Toward an Asset Structure-Based Typology of Female Microentrepreneurs in Haiti

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Toward an Asset Structure-Based Typology of Female Microentrepreneurs in Haiti
Physical Description:
1 online resource (189 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Wojtalewicz, Celeste
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Interdisciplinary Ecology
Committee Chair:
Swisher, Marilyn E
Committee Members:
Monaghan, Paul F.
Schmink, Marianne C
Mcdade, Barbara E

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
based -- business -- degradation -- disaster -- entrepreneurship -- gender -- haiti -- microentrepreneurs -- natural -- poverty -- recovery -- resource
Interdisciplinary Ecology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Interdisciplinary Ecology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
Faced with the lack of formal employment, microentrepreurship is a common activity among women in developing countries.  While microentrepeurship is often seen as a vehicle for these women to “succeed,” the asset structure conditions the degree of “success.”  Even when human capital is abundant in many developing countries, other assets need to concur to make microenterprises viable.  This is the case of Haiti, a country where women represent 70% of the informal market. Nevertheless, most of these women have to rely on degraded natural resources, poor infrastructure, and an insecure environment, often impacted by natural disasters.  In this study, conducted in Jacmel, Haiti, I found that when confronted with these challenges, some female microentrepreneurs are overwhelmed and become incapable of continuing their endeavors, while other are able to cope and even thrive, making microenterprise an inspiration for others in their families and their communities.  The analysis of the asset structure allowed for the development of a typology of female microentrepeurs, which resulted in three distinct categories: The Surviving, The Aspiring, and The Inspiring.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Celeste Wojtalewicz.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local:
Adviser: Swisher, Marilyn E.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID:
UFE0045028:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

1 T O W A RD A N A SS E T S T R U C T U R E B ASED T Y PO L O GY O F FE M A L E M ICROEN T RE P REN E U R S I N HAITI By CE L E S T E W OJ T A L E W I C Z A DI S SE R T A T I ON P R ESE N T ED T O T HE G RAD U A T E SC H O O L OF T HE UNIVERS I T Y OF FL O RIDA IN PA R TI A L FULF I LL M E N T OF T HE RE Q UIREM E N T S FOR T HE DE G R EE OF DOC T OR O F PHI L O S O P HY U N I V ERS I T Y O F F L O RIDA 20 1 2

PAGE 2

2 20 1 2 Cel e s t e W o jt a l e w i c z

PAGE 3

3 T o Ma be l I n M e mo ry o f m y F a t h e r a n d G ra n d m o t h e r K a t he r in e

PAGE 4

4 ACKN O W L E D GMENTS Fi r st an d f o r e mo st, I w ou ld l i ke to t han k Dr. Ma r i l y n S w ish e r f o r be i n g a de v o t e d t ea c h e r a n d me n t o r. S h e w a s i n strum en t a l in he lpi n g me mo v e f o r w a rd a n d p u rsue m y d re a m a f te r t h e d e p a rture o f m y p re v io u s ad v isor. S h e c h a l l en g e d m y th inki n g a n d en c o u ra g e d m e t o c o n t in u e e v e n w he n t i m e s w e re d if f icult. I w ou ld a lso l i ke t o t h an k t h e rest o f m y c o m m it t ee w h o p ro v id e d g re a t i n si g h t in m y do c t o ral st ud ies. T he ir w isd o m an d h a nd s o n e x pe r i en ce w ith m y res ea rch t op ic h a s b e e n i n v a lu ab le, r a n g ing f r o m t h e rich i n si g h t in t o e n tre p re n eu rship o f D r M cDa d e G o r d o n t o t h e p a ssio n a te k no w le d g e o f t h e H a it i a n c u l t u re o f D r M o nag han t o t h e d ee p e x p e rtise o n g e n de r a nd de v e lo p m en t o f Dr. S c hm ink. I w ou ld a l s o like to t h a n k D r S t e p he n H um p h rey an d man y o t he rs a t t h e S c hoo l o f N a t u ral Res o u rces a n d E n v i r onme n t a t t h e U n i v e rs i ty o f Flor i d a f o r t he ir s u p po r t a n d g u id an c e Also, I a m g rat e f u l t o a ne t w o rk o f f r ie nd s a t S t. Mar g a ret M a r y P a r i sh in W i n t e r P a rk, Fl o r i da e s p e cially Ke n Fi r l i n g an d F a t h e r W a ls h w h o i n tro d u c e d m e t o H a iti an d its r i ch c u lt u re. Follo w i n g m y f i r st trips t o t h is c oun tr y I d e v e lo pe d a n a d m i r a ti o n f o r t h e pe o p le o f Haiti, w h ich p romp t e d me t o u nde r t a ke g ra d u a te s t ud i e s t ha t w ou ld h e lp m e be t t e r u n de rst a n d t h e c ha l l en g e s a n d o p po r t un ities l y ing in f r o n t o f man y H a itian w omen M y t r i p s t o H a i t i w ou ld no t h a v e b e e n a s f rui t f u l, h a d it n o t b ee n f o r a n a r r a y o f f r i e n d s s u c h a s B a ba Ec un io a n d F a t he r B e la n g e w h o e x t en d e d th e ir w a rm ho s p it a l i t y I a lso w an t to e x p ress m y g ratit ud e t o f a m i l y an d f r ie nd s f o r t he ir s u ppo rt. M o st o f a l l I w an t to t h a n k m y hu s b a n d, Ernesto, f o r his lo v e a n d e n c ou r a g em e n t t h ro u g h o u t t h is e n ti r e jo u rn e y. Without him, I would not have made it this far.

PAGE 5

5 F in a l l y m y g re a t e st a p p reciati o n g oe s t o t h e pe o p le o f Haiti, e s pe c i a l l y th e w omen w h o a l l o w e d m e i n to t he ir li v e s an d c u lt u re w ith the ir a r m s op e n Th e y i n s p i r e d m e in more t ha n o n e w a y T h e y ep it o m i z e s t re n g t h c ou ra g e an d a l e v e l o f s oph istic a ti o n t ha t is a u t h e n tic a n d g oe s be y on d m a t e r i a l t h i n g s.

PAGE 6

6 T A B L E OF CON T ENTS page ACKN O W L E D GMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 L I S T O F TA B L ES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 L I S T O F F I GURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 IN T ROD U C T I ON ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 Female Entrepreneurship in Poor Developing Countries ................................ ........ 11 Pi ck i n g up the P i ec e s ................................ ................................ .............................. 12 2 L I T ER A T U R E RE V IE W ................................ ................................ .......................... 14 The Co n ce pt of E n t r e pr e neur s hip ................................ ................................ ........... 14 W om e n a s En t r e p r e n e urs ................................ ................................ ....................... 20 W om e n E n t r e p r e neu r s i n Haiti ................................ ................................ ................ 21 Ha i tian Labor For c e I n Cri s is Situations ................................ ................................ .. 27 The Informal S ec t o r ................................ ................................ ................................ 28 M i c ro e n t e rpri s e ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 30 M i c ro e n t r e pr e neu r i a l A sse ts a nd t h e ir Impor t a nce ................................ ................. 32 Fin a nc i a l Re s ou r ce s f o r M i c ro e n t e rpri s e s ................................ ............................... 36 Fonkoz e : A L ea ding Mi c rofinan c e In s ti t u t ion i n Haiti ................................ .............. 44 W om e n a nd R es i l i e n c y ................................ ................................ ........................... 46 The Co u n t r y o f Haiti ................................ ................................ ................................ 49 o r i cal Ba c kgrou n d ................................ ................................ .................. 50 The Vuln e r a bil it y of Ha i ti ................................ ................................ ......................... 57 The Sign i fi c a nce of Ha i Ja nuary 12 20 1 0 Ea rt h qu a k e ................................ ....... 60 3 M E T HODO L O GY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 63 Re sea r c h Ob j ec ti v e s ................................ ................................ ............................... 63 Re sea r c h Qu e s tions ................................ ................................ ............................... 63 Re sea r c h S ite ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 64 Re sea r c h P a rti c ip a n t s ................................ ................................ ............................. 65 Re sea r c h De s ign ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 66 S e m i Struct u r e d Int er v i e w ................................ ................................ ....................... 67 Da ta A na l y s is ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 74 Re sea r c h Co n ce r n s ................................ ................................ ................................ 77

PAGE 7

7 4 RE S ULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 82 Profile of t h e P a rti c i p a n t s ................................ ................................ ........................ 82 Categori e s & T h e m e s D e ri v e d from the St u d y ................................ ........................ 85 De sc ription of P r i m a r y Categori e s a nd T h e m e s ................................ ..................... 85 Natur a l Capital ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 85 Soc ia l C a pital ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 90 P h y s i ca l Capital ................................ ................................ ................................ 94 Fin a nc i a l Capital ................................ ................................ ............................. 100 Human Capi tal ................................ ................................ ................................ 103 De sc ription of S ec o n da r y C a tegori e s a nd Them e s ................................ ............... 1 09 Busine s s S tart Up P a t t e rn s Op e r a tions a n d S trategi e s ................................ 109 c he La v (S ea r c h for Li fe ) Philo s op h y ................................ .................... 113 Impa c t of N a t u r a l D i s as ters a nd Re c o v e r y Strategi e s ................................ .... 113 P e r c e p t ion of S e lf ................................ ................................ ........................... 115 Fa m i l i a l Ti e s ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 119 5 DISCUS S I O N AND I M P L IC A T I O NS ................................ ................................ ..... 128 Fe ma le Mi c ro e n t r e p r e neuri a l T y polo g y ................................ ................................ 128 In s pir i ng ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 131 A s pir i ng ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 132 Sur v i v ing ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 133 Re c o v e r y S trategi e s us e d b y the Dif f e r e nt T y pes of M i c ro e n t r e p r e neurs a f t e r Di sas ter ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 135 Rel a ti on s h i p s b e t w ee n Bu sin e ss Su c c e ss an d F a m i l y ................................ ......... 138 6 CON C L USIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 147 Lim i tations of the St u d y ................................ ................................ ......................... 150 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 151 APPENDIX A INTERVIEW FOR FEMALE MICROENTREPRENEURS IN HAITI ...................... 152 B IN T ER V I E W FOR K EY I NFO RM A N T S IN HA I T I ................................ .................. 161 C CONS E NT FORMS & BACK T RANS L A T I O N S ................................ .................... 169 L I S T O F RE F EREN C E S ................................ ................................ ............................. 178 BI O GRAPHIC A L S K E T CH ................................ ................................ .......................... 189

PAGE 8

8 L I S T O F TA B L ES T a b le pa g e 4 1 Pr im a ry R e s ou rces A v a i l ab le to F ema l e M i c r oen tr e p re n eu rs i n J a c me l, H a iti, ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 126 4 2 S e c o nda ry Res ou rces A v a i l ab le t o F e m a le M ic r oen t r ep r e neu rs i n J a cmel, Haiti, 2 0 12 Or g an i z e d b y B ro a d C a t e g o ry o f T y p e o f Res o u rce a n d S pe c i f ic Na tu re o f Res o u rces w it h in E a c h C a t e g o ry ................................ ................ 127 5 1 D e mo gra ph i c Ch a ract e r i sti c s o f 3 8 Fe m a l e M i c r oen tr e p r e ne u r s w ith B u sin e s s e s in J a cmel, Haiti, Ca te g o r i z e d b y T h ree T y pe s t ha t C o m p r i se a T y po lo g y o f M i c r o e n tr e p re n e u r T y pe s ................................ ........................ 143 5 2 Ch a r a ct e r i z a ti o n o f T h r e e I dea l T y pe s o f F e ma le M i c r oe n tre p r e n eu rs I de n t i f ied in J a c me l, H a iti, 2 0 12 Ba s e d o n R e s ou rces A v a i l ab le to T h e m a n d K e y Sa l i en t F ea t u res ................................ ................................ .................. 144 5 3 Recovery Strategies after the 2010 Earthquake (frequency in %) .............. 145

PAGE 9

9 L I S T O F F I GURES Fi g u re pa g e 2 1 P o l i tic a l map o f Haiti s h o w ing depa rt m en t a l d i v is i on s Re t r i e v e d on S ep t e m be r 2 7 20 1 2 f r o m ................................ ................................ ............. 62 3 1 H o me b a s e d v endo r s e l l ing a v a r i e ty o f go od s in he r c o m m un ity in Haiti, 20 1 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 80 3 2 F e ma le m i c r oen tr e p re n e u rs o f fe r i n g the ir g ood s a t a l o c a l ma r k e t in Haiti, 20 1 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 81 4 1 View o f m a rket w ome n u sing t h e T a p Tap a s a me an s o f t ra n s po r t a ti o n in J a c me l, H a iti, 2 0 1 2 ................................ ................................ .................... 125 5 1 S p ou s a l I n fl uen ce o n B u s i n e ss F u n cti on s an d D e cis i on s f o r Female M ic r oen tre p re n eu rs i n J a c me l, H a iti, 2 0 1 2 ................................ ................. 146

PAGE 10

10 A b stract o f Dissert a ti o n P res e n t e d t o t h e G r a dua t e S c hoo l o f t h e U n i v e rs i ty o f Fl o r i d a in P a rtial F u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e Re q u i r e m en ts f o r t h e De g ree o f D o c t o r o f P h i l o s oph y T O W A RD A N A SS E T S T R U C T U R E B ASED T Y PO L O GY O F FE M A L E M ICROEN T RE P REN E U R S I N HAITI By Cel e ste M. W o j t a le w i c z Dec e m be r 2 01 2 Ch a i r : M a r i l y n S w ish e r M a jor: In t e rdisc i p l i na ry E c o lo g y Fac e d w ith t h e l a ck o f f o r ma l e m p lo y men t m ic r oen tr e p r e n e u rship is a c o m m o n a cti v i t y amon g w om e n in de v e lo p ing c o un trie s W h i l e m ic r o e n tr ep r e neu rship is o f t e n s ee n a s a v eh ic l e f o r t he se w o m e n t o e ed h e a s s e t st r u ct u re c ond it i on s t h e de g ree o f e E v e n w he n h u m a n c ap i t a l is a b un d an t i n ma n y de v e lo p ing c oun tries, o t he r as s e ts ne e d t o c o n c u r to ma k e m ic ro en t e r p r i s e s v ia b le. T h is is t h e c a se o f Haiti, a c o u n try w he re w ome n re p re s e n t 7 0 p e rce n t o f t h e i n f o r ma l ma rk e t. Ne v e rth e less, most o f t he se w o m e n ha v e t o r e ly o n de g r ad e d n a t u r a l r e s ou rces, p o o r in f ra s truc tu r e a n d a n i n s e c u re en v i r onm e n t, o f t e n imp a c t e d b y na t u ral d isas te rs. I n t h is st ud y c o n du c t e d in J a c me l, H a iti, I f ou n d t ha t w he n c o n f r o n t e d w ith the se c ha l le n g e s, s om e f e ma le m ic ro en t r ep re n eu rs are o v e r w h e l m e d a n d be c o m e i n c ap a b le o f c o n ti nu ing t he ir e n d e a v o rs, w h i l e o t he r a re a b le t o c o p e an d e v e n th r i v e m a ki n g m ic r oen t e r p r i se a n i n s p i r a ti o n f o r o t he r s in t h e ir f a m i l ies a n d t he ir c o m m un ities. T h e ana l y sis o f t h e a ss e t stru c t u re a l l o w e d fo r t h e d e v e lo p m en t o f a t y po lo g y o f f e ma le m ic r oe n tre p e n e u rs, w h ich res u lt e d in t h ree d istinct types : T h e Su r v i v i n g T h e A s p i r i n g an d T h e I n s p i r in g

PAGE 11

11 C H AP T ER 1 IN T ROD U C T I ON It is ea r l y W ed ne s da y m o rning a n d w om e n a r e hu r r ie d ly o n t he ir w a y t o th e ma rch ( ma rket) in J a c me l, Haiti. T h e s u n il l um in a t e s t h e ba r r e n t e r r a in an d a li g h t b re e z e s ha k e s t h e l ea v e s o n t h e f e w re m a i n ing b ra n c h e s o f a si n g l e t ree a lo n g side t h e mo u n t a i n p a t h G u e r l ie n a t a ll w oma n w ith s ha rp f e a t u res a n d sl e nd e r b u i l d i n h e r late t h i r ti e s, s e ts o u t e ar ly t o s e c u re he r f a v o r i te p l a ce a t t h e ma rke t A l a r g e m e t a l c on t a i ne r, f i l led w ith g ra ins a n d a n a r r a y o f b r ig h tly c o lored v e g e t ab les, is c e n t e r e d u po n he r h e ad a c h i e v ing pe r f e c t e q u i l ibr i um S u d d en l y he r hi p s s w ing f r o m si d e t o s i d e a s s h e b u i l d s u p m o me n t u m f o r t h e s t ee p cli m b u p t h e ru gg e d a n d e r o de d m o un t a in pa t h Her c a l l ou s e d a n d d u s t y f ee t t u c k e d i n side a pa ir o f bad ly w o rn s a n da ls, w i l l s uppo rt a jo u rn e y tha t may l a st f o r mo re t h a n t w o h ou r s t o re a c h h e r d e sti na t i on A m a z in g l y no t on ly is s h e ab l e t o ba l a n ce t h e hea v y l oad bu t a lso s h e s w add les a t iny bab y in on e a r m w h i l e c a r r y ing a s m a ll b u ck e t o f w a t e r in t h e o t h e r. T o a n ou ts i de r, t h is i ma g e ma y c on v e y a un i q u e s t r e ng th, y e t in H a iti, G u e r l ien re p re s en ts t h e re a l i t y o f m a n y w omen e v e r y d a y c ond itio n Female Entrepreneurship in Poor Developing Countries Fe m a l e e n tre p r e neu r s h ip in poo r de v e lo p ing c oun tries is a v a stly unde rstu d i e d s o cial a n d e c on o m ic p he n o m en o n E n tr e p re n eu rs in t he se c o u n tries f a ce a u n i q u e s e t o f c h a l l en g e s c o m p a r e d t o t he ir c o un t e rp a rts i n in d u str i a l i z e d c oun tr i e s. T he s e c ha l l en g e s a r e o f te n t h e res u lt o f t h e un d e r l y i n g e c on o m ies w he re t he y ope ra t e w h ich a re o f t e n l e ss d i v e rs i f i e d lack c on sist e n t a n d ma t u re ma rket s a n d in m a n y c a s e s, rely o n li m i t e d o r p o o r l y m ana g e d re s ou rces. Mor eo v e r, m a n y poo r d e v e lo p ing c ou n tries a re pa rti c u lar l y v u ln e ra b le to t h e imp a ct o f na t u ral d isas t e rs such a s hu r r ica ne s an d

PAGE 12

12 f l o ods P h y sical f a c t o rs l ike g eo g ra ph ic loc a t i o n a n d p o t e n ti a l cl im a t e rela te d c han g e s p lay a role, b u t s o cial f a ct o rs are a lso c r itical be c a u se t he se n a ti on s o f t e n lack t h e ins t it u ti o na l struc t u res an d c ap a b i l ity t o re du c e t h e ir v u ln e ra b i l ity an d e n ab le r e c o v e r y Vu ln e r a b i l ity is pa rticularly e v id en t in S m a ll I sla n d D e v e lo p ing S t a t e s (S I DS), w he re a si n g le e v en t s u ch a s a hu r r ica n e o r a n ea r t h q ua ke c a n b e d e v a st a ti n g t o a n en ti r e n a ti o n a n d d is r up t o r d e stroy l i v e l i hood s. Fac e d w ith the se c h a l l en g e s, en tre p r en e u rs i n p oo r de v e lo p ing c o u n tries mu st c r ea t e c o n t e x t a p p ro p r i a te stra te g ies to s u s t a in o r r e bu i l d th e ir bu sin e s s e s w he n n a t u ral d i s a st e rs oc c u r. As a re s u l t pa t t e rns o f e n tr y s u r v i v a l, an d g ro w th in microen t e rpr i s e s ope r a ti n g in t he se c o n d itio n s ha v e un i q u e f e a t u r e s. In mo st of these c ou n tries, t h e ma jor i ty o f m ic r oen t e r p r i s e s a re o w ne d an d o pe rat e d b y w omen T h e se m ic r o e n t e rpr i s e s a r e g ene ral l y c on c en tra t e d in a cti v ities s u ch a s re t a il tra d in g f o o d s e r v ice, o r in t h e p ro d u cti o n o f f o o d a n d be v e ra g e s. In u rb a n a r ea s, m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs w o rk as s t re e t v endo rs, a rtisa n s, an d a s d i v e rse s e r v ice p ro v id e r s In rur a l a r e a s, m ic r o en tre p re n eu rs are s m a ll f a r me rs e n g a g e d in cr o p a n d / o r l i v e st o ck p ro du ct i on w h i l e o t he r s a re i n v o l v e d in p e t t y t ra d e s u c h a s s e l l ing h o u s e h o ld it e m s. M an y o f t he s e m ic r oe n t e rpr i s e s a re h i g h ly depe n den t o n n a t u ral re s ou rces. Pi ck i n g up the P i ec e s N a t u ral d isa s t e rs d is ru p t b u sin e ss e s d u e t o t he ir de tr i me n t a l i m pa ct o n e q u ip m e n t, i n f rastruc t u re an d t ra n s po rt a ti o n T h e y a lso a f fe ct t h e b a sic f ou n da ti o n o f man y o f t he s e b u sin e s s e s. N o ne t he les s f a c e d w ith the s e c a l a m iti e s, m a n y fe m a le m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs m ana g e t o o v e rcome t h e ob s t a cles. In this c on t e x t, w hat are t h e f a c tors at play t h at al l ow so m e w omen t o pro g ress and even establish thriving microenterprises while others languish and end up in a

PAGE 13

13 precar i ous si t uati o n, b urde n ed by debt and i n c r easin g ly v ulnerable t o f u t ure s y stem shocks? Do t hey rely on mic ro f in a nce, bor ro w f rom f r ie nds or r elat i v es, or r ecei v e re m itt a nces f r om f a mi l y m em b ers l i v ing abroad? D o t h ey ha v e acc e ss to a su p port net w ork or partic i p a te i n bus i ness tra i ning or co m m u nity pro g ra m s? Do they ch o ose not to util i z e f inanc i al a n d other s ocial res o urces e v en th o u g h t h ey are a v ai l able? Un de rst a nd ing ho w f e ma le en t r ep re n eu rs u til i z e the ir f i n an cial, s o c i a l, h u m a n ph y sical, an d na t u ral a ss e ts to i n s u re t h e s u s t a in ab i l i t y o f t h e ir bu si n e ss e s is cr i tic a l. T h is is e s pe c i a l l y t rue fo r t ho s e w h o rely o n n a t u ral re s ou rces in h i g h ly de g ra de d en v i r onme n ts p r o n e to na t u ral d isas t e r s Haiti p ro v id e s a n i d ea l s e t t ing t o an s w e r t he se qu e sti o n s. T h is s t ud y w i ll e x a min e ho w th e c o m po si t ion a n d si g n i f ica n c e o f t h e a s s e t stru c t u re o f f e ma le m ic r o e n tre p r e neu rs i n J a cmel, Haiti, a f f e cts t h e s u st a i n ab i l ity o f t he s e en t e rpr i s e s. M o re o v e r, a s n a t u ral d isas ter s a re t h e res u lt o f en c o un t e rs be t w ee n n a t u ral e v en ts a n d h u m a n a c t i v i t y an d i n f ra s truc tu re, it s e e m s l i k e ly tha t a s p opu l a ti o n i n c r ea s e s p a rticularly in u rb a n s e t t in g s, mo re pe o p le w i l l b e p lac e d in h a r m s w a y T h e s e v e r i ty o f t h e i m p a ct o f a na t u ral d isas te r is n o t o n ly th e e v en t its e l f bu t a lso h o w s o cie t y is ab le to re s po n d a n d re c o v e r. T he ref o re i n f o r m a ti o n g a in e d f r o m t h is st u d y c a n a ssist g o v e rn m en t s an d de v e lo p m e n t p l a nne rs i n stra te g i z ing i mmed ia t e an d l on g t e rm re s p on s e s t o s u p po rt m ic r oe n tre p re n eu r s a n d t he ir e n d e a v o rs.

PAGE 14

14 C H AP T ER 2 L I T ER A T U R E RE V IE W The Co n ce pt of E n t r e pr e neur s hip T h e c o n c e p t o f e n tre p r en e u rship h a s b ee n e x p lored f r o m d i f f e r e n t p e rsp e cti v e s, be g in n ing w ith th e e a r l y w o rks of e c o n om ists, fo l l o w e d b y be h a v ior i s ts, a n d c u r re n t da y in te rdisc i p l i na ry sci en t i sts. B e c au s e e n tre p r e neu rship a s a c o n c e p t is e x p lored th r o u g h mu ltiple l en s e s, t he re i s n o c o m m o n ly a cc ep t e d de f initi o n o f e n tre p r en e u rship. S i mp ly st a t e d e n tre p r en e u rs h ip a ct o f b e ing a n e n tre p re n eu Et y mo lo g icall y t h e w o rd en tre p r en e u r is d e r i v e d f r o m t h e Fre n c h t e rm n tre p r e nd re w h ich me a n s u n d e rtak e B eh i n d th is s i mp le d e f i n itio n ho w e v e r, t he re a re a m y r i a d o f c on si d e rati on s t h a t g i v e th e t e rm en tr e p re n e u rship a m u ch mo re c o mp lex m e a n in g F r en ch e c on o m ists Ri c ha rd C a n til l o n in th e m i d 18 t h c en t u ry an d J ea n B ap tis t e S a y a t t h e t u rn o f t h e 1 9 t h c en t u ry w e re i n f l u en ti a l in d e f i n ing en tr e p re n e u rship. Ca n til l on t h e f i r st t o i n t ro du ce t h e c on c ep t pu t f o rth h is e c on o m ic t h eo ry o f en tre p r en e u rship, w h ich c on s i de red e c o n o m i c cl a ss e s o f in d i v id ua ls (la nd lords, la bo rers, an d en t r ep r e n e u rs) a n d f o c u s e d o n t h e f un ct i o n ra t he r t h a n o n t h e b eha v ioral traits o f t h e en t r ep re ne u r. I n h is v ie w un l i ke l and lords w h o w e re f i n an cially in de p en d en t a n d l a bo r e rs, w h o w e re g ua ra n t ee d a rel a ti v e ly s tab le i n c o m e t h ro u g h la bo r c o n trac t s, en t r e p re neu rs (arbitra g eu rs) w e re t rue de cis i o n m a k e rs w h o a ss u m e d t h e risks a s s o cia t e d w ith u n c e rtai n ty f o r p r o f it ma king (L a nd str o m 2 0 08 ) S a y (1 803 ) d e f i n e d en t re p re n e u rship a s cre a t i n g v a lue b y s h i f ti n g e c on o m ic res ou rces o u t o f a n a r e a o f lo w e r pr odu cti v ity i n to a n a rea o f h i g he r p ro du cti v ity an d g re a t e r y iel d He in t ro d u c e d t h e c on c ep t o f e n tre p re n eu rs as m a na g e rs a n d a r g ue d t h a t t he y p la y e d a c en tral c oo rdin a ti n g role in p ro d u cti o n an d d istr i b u ti on W h e r ea s C a n til l o n

PAGE 15

15 em p ha si z e d t h e i mpo r t an ce o f ris k t a king b eh a v ior in en tre p r e neu r s h ip, S a y a r g ue d t h a t t h e app l i c a t i o n o f k n o w le d g e f o r g o o d d e cis i o n ma king in bu si n e ss w a s o f mo re i mpo r t an ce f o r e n tre p r en e u rs. T h e n eo classic a l pe rs p e cti v e o f Mars ha ll ( 1 8 9 0 ) w a s a de p a rture f r o m t ho se o f o t he r e c o n om ists a t t h e t i m e W h i l e o t h e r m ode ls lar g e ly i g no red t h e a c ti v e en tre p r en e u r a n d w e re ba s e d o n t h e a s s u mp t ion o f pe r f e ct i n f o r m a t i on rat i ona l c ho ic e f r e e c o m p e titi o n a n d t h e n o ti o n t h a t s i m i l a r e c on o m ic o b jec t i v e s w o u ld a pp ly t o a ll bu sin e ss b e ha v iors, M a rsh a ll rec ogn i z e d t h e i mpo r t an t ro l e o f t h e e n tre p r e neu r. Fr o m h is pe rs p e cti v e en tr e p re neu rs a re r e s p on sib l e f o r mo v ing th e p r od u cti o n a n d d istr i bu ti o n p roc e s s a n d c o o rdin a ti n g l abo r a n d c a p it a l in t h e bu s i n e ss, a s w e ll a s t h e s upp ly an d d e m a nd E n tre p r e neu rsh i p i n v o lves le a de rship an d risk ma n a g e m en t, a n d en t a i l s i n no v a ti v e s t ra t e g ies an d o f fe r i n g g oo d p ro d u cts t ha t l e a d t o e c o n om ic p ro g ress. M a rsh a ll a lso p u t f o rth t h e i d e a t h a t e n tre p r e n eu rship de p end s o n th r e e a t t r i bu t e s: g ene ral ab i l ities s u ch a s f l e x ibil i t y a n d relia b i l i ty w h ich h e link e d t o e du c a t i o n a n d f a m i l y ba ck g ro un d ; s p e ciali z e d ab i l ities s u ch a s k no w le d g e o f t h e tra d e p r ope r j u d g me n t a n d id en t i f ic a ti o n o f o p p o r t un ities; an d i n n a te qua l i ti e s s u ch a s n a t u ral l e ade rship skil l s. F r an k Kn i g h t ( 1 921 ) w a s a lso a ma jor c o n tri b u t o r to t h e t h eo ry o f en tre p r en e u rship. K n i g h t g oe s be y on d C a n til l on h eo ry o f e n tre p r e neu rship a n d risk t a kin g ; h e a r g ue s t ha t t h e e c on o m ic f un ct i o n o f t h e e n tre p r en e u r is t o b e a r true un c e rta i n t y K n i g h t w a s rec o g n i z e d a s t h e f i r st t o ma k e a d istinc t i o n be t w ee n r a n d r ea l un c e r t a in t y U n c e rtai n t y in v o l v e s c om p le t e ra n d o m n e s s T h e re is n o ba sis f o r c a t e g o r i z ing i n st an c e s be c a u se u n c e r t a in t y d ea ls w ith th e ou t c o m e o f a un i q u e e v en t. Na tu ral d isa s t e rs, f o r inst an c e w ou ld c o n s t i t u te s u ch e v en ts. T h is t rue un c e rtai n ty f o r m s

PAGE 16

16 t h e ba sis o f K n i g h th eo ry o f p r o t, c o mp e titi on an d e n tre p re n eu r s h ip. I n o r d e r to be c o m e a s u c c e s s f u l e n tre p r e neu r, o n e must b e a s u cc e s s f u l u n c e r t a in t y bea rer a n d ju d g me n t a l d e cis i on m a k e r. T h e c h a ract e r i st i c fea t u re o f t h e s o c i e ty th ro u g h w h ich t h e en tre p r en e u r g e ts h is o r h e r r o le i s un c e rtai n ty T h is kind o f un c e r t a in t y w h ich ha d b ee n i g no red in e c on o m ic t h eo ry b e f o re, is bo r n e b y a pa rticular s ub s e t o f in d i v id ua ls in s o cie t y t h e en tr e p re ne u rs. W he n s o cie t a l a n d i n stit u ti o na l stru c t u res l i m it c on v en ti o na l op p o rtu n ities f o r e m p l oy m en t, s om e i nd i v id ua l s s ee k an d de v e lop a l t e rn a ti v e i n c o m e g ene rati n g a cti v ities, w h ich c a n res u lt i n t h e n e w en t e rpr i s e s b e ing f o r m e d In t h e 2 0 th c e n t u r y J o s ep h Sc h u m p e t e r d r a w i n g hea v i l y o n th e i d e a s o f s o cial scie n tist Her b e rt S p e n c e r, e me r g e s a s a n i n t e l l e ct ua l l e a d e r in u n d e rsta nd i n g en tre p r en e u rship. Ac c o rding t o S c h u m p e t e r s t h e o r y en tre p r e neu r s h ip is b a s e d o n t h e g a le o f c r e a ti v e de str u cti o n ," re p laci n g p r o c e ss w h ich re p lac e s i n f e r i o r in no v a ti on s an d c r ea t e s ne w p ro du cts o r n e w bu sin e ss mo de l s In e ss en c e t h is p ro c e ss l e a d s t o mo v e m en t t o w a rd a h i g he r e q u i l ibr i u m po i nt In th is s tro n g ly struct u ral a n d e c o n o m istic v i e w cr ea ti v e de structi o n is t h e p r i ma ry fo rce t ha t d r i v e s lo n g run e c on o m ic g ro w t h Sc h u m p e t e r s (1 9 34 ) i nno v a ti o n c e n t e r e d t h e o ry po sits t ha t i n n o v a ti o n o c c u rs w he n a n e n tr e p re n e u r in t ro du c e s a ne w p ro d u ct, a ne w p ro d u cti o n s y st e m o r a ne w o r g an i z a ti o n a l f o r m r e a c he s a n e w m a rket, o r sec u res a ne w s ou r c e o f raw ma te r i a l. En tre p r e n e u rship t he r e f o re h a s t h e p a ra d o x i c a l i m p a ct o f b e ing bo t h d is r up ti v e a n d g ene rati v e Alt hou g h Sc h um pe t e r is a p r e m ier t hou g h t l e a de r on e n tre p r e neu rsh i p h is v ie w s ha v e be e n c h a l l en g e d b y o t he r a u t h o rs, most no t a b ly K r i z ne r ( 1973 ). Unlike Sc h u m p e t e r s v iew o f t h e e n tre p r e n e u r as s o me o n e w h o d is r up ts eq u i l ibr i u m an d b r i n g s

PAGE 17

17 ab o u t c h an g e Kr i z ne r p o st u l a t e s t h a t e n tre p r en e u rship is e q u i l ibra t i n g F u rth e r mo re, in Kr i z ne r s op ini on t h e i nno v a ti o n c ha ra c t e r i stic o f e n tre p r en e u rship i s th e re s u lt o f a n incre m e n t a l, d isc i p l i n e d p roc e ss ra t h e r t h a n t h e d e structi v e /c on s tr u cti v e vi e w p res en t e d b y S c hu m pe t e r. B o th a u t ho rs r e c o g n i z e tha t a s in d i v id ua l en t r ep re ne u rs d e v e lop ne w e c o n om ic op p o rtu n it i e s, t he y c r ea t e a d i f f e r e n t ma rket en v i r onm e n t f o r all. B eha v ior i sts, i n clu d i n g p s y c ho lo g ists an d s o ciol o g ists, a lso p r o v id e d i mpo r t an t c on trib u t i on s t o t h e t h e o ry o f e n tr e p re n e u rsh i p M a x W eb e r s (1 9 3 0 ) e a r l y w o Th e S p i r it o f C a p it a l i s m a d v an c e d a no ti o n o f t h e in te rco n ne c t ed n e ss o f rel ig ion an d en tre p r en e u rship. W e be r h e l d e n tre p r e neu rs in h i g h e s t e e m v ie w i n g the m a s in de p en d en t a n d i n no v a ti v e peop l e w h o w e re th e u lti m a te s ou r c e o f f o r ma l au t ho r i ty in a n o r g an i z a ti on He a r g ue d t h a t en tr e p re n e u rship is a f un c ti o n o f rel i g io u s be l ie f s an d c u lt u re a n d t h e i m p a ct o f t h e se s h a p e t h e en t r ep re n eu r i a l c u l t u re. A c c o rding t o W eb e r, en tre p r en e u rship s t e m s f r o m c u lt u ral v a lu e s s u ch a s d e f e r r e d g rat i f i c a ti on a sc e tism an d t h e th r i f t f u nd ame n t a ls o f Pro t e st a n tism ( Da na 19 9 6 ). E n tre p r e neu rship is in f l uen c e d b y bo th f a c t o rs o f s t r i ct d isc i p l i n e a n d f o rced i mpu l s e a n d c a n on ly de v e lop w he n th e m e n t a l a t t i t u d e is f a v o ra b le to c ap i t a l i s m W eb e r may b e c o n sid e red o n e o f t h e f i r st in t h is c a t e g o ry t o e x p lain en tre p r en e u r i a l b e ha v io r H o w e v e r, it w a s D a v id M cC l e l l an d (1 961 19 7 1 ), w h o l e d t h e pa th f o r e x a m ini n g en t r ep re n eu rship t h ro u g h a b e ha v ioral scie n c e s app r o a c h Sc h u m p e t e r, Kr i z ne r, an d K n i g h t a p p ro a c he d t h e c on c e p t o f e n tre p r en e u rship b y e x am ini n g th e res u lts o f t h e a c ti on s o f t h e e n tre p re n eu r M cC l e l l an d (1 961 ) an d l a t e r Coll i n s ( Coll i n s e t a l., 1 964 ) a r e i n t e r e st e d in un d e rsta n d ing th e p s y c ho lo g ical a s p e cts

PAGE 18

18 an d be h a v ior o f t h e e n t re p re n e u r a n d w h y t h e in d i v id ua l en t r ep re n e u r a cts t h e w a y h e o r she doe s M cC l e l l and h e o ry o f nee d f o r a c h ie v em e n t en t i f i e d t w o c ha rac t e r i stics o f en tre p r en e u rshi p de c i sio n ma king u n d e r u n c e rtai n t y a n d d o ing th i n g s in a ne w an d be t t e r w a y Acc o rding t o M c C l e l l an d ( 1 961 ), a n i nd i v id ua l h a s th r e e t y pe s o f n eed s : ne e d f o r po w e r to i n f l u en ce o t h e rs; n ee d f o r a f f i l ia t io n w h ich in v o lves rec e i v ing f ee d ba ck; a n d t h e n e e d f o r a c h ie v em e n t t h r o u g h one o w n e f f o rt s T h e n e e d f o r a c h ie v em e n t is t h e m o st i m p o rta n t o f t h e th r e e He a r g ue d t ha t i nd i v id ua ls w ith h i g h a c h ie v em e n t o r i en t a ti o n w e re m o re likely t o b e c o m e e n tre p r en e u rs an d t h a t s o m e s o cie t ies p ro du c e mo r e e n tre p re n eu rs be c au se o f a s o c i a l i z a ti o n p r o c e ss t ha t c re a t e s a h i g h ne e d f o r a c h ie v e me n t. Ec on o m ist E v e rett H a g en 9 62 ) t h eo ry o f s o cial c h a n g e mo de l c o n sid e rs in te r r e la t io n s h ips a mo n g c u lt u re, s o cial s t ruc t u re, t h e p h y sical en v i ron m en t a n d pe rso n a l i ty t raits. Ha g e n rej e cts t h e n o ti o n t h a t t h e s o l u ti o n t o e c o n om ic d e v e lo p m en t rel i e s o n f o l l o w ing w e s t e r n p ra c tic e s a n d t e c h no lo g y He id en t i f ies h i st o r i c a l s h i f ts a s a c r itical f o r c e t o s o cial c han g e a n d t e c h no lo g i c a l ad v an c e s t he r eb y l ead ing t o t h e eme r g en c e o f t h e e n t r ep re n eu r i a l class f r o m d iff e re n t c om mun it i e s. F u rth e r mo re, h e a r g ue d t h a t en tr e p re n e u r s h ip st e m s f r o m t h e e x clusi o n o f o n e g ro u p b y th e ma jor i ty g ro up T h e e x clu de d g ro up s a r e d e n ied a cc e ss t o e qu a l o p po rt u n it i e s f o r a d v an c e me n ts an d e x pe r i en ce a w it hd ra w a l o f s t a t u s res pe ct. C on sis t en t w ith h is t o r i c a l e v en ts, t h is s o cial g ro u p l o o ks f o r a l t e rn a ti v e a v en u e s t o p ro g ress an d be c o m e s en g a g e d in r ig o ro u s en tre p r e n e u r i a l a cti v it y Ha g e n i den t i f i e d t h e n ee d t o g a in s o cial s ta t u s a n d to s u cc e e d a s t h e k e y d r i v e rs f o r e n tre p r e neu r s h ip.

PAGE 19

19 F r o m t h e d i s ad v an t a g e t h e o ry pe rsp e cti v e e n tre p re n eu rs h a v e be e n c ha ract e r i z e d a s r e jec t s f r o m s o cie t y o r dis p l a c e d i n d i v id ua ls (S ha pe ro, 1 9 75 ; Brock h a u s, 1 98 0 ; Gil a d a n d L e v in e 1 9 86 ). D u rkh e i m 1 9 6 4 ) t h e o ry o f c o he si o n is a lso app l i c ab l e t o th is a r g ume n t a s it a ss e rts t h a t pe o p le w h o a re w e ll i n t e g rat e d in a g ro u p be t t e r p u rs u e t h e n o r m s o f t ha t g ro u p w h ich res u lts in mo re c o h e si o n M o ti v a ti o n f o r e n tre p r e neu rship ha s b e e n i de n t i f ied a s e i t he r p u l l / p u sh sit u a ti ona l f a ct o rs or pe rs o na l trai t s ( T i m m o n s, 19 9 9 ; V e s pe r, 1 990 ) A n i nd i v id ua l ma y b e pu l l e d in t o e n tre p r e n e u rship t hou g h p o siti v e fa ct o rs s u ch a mark e t op p o rt u n ities, me n t o rship, bu sin e ss t raini n g o r e x po s u re to ne t w o rks t h a t en c ou ra g e b u sin e ss op p o rtu n ities ( M an c u s o 19 7 3 ; Gil a d & Le v in e 1 9 86 ; Sc he i nbe rg & Mac M i l la n 1 9 88 ). On t h e o t he r ha n d a pe rs o n c a n b e pu s h e d i n t o e n tr e p re n eu rship t h ro u g h ne g a t iv e f a c t o rs such a s loss o f e m p lo y men t e c on o m ic h a rds h ip a n d d issa t isf a cti o n a t w o rk. T h e re h a v e be e n s e v e ral st ud ies t ha t s u ppo rt t h e no t i o n t ha t e n tre p r e neu rsh i p o cc u rs a s a re s u lt o f t h e se ne g a ti v e sit ua ti o n a l pu s he s (G i lad & L e v in e 1 9 86 ). B u ll e t a l. (1 9 95 ) ar g u e d t h a t t h e ou t c o m e an d t h e d e g ree o f en tr e p r en e u r i a l a cti v i t y depe n d o n o p p o rtu n ity s t ruct u re. O pp o rtu n ity s t ruct u re i n cl u de s t h e o b jec t i v e struct u re o f e c on o m ic op p o rtu n ity a n d a s tru c t u re o f d i f fe re n t ad v an t a g e in t h e c a pa city o f t h e s y st e m pa rtic i p a n ts to pe rcei v e a n d a ct up o n t he se o p po rt u n ities o ci o c u l t u ral no r m s a n d be l ie fs i n f l u en ce en tr e p re n eu r i a l a cti v i t y T h is c o n sists o f t h e be l ie f s a n d a t t it u de s o f i n d i v id ua ls a s t o w ha t is go o d le g i ti ma t e a n d de si r ab l e a s w e ll a s th e s o cial an d c u lt u ral i n f r a struc t u re t h a t s u p p o rts t h e se a cti v ities. T h u s, t h e v a lue a n i nd i v id ua l a ssi g n s t o h e r or h is c u lt u ral v a lu e s i n f l u en c e s en tr e p re n e u r i a l b e h a v ior an d u lti m a t e ly en tre p r en e u r i a l pe r f o r mance

PAGE 20

20 W om e n a s En t r e p r e n e urs T h e n o ti o n o f w o m e n a s en tr e p re n e u rs c a n b e f r a me d w it h in t h e w ome n in de v e lo p m en t ( W I D) c o n c ep t w h ich inc o rp o r a t e d w om e n i n t o t h e p r o ject o f mo d e rni z a ti o n in o rd e r to p r o m o te de v e lo p m e n t, w h i l e i mp ro v ing th e st a t u s o f w om e n In 1 97 0 Es t he r B o s e r u p b o o k W oma n o le in Ec o n o m ic De v e l o pm e n i mu la t e d a b ro a d ne w res ea rch i nt e rest a m o n g s o cial sc i en tists t o e x p lore ho w w ome n w e re ma r g in a l i z e d in t h e p r o du cti o n p ro c e ss o r e x p loit e d a e ap b o r (B o s e ru p 1 9 70 ; Fer na n de z K e l l y 198 3 ; M o g had a m 1 9 9 9 ). R e s ea rch o n t h e f a c t o rs t ha t e m po w e r w ome n re v ea l t h a t t h e y c anno t b e r e du c e d t o s o lely i n c om e g ene rat i o n W ome n em p o w e r men t i n v o l v e s o t h e r f a c t o rs such a s t h e e x t e n t to w h ich inc o m e c on trib u t e s to t h e hou s eho l d e c on om y (B e ne r i a & S t i mp s o n 19 8 7 ; S en 1 9 8 7 ), t h e am o un t o f c on t r o l t ha t t h e w oma n ha s o v e r it, o r t h e de g ree t o w h ich a w oman o m e g ra n ts he r f r e ed o m f r o m d o me s tic res pon s i b i l ities (K a be e r, 1 9 94 ; M a y ou x 20 0 1 ). In p a rt d u e t o mo d e rn i z a ti o n th e o ry pe rsp e ct iv e s, w h ich f o c u s e d o n w omen roles a s mo t he rs a n d h om em a k e rs, d e v e lo p m en t po l i cy m a k e rs a n d de v e lo p m en t p ractitio n e rs d e v o t e d little a t t e n ti o n to t h e e c o nom ic c on tri b u ti on s o f w ome n in de v e lo p ing c o u n tries ( Ra th g ebe r, 1 9 9 0 ; K a b ee r, 1 994 ). F a r f r o m e mpo w e r i n g w omen t he se p ro g ra m s d is r e g a rd e d w o m en e x clusiv e ly f o c u s i n g o n a d v an c ing th e p o sition o f me n a n d w om e n f a c e d d isc r i m in a t o ry po l i cies t ha t p re v en t e d t h e m from e n t e r i n g t h e f o r ma l l abo r s e ct o r ( Re ddo ck, 1 9 94 ; A c o s t a B e len & Bo s e 19 9 5 ). T h is w a s pa rticul a r l y e v id en t in t h e C a r ib b e an w he re h is t o r i c a l l y man y w ome n ha v e be e n h ou s e ho ld h e ad s an d e c o no m ically s e l f s u f f ic i en t y e t t h e ir c on t r i bu ti o n t o s o c i e ty w a s in v is i b le (Br o w n 2000; M a ssi a h 1 9 8 6 ). In th is c on t e x t o f e x cl u sio n f o l l o w ing th e p ra c tic e s f o s t e red b y c o lo n ialis m m an y w ome n en g a g e d in v a r i o u s ki nd s o f i n c o m e g e n e rati o n p t o

PAGE 21

21 s e c u re h ou s eho ld res o u rces a n d o n a more ba sic le v e l, f o r h u m a n s u r v i v a l ( B ene r i a & Sti mp s on 1 9 87 ; F e rn a ndo 2 0 06 ). O v e r ti me w om e n in t h e C a r i b b e a n ha v e be c om e i m po rt a n t e c o no m ic f i g u res. I n t h e i n du str i a l an d c om me rc i a l s e c t o r, 7 0 p e rce n t o f t h e w o rkers a re w omen w h i l e in t h e a g r i c u lt u ral s e ct o r; w ome n make u p 5 4 pe rc e n t o f a ll w o rkers. Be t w ee n 19 5 0 a n d 1 9 80 t h e p ro po rti o n o f w om e n pa rtic ip a ti n g in t h e l a bo r f o rce in t h e C a r ibb ea n r a p idly incre a s e d w ith th e n u mbe r o f w o rk i n g w ome n t r i p l i n g w h i l e w o rk i n g m e n d oub l e d ( A bba ssi & L u tj en s, 2 0 02 ). W om e n E n t r e p r e neu r s i n Haiti W o m en en g a g e m en t in t h e l a b o r f o rce is p a rticularly e v id en t in Ha i ti, w h ich ha s rec o rd e d o n e o f t h e h i g he st rat e s o f e c o n om i c a l l y a cti v e w ome n in La tin A m e r i ca a n d t h e C a r ib be a n (U N 2 0 09 ). C o m m on ly re fe r re d t o a o to M i t a n ( Pi l lar o f S o ci e t y ), Haiti a n w om e n p lay a si g n i f ica n t role in t h e H a itian c o m me rce a n d i t s e c o n om y T h e y a re t h e ce n t e rpie c e o f t h e f am i l y bo th in t he ir re p ro d u cti v e rol e s a s w e ll a s in t he ir eno r mou s c on tri b u ti o n s t o p r o du cti v e a cti v ities (e. g f o o d p r o du cti o n f o r f a m i l y s ub sist e n c e ). Y et in s tit u ti o n a l c u s t om s a n d l a w s ha v e den ied t h e m e q ua l i ty w ith m e n o f t e n h i n de ring t h e ir d e v e lo pme n t o f c a p ab i l ities, a n d e n f o rc i n g a p a t r i a rch a l id eo lo g y (S m it h 1 9 88 ). H a itian f em inist j ou r n a l i st M i r le n e J o an is s t a t e d W he n y o u s e e ho w Haiti an s a re sl a v ing a w a y in th e s t r e e ts, it r e m in d s y o u o f a n epo c h a l on g t i m e a g o w he n ou r a n c e s t o rs w e re sl a v e s. T o d a y s u ch a t r a d ition c o n ti n u e s, in w h ich w ome n ma ke t h e c o un try r no t on ly th ro u g h t he ir e c o n om ic c on trib u ti on s bu t a lso t h ro u g h t he ir c o n ti n u a ti o n o f t h e resist an c e a n d pu s h f o r re f o r m t h a t ha s c h a ract e r i z e d H a iti since its f o u n d in g

PAGE 22

22 In H a iti, g e n de r r o les a re w e ll de f i n ed Bo t h r u ral an d u rb a n w ome n a re res pon sib l e f o r ma rk e t tra n s a cti o n a n d m a na g em e n t o f t ho se ea rn i n g s, h o u s e h o ld ma n a g e m en t o f t h e f a m i l y bud g e t, h ou s eho l d ta sks s u ch a s w a s h ing cl o t he s an d f o o d p re pa r a ti on a n d c a re o f t h e c h i l d r e n Rural me n a re g e n e ral l y res pon sible f o r a g r i c u lt u ral w o rk, a lt hou g h w ome n ma y a lso c on trib u t e t o t h e se a cti v ities, a s w e ll a s ho m e ma in t e n an ce a n d re pa i r s. Th e re is a h i g h de g ree o f s e p a rati o n b e t w ee n men a n d w omen e s pe cially t r a d e rs a n d a g r i c u lt u r i sts. M in t z (1 974 ) n o t e s t ha t a f a c t o r t ha t l e d w ome n t o pu rs u e rol e s in t h e i n f o r ma l ma rk e t ma y ha v e b e e n t h a t t h e p lo t s o f l an d w e re v er y s m a ll an d t he ir w o rk i n fa r m ing w a s no t n ee d ed T hu s w o m e n w e re f ree to en g a g e in ma r k e ti n g ra t h e r t h a n c u lti v a ti o n a c ti v ities. M in t z (1 974 ) f o u n d t h a t Haiti a n m e n rar e ly a sk t h e ir w i v e s o r com mo n law w i v e s t o fo re g o an y t ra d ing a c ti v ities to p e rform hou s eho ld ta sk s N o ne t he less, w ome n f u l f i l l t h e b u lk o f d o me s tic ob l i g a ti on s. Fe m a l e e n tre p r e neu rs e x pe r i en ce a n u m b e r o f c ha l le n g e s in t h e d a y t o da y ope rat i on s o f t he ir bu s i ne ss e s. Sin c e H a iti do e s n o t h a v e ba sic i n f r a struct u re, ru r a l a n d u rb a n tra de rs e n du re h a rds h ips du r i n g c o mm u t e s o n bu s e s t a p t a p s (an o rd i na ry v eh ic l e m od i f i e d f o r p u b l i c t ra n s p o rta t i o n ), m u le r i de s, o r o n f oo t T r av e l is no t on ly d if f i c u lt in t e r m s o f ph y sical e x e rtio n b u t is a l so v e ry t i m e c on s u m i n g an d in m a n y c a s e s un s a f e e s pe cially fo r w ome n t ra v e l i n g a lo n e M an y w ome n a re a l s o bu r d e n e d b y hou s eho ld res p o n sibil i t ies t h a t c o mp r o m ise t h e ir m a rket a cti v ities. W o m e n a re a lso res pon sib l e f o r t h e c a r e o f o t h e r f a m i l y m e mb e rs, w h o a re s o m e ti m e e ld e r l y an d re q u i r e add iti o na l c a r e I n a dd i ti o n t o t h e h ou rs t he y s pe n d o n t h e ir m a r k e t a cti v ities, bo th rur a l an d u rb a n w ome n s p e n d i n o rdin a t e a m o un ts o f t i m e c a r r y ing w a t e r from s t r e am s o r pub l i c f au c e ts d u e t o l a ck o f i n f ra s truc tu r e p r e pa r i n g m e a ls f o r t he ir c h i l d ren a n d

PAGE 23

23 w a s h ing l aund r y In t h e a f t e r m a th o f t h e 2 01 0 ea r t h q ua k e u rb a n w om e n in P o r t au Pr i n ce w e re s pe n d ing a s much a s f o u r h o u rs a da y c o l l e cti n g w a t e r ( A g eno r et a l., 20 1 0 ). Rural w ome n s pe n d a si g n i f ica n t a m o un t o f t he ir t i m e d e v o t e d t o t h is a c ti v i t y an d a re a lso r e s p o n sible f o r c o l l e cti n g f i r e w oo d a n d s o m e a g r i c u lt u ral a c t i v ities. A lso, r u ral w ome n w h o m i g rate to u rb a n c e n t e rs e x pe r ie n ce a dd iti o na l c h a l l en g e s a s t he y re p res e n t o n e o f t h e m o st m a r g in a l i z e d g ro up s in H a iti. Ma n y o f t he se w ome n w h o en g a g e in t h e i n f o r m a l ma rket e n d u p li v ing in s o m e o f t h e p oo rest p a rts o f t h e cit y T h e e c o n om ic an d s o cial s t rati f ic a ti o n w i t h in Haiti a lso i m pa cts w o m en s u cc e ss in t h e ma rke t In rur a l Haiti, w h i l e cl a ss d iff e re n c e s a re n o t a s p r o no u n c e d a s in u rb a n a r e a s, t he re is a s o cial h iera r c h y amon g p ea s an t w om a n The a m o u n t o f c a sh a w oma n ha s f r o m he r b u s i ne ss a c ti v ities d istin g u ish e s h e r a mon g o t he r m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs. F o r e x amp le, w ome n w i t h small s h o p s, a f i x e d ro ad si d e s t a nd o r a Ma d a m S a r a w h o is a n i n t e r m ed iary tha t p u rch a s e s w ho les a le p r o du ce i n t h e c oun tr y side a n d s e l l s t o v a r i ou s re ta i l e rs a n d w ho les a lers t h ro u g h ou t t h e re g io n h a v e a h i g he r social s t a t u s t h a n t h e p ea s a n t ma rket w ome n ( en g o u T a y o M .J 19 9 8 ). As a re s u lt o f t h e rec e n t e a rth q ua ke in H a iti, mo re p e op le in s ea rch o f a n i n c o m e e s pe cially w ome n h a v e e n t e red t h e i n c r ea s i ng l y c ompe titi v e a n d cr o w d e d i n f o r m a l ma rke t T h e i n f o r ma l ma rket is n o t o n ly a s t ro n g c o m p o ne n t o f t h e e c o n om y a n d p a rt o f its t ra d itio n b u t h a s a l s o p ro v id e d r e f u g e f o r man y w ome n w h o ha v e b e e n l a i d o ff f r o m f a ct o ry j ob s a nd / o r h a v e li m it e d a l t e rn a ti v e s b a s e d o n l o w te c h n ical s k i l ls an d li m i t e d edu c a ti on

PAGE 24

24 Cur r en tl y t h e i n f o r ma l s e ct o r pr o v id e s em p l oy men t to a n e st i ma t e d 7 0 p e rce n t o f t h e po p u la t i o n Acc o r d ing t o M i n tz (1 974 ) t h e p re v a le n ce o f Haiti a n w ome n i n v o l v e d in ma rket t ra d e h a s b ee n w e ll do c um e n t e d a n d w ome n a re d o m in a n t i n mark e t a cti v ities. He ou tli n e d t h e a cti v ities o f t he s e ma rket w ome n a s f o l l o w s: (a) tra n s po rting a g r i c u lt u ral p ro du cts a n d o t he r g o od s f r o m rur a l p ro d u c e rs to t h e c o n s u me r; (b) bu lk i n g p ro d u ce an d b re a king b u lk to f a ci l it a te e x c han g e a t qu an tity an d c o st l e v e ls app ro p r i a t e t o t h e sc a le o f p ro d u cti o n an d bu y ing be h a v ior o f c u st o me rs; (c) p ro c e ssing it em s; ( d ) p res e r v ing c ap it a l in l iq u id f o r m b y s e r v ing a s cre d it s ou rces t o the ir bu y e rs a n d s e l l e rs; (e) c on n e cti n g th e a g r i c u lt u ral p r o du c e rs an d c o m me rc i a l s e c t o rs; a n d ( f ) m a king e c o n om ic u se o f w a ste m a t e r i a ls, s u c h a s t in c an s, f r o m W e s t e rn s o cie t y w h ich ob t a i n u se v a lue f o r t h e p ea s an tr y E v e n if i n f o r ma l c on trib u t o rs, w om e n i n v o l v e d in th e in fo r m a l market s u p p o rt t h e n a ti o n a l e c o n o m y b y pa y ing s h ip p i n g fe e s, ma r k e t f ee s, an d s um s l e v ied b y th e g o v e rn m en t f o r s p e c i f ic pu rp o s e s. M a rket w ome n r u n t h e s pe ctr u m f r o m t h e s p o ra d ic rural p e a s a n t tr a de rs to l a r g e sc a le u r b a n an d rur a l t ra de rs a n d re t a i l e rs. In H a iti, mark e ti n g is v ie w e d a s w omen res pon sibilit y an d v i r t ua l l y e v er y w oma n ha s en g a g e d in pe t t y t ra d e M a le tra d e rs, w h o a re in t h e m in o r i t y f o c u s o n li m it e d a l t hou g h mo re l u c r a ti v e m a rk e t a cti v ities s u ch a s c o f f e e p r o du cti o n N o n e t he l e ss, w om e n d om i na te most s e c t o rs o f t h e mark e t. F e m a le m ic r oe n tr ep re n eu rs w h o en g a g e in t h e s a le o f p ro du c ts f a ll i n to f ou r c a t e g o r i e s: 1 ) t h e c oo k e d f o o d s e l l e rs, w h o s e ll m e a ls s u ch a s fried p la n t a ins t he y ha v e p re p a red o r pu rch a s ed ; 2 ) r e s e l l e rs w h o bu y m e rch a nd i s e o r pr o du ce t o s e ll a t v a r i ou s l o c a ti on s; 3 ) t h e M a d a m S a ra, w h o is a mark e t i n t e r m ed ia r y w h o pu rch a s e s l a r g e q uan titi e s o f g o o d s s u ch a s g rains f rom p r odu c e rs or l o c a l ma rk e ts f o r r e s a l e in o t he r ru ral an d u rb a n

