.S. Inf. 9 Oct 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 245 Patrick Callaghan Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 11 Oct 69 201 Hosp Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 246 Simon Shelbey Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 11 Oct 69 Quotidian Intermittent Feve r 8 247 Augustus Miller Sgt. E 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Oct 69 Tertian Intermittent Fever 9 248 John Benfer Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Oct 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 249 James Smith Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 15 Oct 69 202 Hosp Quotidi an Intermittent Fever 9 250 James Olsen Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 16 Oct 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 251 Brannon Hogan Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Oct 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 252 George Kemp Corporal E 21st U.S. Inf. 2 1 Oct 69 Sprain 9 253 Ayers P Nash Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 23 Oct 69 Tertian Intermittent Fever 9 254 Simon Shelbey Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Oct 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 255 Sean Girodock Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Oct 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 256 Charles Blanche Sgt. E 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Oct 69 Acute Diarrhea 9 257 Smith Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Oct 69 Tonsilitis 9 258 Allen Menkill Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 26 Oct 69 Quotidian Inter mittent Fever 9 259 Patrick Riordan Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 27 Oct 69 203 Hosp Scurvy 9 260 Francis Patterson Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 29 Oct 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 261 Hayes Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 30 Oct 69 Piles 9 262 Henry Robinson Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 31 Oct 69 Contusion 9 263 James Smith Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 2 Nov 69 Ulcer 9 264 Thomas Conner Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 2 Nov 69 Sprain

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364 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 9 265 James Walsh Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 4 N ov 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 266 Henry P. Warn Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 4 Nov 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 267 Ayers P Nash Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 8 Nov 69 Tertian Intermittent Fever 9 268 Charles Chapman Private E 21s t U.S. Inf. 10 Nov 69 207 Hosp Otorrhea 9 269 Dean Geradbock Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Nov 69 204 Hosp Sick Acute Bright's Disease 21 Nov 69 Complications from Malarial Primary 9 270 Simon Shelbey Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Nov 69 205 Hosp Quo tidian Intermittent Fever 9 271 Patrick Ryan Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Nov 69 206 Hosp Acute Dysentery 9 272 Frederick Weiss Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 20 Nov 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 273 Evans Private B 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Nov 6 9 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 274 Bryan Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Nov 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 275 Francis Patterson Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 27 Nov 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 276 John Dix Private E 21st U.S. Inf 30 Nov 69 208 Hosp Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 277 David Dunham Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 1 Dec 69 Orchitis 9 278 John Benfer Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 1 Dec 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 279 Abner Graves Cal. Cook E 21st U.S. Inf. 3 Dec 69 209 Hosp Piles 10 280 Philip Noll Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 5 Dec 69 210 Hosp Herpes Zoster 10 281 Thornton Private K 1st U.S. Cav. 6 Dec 69 Old Gunshot Wound 10 282 Callaghan ? Band 8th U.S. Cav. 7 Dec 69 Whitlow 1 0 283 Thornton Private K 1st U.S. Cav. 10 Dec 69 Gunshot Wound 10 284 Charles O'Neil Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Dec 69 Acute Diarrhea 10 285 Henry Brobbin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 11 Dec 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 286 Franc is Schuller Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Dec 69 211 Hosp Tertian Intermittent Fever 10 287 Lawrence Suhman Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 16 Dec 69 212 Hosp Chronic Rheumatism 10 288 John Shamoke Private F 21st U.S. Inf. 23 Dec 69 213 Hosp Tape Worm 10 289 William Parsslin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 31 Dec 69 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 290 Allen Menkill Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 1 Jan 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 291 Henry Brobbin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 3 Jan 70 Quoti dian Intermittent Fever 10 292 Straus Kernan Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 4 Jan 70 Chronic Rheumatism 10 293 William Overton Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 5 Jan 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 294 Bryan Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 5 Jan 70 Q uotidian Intermittent Fever 10 295 Henry Robinson Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 9 Jan 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 296 William Preston Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Jan 70 214 Hosp Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 297 John Watson Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Jan 70 Boils 10 298 Simon Shelbey Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Jan 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 299 Patrick Kane Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Jan 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 300 Daniel Sulivan Private F 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Jan 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 301 John Watson Private H 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Jan 70 Tertian Intermittent Fever 10 302 W.H. McDonough Corporal E 21st U.S. Inf. 14 Jan 70 Varioloid 10 303 Bainald Hojsa Privat e E 21st U.S. Inf. 15 Jan 70 Las

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365 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 10 304 James Walsh Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 15 Jan 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 305 Johnson Private F 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Jan 70 Burn 10 306 John Sulivan Private F 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Jan 70 Pil es 10 307 Julian Effingen Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 20 Jan 70 217 Hosp Incised Wound 10 308 Allen Menkill Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Jan 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 309 Costello Private F 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Jan 70 Quotidian Inte rmittent Fever 10 310 John Edwards Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Jan 70 Acute Diarrhea 10 311 Charles Marks Sgt. E 21st U.S. Inf. 26 Jan 70 Headache 11 312 Frank Otto Private B 21st U.S. Inf. 27 Jan 70 Diarrhea 11 313 Collin Dani el Private L 8th U.S. Cav. 27 Jan 70 Incised Wound 11 314 John Tracy Private C 8th U.S. Cav. 30 Jan 70 218 Hosp Acute Dysentery 11 315 Patrick Riordan Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 1 Feb 70 Acute Dysentery 11 316 Charles O'Neil Corporal E 21st U.S. Inf. 2 Feb 70 Contused Wound 11 317 William Parsslin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 2 Feb 70 219 Hosp Bronchial Catarrh 11 318 Simon Shelbey Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 3 Feb 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 319 Michael Bryan Priv ate E 21st U.S. Inf. 4 Feb 70 Acute Diarrhea 11 320 Allen Markel Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 4 Feb 70 Tertian Intermittent Fever 11 321 William Paul Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 6 Feb 70 Acute Diarrhea 11 322 John Bonfer Private E 21st U.S Inf. 9 Feb 70 220 Hosp Acute Diarrhea 11 323 Henry Brobbin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 9 Feb 70 221 Hosp Tertian Intermittent Fever 11 324 James Shore Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 11 Feb 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 325 John Cole Privat e D 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Feb 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 326 William Irwin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Feb 70 222 Hosp Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 327 James Shore Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 14 Feb 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 328 Charles Dickens Private L 8th U.S. Cav. 16 Feb 70 Chronic Orchitis 11 329 Benjamin Bird Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 17 Feb 70 223 Hosp Chronic Diarrhea 11 330 Joseph Myers Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 17 Feb 70 224 Hosp Enlarged ? Gland 11 331 John Williams Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 17 Feb 70 Diarrhea 11 332 Patrick Kane Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 18 Feb 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 333 William Hoff Private A 8th U.S. Cav. 18 Feb 70 Sprain 11 334 John Powers Pr ivate C 8th U.S. Cav. 18 Feb 70 Contusion 11 335 James Hamill Private C 8th U.S. Cav. 18 Feb 70 Contusion 11 336 George W. Glenn Private C 8th U.S. Cav. 19 Feb 70 Contusion 11 337 August Miller Sgt. E 21st U.S. Inf. 20 Feb 70 Quo tidian Intermittent Fever 11 338 Henry Brown Private A 8th U.S. Cav. 20 Feb 70 225 Hosp Scurvy 11 339 George Williams Corporal A 8th U.S. Cav. 22 Feb 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 340 Robert McAubry Corporal C 8th U.S. Cav. 22 Fe b 70 Contusion 11 341 Lyle Leorridas Sgt. C 8th U.S. Cav. 24 Feb 70 Acute Diarrhea 11 342 Thomas Matthews Private C 8th U.S. Cav. 25 Feb 70 Acute Diarrhea

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366 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 11 343 Simon Shelbey Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 26 Feb 70 Quotidian Intermitt ent Fever 12 344 Bryan Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 26 Feb 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 345 Thomas Sherman Sgt. C 8th U.S. Cav. 27 Feb 70 Acute Dysentery 12 346 Joseph Hibbons Private C 8th U.S. Cav. 27 Feb 70 Quotidian Intermitte nt Fever 12 347 Brannon Hogan Private C 21st U.S. Inf. 2 Mar 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 348 Philip Goggin Private C 8th U.S. Cav. 2 Mar 70 Contusion 12 349 Joseph Williams Private A 1st U.S. Cav. 2 Mar 70 Contusion 12 350 Matthews Private C 8th U.S. Cav. 2 Mar 70 Acute Dysentery 12 351 Francis Schiller Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 3 Mar 70 H 226 Ulcer 12 352 William Irwin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 4 Mar 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 353 James Smith Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 4 Mar 70 Contusion 12 354 George Ayers Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 4 Mar 70 Contusion 12 355 John McCabe Private F 21st U.S. Inf. 6 Mar 70 Pt 227 Acute Rheumatism 12 356 Silas Beardsley Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 7 Mar 70 228 Small Pox 11 Mar 70 12 357 John Ryan Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 7 Mar 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 358 Patrick Kane Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Mar 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 359 Francis Schiller Private E 21s t U.S. Inf. 13 Mar 70 Whitlow 12 360 Daniel L. Rooney Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Mar 70 Contusion 12 361 John Bonfer Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Mar 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 362 Francis Patterson Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 14 Mar 70 H 229 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 363 Simon Shelbey Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 14 Mar 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 364 David Dunham Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 18 Mar 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 365 John Bonfer P rivate E 21st U.S. Inf. 17 Mar 70 H 230 Small Pox 12 366 Francis Patterson Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Mar 70 H 231 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 367 William Irwin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 20 Mar 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 368 Charles Freyong 19 Mar 70 H 232 ? 12 369 David Dunham Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Mar 70 H 233 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 370 Henry Flash Corporal K 21st U.S. Inf. 26 Mar 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 371 John Ryan Pr ivate E 21st U.S. Inf. 29 Mar 70 H 234 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 372 Augustov Matz Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 3 Apr 70 H 235 ? 12 373 William Irwin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 4 Apr 70 H 236 Toxicloud 12 374 Charles Parr Private F 21st U .S. Inf. 8 Apr 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 375 Sn. Braith Private F 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Apr 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 376 Daniel J. Rooney Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 18 Apr 70 13 377 Sherman Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 20 Apr 70 13 378 Flack Corporal K 21st U.S. Inf. 23 Apr 70 H 237 Variola Small Pox 13 379 James Overton Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Apr 70 Acute Diarrhea 13 380 Bernard Hogan Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 16 Apr 70 Gunshot Wound 16 Ap r 70 13 381 Charles Wells Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 12 May 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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367 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 13 382 Henry Robinson Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 18 May 70 Contusion 13 383 Michael Burns Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 20 May 70 Acute Diarrhea 1 3 384 Hanny Roberson Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 24 May 70 Contusion 13 385 Francis Schiller Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 27 May 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 John McCabe Private F 21st U.S. Inf. 27 May 70 Headache 13 386 Warner Snow Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 27 May 70 Spasm 13 387 John Dix Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 27 May 70 Incised Wound 13 388 John Philips Private H 3rd U.S. Cav. 27 May 70 H 238 Urticaria 13 389 John McCabe Private F 21st U.S. Inf. 30 May 70 H 239 Transferred for Qu 2 Hospt. Thursday 13 390 Patrick Gormin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 30 May 70 Conjunctivitis 13 391 John Moran Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 1 Jun 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 392 John Hess Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 3 Jun 70 H 240 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 393 William Prins Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 5 Jun 70 Contusion 13 394 John F. Dix Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 7 Jun 70 H 241 Dislocation of Humerus 13 395 Simon Thornton Private E 21st U.S. In f. 7 Jun 70 H 242 Contusion 13 396 Patrick Calaban Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 7 Jun 70 Contusion 13 397 Patrick Garrin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 7 Jun 70 Contusion 13 398 Charles Wills Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Jun 70 Tertian Interm ittent Fever 13 399 William Nibell Sgt. E 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Jun 70 H 243 Chronic Rheumatism 13 400 Henry R. Robinson Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 15 Jun 70 H 244 Erysipilas 13 401 Patrick Riordan Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 15 Jun 70 Tertian I ntermittent Fever 13 402 John Hess Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 17 Jun 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 403 Willian Irwin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 17 Jun 70 Tertian Intermittent Fever 13 404 Wm. Olsen Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Jun 70 H 245 Acute Dysentery 5 Jul 70 13 405 John Devine 1st Sgt. C 21st U.S. Inf. 30 Jun 70 Old Wound 14 406 William Wood Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 5 Jul 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 407 William Wood Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 9 Jul 70 H 246 Sympathetic Bubo 14 408 John Hess Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 11 Jul 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 409 Thomas Montgomery Private B 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Jul 70 Gonorrhea 14 410 James Williams Private L 8th U.S. Cav. 13 Jul 70 Cata rrh 14 411 John Hannon Private L 8th U.S. Cav. 13 Jul 70 Acute Diarrhea 14 412 John Kilmartin Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 14 Jul 70 Contusion 14 413 Game Unhncorn Private L 1st U.S. Cav. 15 Jul 70 Primary Syphilis 14 414 Charles Mo nk Sgt. E 21st U.S. Inf. 17 Jul 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 415 David Livermore Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 24 Jul 70 Delirium Tremons 14 416 A.J. Garrett Lieut. 1st U.S. Cav. 25 Jul 70 Sprain 14 417 Peter Morrissey Private E 21 st U.S. Inf. 25 Jul 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 418 Dennis Grady Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Jul 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 419 Charles Monk Sgt. E 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Jul 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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368 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 14 420 Wm. C. N etterville Capt. F 21st U.S. Inf. 27 Jul 70 Pleurisy 14 421 Charles O'Neil Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 28 Jul 70 Tertian Intermittent Fever 14 422 Patrick Gurren Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 1 Aug 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 423 Dan iel Rooney Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 6 Aug 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 424 Patrick Gurren Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 7 Aug 70 Acute Dysentery 14 425 Frederick Meyer Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 9 Aug 70 H 247 Gunshot Wound 14 426 Denni s Grady Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Aug 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 427 William Blume Citizen 14 Aug 70 H 248 Gunshot Wound 14 428 Frederic Keasmev Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 18 Aug 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 429 Dennis Grady Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Aug 70 H 249 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 430 Peter Champain Private H 3rd U.S. Cav. 21 Aug 70 H 250 Epistaxis 14 431 Patrick Gurren Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 23 Aug 70 Contusion 14 432 John Horn Pri vate K 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Aug 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 433 Wm. C. Silva Lieut. E 21st U.S. Inf. 27 Aug 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 434 Wm. Wanesley Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 29 Aug 70 H 251 Intermittent Fever 14 435 John Phillips Private 21st U.S. Inf. 30 Aug 70 Intermittent Fever 14 436 John Somers Private 21st U.S. Inf. 30 Aug 70 Intermittent Fever 14 437 Robert Floyd Fifer E 21st U.S. Inf. 30 Aug 70 Contusion 15 438 Simon Medelson Private F 3r d U.S. Cav. 30 Aug 70 H 252 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 439 Every Fisher Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 30 Aug 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 440 Lewis Shiro Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 30 Aug 70 H 253 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 441 G eorge Vaughn Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 30 Aug 70 H 254 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 442 Aron Abrahams Corporal D 21st U.S. Inf. 4 Sep 70 Acute Diarrhea 15 443 Augustine Shea Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 6 Sep 70 Acute Diarrhea 15 444 Ja mes Bannahan Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 7 Sep 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 445 Michael Rooney Private K 1st U.S. Cav. 7 Sep 70 Acute Diarrhea 15 446 Henry Fabb Destitute Citzen, Col. 2 10 Sep 70 H 255 Scrofalous Ulcers 13 Sep 70 1 5 447 Edward Morgan Private K 1st U.S. Cav. 12 Sep 70 H 256 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 448 Peter Tierney Private K 1st U.S. Cav. 16 Sep 70 H 257 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 449 Antoine Sovette Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Sep 70 H 258 Hamorrhage from Bowels 15 450 Henry Nieman Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Sep 70 Prolapsus Ani 15 451 William Taylor Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Sep 70 Conjunctivitis 15 452 Charles Keller Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Sep 70 Chronic Rhe umatism 15 453 Edward Hollywood Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 20 Sep 70 H 259 Pleuritis 15 454 Michael O'Hearn Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 20 Sep 70 H 260 Tertian Intermittent Fever 15 455 John Bidenbach Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Sep 70 Contusi on and Boil 15 456 Wm. W. Brown Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Sep 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 457 Milton H. Alp Private H 3rd U.S. Cav. 26 Sep 70 H 261 Dibility from Malarial Disease 15 458 David Marshal Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 28 Sep 70 H 262 Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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369 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 15 459 Wm. H. Bender Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 29 Sep 70 H 263 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 460 Thomas Harrington Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 2 Oct 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 461 John Carrol l Private K 1st U.S. Cav. 6 Oct 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 462 William Carroll Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 8 Oct 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 463 William Wamsley Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 9 Oct 70 H 265 Acute Dysentery 15 464 Frank Waltow Recruit 11 Oct 70 Gonorrhea Bubo 15 465 James Powers Recruit 11 Oct 70 Contusion 15 466 James Shirley Recruit 11 Oct 70 Conjunctivitis 15 467 John Ivachrim Recruit 11 Oct 70 Contusion 15 468 Michael McM ahon Recruit 11 Oct 70 Sprain 15 469 John Lee Recruit 14 Oct 70 Gonorrhea 16 470 Jeremiah Toulney Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 14 Oct 70 H 266 Lacerated Wound 16 471 John Carroll Private K 1st U.S. Cav. 15 Oct 70 H 267 Quotidian Inter mittent Fever 16 472 Bryan Flannery Corporal D 21st U.S. Inf. 16 Oct 70 Diarrhea 16 473 Adolphe Wilke Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 16 Oct 70 Tertian Intermittent Fever 16 474 Thomas Borr Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Oct 70 Boils 16 475 Michael Carroll Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Oct 70 H 268 Tertian Intermittent Fever 16 476 John Conolly Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Oct 70 Acute Diarrhea 16 477 John Dunn Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Oct 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 478 Thomas Morris Corporal D 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Oct 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 479 Thomas Harrington Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 28 Oct 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 480 David Marshal Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 28 Oct 70 Q uotidian Intermittent Fever 16 481 Joseph Blanden Private H 3rd U.S. Cav. 29 Oct 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 482 Wm. C. Silva Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 29 Oct 70 Contusion 29 Oct 70 16 483 Augustin Shea Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 2 9 Oct 70 Suicide 16 478 John Dunn Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 3 Nov 70 H 269 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 479 Samuel Lewis Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 6 Nov 70 H 270 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 480 Michael Maney Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 6 Nov 70 H 271 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 481 John Stevens Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 11 Nov 70 Ulcer 16 482 Thomas Mackay Corporal D 21st U.S. Inf. 15 Nov 70 Gonorrhea 16 483 Frederic Lindner Private G 1st U.S. Cav. 18 Nov 70 Contusion of Knee 16 484 Michael O'Hearn Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 19 Nov 70 H 272 Carbuncle 16 485 William St. Clair Sgt. F 3rd U.S. Cav. 22 Nov 70 H 273 Abcess 16 486 Charles Jackson Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 22 Nov 70 H 274 Tertian Interm ittent Fever 16 487 Samuel Cupp Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 22 Nov 70 H 275 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 488 George Vaughn Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 22 Nov 70 Chronic Rheumatism 16 489 Felix McCarty Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 23 Nov 70 H 276 Incontinance of Urine 16 490 James Chilbrick Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 23 Nov 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 491 Thomas Harrington Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 25 Nov 70 H 277 Neuralgia

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370 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 16 492 William Bahans Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 28 Nov 70 H 278 Acute Bronchitis 16 493 Edward Murphy Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 30 Nov 70 H 279 Acute Dysentery 6 Jun 71 16 494 Michael Kennedy Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 30 Nov 70 Acute Diarrhea 16 495 Thomas Fiquen Private F 3rd U. S. Cav. 2 Dec 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 496 Jesus Aredea Destitute Citizen 30 Nov 70 Necrosis of Left Humerus 17 497 James Philbrick Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 6 Dec 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 498 George Vaughn Privat e F 3rd U.S. Cav. 6 Dec 70 Chronic Rheumatism 17 499 James Haynes Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 7 Dec 70 Rupture 17 500 William F. Johnson Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 8 Dec 70 H 280 Chronic Diarrhea 17 501 James Judson Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 10 Dec 70 H 281 Convulsions 17 502 William H. Heath Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 10 Dec 70 H 282 Chronic Rheumatism 17 503 George Vaughn Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 10 Dec 70 H 283 Chronic Rheumatism 17 504 Martin Green Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 12 Dec 70 Tertian Intermittent Fever 17 505 William H. Johnson Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 14 Dec 70 Chronic Diarrhea 17 506 William H. Johnson Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 15 Dec 70 H 284 Chronic Diarrhea 17 507 Thomas Tiquen Private F 3rd U.S. C av. 21 Dec 70 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 508 Whittier Abrah Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 23 Dec 70 Varicose Veins 17 509 Sepeonocero Baragano Citizen Mexican 27 Dec 70 H 285 Gunshot Wound 17 510 James Downey Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 27 Dec 70 H 286 Gunshot Wound 17 511 Felix McCarty Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 29 Dec 70 Incised Wound (Scalp) 17 512 Matthew Warren Private K 1st U.S. Cav. 30 Dec 70 Acute Dysentery 17 513 John Hanks Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 3 Jan 71 Ac ute Diarrhea 17 514 Thomas Martin Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 5 Jan 71 H 287 Tertian Intermittent Fever 17 515 Henry Miller Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 6 Jan 71 H 288 Delirium Tremons 17 516 John P. Young Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 16 Jan 71 Quot idian Intermittent Fever 17 517 Felix McCarty Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 17 Jan 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 518 Charles Clark Private M 1st U.S. Cav. 18 Jan 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 519 John McGuerc Private L 1st U.S. Cav 18 Jan 71 Tertian Intermittent Fever 17 520 Alfred Waldon Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 18 Jan 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 521 Bryan Flannery Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 20 Jan 71 Rheumatism 17 522 Felix McCarty Private F 3rd U.S. C av. 26 Jan 71 Whitlow 17 523 William St. Clair Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 26 Jan 71 H 289 Casino 17 524 George W. Vaughn Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 27 Jan 71 Lacerated Wound 17 525 James Haynes Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 28 Jan 71 Serrial H ernia 17 526 Samuel Bender Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 30 Jan 71 Burn 17 527 George H. Freeland Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 4 Feb 71 Gonorrhea 18 528 Edward Hollywood Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 7 Feb 71 H 290 Tonsilitis 18 529 Francis Buckl ey Private H 3rd U.S. Cav. 9 Feb 71 H 291 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 530 John Hogan Farrier F 3rd U.S. Cav. 10 Feb 71 Jaundice

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371 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 18 531 Charles B. Carson Private G 1st U.S. Cav. Tertian Intermittent Fever 18 532 George Nash Privat e G 1st U.S. Cav. Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 533 Ole Anderson Recruit 12 Feb 71 H 292 Sprain 18 534 James B. Price Recruit 13 Feb 71 H 293 Chronic Diarrhea 10 Mar 71 18 535 Michael Kehler Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 14 Feb 71 Te rtian Intermittent Fever 18 536 Thomas Coulter Saddler F 3rd U.S. Cav. 14 Feb 71 Punctured Wound 18 537 Antoine Sovette Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 16 Feb 71 H 294 Erysipilas 18 538 Wm. N. Owen Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 23 Feb 71 Neuralgia 18 539 James Brannon Private B 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Feb 71 H 295 Acute Dysentery 18 540 James Philbrick Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 4 Mar 71 Tertian Intermittent Fever 18 541 Martin Keefe Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 6 Mar 71 Quotidian Intermit tent Fever 18 542 Samuel Cupp Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 7 Mar 71 H 296 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 543 Charles Monk Sgt. E 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Mar 71 H 297 Inflamation of Lungs 18 544 James McCarty Corporal D 21st U.S. Inf. 15 Mar 71 H 2 98 Burn 18 545 John Bidenbach Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Mar 71 Acute Diarrhea 18 546 Patrick Lonorgan Sgt. B 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Mar 71 H 299 Anemia (?) 18 547 James Brannon Private B 21st U.S. Inf. 22 Mar 71 Acute Dysentery 18 5 48 Francis Huckabee Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 6 Apr 71 H 300 Pleurisy 18 549 Samuel Tyler Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 7 Apr 71 Tonsilitis 18 550 James Brannon Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 7 Apr 71 Acute Diarrhea 18 551 Wm. E. Solomon Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 7 Apr 71 Inflamation of Pleura 18 552 Jas. Banshaw Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 15 Apr 71 Contusion 18 553 Edward Fiarus Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 16 Apr 71 Contusion 18 554 John Kengig Private H 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Apr 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 555 C. A. Busney Corporal F 3rd U.S. Cav. 22 Apr 71 H 301 Bubo 18 556 David Marshal Corporal F 3rd U.S. Cav. 24 Apr 71 H 302 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 557 Peter Prescott Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 2 5 Apr 71 Contusion 19 558 Solomon Anderson Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 5 May 71 Contusion 19 559 William Nubeck Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 5 May 71 Acute Bronchitis 19 560 Ephram Madline Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 10 May 71 Enlargement o f the Glands (Mumps) 19 561 Charles Winter Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 10 May 71 H 303 Acute Diarrhea 19 562 Bryan Flannery Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 15 May 71 Catahrr Epidermis 19 563 Chas. H. Vincent Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 15 May 71 H 30 4 Opacity Cornia 19 564 John Doyle Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 20 May 71 H 305 Hypertrophy of Liver 19 565 John Bidenbach Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 26 May 71 Contusion 19 566 Antoine Lovette Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 29 May 71 H 306 Perpura Hemoragica (Scurvy) 19 567 Edward Danger Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 29 May 71 H 307 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 568 James Garrety Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 31 May 71 H 308 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 569 Henry St. Clair Corporal D 21 st U.S. Inf. 6 Jun 71 H 309 Erysipilas

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372 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 19 570 Jacob Bates Private H 3rd U.S. Cav. 7 Jun 71 H 310 Gunshot Wound 19 571 Ephram Madline Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Jun 71 H 311 Gonorrhea 19 572 Emil Laray Sgt. D 21st U.S. Inf. 16 Jun 71 H 3 12 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 573 Arthur Clifford Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 17 Jun 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 574 William St. Clair Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 21 Jun 71 H 313 Epilepsy 19 575 John Stevens Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Jun 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 576 John Bidenbach Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 26 Jun 71 Contusion 19 577 James Garrety Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 26 Jun 71 Acute Diarrhea 19 578 George Freeland Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 27 Jun 71 H 314 Plymosis 19 579 Henry Mueller Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 27 Jun 71 Acute Rheumatism 19 580 Edmond Larong Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 1 Jul 71 H 315 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 581 Michael Casy Private D 3rd U.S. Cav. 2 Jul 71 H 316 Sprain 19 582 Wilson Lofsle Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 6 Jul 71 H 317 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 583 Francis Ash Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 6 Jul 71 H 318 Tertian Intermittent Fever 19 584 William Latchford Private L 3rd U.S. Cav. 6 Jul 71 H 319 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 585 Robert McDonnell Private L 3rd U.S. Cav. 9 Jul 71 H 320 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 586 James Raftron Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 11 Jul 71 H 321 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 587 Willia m Nubeck Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Jul 71 H 322 Contusion 19 588 James McCarty Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 12 Jul 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 589 John Doyle Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 17 Jul 71 H 323 Chronic Inflamation of Liver 20 5 90 Thomas Morris Sgt. D 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Jul 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 591 John Gramment Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Jul 71 Acute Diarrhea 20 592 Thomas White Private D 3rd U.S. Cav. 22 Jul 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 593 Thomas Kelly Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 22 Jul 71 H 324 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 594 Henry Kelly Private B 3rd U.S. Cav. 24 Jul 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 595 Thomas Roh Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 30 Jul 71 H 325 Colic 20 596 Wilson Lofsle Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 31 Jul 71 H 326 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 597 Frank Cook Trumpeter H 3rd U.S. Cav. 1 Aug 71 H 327 Chronic Bronchitis 20 598 James Raftery Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 7 Aug 71 Quotidian Interm ittent Fever 20 599 Michael Murphy Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 8 Aug 71 H 328 Retention of Urine 20 600 Charles Anderson Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 8 Aug 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 601 Patrick Shields Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 8 Aug 7 1 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 602 Jose Garcia Scout 9 Aug 71 Gonorrhea 20 603 Aaron J. Berry Corporal D 21st U.S. Inf. 11 Aug 71 Conjunctivitis 20 604 John Downey Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 10 Aug 71 Chronic Diarrhea 20 6 05 Ephraim Madline Private S 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Aug 71 Contusion 20 606 John Carney Sgt. L 3rd U.S. Cav. 13 Aug 71 Boils 20 607 David Livermore Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 15 Aug 71 Colic 20 608 William Moor Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 16 Aug 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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373 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 20 609 Harrison Jackson Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Aug 71 H 330 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 610 Joseph Barers Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Aug 71 Boils 20 610 William E. Morris Private A 21st U.S Inf. 21 Aug 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 611 Adam Adrian Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 22 Aug 71 H 331 Tertian Intermittent Fever 20 612 James B. Reed Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Aug 71 H 332 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 613 Wm. E Morris Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Aug 71 H 333 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 614 Patrick Shields Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 26 Aug 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 615 Wm. G. Keal Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 28 Aug 71 Tertian Intermitten t Fever 20 616 James F. Kenney Private C 1st U.S. Cav. 28 Aug 71 H 334 Compound Fracture 20 617 James Smith Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 28 Aug 71 H 335 Ascited 24 Sep 71 20 618 Edward Mahoney Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 1 Sep 71 Quotidian Inte rmittent Fever 20 619 Edward Fearns Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 1 Sep 71 Tertian Intermittent Fever 21 620 Benjamin Sinclair Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 3 Sep 71 H 336 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 621 Ewald N. Loffart Corporal A 21st U.S. Inf. 4 Sep 71 H 337 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 622 Joseph Williams ? A 21st U.S. Inf. 4 Sep 71 H 338 Chronic Diarrhea 21 623 Aaron J. Berry Corporal D 21st U.S. Inf. 5 Sep 71 H 339 Gonorrhea 21 624 David Ward Private A 21st U.S. Inf 6 Sep 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 625 Michael Hogan Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 6 Sep 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 626 Whittier Abrah Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 7 Sep 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 627 Joseph Rudolph Pr ivate A 21st U.S. Inf. 8 Sep 71 Neuralgia 21 628 Charles Day Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Sep 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 629 Michael Carroll Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 11 Sep 71 Neuralgia 21 630 Stephen Tobin Private A 21st U.S Inf. 11 Sep 71 H 339 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 631 Christian Kettleson Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 11 Sep 71 Tertian Intermittent Fever 21 632 Peter C. Philipson Corporal D 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Sep 71 H 340 Rheumatism 21 633 James B. Reed Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Sep 71 Acute Diarrhea 21 634 Adam Adrian Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Sep 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 635 Thomas H. Morris Corporal D 21st U.S. Inf. 14 Sep 71 Tertian Intermittent Fever 21 63 6 William Prinz Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 19 Sep 71 Tertian Intermittent Fever 21 637 Perry Hind Private ? 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Sep 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 638 Peter Boraz Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Sep 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 639 Charles Carlin Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Sep 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 640 George W. Pierce Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 26 Sep 71 H 341 Remittent Fever 21 641 Adam Adrian Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 26 Sep 71 Quotidia n Intermittent Fever 21 642 Christian Kettleson Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 27 Sep 71 H 342 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 643 David Livermore Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 27 Sep 71 Headache 21 644 William Dalton Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 27 Sep 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 645 Alexander Sherman Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 27 Sep 71 H 343 Tertian Intermittent Fever 21 646 Charles Day Private D 3rd U.S. Cav. 28 Sep 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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374 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 21 647 John Kelley Private D 3rd U.S. Cav. 28 Sep 71 H 344 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 648 Thomas Tiquen Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 1 Oct 71 H 345 Acute Dysentery 21 649 Robert Bremen Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 1 Oct 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 650 Ch. Breder son Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 2 Oct 71 Tertian Intermittent Fever 22 651 Evan Miles Capt. E 21st U.S. Inf. 2 Oct 71 Remittent Fever 22 652 Wilhelm Meyer Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 5 Oct 71 Abcess 22 653 Michael O'Hearn Private F 3rd U.S Cav. 3 Oct 71 Tertian Intermittent Fever 22 654 Carlo Demasio Scout (Indian) 7 Oct 71 Contusion 22 655 David Rine Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 9 Oct 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 656 David Ward Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Oct 7 1 H 346 Tertian Intermittent Fever 22 657 Andrew Bennett Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 12 Oct 71 H 347 Tape Worm 22 658 David Livermore Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 12 Oct 71 Headache 22 659 E.P. O'Dell Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 17 Oct 71 H 348 Qu otidian Intermittent Fever 22 660 A. Rudolph Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Oct 71 H 349 Acute Dysentery 22 661 Michael O'Hearn Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 21 Oct 71 H 350 Tertian Intermittent Fever 22 662 James Clancy Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 22 Oct 71 Acute Diarrhea 22 663 George Freeland Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 22 Oct 71 H 351 Tertian Intermittent Fever 22 664 Robert Brennan Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 22 Oct 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 665 Fred D. Kessnur Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 23 Oct 71 Burn 22 666 Alexander Montross Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Oct 71 H 352 Chronic Dysentery 22 667 Timothy Lynch Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 24 Oct 71 Tertian Intermittent Fever 22 668 Edward Mahoney Private D 21st U.S Inf. 25 Oct 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 669 Samuel Gamell Private K 3rd U.S. Cav. 25 Oct 71 Contusion 22 670 Wm. E. Morris Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 26 Oct 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 671 Stephen Tobin Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 30 Oct 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 672 Peter Albert O'Dell Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 2 Nov 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 673 Solomon Shehan Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 2 Nov 71 Tertian Intermittent Fever 22 674 Tim othy O'Leary Sgt. K 21st U.S. Inf. 3 Nov 71 Contusion 22 675 Albert Sylvester Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 3 Nov 71 H 353 Remittent Fever 22 676 John Hammel Drummer D 21st U.S. Inf. 4 Nov 71 H 354 Gonorrhea 22 677 John McNamara 1st Sgt. A 2 1st U.S. Inf. 5 Nov 71 Acute Diarrhea 22 678 Joseph Rudolph Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 6 Nov 71 Acute Dysentery 22 679 John Costello Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 7 Nov 71 Tertian Intermittent Fever 22 680 Henry Reede Private F 21st U.S. I nf. 11 Nov 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 681 John Yeager Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 10 Nov 71 H 355 Tertian Intermittent Fever 23 682 Evan Miles Capt. E 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Nov 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 683 John Rofs Sgt. A 2 1st U.S. Inf. 12 Nov 71 Conjunctivitis 23 684 George Freeland Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 15 Nov 71 H 356 Tertian Intermittent Fever 23 685 Michael Cottrell Private H 21st U.S. Inf. 17 Nov 71 H 357 Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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375 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 23 686 John R obson Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 18 Nov 71 H 358 Acute Diarrhea 23 687 John Warford Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 18 Nov 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 688 Goodwin Corporal F 3rd U.S. Cav. 18 Nov 71 Punctured Wound 23 689 Wm. F. Spurgin 1 st Sgt. K 21st U.S. Inf. 20 Nov 71 Remittent Fever 23 690 George Mason Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 20 Nov 71 H 359 Tertian Intermittent Fever 23 691 Felix McCarty Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 21 Nov 71 Whitlow 23 692 Russford Private H 3rd U. S. Cav. 22 Nov 71 Incised Wound (Scalp) 23 693 John Kelley Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Nov 71 Tertian Intermittent Fever 23 694 Albert P. O'Dell Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 25 Nov 71 H 360 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 695 Thomas Marti n Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 25 Nov 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 696 Thomas Hackett Sgt. F 3rd U.S. Cav. 29 Nov 71 H 361 Primary Syphilis 23 697 Jonas 29 Nov 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 698 John Hogan Farrier F 3rd U.S. C av. 29 Nov 71 Conjunctivitis 23 699 John Mott Sgt. F 3rd U.S. Cav. 29 Nov 71 Inflamation of Testicle (Gonorr. Orchitis) 23 700 Joseph Burris Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 30 Nov 71 H 362 Acute Dysentery 23 701 Samuel D. Trask Recruit M 3rd U.S. Cav. 2 Dec 71 H 363 Rheumatism (?) 23 702 Robert E. Warford Private F 3rd U.S. Cav. 2 Dec 71 H 364 Tertian Intermittent Fever 23 703 Jacob Turner Sgt. A 21st U.S. Inf. 3 Dec 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 704 Everett Storms Pr ivate L 1st U.S. Cav. 4 Dec 71 H 365 Contused Wound 23 705 John F. Gerrins Private L 3rd U.S. Cav. 6 Dec 71 H 366 Primary Syphilis 23 706 John Dobson Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 6 Dec 71 H 367 Tertian Intermittent Fever 23 707 William McPhers on Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 9 Dec 71 Tonsilitis 23 708 William Irwin Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 9 Dec 71 Enphamus W? (soyribs) 23 709 Hutchins Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 7 Dec 71 Conjunctivitis 23 710 Manarri Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 1 3 Dec 71 Tonsilitis 23 711 Charles Roderick Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 17 Dec 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 712 James Duval Sgt. A 21st U.S. Inf. 18 Dec 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 713 James Rudolph Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Dec 71 24 714 Michael Shay Private Cav. 24 Dec 71 H 368 Acute Rheumatism 24 715 William Prins Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 26 Dec 71 H 369 Erysipilas 24 716 Charles Edwards Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 27 Dec 71 Acute Diarrhea 24 717 Charles Rederick Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 27 Dec 71 Acute Diarrhea 24 718 Edward Mahoney Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 27 Dec 71 H 370 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 719 William Nolan Private F 21st U.S. Inf. 26 Dec 71 H 371 Punctured Wound 24 720 William Stratton Private L 21st U.S. Inf. 29 Dec 71 H 372 Acute Dysentery 24 721 William Glendie Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 29 Dec 71 H 373 Chronic Rheumatism 24 722 Thomas Chapman Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 29 Dec 71 Orchitis 24 723 John Humphreys Sgt. D 1st U.S. Cav. 29 Dec 71 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 724 Michael Dohoney Sgt. D 1st U.S. Cav. 29 Dec 71 Bite of Poisonous Insect

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376 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 24 725 Joseph Hiatzer Corporal A 21st U.S. Inf. 1 Jan 72 Quotidian Intermitten t Fever 24 726 Albert Quinn Private M 1st U.S. Cav. 2 Jan 72 H 374 Gunshot Wound 24 727 James Bennett Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Jan 72 H 375 Tape Worm 24 728 Michael Shay Private 1st U.S. Cav. 11 Jan 72 H 376 Rheumatism 24 729 Edw ard Mahoney Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Jan 72 H 377 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 730 Charles Day Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 13 Jan 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 731 James A. Reed Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 15 Jan 72 Quotidian Intermit tent Fever 24 732 Jacob Freker Sgt. A 21st U.S. Inf. 16 Jan 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 733 Geroge Arnold Private M 1st U.S. Cav. 18 Jan 72 Jaundice 24 734 William Mead Private F 21st U.S. Inf. 20 Jan 72 Contused Wound 2 4 735 Wm. M. Green Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Jan 72 24 736 Washington Mendes Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Jan 72 H 378 24 737 Timothy Lynch Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 1 Jan 72 Ulcer 24 738 John Garrinor Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 27 Ja n 72 24 739 Charles Day Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 4 Feb 72 H 379 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 740 William Gibson Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 4 Feb 72 H 380 Pneumonia 24 741 David Rine Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 4 Feb 72 Hyst atepia 24 742 James Reed Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 6 Feb 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 743 Joseph Kimble Bugler F 3rd U.S. Cav. 10 Feb 72 Field Primary Syphilis 25 744 Thomas Reilly Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 16 Feb 72 Secondary Syp hilis 25 745 Peter Rice Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 17 Feb 72 H 381 Gunshot Wound/ Compund Fracture Humerus 18 Feb 72 Death from shock and hemorrhage 25 746 Samuel F. Gehr Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 20 Feb 72 Contusion 25 747 John Grammon Privat e D 21st U.S. Inf. 20 Feb 72 H 382 Acute Diarrhea 25 748 John Kelley Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 26 Feb 72 Tertian Intermittent Fever 25 749 Wm. B. Lindbrick Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 29 Feb 72 H 383 Gonorrhea Orchitis 25 750 Michael Keegan Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 29 Feb 72 Gunshot Wound (suicide) 29 Feb 72 Death from shock and hemorrhage 25 751 Samuel F. Gehr Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 29 Feb 72 H 384 Primary Syphilis 25 752 David Rine Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 1 Mar 72 Acute Dia rrhea 25 753 John Reilley Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Mar 72 H 385 Chronic Rheumatism 25 754 Theodore Cavanagh Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Mar 72 Glandular Swelling 25 755 James Doyle Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Mar 72 Neuralgia 25 756 Henry Geoff Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Mar 72 Acute Dysentery 25 757 John Burns Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Mar 72 Night Blindness 25 758 George Miller Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Mar 72 Pleurodynia 25 759 Peter Driocott Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 16 Mar 72 Contusion 25 760 Samuel Drachman Citizen Tucson 17 Mar 72 Compound Fracture of Femur 25 761 John Larimer Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 26 Mar 72 H 386 25 762 Joseph Knoble Bugler F 5th U.S. Cav. 26 Mar 72 Syphilitic Rheumatism

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377 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 25 763 Theodore Cavanagh Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 30 Mar 72 H 387 Scrapula 25 764 George Schultz Private A 21st U.S. Inf. 23 Mar 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 25 765 Wellfit Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 27 Ma r 72 Acute Dysentery 25 766 Irwin F. Hackett Private E 21st U.S. Inf. 30 Mar 72 Anascara 25 767 Royal S. Whitman Lieut. 3rd U.S. Cav. 31 Mar 72 Tertian Intermittent Fever 25 768 Bennett Private F 21st U.S. Inf. 31 Mar 72 Lacerate d Wound 25 769 John L. Wells Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 1 Apr 72 Burn 25 770 John Ochse Sgt. F 23rd U.S. Inf. 10 Apr 72 Rheumatic Fever 25 771 Henry Smith Sgt. F 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Apr 72 Acute Dysentery 25 772 A. Owens Private G 21 st U.S. Inf. 15 Apr 72 Acute Dysentery 25 773 Dennis Leonard Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 16 Apr 72 Conjunctivitis 25 774 Edward Casey Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 20 Apr 72 H 388 Acute Catarrh 25 775 John Tierney Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 22 A pr 72 Draindan 26 776 Edward F. Rice Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 27 Apr 72 Field Colic 26 777 George M. McTaylor St. 23rd U.S. Inf. 27 Apr 72 Epilespy 26 778 James Sullivan Private 23rd U.S. Inf. 28 Apr 72 Acute Diarrhea 26 779 Henry S. Groff Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 2 May 72 Acute Diarrhea 26 780 Patrick Davin Sgt. F 5th U.S. Cav. 11 May 72 H 389 Contused Wound 26 781 Michael Glynn Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 12 May 72 H 390 Incised Wound (Scalp) 26 782 Richard A. Follett Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 16 May 72 Sprain 26 783 Aaron S. Simmons Citizen offi Sevenal 17 May 72 H 391 Fracture of Inf. Max. 26 784 William Welfitt Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 26 May 72 Catarrh 26 785 Maurice Burke Sgt. D 1st U. S. Cav. 25 May 72 H 392 Contusion 26 786 James Dugal Trumpeter D 1st U.S. Cav. 27 May 72 H 393 Gonorrhea 26 787 John Merrill Corporal F 5th U.S. Cav. 21 May 72 H 394 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 788 James Wellfit Private E 23rd U.S. I nf. 3 Jun 72 26 789 Martin Burns Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 8 Jun 72 H 395 Secondary Syphilis 26 790 Williams 1st Sgt. E 23rd U.S. Inf. 10 Jun 72 Incipient D.T. 26 791 John Nihill Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 10 Jun 72 H 396 Gonorrhea 26 792 Edward Holland Private L 5th U.S. Cav. 10 Jun 72 Cholera Morbus 26 793 Daniel Brian Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 11 Jun 72 Dysiaucho Tonsillaui 26 794 John Harrington Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 16 Jun 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 795 Clarence Burlinganis Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Jun 72 H 397 Fracture Tibia and Fibula 26 796 Henry Reufer Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 22 Jun 72 26 797 Washington Lennox Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Jun 72 H 398 Secondary Syphilis 26 797 Washington Lennox Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Jun 72 H 398 Gonorrhea 26 798 Sarenz Schneiderhan Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Jun 72 H 399 Fractured Inferior Maxilla 26 799 Henry S. Groff Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 25 Jun 72 Acute Dysentery 26 800 Walter Evans Recruit F 23rd U.S. Inf. 25 Jun 72 Acute Eczema

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378 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 26 801 Simon Schwuger Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 26 Jun 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 802 William Welfitt Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 28 Jun 72 Ac ute Diarrhea 26 803 Tightman F. Roth Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 29 Jun 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 804 John Tierney Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 29 Jun 72 H 400 Acute Diarrhea 26 805 Wm. F. Parther Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Jul 72 H 4 01 Acute Dysentery 26 806 James Dunn Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Jul 72 Gonorrhea 27 807 Thomas C. Stewart Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Jul 72 Acute Diarrhea 27 808 John Yeager Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 11 Jul 72 H 402 Anemia 27 809 Jo hn P. Carroll Sgt. E 23rd U.S. Inf. 16 Jul 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 810 Wm. E. Welch Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 16 Jul 72 H 403 Typho Malarial Fever 27 811 Dawson Massey Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 19 Jul 72 H Quotidian Intermittent Fe ver 27 812 John Obenlander Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 25 Jul 72 Chronic Rheumatism 27 813 James L. Hackett Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 27 Jul 72 Acute Diarrhea 27 814 Oscar Stedingk Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 31 Jul 72 H 404 Remittent Fever 27 815 Frederick Schultz Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Aug 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 816 Charles Richter Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Aug 72 H 405 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 817 Joseph Black Private K 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Aug 72 Gu nshot Wound (Flesh) 27 818 John Rice Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 5 Aug 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 819 David L. Carleton Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 5 Aug 72 H 406 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 820 John Burke Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 5 Aug 72 H 407 Cholera Morbus 27 821 John I. Murphy Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 8 Aug 72 Acute Dysentery 27 822 John Newlin Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Aug 72 H 408 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 823 Frank Lovett Sgt. D 23rd U.S. Inf. 12 Au g 72 Acute Dysentery 27 824 George Magin Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 13 Aug 72 H 409 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 825 Matthew Kenney Corporal D 23rd U.S. Inf. 14 Aug 72 H 410 Cholera Morbus 27 826 Franz A. Bobz Corporal D 23rd U.S. Inf 14 Aug 72 H 411 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 827 Patrick Ford Sgt. D 23rd U.S. Inf. 18 Aug 72 Acute Diarrhea 27 828 Charles W. Carr Corporal E 23rd U.S. Inf. 20 Aug 72 H 412 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 829 James Kelley Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 21 Aug 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 830 Dennis Sulliran Aulif D 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Aug 72 H 412 Conjunctivitis 27 831 John P. Carroll Sgt. E 23rd U.S. Inf. 24 Aug 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 832 William B rown Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 26 Aug 72 H 413 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 833 Henry O'Donnell Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 28 Aug 72 H 414 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 834 Paul Remy Corporal D 23rd U.S. Inf. 28 Aug 72 Acute Dysentery 2 Oct 72 27 835 Wm. E. Welch Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 28 Aug 72 H 415 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 836 Wm. Seymour Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 28 Aug 72 H 416 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 837 Davis I. Carletin Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 28 A ug 72 H 417 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 838 Frank Young Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 29 Aug 72 H 418 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 839 Edward Duffy Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 30 Aug 72 H 419 Constipation

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379 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 28 840 John O'Neal Private F 5th U.S Cav. 30 Aug 72 H 420 Contusion 28 841 William Rooney Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 30 Aug 72 Acute Diarrhea 28 842 Frans A. Botz Corporal D 23rd U.S. Inf. 31 Aug 72 Chronic Rheumatism 28 843 James Brady Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 2 Sep 72 Incised Wound 28 844 James Jeffers Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 2 Sep 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 845 Robert Gummors Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 2 Sep 72 Bubo 28 846 Wm. Mutrenon Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 2 Sep 72 H 421 Remittent Feve r 28 847 John Newlin Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Sep 72 H 422 Remittent Fever 28 848 Frank Lovett Sgt. D 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Sep 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 849 Wm. H. Snyder Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 4 Sep 72 H 423 Tertian Intermitte nt Fever 28 850 Michael Dohoney Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 1 Sep 72 H 424 Conjunctivitis 28 851 Charles O'Connor Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Sep 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 852 Williams Brown Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Sep 72 H 425 T ertian Intermittent Fever 28 853 Murphy Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 10 Sep 72 Incised Wound (Scalp) 28 854 Frank Lovett Sgt. E 23rd U.S. Inf. 13 Sep 72 H 426 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 855 Henry O'Donnell Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 15 Se p 72 H 427 Tertian Intermittent Fever 28 856 Henry L. Groff Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Sep 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 857 Frederick Krage Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 16 Sep 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 858 Wm. E. Welch Priva te E 23rd U.S. Inf. 16 Sep 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 859 Edward Richards Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 16 Sep 72 H 428 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 860 Edward Bennett Private F 23rd U.S. Inf. 19 Sep 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 861 Farrell McMurray Sgt. L 5th U.S. Cav. 20 Sep 72 H 429 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 862 J.H. Crighton Sgt. F 23rd U.S. Inf. 20 Sep 72 H 430 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 863 M.J. Mooran 1st Sgt. F 23rd U.S. Inf. 20 Sep 72 H 431 Dyspepsia 28 864 Harry Roof Sgt. D 23rd U.S. Inf. 21 Sep 72 Incised Wound of Hand 28 865 James Kelly Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Sep 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 866 Joseph Blachage Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Sep 72 H 432 Quoti dian Intermittent Fever 28 867 Jas. McDonnell Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Sep 72 H 433 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 868 Dawson Massey Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 25 Sep 72 H 434 Acute Dysentery 28 869 Barnaby Clarke Musician E 23rd U.S. I nf. 25 Sep 72 H 435 Gonorrheal Orchitis 28 870 George Wallace Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 26 Sep 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 871 J.M. Pardee 2nd Sgt. K 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Sep 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 872 George Magin Priv ate D 23rd U.S. Inf. 26 Sep 72 H 436 Tonsilitis 29 873 James H. Hackett Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 29 Sep 72 H 437 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 874 Charles Collins Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 29 Sep 72 H 438 Insanity 29 875 John Murphy Priv ate D 23rd U.S. Inf. 29 Sep 72 H 439 Typho Malarial Fever 29 876 Samuel O. Whitimore Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 29 Sep 72 H 440 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 877 Joseph Holin Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 29 Sep 72 Tertian Intermittent Fever 29 878 John H. Wright Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 29 Sep 72 H 441 Tertian Intermittent Fever

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380 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 29 879 James TenEych Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Oct 72 H 442 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 880 Thomas Brown Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 8 Oct 72 Quotidi an Intermittent Fever 29 881 John McDunn Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Oct 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 882 Thomas W. Fields Sgt. D 1st U.S. Cav. 10 Oct 71 H 443 Neuralgia 29 883 William Layman Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 11 Oct 72 H 44 4 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 884 Thomas Gonderson Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 12 Oct 72 H 445 Tertian Intermittent Fever 29 885 John G. McCauley Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 14 Oct 72 H 446 Tertian Intermittent Fever 29 886 Isaac McKinsey Pr ivate D 23rd U.S. Inf. 17 Oct 72 H 447 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 887 Thomas Brown Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 18 Oct 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 888 Charles Norrsio Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 18 Oct 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 889 John Herman Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 19 Oct 72 Tertian Intermittent Fever 29 890 John Hennessey Private H 23rd U.S. Inf. 19 Oct 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 891 John Newlin Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 22 Oct 72 Quotidian I ntermittent Fever 29 892 James Kelley Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Oct 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 893 John H. Philphs Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 24 Oct 72 H 448 Inebriation 29 894 Frank Young Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 27 Oct 72 Ac ute Diarrhea 29 895 John Jackson Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 27 Oct 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 896 Ernest Bunge Corporal D 23rd U.S. Inf. 28 Oct 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 897 Charles O'Connor Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 29 Oct 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 898 Latterer Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 11 Nov 72 Tertian Intermittent Fever 29 899 Albert Kearney Private M 5th U.S. Cav. 11 Nov 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 900 John Hamilton Private D 5t h U.S. Cav. 7 Nov 72 H 449 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 901 Wm. K. Patrick Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 12 Nov 72 H 450 Typho Malarial Fever 29 902 James Dunn Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 12 Nov 72 H 451 Calabasas Typho Malarial Fever 29 903 Fra nk Wise Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 12 Nov 72 H 452 Calabasas Typho Malarial Fever 29 904 Thomas Dorighy Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 12 Nov 72 Calabasas Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 905 Frank O'Dell Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 12 Nov 72 Calabasas Quo tidian Intermittent Fever 29 906 James Kelley Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 13 Nov 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 907 John P. Carroll Sgt. E 23rd U.S. Inf. 17 Nov 72 H 453 Catarrh (Bronchial) 22 Jan 73 29 908 James McDonnell Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 18 Nov 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 909 Wm. Welfit Private K 23rd U.S. Inf. 19 Nov 72 Gonorrhea 29 910 Gallagher Private D 32nd U.S. Inf. 20 Nov 72 H 454 Primary Syphilis 29 911 Dennis Sullivan Private D 23rd U.S. Inf 28 Nov 72 H 455 Dropsy from Hepatic Disease 29 912 Wm. Buckley Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 28 Nov 72 H 456 Typho Malarial Fever 29 913 Rob? Fry Ferrow Frymaster U.S.A. 26 Nov 72 Inebriation 29 914 John Garrinor Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 2 7 Nov 72 Inflamation of Testicle 29 915 Franz A. Bobz Capt. D 23rd U.S. Inf. 2 Dec 72 H Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 916 Washington Lennox Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 2 Dec 72 H 457 Tertiary Syphilis (Constitutional) 29 917 George Ellio tt Private G 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Dec 72 H 458 Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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38 1 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 29 918 James McDonnell Corporal D 23rd U.S. Inf. 6 Dec 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 919 Henry O'Donnell Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 13 Dec 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 920 Wm. F. Burke Private K 23rd U.S. Inf. 13 Dec 72 Acute Dysentery 29 921 Kelley Private H 23rd U.S. Inf. 17 Dec 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 922 James Dugall Trumpeter D 1st U.S. Cav. 18 Dec 72 Headache 29 923 Charles O'Connor Private B 23rd U.S. Inf. 18 Dec 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 924 Wm. Welfit Private B 23rd U.S. Inf. 20 Dec 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 925 John G. McCauley Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 20 Dec 72 Eczema 29 926 Thomas Brown Corporal D 23rd U.S. Inf. 21 Dec 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 927 John Tierney Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 22 Dec 72 Inebriation 29 928 John Jackson Private F 23rd U.S. Inf. 27 Dec 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 929 James Dugall Trumpeter D 1st U.S. Cav. 30 Dec 72 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 930 Charles Williams Sgt. F 23rd U.S. Inf. 30 Dec 72 H 459 Inebriation 29 931 Salterer Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Jan 73 Quotidian Intermittent Feve r 29 932 James O'Connor Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Jan 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 933 James McDonnell Corporal D 23rd U.S. Inf. 8 Jan 73 Sore Hand (Contusion) 30 934 George W. Leath Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Jan 73 H 460 Cri ttenden Anemia 30 935 James Dugal Trumpeter D 1st U.S. Cav. 13 Jan 73 Catarrh 30 936 Washington Lennox Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 14 Jan 73 Acute Diarrhea 30 937 Thomas Brown Corporal D 23rd U.S. Inf. 15 Jan 73 Tertian Intermittent F ever 30 938 Peter Monzel Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 17 Jan 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 30 939 John O'Connor Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 17 Jan 73 Piles 30 940 William H. Reed Citizen (Employee of 2M Corp) 3 Jan 73 Piles 30 941 Wil liam Layman Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 18 Jan 73 Catarrh 30 942 John Ochse Sgt. E 23rd U.S. Inf. 21 Jan 73 Acute Rheumatism 30 943 John Hiney Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 24 Jan 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 944 William Horstman Priv ate E 23rd U.S. Inf. 27 Jan 73 Constipation 30 945 William Trulrenin Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 13 Jan 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 30 946 Barnaby Clarke Musician F 23rd U.S. Inf. 16 Jan 73 Consumption 30 947 Timothy K. Smith Capt. D 23rd U.S. Inf. 29 Jan 73 Conjunctivitis 30 948 Wm. Buckley Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 29 Jan 73 Malarial Fever 30 949 Peter Hilh Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 30 Jan 73 Catarrh 30 950 Wm. F. Parker Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 30 Jan 73 Cat arrh 30 951 Morris Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 30 Jan 73 Sore Hand (Contusion) 30 952 John Jackson Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 29 Jan 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 953 Wm. Hammond Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 2 Feb 73 Anemia 30 954 W m. F. Parker Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 1 Feb 73 Catarrh 30 955 Charles O'Connor Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Feb 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 956 John Murphy Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 5 Feb 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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382 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 30 957 W m. Welfit Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 5 Feb 73 Catarrh 30 958 Henry O'Donnell Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Feb 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 959 Frank Lovett Sgt. D 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Feb 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 960 Joseph Hine Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 7 Feb 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 30 961 John Rice Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 7 Feb 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 30 962 George Magin Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 8 Feb 73 Constipation 30 963 John Jackson P rivate E 23rd U.S. Inf. 8 Feb 73 Boils 30 964 George Saunders Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 8 Feb 73 Catarrh 31 965 Martin Burns Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 8 Feb 73 Pneumonia 22 Feb 73 31 966 James Brady Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Feb 73 Contusion 31 967 Hiram Skeels Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 12 Feb 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 31 968 Peter Monzel Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 15 Feb 73 Catarrh 31 969 Joseph Carr Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 19 Feb 73 Acute Diarrhea 31 970 Frank. T. Smith Capt. D 23rd U.S. Inf. 21 Feb 73 Catarrh 31 971 Charles O'Connor Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 22 Feb 73 Catarrh 31 972 Henry O'Donnell Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Feb 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 31 973 John O'Conn or Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Feb 73 Boils 31 974 Frederick Martin Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 24 Feb 73 Neuralgia 31 975 Wm. Layman Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 24 Feb 73 Whitlow 31 976 Wm. Mutrenin Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 2 Mar 73 T ertian Intermittent Fever 31 977 John Newbanks Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 2 Mar 73 Incised Wound 31 978 John G. Macauley Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Mar 73 Eczema 31 979 S.B. Williams Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 7 Mar 73 Catarrh 31 9 80 W.L. Clarke Lieut. D 23rd U.S. Inf. 10 Mar 73 Acute Diarrhea 31 981 J.H. Gunther Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 10 Mar 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 31 982 J. Sullivan Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 10 Mar 73 Acute Diarrhea 31 983 John Hiney Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 10 Mar 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 31 984 Mathew Kinney Sgt. D 23rd U.S. Inf. 11 Mar 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 31 985 Jourdan Richie Private B 5th U.S. Cav. 12 Mar 73 Inebriation 31 986 Henry O'Do nnell Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 13 Mar 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 31 987 Jacob A. DeLancy Band D 5th U.S. Cav. 13 Mar 73 Constitutional Syphilis 31 988 John Obenlander Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 14 Mar 73 Catarrh 31 989 John Herman Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 15 Mar 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 31 990 Handy H. Oats Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 16 Mar 73 Rheumatism 31 991 John Fitzhabrick Private Recruit 5th U.S. Cav. 16 Mar 73 Catarrh 31 992 Joseph Blenckhage Privat e D 23rd U.S. Inf. 17 Mar 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 31 993 James McDonnell Corporal D 23rd U.S. Inf. 18 Mar 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 31 994 John Jackson Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 18 Mar 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 31 995 John L. Bighley Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 20 Mar 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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383 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 32 996 John O'Connor Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 20 Mar 73 Contused Wound 32 997 Charles W. Carr Corporal E 23rd U.S. Inf. 22 Mar 73 Tertian Intermittent F ever 32 998 W.B. Tonbrock Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 22 Mar 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 32 999 Bernard Mamon Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 1 Apr 73 Constitutional Syphilis 32 1000 Francis P. Carroll Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 1 Apr 73 Cons titutional Syphilis 32 1001 Wm. Seymour Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 2 Apr 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 32 1002 Charles O'Connor Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Apr 73 Secondary Syphilis 32 1003 Hamilton B. Murphy Private E 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Ap r 73 Inguinal Hernia 32 1004 J.A. Callender Med Dept USA 6 Apr 73 Constipation 32 1005 Frank C. Mann B. Smith M 1st U.S. Cav. 9 Apr 73 Lacerated Wound 32 1006 George Douglas Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 12 Apr 73 Otorrhea 32 1007 Charles Ford Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 12 Apr 73 Chorea 32 1008 Philip Munors Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 15 Apr 73 Inflamation of Lungs 32 1009 Franz A. Bobz Corporal D 23rd U.S. Inf. 15 Apr 73 Contusion 32 1010 L. Schneiderham Privat e D 23rd U.S. Inf. 16 Apr 73 Delirium Tremons 32 1011 Daniel Brian Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 16 Apr 73 Inflamation of Pleura 32 1012 George Saunders Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 19 Apr 73 Inebriation 32 1013 Thomas O'Neal Private C 5th U. S. Cav. 19 Apr 73 Secondary Syphilis 32 1014 George Barkley Private I 5th U.S. Cav. 23 Apr 73 Contusion 32 1015 John Suritzen Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 26 Apr 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 32 1016 George W. Churchill 1st Sgt. H 5th U.S. Cav. 29 Apr 73 Simple Fracture 32 1017 William Riley Private L 1st U.S. Cav. 29 Apr 73 Secondary Syphilis 32 1018 J. A. DeLacey Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 29 Apr 73 Secondary Syphilis 32 1019 Peter D. Sheilds Private E 5th U.S. Ca v. 1 May 73 Acute Diarrhea 32 1020 John Smith Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 6 May 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 32 1021 Charles Fulsom Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 8 May 73 Ingrowing Toe Nail 32 1022 James Brady Corporal F 23rd U.S. Inf. 17 May 73 Acute Dysentery 32 1023 Walton Evans Private F 23rd U.S. Inf. 17 May 73 Valeralan Diersary Heart 32 1024 John Richard Private L 5th U.S. Cav. 20 May 73 Chronic Bronchitis 32 1025 William Brown Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 22 M ay 73 Sprain 32 1026 Henry Stonebreaker Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 May 73 Acute Diarrhea 33 1027 Hiram Skeels Private C 23rd U.S. Inf. 2 Jun 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 33 1028 John Rice Private C 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Jun 73 Tertia n Intermittent Fever 33 1029 Leopold Wenk Musician D 5th U.S. Cav. 11 Jun 73 Orchitis Gonorrhea 33 1030 Robert Coyle Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 11 Jun 73 Dislocation of Right Shoulder 33 1031 John Fitzgerald Recruit 5th U.S. Cav. 9 Jun 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 33 1032 Ferdinand Davidson Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 14 Jun 73 Catarrh 33 1033 George Donny Sgt. H 5th U.S. Cav. 14 Jun 73 Otorrhea 33 1034 John Ochse Sgt. L 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Jul 73 Gonorrhea