PAGE 25

25 ma rkets a c r o ss H a iti; a n d 4 ) ma rk e t w ome n w h o s e ll a t t h e ma rket o r f r o m t he ir ho m e o r bo th ( B la n c, 1 9 98 ). W o me n w h o a re e n g a g e d in t h e s a le o f g o o d s in t h e ma rk e t a re c a l l e d ma c h an i t t le m e rc h an t s It is n o t u n c o m m o n f o r w ome n t o s ta rt t he ir s ma ll t r a d e w ith th e little s a v in g s the y ma y ha v e S o m e o f t h e a cti v ities t h a t w ome n en g a g e in a r e p e t t y c o m m e rce a n d ha n d ic ra f t p r o du ct i on Pro du cts t h a t t he y s e ll i n clu d e s ma ll hou s eho l d it e m s, s o a p a n d t o i l e tries, p r o du c e a n d cl o t h in g I n rur a l a r e a s, w ome n a re mo re i n v o l v e d in th e t ra d e o f p ro du c e w h i l e in t h e u rb a n a r ea s t he y m a y b e more i n v o l v e d in t h e s a le o f clo th ing o r hou s eho ld it e m s. W o m e n in t h e rur a l a r e a s, s e ll the ir it e m s a t t h e l o c a l ma r k e t, w h ich is he ld a c o u p le o f d a y s a w ee k. Di v e rs i f ica t ion in p ro d u ct o f f e r i n g s is low be c au se s o m e w ome n l a ck k no w le d g e o n ho w t o ma rket it e m s a n d ha v e l i m it e d a c c e ss t o trai n ing S o m e o f t h e s t ra t e g ies t ha t w ome n u til i z e t o a c h ie v e s u cc e ss in m a rket t ra d e incl ud e d i v e rs i f ica t ion an d d i f f e r e n ti a t i on s e e king s a les a t mo re d is t an t an d p o t en t i a l l y un t a pp e d ma rket s a r r i v ing t o th e mark e t ea r l y so the y c a n f i n d a p r i m e s po t to s e ll the ir me rc h and is e a n d p rolo n g ing the ir p res e n ce i n t h e mark e t to g a in m o re s a les. M in t z (1 974 ) no t e d t ha t s om e o f t h e most s u c c e s s f u l r u ral tr a d e rs w e re w om e n w h o w e re sin g le o r in v o l v e d in c om m o n law un io n s (pl a s a j ) w h ich a l l o w e d th e m t o t ra v e l f re e l y M an y a re a w a y f rom h om e f o r u p t o a w ee k a t a t i m e an d a re en g a g e d in t h e s a le o f p ro du c e o r ac c u mu la t i o n f o r r e s a le. Su c c e s s f u l ma r c han s ( me rc h an t s) t ra v e l be t w ee n rural an d u rb a n a r e a s an d bu y in bu lk a t on e ma rke t m o stly o n cre d it, a n d t h e n s e ll the ir it em s t o s ma l l e r f e m a l e ret a i l e rs i n o t he r ma r k e ts. H o w e v e r, t h e p u rch a se o f s o m e b u lk c o m m o d ities c a n p ro v e much mo re r i sky tha n o t he rs f o r tra de rs b e c au se p ro d u cts

PAGE 26

26 l i ke f re s h p r o du ce re q u i r e q u ick t u rn a ro u n d t o a v o id s p o i l a g e T h is in t u rn m a y c o mp r o m ise t h e p r i ce t h a t is n e g o t i a t e d O the r str a t e g ies, p a rticularly f o r r u ral w ome n v endo rs, inclu d e s e l l i n g s m a l l e r q uan titi e s s u c h a s a s i n g le ci g a ret t e o r a p ie c e o f c a n d y t o a cc omm oda t e t h e l o w e r pu rch a sing p o w e r of t h e ir c u s t o me rs, m a n y o f w ho m a re ne i g hbo rs ( J a f f e 1 9 90 ). This stra te g y no t on ly he lps rur a l ma r k e t w om e n b u t a lso b e n e f its th e c o m m un it y Ho w e v e r, s om e times m u ltiple v e ndo rs s o u rce t he ir it em s f r o m t h e s a m e l o c a l r e t a i l e r, w h ich res u lts in l e ss d i v e rs i f ica t ion o f p ro du c ts a n d r edu c e d s a l e s. T h e l a ck o f s a n it a t i o n w a t e r a n d e l e ctr i city a lso a f fe cts w om e n a b i l ity t o en g a g e in ma r k e t a c ti v ities. A cc e ss t o c l ea n s a fe d r in king w a t e r a n d r e f r ig e rati o n c ou ld he lp re du ce t h e i n f e c ti o n ri s ks fo r a d u lts a n d c h i l d ren a n d i mp ro v e h ea lt h Impr o v e d h ea lt h pa rticularly am o n g c h i l d re n ma y l ea d t o i n c re a s e d s c hoo l a t t en d an c e a n d a f fo rd w o m e n mo re ti m e f o r in c o m e g ene rati n g a cti v ities, e du c a t i on an d s p e nd i n g t i m e w ith f a m i l y In H a iti, a s in o t he r l e s s de v e lo p e d c o un t r ies, pe o p le h a v e li m it e d a c c e ss t o c ap i t a l an d a re o f t e n u nab le t o s e c u re cre d it. W ome n in p a rticular, o f t e n l a ck th e ne c e ss a ry c o l l a t e ral t o s e c u re a l oa n an d a re u n ab le t o pa y th e h i g h i n t e rest r a t e s c h a r g e d b y s om e l e n de rs, w h ich in s o m e c a s e s is 2 0 0 p e rce n t o n clie n t l o a n s. I n rec e n t y ea rs, t h e ab s e n ce o f f i n an cial s e rv i c e s p romp t e d t h e implem en t a ti o n o f a n u m be r o f m ic r oe n t e rpr i se p r o jec t s b y i n f o r ma l g ro u p s, s u ch a s pa r i s h t w in n ing p ro g ra m s t o f o r ma l ins t it u ti o n s s u ch a s F o n k o z e g e st m icr o f i nan c e i n sti t u ti o n C u r r e n tl y t he re is a s u r g e in t h e g ro w th o f f e ma le micro en t e rpr i s e s in Haiti. Haiti a n w o m en 's roles in ma rketing an d tra d ing h a v e be e n st ead i l y i n c r ea sing o v e r t h e d e c a de s. G lo b a l i z a ti o n

PAGE 27

27 ha s f u rth e r e d t h e op p o rtu n i ty f o r w om e n incl u s i o n in t h e ma rk e t p lace (B a r r ie n t o s e t a l., 20 0 3 ). W om e n ba l a n c e p ro d u cti v e a n d re p r o du cti v e w o rk, pa id a n d un p a id w o rk, an d e c o n om ic g ro w th an d c o m m u n ity de v e lo pm e n t T h e r e f o r e a m u ltipro n g e d a pp r o a ch t ha t is s en siti v e t o t h e c ha l l en g e s t ha t w o m e n fa ce i n t h e l a bo r m a r k e t is n ee d ed pa rtly be c a u se o f d isc r i m i n a t i o n a n d pa rtly be c a u se o f t h e d ua l r o le t h a t t h e y s er v e Ha i tian Labor For c e I n Cri s is Situations T h e H a iti a n e c on o m y ha s a v e ry h i g h l abo r f o rce pa rtic ip a ti o n ra t e f o r b o t h me n an d w o m e n The p r o p o rtion o f e c on o m ically a cti v e w ome n is h i g he r th a n t h a t o f a n y o t he r de v e lo p ing s o ci e ty in th e w o r l d e x c ep t L e s o t h o ( W o r l d B a n k, 2 00 6 ). Haiti a n me n a n d w om e n ha v e h a d to w it h st a n d ma n y f l u ct u a ti on s in t h e l a bo r ma rket th r o u g hou t its c oun tr y h ist o r y A lt ho ug h the re a re man y e v en ts t h a t ha v e a f f e c t e d t h e H a itian e c on o m y t h e U S e m b a r g o o n H a iti a n e x po rts i n 1 9 91 w h i l e J ea n B e rt r an d A r i sti d e w a s p resid e n t, l e d t o a l o ss in a l m o st 30 00 0 j ob s i n t h e e le c tro n ic, s po rt e q u i p m e nt g a r m en t, a n d to y a ss e mb ly i ndu str i e s (Gi b b o n s & G a r f iel d 19 9 9 ). B y 19 9 4 t he re w e re f e w e r t h a n 8 00 0 w o rkers e m p lo y e d in t h e a s s e mb ly i ndu stry an d w omen w h o re p re s en t e d 8 0 p e rce n t o f t h e w o rkforc e w e re m o st a f f e ct e d T h e e c o n om ic i mpa c t o n w om e n w a s f e lt in b o th t h e f o r ma l an d i n f o r ma l s e ct o rs, sin c e man y w ome n e a rn e d a n i n c o m e t h ro u g h t h e s a le o f f oo d a n d o t he r p ro du ct s an d s e r v ices to f a ct o ry w o rkers. T h e em b a r g o a lso l e d t o i n c r ea s e d g a s p r i c e s, w h ich a f fe ct e d t h e tra n s po rt o f a g r i c u lt u ral p ro du c ts a n d u lti m a t e l y rais e d th e p r i ce o n a l l p ro du ct s Dur i n g th is ti me ma n y pe o p le w h o w e re ha r d e st h it w en t to t h e ru r a l a re a s w he re f oo d a n d i n t e rn a t i ona l a ssist an c e w e re a v a i l ab le. T h o se w h o w e re un a b le to l ea v e t h e city be c au se t he y h a d

PAGE 28

28 n o rel a ti v e s in rur a l a r e a s o r b e c au s e t he ir e c on o m ic a n d f am i l y sit ua ti o n w a s s u ch t ha t the y h a d n o c ho i c e bu t to s t a y res o rted to v a r i ou s s u r v i v a l stra te g ies. S o m e mo v e d in w ith o t he r f am i l y m e m b e rs i n cro w de d c ond iti o n s w ith l i m it e d e lec t r i city an d w a t e r. So m e s o l d p e rso na l po ss e ssi o n s s u c h a s j e w e l r y t e le v is i on s an d h o u s eh o ld it e m s a n d r e du c e d hou s eho ld e x pe n d it u r e s s u ch a s c u t ti n g ba ck o n t h e pu rch a s e o f mo re nu trit i ou s f o o d o r l i m iting the ir o w n me a ls to o n e p e r d a y W i t h li m i t e d e c o n o m ic me a n s, w om e n w ith c h i l d ren w e re m o re likely t o s t a y in a bu si v e rela t io n s h i p s. T h e circu m s t an c e s d u r i n g tha t pe r i o d i n h is t o ry a re si m i l a r to t h e c u r r en t si t ua ti o n in Haiti t o da y f o l l o w ing th e J a n ua ry 12 2 0 1 0 ea rth q ua k e R u ral f a m i l ies, w h o ea rn a l i ving o n s ub sist e n ce ag r i c u lt u re, p ro v ide f o o d an d s h e l t e r to r e la t i v e s an d f r i end s e sc ap ing t h e d i f f i c u lt e x ist en ce in u r b a n a re a s. Si m i l a r l y re m itt a n c e s s en t f r o m ab r o a d an d c ha n ne l e d t h ro u g h m ic ro f i n an ce i n stit u t i o n s s u ch a s F o n k o z e h e lp s u ppo rt f a m i l ies du r i n g e c o n om ic cr i s e s The Informal S ec t o r T h e c o n c e p t o f t h e i n f o r ma l s e c t o r ori g in a t e d from I n t e r n a ti o n a l L ab o r Or g an i z a ti o n (I L O) st u d ies o n G h an a a n d Ke n y a in th e ea r l y 19 7 0 s (Allen, 1998) Th e se s t u d ies re v ea led t h a t man y p e op le class i f i e d a s u ne mp lo y e d w e re p ro d u c i n g g ood s a n d s e r v ices a lt hou g h n o t f o r ma l l y e mp l o y ed T h u s, t h e te r m i n f o r ma l s e ct o r e me r g ed Dur i n g th e p a st f e w de c ade s, t h e i n f o r ma l s e ct o r h a s g ro w n ra p idly in m a n y re g io n s o f t h e w o r l d M an y de v e lo p m en t p ractiti o ne rs a n d t h e I L O be l i e v e d t h a t i n f o r ma l w o rk w ou ld u lti ma t e ly b e re p lac e d b y re g u lar pa id j ob s in t h e f o r ma l ma r k e t. Ho w e v e r, in fo r m a l la bo r ha s a ct u a l l y g r o w n in th e pa s t f e w de c ade s. V a n St a v e r e n ( 2 001 ) a r g ue s th a t g lo ba l f i n a n cial t re n d s a n d po l i ci e s s u ch a s struct u ral a d jus t m e n t p ro g ra m s ad v o c a t e d b y th e I n t e r n a ti o na l Mo n e t a ry F un d a n d t h e

PAGE 29

29 W o r l d B an k in t h e 1 9 8 0 s ha v e n e g a ti v e ly a f f e ct e d w om e n a n d t he ir po sition in t h e l a bo r ma rke t Re d u c e d g o v e rn m e n t e x pe n d it u res o n p u b l i c g ood s an d s e r v ice s lo w e r s ub sidi e s f o r f o od h i g he r prices f o r e n e r gy t ra n s po rt, a n d w a t e r, a n d i n c re a s e d f ee s f o r sc hoo l an d h e a lth c a re c r ea te i n c r ea s e d w o rk l oad s f o r w ome n bo t h a t h o m e a n d in t h e in fo r m a l s e ct o r. T h e d i m inis h e d s e c u r i ty f o r b o th m e n a n d w om e n in th e f o r m a l s e c t o r an d i n c r ea s e d s o ci e t a l v u ln e ra b i lity led t o i n c r ea s e d d e p e nd e n ce o n in fo r m a l me a n s o f inc o m e g ene r a ti o n a n d p lac e d a d d itio n a l b u r d e n o n w om e n w o rk i n g i n t h e i n f o r ma l s e ct o r T o da y w ome n a re g re a tly o v e r re p res en t e d i n t h e i n f o r ma l s e ct o r b e c au s e t h is is t h e p r i ma ry s ou rce o f e mp lo y m e n t f o r w ome n in de v e lo p ing c o un trie s W ome n w o r k is o f t e n c o n c e n tra t e d in s ma l l sc a le a g r i c u lt u re, ho m e ba s e d bu si n e ss an d ma r k e t en t e rpr i s e s. T h e maj o r i ty o f w om e n in t h e i n f o r ma l s e c t o r are on e w oma n s ho w s, in c ha r g e o f p ro du c ti o n a n d t r a de w ith n o o r f e w pa id o r u n pa id e m p l o y ee s. M u ch o f t h e w o rk is la bo r in ten si v e an d c ap i t a l poo r. I n f o r ma l en t e rpr i s e s u s u a l l y ope ra t e u n d e r ch a l le n g ing c ond itio n s re q u i r ing a h i g h de g ree o f f le x ibil i ty t o f a ce e v e r c han g ing d y nam ics in t h e b u sin e ss s e ct o r T h e se i n cl u d e a v a i l ab i l ity o f raw m a t e r i a ls, a cc e ss t o re l ia b le s u pp l i e rs, tr an s po r t a ti o n a v a i l ab i l ity o f t oo ls an d eq u ip m e n t, a n d p r i ce c om p e titi o n Al t hou g h e sti m a t e s o f t h e si z e o f t h e i n f o r ma l s e c t o r v a ry depend i n g o n ho w it is d e f in e d b y most a c c ou n ts i n f o r ma l a cti v ities a cc oun t f o r a si z ab le po rtion o f t h e e c o n om y o f de v e l o p ing c oun trie s T h e p o o r o f f ic i a l a c c o u n ti n g a t a n a ti o n a l le v e l doe s no t a l l o w a n a c c u rate a s s e ssme n t o f t h e i n f o r m a l s e c t o r s c on t r ib u ti o n t o t h e G DP in m a n y poo r d e v e lo p i n g c oun trie s In a re po rt b y th e W o r l d B an k ( 2 011 ) e stimat e s o f t h e si z e o f t h e i n f o r ma l s e ct o r in de v e lo p ing c oun tries r an g e f r o m r o u g h ly on e f i f t h a n d

PAGE 30

30 f ou r f i f t h s o f a ll no n a g r i c u lt u ral e m p lo y me n t In te r m s o f its c o n trib u t ion t o G DP, t h e in fo r m a l s e ct o r a cc o u n ts f o r b e t w ee n 2 5 p e rce n t an d 4 0 pe rc e n t o f an n ua l o u t p u t in de v e lo p ing c o u n tries in A sia a n d A f r i ca a n d 2 5 pe rc e n t in L a tin A m e r i ca an d t h e Car i bbe a n (Ch e n 2 0 0 1 ). In H a iti, i f a ll a cti v ities, i n clu d ing u n pa id l abo r, th e s e r v ice in du str y an d t h e a g r i c u lt u ral s e ct o r w e re r e f lec t e d in n a ti o n a l a cc o u n ts, t h e i n f o r m a l s e ct o r w ou ld c omp r i se th e bu lk o f th e H a itian e c o n o m y ( U SAID, 1 9 9 3 ) T h is s e c t o r is lar g e ly unp ro t e ct e d a n d ha s n o a p pa r e n t s a f e ty ne t s u ch a s i n s u r a n ce o r s a f e ty st an d a rds. I n t h e a f t e r ma t h o f n a t u r a l d isas te r, t h e i n f o r ma l s e ct o r is r a rely p r i o r itize d a lt h o u g h p ro v idi n g s uppo rt f o r t h is s e ct o r c a n c o n trib u t e t o t h e resil i en cy o f s o cie t y T h e i n f o r ma l ma rket is n o t o n ly a s t ro n g c o m p o ne n t o f t h e e c o n om y a n d p a rt o f i t s t ra d itio n It ha s a lso p ro v id e d r e f u g e f o r man y w ome n w h o h a v e bee n l a i d o ff f r o m f a ct o ry j ob s an d / o r ha v e li m it e d a lt e r n a ti v e s ba s e d o n l o w te c hn i c a l ski l ls an d l i m it e d e d u c a ti o n M i c ro e n t e rpri s e M ic r oen t e rpr i s e s a r e de f in e d a s v e ry s m a ll e n t e rpr i s e s, w h ich t y p ically emp loy l e ss t ha n t e n p eop l e A l be it s m a l l m ic r o e n t e rpr i s e s v ar y in sc a le a n d sc o pe f r o m r o ad si d e st and s t o u rb a n s h op s. T he y c a n b e i n itia t e d w ith m ini ma l c ap it a l s u ch a s ea rn i n g s f r o m t h e s a le o f si n g le he a d o f l i v e st o ck t o a f e w thou s a n d d o l l a rs re s u lting f r o m s a v in g s, f o rei g n r e m it t an c e s an d / o r l o an s. I n m o st d e v e lo p i n g c ou n tries, m ic r oe n t e rpr i s e s c o m p r i se th e v a st ma jor i ty o f t h e small bu si n e ss s e ct o r a n d a re c ha ract e r i z e d b y a l o w l e v e l o f i n c o m e an d m a t e r i a l a s s e ts ( C on g e r, 20 0 8 ). A s a re s u lt o f t h e rel a ti v e l a ck o f f o r ma l s e ct o r j o b s a v a i l ab le, t h e maj o r i ty o f m i c r oen t e r p r i s e s a re o w ne d a n d o pe ra t e d b y poo r p e o p le. Th e se o pe rati o n s a re t y p ically un re g ist e red an d d o n o t pa y ta x e s (Pre t e s, 2 009 ).

PAGE 31

31 M ic r oen t e rpr i se d e v e lo pm e n t f o r w ome n is g ene ral l y ba s e d o n t h e a ss um p ti o n t h a t t h e s ma ll sc a le s e ct o r i s bo t h v i a b le a n d d e si r ab le. M ic r o e n t e rpr i se i s o f t e n p re s en t e d a s a w a y t o i mp ro v e t h e li v e l i hood s o f p o o r p eop l e pa rti c u lar l y w ome n M i c r o e n t e rpr i se ha s b ee n v ie w e d a s a me a n s t o b o th l i f t w ome n o u t o f p o v e rty an d e mpo w e r w omen W o m en i n v o l v emen t in m ic r o e n t e r p r i se ha s i mp ro v e d t h e h ou s eho l d s ta t u s, a l l o w ing c h i l d ren t o a t t e n d sc ho o l a n d t o o b t a in hea l t h c a re. R e s e a rch s u gge sts t h a t t h e hou s eho lds o f w o m e n a re b e n e f i t t e d more b y m ic r o e n t e rpr i s e s be c a u se w om e n t e n d to de v o te mo re o f t h is in c om e to t he ir hou s eho ld s p ro po rt i ona t e ly t ha n d o me n (Hu n t & K a s y na t h a n 20 0 1 ). Y e t, w h i l e m ic r o e n t e rpr i se may b e s e e n a s a n ins t rume n t f o r w omen e mpo w e r m e n t, it ma y no t d i m inish g ende r in e q ua l i t y W o men e c o n o m ic c on trib u t i o n is v ie w e d a s a n e x t en sion o f t he i r h ou s e ho ld a c ti v ities a n d t he r e f o re p la c e s a d o ub le bu r d e n o n w ome n As s u c h t h e s t a t u s o f w o m e n in h o u s e ho ld a d m inistra t i o n an d de cis i o n ma king r ema i n s s u bo rdi n a t e d e s p ite t he ir h i g h l e v e ls o f i n v o l v emen t i n pa id e m p lo y men t ( M om s e n 1 993 ). Be c au se w ome n a re n o t rel i e v e d o f an y h o u s e h o ld du ti e s, t h e y a re f a c e d w ith c on f l i cti n g d e m a n d s. T he ir p ro du c ti v e a cti v ities incl ud e l i v e st o ck p ro du cti o n m a rketing a n d w a g e p ro du cti o n a n d t h e p ro du cti o n o f it e m s f o r ma rke t R e p ro du c ti v e a cti v ities a re tho s e t ha t a re c a r r ied ou t to r e p r odu c e a n d c a r e f o r t h e hou s eho l d a n d t h e c o m m u n it y T h is i n cl u de s f oo d p re p a rati o n c h i l d c a re, h e a lth c a re, h o m e ma in t e n a n c e a n d t h e c o l l e cti o n o f w a t e r or f ue l. T he s e a cti v ities a re v i e w e d a s n o ne c o n o m i c p ro v ide n o rem u n e rati o n a n d a re n o t co n s id e red in an y na ti o na l inc om e a cc ou n ts. K ab e e r ( 1 9 95 ) a n d M ay ou x (1 999 ) f ou n d t ha t w omen v o l v emen t in m ic r oe n t e rpr i se b e ne f i t e d t h e f am i l y a s a w ho l e c o mpa r e d t o cre d it t o m e n T h u s,

PAGE 32

32 w ome n s p en t t h e maj o r i ty o f t h e ir res ou rces o n t h e w e l f a re o f t he ir c h i l d ren a n d t h is l e ft l i t t le to n o m o ne y f r o m t he ir ea r n in g s a v a i l ab le to re i n v e st in t h e ir b u sin e ss. A l s o C l i ff (1 998 ) a r g ue d t ha t e v e n t h ou g h w om e n may w an t to g row the ir bu sin e ss e s, t h e y de cide no t t o b e c a u se o f t h e c on strai n ts in b a la n cing t he ir t i m e a m o n g f a m i l y hou s e h o ld res pon sibil i ti e s, a n d bu sin e ss a cti v ities. M ic r oen t e rpr i s e s c a n a lso n e g a ti v e l y a f fe ct f am i l y d y nam ics. In m an y c a s e s, w om e n i n v o l v e d in th e i n f o r ma l s e ct o r f a c e d a i l y c ha l l en g e s in o p e rati n g the ir bu si n e ss e s an d the y o f t e n rely o n t he ir c h i l d re n e s p e cially g i r ls, f o r h e l p T h is m a y m ea n t ha t c h i l d ren r e t u rn e a r l y f rom sc h o o l o r m iss sc h oo l a lt o g e t he r. Acc o rd i n g t o B rett (2 0 0 6 ), w om e n en g a g e in b u sin e ss i n a n a tmos p h e re o f e x tre m e c o n strai n t a n d un c e r t a in t y W om en m ic r o e n t e r p r i se an d o t he r inc o m e g ene rati n g a cti v ities m u st b e d de d on t o w om e n h edu l e s. I n o t he r w o rds, w om e n a re n o t g i v e n an y re p r i e v e f r o m hou s eho l d r e s pon sibil i ti e s. In add it i on w om e n w h o w o rk i n m ic r oen t e rpr i s e s may b e e x po s e d t o incre a s e d risk b e c a u se o f p o l i tic a l o r soc i a l p ro b l e m s s u c h a s s trikes t h a t l i m it t h e f low o f ma rket g ood s. Also, a s t h e w oma n o f t h e f a m i l y s e c u res in c om e tr a d itio na l ge nde r rol e s w it h in t h e hou s eho l d a re s u b v e rted an d ma n y m e n f ee l t h r e a t e n e d a n d re s po n d ne g a ti v e ly ( F on c h in g on g 2 005 ). In o t he r ca s e s, pa rticu l a r l y w he n m e n f a c e c o n ti n u ou s un e mp lo y m e n t an d w ome n be c o m e t h e s o le p ro v id e rs b a s e d o n t he ir m ic r oen t e rpr i s e s, me n c o m e to a cc ep t t h e ne w ma k e u p o f g e n de r p o w e r r e la t io n s I n t h e en d it is a pa rticular c on f i g u rat io n o f v a r i ou s a s s e ts in t h e ir e v e r y d a y l i v e s an d t he ir bu si n e ss e s t ha t a l l o w s w ome n m i c ro en tr e p re n e u rs to m a in ta in s u cc e s s f u l e n t e r p r i s e s. M i c ro e n t r e pr e neu r i a l A sse ts a nd t h e ir Impor t a nce T h e re a re a v a r i e ty o f f a ct o rs t h a t ma y p r o mo t e o r c o n strain f e ma le m ic r oe n tre p re n eu r s l e v e l o f a c h ie v e m en t i n b u sin e ss. B a s e d o n t h e S u st a i n ab le

PAGE 33

33 L i v e l i hoo d Fr a me w o rk ( Ch am b e rs & C o n w a y 19 9 1 ), a s s e ts c a n b e allocated i n to f i v e t y pe s o f c a p it a ls, s o m e o f w h ich a re t an g ible ( f i n an cial, na t u ral a n d p h y sical c ap it a ls ) w h i l e s om e a re i n t a n g ible (h u m a n a n d s o cial c ap it a l s ). Hu m a n c a p it a l re f e rs t o t h e skil l s, k no w le d g e e d u c a ti o n a n d t h e ab i l i ty t o app ly t he se res ou rces t o i m p le m e n t m ic r oe n tre p re n u r i a l strat e g ies t h a t a l l o w m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs t o me e t t h e ir ob je c ti v e s. P h y sical c ap it a l in v o lves n o n m one t a ry ob jec t s t h a t a ssist m ic r oen tr e p re n eu rs i n c a r r y ing ou t t h e f un cti o n s o f t h e ir bu si n e ss e s. T h e se i n c l ud e a cc e ss t o ro ad s b u i l d in g s, e ne rg y f o r m s o f tra n s po r t a ti on te c hno lo g y an d o t h e r t o o ls s u ch a s fe rti l i z e rs a n d f a r m i n g e q u ip m e n t, a n d li v e st o ck. Fin a n cial c ap it a l re f e rs to f in a n cial res ou rces s u ch a s a v a i l ab le inc o m e c re d it, s a v in g s, an d re m itt a n c e s, w h ich a l l o w m ic r oen tre p re n eu rs t o s u s t a in t he ir bu s i ne s s e s a n d p u rsue o t he r op p o rtu n it i e s. S o cial c ap i t a l in v o l v e s s up p o r t n e t w o rks of f r i e nd s a n d f a m i l ies a n d f o r ma l a s w e ll a s i n f o r ma l m e m b e rship in o r g an i z a ti on s s u c h a s tra d e a ss o c i a ti on s. Na tu ral c a p it a l re f e rs t o res ou r c e s s u ch a s l a nd s o il q ua l i t y w a t e r a n d a q u a tic res ou rces, tre e s, w i l d l i f e w i l d f o od s an d f ib e r s e tc. M an y m ic r o e n tr e p re n e u rs d e r i v e t he ir i n c o m e f r o m bu s i ne ss e s ba s e d o n t h e s a le o f f o rest p r o du cts, a g r i c u lt u ral p ro du c e o r f ishi n g f o r e x a m p le. By f o c u s i n g o n t h e a s s e t struc t u re o f f e ma l e m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs, e s pe cially t ho se w h o ope r a te bu s in e ss e s in a re a s p ro n e t o n a t u ral d isas t e r, w e c a n de v e lop a be t t e r u n de rst a nd ing o f f e ma le m ic r o e n tre p r e neu r s c a pa city t o cre a te s u s t a in a b le bu sin e s s e s. As s e ts a re c on s i de red s to ck t h a t c a n b e a c q u i r ed de v e lo p e d a n d i mp ro v ed

PAGE 34

34 O w ne rship o f l a nd w a t e r r i g h ts o r e v e n e q u i p me n t s u c h a s a c o rn g r i nde r, a s e w ing m a c h in e o r a w hee lb a r r o w, c a n s u p po rt inc o m e p ro du c i n g bu sin e s s e s. L ike w ise, a ss e ts in t h e fo rm o f i n v e s t me n t s in hea l t h a n d edu c a ti o n o r b u si n e ss ne t w o rks can a l s o f o st e r succ e s s f u l m ic ro en t e rpr i s e s S e n ( 1 9 97 ) s t a t e d t h a t a ss e ts a re n o t si m p ly th e res o u rces t h r o u g h w h ich p eop le make a li v in g ; t he y g i v e th e c ap a b i l ity t o b e a n d to a ct, t o e n g a g e m o re me an in g f u l l y w ith th e w o r l d an d to c han g e In t h is c o n t e x t, a s s e t o w ne rship c a n op e n u p op p o rtu n it i e s c r e a t e a s a f e ty n e t, a n d p ro v ide s o m e t h ing f o r f ema l e m ic r oen tr e p re n eu rs to f a ll b a ck o n M o re o v e r, a ss e t o w ne rship c a n b e pa s s e d o n f r o m g e n e rati o n to g ene r a ti on If w e w e re t o f o c u s o n bu sin e ss inc o m e o r e x pe n d it u res (e c on o m ic i nd ica t o rs) a lo n e w e w ou ld on ly c ap t u re a p a rtial v i e w w he re a s, e x am ini n g fe m a le m ic ro en tre p r en e u rs a ss e ts p ro v id e s a h o l i stic p ict u re o f m ic r oe n tre p re n eur pe r f o r m a n c e W r a t t o n (1 9 95 ) a r g ue s th a t re v ie w i n g i n c o m e l e v e ls may he lp de t e r m i n e w h o l a cks r e s ou rces to a c h ie v e a n a d e q ua te s t an d a rd o f l i v in g Ho w e v e r, it doe s no t a cc u rat e ly m ea s u re t h e c apa city t o g a in a cc e s s t o v a r i ou s f o r m s o f c a p it a l. T he s e may b e d e t e r m in e d b y o t he r f a c t o rs such a s l e g a l r i g h ts, edu c a ti on a n d h ea l t h c a re. S he r r ad o n ( 1 99 1 ), w h o f i r st in t r o du c e d t h e c o n c e p t o f a ss e t bu i l d ing, e m p ha si z e s th e n ee d t o d istin g u ish i n c o m e f r o m a ss e ts. H e de scr ib e s i n c o m e a s t h e f low o f res o u rc e s, g ene ral l y res u lting f r o m a re t u rn o n l a b o r, a n d u s e d f o r c on s u mp t i on O n t h e o t he r ha n d a ss e ts a re st o cks o f res ou r c e s t h a t c a n b e g a in e d o v e r ti me in v e st e d f o r f u t u re c on s u m p ti o n an d may res u lt in l on g t e r m b en e f i ts. Ass e ts s u ch a s h o u sin g e q u i p me n t, a n d s a v in g s an d edu c a ti o n c a n p ro v ide a lt e rn a ti v e s.

PAGE 35

35 B a s e d o n a n a ss e t ba s e d a pp r o a ch s t ud y c o n d u ct e d in Ec u a do r, M o s e r ( 2 0 0 6 ) id en t i f i e d t h e s e qu en c e o f a ss e t a cc u mu l a ti o n a s f o l l o w s: 1 ) h u ma n c ap it a l c on n e ct e d t o i l l hea lth an d rel a t e d e x pen s e s a re ma i n a s s e t s t h a t c au se i nd i v id ua ls to de sc e n d i n to po v e rt y 2 ) h ou sing a n d ph y sical c ap i t a l is a p rere q u is i te f o r a ss e t a cc umu l a ti o n a n d 3 ) f i n an cial c ap it a l is t h e mo st i m p o rta n t st a rting po int f o r ac q u i r ing o t h e r ass e ts. In add iti o n s h e h i g h l ig h ts th e i m p o rta n c e o f e na b l i n g l o w inc om e i nd i v i dua ls bu i l d a d i v e rs i f ied p o r t f o l i o o f a ss e ts t o p r o t e ct t h e m a g a inst o m e s ho c k s u ch a s il ln e ss ( M o s e r, 19 9 8 ). A s s e ts s u ch a s h o u sin g s a v in g s, an d e q u ipme n t, a s w e ll a s edu c a ti o n c a n b e u s e d to g e n e ra t e a lt e r n a ti v e i n c o m e s t re am s du r i n g pe r io d s o f d isas t e r. T h e re ha v e b e e n v a r i ou s st u d ies t h a t e x am ine t h e role o f a ss e t o w ne rship in a c h ie v ing s u st a in a b le l i v e l i hood s In a s t u d y o n l i v e l i hood s a n d po v e rty re du cti o n i n T a n z an ia, El l is a n d M do e ( 2 003 ) f o u n d t ha t rural po v e rty w a s stro n g ly a ss o cia te d w ith lack o f a ss e ts s u ch a s la n d a n d l i v e st o ck. La n d a n d l i v e st o ck a re o f te n re q u i r e d a s c o l l a t e ral f o r a cc e ssi n g c r ed it b y mo st f o r ma l f in a n cial ins t it u ti o n s. Sc o u f ias (2 0 0 3 ) no t e d t h a t h o u s e h o lds w ith less a cc e ss to c r ed it o r o t he r f o r m s o f f i n an cial s u p po rt m a y b e u n ab le t o re p lace t he ir lost p ro d u cti v e a ss e ts a n d ma y no t b e ab le to rec o v e r f o r man y y ea rs. A no t h e r c on s e qu en ce m a y b e de c re a s e d in v e st m e n t in c h i l d re n edu c a ti on h ea lth c a r e a n d in v e stme n t in s o cial n e t w o rk i n g a s in d i v id ua l s e f fo rts a re re d i r e ct e d p r i ma r i ly to w a rd ea rning i n c o m e Still o t he r au t ho rs h a v e no t e d t ha t g ende r is a v a r i ab le t ha t a f fe cts ho w in d i v id ua ls v a lue r e s o u rces pa rticularly a s t he y rel a te t o t he ir ab i l ity t o a c h i e v e the ir g oa ls. Flora (2 0 01 ) hi g h l ig h t e d t h a t w o m e n w e re m o re likely tha n men t o p ro t e ct c o m m o n res o u rces be c au se t he y f o r m t h e ba se o f t he ir d o me stic an d bu s i ne ss

PAGE 36

36 a cti v ities. H o w e v e r, a n d u n f o rt u na t e l y w omen o f c o n trol a n d a cc e ss t o res o u rces s u ch a s l an d, l i m its t h e ir ab i l ity t o e f f e cti v e ly tran sla t e pe r c ep ti o n o f e n v i r onmen t a l t h r e a t in t o a n y a cti on E x am ini n g th e a ss e t s t ruct u re o f f e ma l e m ic r oen tre p r en e u rs i s a lso i mpo r t an t be c a u se it is l i n k e d t o t he ir v u ln e ra b i l it y e s p e cially du r i n g na t u ral d i s a st e r s Acc o rding to E n a rson (2 0 0 1 ), w ome n w ith fe w e r ass e t s ha v e more d i f f i c u lty in rec o v e ry f rom na t u ral d isas t e r. T h is au t h o r also i de n t i f ied f ou r i m pa cts o f d isas te r o n a ss e t o w ne rship an d w o m en w o rk: 1 ) e c o n om ic i n s e c u r i ty i n c r ea s e s w he n p ro du c ti v e a ss e ts a re l o st, 2 ) w omen w o rk l oa d i n c r ea s e s a s t he y ta ke o n mo re i n c o m e g ene r a ti n g w o rk a n d h a v e e x pand e d rol e s in c om mun ity a n d f a m i l y a f f a i rs, 3 ) w omen w o rk i n g c ond it i on s a r e ad v e rsely a f f e c t e d be c au se o f i n ade qu a te c h i l d c a re r e s ou rc e a n d 4 ) w ome n t en d t o rec o v e r mo re sl o w ly a s the y l a ck mo b i l it y W o m e n w ith l e ss a cc e ss t o f o r ma l f i n a n cial res ou rces t e n d t o res o rt t o f am i l y an d f r i e n d s w he n a f f e c t e d b y na t u ral d i s a st e r. U n f o rtu n a t e l y w he n o t he r s w it h in t he ir ne t w o rk e x pe r i en ce s h o cks e q ua l l y it is d i f f i c u lt f o r t h e m t o d raw o n on e an o t he r f o r s up p o rt (Sk o u f i a s, 20 0 3 ). Fin a nc i a l Re s ou r ce s f o r M i c ro e n t e rpri s e s T o bu i l d s u cc e s s f u l an d s u s t a in ab l e b u sin e s s e s, m ic ro en tr e p r e n eu r s ne e d n o t on ly ha v e th e ne c e s s a ry sk i ll s e t an d mo t i v a ti on bu t a lso mu st ha v e s u f f ic i e n t f i n an cial c ap it a l f o r b o th s t a r t u p an d g ro w t h W h i l e n o t a ll m ic r oe n tre p r e neu rs a re r e l i an t o n e x t e rn a l f in a n cing t o c on d u ct t he ir bu s i ne ss e s, m a n y o f t he m re q u i r e f in a n cial s u ppo r t Fin an cing is k e y t o t h e e st ab l i s h m e n t o f m ic ro en t e rpr i s e s, b u t tr a d iti o na l lo a n s f r o m f o r m a l b a n king i n stit u ti on s a re d i f f icult f o r t h e p oo r t o s e c u re an d ha v e b ee n k no w n to c h a r g e bo r r o w er s i n t e rest ra t e s o f u p t o 1 0 0 pe rc e n t ( Has he m i e t a l., 2 00 6 ; B e n n e t t 20 0 9 ).

PAGE 37

37 A n a l t e rn a ti v e c on c e p t t o t h e t r a d itio n a l b a n king s y st e m w a s fo st e r e d b y t h e Gra m e e n B an k in B a ng la de s h w h ich w a s a p io n e e r in t h e a rea o f m ic ro f in a n ce p ro g ra m s a n d w ho se c on c ep t h a s b ee n re p l i c a t e d in d e v e lo p ing c o u n tries s u ch a s I nd ia, R w anda Haiti, a n d man y o t he rs ( L a t i f e e 2 006 ). M ic r o f in a n ce ha s be e n s t rat e g ically u s e d a s a m e an s o f r e du cing p o v e r t y an d en h an cing li v e l i hood s i n de v e lo p ing c o un tries b y p ro v idi n g s m a ll l o a n s t o p o o r in d i v id ua ls to b e g in o r s u st a in i n c o m e g ene r a ti n g a cti v ities. It is a r g ue d t ha t m ic ro f in a n ce c a n he lp w ome n impro v e the ir s t a t u s b y p ro v idi n g ne w op p o rtu n itie s f o st e r i n g s e l f c o n f i d en c e e x pa n d ing s o cial a n d b u sin e ss ne t w o rks, an d a l l o w ing the m g re a t e r v o ice in f a m i l y pa rtic i pa ti o n (S h u l l e r & H a s h e mi 1 9 9 6 ) T y p icall y m ic r o f i n an ce recipie n ts a re i nd i v id u a ls w h o a re s e l f e mp lo y e d a n d ha v e a h o m e b a s e d ope r a ti o n M ic r o f in a n ce i n s tit u ti on s te n d t o ta r g e t ma inly w ome n a s rec i p ie n ts b e c au s e w ome n ha v e p ro v e n t o b e a l o w cre d it r i sk, w ith re p a y men t ra t e s e st i ma t e d a t 9 8 p e rce n t. M o re o v e r, w ome n a re mo re likely t o i n v e st a g re a t e r p e rc e n t a g e o f t he ir ea rnin g s mo n e y ba ck i n t o t he ir hou s eho ld t h a n d o m e n T h is in tu rn c a n l e a d t o i n c r ea s e d s t a t u s in h o u s e h o ld m e m b e r s edu c a ti o n n u trit i o n a n d h ea lt h a n d c on trib u t e s t o a s t r o n g e r o v e rall e c on o m y It ha s a lso b ee n a r g ue d th a t m ic ro f i n an ce p ro g rams a l l o w w ome n to g a in v a lu ab le ski l ls t h a t le a d t o t h e m p la y ing a s t ro n g e r r o le i n t h e c o m m u n ity an d in hou s e h o ld de cis io n m a kin g B y e st ab l i s h i n g a v ia b le bu si n e ss a n d i n c r ea sing hou s eho ld i n c o me m i c ro f i n an c e is s a id t o r e d u ce w om e n v u ln e ra b i l i ty t o e x t e rn a l s ho cks s u c h a s s o cial, po l i tic a l a n d e c o n om ic c r ises an d t h e i m p a ct o f n a t u ral d isas te rs s u ch a s f lo o d s, hu r r ica ne s a n d ea rth qu a k e s.

PAGE 38

38 W h i le m ic ro f in a n ce h a s be e n c h a m p io n e d a s a w a y t o a l l e v ia t e po v e rty an d t o em p o w e r w ome n th r o ug h th e p romo t ion o f s e l f rel i an c e a n d i n d i v id ua l initi a ti v e t h e p r i ma ry f o c u s h a s b e e n t o i n c r ea se t h e n u mb e r o f e n t e r p r i s e s a n d t he ir p r o f its, ra t h e r t ha n d i r e ctly add ressi n g iss ue s o f i n e q ua l i ty in a cc e ss t o po w e r a n d res ou rces. I n g ene ral, a t t e n ti o n to m a c r o le v e l strat e g ies h a s f o c u s e d o n i n t e g rat i n g w ome n w it h in e x isting s t ruct u res a s o ppo s e d t o c h a l l en g ing th e s t ru c t u res t h e m s e l v e s ( M a y ou x 19 9 5 ). M ic r o f in a n ce is c o m p l e x an d o f t e n s pe c i f ic t o c on t e x t. It is cl ea r t ha t d iff e re n t m ic ro f in a n ce i n s tit u ti on s res po n d t o d i f fe re n t mo d e ls a n d t he y m u s t b e j u d g e d a g a inst t h e m o de l t ha t t he y s e t ou t to de l i v e r. M a y ou x (2 000 ) re f e rs t o t h e s e a s t h e pa r a d i g m s o f m ic ro f in an c e a n d i d en t i f i e d th r e e d ist i n ct mo d e ls. T h e p a ra d i g m o f f i n an cial s e l f s u f f ic i en cy a i m s to cr e a te m ic ro f in a n ce m od e ls t ha t a re p r o f it ab l e s u st a i n ab le an d c om p e titi v e a n d d o n o t de p en d o n de v e lo p m e n t a g en cies f o r f u n d s. T h e y ope ra t e ba s e d o n f u nd s s e c u r e d in i n t e rn a t i ona l f i na n cial m a rk e ts a n d in do i n g s o t h e y ta r g e t t h e b an k a b p oo r (no t a l w a y s th e poo re s t o f poo r ) e g ., small p ro d u c e rs a n d en tre p r en e u rs. In th is app r o a c h it is a ss u m e d t h a t w om e n a cc e ss t o t he se s pe c i f ic s e r v ices w i l l le a d t o e c on o m ic e m p o w e r men t an d u lti m a t e ly g re a t e r de cis i o n m a king po w e r. T h e p a ra d i g m o f p o v e rty relief is ba s e d o n p ro v idi n g no t on l y th e e c o n o m ic st ab i l ity nee d e d t o reli ev e po v e rt y bu t a lso o t he r a t tri b u t e s a n d me a n s n e ed e d t o eme r g e f r o m an d rem a in ou t o f po v e rty s u ch a s s u s t a in ab l e li v ing r e s ou rces, c o m m u n ity de v e lo p m en t a n d t h e p ro v is i o n o f s e r v ices l i k e t e a c h ing ba sic l i t e ra cy hea lt h c a re a n d in f ra s truc tu r e Fin a l l y t h e f em inist pa r a d i g m o f e mpo w e r m e n t is b a s e d o n t h e pe rce p t i o n o f m ic ro f in a n ce a s a n e n try po int t o p ro v ide e c on o m ic an d s o ci o po l i tic a l

PAGE 39

39 em p o w e r men t t o w o m en T h is a p p ro a ch is c en t e r e d mo re o n t h e s t rat e g ic ne e d s o f w omen B e sid e s t h e d i f f e r e n t p a ra d i g m s b e h ind d i f f e r e n t m ic ro f in a n ce i n sti t u ti on s m ic ro f i n a n ce o r g an i z a ti on s a s a w ho le w it h in on e re g ion o r c o un try e v o l v e o v e r ti me an d a s Ma y ou x (2 000 ) st a t e s, it is i m po rt a n t t o s ee k e f f ic ie n cies am on g th e m b y c oo rdin a ti n g t he ir e f fo r t s. For m ic ro f i n an ce p ro g ra m s t o b e s u c c e s s f u l, t he y ha v e t o c on sid e r w o m e n in a b ro a d e r co n t e x t rec o g n i z ing s t ruct u ral c on st r a in t s a n d op p o rt u n ities tha t i m p a ct w omen e n tre p re n eu r i a l a s p i r a ti o n s. S i m i l a r l y, a p r o b l e m o f v iewing m ic ro f in a n ce a s a v eh ic l e fo r p o v e rty a l l e v ia t ion fo r w ome n is t h a t lo a n re p a y men t may po se a n a d d itio n a l bu rd e n f o r w o m en e s p e cially in pe r i od s o f h i g he r e n e r g y an d f o o d p r ices. G o e tz an d G up t a (1 9 96 ) s h o w th a t m an y o f t h e w om e n an s a re c o n trolled b y m a les, y e t w ome n a re r e s p on sible f o r r e p a y men t. I n s o m e c a s e s, w ome n ha v e t o op t ou t o f c o v e r i n g ba sic h ou s e ho ld n e ed s t o a dd ress t h e re pa y m en t o f t he se l oan s Al s o w ome n i n f e ma l e he a de d h o u s e h o lds h a v e add itio n a l bu r d en s i n t h e ir dua l r o l e s, w h ich a re no t t a k e n i n t o a cc o u n t (O g a t o B o o n & S u b rama n i, 20 0 9 ). K ab e e r (2 0 0 3 ) n o t e d th a t n o s ub s t an t i a l e v id en ce e x ists o f c h a n g e in t h e g en d e r di v is i o n o f la bo r a s a res u lt o f m ic ro f in an c e W o m e n c o n ti n u e d o ing h o m e b a s e d j ob s like t a i l o r i n g an d pou lt r y raisin g Y oun g ( 1997) a lso n o t e d t h a t w om en w o rk l oa d i n c r ea s e d du e to t h e hea v y de ma nd s o f o pe rati n g a bu sin e s s Furt he r m o re, t h e f o rm o f p ee r pr e s s u re o f t e n in v o l v e d in h o no r i n g t h e l o a n may res u lt in w om e n h a v ing t o b o r r o w f r o m t h e ir s pou s e s o r o t he r f a m i l y m e m b e rs or f o re g o c r itical hou s e ho ld n e e d s. Res ea rc h e rs h a v e f ou n d t h a t m ic ro f in a n ce is no t w it ho u t its c ha l l en g e s a n d it is a l ong t e rm p ro c e ss. I n a s t u d y o n th r e e m ic ro fi nan ce i n stit u t i on s in

PAGE 40

40 B an g la de s h f i v e p e rc e n t o f pa rtic ip an ts w e re able to advance economically ea ch y ea r, f i v e t o t h i r ty pe rce n t a n nua l l y d ro p p e d o u t, a n d t h e p oo rest f a m i l ies s e l f s e lec t e d o u t, ne v e r joining a t a l l I n s om e c a s e s it t a k e s b e t w ee n f i v e t o t e n y ea r s fo r p o o r c l ie n ts t o ad v an ce a bo v e t h e po v e r t y line an d e v e n l o ng e r to be c o m e s e l f rel i an t, m e an ing n o lo n g e r h a v ing th e n ee d fo r m ic ro f i nan c e i n v o lve m e n t. H o w e v e r, s h e s ta t e s t h a t t h is c on ti n ue d r e l i an ce d oe s no t si g n i f y fa i l u re a n d in f a ct may s ho w s u cc e ss f o r b o th t h e m ic r oe n tre p re n eu r a n d th e m ic ro f i n an ce i n sti t u ti o n (i. e ., p a rtic i pa n ts ha v e i n v e st m e n t op p o rtu n ities a n d t h e m ic ro f in a n ce i n s tit u ti o n ha s rel e v an t p ro d u cts) ( M a g ne r, 20 0 7 ). Acc o rding t o Ma y ou x (1 9 9 0 ), m ic ro f i nan c e ha s be e n s e e n a s a t oo l t ha t p ro v id e s si g n i f ica n t b e n e f its to w ome n in t h e e c o n o m ic an d s o cial s p he r e s S h e po in t s o u t t h a t w omen a cc e ss t o s a v in g s c a n em p o w e r w ome n b y a l l o w ing the m t o u se t h e ir res ou rces f o r sa v in g s an d e c o no m ic a cti v it y A s a re s u lt, w om e n a c h ie v e m o re c on t r o l o v e r t he ir a ss e ts a n d i n c o m e Th e re a re s e v e ral a ss u mp t i on s e mb ed d e d in t h is i d ea : w ome n w i l l i n v e st ea r n in g s in the ir b u sin e ss, w omen w e l l be ing w i l l i mp ro v e an d w omen o cial an d e c on o m ic n e t w o rks w i l l e x pan d Ho w e v e r, s h e a lso st a t e s t h e c a v ea t t h a t in s o m e c a s e s w ome n ma y ha v e l i m it e d c on trol o v e r t he i r e a rnin g s ba s e d o n h i e rarchic a l struc t u res w it h in t h e h o me Has h e m i e t a l. (1 9 96 ) no t e d t ha t a m on g G r a me e n b an k pa rtic i p a n t s, w he n w ome n h a d t a k e n o u t l oan s, men w e re m o re l ikely t o p ro v ide a ssist a n ce w ith hou s e c ho res a n d c h i l d c a r e F u rth e r mo re, K a bee r ( 20 0 3 ) r epo r t e d t ha t m i c r o c r ed it c a n en h an ce w o m en e c o nom ic i nd e p e nd e n ce t hu s impro v ing he r se l f e st e e m an d he r st a t u s i n t h e h ou s e ho l d a n d t h e c o m m u n it y A cc o rding t o S hu l l e r a n d H a s h e m i ( 20 0 6 ),

PAGE 41

41 w ome n t h a t en g a g e in m ic ro f in a n ce be ne f it f r o m de c re a s e d m a le b i a s in t h e hou s eho l d an d i n c r ea s e d c o n trol o v e r f e rti l it y In f a c t, m ic ro f in a n ce a s a k e y v eh ic l e f o r es ta b l i s h ing m ic r oe n t e rpr i s e s in de v e lo p ing c o u n tries h a s b e e n ad v o c a t e d a s a mec h a n ism f o r a dd r e ssing th e n eed s o f poo r w om e n b e y on d th e ir m o ne t a ry g a ins. Acc o rding t o D un f o rd ( 2 0 01 ), w e ll c oo rdin a t e d m ic ro f i n a n ce p ro g ra m s ha v e h e l p e d w om e n in t he ir re p r odu cti v e n e ed s, incl ud ing th e p r o mo t i o n o f f a m i l y p la nn ing a n d t h e p re v en ti o n o f HI V / A IDS. D u n f o rd (2 001 ) s t a t e s t h a t n o n f o r ma l edu c a ti o n te c hn i q ue s, t h e f o c u s o f w h ich c a n ra n g e f r o m c h i l d c a re t o p e rso na l b eha v ior, c a n b e d e p lo y e d e f fe cti v e ly du r i n g t h e re g u lar me e ti n g s he ld w ith m ic ro f i n an c e g ro up s. I f n o t w e ll c oo rdin a t ed t h e pe r i l in a dd ressing n o n f i n an cial c on c e r n s is d i v e rting res ou rces an d h in de r i n g t h e s u s t a in a b i l ity o f m ic r oe n t e rpr i s e s. A nd e rson e t a l. ( 20 0 2 ) hi g h l ig h t t ha t m ic ro f i n an c e g ro u p me e ti n g s c a n b e p a rticularly ad v an t a g e o u s a s t h e y g i ve w ome n the o p po rt u n i ty t o s ha re t he ir o w n k no w le d g e an d be st p r a ctic e s w ith ea ch o t he r pa rticularly fo r t h o se w h o a re no t u s u a l l y e x po s e d t o t rain i n g o r t ho se w h o o t he r w ise h a v e li m it e d o ppo r t un i t ies t o i n t e ract w ith o t he r w om e n M a y ou x (1 997 ) ar g ue s tha t be c au s e o f t h e l a ck o f s y st e m a tic, c r o s s c u lt u ral c om p a rati v e s tud i e s o n t h e e f fe cts o f m ic ro f i nan c e p ro g ra m s o n w ome n it is d i f f i c u lt t o a ss e ss t he ir v a lu e Ma n y m ic r o f i nan c e p ro g r a m e v a lu a t i o n s a re o f t e n c o n du c t e d in te rn a l l y u sing d i f f e r e n t de f initi on s o f e mpo w e r m e n t, w h ich m a k e s it d i f f icult t o a s s e ss w ha t is a ct ua l l y be ing mea s u re d Furt h e r mo r e h i g h re p a y men t ra t e is o f t e n e qu a t e d w ith a po siti v e i mpa c t o n w om e n H o w e v e r, t h e d o w n si d e t o lo a n r epa y m e n t is n o t

PAGE 42

42 a l w a y s c on sid e re d W h i l e t h e l o a n si z e s m a y b e s ma ll t ha t d o e s n o t m e a n t ha t t h e y d o no t c a r r y b ig r isks f o r w omen In man y c a s e s, w ome n ha v e t o re s o rt t o a n u mbe r o f s t r a t e g ies to e n s u re t he y ma ke sc h e du l e d p a y men ts an d re pa y l o a n s. T h e y m a y ha v e t o bo r r o w f rom w it h in t h e s o cial n e t w o rk o r s e ll hou s e ho ld g o o d s W o m e n ma y re du ce f o o d qu a l i ty an d q uan tity o f f o o d i n t h e h ou s e ho l d a n d ma ke c h e a p e r m ea ls re q u i r ing m o re l a b o r in ten si v e in g re d ie n t s In add it i o n t h e y m a y re du ce t he ir e x p end it u res b y t rav e l i n g o n f o o t r a t he r t ha n pa y f o r p ub l i c t r a n s po rt a ti o n g a t he r i n g f i r e w oo d ra t h e r t h a n p u r c ha sing k e ros e n e an d tre a ti n g f am i l y il l ne ss e s w ith ho m e r e m e d ies rat h e r t h a n s ee king med i c a l tre a t m en t (Brett 2 0 06 ; V a n St a v e r e n (2 0 0 1 ). In s p i t e o f t h e n ee d f o r mo re r e s ea rch, t h e re h a v e bee n v a r i ou s s t u d ies u sing w e l l d e f i n e d em po w e r men t in d ica to rs t o a s s e ss th e i m p a ct o f m ic ro f in an ce o n w omen O n t h e po siti v e si de m ic ro f i n an c e ha s b e e n s ho w n t o p ro v ide s o m e be ne f its f o r w o m en St ud ies ha v e s h o w n t h a t in s o m e c a s e s w o m e n w h o pa rtic ip a te in m ic r o c r ed it p ro g ra m s ha v e i mp ro v e d t he ir ab i l ity t o ma ke hou s e h o ld de cis i on s a n d e x pe r ie n c e d i n c r ea se mob i l ity (Pitt e t a l. 2 0 0 6) Th e y ha v e b ee n ab l e t o pu rc h a se p ro du c ti v e a ss e t s S o m e ha v e i n c r ea s e d t he ir p a rtic i pa ti o n in p o l i tic a l an d l e g a l c a m pa i g n s, ne g o ti a t e d g e n de r ba r r iers, incre a sed c on trol o v e r t he ir o w n li v e s an d i mp r o v e d the ir p o sition w it h in t h e hou s eho l d W om e n o f t e n p ro v e t o b e mo re f i nan cially res pon sib l e w ith be t te r r e p a y men t pe r f o r m an c e t h a n m e n an d ha v e b ee n s ho w n t o i n v e st incr e a s e d i n c om e i n to t h e hou s eho ld a n d f am i l y w e ll be ing (K abee r 1 9 9 8 ) In 19 9 4 K a b ee r w ro te t ha t w ome n are mo re likely t o s p e n d m one y w ise l y o n g oo d g ood s t h a n b a d g o o d s. K ab e e r ( 1 9 98 ) also

PAGE 43

43 f ou n d t ha t m ic ro f i n an c e ha s b e e n e f f e c ti v e in i n c r ea sing i n c o me s a n d a ss e ts, e x c ep t in t h e poo re s t h ou s e ho l d s. On t h e n e g a ti v e si de G oe tz a n d G u p ta (1 9 9 6 ) f o u n d t ha t men d i re ctly c on trolled mo st w o m en o an s, a lt hou g h w om e n w e re r e s p o n sible f o r r epa y m en t. M a y ou x (1 9 9 9 ) no t e d w om e n h a v e l i m it e d c on trol o v e r t he ir e a rnin g s ba s e d o n h ie r a rchical struct u res w it h in t h e h om e I n s o m e i n s t an c e s, w om e n no t on ly ha v e th e bu r d e n o f re p a y ing th e lo an bu t a lso ma y ha v e t o u se s a v in g s t o o f f s e t men poo r in v e s t m en ts. T he r e f o re, w omen o f c o n t r o l o v e r f in a n c e s l ead s t o m o re t e n sion w it h in t h e h o u s e h o ld an d mo re p ress u re i n me e ti n g th e e x pe ct a ti o n s o f m ic ro f in a n ce s o l i da r i ty g ro u p s (K a b ee r 20 0 1 ) S i m i l a r l y a s a res u lt o f m ic ro f i nan c e n o s u b st a n ti a l e v id en c e o f i mp ro v e m en t e x ists in th e g e n de r d i v is i o n o f l abo r, a n d w ome n c o n ti n u e d o ing d o me stic t a sks. In e x am in i n g t w o c a se st ud ies i n B a n g la de s h F e rn a n d o ( 2 0 0 6 ) co n c lu de d th a t w he n w ome n b ea r t h e s o le res p on sibil i ti e s f o r lo a n r e pa y m e n t a n d e n g a g e in m ic r o c r ed it rel a t e d a ct iv ities, bu rd en s i n c r ea s e a n d t i m e a v a i l ab le f o r e du c a ti on l e isure an d s o ciali z a ti o n b e c o m e l i m it e d T h e se li m i t a ti on s tra n sla t e i n t o l e s s au t on o m y A lso, bu sin e ss c o mp e titi o n a mon g w om e n m ic r oen t re p re n e u rs d o e s o c c u r a n d th is c a n b e a gg r a v a t e d d u r i n g t i m e s o f e c o n om ic ha rds h i p n o t u n c om mo n i n de v e lo p ing c oun tries. Co m p e titi o n i m p a cts b o th t h e e c o n o m ic pe r f o r man c e a s w e ll a s t h e a v a i l ab i l ity o f t h e m ic r oe n tre p re n eu r t o e n g a g e in o t h e r t y p e s o f a cti v ities rela te d to p e rso na l d e v e lo p m en t (Bro w n e 2003 ). A l A m in an d C ho w dh u ry (2 008 ) id en t i f i e d v a r i ou s o b st a cles t o m ic ro fi nan ce pe r f o r m an c e man y o f w h ich i mpa ct t h e ba l a n ce b e t w ee n p r o du cti v e an d re p ro d u cti v e a cti v ities. On t h e d em an d s i d e l a ck o f f a m i l y res ou rces, poo r e d u c a t io n lack o f t i m e

PAGE 44

44 an d poo r s e l f i ma g e w e re s e e n a s i m p a cti n g m ic ro f in a n c e p e r f o r m an c e O n t h e s upp l y sid e g ender b l i nd n e ss a n d t h e l a ck o f add it i ona l no n f i n an c i a l s e r v ices f o r w ome n w e re s ee n a s m o st de tr i me n t a l. In o r d e r to u n de rst a n d t h e i mpa c ts o f m ic ro f i n an ce o n p ro d u cti v e a n d re p ro du c ti v e p roc e ss e s, it is i m p o rt a n t t o a n a ly z e res u lts a t t h e h ou s eho ld l e v e l r a t he r t ha n a t t h e i n stit u ti ona l l e v e l a lo n e (Br e t t 20 0 6 ). M o re o v e r, B re t t qu e sti on s w he t h e r in s om e c a s e s t h e re p r o d u cti v e ben e f i ts o f en gag ing in ho l i stic m ic ro f i n an ce p rojects ma y ou t w e i g h th e p r odu c tive o n e s S o m e w om e n c on ti n u e t he ir e n g a g eme n t in t he s e p ro g ra m s d e s p ite ha v ing a n e t inc o m e l o ss a t t h e h o u s e ho ld le v e l. W h i le m ic ro f in a n c e h a s be e n o f t e n t o u t e d a s a w a y t o a l l o w w ome n to o b t a in in de p en d en c e it ha s r e s u lt e d in a dd iti o na l c h a l l en g e s f o r w om e n Th e re is still d eb a te ab o u t w he t he r m ic ro f i n an ce c a n b e mo re im p a c t f u l t h a n c om mo n w e lf a re p r o g ra m s in mo v ing peop l e o u t o f p o v e rt y It is cl ea r t ha t m ic ro f in a n ce a lo n e c a nno t c o mp le t e ly m iti g a te p o v e rt y bu t p r o v idi n g a cc e ss t o re s o u rces to p e op le w ith li m it e d me an s c a n b e a v ia b le op t i o n f o r m a n y Fonkoz e : A L ea ding Mi c rofinan c e In s ti t u t ion i n Haiti Est ab l i s h e d in 1 9 9 4 b y C a t ho l i c p r i e st J o s ep h Ph i l ip p e Fo n k o z e is H a iti's lar g e st m ic ro f in a n ce i n s tit u ti o n w ith 4 2 b ra n c h o f f ices loc a t e d th r o u g ho u t t h e c oun tr y Fo n k o z e is a H a itian Cr e o le a c r on y m f o r F o n d a s y o n K o le Ze p l, w h ich m ea n s T h e S h ou l d e r t o S hou l de r F o un d a ti o n ." Fo n k o z e 's m i ssi o n is t o bu i l d th e e c o n o m ic f ou n da ti o n s f o r de m o c r a c y T h e i n sti t u ti o n c o v e rs a ra n g e o f f i nan c i a l a n d n o n f in a n cial s e r v ices s u ch a s lit e racy an d e d u c a t i ona l p ro g ra m s t o t h e p oo r, p r im a r i ly w ome n i n rur a l a r e a s. I n f a ct, o f t h e ban a p p ro x i ma t e ly 7 0 0 0 0 bo r ro w e rs, 9 8 pe rce n t a re w om e n (Fo n k o z e 20 1 0 ; M an g e r, 20 0 7 ).