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384 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 33 1 035 David Duhoney Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Jul 73 Sprain of Ankle 33 1036 Joseph Miller Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Jul 73 Acute Diarrhea 33 1037 Wm. F. Snow Corporal H 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Jul 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 33 1038 John Bates Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Jul 73 Piles 33 1039 John Connolly Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Jul 73 Ulcer of Left Hand 33 1040 John Carlson Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Jul 73 Acute Diarrhea 33 1041 Andrew McGeorge Private D 5th U.S. C av. 30 2 Jul 73 Contusion of Right Leg 33 1042 John Hiney Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 2 Jul 73 Neuralgia 33 1043 Charles Norrsio Private I 23rd U.S. Inf. 5 Jul 73 Colitis 33 1044 Thomas Gunderson Private I 23rd U.S. Inf. 33 5 Jul 73 L acerated Wound 33 1045 Martin Sutherland Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Jul 73 Conjunctivitis 33 1046 George Dunn Sgt. H 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Jul 73 Otorrhea 33 1047 Joseph Deagren Corporal H 5th U.S. Cav. 6 Jul 73 Inebriation 33 1048 M ichael Bryan 2nd Sgt. H 5th U.S. Cav. 7 Jul 73 Colitis 33 1049 Theodore Rossenuwin Musician Band 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Jul 73 Contusion of Face 33 1050 George Baker Corporal H 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Jul 73 Acute Diarrhea 33 1051 Charles H. Har per ? 9 Jul 73 Aural Catarrh 33 1052 Janus Hackett Private C 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Jul 73 Ingrowing Toe Nail 33 1053 Willian Seymour Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Jul 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 33 1054 John Newman Private H 1st U.S. Cav. 9 Jul 73 Jaundice 33 1055 Samuel B. Williams Private F 23rd U.S. Inf. 10 Jul 73 Gonorrhea 33 1056 WM. F Seims Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 10 Jul 73 Neuralgia 33 1057 McCauley Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 11 Jul 73 Contusion of Left Leg 33 1058 John Bend Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 14 Jul 73 Contusion of Face 33 1059 Edwin Cook Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Jul 73 Contusion of Hand (Left) 33 1060 Patrick Granahan Private L 5th U.S. Cav. 13 Jul 73 Tertian Intermittent Fev er 33 1061 Jas. Lofentamo Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 17 Jul 73 Constipation 33 1062 William Dubold Sgt. H 5th U.S. Cav. 18 Jul 73 Acute Diarrhea 33 1063 Thomas Caroltan Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 18 Jul 73 Indigestion 33 1064 James Kelley (2nd) Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 20 Jul 73 Neuralgia 33 1065 James Kelley (1st) Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 21 Jul 73 Sprain of Back 33 1066 Patrick Collins Private L 1st U.S. Cav. 23 Jul 73 Sprain Left Wrist 33 1067 William Whitt aker Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 24 Jul 73 Swelled Testicle 33 1068 John O'Connor Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 24 Jul 73 Acute Dysentery 33 1069 Thomas Brown Corporal D 23rd U.S. Inf. 25 Jul 73 Gunshot Wound of Left Knee 33 1070 John A. D ell Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 25 Jul 73 Piles 33 1071 Emos Younaui Private E 5th U.S. Cav. 25 Jul 73 Acute Diarrhea 33 1072 Janus Mc Donald Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 25 Jul 73 Contusion of Face 33 1073 Dennis O'Borin Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 26 Jul 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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385 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 33 1074 Henry O'Donnell Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 28 Jul 73 Tertian Intermittent Fever 33 1075 Hardy Oats Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 29 Jul 73 Inebriation 33 1076 H.B. Murphy ? 5th U.S. Cav 30 Jul 73 Acute Diarrhea 33 1077 George Bates Capt. H 5th U.S. Cav. 31 Jul 73 Primary Syphilis 33 1078 Charles V. Robinson Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 1 Aug 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 33 1079 John Murray Private E 23rd U.S. In f. 3 Aug 73 Primary Syphilis 33 1080 Olver M. Lerken Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Aug 73 Acute Diarrhea 33 1081 John Suritzin Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Aug 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 33 1082 Howry Vase Trumpeter H 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Aug 73 Contusion of Left Arm 33 1083 George Thompson Band B 23rd U.S. Inf. 6 Aug 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 33 1084 Harry Roof Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 7 Aug 73 Sprain in Back 33 1085 John Aoruis Private L 23rd U.S. Inf. 8 Aug 73 Gonorrhea 33 1086 Patrick Conlan Sgt. H 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Aug 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 33 1087 Joseph Blenckhage Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Aug 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 33 1088 Charles Aoruis Private L 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Aug 73 Deafness 33 1089 Fr. J. Griffin Sgt. Band 5th U.S. Cav. 9 Aug 73 Neuralgia 33 1090 Alfred Rou Private L 5th U.S. Cav. 9 Aug 73 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 33 1091 Emil Pfordner Musician 5th U.S. Cav. 10 Aug 73 From H a t Post Colitis 33 1092 Henry Sullivan Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 11 Aug 73 From H at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 33 1093 Edward Boyd Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 11 Aug 73 From H at Post Boils 33 1094 H.B. Murphy Musician 5th U.S. Cav. 13 Aug 73 From H at Post Ulcer 33 1095 Charles R. Hayden Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 14 Aug 73 From H at Post Ulcer 33 1096 Arthur H. Avil Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 14 Aug 73 From H at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 33 1097 Bernard Mamo n Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 16 Aug 73 From H at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 33 1098 Charles V. Robinson Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 16 Aug 73 From H at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 34 1099 James Kelley (2nd) Private K 23rd U.S. Inf. 34 16 Aug 73 From H at Post Sprain in Right Shoulder 34 1100 Joseph Sullivan Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 18 Aug 73 From H at Post Primary Syphilis 34 1101 Francis Ries Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 19 Aug 73 From H at Post Constipation 34 1102 Robert A. Farquharson Hospital Steward Infirmary 19 Aug 73 From H at Post Acute Dysentery 34 1103 Anthony Wright Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 21 Aug 73 From H at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 34 1104 James Robinson Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 24 Aug 73 From H at Post Neuralgia 34 1105 James Daniels Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 24 Aug 73 From H at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 34 1106 John Baltt Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 23 Aug 73 From H at Post 34 1108 Lewis Graiton Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 27 Aug 73 From H at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 34 1109 Barnaby Clarke Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 28 Aug 73 From H at Post Stricture of Urethra 34 1110 John O'Connor Private L 23rd U.S. Inf. 36 28 Aug 73 From H at Post Contusion of Face 35 1111 John J. Robinson Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 28 Aug 73 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 35 1112 Francis Sugnar Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 1 Sep 73 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 35 1113 Bernard Mamon Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 2 Sep 73 From Field Hosp at Post Acute Diarrhea

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386 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 35 1114 Smith B. Williams Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Sep 73 From Co at Post Piles 35 1115 Joseph Sullivan Private B 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Sep 73 From Co at Post Contused Wo 35 1116 A. Sullivan Asst Surgeon Inf 28 4 Sep 73 From Post Contusion 35 1117 Anthony Wright Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 3 Sep 73 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 35 1118 John J. Rob inson Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 7 Sep 73 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 35 1119 Francis Ries Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Sep 73 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 35 1120 Cave Schneil Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 10 Sep 73 From Co at Post A cute Diarrhea 35 1121 Andrew Ward Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 10 Sep 73 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 36 1122 John Fitzgerald Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 12 Sep 73 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 36 1123 John Hau Private D 1st U.S. Cav. 12 Sep 73 From Co at Post Gonorrhea 36 1124 Joseph Blenckhage Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 12 Sep 73 From Co at Post Primary Syphilis 36 1125 Barnaby Clarke Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 13 Sep 73 From H at Post Gonorrhea 36 112 6 Charles W. Carr Sgt. E 23rd U.S. Inf. 15 Sep 73 From Co at Post Primary Syphilis 36 1127 T.W.K. Smith Capt. D 32nd U.S. Inf. 15 Sep 73 From Co at Post Acute Dysentery 36 1128 William Kohler M 5th U.S. Cav. 16 Sep 73 From Co at Po st Tertian Intermittent Fever 36 1129 Irwin Yeager Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 16 Sep 73 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 37 1130 Francis Ries Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 16 Sep 73 From Co at Post Colic 37 1131 Wm. F. Boren Sgt. F 5t h U.S. Cav. 20 Sep 73 From Co at Post Cholera Morbus 37 1132 Holliner Dobris Trumpeter M 5th U.S. Cav. 24 Sep 73 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 37 1133 John J. Robinson Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 24 Sep 73 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 3 7 1134 H.B. Murphy Private K 8th U.S. Cav. 27 Sep 73 From H at Post Inguinal Hernia 37 1135 Frederick McConnell Private K 8th U.S. Cav. 28 Sep 73 From Co at Post Conjunctivitis 37 1136 John J. Bightly Private K 21st U.S. Inf. 32 29 Sep 73 F rom Co at Post Sprain of Right Foot 37 1137 John Fisher Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 1 Oct 73 From Co at Post Boils 37 1138 Frank Lovett Sgt. D 23rd U.S. Inf. 2 Oct 73 From Co at Post Ulcer 37 1139 Bryan Private M 8th U.S. Cav. 6 Oct 73 Fr om Co at Post Inebriation 37 1140 Henry O'Donnell Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 6 Oct 73 From Co at Post Orchitis Gonorrhea 38 1141 Francis Ries Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Oct 73 From H at Post Conjunctivitis 38 1142 Arthur Welch Lieut. F 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Oct 73 From H at Post Remittent Fever 38 1143 Washington Lennox Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 24 10 Oct 73 From H at Post 38 1144 Adolph Possoin Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 11 Oct 73 From H at Post Boils 38 1145 John Floyd Private H 8th U.S. Cav. 11 Oct 73 From H at Post Conjunctivitis 38 1146 John Newton Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 12 Oct 73 From Co at Post Ulcer 38 1147 Joseph Miller Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Oct 73 From Co at Post Chronic Rheumatism 38 1148 Michell Glenn Corporal L 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Oct 73 From Co at Post Ulcer 38 1149 Charles Heresie Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 20 Oct 73 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 38 1150 William Brown Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 20 Oct 73 From H at Post Acute Rheumatism 38 1151 Emil Pfordner Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 20 Oct 73 Gonorrhea 39 1152 J.K.B. Smith Private A 5th U.S. Cav. 23 Oct 73 From Co at Post Gonorrhea

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387 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 39 1153 John Switzer Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 23 Oct 73 From Co at Post Contusion of Left Side 39 1154 William Whittaker Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 28 Oct 73 From Co at Post Sprain of Back 39 1155 Joseph Blenckhage Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 1 Nov 73 From Co at Post Primary Syphilis 39 1156 John Fisher Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 1 Nov 73 From Co at Post Acute Dysentery 39 1157 John Switzer Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 1 Nov 73 From Co at Post Sprain of Back 39 1158 Frank Lovett Sgt. D 23rd U.S. Inf. 2 Nov 73 From Co at Post Constitut ional Syphilis 39 1159 Anthony Wright Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 3 Nov 73 From Co at Post Whitlow 39 1160 John Hall Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Nov 73 From H at Post Gonorrhea 39 1161 Philip W. Williamson Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 9 Nov 73 From Co at Post Neuralgia 39 1162 James Murin Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Nov 73 From Co at Post Primary Syphilis 40 1163 Charles W. Carr Sgt. K 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Nov 73 From Co at Post Piles (External) 40 1164 Arthur Welch Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 9 Nov 73 From Co at Post Piles (External) 40 1165 George H. Smith Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 9 Nov 73 From Co at Post Boils 40 1166 John Thoms Private K 23rd U.S. Inf. 10 Nov 73 From Co at Post Ingrowing Toe Nail 40 1167 Frederi ck Meyers Private K 23rd U.S. Inf. 10 Nov 73 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 40 1168 H.B. Murphy Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 10 Nov 73 Hol Band Chronic Rheumatism 40 1169 Charles D. Hayden Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 11 Nov 73 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 40 1170 John Kearney Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 13 Nov 73 From Co at Post Ulcer 40 1171 John Warren Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 13 Nov 73 From Co at Post Whitlow 40 1172 John A. Callender AA Surgeon Inf. 14 Nov 73 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 40 1173 Thomas Stuart Private F 23rd U.S. Inf. 14 Nov 73 From Co at Post Contusion of Face 41 1174 John Smith Corporal F 23rd U.S. Inf. 15 Nov 73 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 41 1175 Thomas Black Sgt. H 5th U.S. Cav. 18 Nov 73 From Co at Post Piles (External) 41 1176 Barnaby Clarke Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 19 Nov 73 From Co at Post Gonorrhea 41 1177 Owen Gallagher Corporal H 5th U.S. Cav. 27 20 Nov 73 From Co at Post Dislocation of Right Shoulder 41 1178 Wm. F. Lewis Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 21 Nov 73 From Co at Post Neuralgia 41 1179 Charles Morisis Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 22 Nov 73 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 41 1180 Patrick Fox Private E 5th U.S. Cav. 24 Nov 73 From Co at Post Piles (External) 41 1180 Kasper Krager Private E 5th U.S. Cav. 24 Nov 73 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 41 1181 Wm. Scott Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 24 Nov 73 From Co at Post Tertian Interm ittent Fever 41 1182 Hans Rassmusen Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 24 Nov 73 From Co at Post Limbricmx Wound 41 1183 Thomas Albringer Private M 5th U.S. Cav. 24 Nov 73 From Co at Post Otorrhea 42 1184 George H. Sorach Private C 5th U.S. Cav. 2 4 Nov 73 From Co at Post Ulcer 42 1185 Harry Roof Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 25 Nov 73 From Co at Post Tonsilitis 42 1186 Wm. Mubrennin Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 25 Nov 73 From Co at Post Neuralgia 42 1187 R. Roof Private C 5th U.S. Cav. 25 Nov 73 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 42 1188 Charles Dean Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 25 Nov 73 From Co at Post Stricture of Urethra 42 1189 James Brady Corporal E 23rd U.S. Inf. 25 Nov 73 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 42 1190 Wm. F. Gren Corporal H 5th U.S. Cav. 28 Nov 73 From Co at Post Acute Dysentery

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388 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 42 1191 John McGonmjlo Private A 5th U.S. Cav. 29 28 Nov 73 From Co at Post Contusion of Hands (Both) 42 1192 Ludwig Lina Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 28 Nov 73 From Co at Post Contusion of Right Hand 42 1193 Joseph Kinabrap Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 1 Dec 73 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 42 1194 William Harrison Private H 23rd U.S. Inf. 2 Dec 73 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 43 1 195 Bernard Mamon Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 22 3 Dec 73 From Co at Post Burn of Right Hand 43 1196 James A. Mann Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Dec 73 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 43 1197 Wm. S. C. Hogan Private E 5th U.S. Cav. 4 De c 73 Primary Syphilis 43 1198 Joseph Franks Private C 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Dec 73 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 43 1199 William Thomas Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Dec 73 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 43 1200 Jorda n Ruben Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Dec 73 From Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 7 Jan 74 Dead at 8:80pm January 7, 1874 43 1201 John Smith Capt. E 21st U.S. Inf. 8 Dec 73 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 43 1202 John Fitzgerald Corporal H 5th U.S. Cav. 9 Dec 73 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 43 1203 Evan McCarty Private F 21st U.S. Inf. 10 Dec 73 From Co at Post Gonorrhea 43 1204 John Oakes 1st Sgt. F 21st U.S. Inf. 11 Dec 73 From Co at Post Inebriation 43 1205 Joh n Reiss Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 14 Dec 73 From Co at Post Primary Syphilis 44 1206 Chester Noreale Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 15 Dec 73 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 44 1207 William Horstman Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 15 Dec 73 Fr om Co at Post Gonorrhea 44 1208 E.M. Walter Bugler Band 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Dec 73 From Co at Post Anemia 44 1209 Aphook Hindi Private E 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Dec 73 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 44 1210 Emil Pfordner Private Band 5 th U.S. Cav. 18 Dec 73 From Co at Post Gonorrhea 44 1211 Henry O'Donnell Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 20 Dec 73 From Co at Post Chronic Dysentery 44 1212 James Kelley (2nd) Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 31 21 Dec 73 From Co at Post Contusion of Left Hand 44 1213 George B. Lockland Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 25 Dec 73 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 44 1214 Marcus Smith Private C 5th U.S. Cav. 26 Dec 73 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 44 1215 James Moreen Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 29 Dec 73 From Co at Post Piles (External) 44 1216 John Sanders Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Jan 74 Tertian Intermittent Fever 45 1217 James Maskill Private F 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Jan 74 From Co at Post Ingrowing Toe Nail 45 1218 R. Ederhordt Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Jan 74 From Band at Post Abcess 45 1219 Charles Norrsio Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 6 Jan 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 45 1220 Henry O'Donnell Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 7 Jan 74 From Co at Post Inebriation 45 1221 John G. McCauley Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 41 7 Jan 74 From Co at Post Contusion of Hands 45 1222 Francis Ries Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 24 10 Jan 74 From Co at Post Sprain (Right Knee) 45 1223 John B righton Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 12 Jan 74 From Co at Post Bronchitis 45 1224 John Tierney Private F 23rd U.S. Inf. 12 Jan 74 From Co at Post Inebriation 45 1225 Marcus Smith Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 14 Jan 74 From Co at Post Tertian Inter mittent Fever 45 1226 William Nolan Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 14 Jan 74 From Band at Post Tonsilitis 45 1227 John Fisher Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 17 Jan 74 From Co at Post Remittent Fever 46 1228 John Switzer Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 19 Jan 74 From Co at Post Inebriation 46 1229 John Hanson Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 22 Jan 74 From Co at Post Remittent Fever

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389 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 46 1230 Edward Richards Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Jan 74 From Co at Post Gonorrhea 46 1231 John Tierney Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Jan 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 46 1232 Harry Roof Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 27 Jan 74 From Co at Post Gonorrhea 46 1233 Henry Sullivan Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 31 Jan 74 From Co at Post Colic 46 1234 John Bel l Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 35 1 Feb 74 From Co at Post Incised Wound Left Hand 46 1235 Philip W. Williamson Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 1 Feb 74 From Co at Post Primary Syphilis 46 1236 John Warren Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 2 Feb 74 From Co at Post Boils 46 1237 Ferdinand Davidson Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Feb 74 From Co at Post Acute Bronchitis 46 1238 Peter McKearn Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Feb 74 From Co at Post Primary Syphilis 47 1239 John O'Connor Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 24 11 Feb 74 From Co at Post Contusion of Right Hand 47 1240 George Kirby Corporal H 5th U.S. Cav. 11 Feb 74 From Co at Post Oritis 47 1241 Frederick Scinis Old Man Band 5th U.S. Cav. 13 Feb 74 From Co at Post Vertigo 47 1242 John Oakes Sgt. E 23rd U.S. Inf. 14 Feb 74 From Co at Post Tonsilitis 47 1243 Arthur Welch Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Feb 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 47 1244 Frederick Marvin Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 17 Feb 74 From Co at Post Acute D iarrhea 47 1245 Michael Barnett Private A 3rd U.S. Cav. 19 Feb 74 Inebriation 47 1246 Joseph Heini Private D 21st U.S. Inf. 21 Feb 74 From Co at Post Catarrh 47 1247 James Rodpos Private C 5th U.S. Cav. 30 Feb 74 From Co at Post Inebriation 47 1248 Harry Roof Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 26 30 Feb 74 From Co at Post 47 1249 Theodore Rossenuwin Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 24 Feb 74 From Co at Post Acute Rheumatism 48 1250 John Fitzgerald Corporal H 5th U.S. Cav. 25 Feb 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 48 1251 Marshall Barnett Private A 3rd U.S. Cav. 26 Feb 74 From Post Hosp Gonorrhea 48 1252 John S. Bighly Corporal D 23rd U.S. Inf. 1 Mar 74 From Co at Post Tertian Int ermittent Fever 48 1253 Oliver M. Seshor Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 1 Mar 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 48 1254 Edward Boyle Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 1 Mar 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 48 1255 Joseph Heini Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 3 Mar 74 From Co at Post Boils 48 1256 Matthew Kenney Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 4 Mar 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 48 1257 John O'Connor Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 5 Mar 74 From Co at Post 48 12 58 William Krocher Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 3 Mar 74 From Co at Post Primary Syphilis 48 1259 John G. McCauley Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 5 Mar 74 From Co at Post Inebriation 48 1260 Frederick Morin Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 8 Mar 74 From Co at Post Tonsilitis 49 1261 John Baute Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Mar 74 From Co at Post Tonsilitis 49 1262 John S. Bailley Corporal D 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Mar 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 49 1263 John Heiney Private D 23rd U.S Inf. 9 Mar 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 49 1264 Rudolph Eberhundt Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 9 Mar 74 From Co at Post Abscess 49 1265 Arthur Welch Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 9 Mar 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Feve r 49 1266 Charles W. Carr Sgt. E 23rd U.S. Inf. 27 15 Mar 74 From Co at Post 49 1267 John Martin Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 26 15 Mar 74 From Co at Post Contusion Right Arm 49 1268 Ludwig Loud Private K 23rd U.S. Inf. 18 Mar 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea

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390 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 49 1269 William Noble Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 21 Mar 74 From Co at Post Catarrh 49 1270 James Reilly Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 23 Mar 74 From Co at Post Gonorrhea 49 1271 James Nelson Private H 23rd U.S. I nf. 26 Mar 74 From Co at Post Gonorrhea 50 1272 Arthur Welch Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 29 Mar 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 50 1273 John Tierney Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 1 Apr 74 From Co at Post Inebriation 50 1274 Willia m Constriau Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 8 Apr 74 From Co at Post Conjunctivitis 50 1275 Albert Goohler Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 22 9 Apr 74 From 5th Co. Post Contusion (Left Eye) 50 1276 John Tierney Private F 23rd U.S. Inf. 9 Apr 74 From Co at Post Inebriation 50 1277 Ludwig Loud Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 13 Apr 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 50 1278 Rudolph Eberhundt Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 18 Apr 74 From 5th Co. Band Anakylosis of Lower Jaw 50 1279 Barnaby Clarke Privat e F 23rd U.S. Inf. 20 20 Apr 74 From Co at Post Sprain of the Ankle 50 1280 James Kelly (2nd) Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 21 Apr 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 50 1281 John Hiney Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 21 Apr 74 From Co at Post Abscess 3rd finger right hand 50 1282 William Brown Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Apr 74 From Co at Post General Debility 51 1283 Edward Duffee Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 25 Apr 74 From Co at Post Gonorrhea 51 1284 Charles Frazier Private K 21st U.S. In f. 26 Apr 74 51 1285 John Martin Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 18 Apr 74 From Co at Post Primary Syphilis 51 1286 Charles Beardsley Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 1 May 74 From Post Hosp Tertian Intermittent Fever 51 1287 Big hly Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 3 May 74 Conjunctivitis 51 1288 Charles H. Carr Sgt. E 23rd U.S. Inf. 4 May 74 From Co at Post Colic 51 1289 Frank Young Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 13 May 74 Headache 51 1290 Rudolph Eberhun dt Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 13 May 74 From Road Anakylosis of Lower Jaw 51 1291 Henry Henon Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 30 May 74 From Co at Post Ulcer 51 1292 McNatachau Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 30 May 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermitte nt Fever 51 1293 Bernard Cuffin Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 30 May 74 From Co at Post Orchitis Gonorrhea 52 1294 Thomas McCarty Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 18 May 74 From Co at Post Neuralgia 52 1295 William Kocker Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 24 M ay 74 From Co at Post Primary Syphilis 52 1296 John Oakes Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 24 May 74 From Co at Post 52 1297 Henry Steinbocaker Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 24 May 74 From Co at Post Primary Syphilis 52 1298 John O'Connor Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 26 May 74 From Co at Post Contusion of Left Hand 52 1299 John Switzer Private H 23rd U.S. Inf. 26 May 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 52 1400 George Kirby Corporal H 5th U.S. Cav. 30 May 74 From Co at Post Neuralgia 52 1401 Barney Ludwig Private G 5th U.S. Cav. 31 May 74 Acute Diarrhea 52 1402 William H. Phillips Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 2 Jun 74 From Co at Post Neuralgia 52 1403 William S. Lewis Sgt. H 5th U.S. Cav. 2 Jun 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 52 1404 Arthur Welch Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 4 Jun 74 From Co at Post Acute Bronchitis 52 1405 James McAstockaut Private F 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Jun 74 From Co. of 5th Cav. Tertian Intermittent Fever 52 1 406 Joseph B. Kirkbridge Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Jun 74 From Co at Post Ulcer of Right Lege 52 1407 Charles H. Frisini Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 6 Jun 74 From Co at Post

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391 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 52 1408 John Moran Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 8 Jun 7 4 From Co at Post Abcess Sprain of Right Hand 52 1409 Adolph Possoin Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 9 Jun 74 From Co at Post Dyspepsia 53 1410 Daniel F. Shine Private I 5th U.S. Cav. 9 Jun 74 From Co. of 5th Cav. Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 3 1411 Edward McManus Private I 5th U.S. Cav. 11 Jun 74 From Co. of 5th Cav. Abcess (Left Cheek) 53 1412 Charles Fisher Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 16 Jun 74 From Co at Post Remittent Fever 25 Jun 74 53 1413 Thomas McCarthy Private D 23rd U.S. Inf 17 Jun 74 From Co at Post Ulcer (Left Hand) 53 1414 John Sullivan Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 17 Jun 74 From Co at Post Contusion (Left Trunk) 53 1415 William F. Knox Corporal H 5th U.S. Cav. 17 Jun 74 From Co at Post Contusion (Right Leg) 53 1416 Lewis Franklin Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 18 Jun 74 From Co at Post Incised Wound (Left Foot) 53 1417 Edward Allen Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 18 Jun 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 53 1418 Arthur Welch Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 19 Jun 74 From Co at Post Chronic Rheumatism 53 1419 Thomas Sloan Sgt. H 5th U.S. Cav. 19 Jun 74 From Co at Post Piles 53 1420 James Hackett Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 20 Jun 74 From Co at Post Constipation 53 1421 Farrell Tiernan Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 22 Jun 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 53 1422 John Tierney Private E 23rd U.S. Inf. 23 Jun 74 From Co at Post Acute Dysentery 53 1423 August Knofland Sgt. Major 5th U.S. Cav. 23 Jun 74 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 53 1424 John Switzer Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 23 Jun 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 53 1425 James Kelley (2nd) Private D 23rd U.S. Inf. 24 Jun 74 From Co at Post 54 1426 Edgar Teale S gt. Band 5th U.S. Cav. 30 Jun 74 From 5th Co. Band Dyspepsia 54 1427 Charles H. Folsom Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Jul 74 From Co at Post Ingrowing Toe Nail 54 1428 Edward Boyle Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 24 5 Jul 74 From Co at Post Incised Wound (Right Forearm) 54 1429 Patrick Brady Private I 5th U.S. Cav. 6 Jul 74 From Band 5th a Contusion (Right Index Finger) 54 1430 Joseph Sullivan Private E 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Jul 74 From Co at Post Contusion (Right Hand) 54 1431 William Krocke r Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Jul 74 From Co at Post [Syphilis?] Ulcer (On Penis) 54 1432 Rudolph Eberhundt Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Jul 74 From Band Abscess of Right Cheek 54 1433 John Battle Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Jul 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 54 1434 John Banam Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 16 Jul 74 From Co at Post Contusion (Left Cheek) 54 1435 Charles Williams 16 Jul 74 From Post Orchitis Gonorrhea 54 1436 Charles F. Bowman Private H 5th U .S. Cav. 17 Jul 74 From Co at Post 54 1437 Frank Nettles Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 21 Jul 74 From Co at Post 54 1438 Henry A. Steiner Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 24 Jul 74 From Co at Post 54 1439 Mark Smithiland Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 25 Jul 74 From Co at Post Contusion (Left Foot) 54 1440 Philip Williamson Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 26 Jul 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 54 1441 John H. Carstallin Private F 23rd U.S. In f. 27 Jul 74 Dyspepsia 55 1442 William H. Phillips Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 30 Jul 74 From Co at Post Contused Wound (Right Hand) 55 1443 William Michard Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 30 Jul 74 From Co at Post Contusion of Left Ind ex Finger 55 1444 Joseph Kirkbridge Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 31 Jul 74 From Co at Post Primary Syphilis 55 1445 William F. Sam Corporal H 5th U.S. Cav. 6 Aug 74 From Co at Post Typho Malarial Fever 55 1446 Philip Williamson Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 9 Aug 74 From Co at Post Carbundle

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392 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 55 1447 George Stance Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 13 Aug 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 55 1448 John Warner Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 13 Aug 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 55 1449 James Stanton Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 17 Aug 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 55 1450 Fernando Davidson Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 19 Aug 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 55 1451 James A. Moore Private H 5th U. S. Cav. 22 Aug 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 55 1452 Arthur Welch Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 24 Aug 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 55 1453 Charles Hewitt Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 26 Aug 74 From Co at Post Quot idian Intermittent Fever 55 1454 George Loveland Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 28 Aug 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 55 1455 Anthony Wright Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 28 Aug 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 55 1456 Charles Hewit t Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 30 Aug 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 55 1457 Anthony Wright Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Sep 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 56 1458 William Dubold Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Sep 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 56 1459 Philip H. Hilliman Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 9 Sep 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 56 1460 Albert Barker Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 11 Sep 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 56 1461 John Battl e Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 11 Sep 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 56 1462 William T. Lewis Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 13 Sep 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 56 1463 Samuel Kurt Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 14 Sep 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 56 1464 Julius C. Mosis Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Sep 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 56 1465 William White Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Sep 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 56 1466 Thomas Gamalt Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 18 Sep 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 56 1467 Charles Miller Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 18 Sep 74 From Co at Post Chronic Diarrhea 56 1468 George Kirby Corporal H 5th U.S. Cav. 18 Sep 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 56 1469 James Hyde Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 18 Sep 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 56 1470 George Sledner Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 23 Sep 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 56 1471 Henry Warner Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 23 Sep 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 56 1472 Samuel Jarvis Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 23 Sep 74 From Co at Post 56 1473 Henry Williams Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 27 Sep 74 From Co at Post Whitlow 57 1474 Thomas Lewis Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 26 Sep 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 57 1475 Edward McLauphlin Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 26 Sep 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 57 1476 William White Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 26 Sep 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 57 1478 Martin Floyd Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 29 Sep 74 From Field Dyspepsia 57 1479 William Krocher Private D 5th U.S. Cav. 1 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 57 1480 William Thomas Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 2 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 57 1481 William H. Phillips Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 3 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Inte rmittent Fever 57 1482 Albert Jones Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 3 Oct 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 57 1483 William Daugherty Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 6 Oct 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 57 1484 John Devon Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 6 O ct 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 57 1485 Emil Sanders Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 7 Oct 74 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 57 1486 Fred J. Griffin 1st Sgt. Band 5th U.S. Cav. 7 Oct 74 Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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393 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 57 1487 John Shumphenny Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 8 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 57 1488 Charles F. Bowman Lieut. H 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 57 1489 Espen S. Tenlo Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 8 Oct 74 From Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 57 1490 Joseph Heini Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 9 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 58 1491 William Michael Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 10 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermitt ent Fever 58 1492 Charles Miller Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 10 Oct 74 From Co at Post Chronic Diarrhea 58 1493 John Banam Chief Bugler 5th U.S. Cav. 14 Oct 74 From Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 58 1494 Anthony Sahau Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 58 1495 John Keenan Musician G 8th U.S. Inf. 15 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 58 1496 James Kelley Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 13 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidia n Intermittent Fever 58 1497 Adolph Possoin Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Oct 73 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 58 1498 Owen Gallagher Corporal H 5th U.S. Cav. 13 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 58 1499 Wi lliam White Private H 8th U.S. Inf. 15 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 58 1500 Philip W. Hillaman Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 14 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 58 1501 Henry Henon Private Band 5th U.S. Cav 14 Oct 74 From Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 58 1502 Otto Hugo Musician G 8th U.S. Inf. 14 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 58 1503 Edward Allen Musician H 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermi ttent Fever 58 1504 Thomas Guinan Musician G 8th U.S. Inf. 18 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 58 1505 Henry Poyle Corporal G 8th U.S. Inf. 18 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 58 1506 George Kudem Musician G 8th U.S. Inf. 18 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 59 1507 Daniel Jasote Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 18 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 59 1508 James Kelley Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 19 Oct 74 Fro m Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 59 1509 Simon Knox Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 20 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 59 1510 Thorivald Rasmusen Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 21 Oct 74 From Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 59 1511 Edward Stein Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 21 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 59 1512 Michael Cusack Corporal G 8th U.S. Inf. 22 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 59 1513 Charles F. Bowman Pri vate H 5th U.S. Cav. 22 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 59 1514 George Baker Sgt. H 5th U.S. Cav. 22 Oct 74 From Co at Post Constitutional Syphilis 59 1515 Jacob F. Rapp Garri. Sgt. 5th U.S. Cav. 22 Oct 74 From Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 59 1516 Patrick Dontan Sgt. H 5th U.S. Cav. 23 Oct 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 59 1517 Harlan Boston Corporal D 8th U.S. Inf. 24 Oct 74 From Co at Post Inguinal Hernia 59 1518 Edward Leo nard Sgt. B 8th U.S. Inf. 27 Oct 74 From Co at Post Tertian Intermittent Fever 59 1519 Patrick Bradley Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 30 Oct 74 From Co at Post 59 1520 Otto Hugo Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 1 Nov 74 From Co at Pos t Quotidian Intermittent Fever 59 1521 Michael Ryan Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 1 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 59 1522 Anthony Wright Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 3 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 152 3 Michael Cusack Corporal G 8th U.S. Inf. 4 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 1524 Henry Henon Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Nov 74 From Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 1525 Charles F. Bowman Private H 5th U.S. Cav. 7 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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394 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 60 1526 S. M. Marshall Sgt. Band 5th U.S. Cav. 7 Nov 74 From Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 1527 George Marlon Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 9 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermitte nt Fever 60 1528 John Meyer Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 10 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 1529 Edward Stein Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 10 Nov 74 From Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 1530 John Lightgood Corporal G 8th U.S. Inf. 12 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 1531 John Kelley Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 12 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 1532 Thorivald Rasmusen Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 13 Nov 74 From C o at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 1533 Patrick Kenney Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 14 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 1534 William Rose Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 14 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 1535 James Sunbain Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 14 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 1536 Otto Menard Private C 5th U.S. Cav. 15 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 1537 Denise London Private C 5th U. S. Cav. 15 Nov 74 From Co at Post Night Blindness 60 1538 Michael Carroll Private C 5th U.S. Cav. 18 Nov 74 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 61 1539 Martin Kerille Private A 5th U.S. Cav. 16 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent F ever 61 1540 Michael Cusack Corporal G 8th U.S. Inf. 16 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 61 1541 Mark McDormatt Private C 5th U.S. Cav. 17 Nov 74 From Co at Post Piles (External) 61 1542 Jeve Atkins Private L 5th U.S. Cav. 18 Nov 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea 61 1543 Michael Goffs Private C 8th U.S. Inf. 21 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 61 1544 Michael Ryan Private C 8th U.S. Inf. 22 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermitten t Fever 61 1545 William Daugherty Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 22 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 61 1546 Harlan Burton Corporal I 8th U.S. Inf. 23 Nov 74 From Co at Post Inguinal Hernia 61 1547 William Rose Musician G 8 th U.S. Inf. 27 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 61 1548 John Meyer Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 28 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 61 1549 J.M. Hamilton Capt. H 5th U.S. Cav. 30 Nov 74 Generally at Post Sp rain Right Ankle 61 1550 James Doyle Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 30 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 61 1551 Thomas Guinan Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 30 Nov 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 61 1552 Dennis Londo n Private C 5th U.S. Cav. 30 Nov 74 From Co at Post Night Blindness 61 1553 Edward Kennedy Private C 5th U.S. Cav. 2 Dec 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 61 1554 Michael Cusack Corporal G 8th U.S. Inf. 2 Dec 74 From Co at Po st Quotidian Intermittent Fever 62 1555 Joseph Mester Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 3 Dec 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 62 1556 Raes H. Roof Private C 5th U.S. Cav. 5 Dec 74 From Co at Post Contusion Right Side of Stomach 62 1557 Patrick Kenney Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 6 Dec 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 62 1558 John Hall Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 6 Dec 74 From Band Primary Syphilis 62 1559 James Keatnig Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 12 Dec 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 62 1560 Otto Hugo Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 12 Dec 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 62 1561 Michael Cusack Corporal G 8th U.S. Inf. 14 Dec 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 62 1562 James Sanborn Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 14 Dec 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 62 1563 Henry Henon Private Band 5th U.S. Cav. 16 Dec 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 62 1564 Hiram Warden Private C 5th U.S. Cav. 19 Dec 74 From Co at Post Acute Diarrhea

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395 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What General Hospita l Transferred From What Other Source Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) On What Occasion Wounded (Date) Death Remarks 62 1565 Richard S. Davis Private C 5th U.S. Cav. 19 Dec 74 From Co at Post Sprain (Right Knee) 62 1566 James Keatnig Private L 8th U.S. Inf. 22 Dec 74 From Co at Post 62 1567 James Kelley Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 22 Dec 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 62 1568 Otto Hugo Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 23 Dec 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 62 1569 William Rose Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 23 Dec 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent Fever 62 1570 John Keenan Private G 8th U.S. Inf. 27 Dec 74 From Co at Post Chronic Bronchitis 63 1571 Michael Mudigan sgt. C 5th U.S. Cav. 30 Dec 74 From Co at Post Quotidian Intermittent F ever *Bold type indicates that ledger text was difficult to read.

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396 APPENDIX F POST HOSPITAL LEDGER BOOK 120, CAMP LOWEL L, TUCSON, ARIZONA T ERRITORY (JANUARY 18 75 NOVEMBER 1879) Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 1 1285 John Newton Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Constitutional Syphilis 1 Apr 74 1 1571 Edward Leonard Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Primary Syphilis 2 Jan 75 1 1572 Charles Haddock Private 5th U.S. Cavalry C Sprain (left ankle) 2 Jan 75 1 1573 Frank Griffin Sgt. 5th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Bronchitis 3 Jan 75 1 1574 Augustus Arbeen Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Jan 75 1 1575 John Williams Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Lacerated Wound (Rig ht Eyelid) 5 Jan 75 1 1576 William Neibuhr Private 5th U.S. Cavalry C Acute Bronchitis 10 Jan 75 1 1577 Michael Cusack Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry G (Relapse) Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 Jan 75 1 1578 John Banu Chief Bugler 5th U.S. Cavalry Band Tonsilitis 15 Jan 75 1 1579 James Hyde Private 5th U.S. Cavalry Band Chronic Rheumatism 15 Jan 75 1 1580 Ignatz Forlyn Private 8th U.S. Infantry D (Relapse) Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 Jan 75 1 1581 William Rose Private 8th U.S. Inf antry G Chronic Rheumatism 16 Jan 75 1 1582 Joseph Mester Private 8th U.S. Infantry G (Relapse) Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 Jan 75 1 1583 Leo Miller Private 5th U.S. Cavalry Band (Relapse) Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Jan 75 1 1584 Edwar d Higgins Sgt. 5th U.S. Cavalry C Acute Bronchitis 20 Jan 75 1 1585 John Fitzgerald Corporal 5th U.S. Cavalry H Inflamation of the Lungs 25 Jan 75 1 1586 Thomas Guiman Private 8th U.S. Infantry G (Relapse) Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 Jan 75 1 1587 Louis Fritz Private 5th U.S. Cavalry A Contusion (Left Knee) 27 Jan 75 1 1588 Thomas Delaney Private 5th U.S. Cavalry C Contusion (Left Foot) 7 Feb 75 1 1589 John Lively Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Sprain (of Back) 9 Feb 75 1 1590 Wm. C. Bromwell Private 5th U.S. Cavalry C Primary Syphilis 9 Feb 75 2 1591 Hiram C. Warden Private 8th U.S. Infantry C Primary Syphilis 10 Feb 75 2 1592 Michael Tullihan Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Diarrhea 18 Feb 75 2 1593 Harlan Barlow Co rporal 8th U.S. Infantry D Primary Syphilis 20 Feb 75 2 1594 John Keenan Musician 8th U.S. Infantry G Tonsilitis 24 Feb 75 2 1595 A.L. Dunlap Private 5th U.S. Cavalry Band Tonsilitis 25 Feb 75 2 1596 Jeremiah Larrimore Private 8th U.S. Infantr y D Acute Rheumatism 1 Mar 75 2 1597 Michael Madijan Sgt. 5th U.S. Cavalry C Acute Rheumatism 1 Mar 75 2 1598 Frederick Post Corporal 5th U.S. Cavalry C Primary Syphilis 4 Mar 75 2 1599 Michael Ryan Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Inebriation 4 Mar 75 2 1600 Thomas Delaney Private 5th U.S. Cavalry C Primary Syphilis 5 Mar 75 2 1601 Edward Kennedy Private 5th U.S. Cavalry C Neuralgia 5 Mar 75 2 1602 Thomas Scollins Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Rheumatism 6 Mar 75 2 1603 Michael R yan Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Scald (Left Wrist) 9 Mar 75 2 1604 James P. Roberts Private 5th U.S. Cavalry C Lacerated Wound (Right Wrist) 11 Mar 75 2 1605 John O'Grady Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Ulcers (Left Leg) 15 Mar 75 2 1606 James F. M cDonald Private 5th U.S. Cavalry F Neuralgia 16 Mar 75 2 1607 John Lively Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Sprain (Right Hand) 17 Mar 75

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397 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 2 1608 Christian Johnson Private 5th U.S. Cavalry C Chronic Diarrhea 19 Mar 75 2 1609 William Dougherty Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Whitlow 20 Mar 75 2 1610 John Shannott Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Conjunctivitus 21 Mar 75 2 1611 Patrick Kearney Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Rheumatism 22 Mar 75 3 1612 Frank Griffin 1st Sgt. 5th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Diarrhea 24 Mar 75 3 1613 Frank Joseph Private 5th U.S. Cavalry C Acute Rheumatism 24 Mar 75 3 1614 Francis Fox Corporal 5th U.S. Cavalry C Acute Diarrhea 29 Mar 75 3 1615 John J. Roof Private 5th U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fev er 30 Mar 75 3 1616 Jacob Buck Corporal 5th U.S. Cavalry C Gunshot Wound (to Spine) 6 Jan 75 7 Jan 75 Shot by a Mexican in Tucson AT January 6 at 1am. Died at 1pm January 7th 1875 not in the line of duty 3 1617 Edward Kennedy Private 5th U.S. Cavalr y C Stricture (?) 2 Apr 75 3 1618 John Lively Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Chronic Rheumatism 7 Apr 75 3 1619 Frank Joseph Private 5th U.S. Cavalry C Chronic Rheumatism 8 Apr 75 3 1620 Edward White Private 5th U.S. Cavalry C Primary Syphilis 10 Apr 75 3 1621 Lewis C. Bomer Private 5th U.S. Cavalry C Acute Diarrhea 13 Apr 75 3 1622 David Jacobe Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 Apr 75 3 1623 Frank G. Griffin 1st Sgt. 5th U.S. Cavalry Band Neuralgia 14 Apr 75 3 1624 James Kelley Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Varicocele 18 Apr 75 3 1625 William Avery Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 Apr 75 3 1626 William Dougherty Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 25 Apr 75 3 1627 Richard S. Davis Private 5th U.S. Cavalry C Primary Syphilis 25 Apr 75 3 1628 Herman Dellitt Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 25 Apr 75 3 1629 William Rose Private 8th U.S. Infantry C Chronic Rheumatism 28 Apr 75 3 1630 James McDonald Private 5th U.S. Cavalry D Heart Attack 12 Apr 75 3 1631 John Merat Private 8th U.S. Infantry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 May 75 3 1632 Harlan Barlow Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry D [Primary Syphilis] 10 May 75 4 1633 Joseph J. Haydock 1st Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Boil 13 May 75 4 1634 George Dodson Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Primary Syphilis 16 May 75 4 1635 George Hoffman Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Chronic Rheumatism 17 May 75 4 1636 Thomas J. Miller Pri vate 5th U.S. Cavalry L Colic 19 May 75 4 1637 John Shaughnersy Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Primary Syphilis 19 May 75 4 1638 Thomas Scollins Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Primary Syphilis 25 May 75 4 1639 Harlan Barlow Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry D Simple Fracture 27 May 75 4 1640 John Williams Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Chronic Rheumatism 31 May 75 4 1641 John Keenan Musician 8th U.S. Infantry G Heart Disease 31 May 75 4 1642 William Dougherty Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Inebriation 10 May 75 4 1643 James J. Haydock 1st Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Jun 75 4 1644 George Lewis Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 Jun 75 4 1645 Thomas J. Miller Private 5th U.S. Cavalry L C hronic Rheumatism 7 Jun 75 4 1646 Samuel Jones Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 Jun 75 4 1647 William Rose Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Contusion (Right Toes) 9 Jun 75

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398 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 4 1648 Peter Flynn Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Co ntusion (Right Side of Chest) 10 Jun 75 4 1649 Michael Cusack Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 Jun 75 4 1650 John Haslett Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry D Conjunctivitus 13 Jun 75 4 1651 Otto Hugo Private 8th U.S. Inf antry G Colic 16 Jun 75 4 1652 George Mester Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Abscess 16 Jun 75 4 1653 Miles A. Chaffe Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry D Fracture (Right Forearm) 17 Jun 75 5 1654 James Kelley Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Contused Wound Upper L ip 17 Jun 75 5 1655 John Meyer Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 Jun 75 5 1656 M. Sanoran Corporal U.S. Signal Service Neuralgia 24 Jun 75 5 1657 William Rose Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Contusion of Face 30 Jun 75 5 1658 Stephen Nicholson Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Inebriation 3 Jul 75 5 1659 William Martin Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Piles 10 Jul 75 5 1660 Michael Coffe Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Fracture (Right Leg) 10 Jul 75 5 1661 Thomas Guiman Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Burn (Scald) 14 Jul 75 5 1662 Thomas Folsom Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Lacerated Wound (Right Hand) 21 Jul 75 5 1663 George Hester Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Abscess 22 Jul 75 5 1664 Charles Bertram Musician 5th U.S. Cavalry Band Poisoning by Insect Sting 22 Jul 75 5 1665 Ignatz Forlyn Private 8th U.S. Infantry D General Debility 25 Jul 75 5 1666 Michael Cusack Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 Jul 75 5 1667 John Latz Priva te 8th U.S. Infantry G Primary Syphilis 27 Jul 75 5 1668 Michael Ryan Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Jul 75 5 1669 John Dillen Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Inebriation 28 Jul 75 5 1670 George Mester Private 8th U.S Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Jul 75 5 1671 Vincenzi Fieri Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Sprain (Loins) 31 Jul 75 5 1672 Charles Howald Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Primary Syphilis 1 Aug 75 5 1673 Louis VonCunis Private 6th U.S Cavalry Band Primary Syphilis 3 Aug 75 5 1674 Jeremiah Larrimore Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Colic 7 Aug 75 6 1675 Ignatz Forlyn Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Anemia 9 Aug 75 6 1676 Robert S. Easton Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Contusion (Right Cheek) 9 Aug 75 6 1677 Jeremiah Larrimore Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Neuralgia 15 Aug 75 6 1678 Fred Marer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 Aug 75 6 1679 Jas. J. Haydock 1st Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Int ermittent Fever 16 Aug 75 6 1680 Patrick Kenney Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Contusion of Back 18 Aug 75 6 1681 William Boehm Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 Aug 75 6 1682 Thad Wentzel Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Ban d Acute Dysentery 18 Aug 75 6 1683 John Meyer Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Aug 75 6 1684 Giovanni Petrozella Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Dysentery 22 Aug 75 6 1685 Lack Tiemey Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 Aug 75 6 1686 Michael Carroll Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 Aug 75 6 1687 Peter Mee Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Colic 29 Aug 75 6 1688 Daniel Wallace Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Acute Diarrhea 29 Aug 75

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399 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 6 1689 Hermann Pope Private 5th U.S. Cavalry L Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Aug 75 6 1690 Gordan 1st Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Conjunctivitus 31 Aug 75 6 1691 Michael Cusack Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarr hea 2 Sep 75 6 1692 John Flynn Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Inebriation 2 Sep 75 6 1693 Julius Kleppen Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 Sep 75 6 1694 Robert S. Easton Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Contusion Gluteal Re gion 4 Sep 75 6 1695 Peter Mee Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Inflamation of Bladder 5 Sep 75 7 1696 Charles H. Reed Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Inflamation of the Stomach 5 Sep 75 7 1697 John Flynn Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Diarrhea 6 Sep 75 7 1698 William Avery Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Primary Syphilis 6 Sep 75 7 1699 Michael Carroll Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Diarrhea 7 Sep 75 7 1700 Charles Davis Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Sep 75 7 1701 John Shonnet Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 Sep 75 7 1702 Robert S. Easton Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Inebriation 9 Sep 75 7 1703 Edward Leonard Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Sep 75 7 1704 Vincenzi Fieri Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Deafness 12 Sep 75 7 1705 Charles H. Reed Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 Sep 75 7 1706 Julius Kleppen Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fev er 15 Sep 75 7 1707 Samuel Mason Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 Sep 75 7 1708 John Meyer Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 Sep 75 7 1709 Robert S. Easton Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Poison by long and continued use of Narcotics 16 Sep 75 7 1710 William Martin Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Colic 20 Sep 75 7 1710 Thad Wentzel Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 Sep 75 7 1711 J. W. Parnell 1st Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 Sep 75 7 1712 John Flynn Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Sep 75 7 1713 Samuel Jones Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Sep 75 7 1714 Edward Leonard Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Sep 75 7 1715 George Kerfna Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Sep 75 8 1716 Amelio Scupienitta Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Whitlow 1 Oct 75 8 1717 James Kelley Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Variocele 1 Oct 75 8 1718 Herman Dellitt Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 Oct 75 8 1719 Isaac Collier Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 Oct 75 8 1720 Stephen Nicholson Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Diarrhea 4 Oct 75 8 1721 Vincenzi Fieri Private 5th U.S. Cavalry Band Contusion (Left Arm) 4 Oct 75 8 1722 Frederick Maier Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Oct 75 8 1723 Thomas Scollins Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Contusion (Left Hand) 5 Oct 75 8 1724 John Dunn Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Rheumatism 5 Oct 75 8 1725 Albert Vanzant Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 O ct 75 8 1726 Charles Davis Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Inebriation 6 Oct 75 8 1727 Amelio Scupienitta Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 Oct 75

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400 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 8 1728 Charles Bertram Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermitt ent Fever 8 Oct 75 8 1729 David Bennidito Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Oct 75 8 1730 Alex Lehman Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Oct 75 8 1731 Charles H. Reed Private 6th U.S. C avalry L Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Oct 75 8 1732 William Boehm Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 9 Oct 75 8 1733 Jacob Boyer Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry L Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 Oct 75 8 1734 Edward Nelojar Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 Oct 75 8 1735 James Doyle Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Sprain (Back) 10 Oct 75 8 1736 Amos Weni Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 Oct 75 9 1737 Edward Coffee Private 8 th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 Oct 75 9 1738 John Backenille Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Acute Dysentery 11 Oct 75 9 1739 Samuel Mason Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 Oct 75 9 1740 John Dunn Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Oct 75 9 1741 Herman Dellitt Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Oct 75 9 1742 Hermann Pope Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Oct 75 9 1743 G.W. Davis Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 Oct 75 9 1744 Samuel Jones Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Rheumatism 14 Oct 75 9 1745 Thomas J. Folsom Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Primary Syphilis 14 Oct 75 9 1746 Duane M. Green 1st Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry L Piles 15 Oct 75 9 1747 William Reem Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 Oct 75 9 1748 Henry Ambray Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Dysentery 15 Oct 75 9 1749 John D unn Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 Oct 75 9 1750 James Woods Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 Oct 75 9 1751 William Reem Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 Oct 7 5 9 1752 Edward Leonard Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 Oct 75 9 1753 Charle F. Reed Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry L Abscess 17 Oct 75 9 1754 Patrick Conners Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Dysentery 18 Oct 75 9 1755 Joseph Mester Private 8th U.S. Infantry L Neuralgia 19 Oct 75 9 1756 Giovanni Petrozella Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 Oct 75 9 1757 Daniel Wallace Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Oct 75 10 1758 Moses Byram Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 Oct 75 10 1759 Rudolph Stickney Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 Oct 75 10 1760 Joseph Mester Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Qu otidian Intermittent Fever 22 Oct 75 10 1761 George Kerfna Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 Oct 75 10 1762 Harlan Barlow Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Dysentery 23 Oct 75 10 1763 Peter Flynn Private 8th U.S. In fantry G Primary Syphilis 23 Oct 75 10 1764 John Meyer Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 Oct 75 10 1765 Amelio Scupienitta Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 Oct 75 10 1766 Alex Lehman Pr ivate 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 Oct 75 10 1767 Charles Bertram Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 Oct 75 10 1768 Theodore Wentzel Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Bronchitis 23 Oct 75

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401 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 10 1769 Mark A. Framham Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 Oct 75 10 1770 Julius Kleppen Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 25 Oct 75 10 1771 O. D. Bentime Chief Musician 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Ac ute Dysentery 25 Oct 75 10 1772 Michael Ryan Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Inebriation 25 Oct 75 10 1773 John Shermot Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 Oct 75 10 1774 Jacob Boyer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidia n Intermittent Fever 27 Oct 75 10 1775 Frederick Peel Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Oct 75 10 1776 David Jacobs Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Oct 75 10 1777 Giovanni Petrozella P rivate 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Oct 75 10 1778 John McCartney Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Oct 75 11 1779 Herman Dellitt Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Colic 30 Oct 75 11 1780 William Avery Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Diarrhea 31 Oct 75 11 1781 James Kelley Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 31 Oct 75 11 1782 William Rose Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 Nov 75 11 17 83 John Buckenille Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Acute Diarrhea 3 Nov 75 11 1784 Amos Weni Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Nov 75 11 1785 Barney Burke Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion Face 3 Nov 75 11 1786 John Keen an Musician 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 4 Nov 75 11 1787 J.H. Sands Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Adjutant Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Nov 75 11 1788 Jacob Boyer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Primary Syphilis 4 Nov 75 11 1789 Alex Lehm an Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Dysentery 4 Nov 75 11 1790 Fred Maier Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 Nov 75 11 1791 James Kelley Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Abscess (Left Cheek) 6 Nov 75 11 1792 Wm. D. Ga nzhem Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 7 Nov 75 11 1793 Rudolph Stickney Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Nov 75 11 1794 Gustav Bryan Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion 10 Nov 75 11 1795 Vincenzi Fieri Priva te 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Nov 75 11 1796 Louis VonCunis Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Nov 75 11 1797 Patrick Conners Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 No v 75 11 1798 Herman Dellitt Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 13 Nov 75 11 1799 Lack Tierney Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Remittent Fever 14 Nov 75 12 1800 Wm. Fitzgerald Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 15 Nov 75 12 1801 G oeff LaBell Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Bronchitis 20 Nov 75 12 1802 Fred Maier Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Nov 75 12 1803 John Haslett Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 Nov 75 12 1804 Vincenzi Fieri Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 Nov 75 12 1805 Michael Ryan Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 22 Nov 75 12 1806 Daniel Jacobs Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 Nov 75 12 1807 James McCaielle Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion (Right Hand) 23 Nov 75 12 1808 F. D. Gaffney Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion (Back) 24 Nov 75 12 1809 William Clyde Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Bronchitis 24 Nov 7 5

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402 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 12 1810 John Haslett Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry D Conjunctivitus 26 Nov 75 12 1811 Paul Michem Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Dysentery 26 Nov 75 12 1812 H. F. Winchester 1st Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Bronchitis 26 Nov 75 12 1813 Fre derick Peel Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 Nov 75 12 1814 O. D. Bentime Chief Musician 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Diarrhea 27 Nov 75 12 1815 Francis LeRay Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Frost Bite 27 Nov 75 12 1816 M ichael Cusack Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Rheumatism 28 Nov 75 12 1817 George Schuh Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion (Left Hand) 28 Nov 75 12 1818 John Keenan Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Primary Syphilis 29 Nov 75 12 1819 Patrick Kenney Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Nov 75 12 1820 James Woods Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 29 Nov 75 13 (18)1221 William Avery Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Chronic Diarrhea 30 Nov 75 13 (18)1222 John Ligh tfoot Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 30 Nov 75 13 (18)1223 Thad Wentzel Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Rheumatism 2 Dec 75 13 (18)1224 Otto Hugo Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry G Contusion (Right Foot) 3 Dec 75 13 (18)1225 Michael Cusack Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Dec 75 13 (18)1226 Martin Frist Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Bronchitis 5 Dec 75 13 (18)1227 David Jacobs Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Primary Syphilis 7 Dec 75 13 (18)1228 Charles H owald Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Rheumatism 7 Dec 75 13 (18)1229 Wm. H. Kearney Private 8th U.S. Infantry I Gonorrhea 8 Dec 75 13 (18)1230 Charles Meier Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 Dec 75 13 (18)1231 Jo hn Gault Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry B Fracture (Right Clavicle) 9 Dec 75 13 (18)1232 Alfred Skilton Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion (Right Shoulder) 12 Dec 75 13 (18)1233 Peter Mee Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Bronchitis 13 Dec 75 13 (18)1234 Vincenzi Fieri Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 Dec 75 13 (18)1235 Jacob Kneath Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Primary Syphilis 14 Dec 75 13 (18)1236 Henry Ambray Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Piles (External) 14 Dec 75 13 (18)1237 Herman Dellitt Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Inflamation of back 16 Dec 75 13 (18)1238 George Schuh Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion (Right Hand) 16 Dec 75 13 (18)1239 H. F. Winchester 1st Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry B Dyspepsia 17 Dec 75 13 (18)1240 William Clyde Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 17 Dec 75 13 (18)1241 Louis VonCurrie Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Headache 19 Dec 75 14 (18)1242 John Haslett Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fev er 20 Dec 75 14 (18)1243 Edward Merit Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Sprain (Back) 22 Dec 75 14 (18)1244 Mathew Frich Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Neuralgia 22 Dec 75 14 (18)1245 Isaac Collier Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Feve r 23 Dec 75 14 (18)1246 Mark A. Framham Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 Dec 75 14 (18)1247 John Deomi Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Rheumatism 23 Dec 75 14 (18)1248 Michael Ryan Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quo tidian Intermittent Fever 24 Dec 75 14 (18)1249 Michael Carroll Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Primary Syphilis 28 Dec 75 14 (18)1250 Samuel Jones Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Inebriation 29 Dec 75

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403 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 14 (18)1251 William Reem Private 8th U.S. Infant ry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 Dec 75 14 (18)1252 Vincenzi Fieri Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Chronic Rheumatism 31 Dec 75 14 (18)1253 Michael Ryan Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Inebriation 2 Jan 76 14 (18)1254 Amelio Scupienitta Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 Jan 76 14 (18)1255 Emil Eckoff 1st Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 Jan 76 14 (18)1256 James Coalman Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Whitlow 3 Jan 76 14 (18)126 Jeff San ds 1st Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Adjutant Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Jan 76 14 (18)1257 John Banay Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Recruit Gonorrhea 4 Jan 76 14 (18)1258 John Albadis Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Recruit Acute Rheumatism 4 Jan 76 14 (18 )1259 Thomas Kelley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Jan 76 14 (18)1260 James Donohue Fife 8th U.S. Infantry K Tonsilitis 6 Jan 76 14 (18)1261 John Agan Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Diarrhea 6 Jan 76 15 1863 Geo rge Mester Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Bronchitis 6 Jan 76 15 1864 John Keenan Musician 8th U.S. Infantry G Tonsilitis 8 Jan 76 15 1865 Julius Kleppen Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Bronchitis 8 Jan 76 15 1866 Man Barrick Privat e 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Rheumatism 9 Jan 76 15 1867 Mark A. Framham Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Bronchitis 10 Jan 76 15 1868 John Burns Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 10 Jan 76 15 1869 Charles Neel Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 13 Jan 76 15 1870 August Schlupe Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Neuralgia 17 Jan 76 15 1871 Louis VonCurrie Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Bronchitis 17 Jan 76 15 1872 Charles Bertram Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Colic 18 J an 76 15 1873 James Nester Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Inebriation 21 Jan 76 15 1874 John Smyrke Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion (Hand) 24 Jan 76 15 1875 Vincenzi Fieri Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Chronic Rheumatism 25 Jan 76 15 18 76 Fred Maier Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 25 Jan 76 15 1877 William Henry Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion (Right Hand) 25 Jan 76 15 1878 Charles Howald Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Rheumatism 26 Jan 76 15 1879 Louis VonCurrie Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Boil 26 Jan 76 15 1880 W. Valentine Sgt. Major 6th U.S. Cavalry Conjunctivitus 27 Jan 76 15 1881 John C. Woods Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Varicella 28 Jan 76 15 1882 Isaac Collier Privat e 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Jan 76 15 1884 Edward Healey Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Colic 30 Jan 76 16 1885 Charles Weber Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Bronchitis 31 Jan 76 16 1886 John Price Private 6th U. S. Cavalry B Gonorrhea 31 Jan 76 16 1887 John Lutz Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Bronchitis 2 Feb 76 16 1888 John Williams Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Inebriation 4 Feb 76 16 1889 Charles Master Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Chafing 5 Feb 76 16 1890 John Woods Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Eryrhemia 5 Feb 76 16 1891 James Flynn Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Primary Syphilis 8 Feb 76 16 1892 William Henry Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Alcoholism 9 Feb 76

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404 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 16 1893 John Sullivan Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion (Right Hand) 9 Feb 76 16 1894 John Burns Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 10 Feb 76 16 1895 Mark A. Framham Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Contusion (Right Foot) 12 Feb 76 16 1896 William Dougherty Private 8t h U.S. Infantry G Acute Bronchitis 13 Feb 76 16 1897 Peter Long Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 13 Feb 76 16 1898 George Kahna Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 14 Feb 76 16 1899 Michael Carroll Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Cont usion (Left Foot) 15 Feb 76 16 1901 John Shanghnissy Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Contusion (Left Leg) 15 Feb 76 16 1902 William Maeney Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 Feb 76 16 1903 Mathew Frich Private 6th U.S. Ca valry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 Feb 76 16 1904 John Meyer Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Inebriation 21 Feb 76 16 1905 Julius Lamb Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Bronchitis 23 Feb 76 16 1906 James Kelley Private 8th U.S. Infantry G L acerated Wound (Left Wrist) 23 Feb 76 17 1907 Charles Bertram Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Bronchitis 28 Feb 76 17 1908 William Avery Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Lacerated Wound (Scalp) 28 Feb 76 17 1909 Giovanni Petrozella Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Contusion (Back) 4 Mar 76 17 1910 Charles Valler Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion (Back) 4 Mar 76 17 1911 Alexander Lehman Private 8th U.S. Cavalry Band Tonsilitis 6 Mar 76 17 1912 Edward Hennesy Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Chronic Rheumatism 7 Mar 76 17 1913 Stephen Nicholson Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Diarrhea 11 Mar 76 17 1914 John H. Gault Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Burn (Right Hand) 11 Mar 76 17 1915 Charles Brinckman Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry B Piles 13 Mar 76 17 1916 James Nester Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 Mar 76 17 1917 Thomas P. Kelley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 14 Mar 76 17 1918 James H. Porrell 1st Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry D Poisoning (by poison oak) 16 Mar 76 17 1919 Patrick Conners Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 17 Mar 76 17 1920 Charles Neel Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Gonorrhea 18 Mar 76 17 1921 Mark A. Framham Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Gonorrheal O rchitis 19 Mar 76 17 1922 James Kelley Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Sprain (Flank) 21 Mar 76 17 1923 John Smyth Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 Mar 76 17 1924 Stephen Nicholson Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian I ntermittent Fever 22 Mar 76 17 1925 Skilten Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 Mar 76 17 1926 Rawley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 Mar 76 17 1927 John Gault Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Chronic Rheumatism 24 Mar 76 18 1928 John Burns Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Neuralgia 25 Mar 76 18 1929 Frederick Peel Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 27 Mar 76 18 1930 George Schuh Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry B Gonorrheal Orchitis 27 Mar 76 18 1931 Patrick Kenney Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Lacerated Wound (Neck) 28 Mar 76 18 1932 Harlan Barlow Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Mar 76 18 1933 John Agan Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermitte nt Fever 29 Mar 76 18 1934 W. R. Robertson Private U.S. Signal Service Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Mar 76

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405 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 18 1935 Frank Rilmer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Incised Wound 30 Mar 76 18 1936 Michael Ryan Private 8th U.S. Infantry B Inebriatio n not admitted 18 1937 William Maroney Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion (Right Big Toe) 1 Apr 76 18 1938 Charles B. Florida Private 6th U.S. Cavalry D Primary Syphilis 3 Apr 76 18 1939 John Gault Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Chronic Rheumati sm 3 Apr 76 18 1940 Frank Mandwille Private 6th U.S. Cavalry E Chronic Rheumatism 3 Apr 76 18 1941 John Smith Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 3 Apr 76 18 1942 James Flynn Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Primary Syphilis 6 Apr 76 18 19 43 Thomas P. Kelley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 6 Apr 76 18 1944 James Kelley Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Varicocele 6 Apr 76 18 1945 John Devin Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Chronic Rheumatism 8 Apr 76 18 1946 Charles Ma ckey Private 8th U.S. Infantry B Chronic Rheumatism 10 Apr 76 18 1947 Charles Nester Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Diarrhea 12 Apr 76 18 1948 Julius Kleppen Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Apr 76 19 1949 W. R. Robertson Private U.S. Signal Service USA Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Apr 76 19 1950 John Haslett Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 14 Apr 76 19 1951 Henry Gross Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 Apr 76 19 1952 Louis VonCurrie Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 Apr 76 19 1953 Mark A. Framham Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Gonorrheal Orchitis 18 Apr 76 19 1954 Paul Winchem Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contus ion (Left Shoulder) 18 Apr 76 19 1955 Barney Burke Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Headache 18 Apr 76 19 1956 James Purkes Private U.S. Signal Service USA Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Apr 76 19 1957 John Shounnot Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quo tidian Intermittent Fever 21 Apr 76 19 1958 Samuel C. Bowers Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Sprain (Left Shoulder) 21 Apr 76 19 1959 Rudolph Stickney Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Chronic Rheumatism 23 Apr 76 19 1960 Michael Nevins Private 8th U.S Infantry G Acute Dysentery 2 May 76 19 1961 Herman Dellitt Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 May 76 19 1962 Wm. Valentine Sgt. Major 6th U.S. Cavalry Abscess 2 May 76 19 1963 Giovanni Pietrozella Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Epipistni Hernia 3 May 76 19 1964 Thomas P. Kelley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 May 76 19 1965 Robertson Private U.S. Signal Service Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 May 76 19 1966 Thad Wentzel Priva te 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Neuralgia 5 May 76 19 1967 John W. Dunlap Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry B Chronic Rheumatism 5 May 76 19 1968 Mathew Frich Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Chronic Rheumatism 6 May 76 19 1969 Patrick Conners Private 8th U.S. Infa ntry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 May 76 20 1970 Wm. R. Shanke Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 8 May 76 20 1971 James Nester Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Chronic Inflamation of Bibole 8 May 76 20 1972 John Lyons Private 8th U. S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 9 May 76 20 1973 Daniel Holland Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Rheumatism 10 May 76 20 1974 Amelio Scupienitta Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tonsilitis 10 May 76 20 1975 William Boyd Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Ac ute Rheumatism 12 May 76

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406 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 20 1976 Charles D. Rinans Hosp. Steward USA Acute Diarrhea 14 May 76 20 1977 John Porrell 1st Lieut. 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 May 76 20 1978 George Dodson Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotid ian Intermittent Fever 15 May 76 20 1979 Michael Keenan Musician 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 May 76 20 1980 John Devine Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Psoriasis 16 May 76 20 1981 John Burns Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Ac ute Dysentery 16 May 76 20 1982 John Davis Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Rheumatism 16 May 76 20 1983 James Woods Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 May 76 20 1984 Jeff Campbell Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute D ysentery 20 May 76 20 1985 Henry Ambray Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Gonorrhea 24 May 76 20 1986 Frank Monte Private 6th U.S. Cavalry K Acute Rheumatism 24 May 76 20 1987 Andrew Jones Private 6th U.S. Cavalry K Acute Bronchitis 26 May 76 2 0 1988 William Reem Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 May 76 20 1989 James Conden Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Dysentery 27 May 76 20 1990 John H. Gault Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 27 May 76 21 19 91 Moses Byram Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Colic 28 May 76 21 1992 David Benditoi Private 6th U.S. Cavalry F Tertian Intermittent Fever 28 May 76 21 1993 Victor Beardsley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry K Fromatic Inflamation of Testicle 28 May 76 21 1994 Barney Burke Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Dysentery 29 May 76 21 1995 John Smyth Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Dysentery 11 May 76 21 1996 Edward McHanney Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Dysentery 2 May 76 21 1997 Stephen Nicho lson Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Diarrhea 3 Jun 76 21 1998 Mark A. Framham Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Jun 76 21 1999 Frank Allen Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 5 Jun 76 21 2000 Ri chard Beale Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 5 Jun 76 21 2001 Samuel C. Bowers Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Jun 76 21 2002 Charles Starkey Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Chronic Rheumatism 8 Jun 76 21 2003 John F. Koch Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 8 Jun 76 21 2004 Mark A. Framham Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 Jun 76 21 2005 Thomas Guinan Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 Jun 76 21 2006 John McCartney Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Diarrhea 9 Jun 76 21 2007 George F. Poiner Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 9 Jun 76 21 2008 James Conden Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 10 Jun 76 21 2009 John Flood Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Rheumatism 10 Jun 76 21 2010 Theodore Steni Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Inflamation of Lymph Nodes 10 Jun 76 21 2011 Thomas Guinan Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 11 Jun 76 22 2012 Charles Howald Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 Jun 76 22 2013 John McCartney Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Dysentery 13 Jun 76 22 2014 Herman Dellitt Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Tertian Intermittent Feve r 16 Jun 76 22 2015 Richard Scott Commisary Sgt. USA Typho Malarial Fever 17 Jun 76 22 2016 John H. Gault Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Gonorrhea 19 Jun 76

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407 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 22 2017 Wm. Merchant Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Colic 19 Jun 76 22 2018 Alfred Skilton Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tonsilitis 19 Jun 76 22 2019 George Brand Private 6th U.S. Cavalry K Asthma 19 Jun 76 22 2020 J.W. Pounds 1st Lieut. 8th U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 19 Jun 76 22 2021 McManin 2nd Lieut. 8th U.S. Infant ry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 19 Jun 76 22 2022 Charles Howald Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 Jun 76 22 2023 Mark A. Framham Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Boils 19 Jun 76 22 2024 Thomas P. Kelley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Colic 19 Jun 76 22 2025 Edward Healey Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 20 Jun 76 22 2026 Barney Burke Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Headache 20 Jun 76 22 2027 Charles Stevens Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Diarr hea 22 Jun 76 22 2028 Harlan Barlow Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 23 Jun 76 22 2029 Fred A. Reed Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 24 Jun 76 22 2030 Henry Gross Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Remittent Fever 25 Jun 76 22 2031 Edward Batey Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 25 Jun 76 22 2032 John Sullivan Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 25 Jun 76 23 2033 Charles Mitchell Private 6th U.S. Cavalry A Quotidian Intermittent Fe ver 25 Jun 76 23 2034 William Maeney Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Rheumatism 26 Jun 76 23 2035 John Nicholson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 27 Jun 76 23 2036 Mark A. Framham Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Boils 27 Jun 76 23 2037 Frederick Peel Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Tonsilitis 28 Jun 76 23 2038 William Clyde Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 28 Jun 76 23 2039 J.C. Lorrimore Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Contusion (Left Foot) 29 Jun 76 23 204 0 William R. Shands Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Bronchitis 29 Jun 76 23 2041 William Boyd Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Rheumatism 29 Jun 76 23 2042 Pickers Private U.S. Signal Service USA Acute Rheumatism 29 Jun 76 23 2043 Julius Kle ppen Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 30 Jun 76 23 2044 George Mester Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 1 Jul 76 23 2045 John Davis Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Constipation 1 Jul 76 23 2046 Charles Need Private 6 th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 1 Jul 76 23 2047 Edward Hennesy Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 1 Jul 76 23 2048 Jessie Vanderpifh Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 1 Jul 76 23 2049 William Clyde Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 1 Jul 76 23 2050 Charles Mitchell Private 6th U.S. Cavalry A Acute Diarrhea 1 Jul 76 23 2051 Daniel Holland Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Headache 2 Jul 76 23 2052 James Malone Private 6th U.S. Cavalry K Inebr iation 2 Jul 76 23 2053 Henry Dixon Private 6th U.S. Cavalry H Acute Diarrhea 2 Jul 76 24 2054 Alexander Lehman Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tonsilitis 3 Jul 76 24 2055 David Browerwitch Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Rheumatism 4 Jul 76 24 2056 James Perkins Private U.S. Signal Service USA Acute Rheumatism 4 Jul 76 24 2057 James Woods Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Inflamation of the Brain 5 Jul 76

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408 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 24 2058 John Davis Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 6 Jul 76 24 2059 Wil liam Boyd Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Inflamation of Knee Joint 6 Jul 76 24 2060 Michael Thompson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry K Primary Syphilis 7 Jul 76 24 2061 Julius Kleppen Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 8 Jul 76 24 20 62 Charles Starkey Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Chronic Rheumatism 9 Jul 76 24 2063 Frank Bushel Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Diarrhea 9 Jul 76 24 2064 John Klein Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Colic 9 Jul 76 24 2065 Matthew Frich Private 6th U .S. Cavalry B Acute Rheumatism 10 Jul 76 24 2066 George Lehman Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Headache 11 Jul 76 24 2067 Julius Larut Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Diarrhea 12 Jul 76 24 2068 William Avery Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Rheum atism 12 Jul 76 24 2069 George P. Castle 1st Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 Jul 76 24 2070 Jacob Boyer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 Jul 76 24 2071 Thomas P. Kelley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 13 Jul 76 24 2072 John Shanghnissy Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Headache 14 Jul 76 24 2073 Hiram B. Rockinood Private 8th U.S. Infantry B Acute Rheumatism 14 Jul 76 24 2074 William Reem Private 8th U.S. Infan try G Tertian Intermittent Fever 15 Jul 76 25 2075 John Keenan Musician 8th U.S. Infantry G Felon 17juy76 25 2076 George Bennett Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Rheumatism 18 Jul 76 25 2077 William Faulk Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Headach e 20 Jul 76 25 2078 William Malory Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Acute Rheumatism 20 Jul 76 25 2079 Charles Weber Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 Jul 76 25 2080 Charles Stevens Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tonsili tis 21 Jul 76 25 2081 Alexander Lehman Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 24 Jul 76 25 2082 O. D. Bonterno Chief Musician 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 24 Jul 76 25 2083 Stephen Nicholson Private 8th U.S Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 24 Jul 76 25 2084 Frank Bell Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion 25 Jul 76 25 2085 George Tower Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Rheumatism 25 Jul 76 25 2086 William Reen Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Ter tian Intermittent Fever 25 Jul 76 25 2086 Michael Coffe Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Inebriation 27 Jul 76 25 2087 Samuel C. Bowers Private 8th U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 27 Jul 76 25 2088 Wiliam Abortone Private 8th U.S. Infantr y D Acute Rheumatism 27 Jul 76 25 2089 H.F. Winchester 1st Lieut. 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 27 Jul 76 25 2090 Joseph Mester Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Scald 28 Jul 76 25 2091 John Keenan Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 28 Ju l 76 25 2092 Peter Long Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Headache 30 Jul 76 25 2093 William Scott Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Neuralgia 31 Jul 76 25 2094 Theodore Wentzel Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Bite of some Poison Snake 31 Jul 76 26 2095 Edward Hennesy Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 31 Jul 76 26 2096 James Ayers Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Diarrhea 1 Aug 76 26 2097 Thomas D. Kelley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Dysentery 1 Aug 76

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409 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 26 2098 Mark A. Framham Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Constipation 1 Aug 76 26 2099 Matthew Frich Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Headache 4 Aug 76 26 2100 James Perkins Private U.S. Signal Service USA Acute Diarrhea 5 Aug 76 26 2101 Alexander Lehman Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 7 Aug 76 26 2102 Matthew Finch Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Constitutional Syphilis 7 Aug 76 26 2103 John Gancy Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 8 Aug 76 26 2104 James R. Thomas Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 8 Aug 76 26 2105 Charles Need Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 10 Aug 76 26 2106 Mark A. Framham Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Dysentery 11 Aug 76 26 2107 John Conners Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Acute Rheumatism 12 Aug 76 26 2108 James Ayers Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 12 Aug 76 26 2109 Richard Reed Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Dyspepsia 12 Aug 76 26 2110 H.F. Winchester 1st Lieut. 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Interm ittent Fever 14 Aug 76 26 2111 Charles Valler Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 16 Aug 76 26 2112 Zach Lolzel Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Gonorrhea 18 Aug 76 26 2113 W.R. Fitzgerald Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry B Incised Wound o f Liver 19 Aug 76 26 2114 Charles Brinckman Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry B Chronic Rheumatism 20 Aug 76 26 2115 Charles W. Sioree Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Boils 21 Aug 76 27 2116 James King Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 21 Aug 76 27 2117 Edward Coffee Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 25 Aug 76 27 2118 John Keenan Musician 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 28 Aug 76 27 2119 John Davis Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 30 Aug 76 27 2120 John Sullivan Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion 31 Aug 76 27 2121 Peter Long Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Headache 3 Sep 76 27 2122 Alfred Skilton Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 3 Sep 76 27 2123 Charles W. Stevens Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Contusion 6 Sep 76 27 2124 John Burns Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 7 Sep 76 27 2125 James King Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Contusion 7 Sep 76 27 2126 Edward Coffee Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Contusion 8 Sep 76 27 2127 Robert Hanna 2nd Lieut. 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 Sep 76 27 2128 James King Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Paralysis 9 Sep 76 27 2129 John Burns Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 10 Sep 76 27 2130 T ailorne Ruise Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Rheumatism 10 Sep 76 27 2131 John Henry Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Inebriation 11 Sep 76 27 2132 Charles Howald Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry G Gonorrhea 12 Sep 76 27 2133 Frank Burton Private 6th U. S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 12 Sep 76 27 2134 John Nicholson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 12 Sep 76 27 2135 John Henry Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Headache 13 Sep 76 27 2136 John Gancy Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Boils 14 Sep 76 28 2137 Charles Need Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Rheumatism (Muscular) 18 Sep 76 28 2138 John H. Gault Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 20 Sep 76

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410 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 28 2139 George Schuh Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry B Bubo 21 Sep 76 28 2140 Wi lliam Dougherty Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Rheumatism (Muscular) 22 Sep 76 28 2141 Robert Downey Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry G Headache 24 Sep 76 28 2142 John H. Gault Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 25 Sep 76 28 2143 Franklin Ritner Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion 25 Sep 76 28 2144 John Kanan Musician 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 27 Sep 76 28 2145 Robert Stein Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Boils 28 Sep 76 28 2146 William Scott Private 6th U.S. Cava lry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 2 Oct 76 28 2147 William R. Shambo Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Oct 76 28 2148 William Kinney Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Oct 76 28 2149 Priv ate 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Oct 76 28 2150 John H. Gault Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 7 Oct 76 28 2151 John Lightfoot Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Rheumatism 7 Oct 76 28 2152 Thaddeus Weinzel Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 8 Oct 76 28 2153 John Smyth Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Constipation 9 Oct 76 28 2154 I. VonBlareon Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Diarrhea 9 Oct 76 28 2155 Colin F. McKinnon Private 8th U.S. Inf antry G Catarrh 9 Oct 76 28 2156 Harry Moore Private 8th U.S. Infantry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Oct 76 28 2157 Frederick Peel Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Oct 76 29 2158 William Kinney Corporal 8th U. S. Infantry G Remittent Fever 14 Oct 76 29 2159 William F. Shands Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Headache 17 Oct 76 29 2160 John F. Koch Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Rheumatism 19 Oct 76 29 2161 George Tower Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Tertia n Intermittent Fever 21 Oct 76 29 2162 Edward F. Kearney Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 25 Oct 76 29 2163 Gideon W. Myers Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 Oct 76 29 2164 James H. Campbell Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 27 Oct 76 29 2165 Thomas P. O'Connell Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 Oct 76 29 2166 Harry Moore L.H.S 8th U.S. Infantry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 28 Oct 76 29 2167 George Rukus Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Boils 31 Oct 76 29 2168 Richard Beale Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Conjunctivitus 31 Oct 76 29 2169 William R. Fitzgerald Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Dysentery 2 Nov 76 29 2170 Edward Healey Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 Nov 76 29 2171 James R. Cambpell Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Contusion 7 Nov 76 29 2172 George Tower Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 8 Nov 76 29 2173 Richard Bea le Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 9 Nov 76 29 2174 John Klein Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry B Simple Fracture of Left Clavicle 9 Nov 76 29 2175 Thomas T. Kelly Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 9 Nov 76 29 2176 Charle s Need Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 Nov 76 29 2177 Hugh McCall Prisoner 8th U.S. Infantry G Inebriation 11 Nov 76 29 2178 James A. White Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 12 Nov 76 30 2179 John Allen Priv ate 8th U.S. Infantry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 12 Nov 76

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411 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 30 2180 Franklin H. Ritner Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 12 Nov 76 30 2181 Robert Hesson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 12 Nov 76 30 2182 Daniel Rou sewitz Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 13 Nov 76 30 2183 Joel LeBat Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 16 Nov 76 30 2184 George Lehman Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Rheumatism 16 Nov 76 30 2185 James McBaritt Pri vate 6th U.S. Cavalry B Epilepsy 17 Nov 76 30 2186 George Tower Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 Nov 76 30 2187 Charles Need Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 25 Nov 76 30 2188 John Lutz Pois oner 6th U.S. Cavalry H Acute Rheumatism 25 Nov 76 30 2189 William Henry Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Headache 26 Nov 76 30 2190 Geo. Scott Oldoween Act. Asst. Surgeon H.I.A. Quotidian Intermittent Fever 27 Nov 76 30 2191 Peter Ranker Private 6 th U.S. Cavalry B Catarrh 27 Nov 76 30 2192 Alfred Skilton Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Rheumatism 28 Nov 76 30 2193 Thomas Wilson Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Lacerated Wound of Left Hand 29 Nov 76 30 2194 Edward F. Hennesey Private 6th U.S. C avalry B Contusion of Right Thigh 29 Nov 76 30 2195 John Taught Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Boils 30 Nov 76 30 2196 Michael Cusack Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Primary Syphilis 1 Dec 76 30 2197 John Shaughnersy Poisoner 8th U.S. Infantry G Tonsil itis 1 Dec 76 30 2198 Hugh McCall Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 4 Dec 76 30 2199 John Gwartze Blacksmith 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Rheumatism 5 Dec 76 31 2200 Donavin Harris Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Contusion 8 Dec 7 6 31 2201 Francis Leroy Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Constipation 9 Dec 76 31 2202 George P. Castle Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Rheumatism (Muscular) 13 Dec 76 31 2203 Gustain Bergen Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 Dec 76 31 2204 Henry Ambray Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 19 Dec 76 31 2204 George Lehman Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion 22 Dec 76 31 2205 Charles Bowers Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 24 Dec 76 31 2206 Thomas P. O'Connell Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Incised Wound of Scalp 25 Dec 76 31 2207 Gideon W. Myers Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Boils 26 Dec 76 31 2208 Mark A. Framham Prisoner 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 Dec 76 31 2209 Francis Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Inebriation 26 Dec 76 31 2210 Edward F. Hennesey Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion 27 Dec 76 31 2211 John Keenan Poisoner 8th U.S. Infantry G Sprain 27 Dec 76 31 2212 Joseph Swartze Bla cksmith 6th U.S. Cavalry B Rheumatism (Muscular) 28 Dec 76 31 2213 Alfred Skilton Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Catarrh 29 Dec 76 31 2214 Thomas H. Merchant Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion of Right Hand 31 Dec 76 32 2215 Thomas P. O'Connell P rivate 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 4 Jan 77 32 2216 Wm. D. Fitzgerald Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry B Neuralgia (Intercostal) 5 Jan 77 32 2217 John S. Price Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion of Right Foot 7 Jan 77 32 2218 John Smyth Priva te 6th U.S. Cavalry B Contusion of Left Knee 8 Jan 77 32 2219 Patrick Kenny Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Rheumatism 8 Jan 77

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412 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 32 2220 Jacob Kneebit Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Gonorrhea 12 Jan 77 32 2221 Charles Howald Corporal 8th U.S. Infa ntry G Gonorrhea 17 Jan 77 32 2222 Thomas P. O'Connell Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Headache 18 Jan 77 32 2223 John Burns Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 18 Jan 77 32 2224 Charles Howald Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry G Gonorrhea 19 Jan 77 32 2225 Michael Coffe Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Erysipelas of Face 24 Jan 77 32 2226 H.B. Rookwood Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Sprain Right Arch 28 Jan 77 32 2227 Alfred P. Wayth Ferier 6th U.S. Cavalry B Sprain of Shoulder 26 Jan 77 32 2 228 John Smyth Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Simple Fracture 25 Jan 77 33 2229 Frederick Peel Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Contusion 1 Feb 77 33 2230 John Gruff Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Rheumatism 2 Feb 77 33 2231 George Hall Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 Feb 77 33 2232 John Murphy Sgt. Comm. Depart. Sprain 3 Feb 77 33 2233 Thomas Wallen Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Acute Diarrhea 4 Feb 77 33 2234 Peter Ambry Taylor of comp. Headache 25 Feb 77 34 2236 Patrick Kenney Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Contusion 11 Mar 77 34 2236 Colin F. McKinnon Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Lacerated Wound 11 Mar 77 34 2237 Otto Hugo Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry G Simple Fracture 14 Mar 77 34 2238 John McGormin Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Contusion 27 Mar 77 34 2239 Joseph Mester Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Scald (Left Hand) 30 Mar 77 34 2240 James A. White Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Abrasion 31 Mar 77 35 2241 Michael Coffe Private 8th U.S. Infantr y G Erysipelas of Face 1 Apr 77 35 2242 Thomas P. O'Connell Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Boils 6 Apr 77 35 2243 Herman Dellitt Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Zoster 7 Apr 77 36 2244 Frederick Peel Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 May 77 36 2245 Donavin Harris Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Abrasion 14 May 77 36 2246 Thomas Delaney Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 May 77 36 2247 Frederick A. Reed Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 May 77 36 2248 Thomas Delaney Musician 8th U.S. Infantry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 25 May 77 4 Jun 77 37 2249 Adam Beackett Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Incised Wound 17 Jun 77 37 2250 John Smyth Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 Jun 77 37 2251 Jason McCovett Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Epilepsy 21 Jun 77 37 2252 John F. Koch Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Constitutional Syphilis 26 Jun 77 38 2253 Herman Leach Private 8th U.S. Infantry G Gonorrhea 17 Jul 77 39 2254 William H. Wilson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 Aug 77 39 2255 George Will Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 18 Aug 77 39 2256 Barney Moran 1st Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry K Catarrh 20 Aug 77 39 2257 Herman S. Kelly Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Aug 77 40 2258 Portain H. Horinoburn Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Quotidian Intermittent Fe ver 20 Aug 77 40 2259 Thomas P. Kelley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 Sep 77 40 2260 John Moorehead Private 6th U.S. Cavalry C Sprain 1 Sep 77

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413 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 40 2261 John Davis Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent F ever 1 Sep 77 40 2262 William P. Wilson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Sep 77 40 2263 George Wills Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Sep 77 40 2264 Charles Wonot Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Jaundice 4 Sep 77 40 2265 John Spellman Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Non Specific Bubo 14 Sep 77 40 2266 John Smyth Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Non Specific Bubo 14 Sep 77 40 2267 William Robin Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Contusion (Left Leg) 21 Sep 77 40 2268 George Wane Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Gonorrhea 27 Sep 77 41 2269 Charles Thomas Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 Oct 77 41 2270 Charles Clyde Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Feve r 9 Oct 77 41 2271 Karl Schoming Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 Oct 77 41 2272 Sebastian Avery Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 Oct 77 42 2273 Charles Allen Corporal 8th U.S. Infantr y K Acute Diarrhea 11 Nov 77 42 2274 Charles Stock Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Tapeworm 16 Nov 77 42 2275 Peter Long Private 8th U.S. Infantry B Insanity 23 Nov 77 43 2276 Henry Hartman Poisoner 8th U.S. Infantry K Gonorrhea 7 Dec 77 44 227 7 Barney Moran 1st Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry K Boils 27 Jan 78 45 2278 Henry Knight Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Non Specific Bubo 11 Feb 78 45 2279 Henry Hartman Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 Feb 78 46 2280 John Smi th Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Boils 15 Mar 78 46 2281 Wallace D. Williams Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 Mar 78 46 2282 Sheridan D. Henry Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 Mar 78 46 2 283 George Wain Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 Mar 78 46 2284 Henry Hartman Musician 8th U.S. Infantry K Acute Diarrhea 25 Mar 78 47 2285 Jean P. Rouz Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Chronic Diarrhea 1 Apr 78 47 2286 Michael McCloskey Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Contusion 2 Apr 78 47 2287 John Kelly Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Chancre 6 Apr 78 47 2288 Ernest Heinatz Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 Apr 78 47 2289 Henry Hartman Musi cian 8th U.S. Infantry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 Apr 78 47 2290 John Kelly Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Rheumatism (Muscular) 20 Apr 78 47 2291 Richard H. Swinburn Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Rheumatism (Muscular) 26 Apr 78 47 2292 Ge orge Horn Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Diarrhea 26 Apr 78 47 2293 Thomas Keenoy Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Apr 78 48 2294 Henry Hartman Musician 8th U.S. Infantry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 May 78 48 2295 William Wallace Corporal 8th U.S. Infantry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 May 78 48 2296 Richard H. Swinburn Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Acute Rheumatism 5 May 78 48 2297 Charles Richtz Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Simple Fracture 6 May 78 4 8 2298 Lorenzo W. Rollins Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Acute Diarrhea 16 May 78 48 2299 Bernard Moran 1st Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry K Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 May 78 48 2300 George Leihy Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Colic 20 May 78 48 2301 Lamar Heinatz Sgt. 8th U.S. Infantry K Contusion 27 May 78

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414 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 48 2302 Richard H. Swinburn Private 8th U.S. Infantry K Dyspepsia 30 May 78 49 2297 Chas. V. Richter Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Simple Fracture 6 May 78 49 2303 Wm. Mannion Private 6th U.S. Cavalry K Sprain 19 Jun 78 49 2304 John E. Holland Private 6th U.S. Cavalry I Gonorrhea 20 Jun 78 50 2297 Chas. V. Ritcher Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Simple Fracture 6 May 78 50 2305 Emil Bredemeyer Private 8th U.S. Infantry I Inflamation of the Internal Ear 8 Jul 78 50 2306 John Morrhisir Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 13 Jul 78 50 2307 Justin Smith Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 20 Jul 78 50 2308 Charles Webber Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Herpes Labialis 22 Jul 78 50 2309 John Zeltmann Recruit unassigned Tertian Intermittent Fever 25 Jul 78 50 2310 Christian Lutz Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Herpes Labialis 26 Jul 78 50 2311 Adolph Martin Private 6th U.S. Cavalry F Tertian Intermittent Fever 26 Jul 78 50 2312 Patrick McCane Recruit 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 26 Jul 78 50 2313 Charles Beantishel Recruit unassigned Inflamation of Kidney 27 Jul 78 51 2313 Charles Bantishel Recruit unass igned Inflamation of Kidney 27 Jul 78 51 2314 Wm. Wiseman Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 7 Aug 78 51 2315 George Raynar Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry G Tertian Intermittent Fever 7 Aug 78 51 2316 August Tarlow Private 6th U.S. Cava lry Band Inebriation 7 Aug 78 51 2317 John Crawford Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Cholera Morbus 9 Aug 78 51 2318 Charles Beantishel Recruit unassigned Inflamation of Kidney 11 Aug 78 51 2319 John Schoenleben Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 11 Aug 78 51 2320 John Crawford Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Chronic Diarrhea 14 Aug 78 51 2321 Charles Julay Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Headache 16 Aug 78 51 2322 Justin Smith Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermit tent Fever 17 Aug 78 51 2323 Lewis Leclerc Recruit unassigned Chronic Dysentery 18 Aug 78 51 2324 John Smyth Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 18 Aug 78 51 2325 Adolph Martin Private 6th U.S. Cavalry F Tertian Intermittent Fever 19 Aug 78 51 2326 August Tarlow Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Debility 19 Aug 78 51 2327 Frank Wellman Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Boils 22 Aug 78 51 2328 John Zeltmann Recruit unassigned Tertian Intermittent Fever 27 Aug 78 51 2329 Charles Barth elmalo Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 28 Aug 78 51 2330 Adolph Martin Private 6th U.S. Cavalry F Chronic Rheumatism 28 Aug 78 51 2331 Charles Beantishel Recruit unassigned Inflamation of Kidney 28 Aug 78 51 2332 George L owe Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 30 Aug 78 52 2333 August Tulow Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Debility 1 Sep 78 52 2334 Thomas Carney Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Dysentery 2 Sep 78 52 2335 John McDonald Priva te 6th U.S. Cavalry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 2 Sep 78 52 2336 Charles Webber Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Diarrhea 3 Sep 78 52 2337 James Burgess Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Inebriation 3 Sep 78 52 2338 Wm. Wilson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Diarrhea 7 Sep 78 52 2339 Christian Lutz Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Dysentery 9 Sep 78

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415 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 52 2340 August Tulow Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Chronic Rheumatism 11 Sep 78 52 2341 George Lowe Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry B Ac ute Dysentery 12 Sep 78 52 2342 Charles Aman Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Conjunctivitus 12 Sep 78 52 2343 James O'Neil Private 6th U.S. Cavalry I Tertian Intermittent Fever 14 Sep 78 52 2344 Charles Aman Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Conjun ctivitus 15 Sep 78 52 2345 Albert Stamm Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Dysentery 19 Sep 78 52 2346 John Sullivan Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry B Gunshot Wound 20 Sep 78 52 2347 Charles Julay Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Catarrh 21 Sep 78 52 2348 Justin Schmidt Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Catarrh 24 Sep 78 52 2349 Wm. Wilson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Diarrhea 24 Sep 78 52 2350 Chas. Stevens Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Acute Diarrhea 24 Sep 78 53 2351 Wm. Beale Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 27 Sep 78 53 2352 Wm. Wilson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Catarrh 29 Sep 78 53 2353 Joseph Schwartz Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Punctured Wound 30 Sep 78 54 2334 Thomas Carney Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acut e Dysentery 2 Sep 78 54 2346 John Sullivan Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry B Gunshot Wound 20 Sep 78 54 2352 Wm. Wilson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Catarrh 29 Sep 78 54 2353 Joseph Schwartz Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Punctured Wound 30 Sep 78 54 2354 Ehrich Lambrecht Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Piles 5 Oct 78 54 2355 John Smyth Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Acute Diarrhea 7 Oct 78 54 2356 Adolph Stamm Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Dysentery 8 Oct 78 54 2357 Emil Burgess Privat e 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Rheumatism 8 Oct 78 54 2358 Justin Schmidt Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 10 Oct 78 54 2359 Charles Stevens Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Acute Diarrhea 14 Oct 78 54 2360 Emil Scoponitti Priv ate 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 15 Oct 78 54 2361 Charles Haberbuck Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Chronic Rheumatism 16 Oct 78 54 2362 John Kneubler Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 18 Oct 78 54 2363 Au gust Geiger Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 18 Oct 78 54 2364 Wm. Spencer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 19 Oct 78 54 2365 Robert Stein Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 19 Oct 78 54 2366 Wm. Wilson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 21 Oct 78 54 2367 Lewis Miller Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Catarrh 22 Oct 78 54 2368 Charles Julay Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Headache 23 Oct 78 54 2369 Chancer More y Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Diarrhea 26 Oct 78 55 2370 Jos. Shubler Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 30 Oct 78 55 2346 Wm. Sullivan Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry B Gunshot Wound (Left Leg) 20 Sep 78 55 2364 Wm. Spe ncer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 19 Oct 78 55 2370 Jos. Kneubler Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 30 Oct 78 55 2371 Wm. Wilson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 Nov 78 55 2372 John Mullen Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Nov 78 55 2373 Robert Stein Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Remittent Fever 4 Nov 78

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416 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 55 2374 John Barthelmalo Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Nov 78 55 2375 Wm. Reese Chief Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry Inebriation 4 Nov 78 55 2376 Charles Rowlands Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 Nov 78 55 2377 Rob. VanRiper Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Right Foot) 6 Nov 78 55 2378 John Preston Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Sprain (Right Hand) 6 Nov 78 55 2379 Jos. Kneubler Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 Nov 78 55 2380 Charles Lambert Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tonsilitis 7 Nov 7 8 55 2381 Henry Smeaten Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 7 Nov 78 55 2382 Frank Willmann Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Catarrh 9 Nov 78 55 2383 Emil Scorponitti Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tonsilitis 11 Nov 78 55 238 4 John Reddington Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 Nov 78 55 2385 Wm. Briggs Chief Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry Inebriation 14 Nov 78 56 2386 Jacob Freeberger Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Dyspepsia 12 Nov 78 56 2387 Wm. Patterson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Inebriation 16 Nov 78 56 2388 Wm. Wilson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 Nov 78 56 2389 Wm. Goldrick Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 19 Nov 78 56 2390 Justin Schmidt Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Gonorrhea 19 Nov 78 56 2391 Ansom Muller Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 20 Nov 78 56 2392 Emil Scorponitti Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tonsilitis 20 Nov 78 56 2393 J os. Kneubler Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 21 Nov 78 56 2394 Philip Long Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 Nov 78 56 2395 Wm. Nearly Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 21 Nov 78 56 2396 John Mullen Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 21 Nov 78 56 2397 Charles Geiger Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Debility 22 Nov 78 56 2398 Thomas Russel Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Diarrhea 22 Nov 78 56 2399 Thomas Carney Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Bronchitis 22 Nov 78 57 2364 Joseph Spencer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 19 Oct 78 57 2390 Justin Schmidt Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Gonorrhea 19 Nov 78 57 2392 Emil Scorponitti Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tonsilitis 20 Nov 78 57 2396 James V. Mullen Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 21 Nov 78 57 2400 Wm. Goldrick Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 1 Dec 78 57 2 401 Jos. Kneubler Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 2 Dec 78 57 2402 Chas. McCarthy Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Diarrhea 4 Dec 78 57 2403 James Weiler Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion 6 Dec 78 57 2404 Wm. Gold rick Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 7 Dec 78 57 2405 Chancer Morrey Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Secondary Syphilis 10 Dec 78 57 2406 Charles Aman Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Bronchitis 11 Dec 78 57 2407 Thomas Rusell Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Dec 78 57 2408 Robert Stein Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Headache 12 Dec 78 57 2409 Wm. Neeley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Dec 78

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417 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 57 2410 Wm. Wil son Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 Dec 78 57 2411 Joseph Geiger Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Chronic Rheumatism 15 Dec 78 57 2412 Charles Wendt Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Cholera Morbus 16 Dec 78 57 2413 Hugo Juve nal Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Sprains 16 Dec 78 57 2414 Frederic Popp Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Chronic Malaria 18 Dec 78 57 2415 Bernard Lynch Private 6th U.S. Cavalry C Gonorrheal Rheumatism 18 Dec 78 57 2416 John Reddington Private 6th U.S Cavalry Band Congestion of Kidneys 20 Dec 78 58 2417 Thomas Warner Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 26 Dec 78 58 2418 Jos. Kneubler Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Dec 78 58 2419 William Wi lson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Dec 78 59 2409 Wm. Neeley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 Dec 78 59 2411 Joseph Geiger Private 6th U.S. Cavalry I Chronic Rheumatism 15 Dec 78 59 241 3 Hugo Juvenal Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Sprain 16 Dec 78 59 2414 Frederick Popp Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Tertian Intermittent Fever 17 Dec 78 59 2415 Bernard Lynch Private 6th U.S. Cavalry C Gonorrheal Rheumatism 17 Dec 78 59 2419 Wm. Wilso n Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Dec 78 59 2420 Joseph Coburn Private 6th U.S. Cavalry F Headache 5 Jan 79 59 2421 John Reddington Bugler 6th U.S. Cavalry M Internal Prostatitis 5 Jan 79 59 2422 John Howard Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Contusion (Right Side) 13 Jan 79 59 2423 Wm. H. Newlings Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tonsilitis 15 Jan 79 59 2424 Wm. Wilson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 16 Jan 79 59 2425 Wm. T. Wilson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Left Foot) 16 Jan 79 59 2426 Hugo Juvenal Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Bubo 16 Jan 79 59 2427 Charles B. Aman Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Boils 18 Jan 79 59 2428 Charles Reinhardt Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry M Sprains (Left Thigh) 18 Jan 79 59 2429 John Clinton Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Chronic Diarrhea 19 Jan 79 59 2430 Chancer Morrey Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tonsilitis 21 Jan 79 59 2431 James Lawin Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Contusion (Left Side) 23 Jan 79 59 2432 Robert VanRiper Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion 26 Jan 79 59 2433 James McCarthy Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion 28 Jan 79 60 2434 Charles Webber Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Neuralgia 31 Jan 79 60 2435 Wm. Goldrick Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry M Neuralgia 31 Jan 79 61 2415 Bernard Lynch Private 6th U.S. Cavalry C Gonorrheal Rheumatism 17 Dec 78 61 2421 John Reddington Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Internal Prostatitis 5 Jan 79 61 2426 Hugo Juvenal Private 6th U.S. Caval ry M Primary Syphilis (Bubo) 16 Jan 79 61 2431 Willard J. Lawin Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Contusion 23 Jan 79 61 2433 James McCarthy Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Left Hip) 28 Jan 79 61 2434 Charles Webber Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Neuralgia 31 Jan 79 61 2435 William Goldrick Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry M Neuralgia 31 Jan 79 61 2436 James Doughtery Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Diarrhea 3 Feb 79 61 2437 John J. Willison Private 12th U.S. Infantry D Gastric Fever 5 Feb 7 9

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418 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 61 2438 James Burne Private 12th U.S. Infantry I Acute Rheumatism 5 Feb 79 61 2439 Albert Fowler Private 12th U.S. Infantry I Scalds (Right Foot) 5 Feb 79 61 2440 Charles Stanart Private 12th U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 5 Feb 7 9 61 2441 Joseph Haven Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Dyspepsia 5 Feb 79 61 2442 Franklin Sheperdson Private 12th U.S. Infantry D Contusion (Both Feet) 8 Feb 79 61 2443 James Gridley Private 12th U.S. Infantry I Headache 8 Feb 79 61 2444 Willia m Howard Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 13 Feb 79 61 2445 Henry Scerney Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Conjunctivitus 19 Feb 79 61 2446 Thomas Warner Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 19 Feb 79 61 2 447 William Baber Sgt. U.S. Signal Service USA Acute Rheumatism 25 Feb 79 61 2448 Robert Stein Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Headache 25 Feb 79 62 2426 Hugo Juvenal Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Primary Syphilis 16 Jan 79 62 2437 John J. Willison Pri vate 12th U.S. Infantry D Gastric Fever 5 Feb 79 62 2449 Charles Barthelmalo Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Dyspepsia 11 Mar 79 62 2450 George Kilmer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Right Eye) 15 Mar 79 62 2451 Charles Julay Sgt. 6th U.S. Cav alry Band Contusion (Right Hand) 20 Mar 79 63 2450 George T. Kilmer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Right Eye) 15 Mar 79 63 2452 Noble Harter Private 12th U.S. Infantry H Tertian Intermittent Fever 2 Apr 79 63 2453 Frederick Gollun Privat e 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Primary Syphilis 2 Apr 79 63 2454 Max Loebe Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Gonorrhea 4 Apr 79 63 2455 William Walsh Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry M Secondary Syphilis 5 Apr 79 63 2456 John Keefer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Herpes Ci rcinatus 8 Apr 79 63 2457 Charles F. Boyd Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Rheumatism 8 Apr 79 63 2458 Wm. T. Wilson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 17 Apr 79 63 2459 Erich Lambrecht Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Cholera M orbus 19 Apr 79 63 2460 Frank Wolff Bugler 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Both Lips) 27 Apr 79 64 2450 George Kilmer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Right Ear) 15 Mar 79 64 2453 Fred Goellner Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Primary Syphilis 2 A pr 79 64 2460 Frank Wolff Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Both Lips) 27 Apr 79 64 2461 Landon Miller Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 1 May 79 64 2462 Hugo Juvenal Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Primary Syphilis 7 May 79 64 2463 Max Loebe Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 7 May 79 64 2464 Frank Wolff Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion 7 May 79 64 2465 George Lawyer Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry M Plueral Pnuemonia 12 May 79 64 2466 Max Loebe Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 14 May 79 64 2467 Hugo Juvenal Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Primary Syphilis 18 May 79 64 2468 William Briggs Chief Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry NCS Contusion (Head) 19 May 79 64 2469 Will Brigg s Chief Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry NCS Contusion (Head) 28 May 79 64 2470 Will Newlings Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Diarrhea 24 May 79 64 2471 Goldlich Gisler Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Diarrhea 28 May 79 65 2459 George Kilmer Pri vate 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Right Eye) 15 Mar 79

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419 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 65 2465 George Lawyer Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry M Plueral Pnuemonia 12 May 79 65 2466 Max Loebe Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 14 May 79 65 2472 Charles Lunhke Private 6 th U.S. Cavalry Band Dyspepsia 6 Jun 79 65 2473 Charles Boyd Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Variocele (Left) 6 Jun 79 65 2474 Goldrick Williams Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry M Gonorrhea 11 Jun 79 65 2475 Frederick Seelburst Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Simpl e Fracture (Left Clavicle) 14 Jun 79 65 2476 John Christian Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Face and Neck) 17 Jun 79 65 2477 Will Neely Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 17 Jun 79 65 2478 Petro Scerny Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Dyspepsia 17 Jun 79 65 2479 Xavier Franz Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 18 Jun 79 65 2480 George Eckte Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Piles 18 Jun 79 65 2481 Owen Rheinhardt Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Diarr hea 20 Jun 79 65 2482 John McCann Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Left Thigh) 20 Jun 79 65 2483 Charles Boyd Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Variocele (Left) 21 Jun 79 65 2484 Frank Wolff Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Gonorrhea 22 Jun 79 65 2485 Thadeus Wenzel Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 Jun 79 65 2486 James Foy Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Contusion (Right Leg) 25 Jun 79 65 2487 Jason Schmidt Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Contusion (Left Hand, 4th Fi nger) 27 Jun 79 65 2488 Landon Muller Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Jun 79 65 2489 August Pulau Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Sprain (Right Wrist) 30 Jun 79 66 2450 George Kilmer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusi on (Right Eye) 15 Mar 79 66 2475 Frederick Seelhurst Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Simple Fracture (Left Clavicle) 14 Jun 79 66 2478 Petro Scerny Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Dyspepsia 17 Jun 79 66 2480 George Eckte Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Pil es 18 Jun 79 66 2483 Charles Boyd Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Variocele (Left) 21 Jun 79 66 2484 Frank Wolff Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry M Gonorrhea 22 Jun 79 66 2486 James Foy Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Right Leg) 25 Jun 79 66 248 7 John Schmidt Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Contusion (Left Hand, 4th Finger) 27 Jun 79 66 2488 Landon Muller Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Jun 79 66 2489 August Pulau Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Sprain (Right Wris t) 31jun79 66 2490 John Patrick Brodie Private 6th U.S. Cavalry F Remittent Fever (Bilious) 3 Jul 79 66 2491 John Carberry Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Simple Fracture (Right Fibula 'Potts Fracture') 3 Jul 79 66 2492 John Julay Private 6th U.S. C avalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 4 Jul 79 66 2493 Fred Duke Private 6th U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 Jul 79 66 2495 Hugo Juvenal Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Sprain (Right Hand) 8 Jul 79 66 2496 Henry Nevin Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Sprain (Right Shoulder) 22 Jul 79 66 2497 Franklin Sheperdson Private 12th U.S. Infantry I Acute Rheumatism 25 Jul 79 66 2498 Frank Wolff Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry M Primary Syphilis 17 Jul 79 66 2499 Felix Franz Private 6th U.S. Cav alry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 30 Jul 79 67 2450 George Kilmer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Right Eye) 15 Mar 79

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420 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 67 2478 Petro Scerny Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Dyspepsia 17 Jun 79 67 2490 Patrick Brodie Private 6th U.S. Caval ry F Remittent Fever (Bilious) 3 Jul 79 67 2491 John Carberry Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Pott's Fracture 3 Jul 79 67 2492 John Julay Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 4 Jul 79 67 2493 George Duke Private 6th U.S. Cavalry C Q uotidian Intermittent Fever 5 Jul 79 67 2497 Franklin Sheperdson Private 12th U.S. Infantry I Acute Rheumatism 25 Jul 79 67 2498 Frank Wolff Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry M Primary Syphilis 17 Jul 79 67 2499 Felix Franz Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 30 Jul 79 67 2500 Landon Muller Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 Aug 79 67 2501 W.R. Robinson Chief Musician 6th U.S. Cavalry NCS Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 Aug 79 67 2502 August Free Ferrier 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 Aug 79 67 2503 Petro Scerny Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Dyspepsia 8 Aug 79 67 2504 James McCann Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 12 Aug 79 67 2505 Thomas R oach Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Rheumatism 12 Aug 79 67 2506 Frank Wolff Trumpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Rheumatism 13 Aug 79 67 2507 John McClair Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Tertian Intermittent Fever 14 Aug 79 67 2508 William Wilson P rivate 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Diarrhea 16 Aug 79 67 2509 Chancer Weber Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Tonsilitis 18 Aug 79 67 2510 Thomas Reynolds Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Rheumatism 20 Aug 79 67 2511 Thomas Foley Private 6th U.S. Cava lry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 23 Aug 79 68 2512 John McClair Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 Aug 79 68 2513 J. Neil Neely Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 29 Aug 79 68 2514 Frank Wolff Tr umpeter 6th U.S. Cavalry M Conjunctivitus 30 Aug 79 68 2516 Joseph Colburn Private 6th U.S. Cavalry F Acute Bronchitis 31 Aug 79 69 2491 John Carberry Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Pott's Fracture 3 Jul 79 69 2492 John Julay Private 6th U.S. Cav alry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 4 Jul 79 69 2493 George Duke Private 6th U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 Jul 79 69 2497 Franklin Sheperdson Private 12th U.S. Infantry I Acute Rheumatism 25 Jul 79 69 2505 Thomas Roach Private 6 th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Rheumatism 12 Aug 79 69 2512 Joseph McClair Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 Aug 79 69 2516 Joseph Colburn Private 6th U.S. Cavalry F Acute Bronchitis 31 Aug 79 69 2517 Justin Joseph George P rivate 12th U.S. Infantry Band Acute Rheumatism 1 Sep 79 69 2518 William Telfer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry I Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Sep 79 69 2519 Daniel Castata Private 6th U.S. Cavalry D Acute Diarrhea 3 Sep 79 69 2520 Thomas Ferdinan d Private 6th U.S. Cavalry C Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Sep 79 69 2521 James W. Holly Private 6th U.S. Cavalry C Sunstroke 3 Sep 79 69 2522 Frank Grafton Private 6th U.S. Cavalry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Sep 79 69 2523 Frank Ken t Private 6th U.S. Cavalry F Acute Dysentery 3 Sep 79 69 2524 John McGuire Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Sep 79 69 2525 Frank Sargeant Private 6th U.S. Cavalry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Sep 79 69 2526 Sam uel Helmstead Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Sep 79

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421 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 69 2527 Patrick Hogan Private 6th U.S. Cavalry G Acute Dysentery 3 Sep 79 69 2528 Louis P. Flavan Private 6th U.S. Cavalry B Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Sep 79 69 2529 John Sarersy Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Acute Diarrhea 3 Sep 79 69 2530 John Firm Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Sep 79 70 2531 John Grissom Private 6th U.S. Cavalry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 Sep 79 70 2532 Ira C. Westerfeld Sgt. 6th U.S. Cavalry M Paralysis 4 Sep 79 70 2533 F.O. Geeler Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Sprain 4 Sep 79 70 2534 Peter Sarcy Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Dysentery 4 Sep 79 70 2535 H.O. Terrum 1st Lieut 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Sep 79 70 2535 H.O. Terrum 1st Lieut. 6th U.S. Cavalry M Conjunctivitus 4 Sep 79 70 2536 Frank Wolff Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Rheumatism 5 Sep 79 70 2537 Charles Pollard Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Diarrhea 5 Sep 79 70 2538 Mark Weeler Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Rheumatism 5 Sep 79 70 2539 John Kane Private 6th U.S. Cavalry F Quotidian Intermittent Fever 6 Sep 79 70 2540 John Aumack Private 6th U.S. Cavalr y M Acute Rheumatism 7 Sep 79 70 2541 John Barkley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry F Gunshot Wound 10 Sep 79 70 2542 John Christian Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Back) 10 Sep 79 70 2543 Landon Muller Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Inter mittent Fever 11 Sep 79 70 2544 Chas. Albert Gillet Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 Sep 79 70 2545 William Neeley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 14 Sep 79 70 2546 Chancer Polland Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Remittent Fever 15 Sep 79 70 2547 John Lawrence Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 Sep 79 70 2548 John Fenell Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermittent Fever 19 Sep 79 70 2549 Chancer Abert Pri vate 6th U.S. Cavalry M Neuralgia 20 Sep 79 70 2550 Thomas Hendricks Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Rheumatism 21 Sep 79 70 2551 William Zappa Private 12th U.S. Infantry I Quotidian Intermittent Fever 22 Sep 79 71 2552 George F. Allen Priva te 6th U.S. Cavalry L Acute Rheumatism 27 Sep 79 71 2553 Edward Coyle Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Conjunctivitus 29 Sep 79 71 2554 Frank Sargeant Private 6th U.S. Cavalry D Remittent Fever 10 Sep 79 71 2555 John Grisson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry D Typho Malarial Fever 13 Sep 79 71 2556 John Firm Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Remittent Fever 13 Sep 79 72 2505 Thomas Roach Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Rheumatism 12 Aug 79 72 2524 John McGuire Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Quotidian Interm ittent Fever 3 Sep 79 72 2535 H.O. Terrum 1st Lieut. 6th U.S. Cavalry Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 Sep 79 72 2536 Frank Wolff Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Conjunctivitus 5 Sep 79 72 2544 Albert Gillet Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 Sep 79 72 2546 Oscar Polland Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Remittent Fever 13 Sep 79 72 2547 Will Lawrence Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Quotidian Intermittent Fever 17 Sep 79 72 2553 Edward Coyle Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Conjunctivitus 29 Sep 79 72 2554 Frank Sargeant Private 6th U.S. Cavalry D Remittent Fever 10 Sep 79 72 2555 John Grisson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry D Typho Malarial Fever 13 Sep 79

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422 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Ad mitted Died Remarks 72 2556 John Firm Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Remittent Fever 13 Sep 79 72 2557 William Zappa Private 12th U.S. Infantry I Remittent Fever 4 Oct 79 72 2558 Will Newlings Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Right Thigh) 8 Oct 79 72 2559 Joseph Colburn Private 6th U.S. Cavalry F Inebriation 10 Oct 79 72 2560 Peter Franz Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 13 Oct 79 72 2561 Michael Bartletey Private 6th U.S. Cavalry F Gunshot Wound (Left Leg) 14 Oct 79 72 2562 Thomas Warner Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Tertian Intermitten t Fever 15 Oct 79 72 2563 George F. Allen Private 6th U.S. Cavalry L Catarrh 24 Oct 79 72 2564 Jeremiah Foley Corporal 6th U.S. Cavalry M Contusion (Right Foot) 26 Oct 79 72 2565 Chancer Weber Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermitten t Fever 28 Oct 79 72 2566 Christian Lutz Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 29 Oct 79 73 2567 Thomas Hendricks Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Rheumatism 31 Oct 79 73 2505 Thomas Roach Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acu te Rheumatism 12 Aug 79 73 2555 John Grisson Private 6th U.S. Cavalry D Typho Malarial Fever 3 Sep 79 73 2557 William Zappa Private 12th U.S. Infantry I Remittent Fever 4 Oct 79 73 2561 Michael Barthley Private 6th U.S. Cavalry F Gunshot Wound 14 Oct 79 73 2565 Chancer Webber Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 28 Oct 79 73 2567 Thomas Hendricks Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Rheumatism 31 Oct 79 73 2568 Charles Aman Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Bron chitis 3 Nov 79 73 2569 William Swaggler Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Diarrhea 7 Nov 79 73 2570 Peter Schlotthauer Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Acute Diarrhea 10 Nov 79 73 2571 John Rurtis Chief Bugler 6th U.S. Cavalry NCS Catarrh 17 Nov 79 73 2572 Christian Barthelmelo Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Contusion (Lower Lip) 17 Nov 79 73 2573 John Carberry Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Acute Rheumatism 20 Nov 79 73 2574 Charles Rowlands Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Lacerated Wound (Fore head) 23 Nov 79 73 2575 Charles Aman Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Simple Fracture (Left Clavicle) 24 Nov 79 73 2576 John Edward McCready Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Quotidian Intermittent Fever 26 Nov 79 73 2577 Thadeus Wenzel Private 6th U.S. C avalry Band Abscess 27 Nov 79 73 2578 Charles Webber Private 6th U.S. Cavalry Band Chronic Dysentery 28 Nov 79 73 2579 John Carberry Private 6th U.S. Cavalry M Neuralgia 30 Nov 79 73 2580 George Goodfellow Act. Asst. Surgeon USA Contusion (Foot ) 18 Nov 79 *Bold type indicates that ledger text was difficult to read.