PAGE 45

45 Alt hou g h m ic ro f i n an ce s ha res f ea t u res w ith a ma ins t r e a m c o n s u me r f i n an c e ope rat i on it d o e s d i f fe r in t h e ta r g e t e d c u s t om e rs, w h o a re p oo r, un e du c a t ed l a ck b a sic ne c e ssities, a n d a r e m o re v u ln e ra b le to risks a ss o cia t e d w ith na t u ral d isas te rs. F o r e x amp le, 5 2 pe rc e n t o f th e H a itian po p u la t i o n an d o v e r 60 p e rce n t o f Fo n k o z e i en ts a re il l it e rat e Th e ir m ic ro f in a n ce is u s ua l l y pa i r e d w ith t raini n g f o r l i t e r a cy an d b a sic bu sin e ss skil l s. Fo n k o z e ha s 2 5 0 lit e racy c en t e rs i n H a iti, w h ich o f fe r pr o g ra m s o n re ad ing a n d w r i ti n g bu sin e ss skil l s, s e x ua l a n d re p r o du cti v e h e a lt h an d m o st re c en tl y hu m a n ri g h ts a n d en v i r on m en t a l p ro t e cti o n ( M an g e r, 2 0 0 7 ) F on k o z e pa rtic i p a n ts a re t au g h t ba sic c o n c e p ts o f b u sin e ss an d bu s i n e ss s t rat e g ie s h o w t o k ee p de t a i l e d rec o rds o f t h e p r o du cts the y bu y a n d s e l l a n d ho w t o make c o s t b ene f it c a lcu l a ti on s. T h is t r a ini n g c a n s e r v e t o b u i l d c a pa city in a r e a s much in n e e d o f a t t en ti o n Fo n k o z e o re p r o g ram re q u i r e s s o l id a r i ty l end in g p r o o f o f a n e x isting bu sin e ss, re g istration f ee s a n d d epo sits o f 1 5 pe rce n t o f t h e l o a n v a lu e w h ich is p lac e d in a cli e n t s a v in g a cc oun t a s c o l l a t e ral. F on k o z e w o rks w ith a g ro u p le nd ing mo d e l a n d s pe c i f ically f o c u s e s o n p ro v id i n g cre d it t o f em a le m e rch a n ts. F on k o z e like o t he r m ic ro f in a n ce l e n d e rs h a s n o t b ee n a s s u c c e s sf u l in re a c h ing t h e po o rest s e gm en t o f t h e po p u la t io n since th is r e q u i r e s ta king a d d itio n a l r isks. H o w e v e r, sin c e 2 0 09 Fo n k o z e ha s b ee n i n v o l v e d in t h e C on s u lt a ti v e G ro u p f o r Assisti n g th e P o o r e st ( C G A P) pilot p ro g ram f o c u sing o n p ro v idi n g cre d it an d s e r v ices to e x tre m e ly po o r in d i v id ua ls. B a s e d o n t h e G r a m ee n B a n k o f B a n g la de s h v i l la g e ban king mo d e l, d e v e lo pe d b y Mu ha mm a d Y unu s, F o n k o z e cre a t e d t h e T i Kr e d i ( l i t tle c r ed it) p ro g ram to a ssist Haiti an s w ith li m it e d a ss e ts. The p ro g ram p ro v id e s poo r w ome n w i th e n t e rpr i se trai n in g h ea lth s e r v ices, hou sing s u ppo r t a c o n s um p ti o n s ti p e n d ne t w o rk i n g c onne c ti on s a n d t h e s u ppo rt o f a

PAGE 46

46 c a se ma n a g e r ( Hu d a & S a m a no w it z 200 9 ) This m ode l o f fe rs w ome n f in a n cial a ssist an c e th r o u g h c a s h g ra n ts, f r e e h ea lth c a re, a n d a s u p po rt n e t w o rk a n d s o cial p rot e cti o n Cl ie n ts a re a lso e n rol l e d i n a n i n t e r m e d ia t e si x mon th m ic r o f i n an ce p ro g ra m w h ich p ro v id e s clie n t w ith a s ma ll l o a n a n d c on ti n u e d a ssi s t an ce b y a c a s e w o rker. Un de r t h e p ro g ra m w om e n in g r oup s o f f i v e e a ch re c e i v e a n i n itial l o a n o f 2 5 d o l l a rs a n d a s a v in g s a cc oun t De p end i n g o n t he ir p e r f o r m an c e a f t e r s i x m o n t h s t he y c a n b e c on sid e r e d f o r l o an s o f 7 5 d o l l a rs. P oo r b o r r o w e rs t en d t o ta ke ou t c on s e r v a ti v e l oan s o r g row the ir bu sin e ss e s i n a w a y tha t a l l o w s th e m t o ba l an ce f a m i l y an d b u sin e ss re s pon sibil i ti e s Fo n k o z e p r o v id e s w ome n w ith bo t h f i n a n cial an d e d u c a ti o na l s e rv i c e s tha t c a n a ssist w ome n s ta rt o r e x pan d a small bu s i n e ss. T he y a lso a l l o w wo m e n t o s e t u p a s a v in g s a cc oun t a n d de v e lop b u sin e ss skil l s ba sic l i t e racy a n d l i f e ski l ls traini n g Since m ic r o f i n an c e is c o m m o n ly e x t ende d w it ho u t tra d it i ona l c o l l a t e ral, th is is v ie w e d a s a p lus f o r w om e n since t h e y o f t e n d o n o t ha v e li v e st o ck o r la n d to b e u s e d a s a c o l l a t e ral. W om e n a nd R es i l i e n c y Resil i en cy is de f i ne d a s t h e a b i l ity t o rec o v e r, s p r i n g ba ck, o r r e t u rn t o p re v io u s ci r c um st a n c e s a f te r e n c oun t e r i n g p ro b l e m s o r s t ress e s. T h e c o n c e p t o f resil i en cy ha s be e n a p p l i e d to de scr i b e t h e ad a p ti v e c apa c i ti e s o f i nd i v id ua ls ( R u t t e r 19 9 3 ; W e r n e r & S m it h 1 98 2 ; B o n a nn o 20 0 4 ; B u tl e r e t a l 20 07 ), c om mun it i e s (Br o w n & Ku l ig 19 9 6/1 9 97 ; S o n n & Fi s he r 1 9 98 ), an d s o cie t i e s (B a rker, 1 99 9 ; A d g e r 2 0 00 ; G od s c ha lk, 20 0 3 ). R e si l i en cy th eo ry is a n e x pand ing b od y o f k n o w le d g e tha t s e e ks t o p ro v ide e x p la na ti on s f o r t h e s o u rce a n d role o f tra n s f o r ma t i ona l c han g e s i n ad a p ti v e s y st em s. F r o m a n e c o lo g ical pe r s pe cti v e resil i en cy o r ec o s y st e m resil i en cy is d e f i n e d a h e

PAGE 47

47 ma g n it u d e o f di s t u rb an ce t h a t c a n b e a b s o r b e d b e f o re t h e s y st e m c h an g e s its struc t u re b y c han g ing v a r i ab les an d p roc e s s e s t h a t c o n trol b e ha v (Hol l ing e t a l 2 002 ). In H o l l ing an d G u nde r s on a na rchy f rame w o rk, w h ich incl ude s re s i l ie n cy t heo r y s o cial a n d e c o l o g ic a l s y st em s a re c on ne ct e d b a s e d o n t h e n o ti o n t h a t h u m an s ha v e e x pan d e d t he ir i n f l u en c e o v e r n a t u re so t ho ro u g h ly tha t t h e y a re d e pe n d e n t o n ea ch o t h e r. In o t he r w o rds, the r e is a f e e dba c k p roc e s s W he n t he re is a s h o ck to a n e c o s y st em t h e s o cie ta l r e s pon s e d ep e nd s o n th e s t a t e o f t h e e c o s y st e m a n d t h e e c o n om y ( H o l l ing & Gun d e rso n 2 0 02 ) U n d e rsta nd i n g h u ma n a n d en v i r onme n t a l resil i en ce in t h e f a ce o f e x t e rn a l s ho cks is pa r am o un t A c c o rding t o Folke (2 0 06 ), t h e c on c e p t o f resil i en ce h a s b e e n re v is i t e d f r o m si mp ly h i g h l ig h ti n g th e ro bu st n e ss o f s y st em s in t h e f a ce o f s ho ck w h i l e c on ti n u ing t o p e r f o r m to u n de rs t and ing t h e i n t e rplay o f d is t u rb an c e r e o r g an i z a ti on tra n s f o r m a ti o n a n d i n n o v a ti on A c o mp l e m e n t a ry c o n c ep t t o c o n sid e r w he n e x am ini n g resil i en cy in t h e f a ce o f na t u ral d isas t e rs i s th e li v e l i hoo d v u ln e ra b i l ity f r a m e w o rk ( M o s e r, 1 998 ; C o m be s, 20 0 2 ). T h is f r a m e w o rk s ee ks t o i d en t i f y c au s e s, i m pa cts o n h u m a n w e l l be ing an d res pon s e a f te r a c h a n g e (Bl a ik i e 1 9 9 4 ). V u l n e ra b i l ity dea ls w ith a n e x t e rn a l s ou rce o f stress a n d a n i n t e rn a l c om p o n en t re l a t e d t o t h e e x po s u r e a n d re s p o n se t o th is s ho ck a s it is i n t e rpre t e d t h ro u g h th e s o ci o e c o l o g ical rel a ti on s h ip s I n n a t u ral d isas te r s t ud ies, resil i en cy is o f t e n u s e d t o d e scr i b e t h e i nhe r e n t res o u rces t ha t a re a v a i l ab le to a c h ie v e p re d isas te r le v e ls o f f un cti o n a n d l e a d t o s u cc e s s f u l a da p t a ti o n I n st ud ies o n f a m i l ies an d i nd i v id ua l r e si l ie n cy V and s b u r g e r a n d Bi g g e rsta f f ( 2 004 ) c on c e p t ua l i z e resil i en cy a h e ab i l ity t o d e v e lop a n d / o r ma i n t a in h e a l t h y f u n ct i on ing a n d s u c c e s s f u l l y adap t t o l i f e c ha l l en g e s a n d risk s

PAGE 48

48 S e v e ral p s y c ho lo g ical ab stracti o n s s u c h a s p e rso na l i ty s t re n g th a n d ha rdi n e ss ha v e be e n o f fe r e d in t h e lit e rat u r e t o c ha ra c t e r i z e h u ma n a d ap t ab i l i t y an d resil i en c e Ho w e v e r, am o n g th e man y d e f i n itio n s o f res i l i en c y t he re t end s t o b e a g re e men t in t h e l i t e rat u re t ha t resil i en c y is be t te r co n c ep t ua l i z e d a s a p roc e ss t h a n a s a n ou t c o m e a n d a s a d ap t ab i l ity m o re th a n s t ab i l ity ( Nor r is e t a l., 2 0 08 ). D r a w i n g o n the s e c o n c ep ts, i n th is s t ud y resil i e n cy is d e f in e d a s a p roc e ss l i n king res ou rces to a po siti v e pa th o f f un c ti o n ing an d a d ap t a ti o n in m ic r oe n t e rpr i se a cti v ities a f te r a na t u r a l d isas te I t h a s b ee n d e mon s tra t e d t ha t m o st a ssist a n ce in d isas te rs arises f r o m a n d is p ro v id e d b y th e a f fe ct e d c om m u n ities t h em s e l v e s in t h e f o rm o f s o c i a l c ap i t a l. I n t h e se i n s t an c e s, s o c i a l ne t w o rks, w h ich c o n stit u te s o cial c ap it a l, f i l l t h e v o id g e n e rat e d b y th e l a ck o f p r o v is i on s o f f e r e d b y th e s ta te (Bl a ik i e e t a l., 1 994 ). W o m e n a n d c h i l d r e n a re pa rticularly a f f e c t e d b y na t u ral d i s a st e rs a n d t h e y a cc o u n t f o r a lar g e p r o po rtion o f d ispl a c e d pe rso n s. F a c e d w ith n a t u ral d isas t e rs, w ome n a re m o re v u ln e ra b le to i n c r ea s e d r a t e s o f re p r odu c ti v e hea l t h p ro b l em s a n d s e x ua l v iol en c e A t t h e s a m e t i m e w ome n t a ke o n a d d iti o na l e m o t io na l l y t ry i n g a cti v ities in c a r i n g fo r injured f a m i l y m em b e rs. M o re o v e r, g en d e r i n e q ua l i ty in po l i tic a l an d s o cial s y st em s re s u lts in d i f fe re n c e s b e t w ee n m e n a n d w o m e n i n te r m s o f a cc e ss to e me r g en cy c o m m un ica t io n de cis i on s a b o u t u se o f re l i e f a ss e ts, a cc e ss t o s he l t e r an d g o o d s, an d o t he r r e l ie f p ro g ra m s Y e t w ome n a re p r i ma r i ly res pon sible f o r m ee t i n g t h e i m m ed ia t e n e e d s o f t he ir f am i l ies ( E na rs o n & Mor r o w 19 9 8a / 1 9 98b ; Ro d r g ue z & Russ e l l 2 0 06 ).

PAGE 49

49 Resil i en cy an d s o cial c ap it a l a re r e le v a n t e l e me n ts to e x p lore in t h i s s tud y be c a u se it is po ssible t ha t w om e n p l a y a m o r e si g n i f ic a n t role in cr e a ti n g an d nu r t u r i n g l i n k a g e s a s a m an i f e st a ti o n o f resil i en c y Fur t he r m o re, w om e n ma y ne e d t o de m on st r a te g re a t e r re si l ie n cy tha n me n a s th e y a re pa rt i c u lar l y a f f e ct e d b y na t u ral d isas te rs. M o re n o t a b ly in de v e lo p ing c oun tr i e s, w omen i n v o l v emen t in t h e i n f o r ma l s e ct o r p u ts t h e m a t r i sk in d isas t e r co n t e x ts. T h e v u ln e ra b i l ity o f t he se bu s i ne ss v en t u res be c o m e s p a r t icul a r l y i mpa c t f u l f o r wo m e n in ti me s o f na t u r a l d isas t e rs. G en d e r can a lso p lay a role in t h e ma na gem en t o f n a t u ral r e s ou rc e s fo l l o w ing d isas te rs. Me n a n d w ome n e x pe r i en ce t h e en v i ro nm e n t d i f fe r e n tl y T h e r e f o r e t h e re a r e d istinct g en d e r d i f f e r e n ti a t e d i n t e re s ts in na t u ral res ou rce m ana ge m e n t b a s e d o n rol e s, k no w le d g e an d res p o n sibil i ti e s ( S h i v a 1 9 8 8 ; Sc h r o ede r, 1 9 9 3 ). This is i m p o rta n t t o c on sid e r no t on ly f r o m a li v e l i hoo d p e rsp e cti v e b u t a l s o b e c au s e na t u ral res o u rces a re i mpo r t an t e l e me n ts s u ppo rting m ic r oen t e rpr i s e s. The Co u n t r y o f Haiti T h e c o un try o f H a iti ha s a p opu l a ti o n o f 9 .8 m i l l i o n pe o p le, a n a v e ra g e ann u a l po p u la t ion g ro w th ra t e o f 1 3 p e rce n t c o mpa r e d t o 0 8 p e rce n t in t h e U n it e d St a t e s a n d a n e s ti m a t e d life e x pe c t an cy a t b i r th o f 52 7 y ea rs ( PAHO, 2 0 0 3 ) H a iti is t h e p o o rest c oun try in t h e W e st e rn H em is p he re w ith 6 5 p e rce n t o f t h e po p u la t i o n li v ing be low th e po v e rty line (U N DP, 2008 ). T h e g ross n a ti o n a l inc o m e pe r c a p ita is $4 5 0 a n d it r a n ks 14 6 ou t o f 17 7 c o u n tri e s o n t h e U.N. H u m a n De v e lo pm e n t I nde x H a iti ha s a w o rk f o rce o f 3 6 m i l l i o n p eop l e man y o f w h o m a re un s ki l le d O f t he s e a pp ro x i ma t e ly 7 0 pe rc e n t w o rk i n th e i n f o r ma l s e ct o r, p r im a r i ly s ub sist en ce f a r m ing ( W o r l d B a n k 2 0 06 ). F o rt y t h ree pe rce n t o f t h e ad u lt p o pu la t i o n is il l it e ra t e Haiti is d i v id e d i n to t e n d e p a rt m en t s

PAGE 50

50 T h e d epa r t m e n ts a re f u rth e r di v id e d i n to 4 1 a r r ond isseme n ts ( c ou n ti es ), a n d 1 3 3 c o m m u ne s ( mun ic ip a l i ti e s ) w h ich s e r v e a s th i r d l e v e l adm inist r a ti v e d i v is i on s. o r i cal Ba c kgrou n d P a ra d o x ical l y abu n dan c e in na t u ral r e s ou rces a n d t h e p e op l e de si r e f o r s e l f g o v e rn an ce l e d to a h ist o ry o f d ep r i v a ti o n an d f o rei g n c o n trol. A f t e r y ea rs o f S pan i s h rule u nde r po s t C o lu m b i a n c o l on i z a ti on the S pan i s h s e t tl e m en t w ea k e n e d w ith th e d isco v e ry o f g o ld a n d s i l v e r in o t he r p a rts o f L a tin A me r i c a W h e n t h e ea r l y o cc up iers mo v e d e a st, t he y l e f t t h e w e st e rn p a rt o f H i s pan iola f ree f o r o t he r E u ro p e a n s e t t lers. Follo w ing F ra n c e d e f ea t o f t h e S p a n ish in C a rta g en a i n 1 69 7 t h e S pan i s h si g ne d o v e r t h e w e st e rn ha l f o f t h e is l an d (n o w H a iti) in t h e T re a ty o f R y s w ick ( Dubo is, 20 0 4 ). A f r i c a n sl a v e s a n d i nd en t u r e d l a bo rers tr a n s po rted f r o m S la v ic c o u n tries w o rked t h e e a r l iest p l a n t a ti o n s. T h e f i rst cro p s i n tr o du c e d w e re t o ba cco and in d i g o W i th i n c r ea sing c o m pe titi o n e s pe c i a l l y f rom t h e s o u t he rn o b a cco i n du str y an d ris i n g p ro d u cti o n c o sts, t h e Fr e n ch t u rn e d t o a mo re p r o f it a b le v en t u r e B e g in n ing in t h e 1 7 t h c en t u r y s u g a r pr o d u cti o n w h ich ha d b e e n tra n sf o r m e d f r o m a l u x u ry it e m t o a d ie ta ry ne c e ssity in Eu ro pe be c a m e a n e c o n o m ic bo o m c ro p S u g a rca n e p ro d u cti o n is res ou rc e in t e n si v e an d re q u i r e s a l a r g e l a b o r f o rce, l an d a n d w a t e r. W h i l e S a int D o m in g u e (H i s p a n iola I s l and ) h a d v a st na t u ral res ou rces, t h e c o l o n y lack e d a s u f f ic ie n t l a b o r f o rc e S la v e ry w a s a n e ss e n ti a l c o m p on e n t f o r pr o d u cti on F o r a l mo st a de c a d e i n t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y u p t o 4 0 00 0 s l a v e s pe r y ea r were tra n s po rt e d f r o m A f r i ca t o t h is s ma ll isl a nd As s u g a r p l an t a ti o n s p rol i f e ra t e d a c r o ss t h e re g io n s o d i d t h e n u mbe r o f sl a v e s B y th e e v e o f t h e Hait i a n re v o lu t ion in 1 79 1 9 0 p e rce n t o f t h e c o lo n y popu l a ti o n w a s

PAGE 51

51 en sla v ed M i n tz (1 974 ) n o t e d t h a t t h e g r o w th o f m a n y sl a v e ba s e d e c o n o m ies in t h e N e w W o r l d w a s a n i n t e g ral pa rt o f t h e rise o f E u r o pe a n c o m me rce a n d i n d u st r y an d u lti m a te g ro w th o f p o w e r a n d i n f l uen c e A cc o r d i n g t o Du bo is (2 0 04 ), a f t e r t h e c e ss a ti o n o f C a na d a to t h e B r i tish i n 1 7 63 man y Fre n ch men s ou g h t t he ir f o r t un e i n S a int D o m in g u e T h e F r en ch w e re ab le t o a v o id restr i cti v e t ra d e po l i cies i m po s e d o n p l an t e rs b y r e e x po rting t h e s u g a r a n d c o f fe e p ro du c e d to o t he r c oun tries, w h ich res u l t e d in f o rt u ne s f o r m an y Fre n ch me rc h an ts a n d t ra d e rs. Un de r su c h c o nd itio n s H a iti be c a m e t h e P ea r l o f t h e A n til l e s, o n e o f t h e rich e s t is l and s in Fr a n c e 's e m p i r e F o r t h e H a iti a ns i t be c a m e t h e P a ine d e An til l e s (t h e Du n g eo n o f t h e A n til le s) (Gil l e s 2009 ). The s l a v e s w e re s ub jec te d t o b rut a l t r ea t m e n t, w o rk i n g n i g h t an d da y in t h e s u g a r m i l ls. T he ir a v e ra g e li f e e x pe ct an cy a f t e r a r r i v a l to S a int D o m in g u e w a s on ly s e v e n y ea rs ( Tan n en b a u m 1 9 4 7 ) In t h e 17 8 0 s, Haiti e x po rt e d 6 0 p e rce n t o f a ll th e c o f fe e an d 4 0 p e rce n t o f a ll s u g a r co n s um e d in E u r o p e mo re t h a n a ll o f Br i t a in s W e st I n d ian c o lo n ies c o m b in e d T h e p h rase i ch a s Cre o be c a m e a c om m o n e x p ression in Eu r o p e in t h e 1 8 t h c en t u ry re f e r r i n g t o s o m e o n e o f e x tre m e w e a lth (Far m e r, 1 9 94 ). T h e l o ss o f t h e c o lo n y t o b lack sl av e s in t h e re v o lu t i o n o f 1 79 1 1 8 0 3 n o t o n ly dea lt a crus h i n g b low to t h e Fre n c h e c on o m y bu t a lso i g n it e d f ea r o f re v o lt a m on g m an y sla v eho ldi n g c ou n t r i e s. T h e U S i m po s e d s t ra t e g y t o is o la t e a n d a l ie n a te H a iti f r o m e n try i n to t h e in te rn a t i ona l ma rk e t p r o v e d v er y s u cc e s s f u l f o r t h e U S. W h i l e H a iti w a s k ep t po l i tic a l l y isol a t e d t h e US w a s s t i l l in v o l v e d in t ra d e w ith H a iti. I n f a c t, b e t w e e n 1 8 0 4 an d 1 8 21 t h e US p ro v id e d 4 5 pe rce n t o f m p o rt s y e t pu rch a s e d on ly 2 5 pe rce n t o f Haiti a n e x po rts. T h is a c c ou n t e d f o r a tr a d e i m b a la n c e o f 7 9 pe rc e n t o f t h e Haiti a n de f ic i t ( D up re e 19 9 4 ). e x clusi o n f rom t h e w o r l d m a rke t c o up l e d w ith t h e d e structi o n o f

PAGE 52

52 t h e c ou n tr y a g r icult u ral a n d e c o l o g ic a l i n f ra s truc tu re du r i n g t h e th i r t ee n y ea r w a r prior to t h e re v o lu t ion, p re s e n t e d e n o r m o u s c h a l l e ng e s fo r t h e o v e r 3 0 0 0 0 0 H a iti a n s t h a t s u r v i v e d th e re v o lu t ion (Far me r, 1 9 9 4 ). T h e U S led s t ra t e g y no t on ly cr i pp led t h e Haiti an p ro s pe cts f o r e c o n om ic de v e l o p me n t, b u t a lso p ro v id e d a n un c o n t e s t e d s pa ce f o r c ra f ti n g H a itia n s a n d H a itian s o cie t y in a w a y tha t p re v en t e d H a iti f r o m be ing rec o g n i z e d a s a l e g iti m a te s t a te a n d p a rtic i pa t ing in t h e i n t e r n a ti o n a l e c o n om ic a re n a It w a s on ly in 18 2 7 t h a t t h e Fr e n ch a ck no w le dg e d H a iti a s a l e g iti ma t e s ta t e a n d t h is w a s on ly a f te r t h e c oun try ha d a g re e d to pa y a e b o f 15 0 m i l l ion f ra n cs f o r da m a g e s i n c u r r e d du r i n g th e re v o lu t i o n T h e deb t w a s so g re a t t h a t Haiti an s w e re on ly ab le t o p a y it o ff in 1 94 7 C o n s e q ue n t l y t h is ne w l y f o r me d c o u n tr y w ith n o e x pe r i en ce in a d m inistra t i o n o r g o v e rn m en t an d l a cking t e c hn ical skil l s, w a s bu r de n e d b y h e a v y deb t a n d h a d t o l e a rn t o f u n cti o n in is o la t i on La w less (1 9 9 2 ) hi g h l ig h t e d t h a t Haiti is t h e on ly c a se in h is t o ry in w h ich l i be rat e d sla v e s w e re r e s pon sible f o r c r ea ti n g a n in de p en d en t g o v e rn m e n t a n d e c o n om ic s y st e m W i t h in H a iti, t h e c o un try w a s adap ti n g to a c h a n g ing s o cial s t ruct u re a s w e ll a s po l i t i c a l stru gg les o v e r p o wer an d c o n trol. A ma jor c on c e rn f o r Hait i an s d u r i n g t h e ea r l y y e a rs f o l l o w ing i ndepe nd en ce w a s t h e c on st a n t t h re a t o f Fr e n ch i n v a sio n s (L u n d a h l, 20 0 8 ). I n t h e f a c e o f t h is c ha l l en g e ea r l y le ade rs s u ch a s D e ss a l i ne s e x p lored w a y s t o pa y fo r t h e m i l it a ry e q u ip m e n t a n d w eapon s n ee d e d to p rot e ct t h e ne w ly f o r m e d c ou n tr y So m e o f t h e stra te g ies i mp l e me n t e d i n clu d e d t h e res t o rati o n o f t h e p l an t a ti o n s y st e m c on f i s c a ti o n o f p r i v a te la nd an d t h e d e v e lo p me n t o f a n a g r i c u lt u ral e x po rt m o de l. H o w e v e r, Haiti an s l a r g e ly reject e d t he s e p l an s, p a rticularly w o rk i n g o n p l an t a t i on s u n d e r str i ct m i l it a ry s upe r v is i on w h ich w a s re m inisc e n t o f sl a v e r y T h is l e d t o Dess a l i ne d o w n f a ll i n 1 8 06 In s t ea d

PAGE 53

53 Haiti an s e n g a g e d in s ma ll s u b sist en c e a g r i c u lt u ral a cti v ities o n t h e ir s m a ll p l o ts o f la n d w h ich w e re d istr i bu t e d am o n g th e sla v e s f o l lo w i n g th e re v o lu t io n M in t z (1 974 ) ar g ue s t ha t t h is v i r t ua l isol a ti o n c o n trib u t e d t o t h e s p r ea d o f a p ea s a n t w a y o f l i f e t h ro u g h o u t t h e c oun try an d t h e h o ld o f tra d itio n a l i sm o n Hait i a n s o c i e t y T h is s ma l lh o ld e r ba s e d struct u r e me a n t t ha t t h e H a it i a n u p p e r c l a ss w a s unab le to ma in t a in c o n trol o v e r a g r i c u lt u ral la n d a n d l abo r, t h e e c o n o m ic f ou nda t i o n o f c o l o n ial c on trol. Acc o rding t o B ou r g in ou n ( 1 9 5 2 ) t h e w e st e rni z e d m u la t t oe s, w h o c omp r i s e d t h ree pe rce n t o f t h e po pu la t i o n in t h e ea r l y 1 8 00 s, a s c e n de d t h e s o c i a l la d d e r ass u m ing a d o m i n an t po siti o n o v e r t h e m a ss e s. This r e s u lt e d i n a g ro u p ing o f class e s, b a s e d mo re o n c u lt u re r a t he r t ha n d i f fe re n c e s in skin c o lor t h a t a f fe c t e d e v e ry a s pe ct o f Haiti a n l i f e In li g h t o f t he ir ne w po siti o n s, m a n y H a i ti an s pu rs u e d u rb a n b a s e d emp l o y men t, e s p e cial l y g o v e rn m en t po siti o n s. An i n s tit u ti o na l e l i te (urb an mo s tly li g h t skin ne d F r en c h s pea k in g edu c a t ed ) s u cc ee de d i n c o n troll i n g an d t a x ing th e rur a l po p u la t ion ( r u ral, m o st l y da r k skin ned C r eo le s pea king a n d u ne d u c a t ed ). In a s om e times w a v e r i n g a l l i an ce w ith th e m i l it a r y t h e u rb a n e l i te ma na g e d t o g a in c o n trol o f t h e c ou n try an d k e p t t h e p e a s a n try is o la te d f r o m na ti o na l a f f a i r s. Ha i ti an p ea s a n try an d its d ist a n cing f rom t h e g o v e rning e l i te a re c en tral t o M in t z on c ep ti o n o f Haiti. T h e d ise n g a g e m en t o f t h e t w o s e ct o rs a n d t h e l a c k o f u n i f y ing i n stit u ti o n s a l l o w e d f o r a g o v e rning e l i te t o o p e rate i n de p e n de n tly f r o m th e ru r a l mass e s. T ro u i l lot (1 9 9 0 ) d e scr ib e d t h e s y st e m t h a t w a s i mp l e m e n t e d a s f o l l o w s P ea s an t c r op s a n d imp o r t e d c o n s u m e r g ood s w e re th e mai n st a y o f l o c a l e c o nom ic e x c han g e T a x e s t h a t w e re c o l l e c t e d a t t h e c u s t o mh o u s e s an d u lti m a t e ly bo r n e b y th e p ea s a n try p ro v id e d t h e maj o r i ty o f g o v e rnme n t re v enue s Pr o f its m a d e f r o m t h e pea s an try

PAGE 54

54 c on trib u t e d a l a r g e s ha re t o t h e r e t u rns t a k e n b y a n i m p o r t e x po rt b o u r g eo is i e th a t w a s dom i na t e d b y f o rei g n n a ti o n a ls w ith little c on c e rn f o r lo c a l p r o du cti on W h i l e t h e s t a te t u rn e d i n w a rd t o s t r e n g t he n its c o n trol, t h e u r b a n e l i t e s w h o w e re po s itio ne d a ro u n d t h a t st a te re l e g a t e d t h e ru r a l ma j o r i ty i n to th e mar g ins o f po l i tic a l l i f e M in t z (1 974 ) n o t e d t h a t t h is ba sic e c o no m ic mo de l l i e s a t t h e r o o ts o f t h e p res e n t d i v ide b e t w ee n t h e u rb a n e l i te an d t h e rur a l p e a s a n t r y D upu y (1 989 ) ar g u e d t h a t a s a re s u lt o f t h e i mpo sit i o n o f t h e st a te a n d t h e c om me r c ial e x p loit a ti o n b y th e b ou r g eo is, t h e p ea s an t s e ct o r re ma i n e d i mpo v e r i s hed w ith little l a n d a n d n o t en o u g h c a sh t o p u rch a se ad v a n c e d f a r m ing t oo ls ne c e s s a ry f o r b e t te r p ro du ct i on The c o m b in a ti o n o f p oo r la n d u s e s o il e rosio n a n d a n incre a sing p o pu la t i o n l e d t o a l a ck o f e c o n om ic p ro du cti v it y Alt hou g h t h e US f i n a l l y rec o g n i z e d H a iti in 1 8 62 a f t e r dea l i n g w ith t h e e f fe cts o f its o w n ci v i l w a r, d ipl oma tic t i e s w e re r e s u m e d ma inly fo r c o m m e r c ial an d s t rat e g ic in te rests, pa rticularly t o res t rain t h e g ro w i n g m i l it a ry th re a t p o s e d b y Ge r man y p r i o r to W o r l d W a r I. W i l en tz (2 010 ) no t e d t ha t H a iti, pa rticularly th e Mole S t. Nicol a s l o c a t e d o n its no rth w e st e rn c o a s t w a s o f s t r a t e g ic i m po rta n c e t o man y c o un tries be c a u se o f its role in a c c e ss t o Me x i c o a n d L a tin A m e r i c a I n th is v ie w w h i l e t h e U S o cc u pa ti o n o f Haiti be t w ee n 19 1 5 an d 1 9 3 4 w a s p re s en t e d a s a ne c e s s a ry i n t e r v e n ti o n to he lp Haiti an s d ea l w ith th e po l i tic a l un r e st in t he ir c oun try s t e mm ing f r o m th e s tre e t mob mu r d e r o f Presid e n t Vi l bu rn, it a lso o cc u r r e d f o r b o t h s t ra t e g ic an d e c on o m ic re a s on s. Far me r (1994) ar g ue s t h a t t h e i n v a sion in 1 91 5 a l o n g w ith U. S bu s i ne ss i n t e rests a n d an tic om mun i s m a re c r itical t o H a iti s rec e n t h ist o r y T h e US w an t e d t o p ro t e ct A me r i c a n bu sin e s s e s, e x p a n d c o m m e rc i a l o p po rt u n ities an d c on s o l i da t e its do m in a n ce o v e r Haiti.

PAGE 55

55 Dur i n g th is pe r i od f o r e x amp l e t h e US w a s s u cc e s s f u l in a b o l i s h ing a H a iti a n l a w ins t it u t e d w he n sl a v e ry e n d e d t h a t p r o h ibit e d f o rei g ne rs f rom po s s e s sing l and T h e US w a s a lso w a s ab le t o ma in t a in st a t u s a s a p e r i phe ry s ta t e p ro v idi n g c hea p l a bo r, w h i l e cre a ti n g re g u la t io n s t h a t f a v o r e d t h e U S s u ch a s t h e US r i ce t ra d e a g re e m en ts. M an y o f t h e t r a d e a g re e m en ts t h a t Haiti en t e red i n t o w ith E u ro p eans a s w e ll a s t h e U n i t e d St a t e s re s u lt e d in de v a st a ti n g c on s e q uen c e s f o r t h e Haiti a n p eop l e e s pe c i a l l y in t h e a g r i c u lt u ral i mpo rt mark e t. So cial c on s e q u e n c e s w e re n o l e ss d ist u rbin g T h e US o c c up a ti on w h ich o cc u r re d a t a t i m e w he n t h e US p ra c tic e d racial d isc r i m i na ti o n in its o w n l and a lso e x a c e rb a t e d t h e s epa r a ti o n o f cl a s s e s in H a iti, a s it i n f u s e d a racist b i a s in f a v o r of m i no r i ty ( mu la t t o ) o v e r t h e ma j o r i ty (d a rker skin pe o p le). Far me r ( 1 9 94 ) a r g ue s t ha t a ll H a itian g o v e rning po w e rs, w ith th e e x c ep ti o n o f P resid e n t Est i me f rom 19 4 6 t o 1 95 0 w e re s u bm iss i v e t o US i n t e res t s. The rise o f F r an c o a p a D o D u v a l i e r to po w e r in 1 95 7 s u c c ee d e d b y h is s o n J e a n C l au d e ab y D o D u v a l i e r in 19 7 1 ha s be e n d e scr i be d a s t h e mo st b ru t a l pe r i o d in H a itian mo d e rn h is to r y Fra n c o is Du v a l i e r, w h o de clared h i m s e l f r e sid e n t f o r L i f e e st ab l i s h e d h is o w n a r me d f o rce s t h e T o n t o n Mac o u ts, w h o c o n tr o l l e d t h e p o pu l a ti o n t h ro u g h i n t i m id a ti o n a n d v iol en c e T h e US w a s c o m p l i cit in b a cking t h is g o v e rn m en t E x c han g e s f o r stra t e g ic a cc e ss t o t h e C a r ibb ea n S e a a n d t h e P a na m a C a na l l e d t o U.S. in v o l v emen t in s u pp ressing g ro w i n g op p o sition t o t h e re g i m e Des p ite t h e k no w le d g e o f t h e v iol en ce i n f l i ct e d u po n t h e H a iti a n pe o p le, Du v a l i e r s g o v e rn m en t rec e i v e d $7 0 0 0 0 m i l l i o n in g ifts a n d l o an s f r o m t h e US. B y 19 8 4 J ean C l a u d e D u v a l i e r ha d a m a ss e d a f o rt u n e o f o v e r $ 1 .2 b i l l i on w h ich e x c eed e d

PAGE 56

56 (Du pu y 1 989 ). D u r i n g th e 19 70 s, a ss e mb ly i ndu str i e s be c a m e a n i mpo r t an t e l e me n t in H a iti a n d s e v e ral US bu sin e ss e s w e re d ra w n t o H a iti b e c au s e o f its t a x an d t a r i ff e x e m p ti on s, c he a p l a b o r, a n d th e ri g h t t o s u pp ress l abo r u n io n s T h e c oun tr y ma c ro e c o no m ic a n d s o c i a l c o n d iti o n s c o n ti nu e d t o d e t e r io rate a n d in t h e 19 8 0 s, man y H a itia n s en g a g e d in a ma jor e x odu s to t h e US t o e sc a p e t h e c ou n tr y v iol en t re g i m e a n d h a rsh e c o n o m ic c o nd itio n s. T h e w o rse n ing e c o nom ic c o n d itio n s w e re e x a c e rb a t e d in t h e la t e 1 9 70 s w he n a n ou t b r e a k o f A f r i c a n s w i n e f e v e r spr ea d to Haiti, de v a st a ti n g t h e p ea s a n tr y T h is e x odu s p re s en t e d an o t he r c ha p t e r in Ha i ba d p ress. U n l i ke t he ir C ub a n ne i g hbo rs, Hait i an s w h o e sc a pe d t h e isla n d d u r i n g pe r i od s o f p o l i tic a l o p p ression an d ma ss a c r e s a re c on si d e red e c o n om ic r a t he r t ha n po l i tic a l r e f u g ees T h is s t a t u s d e n ied t h e m a n y l e v e ra g e t o i n f lu e n ce t h e po l i tic a l c ou rse o f t h e ir n a ti on The US dep ic t e d d ict a t o rsh i p s a s a res u lt o f t h e pe o p i nab i l ity t o m a n a g e t h e ir o w n g o v e rn an ce rat he r t ha n a ci r c u m st a n ce me r i ti n g po l i tic a l re f u g e e s t a t u s. T he s e b oa t pe o p c o n f ro n t e d p re e x isting no ti o n s o f Haiti a n d H a itia n s, w h ich a re w id e ly he ld f o lk mo d e ls t ha t ha v e b ee n pa rt o f t h e m e d ia a n d p o pu lar c o m m e n t a ry si n ce H a i t i be c a m e a n a ti o n (L a w less, 199 2 ; Far me r, 19 9 4 ). U p o n t he ir a r r i v a l in Flor i da rumors s p re a d t h a t Haiti an s w e re c a r r iers o f A IDS a n d t ube r c u l o sis. In a more d e t a i le d a cc o u n t o f Far m e r s (1 993 ) t hou g h t s in h is boo A IDS a n d A c c u s a ti on t h e au t ho r ar gu e s t h a t b l am ing Haiti fo r t h e A IDS p a n d em ic in t h e US is a re s u lt o f US e t hno c en tri s m a n d racist v i e w s, rat he r t ha n sci en t i f ic f a ct. T h r o u g h o u t h ist o r y po l itical, s o cial, a n d e c o l o g ical crises a re o f t e n u s e d a s a p ret e x t f o r e x t e rn a l o r int e rn a l po w e rs car r y i n g ou t p o l i cies a n d imple m e n ti n g a ct i on s

PAGE 57

57 t he y c ou ld no t e x e c u te du r i n g t i me s o f st ab i l i ty T h is is p a rticularly t rue f o r v u ln e ra b le poo r c o un tries t h a t n e e d a ssist a n ce an d a re n o t in a p o sition to n e go ti a te f a i r ly th e t e r m s o r c o n d itio n s f o r e x c han g e T h e s o cial c on stru c ti o n o f race is i m po rt a n t in t h is c o n t e x t. P e r pe t ua t ing a n i ma g e o f b lack i n f e r i o r i ty a l l o w e d th e US a n d o t he r c ou n tri e s t o a ss u m e a p a t e r n a l i stic role t o w a rds Haiti. I n t h e s o c i a l c on st r u cti o n o f h ierar c h y race o r e t hn ic i ty is o f te n ad v an c e d to ju s t i f y s om e f o rm o f c on trol o r r ep ressio n w he t he r it is e c o n om ic, s o cial o r po l i tic a l. Un de rst a nd ing t h e ro o t c au s e s o f po v e rt y i l l i t e rac y v iol en c e a n d e n v i r onmen t a l de g ra da ti o n re q u i r e s a na l y sis o f a c o un tr y h ist o r i c a l, s o cial a n d p o l itical c on t e x t. O f t e n t h e f a i l u r e o f H a iti a re a t t r ib u t e d t o t h e c u l t u ral inf e r i o r i ty o f its p eo p le. L a w less (1 992 ) a r g ue s th a t g oo d a n a lytic ma t e r i a l o n H a iti r e ma ins l a cking an d t h a t jo u rn a l i s m un l i ke an t h r o po lo gy doe s no t w o rk w it h in a n a na l y ti c a l m o de l, w h ich rei n f o rces d o m in a n t w o r l d v i e w s an d pe r pe t ua t e s m y t h s. The Vuln e r a bil it y of Ha i ti Alt hou g h H a iti on ly o c c up ies a th i r d o f t h e isl a n d o f H i s pan i o la, it is mo re d e n s e ly po p u la t e d t h a n its ne i g hbo r, t h e D om ini c a n R ep u b l i c, w h ich ha s a p p ro x i ma t e ly 400 0 0 0 f e w e r in hab it a n ts. D u e to g eo g ra ph ic l o c a ti o n an d g eo lo g ic o r ig ins, th e c ou n try ha s a l on g h ist o ry o f n a t u ral d i s a st e rs su c h a s f l ood s h u r r ica ne s an d ea r t h q ua k e s. I t is s u r r oun d e d b y th e C a r i bb e a n S e a to its W e s t an d S o u th an d b y th e Atl an tic O c e a n t o its Nort h w h ich incre a s e s its v u ln e ra b i l ity t o s e v e re s to r m s a n d hu r r ic a ne s b e t w ee n J u n e an d Oc t o be r. It a lso r e sts o n t h e C a r i bb e a n p la te w h ich is b o u n de d b y a m a jor f au lt line to t h e n o rth an d a n o t h e r to t h e s ou t h As a r e s u lt o f its m ou n t a i n ou s t opo g ra p h y an d

PAGE 58

58 t o r r en ti a l tr o p ical rains, H a iti is p ro n e t o mu d s l id e s, w h ich w a sh a w a y cro p s, l i v e st o ck an d i nh a b it e d a re a s Le ss c a t a str o ph ic, bu t no n e t he l e ss v e ry s e r i o u s, m an y en v i r on m en t a l c ha l l en g e s c o n f ro n t Haiti. Acc o rd i n g t o t h e F A O (2 0 0 9 ), s o il e rosion is on e o f t h e most s e r io u s en v i r onme n t a l p r o b l e m s a f f e c ti n g H a iti. S o il e rosion (es t i ma t e d a t a n an n ua l loss o f 3 6 m i l l i o n t o n s a y ea r) h a s res u lt e d in d e cl i n ing crop y iel d s, c on tri b u t e d t o t h e de s truc t ion o f c o a st a l ma r i n e res o u rce s a n d ha rm e d d o w n stre a m l a n d s. It ha s l on g b ee n a r g u e d t h a t mu ch o f t h e en v i r on m en t a l de g ra d a ti o n tha t o cc u rs in Haiti is th e res u lt o f Haiti a n p ea s a n ts cl e a r i n g th e l a nd l a ck o f g o v e rn m en t re g u l a ti on an d a n i n c r ea sing p op u la t io n W h i l e H a iti a n s bea r s o m e o f t h e res p on sibil i t y c u r r en t e c o lo g ical de t e r i o rati o n b e g a n l o n g a g o du r i n g t h e c o l on ial p e r i od U n de r t h e F r en ch o c c up a ti o n i n t h e l a t e 1 7 t h c en t u r y t hou s a nd s o f h e ct a res o f v i r g in f o rests w e re cle a red f o r su g a r c a ne c o f f e e an d c o t t o n p r o du cti o n a n d t h is e x p loi t a ti o n e x a c e rb a t e d p ro b l e m s o f s o il e rosi o n a n d f l o od in g re s u lti n g in i n c r ea s e d e c o lo g i c a l v u ln e ra b i l it y In rec en t h ist o r y t h e 19 9 1 US initi a t e d e m ba r g o p re v en t e d t h e e x po rt o f e c on o m ically v it a l e x po rt cro p s s u c h a s c o c oa ma n g o s, c o f f e e an d e ss e n ti a l o i l s. To o f f s e t t h e se l o s s e s, Haiti an s i n c re a s e d c h a rco a l p ro d u cti o n b y 4 0 pe rce n t w h ich incre a s e d s o il e rosion an d d e f o re s t a ti o n ; a n e stimat e d 7 5 0 0 tre e s w e re f e l l e d e a ch m o n th f r o m 19 9 1 t o 1 9 9 4 (G i bbon s & G a r f i e ld, 1 999 ). I n a d d itio n l a n d t itle is u n cle a r a n d l a n d p lo t s a re s ma l l As a re s u l t t he re is l im it e d c a pab i l ity o r e c o n o m ic inc e n ti v e t o e n g a g e in e n v i r onme n t a l re m e d ia t io n T h e c o un t ry is l o sing its p ro du cti v e po t e n ti a l, mo st no t a b ly be c au se o f t h e loss o f v e g e t a ti v e c o v e r of t h e s o il. T ra g icall y t h e isla n d h a s be g u n a p roc e ss o f

PAGE 59

59 de s e rt i f ica t i on O n ly 1 5 pe rc e n t o f Haiti's na t u ral f o rest r e ma ins a n d 2 5 to 3 0 pe r c en t o f w a t e rsh e d s a re de n ud e d (S w a rtley & T ou s s a in t 2 0 06 ). B e sid e s t h e l o ss o f v e ge t a ti v e c o v e r, t h e c ou n try is e x pe r i en cing a ho st o f o t he r en v i r on m en t a l ma l a ise s incl u d i n g w a t e r sh o rta g e s, l o ss o f b i od i v e rs i t y an d de g ra d a ti o n o f t h e m a r in e e c o s y st e m H a iti s f ra g i l ity ha s g on e mo stly un rec o g n i z e d b y th e g o v e rn m e n t a n d th e l a ck o f p ro t e cti v e po l i cies f u r t he r e x a c e r ba t e s t h e sit u a ti on W h i le g eo g ra ph i c l o c a ti o n cl im a t e a n d en v i r onm e n t a l ne g lect c e rtai n ly c on trib u t e t o t h e v u ln e r ab i l ity o f its p o pu la t i on the s e a re on ly a f e w o f t h e f a c t o rs a t p la y W he n n a t u ral d i s a st e rs oc c u r, t h e imp a ct o n p e op le in p o o r d e v e lo p ing c oun tries is f a r g re a t e r t h a n o n t h o se in i n du str i a l o r po s t in du str i a l c o un tries. A c c o rding t o t h e U N DP (2 010 ), 1 1 pe r c en t o f p e o p le e x po s e d to n a t u ral d isas te r l i v e in p o o r co u n tries, y e t t he y a cc o u n t f o r m o re t h a n 5 3 pe rce n t o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f re c o rd e d d e a t h s. W o m e n a n d c h i l d r e n a re pa rticularly a t r i sk a s the y a re 1 4 t i me s m o re likely tha n men to lose t h e ir li v e s in a n a t u ral d isas t e r ( U N 20 1 0 ). T h e s u sc e p ti b i l ity o f ha rm t o p e op le is a f un cti o n o f t h e ir e x po s u re t o ha z a rds ( w he re the y li v e an d w o rk ) t he ir ab i l ity t o m iti g a te t h e e f f e c ts o f t h e se d isas te rs ( s e is m ic z o n e c on structi o n s t an d a rds, d isas te r p re pa r e dne ss t raini n g ), a n d s o cial v u ln e r a b i l ity (lack o f f i n an cial re s o u rces o r inc om e restr i ct e d mob i l it y t h e p ro v is i o n o f h ea lth c a r e p o l i tic a l r ep res e n t a ti on an d q ua l i ty o f l i fe (E na rso n 2 0 0 0 ; C u t te r, 20 0 3 ) T h e v u ln e ra b i l i t y o f p e o p le n o t o n ly v a r i e s be t w ee n s o cie t ies, bu t w it h in s o cie t ies a s w e l l This v a r i a ti o n res u lts f r o m t h e rela t io n s h i p be t w ee n i n d i v id ua l an d c o m m u n ity a v a i l ab i l ity o f res o u rces, t he ir a c c e ss t o a n d c o n trol o v e r t he se re s ou rces, an d t he ir l i f e circ u m s t a n c e s. T h e u n d e r l y ing s ou rce in t h e c on structi o n o f s o cia l ly

PAGE 60

60 v u ln e ra b le p opu l a ti o n s is th e re s u lt o f c o mp l e x i n t e ractio n s o f lo n g t e rm p o l i tic a l, ec o nom ic, a n d s o c i a l de v e lo p m en t de cis io n s t h a t a re d e ep ly em b e d de d in s o ci e t y Haiti p res e n ts a n i n t e resting f o c u s o f s t ud y f o r m ic r oen t e rpr i s e s si n c e H a itian m ic r oe n t e rpr i s e s rely o n n a t u ral a n d a g r i c u lt u ral res ou rces. T h e f u t u re o f t he se en d ea v o rs are c r i tic a l l y link e d t o t h e en v i r on m en t Ana l y z ing th e fa c t o rs t ha t c o n trib u te to t h e v ia b i l ity o f m ic ro en t e rpr i s e s s h o u ld s he d li g h t o n t h e s u st a i n a b i l ity o f m ic r oe n t e rpr i s e s in H a iti an d in si m i l a r na t u ral res ou rce de p e n de n t, poo r n a ti o n s g lo ba l l y The Sign i fi c a nce of Ha i Ja nuary 12 20 1 0 Ea rt h qu a k e At 4 : 5 3 p m o n J a n ua ry 12 2 0 10 a 7 .2 ea rth q ua ke c au s e d c a t a str o p h ic d a ma g e to H a iti, w h ich w a s s t i l l r e c o v e r i n g f rom a s e r i e s o f de v a st a t i n g hu r r ica ne s i n 2 0 08 S o ciol o g ist a n d d isa s t e r e x pe rt De nn is M i le t i ( 20 1 0 ), id e n t i f ied th r e e f a ct o rs t h a t c on trib u t e d to t h e s e v e r i ty o f t h e H a iti a n e a rt h q ua k e : t h e s ha l l o w l o c a ti o n o f t h e ea rth q ua k e (o n ly 8 .3 k i lo m e t e rs u n de r g ro u n d ), w h ich res u lt e d i n h i g h s ha king i n t e n sit y ; t h e poo r c on struct i o n o f s truc tu res in t h e a re a ; an d t h e l a ck o f e a rth q ua ke p re p a re d n e ss an d i n c r ea s e d v u ln e r a b i l ity res u lting f rom Haiti be ing a poo r c o u n tr y In a c o u n try m o stly a cc u st o me d t o hu r r ica n e s, H a iti w a s v er y i l l p re pa red f o r an ea rth q ua k e o f t h is ma g n it u d e t h e s t r o n g e st in t w o c en t u r i e s T h e qu a ke res u l t e d i n t h e dea t h s o f o v e r 2 0 0 0 0 0 pe o p le. S c o res o f o t h e rs s u f f e r e d s e r i ou s i n j u r i e s, m an y res u lting in li m b a mpu t a ti on s an d o t he r se v e re h a nd ic a p s. Acc e ss t o me d ical c a re r e m a ins w o e f u l l y i n a de q ua t e H u g e a re a s o f t h e n a ti o n c ap it a l an d s e v e ral ad j a c en t citi e s s u c h a s L e o g an e a n d J a c me l l i e i n rui n s. O v e r o n e m i l l i o n p eop le ha v e be e n d i s p lac e d m an y o f t h e m f o rced to li v e in t h e s t r e e t u n d e r ma k e s h i f t t en t s w ith little f o o d o r w a t e r. Acc o rding t o UN ( 20 1 0 ) es t i ma t e s,

PAGE 61

61 app ro x i ma t e ly 600 0 0 0 pe o p le l e ft P o r t au Pr i n ce a n d mo v e d to rur a l a re a s, p laci n g tre m e n d ou s p r e ss u re o n f am i l ies an d c o m m un ities t o a b s o rb t h e i n f lu x De s p ite a g lo ba l ou t pou r i n g o f s u ppo rt, i m med i a te res c u e a n d reli e f e f fo rts w e re h a m p e red b y th e lo g istical ob st a cles o f da m a g e d a ir an d s e ap o rts, de s tro y e d ho s p it a ls, an d a n o v e rall lack o f f un ct i on ing i n f r a struct u re. Alo n g w ith th e im m ed i a te e f f e c ts o f t h e e a rt h q ua k e man y h a d n o m one y in t h e ir po ck e t s h a d t he ir a s s e ts a n d re s ou rces de s t ro y ed an d l o st k e y f a m i l y m e m be r s (B B C 20 1 0 ). Follo w ing th e e a rth q ua k e a ll H a itian c o m me rc i a l b an ks c l o s e d c u t ti n g H a itia n s o ff f r o m m o ne y s en t b y the ir f a m i l y an d f r ie n d s in o t he r c o un tries. D e s p ite s u f fe r i n g s e v e re da m a g e t o its h ead q ua r t e rs, F on k o z e F onda s y o n K o le Z e p o l, H a iti s l a r g e st m ic ro f in a n ce i n s tit u ti on re o p en e d 3 4 o f its 4 2 b ra n c h e s, incl u d ing its P o r t a u Pr i n ce b ra n ch (F o n k o z e 2 0 1 0 ). Ess e n ti a l s e r v ices, like a cc e ssing s a v in g s an d t ra n s f e rs f r o m f am i l ies ab ro a d c a n b e a v it a l l i f e l i n e an d f o r s om e f a m i l ies t h e a b i l ity t o a cc e ss c a s h me a n s t h e d i f f e r e n ce b e t w ee n l i f e a n d d e a t h