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423 Appendix G POST HOSPITAL LEDGER BOOK 121, CAVALRY CA MP, TUCSON, ARIZONA TERRITORY (JULY 1872 JULY 1873) Page Entry Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Year Admitt ed Returned to Duty Died Remarks 1 1 Adam Shubert Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Malarial Fever 1872 13 Jul 25 Jul 1 2 John Desmond Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Piles 1872 13 Jul 25 Jul 1 3 Thomas W. Fields Sgt. 1st U.S. Cav. D Gunsho t Wound 1872 14 Jul 28 Jul 1 3 Thomas W. Fields Sgt. 1st U.S. Cav. D Neuralgia 1872 14 Jul 28 Jul 1 4 John Debron Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Malarial Fever 1872 16 Jul 19 Jul 1 5 James Dugal Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Malarial Fever 1872 16 Jul 19 Jul 1 6 Philip Zombeck Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Boils 1872 29 Jul 21 Jul 1 7 Morris Burke Sgt. 1st U.S. Cav. D Cholera Morbus 1872 31 Jul 2 1 Morris Burke Sgt. 1st U.S. Cav. D Cholera Morbus 1872 1 Aug 5 Aug 2 2 Joseph Taggart Sgt. 1st U.S. Cav. D C holera Morbus 1872 3 Aug 4 Aug 2 3 John Desmond Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Whitlow 1872 5 Aug 2 4 Adam Shubert Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 6 Aug 22 Aug 2 5 Henry Stackhaus Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Spasm 1872 22 Aug 22 Aug 2 6 Harry Hanks Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Whitlow 1872 22 Aug 24 Aug 2 7 George W. Sight Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Contusion 1872 22 Aug 25 Aug 2 8 Adam Shubert Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 23 Aug 2 9 Michael Dohong Pri vate 1st U.S. Cav. D Conjunctivitus 1872 23 Aug 2 10 Thorold Fofs Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Headache 1872 25 Aug 25 Aug 2 11 William F. Cousins Corporal 1st U.S. Cav. D Cholera Morbus 1872 28 Aug 2 11 William F. Cousins Corporal 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 28 Aug 3 1 John Desmond Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Poisoning Ea. Anc. 1872 5 Aug 18 Sep 3 2 Michael Dohong Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Conjunctivitus 1872 28 Aug 3 3 Thorold Fofs Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Interm ittent Fever 1872 28 Aug 3 Sep 3 4 Adam Shubert Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 28 Aug 2 Sep 3 5 William F. Cousins Corporal 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 28 Aug 5 Sep 3 5 William F. Cousins Corporal 1st U.S. Cav. D Cholera Morbus 1872 28 Aug 5 Sep 3 6 John Davis Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 1 Sep 12 Sep 3 7 William Hany Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 2 Sep 4 Sep 3 8 William Hans Private 1st U.S Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 3 Sep 4 Sep 3 9 Thomas W. Fields Sgt. 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 5 Sep 3 9 Thomas W. Fields Sgt. 1st U.S. Cav. D Neuralgia 1872 5 Sep 3 10 Daniel Ryan Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 7 Sep 13 Sep 3 11 Richard Burkett Sgt. 1st U.S. Cav. D Headache 1872 7 Sep 11 Sep 3 12 William Bates Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Headache 1872 7 Sep 10 Sep 3 13 John R. Larimar Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Acute Orchitis 1872 8 Sep 18 Sep 3 14 Charles E. Dugal Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 8 Sep 13 Sep 3 14 Charles E. Dugal Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Neuralgia 1872 8 Sep 13 Sep 3 15 Martin Casey Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 1 3 Sep 14 Sep 3 16 David Brun Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 17 Sep 18 Sep

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424 Page Entry Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Year Admitt ed Returned to Duty Died Remarks 3 17 Harry Hanks Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Diarrhea 1872 17 Sep 19 Sep 3 18 Adam Shubert Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 17 Se p 18 Sep 3 19 Charles Johnson Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 22 Sep 27 Sep 3 20 Martin Casey Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 25 Sep 27 Sep 3 21 Henry Stackhaus Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Interm ittent Fever 1872 25 Sep 28 Sep 3 22 Julian Orloruski Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 25 Sep 28 Sep 3 23 John Dobson Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 29 Sep 30 Sep 3 23 William F. Cousins Corporal 1s t U.S. Cav. D Cholera Morbus 1872 28 Aug 5 Sep 3 23 William F. Cousins Corporal 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 28 Aug 5 Sep 3 24 Thorold Fofs Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 10 Sep 15 Sep 3 25 Chas. Thomk ins Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 11 Sep 15 Sep 4 1 Thomas W. Fields Sgt. 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 5 Sep 4 2 Julian Orloruski Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 28 Sep 1 Oct 4 3 Thorold Fofs Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 1 Oct 10 Oct 4 4 Richard A. Follett Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 2 Oct 9 Oct 4 5 W. B. San Broock Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 18 72 4 Oct 9 Oct 4 6 Charles W. Cummings Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 6 Oct 9 Oct 4 7 Henry Newman Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 9 Oct 10 Oct 4 8 David Brun Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermi ttent Fever 1872 9 Oct 15 Oct 4 9 Peter Conlon Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 10 Oct 15 Oct 4 10 William Kana Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 10 Oct 15 Oct 4 11 Charles E. Dugal Private 1st U.S. Ca v. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 14 Oct 22 Oct 4 12 Michael McCarty Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 20 Oct 25 Oct 4 13 Peter Conlon Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tonsilitis 1872 25 Oct 26 Oct 4 14 Richard A. Follett Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 26 Oct 29 Oct 4 15 Charles W. Cummings Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 27 Oct 29 Oct 4 16 W. B. San Broock Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 27 Oct 29 Oct 4 17 Daniel Ryan Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 31 Oct 4 18 Adam Shubert Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 14 Oct 5 1 Adam Shubert Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 Oct 1 Nov 5 2 Daniel Ryan Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 Oct. 30 4 Nov 5 3 Thorold Fofs Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 1 Nov 4 Nov 5 4 W. B. San Broock Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 7 Nov 10 Nov 5 5 Joseph Elliott Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 8 Nov 15 Nov 5 6 William Buckley Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 9 Nov Buckley) 5 7 Charles Johnson Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 10 Nov 12 Nov 5 8 Adam Shubert Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 10 Nov 15 Nov 5 9 Charles W. Cummings Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 15 No v 18 Nov 5 10 Thorold Fofs Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 15 Nov 18 Nov 5 11 Richard A. Follett Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 15 Nov 18 Nov 5 12 Harry Hanks Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Contusion with Excoriation 1872 16 Nov 24 Nov

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425 Page Entry Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Year Admitt ed Returned to Duty Died Remarks 5 13 Michael McCarty Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 17 Nov 19 Nov 5 14 W. B. San Broock Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 18 Nov 22 Nov 5 15 Thorold Fofs Private 1st U.S Cav. D Neuralgia 1872 20 Nov 24 Nov 5 16 Kenneth Garin Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Bronchitis 1872 22 Nov 24 Nov 5 17 Richard Burkett Sgt. 1st U.S. Cav. D Dysentery 1872 22 Nov 25 Nov 5 18 Edward Kingin Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Diarrhea 1872 22 Nov 2 4 Nov 5 19 Willian Bates Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Debility 1872 22 Nov 24 Nov 5 20 Henry Stackhaus Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Gonorrhea 1872 22 Nov 29 Nov 5 21 Richard A. Follett Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 22 Nov 30 Nov 5 22 Michael McCarty Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 29 Nov 6 1 Michael McCarty Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 29 Nov 12 Dec 6 2 William Bates Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 9 Dec 11 Dec 6 3 William Buckley Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 9 Dec 6 4 Joseph Elliott Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 16 Dec 21 Dec 6 5 Henry Stackhaus Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Otitis 1872 20 Dec 21 Dec 6 6 Mich Hackett Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Whiltow 1872 21 Dec 25 Dec 6 7 Patrick Fitzgibbon Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Contusion 1872 23 Dec 26 Dec Hand injured by kick of mule. 6 8 W. B. San Broock Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 23 Dec 6 9 Washington Mordin Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Contusion 1872 25 Dec 31 Dec Leg injured by horci kick. 6 10 John Donnelly Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Contusion or Spasm 1872 28 Dec 7 1 William Buckley Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Rheumati sm 1872 15 Dec Private Wm. B 7 1 William Buckley Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 15 Dec 7 2 W. B. San Broock Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1872 23 Dec 19 Jan 7 3 John Donnelly Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Contusion 1872 25 Dec 3 Jan 7 4 Daniel Ryan Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Spasm 1873 1 Jan 10 Jan 7 5 Charles W. Cummings Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 3 Jan 4 Jan 7 6 Henry Stockhow Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Inf. Of lumen 1873 1 5 Jan 28 Jan 8 1 John Donnelly Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Diarrhea 1873 2 Feb 3 Feb 8 2 Richard Follett Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Dysentery 1873 9 Feb 11 Feb 8 3 Charles Johnson Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 13 Feb 16 Feb 8 4 W. B. San Broock Private 1st U.S. Cav. D 1873 13 Feb 25 Feb 8 5 George B. Guam Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Boils 1873 18 Feb 25 Feb 8 6 Kossuth Garren Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Gonorrhea 1873 21 Feb 8 7 Adam Shubert Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 24 Feb 28 Feb 9 1 Kossuth Garren Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Gonorrhea 1873 21 Feb 29 Mar 9 2 W. B. San Broock Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Neuralgia 1873 1 Mar 9 3 Henry F. Bates Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Rheumatism 1873 [red 9 4 Joseph Blukage Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 22 Mar 27 Mar 9 5 Frank Soritt Sgt. 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 22 Mar 25 Mar 9 6 Henry Rolf Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Incised Wound 1873 21 Mar 24 Mar

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426 Page Entry Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Year Admitt ed Returned to Duty Died Remarks 9 7 Charles O'Conner Private 23rd Infantry E Syphilis 1873 21 Mar 25 Mar 9 8 Kororoles Musician 5th U.S. Cav. Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 21 Mar 9 9 Charles Dugal Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Headache 1873 21 Mar 9 10 Pugh Hiram Private 23rd Infantry Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 21 Mar 9 11 O'Neil Private 5th U.S. Cav. C Constipation 1873 21 Mar 9 12 John C. Clark Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Bronchitis 1873 21 Mar 9 13 Dan Slygen Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Bronchitis 1873 21 Mar 9 14 Edward Riphard Private 5th U.S. Cav. Dyspepsia 1873 21 Mar 9 15 T. Ludwig Private 23rd Infantry Diarrhea 1873 21 Mar 25 Mar 9 16 William H. Hany Private He adache 1873 21 Mar 9 Carroll Private Syphilis 1873 21 Mar 9 John O'Conner Private Contused Wound 1873 21 Mar 9 Cummings Private D Troop Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 26 Mar 29 Mar 9 Carroll Private D Troop D Scrotal Wear and Bubo 1873 21 Mar 9 John O'Conner Private D Troop D Contused Wound 1873 21 Mar 9 Cummings Private D Troop D Febris Intermitt. 1873 26 Mar 28 Mar 9 Carroll Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Scrotal Wear and Bubo 1873 9 John O'Conner Private 1st U.S. Cav D Contused Wound 1873 9 Cummings Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Febris Intermitt. 1873 9 Hardy Oates Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Rheumatism 1873 21 Mar 9 John Murphy Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Febris Intermitt. 1873 25 Mar 26 Mar 9 Will iam Mutoini Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Febris Intermitt. 1873 23 Mar 9 John Nowlin Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Febris Intermitt. 1873 26 Mar 28 Mar 9 John Tierney Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Febris Intermitt. 1873 26 Mar 28 Mar 9 Thomas G onderson Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Dyspepsia 1873 26 Mar 28 Mar 9 Joseph Lafontaine Private 23rd U.S. Infantry C Neuralgia 1873 26 Mar 28 Mar 9 Lorimer Orchitis 1873 28 Mar 9 John Hany Chronic Diarrhea 1873 9 Rob Hackney 18 73 10 1 Hardy A. Oates Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Enlarged Spleen 1873 1 Apr 13 Apr 10 John Hiney Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Chronic Diarrhea 1873 1 Apr 6 Apr 10 William Ryan Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Gonorrhea 1873 10 Harry Rolf Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Piles 1873 1 Apr 10 Apr 10 John Nowlin Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Injury of Finger 1873 1 Apr 20 Apr 10 Charles H. Carr Sgt. 23rd U.S. Infantry E Injury of Finger 1873 5 Apr 10 Apr 10 H. B. Murphy Musician 5th U. S. Cav. Band Hernia 1873 5 Apr 12 Apr Duty Apr. 12th. 10 John Tierney Private Fever 1873 1 Apr 10 Bernard Morrow Private E Syphilis 1873 1 Apr Sent to Hospital Tucson 10 (Robb C. Dunn) Private D Cavy. Constipation 1873 7 Apr 7 Apr Quartans 10 (J. Carroll) Private Scrotal Wear and Bubo 1873 1 Apr Sent to Hospital Tucson April 1st 10 (J. Carroll) Private Syphilis 1873 1 Apr

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427 Page Entry Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Year Admitt ed Returned to Duty Died Remarks 10 (Chas. Robinson) Musician 5th U.S. Cav. Band Catarrh 187 3 5 Apr 8 Apr 10 John Hermann Private Fever 1873 6 Apr 8 Apr 10 David D. Garrison Private 1st U.S. Cav. Fever 1873 9 Apr 11 Apr 10 Timothy Hafford Private 1st U.S. Cav. Sprain 1873 9 Apr 12 Apr 10 Thomas O'Neil Musician 5th U.S. Cav. B and Sprain 1873 10 Apr 12 Apr 10 William Nowles Musician 5th U.S. Cav. Band Sprain 1873 10 Apr 13 Apr 10 William Lorimer Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Chronic Orchitis 1873 10 Apr McDowell 10 Charles W. Cummings Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Fever 1873 11 Apr 13 Apr 10 William Mubrenan Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Fever 1873 11 Apr 14 Apr 10 John Smith Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Sprained Finger 1873 11 Apr 17 Apr 10 (Ford) Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Malinger ing 1873 11 Apr Prisoner Hosp Tucson 10 (John B. Rollic) Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Sprain 1873 12 Apr 14 Apr Duty 10 (George Douglas) Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Catarrh 1873 12 Apr 14 Apr Prisoner 10 Charles H. Carr Sgt. 23rd U.S. Infantry E Episterni s 1873 12 Apr 13 Apr Hosp 10 Joseph Elliott Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Diarrhea 1873 13 Apr 14 Apr 10 Joseph Elliott Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Colic 1873 13 Apr 14 Apr 10 Robert Hackney Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Diarrhea 1873 13 Apr 14 Apr 10 Micha el Holman Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Fever 1873 13 Apr 13 Apr 10 Philip Mornero Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Pneumonia 1873 13 Apr 14 Apr Hosp Tucson 13th 10 (Thomas C. Steward) Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Inflamation 1873 13 Apr 13 Apr 10 Fr anz A. Bothz Corporal 23rd U.S. Infantry D Contused Wound 1873 14 Apr Hosp Tucson 14th 10 (Morris) Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Malingering 1873 13 Apr Prisoner 10 Krag Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Contusion 1873 14 Apr 30 Apr Prisoner 10 P. Shields Private 5th U.S. Cav. Band Toothache 1873 15 Apr 18 Apr 10 Henry Ranper Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 15 Apr 18 Apr 10 John A. Brighley Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 15 Apr 18 Apr 10 James Kelly Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Anemia 1873 15 Apr 18 Apr 10 (William Layman) Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Sprain 1873 15 Apr 16 Apr 10 Francis Hubert Sgt. 1st U.S. Cav. D Acute Diarrhea 1873 15 Apr 18 Apr 10 Br Lasy Private 5th U.S. Cav. D Syphilis 1873 15 Apr 10 Davis Private 5th U.S. Cav. D Dyspepsia 1873 15 Apr 17 Apr 11 Thomas O'Neil Private 5th U.S. Cav. C Bubo 1873 15 Apr Prisoner Hosp 11 Charles H. Bliss Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Sore Hand 1873 17 Apr 22 Apr 11 Julian Orlouski Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Malingering 1873 17 Apr 20 Apr 11 Richard A. Follett Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 17 Apr 19 Apr 11 Lawrence Snyderheim Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D D. tremens 1873 16 Apr Hosp 11 Hardy H. Oates Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Urietas 1873 17 Apr 20 Apr Prisoner 11 F. Smith Private 5th U.S. Cav. Band Injury to Foot 1873 18 Apr 28 Apr 11 William Seymour Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Diarrhea 1873 19 Apr 25 Apr 11 William Hor stmann Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Piles 1873 19 Apr 11 Adam Shubert Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 19 Apr 21 Apr

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428 Page Entry Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Year Admitt ed Returned to Duty Died Remarks 11 John Smith Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Contusion of Foot 1873 18 Apr 19 Apr 11 John Boyle Private 1 st U.S. Cav. D Conjunctivitus 1873 21 Apr 24 Apr 11 Horace Baker Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Diarrhea 1873 21 Apr 23 Apr 11 (Joseph Elliott) Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Night Blindness 1873 21 Apr 23 Apr 11 Daniel Ryan Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Remitten t Fever 1873 21 Apr 24 Apr 11 (P. Holt) Private 1st U.S. Cav. D Neuralgia 1873 21 Apr 23 Apr Prisoner 11 James Rhein Private 5th U.S. Cav. L Boils 1873 22 Apr 25 Apr En route to Camp Graham 11 Peter Tarose Sgt. 23rd U.S. Infantry E Sprain 1873 2 3 Apr 26 Apr En route to Camp Graham 11 Charles Rastatter Private 5th U.S. Cav. L Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 23 Apr 24 Apr En route to Camp Graham 11 (George Barkley) Private 5th U.S. Cav. L Laceration of Femorlora 1873 23 Apr En route to Camp Graham 11 Samuel Knox Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Night Blindness 1873 23 Apr 28 Apr En route to Camp Graham 11 (Peter Clancy) Corporal 1st U.S. Cav. D Inebriation 1873 23 Apr 23 Apr 11 (Tim Brock) Private 1st U.S. Cav. D 1873 24 Apr 25 Apr 11 (Carroll) Private 1873 24 Apr From Hospital 11 (James Kennedy) Private 5th U.S. Cav. L Malingering 1873 24 Apr 11 John G. Donnell Private 5th U.S. Cav. L Contusion 1873 25 Apr 27 Apr Prisoner 11 John Murphy Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Diarr hea 1873 25 Apr 26 Apr 11 John McCarthey Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 25 Apr 26 Apr 11 J.H.B. Firth Private 5th U.S. Cav. Band Sprain 1873 24 Apr 26 Apr 11 J.J. Robinson Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Night Blindness 18 73 25 Apr 27 Apr 11 W.H. Reynolds Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Night Blindness 1873 25 Apr 11 John Sinister Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1873 25 Apr 27 Apr Hospital Apr. 26th 11 William Dicbold Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Colur C ont 1873 25 Apr 27 Apr 11 Franke Kince 23rd U.S. Infantry D 1873 26 Apr 11 Mownel Peter Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 26 Apr 28 Apr 11 George W. Churchhill 1st. Sgt. 5th U.S. Cav. H Fractured Ribs 1873 28 Apr 11 James McDonnell Private 23rd U.S. Infantry H Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 28 Apr 11 P. Shields Private 5th U.S. Cav. Band Acute Diarrhea 1873 28 Apr 2 May 11 Pat Conlan Sgt. 5th U.S. Cav. H Acute Diarrhea 1873 29 Apr 2 May 11 Charles H. Folsom Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Injury to Head 1873 30 Apr 11 Silas Tupper Private 5th U.S. Cav. L Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 29 Apr 12 Jas. McDonald Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 1 May 2 May 12 Stephen O'Conner Lieut. 23rd U.S. Infantry D Acute Dysentery 1873 1 May 8 May 12 Pat Conlan Sgt. 5th U.S. Cav. H Acute Dysentery 1873 1 May 6 May 12 Charles H. Folsom Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Injury of Nail 1873 1 May 3 Jun Hosp May 4th 12 Silas Tupper P rivate 5th U.S. Cav. D Fever 1873 1 May 3 May 12 P. Shields Private 5th U.S. Cav. Band Acute Dysentery 1873 1 May 6 May Hosp May 2nd Duty May 6th 12 Charles Shower Private 5th U.S. Cav. D Piles 1873 1 May 4 May 12 John Smith Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1873 3 May 21 May Hosp May 5th Duty May 21st 12 William Horstmann Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Piles 1873 1 May 5 May 12 George Sloan Corporal 5th U.S. Cav. H Piles 1873 5 May 13 May

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429 Page Entry Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Year Admitt ed Returned to Duty Died Remarks 12 Michael Hobbins Private Recruits Pleurisy 1873 5 May 10 May 12 Henry O'Donnell Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1873 6 May 7 May 12 Kilder Marshall Private Recruits Acute Diarrhea 1873 6 May 7 May 12 John Wiseman Private Recruits Acute Dysentery 1873 6 May 10 May Hosp May 6th 12 Jas. Robinson Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Neuralgia 1873 6 May 9 May Prisoner 12 Henry O'Donnell Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1873 6 May 9 May 12 Henry O'Donnell Private 2 3rd U.S. Infantry D Acute Dysentery 1873 6 May 28 May 12 T.K.M. Smith Capt. 23rd U.S. Infantry D Acute Diarrhea 1873 5 May 9 May 12 John Tierney Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Sprain (Loins) 1873 6 May 12 May 12 George W. Churchill Sgt. 5th U.S. Cav. H Fractured Ribs 1873 6 May 9 May From Hosp. 12 John Bannon Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 6 May 9 May 12 John Nowlin Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 9 May 10 May 12 Francis Riss Privat e 5th U.S. Cav. H Adenitis Tumor 1873 8 May 16 May 12 John Wright Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 9 May 16 May 12 Hardy H. Oates Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 11 May 12 May 12 Joseph B Kirkleridge Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Acute Diarrhea 1873 11 May 13 May 12 Denis Mulany Private Recruits Acute Diarrhea 1873 13 May 18 May 12 Albert Long Private Recruits Acute Diarrhea 1873 13 May 15 May 12 John Watson Private Recruits Acute Diarrhea 1873 12 May 14 May 12 Albert DeLaney Private Recruits Syphilis 1873 12 May 19 May 12 John J. Kelly Musician 5th U.S. Cav. Band Gonorrhea 1873 13 May 23 May 12 John Richard Private Recruits Recruits Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1873 14 May 18 May 12 James Brady Corporal 23rd U.S. Infantry E Acute Dysentery 1873 15 May Hosp 17th 12 John O'Conner Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Piles 1873 15 May 19 May 12 Jas. Hackett Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Acute Dysentery 1873 15 May 19 May 12 A. J. Oakes Private 5th U.S. Cav. E ? 1873 16 May 19 May 12 George Barkley Private 5th U.S. Cav. L Contusion of Head 1873 16 May 25 May 12 John Richard Private 5th U.S. Cav. L Br. Chronic 1873 17 May 30 May Hosp May 20th Duty 12 He rman Deffren Musician 5th U.S. Cav. Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1873 16 May 27 May 12 Jas. Daniels Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1873 17 May 20 May 12 Jas. Kelly Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 17 May 19 May 12 John J. Robinson Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Contusion 1873 19 May 20 May 13 Thomas O'Neil Private 5th U.S. Cav. C Syphilitic Bubo 1873 14 May From Hospital 13 Frank Haviland Sgt. 23rd U.S. Infantry D Neuralgia 1873 21 May 26 May 13 John A. Beighley Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1873 21 May 26 May 13 Leopold Wenk Private 5th U.S. Cav. Band Vertigo 1873 22 May 26 May 13 Washington Lennox Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fe ver 1873 23 May 26 May 13 Henry S. Webb Private 5th U.S. Cav. K Acute Diarrhea 1873 23 May 25 May 13 John Murphy Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 24 May 26 May 13 William Ryan Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Gonorrhea 1 873 24 May 26 May 13 John Carlson Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Night Blindness 1873 25 May 26 May

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430 Page Entry Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Year Admitt ed Returned to Duty Died Remarks 13 John Baylan Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Acute Dysentery 1873 26 May 27 May 13 Thomas Sloan Corporal 5th U.S. Cav. H Contusion of Chest 1873 26 May 30 M ay 13 Mathew Kenny Sgt. 23rd U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 26 May 30 May 13 Jorge A. Doon Sgt. 5th U.S. Cav. H Otinhea Left Ear 1873 27 May 13 Henry Miller Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Secondary Syphilis 1873 26 May 13 Girrer o O'Brian Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Inebriation 1873 27 May 28 May 13 Michael Michele Private 5th U.S. Cav. B Contusion of Foot 1873 29 May 13 Leopold Wenk Musician 5th U.S. Cav. Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 30 May 13 James MacDonnell Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 31 May 14 James McDonald Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 5 Jun 14 John Oberlander Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Catarrh 1873 2 Jun 5 Jun 14 Leopold Wenk Musician 5th U.S. Cav. Band Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1873 14 Henry Miller Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Secondary Syphilis 1873 18 Jun Hosp June 4th 14 Jorge A. Doon Sgt. 5th U.S. Cav. H Otorrhea Left Ear 1873 14 Thomas O'Neil Private 5th U .S. Cav. C Secondary Syphilis 1873 Hosp June 16th 14 John Moran Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E ? 1873 3 Jun 6 Jun Transfered to the Company June 4th 14 John Murphy Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Dyspepsia 1873 2 Jun 6 Jun 14 William J. Lewis Privat e 5th U.S. Cav. H Neuralgia 1873 2 Jun 6 Jun 14 John Warner Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Dyspepsia 1873 2 Jun 4 Jun 14 August Holman Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 2 Jun 6 Jun 14 Fernando Davidson Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Catarrh 1873 4 Jun 14 Charles H. Folsom Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Ingrowing Toe Nail 1873 4 Jun 20 Jun Hosp June 14th 14 John McDonald Private 5th U.S. Cav. B Lumbago 1873 4 Jun 14 William Kohler Musician 5th U.S. Cav. Band Tonsilitis 1873 10 Jun 18 Jun Transferred to the Company June 4th 14 Maran Archibald Musician 5th U.S. Cav. Band Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 11 Jun 15 Jun 14 Charles Coon Sgt. 23rd U.S. Infantry E Acute Diarrhea 1873 11 Jun 13 Jun 14 John Taylor Private 5th U.S. Cav. E Sprain of Back 1873 11 Jun 13 Jun 14 Hardy H. Oates Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Catarrh 1873 11 Jun 25 Jun 14 Simon Schroeder Corporal 23rd U.S. Infantry E Verlmus Sicronon Right Elbow 1873 12 Jun 15 Jun 14 Joseph Heore Private 23 rd U.S. Infantry D Rheumatism 1873 12 Jun 13 Jun 14 Charles Miller Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Night Blindness 1873 13 Jun 16 Jun 14 James Daniels Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Chronic Rheumatism 1873 14 Jun 17 Jun 14 John Tierney Private 23rd U.S. Inf antry E Catarrh 1873 14 Jun 16 Jun 14 Jorge Baker Corporal 5th U.S. Cav. H Gonorrhea 1873 18 Jun 26 Jun 14 John Kelly Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Catarrh 1873 18 Jun 14 Michael Bayan Private 5th U.S. Cav. L.M. Sargt. Inebriation 1873 17 Jun 19 Ju n 14 William F. Imors Corporal 5th U.S. Cav. H Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 19 Jun 25 Jun 14 Jas. Robinson Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Neuralgia 1873 20 Jun 22 Jun 14 P. Shields Private 5th U.S. Cav. Band Chronic Rheumatism 1873 21 Jun 24 Jun 14 E. Ofergnei Musician 5th U.S. Cav. Band Dyspepsia 1873 22 Jun 23 Jun 14 Charles Novisit Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Infl. of Int. Ear Pat. 1873 25 Jun

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431 Page Entry Names Rank Regiment or Corps. Company Complaint Year Admitt ed Returned to Duty Died Remarks 14 Michael Bryan 2nd Sgt. 5th U.S. Cav. Otorrhea Left Ear 1873 26 Jun 29 Jun 14 Hen ry Reuben Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Inebriation 1873 28 Jun 14 Jose Baunn Private 1873 15 John Haney Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Constipation 1873 2 Jul 5 Jul Porsrat 15 John Ochre Sgt. 23rd U.S. Infantry E Gonorrhea 1873 3 Jul 15 Charles Novisio Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Infl. Of Ear 1873 25 Jun 15 Ludwig Lurd Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Sprained Ankle 1873 4 Jul 5 Jul 15 William F. Snow Corporal 5th U.S. Cav. H Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 4 Jul 15 Joseph Mi ller Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Acute Dysentery 1873 4 Jul 5 Jul 15 John Bell Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Piles 1873 4 Jul 9 Jul 15 John Cornelson Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Acute Diarrhea 1873 4 Jul 5 Jul 15 John Connolly Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Lacera tion of Hand 1873 4 Jul 15 John McGuire Private 23rd U.S. Infantry D Sprain Knee 1873 2 Jul 5 Jul 15 Thomas Gunderson Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Laceration Wound of Scalp 1873 5 Jul 15 Mark Sutherland Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Infl. Of Eye 18 73 5 Jul 15 William Diebold Private Trumpeter D Acute Diarrhea 1873 5 Jul 6 Jul 15 John Kelly Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Catarrh 1873 13 Jul 30 Jul 15 John Brannon Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Neuralgia 1873 July ? 15 George Doon Sgt. 5th U.S. Ca v. H Otorrhea 1873 23 May 15 T. C. K. Henfer L. M. Sargt. Aural Catarrh 1873 9 Jul 15 Michael Bryan L. M. Sargt. Headquaters Otorrhea 1873 9 Jul 15 William Seymour Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 9 Jul 15 Jame Hackett Private 23rd U.S. Infantry E Ingrowing Toe Nail 1873 9 Jul 15 John Warner Private 5th U.S. Cav. H Tertian Intermittent Fever 1873 9 Jul 15 Theorald Rassmower Musician 5th U.S. Cav. Band Contusion of Face and Hand 1873 8 Jul *B old type indicates that ledger text was difficult to read.

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432 APPENDIX H POST HOSPITAL LEDGER BOOK 122, FORT LOWEL L, TUCSON, ARIZONA T ERRITORY (NOVEMBER 1 879 DECEMBER 1883) Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 1 2505 Thomas Roach Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Aug 79 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 1 2555 John Grisson Private D 6th U.S. Cav. 13 Sep 79 Quarters Typho Malaria Fever 1 2574 Charles Rowland Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 28 23 Nov 79 Guardhouse Lacerated Wound (Forehead) 1 2575 Charles Aman Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 42 24 Nov 79 Quarters Simple Fracture (Left C lavicle) 1 2577 Thadeus Wenzel Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 31 27 Nov 79 Quarters Abscess 1 2580 George Goodfellow Act. Asst. Surgeon USA 29 18 Nov 79 Quarters Contusion (Foot) 1 2578 Charles Webber Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Nov 79 Quarter s Chronic Dysentery 1 2579 John Carberry Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Nov 79 Quarters Neuralgia 1 2581 Patrick Duffy Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Dec 79 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 2582 Thomas Reynolds Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Dec 79 Quarters Catarrh 1 2583 Oscar Reinhardt Sgt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Dec 79 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 1 2584 Emil Scorponette Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Dec 79 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 1 2585 John Mitchimore Corpl. M 6th U.S. C av. 13 Dec 79 Quarters Catarrh 1 2586 Wm. Schornliben Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Dec 79 Quarters Tonsillitis 1 2587 Daniel McCready Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Dec 79 Quarters Tonsillitis 1 2588 Arthur Eisert Private H 12th Infantry 23 Dec 79 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 2589 Henry Nevon Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 24 24 Dec 79 Quarters Contusion (Left Shoulder) 2 2590 Harry Moss Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 27 27 Dec 79 Quarters Contusion (Back) 2 2591 Charles McCarthy Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 26 26 Dec 79 Quarters Burns (Right Hand) 2 2592 Charles Howard Sgt. Major 6th U.S. Cav. 26 Dec 79 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 2 2593 William Briggs Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 38 30 Dec 79 Quarters Abscess 2 2594 Math ew Weiler Recruit 27 31 Dec 79 Guardhouse Contusion ( ) 2 2505 Thomas Roach Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Aug 79 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 2 2580 George Goodfellow Act. Asst. Surgeon USA 29 18 Nov 79 Quarters Contusion (Foot) 2 2581 Pa trick Duffy Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Dec 79 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 2588 Arthur Eisert Private H 12th Infantry 23 Dec 79 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 2 2589 Henry Nevon Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 24 24 Dec 79 Quarters Con tusion (Left Shoulder) 2 2591 Charles McCarthy Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 26 26 Dec 79 Quarters Burns (Right Hand) 2 2593 William Briggs Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 38 30 Dec 79 Quarters Abscess 2 2594 Mathew Weiler Recruit 27 31 Dec 79 Guar dhouse Contusion ( ) 3 2595 Landora Muller Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Jan 80 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 3 2596 William Goldrick Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Jan 80 Quarters Cholera Morbus 3 2597 James Flynn Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 23 11 Jan 80 Quarters Sprain (Left Ankle) 3 2598 George Gowey Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Jan 80 Quarters Gonorrhea 3 2599 Enfurt Goss Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 26 13 Jan 80 Quarters Contusion (Left Shoulder) 3 2600 Emil Scorponelle Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Jan 80 Quarters Tonsillitis 3 2601 Frank Wolff Trumpt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Jan 80 Quarters Catarrh 3 2602 John Carberry Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Jan 80 Quarters Acute Rheumatism

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433 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 3 2603 Joseph Colburn Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Jan 80 Quarters Catarrh 3 2604 John Rareira Bugler F 6th U.S. Cav. 25 Jan 80 Guardhouse Catarrh 3 2605 Thomas Lewis Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 26 Jan 80 Quarters Abscess 3 2606 Chanus Morrey Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 27 J an 80 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 3 2607 Emil Scorponelli Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Jan 80 Quarters Tonsillitis 3 2608 Edward McCready Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Jan 80 Quarters Catarrh 3 2609 John Carberry Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Jan 8 0 Quarters Catarrh 3 2610 Albert Gillet Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 31 Jan 80 Guardhouse Acute Rheumatism 4 2505 Thomas Roach Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Aug 79 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 4 2580 George Goodfellow Act. Asst. Surgeon USA 30 18 Nov 79 Tucson Contusion (Back) 4 2607 Emil Scorponelli Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Jan 80 Quarters Tonsillitis 4 2608 Edward McCready Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Jan 80 Quarters Catarrh 4 2609 John Carberry Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Jan 80 Qua rters Catarrh 4 2610 Albert Gillet Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 31 Jan 80 Quarters Acute Bronchitis 4 2611 John Keefer Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Feb 80 Quarters Contusion (Right Wrist) 4 2612 Robert Ruman Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Feb 80 Quart ers Quotidian Intermittent Fever 4 2613 Alvin Rogers Private F 6th U.S. Cav. 31 3 Feb 80 Guardhouse Frostbite (Both Feet) 4 2614 George King Private D 6th U.S. Cav. 24 7 Feb 80 Quarters Contusion (Left Foot, 2nd Toe) 4 2615 Thomas Reynolds Pr ivate M 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Feb 80 Quarters Boils 4 2616 John Hogan Private G 6th U.S. Cav. 29 10 Feb 80 Guardhouse Contusion (Big Toe, Right Foot) 4 2617 Albert Gillet Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 24 14 Feb 80 Quarters Sprain (Left Wrist) 4 2618 Ch anus Morrey Sgt. F 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Feb 80 Quarters Catarrh 4 2619 Charles Abert Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Feb 80 Quarters Tonsillitis 4 2620 Joel Letbel Private B 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Feb 80 Guardhouse Acute Bronchitis 5 2621 John Lynch Pr ivate M 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Feb 80 Quarters Acute Bronchitis 5 2622 Charles E. Abert Private D 6th U.S. Cav. 21 Feb 80 Quarters Boils 5 2623 H. J. Perrine 1st Lieut. 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Feb 80 Quarters Catarrh 5 2624 William F. Wilson Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 26 Feb 80 Quarters Acute Bronchitis 5 2625 Herman Mehlig Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Feb 80 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 2580 George Goodfellow Act. Asst. Surgeon USA 30 18 Nov 79 Tucson Contusion (Back) 5 2624 Will iam F. Wilson Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 26 Feb 80 Quarters Acute Bronchitis 5 2625 Herman Mehlig Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Feb 80 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 2626 Thomas Williams Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Mar 80 Quarters Tonsilliti s 5 2627 Edward McCready Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Mar 80 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 5 2628 James McCann Sgt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Mar 80 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 5 2629 Wm. Bradley Private E 12th Infantry 11 Mar 80 Camp JA Rucker Constipation 5 2630 Michael Flagherty Private E 12th Infantry 15 Mar 80 Quarters Mumps 5 2631 Oscar Rheinhardt Sgt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Mar 80 Quarters Incised Wound (Left Thumbs) 5 2632 John Lynch Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Mar 80 Quart ers Acute Rheumatism 6 2633 John Hoghe Private B 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Mar 80 Guardhouse Acute Rheumatism

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434 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 6 2634 Charles Carthy Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Mar 80 Quarters Incised Wound (Forehead) 6 2635 Julius Rott Private C 6th U.S. Cav. 2 0 Mar 80 Quarters Tonsillitis 6 2636 John Christie Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 22 Mar 80 Quarters Catarrh 6 2637 Abraham Pariera Bugler M 6th U.S. Cav. 24 23 Mar 80 Quarters Sprain (Right Shoulder) 6 2638 Henry Meloille Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Mar 80 Quarters Headache 6 2639 Charles Lambrecht Sgt. Band 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Mar 80 Quarters Palpitation of the Heart (Functional) 6 2640 James Pellquin Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 25 Mar 80 Quarters Catarrh 6 2641 James R. Jones Private C 12th Infantry 26 Mar 80 Quarters Tonsillitis 6 2642 George Mitchimore Corpl. M 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Mar 80 Quarters Boils 6 2643 Charles Abert Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Mar 80 Quarters Primary Syphilis 6 2644 Charles Perret Private Band 6t h U.S. Cav. 30 Mar 80 Quarters Deafness 6 2645 John Carberry Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Mar 80 Quarters Boils 6 2646 Emil Scorponelli Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Mar 80 Quarters Tonsillitis 6 2647 Thomas Williams Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 31 Mar 80 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 7 2580 George Goodfellow Act. Asst. Surgeon USA 30 18 Nov 79 Tucson Contusion (Back) 7 2629 William Bradley Private E 12th Infantry 11 Mar 80 Camp JA Rucker Constipation 7 2642 George Mitchimore Corpl. M 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Mar 80 Quarters Boils 7 2643 Charles Abert Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Mar 80 Quarters Primary Syphilis 7 2644 Charles Perret Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Mar 80 Quarters Deafness 7 2645 John Carberry Private M 6th U.S. C av. 30 Mar 80 Quarters Boils 7 2646 Emil Scorponelli Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Mar 80 Quarters Tonsillitis 7 2647 Thomas Williams Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 31 Mar 80 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 7 2648 James Lawler Sgt. B 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Apr 80 Quarters Catarrh 7 2649 Charles Brinkman Private B 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Apr 80 Quarters Catarrh 7 2650 W. A. Rafferty Capt. 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Apr 80 Quarters Catarrh 7 2651 John Schmidt Sgt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Apr 80 Quarters Headache 7 2652 George Mitchimore Corpl. M 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Apr 80 Quarters Abscess 7 2653 William Goldrick Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Apr 80 Quarters Incised Wound (Two Fingers Left Hand) 7 2654 John Carberry Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Apr 80 Guardhou se Inebriation 7 2655 Joseph A. Weaver Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Apr 80 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 8 2656 Peter Renner Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Apr 80 Quarters Constitutional Syphilis 8 2657 John C. Howard Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Ap r 80 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 2658 John Bailey Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Apr 80 Guardhouse Constitutional Syphilis 8 2659 Will Schenloben Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 17 Apr 80 Guardhouse Dyspepsia 8 2660 David Muller Private C 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Apr 80 Quarters Simple Fracture (Right Tibia) 8 2661 John Megihe Recruit 18 Apr 80 Guardhouse Acute Rheumatism 8 2662 John C. Woods Corpl. M 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Apr 80 Quarters Opthalmia 8 2663 William Swagler Private M 6 th U.S. Cav. 25 Apr 80 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 8 2664 Oscar Rheinhardt Sgt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Apr 80 Quarters Opthalmia 8 2665 James Rutledge Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Apr 80 Quarters Cholera Morbus

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435 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 8 2666 Charles Aman Pri vate Band 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Apr 80 Quarters Boils 8 2667 Fourteen Private B Ind. Scout 3 Apr 80 Field Abscess 9 2629 Wm. Bradley Private E 12th Infantry 11 Mar 80 Camp JA Rucker Constipation 9 2643 Charles Abert Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Mar 80 Quarters Primary Syphilis 9 2644 George Perret Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Mar 80 Quarters Deafness 9 2658 John Daily Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Apr 80 Guardhouse Constitutional Syphilis 9 2664 Oscar Rheinhardt Sgt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Apr 80 Quarters Opthalmia 9 2666 James Rutledge Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 26 Apr 80 Quarters Cholera Morbus 9 2667 William F. Wilson Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 3 May 80 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 2668 Abraham Pareira Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 3 May 80 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 2669 Robert Reiman Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Mar 80 Quarters Catarrh 9 2670 James Daugherty Private G 12th Infantry 4 Mar 80 Quarters Catarrh 9 2671 William Hewluigo Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Mar 80 Quarters Contusion (Middle Finger Left Hand) 9 2672 Charles Schletthauer Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Mar 80 Quarters Piles 9 2673 Felix Feany Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 8 May 80 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 9 2674 Charles Lembke Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 32 8 May 80 Quarters Sprain 9 2675 William Goldrick Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 8 May 80 Quarters Inebriation 9 2676 John Carberry Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 9 May 80 Guardhouse Headache 10 2677 George Perret Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 7 May 80 Quarters Deafness 10 2678 George Wells Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 10 May 80 Quarters Hiccough 10 2679 William Hardsly Unsigned Recruit 14 May 80 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 2680 Frank Stevens Recruit A 6th U.S. Cav. 19 May 80 Quarters Typho Malaria Fever 30 May 80 10 2681 Thomas Stark Recruit G 6th U.S. Cav. 19 May 80 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 2682 Chancer Blackely Recruit A 6th U.S. Cav. 20 May 80 Quar ters Tonsillitis 10 2683 Thomas Foran Recruit D 6th U.S. Cav. 21 May 80 Quarters Tonsillitis 10 2684 Joseph Haberbush Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 21 May 80 Quarters Incised Wound (First Finger, Left Hand) 10 2685 John Woodbury Private E 6th U.S Cav. 25 May 80 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 10 2686 Chancer Stacey Private G 6th U.S. Cav. 25 May 80 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 10 2687 Thomas Morris Private I 12th Infantry 25 May 80 Quarters Boils 10 2688 George Frederick Private C 6th U.S. Cav. 26 May 80 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 10 2689 William Woods Private I 12th Infantry 27 May 80 Quarters Tonsillitis 10 2690 James Walch Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 28 May 80 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 10 2691 John Daily Private D 6t h U.S. Cav. 28 May 80 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 10 2692 Charles Monthero Private G 6th U.S. Cav. 29 May 80 Quarters Acute Bronchitis 11 2693 George Brafsen Private I 6th U.S. Cav. 30 May 80 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 2694 William Wood s Private I 12th Infantry 31 May 80 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 2695 Thomas Stark Private G 6th U.S. Cav. 25 May 80 Orchitis 11 2667 Fourteen Private B Ind. Scout 3 Apr 80 Field Abscess 11 2643 Charles Abert Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Mar 80 Quarters Primary Syphilis 11 2677 George Perret Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 7 May 80 Deafness

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436 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 11 2678 George Wells Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 10 May 80 Not Diagnosed 11 2683 Thomas Foran Private D 6th U.S. Cav. 21 May 80 Tonsill itis 11 2685 John Woodbury Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 25 May 80 Acute Rheumatism 11 2691 John Daddy Private D 6th U.S. Cav. 28 May 80 Acute Diarrhea 11 2692 Charles Monthero Private G 6th U.S. Cav. 29 May 80 Acute Bronchitis 11 2693 G eorge Brafsen Private F 6th U.S. Cav. 30 May 80 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 2694 William Woods Private I 6th U.S. Cav. 31 May 80 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 11 2695 Thomas Stark Private G 6th U.S. Cav. 25 May 80 Orchitis 12 2696 H enry Stewart Private G 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Jun 80 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 2697 John Martin Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 34 1 Jun 80 Contusion (Back) 12 2698 Alexander Schuvalof Private G 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Jun 80 Acute Diarrhea 12 2699 Will iam Woodruff Private C 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Jun 80 Acute Diarrhea 12 2700 John Walker Private H 12th Infantry 5 Jun 80 Acute Diarrhea 12 2701 Theodore Ratcliffe Private I 12th Infantry 6 Jun 80 Cholera Morbus 12 2702 Charles Gallaghan Private C 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Jun 80 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 2703 James Brunnecker Private D 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Jun 80 Acute Diarrhea 12 2704 Charles Jagnes Private I 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Jun 80 Acute Diarrhea 12 2705 Will Macnamara Private B 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Jun 80 Acute Diarrhea 12 2706 John Birch Private B 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Jun 80 Cholera Morbus 12 2707 Joseph Colburn Private F 6th U.S. Cav. 13 Jun 80 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 12 2708 Chas. Knackle Hosp. Stwd. USA 30 Jun 80 Remittent Fever 6 Jul 80 12 2709 Chas. Gast Private H 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Jul 80 Acute Diarrhea 12 2710 George Wilkerson Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Jul 80 Inebriation 12 2711 Wm. Case Sgt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Jul 80 Acute Diarrhea 13 George Wilts Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 10 May 80 Not Diagnosed 13 George Woodbury Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 25 May 80 Acute Rheumatism 13 2712 Lincoln Allen Trumpt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Jul 80 Acute Diarrhea 13 2713 Thos. Reynolds Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Jul 80 Acute Dysentery 13 2714 Landora Miller Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Jul 80 Acute Dysentery 13 2715 J. M. Burnew Private Sig. Corps. USA 23 Jul 80 Conjunctivitis 13 2678 George Wilts Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 10 M ay 80 Not Diagnosed 13 2685 George Woodbury Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 25 May 80 Acute Rheumatism 13 2716 James Shochan Private B 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Aug 80 Catarrh 13 2717 Wm. W. Matheas Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Aug 80 Acute Diarrhea 13 2718 Hermann Mehlig Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 24 9 Aug 80 Sprain (Right Wrist) 13 2719 Chas. Amman Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Aug 80 Fort Bowie Post Hosp. Conjunctivitis 13 2720 Chas. F. Morey Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Aug 80 Catarrh 13 2721 Frank Wolff Trumpt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Aug 80 Acute Diarrhea 14 2719 Chas. Amman Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Aug 80 Conjunctivitis 14 2720 Chas. F. Morey Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Aug 80 Catarrh

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437 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 14 2721 Frank Wolff Trumpt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Aug 80 Acute Diarrhea 14 2722 Henry Limpke Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Sep 80 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 2723 Wm. Harding Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Sep 80 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 2724 Robert VanRiper C orpl. M 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Sep 80 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 2725 Wm. M. Matheas Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Sep 80 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 2726 Jos. Devine Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Sep 80 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 14 272 7 Jos. K. McKenna Private Sig. Corps. USA 22 14 Sep 80 Punctured Wound 14 2728 Harris Lewis Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 30 23 Sep 80 Burn 15 2719 Chas. Amman Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Aug 80 Conjunctivitis 15 2728 Davis Lewis Private M 6 th U.S. Cav. 30 23 Sep 80 Burn 15 2729 Alexander Hunter Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Oct 80 Acute Diarrhea 15 2730 Eric Lambrecht Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Oct 80 Neuralgia 15 2731 Robert W. Robinson Chief Musician Band 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Oct 80 Neuralgia 15 2732 John M. Harren Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Oct 80 Acute Diarrhea 15 2733 Henry Limpke Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Oct 80 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 15 2734 Jas. McCann Sgt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Oct 80 Quot idian Intermittent Fever 15 2735 George Mitchimore Sgt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Oct 80 Boils 16 2719 Chas. Amman Private C 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Aug 80 Conjunctivitis 16 2736 Nathan Fitmore Private D 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Nov 80 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 16 2737 Charles Abert Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Nov 80 Catarrh 16 2738 Chauncey Morey Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Nov 80 Neuralgia 16 2739 Alonzo Overmann Private D 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Nov 80 Acute Rheumatism 16 2740 Erich Lambrec ht Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Nov 80 Neuralgia 16 2741 Jas. Foley Sgt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Nov 80 Acute Rheumatism 16 2742 Christian Lutz Private 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Nov 80 Neuralgia 16 2743 K. P. Perrine 1st Lieut. 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Nov 80 Colic 16 2744 John Schmidt Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Nov 80 Tertian Intermittent Fever 16 2745 Christian Bartelmefry Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 27 17 Nov 80 Camp Lacerated Wound (Fore Finger Right Hand) 16 2746 Edmond Burtis Chief Tr umpt. 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Nov 80 Catarrh 16 2747 Wm. F. Swagler Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Nov 80 Catarrh 16 2748 Alonzo Overmann Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Nov 80 Tonsillitis 17 2744 John Schmidt Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Nov 80 Tertian Intermittent Fever 17 2747 Wm. F. Swagler Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Nov 80 Catarrh 17 2748 Alonzo Overmann Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Nov 80 Tonsillitis 17 2749 Lincoln Allen Trumpt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Dec 80 Acute Bronchiti s 17 2750 John Lyons Corpl. M 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Dec 80 Colic 17 2751 Frank Wolff Trumpt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Dec 80 Catarrh 17 2752 Moron Justine Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Dec 80 Acute Bronchitis 17 August Rulan Private Band 6th U. S. Cav. 6 Dec 80 Acute Bronchitis 17 Frank Wolff Trumpt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Dec 80 Catarrh

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438 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 17 2753 James J. McCann Sgt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Dec 80 Acute Rheumatism 17 John Keefer Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Dec 80 Constipation 1 7 2754 James J. Cary Private B 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Dec 80 Gonorrhea 17 Frank Wolff Trumpt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Dec 80 Catarrh 17 2755 Oscar Polland Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 17 Dec 80 Catarrh 17 2756 C. G. Gordan 1st Lieut. 6th U.S. Cav 17 Dec 80 Acute Bronchitis 17 2757 Joseph Habenbusch Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Dec 80 Acute Rheumatism 18 2758 John Lyons Corpl. M 6th U.S. Cav. 21 Dec 80 Colic 18 2759 John Keefer Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 21 Dec 80 Headache 1 8 2760 William Brackett Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 21 Dec 80 Acute Rheumatism 18 2761 Max Loch Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 22 Dec 80 Catarrh 18 2762 Emil Scorponelli Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Dec 80 Acute Bronchitis 18 2763 William Wi lson Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Dec 80 Gonorrhea 18 2764 John Lyons Corpl. M 6th U.S. Cav. 21 Dec 80 Colic (Postmortem Diagnosis) 21 Jun 80 18 2765 Joseph Habenbusch Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Dec 80 Acute Rheumatism 18 2766 John Schmi dt Private H 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Dec 80 Tertian Intermittent Fever (Changes to Organic Disease of Heart) 18 2767 Alonzo Overmann Private B 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Nov 80 Tonsillitis 18 2768 C. G. Gordan Private 6th U.S. Cav. 17 Dec 80 Acute Bronchi tis 18 2769 Edward Lynch Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Jan 81 Conjunctivitis (Left Eye) 18 2790 William Wilson Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Jan 81 Sprain (Ankle) 18 2791 Matthew Hope Recruit L 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jan 81 Remittent Fever 19 277 2 Harry W. Lawrence Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jan 81 Remittent Fever 19 2773 John C. Morris Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jan 81 Remittent Fever 19 2774 John Schuling Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jan 81 Remittent Fever 19 2775 Wilhelm Knapp Recr uit 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jan 81 Constitutional Syphilis 19 2776 Albert J. Klare Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jan 81 Constipation 19 2777 William F. Tuttle Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jan 81 Tertian Intermittent Fever 19 2778 Garrett Harlem Recrui t 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jan 81 Ulcers 19 2779 Peter Clancy Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Jan 81 Tonsillitis 19 2780 Edmond LeBlanc Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Jan 81 Acute Bronchitis 19 2781 David Townsend Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Jan 81 Remitte nt Fever 19 2782 Ludwick Baige Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Jan 81 Gonorrhea 19 2783 Edward Getting Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Jan 81 Tonsillitis 19 2784 William Brackett Private D 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Jan 81 Ulcers 19 2785 Frank Berrick Rec ruit 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Jan 81 Acute Bronchitis 19 2786 Jas. Wilson Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Jan 81 Acute Bronchitis 19 2787 William Welsh 1st Sgt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Jan 81 Lacerated Wound (Cut of upper leg) 20 2788 Charles Julray Sgt. B and 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Jan 81 Acute Rheumatism 20 2789 William W. Goldrick Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 13 Jan 81 Otorrhoea

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439 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 20 2790 Edward Fitzgerald Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Jan 81 Constitutional Syphilis 20 2791 William F. Tuttle Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Jan 81 Tertian Intermittent Fever 20 2792 Eric Lambrecht Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 21 Jan 81 Conjunctivitis 20 2793 Edward Burtis Chief Trumpt. 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Jan 81 Acute Bronchitis 20 2794 Wagon Justine Private Ba nd 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Jan 81 Colic 20 2795 Peter Lehbuhauer Private H 6th U.S. Cav. 26 Jan 81 Colic 20 2796 Alex Hunter Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Jan 81 Sprain (Ankle) 20 2797 C. G. Gordan Private 6th U.S. Cav. 17 Dec 80 Acute Br onchitis 20 2798 Joseph Haberbush Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Jan 81 Acute Rheumatism 20 2798 Joseph Haberbush Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Jan 81 Intermittent Fever 20 2799 William F. Tuttle Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Jan 81 Tertian Inte rmittent Fever 20 815 Edward Fitzgerald Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Jan 81 Constitutional Syphilis 20 2800 Alonzo Overmann Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Nov 80 Constitutional Syphilis 20 2801 Matthew Hope Private F 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jan 81 R emittent Fever 20 2802 John Morris Private C 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jan 81 Remittent Fever 21 2803 Wilhelm Knapp Private C 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jan 81 Constitutional Syphilis 21 2804 Alexander Hunter Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 31 27 Jan 81 Sprain (Ank le) 21 2805 Felix Franz Private I 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Feb 81 Acute Bronchitis 21 2806 David Lewis Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Feb 81 Acute Bronchitis 21 2807 Lincoln Allen Trumpt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Feb 81 Acute Bronchitis 21 2808 Willia m Neely Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Feb 81 Acute Bronchitis 21 2809 Emilio Scorponeti Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Feb 81 Inflamation of the Larynx 21 2810 George B. Applebro Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Feb 81 Acute Rheumatism 21 2810 Geor ge B. Applebro Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Feb 81 Intermittent Fever 21 2811 John Finnell Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Feb 81 Acute Rheumatism 21 2812 James Flynn Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Feb 81 Acute Diarrhea 21 2813 Thomas Learney Pri vate E 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Feb 81 Ulcers 21 2814 Francis Jordan Not convict. 22 Feb 81 Primary Syphilis 21 2816 Joseph Haberbush Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 25 Jan 81 Acute Rheumatism 21 2816 Joseph Haberbush Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 25 Jan 8 1 Intermittent Fever 21 2817 George B. Applebro Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Feb 81 Acute Rheumatism 21 2817 George B. Applebro Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Feb 81 Intermittent Fever 21 2818 Emilio Scorponeti Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Feb 81 Inflamation of the Larynx 22 2819 Francis Jordan Not convict. 22 Feb 81 Primary Syphilis 22 2820 Golilick Gisler Sgt. D 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Mar 81 Neuralgia 22 2821 James J. McCann Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Mar 81 Acute Rheumatism 22 2822 Erich Lambrecht Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Mar 81 Acute Bronchitis 22 2823 Ames Widdam Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Mar 81 Primary Syphilis 22 2824 Kuino Kalm Private B 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Mar 81 Boils 22 2825 Edmond Burtis Chief Trump t. 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Mar 81 Acute Bronchitis

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440 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 22 2826 Christian Barthelmew Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Mar 81 Acute Bronchitis 22 2827 Robert W. VanRiper Corpl. M 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Mar 81 Neuralgia 22 2828 Peter Werner Private M 6th U. S. Cav. 10 Mar 81 Acute Bronchitis 22 2829 Wm. F. Tuttle Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 24 11 Mar 81 Contusion (Back) 22 2830 Chauncey F. Morey Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Mar 81 Tertian Intermittent Fever 22 2831 John Lynch Private C 6th U.S. Cav. 31 19 Mar 81 Contusion (Left Arm) 22 2832 Felix Schlotthauer Private H 6th U.S. Cav. 26 30 Mar 81 Contusion (Left Foot) 23 2833 George B. Applebro Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Feb 81 Acute Rheumatism 23 2834 Amos Waddam Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Mar 81 Primary Syphilis 23 2835 Peter Schlotthauer Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 26 30 Mar 81 Contusion (Left Foot) 23 2836 F. H. Jordan Mil. Convict 1 Apr 81 Primary Syphilis 23 2837 Joseph Manning Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Apr 81 Acute Bronchitis 23 2838 Peter Werner Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Apr 81 Remittent Fever 23 2839 Felix Franz Private I 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Apr 81 Acute Bronchitis 23 2840 Thomas Reynolds Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Apr 81 Constipation 23 2841 Emilio Scorponeti Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Apr 81 Catarrh 23 2842 Hermann Mehlig Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Apr 81 Erysipelas 23 2843 James Flynn Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Apr 81 Valvular dis of heart 23 2844 Thomas Reynolds Pr ivate M 6th U.S. Cav. 24 20 Apr 81 Contusion (Right Foot) 23 2845 Chauncey F. Morey Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 21 Apr 81 Conjunctivitis 24 2846 George B. Applebro Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Feb 81 Acute Rheumatism 24 2847 Chauncey F. Morey Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 21 Apr 81 Conjunctivitis 24 2848 Joseph H. Fox Recruit 12th Infantry 3 May 81 Primary Syphilis 24 2849 Frank Guthrie Recruit 12th Infantry 4 May 81 Remittent Fever 24 2850 Rudolph Amann Recruit 12th Infantry 4 May 81 Remittent Fever 24 2851 Henry Fielding Recruit 12th Infantry 4 May 81 Acute Bronchitis 24 2852 Edward Keyes Recruit 12th Infantry 4 May 81 Primary Syphilis 24 2853 John Jerome Recruit 12th Infantry 4 May 81 Conjunctivitis 24 2854 Thomas White Recruit 12th Infantry 4 May 81 Acute Diarrhea 24 2855 Edward McCarty Recruit 12th Infantry 4 May 81 Acute Diarrhea 24 2856 William Foland Recruit 12th Infantry 5 May 81 Tertian Intermittent Fever 24 2857 Henry Rid ley Recruit 12th Infantry 5 May 81 Neuralgia 24 2858 Frank Wolff Trumpt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 5 May 81 Acute Bronchitis 24 2859 Homer Herrick Recruit 12th Infantry 6 May 81 Acute Bronchitis 24 2860 Lincoln Allen Trumpt. 6th U.S. Cav. 8 M ay 81 Acute Diarrhea 24 2861 William Gray Recruit 12th Infantry 8 May 81 Boils 25 2862 Henry K. Has Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 9 May 81 Constipation 25 2863 Eagler Hyatt Recruit 12th Infantry 10 May 81 Chronic Diarrhea 25 2864 Jeremi ah Foley Sgt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 15 May 81 Constipation 25 2865 Peter Warner Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 23 May 81 Tertian Intermittent Fever

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441 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 25 2866 Erich Lambrecht Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 23 May 81 Acute Bronchitis 25 2867 Oscar Polland Pri vate F 6th U.S. Cav. 27 May 81 Acute Bronchitis 25 2868 Richard Pierce Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 28 May 81 Remittent Fever 25 2869 John Carberry Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 28 May 81 Sprain (Back) 25 2870 William Goldrick Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 28 May 81 Constipation 25 2871 Max Loch Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 28 May 81 Acute Bronchitis 25 2872 William M. Mattheus Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 28 May 81 Neuralgia 25 2873 Edward Burtis Chief Trumpt. 6th U.S. Cav. 29 May 81 Acu te Diarrhea 25 2874 George Tynell Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 31 May 81 Piles 25 2875 Leonard Grath Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 31 May 81 Acute Bronchitis 26 2876 Chauncey F. Morey Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 21 Apr 81 Conjunctivitis 26 2877 W illiam H. Goldrick Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 28 May 81 Constipation 26 2878 Edward Burtis Chief Trumpt. 6th U.S. Cav. 29 May 81 Acute Diarrhea 26 2879 Oscar Polland Private F 6th U.S. Cav. 31 May 81 Acute Bronchitis 26 2870 Richard Perc e Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 28 May 81 Remittent Fever 26 2871 Dunard Brackett Private D 6th U.S. Cav. 31 May 81 Acute Bronchitis 26 2872 George Tyrrell Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 31 May 81 Piles 26 2873 Lincoln Allen Trumpt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Jun 81 Remittent Fever 26 2874 Matthew Hope Private F 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Jun 81 Remittent Fever 26 2875 Felix Franz Private I 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Jun 81 Acute Diarrhea 26 2876 George Leach Private I 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Jun 81 Neuralgia 26 2877 William W. Matthias Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jun 81 Acute Diarrhea 26 2878 Thomas Reynolds Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Jun 81 Boils 26 2879 Richard Perce Private C 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Jun 81 Acute Rheumatism 26 2880 James O'Donnell Recruit L 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Jun 81 Acute Rheumatism 26 2881 Walter W. Neill Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Jun 81 Acute Diarrhea 27 2882 George Lee Private C 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Jun 81 Remittent Fever 27 2883 Peter Nance Private M 6th U.S. Ca v. 19 Jun 81 Remittent Fever 27 2884 William Paterson Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Jun 81 Acute Diarrhea 27 2885 Erich Lambrecht Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 22 Jun 81 Remittent Fever 27 2886 Frederick Baker Sgt. L 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Jun 81 Constitutional Syphilis 27 2887 August Tree Farm M 6th U.S. Cav. 57 29 Jun 81 Quarters Contusion (Left Hand) 27 2888 Charlie Abrat Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Jun 81 Acute Diarrhea 27 2889 William W. Rawlings Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Jun 81 Acute Diarrhea 27 2890 George Tyrrell Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 31 May 81 Piles 27 2891 Frederick Baker Sgt. L 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Jun 81 Constitutional Syphilis 27 2892 August Tree Farm M 6th U.S. Cav. 57 29 Jun 81 Quarters Contusion (L eft Hand) 27 2893 Charles Abert Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Jun 81 Acute Diarrhea 27 2894 William H. Rawlings Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Jun 81 Acute Diarrhea 27 2895 George Lee Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Jul 81 Quotidian Intermittent F ever