PAGE 62

62 Fi g u re 2 1 P o l i tic a l map o f Haiti s h o w ing depa rt m en t a l d i v is i on s Re t r i e v e d on S ep t e m be r 2 7 20 1 2 f r o m h t tp : / / w w w t ra v e l i n g ha iti.c om / i m g s/ g ra ph ics/ d epa r t m e n ts o f h a iti m ap g if

PAGE 63

63 C H AP T ER 3 M E T HODO L O GY Re sea r c h Ob j ec ti v e s p rec a r i ou s si t u a ti o n o f fe rs t h e re s ea rc h e r t h e o p po rt u n ity t o u nde rst a n d ho w s o cie t y ope ra t e s e v e n in th e most d e s p e rate si t ua ti o n s. As w ith a ll en t e rpr i s e s, m ic r oe n t e rpr i s e s rely o n v a lue cre a t i on a n d v a lue cr e a ti o n is e x trem e ly c ha l l en g ing in Haiti, w ith its s e r i ou s e n v i r onmen t a l a n d p o l i tic a l p l ig h ts, c o m p ou n d e d b y th e f r e q uen cy o f n a t u ral d isas te r s T h e p u rp o se o f m y s t u d y is to u n de rst a n d t h e fa ct o rs t ha t c o n trib u t e to t h e s u cc e o f f e m a le m i c r oen tr e p re n e u rs w h o ope ra t e n a t u ral r e s ou r c e ba s e d bu sin e s s e s in a h i g h ly de g ra de d en v i r on m en t s u ch a s H a it i I w i l l e x am i n e h o w the y u se t he ir a ss e ts ( f in an cial, s o cial, hu ma n p h y sical, an d n a t u ral) t o a c h ie v e i n c o m e p ro du cing b u sin e s s es I w i l l c omp leme n t a n a ss e t ba s e d a pp r o a ch w ith an y o t he r s pe c i f ic, n uan c e d c a t eg o r i e s an d t h e me s t h a t ad d te x t u re t o t h e d is c u ssio n In a dd ition, I a lso in t e n d t o un c o v e r h o w f e m a le m ic r o e n tre p r e n e u rs u t i l i z e a ss e ts to rec o v e r f r o m a na t u ral d isas t e r s u ch a s t h e 20 1 0 ea r t h q ua k e F o r e x amp le, w ha t s pe c i f ic f a c t o rs e nab l e d t h e m to r e o r g an i z e th e m ic r oen t e rpr i s e in c lu d ing p ro d u cti o n p roc e ss e s (s o u rc i n g raw m a t e r i a ls s ou rce a n d p ro d u cts s o l d ) a n d r e la t io n s h ips w ith f am i l y c o m m u n ity m e mbe rs, s u p p l i e rs a n d c u st o me rs. Fi n a l l y I w a n t to u n de rst a n d t h e rela t io n s h i p s b e t w ee n bu sin e ss pe r f o r m a n ce an d f a m i l y d y nam ics. Re sea r c h Qu e s tions T h e ma in re s ea rch qu e sti o n o f t h e s t ud y is: W ha t is t h e a s s e t stru c t u re o f f e ma l e m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs w h o ha v e v ia b le inc o m e p ro du cing bu s i ne ss e s ? S e c o n da ry q ue sti on s o f t h e s t u d y i n clu d e t h e f o l l o w in g :

PAGE 64

64 1 How doe s th e p re s en c e o r a b s en c e o f t h e se a ss e ts c on trib u te t o bu sin e ss ou tc o me s ( v ia b le /ou t o f bu si n e ss)? 2 How a re a ss e ts u s e d i n rec o v e r i n g the ir bu s i ne ss e s f o l l o w ing na t u ral d isas t e r s? 3 W ha t a re t h e rel a ti o n s h ips b e t w ee n b u sin e ss s u cc e ss an d f a m i l y d y nam ic s ? Re sea r c h S ite M y res ea rch w a s c on c en tra t e d in t h e city o f J a c me l, w h ich is 2 0 m i l e s o u tsi d e P o rt a u P r i n ce in s o u t h e rn H a iti. The f ou rth l a r g e st city in H a iti, J a c me l ( J a k m l) is t h e c ap it a l o f t h e de p a rt me n t o f S u d Est a n d ha s a p o pu la t i o n o f 6 0 0 00 F ou n de d in 1 6 9 8 J a c me l, w h ich is a lso r e f e r r e d to b y its in d i g enou s Ta n o n a m e o f Y a q u i me l, ha s a no t a b le c ul t u ral a n d e c on o m ic h is t o r y It w a s on ce a p r o m i n en t c en t e r f o r tra d e a n d c o m me rce, pa rticu l a r l y fo r t h e e x po rt a ti o n o f c o f f e e a n d p recio u s o i l s a s w e ll a s a ma jor p ro du ct i o n c en t e r f o r i n d i g enou s a rts a n d cr a f t s. I n t h e ea r l y 19 9 0 s, t h is po rt cit y k no w n f o r its q ua i n t F r en c h c o l o n ial a rc h it e ct u re an d a rts d istr i c t, a lso be c a m e a po p u lar t o u r i st de st i na t ion a n d e n jo y e d a th r i v ing m a rket w he re ha nd ic r a f ts a n d o t he r g ood s w e re s o ld. U n f o rtu na t e l y a s a res u lt o f po l i tic a l u ph e a v a l, th e t ou r i sm i ndu stry de cl i ne d a n d man y o f t he se c o t t a g e i ndu s tri e s cl o s ed E n tre p r e ne u rs h a d n o c ho ice bu t to i d e n t i f y ne w p ro du c t s to s e ll an d ne w m a r k e ts. I t be c a m e c om m o n f o r e n tr e p re n e u rs to t ra v e l s e v e ral ti m e s a mo n t h f r o m J a c m e l t o Po rt a u Pr i n ce t o b u y hou s eho l d w a res an d c l o t h ing t o s e ll a t t h e l o c a l marke t I s e lec t e d J a cmel be c a u se o f its h is t o r i c a l, e c on o m ic, a n d c u lt u ral i mpo r t an c e t o o m me rce. F o l l o w ing th e J an u a ry 12 20 1 0 ea r t h q ua k e J a c me l w a s c u t o ff f r o m t h e rest o f Haiti. T h e n a r r o w t w o la n e h i g h w a y b e t w ee n J a cmel a n d P o rt a u P r i n ce re m a i n e d cl o s e d f o r s ev e ral w ee ks a s rocksl i de s b l o ck e d pa s s a g e a n d s e v e re a f t e rs h o cks ma d e d r i v ing ha z a rd ou s (B B C, 2 010 ). A res u r g en c e o f m ic r oe n t e rpr i s e s in

PAGE 65

65 J a c me l c a n c on tri b u te to l o c a l an d n a ti o n a l e c on o m ies in w h ich en tr e p re n e u r i a l w ome n a re m a jor p a rtic i pan t s Furt he r m o re, a s t h e r o ad s cl e a red f o l l o w ing t h e e a rth q ua k e a st ead y f low o f b u s e s f r o m P o rt a u P r i n c e b e g a n t o a r r i v e da i l y t o th e J a cmel bu s s ta t i on g i v ing J a c me l in te rest i n g popu l a ti o n d y nam i c s. J a c me l s h i g h c on c en tra t i o n a n d d i v e rs i t y o f m ic r o e n t e r p r i s e s mak e s it a n i d e a l r e s ea rch site to e x p lore f e ma le m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rshi p Re sea r c h P a rti c ip a n t s T h e t a r g e t o r t h eo reti c a l p o pu la t i o n o f t h is s t u d y is f e ma le m ic ro en t r ep re n eu rs. T h e a c c e ssible po p u la t ion c o n sist e d o f f e ma le m ic r o e n tre p r e neu rs i n J a cmel, w ho se bu sin e s s e s c o n ti n u e d i n o p e rati o n a f te r t h e e a rth q ua k e o r w ho se b u sin e ss e s s u f fe red s e v e re d is r up ti on s f o r cing s om e to cl o s e do w n an d o t he rs t o res t r u ct u re. T h i r t y e i g h t w ome n w e re s e lec t e d t h ro u g h a r e f e r r a l s a mp le p roc e s s C r e s w e ll (2 003 ) s u gg e s t s t ha t p he n o m e n a c a n b e e x p lored f r o m t h e li v e d e x p e r i en c e s o ff f i v e t o t w en t y f i v e i nd iv i dual s. S e v e ral k e y i n f o r m a n t s a ssist e d in i d e n t i f y ing f e ma le m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs i n t h e J a cmel. E a ch p a rt i cip an t i n t h e s t ud y w a s a sk e d t o i de n t i f y a n add iti o na l t w o m i c ro en t re p re n e u rs. S am p l i n g c on ti n ue d un til I re a c h e d a s e c o n d ti e r o f pa rtic i pa n ts, w he n I s t a rted t o g e t t h e s am e r e f e r r a ls a n d t h e a dd iti o n a l i n f o r ma ti o n f r o m s u cc e ssi v e i n t e r v iews de cl i ne d P o lk i n g ho rne (2 005 ) no t e s t ha t t h e p r i ma ry pu rp o se o f q ua l i t a ti v e res ea rch is t o de scr ib e a n d cl a r i f y a cc o u n ts o f e x pe r i en c e As I a na l y z e d an d w o rked with th e da t a t he re w a s th e p o t e n ti a l f o r n e w i n f o r m a ti o n t o eme r g e H o w e v e r, I f o l l o w e d th e g u i d an c e o f S tr a u ss a n d Co r b in (1 998 ), w he re r e a c h i n g s a t u rati o n me a n t t ha t t h e e w i n f o r m a t i on h a t I d isco v e red d i d n o t a d d t o t h e o v e rall na r r a ti v e

PAGE 66

66 Re sea r c h De s ign M y res ea rch w a s e x p l o rat o ry in na t u r e I s e l e ct e d a cros s s e cti o na l de si g n f o r t h is st u d y a s it p ro v id e s a s n ap s h o t o f a p o p u la t ion a t a si n g le po i n t i n t i m e a n d a l l o w s c on clusi on s t o b e d ra w n a b ou t pa rticu l a r p h e n om e n a a c r o ss a w ide po p u la t io n T h e ab s e n ce o f t i m e d i m en sion a v o ids t h e p r ob l e m o f b ias i n tro d u c e d t h ro u g h s a mp le a t t r i ti o n an d a c a r e f u l l y s e lec t e d s a mp l e c a n p ro v ide da ta t h a t a c h ie v e s re p res e n t a ti v ene ss ( D e V a u s, 2 0 0 1 ). F u rt h e r mo re, cros s s e cti o n a l st ud ies a re u s e f u l i n un d e rsta n d ing a ss o ci a ti on s b e t w ee n mu ltiple f a ct o rs a n d t h e o u tc om e o f i n t e res t C r o ss s e cti ona l s t ud i e s c an n o t de t e r m ine c a u s e a n d e f f e c t, bu t t h e y a re e f fe cti v e in de t e r m ini n g w he n e v en ts a re u n rela t e d Th e y a re w id e ly u s e d in en tre p r en e u r i a l st ud ies an d a re p r e f e r r e d b e c au s e t he y c a n b e a cc o mp l i s h e d r a t he r e c o n om icall y Ho w e v e r, un l i ke l on g i t ud in a l s t ud ie s t h e y a re li m it e d b y t h e f a ct t h a t t h e y a re c o n du c t e d a t o n e po int in t i m e a n d p ro v ide n o i nd ic a ti o n o f t h e s e q uen ce o f e v en ts, i e ., w ha t ha p pe n e d b e f o re o r a f t e r t h e s n a p s h o t. A l o ng it ud in a l st u d y i n v o l v e s s e v e ral ob s e r v a ti on s o f t h e s a m e s ub jec t s o v e r a p e r i o d o f time, in s o m e c a s e s, las t ing y ea rs. Since l o n g it ud in a l s t ud i e s e x t en d be y on d a s i n g le po int i n t i me t he y a re mo re likely t o id en t i f y c au s e and e f f e ct rela t io n s h ips. C r o ss s e cti ona l s t ud i e s a re o b s e r v a ti ona l in na t u r e T h is m e an s t h a t t h e res ea rch e r g a t he rs in f o r ma t i o n ab o u t t h e s a mp le p o pu la t i o n w it ho u t m an ip u l a ti n g t h e st ud y en v i r onm e n t, a s is do n e in e x pe r im en t a l g ro u p de si g n s. W h i l e the re a re e t h ical c on c e rns i n a ll res e a rch de si g n s, c r o s s s e c ti o na l d e si g n s a v o id m an y o f t h e c on c e rns ab o u t h a rm to pa rtic i p a n ts b e c au s e it rel i e s o n e x isting v a r i a ti on s ra t h e r t h a n i n tr o du cing in te r v en ti on s ( D e V au s, 2 0 01 ).

PAGE 67

67 Since t h is st u d y is ba s e d o n a small g ro u p o f m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs, f o l l o w i n g a ma jor e v en t in Haiti, I c an n o t b e c e r t a in t ha t m y f in d in g s c a n b e g en e ral i z e d t o a n o t h e r s e t t in g E x t e rn a l v a l i d ity is th e e x t en t t o w h ich t h e re s u lts o f t h e s t u d y c a n b e g ene ral i z e d be y on d th e s pe c i f ic c on t e x t in which it w a s c a r r ied o u t (Br y ma n 2 0 04 ). E x t e rn a l v a l i d ity m a y b e th r e a t e ne d w he n t h e st ud y f i nd in g s a re gen e ral i z e d t o o t h e r pa rtic i pa n ts w h o ho ld d iff e re n t c ha ra c t e r i stics in c o mpa r i s o n t o t h e s t ud y s amp l e (Co o k & Camp b e l l 1 9 8 4 ; C a mp b e ll & S t an l e y 19 6 3 ). Ho w e v e r, a s Gub a an d L inc o ln (1 9 9 4 ) s u gg e st, th e t h ick d e s c r i p ti o n o f fe red in t h is s t ud y c a n p ro v ide o t h e rs w ith da ta t h e y c a n u se t o make t he ir o w n de cis i on s ab o u t t h e tr a n s f e ra b i l ity o f f i n d in g s t o o t he r c o n t e x ts. T h e t r a n s f e r a b i l ity is th e e x t en t to w h ich t h e p he n o m en o n in on e c o n t e x t c a n b e u s e d in ano t he r ( P a t t o n 1 9 9 0 ). S e m i Struct u r e d Int er v i e w I de v e lo p e d a s e m i struct u red i n t e r v iew p rot o c o l incl ud ing a t op i c a l c he ckl i st t h a t c on t a i ne d k e y it em s to b e c o v e red du r i n g ea c h i n t e r v ie w T h e c he ck l ist s e r v e d t o g u ide t h e i n t e r v ie w s, to m a in t a in c o n sist en c y en s u r i n g tha t s pe c i f ic t op ics w e re r ou ti ne ly c o v e red du r i n g t h e i n t e rv i e w s, a s w e ll a s t o p r o v ide s t ruct u re f o r or g an i z ing ana l y sis. T h e i n t e r v i e w sc hedu le an d c on s en t f o r m s w e re de v e lo p e d in E n g l i sh a n d t he n tra n sla t e d i n t o H a iti a n C r eo le b y a n a ti v e H a itia n To e n s u re a cc u r a cy o f t h e tra n sla t i o n s, b a c k tra n sla t io n s o f a ll c o n s e n t f o r m s w e re c o m p le t e d b y a th i r d pa rt y w h o is a lso f l u en t in H a itian Cre o le. I n itial t o p ics c o v e red f o c u s e d o n bu si n e ss a s p e cts a n d t h e n mo v e d o n t o e x p lor i n g s ou rces o f c ap it a l (n a t u ral, s o cial, hu m an ph y sical, a n d f i nan cial), s e l f id en ti t y be l ie f s a n d v a lu e s, an d i m p a cts o f na t u ral d isas t e r. P r e d is s e rta t ion res ea r c h w a s c ondu ct e d in M a y 20 1 1 M y p r e d issert a t i o n res e a rch incl u d e d i den t i f y ing k e y

PAGE 68

68 in fo r m an ts to a ssist in p r e t e sti n g a n i n t e r v iew i n stru m en t an d l o c a t i n g fe m a le m ic r oe n tre p r e n eu rs f o r m y res ea rch s t ud y In February 2012, I w a s ab le to p r e t e st t h e i n t e r v iew ins t rume n t w ith th r e e f ema l e m ic r oen tr e p re n eu rs w h o w e re no t in t h e a c c e ssible po p u la t ion o f i n t e re s t a n d t w o re p res e n t a ti v e s in l e a de rship po siti o n s w h o ha d f a m i l iar i ty w ith f e ma le m ic r o e n t r e p re n e u rs Dur i n g th is p roc e ss, I mod i f i e d an d e l i m i n a t e d i n t e r v iew q ue sti on s b a s e d o n pa rtic i pa n t f e ed b a ck an d m y o w n ob s e r v a ti on s. Pr e t e sti n g e n s u r e d t ha t t h e q ue sti on s a n d t op ics e x p lored w e re r e le v an t an d c l ea r l y unde rst o o d b y th e p a rtic i pa n ts. B a s e d o n i n itial i n t e r v i e w s, I ad a p t e d t h e re s ea rch ins t r u m en t to e n s u re t h e u s e o f la n g ua g e t h a t w a s c u l t u ral l y app ro p r i a te a n d a l l o w e d fo r c l ea r u n d e rsta nd i n g Thr ou g h t h is p roc e s s I w a s ab l e t o de v e lop w e l l struct u re d unb i a s e d que sti o n s. F o r e x amp le, t h e q ue sti o n : no w s o m e p eop le in H a iti d o s o me t h ing s pe cial t o p ro t e ct t he ir bu s i ne s s Is t h e re an y t h ing s pe cial t ha t y o u d o? T h is q ue s ti o n w a s de si g ne d t o d raw ou t in d i v id ua l b e l ie f s, p a rticularly Voo do o a n d c ou ld no t h a v e be e n f o r mu la t e d w it hou t t h e i n si g h t o f H a itian i n f o r m an ts. I cl a r i f i e d a n d v e r i f i e d res po n s e s t o c h e ck f o r a cc u rac y T h ro u g h t h e p roc e ss o f v a l i da ti o n I en s u r e d t h a t t h e i n str u me n t w a s mea s u r i n g w ha t it w a s i n t e n de d to m e a s u re ( A d c o ck & C o l l ier, 2 00 0 ) Ca m p be ll a n d St an ley (1 9 6 3 ) n o t e d t ha t a n i n s trum en t a ti o n e f f e ct o cc u rs ( i m po si n g a th re a t t o i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y ) w he n th e i n st r um e n t is a lt e red o r w he n o b s e r v e rs ch an g e o v e r t h e pe r i o d o f t h e st ud y I e n s u red i n t e r n a l v a l i d ity b y p r e t e sti n g th e i n str u m e n t, f o l lo w i n g th e i n t e r v iew sc he d u le a n d c on d u ct i n g a ll th e i n t e r v ie w s m y s e l f T h e relia b i l ity o f t h e i n str u m e n t is ho w c on sist en tly th e i n stru m e n t m e a s u res t h e ph e n o m e n a in t h e s t u d y

PAGE 69

69 T h e i n str u m e n t w a s s u bm it t e d f o r a pp ro v a l to t h e I n stit u ti o n a l Re v iew B oa rd (IRB) a t T h e U n i v e rs i ty o f Florida in O c t obe r 2 01 1 an d it w a s app r o v e d in D e c e mbe r 20 1 1 My f ie l d res e a rch w a s i n itia te d b y c on d u cti n g a s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s w ith k e y in fo r m an ts in J a c me l, w h o p ro v id e d s e r v ices l i ke cre d it a n d t ra i n ing t o f e ma l e en tre p r en e u rs a n d w e re i nd i v id ua ls in l e a d e rship p o sitio n s, l i ke cl e r gy le ade rs o f in fo r m a l, c o m m un it y ba s e d s o cial o r g an i z a ti o n s, a n d bu sin e ss o w n e rs. T h e k e y in fo r m an ts inc l ud e d th e f o l l o w ing p rof e ssio na ls: A f e ma le a d m inistra t o r a t Ca t ho l i c R e l ie f S e r v i c e s. T w o c o m m u n ity w o rk e r s (o n e f e m a le a n d o n e mal e ) w h o t rain e d an d i mp l e me n t e d p ro g ra m s fo r m ic ro en tr e p re n eu r s a t Ca t ho l i c R e l ie f S e r v ice s A m ed ical d o ct o r, w h o rec e i v e d m e d ical t rain i n g in C ub a a n d t r e a t e d m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs as pa ti e n ts in clinics in J a c me l. A bu si n e ss w oma n w h o o w ne d a n a rtis a n s ho p a n d w o rked w ith an d e m p lo y e d m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs i n J a c me l A m a le Ca t ho l i c p r i e st in S t. M i c hae l s P a r i sh w h o p ro v id e d ou tr e a ch t o f e m a le m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs i n J a c me l A f e ma le A me r i c a n N G O re p res e n t a ti v e w h o ha d w o rked w ith w om e n m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs i n Haiti fo r o v e r 15 y ea r s T w o f e ma le m ic r o e n tr e p re n e u rs w h o ha d e x pe r i en ce w ith m ic ro en t r ep re n eu rs i n La k a y an d J a c me l, H a iti. A m a le c om mun ity w o rker, w h o w o rked w ith w ome n w h o h a d b u si n e ss e s a n d raised li v e st oc k. T h e k e y i n f o r ma n ts p r ov id e d a n o v e r v i e w o f t h e n e ed s an d res o u rces o f f e m a le en tre p r en e u rs i n s p e c i fic top ical a re a s. S o m e k e y i n f o r ma n ts w e re k no w le d g eab le in mo re t h a n o n e a re a I s e lec t e d o n e t o th r e e t op ics f o r ea ch i n t e r v ie w depend i n g o n t h e e x pe rtise o f t h e k e y i n f o r m a n t. T h e i n t e r v i e w s w e re f a c e t o f a c e a n d las te d app ro x i ma t e ly on e h o u r. W i th t h e pe r m iss i o n o f e a ch k e y i n f o r m a n t, I d i g it a l l y v o ice

PAGE 70

70 rec o rd e d th e i n t e r v iews an d I t oo k no t e s d u r i n g th e i n t e r v ie w A f t e r c omp i l ing t h e in fo r m a ti o n f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w I p re pa r e d a s u m m a ry s ta t e me n t o f t h e c o n t e n t, w h ich I p ro v id e d t o ea c h p a rtic i pan t to en s u re t h a t I a cc u rat e ly c ap t u r e d t h e pe rso n d ea s. T h e in d i v id ua l ha d t h e o p p o rtu n ity t o e x p a n d on a lt e r or w it hd raw he r/his c o m m e n ts o n an y t op ic. On F eb r ua ry 14 2 0 1 2 I be ga n t h e i n t e r v i e w i n g p roc e s s I e n s u red t ha t t h e pa rtic i pa n ts u nde rs t o o d t h e p u rp o se o f t h e r e s ea rch b y p ro v idi n g a de t a i le d d e scr i p ti o n o f t h e o b jec t i v e o f t h e st ud y an d t h e p ro t o c o l w e w ou ld f o l l o w I re a d th e c on s en t f o rm t o a ll o f t h e w om e n b e c a u se o f t h e ir li m it e d lit e r a c y In s o m e c a s e s, t h e pa rtic ip an f am i l y m e m b e r, u s u a l l y a s o n o r a d au g h t e r v o lu n t e e red o r w a s a sk e d b y t h e p a rtic i pa n t to re a d t h e f o rm to he r. Th e re w e re on ly a f e w c a s e s in w h ich t h e p a rt i cip an t r e a d t h e c on s e n t f o rm b y he rsel f P ro p e r co n s en t f o r m s ( i n clu d ing a ll po ssib l e risks an d b e n e f its o f t h e s t ud y ) w e re c o l le ct e d f o r m res p on d en t s. I a l s o i n cl u de d m y c on t a c t i n f o r m a ti on s hou ld th e res p on d en t s ha v e h a d a n y q ue sti on s o r c on c e rn s I en s u red re s po n d e n an o n y m ity an d e x p lai n e d h o w th e i n f o r m a ti o n w ou ld b e u s e d (S c h w a r z 1999 ). A s e m i struct u red i n t e r v i e w a l l o w s f o r i n d e p t h i n f o r ma ti o n w he re th e i n t e r v ie w e r doe s no t w an t to b e r e str i ct e d b y a p r e scr i b e d q ue sti o n o r d e r b u t w ou ld l i ke t h e ad v an t a g e o f h a v ing a sk e d a ll t h e s a m e q ue s ti on s o f a ll res p o n de n t (S o m me r & S o m me r, 1 9 86 ). The i n t e r v i e w q ue sti on s e l i cit e d o pe n en d e d re s p on s e s a n d w e re de si g ne d t o g e t pa rtic i pan ts t o o p en ly d iscuss issu e s o f i m po rt a n ce to t h e m I n t e r v iew t e c hn i q ue s s u ch a s p r ob in g incl ud i n g sile n t p ro be s a n d d i r e cti v e p r obe s, w e re u s e d to e l i cit m o re i n f o r ma ti o n f r o m t h e pa rtic i p a n ts w h i l e be ing m in d f u l o f n o t inj e ct i n g m y o w n re f le c ti on s i n to t h e d a t a (B e rn a r d 2 000 ). T h e c on v e rsatio n a l f o r ma t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w is

PAGE 71

71 de si g ne d t o e l i cit pa rti c ip an pe rsp e c ti v e s o n iss ue s o f i m po rt a n ce t o t h e m a n d o n w ha t t he y c on sid e r v a l i d t h u s a l l o w ing ne w top ics to e m e r g e T h e p a rtic i pan ts w e re a sk e d to c o m p le t e a f a c e t o f a ce i n t e r v iew tha t las t e d be t w ee n o n e to t h ree h ou rs. S i n ce I h a d p r e t e st e d t h e i n t e r v i e w sc hedu l e I k ne w it w a s po ssible t o f u l l y c omp le t e t h e i n t e r v iew in on e hou r H o w e v e r, s om e pa rtic i p a n ts p ro v id e d i n d e p th re s p on s e s, w h ich re q u i r e d th e f u ll th r e e h ou rs. I a l l o w e d th e l en g th o f t h e i n t e r v iew t o b e d e t e r m in e d b y th e pa rtic ip an t. Since it is n o t o n ly i mpo r t an t t o un d e rsta n d p a rtic i pan t s m e an in g s a n d b e r e f l e x i v e o n m y o w n m e a n in g s, bu t a lso t o f lo w i th th e e x pe r i en c e s o f t h e w o r l d tha t is s tud i e d (Ch a r ma z 2 004 ), I c o n du c t e d t h e in te r v i e w s in a n a t u ral s e t t ing a n d a t a ti m e s e lec t e d b y t h e pa rtic ip an t. I b e g a n w ith g ene ral b ro a d t op ics t o g e t t h e pa rtic ip an t to b e g in t a lk i n g t hu s a l l o w ing a m o r e n a t u ral c on v e rsatio n T h e i n str u m e n t c on sis t e d o f 3 2 q ue sti o n s w ith fo l l o w u p q ue sti on s a n d p ro b e s. I n t e r v iew q ue sti on s c o v e red ho w the y s ta rted the ir b u sin e ss, t h e ir mo t i v a ti o n f o r be ing in bu si n e ss, a n d t he ir f am i l y v o l v emen t in t h e bu sin e s s T h e y w e re a sk e d t o d e f i n e w ha t s u cc e ss in bu si n e ss me a n t to t h e m a n d w ha t t he y th o u g h t w e re t h e re a s on s t ha t s om e w ome n s u cc e e d in bu si n e ss a n d o t h e rs f a i l T he y w e re a sk e d to d iscuss t h e a v a i l ab i l ity o f a n d a c c e ss t o t oo ls, e q u ipme n t, an d t ra n s po rt a ti o n n e ed e d f o r t he ir bu sin e s s T he ir relia n c e o n n a t u ral res o u rces f o r t he ir bu sin e s s t h e ir pe rce p ti o n o f en v i r onme n t a l c h an ge s, a n d t h e ir c op ing s t r a t e g ies, i f a f fe c t e d b y th e i m p a ct o f n a t u ral d isas te r, w e re a lso e x p lore d S i n ce o pe r a ti n g an y bu sin e ss u n de r a n y c ond ition c a n b e c ha l l en g ing a t t i me s, I i n q u i r e d a b ou t w he re t h e y g o t t he ir i n s p i r a ti o n to c o n ti n u e w he n t he y fa c e d d i f f i c u lt t i me s an d t o w ha t t he y a t t r i bu t e d t he ir s u cc e s s C omp l e m en t a ry t o

PAGE 72

72 t h is, t h e y w e re a sk e d t o a rticula t e w h o t h e y tu rn e d to f o r h e lp a n d w h o t he y relied o n in a n e me r g en c y I a s k e d th e m i f ha v ing a bu si n e ss res u lt e d in an y c h a n g e s in t h e hou s eho ld d y nam ic a n d f o r t h e m p e rso n a l l y I a sk e d t h e m a b ou t t he ir e x pe r i en c e s w ith na t u ral d isas t e r a n d i f t he y ha d b e e n a f f e c t e d ho w the y rec o v e re d Fin a l l y t he y w e re in v it e d t o s h a re t he ir h ope s f o r t h e f u t u re a n d w ha t t he y th o u g h t w a s ne c e s s a ry t o a c h ie v e the ir g oa ls. Since I f e lt t h a t a sking d i r e ct q ue sti o n s a b o u t ho w m u ch t h e y ea rn e d f r o m t h e bu sin e ss o r a bo u t t h e ir edu c a ti o n a l b a ck g ro un d w a s i na p p ro p r i a t e I e stimat e d t h e bu sin e ss pe r f o r m a n ce ba s e d o n t h e d e scr i p t i on s o f t h e e n tre p r e n eu rs. T h e edu c a ti o n a l l e v e l o f pa rtic i p a n ts w a s g ene ral l y re v ea led w he n t he y w e re a sk e d t o re a d a n d si g n t h e c on s e n t f o rm an d a lso du r i n g ou r c o n v e rsation o n w ha t it ta k e s t o b e a s u cc e s s f u l bu sin e ss w o m a n a n d t h e o p po rt u n ities a v a i l ab le to re c e i v e t raini n g M o st in te r v ie w s w e re he ld in t h e ma rk e t o r at t h e w omen h o me s, w h i l e o t he rs w e re he ld a t r o ad si d e st and s o r in city c en t e r sh op s W i t h t h e pe r m iss i o n o f ea ch pa rtic i p a n t, I d i g it a l l y v o ice rec o rd e d t h e i n t e r v ie w s. I a lso t o o k n o t e s o f w ha t w a s s a id an d pa i d a t t e n ti o n to t h e be h a v ior o f t h e pa rtic i p a n t, s u ch a s mom en ts o f si l en ce o r d i f f iculty in re s po n d ing t o p a rticular q ue sti o n s. A f te r c omp i l ing t h e i n f o r m a ti o n f r o m t h e i n t e r v ie w I p re pa r e d a s u m m a ry s ta t e m e n t o f t h e c on t e n t. I t h e n p ro v id e d ea c h p a rtic i pa n t w ith a n o ral p res e n t a t i o n o f t h e s u m ma ry o f h e r c o m m e n ts t o e n s u re th a t I a cc u ra t e ly c ap t u r e d t h e p e rso n d ea s. An o ral p res e n t a t i o n w a s ne c e ss a ry be c au s e ma n y o f t h e pa rtic i p a n ts h a d v e ry li m it e d lit e rac y I t he n g a v e t h e pa rtic i p a n t t h e op p o rtu n ity t o e x p a n d on a l t e r or w it hd raw he r com m e n ts o n a n y t op ic.

PAGE 73

73 B e c au s e mu ltiple i n t e r v i e w s w e re sc hedu l e d o f t e n re q u i r ing t ra v e l i n g l on g d ist an c e s, t he re w e re o cc a sio n s w he n I h a d t o w a it un til t h e e v en ing o r f o l l o w ing mo rning t o w r i te m y no t e s. Ho w e v e r, in mo st c a s e s, on ce ea c h i n t e r v i e w w a s c omp l e t e d I w rote d e t a i l e d m e mo s, i n clu d ing m y o w n re f le c ti on s o n w ha t tra n s p i r ed T h r o u g h th is i n f o r m a l a na l y sis, I w a s ab le to d e v e lop a d e e pe r u nde r st and i n g o f t h e rele v an t issu e s, w h ich in fo r m e d s u b s e q u e n t i n t e r v ie w s ( He nn ink e t a l., 2 001 ). Dur i n g t h e s e c on d p ha se o f t h e s t u d y I u s e d pa rtic i pa n t o b s e r v a ti o n t o l e a rn ab o u t t h e da i l y p roc e s s e s t h a t f e m a le e n tre p r en e u rs e n g a g e in to a c h ie v e the ir bu sin e ss g oa ls. I s e le c t e d t w o p a rtic i pan ts f r o m t h e list o f t h o se i n t e r v i e w ed T h e ob s e r v a ti o n c on sist e d o f a c c o m pan y ing th e p a rtic i pan ts t h ro u gh ou t t h e d a y an d t a king f ie l d n o t e s o n t he ir s o c i a l in te ract i on s, t h e s e t t i n g in w h ich t he y ope r a t e t he ir mo d e s o f tra n s po r t a ti o n e tc. O f t e n t h e d istinc t ion b e tw ee n w o m en h o m e s a n d t he ir bu s i ne s s e s is b lur r ed S i n ce m a n y w ome n o pe ra t e t h e ir s ma l l sc a le b u sin e s s e s ou t o f t he ir h om e s, I ob s e r v e d s o m e o f t h e pa rtic i pa n bu si n e s s rela t e d a cti v ities in t h e ir h o me s. F o r e a c h o f t h o se w h o reli e d o n f am i l y m e m b e rs as bu sin e ss p a rtn e rs or w h o se bu s i ne ss p ro du cts w e re cr ea t e d an d s t o red in t he ir h om e s, I en s u r e d t h e pa rti c ip an t t h a t m y ob s e r v a ti o n w ou ld b e l i m it e d t o bu si n e ss a s p e cts on l y I o n ly m ad e g ene ral ob s e r v a ti on s o n t h e t o p ics c o v e red in t h e i n t e rv i e w : s ou rces o f c a p i t a l ( na t u r a l, s o cial, hu m an ph y sical, a n d f i nan cial), s e l f id en tit y b e l ie f s a n d v a lu e s, a n d t h e imp a cts o f na t u ral d isas t e r. I s p e n t t i m e w ith t w o m i c r oen tre p r e n e u r s a c h icken f a r me r w h o s o ld he r e gg s loc a l l y an d in P o rt a u P r i n c e a n d a n a rtist w h o cre a t e d an d s o ld he r o w n te x t i les an d ha n d ic ra f ts. In add it i o n since ma n y w ome n s e lec t e d t o b e i n t e r v ie w e d w h i le t he y w e re

PAGE 74

74 a t t h e ir w o rk s i t e s, I ha d t h e o ppo r t un ity t o ob s e r v e the m en g a g e in t he ir da i l y bu sin e ss a cti v ities. From m y f i r st i n t e r v ie w w he re th ree g ene rati o n s o f f e ma l e s w o rk e d t o g e t he r a t a r o ad si d e s t an d t h e e l d e st w o rk i n g j u st a s v i g o ro u sly a s th e o t h e rs, s ea t e d o n t o p o f s ma ll w ood e n s t o o l, i n t en s e ly c ho p p ing g oa t me a t w ith a cru d e k n i fe (ch a rds o f c a rt i la g e an d b lo o d s ta in e d m y i n t e r v i e w g u id e ), to m y f i na l in t e r v i e w w ith a w oman w h o w a s he d he r h an d s w ith a m i x t u re o f f l o u r a n d p e d u c t s, to en tice he r c u st o me rs t o b u y rice, pe a nu t bu t t e r, a n d v e g e t ab l e s a t he r ma k e s h i f t s t a n d in f ro n t o f a c o c k f i g h t, I ob s e r v e d a l l t he ir ha r d w o rk, t he ir c r ea ti v e e x p ressi o n a n d t he ir d r i v e t o c r ea te a g oo d bu s i ne s s. Data A na l y s is T h e p r im a ry m e t h o d o lo g y u s e d in th i s re s ea r ch is g ro un d e d t h e o r y Gro un d e d t heo ry m e t h o d s p e r m it res ea rch e rs t o l e a rn h o w s tud y pa rtic i pan ts i n t e rpret t h e ir li v e s an d e x p lain t h e ir o w n be h a v ior an d s t a t e m en t. S ince d a ta a re c o l l e c t e d f o r t h eo reti c a l ana l y sis f r o m t h e be g in n ing o f t h e s tud y t h is in du cti v e a p p ro a c h a l l o w s c on structi o n o f t heo r i e g ro u n ded i n t h e da t a t h em s e l v e s ( C ha r ma z 2 0 0 6 ; G las e r & Stra u s s 1 96 7 ). T h r o u g h t h e i n t e g rative p r o c e ss o f lis t en in g ob s e r v in g a s w e ll a s r e f lec t ing a n d in te rpre t ing t h e d a t a a th e o ry o r t h e e l e m en ts tha t l e a d t o it w i l l be g i n t o e m e r g e O n e o f t h e s t r e n g t h s o f g ro und e d t h eo ry is th a t t h e res ea r c he r ac t s u po n t h e d a ta rat he r t ha n pa ssi v e ly r e v i e w t hem Ob s e r v a ti on s a n d v e rb a t i m s t a t e me n ts a re c a t a lo g u e d i n t o d istin c t c a t e g o r i e s t h ro u g h t h e p roc e ss o f c o d ing a n d l abe l i n g w h ich a re de v e lo p e d i t e rati v e ly t o re f lect t h e d a t a The it e r a ti v e p roc e ss o f da ta c o l l e cti o n a n d ana l y sis in v o l v e s c on s t an t c o m p a rati v e me t ho d a n d t h e re s ea rc h e r en g a g e s in a stra te g y o f mo v ing in a na l y tic a l ci r cles rat he r t ha n i n a f i x e d li n ea r a p p ro a ch (C r e ss w e l l 20 0 7 ).

PAGE 75

75 Unlike pu re g ro un d e d res ea rch, I a lso relied o n a n i n d u cti v e a p p ro a c h T h is app r o a ch a l l o w s f o r re s ea rch f i nd in g s t o e me r g e f r o m f re q u e n t, d om in an t o r s ig n i f ic a n t t h e me s p res e n t in t h e da t a a n d t o u lt i ma t e ly c on d en se t h e d a t a A s a ma t t e r o f f a ct, a n un d e r l y ing a ss ump ti o n o f t h is a p p ro a c h is t ha t da t a a na l y sis is de t e r m in e d b o th b y th e res ea rch ob jec t i v e (d e d u cti v e ) as w e ll a s m u l ti p le re a d in g s an d i n t e r p ret a ti o n s o f t h e raw da ta a s c od e d b y t h e res e a rch e r ( in d u cti v e ) ( T h o m a s, 20 0 3 ). In th is s t ud y I q u ick l y l ea rn e d t h a t t h e t a sk o f d isco v e r i n g theme s is no t a simple p roc e ss, in pa rt be c a u se t h e re is n o si n g u lar me t ho d In a d d itio n t h e li m it e d res o u rces t ha t a re a v a i l ab le o n c a r r y i n g ou t t h e m a tic an a l y sis d o no t p ro v ide s u f f ic i en t d e t a il t o b e ins t ructi v e R y a n an d B e rn a rd ( 20 0 3 ) ho w e v e r, d o o f fe r us e f u l t e c h n i q ue s t o i d en t i f y t h e me s in q ua l i t a ti v e s t ud ies. S e v e ral o f t he ir rec o m m e nd e d s t ra t e g ies a l o n g w ith m y o w n app ro a c h w e re u t i l i z e d in th is st ud y T h e te c hn i q ue s t h a t I u s e d in t h is s t ud y a re a s fo l l o w s: I t ra n scr ib e d t h e in te r v i e w s f r o m t h e d i g it a l r e c o rdin g s, I o r g an i z e d th e pa rtic i p a n t re s pon s e s t o ea c h q ue sti o n in a n e x c e l s p re ad s h ee t. I a l s o w en t t h ro u g h t h e t e x t l i n e b y line a n d n o t e d rec u r r ing w o rds an d t h eme s T h r o u g hou t th is p roc e ss I r ea d a n d re r ea d t h e i n t e r v iew res pon s e s a n d c o m pa r e d t he ir si m i l a r i ti e s a s w e ll a s th e d i f fe re n c e s. O n ce I c o mp l e t e d t h is p roc e ss, I res o rt e d t o a ba sic c u t a n d p a ste a pp ro a c h w en t t h ro u g h a ll o f t h e t e x t an d c u t ou t i m p o r t an t q u o t e s an d li n e s o f te x t an d t h e n pa st e d t h e m o n t o i n de x c a rds. O n t h e b a ck o f ea c h c a rd, I w rote do w n th e pa rtic ip an na m e so I c o ul d r e f e r b a ck t o t e x t to p lace it wit h in t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e en ti r e n a r r a ti v e I t he n ra n d om ly l a id o u t t h e c a rds o n a t ab l e I s o rted t h ro u g h t h e p i l e o f c a rds, p ick i n g ou t s i m i l a r q uo t e s a n d st a cking th e m i n to p i le s. I c o lo r c o de d ea c h p i l e an d n a m e d e a ch

PAGE 76

76 on e an d i d e n t i f ied t h e t he m e s C o d ing is i n t en de d to f rac t u h e da ta a n d a l l o w s f o r c om p a r i s o n be t w ee n i t em s in t h e s a m e c a t e g o r i e s a n d b e t w ee n c a t e g o r i e s ( M a x w e l l 20 0 5 ). M o re o v e r, it c r y st a l l i z e s th e me a n ing an d a cti on s o f t h e d a ta an d f a ci l it a t e s t he f o r mu l a ti o n o f c on c e p t ua l c a t e g o r i e s, w he re a s, e x t en d e d m e mo s h e lps t h e res ea rc h e r e x p lore id ea s ab o u t t h e c o d e s a n d i n f o r m a ti o n o n ho w t o p roc e e d ( B e rn a rd & R y an 20 1 0 ; Ch a r ma z 2 0 06 ) I u s e d t h e res ea r c h p a rtic i pan w o rds to n a m e c on c e p ts an d c a t e g o r i e s, sin c e th is r e f lec t s ho w the y c on c e i v e th e res ea rc h Alt hou g h ti m e c on s u m i n g t h e p roc e ss he l p e d m e t o be t t e r or g an i z e th e da t a a n d s e e h o w th e c a t e g o r ie s rel a t e d t o ea c h o t he r. Ha v ing a v isu a l o rd e r o f t h e d a ta a lso p ro v id e d t h e o ppo r t un i t y f o r m e t o r e f lect o n w ha t I w a s l ea rnin g Dur i n g th is p h a s e I de v e lo pe d a s m a n y c a t e g o r i e s f rom t h e d a ta a s po ss i b le. S o m e o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s a re ba s e d o n p r e e x isting c on c e p ts d ra w n f r o m t heo ry o r l i t e rat u re. O t he rs w e re de v e lo p e d in du cti v e ly f rom a n a l y s is o f t h e i n t e r v i e w te x ts an d m y o w n pe rso n a l ob s e r v a ti on s. I t he n c o n ne c t e d t h e t h e me s an d i n t e g rat e d t h e m i n t o c a t e g o r i e s. I d e v e lo pe d a ma s t e r l i w ith c od e d t h e m e s an d t h e n g ro u p e d t h e m i n t o t e n ma in c a t e go r i e s. Da t a w e re c o l l e ct e d t h ro u g h pa rtic ip an t ob s e r v a ti on s an d s o ci o d e m o g ra ph ic s u r v e y T h e se re s ea r c h me t h od s w e re c o mb i ne d w ith s e c o n d a ry da ta s u c h a s c o u n try an d p roject r e po rts a n d h ist o r i c a l l i t e r a t u re, a n d m ic ro f in a n ce i n s tit u t ion p ro g ram ma t e r i a l w h ich he lp e d i n f o rm m y u n de rst a nd i n g o f t h e a s s e t struc t u re o f f e m a le m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs a n d t h e f a c t o rs t h a t c on tr i bu te t o v ia b le an d s u s t a in ab le bu sin e s s es W h i le a c o m p u t er g e n e rat e d a n a l y sis ma y ha v e bee n q u icker a n d pe rh a p s mu ch ea sier, I d o no t be l i e v e it w ou ld ha v e p ro v id e d th e d e p th o f m e an ing t ha t is de r i v e d f rom

PAGE 77

77 t h e p roc e ss o f v is i ti n g an d re v is i ti n g th e da t a u sing m u lt i p le a pp r o a c he s. Al t h o u g h o v er w he l m in g t h e p r o c e ss res u lt e d in m y b e c om ing i n t i ma t e ly f a m i l iar w ith th e pa rtic i pa n to r i e s. T h e c a t e g o r i e s a n d t h e me s a re d i v id e d i n to p r i m a ry (n a t u ral, p h y sical, s o cial, hu m an a n d f i n an cial) an d s e c o n da ry (b u sin e ss s ta r t u p pa t t e rns, o p e rati on s a n d stra te g ies; n a t u ral re s o u rces; imp a ct o f na t u r a l d isas te r; pe rce p ti o n o f s e l f ; f a m i l ial t ies; an d be l ie f s a n d v a lu e s ) secti on s. T h e p r i ma r y c a t e g o r i e s a re ba s e d o n t h e f i v e c a p it a ls g u id e d b y th e p r i n cipl e s o f t h e S u st a i nab l e L i v e l i hood s A p p ro a c h The s e c on d a ry c a t e g o r i e s a re m o re n uan c e d a n d ba s e d o n eme r g e n t t h e m e s. S i n ce w ome n m ic r on tr e p re n e u c a p ab i l ities a re i n f lu e n c e d b y m u ltiple f a ct o rs, t h is app r o a ch en s u res a more h o l i stic w a y o f un d e rsta n d ing th e a s s e ts i m po rt a n t t o b u sin e ss s u cc e ss. Re sea r c h Co n ce r n s W h i le I w a s c ondu c ti n g m y s tud y I r e ma i n e d c o g n i z an t o f h o w I a s a res ea rc h e r in f l uen c e d t h e r e s ea r c h p roc e ss a n d u lt i ma t e res ea rch o u t c o m e T h e r e f o re, I e x am i ne d pe r i od ically w ha t m y role w a s, w ha t m y b ias e s w e re, an d t h e t y p e o f i n f lu e n ce t ha t may res u lt f r o m it. I a lso r e c o g n i z e d tha t t h e f a ct t h a t I w a s a w h it e A m e r i c a n f e m a le m i g h t ha v e i n f lu e n c e d ho w p a rtic i pan ts re s p o nd e d t o me. On t h e on e h an d I c ou ld b e pe rcei v e d a s a p e rson o f p o w e r a n d a c c e ss, w h ich ma y c au se s o m e w ome n to do w np lay the ir s u cc e s s in bu s i ne ss in t h e h o pe s t ha t I w ou ld b e ab l e t o o f fe r assist a n c e Alt e rn a ti v e l y s om e w o me n may res po n d b y e x ag g e rati n g the ir s u c c e ss i f t h e y pe rcei v e d me a s j ud g ing th e m f r o m p o sition o f p o w e r. My p r i o r e x pe r i en ce an d k no w le d g e o f m ic r oen t re p re n e u rs i n H a iti a l s o may ha v e i n f lu e n c e d m y i n t e racti o n s w ith pa rtic i pa n ts. W h i l e t h is e x pe r i en ce in H a iti p r ov id e d m e w ith a c e rtain l e v e l o f c om f o rt i n

PAGE 78

78 ho w t o c o n du ct th e i n t e r v i e w incl ud ing ho w t o bu i l d ra p p o rt, h o w t o pa ce t h e c on v e rsatio n a n d h o w to a c h ie v e cl o s u re, it a lso p ro d u c e d a b it o f d i sc o m f o rt. A s I be g a n t h e i n t e r v iew pro c e ss, I be c a m e c o n c e rn e d t ha t I w ou ld f a il in c ap t u r i n g t he nu a n c e s in a c o n v e rsation o r app rec i a te t h e d ep th o f a s e em i n g ly s i mp le s t a t e m en t G a ini n g a cc e ss i n to s o me o ne i f e is n o t a s trai g h t fo r w a rd p roc e ss, an d it re q u i r e s pa ti e n t e x p lora t i o n w ith ea ch pa rtic ip an t to d isco v e r t h e d ee p e r le v e ls o f t he ir e x pe r i en c e As I i n t e r v i e w e d ea ch pa rtic i pa n t, I be c a m e i n c r ea sin g ly a w a re o f t h e p r i v i l e g e d op p o rtu n ity I w a s g i v e n t o g e t a g l i mp se i n to t he ir pe rs o na l l i v e s an d th e ob l ig a ti o n I h a d to e n s u re t ha t t h e ir pe r c ep ti o n s, t he ir r e f lec t i o n s, a n d t he ir i n si g h t b e c ap t u re d H a v ing be e n in H a iti du r i n g t h e f i r st f e w w ee ks fo l l o w i n g th e J a nua ry 2 0 1 0 e a rth q ua k e a n d ha v ing bee n o n s ub s eq uen t trips o v e r a si x y ea r p e r io d p r i o r t o i n iti a ti n g m y res ea rch, I w a s a w a re o f t h e i n f l u x o f NG O s t h a t h a d a r r i v e d in th e c o u n try t o o f fe r m ed ical a ssist an c e f oo d a n d s he lt e r. S o m e re p re s en t a ti v e s f r o m t he s e g o v e rn m e n t a n d n on g o v e rn m e n t a l a g en cies me t w ith resi den ts to a ss e ss t h e e a rth q ua k e i mpa c t a n d t o i d en t i f y the ir n e ed s. T he re w a s e v id en ce o f p r o je c ts u n de r w a y t o bu i l d b r id g e s an d i mp ro v e ro a d s, rest o r e h is t o r i c an d c u lt u ral bu i l d in g s, an d p ro v ide e mp lo y m e n t o ppo r t un ities i n J a c me l a n d its s u r r ound ing a r ea I ob s e r v e d m e n a n d w om e n o f a ll a g e s slin g ing p icks to b r e a k a pa rt st one s a n d h au l i n g d i r t t o b u i l d t h e r o ad s, a n d w ome n cl e an ing t h e s t re e ts w ith b ro o m s, ref e r r e d t o a s b ro o m e in v a r i ou s s e cti on s o f J a c me l an d t h e r e f o r e ; it a p p ea red t h a t a id in t h e f o rm o f t e m p o rary emp lo y me n t w a s re a c h ing s o m e f a c e ts o f t h e c om m u n it y O n e o f m y i n f o r m a n ts c o m m e n t e d t h a t t h e go v e rn m e n t w a s p ro v idi n g a da i l y s t ip en d to

PAGE 79

79 Haiti an s f o r r oad w o rk a n d bu i l d ing c o n struct i on S h e a lso s a id t ha t v a r i ou s a g en cies ha d c on d u ct e d i mpa c t a ss e ssme n ts t o i de n t i fy th e n e ed s o f t h e c o m mun it y It is i m p o rt a n t t o n o te t ha t Haiti ha s a l on g h i s t o ry o f N G Os w o rk i n g i n its c o un try an d c u r r en t e stimat e s ra n g e o f 5 00 0 to 13 0 0 0 o p e rati n g in H a iti. H a itia n s t h em s e l v e s ref e r to t he ir n a ti o n a r p ub l iq u e d e s O N G U n f o rt u na t e l y w ith n o me c h an i s m in p lace t o e f fe cti v e ly m o n it o r ac t i v ities, ma n y NG O s o f t e n w o rk w ith little o r n o c oo rdin a ti o n be t w ee n t he m w o rk i n c o m pe tit i o n w ith ea ch o t he r, a n d s o me t i me s a t c r o ss pu rp o s e s w ith t h e H a itian o f f ic i a ls. I n iti a l l y I ha d s o m e tre p i d a t ion t h a t I m i g h t b e pe rcei v e d in t h e s a m e role a s o t he rs w h o h a d c o m e be f o r e p o s sibly c on d u cti n g s o m e t y p e o f s u r v e y o r int e rv i e w T he r e f o re, I t r i e d t o en s u re t ha t m y res e a rch pu r p o se w a s cle a r l y unde rsto o d b y pa rtic i pa n ts in t h e s t u d y

PAGE 80

80 Fi g u re 3 1 H o me b a s e d v endo r s e l l ing a v a r i e ty o f go od s in he r c o m m un ity in Haiti, 20 1 2 P ho t o c o u rtesy o f C e les t e W o jt a le w icz

PAGE 81

81 Fi g u re 3 2 F e ma le m i c r oen tr e p re n e u rs o f fe r i n g the ir g ood s a t a l o c a l ma r k e t in Haiti, 20 1 2 P h o to c ou r t e s y o f C e le s te W o j t a le w i cz

PAGE 82

82 C H AP T ER 4 RE S ULTS Profile of t h e P a rti c i p a n t s I c o n du c t e d 3 8 i n d ep t h i nte r v ie w s w ith bu sin e ss w ome n be t w ee n t h e a g e s o f 1 9 an d 65 O f t h e 3 8 w ome n 2 7 resi d e d a n d o pe rat e d t he ir bu s i ne s s e s in rur a l a r ea s an d e le v e n resi d e d a n d op e rat e d t h e ir bu si n e ss e s in u rb a n a r e a s in J a c me l. Thirt y t w o w ome n h a d c h i l d re n w ith w ome n i n t h e rural a re a s r e po rting ha v ing th e h i g he st n u m be r o f c h i l d r e n M o st o f t h e rur a l w ome n I i n t e r v ie w e d ha d b e t w ee n f i v e an d t e n c h i l d re n Ho w e v e r, t h is is no t u n c o m m o n in H a iti w he re l a r g e fam i l ies a re t h e no r m Acc o rding t o t h e P a n W o r l d H ea lth Or g an i z a ti o n ( 2010 ), in u rb a n a re a s f am i l ies ma y ha v e th r e e t o f ou r childr e n w h i l e in rur a l p ro v inc e s t h e a v e ra g e is s e v e n c h i l d re n T h e lit e racy ra t e ( n u m be r o f p e op le w h o c a n re a d a n d w r i t e ) in Haiti is f i f t y t w o pe rce n t f o r t h e c ou n tr y 5 4 pe rc e n t f o r m a les an d 5 1 pe rc e n t f o r f em a les ( C I A 20 1 0 ). I n m y s tud y I f o un d 3 2 o f t h e 3 8 w o m e n w e re il l it e rat e O f t h e six w ome n w h o w e re l i t e rat e t w o h a d re c e ived s o m e f o r ma l e du c a t io n t w o h a d f inis h e d h i g h sc hoo l a n d t w o w e re in th e p ro c e ss o f e x p lor i n g te c hn ical t ra i n ing f o r a g r i c u lt u re a n d p r o f e ssi o na l bu sin e ss sc h o o l. W i t h t h e e x c ep ti o n o f o ne a l l o f t h e w om e n h a d b u sin e ss e s t ha t w e re ope rat i ona l, a lt h ou g h 2 3 re po r t e d ha v ing ha d to cl o se a bu sin e ss a t s om e po i n t in he r c a re e r. S e v en t e e n h a d b e e n in bu s i ne ss be t w ee n o n e a n d f i v e y ea rs, s e v e n h a d b ee n in bu si n e ss b e t w ee n s i x an d t e n y ea rs, six ha d b e e n in bu s i ne ss e l ev e n to f i f t ee n y ea rs, t h ree ha d b e e n i n bu s i ne ss b e t w ee n si x t ee n an d t w en ty y ea rs, an d f i v e h a d b ee n in bu sin e ss o v e r t w en ty y ea rs. T h i r t y f o u r o f t h e w ome n bu s i ne ss e s w e re a f fe ct e d b y t h e J an u a ry 12 2 0 1 0 ea r t h q ua k e w ith 1 5 o f t h e m re p o rting s e v e re d a ma g e e g f a m i l y m e m b e r k i l l ed l i v e st o ck kil l ed h ou se c o l l ap s ed

PAGE 83

83 M an y o f t h e w ome n I i n t e r v ie w e d i den t i f ied t h em s e l v e s a s t h e s o le o pe rat o r o f t he ir bu s i ne ss, w ith s o m e a ssist an c e f r o m th e ir c h i l d ren o r o t h e r f a m i l y m e m be rs. T h is res pon sibil i t y c oup l e d w ith the ir m an y o t he r h om e a n d c om m u n ity a cti v ities, m ad e f itt i n g th e i n t e r v iew i n to the ir a l re ad y ta x ing da y a c ha l l en g e Th e ir d a y s w e re l on g w ith man y re p o rting ha v ing t o rise a t f o u r or f i v e a m an d w o rk i n g w e ll i n t o t h e n i g h t. Y e t, e v e n th o u g h t h e i n t e r v i e w s c ou ld b e l en g t h y in s o m e c a s e s u p t o t h ree h ou rs, t h e ma jor i ty o f w om e n w e re an x io u s t o p a rtic i pa t e S o m e o f t h e w om e n e v e n a s k e d m e w he n I w ou ld ret u rn a n d e x p ress e d t h a t t h e y w ou ld l i ke t o me e t a g a i n t o d iscuss t he ir bu sin e s s On o n e o cc a sio n b e c a u se o f a s e r i e s o f tra n s po rta t i o n d e la y s a s a r e s u lt o f o u r v eh ic l e b re a king do w n an d a l o n g w a it f o r a mo t o rc y cle t a x i, I d id n o t f e e l I ha d s u f f ic i en t t i m e t o c o n d u ct t w o i n t e r v i e w s tha t I ha d s c he d u led w ith w o me n w o rk i n g in th e M i z a k m a rke t U p o n a r r i v a l a t t h e mark e t, I e x p lai ne d t o t h e w ome n w ha t ha d ha p pe n e d an d a sk e d i f t he y w ou ld b e ab le to resc he d u le. I i m m ed i a t e ly s en s e d t h e ir d isa p p o in t m e n t. O n e o f t h e w ome n a p pea r e d d istress e d t h a t I w ou ld no t b e ab le to in te r v i e w he r t ha t da y A t f i r st I t h o u g h t s h e m i g h t b e up s e t be c a u s e th is ha d b e e n p la n n e d an d s h e f e lt t h a t I ha d w a st e d h e r ti m e w h ich w a s c omp l e t e ly unde rsta n dab l e Ho w e v e r, the n s h e a s k e d m e v e y o u c ho s e n s o m e o n e e lse i n st e a d o f m e? N o w m y i n t e rpre t a ti o n o f h e r r ea cti o n w a s n o t so mu ch o n e o f d is a p p o i n t m e n t, r a t he r on e o f hu rt, f ea r, an d m istru s t tha t t h e i n t e r v i e w w ou ld e v e n t a ke p lace a t a l l Be ing s e n siti v e to h o w t h e w oma n w a s fee l i n g I m a d e a r r an g em e n ts f o r al t e rn a ti v e t ra n s po r t a ti o n to ret u rn l a t e r t h a t n i g h t. Dur i n g th e i n t e r v i e w I s en s e d a n ea g e r n e ss t o ta k e a d v an t a g e o f e v er y oppo rt u n ity t o v o ice he r c o n c e rns. I l e a rn e d t ha t s he a l o n g w i th s e v e ral o t he r