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442 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 27 2896 John Burke Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jul 81 Acute Diarrhea 28 2897 Alexander Hunter Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jul 81 Acute Rheumatism 28 2898 Christian Lutz Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 31 5 Jul 81 Quarters Contusion (Left Foot) 28 2899 Ambrose Oates Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Jul 81 Tertian Intermittent Fever 28 2900 Joseph Goss Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 34 6 Jul 81 Quarters Contusion (Back) 28 2901 Gotthif Gissteu Private D 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Jul 81 Boils 28 290 2 Charles Abert Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Jul 81 Acute Diarrhea 28 2903 William Walsh 1st Sgt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Jul 81 Remittent Fever 28 2904 John M. Warren Corpl. M 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Jul 81 Acute Diarrhea 28 2905 Jacob Martin Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Jul 81 Acute Diarrhea 28 2906 Joseph Haberbush Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 13 Jul 81 Acute Diarrhea 28 2907 Jacob Bauer Private C 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Jul 81 Acute Bronchitis 28 2908 John Lynch Private C 6th U.S. Cav. 18 J ul 81 Piles 28 2909 Emilio Scorponeti Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Jul 81 Acute Rheumatism 28 2910 John McManus Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 29 23 Jul 81 G.S. Wound 1st Phalanx and Index Finger 28 2911 William Lawrence Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Jul 81 Acute Rheumatism 28 2912 Henry Limpke Private A 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Jul 81 Tertian Intermittent Fever 29 2913 Frederick Popp Fan L 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Jul 81 Acute Diarrhea 29 2914 Dennis Haenceken Corpl. L 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Jul 81 Acute Rheumatism 29 2915 Henry Stockman Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Jul 81 Acute Diarrhea 30 2916 Peter Schlotthauer Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Aug 81 Acute Diarrhea 30 2917 George King Corpl. L 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Aug 81 Acute Rheumatism 30 2918 Daniel Wenlly Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Aug 81 Catarrh 30 2919 John Dewing Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Aug 81 Primary Syphilis 30 2920 Dennis Haenceken Corpl. L 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Aug 81 Paralysis 30 2921 John Keber Private L 6 th U.S. Cav. 18 Aug 81 Constipation 30 2922 Gouleib Gisler Private D 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Aug 81 Catarrh 30 2923 Edward Howard Private A 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Aug 81 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 30 2924 Thornhill Terewal Private B 6th U.S. Cav. 22 Aug 81 Acute Diarrhea 30 2925 August Tulan Private B 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Aug 81 Bite of Insect 30 2926 Richard Pierce Private C 6th U.S. Cav. 25 Aug 81 Piles 30 2927 Charles Schultz Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Aug 81 Boils 30 29 28 John A. McGuire Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Aug 81 Catarrh 31 2929 John Conway Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 11 Sep 81 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 31 2930 John Lowry Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 14 Sep 81 Quarters Neuralgia 31 2931 Julius Lamb Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 19 Sep 81 Quarters Catarrh 31 2932 Thomas Moore Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Oct 81 Guardhouse Pneumonia 31 2933 Peter Burke Sgt. D 8th U.S. Inf. 4 Oct 81 Quarters Remittent Fever 31 2934 Frank Clarke Mus'n A 8th U.S. Inf. 6 Oc t 81 Quarters Remittent Fever 31 2935 James McGuin Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 11 Oct 81 Quarters Catarrh

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443 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 31 2936 James Gallagher Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 13 Oct 81 Quarters Remittent Fever 31 2937 Joseph Rodgers Private B 8th U.S. Inf. 13 Oct 81 Post Hosp. Willcox A.T. Remittent Fever 31 2938 Levi Kauffman Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 13 Oct 81 Post Hosp. Willcox A.T. Remittent Fever 31 2939 Gustav Leibsch Private G 1st U.S. Cav. 13 Oct 81 Post Hosp. Willcox A.T. Remittent Fever 31 2940 James Pate Corpl. A 8th U.S. Inf. 17 Oct 81 Quarters Piles 31 2941 James McGuin Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 19 Oct 81 Quarters Remittent Fever 31 2942 Francis E. Thompson Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 21 Oct 81 Quarters Remittent Fever 32 2943 Edward W. Coleman Private D 8th U.S. Inf. 22 Oct 81 Quarters Contusion (Little Finger Right Hand) 32 2944 William Linsley Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 24 Oct 81 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 32 2945 John McManus Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Oct 81 Quarters Catarrh 32 2946 John Murphy Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 5 Nov 81 Quarters Remittent Fever 32 2947 Henry Smeaton Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 7 Nov 81 Quarters Piles 32 2948 Michael Obama Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 7 Nov 81 Quarters Contusion of Face 32 294 9 James McGuin Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 9 Nov 81 Quarters Constipation 32 2950 Joseph Curtin Private D 8th U.S. Inf. 14 Nov 81 Quarters Apoplexy 32 2951 Frank Clarke Mus. A 8th U.S. Inf. 21 Nov 81 Quarters Conjunctivitis 32 2952 Eugene Van De nberg Private H 12th Infantry 22 Nov 81 Quarters Catarrh 32 2953 Christian Lutz Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Nov 81 Quarters Simple Fracture (not gunshot) 32 2954 Charles Schofield Mil. Convict 22 Nov 81 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 32 2955 Wi lliam Linsley Sgt. A 8th U.S. Inf. 20 Nov 81 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 33 2956 Joseph Tynan Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 2 Dec 81 Quarters Lacerated Wound (Left Hand Thumb) 33 2957 Francis H. Allen Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 2 Dec 81 Quarters Acute Diarrh ea 33 2958 Henry Smeaton Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 3 Dec 81 Quarters Piles 33 2959 Edward R. Demain Private U.S.A. Sig. Corp. 3 Dec 81 Maricopa A.T. Remittent Fever 33 2960 William Linsley Sgt. A 8th U.S. Inf. 7 Dec 81 Quarters Tonsillitis 33 2961 John O'Donel Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 8 Dec 81 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 33 2962 John Rualey Corpl. H 12th Infantry 11 Dec 81 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 33 2963 John Conway Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 23 Dec 81 Quarters Catarrh 34 2964 Geor ge Mean Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 1 Jan 82 Quarters Remittent Fever 34 2965 John O'Donel Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 1 Jan 82 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 34 2966 Frank S. Burchet Private H 12th Infantry 9 Jan 82 Quarters Inflamation of Lungs 34 2967 William A. Wilcox Private 12th Infantry 9 Jan 82 Quarters Catarrh 34 2968 John Chapman Private H 12th Infantry 12 Jan 82 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 34 2969 John Pratt Private 12th Infantry 13 Jan 82 Quarters Remittent Fever 34 2970 Robert Kelly Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 13 Jan 82 Quarters Inebriation 34 2971 John Lowry Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 15 Jan 82 Quarters Neuralgia 34 2972 James Kennedy Private H 12th Infantry 16 Jan 82 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 34 2973 Duwain Wood Privat e H 12th Infantry 16 Jan 82 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 34 2974 Francis H. Allen Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 19 Jan 82 Quarters Inebriation 34 2975 Edward Lurnicluast Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 19 Jan 82 Quarters Primary Syphilis

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444 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 34 2976 James McGuin Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 21 Jan 82 Quarters Remittent Fever 34 2977 Franklin Taylor Private K 12th Infantry 23 Jan 82 Quarters Gonorrhea 34 2978 Darius Walton Private D 12th Infantry 21 Jan 82 Quarters Contusion (Right Eye) 34 2979 Julius L amb Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 29 Jan 82 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 34 2980 Stephen W. Grimes Private F 12th Infantry 29 Jan 82 Quarters Tonsillitis 34 2981 Rudolph Amann Private H 12th Infantry 31 Jan 82 Quarters Primary Syphilis 35 2982 Henry H. Martin Private H 12th Infantry 2 Feb 82 Quarters Remittent Fever 35 2983 Allen L. Taylor Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 6 Feb 82 Quarters Tonsillitis 35 2984 William Linsley Sgt. A 8th U.S. Inf. 6 Feb 82 Quarters Inflamation of Kidney 35 2985 Henr y Smeaton Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 9 Feb 82 Quarters Catarrh 35 2986 Dennis J. Murphy Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 9 Feb 82 Quarters Acute Bronchitis 35 2987 Frank S. Burchet Private H 12th Infantry 9 Feb 82 Quarters Vaccination 35 2988 Darius Wal ton Private D 12th Infantry 11 Feb 82 Quarters Vaccination 35 2989 Thomas Kimberly Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 11 Feb 82 Quarters Inebriation 35 2990 Harry Marsh Corpl. H 12th Infantry 14 Feb 82 Quarters Colic 35 2991 Peter Murphy Sgt. H 12th In fantry 15 Feb 82 Quarters Catarrh 35 2992 May H. Healy Capt. H 12th Infantry 15 Feb 82 Quarters Neuralgia 35 2993 David McGuam Private H 6th U.S. Cav. 17 Feb 82 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 35 2994 John O'Donel Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 28 Feb 82 Quarters Remittent Fever 35 2995 Joseph D. Tynan Private A 8th U.S. Inf. 26 Feb 82 Quarters Neuralgia 36 2996 George L. Jordan Private K 12th Infantry 28 Feb 82 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 36 2997 Frank O'Dell Private K 12th Infantry 28 Feb 82 Q uarters Acute Diarrhea 36 2998 Guy Swallow Private H 12th Infantry 28 Feb 82 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 36 2999 Frank S. Burchett Private L 12th Infantry 1 Mar 82 Quarters Simple Fracture (Lower Hand) 36 3000 Thomas J. Sheban Private I 12th Infa ntry 2 Mar 82 Quarters Inebriation 36 3001 Frederick Weetzel Private L 12th Infantry 2 Mar 82 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 36 3002 Charles S. Obust Sgt. L 12th Infantry 2 Mar 82 Quarters Boils 36 3003 Isaac L. Clark Sgt. L 12th Infantry 2 Mar 82 Quarters Sprain (Right Hip) 36 3004 John Keating Private A 12th Infantry 3 Mar 82 Quarters Sprain (Left Ankle) 36 3005 Thomas Adams Private K 12th Infantry 5 Mar 82 Guardhouse Inebriation 36 3006 George Graves Private I 8th U.S. Inf. 6 Mar 82 Guardhouse Inebriation 36 3007 Thomas Kimberly Private K 12th Infantry 6 Mar 82 Guardhouse Inebriation 36 3008 Charles McIntyre Private L 8th U.S. Inf. 7 Mar 82 Quarters Catarrh 36 3009 Henry Acott Private K 12th Infantry 7 Mar 82 Quarter s Vaccination 37 3010 Thomas Adams Private L 12th Infantry 7 Mar 82 Guardhouse Neuralgia 37 3011 Thomas Keenan Private E 12th Infantry 9 Mar 82 Guardhouse Inebriation 37 3012 Mathew Taylor Private H 12th Infantry 14 Mar 82 Quarters Ulceratio n of Cornea 37 3013 Thomas Finegan Private H 12th Infantry 18 Mar 82 Guardhouse Chronic Alcoholism 37 3014 Eugene Van Denberg Private H 12th Infantry 31 Mar 82 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 37 3015 Francis Tamlym Private H 12th Infantry 2 Apr 82 Q uarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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445 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 37 3016 Rudolph Amann Private H 12th Infantry 19 Apr 82 Quarters Primary Syphilis 37 3017 Mathew Taylor Private H 12th Infantry 12 May 82 Fort Grant A.T. Oritis Removal of Right Eye 37 3018 Mark C. Lindsey Sgt. H 12th Infantry 16 May 82 Quarters Conjunctivitis 37 3019 Peter Murphy Private H 12th Infantry 26 May 82 Quarters Epididimitis 37 3020 Jefferson Storey Recruit 12th Infantry 31 May 82 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 38 3021 Washington F. Gray Recruit H 12th Infantry 2 Jun 82 Quarters Inflamation of Lungs 38 3022 William O'Neal Recruit G 12th Infantry 3 Jun 82 Quarters Colic 38 3023 Philip Smith Recruit G 12th Infantry 3 Jun 82 Quarters Remittent Fever 38 3024 Francis S. Carrigan Recruit H 12th Infantry 5 Jun 82 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 38 3025 Gustanus A. Schrader Recruit H 12th Infantry 5 Jun 82 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 38 3026 Elijah Garman Recruit H 12th Infantry 5 Jun 82 Quarters Sprain (Right Ankle) 38 3027 Joh n Cartwright Recruit H 12th Infantry 6 Jun 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 38 3028 John J. Lange Recruit F 12th Infantry 7 Jun 82 Quarters Gonorrhea 38 3029 John Ryan Recruit K 12th Infantry 8 Jun 82 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 38 3030 Charles A. Timmons Private H 12th Infantry 8 Jun 82 Quarters Remittent Fever 38 3031 Frank S. Burchett Private H 12th Infantry 13 Jun 82 Quarters Auchylosis 38 3032 Charles A. Timmons Private H 12th Infantry 13 Jun 82 Quarters Tertian Intermitt ent Fever 39 3033 Mark C. Lindsey Sgt. H 12th Infantry 10 Jul 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 39 3034 Thomas Gibbons Private H 12th Infantry 13 Jul 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 39 3035 Frederick Weitzel Private H 12th Inf antry 14 Jul 82 Quarters Poisoning 39 3036 Charles W. Williams Private G 12th Infantry 15 Jul 82 Fort Grant A.T. Chronic Rheumatism 39 3037 William Hogan Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 15 Jul 82 Fort Grant A.T. Inflamation Joint (Left Knee) 39 3038 Thomas Glass Private Band 1st U.S. Inf. 15 Jul 82 Fort Grant A.T. Sprain (Right Ankle) 39 3039 Anthony Burke Corpl. A 1st U.S. Inf. 18 Jul 82 Fort Grant A.T. Chronic Rheumatism 39 3040 Thomas Gibbons Private H 12th Infantry 23 Jul 82 Quarters E pistasis 39 3041 Frederick Weitzel Private H 12th Infantry 26 Jul 82 Quarters Poisoning 39 3042 Denyer Blakesley Private H 12th Infantry 29 Jul 82 Quarters Ingrowing Nail 40 3043 Jeremiah O'Connell Private A 1st U.S. Inf. 6 Aug 82 Quarters P iles 40 3044 Eubrick Gallaghan Private A 1st U.S. Inf. 9 Aug 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 40 3045 Charles Geney Private B 1st U.S. Inf. 14 Aug 82 Quarters Night Blindness 40 3046 Figans Walker Corpl. I 1st U.S. Inf. 18 Aug 82 Qu arters Inflaming of Brain 40 3047 John Qualey Capt. H 12th Infantry 24 Aug 82 Quarters Piles 40 3048 Harry Wood Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 24 Aug 82 Quarters Contusion (Right Eye) 41 3049 Eugene Van Denberg Private H 12th Infantry 2 Sep 82 Quar ters Primary Syphilis 41 3050 John H. Reyburn Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 3 Sep 82 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 41 3051 Patrick Danahoe Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 4 Sep 82 Quarters Contusion of Face and Side 41 3052 Elijah Garman Private A 12th Infantry 8 Sep 82 Quarters Contusion of Forehead 41 3053 John Smith Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 11 Sep 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 41 3054 Michael Shelton Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 15 Sep 82 Quarters Inebriation 41 3055 Eugene A. Buckley 1st Sgt. I 1st U.S. Inf. 17 Sep 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever

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446 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 41 3056 Harry Wood Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 19 Sep 82 Quarters Contusion of Left Knee 42 3057 Harry Wood Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 4 Oct 82 Quarters Inflamation of Joints 42 3 058 Julius Gabler Gen. Sgt. U.S.A. 51 4 Oct 82 Guardhouse Incised Wound of Scalp 42 3059 Warren A. Rust Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 6 Oct 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 42 3060 John H. Reyburn Corpl. I 1st U.S. Inf. 7 Oct 82 Quarters Quotid ian Intermittent Fever 42 3061 Peter Remmit Q.L. L 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Oct 82 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 42 3062 John Qawling Private H 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Oct 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 42 3063 James Brent Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 14 O ct 82 Quarters 42 3064 Wm. W. Matthias Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Oct 82 Quarters Acute Diarrhea 42 3065 Edmonds Burtis Private 6th U.S. Cav. 37 16 Oct 82 Quarters Contusion of Eye, Left 42 3066 Geo. B. Stearns Sgt. Lesy 6t h U.S. Cav. 19 Oct 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 42 3067 Jack Caselott Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 20 Oct 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 42 3068 August Freggardt Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 21 Oct 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermitte nt Fever 42 3069 Edward P. Turner Private H 1st U.S. Inf. 22 Oct 82 Guardhouse Quotidian Intermittent Fever 42 3070 Edgar Blain Tin 22 Oct 82 Guardhouse 42 3071 Edward P. Hackett Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 24 Oct 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 43 3072 Warner A. Rust Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 25 Oct 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 43 3073 Edgar Blain 26 Oct 82 Guardhouse 43 3074 John H. Reyburn Corpl. I 1st U.S. Inf. 27 Oct 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 43 3075 Charles Noll Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 28 Oct 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 43 3076 Ingrim P. Inams 1st Lieut. I 1st U.S. Inf. 28 Oct 82 Quarters Piles 43 3077 Wm. E, Davis Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 30 Oct 8 2 Quarters Consumption 44 3078 Warrington Graves Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Nov 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 44 3079 Ray F. Graves Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Nov 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 44 3080 Warren Gustin Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Nov 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 44 3081 John Irwin Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Nov 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 44 3082 James A. Allen Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 27 2 Nov 82 Quarters Incised Wound (Left Leg) 44 3083 Warner A. Rust Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 2 Nov 82 Quarters Constitutional Syphilis 44 3084 Gilbert Trevane Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Nov 82 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 44 3085 Charles Freeman Hosp. Stwd. USA 5 Nov 82 Hospital Acute Rheuma tism 44 3086 Charles Carthy Private G 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Nov 82 Quarters Inebriation 44 3087 David McBride Private G 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Nov 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 44 3088 P. A. Keen Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Nov 82 Quarters Co lic 44 3089 Edgar Blain General Prisoner 35 6 Nov 82 Guardhouse Burn 44 3090 August Tulan Private Band 6 Nov 82 Guardhouse Inebriation 44 3091 John Peterson Recruit 6 Nov 82 Quarters Catarrh 44 3092 David B. Smithe Mus'n I 1st U.S. Inf 7 Nov 82 Quarters Gonorrhea 45 3093 Thomas Stanley Mus'n I 1st U.S. Inf. 8 Nov 82 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 45 3094 Peter Schlotthauer Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Nov 82 Quarters Catarrh 45 3095 Edgar Smith Recruit 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Nov 82 Guardhouse Colic

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447 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 45 3096 John Wolander Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 10 Nov 82 Quarters Acute Dysentery 45 3097 Lamar Lamunth Private L 1st U.S. Inf. 10 Nov 82 Quarters Anaemia 45 3098 Daniel Gouse Sgt. E 6th U.S. Cav. 45 13 Nov 82 Fort Grant A. T. Gunshot Wound (Neck) 45 3099 Anthony E. Hagerup Sgt. E 6th U.S. Cav. 13 Nov 82 Quarters Ulcers (Back of Right Thigh Caused by Riding) 45 3100 George Emerson Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 33 13 Nov 82 Quarters Contusion (Left Thigh) 45 3101 John S tacey Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Nov 82 Quarters Piles 45 3102 Patrick Colrin Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Nov 82 Quarters Ulcers (Right Shin) 45 3103 Davis McBride Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 17 Nov 82 Quarters Tonsillitis 45 3104 Frank Waters Pr ivate Band 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Nov 82 Quarters Quotidian Intermittent Fever 45 3105 Patrick Lutz Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Nov 82 Quarters Acute Bronchitis 45 3106 Shane Fontuan Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Nov 82 Quarters Acute Rheumatism 45 31 07 Richalines Assiveite Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Nov 82 Quarters Tumor (Left Side of Neck) 46 3108 Edward Morris Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Nov 82 Quarters Contusion of Right Fore Finger 46 3109 Robert E. D. Brown Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 26 Nov 82 Quarters Ulcer (Left Foot) 46 3110 Frank Louis Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Nov 82 Quarters Catarrh 46 3111 Samuel Harrison Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Nov 82 Quarters Gonorrhea 46 3112 John Hagarthy Trumpt. E 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Nov 8 2 Quarters Incised Wound (Sole of a Foot) 47 3113 George Evans Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Dec 82 Colic (Obstruction of the Bowels) 47 3114 James Mulliea Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 33 3 Dec 82 Gunshot Wound (Chest) 47 3115 Henry A. Bechtel Sgt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Dec 82 Ulcers (Left Foot and Ankle) 47 3116 Charles Pfund 1st Sgt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Dec 82 Piles 47 3117 Jeremiah Loucie Private A 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Dec 82 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 47 3118 John Pfander Private E 6th U. S. Cav. 8 Dec 82 Tonsillitis 47 3119 John Butterfield Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Dec 82 Otorrhea 47 3120 John A. Molander Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 10 Dec 82 Chronic Diarrhea 47 3121 William Fitzpatrick Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Dec 82 Qu otidian Intermittent Fever 47 3122 George Leach Lance Sarg. Band 6th U.S. Cav. 27 11 Dec 82 Contusion (Left Knee and Shin) 47 3123 John Welsh Corpl. K 6th U.S. Cav. 28 15 Dec 82 Lacerated Wound (Left Middle Finger) 47 3124 Carl Hotzapfel Pri vate E 6th U.S. Cav. 25 19 Dec 82 Sprain (of Back) 47 3125 Arthur E. Turple Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Dec 82 Inflamation of the Larynx 47 3126 Moses Todd Private F 6th U.S. Cav. 22 Dec 82 Inflamation of the Bladder 47 3127 Robert Brown Pr ivate Band 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Dec 82 Primary Syphilis 47 3128 James Hayden Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Dec 82 Sprain (of Back) 48 3129 Rufus Somerby Sgt. E 6th U.S. Cav. 40 26 Dec Suicide 26 Dec 82 Committed suicide by shooting himself with his carbine through the left lung after a protracted drinking spree. 48 3130 Samuel Rothrock Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Dec 82 Pholophobia 48 3131 Eugene O'Brian Private E 1st U.S. Inf. 28 Dec 82 Primary Syphilis Ulcers on Penis 48 3132 John Whittak er Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Dec 82 Tonsillitis 48 3133 George B. Stearns Sgt. Major 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Dec 82 Whitlow (Right Thumb)

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448 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 48 3134 James Callahan Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Dec 82 Inflamation of Lungs 49 3135 Warrington Harris P rivate M 6th U.S. Cav. 32 1 Jan 83 Contusion (Left Leg Above Knee) 49 3136 Edgar Lyons Mus'n Band 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Jan 83 Chronic Rheumatism 49 3137 John Decker Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 37 2 Jan 83 Gunshot Wound (Right Chest) 49 3138 Ernest D ound Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Jan 83 Acute Rheumatism 49 3139 Jos. Henninah Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Jan 83 Tonsillitis 49 3140 Peter Schlotthauer Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 32 4 Jan 83 49 3141 Daniel Donnavant Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 4 Jan 83 Tonsillitis 49 3142 Lewis Carntrum Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 36 11 Jan 83 Contusion (of Leg) 49 3143 Michael Klypen Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 13 Jan 83 Acute Diarrhea 49 3144 Eugene O'Brien General Prisoner 13 Jan 83 Chronic Rheumatism 49 3145 Jos. Wyoming Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 20 14 Jan 83 49 3146 A.D. Brian Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 29 16 Jan 83 49 3147 Mark Ernst Trumpt. E 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Jan 83 Inebriation 49 3148 Dup ont Brian Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Jan 83 Chronic Rheumatism 49 3149 Francis Strawberry Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 21 Jan 83 Inebriation 49 3150 Zachary McHard Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Jan 83 Neuralgia 50 3151 Neno Odoian Private K 6t h U.S. Cav. 24 Jan 83 Acute Bronchitis 50 3152 Edwin S. Machite Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 27 Jan 83 Contusion (Right Chest) 50 3153 Glariner Butler Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Jan 83 Abscess 50 3154 Daniel Conn Sgt. E 6th U.S. Cav. 46 28 Jan 83 Gunshot Wound (Left Shoulder) 50 3155 Archibald Sandsbury Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Jan 83 Acute Rheumatism 51 3156 Harry Lewis Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Feb 83 Chronic Rheumatism 51 3157 Alexander Baker Sgt. A 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Feb 83 Chronic Rheumatism 51 3158 Jos. Sheri Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 23 3 Feb 83 51 3159 Robert Bain General Prisoner 28 5 Feb 83 Punctured Wound (Right Thumb) 51 3160 Chas. L. Grannon Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Feb 83 Chronic Rheumatism 51 3161 Erich Lambrecht Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Feb 83 Acute Bronchitis 51 3162 Thomas Stanley Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 9 Feb 83 Neuralgia 51 3163 James Walton Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Feb 83 Contusion (Right Shoulder) 51 3164 James Tulan Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Feb 83 Acute Rheumatism 51 3165 Anthony Jones Private K 1st U.S. Inf. 8 Feb 83 Chronic Rheumatism 51 3166 John Murphy Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Feb 83 Acute Bronchitis 51 3167 George Ainmouth Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Feb 83 Acute Bronchitis 51 3168 Robert Brown Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Feb 83 Chronic Rheumatism 51 3169 Frank Taylor Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Feb 83 Chronic Rheumatism 51 3170 Bob B. Freeman Corpl. I 1st U .S. Inf. 11 Feb 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 51 3171 Joseph Manning Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Feb 83 Acute Bronchitis 52 3172 George Emerson Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Feb 83 Chronic Rheumatism 52 3173 John Pfander Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Feb 83 Acute Bronchitis

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449 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 52 3174 Paul Karrigan Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Feb 83 Tonsillitis 52 3175 John B. Martin Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Feb 83 Acute Bronchitis 52 3176 James Van Warner Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Feb 83 Acu te Bronchitis 52 3177 John Shrrl Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Feb 83 Acute Bronchitis 52 3178 Carl French Sgt. I 1st U.S. Inf. 19 Feb 83 Acute Diarrhea 52 3179 Charles Brim Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Feb 83 Chronic Rheumatism 52 3180 Ch as. Morrison Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Feb 83 Chronic Rheumatism 52 3181 Peter Cunningham Recruit 22 Feb 83 Acute Rheumatism 52 3182 Paul Karrigan Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Feb 83 Chronic Rheumatism 52 3183 Charles Chapman Private E 6 th U.S. Cav. 23 Feb 83 Gonorrhea (Stricture of Urethra) 52 3184 Peter Schlotthauer Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Feb 83 Tonsillitis 52 3185 James Ray Recruit 24 Feb 83 Chronic Rheumatism 52 3186 Samuel Kannon Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 26 Feb 83 Acute Rheumatism 52 3187 Moses Todd Private A 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Feb 83 Gonorrhea 53 3188 John J. Smith Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 1 Mar 83 Chronic Rheumatism 53 3189 Edmond Morse Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Mar 83 Inflamation of Plu era 53 3190 Morris Gladwill Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Mar 83 Tonsillitis 53 3191 Edward Howard Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Mar 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 53 3192 Jonathan D. Fulay Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Mar 83 Inflamation of 53 3193 Andy Monroe Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Mar 83 Constitutional Syphilis 53 3194 John Murry Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Mar 83 Conjunctivitis 53 3195 Wm. Koan Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 28 12 Mar 83 Sprain (Right Ankle) 53 3196 Wm. Brandt Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 15 Mar 83 Tonsillitis 53 3197 Wm. Searcy Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 28 16 Mar 83 Sprain (Right Knee) 53 3198 Thomas Jackson Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Mar 83 Alcoholism 53 3199 Chas. Parus Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Mar 83 Erysipelas 53 4000 Stralton Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 15 Mar 83 Alcoholism 53 4001 Cicero Hobson Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 23 15 Mar 83 Contusion (Left Hip) 53 4002 Chas. Ryans 1st Lieut. L 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Mar 83 Qu otidian Intermittent Fever 53 4003 W. Cummings Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Mar 83 Primary Syphilis 54 4004 Robert Brown Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Mar 83 Piles 54 4005 Patrick Murray Private L 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Mar 83 Acute Bronchitis 54 4006 Patrick Donohoe Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 29 22 Mar 83 54 4007 Lewis Bunton Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 24 22 Mar 83 Contusion (Back) 54 4008 Thomas Shandley Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 22 Mar 83 Alcoholism 54 4009 H enry Rock Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Mar 83 Acute Bronchitis 54 4010 Kenny Edge Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Mar 83 Gunshot Wound (Back) 54 4011 Frank E. Brown Corpl. K 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Mar 83 Acute Bronchitis 54 4012 James Van Warner Priva te E 6th U.S. Cav. 25 Mar 83 Chronic Rheumatism 54 4013 Xavier Royyes Sgt. E 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Mar 83 Headache

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450 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 54 4014 John Smithson Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Mar 83 Piles 54 4015 Irvine Antoine 28 Mar 83 Quotidian Intermit tent Fever 54 4016 James Melone Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Mar 83 Acute Bronchitis 54 4017 Peter Cunningham Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Mar 83 Anaemia 55 4018 Alfred Polland Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Apr 83 Sprain (Back) 55 4019 Fre d Gray Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Apr 83 Field Contusion (Hip and Back) 55 4020 Wm. Stanton 1st Lieut. E 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Apr 83 Diptheria 55 4021 L. A. Abbott Capt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Apr 83 Field Chronic Rheumatism 55 4022 Samuel Shannon Pri vate E 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Apr 83 Field Chronic Rheumatism 55 4023 Thomas Shandley I 1st U.S. Inf. 8 Apr 83 Deafness 55 4024 John Lynch Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Apr 83 Headache 55 4025 Peter Schlotthauer Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 33 10 Apr 83 Contusion (Back) 55 4026 Daniel Emmory Recruit 30 11 Apr 83 Sprain (Right Thumb) 55 4027 Chas. Wayfield Recruit 11 Apr 83 Inflamation of the Lungs 55 4028 Carohaken L. Kawnarr Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 24 11 Apr 83 Contusion (Lef t Knee) 55 4029 James Melone Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Apr 83 Acute Rheumatism 55 4029 Archibald Sandsbury Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Apr 83 Tonsillitis 55 4030 George Lany Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Apr 83 Chronic Rheumatism 55 4031 Ernest Faust Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Apr 83 Functional Heart Murmur 55 4032 Andy Monroe Private A 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Apr 83 55.5 4033 Frank Morton Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Apr 83 Alcoholism 55.5 4034 Thomas Graham Privat e I 1st U.S. Inf. 22 Apr 83 Acute Diarrhea 55.5 4035 Timothy Foley Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Apr 83 Quarters Gunshot Wound (Left Hand) 55.5 4036 James Flynn Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Apr 83 Acute Rheumatism 55.5 4036 Brian Marshall Priva te Band 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Apr 83 55.5 4037 James Lockwood Corpl. K 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Apr 83 Acute Rheumatism 55.5 4038 Mathew Jetmore Corpl. E 6th U.S. Cav. 1 May 83 Neuralgia 56 4039 Janus Doyle Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 28 1 May 83 56 4040 Patrick Young Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 2 May 83 Neuralgia 56 4041 John Walsh Sgt. A 6th U.S. Cav. 4 May 83 Headache 56 4042 August Pulan Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 11 May 83 Tape Worm 56 4043 Patric k Murray Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 12 May 83 Acute Alcoholism 56 4044 Carl Katzsypal Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 23 13 May 83 Contusion (B, Ankle) 56 4045 John M. Troyer Sgt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 32 13 May 83 Contusion (R Leg) 56 4046 John Pfander Pri vate E 6th U.S. Cav. 24 14 May 83 Sprain (L Ankle) 56 4047 Alex Garnier Sgt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 36 14 May 83 56 4048 Chas. Deitz Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 16 May 83 Chronic Rheumatism 56 4049 John Welsh Sgt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 28 18 M ay 83 Contused Wound (Right Hand) 56 4050 August Sanders Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 18 May 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 56 4051 L. A. Abbott Capt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 21 May 83 Chronic Rheumatism

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451 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 56 4052 John Shands Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 21 May 83 Headache 56 4053 Daniel Dommitt Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 22 May 83 Acute Alcoholism 57 4054 Arthur E. Turple Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 21 22 May 83 Contusion (Back) 57 4055 Leonard F. Bronsky Trumpt. M 6th U.S. Cav. 21 23 May 83 Contu 57 4056 Francis Gladwald Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 24 May 83 Night Blindness 57 4057 M. F. Tuyman Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 24 May 83 Acute Alcoholism 57 4058 Ari Phillips Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 25 May 83 Chronic Rheumatism 5 7 4059 John Chuchky Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 25 May 83 Conjunctivitis 57 4060 Frank Morton Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 26 May 83 Tertian Intermittent Fever 57 4061 Simon Askins Commisary Sgt. Field 31 May 83 Asthma 57 4062 Frank Louis Priva te K 6th U.S. Cav. 31 May 83 Chronic Rheumatism 57 4063 George Morrison Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 31 May 83 Sprain (Back) 58 4064 Patrick Basquill Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 1 Jun 83 Acute Diarrhea 58 4065 Philip C. Gribbon Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Jun 83 Acute Alcoholism 58 4066 Joseph Faryman Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Jun 83 Ulcer (Right Hand) 58 4067 James Gallagher Corpl. K 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Jun 83 Cholera Morbus 58 4068 Daniel Dommitt Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 35 4 Jun 83 58 4069 Thomas Lewis Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Jun 83 Palpatation of the Heart 58 4070 Michael Strutton Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 5 Jun 83 Dyspepsia 58 4071 Ed. C. Moran Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jun 83 Dyspepsia 58 407 2 Chas. Pfund 1st Sgt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Jun 83 Boil (Left Ankle) 58 4073 A. Abbot Capt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Jun 83 Neuralgia 58 4074 John Shands Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Jun 83 Headache 58 4075 Gorrbus Gisler Ch. Fridays 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Jun 83 Chronic Rheumatism 58 4076 Fred L. Smith Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 11 Jun 83 Acute Diarrhea 58 4077 John Haggarty Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 13 Jun 83 Headache 58 4078 Francis Gladwald Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Jun 83 Night Blindn ess 58 4079 Alfred A. Kenning Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Jun 83 Chronic Rheumatism 59 4080 Patrick Culkin Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 22 18 Jun 83 Contused Wound (Left Foot) 59 4081 George Emerson Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Jun 83 Dyspepsia 59 4082 John Pfander Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Jun 83 Neuralgia 59 4083 John Mallon Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Jun 83 Piles 59 4084 Archibald Salesbury Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Jun 83 Palpatation of the Heart 59 4085 George Emerson P rivate E 6th U.S. Cav. 35 20 Jun 83 Poisoning by Insect 59 4086 David McBride Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 21 Jun 83 Dyspepsia 59 4087 Dennis Whalen Corpl. E 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Jun 83 Otorrhea 59 4088 Louis Burns Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Ju n 83 Dyspepsia 59 4089 George Wilson sgt. E 6th U.S. Cav. 28 24 Jun 83 Sprain (Right Ankle) 59 4090 George Ainmouth Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 29 26 Jun 83 Sprain (Back) 59 4091 George D. Felt Private F 6th U.S. Cav. 21 28 Jun 83 Sprain (Back)

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452 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 59 4092 Fred L. Smith Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 29 Jun 83 Colic 59 4093 Chas. Bastrop Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 29 Jun 83 Dyspepsia 59 4094 Andy Monroe Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Jun 83 Palpatation of the Heart 59 4095 Kenny Edge Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 22 30 Jun 83 Poisoning by Insect 60 4096 L. A. Abbott Capt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Jul 83 Dyspepsia 60 4097 Powhatan G. Hatchett Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Jul 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 4098 Samuel Kannon Private Band 6 th U.S. Cav. 5 Jul 83 Primary Syphilis 60 4099 George Pullman Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Jul 83 Contusion (Both Eyes) 60 4100 Peter Schlotthauer Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Jul 83 Remittent Fever 60 4101 Adam Krammer Capt. E 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Jul 83 Acute Diarrhea 60 4102 Thomas Jackson Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Jul 83 Acute Alcoholism 60 4103 Jos. Manning Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Jul 73 Conjunctivitis 60 4104 Karl Kolzalphyal Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Jul 83 Contusion 60 4105 John Gribbon Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Jul 83 Acute Alcoholism 60 4106 John M. Frayer sgt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 17 Jul 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 60 4107 Emilio Scorponeti Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Jul 83 Chronic Rheumat ism 60 4108 August Pulan Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 42 20 Jul 83 Insect Bite (Right Hand) 60 4109 Alex Gannon sgt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 31 21 Jul 83 Contusion (Left Ankle) 60 4110 Chas. Petero Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 21 Jul 83 Contusion (Right A nkle) 60 4111 Oscar Polland Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 21 Jul 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 61 4112 Joseph Doyle Private A 1st U.S. Inf. 24 Jul 83 61 4113 Louis Cambins Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 26 Jul 83 Chronic Rheumatism 61 4114 Fred L. Smith Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 28 Jul 83 Acute Diarrhea 61 4115 Chas. Pfund 1st Sgt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Jul 83 61 4116 Emilio Scorponeti Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 31 Jul 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 61 4117 Fred L. Sm ith Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 31 Jul 83 Gonorrhea 62 4118 Michael Bowman Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Aug 83 Remittent Fever 62 4119 Kenny Edge Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Aug 83 62 4120 Frank Louis Private A 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Au g 83 Chronic Rheumatism 62 4121 John Koran 1st Sgt. E 6th U.S. Cav. 5 Aug 83 Knas (Front of Left Ankle) 62 4122 Louis Fick Private A 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Aug 83 Acute Diarrhea 62 4123 Edwin Burrows Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 8 Aug 83 Acute Diarr hea 62 4124 James Malone Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Aug 83 Chronic Rheumatism 62 4125 James Shuber Corpl. I 1st U.S. Inf. 24 9 Aug 83 Contusion (Left Big Toe) 62 4126 James Mallon Private A 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Aug 83 Acute Diarrhea 62 4127 John Kanzyuling Trumpt. E 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Aug 83 Sprain (Right Wrist) 62 4128 Chas. Burton Private I 6th U.S. Cav. 13 Aug 83 Dyspepsia 62 4129 Frederick Farrow Private A 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Aug 83 Colic 62 4130 Joseph Doyle Private E 6th U .S. Cav. 20 Aug 83 Carbonule (Back Gluteous Region) 62 4131 Antoine Oates Private A 6th U.S. Cav. 36 21 Aug 83 Sprain (Right Wrist)

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453 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 62 4132 Michael Bowman Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 22 Aug 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 62 4133 James Devine Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 26 Aug 83 Remittent Fever 63 4134 Peter E. Monaghan Ord. Sgt. U.S.A 27 Aug 83 Tertian Intermittent Fever 63 4135 Chas. Patrick Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Aug 83 Inflamation of the Stomach 10 Sep 83 Died of "Inflamat ion of the Mucosa of the Brain" 63 4136 Patrick Formey Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Aug 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 63 4137 Archie O'Neil Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 30 Aug 83 Acute Diarrhea 63 4138 Carl Smith Sgt. I 1st U.S. Inf. 30 Aug 83 Qu otidian Intermittent Fever 64 4138 Patrick Murray Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 28 1 Sep 83 Sprain (Back) 64 4139 Simon Askins Commisary Sgt. Field 3 Sep 83 Asthma 64 4140 Thornbill Parnival Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Sep 83 Boil 64 4141 J ohn Noll Recruit K 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Sep 83 Chronic Rheumatism 64 4142 Patrick Baylan Recruit K 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Sep 83 Remittent Fever 64 4143 Chas. Kartohind Recruit K 6th U.S. Cav. 9 Sep 83 Remittent Fever 64 4144 John Butterfield Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Sep 83 Acute Diarrhea 64 4145 Timothy Mahoney Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 10 Sep 83 Acute Diarrhea 64 4146 Abraham Whilk Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Sep 83 Acute Diarrhea 64 4147 Alex Gannon Trumpt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Sep 83 Contusion (Right Leg) 64 4148 Harry Mumford Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Sep 83 Remittent Fever 64 4149 Fred L. Smith Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 12 Sep 83 Colic 64 4150 John Hemming Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Sep 83 Headache 64 4151 Po whatan G. Hatchett Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 13 Sep 83 Acute Diarrhea 64 4152 Peter E. Monaghan Commisary Sgt. Field 13 Sep 83 Fistula in Duo 64 4153 Edwin A. Goram Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 13 Sep 83 Remittent Fever 65 4154 George Woodbury P rivate E 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Sep 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 65 4155 Powhatan G. Hatchett Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 17 Sep 83 Dyspepsia 65 4156 Harry Egle Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Sep 83 Remittent Fever 65 4157 Arthur Tandun Private E 6t h U.S. Cav. 18 Sep 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 65 4158 James Moran Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Sep 83 Necrosis 65 4159 John Harding Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Sep 83 Remittent Fever 65 4160 Alfred Worlne Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Sep 83 Insolation 65 4161 Cornelius Morrison Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 19 Sep 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 65 4162 John Drumm Sgt. Band 6th U.S. Cav. 22 Sep 83 Porlabsus ani 65 4163 Chas. Larrish Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 22 Sep 83 Contus ion (Back) 65 4164 George A. Rork Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 22 Sep 83 Palpatation of the Heart 65 4165 Afred Henning Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 22 Sep 83 Palpatation of the Heart 65 4166 George Emerson Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Sep 83 Acute A lcoholism 65 4167 Patrick Formey Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Sep 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 65 4168 John Hill Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Sep 83 Jaundice 65 4169 Patrick Donohoe Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 25 Sep 83 Palpatation of the Hear t 66 4170 Thomas J. Glancy Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 25 Sep 83 Fracture (Nasal Bones)

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454 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 66 4171 John Walker Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 25 Sep 83 Ulcer (on Left Side of Chest) 66 4172 Simon Askins Commisary Sgt. Field 25 Sep 83 Remittent Fever 66 4173 Guninan Bloomfald Private Band 1st U.S. Inf. 26 Sep 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 66 4174 Harry Mumford Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Sep 83 Abscess (L.L. Finger) 66 4175 Carl Smith Sgt. I 1st U.S. Inf. 30 Sep 83 Quotidian Intermi ttent Fever 67 4175 Patrick Murray Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Oct 83 Contusion (Right Ankle) 67 4176 Patrick Gaghan Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 2 Oct 83 Acute Diarrhea 67 4177 Daniel Dommitt Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 2 Oct 83 Acute Alcoholism 67 4178 Patrick Davey Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Oct 83 Conjunctivitis 67 4179 Sanuel Harrison Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Oct 83 Constitutional Syphilis 67 4180 Harry Mumford Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 4 Oct 83 Remittent Fever 67 4181 J. L. Smith Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 7 Oct 83 Chronic Rheumatism 67 4182 Jos. Gennarich Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Oct 83 Tertian Intermittent Fever 67 4183 Jos. Faryman Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Oct 83 Acute Alcoholism 67 4184 L. A. Abbott Capt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Oct 83 Neuralgia 67 4185 Chas. Hoafer Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Oct 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 67 4186 Daniel Dommitt Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 9 Oct 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 67 4187 John Shuubs Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Oct 83 Remittent Fever 67 4188 Michael Strutton Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 12 Oct 83 Acute Alcoholism 67 4189 Maximilian Kaison Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 12 Oct 83 Contusion (Right Index Finger) 67 4190 Wm. H. Jennings Priva te K 6th U.S. Cav. 27 15 Oct 83 Contusion (Left Shoulder) 68 4191 Albert Halloway Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Oct 83 Remittent Fever 68 4192 Bernard Schmidt Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 15 Oct 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 68 4193 Wm. Cox 15 Oct 83 Conjunctivitis 68 4194 George Brown Trumpt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Oct 83 Acute Diarrhea 68 4195 Harry Schmahnbrook Private H 6th U.S. Cav. 17 Oct 83 Acute Diarrhea 68 4196 Carl Schandoury Private I 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Oct 83 Remitten t Fever 68 4197 Wm. A Roni Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 20 Oct 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 68 4198 Bernard Schmidt Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Oct 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 68 4199 Ham Hanson Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 25 Oct 83 Acute Di arrhea 68 4200 Harry Mumford Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 26 Oct 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 68 4201 Harding Much Mus'n I 1st U.S. Inf. 26 Oct 83 Gonorrheal Orchitis 68 4202 James Van Warner Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 26 Oct 83 Acute Alcoholi sm 68 4203 Michael Strutton Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 29 Oct 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 68 4204 Lewis Bunton Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Oct 83 Primary Syphilis 69 4205 Edward Morris Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 28 30 Oct 83 Contusion (Lef t Hand) 69 4206 Paul Lindan Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 31 Oct 83 Acute Bronchitis 69 4207 Chas. F. Cox 2 Nov 83 Conjunctivitis 69 4208 John Lynch Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 33 4 Nov 83 Contusion (Left Shoulder) 69 4209 Patrick Donoh oe Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 6 Nov 83 Acute Alcoholism

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455 Page Hospital Number Names Rank Co. Regiment Age When Admitted From What Other Sou rce Admitted (From Field, from Field Hospital, etc.) Diagnosis (In Surgical Cases, state Seat and Character of Wound or Injury) Death Remarks 69 4210 Peter Patry Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Nov 83 Felon (Left Thumb Whitlow) 69 4211 Edwin D. Goram Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Nov 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 69 4212 Alfred I. H enning Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 13 Nov 83 Skin Disease (Intintings) 69 4213 Frank Morton Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Nov 83 Ulcer (Fingers Right Hand) 69 4214 Lewis Bunton Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 14 Nov 83 Catarrh 69 4215 Bernard Schmidt Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 17 Nov 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 69 4216 James J. Gavey Corpl. K 6th U.S. Cav. 18 Nov 83 Acute Diarrhea 69 4217 Carl Smith Sgt. I 1st U.S. Inf. 19 Nov 83 Epilepsey 69 4218 John Pfander Private E 6th U.S. Cav 20 Nov 83 Primary Syphilis 69 4219 Wm. Murray Sgt. K 6th U.S. Cav. 20 Nov 83 Neuralgia 69 4220 James J. Gavey Corpl. K 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Nov 83 Acute Diarrhea 69 4221 Chas. B. Stearns Sgt. Major 6th U.S. Cav. 23 Nov 83 Acute Diarrhea 69 4222 John C. Kurtland Private 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Nov 83 Contusion (Left Foot) 70 4223 Robert Gavey Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Nov 83 Inflamation of Pluera 70 4224 Peter Schlotthauer Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 29 Nov 83 Quotidian Intermi ttent Fever 71 4225 Adam Flynn Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 1 Dec 83 Hemophilia 71 4226 Geo. G. Gay Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Dec 83 Acute Bronchitis 71 4227 James Mallon Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Dec 83 71 42 28 Martin Bradley Mus'n I 1st U.S. Inf. 5 Dec 83 Acute Diarrhea 71 4229 John Moran Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 6 Dec 83 Vomiting 71 4230 Paul Lindan Private M 6th U.S. Cav. 7 Dec 83 Consumption 71 4231 Lewis Burrin Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 8 Dec 83 Chronic Rheumatism 71 4232 Antoin Kumm Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 10 Dec 83 Tonsillitis 71 4233 Alfred Henning Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 11 Dec 83 Inflamation of the Eye Lid (Right Eye) 71 4234 Wm. Brandt Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 1 1 Dec 83 Sprain (Back) 71 4235 Martin Bradley Mus'n I 1st U.S. Inf. 12 Dec 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 71 4236 Albert Halloway Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 13 Dec 83 Contusion (Left Ankle) 71 4237 Patrick Gayhan Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 13 Dec 83 Adenita (Glands of Right Face) 71 4238 James Doyle Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 16 Dec 83 Acute Diarrhea 71 4239 J. L. Smith Private I 1st U.S. Inf. 17 Dec 83 Chronic Rheumatism 71 4240 Gus Phonix Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 19 Dec 83 Typh iod Fever 72 4241 Tonangs Private 3rd Cav. 20 Dec 83 Chronic Rheumatism 72 4242 Pernard Schultz Private E 6th U.S. Cav. 24 Dec 83 Quotidian Intermittent Fever 72 4243 Maximilian Kaison Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 27 Dec 83 Conjunctivitis (Ri ght Eye) 72 4244 George Rortes Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 24 27 Dec 83 Contused Wound (R. Mid Finger) 72 4245 John Walker Private Band 6th U.S. Cav. 28 Dec 83 Ulcer (Left Breast) 72 4246 Powhatan G. Hatchett Private K 6th U.S. Cav. 24 31 Dec 8 3 *Bold type indicates that ledger text was difficult to read.

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456 APPENDIX I CHRONOLOGICAL LISTIN G OF UNITS POSTED AT CAMP/FORT LOWELL (RANDALL 1991 ) Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 1866 31 Mar General Staff 1 14th Inf ., Co. G Arrived at Post 3/9/66 7th Cal. Inf., Co. B 24 Left Post 3/9/66 30 Apr General Staff 1 14th Inf., Co. G 27 31 May General Staff 2 14th Inf., Co. G 48 Left Post 5/27/66 for Camp Bowie 30 Jun General Staff 1 Field Staff 1 31 Jul 1st. Cav., Co. C 76 Arrived at Post 7/29/66 31 Aug 1st. Cav., Co. C 63 30 Sep 1st. Cav., Co. C 33 31 Oct 1st. Cav., Co. C 59 30 Nov 1st. Cav., Co. C 52 31 Dec General Staff 1 1st. Cav., Co. C 38 1867 31 Jan 14th Inf., Field and S taff 2 Arrived at Post 1/8/67 1st. Cav., Co. C Left Post 1/28/67 for Ft. Grant 32nd Inf., Co. C 46 Arrived at Post 1/28/67 from Camp Cameron 28 Feb 14th Inf., Field and Staff 3 32nd Inf., Co. C 39 31 Mar 14th Inf., Field and Staff 5 32 nd Inf., Co. C 32 30 Apr 14th Inf., Field and Staff Left Post 4/6/67 for Yuma 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 5 Arrived at Post 4/5/67 32nd Inf., Co. C 23 31 May 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 5 32nd Inf., Co. C 38 30 Jun 32nd Inf., Field and S taff 3 32nd Inf., Co. C 32 31 Jul 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 5 32nd Inf., Co. C 44 31 Aug 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 5 32nd Inf., Co. C 46 30 Sep 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 2 32nd Inf., Co. C 33

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457 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 31 Oct 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 4 32nd Inf., Co. C 42 30 Nov 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 5 32nd Inf., Co. C 37 31 Dec 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 5 32nd Inf., Co. C 75 1868 31 Jan 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 5 32nd Inf., Co. C 98 29 Feb 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 3 32nd Inf., Co. C 85 31 Mar 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 4 32nd Inf., Co. C 51 Left Post 3/23/68 for Camp Wallen 30 Apr 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 3 32nd Inf., Co. E 73 Arrived at Post 4/1/68 from Camp Wallen 31 May 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 4 32nd Inf., Co. E 82 1st Cav., Co. G 49 Arrived at Post 5/15/68 from Camp Wallen 30 Jun 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 4 32nd Inf., Co. E 39 1st Cav., Co. G 67 31 Jul 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 5 32nd Inf., Co. E 36 1st Cav. Co. G 50 31 Aug 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 3 32nd Inf., Co. E 85 25 attached from various Companies of 32nd 1st Cav., Co. G 23 30 Sep 8th Cav., Field and Staff 1 Arrived at Post 9/9/68 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 3 Commander left Post 9/16 /68 General Staff 2 32nd Inf., Co. E 59 1st Cav., Co. G 51 31 Oct 8th Cav., Field and Staff 1 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 3 General Staff 2 32nd Inf., Co. E 49 1st Cav., Co. G 35 10 Indian Scouts attached 30 Nov 8th Cav., Fie ld and Staff 1 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 3 General Staff 2

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458 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 32nd Inf., Co. E 37 20 enlisted men discharged by Expiration of Service 1st Cav., Co. G 34 16 Indian Scouts attached 31 Dec General Staff 3 32nd Inf., Co. E 51 1st Cav., C o. G 54 8th Cav., Field and Staff 32nd Inf., Field and Staff 1869 31 Jan General Staff 3 32nd Inf., Co. E 59 12 Indian Scouts attached 1st Cav., Co. G 56 10 Enlisted men discharged by Expiration of Service 28 Feb General Staff 3 32nd Inf., Co. E 64 1st Cav., Co. G 45 8 Indian Scouts attached 31 Mar General Staff 2 32nd Inf., Co. E 60 1st Cav., Co. G 12 30 Apr General Staff 3 32nd Inf., Co. E 54 1st Cav., Co. G 16 31 May General Staff 3 32nd Inf., Co E 63 1st Cav., Co. G Left Post 5/10/69 for Camp Bowie 30 Jun General Staff 2 32nd Inf., Co. E 60 31 Jul General Staff 2 32nd Inf., Co. E 59 31 Aug 8th Cav., Field and Staff 1 Assumed Command of Sub District 8/19/69 General Staff 3 21st Inf., Co. E 75 32nd Inf. Assimilated into 21st Inf. 3/3/69. Garrison strength includes "1 colored undercook" 30 Sep 8th Cav., Field and Staff 1 General Staff 3 21st Inf., Co. E 68 Garrison strength includes "1 colored undercook" 31 O ct 8th Cav., Field and Staff 1 General Staff 3

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459 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 21st Inf., Co. E 93 Garrison strength includes "1 colored undercook" 30 Nov 8th Cav., Field and Staff 1 General Staff 3 21st Inf., Co. E 68 Garrison strength includes "1 colored undercook" 31 Dec 8th Cav., Field and Staff 1 General Staff 3 21st Inf., Co. E 64 Garrison strength includes "1 colored undercook" 1870 31 Jan 8th Cav., Field and Staff 1 General Staff 3 21st Inf., Co. E 56 Garrison strength includes "1 colored under cook" 28 Feb 8th Cav., Field and Staff 1 General Staff 3 21st Inf., Co. E 76 Garrison strength includes "1 colored undercook" 31 Mar 8th Cav., Field and Staff Departed 3/22/70 for Fort Wingate, N.M. General Staff 3 21st Inf., Co. E 67 Garrison strength includes "1 colored undercook" 30 Apr 21st Inf., Field and Staff 1 Assumed Command of Sub District 4/13/70 General Staff 3 21st Inf., Co. E 41 Garrison strength includes "1 colored undercook" 31 May 21st Inf., Field and Staff 1 General Staff 2 21st Inf., Co. E 45 12 enlisted men discharged by Expiration of Services 30 Jun 21st Inf., Field and Staff Left Post 6/19/70 General Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. E 39 31 Jul General Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. E 42 17 enlist ed men discharged by Expiration of Service 31 Aug General Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. E Left Post 8/30/70 for Fort Grant 21st Inf., Co. D 39

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460 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 3rd Cav., Co. F Arrived at Temporary Camp on Rillito 8/26/70 30 Sep General Staff 1 21st Inf., Co D 39 3rd Cav., Co. F Temporary Camp on Rillito 31 Oct General Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. D 30 3rd Cav., Co. F Temporary Camp on Rillito Nov 31 General Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. D 35 3rd Cav., Co. F 1 Temporary Camp on Rillito 31 De c General Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. D 37 3rd Cav., Co. F Temporary Camp on Rillito 1871 31 Jan General Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. D 36 3rd Cav., Co. F Temporary Camp on Rillito 28 Feb 21st Inf., Co. D 67 3rd Cav., Co. F Temporary Camp on Rillito 31 Mar General Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. D 64 3rd Cav., Co. F 1 Temporary Camp on Rillito 30 Apr General Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. D 46 3rd Cav., Co. F Temporary Camp on Rillito 31 May General Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. D 32 3rd Cav., Co. F 1 Temporary Camp on Rillito 30 Jun 21st Inf. Staff 1 Depot Q.m. departed for Yuma 6/30/71 21st Inf., Co. D 32 18 enlisted men discharged "From other causes; 3rd Cav., Co. F Temporary Camp on Rillito 31 Jul 21st Inf. Staff 1 R egimental Quartermaster 21st Inf., Co. D 29 3rd Cav., Co. F Temporary Camp on Rillito 31 Aug 12th Inf., Field and Staff 1 Took Command of Post 8/26/71 21st Inf., Co. A 38 Arrived at Post 8/10/71 from Camp Pinal 3rd Cav., Co. F Temporary Camp on Rillito 30 Sep 12th Inf., Field and Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. A 21

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461 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 21st Inf., Co. D 23 3rd Cav., Co. F Temporary Camp on Rillito 31 Oct 12th Inf., Field and Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. A 24 21st Inf., Co. D 18 3rd Cav., Co. F Temporary Camp on Rillito 30 Nov 12th Inf., Field and Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. A 28 21st Inf., Co. D 18 3rd Cav., Co. F Temporary Camp on Rillito 31 Dec 12th Inf., Field and Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. A 34 21st Inf., Co. D 32 3rd Cav., Co. F Left Temporary Camp on Rillito 12/9/71. 1872 31 Jan 12th Inf., Field and Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. A 37 21st Inf., Co. D 35 29 Feb 12th Inf., Field and Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. A 50 21st Inf., Co. D 34 31 Mar 12th Inf., Fie ld and Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. A 27 Relieved 3/27/72. Casually at Post. 21st Inf., Co. D 24 Relieved 3/27/72. Casually at Post. 21st Inf., Co. E 48 Arrived at Post 3/27/72. 5th Cav., Co. F Temporary Camp on Rillito. 30 Apr 12th Inf., Field and Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. A Left Post 4/1/72 for Dept. of the Columbia. 21st Inf., Co. D Left Post 4/1/72 for Dept. of the Columbia. 21st Inf., Co. E 41 31 May 12th Inf., Field and Staff 1 21st Inf., Co. E 42 30 Jun 12th Inf., Fiel d and Staff 1 23rd Inf., Co. E 55 23rd Inf., Co. D 37 Arrived at Post 6/22/72 from Camp Crittenden. 1st Cav., Co. D 76 Arrived at Post 6/20/72. Camped at site of future Camp Lowell. 31 Jul 12th Inf., Field and Staff 1 23rd Inf., Co. E 51

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462 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 23rd Inf., Co. D 23 1st Cav., Co. D 75 Camped at site of future Camp Lowell. 31 Aug 12th Inf., Field and Staff Left Post 8/72 for Angel Island, Cal. 23rd Inf., Co. E 41 23rd Inf., Co. D 31 1st Cav., Co. D 75 Camped at site of future Camp Lowell. 30 Sep 23rd Inf., Co. E September returns unavailable. 23rd Inf., Co. D 1st Cav., Co. D 31 Oct 23rd Inf., Co. E 34 23rd Inf., Co. D 25 1st Cav., Co. D 80 Camped at site of future Camp Lowell. 30 Nov 23rd Inf., Field and Staff 1 23rd Inf., Co. E 30 23rd Inf., Co. D 24 1st Cav., Co. D 78 Camped at site of future Camp Lowell. 31 Dec 23rd Inf., Field and Staff 1 23rd Inf., Co. E 42 23rd Inf., Co. D 33 1st Cav., Co. D 76 Camped at site of future Camp Lowell. 1873 31 Jan 23rd Inf., Field and Staff 1 23rd Inf., Co. E 46 23rd Inf., Co. D 35 1st Cav., Co. D 82 28 Feb 23rd Inf., Field and Staff 1 23rd Inf., Co. E 38 23rd Inf., Co. D 36 1st Cav., Co. D 87 Camped at site of fu ture Camp Lowell. 31 Mar 4th Cav., Field and Staff 1 Assumed Command of Post 3/25/87. 5th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 31 Arrived at Post 3/13/73. 23rd Inf., Field and Staff 1 Left Post 3/19/73 General Staff 1 1st Cav., Co. D 64 Rejoined at P ost 3/19/73. 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 72 30 Apr 4th Cav., Field and Staff 1 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 101 Co. H arrived at Post 4/24/73. General Staff 1

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463 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 1st Cav., Co. D Left Post 4/24/73 for Camp McDowell. 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 70 31 May 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 89 Post Commander transferred from 4th to 5th Cav. General Staff 1 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 65 30 Jun 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 64 General Staff 1 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 65 31 Jul 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 73 General Staff 3 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 90 31 Aug 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 101 General Staff 4 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 87 30 Sep 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 99 General Staff 4 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 83 31 Oct 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 90 General Staff 3 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 62 30 Nov 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 103 General Staff 3 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 87 31 Dec 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 102 General Staff 4 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 90 1874 31 Jan 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 86 General Staff 4 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 78 28 Feb 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 72 General Staff 3 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 85 31 Mar 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 35 General Staff 3

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464 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 95 30 Apr 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 75 General Staff 3 23rd Inf., Co. D an d E 92 31 May 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 84 General Staff 3 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 94 30 Jun 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 102 General Staff 3 23rd Inf., Co. D and E 93 31 Jul 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band 31 General Staff 3 5th Cav., Co. H 67 23rd Inf., Co. D and E Left Post 7/14/74 for Dept. of the Platte. 31 Aug 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band 31 General Staff 3 8th Inf., Co. G 65 30 Sep 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. H 85 Gen eral Staff 3 8th Inf., Co. G 40 31 Oct 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band 29 General Staff 3 8th Inf., Co. D and G 74 Co. D arrived at Post 10/23/74. 5th Cav., Co. H Left Post 10/28/74 for San Carlos. 30 Nov 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. C 93 Co. C arrived at Post 11/14/74. General Staff 3 8th Inf., Co. D and G 75 31 Dec 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. C 88 General Staff 3 8th Inf., Co. D and G 70 1875 31 Jan 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. C 79 Gener al Staff 3 8th Inf., Co. D and G 76 28 Feb 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. C 88 General Staff 3

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465 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 8th Inf., Co. D and G 79 31 Mar 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. C 85 General Staff 4 8th Inf., Co. D and G 69 30 Apr 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. C 82 General Staff 4 8th Inf., Co. D and G 76 31 May 5th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. C Left Post 5/1/75 for Dept. of the Missouri. General Staff 4 8th Inf., Co. D 40 8th Inf., Co. G 34 30 Jun General Staff 4 8th Inf., Co. D 43 8th Inf., Co. G 41 31 Jul 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 19 Arrived at Post 7/20/75. General Staff 5 8th Inf., Co. D and G 79 31 Aug 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 19 General Staff 4 8th In f., Co. D 33 8th Inf., Co. G 37 30 Sep 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 16 General Staff 3 8th Inf., Co. D 30 12 enlisted men discharged by Expiration of Services 31 Oct 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 19 General Staff 3 8th Inf., C o. D 30 8th Inf., Co. G 39 30 Nov 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 18 General Staff 3 6th Cav., Co. B 47 Arrived 11/2/75 from Camp Grant. 8th Inf., Co. D 26 8th Inf., Co. G 37 31 Dec 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 17 General St aff

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466 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 6th Cav., Co. B 49 8th Inf., Co. D 25 8th Inf., Co. G 33 1876 31 Jan 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 17 General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. B 59 8th Inf., Co. D 25 8th Inf., Co. G 38 29 Feb 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 1 8 General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. B 69 8th Inf., Co. D 28 8th Inf., Co. G 40 31 Mar 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 18 General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. B 60 8th Inf., Co. D 28 8th Inf., Co. G 36 30 Apr 6th Cav., Field, Staf f and Band 17 General Staff 3 6th Cav., Co. B 19 3 officers and 44 men on Scout. 8th Inf., Co. D 37 8th Inf., Co. G 38 31 May 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 16 General Staff 3 6th Cav., Co. B 60 8th Inf., Co. D 40 8th Inf ., Co. G 44 6th Inf., Co. K 55 Arrived 5/23/76. Temporarily attached. 6th Inf., Co. F 30 Arrived 5/27/76. Temporarily attached. 30 Jun 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 16 General Staff 2 6th Cav., Co. B 61 8th Inf., Co. D 43 8th Inf ., Co. G 46 6th Inf., Co. K Left Post 6/2/75 for removal of Chiricahuas.

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467 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 6th Inf., Co. F Left Post 6/2/75 for removal of Chiricahuas. 31 Jul 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 14 General Staff 2 6th Cav., Co. B 45 2 officers and 21 enlist ed men on det. Ser. 8th Inf., Co. D 47 8th Inf., Co. G 28 2 officers and 15 enlisted men on det. Ser. 31 Aug 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 13 General Staff 3 6th Cav., Co. B 53 8th Inf., Co. D 39 8th Inf., Co. G Left Post 8/1/ 76 to Camp near old Camp Goodwin. 30 Sep 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 11 General Staff 3 6th Cav., Co. B 18 1 officers and 31 enlisted men on Scout. 8th Inf., Co. G 39 31 Oct 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band Left Post 10/13/75 for Camp Grant. General Staff 3 6th Cav., Co. B 49 14 enlisted men on det. Ser. 8th Inf., Co. G 42 30 Nov General Staff 3 6th Cav., Co. B 47 1 officer and 15 enlisted men on det. ser. 8th Inf., Co. G 39 1 officer and 12 enlisted men on det. ser 31 Dec General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. B 54 8th Inf., Co. G 50 1877 31 Jan General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. B 53 8th Inf., Co. G 50 28 Feb General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. B 13 3 officers and 52 enlisted men on Scout (*At site of prese nt Ft. Huachuca.). 8th Inf., Co. G 44

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468 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 31 Mar General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. B 9 2 officers and 54 enlisted men on Scout. 8th Inf., Co. G 53 30 Apr General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. B 7 2 officers and 56 enlisted men on Scout. 8th Inf., Co G 39 31 May General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. B 12 2 officers and 51 enlisted men on Scout. 8th Inf., Co. G 47 30 Jun General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. B 4 2 officers and 61 enlisted men on Scout. 8th Inf., Co. G 36 Indian Scout, Co. D 36 enlisted men on Scout. 31 Jul General Staff 3 6th Cav., Co. B 2 8th Inf., Co. K 27 Indian Scout, Co. D 30 enlisted men on det. Ser. 8th Inf., Co. G Left Post 7/19/77 for Camp Apache. 31 Aug General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. B 2 2 officers and 62 enlisted men on det. ser. at site of present day Ft. Huachuca. 8th Inf., Co. K 28 Indian Scout, Co. D 30 enlisted men on det. ser. at site of present day Ft. Huachuca. 30 Sep General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. B 2 2 officers and 6 2 enlisted men on det. ser. at site of present day Ft. Huachuca. 8th Inf., Co. K 28 Indian Scout, Co. D 30 enlisted men on det. ser. at site of present day Ft. Huachuca. 31 Oct General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. B 2 2 officers and 62 enlisted men on det. ser. at site of present day Ft. Huachuca. 8th Inf., Co. K 27 Indian Scout, Co. D 30 enlisted men on det. ser. at site of present day Ft. Huachuca. 30 Nov General Staff November returns unavailable. 6th Cav., Co. B

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469 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 8th Inf., C o. K Indian Scout, Co. D 31 Dec General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. B 3 2 officers and 52 enlisted men on det. ser. at site of present day Ft. Huachuca. 8th Inf., Co. K 22 Indian Scout, Co. D 40 enlisted men on det. ser. at site of presen t day Ft. Huachuca. 1878 31 Jan General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. B Transferred 1/21/78 for new camp near old Wallen at site of present Ft. Huachuca. 8th Inf., Co. K 28 Indian Scout, Co. D 28 Feb General Staff February returns unavailable. 8th Inf., Co. K 31 Mar 8th Inf., Field and Staff 1 Arrived at Post 3/22/78. General Staff 3 8th Inf., Co. K 23 30 Apr 8th Inf., Field and Staff 1 General Staff 3 8th Inf., Co. K 27 31 May 8th Inf., Field and Staff 1 Genera l Staff 3 8th Inf., Co. K 23 13 enlisted men on det. ser. 30 Jun 6th Cav., Field and Staff 3 Arrived at Post 6/27/78. General Staff 3 8th Inf., Field and Staff Left Post 6/27/78 for San Francisco, Cal. 8th Inf., Co. K Left Post 6/15/78 for Angel Is., Cal. 31 Jul 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 15 Band arrived 7/19/78. General Staff 31 Aug 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 14 General Staff 4 30 Sep 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 10 General Staff 5 31 Oct 6th Cav., F ield, Staff and Band 10 General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. M 39

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470 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 30 Nov 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 10 General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. M 39 Arrived at Post 10/18/78. 31 Dec 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 16 General Staff 4 6th Cav ., Co. M 50 1879 31 Jan 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 21 General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. M 43 28 Feb 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 22 General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. M 21 2 officers and 25 enlisted men on Scout. 31 Mar 6th Cav., Fiel d, Staff and Band 21 General Staff 6 6th Cav., Co. M 51 30 Apr 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 19 General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. M 46 31 May 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 15 General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. M 44 30 Jun 6th Ca v., Field, Staff and Band 13 General Staff 6 6th Cav., Co. M 50 31 Jul 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 17 General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. M 49 31 Aug 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 15 General Staff 6 6th Cav., Co. M 51 30 Se p 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 17 General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. M 18 1 officer and 35 enlisted men "in the field" 31 Oct 6th Cav., Field, Staff and 14

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471 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments Band General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. M 55 30 Nov 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 16 General Staff 7 6th Cav., Co. M 60 31 Dec 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 14 General Staff 7 6th Cav., Co. M 60 1880 31 Jan 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 17 General Staff 6 6th Cav., Co. M 57 29 Feb 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 18 General Staff 7 6th Cav., Co. M 60 31 Mar 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 14 General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. M 63 30 Apr 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 15 General Staff 6 6th Cav., Co. M 58 31 May 6th Cav., Fiel d, Staff and Band 7 9 enlisted men on det. ser. General Staff 6 6th Cav., Co. M 57 30 Jun 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 7 12 enlisted men on det. ser. General Staff 6 6th Cav., Co. M 57 31 Jul 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 3 11 enli sted men on det. ser. General Staff 3 6th Cav., Co. M 52 31 Aug 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band Unit "In the field". General Staff 3 Also 3 contract surgeons at post. 6th Cav., Co. M 24 1 officer and 22 enlisted men on Scout. 30 Sep 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 8 General Staff 4

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472 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 6th Cav., Co. M 34 1 officer and 22 enlisted men on Scout. 31 Oct 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 13 General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. M 57 30 Nov 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 14 Genera l Staff 3 6th Cav., Co. M 58 31 Dec 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 13 General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. M 58 1881 31 Jan 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 12 General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. M 56 28 Feb 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 1 2 General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. M 62 31 Mar 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 13 General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. M 60 30 Apr 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 10 General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. M 54 31 May 6th Cav., Field, Staff an d Band 11 General Staff 3 6th Cav., Co. M 50 30 Jun 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 9 General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. M 56 31 Jul 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 10 General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. L 54 Arrived at post 7/23/81 from Ft. Bowie. 6th Cav., Co. M Left post 7/14/81 for Ft. Bowie. 31 Aug 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 9 General Staff 3

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473 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 6th Cav., Co. L 54 30 Sep 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 0 16 on det. ser. General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. L 10 44 on det. ser. 8th Inf., Co. A 25 attached 8th Inf., Co. D 25 attached on det. ser. 31 Oct 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band Left post 9/14/81 for Ft. Apache. General Staff 4 6th Cav., Co. L Left post 10/17/81 for Camp Thomas. 8th Inf., Co. A 32 attached 8th Inf., Co. D 24 attached 30 Nov 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 4 In charge of property and records. General Staff 4 8th Inf., Co. A 32 attached 12th Inf., Co. H 24 attached 31 Dec 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band Left post 12/6/81 for Ft. Apache. General Staff 4 8th Inf., Co. A 32 attached 12th Inf., Co. H 33 attached 1882 31 Jan General Staff 4 8th Inf., Co. A 33 attached 12th Inf., Co. H 38 attached 28 Feb General Staff 4 8th Inf., Co. A 34 attached 12th Inf., Co. H 37 attached 31 Mar General Staff 3 12th Inf., Co. H 42 Assigned to post 3/9/82. 8th Inf., Co. A Left post 3/1/83 for San Diego, Cal. 30 Apr General Staff 4 12th Inf., Co. H 7 38 on det ser. at Willcox. 31 May General Staff 4 12th Inf., Co. H 38 30 Jun General Staff 4 12th Inf., Co. H 44 31 Jul General Staff 4 12th Inf., Co. H 41 31 Aug General Staff 3 1st Inf., Co. I 42 Arrived at post 8/9/82 from Ft. Grant. 1st Inf., Co. H 42

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474 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 30 Sep 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 13 Arrived at post 9/29/82 from Ft. Apache. General Staff 2 1st Inf., Co. I 44 12th Inf., Co. H Left post 9/9/82 for Madison Bks., N.Y. 31 Oct 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 13 General Staff 3 1st Inf., Co. I 46 30 Nov 6th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 16 General Staff 5 6th Cav., Co. E 50 Arrived at post 11/12/82 from Ft. Apache. 6th Cav., Co. K 41 Arrived at post 11/12/82 from Ft. Apache. 1st Inf., Co. I 43 31 Dec 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, Co. E, and Co. K 145 General Staff 5 1st Inf., Co. I 41 1883 31 Jan 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, Co. E, and Co. K 139 General Staff 5 1st Inf., Co. I 38 28 Feb 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, Co. E, and Co. K 143 General Staff 5 1st Inf., Co. I 37 31 Mar 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, Co. E, and Co. K 39 7 officers and 99 enlisted men "In the Field". General Staff 3 1st Inf., Co. I 36 30 Apr 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, Co. E, and Co. K 134 General Staff 3 1st Inf., Co. I 42 31 May 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, Co. E, and Co. K 125 General Staff 4 1st Inf., Co. I 39 30 Jun 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, Co. E, and Co. K 121 General Staff 4 1st In f., Co. I 41 31 Jul 6th Cav., Field, Staff, 117

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475 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments Band, Co. E, and Co. K General Staff 4 1st Inf., Co. I 40 31 Aug 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, Co. E, and Co. K 110 General Staff 4 1st Inf., Co. I 38 30 Sep 6th Cav., Field, Staff, B and, Co. E, and Co. K 122 General Staff 4 1st Inf., Co. I 41 31 Oct 6th Cav., Field, Staff, and Band, 21 General Staff 2 6th Cav., Co. E 57 6th Cav., Co. K 59 1st Inf., Co. I 46 30 Nov 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, Co. E, and Co. K 135 General Staff 5 1st Inf., Co. I 34 31 Dec 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, Co. E, and Co. K 153 General Staff 5 1st Inf., Co. I 43 1884 31 Jan 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, Co. E, and Co. K 157 General Staff 4 1st Inf., Co. I 46 29 Feb 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, Co. E, and Co. K 143 General Staff 4 1st Inf., Co. I 46 31 Mar 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, Co. E, and Co. K 134 General Staff 3 1st Inf., Co. I 44 30 Apr 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, Co. E, and Co. K 138 General Staff 4 1st Inf., Co. I 44 31 May 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band, and Co. E 78 General Staff 4 1st Inf., Co. I 39 6th Cav., Co. K Left post 5/30/84 for Ft. Wingate,

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476 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments N.M. 30 Jun 6th Cav., Field, Staff, and Band 19 Arrived 6/16/84 from Dept. of Mo. General Staff 2 4th Cav., Co. F 62 Arrived 6/27/84 from Dept. of Mo. 4th Cav., Co. H 64 Arrived 6/27/84 from Dept. of Mo. 1st Inf., Co. I 38 6th Cav., Field, Staff, Band and Co. E Left post 6/8/84 for Dept. of the Mo. 31 Jul 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 20 General Staff 2 4th Cav., Co. F and Co. H 127 1st Inf., Co. I 38 31 Aug 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 20 General Staff 2 4th Cav., Co. F and Co. H 131 1st Inf., Co. I 43 30 Sep 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 25 General Staff 3 4th Cav., Co. F and Co. H 124 1st Inf., Co. I 44 31 Oct 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 24 General Staff 3 4th Cav., Co. F and Co. H 126 1st Inf., Co. I 39 30 Nov 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band General Staff 4th Cav., Co. F and Co. H 1st Inf., Co. I 31 Dec 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 22 General Staff 3 Com. Sgt. and Hosp. St. discharged. 4th Cav., Co. F and Co. H 118 1 st Inf., Co. I 40 1885 31 Jan 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band Left post 1/24/85 for Ft. Huachuca. General Staff 1 Com. Sgt. and Hosp. St. discharged. 4th Cav., Co. F and Co. H 112 1st Inf., Co. I 34 28 Feb General Staff 1 4th Cav., Co. F 52

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477 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 4th Cav., Co. H 55 1st Inf., Co. F 37 Arrived 2/27/85 from Ft. Bowie. 31 Mar General Staff 4 4th Cav., Co. F 52 4th Cav., Co. H 53 1st Inf., Co. F 36 30 Apr General Staff 5 4th Cav., Co. F 51 4th Cav., Co. H 58 1s t Inf., Co. F 38 31 May General Staff 6 4th Cav., Co. F 48 4th Cav., Co. H 56 1st Inf., Co. F 37 30 Jun General Staff 6 4th Cav., Co. F 6 43 on det. ser. at Ft. Huachuca. 4th Cav., Co. H 6 53 on det. ser. at Ft. Grant. 1st Inf., Co. F 32 31 Jul General Staff 5 4th Cav., Co. F 7 44 on det. ser. in Sierra Madre. 4th Cav., Co. H 6 53 on det. ser. at Guadalupe Canyon 1st Inf., Co. F 38 31 Aug General Staff 6 4th Cav., Co. F 6 44 on det. ser. in Sierra Madre. 4t h Cav., Co. H 5 54 on det. ser. at Guadalupe Canyon 1st Inf., Co. F 40 30 Sep General Staff 6 4th Cav., Co. F 6 44 on det. ser. in Sierra Madre. 4th Cav., Co. H 5 52 on det. ser. at Guadalupe Canyon 1st Inf., Co. F 37 31 Oct General Staf f 6 4th Cav., Co. F 5 45 on det. ser. at Ft. Bowie. 4th Cav., Co. H 6 52 on det. ser. at Guadalupe Canyon 1st Inf., Co. F 40 30 Nov General Staff 6 4th Cav., Co. F 24 45 on det. ser. "In the Field". 4th Cav., Co. H 12 50 on det. ser. at Guadalupe Canyon 1st Inf., Co. F 39 31 Dec General Staff 6 4th Cav., Co. F 25 44 on det. ser. "In the Field". 4th Cav., Co. H 19 49 on det. ser. at San Bernadino,

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478 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments A.T. 1st Inf., Co. F 41 1886 31 Jan General Staff 6 4th Cav., Co. F 24 50 on det. ser. "In the Field". 4th Cav., Co. H 5 60 on det. ser. at San Bernadino, A.T. 1st Inf., Co. F 30 28 Feb General Staff 6 4th Cav., Co. F 25 47 on det. ser. at Mud Springs and Silver Creek. 4th Cav., Co. H 5 55 on det. ser. at Gua dalupe Canyon. 1st Inf., Co. F 41 31 Mar General Staff 6 4th Cav., Co. F 23 47 on det. ser. at Mud Springs and Silver Creek. 4th Cav., Co. H 6 52 on det. ser. at Guadalupe Canyon. 1st Inf., Co. F 38 30 Apr General Staff 6 4th Cav., C o. F 24 47 on det. ser. "In the Field". 4th Cav., Co. H 8 52 on det. ser. "In the Field". 1st Inf., Co. F 37 31 May General Staff 6 4th Cav., Co. F 22 48 on det. ser. "In the Field". 4th Cav., Co. H 10 52 on det. ser. "In the Field". 1st Inf., Co. F 9 33 on det. ser. at Calabasas. 30 Jun General Staff 6 4th Cav., Co. F 21 49 on det. ser. "In the Field". 4th Cav., Co. H 9 53 on det. ser. "In the Field". 1st Inf., Co. F 39 31 Jul 8th Inf., Field, Staff and Band 24 Arrived at post 7/7/86. General Staff 6 8th Inf., Co. F 48 Arrived at post 7/15/86. 8th Inf., Co. H 28 Arrived at post 7/9/86. 22 on det. ser. 4th Cav. Field Officer 1 4th Cav., Co. A 57 Arrived at post 7/13/86. 4th Cav., Co. M 12 Arrived at post 7/8/86. 4th Cav., Co. F Left post 7/21/86 for Ft. Huachuca. 4th Cav., Co. H Left post 7/21/86 for Ft. Huachuca. 1st Inf., Co. F Left post 7/11/86 for Dept. of Cal. 31 Aug 8th Inf., Field, Staff and 21

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479 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments Band General Staff 3 8th Inf., Co. F 20 33 on det. ser. In Santa Catalina Mts. 8th Inf., Co. H 31 20 on det. ser. "In the Field". 4th Cav. Field Officer 1 4th Cav., Co. A 55 4th Cav., Co. M 7 52 on det. ser. "In the Field". 30 Sep 8th Inf., Field, Staff and Band 22 General Staff 3 8th Inf., Co. F 51 8th Inf., Co. H 43 4th Cav. Field Officer 1 4th Cav., Co. A 55 4th Cav., Co. M 8 53 on det. ser. "In the Field". 31 Oct 8th Inf., Field, Staff and Band 21 General Staff 3 8th Inf., Co. F 50 8th Inf., Co. H 45 4th Cav., Co. A 55 4th Cav., Co. M Left post 10/28/86 for Ft. McDowell. 30 Nov 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 4 4th Cav., Co. A 57 4th Cav., Co. E 53 Arrived at post 11/22/86 from Ft. Huachuca. 8th Inf., Fi eld, Staff, Band, Co. F and H Left post 11/24/86 for Dept. of the Platte. 31 Dec 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 5 4th Cav., Co. A 56 4th Cav., Co. E 51 1887 31 Jan 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 5 4th Cav., Co. A 52 4th Cav. Co. E 51 28 Feb 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 5 4th Cav., Co. A 57 4th Cav., Co. E 60 31 Mar 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 4

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480 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 4th Cav., Co. A 57 4th Cav., Co. E 59 30 Apr 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 2 4th C av., Co. A 61 4th Cav., Co. E 66 31 May 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 3 4th Cav., Co. A 59 4th Cav., Co. E 62 4th Cav., Co. L 57 Arrived at post 5/6/87 from Ft. Stanton, N.M. 30 Jun 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 3 4th C av., Co. A 59 4th Cav., Co. E 63 4th Cav., Co. L 55 31 Jul 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 3 4th Cav., Co. A 56 4th Cav., Co. E 61 4th Cav., Co. L 52 31 Aug 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 2 4th Cav., Co. A 54 4th Cav., Co. E 55 4th Cav., Co. L 51 30 Sep 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 3 4th Cav., Co. A 50 4th Cav., Co. E 50 4th Cav., Co. L 52 31 Oct 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 6 3 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. A 46 4th Cav., Co. E 55 4th Cav., Co. L 39 30 Nov 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 7 3 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. A 47

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481 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 4th Cav., Co. E 49 4th Cav., Co. L 51 31 Dec 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 9 4 m embers of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. A 45 4th Cav., Co. E 45 4th Cav., Co. L 51 1888 31 Jan 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 8 3 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. A 54 4th Cav., Co. E 50 4th Cav., Co. L 53 29 Feb 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 9 4 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. A 23 38 men on det. ser. 4th Cav., Co. E 15 38 men on det. ser. 4th Cav., Co. L 59 31 Mar 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 9 4 members of H ospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. A 56 4th Cav., Co. E 54 4th Cav., Co. L 52 30 Apr General Staff 8 3 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. A 52 4th Cav., Co. E 53 4th Cav., Co. L 49 31 May 4th Cav. Field 1 Ge neral Staff 8 3 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. A 53 4th Cav., Co. E 53 4th Cav., Co. L 47 30 Jun 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 8 4th Cav., Co. A 50 4th Cav., Co. E 51 4th Cav., Co. L 51 31 Jul 4th Cav. F ield 1 General Staff 9 4 members of Hospital Corps

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482 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments present. 4th Cav., Co. A 16 36 men on det. ser. 4th Cav., Co. E 47 4th Cav., Co. L 49 31 Aug 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 10 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. A 50 4th Cav., Co. E 44 4th Cav., Co. L 50 30 Sep 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 9 4 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 16 32 men on det. ser. 4th Cav., Co. G 45 Arrived at post 9/22/88. 4th Cav., Co. L 42 4th Ca v., Co. A Left post 9/18/88 for Ft. Huachuca. 31 Oct 4th Cav. Field 1 General Staff 9 4 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 43 4th Cav., Co. G 54 4th Cav., Co. L 41 30 Nov 4th Cav. Field 21 Arrived at post 11/29/88 fr om Ft. Huachuca. General Staff 9 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 46 4th Cav., Co. G 54 4th Cav., Co. L 41 31 Dec 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 22 General Staff 9 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 1889 31 Jan 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 20 General Staff 8 4th Cav., Co. E 60 4th Cav., Co. G 60 4th Cav., Co. L 56 28 Feb 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 21 General Staff 8 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 56

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483 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 4th Cav., Co. G 54 4th Cav., Co. L 52 31 Mar 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 19 General Staff 8 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 59 4th Cav., Co. G 60 4th Cav., Co. L 52 30 Apr 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 19 General Staff 8 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 63 4th Cav., Co. G 56 4th Cav., Co. L 56 31 May 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 20 General Staff 8 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 59 4th Ca v., Co. G 56 4th Cav., Co. L Left post 5/14/89 for San Carlos. 30 Jun 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 21 General Staff 6 3 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 61 4th Cav., Co. L 56 31 Jul 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 20 General Staff 9 4 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 62 4th Cav., Co. L 54 31 Aug 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 21 General Staff 8 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 57 4th Cav., Co. L 50 30 Sep 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 1 22 men on det. ser. at Camp Grierson. General Staff 6 3 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 6 53 men on det. ser. at Camp Grierson. 4th Cav., Co. L 46

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484 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 31 Oct 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Ban d 23 General Staff 8 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 50 4th Cav., Co. L 43 30 Nov 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 23 General Staff 8 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 55 4th Cav., Co. L 64 31 Dec 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 23 General Staff 7 4 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 54 4th Cav., Co. G 66 Arrived at post 12/19/89 from San Carlos. 4th Cav., Co. L Left post 12/5/89 for San Carlos. 1890 31 Jan 4 th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 23 General Staff 8 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 53 4th Cav., Co. G 61 28 Feb 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 23 General Staff 8 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 48 4th Cav., Co. G 66 31 Mar 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 22 General Staff 8 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 51 4th Cav., Co. G 64 30 Apr 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 23 General Staff 8 5 members of Hosp ital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 41 10 on det. ser. 4th Cav., Co. G 54 10 on det. ser. 31 May 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band 20 General Staff 8 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 4th Cav., Co. E 48

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485 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 4th Cav., Co. G 58 4th Cav., Co. L 49 Arrived at post 5/23/90 from San Carlos. 4th Cav., Co. D 51 Attached. 1 Jul 2nd Cav., Field, Staff and Band 19 Arrived at post 6/9/90 from Dept. of the Columbia. General Staff 8 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 2nd Cav., Co. D 41 Ar rived at post 6/9/90 from Dept. of the Columbia. 2nd Cav., Co. H 48 Arrived at post 6/9/90 from Dept. of the Columbia. 4th Cav., Field, Staff and Band Left post 6/9/90 for Ft. Walla Walla, Wash. 4th Cav., Co. E Left post 6/9/90 for Vancouver B ks., Wash. 4th Cav., Co. G Left post 6/9/90 for Ft. Sherman, I.T. 4th Cav., Co. L Left post 6/9/90 for Ft. Bidwell, Cal. 1 Aug 2nd Cav., Field, Staff and Band 19 General Staff 7 4 members of Hospital Corps present. 2nd Cav., Co. D 60 2nd Cav., Co. H 64 Indian Scouts 5 Arrived at post 6/29/90. 1 Sep 2nd Cav., Field, Staff and Band 18 General Staff 7 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 2nd Cav., Co. D 61 2nd Cav., Co. H 63 Indian Scouts 5 1 Oct 2nd Cav., Field, Staff and Band 20 General Staff 7 4 members of Hospital Corps present. 2nd Cav., Co. D 72 2nd Cav., Co. H 83 2nd Cav., Co. L 0 Arrived 9/24/90 17 on det. ser. 2nd Cav., Co. M 4 Arrived 9/24/90 "Skeleton Organization." 1 Nov 2nd Cav., Fi eld, Staff and Band 18 General Staff 5 4 members of Hospital Corps present. 2nd Cav., Co. D 69

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486 Year Day Month Unit Garrison Strength Comments 2nd Cav., Co. H 80 2nd Cav., Co. L 0 12 on det. ser. 2nd Cav., Co. M 3 5 on det. ser. Indian Scouts 3 discharged date unknown 1 Dec 2n d Cav., Field, Staff and Band 18 General Staff 7 5 members of Hospital Corps present. 2nd Cav., Co. D 64 2nd Cav., Co. H 76 2nd Cav., Co. L 0 3 on det. ser. 2nd Cav., Co. M 0 6 on det. ser. 1891 1 Jan 2nd Cav., Field, Staff and Band 20 General Staff 6 4 members of Hospital Corps present. 2nd Cav., Co. D 63 2nd Cav., Co. H 79 2nd Cav., Co. L 0 3 on det. ser. 2nd Cav., Co. M 0 4 on det. ser. 1 Feb 2nd Cav., Field 2 Remainder transferred to Ft. Wingate, N.M. 1/17/91. G eneral Staff 5 2 members of Hospital Corps present. 2nd Cav., Co. D 8 Remainder transferred to Ft. Wingate, N.M. 1/17/91. 2nd Cav., Co. H 10 Remainder transferred to Ft. Wingate, N.M. 1/17/91. 2nd Cav., Co. L Transferred to Ft. Wingate, N.M. 1/1 7/91. 2nd Cav., Co. M Transferred to Ft. Wingate, N.M. 1/17/91. 1 Mar 2nd Cav., Field 2 General Staff 4 2nd Cav., Co. B 1 Engaged in shipping stores. 2nd Cav., Co. G 8 Engaged in shipping stores. 2nd Cav., Co. H 10 Engaged in shipping stores. 1 Apr 2nd Cav., Field 2 General Staff 1 2nd Cav., Co. B 1 Engaged in shipping stores. 2nd Cav., Co. D 5 Engaged in shipping stores. 2nd Cav., Co. H 10 Engaged in shipping stores.

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487 APPENDIX J SUMMARY TABLE OF HIS TORICAL CLIMATE DAT A AND FORT LOWELL PO ST HOSPITAL RECORDS Year Month Obs Garrison 1 Smallpox 2 Dysentery 2 Diarrhea 2 Gonorrhea 2 Prim. Syphilis 2 Tert. Malaria 2 Quot. Malaria 2 Total Malaria 2 Max Temp.(F) 3 Min Temp.(F) 3 Mean Temp.(F) 3 Mean Precip.(in.) 3 Mean Evap.(in.) 4 Dis. Mean (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Max (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Min (sec. ft.) 5 ENSOI 1866 Mar. 1 25 No record of post health has been located for this time period. 76.6 41.4 59.3 0 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 0.62 1866 Apr. 2 28 84.1 46.3 65.9 0 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.65 1866 May 3 50 91.6 57.9 75 0 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.04 1866 June 4 2 99 63.2 81.4 0 11.3 0 0 0 0.82 1866 July 5 76 100.4 72 86.5 2 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.34 1866 Aug. 6 63 0 0 6 1 0 3 4 7 96.5 69.1 83.1 4.48 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 0.36 1866 Sept. 7 33 0 0 2 0 0 0 4 4 96.4 65.2 81 0 .75 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 0.18 1866 Oct. 8 59 0 1 4 0 0 3 20 23 85.2 52.5 69.1 0.68 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 0.07 1866 Nov. 9 52 0 0 3 0 0 0 6 6 70.4 39.8 55.4 4.3 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 1.1 1866 Dec. 10 39 0 0 4 0 0 1 4 5 66.7 30.5 48.9 0.8 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 0.16 1867 Jan. 11 48 0 0 4 1 0 0 6 6 65.4 38.6 52.3 0.56 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 0.09 1867 Feb. 12 42 0 0 5 0 0 0 15 15 70.7 37.1 54.1 0 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.01 1867 Mar. 13 37 0 0 3 0 0 1 14 15 76.6 41.4 59.3 0 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 0.09 1867 Apr. 14 28 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 14 84.1 46.3 65.9 0 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.83 1867 May 15 43 0 2 0 0 1 1 26 27 91.6 57.9 75 0 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.5 1867 June 16 35 0 0 2 1 0 0 13 13 99 63.2 81.4 0 11.3 0 0 0 0.48 1867 July 17 49 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 2 100.4 72 86.5 2.9 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.44 1867 Aug. 18 51 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 96.5 69.1 83.1 1.4 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 0.34 1867 Sept. 19 35 0 0 3 0 0 0 18 18 96.4 65.2 81 0.6 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 0.12 1867 Oct. 20 46 0 1 0 0 0 0 15 15 85.2 52.5 69.1 0.46 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 0.56 1867 Nov. 21 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 70.4 39.8 55.4 0.2 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.65 1867 Dec. 22 80 0 2 11 0 0 0 2 2 66.7 30.5 48.9 1.7 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 0.89 1868 Jan. 23 103 0 0 10 0 0 0 4 4 65.4 38.6 52.3 0.57 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 0.16 1868 Feb. 24 88 0 0 4 1 0 1 0 1 70.7 37.1 54.1 0.57 3.3 5 2.3 450.5 0.3 0.34 1868 Mar. 25 55 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 76.6 41.4 59.3 0.3 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 1.56 1868 Apr. 26 76 0 0 2 0 0 4 4 8 84.1 46.3 65.9 1.09 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.3 1868 May 27 135 0 0 3 0 1 3 7 10 91.6 57.9 75 0.1 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 1.34 1868 June 28 110 0 0 1 0 0 12 2 14 99 63.2 81.4 0 11.3 0 0 0 2.2 1868 July 29 91 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 3 100.4 72 86.5 3.34 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.4 1868 Aug. 30 111 0 0 1 0 0 0 15 15 96.5 69.1 83.1 0.67 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 1.41 1868 Sept. 31 112 0 2 1 0 0 0 6 6 96.4 65.2 81 3.83 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 1.23 1868 Oct. 32 90 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 3 85.2 52.5 69.1 0.25 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 1.24 1868 Nov. 33 77 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 70.4 39.8 55.4 0.32 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 1.49 1868 Dec. 34 108 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 66.7 30.5 48.9 0.5 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 0.52 1869 Jan. 35 118 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 65.4 38.6 52.3 1.09 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 1.9 1869 Feb. 36 112 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 70.7 37.1 54.1 1.53 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.26 1869 Mar. 37 74 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 76.6 41.4 59.3 0.7 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 0.59 1869 Apr. 38 73 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 2 84.1 46.3 65.9 0.27 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 2.12

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488 Year Month Obs Garrison 1 Smallpox 2 Dysentery 2 Diarrhea 2 Gonorrhea 2 Prim. Syphilis 2 Tert. Malaria 2 Quot. Malaria 2 Total Malaria 2 Max Temp.(F) 3 Min Temp.(F) 3 Mean Temp.(F) 3 Mean Precip.(in.) 3 Mean Evap.(in.) 4 Dis. Mean (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Max (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Min (sec. ft.) 5 ENSOI 1869 May 39 66 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 91.6 57.9 75 0 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 1.4 1869 June 40 62 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 111 70 88.58 0.35 11.3 0 0 0 1.53 1869 July 41 61 0 0 0 1 0 0 5 5 115 72 88.99 2.49 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 1.42 1869 Aug. 42 79 0 0 0 1 0 4 12 16 102 71 82.89 6.31 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 0.94 1869 Sept. 43 72 0 0 3 1 0 2 23 25 98 62 78.9 0.3 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 0.12 1869 Oct. 44 97 0 0 2 0 0 2 13 15 92 40 68.6 0.03 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 0.85 1869 Nov. 45 72 0 1 0 0 0 1 8 9 82 34 54. 03 1.01 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.56 1869 Dec. 46 68 0 0 1 1 0 1 3 4 68 20 47.62 0.83 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 0.42 1870 Jan. 47 60 1 1 2 0 0 1 12 13 72 35 50.25 0.02 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 1.06 1870 Feb. 48 80 0 2 7 1 0 2 11 13 80 34 53.09 0.2 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.18 1870 Mar. 49 70 2 1 0 0 0 0 13 13 92 28 58.36 0.03 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 0.75 1870 Apr. 50 45 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 99 37 68.34 0.16 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.47 1870 May 51 48 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 105 54 80.68 0 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.11 1870 June 52 40 0 1 0 0 0 3 3 6 105 55 82.9 3 0 11.3 0 0 0 1.1 1870 July 53 43 0 0 1 1 1 1 6 7 102 76 86.29 2.82 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.17 1870 Aug. 54 40 0 1 0 0 0 0 14 14 97 76 84.98 2.04 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 0.98 1870 Sept. 55 40 0 0 3 0 0 1 7 8 98 67 80.97 0 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 0 1870 Oct. 56 31 0 1 2 2 0 2 9 11 93 40 70.47 0 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 0.58 1870 Nov. 57 37 0 1 1 1 0 1 5 6 79 36 60.11 0 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.86 1870 Dec. 58 38 0 1 3 0 0 1 3 4 74 28 46.67 0.94 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 1.29 1871 Jan. 59 37 0 0 1 0 0 2 4 6 80 18 52.71 0.52 2.7 61.8 12 57.5 5.1 1.13 1871 Feb. 60 67 0 1 1 1 0 2 2 4 86 30 52.12 0.64 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.13 1871 Mar. 61 66 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 3 94 29 59.45 0.16 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 2 1871 Apr. 62 47 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 84.1 46.3 65.9 0.04 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.46 1871 May 63 34 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 91.6 57.9 75 0.06 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.47 1871 June 64 33 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 3 99 63.2 81.4 0.4 11.3 0 0 0 0.24 1871 July 65 30 0 0 1 0 0 1 11 12 100.4 72 86.5 1.02 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.31 1871 Aug. 66 39 0 0 1 1 0 2 9 11 112 72 86.63 3.7 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 0.38 1871 Sept. 67 45 0 0 2 1 0 5 17 22 112 66 85.12 2.01 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 0.58 1871 Oct. 68 43 0 3 1 0 0 6 7 13 102 35 72.39 0 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 0.14 1871 Nov. 69 47 0 2 2 2 1 6 8 14 90 28 58.12 0.21 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.02 1871 Dec. 70 67 0 1 2 1 1 2 5 7 86 30 53.16 0.35 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 0.97 1872 Jan. 71 73 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 80 21 49.51 0.54 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 2.69 1872 Feb. 72 85 0 0 1 1 2 1 2 3 94 36 55.55 0.12 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 1.12 1872 Mar. 73 100 0 2 1 0 0 1 1 2 98 32 61.54 0 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 1.69 1872 Apr. 74 42 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 107 41 63.96 0.05 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.54 1872 May 75 43 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 116 51 77.87 0.01 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 1.35 1872 June 76 169 0 1 2 2 0 0 3 3 115 68 88.1 0.26 11.3 0 0 0 2.45 1872 July 77 150 0 1 2 1 0 0 2 2 114 7 0 85.89 3.94 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 2.3 1872 Aug. 78 147 0 3 2 0 0 0 16 16 107 73 85.35 3.81 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 0.99 1872 Sept. 79 0 0 1 0 1 0 3 17 20 106 59 79.86 3.06 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 3.14

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489 Year Month Obs Garrison 1 Smallpox 2 Dysentery 2 Diarrhea 2 Gonorrhea 2 Prim. Syphilis 2 Tert. Malaria 2 Quot. Malaria 2 Total Malaria 2 Max Temp.(F) 3 Min Temp.(F) 3 Mean Temp.(F) 3 Mean Precip.(in.) 3 Mean Evap.(in.) 4 Dis. Mean (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Max (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Min (sec. ft.) 5 ENSOI 1872 Oct. 80 139 0 0 1 0 0 3 13 16 104 23 73.54 0.4 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 1 .9 1872 Nov. 81 133 0 0 0 2 1 1 6 7 70.4 39.8 55.4 0 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 3.09 1872 Dec. 82 152 0 1 0 0 0 0 10 10 66.7 30.5 48.9 1.39 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 2.8 1873 Jan. 83 164 0 0 1 0 0 3 5 8 65.4 38.6 52.3 0 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 2.47 1873 Feb. 84 162 0 0 1 0 0 4 4 8 70.7 37.1 54.1 0.69 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 1.12 1873 Mar. 85 170 0 0 2 0 0 6 6 12 76.6 41.4 59.3 1.01 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 1.63 1873 Apr. 86 173 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 84.1 46.3 65.9 0 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 2.29 1873 May 87 155 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 1 91.6 57.9 75 0.06 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 1.19 1873 June 88 130 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 3 99 63.2 81.4 0 11.3 0 0 0 3.09 1873 July 89 166 0 1 6 2 1 4 1 5 100.4 72 86.5 0.08 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 1.14 1873 Aug. 90 192 0 1 1 1 2 2 12 14 96.5 69.1 83.1 2.73 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 0.59 1873 Sept. 91 186 0 1 6 2 2 4 2 6 96.4 65.2 81 0.62 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 2.13 1873 Oct. 92 155 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 85.2 52.5 69.1 0 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 1.78 1873 Nov. 93 193 0 2 3 2 2 2 4 6 70.4 39.8 55.4 1.32 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.36 1873 Dec. 94 196 0 1 2 3 2 5 5 10 66.7 30.5 48.9 0.97 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 1.33 1874 Jan. 95 168 0 0 1 2 0 3 0 3 65.4 38.6 52.3 1.76 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 0.9 1874 Feb. 96 160 0 0 1 1 2 2 0 2 70.7 37.1 54.1 1.66 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.28 1874 Mar. 97 133 0 0 2 2 1 7 0 7 76.6 41.4 59.3 1.19 4.1 9.8 91.5 0 .4 0.52 1874 Apr. 98 170 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 84.1 46.3 65.9 0.43 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.98 1874 May 99 181 0 0 1 1 2 2 1 3 91.6 57.9 75 0.07 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 1.29 1874 June 100 198 0 1 0 1 0 2 5 7 99 63.2 81.4 0 11.3 0 0 0 1.92 1874 July 101 101 0 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 10 0.4 72 86.5 4.82 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.14 1874 Aug. 102 99 0 0 2 0 0 0 8 8 96.5 69.1 83.1 1.93 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 0.75 1874 Sept. 103 128 0 0 4 0 0 4 10 14 96.4 65.2 81 0 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 2.03 1874 Oct. 104 106 0 0 4 0 0 1 33 34 85.2 52.5 69.1 1.08 6.3 2. 1 37.5 0 2.19 1874 Nov. 105 171 0 0 1 0 0 0 27 27 70.4 39.8 55.4 0.92 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.53 1874 Dec. 106 161 0 0 1 0 1 0 13 13 66.7 30.5 48.9 0.37 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 1.28 1875 Jan. 107 158 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 6 65.4 38.6 52.3 0.37 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 0.65 1875 Feb. 108 170 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 70.7 37.1 54.1 1.22 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.11 1875 Mar. 109 158 0 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 76.6 41.4 59.3 0 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 1 1875 Apr. 110 162 0 0 3 0 2 0 3 3 84.1 46.3 65.9 0.09 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 1.4 1875 May 111 78 0 0 2 0 4 0 1 1 91.6 57.9 75 0 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.75 1875 June 112 88 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 99 63.2 81.4 0.2 11.3 0 0 0 2.57 1875 July 113 103 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 3 100.4 72 86.5 4.22 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.49 1875 Aug. 114 93 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 7 96.5 69.1 83.1 2.09 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 0.2 1 1875 Sept. 115 49 0 2 1 0 1 0 14 14 96.4 65.2 81 2.39 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 0.83 1875 Oct. 116 91 0 0 3 0 2 0 42 42 85.2 52.5 69.1 0 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 0.93 1875 Nov. 117 131 0 5 3 0 2 0 14 14 70.4 39.8 55.4 0.05 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 1.54 1875 Dec. 118 124 0 2 1 0 1 3 0 8 8 66.7 30.5 48.9 0.53 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 0.54 1876 Jan. 119 143 0 0 1 2 0 0 6 6 65.4 38.6 52.3 0.21 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 1.16 1876 Feb. 120 159 0 0 3 3 1 0 2 2 70.7 37.1 54.1 0.27 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.98

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490 Year Month Obs Garrison 1 Smallpox 2 Dysentery 2 Diarrhea 2 Gonorrhea 2 Prim. Syphilis 2 Tert. Malaria 2 Quot. Malaria 2 Total Malaria 2 Max Temp.(F) 3 Min Temp.(F) 3 Mean Temp.(F) 3 Mean Precip.(in.) 3 Mean Evap.(in.) 4 Dis. Mean (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Max (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Min (sec. ft.) 5 ENSOI 1876 Mar. 121 146 0 0 3 1 0 2 7 9 76. 6 41.4 59.3 1.14 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 0.1 1876 Apr. 122 114 0 0 3 1 2 2 6 8 84.1 46.3 65.9 0 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.94 1876 May 123 248 0 0 2 1 0 1 9 10 91.6 57.9 75 0 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.75 1876 June 124 168 0 7 4 1 0 10 8 18 99 63.2 81.4 2.05 11.3 0 0 0 1.98 1876 July 125 136 0 1 9 0 1 10 3 13 100.4 72 86.5 4.83 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.51 1876 Aug. 126 108 0 0 11 1 0 7 0 7 96.5 69.1 83.1 2.7 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 1.08 1876 Sept. 127 71 0 2 6 1 1 2 1 3 96.4 65.2 81 1.95 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 0.98 1876 Oct. 128 94 0 0 6 0 0 5 8 13 85.2 52.5 69.1 2.65 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 1 1876 Nov. 129 89 0 0 2 0 0 5 5 10 70.4 39.8 55.4 0.25 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.46 1876 Dec. 130 108 0 1 4 0 1 2 3 5 66.7 30.5 48.9 0 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 0.45 1877 Jan. 131 108 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 76.6 41.4 59.3 0.95 2 .7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 0.88 1877 Feb. 132 61 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 88 29 58.5 1.45 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 1.44 1877 Mar. 133 67 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 96 39 67.5 0.12 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 1.07 1877 Apr. 134 51 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 90 40 65 0.88 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 3.87 1877 May 135 6 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 91.6 57.9 75 0.42 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 1.71 1877 June 136 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 99 63.2 81.4 0 11.3 0 0 0 4.34 1877 July 137 32 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 100.4 72 86.5 0.86 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.96 1877 Aug. 138 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 96.5 69.1 83.1 0.34 8. 9 65.3 731.8 0 1.06 1877 Sept. 139 34 0 0 0 1 2 0 4 4 96.4 65.2 81 1.76 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 1.71 1877 Oct. 140 33 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 85.2 52.5 69.1 0.68 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 1.7 1877 Nov. 141 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 70.4 39.8 55.4 0 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 1.31 1877 Dec. 1 42 29 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 66.7 30.5 48.9 2.38 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 1.52 1878 Jan. 143 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 65.4 38.6 52.3 0.12 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 0.98 1878 Feb. 144 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 70.7 37.1 54.1 1.12 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 2.22 1878 Mar. 145 27 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 76.6 41.4 59.3 1.06 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 1.86 1878 Apr. 146 31 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 3 84.1 46.3 65.9 0.48 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 1.07 1878 May 147 27 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 3 91.6 57.9 75 0 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.1 1878 June 148 6 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 99 63.2 81.4 0.16 11.3 0 0 0 1.85 1 878 July 149 15 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 5 115 80 89.66 0.6 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 2.19 1878 Aug. 150 18 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 8 112 70 86.07 7.88 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 2.2 1878 Sept. 151 15 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 2 105 54 76.57 0.14 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 1.8 1878 Oct. 152 53 0 5 5 0 0 8 0 8 10 3 40 71.47 0.64 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 1.53 1878 Nov. 153 53 0 1 3 1 0 2 12 14 94 39 60.75 1.15 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.76 1878 Dec. 154 70 0 0 1 1 0 4 6 10 80 30 51.43 0.52 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 0.71 1879 Jan. 155 68 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 89 20 51.54 1.54 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 1.28 1879 Feb. 156 48 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 3 95 28 57.57 2.56 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 1.33 1879 Mar. 157 78 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 100 40 63.75 0.18 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 1.3 1879 Apr. 158 70 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 2 109 47 65.43 0.41 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 1.59 1879 May 159 64 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 4 110 57 78.78 0 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.1 1879 June 160 69 0 0 2 2 0 2 3 5 115 69 84.66 0 11.3 0 0 0 1.85 1879 July 161 71 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 3 111 56 86 2.5 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 2.19

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491 Year Month Obs Garrison 1 Smallpox 2 Dysentery 2 Diarrhea 2 Gonorrhea 2 Prim. Syphilis 2 Tert. Malaria 2 Quot. Malaria 2 Total Malaria 2 Max Temp.(F) 3 Min Temp.(F) 3 Mean Temp.(F) 3 Mean Precip.(in.) 3 Mean Evap.(in.) 4 Dis. Mean (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Max (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Min (sec. ft.) 5 ENSOI 1879 Aug. 162 72 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 8 111 50 74.3 1.26 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 2.2 1879 Sep t. 163 40 0 0 1 0 0 2 15 17 110 50 78.66 1.12 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 1.8 1879 Oct. 164 74 0 3 3 0 0 1 3 4 94 34 69.33 0.8 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 1.53 1879 Nov. 165 83 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 89 25 49 0.72 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.76 1879 Dec. 166 81 0 1 2 0 0 0 5 5 79 18 50.84 0.7 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 0.71 1880 Jan. 167 80 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 79 9 46.87 0.62 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 1.14 1880 Feb. 168 85 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 76 16 43.42 0 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.7 1880 Mar. 169 82 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 86 26 54.96 0.64 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 1.43 1880 Apr. 170 79 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 2 91 29 63.36 0.16 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.79 1880 May 171 70 0 0 4 1 1 0 8 8 103 34 75 0 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 1.22 1880 June 172 70 0 0 6 0 0 0 3 3 104 58 80.85 0.2 11.3 0 0 0 0.97 1880 July 173 58 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 100 55 79.29 1.88 10.1 79.2 248 3.3 0 0.21 1880 Aug. 174 27 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 98 64 80.81 3.64 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 1.26 1880 Sept. 175 46 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 96 59 77.53 0.38 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 0.73 1880 Oct. 176 74 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 96 49 72.27 0.12 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 0.56 1880 Nov. 177 75 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 76 30 52.86 0 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.74 1880 Dec. 178 76 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 82 16 49 1.06 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 0.33 1881 Jan. 179 72 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 2 81 15 43.54 0.2 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 0.84 1881 Feb. 180 79 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 86 18 54 0.12 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.67 1881 Mar. 181 77 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 92 21 55.65 0.94 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 0.02 1881 Apr. 182 68 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 99 35 67.25 0.67 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.43 1881 May 183 64 0 0 6 0 2 2 0 2 102 45 78.35 0 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.56 1881 June 184 69 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 1 11 49 85.23 0 11.3 0 0 0 0.78 1881 July 185 68 0 0 7 0 0 2 1 3 111 64 86.38 3.62 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.51 1881 Aug. 186 66 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 1 105 50 82.95 3.92 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 1.39 1881 Sept. 187 64 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 104 42 74.11 2.04 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 1. 35 1881 Oct. 188 60 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 105 29 67.23 1.26 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 2.6 1881 Nov. 189 64 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 85 20 57.11 0 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.49 1881 Dec. 190 69 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 86 19 49.66 0.3 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 0.7 1882 Jan. 191 75 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 85 13 45.93 2.3 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 0.76 1882 Feb. 192 75 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 76 21 47.05 1.9 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.26 1882 Mar. 193 45 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 76.6 41.4 59.3 0.94 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 0.41 1882 Apr. 194 49 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 84.1 46.3 65.9 0.3 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.06 1882 May 195 42 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 91.6 57.9 75 0.32 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.35 1882 June 196 48 0 0 3 1 0 1 1 2 99 63.2 81.4 1.54 11.3 0 0 0 1.75 1882 July 197 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 100.4 72 86.5 1.18 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 2.13 1882 Aug. 198 87 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 96.5 69.1 83.1 3.6 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 2.74 1882 Sept. 199 59 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 2 96.4 65.2 81 0.38 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 1.44 1882 Oct. 200 62 0 0 1 0 0 0 11 11 85.2 52.5 69.1 0 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 0.9 1882 Nov. 201 155 0 1 0 2 0 0 6 6 70.4 39.8 55.4 1.48 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.21 1882 Dec. 202 191 0 0 1 0 2 0 2 2 66.7 30.5 48.9 0.12 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 1.04

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492 Year Month Obs Garrison 1 Smallpox 2 Dysentery 2 Diarrhea 2 Gonorrhea 2 Prim. Syphilis 2 Tert. Malaria 2 Quot. Malaria 2 Total Malaria 2 Max Temp.(F) 3 Min Temp.(F) 3 Mean Temp.(F) 3 Mean Precip.(in.) 3 Mean Evap.(in.) 4 Dis. Mean (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Max (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Min (sec. ft.) 5 ENSOI 1883 Jan. 203 182 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 65.4 38.6 52.3 3.02 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 0.48 1883 Feb. 204 185 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 1 70.7 37.1 54.1 1.2 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.95 18 83 Mar. 205 78 0 0 0 1 1 1 4 5 76.6 41.4 59.3 1.06 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 2.94 1883 Apr. 206 179 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 84.1 46.3 65.9 0 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 1.63 1883 May 207 168 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 91.6 57.9 75 0.35 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 1.47 1883 June 208 166 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 99 63 .2 81.4 0.71 11.3 0 0 0 0.26 1883 July 209 161 0 0 2 1 1 0 4 4 100.4 72 86.5 1.8 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 1.01 1883 Aug. 210 152 0 0 4 0 0 1 3 4 96.5 69.1 83.1 1.23 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 0.06 1883 Sept. 211 167 0 0 4 0 0 0 6 6 96.4 65.2 81 0 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 0.8 1 1883 Oct. 212 185 0 0 4 1 1 1 7 8 85.2 52.5 69.1 0.78 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 0.36 1883 Nov. 213 174 0 0 3 0 1 0 3 3 70.4 39.8 55.4 0.48 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.19 1883 Dec. 214 201 0 0 2 1 0 0 2 2 66.7 30.5 48.9 3.18 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 1.77 1884 Jan. 215 207 Po st Hospital records not available for this time period. 65.4 38.6 52.3 4.74 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 1.4 1884 Feb. 216 193 70.7 37.1 54.1 5.23 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.61 1884 Mar. 217 181 76.6 41.4 59.3 2.9 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 0.88 1884 Apr. 218 186 84.1 46.3 65.9 0.08 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 1.6 1884 May 219 121 91.6 57.9 75 0.23 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.18 1884 June 220 185 99 63.2 81.4 0.23 11.3 0 0 0 0.98 1884 July 221 187 100.4 72 86.5 0.32 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.28 1884 Aug. 222 196 96.5 69.1 83.1 1.15 8.9 65.3 731 .8 0 0.63 1884 Sept. 223 196 96.4 65.2 81 0.3 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 0.7 1884 Oct. 224 192 85.2 52.5 69.1 2.24 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 0.38 1884 Nov. 225 183 70.4 39.8 55.4 0.34 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.26 1884 Dec. 226 183 66.7 30.5 48.9 4.72 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 1. 5 1885 Jan. 227 147 65.4 38.6 52.3 0 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 1.78 1885 Feb. 228 145 70.7 37.1 54.1 0.42 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.04 1885 Mar. 229 145 76.6 41.4 59.3 0.4 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 0.39 1885 Apr. 230 152 84.1 46.3 65.9 0 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.16 1885 May 231 147 91.6 57.9 75 0 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.01 1885 June 232 50 99 63.2 81.4 0.13 11.3 0 0 0 1.91 1885 July 233 56 100.4 72 86.5 1 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.45 1885 Aug. 234 57 96.5 69.1 83.1 1.76 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 1.13 1885 Sept. 235 54 96.4 65.2 81 0.1 2 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 0.43 1885 Oct. 236 57 85.2 52.5 69.1 0 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 1.92 1885 Nov. 237 81 70.4 39.8 55.4 0.42 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 1.55 1885 Dec. 238 91 66.7 30.5 48.9 1.01 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 0.47 1886 Jan. 239 65 65.4 38.6 52.3 1.61 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 0.22 1886 Feb. 240 77 70.7 37.1 54.1 0.35 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0 1886 Mar. 241 73 76.6 41.4 59.3 1.12 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 0.15 1886 Apr. 242 75 84.1 46.3 65.9 0.14 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.49 1886 May 243 47 91.6 57.9 75 0 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.54

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493 Year Month Obs Garrison 1 Smallpox 2 Dysentery 2 Diarrhea 2 Gonorrhea 2 Prim. Syphilis 2 Tert. Malaria 2 Quot. Malaria 2 Total Malaria 2 Max Temp.(F) 3 Min Temp.(F) 3 Mean Temp.(F) 3 Mean Precip.(in.) 3 Mean Evap.(in.) 4 Dis. Mean (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Max (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Min (sec. ft.) 5 ENSOI 1886 Ju ne 244 75 99 63.2 81.4 0 11.3 0 0 0 0.43 1886 July 245 176 100.4 72 86.5 1.06 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.74 1886 Aug. 246 138 96.5 69.1 83.1 1.24 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 1.33 1886 Sept. 247 183 96.4 65.2 81 1.04 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 1.28 1886 Oct. 248 174 85.2 52. 5 69.1 0.12 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 1.3 1886 Nov. 249 115 70.4 39.8 55.4 0.12 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.88 1886 Dec. 250 113 66.7 30.5 48.9 0.1 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 1.51 1887 Jan. 251 109 65.4 38.6 52.3 0 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 1.2 1887 Feb. 252 123 70.7 37.1 54.1 0.8 5 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.95 1887 Mar. 253 121 76.6 41.4 59.3 0 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 0.95 1887 Apr. 254 130 84.1 46.3 65.9 0.38 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 1 1887 May 255 182 91.6 57.9 75 0.32 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.58 1887 June 256 181 99 63.2 81.4 0.26 11.3 0 0 0 0.46 188 7 July 257 173 100.4 72 86.5 5.08 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.53 1887 Aug. 258 163 96.5 69.1 83.1 1.25 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 0.33 1887 Sept. 259 156 96.4 65.2 81 2.08 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 0.45 1887 Oct. 260 147 85.2 52.5 69.1 1.72 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 0.51 1887 Nov. 261 155 70.4 39.8 55.4 0.74 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.63 1887 Dec. 262 151 66.7 30.5 48.9 0.27 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 0.45 1888 Jan. 263 166 65.4 38.6 52.3 0.73 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 0.32 1888 Feb. 264 107 70.7 37.1 54.1 0.57 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.33 1888 Mar. 265 172 76.6 41.4 59.3 1.03 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 1.47 1888 Apr. 266 162 84.1 46.3 65.9 0.27 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 2.8 1888 May 267 162 91.6 57.9 75 0.32 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 1.12 1888 June 268 161 99 63.2 81.4 0.55 11.3 0 0 0 2.16 1888 July 269 122 100.4 72 86.5 1.58 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 1.64 1888 Aug. 270 155 96.5 69.1 83.1 0.92 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 1.09 1888 Sept. 271 113 96.4 65.2 81 0.1 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 0.94 1888 Oct. 272 148 85.2 52.5 69.1 0.78 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 1.61 1888 Nov. 273 171 70.4 39.8 55.4 2.06 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 1.37 1888 Dec. 274 31 66.7 30.5 48.9 1.96 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 0.4 1889 Jan. 275 204 65.4 38.6 52.3 2.09 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 2.84 1889 Feb. 276 191 70.7 37.1 54.1 0.76 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.21 1889 Mar. 277 198 76.6 41.4 59.3 2.4 6 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 3.2 1889 Apr. 278 202 84.1 46.3 65.9 0.3 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.07 1889 May 279 143 91.6 57.9 75 0 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.19 1889 June 280 144 99 63.2 81.4 0.45 11.3 0 0 0 2.49 1889 July 281 145 100.4 72 86.5 3.36 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.18 18 89 Aug. 282 136 96.5 69.1 83.1 2.07 8.9 65.3 731.8 0 0.05 1889 Sept. 283 59 96.4 65.2 81 3.32 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 1.05 1889 Oct. 284 124 85.2 52.5 69.1 0.34 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 0.29

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494 Year Month Obs Garrison 1 Smallpox 2 Dysentery 2 Diarrhea 2 Gonorrhea 2 Prim. Syphilis 2 Tert. Malaria 2 Quot. Malaria 2 Total Malaria 2 Max Temp.(F) 3 Min Temp.(F) 3 Mean Temp.(F) 3 Mean Precip.(in.) 3 Mean Evap.(in.) 4 Dis. Mean (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Max (sec. ft.) 5 Dis. Min (sec. ft.) 5 ENSOI 1889 Nov. 285 150 70.4 39.8 55.4 0.19 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 1.92 1889 Dec. 286 150 66.7 30.5 48.9 1.58 2.8 18.9 178.6 3.1 2.35 1890 Jan. 287 145 65.4 38.6 52.3 2.09 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 2.16 1890 Feb. 288 145 70.7 37.1 54.1 0.55 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 1.03 1890 Mar. 289 145 76.6 41.4 59.3 0.74 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 1.43 1890 Apr. 290 126 84.1 46.3 65.9 0.75 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.75 1890 May 291 234 91.6 57.9 75 0 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0.35 1890 June 292 0 99 63.2 81.4 0 11.3 0 0 0 0.45 1890 July 293 116 100.4 72 86.5 6.47 10.1 79.2 2483.3 0 0.23 1890 Aug. 294 155 96.5 69.1 83.1 5.58 8.9 65 .3 731.8 0 0.42 1890 Sept. 295 154 96.4 65.2 81 0.97 8.2 24.1 673.8 0 0.88 1890 Oct. 296 186 85.2 52.5 69.1 0.77 6.3 2.1 37.5 0 0.17 1890 Nov. 297 175 70.4 39.8 55.4 0.83 4.4 43.7 642.2 0 0.16 1890 Dec. 298 165 66.7 30.5 48.9 1.48 2.8 18.9 178.6 3 .1 0.04 1891 Jan. 299 168 65.4 38.6 52.3 0.16 2.7 61.8 1257.5 5.1 1.56 1891 Feb. 300 25 70.7 37.1 54.1 3.28 3.3 52.3 450.5 0.3 0.49 1891 Mar. 301 25 76.6 41.4 59.3 0.16 4.1 9.8 91.5 0.4 1.22 1891 Apr. 302 19 84.1 46.3 65.9 0 7.3 1.4 8.4 0 0.7 1. 2. Disease counts inconsistent in overlapping periods of Post Hospital Ledger Books 120 and 122, as well as Book 118 and Medical History of Posts Book 13. 3. Temperature and precipitatio n data f illed in from Medical History of Post Record Books 13 and 15. Bold and Italicized temperature and precipitation data fill in from Tucson US Signal Station data recorded in Smith (1910:102 103). Prior to March 1873 Fort Lowel l d ata recorded at Camp Lowell in Tucson. Red text reflects a veraged data from 1895 1900 ( US Weather Service ) An average has been provided for purposes of statistical analysis of disease patterns. 4. rate of evaporation (per in .) from 1891 1895 as reported by Smith (1910:106). An average has been provided for purposes of statistical analysis of disease patterns. 5. veraged Santa Cruz River discharge rate s (sec. ft.) fr om 1905 1909 as reported by Smith(1910:115 116). An average has been provided for purposes of statistical analysis of disease patterns.