PAGE 84

84 w o m en w ho m I in t e r v i e w e d l a t e r t h a t w ee k, w e re d isa ppo i n t e d t h a t t w o y ea rs a f t e r me e ti n g w ith re p res en t a ti v e s f r o m NG O s w h o e v a lu a t e d t he ir n ee d s fo l l o w ing th e J an u a ry 12 2 0 1 0 ea r t h q ua k e t he y ne v e r r e c e i v e d th e a ssist an c e th a t t h e y ha d be e n p ro m is e d M y c on v e rsation w ith M a r g ue r i t e a m id d l e ag e d w oma n resi d i n g in Ba s e n B l e u (a po p u lar t o u r i st d e st i na ti o n ), w h o ha s a b u s in e ss s e l l ing g rains, f ish a n d h ou s e ho ld it em s, i l l u m in a t e d m y u nde rst a nd ing o f t h is is s ue Dress e d i n a c r is p n e a tly p ress ed w h ite c o t to n d ress, m a tc h ing s hoe s a n d w ide b r i m m e d s traw ha t, M a r g ue r i te w a l k ed b r i skly d o w n th e s t e e p an d rocky mo u n t a in p a th t o me e t w ith m e in f ro n t o f h e r co u s i n hou s e M a r g ue r i te de s c r ib e d t o me h o w he r h om e h a d b e e n s e v e rely dama g e d i n t h e ea rth q ua k e S h e e x p lai ne d : T h e re a re f issures in t h e w a l l s an d m y ro o f is c r a ck ed W he n it rai n s w a t e r d r i p s on t o t h e bed s w he re m y six c h i l d ren sl e ep My c h i l d ren c an g e t an y rest a n d w he n t he y d o f i n a l l y lie do w n t he y w a ke u p d r e n c h e d w ith w a t e r. T w o o f m y c h i l d ren be c am e v e ry i l l w ith a c o u g h an d f e v e r a n d I h a d t o t a ke t h e m t o t h e d o ct o r. I t w a s v er y d if f icul t T w o y ea rs a g o s e v e ral pe o p le f r o m a n a g en cy f r o m t h e H a itian g o v e rn m e n t (A z e c) c am e t o l oo k a t t h e d ama g e in ou r a r e a a n d t he y c a m e to m y hou s e T h e y l oo k e d a t a ll t h e p r o b l em s in m y hou se a n d in m y b u sin e ss. T he y p r o m ised t he y w ou ld he lp m e S ince t ha t ti m e n o o n e ha s e v e r co m e t o h e lp me ; t he y d id n d o a n y t h in g My an i m a ls w e re kil l e d a n d ma n y o f t h e g rains a n d v e g e t ab les I s e ll s p o i l e d be c a u se I d o n a v e a g oo d p la c e t o s to r e t h em M a r g ue r i te a lso re v ea l e d t ha t s h e d id n o t ha v e ma n y op p o rtu n it i e s t o d iscuss issu e s imp o rt a n t t o h e r a n d he r bu si n e ss a n d t ha t s h e ha s a l w a y s wa n t e d t o p a rtic i pa te in a w om e n g ro up Thr ou g ho u t t h e i n t e r v i e w s h e l ean e d f o r w a rd in he r c h a ir w he n s h e t a lked ab o u t he r ex pe r i en ce a s a n en tr e p re neu r. S h e e x ud e d a s en se o f p r i d e a s s h e d is c u ss e d he r bu s i ne ss a c c o m p l i s h m en t s he r f am i l y a n d he r h o pe s f o r t h e f u t u re. It w a s e v id en t to me t h a t b e ing ab le to op e n ly d iscuss h e r o p i n io n s w a s bo th re a f f i r m ing an d c a t h a rtic. I r e f l e ct e d o n ho w th e w oman p re v io u s e x pe r i en ce w ith re p re s en t a ti v e s

PAGE 85

85 f r o m NG O s o r g o v e rn m e n t p ro g ra m s a f fe ct e d ou r i n t e racti o n s a n d t h e i n f o r m a ti o n I ob t a i ned W h i l e I cl e a r l y c omm u n ica t e d t o t h e w ome n in m y s tud y t h a t n o d i r e ct b e n e f it w ou ld res u lt f r o m t h e i n t e r v ie w I c ou ld n h e l p b u t q ue sti o n w he t he r the y h o pe d f o r s om e t h ing in e x c han g e f o r t he ir p a rtic i pa ti o n Pe rh a p s t he y thou g h t I c ou ld p ro v ide s om e a ssist a n ce i n re p a i r ing the ir h o me s, i m p le m e n ti n g a p roject, tr a ini n g fo r t he ir bu sin e ss e n dea v o r, o r in te r v en ing o n t he ir b e ha l f t o b r i n g a id i n to t h e ir c o m m u n it y Y e t, pe rh a p s it w a s n a n y t h ing m o n e t a ry a t a l l bu t si mp ly th e op p o rtu n ity t o me e t a n d s ha re v i e w s an d e x pe r i en c e s Ho w e v e r, a s Corbin (2 0 0 7 ) st a t e s: a res e a rch e r c a n ne v e r b e c e rtain w h y a pe rson c hoo s e s t o b e a p a rtic ip an t; a ll a re s ea rch e r c a n d o is t o b e s en siti v e t o v e rb a l a n d no n v e rb a l r e s pon s e I tried t o ab i d e b y th is ph i l o s o ph y in m y in te racti o n s w ith th e p e op le in vo l v e d in t h e s tu d y Categori e s & T h e m e s D e ri v e d from the St u d y Da t a a na l y sis a l l o w e d fo r t h e i de n t i f ica t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s a n d t h e me s rel a t e d t o m ic r oe n t e rpr i se p e r f o r man c e A f i r st g ro u p o f c a t e g o r i e s an d t h e me s, re ad i l y ap p a re n t an d re l a t e d t o t h e f i v e f o r m s o f c a p it a l, a re c o n sid e red a s P r i ma ry C a t e g o r i e s a n d T h e m e s ( T ab le 4 1 ). A mo re n u an c e d s e t o f c a t e g o r i e s a n d t h e me s w a s a lso id en t i f i e d an d c on si d e red a s S e c on d a ry C a t e g o r i e s an d Th e me s ( T a b le 4 2 ). De sc ription of P r i m a r y Categori e s a nd T h e m e s Natur a l Capital Na tu ral c a p it a l incl u d e s a ss e ts t h a t a f fe ct w o me n d i r e ctly s u ch a s s eed s, f ruits, p ro du c e a n d f o rest s to cks ( e g ., t he y c a n b e raw m a t e r i a ls f o r t he ir b u sin e ss) a n d o t h e rs t ha t a f fe ct t h e m i nd i r e c tly s u ch a s l a n d s o il h ea lt h a n d b i o d i v e rs i ty ( e g ., t he y c o n d ition t h e p ro du c ti o n o f raw m a t e r i a ls ) W a t e r is a n e l e m e n t t ha t c on tri b u t e s t o w ome n bo t h d i r e ctl y a s w ome n rely o n it to ope r a te t he ir b u sin e ss, an d i nd i r e ctly a s w a t e r

PAGE 86

86 c on trib u t e s t o h ea lt h y e c o s y st em s. S p e c i f icall y st ud y pa rtic i pan ts w e re a sk e d t o d iscuss t h e imp o rt a n ce o f n a t u ral r e s ou rces f o r t he ir bu si n e ss o pe r a ti on s, ho w the y a cc e ss t he se res ou rc e s, t h e c h a n g e s in a c c e ss t o t he se res ou rces e x pe r i en c e d o v e r t h e pa st de c ade a n d t h e s t ra t e g ies t h e y u til i ze t o c o p e w ith an y c h a n g e s. Land ac c e s s La n d is o n e o f t h e mo s t i m p o rta n t a s s e ts o f t h e h o u s e h o ld e c o n om i e s, e s p e cially in rural H a iti. Haiti a n s app reci a te t h e v a lue o f la n d an d rec o g n i z e it a s a n i m p o rta n t me a n s f o r le v e ra g ing o t he r f o r m s o f c a p it a l ( S mu ck e r 2 0 02 ; Dolisca, 20 0 6 ) I n th is st ud y 1 6 o f 3 8 w om e n m ic r o e n tre p r e neu rs o w ne d l and ho w e v e r, po ss e ssion o f l a n d title w a s un cle a r. W o m e n m ic r oen t r ep re n eu rs w h o o w ne d l an d a n d w e re do ing w e ll in bu sin e ss e x p ress e d a de si r e t o pu rc h a se a dd itio na l la n d S e v e ral k e y i n f o r m a n ts note d t ha t w ome n ha v e d i f f iculty a cc e ssing mo st res ou rces. I n he r i t an c e l a w s f a v o r m e n a n d th e l a n d t h a t w om e n d o o w n is g ene ral l y v er y poo r q ua l i ty an d s t eep ly sl op in g M o re o v e r, t h e l a n d is n o t a s v a lu ab le be c au s e o f a ll th e d e f o rest a ti o n a n d s o il e rosi o n a n d t he r e a re f e w a g r i c u lt u ral t e c hn ic i an s t o a ssist w ome n in g ro w ing a goo d cr o p Dalia e x p lai n e d t ha t a l o n g t i m e a go t h e l a n d w a s be t t e r b e c au se t h e re w e re m o re t r e e s. H e r l a n d is v e ry ha rd an d s o me t i me s w he n t h e rains c o me it w a s he s a w a y th e s o i l T o c o p e w ith the se p ro b l em s, s h e t o ld m e t h a t s h e s e pa ra t e s t h e l a n d i n to t w o s e ct i on s a n d u s e s ma n u re f r o m t h e f am i l y an i ma ls to f e rti l i z e th e s o i l The a n i ma ls a re t i e d u p o n t h e l a nd S h e l ea v e s th e f e rti l i z e d s e cti o n o f t h e l a n d f a l l o w f o r o n e y ea r to e n han c e t h e q ua l i ty o f t h e s o il a n d t he n a lt e r n a t e s t h e f o l l o w ing y ea r. Si mo i n e s ha r e d t ha t t h e l a n d s h e w o rks d oe s no t be l on g t o he r. S h e p la n ts an d s e l l s b ean s bu t s h e s a y s tha t s h e doe s n e n ou g h mo n e y f r o m t he ir s a le. S in c e t h e l a n d o wn e r is i ll an d ph y sically un a b le to w o rk t h e l an d o n h is o w n s h e

PAGE 87

87 p la n ts t h e e n ti r e crop a n d s p l i ts ha l f o f t h e ha r v e st w i th th e l an d o w ne r. T h e cro p s he l p he r to p ro v ide f o r t h e h ou s e ho ld an d t o o f f s e t s om e o f t h e bu s i ne ss e x pen s e s. E v e n t hou g h it is d i f f icult, I w an t t o k e e p ma k i n g p r o g ress an d h a v e s o m e t h ing tha t w i l l las t s h e s a i d En v ironm e n t a l c onc e rn Alt hou g h t he re is t h e p e rce p ti o n o f t e n p o rt ra y e d in th e me d ia, t h a t Haiti an s a re in d i f f e r e n t t o t h e e n v i r onm e n t, I f ou n d t h a t m a n y o f t h e w ome n i n t h e s tud y h a d s o m e un d e rsta n d ing o f H a iti s en v i r onm e n t a l iss u e s an d its c a u s e s. M a r i e fo r e x a m p le, e x p ress e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c on c e rns: S pe c i f ic a l l y I a m w o r r ied ab o u t w a t e r a n d t r e e s a n d I be l i e v e t h e sit u a ti o n in H a iti h a s be c o m e m o re d i f f icult o v e r t h e p a s t t e n y ea rs. A ll t he se c h a n g e s ha v e p l a c e d p ress u re o n t h e f am i l y t o make a li v in g I ha v e t o t ra v e l f a rth e r f o r w a t e r a n d t h e s o il n eed s f e rti l i z e r b e c au s e it is n o t v e ry g o o d f o r g row i n g c r op J an w h o h a s b ee n in bu sin e ss e i g h t e e n y e a rs, s a id t h a t na t u ral re s ou rces w e re s u f f ic i en t f o r h ou s eho l d pu r p o s e s, b u t c o u ld ba rely s uppo rt he r bu s i ne ss. S h e e x p lai ned : i t is be c o m i n g i n c r ea sin g ly d if f icult be c a u se i f y o u ta ke s o me t h in g it is n o t be ing re p l e n ish e d T h e re a re f e w e r tre e s, l a n d is mo re e x pen si v e an d w a t e r is o n ly a v a i l ab le du r i n g t h e ra i n y s ea s on I t a ke t h e c h i l d ren t o t h e s p r i n g t o g e t w a t e r, bu t t he re is less a n d l e ss w a t e r. T h is cre a t e s p r o b le m s fo r e v e r y t h ing be c au s e I w on b e a b le to w a sh o r co o k, an d t h e an i m a ls w on b e ab le t o d r i n S h e a d d e d t ha t s h e g oe s t o s ea rch f o r w a t e r as e a r l y a s 5 : 0 0 a .m. a n d d o e s n o t ret u r n u n til la t e a f t e r n oo n In c o n trast t o t h e c on c ep ts p ro po s e d b y Sh iva (1 9 8 8 ), b y w h ich w o me n a re s ee n a s n a t u ral l y i n cl i ne d t o p rot e ct t h e en v i r on m e n t, s o m e o f t h e w o m e n i n t h is s t ud y s a w t h e en v i r onm e n t in a p u rely u til i t a r i a n w a y w h e re n a t u ral re s ou rces s e r v e a n im m e d ia t e

PAGE 88

88 ne e d J o l e ne v iew o n th e i m p o rta n c e o f t h e en v i r onme n t w a s less f o c u s e d o n s o cie t a l i mp l i c a ti o n s, b u t c en t e red o n h e r o w n bu si n e s s: T h e l a ck o f tr e e s ha s c au s e d a l o t o f s o il e rosio n I u s e d to bu y an d p la n t t ree s e e d s t o p la n t tre e s a n d w ou ld c u t s o m e o f t he ir b r a n c he s to ma k e c ha rco a l This m a y a lso b e a r e f l e cti o n o f t h e a t t a c h m e n t t o h e r pe rso n a l a ss e ts a n d r e s ou rces. This is n o t to s u gg e st t ha t, unde r le s s da u n ti n g c ond iti o n s, t he se w o m e n w ou ld n o t b e b e t t e r st e w a rds o f t h e e n v i r onm e n t. A s I e x p lored t h e d a t a w ha t e me r g e d is t ha t s o m e o f t he se w ome n f a c e d a n i n t e rn a l stru gg le, w he re b y du e to t h e ir o w n s u r v i v a l need s w e re f o rced t o v iol a te t h e v e ry res ou rces t ha t s u st a i n t h e m Dolisca e t a l. (2 0 06 ) f o un d t h a t l a n d t e n u re s ta t u s ma y ha v e a f fe ct e d Haiti a n f a r me d e cis i o n t o cl e a r la n d a s f a rm hou s e h o lds w h o o cc u p ied la n d il l e g a l l y c on v e rted m o re f o rest f o r a g r i c u lt u ral p r o du cti o n E du c a t e d f a r me rs a lso w e re m o re likely t o cl e a r less f o re s t. T h e res u lts o f t h e s t ud y s ho w e d tha t h o u s e ho ld si z e edu c a ti o n o f t h e he a d o f h o u s e h o ld, l a n d t e nu re r e g i m e a n d l en g th o f resid e n cy a re imp o rt a n t f a ct o rs i n l an d c l ea r i n g Lou is a w h o e x p lai ne d to m e h o w s h e e x trac t e d ma sk e ti o il f r o m t h e s eed s t h e tre e s p r o du c e d f o r t h e ha ir p ro d u cts t ha t s h e s o ld, f e lt t h a t s h e w a s t a king g oo d c a re o f t h e en v i r onm e n t b y p r e s e r v ing th e t re e s. H o w e v e r, s h e e x p lai n e d th a t in o rd e r f o r h e r f am i l y t o s u r v i v e t he y m u st d o w ha t e v e r t he y c an S h e s h a red t h a t w he n th e ea rth q ua k e h ap p en e d s h e l o s t m an y bu si n e s s s upp l i e s a n d d u r i n g th e hu r r ica ne s, s h e an d he r f am i l y l o st e v e r y t h ing the y o w ned S h e s a id t h a t t h e s u ppo rt o f h e r h u s ba n d a n d c u t t ing do w n t re e s t o ma ke a n d s e ll c ha rco a l w e re th e ma in f a ct o rs t ha t he l p e d in he r s u r v i v a l.

PAGE 89

89 O n e o f t h e k e y i n f o r m a n ts e x p lai n e d : E v e r y on e s t ru gg les, b u t it is h a rd e r o n w omen He s t a t ed : H a iti, t he re is a b ig p ro b lem w ith l a ck o f rain an d s o il e rosi o n A s y o u c a n s ee p e op l e p l a n t c r op s o n v e ry r o cky s o i l ; t he y p la n t b l a ck b e an s, c o rn an d m i l let ri g h t ne x t to ea c h o t he r. Th e y k no w t h e re is a n o t h e r w a y t o p la n t, bu t t he y d o n o t ha v e m u c h l a nd s o th a t is a ll t he y c a n d o Signifi ca n c e of w a t e r Acc e ss t o a d e q ua t e w a t e r is a m a jor c ha l len g e in H a iti a n d w ome n in t h e s t u d y a re o f t e n f o rc e d t o t ra v e l lo n g d ist a n c e s t o f i n d w a t e r. I n r u ral a re a s w e l l s an d i r r ig a ti o n s y st em s a re in li m it e d s upp ly an d w he n t h e y a re a v a i l ab le, t he y a re no t w it h in close p ro x i m ity t o the ir h o m e s o r b u si n e ss e s. S in c e t h e maj o r i ty o f w om e n in t h e s t ud y g ro w s t he ir o w n cro p s a n d r e l i e s o n t h e a g r i c u lt u ral g ood s p r o du c e d b y s u pp l i e r s w a t e r w a s me n ti o n e d a s a cr i tic a l res ou rce. M a r le ne w h o o w n s he r o w n l a n d a n d g ro w s s om e o f t h e p ro du c e t ha t s h e s e l l s, remarked ho w d if f i c u lt it is to a cc e ss w a t e r : on ly du r i n g t h e rai n y s ea s o n t h a t I ha v e en o u g h w a t e r f o r m y cro p s a n d e v e n t h e n it is d i f f i c u lt i f t he re a re s t o r m s an d t h e cro p s g e t w a s he d a w a y O v e r t h e pa st t e n y ea rs, it ha s be c o m e i n c r ea sin g ly d if f i c u lt a s it d o e s n i n a s much a s it h a d i n t h e pa s t I n s p ite o f t he se d i f f iculti e s s h e s a id t h a t s h e ma k e s d o w ith w ha t s h e ha s. S h e g oe s t o t h e s p r i n g f o r w a t e r f o r h e r da i l y hou s e ho ld ne e d s a n d w a its f o r t h e ra i n y s ea s o n f o r h e r c r op s. Delia, 2 8 y ea r o ld, w h o ope r a t e s he r b u sin e ss a t h o m e e c h o e d t h is c on c e rn: It is d i f f icult to a c c e ss w a t e r, w h ich is v er y i mpo rta n t f o r m y p la n t a in f oo d bu si n e ss. T h e s p r i n g is v e ry f a r f rom m y hou s e a n d re qu i r e s a th r e e h o u r jo u r n e y So m e times, I ma ke t h e t r i p an d I a m no t ab le to f i n d a n y w a t e r. I make an d s e ll f r i e d p l an t a i n s, w h ich re q u i r e s w a t e r f o r c lea n ing an d c oo kin g bu t o v e r t h e y ea rs, I ha v e no tic e d t h a t t he re is less a n d l e ss w a t e r a v a i l ab le. I ha v e a sist e r w h o is pa raly z e d an d I ha v e t o pa y

PAGE 90

90 s om e o n e t o he l p m e I f t h e w a t e r w a s nea r m y hou s e I c ou l d ha v e mo re ti m e t o t a ke c a re o f m y sist e r a n d m y bu sin e ss O n e o f t h e k e y i n f o r m a n ts f r o m C a r i t a s, a C a t ho l i c s o cial s e r v ice a g en cy in H a iti, st a t e d : s u f f ic i e n t w a t e r su pp ly c o u p led w ith t h e l a ck o f cis t e r n s a n d a v a i l ab le f e rti l i z e rs c r ea t e s a n e no r m ou s p ro b l e m f o r wo m e n t r y ing t o make a bu sin e ss f rom t h e c r op s t h e y g r o w It is d if f i c u lt f o r w o m e n t o o v e rcome t h e se ob s t a cl e s. T he y c an d o an y t h ing s o m e times. T h is is t h e r ea s o n t h a t man y w ome n l ea v e t o P o r t a u P r i n ce o r to t h e D o m inic a n R e p ub l i T h u s, a lt h o u g h s om e o f t h e w ome n m ic r o e n tre p r e neu rs o w n la n d t ha t is u s e d f o r g ro w ing cro p s, t he y ha v e n o i n f r a struc t u re to he l p p ro t e ct t h e m du r i n g pe r i od s o f d ro ug h t o r w a t e r a b u nd a n c e O n ly t w o w ome n m ic r oen t r e p re n e u rs in d ica t e d t h e y o w ne d a cist e rn f o r w a t e r c a tc h me n t. Soc ia l C a pital So cial c a p it a l re f e rs to t h e v a lue o f s o cial n e t w o rks a n d th e b e n e f its tha t a re de r i v e d f r o m bo t h i n f o r ma l a n d f o r m a l r e la t i o n s h ips (P u t n a m 20 0 1 ; B ou rdi e u 1 9 8 6 ) T h e se s o cial res o u rc e s p ro v ide a n a r r a y o f o ppo rt u n ities an d b e n e f i ts t h a t a l l o w w ome n m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs t o a c h ie v e the ir bu sin e ss g oa ls. A t t h e s a m e t i m e t h a t m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs u til i z e the ir ne t w o rks to b u i l d t h e ir bu si n e ss e s, t he y a lso bu i l d s o cial c ap it a l in c o m m u n ities t h ro u g h t he ir e n tre p r e n eu r i a l e n d e a v o rs. Co n ne c tion t o ex ter n a l ne t w or k s (Bus i n e s s A ss oc ia tions, Ma r k e ts, Suppl i e r s e tc.) T h e ma jor i ty o f t h e w ome n w h o v i e w e d th em s e l v e s a s s u cc e s s f u l m i c r o en tre p r en e u rs w e re i n v o l v e d in ne t w o rks o u tsi d e o f t h e ir c o m m un it y T he se b ro a de r c on n e cti on s a l l o w e d w om e n t o g a in a c c e ss t o o p e rati o na l a ssis t an c e a n d k n o w le d g e o n ho w t o de v e lop a n d in s om e c a s e s g row the ir bu sin e ss. M o re o v e r, t he y w e re ab le to

PAGE 91

91 in t ro du c e n e w lin e s o f p ro du cts f o r d i v e rs i f ic a ti on bu i l d t he i r c l ie n t b a s e an d i n c r ea s e p r o f it ma r g ins c r ea ti n g a more s u s t a in a b le b u sin e ss. T h e se r e p res e n t v e rtical l i n k a g e s c o n ne ct i n g w ome n w ith pe o p le o f une q ua l st a t u s a n d c o r r e s p ond i n g i n t e rests. T he s e a r e g ene ral l y e x t e rn a l c o n t a cts, o u tsi d e t he ir loc a l c o m m un it y T he s e c o n ne cti o n s h e lp t o i n c r ea se up w a rd m ob i l it y Co n ne c tion t o in t e rn a l n e t w or k s (C h ur c h, Communi t y G roups, e tc.) S o m e w om e n in t h e st ud y pa rtic i pa t e d in c h u rch a cti v ities an d p ro v id e d ou tr e a ch to c om mun ity mem be r s an d t o o k a d v an t a g e o f e du c a t i ona l a n d b u s in e s s rela te d s e r v ices ( l it e ra c y t raini n g t oo ls, e tc ) o f fe r e d b y th e c h u rch. Dalia, a bu sin e ss w o m a n o f 3 7 y ea rs, w h o s e l l s c o r n a n d li v e st o ck, is a cti v e ly i n v o l v e d in he r ch u r c h A s a si n g le w oma n w ith n o c h i l d r e n s h e s a id t h a t b e ing pa rt o f t h e c h u rch h a s a l l o w e d he r to de v e lo pe d more f r i e nd s h ips. S h e s a id t ha t it is no t ea sy t o re c e i v e th e t y p e o f t rain i n g s h e n eed s f o r he r b u sin e ss a n d t h e on ly p la c e s h e c a n i mp ro v e h e r ski l ls is t h ro u g h t h e he lp o f t h e c hu rch. A n o t he r m ic r o e n tre p r e n e u r a d d e d t h a t s o me t i m e s, f e ma l e m e mbe rs o f t h e c h u rch g ro up s g e t t o g e t he r a n d e x c ha ng e bu sin e ss i dea s Gracia, a bu si n e ss w oma n o f 2 5 y ea rs i s a l s o en g a g e d i n c h u rch a cti v ities. S h e s ha red t h a t s h e is i n v o l v e d in a w om e n g ro u p a t he r c h u rch. T he re a re 1 3 m e mbe rs i n t h e g ro u p a n d t he y g e t t o g e t h e r to t a lk a bo u t bu sin e ss i dea s a n d si ng T h e g ro u p o r g an i z e s s om e a cti v it i e s in t h e pa r i sh a n d i n e x c han g e t h e y m a y rec e i v e l aund ry de t e r g en t a s a g i f t Cu r re n tl y s h e a t t e n d s lit e r a cy cl a ss e s a t t h e c hu r ch e v e r y Mo nda y T h e se r e p res e n t t h e h o r i z on t a l l i n k a g e s o f w om e n w ith p e op le o f eq ua l st a t u s a n d in te rest. Eti m ie s t a t ed : S o m e t i me s F on k o z e o r t h e c h u rch o f fe r s o m e a cti v ities f o r w omen T h e y g i v e u s bu sin e ss l oan s a n d t h e n w e a re r e s p o n sible f o r r epa y ing th e

PAGE 92

92 lo an S h e e x p lai ne d t ha t t he y i n v it e d he r t o pa rtic i pa t e in a s o l i da r i t y g ro u p a n d t he n s h e i n v it e d s om eo n e e l s e S h e u s e s t he se o p po rtu n it i e s t o g i v e he r b u sin e ss a n ad v an t a g e H e r g oa l i s fo r h e r bu si n e ss t o b e c o m e b i g g e r a n d s h e is op ti m istic t h a t it w i ll g ro w S h e s ta t e d E v e n th o u g h I a m a po o r p e rs o n I a m s o me o n e t ha t l oo ks f o r a w a y t o li v e I n he r o p ini on t h e most i mpo r t a n t t h i n g s ne c e s s a ry in ru nn ing a bu sin e ss a re bu s i ne ss k no w le d g e a n d mo n e y Sh e em pha si z e d t h a t e v e n t ho u g h s h e doe s n o t k no w ho w t o re a d o r w r it e s h e ha k no w le d g e in he r br a i n T h e re is a p ro g ram a t t h e c hu rch t ha t o f fe rs l it e r a cy cl a ss e s an d s h e a t t end s w he n s h e ha s time. Et i m a c c ou n t is a n e x a m p le o f c a p it a l i zing o n bo t h v e rtical a n d h o r i z on t a l l i n k a g e s t o en s u re t h e v ia b i l i t y o f h e r b u sin e s s. Still o t he rs l ike J an i n e stre n g t he n e d t he ir s o c i a l ne t w o rks t h ro u g h t h e ir v o lu n t ee r w o rk a n d p ro v idi n g m e n t o rship i n t h e c om m u n it y J an ine p ro u d ly s ta t e d : W he n I p l a n t pe a nu ts, o t he rs f o l l o w S o m e t i me s pe o p le c om e t o s e e w ha t I a m do ing in o r d e r to le a rn f r o m m e s o t he y c a n h a v e a g oo d ha r v e st h e me n ti o n e d t ha t t h ro u g h he r a cti v ities in t h e c o m m u n ity on e p e rson h a d o f f e red t o p ro v ide l o an s t o w ome n Ho w e v e r, s h e l a me n t e d t h a t t h is ha s n o t y e t o cc u r r ed Ma n y t i me s, s h e a n d o t h e r w ome n f o r m a g ro u p a n d w o rk on p ro j e cts t og e t he r. S o m e times t he y p la n t tre e s o r b u i l d ro ad s w he re t h e y a re n ee d ed W h i l e I rec e i v e n o mo n e t a ry ben e f i t f o r t he s e a cti v ities, t h e o v e rall c o m mun ity be ne f its a s a re s u l t s h e p r o ud ly s ta t e d Supp o rt f rom fri e nds f ri e nds a re fa m i l y M an y m ic r oen tr e p re n e u rs are relia n t o n t h e ir f r i e n d s f o r e mo ti o na l a n d f i n an cial s up p o rt. E v e n t hou g h s om e w ome n m en ti on e d t ha t t he y w e re ab le to a c c e ss cre d it, t he y s t i l l e x p ress e d a p ref e re n c e f o r t a king o u t c r ed it f r o m f r ie nd s. The f o l l o w ing e x c e rpt f r o m m y i n t e r v i e w w ith J a n e x e m p l i f ies t h e s e n ti m e n ts e x p ress e d b y o t h e r

PAGE 93

93 m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs. W he n I n e e d m o ne y I bo r r o w f r o m f r i e n d s. L ike w ise, w he n the y ne e d mo n e y I lo a n it t o t h em M y f r i e n d s an d ne i g h b o rs c a m e t o h e lp m e a f te r a ll m y c r op s w e re de stro y e d i n t h e l a st hu r r ica n e M y f r i end s an d m y o w n de t e r m in a ti o n he lp e d m e in m y rec o v e r y Supp o rt f rom f a mi l y W h i le m a n y m ic r oen tr e p re n e u rs i nd ica t e d t h a t the ir f a m i l y m e mbe rs w e re no t d i r e ctly i n v o l v e d in the i r b u sin e s s e s a cti v itie s the y d o p lay s o m e ro l e For e x a m p le, i n a s e a b r o t he r l i ving in Po rt a u Pr i n ce an d a c o u sin in G u a da l u p s e n t he r re m itt a n c e s to he lp he r g r o w he r b u si n e ss. Al t e rn a ti v e l y s h e u s e s s o m e o f t h e p r o f its f r o m he r b u sin e ss to s uppo rt he r de c e a s e d b rot he r s th r e e c h i l d r e n s edu c a ti o n in P o rt a u P r i n c e O n e o f he r ne p he ws is c u r r en tly en rol l e d in t h e U n i v e rs i t y In an o t he r c a s e a m ic r oe n tre p re n eu r s c o u sin a c t e d a s h e r su pp l i e r, tr a v e l i n g t o th e U n i t e d S t a t e s pe r i od ically t o p u rch a s e merc h a nd ise f o r h e r to s e ll a t t h e ma rke t Un fo rtu n a t e l y in t h e la t t e r ca s e t h e m ic r o e n tre p r e neu r s c o u sin d i ed w h ich res u l t e d in h e r h a v ing t o cl o se t ha t bu si n e ss. No w s h e ha s a s ma l l e r b u sin e ss s e l l ing v e g e t ab les a n d g rains. S o m e o f t h e c h i l d ren h e lp e d t ra n s po rt b u sin e ss m e rc h and i s e o r s o ld p ro d u cts f r o m t h e h o m e w h i l e t h e ir m o t he r so l d a t t h e ma rke t S om e h u s b an d s a lso he l p e d t h e m in t he ir b u sin e ss a cti v ities, w h i l e o t he rs s up po rted t he m b y p ro v idi n g s ta r t u p c ap it a l, o f t e n in t h e f o rm o f a g i f t o f li v e st o ck o r cas h t o e s t ab l i sh t he ir b u sin e ss. M an y o f t h e w ome n in t h e s t ud y e mp h a si z e d t h a t t he y a re in c h a r g e o f t h e bu s i ne ss a n d its ope rat i o n relies o n t h e m a n d t he ir d e cis i o n m a king. Se v e ral w ome n d iscuss e d ho w t he ir o w n il l ne ss res u l t e d in t h e m ha v ing t o t e mpo r a r i ly cl o se the ir b u sin e ss. F o r e x amp le, Eloje e x p ress e d t ha t it is f rustrat i n g w he n s h e is un a b le t o w o rk b e c au se o f i l ln e ss. On c e s h e h a d ab d om i n a l p a in, w h ich re q u i r e d he r t o

PAGE 94

94 u nde r g o s u r g e r y S ince s h e w a s th e on ly on e t a king c a re o f t h e b u si n e ss, s h e h a d t o cl o se it t e mpo rar i l y P h y s i ca l Capital P h y sical c ap it a l re f e rs to t h e t oo ls a n d e q u i p me n t w ome n m ic ro en t r ep re n eu rs u se t o o pe ra t e p r o du ct iv e bu sin e ss e s. It i n cl u de s relia b l e a n d a f fo r d ab le tr a n s p o rta t i o n a cc e ss t o a f fo rd a b le e n e r g y an d w a t e r, an d a de q ua te a n d s e c u re s t o ra g e a n d b u i l d in g s In o r d e r f o r i n d i v id ua ls to a c c e ss p h y sical c ap it a l t h e y a lso n e e d t o h a v e s oun d in f ra s truc tu re s u ch a s ade q ua t e r o ad s an d u t i l i ty s y st em s. Signifi ca n c e of e qui p m e nt a nd t ools E q u ip m e n t n e e d s v a r i e d a cc o rd i n g t o t h e t y p e o f m ic r oe n t e rpr i se w ome n o w ned T h e mo st c o mm o n it e m s me n ti on e d w e re si m p le f a r m i n g too ls inc l ud ing p icks, s h o v e ls, hoe s, a n d b u ck e ts f o r c r o p p r o du cti o n a n d h a r v e sti n g Som e w o me n e x p ress e d a n e e d f o r co n st r u cti o n ma te r i a ls to bu i l d b en c he s o r a ro a d side s t a n d O t h e rs c i t e d t h e n e e d f o r se w ing m a c h in e s s cissors, ne e d les an d o t he r m a t e r i a ls ne c e s s a ry f o r m a king a rt an d t e x tiles. I n a ll c a s e s w he re e q u ipme n t w a s v ie w e d a s l a ckin g a w hee lb a r r o w w a s me n ti o n e d a s a n imp o r t an t v eh ic l e f o r tra n s p o rting g ood s ba ck a n d f o rth to t h e ma rket. T h e s to ry o f Mar g ue r i t e w h o s e l l s r i c e v e g e t ab les an d o t h e r h ou s e ho ld i t em s i n t h e M i z a k m a rk e t in J a c me l, il l u str a t e s t h e v a lue o f e q u i p m e n t f o r h e r b u sin e ss: W he n it is raini n g I c a n l os e a ll o f m y m e rch a nd ise b e c au se I d on ha v e a s pe cial p la c e t o s to r e o r sell. S o m e p e op le b u i l d t h e ir o w n p lac e h o w e v e r, s ome t i me s t he s e s t ruct u r e s a re v anda l i z ed T w ice, s o me o n e s t o le t h e w oo d e n p o les a n d t h e me ta l ro o f f r o m t h e s t a l l s. I u s e d t o sit o n a litt l e b en ch w h i l e s e l l ing m y p ro du c e b u t s o m eo n e st o le it. T he re a re n o t r e e s t o sit u nde r s o I u s e d t o sit u n d e r m y umb r e l l a b u t it t o re d u r i n g th e

PAGE 95

95 l a st rainst o rm a n d n o w I j u st w ea r a ha t T h is is d if f i c u lt b e c au s e I a m u nde r t h e s u n f o r at le a st f i v e h o u rs a da y So m e o f t h e stra t e g ies w omen u s ed to s ecu r e t h e t o ols a nd e q ui p m ent t hey ne e ded i n clu d ed bor ro w i n g them, o f t en times f r om m e n In one ca s e, a w o m an w as able t o b or r ow tools a n d e q ui p me n t f r o m h er hus b and w ho access e d t h ese t hrou g h Car i tas w here he w as a member. W i t h out his help, it w ould be ha r d to g et t h e it e ms she n eeds be c au s e t h ey are e x pensi v e said. T h ese s trate g ies not only e x empl i f y sol i dar i ty among kin or f r ie nds, but may also e x empl i f y w n e q ual access i n obt a i ning the r esourc e s that she n e eds. Fin a l l y ano t h e r co n c e rn r a ised b y s om e o f t h e w ome n w a s t h e l a ck o f ma t e r i a ls a v a i l ab le to bu i l d s o l i d en clos u res t o k e e p li v e st o ck s a f e O n e o f t h e pa rtic i p a n ts s t a t e d t ha t s h e u s e d t o ha v e a g oo d bu si n e ss s e l l i n g g o a ts, bu t h a d t o q u it be c a u se s h e ha d n o w a y t o k ee p he r an i ma ls s a f e D o g s kil l e d s e v e ral o f he r g o a ts. S h e re c ou n t e d t h a t t h e S u n da y p r i o r to ou r i n t e r v ie w f i v e g oa ts b e lo n g ing t o h e r n e i g h b o r w e re kil l e d b y a pa ck o f d o g s. A t o t a l o f 2 4 g oa ts i n he r e n e i g hbo rh o o d w e re a t t a c k e d a n d e a t e n b y do g s w it h in t h e p a st w eek h e s a id. O n e a s pe c t t h a t c on tr a d ict e d m y e x pe ct a ti o n s w a s th e lack o f a v a i la b i l ity an d u se o f te c h n o lo g y s pe ci f i c a l l y m ob i l e p ho n e s. D e s p ite t h e cl a i m s ma d e b y m an y p ractitio n e rs w o rk i n g in poo r de v e lo p ing c o u n t r i e s o n t h e p re v a le n t u se o f m o b i l e ph o ne s b y m ic ro en tr e p re neu rs, I d id n o t f ind t h is to b e t h e c a s e e s p e cially in rur a l c o m m u n ities s u r r o u nd i n g J a c me l. T h is is a r e f le c ti o n o f t h e ab ject p o v e rty o f th is pa rt o f Haiti, a n d a lso m a y po int t o a g e n de r i n e q ua l i ty a s I w it ne ss e d more me n t h a n w om e n u sing m o b i l e p ho n e s.

PAGE 96

96 T y pe a nd a c c es s to t r a nsportation W h i le w a lk i n g is th e m o st c om mo n me an s o f g e t t ing a ro u n d in H a iti, m o st o f t h e w ome n in t h e s t ud y i n d ica te d t h a t t h e y u se m u ltiple f o r m s o f tr a n s p o rta t ion f o r t h e ir bu sin e s s T h e se i n c l u d e mu l e s, d o n k e y s m o t o rc y cle s t a x is, o r t a p t ap s. Unlike P o rt a u Pr i n c e w h ich ha s p u b l i c bu s e s t h e p eop l e o f J a c me l ha v e t o rely m o stly o n t a p t ap s. T a p t ap s a re t r an s f o r m e d o l d sc h o o l b u s e s o r truc k s, w h ich a re c o lorf u l l y pa in te d w ith rel ig io u s, V oo d oo o r e rotic s y mbo ls. T h e y a re o p e n a i r e d in t h e ba c k an d ha v e a me ta l rai l ing tha t p a ss en g e rs g rab on t o t o lift t he m s e l v e s i n to t h e v eh ic l e T a p t ap s run r e g u ro u t e s w it h in u rb a n a re a s a n d b e t w ee n t o w n s in th e c o u n t r y sid e Alt hou g h t a p t ap s ha v e a v eh ic l e c a pa city li m it, n o t e v e r y on e ab i d e s b y it, a n d w ome n a n d m e n s q u e e z e in to g e t h e r ti g h tly w h i l e s ea t e d o n t h e h a rd m e t a l o r w oo d e n s ea ts. It is n o t un c om mo n t o s e e w o m e n sit t i n g o n e a ch o t h e r s l a p s w he n a ll rem a ini n g s pa ce is o cc up i ed La t e c o m e rs g rab o n t o t h e t a p t ap ou tsi d e rail i n g an d han g o n f o r t h e rid e T o e x it th e v e h ic l e p a ss en g e rs t a p t h e d r i v e r s ba ck w in d o w w ith a too t hb ru s h s po o n p en ci l e tc. ( d e pe n d ing o n t h e t a p t a p ), w h ich dan gles o n a s tring o n t h e b a ck w in d o w tha t d i v id e s th e d r i v e r s s ea t f r o m t h e pa ss e n g e r s s ea t. W o m e n v a ry in the ir need s an d t ra n s po rt a ti o n b e ha v iors an d d o no t a ll ha v e t h e s am e a cc e ss t o tra n s p o rta t io n P oo r r u ral w ome n in pa rticular, w h o a re u nab l e t o a f fo rd t h e f ee s f o r a m o t o rc y cle t a x i ( mo t o ) o r a t a p t ap d o w ha t e v e r t he y ha v e to to make a l i vin g Som e o f t h e w ome n re p o rted ha v ing t o w a lk u p t o f o u r h o u rs to a n d f r o m t h e ma rket s e v e ral da y s a w ee k. Eti m ie, a rur a l m a rket w oma n in J a c m e l e x p lai ne d t h a t tra n s po r t a ti o n is v e ry d if f icult f o r h e r a n d w it hou t it, t h e re is n o b u si n e h e e x p lai ned : W he n I ha v e e x tra m one y I w i l l t a ke a mo t o rc y cle t a x i, bu t it is e x p e n si v e I o w ne d a mu l e b u t it w a s h it b y f a l l ing rock du r i n g th e ea r t h q ua ke a n d it e v en t ua l l y d ie d

PAGE 97

97 I ha v en ha d th e mo ne y t o bu y ano t he r o n e a n d I w ou ld ne e d a lo a n t o re p l a ce it Si mo i n e e c ho e d E ti m i e ee l i n g s s ta ti n g : T r a n s po rt a ti o n is e ss e n ti a l bu t it is e x pen si v e It is n o t e a sy ; s ome t i me s I th ink I a m w o rk i n g f o r t h e mo t o r c y c le d r i v e J an e x pe r i en c e w a s si m i l a r. S h e t ra n s po rts e v er y t h ing o n h e r h e a d bu t on c e in a w h i l e s h e m a y f ind a f r i en d w h o is n c a r r y ing an y t h ing o n h e r b a ck w h o c a n g i v e he r a r i d e o n a mo t o rc y cle. O v e rall it is v er y d if f icult to f i n d pe o p le t ha t c a n t ra n s po rt y o u t o t h e ma rk e t s h e s a id. S h e ma k e s t w o t r i p s t o th e ma r k e t a n d he r f r i en d w a tc he s he r it em s w he n s h e is gon e S h e s t a t e d t h a t an i ma ls s u c h a s a mu les o r d on k e y s a re i mpo r t an t. S h e o w ne d a mu le, bu t it d i e d a n d s h e doe s n h a v e th e mo n e y t o b u y ano t he r o ne W h i l e M a r l en e a Ma d a m S a r a a lso s a id th a t tr a n s po r t a ti o n w a s v e ry i mpo r t an t f o r h e r b u si n e ss, s h e d i d n f i n d a c c e ssing it d i f f icult. D e p end ing o n t h e am o un t o f p ro d u cts I a m b u y ing o r sell i n g I w i ll re n t a t ruck o r p a y f o r a m o t o rc y cle t a x S h e e x p ress e d t ha t o n e o f t h e main p r ob l e m s in H a iti is t h e ro a d s a r e n o t s a f e e s pe cially a f t e r t h e ea r t h q ua k e S h e rec o un t e d a n i n cid e n t w he n s h e w a s t ra v e l i n g t o P o rt a u P r i n ce t o bu y m e rc h and ise f o r he r b u sin e ss. T h e d r i v e r of t h e t r u ck in w h ich s h e w a s t ra v e l i n g h it a ro u g h s po t o n t h e ro a d an d l o st c on trol o f t h e v eh ic l e Sh e w a s e jec t e d f r o m t h e v eh ic l e a n d l a n d e d o n t h e ha rd s u r f a c e H e r injur ie s w e re so s e r i ou s t ha t s h e n e a r l y d ie d S h e rais e d h e r ar m s r e v ea l i n g th e s c a rs o n t h e ba ck o f h e r f o re a r m s a n d p o in t e d t o t h e sc a rs o n h e r le g s a s w e l l W h i l e s h e w a s l y ing o n th e g ro und s h e s t a t e d t h a t s o m eo n e s t o le a ll o f h e r m o ne y F o l l o w ing th is inci de n t, s h e ha d n o c ho ice bu t t o c l o se h e r b u s i ne ss. W h i le tr a n s p o rta t i o n r e s ou rces m a y v ar y am o n g w omen mo st a re e x po s e d t o dan g e r in t he ir b u sin e s s t ra v e l be c au s e o f Ha i poo r i n f ra s truc tu re an d tr a n s p o rta t i o n

PAGE 98

98 s y st em W om e n w h o t r a v e l b y f o o t o r p ub l i c t r an s p o rta t i o n a re v u ln e r ab le t o a v a r i e ty o f r i sks res u lting f r o m po o r r oa d c ond i t i on s, p oo r l ig h ti n g an d p oo r v e h ic l e an d ro a d ma in t e n an c e P o o r dr i v e r b eha v ior is a lso a r ea l t h r e a t t o p a ss e n g e rs. M an y d r i v e rs s w er v e in an d ou t o f l a ne s, d r i v e o n t h e w ro n g si d e o f t h e r o ad o r p a ss a t un s a f e s pe e d s a n d w he n it is no t cl e a r to pa ss. E v e n w he n d r i v e rs use c a u ti on t h e y m a y no t a l w a y s b e ab le t o a v o id t h e n u m e ro u s ha z a rds o n t h e ro a d (a n i ma l s an d p e op le c r o ssing a t an y t i m e me c h an ics f i x ing the ir t rucks o n t h e s tre e t s a n d p o t h o le s ). B e c au s e w om e n m ic r oen tre p r en e u rs h a v e t o tra v e l, n o t o n ly t o t h e ir p lace o f b u sin e ss, bu t t o mu ltiple l o c a t i o n s i n side an d ou ts i d e th e ir c o m m u n ities f o r s u pp l i e s, t he y a re c on st a n tly fa c e d w ith a de g ree o f ins e c u r i ty a s the y g o a b ou t t he ir d a y Furt he r m o re, in add iti o n t o d is r u p ti o n r e s u lting f rom t h e im p a ct o f d isas te r, w o m e n w h o w o rk i n m ic r oe n t e rpr i s e s ma y b e e x po s e d t o i n c re a s e d risk b e c au s e o f po l i t ical an d s o cial p ro b l e m s s u c h a s s trikes t h a t l i m it t h e f low o f ma rket g ood s. In most c a s e s, bu s r o u t e s p ro v e i n e f f ic i e n t a n d e x pen si v e f o r mo st w ome n a s t h e y re q u i r e m u l t iple s t o p s o r d o n o t st o p w he re mo st w ome n s e t u p b u sin e ss a ct iv ities. In t i m e s o f c r is i s, t he re may b e l i m it e d o r no a cc e ss to pub l i c t r a n s po r t a ti o n r e q u i r e d fo r b u s i ne ss, l e a v ing w ome n m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs i n a p rec a r io u s sit u a ti o n A d e qu a te s t o r a ge of bu s in es s m e r c handi s e a nd r a w m a t e ri a l s W h i le w om e n in t h e s t ud y w e re i n t e rest e d i n i mp ro v e d c a pa city t o p ro du ce c r op s an d cr e a te a n (g a rd en ), t h e maj o r i ty o f w ome n w e re c on c e r n e d w ith ho w t o p res e r v e the ir a g r i c u lt u ral p ro du c ts a f te r t h e h a r v e st o r a f t e r t he y pu r c ha s e d g rains in bu lk f r o m s u pp l i e rs. M an y w ome n c om me n t e d o n ho w th e l a ck o f a de q ua te s to ra g e an d re f r ig e rati o n l e d to s po i la g e a f fe ct e d t h e q ua l i ty o f t h e p ro d u ct a n d u l ti ma t e ly its ma rket v a lu e W ome n o f t e n f o un d t h e m s e l v e s in a si t ua ti o n w he re t h e y w er e f o rc e d t o s e ll

PAGE 99

99 w he n the re w a s a s u r p lus o f g o o d s o n t h e m a rket ra t h e r t h a n h a v ing th e ab i l ity t o o f fe r it em s f o r sale w he n t h e y c ou ld o b t a in a h i g h e r price. S i m i l a r l y w ome n l oo k e d t o m ini m i z e t h e ir l o ss e s b y u sing the se p r o du cts fo r h o u s e ho ld c on s u m p ti on Marie J o l e n e t o ld m e W he n y o u bu y s ome t h ing a n d c an s e ll it ra p idl y t h e n e v e r y t h ing s po i l s. T he re is n o p l a ce t o k e e p t h e p ro du c e f o r a l o n g t i m e I c a n o v e rco m e th is p ro b l e m b y bu y ing o t he r t h in g s t o s e l l b u t w he n I h a v e v e g e t ab les t h a t d on s e l l m y f a m i l y an d I ha v e t o ea t t h e m be f o r e t h e y s po i l l e s e w h o t ra v e ls to P o rt a u P r i n ce t o bu y an d s e ll p ro du c e v o iced s i m i l a r co n c e rn s T h e r oad s a re v e ry ba d an d e v e n if s o m eo n e h a s g oo d p r o du cts, t h e y m a y s po il b e c a u se o f t h e a m ou n t o f time re q u i r e d t o t ra n s po rt. T h e re a re a lso f e w t rucks a v a i l ab le to c a r r y p ro du cts t o ma r k e t so t h e q ua l i ty o f t h e f o o d is no t g o o d o r t h e f o o d s po i l s. I n t e restin g l y n o n e o f t h e w om e n e v e r me n ti o n e d t ha t p ro du c e h a d t o b e t h r o w n a w a y o r h a d g on e to w a st e y mbo l i z ing t h e v a lue o f t he se res ou rces. M an y o f t h e w ome n i n t e r v i e w e d d iscuss e d t h e l a ck o f a de q ua t e s to r a g e f a ci l ities f o r t h e v e g e t ab les, f r u i t s, a n d g rains f r o m t h e ir ha r v e st o r b u lk pu rc h a s e A l t hou g h I d id no t a sk t h e w om en d i r e ctly abou t a cc e ss to r e f r ig e rati on I c ou ld s u r m ise f r o m t h e in te r v i e w tha t o n ly f o u r o f t h e t h i r t y e i g h t w ome n h a d e lec t r i city an d o f t h e se f ou r, on ly one a w om a n n a m e d M i l is e o w ne d a r e f r ig e rat o r. M i l i se s e l l s f resh p ro du c e a n d s ma ll app l i an c e s i n J a cmel s city c en t e r a n d s h e e x p ress e d t h a t st o ra g e is a b ig p ro b l e m f o r bu sin e ss w o m e n in H a iti. S h e e x p lai n e d t ha t a lt h o u g h s h e ha s r e f r ig e rati on it d oe s n a l w a y s w o rk. E ne r g y s ou rces a re un r e l i ab le ( i n t e r m itt e n t e lec t r i cit y b rok e n g ene ra t o r, o r li m it e d s u p p ly o f g a s fo r t h e g ene r a t o r ) a n d p ro du c e o f t e n s p o i l s. I n H a iti, e l e ctr i city ma y on ly b e a v a i l ab le on ly th ree t o f o u r h o u r s a d a y g ene ral l y a t n i g h t. On t h e da y o f

PAGE 100

100 t h e i n t e r v ie w s h e to ld m e he r h u s b a n d h a d b ee n tra v e l i n g f r o m s t a ti o n t o s t a t ion tr y ing to f i n d g a s f o r t he ir g e n e rat o r. In H a iti, it n o t u n c o mm o n t o s e e me n an d w o m e n w ith ju g s rais e d h i g h in t he i r h and s in f r o n t o f g a s st a ti on s scr a mb l i n g t o s e c u re w ha t e v e r t he y c an M an y w ome n i n t h e s t ud y m e n ti o n e d t h e l a c k o f p r o pe r s t o ra g e f o r pe r i s hab l e it em s. E v e n i f w om e n en joy a g oo d ha r v e st, t he y m a y no t b e ab le t o s e ll e v e r y t h ing a t t h e s a m e t i m e an d i n man y c a s e s it ma y no t b e w ise to d o s o i f t h e y c a n d e ma n d a be t t e r price f o r t he ir p r odu ct in t h e f u t u r e Fin a nc i a l Capital Fin an cial c a p it a l re f e rs to t h e a v a i l ab i l ity o f f i n an cial res o u rces t ha t a l l o w s w ome n m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs t o a c h ie v e the ir bu sin e ss ob jec t i v e s. Fi n an cial c ap it a l incl u de s a v a i l ab le m on e t a ry s to cks s u ch a s li q u id a ss e ts, c a sh a n d s a v in g s, a s w e ll lo an s o f s om e k ind o r re g u lar i n f lo w s o f m o ne y s u ch a s re m it t an c e s Impor t a n c e of c r e dit Re g a rdless o f t h e si z e o r loc a ti o n t h e ir m ic r o e n t e rpr i s e s, mo s t m ic r oe n t e rpre n eu rs n e e d c a p it a l t o s t a rt, ma i n t a in, a n d g row the ir bu sin e ss e s O n e o f t h e ma jor c ha l l en g e s o f f e ma le m ic r o e n tre p r e neu rs i n H a iti is t h e l a c k o f c a p it a l du r i n g t h e i n it i a l st a r t u p p h a s e a n d l a t e r on a s t he y t ry t o m a in t a in o r g row the ir bu si n e ss e s. M o st o f t h e w o m e n s t a rted t h e ir bu si n e ss e s w ith a s ma ll a m o un t o f mo n e y f r o m a f r i e n d o r f a m i l y m em b e r, a l t h ou g h s o m e w o m e n l a t e r a pp l ie d f o r c r ed it. T h e i n itial c ap it a l in v e st e d in t h e bu si n e s s e s w a s g ene ral l y i n s u f f ic ie n t t o d e v e lop t h e t y p e o f b u sin e ss t ha t w ou ld ea si l y s u r v i v e th e n o r ma l r isks a s s o cia t e d in a n y bu sin e s s en d ea v o r. T h e ma jor i ty o f t h e w om e n e x p ress e d t h e imp o r t a n ce o f c r ed it f o r t he ir b u sin e ss ope r a ti on s, e s pe cially fo r r e c o v e ry f r o m t h e i m p a ct o f n a t u ral d isas te r. In t h e i n t e r v i e w s, I le a rn e d

PAGE 101

101 t ha t t he re a re s e v e ral w a y s tha t w ome n a c h i e v e d th e i n itial c a p it a l ne c e s s a ry t o s ta rt t he ir bu s i ne s se s S om e o f t h e w ome n u s e d t he ir o w n s a v in g s an d s om e rec e i v e d a ssist an c e in t h e f o rm o f a g i f t o f li v e st o ck f r o m a rel a ti v e o r f r i en d w h ich t he y the n s o l d S o m e w om e n in m y s tud y rec e i v e d l oan s f r o m m ic ro f in a n ce i n s tit u t i on s, p r i ma r i ly Fo n k o z e f o r ma l cr e d it a g en cies s u c h a s a ba n k, a n d ro t a ti o n cre d it a ss o cia t i o n s, s om e times r e f e r re d t o a s f o un d a ti ons O n ly t w o w ome n in t h e s t u d y re po rt e d rec e i v ing re m itt a n c e s f r o m a rel a ti v e s residi n g in ano t h e r co un tr y I n bo t h c a s e s th e f i n a n cial s up p o rt w a s c ha ract e r i z e d a s small a n d s p o ra d ic. Some o f t h e w ome n w h o w e re ab le to ta k e o u t l o an s t h ro ug h m ic r o c r ed it a g en cies s ee m e d to g e t c au g h t u p in a v ic i ou s c y cle o f deb t S e v e ral w ome n d iscus s e d ho w the y w ou ld en g a g e in a n e x hau s ti v e p ractice o f p iec i n g to g e t he r s ma ll l o a n s f r o m mu lti p le s ou rces ( f r ie nd s, f a m i l y an d s u pp l i e rs) t o re pa y th e p r i ma ry c r ed it o r. T h is st r a t e g y o f t e n res u l t e d in w om e n u n ab le to pa y th e l o a n in its en ti r e t y le ad ing t o d e f au lt o n t h e l o a n a n d li m it i n g fu t u re op p o rtu n it i e s t o a c c e ss c r ed it. I t ap p ea red t h a t w om e n w ith poo rer h o u s e h o ld c ond iti o n s h a d t h e mo st d i f f iculty in u til i z i n g cre d it f o r b u si n e ss rat h e r t h a n hou s e h o ld p u rp o s e s On t h e o t he r ha n d s e v e ral w ome n de scr i b e d ho w a l oa n f r o m F on k o z e he lp e d t h e m t o bu i l d t h e ir bu s i n e ss e s. T he s e w ome n e m pha si z e d t h e i m p o rta n ce o f d isc i p l i n e in m a na g ing the ir l o a n s so t h e y c ou ld bu i l d a g oo d re p u t a t i o n an d a c c e ss a d d itio n a l f i n an cial a ssist an c e i f ne e ded So m e w om e n e x p ress e d t h a t a g if t o f 1 0 0 0 H a itian g ou rd e s (25 U S) f rom Fo n k o z e he l pe d t h e m i n t h e ir rec o v e ry a f t e r t h e 2 01 0 ea r t h q ua k e T h e se w om e n w e re a b le to a cc e ss t he se f u n d s tha t d id no t ha v e t o b e re pa i d a s a res u lt o f t h e ir p re v io u s e x pe r i en ce w o rk i n g w ith F on k o z e Ho w e v e r, t h e m a jor i ty o f women