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495 APPENDIX K PIMA COUNTY NOTICES OF DEATH (1887 1898) No. City No./Residence Name Race Sex Age Death Date Cause of Dea th 1588 MARTINEZ, MANUELA Female 2 1887.07.05 Variola 1589 Tucson St. Mary's Hospital SOQUI, JOSE Male 1887.07.18 Consumption 1590 REID, MADELEINE Female 39 1887.07.22 Burn 1591 VALENZUELA, HERENO Male 3 1887.07.28 Variola 159 2 MIRANDA, RAMONA Female 6 1887.07.29 Variola Hemorrhagica 1593 Tucson ROMERO, JESUS Male 3 1887.08.08 Variola 1594 SALADIN, MRS. REFUGIA Female 1887.08.20 Disease of the Heart (Mitral) 1595 Tucson 101 McCormick St. ESTRELLA, OLIVANA Female abt. 40 1887.09.01 Pulmonary Hemorrhage 1596 Tucson County Hospital BELLA, HALLA Mexican Male 23 1887.09.15 Tabes Mesenterica 1597 Tucson County Hospital BELLA, HALLA Mexican Male 23 1887.09.15 Tabes Mesenterica 1598 Tucson County Hospital PO INDEXTER, W. G. Male 63 1887.09.23 Dysentery 1599 Tucson County Hospital BOWERS, G. C. Male abt. 50 1887.09.23 Suicide 1600 Tucson County Hospital MARTIN, JAMES Male 1887.10.18 Pulmonary Hemorrhage 1601 Tucson TYLER, SAMUEL M. Male 2 1887.11 .04 Diptheria 1602 BAKER, MRS., JNO. Female 1887.11.30 Rupture of the Womb 1603 Tucson WEBER, ANNA Female 48 1887.12.07 Organic Disease of the Heart 1604 Tucson WARNER, DONA CONCEPCION Female 63 1887.12.17 Dysentery 1605 Tucson 511 Conv ent St. ELIAS, (UNKNOWN) Male 4 1888.__.__ 1606 Tucson CRUZ, ROBERTO Mexican Male 7 1888.01.06 Diptheric Cromp. 1607 Tucson NORAGA, SANTIAGO Male 78 1888.01.12 Pneumonia 1608 FERGUESON, MRS. R. J. Female 1888.01.20 Pneumonia 1610 LOPEZ, MR. M. Male 40 1888.01.23 Ocepinibua Pneumonia 1611 FELIX, A. Mexican Male abt. 46 1888.01.29 Typhoid Pneumonia 1612 TROFFER, MARY Female 46 1888.01.31 Pneumonia 1613 Tucson County Hospital VAN BENTHUYSEN, A. B. Male 62 1888.02.02 Hemorrhage Stomach and Bowels 1615 Tucson County Hospital LIZARRAGA, RAMONA Female abt. 40 1888.02.09 Cirrhosis of Liver 1616 ROMERO, JOSE Mexican Male 36 1888.02.23 Pneumonia 1617 Tucson County Hospital CHAVEZ, JUAN 17 1888.02.27 Phthisis Pul monalis 1618 Arivaca MADILLA, RAPHALE Male 60 1888.03.16 Pneumonia 1620 Mesa County Hospital (UNKNOWN) Male 1888.03.16 Tibroid Phthisis 1621 Tucson BOOK, CLARA Female 12 1888.03.26 Diptheria 1622 Tucson ORMSBY, CHARLES Male 11 1888.03.2 7 Diotheria (Heart Failure) 1623 Tucson St. Mary's Hospital HURLEY, (UNKNOWN) Male 1888.03.28 Tibroid Phthisis 1624 Tucson Pest House MARK, PAUL Male 1888.04.08 Smallpox 1625 Tucson County Hospital OTERO, SEN. Male 1888.04.09 Phthisis 1626 Tucson ESTABROOK, ARTHUR Male 4 1888.04.24 Diptheria 1627 Tucson County Hospital MORALES, MANUEL Male 26 1888.05.02 Phthisis 1628 Tucson County Hospital JOHNSON, A. H. 32 1888.05.18 Phthisis 1629 Tucson CORRAL, (UNKNOWN) 18 1888.05.29 P hthisis Tuberculosis 1630 Tucson County Hospital COON, JOHN Male 73 1888.06.20 Chronic Dysentery 1631 County Hospital FRAZIER, GEORGE Male 40 1888.07.18 Phthisis Pulmonalis 1632 County Hospital MENDOS, CARMEN abt. 50 1888.07.30 Marasmus 163 3 County Hospital CORNEJO, FRANCISCO Male abt. 35 1888.10.09 Consumption 1634 County Hospital OLAYA, MRS. R. Female abt. 40 1888.10.20 Marasmus 1635 County Hospital EDWARDS, JOHN Male abt. 50 1888.10.24 Dysentery 1636 County Hospital GOME Z, CAROLINA Mexican Female abt. 45 1888.11.04 Cirrhosis of Liver

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496 No. City No./Residence Name Race Sex Age Death Date Cause of Dea th 1637 County Hospital ROGERS, LOUIS Male abt. 55 1888.12.01 Pyemia 1638 FRINK, CAPT. E. B. Male 52 1888.12.09 Cirrhosis of Liver 1639 Tucson County Hospital CORNIDES, YGNACIO Mex ican Male 69 1889.01.25 Heart Disease 1640 County Hospital WACHSHUTTE, H. G. Male abt. 30 1889.02.12 Pulmonary Hemorrhage 1641 MILLER, THOS. Male 69 1889.03.03 Asthma 1642 LOMELI, FELIPE 75 1889.03.07 Cirrhosis of Liver 1643 Tucson County Hospital RODRIGUEZ, JOSE Female 30 1889.05.27 Phthisis Pulmonalis 1644 Tucson County Hospital LONG, EDSON Male abt. 40 1889.09.19 Alcoholism 1645 County Hospital STEINHAUSER, W. Male abt. 55 1889.10.20 Chronic Nephritis 1646 GRANL OLIN, FRANK Male 25 1889.10.21 Phthisis Pulmonalis 1648 Tucson County Hospital LITTLE, WILLIAM Male abt. 56 1889.11.07 Pyemia 1649 PERRON, (UNKNOWN) Female 2 1890.01.04 Scarlet Fever 1650 Tucson County Hospital NEATLE, JOHN Male abt. 59 18 90.01.05 Cardiac Dropsy 1651 COMODURAN, JOAQUIN 1890.02.18 Pneumonia 511 Oro Blanco BENT, (UNKNOWN) Female 6 1890.04.06 Acute Bronchitis 1652 Tucson San Xavier Hotel EMORY, HARVEY W. Male 28 1890.08.23 Phthisis 512 Oro Blanco NOON, O WEN Male 1890.08.29 Phthisis 1653 Tucson PEARSON, FRANK White Male 32 1890.09.17 Neacmia 1654 Tucson PISTOR, WILLIE White Male 8 mths. 1890.09.29 Meningitis 1655 12 Pearl Street DIAS, MARIA V. Female 23 1890.10.22 Heart Disease 1656 Tucs on St. Mary's Hospital MAYER, ANTERO White Male 33 1890.10.23 Asthma 1657 Tucson St. Mary's Hospital SMITH, E. H. L. White Male 56 1890.10.29 Consumption 1658 Tucson BARRY, FLORENCE A. Female 38 1890.11.12 Phthisis 1659 Tucson St. Mary's Hospital WELSH, MICHAEL White Male 30 1890.11.28 Consumption 1660 Tucson JONES, STRACHAN White Male 52 1890.12.14 Consumption 1661 Tucson CAVITT, BRUCE White Male 29 1890.12.17 Phthitisis 1662 County Hospital CISNERO, M. Male 1891.03.10 Consumption 1663 CONNELL, INFANT (TWIN) White Male 0 1891.05.04 1664 CONNELL, INFANT (TWIN) White Male 0 1891.05.04 1665 Tucson St. Mary's Hospital FITZGERALD, JOHN White Male 43 1891.05.11 Pneumonia 1666 RITCHIE, GEORGE R. White Male 28 1891. 05.29 Phthisis 1667 Tucson HANDCOCK, MRS., JAMES Mexican Female 67 1891.07.06 Pneumonia 1668 Tucson County Hospital VILLA, ANNA Female 70 1891.07.06 Remittent Fever 1669 Tucson County Hospital CONNER, JOHN Male 49 1891.07.15 Consumption 1670 Tu cson COR. Congress & Meyer St. DURR, JOSEPH Male 72 1891.07.28 Hypostatic Pneumonia 1671 Tucson Cor. Stone Ave. & Ochoa St. HOOVY, JAMES ALFORD Male abt. 44 1891.08.02 Consumption 1672 Tucson FINLEY, (INFANT) White Female 8 mths. 1891.08.02 Spinal Meningitis 1673 Tucson de AYARA, DOLORES Mexican Female 58 1891.09.02 Heart Disease 1674 Tucson EMERICK, JOHN B. White Male 24 1891.09.24 Phthisis 1675 Tucson BECK, J. V. Male 30 35 1891.11.15 Phthisis 1676 Tucson OSMAN, GEORGE L. White Male 18 1891.11.28 Phthisis 1677 County Hospital STILBYNER, FRANK Male 35 1892.02.13 Phthisis Pulmonalis 1678 Tucson County Hospital KINNEY, JERRY Male 64 1892.03.27 Acute Cerebral Softening 1679 County Hospital BRYANT, WILLIAM Male 56 1892.03.29 Phthisis 1680 SHAW, MARGARET Female 63 1892.04.11 Intestinal Catarrh 1681 CORONA, MARIA Mexican Female 80 1892.04.25 Intestinal Catarrh 1682 Tucson County Hospital FOLEY, THOMAS Male 29 1892.06.15 Consumption of Lungs 1683 Tucson County Hospital MC QUEEN, JAMES Male 54 1892.07.09 Bright's Disease 1684 Tucson County Hospital VILLA, JOSEPH Male 66 1892.07.18 Heart Failure

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497 No. City No./Residence Name Race Sex Age Death Date Cause of Dea th 1685 Tucson County Hospital GARCIA, MRS., B. Female 60 1892.07.18 Paralysis and Dysentery 1686 Tucson County Hospital WALCOTT, J. H. Male 67 1892.08.04 Superea of Werinal Fever Neniam 1687 COMACHO, GERTRUDE Female 23 1892.09.19 Phthisis Pulmonalis 1688 Tucson County Hospital VELASQUEZ, SALOME Male 25 1892.09.20 Gunshot Wounds 1689 Tucson County Ho spital HOUN, MRS. L. Female 29 1892.10.05 Bright's Disease 1690 Tucson County Hospital VALENGUELA, FRANCISCO Male 50 1892.10.14 Cirrhosis 1691 Indian School BURNS, LIZZIE White Female 30 1892.__.29 Tuberculosis 1692 Tucson County Hospital REVER A, RAPHAEL 50 1892.10.31 Consumption 1693 Tucson County Hospital TAYLOR, THOS. Male 62 1892.10.31 Paralysis 1694 Tucson County Hospital LAVELLETTE, VICTOR Male 69 1893.01.20 Phthisis Pulmonalis 1695 Indian School PIUS, SISTER MARY White Fe male 35 1893.03.17 Tuberculosis 1697 Redington RICHARDSON, JOHN Male 83 1897.08.16 Dysentery

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498 APPENDIX L SUMMARY OF INFORMATI ON IN THE TUCSON DIO CESE BURIAL REGISTER 1863 1887 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 15r 1 Josephus 28 May 1863 m deceased is described as indigenous 15r 2 Josephus Lucas Mendoza 30 May 1863 m 15r 3 Antonius 1 3 Aug 1863 m deceased is described as indigenous 15r 4 Bernarda Gonzalez 2 Oct 1863 f 15r 5 Mercedes Elias 8 Oct 1863 f Jesus Maria Elias Theresa Martinez 15r 6 Dominicus Gal legos 29 Oct 1863 20 m Josephus Gallegos Francisca Orosco 15r 7 Josephus de Jesus Quiroz 2 Nov 1863 m 15r 8 Josephus Bermudez 5 Dec 1863 m Josephus Bermudez Maria Raymunda Urguijo 15r 9 Thomas Sosa 2 Jan 1864 m 15v 10 Angelus Munguia 2 Jan 1864 m 15v 11 Baulius Telles 9 Jan 1864 m 15v 12 Maria Orozco 10 Jan 1864 f 15v 1 3 Maria Atanasia Romero 16 Jan 1864 f Raymundus Romero Maria Soledad Sotelo 15v 14 Maria Victoriana Duarte 7 Jan 1864 f 15v 15 Josephus Maria Blaz 8 Feb 1864 m deceased is describ ed as indigenous 15v 16 Josephus Emmanuel 8 Feb 1864 m 15v 17 Hilarius Santa Cruz 25 Feb 1864 37 m 15v 18 Marcus Ortis 13 Mar 1864 2 m Guillelmus Ortis Inez Garcia Fred M cAninch believes the last name here is 16r 19 Theodorus Sosa 8 Mar 1864 1 m Petrus Sosa Marina mother of deceased is described as indigenous 16r 20 Maria Otero 13 Mar 1864 3 f Emete rius Otero Emmanuela Uruela 16r 21 Franciscus Xavierus 13 Mar 1864 3 m deceased is described as indigenous 16r 22 Canuto [?] de Jose Rodriguez 20 Mar 1864 1 mo m Liberatus Rodriguez Cruz Martine z 16r 23 Jesus Telles 21 Mar 1864 1 mo m Susannus Telles Jesus Mendibles 16r 24 Melitona Ortares 22 Mar 1864 f Michaelus Ortares Raphaela Salazar 16r 25 Francisca Valdes 28 Mar 1864 14 f Joannis Valdes Yenina [?] Romero 16r 26 Jesus Heredia 31 Mar 1864 1 m Jesus Heredia 16v 27 Petrus Legarra 1 Apr 1864 2 mo m Josephus Maria Legarra Antonia Castro 16v 28 Franciscus Castro 11 Apr 1864 3 mo m Gabriela Castro 16v 29 Emmanuela Espinosa 1 May 1864 10 mo f Arcadius [?] Espinosa Carmen Orosco 17r 30 Octavianus Amada 4 May 1864 1 m Guillelmus Am ada Romualda Amada 17r 31 Maria Petra Mesa 6 May 1864 6 f Bibianus Mesa Refugia Lopez 17r 32 Joannes de la Cruz Fimbre 18 May 1864 2 m Jacobus Fimbre Josepha Pacheco 17r 33 Joannes Secundinus [?] Seveney 26 May 1864 5 m Joannis Seveney Emmanuela Pacheco 17r 34 Emmanuela Ramirez 3 Jun 1864 1 f Susannus Ramirez Reyes Armenta 17r 35 Alexandra Romero 19 Jul 1864 1 f Ra ymundus Romero Soledad Sotero

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499 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 17r 36 Seferina Lucas [?] [?] 1866 15 days f Jose Maria Lucas Maria Anastasia Francisco entry in Spanish; no day or month indicated; burial was at San Xavier; parents are described 17v 1 Angel 21 Apr 1866 3 mo m Juan Lopez Maria Rivera [?] 17v 2 Ignatio 1 Aug 1866 1 day m Nicolas Reyes Florencia [?] Fildaraya 17v 3 Juan Bautista 13 Aug 1866 parvulo m Rafael Salazar Helena Cruz 17v 4 Manuela N. 22 Aug 1866 30 f 17v 5 Manuel Valenzuela [?] 23 Aug 1866 5 m Juan Jose [?] N. 18r 1 Eloisa 2 Sep 1866 1 f Mauricio Castr o Helena Otero 18r 2 Maria Mercedes 6 Sep 1866 f Jesus Martinez Soledad N. 18r 3 Francisco Grijalba 30 Jul 1866 33 m date uncertain 18r 4 [illegible] 30 Jul 1867 0 m date uncertain; died moments after birth 18v 1 Andres Moreno 18 Oct 1866 24 m Ignatio Moreno Maria de Jesus Valenzuela 18v 2 Victoriano Haredo [?] 19 Oct 1866 75 m 18v 3 Maria del Carmen de la Cruz 19 Oct 1866 18 f Francisco Munguia 18v 4 22 Oct 1866 90 m 18v 5 28 Oct 1866 29 m 19r 1 Rosario Ruelna 30 Oct 1866 20 f 19r 2 John Flenigen 7 Nov 1866 39 m 19r 3 Guadalupe Teranco [?] 8 Nov 1866 39 f Francisco Carillo 19r 4 Angelito Gonzales 8 Nov 1866 m Concepcion Gonzales Esquipuela Castro 19r 5 16 Dec 1866 Sacramento [illegible] Teodora Carillo 19v 1 Jose 30 Jan 1867 3 mo m Josefa Espinosa 19v 2 Antonio 31 Jan 1867 2 m Antonio Comaduran Me rcedes [illegible] 19v 3 Juan Nepomuceno Bertram 16 Feb 1867 m 19v 4 Julian Urial [?] 22 Feb 1867 30 m 19v 5 28 Feb 1867 24 m 20r 1 Manuela 1 Mar 1867 14 f 20r 2 Ramon Saratelle [?] 5 Mar 1867 70 m 20r 3 Francisco Romero 7 Mar 1867 1 mo m [illegible] Romero 20r 4 Margarita N. 10 Feb 1867 30 f date is out of sequence, possibly a mistake for 10 March 1867 20r 5 Maria Joanna 10 Mar 1867 1 day f Guadalupe Compas [?] 20v 1 Incarnacion Figueroa 11 Apr 1867 40 f 20v 2 Jesus Quintero 3 Jun 1867 45 f Jose Maria Martin 20v 3 Juanito 4 Jul 1867 2 m Concepcion Guadalupe Pacheco 20v 4 Maria Serafina Ramires 11 Jul 1867 f Juan Elias 20v 5 Jose fa Salazar 12 Jul 1867 f Abran Lopez 21r 1 Agapito 13 Jul 1867 m Jesus Duran Maria Ruperta Centano [?] 21r 2 26 Jul 1867 nio m

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500 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 21r 3 Joanna Miranda 29 Sep 1867 50 f 21r 4 Angelito Juan de Dios 8 Oct 1867 6 mo m 21r 5 7 Nov 1867 15 m 21r 6 Juan 26 Dec 1867 parvulito m 21v 1 Javier Gomora 20 Jan 1868 m 21v 2 Ana Maria 22 Jan 1868 angelita f Maria [illegible] 21v 3 Juan Francisco 22 Jan 1868 angelito m Maria [illegible] this deceased is listed with the preced ing entry 21v 4 Maria Nicolasa 30 Jan 1868 5 days f Jesus Valencia [?] Jesus Salazar 21v 5 Carlos N. 2 Feb 1868 21v 6 Pablo Fernandez 2 Feb 1868 6 m Pablo Fernandez Encarnacion Gallegos 21v 7 Cirilo [?] Madueo 2 Feb 1868 2 m Eusebio Madueo [illegible] Higuera 22r 1 Helena Otero 7 Feb 1868 24 f Manuel Otero Maria Clara Martine z Mauricio Castro 22r 2 Maria Marisela [?] 9 Feb 1868 2 mo f Jesus Castro Adelaida Martinez 22r 3 Xavier 10 Feb 1868 indito m Jose 22r 4 Ana Maria Dodson 12 Feb 1868 1 mo f Estevan Dodson Angel Parres 22r 5 Jesus Benasobas [?] 15 Feb 1868 25 m 22v 1 Gertrudis Morales 22 Feb 1868 60 f Francisco Rios 2 2v 2 Petra Damiana 25 Feb 1868 1 mo f Jesus Guadalupe Apastres [?] Condon [?] 22v 3 Maria Francisca 28 Feb 1868 4 days f Cornelio Elias Rosalia Munguia 22v 4 11 Mar 1868 3 f John N. Ramirez 23r 1 Fernando Salazar 28 Mar 1868 Concepcion Rios 23r 2 Ramon Vasquez 14 Apr 1868 2 mo m Manuela Vasquez 23r 3 Gregoria 22 May 1868 2 mo f Pedro Bu ruel Jesus Higuera 23r 4 [illegible] 5 Jun 1868 entry is illegible except for date 23r 5 [illegible] 8 Jun 1868 entry is illegible except for date 23v 1 [illegible] [illegible] com pletely illegible entry 23v 2 Eucaristo [?] 20 Jun 1868 4 days m Casmal [?] Sonibi [?] Teodora Trujillo 23v 3 21 Jun 1868 11 m [illegible] Miranda Maria Amado 23v 4 Marcel ino 22 Jun 1868 a few months m Feliciana Bedolla 23v 5 Cornelio Cota 23 Jun 1868 2 m Juan Cota 23v 6 Gertrudis Montolla 26 Jun 1868 60 f 24r 1 [illegible] 27 Jun 1868 8 m Manuel Montolla 24r 2 Trinidad Morales 19 Jul 1868 3 mo m Geronimo Moraga Jesus [illegible] 24r 3 Mariano Castro 1 Aug 1868 angelito m Jesus Castro Adelai da Martinez 24r 4 Margarita Martinez 2 Aug 1868 f Carlos Angulo 24r 5 2 Aug 1868 8 m Ismael [illegible] adopted child 24r 6 [illegible] 6 Aug 1868 angelito m Carmen 24v 1 Carmen 10 Aug 1868 4 m Manuel Juaset [?] Carmen Juaset [?] 24v 2 Ignacio Martinez 12 Aug 1868 9 days m Guadalupe Martinez Maria Munguia

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501 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 24v 3 Abel 17 Aug 1868 m Antonio Urdangarin Amparo Urdangarin 24v 4 Jesus Carillo 26 Aug 1868 33 m 24v 5 Salome [?] 27 Aug 1868 18 f 24v 6 Solana Lopez 30 Aug 1868 f 25r 1 Antonio 2 Sep 1868 8 mo m Jose Maria Telles Maria Soto 25r 2 Antonio 5 Sep 1868 2 m Antonio Montao Carolina Mejilas 25r 3 George Benavides 11 Sep 1868 30 m Fl orencio Benavides 25r 4 Josefa Mermides [?] 13 Sep 1868 18 mo f Jose Mermides [?] Ramona Urquides 25r 5 Jose Procopio 17 Sep 1868 3 mo m 25v 1 Jose Maria Martin 22 Sep 1868 68 m 25v 2 Felix Moreno 23 Sep 1868 10 mo m Juan Moreno Eduarda [?] Gonzalez 25v 3 Albino Bia 28 Sep 1868 6 mo m Cornelio Bia Timotea Gallegos 25v 4 Paula [?] 29 Sep 1868 8 mo f German Morillo Rafaela Soto 25v 5 Joana Michilena 29 Sep 1868 f 26r 1 Tomasa Sanchez 1 Oct 1868 10 mo f Jose Sanchez Juana Trigos 26r 2 N. 2 Oct 1868 Nacasani [?] spouse is from San Xavier 26r 3 N. 2 Oct 1868 4 to 5 f Nacasani [?] N. father is Yaqui 26r 4 Manuel N. 7 Oct 1868 30 m 26r 5 Helena Flannery 8 Oct 1868 2 or 3 f N. J. Flannery 26r 6 Agustin Castro 15 Oct 1868 2 m Fructuoso Castro Gertrudis Villaraga 26v 1 Gumercinda 16 Oct 1868 3 mo f Bibiano [?] Moraga [?] Jos efa Israigia [?] 26v 2 Felipa Perez 17 Oct 1868 26v 3 Cornelio Bia 20 Oct 1868 30 m Timotea Gallegos 26v 4 21 Oct 1868 m Yaqui 26v 5 22 Oct 1868 18 m 27r 1 Miguel Delores 22 Oct 1868 34 m 27r 2 Primitiva 25 Oct 1868 1 f Lorenzo Borsoni [?] 27r 3 Orisanta [?] Montao 26 Oct 1868 3 f Maria Var a [?] 27r 4 Margarita Moreno 30 Oct 1868 8 mo f Sotteno [?] Moreno Maria Perres [?] 27r 5 Teodoro Montero 1 Nov 1868 70 m 27v 1 Noberto 1 Nov 1868 2 m Valentin Nues Alfon sa Flores [?] 27v 2 Guadalupe Galan 5 Nov 1868 39 f Jesus Blanca 27v 3 Miguel Gonzales 12 Nov 1868 m 27v 4 Concepcion Heredia 16 Nov 1868 38 f Juan Valdez 27v 5 Maria Victoriana Salazar 18 Nov 1868 35 f Jose Ignacio Abad deceased is Indian, spouse is Yaqui 28r 1 Ignacio Catelo [?] 22 Nov 1868 45 m 28r 2 Solano [?] Romero 24 Nov 1868 1 m Cruz Ro mero Jesus Bojorquez 28r 3 Celedon Silva 25 Nov 1868 2 m Antonio Silva Antonia Moraga 28r 4 Santiago 26 Nov 1868 4 days m Crecencia Celaya 28r 5 Marcos Demara [?] 29 Nov 1868 25 m 28r 6 Petra 4 Dec 1868 13 days f Crecencia Celaya

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502 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 28v 1 Fernando Urquides 7 Dec 1868 50 m 28v 2 Ignacio Gonzales 8 Dec 1868 17 m 28v 3 Frederi co Conlin 10 Dec 1868 3 m Frederico Margarita Freres [?] 28v 4 Angel Lopez 11 Dec 1868 m Manuel Dominga Martinez 28v 5 12 Dec 1868 20 m 29r 1 Ramon N. 13 Dec 1868 m 29r 2 Maria Gallegos 13 Dec 1868 f Santiago Soto 29r 3 Jose Coronado 16 Dec 1868 m 29r 4 Jesus Rodriguez 16 Dec 1868 f Jose Coronado 29r 5 Juana 21 Dec 1868 2 days f Manuel Buruel 29r 6 Maria 21 Dec 1868 apachita f Encarnacion Lucas [?] Trinidad daughter of Encarnacion; mother of decea sed was presumably Apache 29v 1 Christina Telles 21 Dec 1868 40 f Jose Corrales deceased was widow 29v 2 Geronimo 21 Dec 1868 45 m 29v 3 Manuel Jalomi [?] 23 Dec 1868 70 m Morell a [?] 29v 4 Vicenta Urias 27 Dec 1868 55 f 30r 1 Lusarda Salazar 29 Dec 1868 6 mo f Jesus Salazar Guadalupe Leal 30r 2 Pedro Erreras 3 Jan 1869 50 m Gertrudis Arguello 30r 3 3 Jan 1869 3 f Juan Valdez Valdez 30r 4 Leocadia Barcelona 7 Jan 1869 f Josefa Barcelona 30r 5 Juana Maria Sais 10 Jan 1869 a few hours f Juan Sais Petra Gallardo 30v 1 Julio Ortega 13 Jan 1869 33 m 30v 2 Nepomuceno N. 14 Jan 1869 m 30v 3 Miguel Bruno Gonzales Roca 17 Jan 1869 17 m Miguel Gonzales Roca Josefina Mariana Arro [?] 30v 4 Braulia Ortega 17 Jan 1869 9 f Gabino Ortego Manuela Usara 30v 5 Francisco Miranda 12 Feb 1869 30 m Cruz Acedo 31r 1 Daria Espinosa 27 Feb 1869 2 mo f Jose Maria Espinosa Leonicia Garcia 31r 2 29 Mar 1869 32 f Domingo Ortega 31v 1 Nazario Gallardo 29 Mar 1869 45 m Josefa Ramirez 31v 2 Juan Camacho 30 M ar 1869 30 m Petra Gallardo 31v 3 Juan Jose 30 Mar 1869 parvulito m Antonio Montaon[?] Carolina Mejias 31v 4 Maria Belen 31 Mar 1869 30 f Polonio Telles 31v 5 Josefa Ramires 1 Apr 1869 35 f Nazario Gallardo 32r 1 Francisco 15 Apr 1869 m 32r 2 Buenaventura de Jesus 8 Apr 1869 2 mo m Guadalupe Sardina 32r 3 Maria Isadora 10 Apr 1869 6 days f Santiago Martinez Cecilia Costel 32r 4 Francisco 13 Apr 1869 3 mo m Anastacio Chaves Rosario Basurto 32r 5 Manuel Smith 11 Apr 1869 29 m Maria Martinez 32r 6 Josefa 19 Apr 1869 1 f Luciano Selaya Concepcion Soto

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503 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 32r 7 20 Apr 1869 1 day m Francisco de los Relles Guadalupe Granillo 32r 8 21 Apr 1869 adult f M anuel Buruel 32v 1 Antonia Caas 13 Mar 1869 45 f Luis Carisoso 32v 2 Pedro Rodriguez 11 May 1869 60 m Augustina Rodriguez 32v 3 Josefa 18 May 1869 7 f Francisco Garcia Refu gio Ocaa 32v 4 Gabriel Yrigoyen 25 May 1869 adult m Luis Yrigoyen 32v 5 Jose Mendes 29 May 1869 60 or 70 m 32v 6 9 Jun 1869 parvulita f Miguel Lopez Luz Ernandez 33r 1 Trinidad del Refugio 20 Jun 1869 24 days m Trinidad Frederico Refugio Barelas 33r 2 Manuela 22 Jun 1869 3 mo f Samuel Hughes Atanasia Santa Cruz 33r 3 Alejandro Robles 14 Jul 1869 23 m Gabriel Ramona Noriega 33r 4 Jose Maria Sasos [?] 18 Jul 1869 24 m Maria Martinez 33r 5 26 Jul 1869 50 m 33v 1 Juana 15 Aug 1869 1 day f Asuncion Gallegos Maria Teresa Sotello 33v 2 Antonia Siqueiros 13 Sep 1869 40 f 33v 3 Egueda Gonzales 16 Sep 1869 2 f Gabriel Gonzales Soled ad Ramires 33v 4 Juan Bautista 17 Sep 1869 13 days m Maria Jesus Robbs 33v 5 Bernardina 19 Sep 1869 4 mo f Pedro Ximenes Josefa Arros 33v 6 Joakim 10 Oct 1869 22 m Franci sco Borques Angela N. 33v 7 Agapita Telles 16 Oct 1869 28 f Guillermo Telles Simona Castro 34r 1 Trinidad 16 Oct 1869 1 m Gertrudis Barcelona 34r 2 Marcelino 17 Oct 1869 1 m Jose Maria Martinez y Grijalba Maria Augustina 34r 3 Lucio N. 19 Oct 1869 adult m 34r 4 Maria de la Virgen 20 Oct 1869 6 f Francisco Padella Margarita Marq 34r 5 Jose Maria 26 Oct 1869 2 mo m Maria Elias 34r 6 Margarita 29 Oct 1869 adult f 34r 7 Felipe 16 Nov 1869 3 mo m Nicolas Lopez Marta Rodriguez 34v 1 Joakim 18 Nov 1869 3 mo m Delores Osuna 34v 2 Bictoria 8 Dec 1869 7 mo f Mucio Molina Francisca Casales [?] 34v 3 Maria 11 Dec 1869 2 days f Francisca Montao 34v 4 A ntonio 14 Dec 1869 40 m Juan Camacho Juana Rosario 34v 5 Maria Rosa Leon 22 Dec 1869 30 f Antonio Bravo 34v 6 Jose Duran 29 Dec 1869 m Rosario 35r 1 Rafael 3 Jan 1870 8 mo m Francisco Campas Carmen Saldamando 35r 2 Helena 16 Jan 1870 4 f Francisco Campas Carmen Saldamando 35r 3 Francisco 14 Jan 1870 adult m 35r 4 Maria Ignacia 14 Jan 1870 2 mo f Ignacio Barela Petra Romero 35r 5 Ricardo Francisco 16 Jan 1870 9 m 35r 6 Blas Ayni [?] 12 Jan 1870 m Rosario Erreria

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504 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 35v 1 Henry Maria Ward [?] 20 Jan 1870 adult m Gertrudes Marquez 35v 2 20 Jan 1870 5 m Jesusita Ramirez 35v 3 Bruno Lopez 24 Jan 1870 24 or 25 m Victor Encarnacion Rodriguez 35v 4 Petra 28 Jan 1870 7 f Antonio Perez Teresa Tores 35v 5 Maria Refugio 31 Jan 1870 4 f Vicente Butieres Jesus Bojorques 35v 6 Maria Inez 31 Jan 1870 1 f Vicente Butieres Jesus Bojorqu es 36r 1 Polonia 1 Feb 1870 7 f Gabino Romero Jesus Carisoza 36r 2 Maria 2 Feb 1870 4 f Miguel Sinoguy [?] Isabel Bojorquez 36r 3 Miguel 5 Feb 1870 14 days m Miguel Mayue [ ?] Manuela Sosa 36r 4 Juaquin 10 Feb 1870 8 m Jose Juan Gauna Severiana Hernandex 36r 5 Ramona Garcia 12 Feb 1870 7 f Oriol [?] Garcia Trinidad Martinez 36r 6 Gabriel Martinez 11 Feb 1870 8 m Juaquin Martinez Leandra Medina 36r 7 Jesus 15 Feb 1870 28 [?] m Jesus Robles Gertrudes Noriega 36v 1 Jesus Maria 16 Feb 1870 1 ? Nazario Valenzuela Carmel Carancia 36v 2 Antonia 16 Feb 1870 70 f 36v 3 Maria 18 Feb 1870 7 f Juan Jose Quijada Concepcion Federico 36v 4 Alberta 18 Feb 1870 6 f Juan Felicita Viareal 36v 5 Juanito 18 Feb 1870 1 m Valentin Niaes [?] Ildefonsa Flores 36v 6 Maria Clotilde 21 Feb 1870 3 f Florentino Cota Gertrudes Lopez 36v 7 21 Feb 1870 37r 1 Guadalupe 21 Feb 1870 5 ? Antoni[o] Gallardo Juan[a] Saratea 37r 2 Ramona 23 Feb 1870 1 f Pablo Hernandes Encarnacion Gallegos 37r 3 Pascual 23 Feb 1870 14 m Remu alta [?] Tautimer 37r 4 Juan de Dios 23 Feb 1870 2 mo m Benina Rangela 37r 5 Jesus 23 Feb 1870 4 m Jesus Valencia Concepcion Garcia 37r 6 Dolores 24 Feb 1870 1 f Desiderio P Jesus Ugnes 37v 1 Juan 25 Feb 1870 37v 2 Jesus 26 Feb 1870 6 m Jesus Castro Maria Adelaida Martinez 37v 3 Roman 27 Feb 1870 4 m Jesus Maria Pea Petra Pea 37v 4 Inocente Montaa 27 Feb 1870 15 m Sebastian Teresa Rios 37v 5 Maria Patricia 28 Feb 1870 1 f Jose Maria Sanches Gila Para 37v 6 Eulogio 28 Feb 1870 7 m Valentin Niaes Il defonsa Flores 38r 1 Maria Encarnacion 28 Feb 1870 7 f Antonia Romero 38r 2 Francisco 28 Feb 1870 7 m Margarita Carrizo 38r 3 Francisco 1 Mar 1870 7 m Juaquin Telles Silveria Marquez 38r 4 Felipa 1 Mar 1870 8 mo f Antonio Gallardo Juana Saratea 38r 5 Angelito 2 Mar 1870 3 m Francisco Carrio Jesus Campas 38r 6 Juaquin 2 Ma r 1870 3 m Mariano Quivuis Margarita Monroy 38v 1 Martin Desiderio 5 Mar 1870 3 m Santiago Perez Jesus Cosillo 38v 2 Josefa 7 Mar 1870 4 f Antonio Bedolla Feliciana Gonzales 38v 3 Rafael Quivuis 8 Mar 1870 1 m Mariano Margarita Monroy

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505 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 38v 4 Franciso Parales 8 Mar 1870 9 mo m Juan Lorenza Gonzales 38v 5 Dolores Castro 9 Mar 1870 6 f Fructuoso Castro Gert rudes Vildaray [?] 38v 6 Antonio 11 Mar 1870 2 m Margarita Valenzuela 39r 1 Manuel 12 Mar 1870 8 mo m Cornelia Apodaca 39r 2 Maria Hilaria 12 Mar 1870 6 f J ulio Ortega Maria Acedo[ ?] 39r 3 12 Mar 1870 5 mo m Jesus Trinidad Palma 39r 4 Francisco 13 Mar 1870 7 mo m [illegible] Trinidad N. 39r 5 Jesus Maria 16 Mar 1870 7 mo m Jesus Valencia Delfina Salazar 39r 6 Francisco 17 Mar 1870 3 m Roberto Limon Josefa Gallardo 39v 1 Jose 18 Mar 1870 1 m Martiriano Ramirez [?] Florencia Vildaray [?] 39v 2 Maria de Jesus 17 Mar 1870 10 f Refugio Orduo Emilia Castro 39v 3 Manuel Esteban 19 Mar 1870 2 m Juaquin Telles Silveria Marquez 39v 4 Maria 20 Mar 1870 1 f Margarita Bildaray [?] 39v 5 Manuela 22 Mar 1870 2 f Agapito Mendible Loreta Fernandes 39v 6 Jose Miguel Mendez 4 Mar 1870 6 m Juan Felicita Villareal 40r 1 Ramon 22 Mar 1870 2 m Domingo Jovanete [?] Antonia Borques 40r 2 22 Mar 1870 2 mo f Agapito Mendible Loreta Fernandes 40r 3 Senon [?] 24 Mar 1870 2 m 40r 4 Teodora 24 Mar 1870 3 mo f Antonio Araizo [?] Teodora Saenz 40r 5 Senon [?] 25 Mar 1870 11 days m Senon [?] Peralta Estefa Santata [?] 40v 1 Delfina Rodriguez 27 Mar 1870 2 f Crecensio Antonia Romero 40v 2 Beatrix 27 Mar 1870 6 f Miguel Eburola [?] Ana Ugnes [?] 40v 3 Dolores 27 Mar 1870 7 f Jose Armenta Guadalupe Bosurto [?] 40v 4 Fortina 2 Apr 1870 2 f Canuta Montijo 40v 5 Cayetano 3 Apr 1870 5 m Cornelio Elias Rosalia Munguia 40v 6 Mariana Estrada 6 Apr 1870 71 f Jose Juan Gauna 41r 1 Geronimo 6 Apr 1870 1 m Concepcion Gonzales Estipula [?] Castro 41r 2 Juan Saenz 7 Apr 1870 m 41r 3 Carmen 8 Apr 1870 1 mo m Magdlena Bildaray 41r 4 Juana 8 Apr 1870 4 f Jesus Montijo Leonarda Go mes 41r 5 Jose 11 Apr 1870 5 mo m Eugenio Miranda Juana 41r 6 Maria Meregilda [?] 12 Apr 1870 2 f [illegible] Urias Macaria Gallegos 41v 1 Tomas 12 Apr 1870 1 mo m Miguel E burola [?] Ana Ugnes [?] 41v 2 Cruz Navarro 12 Apr 1870 m Jose Navarro Teresa Torres [?] 41v 3 Alberto 16 Apr 1870 3 m Miguel Eburola [?] Ana Ugnez 41v 4 17 Apr 1870 entry blank 41v 5 Francisco Augustin 18 Apr 1870 13 days m Teodora Fimbres 41v 6 Victoria 18 Apr 1870 29 days f Fructuoso Castro Gertrudes Bildaray 42r 1 Manuel Ignatio Gomez 22 Apr 18 70 11 mo m Pancho Gomez Jesus Valenzuela 42r 2 Victoria Moruela 22 Apr 1870 2 f Useophilo [?] Moruela Porphyria Gallarda 42r 3 Guadalupe Valdez 25 Apr 1870 1 day f Juan Valdez Estephan a Ochoa 42r 4 Santiago Corona 26 Apr 1870 8 mo m Silvano Corona Antonia Martinez

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506 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 42r 5 Jose Maria Sanchez 2 May 1870 24 f Vincento [illegible] 42r 6 Samuel Hughes 7 May 1870 1 mo m Samuel Hughes Atanasia Santa Cruz 42v 1 Demetrio Robles 10 May 1870 20 m Rufugio Silbas [?] Sanchez 42v 2 12 May 1870 4 m 42v 3 Francisca Torez 19 May 1 870 30 f Raphael Torez 42v 4 Telemaco Orosco 19 May 1870 26 m Luisa Valencia 42v 5 Bernarda 24 May 1870 25 f 42v 6 Antonia Elias 27 May 1870 20 f Teodoro Elias P olonia Polanca 42v 7 Eduardo Silvas 31 May 1870 30 m Jose Silvas A. 43r 1 Sostenez [?] Morales 1 Jun 1870 30 m Juan Rosa Olivas 43r 2 Juan Acedo [?] 8 Jun 1870 1 day m Fern ando Acedo [?] Carmel Saens 43r 3 Juana 9 Jun 1870 f Juan Bautista 43r 4 Tiburtio Montoya 10 Jun 1870 28 m [no first name] Ruiz 43r 5 Felipa [?] Cari soza 13 Jun 1870 45 f 43r 6 Manuel Colles 17 Jun 1870 1 mo m Manuel Colles Francisca Soza double burial, with following entry 43r 7 Francisca Colles 17 Jun 1870 1 mo f Manuel Colles Francisca Colles double burial, with preceding entry 43r 8 Raymunda 27 Jun 1870 1 f Victor Sanchez Demetria Robles 43r 9 Manuela 28 Jun 1870 8 f Puro [?] Daguere [?] Joanna Gauna 43v 1 Maria Alta Gracia 3 Jul 1870 4 mo f Trinidad Michileno Ana Maria Barros 43v 2 Jose Segundino 3 Jul 1870 9 days m Delores Miranda 43v 3 3 Jul 1870 adult f 43v 4 Leocordia Buel nas 7 Jul 1870 36 f Matteo Duray 43v 5 Joaquin Soto 8 Jul 1870 13 mo m Jose Maria Soto Carmel Comaduran 43v 6 Carmelita Velasco 8 Jul 1870 6 f Carlos Velasco 44r 1 Juanita 10 Jul 1870 1 mo f Procopio Leyvas Josefa Barcelo 44r 2 Antonio Salazar 19 Jul 1870 2 mo m Francisco Salazar Teodora Martinez 44r 3 Antonio Salazar 19 Jul 1870 7 m Franci sco Salazar Teodora Martinez apparently distinct from preceding entry 44r 4 Ignatia Figueroa 21 Jul 1870 14 f Joanna Figueroa 44r 5 Teofila Fuentes 23 Jul 1870 2 mo f Juan Fuentes Clara Medina 44r 6 Franciso X. 29 Jul 1870 69 m 44v 1 Ignacio Mendosa 30 Jul 1870 7 days m Reyes Mendosa Maria Cruz 44v 2 Ramona Rosario 31 Jul 1870 50 f Juan Valdez 44v 3 Maria Guadalupe 31 Jul 1870 20 f 44v 4 Hieronymia Amaio 1 Aug 1870 72 f Romero del Riito [?] 44v 5 Maria Maxima Montaga 1 Aug 1870 15 mo f Feliciano 44v 6 3 Aug 1870 6 mo f Jesus Ribeiea [?] 45r 1 Eufemia Romero 9 Aug 1870 2 f Gabino Romero Ascencion Rodriguez 45r 2 Ana Maria Barrios 19 Aug 1 870 adult f Trinidad Michileno 45r 3 Guadalupe Boldanegra 21 Aug 1870 a few months f Jesus Maria Boldanegra Guadalupe [illegible]

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507 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 45r 4 Jesus Ruiz 29 Aug 1870 28 m Juan Maria Ruiz 45r 5 3 Sep 1870 entry blank 45r 6 Ruperta Tautimes [?] 8 Sep 1870 f Jesus Dorame [?] 45v 1 11 Sep 1870 angelito no other information 45v 2 Marina Silvas 12 Sep 1870 6 f Genoy [?] Estephana Sondates 45v 3 19 Sep 1870 19 days m Jesus Ruperta Tautimes [?] 45v 4 Jesus Maria Gustomonte 19 Sep 1870 33 m Bruno Gustomonte 45v 5 Merced 23 Sep 1870 1 f Manuel Altamirano Juana Leon 45v 6 Maria Antonia Trinidad 23 Sep 1870 1 f Jose Maria Perez Maria Soto 45v 7 Maria 24 Sep 1870 f Crecencia Molina 4 6r 1 Regina Soldez [?] 28 Sep 1870 1 mo f Petra Soldez [?] 46r 2 2 Oct 1870 60 f Lopez 46r 3 Juan Gallardo 8 Oct 1870 40 m Maria Buruel 46r 4 An gel Ortiz 9 Oct 1870 26 m Juan Jose Ortiz Gabriela Redondo 46r 5 Maria de los Dolores 16 Oct 1870 2 f Guadalupe Lopes Nieves N. 46v 1 Maria Pascual 16 Oct 1870 40 or 45 f 46v 2 17 Oct 1870 adult m 46v 3 Manuel Cadena 20 Oct 1870 adult m 46v 4 Francisco Cruz 24 Oct 1870 60 m 46v 5 Damasio Romero 28 Oct 1870 17 m Anastacio Romero 46v 6 J. Obregon 4 Nov 1870 1 day m Serafino [?] Obregon Ramona Romero 47r 1 Salvador [illegible] 5 Nov 1870 30 m 47r 2 Salvador Higuero 6 Nov 1870 30 m 47r 3 Pablo Granada 8 Nov 1870 26 m 47r 4 Gabriel Gonzales 9 Nov 1870 46 m Soledad Ramires 47r 5 Jesus 1 4 Nov 1870 angelito m Macaria Comides [?] 47r 6 19 Nov 1870 70 f Francisco Miranda 47v 1 Bonifacia Tanori 22 Nov 1870 35 f Rafael Guadalupe Mariez 47v 2 Feliz 28 Nov 1870 adult m 47v 3 Maria Azedo 4 Dec 1870 44 [?] f [illegible] ortega 47v 4 Lorenzo Ribeiro 12 Dec 1870 47 m Josefa Ribeiro 47v 5 Francisca Romero 14 Dec 187 0 1 mo f Ramon Romero Soledad Sotelo 47v 6 18 Dec 1870 11 mo m 48r 1 18 Dec 1870 2 days f Anastacio Chavez Rosario Basurto 48r 2 Candelaria Ochoa 21 Dec 1870 47 f Cecilio Villa 48r 3 Jose Leon 27 Dec 1870 35 m Magdalena Grijalba 48r 4 Maria Martinez 30 Dec 1870 1 mo f Pedro Martinez [illegible] Cruz 48r 5 Domingo Castillo 30 Dec 1870 10 day s m Jesus Maria Maria Soto 48v 1 Severiana Encinas 4 Jan 1871 3 f Candelaria 48v 2 Manuel Suniga 9 Jan 1871 adult m Josefa Espinosa

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508 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 48v 3 Carmelita 13 Jan 1871 7 f Bruno Ortega 48v 4 Carmelita 13 Jan 1871 parvula f Librado Mange [?] Bruna [?] O. 48v 5 Mariano 25 Jan 1871 7 m Jose Muoso Maria Antonia Garcia 48v 6 Francisco 31 Jan 1871 11 mo m Teofilo Buruel Maria Gallardo 49r 1 Mario Dordo [?] 31 Jan 1871 3 mo m Cecilio Isabel Gonzales 49r 2 4 Feb 1871 nio m 49r 3 Bernardino Pere z 12 Feb 1871 38 m 49r 4 Antonia Contreras 19 Feb 1871 39 f 49r 5 Refugio Ortiz 16 Feb 1871 1 f Serafin Ortiz 49r 6 Antonio 19 Feb 1871 20 m 49v 1 21 Feb 1871 30 m 49v 2 Angel Gonzales 21 Feb 1871 32 m 49v 3 24 Feb 1871 28 m 49v 4 Jose Maria Urias 29 Feb 1871 nio m Thomassa [ ?] Urias 49v 5 Miguel Lorenzo Pasos 26 Feb 1871 47 m 49v 6 27 Feb 1871 adult f 50r 1 Maria Castro 27 Feb 1871 adult f 50r 2 Beatrix Ruiz 28 Feb 18 71 16 f Juan Ruiz Rosalia Lopez 50r 3 Teodora Romero 1 Mar 1871 45 f Antonio [?] Molina 50r 4 Ramon Angel 4 Mar 1871 7 days m Quirino[?] Jesus Robles 50r 5 George 9 Mar 1 871 died at birth m George N. Josefa 50v 1 Josefa Simas 10 Mar 1871 adult f Florentino 50v 2 Pablo 12 Mar 1871 9 mo m Encarnacion Leon Refugio Felix 50v 3 Jose 14 Mar 187 1 1 day m Eligio [?] Bedoya Ana [illegible] Urias 50v 4 Trinidad Ortiz 14 Mar 1871 adult f Santiago 50v 5 Carmela Barcelo 20 Mar 1871 2 f Jose Barcelo Petra Gonzales 50v 6 J uan 21 Mar 1871 1 m Luciano Celaya Concepcion Soto 50v 7 Luis Ruiz 19 Mar 1871 adult m Manuela Otero 51r 1 Thomas Shihem [?] 22 Mar 1871 adult m copy 51r 2 Nicolas Herreras 2 Apr 1871 21 m Pedro Gertrudes 51r 3 Maria Tomasa 7 Apr 1871 14 f Jose Maria Navarro Alta Gracia Seron 51r 4 Francisco Fernando 8 Apr 1871 48 m Guadalupe 51r 5 Jose Leon 17 Apr 1871 8 days m Miguel Soto 51r 6 Manuel 18 Apr 1871 7 m Clemente Alvares Francisca Rodriguez 51r 7 Juana Montao 20 Apr 1871 30 f 51v 1 24 Apr 1871 5 m Leopold Dubos Eusykia [?] Marayo [?] 51v 2 Francisco Valenzuela 29 Apr 1871 20 f 51v 3 Maria Bojorquez 27 Apr 1871 40 f 51v 4 Maria Guadalupe 8 May 1871 adult f 51v 5 Crecensio 8 May 1871 parvulo m Rosalia Estrada 51v 6 5 May 1871 adult f

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509 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 51v 7 J osefa Gallegos 8 May 1871 80 f 52r 1 Andres Azedo 5 May 1871 39 m Francisco Azedo [illegible] 52r 2 Guadalupe Cruz 11 May 1871 20 f Demesio Castro 52r 3 Dionisio Espinoza 11 May 1871 6 mo m 52r 4 Atanasia Rodriguez 15 May 1871 23 f 52r 5 Ramona Gonzales 18 May 1871 60 f 52r 6 Guadalupe Lopes 20 May 1871 36 m Maria Nieves 52v 1 Ramon Ortega 25 May 1871 45 m Maria de Jesus Granillo 52v 2 Maria Ignacia Morales 26 May 1871 38 f Desiderio Soto 52v 3 Maria Felipa 28 May 1871 1 mo f Je sus Maria Elias Teresa Martinez 52v 4 Maria Jesus Basilia 30 May 1871 5 mo f Andres Basilia Francisca Sinoguy 52v 5 Juana Redondo 4 Jun 1871 32 f Pedro Brady 52v 6 X. 9 Jun 1871 angelito m 52v 7 9 Jun 1871 adult f 53r 1 6 Jun 1871 a few months f 53r 2 Maria Smith 7 Jun 1871 angelita f John [?] Smith Isabel Gomes 53r 3 Carmelita 12 Jun 1871 2 f Jesus Saenz 53r 4 Marta Soto 14 Jun 1871 18 f Francisco Solares 53r 5 Maria Antonia Espinosa 16 Jun 1871 40 f 53r 6 Antonio Araisa 17 J un 1871 a few months m Antonio Araisa Theodora Saens 53r 7 Carlos 21 Jun 1871 nio m Charles Moyers [?] Incarnacion Ramirez 53v 1 Antonio Morales 22 Jun 1871 10 days m Guillermo Morales Thomasa Reyes 53v 2 Theodora Saens 23 Jun 1871 21 f Antonio Araisa 53v 3 Maria Angel 24 Jun 1871 1 mo f Antonia Orosco 53v 4 Francisca Baragan 24 Jun 1871 14 f Concepcion Bar agan 53v 5 Margarita Campillo 24 Jun 1871 1 f Antonio Martinez 53v 6 25 Jun 1871 8 mo m Maria Castro 54r 1 Rosario Moreno 28 Jun 1871 37 f 54r 2 Ramon Obesso 29 Jun 1871 45 m Josefa Fimbres 54r 3 Juan Antonio 29 Jun 1871 4 or 5 mo m Jesus Gallegos Rosalia Bedoya 54r 4 Demetria Castillo 1 Jul 1871 adult f Juan Jose Argel [?] 54r 5 Refugio Sinoa 1 Jul 1871 1 m Miguel Sinoa Isabel Bojorquez 54r 6 Serafina 3 Jul 1871 10 mo f Clemente Francisca X. 54v 1 Maria Argel 9 Jul 1871 a few days f Juan Argel Demetria Castillo 54v 2 Teodoro Ramires 6 Jul 1871 94 m Maria Salazar 54v 3 Maria Gertrudes 7 Jul 1871 adult f 54v 4 Trini dad Granillo 2 Jul 1871 36 f Lucas Sonaguia [?]

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510 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 54v 5 Francisca Llanos [?] 8 Jul 1871 1 f Jesus Lopez 54v 6 Carlos 9 Jul 1871 1 m Carlos Velasco Beatrix Ferrer 55r 1 Ramon Molina 19 Jul 1871 7 mo m Antonio Molina Refugio Vilencia [?] 55r 2 Jose de la Cruz 25 Jul 1871 1 m Lorenzo Gonzales T. 55r 3 Maria Romano 19 Jul 1871 2 f Ramon Romano 55r 4 Maria Antonia Gallego 26 Jul 1871 1 f Hilario Ricarda Carisoza 55r 5 Julia Campos 26 Jul 1871 18 mo f Rosa Campos 55r 6 29 Jul 1871 angelito m Leonar do Apodaca Cleofa Ayuire [?] 55r 7 Antonio Molina 30 Jul 1871 7 mo m Antonio Refugio Valencia 55v 1 Maria Flores 30 Jul 1871 35 f Jesus Mendosa 55v 2 Francisco 17 Aug 1871 5 mo m Ramon Gallegos Juana Ruelas 55v 3 Carmel Martinez 18 Aug 1871 1 f Francisco Martinez Guadalupe Campas 55v 4 Romula Virginia 20 Aug 1871 6 mo f Feliciano Montao Leonides Elias 55v 5 Maria Timotea 23 Aug 1871 1 day f Jose Luis Lucas Carmel Buruel 55v 6 Jose Dolores Herray [?] 26 Aug 1871 70 m Anita Castro 56r 1 Sacramento Cruz [illegible] 29 Aug 1871 35 m 56r 2 29 Aug 1871 2 m Jesus Maria de [illegible] Soto 56r 3 Josefa Palomina 2 Sep 1871 60 f 56r 4 Carlota 2 Sep 1871 7 mo f Maria Ramires 56 r 5 Josefa X. 2 Sep 1871 62 f possible repeat of Josefa Palomina (two entries above) 56r 6 Rosa 6 Sep 1871 7 mo f Mariano Molina Josefa Montao 56r 7 Ramon Castro 7 Sep 1871 adult m Teodora 56v 1 Ambrosia Torres 12 Sep 1871 7 mo f Alcorio Torres 56v 2 Manuel Ribeiros 12 Sep 1871 2 m Manuel Ribeiros Carmel Duran 56v 3 Vicente Guttieres 14 Sep 1871 78 m Jesus Bojorquez 56v 4 14 Sep 1871 14 days m Vidal Acua Trinidad Palma [?] 56v 5 Jesus Fimbres 15 Sep 1871 2 m Jose Fimbres Dolores X. 56v 6 [illegible] Maria Mo ntijo 15 Sep 1871 1 day f Jesus Montijo Alejandra X. 57r 1 Feliciano Sotelo 16 Sep 1871 20 m Tiburtio Sotelo Manuela X. 57r 2 Wenceslao Zamora 20 Sep 1871 12 m Alejandro Zamora Carmel Molina 57r 3 Isidoro 2 Oct 1871 9 mo m Alejandro Apodaca Dolores Ozuna 57r 4 Maria 12 Oct 1871 nia f Teresa Gutieras 57r 5 Marcos Sosa 12 Oct 1871 2 d ays m 57r 6 Ambrosio Sepeda 14 Oct 1871 77 m Anna Moreno 57v 1 Pedro Ayala 15 Oct 1871 23 m 57v 2 Angela Ortega 16 Oct 1871 28 days f Jose Maria Ortega Isabel Noriega 57v 3 Theresa Franco 18 Oct 1871 nia f Ramon Franco Nicolassa Trejo 57v 4 Joaquin Carillo 22 Oct 1871 nio m Leopoldo Carillo Jesus Suarez 57v 5 Demerio [?] Figueroa 25 Oct 1871 1 9 m Guadalupe Campas 57v 6 Augustin Martin 26 Oct 1871 15 m Ignacio Martin Concepcion Molina 58r 1 Albina Salgado 10 Nov 1871 3 f Jesus Salgado Ricarda Valenzuela

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511 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 58r 2 Simon Telles 11 Nov 1871 19 mo m Narcisso Telles Dolores Sinoa 58r 3 Felipe Bernal 11 Nov 1871 70 m Sacramenta Cosias [?] 58r 4 20 Nov 1871 40 m entry truncated at edge of page 58r 5 Librada Paral 20 Nov 1871 6 mo f Juan Paral entry truncated at edge of page 58r 6 Juana Paral 21 Nov 1871 30 f 58v 1 Jose Juan 24 Nov 1871 die d at birth m Fernando Monroy Simona Castimer 58v 2 Antonia Urlangaria [?] 8 Dec 1871 37 f Antonio Ortega 58v 3 Luis Bernal 9 Dec 1871 35 m Suzana Ramires 58v 4 Eulalia Castro 12 Dec 1871 2 f Ysidoro Castro Anita Buruel 58v 5 Santiago Davis 17 Dec 1871 1 m John Davis Rafaela Comaduran 58v 6 David 18 Dec 1871 10 mo m David Pog Eloisa Moreno 59r 1 Fructuoso Castro 18 Dec 1871 32 m Gertrudis Bildaray 59r 2 29 Dec 1871 1 day m Manuel Amado Ismael [?] Ferrer 59r 3 Ignacio 29 Dec 1871 adult m 59r 4 Maria Jesus Orosco 29 Dec 1871 67 f Juan Elias 59r 5 31 Dec 1871 30 f 59v 1 Manuel Alcaraz [?] 3 Jan 1872 1 m Tomasa Alcaraz [?] 59v 2 Francisco 7 Jan 1872 14 m 59v 3 Jose del Carmen 14 Jan 1872 20 m 59v 4 Francisco Bojorquez 18 Jan 1872 25 m Jesus Munguia 59v 5 Jose Romero 20 Jan 1872 6 mo m Jose [?] Romero Ursula Quivuiz 60r 1 Francisco Tarin [?] 25 Jan 1872 25 m Jesus Miranda 60r 2 Guadalupe Morillo [?] 26 Jan 1872 adult f Antonio Gujolla [?] 60r 3 Jose Anastasio Vicente Alvarez 1 Feb 1872 11 days m Maria Alavarez 60r 4 [illegible] Baldenegro 8 Feb 1872 1 m Barbara Baldenegro 60r 5 Jesus Salazar 19 Feb 1872 30 m 60r 6 Maximino [?] 22 Feb 1872 17 [?] m 60v 1 Maria 1 Mar 1872 3 days f Margarita Brady 60v 2 Michael Keegan 1 Mar 1872 32 m 60v 3 Magdalena Zuniga 3 Mar 1872 32 f Higini o Sandarte 60v 4 Micaela Valencia 3 Mar 1872 40 f 60v 5 Maria Francisca 8 Mar 1872 30 or 35 f 61r 1 10 Mar 1872 parvulo m 61r 2 Guadalupe 11 Mar 1872 27 f Nicolas 61r 3 Antonia [?] Gonzales 17 Mar 1872 62 f 61r 4 Refugio Mendibles 19 Mar 1872 28 f Manuel Moreno 61r 5 Manuela Elias 21 Mar 1872 18 f Borrel [?] 61r 6 Joseph Ruiz 21 Mar 1872 angelito m John A. Ruiz Dolores M. Ruiz 61v 1 22 Mar 1872 m Reyes Mendosa [?] Maria Concepcion [?]