PAGE 102

102 indicated t h a t t he y bo r r o w e d a n d r e c e i v e d f i n an cial a ssis t an ce f r o m f r i e n d s a n d rela t i v e s bo th f o r st a r t u p a n d i n t e r m i t t e n tly t o he lp s u st a in t h e ir bu s i ne ss e s W h i le s o m e w ome n in t h e s t ud y w e re ab le t o ma ke a reli a b le in c o m e f r o m t h e ir bu sin e ss a cti v ities an d e v e n bu i l d t he ir bu si n e s s e s, o t h e rs co u ld b a rely m a ke e n d s me e t. M a n y o f t h e w ome n d iscus s e d t h e l a c k o f mo n e y an d s e v e ral st a t e d W i t h mo n e y an y t h ing is po s sibl e T he s e w om e n w e re cl ea r l y i n t e rest e d in o b t a ini n g f und i n g ; ho w e v e r, t he y w e re no t n e c e ss a r i ly c on v inc e d t h a t t h e s c h e me s a v a i l ab le, t ha t t he y w e re a w a re o f w ou ld p ro v e f i nan cially b en e f ic i a l in t h e l on g t e r m Ale x and re e x p lai n e d h o w s h e s ta rt e d h e r ch i ck e n b u sin e ss i n 2 00 7 o n t h e ad v ice o f h e r f o r m e r p a r i sh p r i e st, w h o to l d h e r t h a t it w a s a g oo d i d e a Sin c e s h e h a d l i t t le mo n e y t o b u i l d t h e b u s in e ss, h e r p a r i sh p r i e st g a v e he r a lo a n t o b u y e i g h t c h icke n s a n d to c o n struct t w o e n clo s u res f o r t h e m S h e s o l d t h e c h ick e n e gg s t o re pa y th e l oa n W he n a s k e d ab o u t w he t he r o r n o t s h e h a d e v e r co n sid e red t a king ou t a l o a n s h e st a t e d t h a t s h e ha d no t si n ce s h e w a s ab le to ma ke a p r o f it u til i z ing h e r cur r en t bu sin e ss s t rat e g ies. H o w e v e r, s h e i nd ica t e d t ha t f i nan cial s e r v ices s hou ld b e a t o p p r i o r i ty f o r t h e c o un tr y M an y w ome n r epo r t e d t ha t t he re w e re no t s u f f ic i en t f i n an c i a l res ou rces in H a iti a n d v i e w e d th is a s o n e o f t h e ma in d i f f iculti e s in r unn ing a bu si n e ss. F r an c o is st a t e d th a t s h e ha s ne v e r a p p l i e d f o r cre d it b e c au s e n o t e a sy if y o u d on ha v e a n a cc o u n t Y e t, J ed i p re s en t e d a n a lt e rn a ti v e e x p la na ti o n f o r no t s ee king f i n an cial re s ou rces. S h e to ld me d o n o t be l i e v e tha t t he re is e n ou g h mo ne y a v a i l ab le f o r w ome n to t a ke ou t a l o a n I h a d t o s e ll m y c h icke n s to s t a rt m y o w n bu sin e ss. I ha v e ne v e r a pp l ie d f o r c re d it be c a u se I h ea rd t ha t t h e g o v e rn m e n t c o u ld c o n f isca t e m y l an d o r m y hou s e At l e a st t ha t is w ha t u s e d t o h a pp e n e r ac c ou n t s u ppo rts an o t he r

PAGE 103

103 g i v e n b y a k e y i n f o r m a n t w h o e x p ress e d t h e i n t en s e d istru s t t h a t Ha i ti an s h a v e o f t he ir g o v e rn m en t. He rec a l l e d a t ree p roject th a t w a s i mp l e m en t e d b y a n N GO in t h e ir c o m m u n ity nea r l y a d e c ad e a g o O v e r 1 0 0 0 0 f ruit t r e e s w e re p la n t e d o n i nd i v id ua l s p ro pe rtie s W he n t h e fruit tre e s ha d g ro w n an d h a d b e g u n t o b ea r f r u it, a r u m o r spr e a d t h ro u g h o u t t h e c o m m u n ity tha t n o w tha t t h e tre e s w e re p ro d u cti v e t h e g o v e rn m e n t w ou ld c o n f isca t e t h e l a nd W i t h i n d a y s, e v er y on e c u t do w n h is o r h e r o w n t re e s. T h is ha p pe n e d be c a u se o f t h e f ea r w e s t i l l ha v e i n sid e h e s a id De s ire to ex pand b u s in es s S o m e o f t h e w om e n in t h e s t ud y e x p ress e d a de si r e t o s e e t h e ir bu s i ne ss g ro w T h is de si r e t o g row the ir bu sin e ss e s c a n no t b e s e p a rat e d f r o m t h e n ee d f o r c a p it a l t o f un d f u rt h e r g ro w t h Most o f t h e w ome n w h o ha d i n t e n ti on s t o g row the ir b u sin e s s e s an d ha d e x pe r i en ce t a king ou t lo a n s, i n d ica te d t h a t t he y w e re i n t e rest e d in t a king o u t lo an s in g re a t e r a m o u n ts t h a n w e re c u r r en tly a v a i l ab le o n t h e mark e t. Human Capital Hu m a n c a p it a l re f e rs t o a m ic r oe n tre p r e neu r s in d i v id ua l c a p a cit y he r ski l ls, k no w le d g e an d e v e n he r h e a lth to re s po n d t o bu s i ne ss n e e d s T ra i n ing an d e d u c a ti o n a re a lso i n clu d e d in t h i s c a t e g o ry a s the y c a n s e r v e t o impro v e w omen a pa city t o u til i z e e x isti n g a ss e ts mo re e f fe cti v e ly an d a lso o f fe r t h e p o t e n ti a l t o cre a te ne w a ss e ts an d op p o rt u n ities. E x posure to f o rm a l t r a ining W h i le s o m e w ome n in t h e s t ud y h a d e x po s u r e t o f o r m a l trai n in g m o st o f t h e w ome n h a d no t. O n ly w ome n w h o be l on g e d to a n a s s o cia t ion o r w e re m e m b e rs o f Fo n k o z e rec e i v e d f o r m a l bu si n e ss t raini n g S om e w ome n w h o w e re m e m b e rs o f a c hu rch w e re ab le t o t a ke ad v an t a g e o f li t e ra c y c ou rses o f f e r e d p e r io d icall y ; ho w e v e r,

PAGE 104

104 man y w ome n i nd ica t e d tha t t h e y l a ck e d f r e e t i m e to a t t e n d cl a s s e s. L it e racy cl a ss e s w e re m en ti o ne d more o f t e n t h a n o t h e r t y pe s o f b u sin e ss trai n in g H o w e v e r s om e w ome n e x p ress e d a d e si r e f o r trai n i n g s pe c i fic t o t h e ir bu si n e s s e s a n d a c c e ss t o in fo r m a ti o n a n d te c h no lo g y to he lp t h e m bu i l d m o re s u s t a in ab l e b u sin e ss e s B e y o n d t h e s t a n da rd bu si n e ss trai n ing ( ma n a g e m en t p ractices, a cc o u n ti n g an d ma r k e t stra te g ies), m an y w ome n in t h e s t u d y e x p ress e d a de si r e f o r mo re ha n d s o n t rai n in g E x posure to informal t r a ining M o st o f t h e w o m e n pe r c e i v e d tha t t h e l a ck o f f o r ma l edu c a ti o n a l trai n ing ha d little to n o rel e v an ce i n t h e ir bu si n e ss o p e rati o n s. As me n ti o ne d p re v io u s l y mo st w ome n me n ti o n e d t ha t t h e y l ea rn e d t h e skil l s the y f e l t ne c e ss a ry t o run a bu sin e ss th r o u g h f am i l y app r e n tic e s h i p s, ob s e r v a ti o n o f o t h e r m ic r oen tre p r e n e u r te g ies, a n d t h ro u g h pe rso n a l e x pe r i en ce b a s e d o n trial a n d e r r o r. Ho w e v e r, it w a s no t c le a r if s o m e w omen pe rc e p ti o n o f w ha t it ta k e s t o d o w e ll in bu s i n e ss a n d t h e p o t e n ti a l op p o rtu n ities t h a t ma y lie ah e a d a s a r e s u lt o f g oo d b u sin e ss trai n i n g c ou ld b e a re s u lt o f lack o f i n f o r m a ti on l a ck o f o p po rt u n ities an d l a ck o f c om mun ic a ti o n w ith e x t e rn a l ne t w o rks. W h i l e t h e p e rce p ti o n a m on g s o m e en tre p r en e u rs w a s tha t the y l ea rn e d t h e mo st i m p o rta n t a s pe c t s ab o u t r u nn ing a bu s i ne ss f r o m t he ir y ea rs o f e x pe r i en c e t h e y in d ica t e d t h a t t he y w ou ld t a ke ad v an t a g e o f b u sin e ss t ra i n ing if it w e re a v a i l ab le. De s ire to p a rti c ip a te i n t r a ining S o m e o f t h e w om e n in t h e s t ud y e x p ress e d a de si r e t o ha v e t h e op p o rtu n ity t o a t t e n d t ra i n ing th a t c ou ld he lp th e m l ea rn ne w bu si n e ss skil l s. F o r ex amp le, G ue r l a n d w an t e d t o u n de rst a n d ho w t o mark e t an d p r i ce he r p ro du c ts. J e d i s i mp ly w an t e d t o le a rn h o w t o re a d a n d w r it e st a ti n g : It is ea s y t o l ea rn h o w t o re a d an d w r i t e I u s e d to

PAGE 105

105 a t t e n d a lit e racy p ro g ram in m y a re a bu t it is n o l o n g e r o f f e r e d T h e l a ck o f a v a i l ab le an d c on sist e n t s e r v ices in b o th u rb a n a n d ru r a l a re a s w a s a ppa r e n t. M y i n t er v i e w s w ith k e y in fo r m an ts p ro v id e d i n si g h t in t o t h e mu ltip l e c ha l l en g e s o f m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs i n Haiti. A lt h ou g h q ue st i on s a bo u t m ic r oen t r e p re neu r s h ea lth w e re no t d i r e ctly a sk e d o f t h e pa rtic ip an ts i n t h e s t ud y m a n y w ome n r e f e r r e d t o t h e i m p a ct o f hea l t h o n t h e ir ab i l ity t o run t he ir b u sin e s s e s in res p o n se t o t h e q u e sti o n a bo u t t h e d if f i c u lties t he y f a c e d O n e o f t h e k e y i n f o r m a n ts, a me d ical do c t o r who p ro v id e d tre a t me n t to w ome n a t hea l t h clinics in rur a l c o m m u n ities in J a cmel, he lp e d il l um i n a te m y unde rs t and i n g o f th is issu e D r B a p tist r e po rted t h a t w om e n w h o a re t r ea t e d a t t h e cl i n ic e x pe r i en ce a n u mbe r o f a i l m e n ts incl u d in g : ma l a r i a d i a be t e s h y pe rte n si o n HIV Aids, a n d b re a st a n d u t e r i n e c a n c e r. Dur i n g t h e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r v ie w t h e re g ion w a s in t h e m idst o f a c h o lera ou t b r e a k si m i l a r to t h e on e t h a t o c c u r r e d a f te r th e ea rth qu a ke an d h e w a s v er y bu sy a t te n d ing clie n ts. His cl i n ic ha s f re q u e n t c on t a ct w ith w ome n w h o a re m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs f o r v a r i ou s hea l t h iss ue s res u lting f rom t h e ir bu s i ne ss a c ti v ities. T h e mo st c o m m o n c o m p la i n ts re p o rted b y w ome n m ic r o e n tre p r e neu rs w e re ba ck pa i n o r pa in in the ir t o rso d u e t o t h e e no r m ou s w e i g h t t he y c a r r y o n the ir h e a d s a s t he y tra n s po rt it e m s t o a n d from ma rke t He s t a t e d t ha t t h e do c t o rs a d v ise t h e m to t a ke b re a ks a n d re s t, b u t m o st m ic ro e n tr e p re n eu r s a re u nab l e t o f o l l o w the ir do c t o r s ad v ice. He e x p lai ned : on l y th ing w ome n a re a b l e t o d o is to t a ke s o m e m e d ic i n e f o r r e l ie f W o m e n must s t a y in b u sin e ss e s be c au se th i s is th e on ly w a y the y ha v e t o ea rn f i v e t o t e n g ou rds (12 to 2 5 c en ts ( U S). Th e y don ha v e a c h o ice. O f t e n t he y j u st ha v e mo n e y to s ta rt a t iny bu s i ne w en t o n t o t e ll m e tha t ma n y o f t h e w o m e n w e re t re a t e d f o r stress rela te d il ln e ss a f te r t h e ea r t h q ua k e o st w e re a f raid to re t u rn t o t he ir ho me s o r

PAGE 106

106 sle e p i n si d e a t n i g h t. M an y end e d u p sle e p i n g ou tsi d e u n d e r p o o r l y de si g ne d t e n ts ma d e o f t h i n t o rn s h e e ts o r old r a g s. E v e r y o n e in t h e a rea w a s a f fe c t e d on e w a y o r ano t he r. All bu si n e ss e s w e re a f fe ct e d Th e re w a s n o p lace t o run th e bu s i ne ss. R oad s w e re i m pa ss a b l e M a n y peop le a r e li v ing in th e w omen s h o m e s si n c e th e ea rth qu a k e W he re t h e re w e re f i v e no w the re a re t en N o w t he y ha v e m an y m o re r e s p o n sibil i ti e s. S o m e times, t he y ha v e to s e ll t he ir li v e st o ck t o pa y fo r b a sic h o u s e ho ld g ood M y i n t er v i e w w ith s e v e ral st a ff m e m b e rs at C a r i t a s he l pe d me to b e t t e r un d e rsta n d t h e d a y t o da y s t ru gg les an d t h e on g o ing ne e d s o f b u sin e ss w ome n Car i t a s is a C a t h o l i c a g en cy t h a t p ro v id e s a v a r i e ty o f s o cial s e r v ices to p oo r pe o p le in H a iti a n d o t he r r e g io n s o f t h e w o r l d Acc o rding t o s e v e ral st a ff mem be rs, t h e mo st i m p o rta n t s e r v ices o f fe red to w ome n m ic ro en tr e p re n eu rs i n clu de s m e d ical a s sist an c e a g r i c u lt u ral s up p o rt, a n d bu si n e ss lo an s. The ma in g oa l o f t he s e p ro g r a m s is t o p ro v ide w ome n s e r v ices t ha t le a d t o t h e ir res p e cti n g t he m s e l v e s an d p r o m o ti n g i nd i v id ua l r i g h ts. T h e f o l l o w ing e x c e rpts f rom a f e ma l e a dm inist r a t o r an d a ma le a d m inistr a t o r r e v ea l s o m e o f t h e de e pe r iss u e s o f wo m e n m ic r oe n tre p re ne u rs. The f e ma le a d m in i stra to r st a t ed : O u r or g an i z a ti o n d oe s no t w an t w om e n m ic ro en tre p r en e u rs to f a il a n d t he r e f o re w e ha v e p u t i n p la c e mec h an is m s d e si g ne d t o he l p t he m s u cc e e d It is i m p o rta n t to e v a lu a te t h e n e ed s o f t he se w ome n p r i o r t o s e t t ing u p t raini n g So m e o f t h e trai n ing n e e d s i n clu d e ho w t o m a n ag e a bu sin e ss a n d h o w t o u se t h e l o a n s g i v e n fo r t h e b u sin e ss. W om e n ne e d t o ha v e s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t ha n cr e d it in o rd e r t o s u cc e e d T h e y ne e d t o ha v e l i v e st o ck s u ch a s c h icke n s o r g o a ts. T h e y ne e d t o ha v e a t l ea st t e n g oa ts w ith a g oo d en c l o s u re f o r a g o o d b u sin e ss. T he y ha v e t o ha v e o t h e r a cti v ities be sid e s t h e b u sin e ss s o t h e y c a n re i n v e st in t h e b u sin e ss. O n e o f t h e r e a s on s t h a t w om e n f a il is b e c au s e t he y d on h a v e o t h e r ac t i v ities. I n o rd e r f o r w om e n t o ha v e a g oo d b u sin e ss, t h e y s hou ld h a v e t w o p rojects; o t he r w ise, the y w i l l f a i l T he y m a y ta k e o u t a l oa n an d t h e n t he y c an t re pa y S o me t i me s th e l oa n ma k e s t h e w om a n i fe w o rse be c a u se s h e j u st c an n o t re p a y it. T h is c re a t e s a l o t o f s t r e ss a n d p res s u re o n t h e

PAGE 107

107 w oma n T h e y s pen d t h e mo n e y f r o m t h e bu s i ne ss o n f oo d an d t h e ir c h i l d re n s sc hoo l, r a t he r t h a n rei n v e st. A g oo d bu si n e ss ne e d s t o ha v e a r ea s o nab le am o un t o f m one y a n d a v a r i e ty o f p r odu ct s Of t h e v e ry poo r w omen w h o t oo k ou t bu si n e ss l o an s, a p p ro x i ma t e ly 5 0 pe rce n t w e r e un a b le t o r e pa y t he ir l o a n s. S h e e m pha s i z e d t ha t t h e c h an g e t ha t c o me s a s a re s u lt o f ha v ing h e r o w n bu sin e ss is d i f f e r en t f o r e a ch w om a n S o m e a re c on c e rn e d a bo u t b e ing res pe c t e d in t h e c o m m u n it y For o t h e rs, a b u sin e ss c a n he l p a w om a n h a v e a t l e a st o n e me a l a d a y S o m e w om e n w h o ta k e cre d it ha v e a t l ea st f i v e o r s i x c h i l d ren t o f e ed I f it doe s n n s h e w on ha v e a g a r d e n t o h e lp f ee d he r f a m i l y an d a bu si n e ss c a n he l p I n H a itian f am i l ies, 9 5 pe rc e n t o f t h e re s pon s i b i l ity is o n th e w om a n S h e may s ta y a t t h e mark e t a ll da y an d t h e n s h e h a s a ll t h e res p on sibil i t i e s a t h o me T h e th i n g s tha t h a v e c h an g e d f o r w ome n a s a res u lt o f t h e b u sin e ss a re t h a t no w the re is s o m e m one y t o s en d th e c h i l d ren t o sc h oo l, bu y foo d a n d g e t m e d ical c a re w he n n ee d ed W he n t he ir a g en cy s u p po rted v i l la g e b a n ks, t h e w om e n h a d t o f i r st s e lect t h e bu sin e ss the y w an t e d t o run an d t h e n t he y s e l e ct e d t raini n g t o he l p t he m w ith tha t s pe c i f ic b u sin e ss. T h e y he lp e d p oo r pe o p le w ith bu sin e ss g e t mo re t raini n g a n d h e lp e d t h e m t o s ta rt ne w bu s i ne ss e s. T h e t w o m o st i mp o r t an t skil l s ne c e s s a ry f o r w ome n t o d o w e ll a re: to ma na g e w e ll an d k no w tha t t h e ir m o n e y f r o m t h e bu si n e ss s hou l d b e rein v e st e d in t h e bu si n e ss. T he ir o r g an i z a ti o n s up p o rts w ome n w ith t raini n g and c on n e c t ing th e m to o t h e r pr o g ra m s s u c h a s h ea lth an d a g r i c u lt u ral p ro g ra m s a s ne e ded T h e y don f a ci l it a te a n y o t he r n e t w o rk i n g a cti v ities. W ome n c h o o se t h e p ro g ra m s t h e y w an t to joi n S o m e times t h e ag en cy c onne cts t h e m t o t h e g o v e rn m e n t ho s p i t a l f o r assis t an c e Th e re ha v e b ee n i n s t an c e s w he n s o me o n e ha s b e e n e x clu de d f r o m t h e g ro u p w he n t he y ha v e ha d p r o b lem. Ne t w o rk i n g f o r w om e n is v e ry i mpo rta n t.

PAGE 108

108 W he n t h e a g en cy u s e d t o g i v e l oan s, it w a s c o m m o n f o r w om e n t o r e q ue st lar g e r lo an s. Gro up s o f w o m e n a s k e d to b e a b le t o g e t mo re mo ne y S o m e ti me s w ome n a sk e d f o r in d i v id ua l l o a n s, b u t t h e a g en cy d id n g i v e ou t s u ch l oan s Us ua l l y if a w o m a n w an ts a l oa n s h e c a n g e t m ic r o c r ed it f r o m F on k o z e o r Siks e S h e c on cl u de d t h e i n t e rv i e w s ta ti n g : W om e n a re v u ln e ra b le in b u s i ne ss be c a u se t he y l a ck e du c a ti on ha v e h ou s e ho l d s t o c a re f o r, and d on h a v e a cc e ss t o w a t e r an d ba sic h y g ie ne Mo ne y c a n h e lp, bu t it w i l l no t c h a n g e the ir li v e s. I f y o u r e a l l y w an t to s e e li v e s c han g e t h e y nee d a ssist an c e w ith h o u sin g e d u c a t i on hea l t h a n d nu trit io n If s h e ha s a ll t h e se t h i n g s s h e w i l l b e ab le t o l i v e E v er y t h ing c a n b e res o l v e d b y w o rk i n g T h e ma le a d m inistra t o r s res pon s e t o w ha t t o o ls w ome n ne e d f o r t h e ir bu sin e s s e s il l um i n a t e d m y un d e rsta n d ing o f t h e g en d e r in e q ua l i ty e mb e d d e d in H a itian s o cie t y The f o l l o w ing is a n e x c e rpt f r o m m y i n t e r v iew w i th h i m : W o m e n n e e d m a n y t o o ls f o r t h e ir bu si n e ss e s T h e a g en cy u s e d t o l oa n ou t t oo ls t o a g r i c u lt u ral w o rkers, bu t t he re w e re n en o u g h f o r e v e r y one I n s om e i n st a n c e s, a g r i c u lt u ral p rojects r u n b y NG O s p ro v ide t o o ls, ho w e v e r; w ome n d on ha v e m a n y oppo rt u n ities t o a c c e ss t h e t o o ls t h e y ne e d Furt he r m o re, t h e k e y t o w oman bu sin e ss s u cc e ss is rel i a n t o n t h e m a n ma king t h e d e cis i on s, be c a u se h e is t h e mo s t i m p o rta n t p e rson in t h e hou s e T h is is t h e re a s o n t ha t y o u ne e d m e n i n v o l v ed be c au s e t h e w ome n w i ll no t b e ab le t o a cc e ss the s e res o u rces o n t he ir o w n A ls o i f w ome n d o no t ha v e a bu sin e s s t he ir f a m i l ies w i l l no t b e ab le to s u r v i v e In o r d e r to he lp t h e m a n t h e w o m a n h a s t o h a v e a bu s i n e ss. A s a re s u lt o f he r bu sin e s s sh e w i l l g a in mo re r e s pe ct f r o m h e r f am i l y an d t h e c o m mu n it y T h e se c o m m e n ts r e f l e ct t h e n o ti o n t h a t e v e n t hou g h t he re is a n u nd e rsta nd i n g t ha t w o m e n a re d is a d v an t a g e d a n d d o n o t h a v e e q ua l a cc e ss t o re s ou rces c o m p a red t o me n c u r r e n t struc t u r e s s hou l d n o t b e c h a l l e ng e d a s t he y a re in li n e w ith c u lt u ral an d s o cie ta l no r m s.

PAGE 109

1 09 A k e y i n f o r m an t, w h o e mp lo y s bo t h f e m a le an d male a rtis a n s, o f f e r e d y e t a n o t h e r e x p la na ti o n o f w o m e n m ic r oe n tre p re n eu r s c u r r en t st a t u s in H a iti. The f o l l o w ing is a n e x c e rpt f r o m t h is int e rv i e w O u r or g an i z a ti o n o f fe rs w ome n a n o p p o rtu n ity t o w o rk a n d m a ke a liv i n g T h e mo st i m p o rta n t r e s ou rce a v a i l ab le t o w ome n is he l p ing th e m h a v e the ir o w n bu sin e ss. A bu si n e ss a l l o w s w ome n t o f ree t h e m s e l v e s a n d g ives t h e m i n d e p en d en c e W o m e n c a n b e s u p po r t e d t h ro u g h t r a ini n g o n ho w t o ma n a g e a bu si n e ss, h o w t o cre a te p ro d u cts, an d ho w t o run a n h on e st bu sin e s s T h e mo st i mpo r t an t th ing in r u nn i n g a bu si n e ss is h o n e s t y Y o u w i ll no t ha v e a go o d b u sin e ss i f y o u a re d is h o ne st. Y o u h a v e t o ha v e t h e c ou ra g e t o s t a n d u p f o r y ou rsel f I r e m e mbe r a sking a n e m p lo y ee w h o w a s a lso a f r i e n d t o w a tch m y s to re a n d re p o rt an y th e f t s w h i l e I w a s a w a y M y f r i en d r e f u s e d t o r e po rt a n y t h in g st a ti n g it w a s to o d an g e ro u s a n d d id no t w an t an y t ro ub l e Th e re is n o s o l id a r i ty o r f i d e l i ty t o w omen T h e y a re v er y a lo ne Th e y a re i n a s u r v i v a l mod e a ll t h e t i m e E v e r y t h ing f a l l s o n t h e s hou l d e rs o f w o m en T h e y a re a sking f o r t h e ir ri g h ts a s w omen So m e me n b e a t t he ir w i v e s o r g i r l f r i end s. H o w e v e r a s w omen s t a t u s c h an g e s, t he y a re e x e rting m o re po w e r in t h e h o m e a n d men a re l e ss i n cl in e d t o b ea t t h e m n o w W om e n a re be c o m ing more a w a re o f iss u e s a n d a s a re s u lt, a re be c o m ing more p o l i tic a l. E v e n s o a p o p e ras, t e le v ised in Fre n c h S p an ish, an d E n g l i sh in H a iti a r e h e l p ing w ome n g a in a w a re ne ss. T h e u s e o f r ad io, f i lm a n d o t h e r m ed ia t o he l p w ome n l ea rn a b ou t t h e m s e l v e s, t h e ir ri g h ts, an d t he ir role i n s o ci et y w i l l he lp t h e m t o be c om e s t ro n g e r. M a n y peop le ret u rning f rom t h e Dia s po ra a r e a lso i n f lu e n c i n g c han g e s am o n g w ome n S h e c on cl u de d t h e i n t e rv i e w st a ti n g E v er y prob l e m in H a iti g oe s b a ck t o sla v er y Men ha v e t o de t a c h t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h a t is w h y the y ta ke man y w i v e s. Haiti an s e x pe r i en c e m an y em o ti o n a l p ro b l e m s an d 2 0 0 y ea rs i s n o t en o u g h t i m e t o h e a l a n a ti on De sc ription of S ec o n da r y C a tegori e s a nd Them e s Busine s s S tart Up P a t t e rn s Op e r a tions a n d S trategi e s T h is c a t e g o ry re fe rs to t h e i n f l uen c i n g fa ct o rs t ha t l ea d a n d p r e pa re w ome n t o be c o m e m i c ro en tr e p re n e u rs, t h e ir bu sin e ss ma na ge m e n t a n d t h e s t ra t e g ies t he y e m p loy t o a c h ie v e the ir g oa ls.

PAGE 110

110 Fa m i l y bu s in es s t r a d i tion M an y o f t h e w ome n i n v o l v e d in th e s t u d y g r e w u p l ea rning bu si n e ss f r o m t he ir f am i l y pa rticularly th e ir m o t he rs. T he s e w o m e n l e a rn e d t h e t ra d e h o w t o ne g o ti a t e ho w t o g e t b e t te r p r i c e s fo r t h e ir raw m a t e r i a l s, a n d h o w t o a t t ract c u st o me rs. F o r example, Marguerite, who is 54 years old, told me that this is how she learned how to run a bu si n e ss. W he n s h e w a s 1 9 y ea rs o l d he r m o t h e r di e d a n d it w a s the n t ha t s h e v en t u red i n t o h e r o w n bu sin e s s a r m e d w ith t h e k n o w le d g e s h e h a d g a in e d f r o m he r mo t he r. T h is k no w le d g e u n do u b t e d ly pa ss e d do w n f r o m g e n e rati o n t o g ene rat i o n w he n f e m a le sla v e s w e re a l l o w e d t o p a rtic i pa t e in ma rket a cti v ities du r i n g th e pe r i o d o f c o lo n i z a ti on Signifi ca n c e of c u s t o m e r r e l a tions T h e d e si r e t o p ro v ide g re a t c u st o me r s e r v ic e w a s e x p ress e d b y m an y w ome n in t h e s t u d y In most c a s e s, w om e n a t t r i bu t e d pa rt o f t he ir s u c c e ss in bu si n e ss to t h e ir cl i en t e le. The f o l l o w ing e x amp les i l lus t r a te t h e i mpo r t an ce t h a t w om e n m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs p l a c e d o n t h e n e e d t o p r o v ide c u st o me r s a ti s f a cti o n in t he ir bu sin e ss o p e rati on s J ed i, a mark e t v en d o r who s e l l s pe a nu ts, c o rn, an d c oo kie s v ie w s o n c u s t o m e r r e la t i on s s ee m e d to no t on ly s t e m f r o m h e r cus t o m e r c en t e r e d p h i l o s o p h y bu t a lso h e r p e rs o na l r e l ig io u s be l ie f s. S h e s t a t e d : most i mpo r t an t t h in g s t h a t c on trib u t e t o m y s u cc e ss a re b e ing s e r i ou s a bou t bu si n e ss a n d be i n g ki n d t o c u st o me rs. W he n y o u g i v e little th in g s like c a nd y t o c h i l d r e n J e s u s w i ll b less y ou r bu sin e s s de g e a n a rtisan w h o s e l l s ha n d ma d e b a sk e ts, b rac e l e ts, a n d w oo d e n sc u lp tu res, s a id s h e is f o c u s e d o n e a sing t h e c u s t o me r a n d g i v ing the m a g o o d w e lco m e S h e c o n cl u ded : c l i en ts w i l l no t c om e i f t h e y a re t re a t e d poo r l y

PAGE 111

111 M an y w ome n i n t h e s t ud y po sitio n e d t h e m s e l v e s a s fo c u sing o n mu l ti p le f a c e ts o f c u s t o m e r sa t i s f a cti o n a s t he ir mo st i m p o rt a n t e n tre p r e neu r i a l v a l u e T h is b u sin e ss a t t r i bu t e w a s a p r im a ry co n c e rn f o r t he se w ome n For J e d i, t h e no t i o n o f c u s t o m e r s a ti s f a cti o n is p o sitio n e d in a reli g io u s be l ie f t ha t tr e a ti n g c u s t o m e rs w ith ki ndne ss w i l l b r i n g g oo d f a v o r f rom a h i g he r p o w e r. T h u s, f o r t h is e n tre p r e n e u r, t h e rel a ti o n s h ip be c o me s a t w o w a y ne g o ti a ti o n a n d a w i n w in sit ua ti o n be ne f itti n g b o th pa rties. On t h e o t he r ha n d N a d ine u s e d a t w o pa rt c u st om e r r e la t io n s s tra te g y : d r a w i n g in f r i e n d s a s c u st o me rs a n d a t t ract i n g ne w c u st o m e rs, o u t side o f he r ne t w o rk, b y o f f e r i n g g oo d s e r v ice T h e o v e r w he l m ing i m p o rta n ce o f t h e v a lue o f c u st o me r r e la t i on s is e x emp l i f i e d b y th e f o l l o w ing c o mm en ts o f w om e n m ic r o e n tre p r e neu r s W om e n c an u n a g oo d b u sin e ss i f t h e y do n ha v e g oo d m a na gem en t ski l ls an d t he y d o n t r e a t t h e ir c u st o m e rs w e l l M y ad vice to a w o ma n w h o is s t r u gg l i n g in bu sin e ss is t o h a v e a go o d a t t it u de ; on a re a w a y c u st ome u cc e ss in bu si n e ss r e l i e s o n th e n um be r o f f r i e n d s t ha t y o u ha v e ; w ith m an y f r i e n d s, y o u c a n ha v e man y clie n ts T h e s e n time n ts e x p ress e d u nde r l i n e t h e o v e r w he l m ing i mpo rt a n c e o f c o nne c ti n g to t h e clie n t b a se t o en s u re bu s i ne ss s u r v i v a l an d s u st a i n ab i l it y T h e si g n i f i c an ce o f bo t h s u p p l i e r a n d c u s t om e r r e la t io n s h ips a s f ou nda t i ona l e leme n ts o n w h ich m a n y bu sin e ss e s a re bu i l t e m e r g e d a s a n i m p o rta n t t h e m e A p r i o r i I h a d a nt ic i pa t e d t ha t d ea l i n g s w ith s upp l i e rs an d c u st o me rs w e re m o stly t ra n s a cti o n a l ( f o c u s e d o n p r i ce a n d v o lu m e ), b u t it w a s a p pa re n t t h a t t he se d e a l i n g s w e re ba s e d o n trust a n d q ua s i s y mb i o tic rela t io n s h ips. U po n fu rth e r s t ud y I be g a n to u nde rs t an d t h e c on c e p t o f t P r a ti k h e r e ciproc a l n a t u re o f t h e re l a ti on s h ip b e t w ee n t h e b u y e r

PAGE 112

112 an d s e l l e r. A bu si n e s s w oma n c a n h a ve p rat i k ( g e p ratik) o r m a ke p ratik (fe p ratik). Since rel a ti on s h i p s a re m e an t to s t ab i l i z e an d m a i n t a in o n e in d istr i bu ti v e a cti v it y t he y a re e s t ab l i s h e d o v e r ti m e a n d res u lt in e c on o m ic v a lue f o r t ho s e w h o en g a g e in p M in t z 2011 ). Cre a ti v i t y a nd i nn o v a tion Gi v e n th e ma rk e t d y n a m ics in Haiti (a v a i l ab i l i t y o f raw m a t e r i a ls, a f f o rd ab i l ity o f p ro du ct s c u s t o me r n e ed s, e tc ), m ic r oe n tre p en e u rs o n ly o f f e r a li m i t e d d i v e rs i t y o f me rc h and is e T h is, in an d o f it s e l f p re s en ts a n o ppo r t un ity f o r s o m e m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs t o be st po sition t h e ir l o c a l e s, p r o du cts a n d s e r v ices in a more a t t racti v e a n d c o n v en ie n t w a y t o c u st o me rs. E v e n w he n m ic r oen t r ep re n eu rs di v e rs i f y t he ir p r o du ct o f fe r i n g s, t he y s t i l l nee d t o f u rt h e r dif fe re n ti a te t h em s e lves in o r d e r to b e c om p e titi v e E c onomiz e / s a c rifi c e a o ing w h a te v e r i t t ak e s p hilo s op h y O n e f re qu en t r e s p o n se t o t h e q ue s ti o n o f W h y d o y o u th ink w om e n f a il in bu sin e s s ? w a s tha t w om e n w h o f a il s pe n d mo n e y o n s u pe r f l u ou s it em s s u ch a s f a n cy f ood s h in g o r jewel r y S om e pa rtic i p a n ts e x p ress e d t ha t s o m e w ome n t ry t o u y men l o v e s pend i n g m one y o n t h em O t h e r p a rtic i p a n t p e rc ep t ion w a s si mp ly tha t t h e w om e n w h o f a il in bu sin e ss d o n n o w ho w t o m a na g e mo n e y F o r e x amp le Marie Car m e s t a t e d : Y o u ne e d t o k n o w w he n t o s p en d an d w he n n o t t o s pe n d My ad v ice is if y o u t a ke ou t a l o an y o u ha v e t o r e pa y th e l oa n s o t ha t s h e w i l l b e v i e w e d a s trus t w o rth y S om e w ome n d o n p a y an d t h e y don o n sid e r t h e b a d t h in g s th a t c a n ha p pe n to t h e m a s a r e s u lt o f n o t p a y in g On t h e o t he r ha n d m i c ro en tr e p re n e u rs w h o e c on o m i z e /s a c r i f ice en g a g e in t h e se t y pe s o f a c ti v ities: w a lk i n st e a d o f u sing p a id t ra n s po r t a ti on ; e a t a t h om e ins t ea d o f a t

PAGE 113

113 t h e ma rk e t; e a t poo rer q ua l i ty p ro du ce ( f o o d t ha t ma y b e a b ou t to s p o i l ) f o r h o u s e h o ld c on s u mp t i o n ; a n d u s e on ly m a t e r i a ls ne c e s s a ry f o r pr o d u cti o n o f go od s T h e W ha t e v e r i t Tak e P h i l o s o p h y is y e t ano t he r r e la t e d s t r a t e g y tha t c e rtain w om e n a pp ly t o t h e ir bu si n e ss e s. F o r e x amp le: S o m e w o m e n w i l l mon it o r clos e ly a ll a s pe cts o f t h e b u sin e ss to en s u r e to k e e p b u sin e ss re s ou rces s e p a ra t e f r o m hou s eho l d res o u rces. c he La v (S ea r c h for Li fe ) Philo s op h y Si g n i f ica n tly deepe r t h a n t h e t w o a pp ro a c he s abo v e w om e n w h o e n g a g e in Ch e c he La v i p a rticularly dep r i v e d o f the most basic r e s ou rces I n t e r e s t in g l y t he se w o m e n h a v e l o w e r e x pe ct a ti on s f r o m t h e ir bu si n e ss e s, no t ne c e s s a r i ly be c au se t he y d o no t ha v e a s p i r a ti on s b u t b e c au se t h e y a re c on s u m e d w ith the ir da y t o da y s u r v i v a l. An it e a w oma n in he r e a r l y 60 s i nd ica t e d t ha t he r m a in m o ti v a ti o n f o r s t a rti n g he r b u si n e ss w a s to p ro v ide f o r h e r c h i l d re n S h e s ta t ed w e l oo k f o r l i f e ; life is d i f f i c u l t a n d a t m y a g e I a m s up p o s e d t o l oo k f o r som e t h in g Cassandra added A ll I can do is hope that people come to buy. Money is the main resource that I need. Once I have it, I can buy Luisa concluded successful business. She stated one of the main reasons that she had to close her business is because she spent all her money on her household expenses and had no thing left to invest in her business Impa c t of N a t u r a l D i s as ters a nd Re c o v e r y Strategi e s T h e imp a ct o f na t u ral d isas te r re f e rs t o h o w w om e n m ic r oe n tre p re ne u hou s eho lds a n d b u si n e ss e s w e re a f fe ct e d a n d t h e c ha l l en g e s t he y fa c e d O n e o f t h e eme r g ing th e me s in t h is c a t e g o ry w a s th e o v e rall l a ck o f a s a f e ty ne t a v a i l ab le to a id in rec o v e r y

PAGE 114

114 Impa c t on hous e hold T h e d e g ree o f i m p a ct c au s e d b y a n a t u ral d i s a st e r v a r i e d a m o n g th e w ome n in v o l v e d in t h e s t u d y W h i le t h e s e v e r i ty o f a n ea r t h q ua k e hu r r i c a n e o r f l o o d ma y ha v e be e n t h e s a m e th r o u g hou t t h e re g ion o f J a c me l a t t h e t i m e o f its o cc u r r en c e t h e v u ln e ra b i l ity o f w om e n w a s no t, t h u s t h e i mp a ct w a s d iff e re n t S o m e w ome n re p o rted e x pe r i en cing n o d i r e c t i mpa ct o n t h e ir hou s e h o ld, w h i l e o t h e rs r epo r t e d s e v e re imp a c t incl ud ing l o ss o f l i f e In g ene ral, it w ou ld s e e m t ha t w ome n w ith f e w e r h ou s eho l d a ss e ts w ou ld s u f f e r mo re s e v e re l o ss e s, b e c au s e o f t h e p o o rer b u i l d ing s t ruct u res ( t ha t c he d r o o f s, d i r t f l o o rs, e t c .) in w h ich t h e y l i v e In most in s t an c e s t h is is t h e c a s e b u t f o l l o w ing th e 201 0 ea rth q ua k e w om e n w i th g re a t e r r e s ou rces, e g ., ci nde r b l o ck a n d c on c r e te sl a b hou s e s, s e e m e d to h a v e e x pe r i en c e d a g re a t e r i m p a ct o n t he ir h o u s eho ld (colla p s e d ro o f w a l l s cru mb l e d e tc ) t h a n w om e n w h o li v e d in m o re h um b le d w e l l i n g s. T h e a cc o u n t g i v e n b y Lu is a a m ic r oe n tre p re n eu r w h o l i v e s in a t h a tc h e d ro o f h ou s e w ith d i r t f l o o rs at t h e ba s e o f a mo u n t a i n e x e m p l i f i e s t h is sit ua t i on S h e s a id: W he n t h e ea rth q ua k e o c c u r r ed I l o st s o m e o f m y bu si n e ss s u p p l i e s, b u t it d id no t a f f e c t m y h o u se o r a n y t h ing e lse Th u s ph y sical a ss e ts w e re no t a s c o mp r o m is e d Ho w e v e r, be c au s e s h e p o ss e ss e d f e w e r re s ou rces, rec o v e ry f r o m e v e n t h e l o ss o f f e w bu sin e ss a ss e ts w a s ha rd e r to a c h ie v e Impa c t on busi n es s (supp l y c ha i n, c us t o m e r b a s e a nd s a fe t y n e t) T h e e a rth q ua ke p r o d u c e d a ho s t o f e f fe cts o n m ic ro en tr e p re n e u r s s upp ly c ha in, ra n g ing f r o m its i m pa c t s o n raw m a t e r i a l a v a i l ab i l it y da m a g e s t o t h e s upp l i e r s a s s e ts, an d t h e de s truc t ion o f s om e o f t h e i n f rastru ct u re. I n s o m e c a s e s w om e n h a d to bu i l d rela t io n s h i p s w ith ne w s upp l i e rs, w h ich re q u i r e time a n d ne t w o rk i n g ab i l it y

PAGE 115

115 M ic r oen tre p re n eu rs o f t e n rely o n a n i m a l po w e r f o r b u sin e ss p ro d u c t ion a nd / o r d istr i bu ti o n a n d t h e ea r t h q ua ke re s u lt e d in s e v e re l o ss e s o f li v e st o c k. T h is loss o f an i m a l l i fe n o t on ly ha d a d i r e ct i m p a ct o n b u s in e ss o pe rati o n s, bu t a lso a f fe ct e d t h e ir s a f e ty ne t Ma n y m ic r oen tr e p re n eu rs i n v e st t he ir mo ne y in t h e p u r c ha se o f li v e st o ck, since o pen ing a b a n k a cc o u n t is rare. As an i ma ls p e r i s he d a n im p o rt a n t s a f e ty ne t, w h ich w ou ld ha v e o t h e r w ise p ro v id e d th e reli e f t o r e bu i l d ha d v an ish ed W h i l e a f e w pa rtic i pa n ts h a d ha d s om e e x po s u re to i n s u r an c e t h e re w a s l a ck o f trust a bo u t its be ne f its. P au l e t t e e x p ress e d t h a t s h e d id no t t h ink t ha t i n s u ra n c e w ou ld h e lp. S h e rec a l l e d t ha t a n a rso n i st de stro y e d s o me o ne s bu si n e ss th r e e y ea rs a g o I t w a s re po rt e d im m e d ia te ly t o DG E w h ich is a n i n s u ra n ce c o m p a n y p ro v i de d t h ro u g h a g o v e rn m en t a ge n c y bu t t h e y ne v e r h e lp e d S h e s a i d : Y o u c a n p a y an d pa y a n d t he y ne v e r r epa y y ou r loss e M a r i e K c on f i r m e d t h is s en t i me n t : Y o u ma y pa y fo r ins u ra n c e bu t pe o p le be l i e v e tha t e v e n i f y o u pa y y o u m a y n o t rec e i v e an y t h in g H o w e v er sh e w en t o n to s a y tha t: W h i l e t h is d o e s h a pp e n in H a iti, I w o rk w ith a g oo d i n s u r a n ce c o m p an y in Po rt a u P r i n c e w h o g a v e me g oo d s e r v ice T h e m a rch an s e l f w a s pa ral y z e d fo r se v e ral w ee ks following the earthquake M an y c u st o me rs l o st t h e ir l i v e s in th e ea r t h q ua k e S o m e w ome n s ta t e d t ha t t he y no t on ly l o st t r u st w o rthy c u st o me rs, bu t t he y a l so s u f fe red e c o n o m ic l o ss e s. Since t he y o f t e n s o ld o n cr e d it, t he y w e re unab le t o r e c o v e r t h e mo n e y tha t w a s o w e d t o th e m P e r c e p t ion of S e lf P e rce p t i o n o f s e l f r e f e r s t o h o w w ome n v iew t hem s e l v e s in rel a ti o n t o t h e ir bu sin e s s t h e ir pe rs o n a l m o ti v a ti o n t o s u cc ee d in b u sin e s s a n d t he i r b u sin e ss v a lu e s an d p r i o r i ti e s. T h is c a t e g o ry w a s de v e lo pe d from i n f o r m a ti o n ob t a i n e d in re s p o n se t o

PAGE 116

116 s pe c i f ic in te r v iew q ue s ti on s re g a rding ho w ru nn ing a b u sin e ss h a d a f f e c t e d w o m e n m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs p e rso na l l y t he ir ab i l ity t o ma ke h o u s e ho l d de cis i on s, an d t h e ir role in t h e c o m m un it y M u c h o f t h e res ea r c h o n w om e n m ic r oen t e rpr i s e s ha s s u gg e st e d t ha t w o m e n a re mo ti v a t e d t o s e e k s e l f e mp l o y men t f o r e c o n o m ic g a ins a n d pe r s ona l in de p en d en c e W h i l e t h is is e v id en t in t h is s t ud y, I a lso l ea rn e d t ha t m a n y w omen e s pe cially in rur a l c om mun it i e s, h a d a d e si r e to b e v ie w e d in a po sit i v e li g h t b y m e m b e rs o f t he ir c om mun it y I n c o nne c ti o n to th is, s o m e o f t h e w ome n I i n t e r v i e w e d in d ica t e d t h a t t he ir i n v o l v emen t i n m ic ro en t e rpr i se no t on ly t ra n sla te d i n to t h e ir o w n h i g he r st a t u s in t h e c o m m un it y b u t t h a t o f th e ir c h i l d ren a s w e l l w h ich w a s pa ramo u n t to t h e m S e lf a t t ribution of bu s in e s s s u cc e s s M an y o f t h e w ome n i n t h e s t ud y h a d l ea r n e d t he ir t ra d e f r o m t he ir rela t i v es pa rticularly the ir m o t h e rs or a si g n i f ic a n t f e m a le kin. I n t e rest i n g l y I f o un d t h a t e v e n t hou g h t he y h a d rec e i v e d n o f o r ma l bu si n e ss trai n in g t he y h a d g o o d bu s i ne ss s e n s e G oo d bu si n e ss s e n se me a n t t ha t t h e y e v a lu a t e d ho w the y c on d u ct e d bu s i ne ss d ea l i n g s an d t h e ma na ge m e n t o f t h e ir b u si n e ss. T h e y s tud i e d t h e ma rket z o ne n d e v a lu a t e d t he ir c o mp e titi on T he y k ep t track o f w ha t s o ld an d w ha t d id n s e l l s t o cking m o re o f t h e it em s t ha t w e re in d em and T he y d i f fe re n ti a t e d t h e ir bu si n e ss e s b y c a r r y i n g it em s t h a t w e re no t a v a i l ab le in o t he r loc a ls. Th e y pa id a t ten t i o n t o c u s t o me r p r e f e re n c e a n d de m a n d s a n d p ro v id e d g re a t c u st om e r ser v i c e T he y pa i d s p e cial a t t en ti o n t o making t he ir bu s i ne ss e s a t t ra c ti v e th ro u g h its cle a n l in e ss, n ice d ispl a y s, a n d th e p r o f e ss i ona l bu sin e ss a t t i r e o f t h e o w ne r a n d s t a f f

PAGE 117

117 S e nse of r es pon s ibi l i t y A pp ro x i ma t e ly 5 0 pe r c en t o f h ou s eho lds in H a iti a re f e m a l e h e ad e d thu s g ene rati n g a ma tr i f o c a l i n f lu e n c e On t h e s u r f a ce t h is may app e a r to b e e m po w e r i n g f o r w omen b u t it a lso c on t r i bu t e s t o w omen v u l ne ra b i l it y Since w om e n a re t h e p r i ma ry c a ret a k e rs, t he y c a r r y th e bu r d e n o f en s u r i n g th e s u r v i v a l o f t h e f a m i l y in a n i n s e c u re en v i r on m en t. I n d isas t e r i mpa c t e d e n v i r onme n ts, f e m a l e h e ad e d h ou s e h o ld m u st m a na g e e x tra re p ro d u cti v e e c o no m ic an d s o cial res pon sibil i t ies. W i t h n o s a f e ty ne t a v a i l ab le, w ome n w h o ha v e b u sin e ss e s mu s t d raw o n t h e a ss e ts a t ha n d t o s ta y a f l o a t a nd / o r mo v e f o r w a rd. M o st o f t h e w ome n in t h e st ud y a lso re p o rted t ha t w h i l e the y ha v e ta k e n o n a v a r i e ty o f bu si n e ss a cti v v er y t h ing a t h o m e is t h e s a m e n e o f t h e st ud y pa rtic i p a n ts t o ld m e t ha t he r hu s b an d m a k e s de cis i on s o n h o w t o s p e n d t h e mo n e y H o w e v e r, s h e s a i d t h a t t he y s t i l l res pe ct ea ch o t he r a n d the ir rel a ti o n s h ip ha s no t c han g e d Her res p on sibil i ti e s a t h o m e ha v e no t c h a n g e d an d s h e s t i l l d oe s e v e r y t h ing a ro un d t h e h o m e e x c ep t o n ma rk e t da y s. is n o t e a sy t o f i n d s o m eo n e t o h e lp y ou h e s t a t e d O n t h e o t he r ha n d s o m e w ome n i nd i c a t e d t h a t t he y ha d w a y s bee n i n c ha r g e o f d e cis i o n m a king fo r t h e bu sin e s s M an y o f th e w omen w h o w e re m a r r ie d e x p ress e d t h a t s h e a n d he r hu s b an d m ad e j o int d e cis i on s rel a t e d t o t h e ir c h i l d re n e du c a ti o n a n d t h a t t h is h a d n o t c han g e d a s a res u lt o f t h e bu sin e s s A k e y i n f o r m an t w h o o w n s a n a rtisan w o rks h o p f a ct o ry an d s t o re st a t e d : T he re a re m an y e m o ti o na l an d ph y sical bu r d en s o n w omen Th e y c an l y o n th e s u p po rt o f t h e hu s b an d o f t e n tim e s be c a u se h e ha s o t he r w ome n a n d m a n y o t h e r childr e n un d e r h is res p o n sibil i t y W om e n a re v e ry a lo ne W o me n d o t h e ma jor i ty o f t h e w o rk a n d t h e me n sp e n d t he ir m o n e y Men s hou l d s u ppo rt th e w o m e n an d c h i l d r en Th e y ne e d t o

PAGE 118

118 b e u n it e d W om e n w h o be c o m e mo re s u cc e ssf u l in b u sin e ss, o f t e n fee l mo re c o n f i de n t ab o u t le a v ing the ir h u s ba n d s Pride i n w or k m a n s h i p a nd qua l i t y produc t s T h e q ua l i ty o f p r o du c t s an d t h e p r i d e in w o rk man s h ip pu t i n to p ro du cts c r ea t e d an d s o ld w e re k e y en t r ep re n eu r i a l v a lu e s f o r man y w omen Ac c o rding t o Druck e r (1 973 p p 6 4 65 ) a b u sin e ss is d e f i n e d b y t h e w an t t h e c u s t o m e r s a ti s f ies w he n h e o r s h e b u y s a p ro d u ct o r ser v o r si mp ly s ta t e d h e c u st om e r d e f i n e s th e bu si n e ss T h e se w om e n u n d e rs t oo d t h a t p ro v idi n g a q ua l i ty p ro du ct t ha t t h e c u st o me r w an t e d w a s i mpo rta n t t o th e s u cc e ss o f t h e ir bu si n e s s ope r a ti on T h e a c c ou n t b y E loj e a n a rtis a n w h o s e l l s p r odu cts ma d e o f re c y cled ma t e r i a ls, a t t h e M i z a k m a rket a n d a t a t ou r i st s h o p il l u s t rat e s t h e se bu si n e ss a t t r i bu t e s T h e most i mpo r t an t b en e f it t h a t I g e t f r o m my bu sin e ss is w he n I a m a b le t o s e ll t h e t h in g s t h a t I ma k e My it em s a re o n e x h i b it a t s p e cial e v en ts i n P o rt a u Pr i n ce an d J a c me l e v e ry Sunda y I f e e l g oo d w he n p e o p le bu y m y th in g s. T h e mo st d i f f icult p ro b l e m f o r m e is w he n I w o rk w ith o t he r p eo p le o n a p roject a n d t h e y w a ste ma te r i a l. I f t h e o t h e r artis an s a re no t ab le o r int e re s t e d in making a g o o d p r o d u ct i t a f fe cts m y ab i l ity t o m a k e a s a le. I n o rd e r to i n c re a se t h e c han c e s t ha t I m a ke a p r o f it, I in v e st in g oo d q ua l i ty m a t e r i a A t ta c hm e nt to bus i n e s s S o m e w om e n h a d a v e ry s pe cial c onne c ti o n t o t h e ir bu si n e ss t h a t t r an sc e nd e d t h e v iew o f bu sin e ss a s a m o n e y ma king a cti v ity o r ch o re. I n o n e c a s e a w o m a n ref e r r e d t o t h e b u sin e s s a s h e r b a b y In a no t h e r, F on til, a n a rtist w h o s e l l s in J a c me l an d P o rt a u P r i n c e s a i d he r in s p i r a ti o n t o c o n ti nu e w o rk i n g in d i f f icu l t ti me s c o me s f r o m he r f e e l i n g s ab o u t t h e b u sin e s s S h e w en t o n t o s a y t h a t t h e bu si n e ss ha d ma d e he r

PAGE 119

119 v er y popu lar a n d s h e f e lt g oo d ab o u t he rse l f an d s h e ha d a g o o d r e pu t a ti o n in t h e c o m m u n it y S o m e e x p ress e d a v e f o r t h e b u sin e t a t e d : T h i s is w ha t I w a s lo o king f o Y e t o t he rs v i e w e d t he ir b u sin e s s e s more r e mo t e ly emo t io na l l y an d s i mp ly a s a v eh ic l e t o p ro v ide a n i n c o m e S e nse of bus i ne s s ac c ompli s hm e nt S o m e w om e n f e lt t h a t t he y a c h ie v e d s u c c e ss in bu si n e ss w he n t he y m a d e a p r o f it. O the rs t e n d e d t o p la c e a n e m p ha sis o n c u s t o m e r sa t i s f a cti o n o r on t h e ap p ea ra n c e o f t h e p r o du cts o r dis p la y s, w h i l e o t he rs f e lt t h a t o w n i n g a bu sin e ss e le v a t e d t he ir s t a t u s in th e c o mm un it y I n s o m e c a s e s t h e ou t c o me s f r o m o w n ing a m ic r oe n t e rpr i se w a s n o t o n ly f in a n cially ben e f ic i a l, bu t a lso e m o ti on a l l y r e w a rding t o th e w omen For e x amp le, M a r i e e x p ress e d t ha t i n s p ite o f t h e ha rd s h i p s s h e e x pe r i en c e s, t h e bu sin e ss ha s he l p e d in man y w a y s. n o l on g e r h a v e t o rely o n o t he rs f o r s i mp le hou s eho ld it e m s like s a lt s h e s a id. Fa m i l i a l Ti e s Fa m i l ial t ies r e f e r to t h e t y p e o f b o nd s t h a t w om e n f o rm w ith t h e ir c h i l d ren a n d t h e m e n in t he ir li v e s. S pe c i f icall y t h is st u d y ana l y z e d w h ich t y p e o f f a m i l ial rela t io n s h i p s a n d i n v e s t m e n t w om e n mo st nu r t u re. F am i l ial t ies a re i mpo r t an t a s t he y i mpa ct bu s i ne ss de cis i on s a n d w o m en t a n d ing in th e c o m m un it y Signifi ca n c e of c h i ld r e n a nd t h e ir e duc a ti o n Acc o rding t o t h e W o r l d Ban k ( 20 0 3 ), 9 2 p e rc e n t o f t h e sc h oo ls in Ha i ti a re p r i v a t e ly o w ne d an d f i n an c e d a n d mo s t a re t u itio n ba s e d B e c a u se o f t h e e n o r m ou s f i n an cial c o sts a s s o cia t e d w ith tu itio n t e x t bo o ks, a n d sc h oo l u n i f o r m s, on ly ha l f o f Haiti a n c h i l d r e n b e t w ee n t h e a g e s o f six an d t w e l v e a re e v e r e n rol le d in p r i ma ry edu c a ti on On ly on e t h i r d o f t h e se w i l l g o t o s e c o n da ry sc hoo l, an d be c a u se o f r ig o ro u s

PAGE 120

120 p lac e me n t st a n d ard s a n d e x pen s e e v e n f e w e r w i l l g o o n t o t h e un i v e rs i t y All o f t h e w ome n in t h e s t ud y w h o h a d c h i l d r e n o r c a red fo r r e la t i v e c h i l d re n in s o m e ins t an c e s a n iece o r n e phe w cit e d s up p o rting the ir e du c a ti o n a s a n i m p o rta n t r e a s o n f o r h a v ing a m ic r oe n t e rpr i se T h e w ome n e x p ress e d t h a t th e ab i l ity t o p a y f o r t h e ir edu c a ti o n w a s a s ou rce o f g re a t s a ti s f a cti o n a n d p r i de O n e w oma n r e f e r re d t o he r c h i l d re n e du c a ti o n a s a b an k a cc o u n a y ing it w a s th e be st i n v e stme n t to ma k e This s en t i me n t ma y b e in d ica t i v e o f t h e w o me n u n de rst a nd ing t h a t a n i n v e stme n t in c h i l d r en e du c a t i o n en a b led up w a rd s o cial an d e c o no m ic mo b i l it y No n e o f t h e w o m en w h o i n d ica t e d t h e ir c h i l d ren a t t e nd e d sc ho o l a p pea r e d t o s h o w an y p ref e re n ce f o r en ro l l i n g g i r l s o r b o y s. T h is c on v e y e d th e re a l i z a ti o n tha t e d u c a ti o n i s e q ua l l y i mpo rta n t to g i r ls an d bo y s. O n e o f t h e s t ud y pa rti c ip an ts a rticula t e d t ha t w h i l e he r st a t u s w it h in t h e c o m m u n ity ha s n o t c h an g e d a s a re s u lt o f he r b u sin e ss, s h e f e e ls t h a t h e r childr e n ha v e g a in e d mo re respect be c au se t h e y g o t o s c hoo l. I f t h e b u sin e ss g r o w s, t he y w i ll e v e n ha v e more i mpo r t an c e s h e s a id. S h e c on clu d e d s t a ti n g : I f y o u a re a w oma n a n d y o u don ha v e a bu si n e ss, y o u a re no t h in g T h is e x emp l i f ies ho w i n t e rco n ne c t e d t h e s u cc e ss o f t h e w om e n m ic r o e n t e rpr i s e s is w ith t h e o ppo r t un ities c h i l d ren a re a f f o r de d edu c a ti o n a l l y s o ciall y an d e c o no m icall y Impor t a nce of c on j ugal r e l a tionship W h i le in s o m e c a s e s me n a re a s t ab le pa rt o f t h e h ou s eho l d in o t he rs m e n re m a in o n th e pe r ip he r y W o m e n ma y g a in s o m e f i nan c i a l s u p po rt f r o m m e n H o w e v e r, t he y a re n o t d e p en d e n t o n t h e male a s t h e p r i ma ry p ro v id e r as is in t h e c a s e in tra d itio n a l nu c l ea r f a m i l i e s. M in t z (1 974 ) n o t e d t h a t w h i l e m e n in H a iti ha v e n o cl a im to w omen ea rn i n g s, t h e p r o f its fr o m t h e bu si n e ss a re u s e d f o r t h e c h i l d re n e du c a ti o n an d ma i n t e nan c e o f t h e h o u s e h o ld. As Sa f a ( 19 9 5 ) n o t e d t h e c o n j u g a l bon d ha s b e e n