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512 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes newborn 61v 2 Paul Ru tterleing [?] 25 Mar 1872 58 m 61v 3 Maria Ruperta 25 Mar 1872 3 days f Ruperto Simon [?] Josefa Gallardo 61v 4 Fernando Cepeda 7 Apr 1872 13 m Fernando Cepeda Teresa Montoya 61v 5 Refugio Lopez 10 Apr 1872 10 m Trinidad Lopez Maria Leon 61v 6 Maria Teodora 13 Apr 1872 adult f 62r 1 Maria 13 Apr 1872 30 f F ernando Valenzuela 62r 2 Teresa Romo [?] 26 Apr 1872 43 f 62r 3 Tiburcio Sotelo 26 Apr 1872 adult m 62r 4 Maria Gabriela Buelnas [?] 27 Apr 1872 30 f Meregildo Basquez 62r 5 Maria Carmel 28 Apr 1872 24 f Higinio Fernandes 62v 1 Petra 1 May 1872 42 f Matias Romero 62v 2 Policarpio Ochoa 3 May 1872 23 m Jose Ochoa Francisca Coronal [?] 62v 3 Meregildo Basquez 4 May 1872 35 m 62v 4 Juan 6 May 1872 newborn m Abelina Armenta 62v 5 Juana Gallegos 7 May 1872 22 f Reyes Durazo 62v 6 Antonia 7 May 1872 45 f 63r 1 [illegible] Duarte 8 May 1872 26 m entry truncated at edge of page 63r 2 Nicolas Telles 27 May 1872 adult m 63r 3 Encarnacion 28 May 1872 adult f Ang ulo 63r 4 Pedro Rios 30 May 1872 adult m entry truncated at edge of page 63r 5 Antonio Borboa [?] 30 May 1872 2 m Jesus Maria Borboa [?] Francisca Mendoza 63r 6 Carmel Ri vas 1 Jun 1872 2 f Manuela Vasquez 63v 1 11 Jun 1872 2 mo m Guadalupe Martinez Maria Munguia 63v 2 Pablo 22 Jun 1872 10 mo m Ines Ramires 63v 3 Margarita Bildaray 24 Jun 1872 33 f Manuel Orosco 63v 4 Fabiano Martinez 28 Jun 1872 20 m 63v 5 Jesus Maria Ortiz 1 Jul 1872 adult m Encarnacion Comaduran 64r 1 Bibiano Lopez 2 Jul 1872 23 m Felipe Guadalupe Noriega 64r 2 3 Jul 1872 13 days f Carmen Marcoba [?] 64r 3 4 Jul 1872 parvulito m 64r 4 Rita 4 Jul 1872 2 f Felicita Sabory [?] 64r 5 Dolores 15 Jul 1872 1 f Ruperta Sembrano 64r 6 Demetria Castro 16 Jul 1872 3 mo f Isidoro Castro Juana [?] Buruel 64v 1 16 Jul 1872 newborn f Juan Dolores Redondo 64v 2 Francisco 18 Jul 1872 6 mo m Maria Cruz 64v 3 Jose Buttierrez 18 Jul 1872 40 m 64v 4 Calisto Bibiano Moraga 22 Jul 1872 9 mo m Bibiano Moraga 64v 5 Jose Sylvester 30 Jul 1872 1 m Ruperto Limon Josefa Gallardo 64v 6 Virginia 3 Aug 1872 1 f Ines Carizosa

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513 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 64v 7 Juan 4 Aug 1872 6 m Manuela Estrada 65r 1 Juan 5 Aug 1872 7 mo m Luciano Celaya Concepcion Soto 65r 2 Lorenzo Tapia 8 Aug 1872 33 m Jose Maria Maria Estrada 65r 3 Jose 17 Aug 1872 2 m Alejandro Rosario Espinosa entry tru ncated at edge of page 65r 4 Gabriela 20 Aug 1872 3 f Jesus Morales Jesus Carillo 65r 5 Ramona Morrillos 21 Aug 1872 25 f Ramon [illegible] Garcia entry truncated at edge of page 65v 1 Nicolasa Sosa 24 Aug 1872 9 mo f Antonio Sosa Merced Federico 65v 2 Maria Basquez 26 Aug 1872 30 f 65v 3 Francisca Martinez 27 Aug 1872 8 days f Atanasio Martinez Manuel Lopez 65v 4 Maria Irinea Ballestero 6 Sep 1872 25 f Santiago Singleton 66r 1 Luciano 10 Sep 1872 7 mo m Carlos Valencia Francisca Reies 66r 2 11 Sep 1872 1 mo m E ligio Joaquina [illegible] entry truncated at edge of page 66r 3 Teodula 18 Sep 1872 8 mo f Leandro Felix entry truncated at edge of page 66r 4 Augustina 19 Sep 1872 1 f Ma ria Rita 66r 5 Carlos Basilio Smith 21 Sep 1872 3 m Henry Smith Isabel Gomes 66r 6 Maria 23 Sep 1872 10 mo f Antonio Urias Macaria Gallegos 66v 1 Margarita Mongomery 26 Sep 1872 1 f Juan M. Maria Fraijo [?] 66v 2 Bernarda Bustamante 4 Oct 1872 30 f Genaro Pesqueira 66v 3 Petra Navarro 11 Oct 1872 50 f Jesus Maria Flores 66v 4 Maria 12 Oct 1872 5 d ays f 66v 5 14 Oct 1872 1 mo f Genaro Pesqueira Bernarda Bustamante 66v 6 Maria Antonia 14 Oct 1872 1 mo f Genaro Pesqueira Bernarda Bustamante part of same entry as precedin g 67r 1 Maria 18 Oct 1872 1 day f Eloisa Gomez 67r 2 Mariana Grijalba 19 Oct 1872 adult f 67r 3 22 Oct 1872 a few days m Marta Verdugo 67r 4 22 Oct 1872 a few days m Marta Verdugo part of same entry as preceding 67r 5 27 Oct 1872 adult m entry truncated at edge of page 67r 6 Matilda Moreno 14 Nov 1872 15 f Francisco Moreno Josefa 67v 1 Manuel Sinoguy 20 Nov 1872 30 m [illegible] Josefa Monreal 67v 2 Petra Buruel 20 Nov 1872 20 f Macario Romero 67v 3 Dolore Alegria 22 Nov 1872 42 f Sacramento Baragan 67v 4 Santos 22 Nov 1872 50 m 67v 5 Jose de Jesus Bialobos 23 Nov 1872 16 m Jesus Maria Jesus Jaime [?] 68r 1 Mona Maldonado 24 Nov 1872 30 f 68r 2 Pedro Tomas Alvarez 24 Nov 1872 18 m Maria N. 68r 3 25 Nov 1872 1 m 68r 4 Rafael 27 Nov 1872 adult m

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514 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 68r 5 Margarita 30 Nov 1872 30 f 68v 1 Antonia Castro 9 Dec 1872 35 f Jose Maria Ligara 68v 2 Maria Petra 12 Dec 1872 adult f 68v 3 Ologio Telles 14 Dec 1872 20 m Guillermo Telles Trinidad Orosco 68v 4 Maria Guadalupe 15 Dec 1872 11 f Dolores Arvallo Concepcion Peralta 68v 5 Albino Ocoboa 21 Dec 1872 8 8 m Soledad Herraz [?] 69r 1 Pedro Paco 21 Dec 1872 24 m Jesus Baragan 69v 1 Alejandro 7 Jan 1873 5 m Carmel Ruis 69v 2 Fernando Azedo 8 Jan 1873 32 m Carmel Saenz 69v 3 17 Jan 1873 36 m 69v 4 James Carroll 25 Jan 1873 36 m entry in English; deceased is sergeant, Company E, 23rd US Infantry, born in Ireland 69v 5 Domingo Lopes 25 Jan 1873 65 m Jesus Herreda 70r 1 Manuel Cordova 29 Jan 1873 2 m Manuel Cordova Espiridiona Delesy [?] 70r 2 Mateo 30 Jan 1873 11 mo m Tomas Ivarra Guadalupe Garcia 70r 3 Jesus Maria 30 Jan 1873 2 m Juan Leya Nicolasa 70r 4 Maria Ruperta Rios 3 Feb 1873 25 f Ignacio Rios Antonia Gomes 70r 5 Pilar Barreal [?] 5 Feb 1873 35 f 70v 1 Francisco 5 Feb 1873 4 m entry truncated at edge of page 70v 2 Maria Catarina [?] P. 7 Feb 1873 25 f 70v 3 Santiago Gonzales 8 Feb 1873 69 m 70v 4 Maria [illegible] 10 Feb 1873 25 f 70v 5 Jesus Islas [?] 12 Feb 1873 32 f Juan Noriega 70v 6 Maria Juana Adelaida Parral 17 Feb 1873 2 mo f Juan Parral Lorenz a Gonzales 71r 1 20 Feb 1873 70 f [?] burial was at San Xavier del Bac 71r 2 23 Feb 1873 5 mo f Ignacio Terrazas Birgida Herrera 71r 3 Martin Burns 22 Feb 187 3 32 m 71r 4 24 Feb 1873 8 m Antonio Soza Mercedes Federico 71r 5 Manuela H. 27 Feb 1873 70 f Antonio X. 71v 1 Maria Carmel Buruel 28 Feb 1873 35 f Jose Luis Lucas 71v 2 Basilia Savalda 3 Mar 1873 adult f Hilario Galavis 71v 3 Juan de Dios Romero 11 Mar 1873 a few days m Miguel Romero Pr udencia Luna 71v 4 Leandro Feliz 18 Mar 1873 a few months m Leandro Dolores Altamirano 71v 5 Maria 22 Mar 1873 1 f Trinidad Telles Juana Granillo 72r 1 Teresa Siqueiros 3 Apr 187 3 80 f Fernando Ruela 72r 2 Jose Refugio Lantaro [?] 5 Apr 1873 14 days m Miguel Gonzales Roca Mariana Aro [?] 72r 3 Carmel 22 Apr 1873 40 f 72r 4 Antonio Carillo 26 Apr 1873 1 m Jesus Carillo 72r 5 Manuel 1 May 1873 4 mo m Jose Luis Lucas Carmen Buruel burial by Salpointe at San Xavier del Bac 72v 1 Juana 11 May 1873 15 f Ramon Ortega Jesus Granillo

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515 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 72v 2 Maria Meregilda Ampara 14 May 1873 1 mo f Francisco Vasquez Maria Octaviana Llugue [?] 72v 3 Francisca 15 May 1873 35 f Jose Maria Preciado 72v 4 Rosa Franco 21 May 1873 5 mo f Agapito Franco 72v 5 23 May 1873 1 f Juan Sanches Filomena Baldenegro 73r 1 28 May 1873 died at birth m Lazaro Romero Seferina Azedo 73r 2 Eloisa Garnez [?] 30 Aug 1873 1 f Tomas Gertrudes Apodaca 73r 3 Carmel Contreras 4 Jun 1873 16 f Manuel Contreras Guadalupe Espinoza 73r 4 Maria de los Angeles Morales 16 Jun 1873 29 days f Jesus Morales Juana Flores 73r 5 Mauricio Maldonado 25 Jun 1873 32 m 73v 1 Antonio Flores 30 Jun 1873 1 m Juana Flores 73v 2 Bernabe Robles 2 Jul 1873 45 m Josefa Romo 73v 3 Josef a Castillo 3 Jul 1873 38 f Miguel Alvarez 73v 4 Jose Maria 10 Jul 1873 adult m 73v 5 Miguel Monduraga 2 Aug 1873 28 days m Jesus Maria Romero 73v 6 Emilio Alegria 3 Aug 1873 4 mo m 74r 1 Jose Hernandes 7 Aug 1873 this deceased and following are in same entry, 74r 2 Librada Chaves 7 Aug 1873 74r 3 Vicente Ruis 11 Aug 1873 1 m Ramon Ruis Fermina Ramires 74r 4 Refugio 20 Aug 1873 1 f Geronimo Ojedo [?] Alta Gracia Gallegos 74r 5 Maria Victoria 21 Aug 1873 7 mo f Henry Sm ith Isabel Gomes 74r 6 Pedro Sisneros 21 Aug 1873 60 m 74r 7 Apolonio Navarro 22 Aug 1873 40 m ` Guadalupe Castro 74v 1 Maria del Carmen Gauna 29 Aug 1873 65 f Francisc o Medibles 74v 2 Juan 8 Sep 1873 6 mo m Jose Valenzuela Josefa Basques 74v 3 Maria Timotea Usaraga 8 Sep 1873 39 f Cornelio Bia 74v 4 Rafael Ron [?] 12 Sep 1873 69 m Trinid 74v 5 W.C. Brown 20 Sep 1873 1 m Charles O. Brown Clara Billiescas [?] 74v 6 Maria 22 Sep 1873 1 f Geronima Santa Cruz entry truncated at edge of page 75r 1 Maria 23 Sep 1873 8 days f Antonia Lopez 75r 2 Jesus Maria Armenta 27 Sep 1873 6 mo m Jose Maria Juliana Billas 75r 3 Maria Jesus Para 29 Sep 1873 70 f 75r 4 Refugio Pa checo 29 Sep 1873 36 m Paula Cruz 75r 5 Guillermo 30 Sep 1873 2 mo m G.D. Stevens Guadalupe Ortiz 75r 6 Francisca 6 Oct 1873 1 f Manuel Ruis Jesus Acosta 75v 1 Trinidad 7 Oct 1873 1 f Soledad Ballesteros Guadalupe Peralta 75v 2 Juaquina 9 Oct 1873 3 f Encarnacion Moreno Jesus Mallen [?] 75v 3 Felipe 13 Oct 1873 1 mo m Emiteria [?] Rodriguez entry truncated at edge of page 75v 4 Rafaela Salazar 16 Oct 1873 20 f Merced Federico 75v 5 Anita 20 Oct 1873 4 mo f Guadalupe Ruiz 75v 6 Maria Trinidad 20 Oct 1873 7 days f Josefa Noriega

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516 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 76r 1 Jesus Martinez 22 Oct 1873 15 m Pablo Martinez Concepcion Buttieres deceased is adopted son of Pablo Martinez 76r 2 Maria Merced 12 Nov 1873 adult f Peleto [ ?] Elias 76r 3 Francisco Barela 13 Nov 1873 1 mo m Ignacio Barela Petra Romero [ ?] 76r 4 Juana Alvarez 13 Nov 1873 70 f 76r 5 Manuela Roblez 10 Nov 1873 3 mo f Pedro Ang ela Gomez 76v 1 Francisco Ferrer 15 Nov 1873 adult m 76v 2 Tranquilino 17 Nov 1873 1 m Fidoso [ ?] Aragon Enemesia [?] Dorame 76v 3 Domingo Silvas 21 Nov 1873 adult m 76v 4 Seferina Lamadril [?] 21 Nov 1873 35 f Smith B. Turner entry truncated at edge of page 76v 5 G. Pesqueira 22 Nov 1873 parvulo m not clear if name applies to deceased 77r 1 Jose Me sido [?] 23 Nov 1873 40 m N. 77r 2 Leonardo 29 Nov 1873 4 mo m Leonardo Apodaca Cleofe Aguire 77r 3 Longino [?] 2 Dec 1873 adult m 77 r 4 Manuel Maria 3 Dec 1873 3 mo m Agustin Aguilar Helena Campas 77r 5 7 Dec 1873 22 m 77v 1 Teresa Ortiz 20 Dec 1873 1 f Serafino Ortiz Claudia Martinez 77v 2 1 8 Dec 1873 25 m 77v 3 22 Dec 1873 newborn m Braulio Saenz Juana Telles 77v 4 Francisca 23 Dec 1873 1 f Paula Acosta 78r 1 Jose Trinidad 1 Jan 1874 4 mo m Dolor es entry truncated at edge of page 78r 2 Rafaela 1 Jan 1874 adult f entry truncated at edge of page; age present but illegible 78r 3 Antonia Romero 2 Jan 1874 parvula f Jose Romero Silvestra Cota entry truncated at edge of page; age present but illegible 78r 4 George 2 Jan 1874 1 m Guadalupe Robles Geronimo Soya [?] entry truncated at edge of page 78r 5 Jesus 9 Jan 1874 9 mo m Guadalupe [ illegible] entry truncated at edge of page 78r 6 Reyes 9 Jan 1874 2 days m Portia Salazar entry truncated at edge of page 78v 1 Juaquin 9 Jan 1874 5 m Anita [?] Badillos 78v 2 Guada lupe 11 Jan 1874 27 f 78v 3 Guillermo 16 Jan 1874 5 days m Guadalupe 78v 4 Jose 19 Jan 1874 2 mo m Jose Chue Trinidad Maria 78v 5 Trinidad 19 Jan 1874 1 f Gertrudis Barcelon 78v 6 Gertrudis Barcelo 20 Jan 1874 31 f Francisco Islas 79r 1 26 Jan 1874 5 f Fernando Azedo 79r 2 Ventura Palo mino 31 Jan 1874 1 m Reyes Palomino Evarista Urella 79r 3 Francisco Romero 3 Feb 1874 35 m Eloisa Felix 79r 4 Adelaida 3 Feb 1874 1 f Miguel Dias Luisa Urias 79r 5 Maria Gorgonia Franco 4 Feb 1874 40 f Jesus Carillo 79r 6 Manuela 5 Feb 1874 2 mo f Maria [?] Jesus Huerta 79v 1 Rosa Herron 8 Feb 1874 10 mo f Saturnino Herron Caterina Cruz 79v 2 Juan Siveney [?] 11 Feb 1874 1 day m 79v 3 Eduardo 17 Feb 1874 4 mo m Soledad Lopez

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517 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 79v 4 19 Feb 1874 10 mo f Rosa 79v 5 Jesus Romero 20 Feb 1874 35 m [illegible] entry truncated at edge of page 79v 6 Andrea 23 Feb 1874 1 f Francisco Bonilla 80r 1 Juana Rosa 25 Feb 1874 26 f burial was at San Xavier del Bac; deceased 80r 2 Aguirre 25 Feb 1874 2 f Juan Aguirre [illegible] Ramirez burial was at San Xavier del Bac 80r 3 Juan Grijalba 27 Feb 1874 65 m Francis ca Ramires 80r 4 Maria del Pilar 1 Mar 1874 40 f burial was at San Xavier del Bac; deceased 80r 5 Juana Saens 1 Mar 1874 4 f Juan Petra Gallardo 80r 6 Pedro Gallardo 1 Mar 1874 1 m Petra Gallardo 80 v 1 Maria del Carmel 3 Mar 1874 1 f Francisco Romero Luisa Felix 80 v 2 Margarita 4 Mar 1874 1 f Jesus Castro Adelaida Martinez 80 v 3 Clotilde Morales 5 Mar 1874 2 f Jose Maria Morales Juana Flores 80 v 4 Maria Sara 9 Mar 1874 2 mo f Anastacia Alcares entry truncated at edge of page 80 v 5 Ant onio Ramirez 9 Mar 1874 2 mo m Estevan Ramirez Maria Jesus Azedo 80 v 6 Simon Sanches 10 Mar 1874 30 m edge of page 81r 1 Juan 12 Mar 1874 8 mo m Refugio Dias Jesus Aguilar 81r 2 Juan 16 Mar 1874 9 m Mariano Ortiz Leonor Ortiz 81r 3 Lucio [?] 16 Mar 1874 25 m burial was at San Xavier del Bac; deceased de los papagos" 81r 4 Juana Alvarez 17 Mar 1874 1 mo f Espiridiona Paral [?] 81r 5 Jesus Andrade 18 Mar 1874 1 mo m Cornelia Paras 81v 1 Jesus Cirilio Lopez 20 Mar 18 74 2 mo m Miguel Lopez Luz Hernandez 81v 2 Ursula Agapita 22 Mar 1874 5 mo f Trinidad Telles Juana Buruel 81v 3 Maria Gertrudis 23 Mar 1874 1 f Jesus Ochoa 81v 4 Gabriel 24 Mar 1874 11 days m 81v 5 Ana Maria Chacon 25 Mar 1874 34 f Ramon Urias 82r 1 Jesus Alvarez 27 Mar 1874 34 m 82r 2 Maria Espirit u Almazan 28 Mar 1874 30 f 82r 3 Soledad Lopes 30 Mar 1874 35 f 82r 4 Francisco 31 Mar 1874 2 mo m Nicolasa Samora entry truncated at edge of page 82r 5 Teo doro 4 Apr 1874 5 mo m Vicente Moraga 82r 6 Josefa 7 Apr 1874 3 f Anastacia Alcaras Rufino Portel 82v 1 Jesusita 7 Apr 1874 8 mo f Carolina Gomez 82v 2 M anuel Marin [?] 11 Apr 1874 21 m Isabel Marin [?] Salome Mendoza 82v 3 Robos [?] Cruz 14 Apr 1874 20 days m Jesus Cruz Concepcion Ramirez 82v 4 Celestina 15 Apr 1874 28 f 82v 5 Miguela 21 Apr 1874 3 f 83r 1 Juana Verdugo 24 Apr 1874 4 f Marta Verdugo 83r 2 Refugio 28 Apr 1874 1 f Mariano Carion Porta Ocoboa [?] 83r 3 Maria de los Remedios 28 Apr 1874 35 or f

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518 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 40 83r 4 Perfecto 1 May 1874 12 days m Jesus Verdugo 83r 5 Josefa 3 May 1874 8 f 83r 6 Maria Juana Valdez 5 May 1874 died at birth f Roman Valdez Gertrudes Gonzales 83v 1 Maria 7 May 1874 20 mo f Carmel Partios 83v 2 Fermina Ylibalda [?] 9 May 1874 2 f Jesus Martinez Soledad Uazi [?] 83v 3 Julian Blanco 14 May 1874 40 m 83v 4 Jesus Tapia 17 May 1874 28 m 83v 5 Manuela Gonzales 17 May 1874 2 f Concepcion Gonzales Esquipula Castro 83v 6 Ramon 22 May 1874 11 mo m Antonio Comaduran Merced Campas 84r 1 Antonio Quijada 22 May 1874 3 mo m Refugio Quijada Vicenta Garadios [?] 84r 2 Colato [?] 22 May 1874 7 mo m Dolores X. 84r 3 Miguel 29 May 1874 2 m Refugio Pacheco Paola Cruz 84r 4 Porta Ocoboa 29 May 1874 35 f 84r 5 Concepcion Cruz 30 May 1874 7 mo f Antonio Cruz Juliana Duarte 84r 6 En carnacion Martinez 2 Jun 1874 40 f 84v 1 Rosa 9 Jun 1874 3 mo f Nicolas Henriquez Marta Verdugo 84v 2 Damiano 16 Jun 1874 9 mo m Jesus Valencia Delfina Salazar 84v 3 Matia s Baltes 16 Jun 1874 a few months m Mysteria Baltes 84v 4 Perfecto Gallardo 18 Jun 1874 28 m Francisco Gallardo Jesus Granillo 84v 5 Eusebio 22 Jun 1874 10 mo m Catarina Molina 85r 1 Carlos 22 Jun 1874 8 mo m Charles James Rivers Agripina Moreno 85r 2 Maria de la Cruz 26 Jun 1874 1 f Luis Marquez Josefa Romero 85r 3 Francisco Espinosa 5 Jul 1874 40 m J uana Burela 85r 4 Eduarda Robles 5 Jul 1874 55 f Jose Preciado 85r 5 Refugio Urquides 5 Jul 1874 1 f Francisco Urquides 85v 1 Luisa 7 Jul 1874 3 f Jose Maria Martinez Guadalupe Sinoguy 85v 2 Virginia Marin 11 Jul 1874 23 f Isabel Marin Salome Mendoza 85v 3 Ramon Romero 15 Jul 1874 90 m Josefa Salazar 85v 4 Patricia Granillo 17 Jul 187 4 28 f Jesus Figueroa 85v 5 X. Tanoro 20 Jul 1874 a few days m Cruz Tanoro 86r 1 Gregoria 23 Jul 1874 1 f Damasia Bia 86r 2 Jose Tranquilino Bartolo 23 Jul 1874 17 days m Jesus Figueroa Patricia Granillo 86r 3 Catarina Montijo 25 Jul 1874 nia f Merced Monitjo 86r 4 29 Jul 1874 30 f 86r 5 30 Jul 1874 40 m 86 v 1 Juan Antonio 30 Jul 1874 2 m Virginia Mendoza 86v 2 31 Jul 1874 3 mo f Mariano Quiroga Josefa Molina entry truncated at edge of page 86v 3 Francisco 1 Aug 1874 10 m Francisco Rodriguez Rosa Leon 86v 4 Sister Mary Emerentia 2 Aug 1874 40 f entry is in English; deceased was Superior of

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519 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes the Convent of St. Joseph 86v 5 8 Aug 1874 1 m Refugio Ortega 87r 1 Primitivo Carrancio [?] 8 Aug 1874 nio m Toribio Marina 87r 2 Augusitin 9 Aug 1874 11 mo m Marta Rodriguez 87r 3 Tomasa Zamora 11 Aug 1874 1 f Francisca Zamo ra 87r 4 Angela 11 Aug 1874 9 days f Jose Velasquez Maria Dolores [illegible] 87r 5 Leonides Rodriguez 12 Aug 1874 6 f Francisco Rodriguez Rosa Leon 87v 1 Refugio Leyvas 14 Aug 1874 60 m Refugio X. 87v 2 Estevan Valencia 20 Aug 1874 1 m Jose Maria Valencia Jesus Ruiz 87v 3 Eloisa 24 Aug 1874 7 mo f Casimiro Bartholemy Josefa Rajel [?] 87v 4 Jesus Maria 26 Aug 1874 1 m Abram Robles Marta Alesa 87v 5 Jesus Martinez 27 Aug 1874 37 m 88r 1 Josefa 29 Aug 1874 6 mo f Antonio Maldonado Helena Moralesa 88r 2 Refugio Antonio 31 Aug 1874 2 mo m Genaro Pesqueira Jesus Baragan 88r 3 Jacinto Castro 2 Sep 1874 18 days m Jesus Castro Adelaida Martinez 88r 4 Francisca 5 Sep 1874 parvula f Francisco Choulme Augustina 88r 5 Ventura 6 Sep 1874 2 m Rafael Andrade Francisca Samora 88r 6 Juliana Duarte 13 Sep 1874 27 f Antonio Quintero 88v 1 Antonio X. 13 Sep 1874 60 m 88v 2 Concepcion Alcara 14 Sep 1874 60 f 88v 3 Antonia 17 Sep 1874 7 f Concepcion Rodriguez 88v 4 Maria X. 19 Sep 1874 4 f 88v 5 Pedro Carreras 22 Sep 1874 45 m 88v 6 Romela Lerma 25 Sep 1874 18 f Anastasio Lerma Carlota Gonzales 89r 1 Procopio 25 Sep 1874 2 mo m Isabel Gonzales 89r 2 Francisco Nuez 26 Sep 187 4 9 m Emeteria Rodriguez 89r 3 Cleofa Rodriguez 26 Sep 1874 2 mo f Concepcion Rodriguez 89r 4 Juana Varela 26 Sep 1874 22 f 89r 5 Isabel Gonzales 28 Sep 1874 20 f Cecilio Davida 89v 1 Eusyquio [?] Ocobosa 3 Oct 1874 30 m 89v 2 Maria Burruel 4 Oct 1874 31 f Jesus Ortiz 89v 3 Andres Coronado 4 Oct 1874 2 m Doloresa Coronado 89v 4 Refugio Azedo 6 Oct 1874 3 mo f Geronimo Azedo Alta Gracia Gallegos 89v 5 Juanito Herreras 8 Oct 1874 20 days m Nicolas Herreras Alta Gracia Grijalba 90r 1 Josefa Ali cosa [?] 23 Oct 1874 35 f Spiritu Leyvas 90r 2 Juan 26 Oct 1874 3 days m Catalina [?] 90r 3 Eugenio Ruiz 27 Oct 1874 55 m Maria Galindo 90r 4 Maria Salome Gardner 29 Oc t 1874 3 days f Thomas Gardner Gertrudis Apodaca 90r 5 Librada Castro 30 Oct 1874 24 f Nicolas Bias 90v 1 Maria Guadalupe 1 Nov 1874 adult f 90v 2 Pedro Calderon 2 Nov 18 74 30 m 90v 3 Dario Trineo 6 Nov 1874 24 m Antonia Navares

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520 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 90v 4 Alejandro Moraga 6 Nov 1874 11 mo m Bibiano Moraga entry truncated at edge of page 90v 5 Migue l Gonzalez 7 Nov 1874 5 m Sacramento Gonzalez Carmel Celoya 91r 1 Antonia Pasos 10 Nov 1874 40 f 91r 2 Higinio 10 Nov 1874 10 mo m Leonicio Martinez Geronima Robles 91r 3 Je sus 12 Nov 1874 adult m 91r 4 12 Nov 1874 3 f 91r 5 Carlos 14 Nov 1874 9 mo m Pedro Trejo Antonia Federico 91v 1 Sacramento Duarte 14 Nov 1874 70 f 91v 2 Juaquina Castro 14 Nov 1874 30 f Carlos G. Jones 91v 3 Casimira Rico 16 Nov 1874 4 f Tiburcio Rico Mariana Camacho 91v 4 Jesus Castro 18 Nov 1874 50 m Adelaida Martinez 9 2r 1 Ramon Tirado 21 Nov 1874 80 m 92r 2 Merced Arragan 22 Nov 1874 22 f John Hastings 92r 3 Merced Moreno 22 Nov 1874 60 m 92r 4 Maria Francisca 23 Nov 1874 2 mo f Leandro Feliz Dolores Altamirano 92r 5 Francisco 25 Nov 1874 2 m Domingo Jovaneti Maria Antonia Vasquez 92v 1 Casimira [?] Gomez 25 Nov 1874 35 f 92v 2 Demesio 25 Nov 1874 8 days m Demesio Alvares Juliana Bia 92v 3 M. Anastasia 25 Nov 1874 50 f Juan Perrano burial was at San Xavier del Bac; deceased is 92v 4 Benito 25 Nov 1874 15 m burial wa s at San Xavier del Bac 92v 5 Maria Refugio 26 Nov 1874 30 [?] f 93r 1 Francisco Fimbres 30 Nov 1874 64 m 93r 2 Jose de la Luz Ruis 4 Dec 1874 14 m Feliciano Maria Valencia [? ] entry truncated at edge of page 93r 3 Domingo 7 Dec 1874 40 m burial was at San Xavier del Bac; deceased 93r 4 8 Dec 1874 a few days f Guadalupe Orantes [?] 93r 5 Josefa Campas 16 Dec 1874 30 f 93v 1 Cipriano Ortega 18 Dec 1874 38 m Ramona Gomez 93v 2 Margarita Encinas 20 Dec 1874 25 f Guadalupe Vasquez 93v 3 Jesus Miranda 21 Dec 1874 30 f Francisco Tarin [?] 93v 4 Emerenciana 21 Dec 1874 1 f papagos" 93v 5 Francisca Samora 21 Dec 1874 35 f Raphael Andrade 94r 1 Ramon 28 Dec 1874 3 mo m Pedro Padilla Jesus Carrio 94r 2 Manuel Martinez 26 Dec 1874 21 m Josefa Martinez 94r 3 Josefa 27 Dec 1874 10 days f Elijio Bedoya Juaquina Urias 94r 4 Gertrudis Terrazas 27 Dec 1874 11 mo f Ignacio Brigida Herreras 94v 1 Maria Jesus 1 Jan 1875 3 f Jesus Figueroa Patricia Granillo 94v 2 Juana Molina 9 Jan 1875 18 f Matia s Molina Juana Ramires 94v 3 Antonio Vuelna 13 Jan 1875 30 m 94v 4 Victor 13 Jan 1875 80 m

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521 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 95r 1 Evaristo 18 Jan 1875 2 or 3 m Evaristo aes Idefonza Flores 95r 2 Geronimo 20 Jan 1875 2 m Geronimo Herrera Magdalena Bildaray 95r 3 Juaquin Romero 23 Jan 1875 adult m Jose M. Romero Juana Mendez 95r 4 Juan 25 Jan 1875 1 day m Dolores Sanches Ramona Montijo 95r 5 Catalina Leal 25 Jan 1875 28 f 95v 1 Jesus Martinez 26 Jan 1875 25 m Leonides Martinez Dolores Fimbres 95v 2 Ramon Verdugo 29 Jan 1875 2 mo m Ramon Abelina Castro 95v 3 Maria 29 Jan 1875 30 f Jose 95v 4 Maria Allen 29 Jan 1875 20 f 95v 5 29 Jan 1875 parvula f 95v 6 Petra Sot o 7 Feb 1875 1 day f Casimira Soto 96r 1 Placido Ramirez 8 Feb 1875 9 m 96r 2 Carmel Contreras 16 Feb 1875 3 f Francisco Contreras Isidra Soto 96r 3 Margarita 18 Feb 1875 10 f 96r 4 Manuel Menjadi 18 Feb 1875 9 mo m Jesus Menjadi 96r 5 Lorenzo Navarreta 20 Feb 1875 1 m Lorenzo Navarreta Maria Padillas 96r 6 Tiburcio 22 Feb 1875 ad ult m 96v 1 Juana Granillo 23 Feb 1875 10 mo f Eusebio Granillo Concepcion Garcia 96v 2 Maria Guadalupe 24 Feb 1875 adult f 96v 3 Maria Jesus 26 Feb 1875 35 f Agapito Franco 96v 4 Maria Guadalupe 26 Feb 1875 25 f 96v 5 Lorenzo Romero 27 Feb 1875 5 mo m Lazaro Romero Seferina Azedo 97r 1 Vicente Calsadilla 28 Feb 1875 70 m Maria Montoya 97r 2 Francisco Suniga 6 Mar 1875 24 m Manuel Suniga Jesus N. 97r 3 Jose 7 Mar 1875 newborn m Isidoro Castro Anita Buruel 97r 4 Joseph Provencher 11 Mar 1875 26 m 97r 5 Tomas Elias 15 Mar 1875 2 mo m Tomas Elias Juana Ortiz 97v 1 Jean Vilaton [?] 20 Mar 1875 56 m 97v 2 Isa bel Oloaisa [?] 19 Mar 1875 25 f Antonio Alvarez burial was at San Xavier del Bac 97v 3 Sebastiana Tautimes 23 Mar 1875 35 f Ricardo Amado 97v 4 Juana 24 Mar 1875 newborn f Juana Flores 97v 5 Maria Guadalupe 30 Mar 1875 adult f 98r 1 Francisca 31 Mar 1875 7 mo f Jesus Calles Leonides Robles 98r 2 Ramona 1 Apr 1875 3 mo f Marcelino Baldez Rosario Escobar 98r 3 Pilar Carillo 4 Apr 1875 42 f Bernardo Membrila 98r 4 Aguedo Tapia 10 Apr 1875 26 m Jose Juan Tapia Marta Romero 98r 5 Jesus Maria Francisco 13 Apr 1875 43 m Teodora Mar tinez 98v 1 Miguel Cruz 15 Apr 1875 adult m 98v 2 Francisco Campas 19 Apr 1875 1 m Crescencio Campas Manuela Martinez 98v 3 Juana Leon 26 Apr 1875 36 f

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522 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 98v 4 Jo se M. Gomez 26 Apr 1875 60 m 98v 5 Diego Ballestero 26 Apr 1875 6 mo m Jose Maria Ballestero Ana Mermudez [?] 98v 6 George Beltran 29 Apr 1875 41 m Isabel Ochoa 99r 1 Jose Maria Flores 30 Apr 1875 20 m Juan Jose Flores Dolores Albarez 99r 2 Antonio Morales 2 May 1875 1 mo m Crescencio Morales Jesus Huerta 99r 3 Juan F. Smith 9 May 1875 a few months m Henry Smith Isabel Gomez 99r 4 Fernando Otero 10 May 1875 50 m 99r 5 Carmelita 13 May 1875 2 mo f Francisco Salazar Teodora Martinez 99v 1 Nicolas Vega 11 May 1875 25 m Jose Ve ga 99v 2 Maria Antonia 14 May 1875 16 f Matias Ramires Juana Billegas 99v 3 [illegible] 15 May 1875 3 f Antonio Preciado Felicidad Manso 99v 4 Josefa G. Fuller 17 May 1875 49 f J.S. Fuller 99v 5 Vicente 18 May 1875 2 m Augustina Moraga 100r 1 Jesus Beltran 19 May 1875 36 m Nepomucena Grijalba 100r 2 Alberto Moreno 20 May 1875 3 m Abran [?] Moreno Mariana Manso 100r 3 Luciano Alonzo 20 May 1875 3 days m Teresa 100r 4 Teresa Alonzo 22 May 1875 30 f 100r 5 Juana Tresvias 24 May 1875 1 day f Gabriela 100r 6 Juan 25 May 1875 5 days m [illegible] [illegible] 100v 1 Angelito Rodriguez 30 May 1875 nio m Aldofo Francisca Navarro 100v 2 Henrique 31 May 1875 a few days m J. M. Peralta Henriqueta Bustamante 100v 3 Encarnacion 3 Jun 1875 1 m Antonio Gonzales Jesus Verdugo 100v 4 Pablo Martinez 8 Jun 1875 2 days m Leonicio Martinez Jeronima Santa Cruz 10 0v 5 Josefa Abadie 9 Jun 1875 1 f Pablo Abadie Juaquina Basques 101r 1 Tomasa Panduro 11 Jun 1875 40 f Ramona Panduro 101r 2 Luis 12 Jun 1875 adult m 101r 3 Espiridion C orrea 15 Jun 1875 adult m 101r 4 Genara Silvas 15 Jun 1875 19 f Aldolfo Feliz 101r 5 Antonia Trujillo 15 Jun 1875 56 f Juan Jose Herreras 101v 1 Jesus Maria Salazar 16 Jun 18 75 6 m Francisco Salazar Teodora Martinez 101v 2 Josefa Ruis 16 Jun 1875 45 f Jose Naes 101v 3 Jesus 19 Jun 1875 2 m Francisco Nuez Manuela Gonzales 101v 4 Geronima Santa Cruz 21 Jun 1875 23 f Leonicio Martinez 101v 5 Leonor 21 Jun 1875 3 mo f Charia Rivas 102r 1 Maria 22 Jun 1875 1 f Jose Maria Islas [?] Maria Villaseor 102r 2 Merced Dolo res 24 Jun 1875 2 mo f R. B. Kelley Josefa Ballesteros 102r 3 Luis 29 Jun 1875 1 m Murcio Molina Francisca Corales 102r 4 Manuela Salazar 3 Jul 1875 9 f Francisco Refugio Palojon [?] 102r 5 Juanita 6 Jul 1875 2 days f Tomas Gonzales Micaela Sosa 102v 1 Rafael 9 Jul 1875 14 or m Jesus Erredia Domingo Lopez

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523 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 15 102v 2 Anita Mendible 11 Jul 1875 9 mo f Agap ito Mendible Loreta Fernandes 102v 3 Petra Ribeira 12 Jul 1875 16 f Jesus Ribeira Aleja Figueroa 102v 4 Trinidad 12 Jul 1875 6 days m Vicente Bia Romualda Romero 102v 5 Juan 10 J ul 1875 1 day m Francisco Maldonado Leandra Arias 103r 1 Maria Nieves 28 Jul 1875 5 mo f Braulio Garcia Nieves Camacho 103r 2 Maria 29 Jul 1875 24 f Mauricio Castro 103r 3 J ose Maria Fernandez 5 Aug 1875 adult m 103r 4 Adelaida Preciado 7 Aug 1875 7 mo f Antonio Preciado Antonia Valencia 103r 5 Tomas 9 Aug 1875 11 mo m Alejandro Wilkins Francisca Sinoguy 103v 1 Ramon Comaduran 11 Aug 1875 2 mo m Antonio Mercedes Campas 103v 2 Dolores Delgado 12 Aug 1875 33 f Jesus Vega 103v 3 Isabel Lopez 13 Aug 1875 18 f Ursula Lopez 103v 4 Juan 15 Aug 1875 1 mo m John Williams Amparo Duarte 103v 5 Jose Gabriel 24 Aug 1875 5 mo m Francisco Padilla Margarita Marquez 104r 1 Juana X. 18 Aug 1875 35 f 1 04r 2 Jesus Lopez 24 Aug 1875 35 m Juan Guadalupe Cosiona [?] 104r 3 Froilan Balle 25 Aug 1875 2 m Pedro Maria Balle entry truncated at edge of page 104r 4 Eloisa Allen 26 Aug 1875 8 mo f Guillermo Allen Crisonta [?] Lopez 104r 5 Lauro Cordova 27 Aug 1875 3 days m Eulalia Cordova 104v 1 Timoteo 28 Aug 1875 25 m 104v 2 Manuel Soto 28 Aug 1875 25 m Severiana Gonzales 104v 3 Manuel Contreras 29 Aug 1875 60 m 104v 4 Antonio Carrisoza 30 Aug 1875 30 m Maria Jesus Yescas 104v 5 Ramona Bustamante 1 Sep 1875 adult f Fran cisco Garcia 105r 1 Placido Soza 2 Sep 1875 1 m Placido Soza Merced Elias 105r 2 Amado Castillo 2 Sep 1875 1 m Jose Maria Salome [?] Grijalba 105r 3 Pedro 6 Sep 1875 2 mo m Francisco Urquides Guadalupe Rivas 105r 4 Eduardo Barragon 6 Sep 1875 35 m 105r 5 6 Sep 1875 nio m 105r 6 Jose Maria Castro 12 Sep 1875 50 m Guadalupe Calles 105v 1 Josefa 12 Sep 1875 6 mo f Reyes Calistro Josefa Valencia 105v 2 Gallegos 16 Sep 1875 3 m Ramon Gallegos Juana Ruelas 105v 3 Loreto Calistro 16 Sep 1875 60 m Trinidad Romero 105v 4 Manuel 21 Sep 1875 2 m Ramon Lopez Luz Romero 105v 5 Ramon 21 Sep 1875 1 m Isabel Vega 106r 1 Maria Soto 24 Sep 1875 30 f Jose Maria Peres 106r 2 Refugio Ruelas 24 Sep 1875 2 m Carmel Ruelas 106r 3 Jeronimo Velasquez 25 Sep 1875 25 m X. 106r 4 Dolores Henriquez 26 Sep 1875 22 m Guadalupe Coronel 106r 5 Pedro 27 Sep 1875 10 mo m Manuel Cordova Espiridiona Delsy 106v 1 P. Antonio 28 Sep 1875 5 mo m Antonio Gallardo Carmel Calles

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524 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 106v 2 Jesus 4 Oct 1875 10 mo m Francisco Romo Francisca Pesqueira 10 6v 3 Juan 5 Oct 1875 9 mo m J. Davis Rafaela Comaduran 106v 4 Antonio 7 Oct 1875 adult m 106v 5 Francisca 7 Oct 1875 3 mo f Refugio Abiles 106v 6 Jose Maria Tapia 7 Oct 1875 1 m Jose Maria Maria Suarez 107r 1 Rafael Robles 7 Oct 1875 16 m Hernuisa [?] Juirisso [?] 107r 2 8 Oct 1875 1 day m Nicolas Martinez Simona Burruel 107r 3 Francis ca 10 Oct 1875 2 f Dolores Moraga 107r 4 Juan 10 Oct 1875 5 m 107r 5 Martin 10 Oct 1875 60 m 107r 6 Cecilia Andrea di Pietrozelli 13 Oct 1875 53 f Jobanni Piet rozelli 107v 1 Carmel 15 Oct 1875 1 f Guillermo Ipomasby [?] Refugio Vuelna 107v 2 Juana Lopez 16 Oct 1875 38 f Jesus Sarateguy 107v 3 Amparo Duarte 26 Oct 1875 23 f 1 07v 4 Miguel Lopez 29 Oct 1875 50 m Maria Tierras 107v 5 Francisca Romero 31 Oct 1875 5 f Ramon Soledad Sotelo 108r 1 Pedro Moreno 2 Nov 1875 35 m Gregoria Gonzales 108r 2 Juana 6 Nov 1875 4 f Jose Heredia Dolores Montao 108r 3 Zacarias Ambrosio 7 Nov 1875 3 days m Antonio Gonzales Jesus Verdugo 108r 4 Petra Huerta 6 Nov 1875 30 f Alcario Moreno 108r 5 Maria Jesus Gonzales 7 Nov 1875 24 f Miguel Dias 108v 1 Maria Burruel 8 Nov 1875 1 f Cruz Burruel Maria Camacho 108v 2 Juan Valencia 11 Nov 1875 60 m Pabla Marine [ ?] 108v 3 Cisto Marin 11 Nov 1875 25 m 108v 4 Maria Moreno 12 Nov 1875 60 f 108v 5 Merced German 18 Nov 1875 18 f Martiriano Ramires buried with her child, the following entry 108v 6 Ramon 18 Nov 1875 10 days m Martiriano Ramires Merced German buried with his mother, the preceding entry 109r 1 Charles Vinh Gongh 21 Nov 1875 40 m sm 109r 2 Dolores Sierra 22 Nov 1875 30 f W. N. Dunne [?] 109r 3 Rafaela 23 Nov 1875 1 mo f Mucio Molina Francisca Corales 109r 4 Angela Ramires 23 Nov 1875 55 f 109r 5 23 Nov 1875 10 mo m Juaquin de la Pompa Maria Antonia Redondo de la Pompa 109v 1 Lizzie Thomas 25 Nov 1875 17 f John Thomas 109v 2 Antonio 26 Nov 1875 65 m N. 109v 3 Rafael Fierros 2 Dec 1875 17 m Sacramento Dolores Huacica [?] 109v 4 Francisco Dias 2 Dec 1875 55 m 109v 5 Placido 2 Dec 1875 1 mo m Marta Rodriguez 110r 1 Telesfora 9 Dec 1875 adult f 110r 2 Martin Rios 5 Dec 1875 35 m Tomasa burial was at San Xavier del Bac; deceased age 110r 3 Jose Vega 10 Dec 1875 35 m

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525 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 110r 4 Francisco Ortega 11 Dec 1875 70 m 110r 5 Lack Tierney 12 Dec 1875 50 m except for birthplace note 110v 1 Guadalupe 12 Dec 1875 2 m Feliciana N. 110v 2 Jesus Cardenas 12 Dec 1875 25 m Francisco Dolores Franco 110v 3 Francisca 13 Dec 1875 2 f Margarita Pac heco 110v 4 Francisca Corales 15 Dec 1875 30 f Mucio Molina 110v 5 Loreto Baros 21 Dec 1875 33 m Eloisa Benitez 111r 1 Manuel Cota 22 Dec 1875 24 m 111r 2 Jose Qu ijado 24 Dec 1875 28 m Manuel Maria Osoria [?] 111r 3 Margarita Tapia 24 Dec 1875 48 f 111r 4 Mercedes Quiro 25 Dec 1875 25 f Charles A. Shibell deceased may be Native American; se e Teresa Shibell in 1870 census 111r 5 Ramon 26 Dec 1875 2 mo m Alejandro Bia Refugio Barcela 111v 1 Robert 30 Dec 1875 1 m E.[?]D. Wood Palmira Gonzales Roca 112r 1 Joaquin Contreras 1 Jan 1876 49 m Gertrudis Contreras 112r 2 Jose Maria Barragay 3 Jan 1876 40 m Suzana Montao 112r 3 Hilario Teguida 4 Jan 1876 43 m Dominga Robles 112r 4 Delfino 4 Jan 187 6 11 days m Concepcion Garcia entry truncated at edge of page 112r 5 Dolores Altamirano 8 Jan 1876 22 f Leandro Felix 112v 1 Maria Juana 8 Jan 1876 15 days f Rosa Gonza les 112v 2 Josefa Aros 11 Jan 1876 40 f 112v 3 Luciano Calles 15 Jan 1876 10 days m Jesus Calles Leonides Robles 112v 4 Felipe Franco 18 Jan 1876 32 m 112v 5 P edro Quiros 20 Jan 1876 45 m 113r 1 Ana Basquez 21 Jan 1876 34 f Rosalino Baldenegro 113r 2 Presciliana 21 Jan 1876 1 f Jesus Martinez Soledad Wason 113r 3 Reyes 23 Jan 1 876 2 m Adolfo Martinez Francisca Navarro 113r 4 Serafina Orosco 26 Jan 1876 adult f Gallegos 113r 5 Jose Carmel Sierras 26 Jan 1876 60 m 113v 1 Ines 29 Jan 1876 9 days m Manuel Gonzales Josefa Valencia 113v 2 Jose Estolino [?] 30 Jan 1876 2 days m Jose A. Gallegos Isabel Morales 113v 3 Jose Cota 31 Jan 1876 52 m Refugion Bufanda 113v 4 Cleofe 3 Feb 1876 10 mo f Manuel Salazar Lorenza Grijalba 113v 5 Maria del Refugio Ribeyra 3 Feb 1876 19 f Jose Maria Tagles [?] 114r 1 Fernanda Mesa 7 Feb 1876 40 f 114r 2 Jesu s Arviso 9 Feb 1876 28 m Jose Arviso Maria Molina 114r 3 Cirilo Samy 9 Feb 1876 60 m 114r 4 Narciza 11 Feb 1876 3 mo f Bibiano Moraga Josefa Fraijo [?] 114r 5 Maria Franci sca Gonzales 12 Feb 1876 76 f 114v 1 Francisco 12 Feb 1876 5 mo m Teodora Camacho 114v 2 Jose Alcario 12 Feb 1876 1 mo m Jose Alcario Cora[?] Beta [?] Barragon

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526 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 114v 3 Lazaro Gonzales 16 Feb 1876 60 m 114v 4 Ana Maria Quintanares 16 Feb 1876 40 f 114v 5 Eloisa Cruz 19 Feb 1876 17 f Jose Castillo 115r 1 19 Feb 1876 a few d ays f Maria Grijabla 115r 2 Domingo Sinogui 19 Feb 1876 11 mo m Domingo Nicolasa Zamora 115r 3 22 Feb 1876 adult f 115r 4 Maria Rita 23 Feb 1876 adult f Rafael Herr eras 115r 5 Cayetano 1 Mar 1876 1 mo m Juana Salgado [?] 115v 1 Nazario Gallegos 7 Mar 1876 13 m Ignacio Gallegos Jesus Moraga 115v 2 Jesus Quijada 7 Mar 1876 35 m Bartolo Barbara N. 115v 3 Genaro Romo 8 Mar 1876 1 mo m Francisco Francisca Pesqueiro deceased is described as adult, but listed as one month old 115v 4 Teresa Para 9 Mar 1876 40 f 115v 5 El oisa 11 Mar 1876 1 f Benigna Araiso [?] 116r 1 Caterino Trejo 12 Mar 1876 40 m 116r 2 Manuel Feliz 13 Mar 1876 4 m Josefa Feliz 116r 3 Adriana Robles 15 Mar 1876 1 mo f Pedro Robles Angela Gomes 116r 4 Refugio 20 Mar 1876 7 days f Jesus Tapia 116r 5 Martin Gilmartin 20 Mar 1876 35 m 116v 1 Jose M aria Sanches 22 Mar 1876 60 m 116v 2 Francisca 23 Mar 1876 11 days f Ramon Duarte Maria Amparo Madril 116v 3 Jacinto Bia 25 Mar 1876 60 m Manuela Soto 116v 4 Dolores Yguerr a 27 Mar 1876 70 f Ascension Yguerra 116v 5 Francisco Ysasara 3 Apr 1876 80 m Maria Cardenas 117r 1 Jose Bustamante 5 Apr 1876 60 m 117r 2 Ascension Yguerra 5 Apr 1876 80 m Dolores Yguerra 117r 3 Josefa 15 Apr 1876 30 f 117r 4 Bernardina Leon 16 Apr 1876 26 f 117r 5 Jose Luz Miranias [?] 16 Apr 1876 26 m Adelaida Acedaz 117 v 1 Manuel Vasquez 21 Apr 1876 27 days m Filomeno Vasquez Dolores Anser [?] 117v 2 Mariano Ortega 25 Apr 1876 30 m Juana Lopez 117v 3 Jose Maria Ramirez 28 Apr 1876 28 m Concepcion Urias 117v 4 Antonio Vical [?] 1 May 1876 46 m Josefa Rodriguez 117v 5 Maria Lara 2 May 1876 newborn f Bruno Lara Ramona Elias 118r 1 Placido Leyvas 4 May 1876 26 m Francis ca Urrea 118r 2 Jesus Isidro Alday 6 May 1876 30 m X. Alday Maria 118r 3 6 May 1876 a few months m 118r 4 12 May 1876 2 f Alcario Torres Rita Barragon 118r 5 T ilano [?] Acua 13 May 1876 26 m 118v 1 Pabla Caez 15 May 1876 60 f Juan Valencia

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527 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes 118v 2 Antonio Romero 15 May 1876 15 m Francisco Dolores Soto 118v 3 Francisco Foster 16 May 1876 1 m George Foster Juana Moreno 118v 4 Eugenio Cervantez 17 May 1876 47 m Barbara Valenzuela 118v 5 Guadalupe Encinas 18 May 1876 16 m 119r 1 Maria Antonia Flores 18 May 1876 57 f Francisco Ferecia 119r 2 Maria Andrade 20 May 1876 2 f Ramona Andrade 119r 3 Jose Maria Germana 29 May 1876 53 m 119r 4 Librado Gomez 31 May 1876 3 m Augustin Gomez Jacoba Molina 119r 5 Adolfo Ferrer 2 Jun 1876 27 m Beatriz Barcelo 119v 1 Miguel Gomez 2 Jun 1876 1 m Francisco Gomez Jesus Valenzuela 119v 2 Francisco Gonzales 4 Jun 1876 6 days m Tomas Gonzales Micaela Sosa 119v 3 Carmen Pamplona 10 Jun 1876 17 f Concepcion Pamplona Guadalupe Pacheco 119v 4 Francisco Castro 10 Jun 1876 7 mo m Feliciana Castro 120r 1 Jose Maria Ramirez 13 Jun 1876 40 m Cayetana Abril 120r 2 Ramon Gonzales 16 Jun 1876 20 days m Tomas Gonzales Miguela Sosa 120r 3 Vicenta Ruelas 17 Jun 1876 58 f T omas Costela [?] 120r 4 Josefa Duran 17 Jun 1876 1 mo f Refugio Duran Aurora Amador 120r 5 Felicita Cuebas 25 Jun 1876 adult f Alfonso Sauas [?] 120v 1 Francisco Orbina 28 Jun 1876 64 m 120v 2 J. B. Creis [?] 28 Jun 1876 1 day m Leonicio Creis [?] Bernarda Saens 120v 3 Juana Leon 30 Jun 1876 4 mo f Pedro Leon Paulina Gomez 120v 4 Elias 1 Jul 1876 ni o m Tomas Elias Juana Ortiz 120v 5 Francisco Benites 4 Jul 1876 40 m Angela Gallegos 121r 1 Gabriela Tresvias 8 Jul 1876 21 f Jesus Tresvias Bruna Bojorquez 121r 2 Francisco Delsy 8 Jul 1876 15 days m Felicidad Delsy 121r 3 Manuel Altamirano 13 Jul 1876 adult m Juana [illegible] 121r 4 10 Jul 1876 a few months f Dolores Pacheco 121r 5 Dolores Zeped a [?] 14 Jul 1876 3 m Dolores Zepeda [?] Josefa Contreras 121v 1 Ventura Mendoza 21 Jul 1876 nio m Abran Mendoza 121v 2 Maria Francisca Orosco 27 Jul 1876 50 f Jose Ga llegos 121v 3 Placidito 27 Jul 1876 nio m Francisca Valencia 121v 4 Expectacion Castro 30 Jul 1876 20 f Dolores Castro Carmen Yguerra 121v 5 Teresa Romero 31 Jul 1876 30 f Francisco 122r 1 Manuel Cruz 2 Aug 1876 3 m Florencio Cruz Josefa [illegible] 122r 2 Gertrudes Leon 5 Aug 1876 25 f Julian Leon Maria Escoboso 122r 3 Refugio Molina 8 Aug 1876 5 f Jose Molina Refugio Delsy 122r 4 Gertrudes Orduo 26 Aug 1876 40 f 122v 1 31 Aug 1876 35 f Juan 122v 2 1 Sep 1876 nia f William O 122v 3 Francisco Dias 2 Sep 1876 6 mo m Lorencio Dias Librada Gomez 122v 4 Jose Ochoa 5 Sep 1876 30 m Esteban Ochoa

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528 Page Entry Deceased Date of Burial Age Sex Father Mother Spouse Birthplace Disease Notes Ocho a" 122v 5 Gabriel Romero 10 S