PAGE 121

121 w ea k ene d t h ro u g h t h e le g a cy o f sl a v e r y c o lo n ialism a n d m i g rati on T h e l a ck o f s t ab le emp l o y men t o p po rt u n i t ies ha s a l s o re s u lt e d in m e n a b i l ity t o p ro v i d e e c on o m icall y Be l i e fs a nd v a lu e s B e l ie f s a n d v a lu e s r e f e r to ho w w omen f a ith he lps t h e m t o c o n ti n u e in a n un c e rta i n a n d d i f f icult bu sin e ss cli ma t e I n t h is st ud y w ome n w e re n o t a s k e d ab o u t rel ig io u s be l ie f s o r s p i r it ua l i ty s pe c i f icall y rat h e r t he y w e re i n v it e d t o d iscuss o n w ho m an d o n w ha t t he y reli e d for inspiration Re l igious b e l ie fs e zi a nd B o n d y e Haiti is p re d o m i n an tly a C h r i sti a n c ou n try (a pp ro x i ma t e ly 8 0 p e rce n t C a t ho l i c an d 2 0 p e rce n t P ro t e st a n t ) Reli g ion is w o v e n i n to th e f ab r i c o f Haiti a n c u lt u re a n d in m a n y a re a s in H a iti, e s pe cia l ly in rur a l c om m un itie s c hu rch e s p lay a c e n t r a l r o le in e v e r y d a y l i f e F o l l o w ing th e ea r t h q ua k e t h e c hu rch b e c am e a p lace o f r e f u g e an d s u p po rt f o r man y p e op le s t ru gg l i n g t o rec o v e r f r o m its imp a ct. W o m e n o f t e n r e f e r r e d to t h e ir f a ith in res p on s e t o qu e sti on s re g a rdi n g the ir bu sin e ss s u cc e ss, t h e ir i n s p i r a ti o n du r i n g d i f f i c u lt t i m e s, a n d f u t u re e x pe ct a ti on s f o r t h e ir bu sin e s s S p e c i f icall y m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs m en ti o ne d J e z an d o f fe red t w o d i f fe re n t v i e w s in rel a ti o n t o t h e ir bu sin e ss. On t h e on e h a nd J e s u s w a s a s y mbo l o f ho p e ins p i r a ti on a n d s u ppo r t f o r t h e m s o m e o n e t o tu rn t o w he n t h e bu si n e ss w a s no t do ing w e l l s omeo n e t o p ro t e ct t h e m an d t h e ir bu si n e ss, a n d s o m eo n e t o g i v e than ks t o w he n it w a s do ing w e ll ( g oo d s a les, m a n y c u st o me r s, a n d p r o f i t ab l e ) Elo j e q uo t e d scr i p t u r e p s a lm 2 3 lift m y e y e s to w a rd th e m oun t a ins a s he r s ou rce o f i n s p i r a ti on J o le n e e x p lai ne d he r b u sin e ss is d o ing w e ll an d s h e is ma king a p r o f i t. S he t han ks J e z i be c au s e h e k no w s ho w s h e w o rks at h e r b u s i ne ss. S h e p ra y s t o J e s u s a n d a sks h im f o r d i r e cti on Sh e i n sist e d : Y o u a re s up p o s e d t o be l i e v e in J e z i to m a k e a

PAGE 122

122 bu sin e ss a n d n o t t o g o t o V oo d o o f o r s p e cial t h in g E v e n w he n th e c h i l d ren n e e d s om e t h ing a n d s h e h a s t o u s e mo n e y f r o m th e bu s i ne ss, s h e be l i e v e s t h a t J e z i w i l l g i v e he r a n o t h e r o p po r t un i ty Lu isa a d de d w he n h e r b u si n e ss is d o ing w e l l it is J e z i w h o he lps he r a n d w he n it is n s h e p ra y s t o h i m On t h e o t he r ha n d s o m e w o m e n v i e w e d J e zi a s a s y m b o l o f po w e r w h o ha d c on trol o v e r t h e ir de st i n y re p res en ti n g a be l i e f t h a t t he ir b u sin e ss o u tc o me s w e re m o re c on ti n g en t o n o u tsi d e f o rces, s u c h a s f a t e o r c han c e t ha n o n pe rs o na l b eha v ior. T h is be l ie f w a s c on v e y e d b y s e v e ral m ic r oen tre pren e u rs i n t h e s t ud y F o r e x amp le, Marie e x p ress e d t h a t w he n s h e l e a v e s he r h ou se e v er y m o rning s h e s a y s z i, I g i v e th is to y ou ; it is y o u w h o ta k e s c a re o f m y bu s i ne ss the r c o m m e n ts inc l ud e d : O n ly J e z i k n o w s w ha t w i l l happ e n t o m y bu sin e s s If J e z i w an ts m e t o b e s u cc e s s f u l, h e w i l l s en d s o me o n e to he lp m e an d I w i ll b e s u cc e s s f u l W h e n m y s a les a re n o t g oo d I pu t it in J e z i s ha n d s b e c au s e t h is d a y is no t m ine. It is en ti r e ly u p t o J e z i Vood o o M an y H a itia n s a lso p r a ctice V oodo o ( V oudo u ). Alt h o u g h V ood o o h a s be e n in a pa rt o f Haiti a n c u lt u re f o r almost 3 0 0 y ea rs, it w a s o f f ic i a l l y rec o g n i z e d a s a reli g ion b y t h e g o v e rn m e n t un d e r Presid e n t J e a n B e rt ra n d A r i sti d e in A p r i l 20 0 3 V oo d o o is a s y n c r e tic rel ig io n w h ich c omb i n e s na ti v e A f r i c a n reli g io n s p e c i f ically t h e reli g ion o f t h e D ah ome y re g ion o f A f r i ca ( mo d e r n da y B e n in), w i th e l e m e n ts o f Ro m a n C a t ho l i cis m M an y o f t h e ritu a l s o f t h e Vo o do o f a i t h h a v e s o m e s i m i l a r i ti e s w ith t ho se in t h e C h r i sti a n f a it h A n g e ls, b u rning i n c en s e h o no r i n g s p i r its o r sai n ts, a n d p ra y ing a re pa rt o f b o t h

PAGE 123

123 V o od o o a n d C h r i sti a n reli g io n s. A d ist i n cti v e f e a t u re o f V oo d o o is t h e u se o f p h y sical r i t ua ls a n d ob jec t s t o i n f l uen c e e v en ts. T h e V oo d o o reli g ion c on sists o f o n e G o d B o nd y e i m i l a r to C h r i st i an it y Judaism and Islamic faith. Here, an i mpor t ant d i f f er e nce bet w een Vo o doo a n d t hese other r el ig ions is t hat t hose w ho p r actice V o o doo do not bel i e v e t h at they can s p e ak di r ectly to Go d Rat h er they bel i e v e t h at t hey ha v e to c on t act t he s pi r its to inter c ede on their b e ha l f A pr i mary bel ie f in Haitian Vo o d o o is t h at t hat L w a (deities), w hich are subordi n ate to Go d w ill interce d e o n their b eh alf. T h e f o l l o w ing i n t e r v i e w e x c e rpts h i g h l ig h t t h e i n f lu e n ce o f V oo d o o in bu sin e ss ope rat i on s: f i r st t h ing pe o p l e d o is t o p r o t e ct t h e m s e l v e s a n d t he ir bu si n e ss. I k no w o f s o m e Prot e s t a n ts w h o u se V o od o o t o p rot e ct t h e ir bu si n e ss. Most Haiti an s don t o s e e y o u p ro g ress; e v e n f r i end s a n d f am i l y w i ll no t l i ke f o r y o u t o d o w e l l T h e y wi l l ki l l y ou if y o u a re t h e f i r st in t h e f a m i ly t o d o w e l l I ha v e e x pe r i en ce w ith s om e o n e t r y ing t o ruin m y bu sin e ss. S o m e o n e p la c e d p o w de r in m y s to re. T he y bu r n e d it an d s p re a d it o n m y f lo o r. It c a n ma k e y ou r f ee t s w e ll an d e v en t u a l l y kill y ou W he n I f ou n d it, I s w ep t it a wa y O the r w ome n c om me n t e d : d on u se a n y Voodo o in m y bu sin e s s I f y o u d o i t it c a n t u rn o n y ou e v e n ki l l y ou Peop le g i v e y o u m o n e y an d s om e times it is b ad ; it is s o m e ki n d o f V o o d o o th in g S o me t i me s I m i x e d l e m o n an d g a r l ic in w ith m y m o ne y t o p rot e ct i t b e c au s e s o m e times p eop l e d o s om e t h ing t o make d isa p p ea M y c on v e rsation w ith Y a rose b ro a de n e d m y un d e rsta n d ing o f t h is i ss ue Dur i n g ou r int e r v ie w w he n a s k e d a bo u t w he t he r o r n o t s h e h a s h a d a n y e x pe r i en ce in cl o sing a bu s i ne ss, s h e be g a n t o cr y A lt h o u g h s h e h a d n e v e r h a d to cl o s e a bu s i ne ss, s h e

PAGE 124

124 e x p ress e d t h a t o t h e r p eop le ma k e it d i f f i c u lt f o r h e r t o run a g o o d bu sin e S h e w en t o n t o e x p lain t ha t s om e ti me s o t he rs pl a c e c a l aba s ( g ou r d s) ou tsi d e he r d o o r or de f e c a te insi d e h e r b u s i ne ss. S h e re v ea led t h a t s h e w a s sc a red o f t he s e V o o do o p ractices a n d ref u s e d t o g o to he r p l a ce a t t h e ma rket f o r a l mo st t w o m o n t h s. S h e w a s v er y f ea r f u l, un til o n e n i g h t, w he n a s p i r it c a m e t o h e r a n d t o ld h e r n o t to b e a f ra i d a n d t o re tu r n t o t h e ma rk e t. E v e r s i n ce t he n s h e h a s n o t e x p e r i en c e d an y si m i l a r incid en c e s. H a d it n o t be e n f o r t h e s p i r it te l l i n g m e t h a t it w a s o k a y t o g o ba ck t o t h e mark e t, I w ou ld h a v e clos e d m y bu sin e s s h e s a i d S e v e ral k e y i n f o r m a n t s a f f i rm e d t ha t w ome n m ic r oe n tre p r e n eu rs w e re in f l uen c e d b y the ir s p i r it ua l b e l ie f s, inc l ud ing V oo d oo Th e y s ta t e d t h e y k no w s om e w ome n d o s o me t h ing t o i n f l u en ce t he ir bu si n e ss s u cc e s s b u t t he y w e re n e x a ctly s u re w ha t t he y d id a n d d is m issed t h e ir be l ie f in t h e po w e r of V o od o o A n o t he r k e y i n f o r m an t e x p ress e d t h a t o m e ti me s V o o do o is u s e d f o r r e v en g e ; a po is o n po w de r can b e p lac e d in y ou r f oo d S h e a d d ed : T h e ir s p i r it ua l q ua l ity is v er y l o w an d p e o p le h a v e fa ith in t h in g s th a t w i l l no t he lp th e m t o h a v e a g oo d b u sin e

PAGE 125

125 Fi g u re 4 1 View o f m a rket w ome n u sing t h e T a p Tap a s a me an s o f t ra n s po r t a ti o n in J a c me l, H a iti, 2 0 1 2 P ho t o c o u rtesy o f C e l e ste W o jt a le w icz

PAGE 126

126 T a b le 4 1 Pr im a ry R e s ou rces A v a i l ab le to F ema l e M i c r oen tr e p re n eu rs i n J a c me l, H a iti, 20 1 2 Or g an i z e d b y B ro a d C a t e g o ry o f T y p e o f R e s o u rce a n d S pe c i f ic N a t u re o f R e s o u rces w it h in E a ch C a t e g o ry Ca te g o r i e s T h e m e s Na tu ral Ca p i t a l Acc e ss t o L a n d E n v i r onme n t a l Co n c e r n Si g n i f ica n c e o f W a t e r S o cial C ap i t a l Co nne c ti o n t o I n t e r n a l Ne t w o rks Co nne c ti o n t o E x t e rn a l Ne t w o rks S up p o rt f r o m Fr i e n d s S up p o rt f r o m F a m i l y P h y sical C ap it a l Acc e ss t o E q u i p me n t a n d T o o ls T y p e a n d Acc e ss t o T r an s p o rta t i o n A de q ua t e S t o ra g e o f B u sin e ss Merc h and i s e a n d R a w M a t e r i a ls Fin an cial C a p it a l Acc e ss t o C r ed it S ou rce o f Fi n an cial Su ppo rt Hu m a n C ap i t a l E x po s u re t o F o r m a l T r a ini n g E x po s u re t o I n f o r ma l T r a ini n g Fa m i l y App re n ti c e s h ip Desi r e t o P a rtic i pa t e in T rain i n g

PAGE 127

127 T a b le 4 2 S e c o nda ry Res ou rces A v a i l ab le t o F e m a le M ic r oen t r ep r e neu rs i n J a cmel, Haiti, 2 0 12 Or g an i z e d b y B ro a d C a t e g o ry o f T y p e o f Res o u rce a n d S pe c i f ic Na tu re o f Res o u rces w it h in E a c h C a t e g o ry Categories Themes Business Start Up Patterns, Operations And Strategies Family Business Tradition Significance of Customer Relations Creativity and Innovation Economize/Sacrifice Philosophy Impact Of Natural Disaster Impact on Household Impact on Business (Supply Chain, Customer Base and Safety Net) Perception Of Self Self Attribution of Business Success Pride in Workmanship Sense of Responsibility Attachment to Business Sense of Business Accomplishment Familial Ties Significance of Children and their Education Significance of Conjugal Relationship Beliefs And Values Religious Beliefs (Jezi and Bondye) Voodoo

PAGE 128

128 CHA P T ER 5 DISCUS S I O N AND I M P L IC A T I O NS In a na l y z i n g th e d a t a i t w a s appa r e n t t ha t e v e n w he n t he y a re b a s e d in t h e s a m e re g ion an d a ll relia n t o n t h e s a m e na t u ral re s ou rces, m ic r o e n tre p r e n e u rs h a d re m a rk a b le d i f fe re n c e s in t h e w a y th e y c ond u ct e d t he ir b u sin e s s e s a n d in t h e ir b u sin e ss ou tc o me s I t w a s the n cl ea r t h a t t o f u r t he r a n s w e r m y res ea rch q ue sti on s o n t h e a ss e t struct u re o f v ia b le b u sin e ss e s, t h e rec o v e ry s tra te g ies a f t e r t h e 2 0 1 0 ea r t h q ua k e o r t h e rela t io n s h i p b e t w ee n b u sin e ss pe r f o r man c e a n d h ou s e ho ld d y nam i c s, m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs h a d t o b e s e g re g a t e d in d istinct t y pe s. Since t he re ha s be e n a p rol i f e r a ti o n o f m ic ro en t e rpr i s e s e st a b l i s h e d in de v e lo p ing c o u n tries s i n ce t h e 19 6 0 s, a n d a c c e lera t ing o v e r ti m e it s ee m e d a p r i m e op p o rtu n ity to e x p lore t h e un i q u e o r c o m m o n c ha ract e r i stics o f t he se en tr e p re n e u rs, man y o f w h o m a re w ome n p oo r or o f mo d e s t m ean s. T hu s I c ho se to c r e a te a t y po lo g y o f f e ma l e m ic r oen tr e p r en e u rs to he lp i de n t i f y t h e d i f f e r e n ti a l p a t h w a y s t o bu sin e ss pe r f o r m an c e Fe ma le Mi c ro e n t r e p r e neuri a l T y polo g y The f o r mu l a ti o n o f t y po lo g ies is a n e st a b l i s h e d p ro c e ss in s o cial s c ie n ce re s ea rch. A t y po lo g y is de f i n e d a s a mec h an ism f o r s e p a rati n g e v en t s i t em s, o r p e o p le i n to t y pe s t ha t s ha re s pe c i f i e d c o mb i n a ti on s o f f a c t o rs ( Sti n c h c o m b e 19 6 8 ; R i c h 19 9 2 ) Fo r mu la t ing t y po lo g ies o f fe rs a d v an t a g e s s u ch a s t heo r i z ing abou t c o mp lex ph e n o me n a w it hou t o v e rs i mp l i f y in g clar i f y ing si m i l a r i ti e s a n d d i f fe r e n c e s a m o n g c a s e s to f a ci l it a te c o m pa r i s o n p ro v idi n g a n i n v en t o r y o f a ll po ssible k i nd s o f c a s e s a n d s pe c i f y ing pa t h w a y s th ro u g h w h ich pa rticular t y pe s rel a te t o s p e c i f i e d o u tc o me s ( B a i l e y 19 9 4 ).

PAGE 129

129 T h is p roc e ss o f g ro up ing i nd i v id ua l s u b jec t s a l l o w s fo r d e t a i l e d a na l y sis an d in te r g ro u p c o m p a r i s o n T y po lo g ical f rame w o rks ma y b e de v e lo p e d th ro u g h e i t h e r in du c ti v e o r d e d u cti v e mo d e s o f in q u i r y In ma n y res ea rch p r o jec t s, ho w e v e r, a c omb i na ti o n o f i ndu c ti o n an d de d u cti o n is ne c e ss a r y w ith th e rel a ti v e rol e s o f e a ch v a r y ing a cc o rding t o t h e res e a rch ob jec t i v e t h e s t a te o f de v e lo p m en t o f t h e re s ea rch p r o jec t an d t h e a v a i l ab i l ity o f in fo r m a ti on O f te n t h e res ea rch w i l l mo v e b a ck an d f o rth b e t w ee n i ndu ct i o n a n d de d u cti o n d e pe n d ing o n t h e n eed s o f t h e res e a rch p roject a s it de v e lo p s (G e o r g e & B en n e t t 2 0 04 ). Th e re is a v a st a mo un t o f lit e r a t u re o n en t r e p re neu rship t h a t s h o w s t ha t t he re a re m an y t y pe s of en t r ep re n eu rs ( G a rt n e r et a l.; 1 994 ). T y po lo g ies a re a p p ro p r i a t e in t h is st u d y a s the y rec og n i z e th e d i v e rs i ty o f m ic r oen tre p r e n e u rs a n d a l l o w s f o r g ro up ing t h e m a l o n g d i f f e r e n t d i men s i o n s an d a cc o rd i n g to c om mo n t raits. This p roc e ss is u s e f u l f o r u n de rst a nd ing t h e d iff e re n t re a s on s w h y s om e w ome n m ic r o e n t re p re n e u rs are ab le to d e v e lop v ia b le bu s i n e ss e s a n d t h e d istin g u i s h ing a s pe cts a m o n g t y pe s In d e v e lo p ing a t y po l o g y o f w o m e n m ic r o e n tre p re n eu rs, I e x am i n e d t h e v a r i ou s a ss e ts an d c o mb i n a ti o n o f t ho s e a s s e ts u til i z e d b y d i f fe re n t w o m e n m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs to ta k e a d v an t a g e o f e c on o m ic a n d bu sin e ss op p o rtu n ities a n d b u i l d v ia b le bu sin e s s W h i l e t h is s t ud y p r i ma r i ly relied o n q ua l i t a ti v e da t a I a l s o s u pp l e m e n t e d it w ith q uan tit a ti v e da ta t o d e ep e n t h e un d e rst a nd ing o f t h e i m p o rta n t rela t io n s h i p s be t w ee n a s s e ts, m ic ro en tre p r en e u r i a l strat e g ies, a n d t h e c on t e x ts in w h ich en tre p r en e u rship o c c u rs.

PAGE 130

130 T ra d it i ona l l y t he re a re t w o m a i n s t ep s in de v e lo p ing t y po l o g ies. In th e f i r st st e p res ea rch e rs f o rm po s t u la t io n s t h a t s e e k t o e x p lain t h e d i f fe r e n c e s in t y pe s th a t t h e y ha v e ob s e r v e d in t h e ir res ea rch, an d / o r h a v e no t e d in t h e lit e rat u r e A dd iti o na l l y in f o r m ing t h e se po s t u la t i on s it is u s u a l l y he lp f u l to i n t e r v i e w k e y i n f o r ma n ts w h o k no w th e a rea w e l l In th is f i r st s te p f a ct o r s tha t e x p lain d i f fe re n c e s a mon g t y pe s a re un c o v e re d s u ch a s w h y s om e m i c ro en tr e p re n e u rs o w n l i v e st o ck an d o t he rs d o no t o r w h y s om e ha v e m o r e p r o pen sity t o rec o v e r f rom a na t u r a l d i s a s t e r a n d s o m e d o n o t T h e se f a ct o rs a re likely t o c o m e u n d e r t h e d i f f e r en t clas s e s o f c a p it a l, n a me ly na t u ral c ap i t a l, h u m a n c ap it a l, s o cial c a p it a l, ph y sical c ap it a l a n d f i n an cial c a p it a l. Follo w ing th e fo r m a ti o n o f po s t u la t i o ns v a r i ab les o r s p e c i f ic t he m e s t ha t c a n b e u s e d to t e st t he s e p o s t u la t io n s a re i d en t i f i e d For e x amp le, a po s t u l a ti o n m i g h t b e t h a t s o cial c ap i t a l is a ma j o r d e t e r m in a n t in m ic r o e n t e rpr i se ab i l ity t o w it h st an d n a t u ral d isas te rs. As w e e x p lore f u rt h e r a k e y t h e m e t ha t c ou ld b e u s e d to e x p lain the se d iff e re n c e s we m i g h t t h e n examine t h e f o rm o f s o cial c ap i t a l, f o r e x a mp le e x t e rn a l v s. in te rn a l ne t w o rks. M y ana l y sis o f t h e d a ta p ro du c e d t h e f o l l o w ing t y pe s o f f e ma le m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs: 1 t h e i n s p i r ing m ic r oe n tre p re n eu r; 2 t h e a s p i r i n g m ic r oe n tr ep re n eu r; a n d 3 t h e s u r v i v i n g m ic r oen tr e p re n eu r. T h e n ame s a ssi g ne d t o t h e t h ree t y pe s a re a n a t t e mp t t o c ap t u re t h e s en c e o f t h e role o f t h e bu si n e ss in t h e l i v e s o f e a ch t y pe D e mo g ra ph ic i n f o r m a ti o n f o r all t h r e e t y pe s is p r e s en t e d in T ab l e 5 1 T h e d e g ree t o w h ich f e ma le m ic r o e n tre p r en e u rs r e ly o n a ss e ts a n d t h e w a y in w h ich t he y c omb i n e th e se a s s e ts re s u l t s in t h e ir d e f ini n g c h a ract e r i s tic s This w a s m y

PAGE 131

131 f i r st a t t e m p t a t cre a ti n g a t y po lo g y an d a l t ho ug h the se c a t e g o r i e s a re n o t st a tic, I p res en t t h is a s a f r a me w o rk to de v e lop a be tt e r u n d e rsta n d ing o f e n tre p re n eu r e x pe r i en c e s a n d app r o a c he s to en t e rpr i se d e v e lo pme n t. In s pir i ng T h e ins p i r ing e n tre p r e neu r g i v e s p r i o r i ty t o he r e n tr e p re n eu r i a l o b l ig a ti on s, w ith he r f a m i l ial ob l ig a ti o n s in m i n d S h e i de n t i f ies he rse l f a s a pu re bu s i ne ss w oma n a n d g a ins s a ti s f a cti o n b o th pe rso n a l l y an d e c o n o m ically f r o m h e r e n t r e p re neu r i a l a c ti v ities. S h e is no t f o r m a l l y ed u c a t e d a n d ma y e v e n b e il l it e rat e ; ho w e v e r, s h e ha s b e e n v e ry w e l l trai ne d in bu si n e s s f r o m t h e p re v io u s ge ne rati o n p a rticularly he r m o t he r. S h e h a s be e n in b u sin e ss he r e n ti r e lif e an d he r de ci s ion t o b e i n v o l v e d in b u sin e ss is v ie w e d a s a n a t u ral p ro g ressio n S h e v ie w s he rself a s i n t e l l i g en t, c o m p e t e n t an d a n o non s en s e bu sin e ss ma na g e r a n d ha s a v is i o n f o r t h e f u t u r e T raini n g a n d e du c a ti o n a re d e e m e d i mpo r t an t an d s h e is i n t e rest e d in l e a rning n e w s t rat e g ies to ma x i m i z e he r b u si n e ss p r o f its, b u t s h e re c o g n i z e s th e v a lue o f he r p ractical o n t he job k no w le d g e T h e f a c t o rs o f m o ti v a ti o n i n cl u d e i n c o me s e l f rel i an c e p r id e a n d re s pe ct. Alt hou g h s h e be l i e v e s in a h i g he r po w e r such a s J e s u s (Je z i) an d t u rns to h e r f a i t h in ti me s o f d i f f i c u lt y s h e i s no t pa ssi v e o r i n f l u e n c e d b y ne g a ti v e a cti on s o f o t he rs t o w a rd he r b u s i ne ss (u s e o f V oo d oo ) a n d t a k e s re s p on sibil i ty f o r he r b u sin e ss a f f a i r s. M u lt i p le bu sin e ss s t rat e g ies ( m a rket a s s e ssme n t st o c king q ua l i ty p ro du cts, p ro v idi n g q ua l i ty c u st o me r ser v ice, a n d m ini m i z ing risks b y on ly s e l l ing o n cre d it t o trus t w o rthy peop le) a re e mp lo y e d t o a c h i ev e bu sin e ss g oa ls. S h e m in i m i z e s he r b u s in e ss r i sks b y d i v e rs i f y i n g th e i t em s s h e p ro du c e s, b u y s, an d s e l l s, w it hou t o v e rrel i an ce o n on e p ro d u c t T r a n s p o rta t i o n a n d eq u ip m e n t a re

PAGE 132

132 i mpo r t an t f o r h e r b u si n e ss, b u t s h e o e s w ha t s h e h a s t o d o o m b ini n g v a ri ou s stra te g ies: w a lks, re n ts m o t o rc y cle, ta k e s t a p t ap e tc. a n d b o r r o w s an d re n ts. S h e ha s amb it i o n t o g row he r b u sin e ss, e it he r i n si z e o r sco p e o f o p e rati o n W h i le he r b u sin e ss o r b u si n e ss o pe rati o n s m a y b e a f fe ct e d b y t h e i m p a ct o f n a t u ral d i s a st e r, s h e re c o v e rs b y tapp ing i n to e s t ab l i s he d ne t w o rks o f f r ie n d s an d bu si n e ss s u pp l ie rs f o r mo r a l a n d f i n an cial s up p o rt. A s pir i ng T h e a s p i r ing en tre p r e n eu r e n t e rs i n t o t h e e n t r ep re n eu r i a l f ield p r i o r i ti z ing he r f am i l y ob l ig a ti on s o v e r t h e bu sin e s s S h e m a y h a v e s ta rted h e r b u s i ne ss a t t h e s u gg e sti o n o f a f r i e n d o r com m u n ity m e m b e r. A lt h o u g h s h e ma y h a v e v en t u red i n to bu sin e ss a s a w a y t o ta ke c a re o f he r f am i l y o r ha v e s o m e t h i n g t o do h e h a s c o m e to d isco v e r h e r b u si n e ss ski l ls. S h e is likely t o h a v e a m en t o r or a si g n i f ic a n t pe rson w h o en c o u ra g e s o r h e lps h e r m a na g e t h e bu si n e s s. H e r m o n e y is u s e d p r i ma r i ly f o r hou s eho ld n e eds ; ho w e v e r, s h e is m in d f u l to rein v e st mo n e y in he r bu sin e s s A s he r bu sin e ss p r o f its i n c r e a s e so d o e s h e r sa t i s f a cti o n f r o m h e r e f fo rts, an d he r b u sin e ss s u cc e ss v a l i da t e s w h o s h e is a s a pe rso n Sh e be l i e v e s in a h i g he r po w e r ; ho w e v e r, he r p h i l o s o p h y is s u m me d u p in a si mp l e b e l ie f : s u s s a y s t o he lp y ou rself an d I w i l l he lp y ou S h e ma y ha v e s o m e f o r ma l e du c a t i on b e ab l e to r e a d a n d w r i t e o r h a v e a t a le n t o r sk i l l e g ., a rt an d cr a f ts. B e ing a bu si n e s s w oma n ma y b e a s e c o n d c a r e e r f o r he r as s h e ma y ha v e w o rked in a n o t h e r pr o f e ssio n e g sc hoo l t ea c h e r, w he re th e pa y w a s ins u f f ic i e n t to he lp s u p po rt h e r f a m i l y Sh e m a y a lso ha v e h a d a s p i r a ti on s to ob t a in t e c hn i c a l o r a c ad e m ic t raini n g bu t m o ne t a ry and / o r s c hoo l p lac e m en t ob s t a cles ma y ha v e p re v en t e d h e r f r o m p u rsuing tho s e p a t h s. S h e v ie w s he rself in a

PAGE 133

133 p o siti v e li g h t an d g a ins pe rso n a l s a ti s f a c ti o n f r o m he r b u sin e ss a c h ie v em e n ts. S h e c o n sid e rs h e rse l f g oo d bu s i ne ss w om a n w h o ha s p ro v e n he rse l f t h ro u g h he r ha rd w o Sh e de v o t e o f h e r ti m e t o t h e b u si n e s s n d i n v e sts time i n t h e b u sin e ss. S h e is ab le to en g a g e in a cti v ities in in te rn a l a n d e x t e rn a l ma rkets a s a res u lt o f a s u p po rti v e s pou s e a n d f a m i l y m e m b e rs. S h e b r o a de n s he r ne t w o rk t h ro u g h th e e x isting c on t a cts w ith f a m i l y an d f r i e n d s. S h e h a s a cc e ss t o l a nd i n v e sts m on e y in s a v in g s, an d reli e s o n m ic r o c r ed it. S h e is c on c e r n e d a b o u t t h e en v i r on m en t a n d m a y ta ke s t ep s t o r ed u ce t h e e f fe cts o f l i m it e d re s ou rces o n h e r b u si n e ss th r o u g h v a r i ou s s t rat e g ies, e g cist e rn f o r w a t e r. Sur v i v ing T h e s u r v i v i n g en tre p r e neu r f o c u s e s o n maki n g enou g h m o ne y t o li v e F o r he r, t h e bu sin e ss is a v eh i c le to ma ke e n d s me e an d it e r j o b h e r t h a n e r o w n bu sin e s s T h e l a ck o f a t ta c h m en t a n d p a ss i o n is e v id en t in h o w s h e de scr ib e s h e r bu sin e s s S h e i d en t i f i e s he rse l f a s a s i mp le p e rso n o r a mo t he r, o r a pe rs o n a r c h ing f o r l i f e a n d rar e ly g a ins pe rso n a l s a ti s f a cti o n an d in mo st c a s e s e c o nom ic s a ti s f a c ti o n f r o m he r b u sin e ss. S h e is n o t f o r ma l l y edu c a t ed mo s t o f te n il l it e ra t e a n d ha s re c e i v e d l i t t le g u id an ce o n ho w t o run a b u sin e ss f r o m an y fam i l y m e m b e r or me n t o r ( ne i g h b o r, f r i e n d e tc ). Fi n an cial p r o f it ab i l ity a lo n e ra t he r t ha n s e l f f u l f i l l m en t o r g oa l a c h ie v e m en t is t h e m e a s u re o f t h e s u cc e ss o f t h e b u sin e s s The ma in b e n e f it o f h e r b u sin e he lps h e r to li v e Sh e m a y b e o ld e r, a na sc e n t o pe ra t o r, b e r e s p o n sible f o r m u ltiple de p en d en ts, a n d b e th e p r im a ry hou s eho ld p ro v id e r. A true u nde rs t and i n g o f c u st o me r n eed s a n d bu y ing hab its, an d t h e en tre p r en e u r i a l en v i r onm e n t (c o m p e titi o n de v e lo p ing n iche b u sin e s s) in w h ich s h e ope ra t e s, ha s no t y e t b ee n de v e lo p e d Her a c c e ss t o c ap i t a l, t o o ls, eq u i p me n t a n d

PAGE 134

134 tra n s po r t a ti o n is li m it e d Her n e t w o rk i s li m it e d in t e rn a l, an d l e ss p r odu cti v e S h e ha s a ne t w o rk o f f r i e n d s, w h o a re a lso p oo r, s o s h e ha s li m i t e d o p po rt u n i t y t o a cc e ss c a p it a l (b o r r o w f rom f r ie nd s, e x c han g e too ls, e tc ) t o incre a se t h e c a p a ci t y an d p o t e n ti a l f o r inc o m e g ene r a ti o n f o r he r b u s i ne ss. O v er w he l me d b y da y t o da y s t ru gg les, s h e is un a b le to c o n t e mp l a te stra te g ies f o r i mp ro v ing he r b u si n e ss. Her bu sin e ss o pe rati o n s a re o f t e n i n t e r r u p t e d b e c au s e o f i l ln e ss a n d ma y ha v e h a d t o cl o se he r b u sin e ss a s a res u lt o f he r o w n o r a f am i l y m e mbe r s il l ne ss ( ma lar i a t y pho id f e v e r, e tc ) S h e d o e s no t ha v e a ne t w o rk o f pe o p le o n w ho m s h e c a n rely fo r assist a n ce i n ta king c a re o f he r c h i l d ren f o r e x amp l e A lt hou g h s h e w an ts t o s e e h e r b u s i ne ss pe r f o r m w e l l s h e d oe s no t ha v e h o pe s f o r b u i l d ing a b i g g e r b u sin e s s S h e be l i e v e s in a h i g he r p o w e r such a s J e s u s (Je z i) an d tu rns t o he r f a ith in ti me s o f d i f f i c u lt y bu t f ee ls t h a t m a n y a s pe cts o f h e r l i fe a r e o u t o f h e r co n trol. S h e ma y s e ll t o p eop l e o n c r ed i t w it hou t v e r i f y ing the ir t rust w o rthi ne ss, a n d l o se merc ha n d ise an d m o ne y a s a res u lt. H e r b u si n e ss may b e f o c u s e d o n s e l l ing f e w it em s a n d s h e l a cks stra te g ies to i n c r ea se he r sal e s. C o m m o n r e s pon s e s t o t h e bu s i ne s s s t rat e g ies emp l o y e d a d o n h a v e an y s t rat e g ies y e an d t r y bu t I f a i l S h e relies o n w a lk i n g o r a t a p t a p t o t ra n s po r t m e rch a n d ise. A lt h o ug h s h e ma y ha v e h a d e x pe r i en ce t a king ou t a l o a n s h e h a s ha d t o u se it f o r h ou s eho l d ra t h e r t h a n bu sin e ss pu rp o s e s. S h e ma y ha v e b e e n u n ab le t o re p a y th e l o a n o r m a y ha v e ha d to b o r r o w f r o m o t h e rs to re pa y th e p r i ma ry l oan cre a ti n g a pa t t e rn o f d ep e nd e n cy an d i n d e b t ed n e ss. B e c au s e s h e h a s li m i t e d a ss e ts, th e i m p a ct o f n a t u ral d isas te r on he r bu si n e s s c a n b e de v a st a ti n g a n d d i f f i c u l t to o v e rco m e

PAGE 135

135 T a b le 5 2 s u m ma r i z e s th e c ha rac t e r i stics o f t h e t h ree t y pe s o f f e ma l e m ic r oe n tr ep re n eu rs, p laci n g e m pha sis o n d is t inc t i v e f e a t u res a s t he y rel a te t o t h e d iff e re n t f o r m s o f c a p i t a l. I f u rt h e r id e n t i f ied s a l i en t f ea t u res t ha t a re k e y in d e f ini n g ea ch t y pe Re c o v e r y S trategi e s us e d b y the Dif f e r e nt T y pes of M i c ro e n t r e p r e neurs a f t e r Di sas ter M y res ea rch w a s c on d u ct e d t w o y ea r f o l l o w ing th e J a nua ry 12 2 0 1 0 ea rth q ua k e an d t hu s t h e p ro c e ss o f r e c o v e ry f rom t h is m a jor d isas te r w a s s t i l l u n de r w a y In th is st ud y 3 4 o f t h e 3 8 w o me n m ic ro en tr e p re n eu rs re po rted be i n g i mp a ct e d b y a d is a s t e r rela te d e v en t. O f t h e 3 4 w omen 3 2 i nd ic a t e d tha t t h e y w e re a f f e c t e d b y th e 2 0 1 0 ea rth q ua k e w ith 1 5 o f t h e m re p o rting s e v e re i m pa c t a n d t w o re p o rti n g m ode r a te i m p a ct ( b rok e n d ish e s, l o ss o f s o m e b u sin e ss a ss e t s ). W h i l e t h e o t h e r t w o w e re a lso a f f e c t e d b y th e e a rth q ua k e t he y i nd ica te d t ha t th e c o mb i n e d i mpa c t o f t h e e a rth q ua ke a n d t h e G o ld e n H u r r ica n e w a s c r itical. The i mpa c t o f d isas te r o n t he se w ome n i n cl u de d : struc tu ral d a m a g e t o h ou se an d / o r b u sin e ss struct u re, l o ss o f bu si n e ss ma te r i a ls, l o ss o f s a v in g s (e g l i v e st o ck), d is r up ti o n o f s u p p ly c ha in (su pp l i e r injur e d o r b u sin e ss de stro y ed ), a n d pe rs o na l o r f am i l y i n jury an d il l ne ss. Ho w e v e r, t h e t w o w ome n r e po rting m o d e ra t e a f fe cts f r o m t h e 20 1 0 e a rth q ua k e r epo rt e d s e v e re i mpa c t f r o m t h e G o l d e n Hur r ica ne in w h ich t he ir hou s e s a n d t h e ma j o r i ty o f t h e ir bu si n e ss a s s e ts w e re de stro y ed The i n f o r m a ti o n t h a t w a s u s e d to a sc e rtain t h e rec o v e ry stra te g ies o f m ic r oe n tre p ren eu rs f o l l o w ing a d isas te r rela t e d e v en t w a s ba s e d o n t h e re s pon s e s o f t he se 3 4 w ome n m ic ro en tre p r en e u rs. Sin c e w ome n h o u s e ho ld a n d bu s i ne ss a s s e ts a re o f t e n i n t e rt w in e d a n d d i f f i c u lt t o s e pa ra t e a q ue sti o n o n h ou s eh o ld a s s e ts w a s incl ude d in t h e f o l l o w i n g s e r i e s o f q ue sti o n s o n rec o v e ry s t rat e g ies f o l l o w ing d isas te r:

PAGE 136

136 1 Can y o u te ll m e ho w y ou r b u s i ne ss ha s be e n a f f e c t e d b y na t u ral d i s a st e r ( e g hu r r ica ne ea r t h q ua k e ) ? 2 In w ha t w a y s ha s y ou r h ou s eho ld b e e n a f fe c t e d (i.e p e op le mo v e d in /mo v e d a w a y c a re f o r inju r e d o r i l l f a m i l y m e mbe r, f e w e r ass e ts, e tc )? 3 Can y o u p l e a se de scr i b e in w ha t w a y y ou r ass e ts ( f in a n cial, s o c i a l, hu m an e tc ) he lp e d y o u in y ou r r e c o v er y ? M y f in d in g s in d ica t e t h a t ins p i r ing a n d a s p i r ing m ic r oen tr e p re n e u rs ha d a h i g h de g ree o f s o cial c ap it a l t ha t e n ab l e d to rec o v e r a f t e r n a t u ral d isas t e r. T he se w o m e n w e re ab le to d raw o n t h e s u ppo rt o f f r i end s, f am i l y bu sin e ss s u p p l i e rs, a n d e v e n c u st o me rs. A s u p po rti v e s p o u se o r f a m i l y m e mbe r a n d / o r f i n an cial s up p o rt w e re a lso i mpo r t an t f a c t o r f o r b o t h i n s p i r ing a n d a s p i r i n g m ic r oen tr e p re n e u rs i n t h e a f te r m a th o f na t u ral d isas t e r. In a d d itio n I n s p i r ing m ic r o e n tre p r e neu r s s o cial c a p it a l h e lp e d t h e m de r i v e o t he r b e ne f its th a t c o n trib u t e d t o t h e a c c umu l a ti o n o f o t h e r r e s ou rces s u c h a s f i n an cial c ap it a l, w h ich w a s cr i tic a l to res ta rt t h e ir bu sin e s s e s O n t h e o t he r ha n d s u r v i v i n g m ic r oen tr e p re n e u rs h a d a l o w de g re e s o c i a l c ap i t a l, w h ich w a s li m it e d t o a n in te rn a l ne t w o rk o f i n d i v id ua ls o f si m i l a r me an s Als o i n s p i r ing m ic r oen tr e p re n eu rs w e re m o re likely tha n a s p i r ing an d s u r v i v ing m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs t o ob t a i n f in a n ce s up p o rt f r o m m ic r o c r ed it l e n de rs, w ith w ho m t he y h a v e c u r r en t o r p r e v io u s i n v o l v emen t I n s p i r ing m ic r o e n tre p r e neu rs a b i l ity t o a cc e ss f i n an cial a ssist an c e f r o m m ic r o c r ed it a g en cies ma y b e t h e r e s u lt o f t h e ir ha v ing o wn e rship o f mo re a ss e ts (e g la n d h om e an d p ro d u cti v e e q u ipme n t ) a n d t hu s be ing a b le to l e v e ra g e res ou rc e s. Mor eo v e r, t h e y ma y ha v e a be t t e r u nd e rsta nd i n g o f ma n a g ing th e b u sin e ss r i sks a s s o cia t e d w ith l oa n a r r an g em e n ts e it he r t h ro u g h t r i a l a n d e r r o r or t h ro u g h c o n t a c ts w ith a more e x t en si v e ne t w o rk. The i n s p i r ing m ic r o e n tre p r e neu rs s o cial a n d b u sin e ss c o n ne cti o n s a lso en a b led t h e m t o a c c e s s s o m e t y p e o f f i n an ci a l g i f ts f r o m e x t e rn a l s o u rces ( F on k o z e

PAGE 137

137 re m itt a n c e s, o r c h u rch), w h ich a id e d t he ir re c o v er y Alt e rn a ti v e l y s u r v i v i n g m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs w e re m o re likely t o rely o n c o m m un ity ro ta ti o na l f i nan c i a l s u p po rt s y st em s t o f u n d b u sin e ss a cti v ities. A s l e ss m one y w a s c o l l e ct ed t h e mo ne y a v a i l ab le w a s on ly enou g h f o r s up p o rting da y t o da y e x pen s e s. S u r v i v ing m ic r oen tre p r en e u rs w e re m o re like l y t o rely o n l abo r o f f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s t ha n a s p i r ing a n d i n s p i r i n g m ic r oen tre p r en e u rs. A lt h ou g h s u r v i v i n g m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs ma y ha v e h a d s o m e o f t he ir c h i l d r e n e n rol l e d in sc h o o l p r i o r to t h e d i s a st e r, t he ir edu c a ti on e s p e cia l ly tho se o f g i r ls w a s d is r up t e d so t o h e lp w ith mark e t a cti v ities. S u r v i v ing m ic r oen tre p r en e u rs w e re m o re like l y t o d raw o n th e l a b o r o f f a m i l y an d f r i e n d s a n d e c o n o m i z e a s p r im a ry s t rat e g ies f o r r e c o v e r y w h i l e i n s p i r ing m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs w e re m o re likely t o d raw o n t he ir s u p p l i e r a n d c u st o me r rela t io n s h i p s a n d v a r i ou s f in a n cial res o u rces ( l oan s, g ifts, p u rch a s e s o n cr e d it, a n d s a v in g s ) B o th i n s p i r i n g an d a s p i r ing m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs r e l i e d o n g i f ts f r o m f r i end s an d s a v in g s m o re t h a n s u r v i v ing m ic r oen tre p re n e u rs. W h e re i n s p i r ing an d a s p i r ing m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs so l d o ff s o m e o f t he ir a s s e ts (e g l i v e st o ck), s u rv i v i n g m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs w e re f o rced t o s e ll a ll a s s e ts. Alt hou g h a ll th r e e t y p e s e c o n om i z ed s u r v i v i n g m ic r oen tr e p re n e u rs u til i z e d th is a s a p r i ma ry s t rat e g y mo re t h a n i n s p i r ing a n d a s p i r ing m ic ro en tr e p re n e u rs. A s p i r ing m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs w e re m o re likely tha n s u r v i v i n g m ic r oen tr e p re n e u rs to re c e i v e p r i ma ry f i n an cial a ssist an ce f r o m a f am i l y m e mbe r In c o n clusi on t h e a s s e t struct u re o f i n s p i r ing an d a s p i r ing m ic r o e n t r ep re n eu rs a f f o r d e d mo re a v en ue s o f rec o v e ry a f te r dis a st e r c o mpa r e d t o s u r v i v i n g m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs. T he y ha d mo re ph y sical, f in a n cial a n d s o c i a l a ss e ts to d raw up o n t ha n s u r v i v ing m ic r oen tre p re n eu rs. O v e ral l o f t h e t h ree t y pe s, in s p i r ing

PAGE 138

138 m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs w e re ab le to d raw o n more res ou r c e s (p h y sical, f i n an cial, a n d s o cial) mo re t h a n bo t h a s p i r ing an d s u r v i v ing m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs. I n s p i r ing m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs h a d a mo re d i v e rs i f ied p o rtf o l i o o f a ss e ts t o u se to rec o v e r f r o m d isas te r. The mo st i m p o rta n t f a c t o rs r e la t e d t o w ome n m ic r o e n tre p r en e u ab i l ity t o rec o v e r a f t e r dis a s t e r i s t h e p res e n ce o f s o c i al ph y sical, a n d f i n an c ial c ap it a l s. Rel a ti on s h i p s b e t w ee n Bu sin e ss Su c c e ss an d F a m i l y As s ho w n in Fi g u re 5 1 ins p i r ing m ic r o e n tre p r en e u rs h a v e o v e rall more s u p po rt t ha n a s p i r ing a n d s u r v i v ing m ic r oen tre p re n e u r s. T h e mo s t s a l i e n t d i f fe re n c e b e t w ee n t h e s u r v i v ing an d th e i n s p i r ing t y p e lies in t h e l o w emo ti o na l s u ppo rt an d t h e s u ppo rt i n hou s eho ld a cti v ities p ro v id e d b y th e s pou s e o f t h e s u r v i v i n g t y pe an d t h e c on trol o v e r f i n an c es In m y s tud y I f o un d t h a t ins p i r ing a n d a s p i r ing w ome n h a d c o n trol o v e r t he ir bu sin e ss f in a n c e s ( m ic r o c r ed it l o a n s, s a v in g s, g i f ts f r o m f r ie nd s) m o r e t h a n s u r v i v ing m ic r oe n tre p re n eu r s I n s p i r ing an d a s p i r ing m ic r oen tr e p re n e u rs id e n t i f i e d t h em s e l v e s a s t h e p r i ma ry de cis i o n m a k e rs i n t he ir bu s i ne ss. I n s p i r ing m ic ro en tr e p re n e u rs w e re a lso mo re likely t o a s s e rt c o n trol o v e r h ou s e h o ld d e cis i on s rel a t e d to c h i l d re n e du c a ti on hou s eho ld pu rc h a s e s, an d h o m e i mp ro v e m e n ts (a dd ing a w a ll o r la y i n g a c on c re te f l o o r ) In s p i r ing m ic r o e n tre p r e neu rs w e re m o re likely tha n a s p i r ing an d s u r v i v i n g m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs t o st a te t h a t t h e y w e re ab le to pu rch a s e p e rso na l it em s s u ch a s clo th ing a s a res u lt o f t he ir bu si n e ss. As Ma y ou x (1 990 ) dis c o v e re d ha v ing c on trol o v e r t he ir l o a n s a n d i n c o m e c on trib u t e d t o t h e w omen i n c r ea s e d b a r g a ini n g po w e r w i th me n in t h e hou s e h o ld. Also, in a g re e m en t w ith C h e n (1 9 92 ), w om en a c c e ss t o f i n an c e s a l l o w e d t h e m to h a v e m o re c on t r o l o v e r h ou s e h o ld d e cis i o n ma king a n d a stro n g e r r o le in t h e c o m m un ity a s w e l l In f a ct, i n s p i r ing a n d a s p i r ing

PAGE 139

139 m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs e mp h a si z e d t h e y w e re mo re r e s pe c t e d i n t h e c o m m u n ity an d h a d a g re a t e r p a rticip a ti o n in c o m m u n ity de cis i o n m a king tha n s u r v iv i n g m ic r oen tr e p re n e u rs. T h is c o m m u n ity s up po rt an d r e c o g n ition m a y ad d a l a y e r o f s o cial p r o t e cti o n f o r ins p i r ing an d a s p i r ing m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs t h a t tra n s l a t e d i n t o b e t te r hou s eho l d rel a ti o n s. In c o n tra s t, s u r v i v ing m ic r oe n tre p re n eu s p ou s e s ma i n t a i n e d c on t rol o v e r all f i n an c e s. S u r v i v ing m i c ro en tr e p re n e u rs m a y rec e i v e li m it e d f i nan c i a l bu si n e ss s u p po rt f r o m t he ir s p ou s e s ho w e v e r, t h e s p ou s e s d e cide h o w bu sin e ss p r of its a re s p en t o r in v e st ed S i m i l a r to t h e f in d i n g s o f G oe tz a n d G u p ta ( 1 9 9 6 ), in t h e c a s e s w he re me n h a d c o n trol o v e r t h e l o an t h e mo ne y w a s p r i ma r i ly u s e d f o r h o u s e h o ld e x pen s e s an d t he re w e re n o r e p o rted c han g e s i n h ou s eho ld d y nam ics. I n t h e se h o u s e h o lds, w ome n i d e n t i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s a s th e pe rs o n r e s p o n sible f o r brin g ing in a n i n c o m e to s up p o rt t h e f a m i l y M an y s u rv i v ing m ic r oen tre p re n eu rs c om me n t e d tha t t h e ir hu s b a n d s o r ma l e f a m i l y m e mbe r s ha d g re a t d i f f i c u lty in f i n d ing e mp lo y m e n t. I n s o m e c a s e s, a n inj u ry f rom a f a r m ing a ccid en t o r i l ln e ss p re v e n t e d t h e men f r o m be i n g ab le t o c o n trib u t e to t h e h ou s eho l d I n d e ed s o m e o f t h e p a rtic i pan ts i nd ica t e d i f m a le m e m b e rs co u ld f ind w o rk, t h in g s w ou ld be t t e an d th is w ou ld he lp t o impro v e f a m i l y rel a ti on s an d o v e rall w e ll be in g T h u s, si m i l a r to K a bee r s ( 19 9 5 ) ass e s s m e n t, p o o r m e n ma y b e a l mo st a s po w e r l e ss a s poo r w om e n in t he ir ab i l ity t o a cc e ss re s ou r c e s a n d t hu s ma y de r i v e the ir s e l f w o rth from t he ir ab i l ity t o b e i n c o n trol o f h o u s e h o ld de cis i on s. In s um ma r y m y s tud y s ho w e d a r e l a ti on s h i p be t w ee n t h e s tre n g th o f t h e a ss e t po r t f o l i o ( t h e ab i l ity t o d raw o n m u lt i p le res ou rces) an d w o m e n m ic r oen tr e p re n eu r i a l s u cc e ss. T h e s t ud y rev ea led th a t t w o main f a ct o rs t h a t c o n trib u t e d t o w omen ab i l ity t o c r ea te s u st a i n ab le bu s i ne ss e s w e re t h e p re s e n ce o f s o cial c ap it a l a n d f in a n cial c a p it a l.

PAGE 140

140 W o m e n w h o h a d a c c e ss t o b r o a d e x t e rn a l ne t w o rks as oppo s e d to na r r o w i n t e rn a l ne t w o rks, an d a cc e ss t o f in a n cial res o u rces ( m ic r o c r ed it, s a v in g s, c red it f r o m s upp l i e rs) w e re no t on ly ab le t o p ro v ide f o r t he ir c h i l d r e n edu c a ti o n an d f o od bu t a lso in v e st res ou rces b a ck i n t o th e ir bu sin e s s e s a n d pu r c ha se i t em s f o r t h e m s e l v e s. A s u p po rti v e s pou s e a n d c o n trol o v e r f in an c e s w e re a lso c on trib u t i n g fa ct o r t ha t l ea d to v ia b le bu sin e s s e s a n d re c o v e ry f o l l o w ing d isas te r. As a re s u lt o f t h e ir m ic r oen t e rpr i s e f o r ins p i r i n g an d a s p i r ing m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs f am i l y w e l l be ing ha s i mp ro v ed Child r e n a r e ab le t o a t t e n d sc h oo l, ma ke v is i ts to th e hea l t h clinic w he n n e e ded a n d rec e i v e a mo r e n u trit i ou s d i e t. K e y i n f o r m an ts a n d res ea rch pa rtic i pa n ts a t te st e d t o t h e f a ct t ha t be c a u se m ic r oe n tre p r e neu rs a r e b e t te r ab le t o c a re f o r t he ir c h i l d re n t h e se c h i l d ren t en d to e x pe r i en ce l e ss hea l t h rela t e d p ro b l e m s t h a n c h i l d ren o f w om e n w h o a re no t s e l f e m p lo y e d a n d t h u s re q u i r e less med i c a l tre a t m en t. I n s p i r ing m ic r o e n tre p r e neu rs t en d e d to ha v e a be t t e r u n de rs t and ing o f h o w t o c r ea te a s u s t a in a b le b u sin e ss t ha n t h o se t h a t m a in ta i n e d c l o se lin k a g e s w it h in t he ir c o m m u n ities o n l y I t a l so a p pea r e d t ha t t h e y w e re m o re s e l f a w a re o f t h e skil l s t h a t t he y c ou ld i mp ro v e up o n a n d t h e b e n e f it t he y w ou ld rec e i v e f r o m l e a rning ne w skil l s. I nd i r e ctl y w ome n m ic r oen tr e p re n eu r s p r i o r i ti z a ti o n o f t he ir c h i l d r e n edu c a ti o n ma y ha v e a lso c on tri b u t e d t o t he ir b u sin e ss s u cc e ss. I n v e sti n g in c h i l d re n e du c a ti o n is v i e w e d a s a v in g s a cc oun w h ich w i l l pa y d i v id end s l on g t e rm b o th s o cially an d e c o n om icall y an d t h is s e r v e s a s a d r i v ing f o r ce f o r m a n y o f t h e se w om e n t o d o w e ll in bu sin e s s I n a dd itio n mo re n u an c e d c a t e g o r i e s e x p lored in th is re s ea rch s u c h a s t h e p s y c ho lo g ical an d s p i r it ua l a s pe cts o f w o m e n m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs d e mon s tra t e t h a t

PAGE 141

141 w ome n w ith a h i g h s en se o f s e l f a n d t ho s e w h o d rew s t re n g th f r o m t he ir s p i r it ua l i ty ha d a b e t te r v is i o n f o r t h e f u t u re o f t he ir e n t e rpr i s e W h i le a ll w o m e n in th e s tud y i nd ica t e d t ha t t h e l a ck o f a v a i l ab le an d rel i ab le tra n s po r t a ti o n t h e p o o r p h y sical i n f rast r u ct u r e i m p e d e d t he ir a b i l ity to e n g a g e in m a rket op p o rtu n itie s ins p i r ing an d a s p i r ing m ic r o e n t r ep re n eu rs w e re ab le to o v e rco m e t he s e ob st ac l e s u si n g t h e ir n e t w o rk of f r i end s a n d f am i l y T h e a v a i l ab i l ity o f a f fo rd a b le an d s a f e pub l i c t r a n s p o rta t i o n w ou ld b o th m in i m i z e pe rs o na l r isks to w ome n m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs a n d m in i m i z e p ro d u ce lo s s du r i n g t ra n s p o r t No ne t he less, m an y o f t he se w o m e n de v e lo p e d s t ra t e g ies t o e n s u re t he ir c om p e titi v ene ss, s u ch a s p ro v idi n g q ua l i ty produ ct s g re a t c u s t o me r s e r v ice, w e l l st o ck e d s to res, a n d r e s po n d ing t o c h an g e s i n t h e mark e t en v i r on m en t (hi g he r price s ins u f f ic i e n t s u p p l y e tc ) I f o u n d t he re w a s g en e ral a g re em e n t a m o n g t h e w om e n m ic ro en tr e p re neu rs an d t h e k e y i n f o r m a n ts t ha t th e p re v a i l ing c ond iti o n s o f t h e c u r r en t e c o n o m ic s e c t o r a n d po v e rty amp l i f y t h e neg a ti v e i mpa cts res u lt i n g f r o m n a t u ral e v en ts. F r o m t h e ir pe rsp e cti v e s t h e a v a i l ab i l ity o f n a t u ral re s ou r c e s ha s d i m i n ish e d w it h in t h e pa s t d e c a d e an d t he y e x p ress e d t h a t l ife h a d be c o m e ha r de M o st ci t e d l o n g t e rm n e e d s f o r ade q ua t e h ou sin g t h e a v a i l ab i l ity o f f in a n cial res ou rces a n d c r ed it w ith more f le x ible t e r m s, p u b l i c i n f rastru c t u re (sc h o o ls, h o s p it a l s ro a d s) an d mec h a n i s m s t o s u p po rt bu sin e s s e s (trai n ing a n d i n s u ra n c e ). Follo w ing th e ea rth q u a k e k e y i n f o r ma n ts e x p ress e d t ha t m an y m o re w ome n en t e r e d t h e i n f o r m a l marke t a n d t h is incr e a s e d c o m p e titi o n h a s r e s u lt e d i n de c r ea s e d re v enue s f o r m a n y m ic r oen tr e p r en e u bu si n e ss e s. Th u s, m an y o f t he se w ome n en t e r e d f r o m a p o sition o f d i s ad v an t a g e I d id no t f i n d an y o f t h e pa rt i cip an ts i n m y s t u d y

PAGE 142

142 to b e d ispl a c e d o r r e j e ct e d f r o m t he ir c om m u n ities, a n d a s a res u lt d r i v e n i n to en tre p r en e u rship a s t h e d is a d v an t a g e t h eo ry pe rsp e cti v e p r o po s e s Ho w e v e r, t h e ea rth q ua k e m p a ct o n m ic ro en tr e p re n e u r o m m u n ities a n d t he ir hou s eho lds pu s h e d t h e m i n t o s e a rching f o r sc an t a v enue s t o c o n du ct bu sin e s s T h e ir d isa d v an t a g e w a s amp l i f i e d b y t h e l a ck o f a v a i l ab le time t he y h a d to d e d ica t e t o t he ir b u sin e ss a cti v ities. T a king in a d d itio na l f a m i l y m e m be rs, w h o e s c ap e d u r b a n c en t e rs i n s ea rch o f s a fe ha v en s, a lso p la c e d a n eno r m o u s bu r de n o n w omen f in a n cial, p h y sical, a n d p s y c ho lo g ical hea lt h This, c o u p led w ith t h e l o ss o f b u s in e ss a ss e ts an d hou s e h o ld a ss e ts, m a d e it d i f f icult fo r s o m e w o m en bu sin e ss e s t o re e me r g e ba s e d o n t h e s a m e me c h an i s m s t h e y ha d p r i o r to t h e ea rth q ua k e No n e t h e less, s om e w ome n m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs f a red b e t t e r t h a n o t he rs i n rec o v e r y

PAGE 143

143 T a b le 5 1 D e mo gra ph i c Ch a ract e r i sti c s o f 3 8 Fe m a l e M i c r oen tr e p r e ne u r s w ith B u sin e s s e s in J a cmel, Haiti, Ca te g o r i z e d b y T h ree T y pe s t ha t C o m p r i se a T y po lo g y o f M i c r o e n tr e p re n e u r T y pe s Demographics Inspiring Aspiring Surviving Total Participants per Type 16 14 8 38 Rural 13 8 6 27 Urban 3 6 2 11 Married 13 14 5 32 Single 3 0 3 6 With Children 12 12 8 32 Without Children 4 2 0 6 Literate 1 5 0 6 Illiterate 15 9 8 32 Own Home 16 10 4 30 Do Not Own Home 0 4 4 8 Own Land 10 3 3 16 Do Not Own Land 6 11 5 22 Own Tools 12 10 0 22 Do Not Own Tools 4 4 8 16 With Storage Facility 5 3 0 8 Without Storage Facility 11 11 8 30 Earthquake Affected 15 11 8 34 Earthquake Not Affected 1 3 0 4

PAGE 144

144 T a b le 5 2 Ch a r a ct e r i z a ti o n o f T h r e e I dea l T y pe s o f F e ma le M i c r oe n tre p r e n eu rs I de n t i f ied in J a c me l, H a iti, 2 0 12 Ba s e d o n R e s ou rces A v a i l ab le to T h e m a n d K e y Sa l i en t F ea t u res Inspiring Aspiring Surviving Natural Capital Has access to land and values it as a productive asset; uses conservation strategies such as water harvesting Using business revenues seeks to have land access Nil or limited access to land and inefficient use of it Physical Capital Owns equipment or has access to organizations that loan tools Relies on sharing of equi p ment and tools Has nil or random access to tools and equipment Human Capital Skills mostly acquired from female family members who inspired her; business savvy Has some formal education and seeks out business training Mostly illiterate and no training exposure, but interested in receiving training Social Capital Has broad internal and external networks Has some internal networks and seeks to build external ones Has some internal networks, but these are mostly made up of other resource poor individuals Financial Capital Draws from a variety of funding sources, including microcredit Mostly relies on family funding and seeks to diversify No access to funding; reliant on day to day business results Salient Features Spends long hours at work; has mobility and spends time away from home; uses multip le business strategies; supportive significant figure in the family Balances business with family pursuits; has other sources of income; business growth is important but not imperative; supportive significant figure in the family Extremely resource poor; pursuing business is not a choice but a need ; e conomizing is the main strategy

PAGE 145

145 Table 5 3. Recovery Strategies after the 2010 Earthquake (frequency in %) Recovery Strategy Inspiring Aspiring Surviving Client Loyalty 36 8 0 Economize 43 31 86 Borrow from a Friend 36 38 14 Borrow from Family 36 15 14 Sold Off All Assets 0 0 57 Sold Off Some Assets 36 23 17 Rotational Credit 43 15 14 Gift from Family 50 54 0 Gift from Friend 14 15 0 Purchases on Credit 36 15 0 Bank Loan 7 0 0 Fonkoze Loan 36 0 0 Personal Savings 36 31 0 Exploited Natural Resources 0 0 29 Labor Assistance from Children 0 0 29 Labor Assistance from Adults (Friends /Family) 0 0 29 0 100

PAGE 146

146 Fi g u re 5 1 S p ou s a l I n fl uen ce o n B u s i n e ss F u n cti on s an d D e cis i on s f o r Female M ic r oen tre p re n eu rs i n J a c me l, H a iti, 2 0 1 2 ( i n %, w he re 10 0 % d en o t e s ma x i m u m i n f lu e n c e ) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Spouse Helps in Houselhold Spouse Helps in Business Respect for Woman's Financial Management Emotional Support Financial Support from Spouse Inspiring Aspiring Surviving

PAGE 147

147 CHAP T ER 6 CON C L USIONS M y res ea rch e x p lo re d f ema l e m ic r oen tr e p r e n eu rship in a n en v i r on m en t a l l y de g ra de d a n d d isa s t e r p ro n e re g io n W h i l e v a r i ou s st u d ies ha v e b e e n c o ndu c t e d o n t h e l i n k a g e s be t w ee n w o m en a s s e t o w ne rship a n d p o v e rty re du cti on f e w s tud ies ha v e f o c u s e d o n t h e a s s e t s truc tu re o f w om e n m ic r oen tr e p re n eu rs w ho se bu sin e s s e s a re ba s e d o n n a t u ral re s o u rces in a de g ra d e d e n v i r onm e n t. Also, un l i ke o t he r s t ud ies t h a t f o c u s e x clus i v e ly o n m ic r o f i n an c e a n d e c o no m ic pe r f o r m an c e th is r e s ea rch is m e an t t o p ro v ide i n si g h t in t o t h e d r i v e rs of en tr e p re n eu r i a l pe r f o r m an ce a n d f a ci l it a te a b e t te r un d e rsta n d ing o f s o ci e t a l a n d e n v i r onme n t a l c on n e cti v i t y W h i le a ll en tr e p re n eu r s a re e x po s e d t o risk s t h is is m o re s o f o r t h o se in de v e lo p ing c o u n tries w ith a li m i t e d po r t f o l i o o f a ss e ts to d raw upon R i sks c a n s t e m f r o m ma c r o le v e l ( un c e rtain e c o n o m ic a n d po l itical c ou n try sit ua ti on s ) an d m ic r o le v e l ( m ic r oen tr e p re n eu r i a l bu sin e ss s t rat e g ies a n d h o u s e h o ld rel a ti on s) p roc e ss e s. M ic r oen tre p re n eu rs o p e rati n g u n de r t h e se c o nd itio n s must e x h ibit i n o rdin a t e f le x ibilit y ju gg l ing m u ltiple de m a nd s t o cre a t e v ia b le bu sin e ss e s w ith th e res o u rces a t h a nd E n tre p r e n e u rs are f a c e d w ith si m i l a r issu e s s u ch a s ha v ing t o ma na g e res ou r c e s, b o th f i n an cial c ap it a l, s u ch a s a l o a n f r o m a m ic ro fi nan ce l end i n g i n stit u t i o n o r a f a m i l y m e m b e r, o r a pe rs o na l s a v in g s a cc oun t, a n d ph y sical c ap it a l s u c h a s a v eh i c le to tra n s po rt g ood s, a r o a d side s t an d o r a s to r a g e fa ci l it y an d i n g e n u i t y th ro u g h th e c r ea ti o n o f p ro du c ts an d mark e ti n g o f g ood s a n d s e r v ices. E n tre p re n eu rs m u st ha v e ski l l to b r i n g a p r o du ct to ma rket, w he t he r t h is en t a i l s l o c a ti n g a v e nd o r to s u pp ly raw ma t e r i a ls, o r c r e a ti n g a s a le a b le p r o du ct o u t o f r e c y cled w a st e

PAGE 148

148 It is a p pa r e n t in t h e lit e rat u re o n e n tre p r e n e u rship t h a t t he re is a b r o a d a r r a y o f c ha ract e r i stics, g o o d a n d b ad a t t r ib u t e d t o e n tre p r e neu rs: cre a t o r, t ena c i ou s, in de p en d en t a gg res s i v e le ade r, i n du str io u s, s e l f c o n f i d en t u s e o f res ou rces, op ti m istic, risk t a k e r, a n d f le x ibl e t h e ma j o r i ty o f w h ich a re ba s e d o n W e s t e rn s t ud ies w ith l e ss f o c u s o n f em a le e n tre p r e neu rs an d o n t h e i mpa c t o f c u lt u r e o n e n tre p re n eu r i a l c ha ract e r i stic in d e v e l o p ing c oun trie s B a s e d o n t h e na r r a ti v e s o f t h e w ome n m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs i n t h is st u d y t h e ir d e f i n it i o n o f e n tre p r e neu r s h ip i n c o rp o r a t e s m a n y o f t h e se e l e me n ts a n d it is cle a r l y a p roc e ss. E n tr e p re n e u rship f o r t he se w o m e n m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs i s a c u lt u ral l y an d s o cial l y i n f lu e n c e d r e s ou rce ba s e d p ro c e ss. W h i le re s ea rch o n en t r ep re n eu rship o f t e n d iscus s e s t h e w a y s in w h i ch e n tre p re n eu rs ma n a g e res o u rces, t h i s s tud y a lso d ra w s a t t e n ti o n to t h e c on stra i n ts tha t li m it en tre p r en e u rship in t h e f i r st p la c e By e x am i n ing th e ro l e o f a ss e ts in a c h ie v ing bu sin e ss ob je c ti v e s, it is po ssible t o i n f o rm a n d d i r e ct in v e s t me n ts a n d p o l i cy re f o r m s t ha t c on tri b u te to s u st a in ab le en t e rpr i s e s. T h e f ield o f en t r ep re ne u rship is v a st, v ibra n t, an d e x pand in g D e si g n ing r e s ea rch t ha t c ap t u res t h e en tr e p re n e u r i a l c h a ract e r i stics o f w ome n an d m e n t h ro u g h o u t t h e g lo b e c a n a l l o w u s t o de v e lop a b e t te r a pp reci a ti o n f o r t h e en tre p r en e u r i a l s p i r it in ea ch c u lt u re a n d s o c i e t y Haiti ha s o f t e n b ee n i d en t i f i e d a s a c o un try l a cking m a n y res ou rce s f r o m w a t e r an d hea l t h y s o i l s, to i n f rastruct u re an d i n stit u ti ona l c apa cit y b u t its h um a n c a p it a l is on e o f its mo st i m p o rta n t a ss e ts. T h e H a iti a n e n tre p re n eu r i a l p ro w e ss an d w o rk e th ic ha v e en a b led t h e m t o o v e rco m e e n o r m ou s ob s t a cles. T h r o u g hou t its h is t o r y Haiti an s ha v e ha d to d o w ha t t h e y ha v e t o d o s u r v i v e E v e n bu i l d ing a b u sin e s s ba s e d o n n a t u ral res ou rces in a h i g h ly de g ra de d en v i r onm e n t i s a c h ie v ab le in s o m e c a s e s, a s e v id en c e d

PAGE 149

149 in t h is s t ud y Ho w e v e r, th e l on g t e rm s u st a i n a b i l i ty o f t he se bu si n e s s e s rem a ins un cle a r. Mo r eo v e r, t h e f r a g i l i t y o f t h e po l i tic a l an d s o cial me c h an i s m s in p la c e in H a iti, f u rth e r c o m p ro m i s e d b y th e a f t e r m a th o f t h e 20 1 0 ea r t h q ua k e a pp ea r in a de q ua t e t o s up p o rt w ome n m ic r o e n tre p r e neu r c a pab i l i t y t o a c h i e v e t h e ir de si r e d b u sin e ss go a ls. As E n a rson ( 2 001 ) a n d C u t t e r ( 20 0 3 ) in d ic at ed t h e s o cial a n d e c o l o g ical resist an ce o f i n d i v id ua ls w h o rely o n na t u ral r e s ou rces f o r t he ir li v e l iho o d s a re s e v e rely w ea k ene d in t i m e s o f n a t u ral d i s a st e r. P oo rer en tre p r en e u rs are e s p e cially v u ln e ra b le w he n d isas te r str i k e s, a s t h e y a re less p r e pa r e d t o d ea l w ith th is t y p e o f ad v e rs i ty g i v e n t h e li m i t e d re s ou rces t he y ha v e t o i n v e st in p re v en ti v e m ea s u re s e g ., be t t e r h o u sing c on structi o n o r t e r r a ins m o re s u it a b le f o r h um a n s e t t l e me n ts. Re du cing m ic ro en tr e p re n e u v u ln e ra b i l ity t o d isas te r r e q u i r e s a multidisciplin a ry app r o a ch t o d e v e lo p i n g a b ro a d b a s e d s o ci o e c o n om ic p la n o n e th a t incl u de s do me stic a s w e ll a s i n t e rn a ti ona l s o lu t i o n s s u ch a s f a ir an d f a v o ra b le tr a d e po l ic i e s. Th u s, m ic r oe n tre p re n eu r i a l o u tc o me s in te r m s o f f a l t e r i n g o r f a i l e d bu si n e s s e s o r sus t a in a b le an d t h r i v ing bu sin e ss e s a re t h e re s u lt o f t h e c umu l a ti v e p roc e ss o f man y f a c t o r s A c oun tr y t it u ti o na l f r ame w o rks sur r ou n d ing s o ci o e c o n o m ic po l i c i e s i n c lu d ing hu ma n r ig h ts, p ro pe rty ri g h ts, an d g e n de r e q u ity a re e ss en t i a l a s p e cts t ha t c a n li m it m ic r oe n tre p re n eu r i a l p o t e n ti a l o r c r e a te op po rtu n ities f o r t h e m to s e i z e As e v id en c e d in t h is st u d y ba r r iers to s o cial mo b i l it y emp l o y me n t o ppo r t un itie s f i n an ci a l res o u rce s pub l i c s e r v ices, te c hn o lo g y an d i n f o r m a ti o n c a n n e g a ti v e ly i mpa ct m ic r oen tre p r e nu r i a l p ro g ress an d p re v en t de v e lo p m en t In H a iti, t h e rel a t i on s h i p s o f t he se s t ruct u r a l p roc e ss e s ( p h y sical, p o l i tic a l, s o ci o e c on o m i c, a n d te c h n o lo g ic) p lay a r o le in

PAGE 150

150 in f l uen cing m ic r oe n tr e p re nu r i a l a s s e ts, s tra t eg ies, an d m ic r o e n t e rpr i se resil i en ce a n d s u st a i n ab i l it y M o re o v e r, ho w m ic r oen t e rpre n eu rs r ea ct t o s ho cks in th e s y st e m is t h e c o n f l u en ce o f i n t e r n a l an d e x t e rn a l f a c t o rs a n d p roc e s s e s a t v a r i ou s sc a les. T o he l p w ome n m ic r oen tr e p re n eu rs m o v e f rom st a g e s o f c o p ing t o ad a p ti n g an d e v en t ua l l y t h r i v ing r e q u i r e s tha t t h e n a ti ona l a n d i n t e rn a t i ona l de v e lo p men t s e c t o r e x am ine me c h an i s m s t h a t he lp m ic r oe n tre p re n eu rs b u i l d a n a ss e t po r t f o l i o t h a t le a d s t o s u st a i n ab le en t e rpr i s e s. Lim i tations of the St u d y Since I a m n o t c o mp l e t e ly p ro f ic i e n t in C r eo l e an d I h a d t o rely o n m y t ra n sla t o r a t times, t he re w a s th e po t en ti a l f o r m iscom m un ica t i o n H o w e v e r, in t h e f e w i n st an c e s, w he re I s u s pe c t e d th is m i g h t ha v e o c c u r r e d I ret u rn e d t o t h e t o p ics t o en s u re t o t h e be st o f m y ab i l ity tha t r e s p o n s e s w e re u n de r s t oo d a s i n t e n de d Also, a s I men t i on e d p re v io u sl y t he re is a l w a y s th e p o t e n ti a l f o r b i a s, h o w e v e r, t he re is n o w a y t o a ct ua l l y mea s u re t h e de g ree t o w h ich t h is o c c u r r e d a n d th is c ou ld ha v e a f fe c t e d t h e s t ud y res u lts. A no t he r l i m it a ti o n in t h e s t u d y w a s th e u se o f d i g it a l e q u i p m e n t. W h i l e I w a s ab le t o rec o rd 2 6 o f t h e 3 8 i n t e r v ie w s, t h e b a ck g ro un d n o ises (cus t ome rs o r f a m i l y c on v e rs i n g ma rke t e rs cal l ing c u st o m e rs, a n i ma l a n d tr a f f ic s ou n d s e tc ) d u r i n g s o m e o f t h e i n t e r v ie w s a f f e c t e d t h e q ua l i ty o f t h e t ap i n g S o m e s e gm en ts w e re i n a ud ible o r un cle a r. Due t o t i m e li m it a ti on s an d f u n d ing c on st r a in t s, t h e d a ta g a t he red w e re c r o ss s e cti o n a l v e rsus lo n g it ud in a l. T h e r e s u lts o f m ic r oe n tre p re n eu r i a l p ro g ress ma y v ar y o v e r a lo n g e r p e r i o d o f st ud y

PAGE 151

151 Future Research I be l i e v e t h a t m y res e a rch s ho w e d a re l a ti on s h ip b e t w ee n s o cial c a p it a l, a cc e ss to f i n an c e s a n d t h e d e v e lo pme n t o f v ia b le m i c r oen t e r p r i s e s. In H a it i t h e c ha l l e n g e f o r man y f e ma le m ic ro en t r ep re n eu rs i s t h a t t he re a re f e w s o cial me c h a n is m s in p l a ce t o s up p o rt e n t e rpr i s e s a n d p ro v id e s s a f e g ua rds a g a inst s ho ck s W i th n o f o r ma l s y st e m s to c a ll o n f o r assist a n c e f o l l o w ing a d isas te r, w ome n m ic r oen tr e p re n eu rs t u rn t o f a m i l y an d f r ie nd s, ma n y o f w ho m a re a lso e x pe r i e n cing si m i l a r t u r mo i l Co n s e q u e n tl y mo re res ea rch is n e e de d o n me c h an i s m s t o s t re n g t he n t h e bu si n e ss s e c t o r e n v i r onme n t, re du ce v u ln e r a b i l it y an d s u ppo rt e x isting i n f o r ma l s up p o rt s y st em s T h is re s ea rch p r o mp t e d a d d itio n a l q ue sti o n s t ha t a re imp o rt a n t t o bo th s h o r t a n d lo n g t e rm m ic r oen t e rpr i se de v e lo p m e n t stra teg ies. So m e s u gg e st e d f u t u re r e s ea rch q ue sti on s t ha t w ou ld p ro v ide i n si g h t in t o w o m e n m ic r oen t r ep re n eu rs h ip incl u d e : 1 How doe s a ss e t o w ne rship a f fe ct f u t u re g ene r a ti on s ? 2 How w ou ld c apa city b u i l d ing b e c on s truc t e d i f it w a s bu i l t f rom t h e p e rsp e cti v e o f t h e pa rtic i p a n ts (b o t t o m u p v s. t o p do w n )? 3 How doe s a ss e t o w ne rship t ra n s l a te i n to i n v e sti n g in p rot e c ti n g tho s e a ss e ts? 4 W ha t c a n w e l ea rn b y t a k i n g a d e e p d i v e o n i nd i v id ua l t y pe s t o u n d e rsta n d f a ct o rs u n d e rpin n ing b eha v ior?

PAGE 152

152 APPEN D IX A INTERVIEW FOR FEMALE MICROENTREPRENEURS I N HAITI Date: Time: Place: Name: GENERAL QUESTIONS 1. Please, tell me about your business? Pale m de bizinis wou a? Probes: a. What is your business? Ki sa ki biznis ou a? b. Why did you start your business? Poukisa ou te kmanse yon biznis ou a? c. How long have you been in business? Depi konbyen tan ou te nan biznis? 2. What did you do to build your business? Kisa w te fe pou w fe bizniz wou a mache? W jwenn sikse oubyen w,w oubyen w ou pa jwenn sikse? 3. Does your family help you with your business? Pale m de fanmi w. Follow up: In what way are they involved in your business? How? Nan ki fason yo patisipe nan biznis wou a? Koman? 4. How wou ld you define success in business? What do you consider a successful business? Probe: a. Based on this definition, how would you describe your business? Base sou definisyon sa a, kouman ou ta dekri biznis ou?

PAGE 153

153 5. What are the strategies you use for running a business? Ki estrateji wou itilize pou w fe yon biznis ki p ap tombe leve? Follow up: Based on a ranking from1 to 5 (1 very easy to 5 extremely difficult), how would you rate the ease or difficulty as sociated with each of these strategies? Ki baze sou yon abize de youn a senk (yon sl tr fasil a senk tr difisil), ki jan ou ta to fasilite la oswa difikilte pou ki asosye avk chak nan estrateji sa yo? 6. What would you say are the most important benefi ts that you gain from running your own business? Ki sa ou ta di se benefis ki pi enptan yo ke ou jwenn nan pwp biznis ou? 7. What would you say are the main difficulties in running a business? e biznis? Probe: a. What were you able to do to overcome these difficulties? Kisa w te f pou f pou simonte difikilte sa yo? Kisa ki fe w pa ka fe yon biznis? 8. What do you think are the reasons that some women are able to run a good business? Ki sa ou panse yo se rezon ki ke gen kk fanm gen yon biznis bon? 9. Can you tell me about your own business success? ske ou ka di m 'sou siks pwp biznis ou a? Follow up: What would you say are the two most important things that contribute to business success ? Ki sa ou ta di yo se de ki pi enptan bagay sa yo ki kontribye nan siks biznis? Probe: a. How were you able to accomplish these things for your business? Ki jan ou te kapab akonpli tout bagay sa yo pou biznis ou? 10. What do you think are the reasons that some women cannot run a good fe ke kek fanm pa ka fe yon bon biznis ? Follow up:

PAGE 154

154 Think about a specific person that you know who is struggling in her business, what are the two most important pieces of advice that you wo uld give to this person? Reflechi sou yon moun espesifik ke ou konnen ki moun ki gen pwoblm nan biznis li, tanpri, di m 'de konsy ke ou ta bay moun sa a? Probe: a. What do you think are the reasons that some women owned businesses fail? Ki sa ou panse yo se rezon ki ke biznis kk fanm nan pa f byen? b. Can you tell me about any personal experience where you have had to close a business? yon biznis? NATURAL CAPITAL 11. How important is it for you to have access to natural resources (e.g., land, water, trees) for your business operations? Eske resous natirel yo impotan (dlo,late,pyebwa) pou w Probes: a. How do you access these resources? For e xample, you mentioned that you grow crops, so do you rent or own the land you work? What about the water for your crops, livestock, etc .? Ki jan ou f jwenn resous sa yo? Pou egzanp, ou mansyone ke ou grandi rekt, konsa ou lwe oswa w posede peyi a, w ap travay? Ki sa ki sou dlo a pou rekt ou, bt, elatriye? b. If it is difficult to access these resources, why is it hard? resous sa yo? Pou kisa? 12. How has access to these resources chang ed over the past 10 years? Ki jan gen aks ou a resous sa yo chanje nan 10 ane ki sot pase yo? Probes:

PAGE 155

155 a. What do these changes in access mean for the ability of you to make a living from your business? Ki sa ki chanjman sa yo nan aks a vle di pou kapasite a ou f yon k ap viv nan biznis ou a? b. What do these changes in access mean for the ability of your household to make a living? Kman chanjman sa yo nan aks afekte kapasite fanmi w la f yon k ap viv? 13. What strategies are you using to cope with the impact on natural resources? Ki sa ki estrateji w ap itilize f fas ak enpak li sou resous natirl? Follow up: Are these strategies sustainable, why or why not? ske estrateji sa yo ap kontinye, poukisa oswa poukisa pa? Follow up : Based on a ranki ng from1 to 5 (1 very easy to 5 extremely difficult), how would you rate the ease or difficulty in accessing these resources? Ki baze sou yon abize de youn a senk (1 tr fasil a 5 tr difisil), ki jan ou ta to fasilite la oswa difikilte nan aks nan resou s sa yo? PHYSICAL CAPITAL 14. How important is transportation for your business? Eske mwayen transpotasyon yo impotan pou wou anpil nan biznis la? Ki enptan se ekipman pou biznis ou? Probes: a. Can you please describe the access that you have to transportation needed to run your business? ske ou ka jwenn aks a tanpri dekri ki di ou gen byen ki pwodiktif (zouti tankou? b. If it is difficult to access these resources? Why is it hard? Si, w akse ak resous sa yo? Pou kisa? c. What are the transportation strategies that you use to operate your business? Sa se estrateji yo transp ke ou itilize yo opere biznis ou? d. Are there other resources that you need but do not have? ske gen lt resous ke o u bezwen men ou pa gen?

PAGE 156

156 15. How important is equipment for your business? Eske mwayen transpotasyon yo impotan pou wou anpil nan biznis la? Ki enptan se ekipman pou biznis ou? Probes: a. Can you please describe the access that you have to productive assets (e.g. tools and equipment) needed to run your business? ske ou ka jwenn aks a tanpri dekri ki di ou gen byen ki pwodiktif (zouti tankouak ekipman) neses f biznis ou a? b. If it is di fficult to access these resources, why is it hard? Si, w resous sa yo? Pou kisa? c. Are there other resources that you need, but do not have? ske gen lt resous ke ou bezwen, men o u pa gen? BELIEFS AND VALUES 16. When your business is doing well, to what do you attribute its success? Is there any one or any thing that you thank? L biznis ou a ap travay byen, ki sa ki rezon ki f yo pou siks li? ske gen nenpt yon sl oswa nenpt ki bagay ke ou msi? 17. When your business is not doing well sometimes, where do you find inspiration to continue? se sa tombe? Probes: a. What motivates you to stay in business? ? b. I know that in Haiti some people do something special to protect their business, is there anything special that you do? M konnen ke an Ayiti ampe moun fe kek bagay espesyal pou yo SELF IDENTITY

PAGE 157

157 18. Can you describe how your experience in running a business has affected you personally? ske ou ka tanpri dekri kijan gen eksperya ns ou nan f yon biznis ki afekte ou psonlman? 19. Can you tell me about how your status within your household has changed as a result of your business? ske ou ka di m 'sou ki jan gen wl ou nan lakay ou chanje km yon rezilta nan biznis ou a? Probe: a. In what ways has your ability to make household decisions changed (i.e. savings and use of funds)? Who in your household decides on how money is spent? Nan ki fason ou gen kapasite pou pran desizyon pou ou chanje nan kay (sa vle di depay ak itilizasyon lajan )? Ki moun ki nan fanmi ou deside sou ki jan lajan se te pase? b. In what ways have your responsibilities in your household changed? Nan ki fason yo gen responsablite ou nan kay ou chanje? c. In what way has your relationship with your family changed (i.e. s pouse, extended family, etc.)? Nan ki fason gen relasyon ou ak fanmi ou chanje (mari, pwolonje fanmi)? Follow up: Of the changes that you have discussed, which one has been the most important for you personally and why? Nan chanjman ki nan ke ou te pale sou yo, ki yon sl ki te pi enptan an pou ou psonlman epi poukisa? 20. Can you describe how your business has affected the your household decision making about your children? For example, how do you make decisions about xpenses for their education? Who decides? ske ou ka dekri kouman biznis ou te afekte moun nan kay la ou desizyon ap f sou pitit ou yo? Pou egzanp, ki jan ou pran desizyon osij enskripsyon pitit ou yo ak depans pou edikasyon yo? Kiys ki deside? 21. Can you tell me about how your status within the community has changed as a result of your business? ske ou ka di m 'sou ki jan gen wl ou nan kominote a chanje km yon rezilta nan biznis ou a?

PAGE 158

158 Probe: a. Can you tell me about activities in the community that you participate in as a result of your business? ske ou ka di m 'sou aktivite nan kominote a ke ou patisipe nan km yon rezilta nan biznis ou a? b. How do you select the activities in which you partici pate and why? Ki jan ou f chwazi aktivite yo nan kote ou patisipe e poukisa? c. In what ways do you benefit from participation in these activities? Ki jan ou f benefis nan men k ap patisipe nan aktivite sa yo? 22. What do you think will happen to your busines s in the next five years? Ki sa w panse k pral rive biznis ou nan senk ane kap vini yo ? Follow up : Based on a ranking from1 to 5 (1 very negative to 5 very positive), how would you rate how you view yourself? Ki baze sou yon abize de youn a senk (1 tr negatif a 5 tr pozitif), ki jan ou ta to ki jan ou w tt ou? HUMAN CAPITAL 23. In your opinion, what are the most important skills a woman needs for running a business? Nan opinyon ou a, sa ki se ladrs ki pi enptan yo yon fanm bezwen pou f yon biznis? Probes: a. Is there any skill or knowledge that you are lacking to run a business? If so, what are they? ske gen nenpt konpetans oswa konesans ke ou se manke f yon biznis? Si se konsa, kisa yo? b. What opportunities do you have available to ac quire these skills/knowledge? Ki optinite ki disponib ou gen yo aprann ladrs sa yo ak gen konesans? SOCIAL CAPITAL

PAGE 159

159 24. When you have an emergency (e.g. financial or medical) what do you usually do? 25. ta gen yon Probes: a. Who can you rely on to assist you? Why? b. How do they assist you? Koman yo asiste w, kijan de sipoyo ba wou konsa? 26. In general, based on your experience, would you say you can trust most people? FINANCIAL CAPITAL 27. How would you describe the availability of financial resources for you and your business? Ki sa ki resous finansy yo disponib pou biznis ou a? Probes: a. Where do you get your money? Ki kote ou jwenn lajan ou a? b. Have you ever applied for credit? ske w te janm aplike pou kredi? c. What has been your experience in accessing resources such as Fonkoze, co mmunity lenders, family members, money remittances, etc.? Kisa ki te eksperyans ou nan aks nan resous tankou Fonkoze, pret nan kominote a, manm fanmi yo, anvwa lajan, elatriye? IMPACTS OF THE NATURAL DISASTER 28. Can you tell me how your business has been affected by natural disaster (e.g. hurricane, earthquake)? yo(tankou tranblemante,silklon)?

PAGE 160

160 Probes: a. What about your family, your emplo yees, your raw materials and suppliers, your customers, the roads you travel, etc? Ki sa ki sou fanmi ou, anplwaye ou yo, maty premy ou yo ak moun ki bay machandiz ou yo, kliyan ou, wout yo w ap vwayaje, eks,? b. What about your household assets? Pale avek m 'sou resous yo ou ak fanmi ou posede. 29. In what ways has your household been affected (i.e., people moved in/moved away, care for injured or ill family member, fewer assets, etc.)? Nan ki fason dezas natirl te afekte ou menm ak manm nan kay ou a? 30. What did you do to recover your business? Probes: a. Can you provide some specific steps that you took? Koman wou te fe sa? W ka esplikem koman wou te fe sa? b. Can you tell me about any one who helped you? ske ou ka di m 'sou de bagay prensipal yo ki te ede ou? 31. Can you please describe in what way your assets (financial, social, human, etc.) helped you in your recovery? ske ou ka tanpri dekri nan sa ki fason byen ou a (finansye, sosyal, imen, elatriye) te ede ou nan rekiperasyon ou a? Probe: a. Can you tell me the three most important factors that contributed to your recovery? ske ou ka di m 'twa fakt ki pi enptan yo ki te kontribye nan ou rekiperasyon? 32. What would you say are the main priorities for long term recovery? Ki sa ou ta di yo se priyorite prensipal yo f bagay sa yo pi byen nan lavni an? 33. Eske gen yon bagay ke nou pa genyen diskite, ki ou ta renmen di m '?

PAGE 161

161 APPEN D IX B IN T ER V I E W FOR K EY I NFO RM A N T S IN HA I T I Da te : T i m e : Plac e : Na m e : G E NERAL Q U E S T I O NS 1 Ple a s e te ll m e ab o u t y ou r or g an i z a ti on ? Si l v oup le w o u ka pa l e m d e b i z n is w a ? 2 In y ou r o p in i on w ha t a re th e m o st i m po r t an t s e r v ices / res ou rces t h a t y ou r o r g an i z a ti o n o f fe rs to w ome n in bu si n e ss? W h y ? S e lon w o u m e m ki p i b o n s e v is w oub y e n res o u s g an i z a s y o n w o f ri f a n m k a p fe b i z n is y o ? Pou ki s a ? 3 If y o u c ou l d p ro v ide t w o a d d itio n a l r e s ou r c e s to h e lp w om e n w ith th e ir bu sin e ss ne e d s, w ha t w ou ld t he y be ? W h y ? Si w t a k a b a p o f ri 2 l t ba g a y ke f a n m y o t e k a itil i z e po u e d e y o a v e k sa y o be z w e n po u f e b i z n is y o kisa w o u t a p o f ri y o ? P o u kisa se sa w c h w a z i? Follo w up: In y ou r o p in i on w ha t mo re c ou ld b e d o n e b y o t h e r or g an i z a ti on s, i n clu d ing g o v e rn m en t a ge n cies t o s u p po rt w om e n in b u sin e ss? S e lon w o u m e m kisa ki t e k a p a b f e t p a l t g an i z a s y o n y o a sike g ou v enm a n a n a k t o u t lt a j a n s k a p s i p te f a n m k a fe b i z n is y o ? Pro be : a ) W ha t o t he r r e s ou rces d o y o u t h ink a re i m p o r t an t t o h e lp w om e n in bu sin e s s ? Ki lt res o u s w p a n se ki in p t a n t e ka e d e f a n m k a p fe b i z n is? NA T U R AL C AP I T A L 4 I u n de rst a n d t ha t ma n y w omen b u sin e ss e s rely o n na t u ral res o u rc e s. (e. g ., la nd w a t e r, t r ee s ) H o w w ou ld y o u de scr i b e w omen a cc e ss t o na t u ral res ou rces f o r w omen b u sin e ss ope rat i on s?

PAGE 162

162 M k omp r a n sa a n p il f a n m k a p fe b i z n is k on te s o u re s ou s na ti r e l y o (e g la te d lo, p y e b w a ) ko m a n w a pa b pa le d e a kse k e f a n m y o g en y e n a k t o u t r e s ou s na ti r e l y o po u k a pa b f e b i z n is? Pro be s: a ) How d o the y a cc e ss th e se res o u rces? K o m a n y o fe p o u a k s e res ou s n a ti r e l sa y o ? b ) If it is d i f f i c u lt t o a cc e ss the s e res o u rces, w h y i s it ha r d ? Si w i, k oma n w m o n tre f a sil w oub y e n l d i f is i l p o u w g e n a kse a k res ou s sa y o ? P o u ki s a ? 5 How ha s a cc e ss t o t he se res ou rces c h a n g e d o v e r t h e p a st 1 0 y ea rs? K o m a n ak s e a k re s ou s sa y o v in c han je 1 0 a n e d e s a ? Pro be s: a ) W ha t d o t h e se c han ge s in a cc e ss me a n f o r t h e a b i l ity o f w o m e n t o ma ke a li v ing f r o m t h e i r b u sin e s s ? Kisa c h a n j m a n a kse s a a v le d i p o u k apa si t e f a n m y o p o u y o t e k a v i v a k b i z n is si l a ? b ) W ha t d o t h e se c han ge s in a cc e ss me a n f o r t h e a b i l ity o f t h e h o u s e ho ld to ma ke a li v in g ? Kisa c h a n j m a n a v e k a kse sa y o f e p o u k a pa s ite w t e g en y e n p o u w p ran s w e n k a y w 6 W ha t s t ra t e g ies d o w o me n u se t o c o p e w ith th e imp a ct o n n a t u ral r e s ou rces? Ki e stra t e ji f a n m yo itil i z e po u d eb w ou y e y o p w iske a kse a k res o u s na ti r e l y o p a f a si l ? Follo w up: Are t h e se s t r a t e g ies s u st a in a b le, w h y o r w h y no t? Eske e st r a t e ji sa y o e d e w pou kisa w ad i y o ed e w oub y e n y o p a e d w e PH Y SICAL CA P I T A L 7 Can y o u p l e a se de scr i b e w om e n a cc e ss t o a ss e ts s u ch a s e q u i p m en t, t e c h n o lo g y tra n s po rt at io n a n d l a n d f o r e x a m p le? Si l v oup le e sk e w ap a b pa l e m d e f a n m ki ge n a kse (at o u ) t a n k o u a k ma t e r y e l,t e k no loji,tr a n s p t a s y on ep i la t e p a e k z amp ?

PAGE 163

163 Sil d i f is i l p o u ge n a kse a k res ou s S a y o s a k fe l t re d i f is i l? a ) W ha t a r e t h e mo st i mpo r t an t ob s t a cles t o g a ini n g a cc e ss t o t he s e res ou r c e s? Pi g w o ob st a k w o u ka ra n k o n tre po u w j wen a k s e a k b i z n is? 8 In y ou r o p in i on w ha t c ou ld b e d o n e t o make i t ea sier f o r w ome n t o a cc e ss t h e se res ou rc e s? S e lon w o u m e m kisa k t a k a p a b f e t p o u r a n s a p i f a sil po u f a n m y o g e n a kse a k res ou s sa y o ? BE L I E F S A ND V A L U E S 9 In y ou r o p in i on w he re d o w om e n g e t t h e i n s p i r a ti o n t o s u cc e e d i n b u sin e ss? S e lon w o u me n ki k o t e fa n m y o j w en n i np i r a sy o n po u y o ka r e isi le y a p fe k o me s (bi z n is ) ? Pro be s: a ) Do e s t h is ins p i r a ti o n c o m e f r o m w it h in o r d oe s it c o m e f r o m s o m e t h in g /s o me o n e e lse? H o w s o ? Es k e i n s p i r a s y o n sa a p a s o t k r a s k o t e o u b y e n d e y o n b a g a y w oub y e n y o n mo u n k e lk o n k? b ) I k no w th a t in Haiti s om e p e op le d o s o me t h ing s pe cial t o p ro t e ct t he ir bu sin e s s a re y o u a w a re o f a n y t h ing s pe cial t ha t t he s e w ome n d o ? M one n a n a y iti k e k m o u n fe k e k ba g a y e s pe s y a l po u p w o t e je b i z n is y o e ske w o u p a f e y o n b ag a y e s pe s y a l me m j a n l t f a n m y o fe s a ? 10 W ha t w ou ld y o u s a y mo t i v a t e s w ome n to s t a y in bu s i ne ss e v e n w h e n t h e ir bu sin e ss is no t do i n g w e l l ? S e lon w o u me n ki k o t e fa n m y o j w en n i np i r a sy o n po u y o ka reisi le y a p fe k o me s (bi z n is ) ? 11 Can y o u te ll m e a b ou t ho w w omen i v e s ha ve c h a n g e d a s a re s u lt o f h a v ing a bu sin e s s ? Eske w apa b e s p l i ke m k m a n sa v in c han je l a v i y o n f a n m k m y o n re z i l ta le y o g e n y o n b i z n is ? Pr o be s: a ) In w ha t w a y s ha s th e b u sin e ss be e n g oo d f o r t h e m ? N a n ki f a s o n g e n b i z n is la bo n p o u li? b ) In w ha t w a y s ha s th e b u sin e ss no t be e n g o o d fo r t h e m ? N a n ki f a s o n g e n b i z n is la p a b o n p o u li?

PAGE 164

164 12 Can y o u de scr ib e in w ha t w a y s w omen f a m i l y l i f e ha s c h an g e d a s a res ult o f ha v ing a bu sin e s s ? Esk e w apa b d i m k o ma n sa c han j e l a v i f a n m y o le y o g e n b i z n is? Follo w up: In w ha t w a y s ha v e the ir c h i l d re n i v e s c han g ed ? Nan ki f a s o n s a c h an je l a v i p itit li? In w ha t w a y s ha v e the ir hu s b a nd i v e s c ha ng ed ? Nan ki f a s o n s a c h an je l a v i ma ri li? 13 Can y o u te ll m e a b ou t ho w he r st a t u s w it h in t h e c om mun ity ha s c h a n g e d a s a res u lt o f he r bu sin e s s ? Esk e w k apa b d i m k ma n v a le y o n f a n m v in c han j e n a n k o m i n o t e l a k o z l a p me n n e n b i z n is? H UM AN CA P I T A L 14 Can y o u de scr ib e t h e k in d s o f trai n ing a n d t e c hn ical s u ppo rt t h a t y o u p ro v ide t o w ome n t o he l p t h e m w i th t h e ir bu si n e s s ? Esk e w k apa b d i m k i j a n d e f ma s y o n ep i si p te k n ik w ba y po u e d e fa n m y o n a n b i z n is y o ? Follo w up: In y ou r o p in i on w h ich s e r v ices a re th e mo s t be ne f ic i a l? H o s o ? S e lon w o u m e m ki s e v i s ki t a ka p i iti l ? P ou ki s a se s a w d i? 15 Can y o u te ll a b o u t s om e o f t h e skil l s tha t w ome n h a v e a c q u i r e d w ith a ssist an c e f r o m y ou r or g an i z a ti o n ? For e x a m p le, s o m e w ome n ma y ha v e l ea r ne d ho w t o ne g o ti a te b e t te r p r i c e s f o r t h e p r o du cts t he y s e l l Si l v oup le w apa b d i m kijan d e t a l a n f a n m y o a t e n a v e k a sist an s g an i z a s y o n w la n ? P a e k z am p k e k f a n m t a ka ap r a n k m a n p o u y o ne g o s y e b o n p ri po u p w od wi y a p v a n l an ? Follo w up : How a re the se skil l s d e v e lo ped ? K o m a n f ma s y o n sa y o de v lo p e ? 16 In y ou r o p in i on w ha t a re th e t w o m o st i m p o r t an t ski l ls ne c e ss a ry fo r w ome n t o d o w e ll i n bu si n e ss S e lon w o u me n ki d e ( 2 ) pi bo n ta l a n ( f ma s y o n ) n e s e s e ki t a ka e d e y o n fa n m po u fe bo n b i z n is?

PAGE 165

165 Follo w up: W ha t ki n d o f i n f o r ma ti o n d o w ome n n e e d t o d o w e ll in bu sin e s s ? Ki j a n d e i n f m a s y o n f a n m be z w e n po u fe b o n b i z n is? 17 In y ou r o p in i on a re th e re an y ob s t a cles t o a c q u i r ing the se skil l s fo r w omen ? I f s o w ha t a re t he y ? S e lon w o u m e m e ske g en y e n k e k ob s t a k y o n fa n m t a ka r an k o n tre po u a t e n t a lan ( f m a s y on ) sa y o ? Follo w up: W ha t c a n b e d on e to i mp ro v e th is si t ua ti o n ? Si w i, kisa k k apa b f e t p o u a m e l y o re siti y a s y o n sa a ? SOCI A L C A P I T A L 18 Ple a se de scr i b e ho w y ou r or g an i z a ti o n s u p po rts w ome n in t he ir b u s i ne ss e s ? Si l v oup le, mo n tre m k o ma n g an i z a s y o n w a n e d e f a n m n a n b i z n is (ko m e s) y o ? Pro be : a ) In w ha t w a y s d o y o u a ssist t h e m ? P l ea se p ro v i d e e x amp les. Nan ki f a s o n w a siste y o ? Si l v oup le w b a m k e k e k z a mp 19 Can y o u te ll m e a b ou t an y ne t w o rk b u i l d ing a cti v ities in y ou r or g an i z a ti o n ? W k a pa le m d e k e k a k ti v ite ba ti m a n re z o n a n g an i z a s y o n w an ? Follo w up: If s o w ha t ha s b e e n th e f o c u s o f t h e se ne t w o rk i n g a cti v ities ( i e ., b u sin e ss, hea l t h e du c a ti on e tc ) ? Si w i ,s o u kisa e t ab l i s ma n sa a f ikse je y o? (sa v le d i: b i z n is, s an t e e d ikas y on e ks e t e ra ) ? A m o n g w ho m a re ne t w o rks f o st e r ed ? P am i ki m o u n re z o sa a t e a t e n ? Pro be s: a ) How a re the se n e tw o rks f o r m ed ? K m a n re z o sa te f me ? b ) How d o w ome n j o i n t he se n e t w o rks? K ma n f a n m y o t e f e po u rej w en n ( a n tre a n k on t a k) a k re z o s a y o ?

PAGE 166

166 c) I n w ha t w a y s doe s y ou r or g an i z a ti o n c o n ne ct w ome n t o o t he r c om mun it i e s? Nan ki f a s o n g an izas y o n w m e t f a n m y o a n k o n t a k a k l t K o m in o te y o ? 20 Can y o u te ll m e a b ou t an y ne t w o rk b u i l d ing a cti v ities in y ou r or g an i z a ti o n ? W k a pa le m d e k e k a k ti v ite ba ti m a n re z o n a n g an i z a s y o n w an ? 21 C a n y o u de scr i b e a sit u a ti o n w he re s o m eo n e ha s b e e n e x clu de d f r o m a g ro up ? Nan ki f a s o n g an i z a s y o n w m e t f a n m y o a n k on t a k a k l t k o m i n o te y o ? 22 O v e ral l ba s e d o n a r a n king f r o m 1 t o 5 (1 v e ry i mpo rta n t t o 5 n o t i m po rta n t) ho w i mpo r t an t is ne t w o rk i n g f o r w om e n in bu si n e ss? An g ene ral ,s o u y o n b a z k omp le d e 1 a 5 (1 t r e z i np t a n ep i 5 p a i np t an ) ki in p t an s e t ab l i s ma n sa a g en y e n p o u f a n m k a f e b i z n is( k o m e s ) ? FINANCIAL CA P I TAL 23 Ple a se de scr i b e t h e f i n an cial res o u rces a v a i la b le to w ome n i n b u sin e ss? Si l v oup l e pa le m d e r e s ou s f in an s m a n ki d is p on ib po u f a n m k a p f e b i z n is? 24 Can y o u te ll m e a b ou t t h e mo st c o m m o n m on e y re q ue sts y o u rec e ive f r o m w ome n in bu si n e ss? W ka pa le m k on s e n a n l a jan ki p i k o m e n y o n fa n m k a p f e b i z n is m a nd e res e v w a ? Pro be : a ) For w ha t pu r p o se is t h e m o ne y ne e d e d ? P ou kisa l be z w e n k b sa a ? 25 W ha t is t h e p ro c e ss f o r ac q u i r ing m one y ? Ki p w o s e sis po u mo u n l a n s w iv pou l j w e n l a j a n sa a ? Pro be : a ) W ha t a b o u t c o l la t e r a l? Ek ons e n a n y o n k o n tr a ? 26 How w ou ld y o u de scr i b e t h e bu sin e ss pe r f o r man c e o f t h e w om e n w h o rec e i v e f i n an cial a ssist an c e ? K m a n w ap a b p a le d e p e f m an s k o m e s f a n m ki j w en n a sist an s f i nan s m a n ?

PAGE 167

167 27 W ha t w ou ld y o u s a y a re t h e most i m p o rta n t b en e f its t h a t w om e n d e r i v e f rom f i n an cial a ssist an c e ? Ki p w o f i kipi i n p t a n w ka d i y o n f a n m t i r e l e l j w en n a sist a n s f i n a n s m a n ? 28. W ha t w ou ld y o u s a y a re t h e most i m p o rta n t b a r r iers to w ome n g a in i n g a cc e ss t o f i n an cial a ssist an c e ? Kisa w t a ka d i k m p i g w o ba r y e y o n f a n m k ap a b ra n k on tre p o u ge n a kse a k y o n a sist an s f i nan s m an ? IMP A C T S O F T HE N A T U R AL D I SA S T ER 29 C a n y o u t e ll me a bou t ho w y ou r or g an iza t io n ab i l ity t o p ro v ide s e r v ices ha s be e n a f fe c t e d b y na t u r a l d isas t e r? 30 Can y o u te ll m e ho w w om e n b u sin e ss e s h a v e bee n a f fe ct e d b y n a t u ral d isas te r ( e g hu r r ica n e ea rth qu a k e )? W k a p a b d im k m a n b i z n is f a n m y o t e f ra p p e p a k a t a st w f n a ti r e l y o (e. g ., sik l n tr a nb l e m a n t e )? Pro be s: a ) W ha t a b o u t t he ir f a m i l y t he ir e m p lo y ee s, t he ir raw m a t e r i a ls a n d s upp l i e rs, t he ir c u s t o m e rs, t h e ro ad s y o u t r a v e l, e tc? K on s en a n f a n m y o m ou n k a p t ra v a y a k y o ,p w o d w i y a p v a n y o ep i lt b a g a y yo itil i z e na n b i z n is la, k l i y a n y o w ou t y o v w a y a je e k s e t e r a ? a ) W ha t a bo u t t h e ir h o u s eho ld a ss e t s ? Ek on s e n a n s e v an t k a p t ra v a y a ktif l a k a y y o ? 31 P l ea se de scr i b e in w ha t w a y y o u o r y ou r or g an i z a ti o n w a s ab le t o a ssist in t h e re c o v e r y ? Si l v oup le d im k ma n w ou me m o ub y e n g n i z a s y o n w lan t e a sis t e na n ret ab l i sman siti y a s y o n y o ? 32 I n y ou r o p i n io n w ha t f a c t o rs c o n trib u t e m o st to t h e v u ln e ra b i l ity o f w ome n in bu sin e s s ? S e lon w o u m e m ki pa ti ki t e p i k on trib y e p o u ed e na n f a n m k a p f e b i z n is y o ? Pro be : a ) B a s e d o n y ou r co n t a ct w ith the s e w ome n w ha t w ou ld y o u s a y a re t h e ir mo st i m p o rta n t c on c e rns? B a z e s o u k on t a k w a v e k f a n m s a y o kisa w ta ka d i ki p i g w o i n k y e t i d y o ?

PAGE 168

168 33 W ha t w ou ld h e lp b e t te r p r o t e ct w omen bu sin e s s e s f r o m f u t u re l o ss e s? Kisa t a ka e d e f a n m k a p f b i z n is y o p i b y e n si t a v in g e n y o n l t p e t ? 34 W ha t w ou ld y o u s a y a re th e m a in p r i o r i t i e s f o r l o n g t e rm rec o v e r y ? K isa w ka d i ki s e p r ior i te p r i n cip a l po u y o n re tab l i s ma n ( re d resma n ) po u l on t a n ? 35 Is t h e re a n y t h ing tha t w e ha v en d iscus s ed t ha t y o u w ou ld l i ke to te ll m e ? Eske ge n y o n ba g a y ke no u p a g en y e n d isk i t e ki o u t a r e n me n d i m ?

PAGE 169

169 APPEN D IX C CONS E NT FORMS & BACK T RANS L A T I O N S The Role of M i c rofin a nce on F e m a le En t r e pr e R es i l i e ncy in H a iti K e y I n f o r m an t Q u e sti o nna i r e M y nam e is C e les t e W o jt a le w i c z I a m a g ra d ua te s t u de n t a t t h e U n i v e rs i t y o f Florida in t h e U n i t e d St a t e s. M y ad v isor is D r M ick i e S w ish e r in t h e D e p a rt m en t o f F a m i l y Y ou th & C o m m u n ity S cie n c e s a t t h e U n i v e rs i ty o f F l o r i da I a m c o ndu ct i n g res ea rch ab o u t h o w w ome n in bu si n e ss s u cc eed e s p e cially a f t e r d isas te rs l ike t h e 2 0 1 0 ea rth q ua k e Y o u ha v e be e n i d en t i f i e d a s a p e rson in a l e a d e rship p o sition in t h e c om mun ity w h o c a n p ro v ide i n si g h t in t o t h e ne e d s a n d re s ou rces o f f e ma l e e n tre p r e n e u rs. W e a r e a sking y o u t o p a rtic i pa te i n a o n e hou r fa c e t o f a ce i n t e r v ie w T h e i n t e r v i e w w i l l b e c o ndu c t e d a t a t i m e o f y ou r c ho i c e I w i l l c on d u ct t h e i n t e r v ie w Y o u c a n p ick an y ti m e an d p la c e f o r t h e i n t e r v ie w M y a ssist an t is f l u en t in Cre o le a n d w i ll t ra n sla t e i f w e ne e d it b e c au s e m y C reo le is no t a l w a y s g ood I f y o u a g re e w e w i l l aud i o t a p e t h e in te r v i e w I w i l l t a ke no t e s d u r i n g th e i n t e r v ie w T h e o n ly peop l e w h o w i l l s e e m y no t e s o r h ea r t h e t a p e a r e me, t h e t r a n sla to r, a n d m y ad v isor in t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s. W e w i l l de stroy th e t a p e w it h in on e y ea r. W e w i l l k e e p y ou r id e n tity c on f i de n ti a l to t h e e x t en t p ro v id e d b y l a w W e w i l l p u b l i sh s om e a rtic l e s in t h is s t ud y bu t w e w i l l no t pu t y ou r n a m e o r i d en t i f y y o u in an y pub l i c a ti o n Th e re a re n o a n ticip a t e d risk s c o mp e n s a t i o n o r direct b en e f its t o y o u a s f o r he lpi n g u s. Y o u a re f r e e t o s t o p an s w e r i n g q ue sti on s a t an y t i me Y o u d o n o t h a v e t o an s w e r a n y q ue sti o n y o u d o n o t w ish to a n s w e r. Y o u c a n d e cide t h a t y o u w an t u s t o de stroy th e no t e s a n d t ap e a t an y t i me If y o u ha v e a n y q ue sti on s a bo u t t h is res ea r c h p ro t o c o l, p le a s e c o n t a ct m e a t (4 0 7 ) 7 5 6 81 5 6 o r a t c w o jt a le @ u f l ed u o r m y s upe r v iso r D r M E. S w ish e r at (3 52 ) 2 7 3 3 53 8 o r a t me s w @ u f l. e du Q ue s ti on s o r c on c e rns a b ou t y ou r r i g h ts a s a res ea r ch pa rtic ip an t ma y b e d i r e c t e d to t h e UF I RB o f f ice, U n i v e rs i ty o f Florid a B o x 112 2 50 G a i ne s v i l le, FL 32 6 11 ; p h ( 3 52 ) 3 9 2 0 433 I ha v e re a d t h e p ro c e d u re de scr ib e d abo v e a n d I u n de rst a n d m y rig h ts. I v o lu n t a r i ly a g ree t o pa rtic i pa t e in t h e i n t e r v i e w an d I ha v e rec e i v e d a c op y o f th is de scr i p ti o n Si g na t u re o f p a rtic i pa n t Da t e T h an k y o u f o r y ou r h e l p Ce les te W o j tal e w i c z Gr a duate St u dent W l tifin a ns m a n f a n m bizni s m a n k a p v i v a n A y iti

PAGE 170

170 K e s y n e kle po u i n f m a t e Non m w e n s e C e les t e W o j t a l e w i c z M w e n se y o n e ti d y a n n a n g ra d y e n a n I n i v e rs i te Flor i d a Oe t a z ini. K o s e y e m w e n se Dr. M ick i e S w ish e r n a n e t a Flori d a je n e s e p i c om i n o te s i an s na n i n i v e site sila. M a p m e n n e n rec h e ch k on s en a n f a s o n f i ki a p f e k o me s y o t e f e e s pe s y a l ma n a p re t r a nb l e m an te 2 0 1 0 l a W te i d a n t i f y e w k o m y o n mo u n ki l i d e n a n k o m i n o t e m o u n ki k a p a b a p e si n a n t o u t be z w e n ep i r e s ou s p o u f a n m k a p m e nn e n b i z n is. N a p ma n d e w p o u w pa tisipe na n y o n i n t e vy o u k a p d i r e 1 e d t a n f a s a f a s a I n t e vy o u sa a k a p l a n i f y e po u l fe l le w v le ( l e k a p b o n po u w o u a ) se m w e n k a p v i n d i r i g e in te vy o u sa a Asis t a n m l a n pa l e kre y o l li v a t ra d w i si no u be z w e n sa pa s k e kre y o l m w e n a n p a f i n n k l e t o u t t a n Si w da ko n a p an rej i stre in t e vy o u a M a p g e n po u m e k r i k e k t i d e t a y to u w i panda n i n t e vy o u a M w e n se s e l mo u n k a p k a k o te e p i l i ti d e t a y m w e n t e e k r i y on ep i i n t e rpret l a a k k o s e y e m l a n o si n a n e t a z ini. Nou g e n p o u n d e t w i k a s e t k e n o u t e a n rej i stre in te vy o u a n a n m w en s ke y o n a n e N a p k e nb e i d a n tite w a n s e k r e p o u si l a l w a t a ka b a w p w ob lem p o u s a N a p ge n p o u n p ibli y e k e k a tik d e e t i d n o u a n m e n n o u p a p me t e n o n w n i an y e n ki ka i d an t i f y e w na n p iblicas y o n a tik n o u y o Pa g e n kras ris, b en e f is d i r e k o ub y e n k o mp a n s a s y o n po u w o u m e m ki t e v le j i s ed e n ou W l i b p o u w si pa n n re p on n k e s y o n n o u n en p o t le w vl e W p a d w e re p o n n y o n k e s y o n ke w p a t s w e t e re p o nn W k a p a b d e side kile p o u n d e t w i ti n t n o u t e e k r i y o a k pa w o l no u te an rej i st r e p a nd a n i n t e vy o u a Si w t a g e n y o n k e s y o n w o u v le po se k o s e na n n o u n s a y o k a p f e r e c he ch s a a Si l v oup le k on t a kte m n a n (4 0 7 ) 7 5 6 8 1 5 6 ou b y e n e k r i m n a n i me l s a a c w o jt a le @ u f l. e d u o ub y e n si p e v ise m l a n Do k te M.E s w ish e r n a n (3 5 2 ) 2 7 3 35 3 8 oub y e n e k r i l na n i me l sa a me s w @ u f l. e d u K e s y o n o u b y e n ra p o k on s e n a n d w a w e t an k e y o n mo u n k a p pa tisipe n a n y o n rec he ch ka ad rese d i r e kt em a n n a n b i w o UFIRB, I n i v e site Florida b w a t p o st a l 1 12 2 50 Ga i n e s v i l le, FL 3 2 6 11 ; p h ( 3 52 ) 39 2 0 4 3 3 M w e n t e li t ou t s a ki e k ri a n le a e m w e n k om p ra n n d w a m w en M w e n a k s ep t e v o lo n t e m a n po u m pa t i sipe n a n i n t e vy o u a n e m w e n t e r e s e v w a y o n k op i d e de skr i p s y o n l. Si g na ti mo u n k a p p a tisipe Dat M e si de ske w t e a ks e p te e de n Ce les te W o j tal e w i c z Eti d y a n G ra d y e

PAGE 171

171 12 08 2 011 Back translat i on by Andrew T arter ( a n dre w .tarter@ u f l. e d u ) Role o f M i c ro f i n an ce o n F e ma le B u si n e ss W om a n L i v e s in H a iti K e y I n f o r m an t C on s en t F o rm M y nam e is C e les t e W o jt a le w i c z I a m a g ra d ua te s t u de n t a t t h e U n i v e rs i t y o f Florid a US A My ad v iser is D r M ick i e S w ish e r f r o m t h e s t a te o f Florid a y o u th a n d c o m m u n ity scie n ce a t t h is s a m e u n i v e rs i t y I a m c o n du c t ing res ea rch a bo u t ho w w ome n i n v o l v e d in s ma ll bu si n e ss a re d o in g e s pe c i a l l y a f t e r t h e ea r t h q ua ke o f 20 1 0 W e i de n t i f ied y o u a s a l e ade r i n t h e c om mun it y a pe rs o n w h o ha s a s en s e o f a ll n e e d s a n d res o u rces f o r w ome n w h o run bu si n e ss e s. W e a r e a sking y o u f o r y ou r p a rtic i pa ti o n in a f a c e t o f a c e i n t e r v i e w tha t w i l l last on e hou r. This in t e r v i e w c a n b e p l a n n e d s o y o u c a n d o it w he n y o u w an t ( w he n g oo d f o r y ou ). I w i l l le a d t h e i n t e rv i e w M y a ssist an t s p ea ks C r eo le a n d h e /s h e w i l l tra n sla t e i f w e ne e d b e c au s e m y Cre o le a l w a y s s t ro n g I f y o u a r e o k a y w ith it, w e w i l l aud i o rec o rd t h e i n t e r v i e w I w i ll a lso w r ite do w n no t e s du r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w. I a m t h e on ly on e w h o c a n ha v e a c c e ss t o t h e se no t e s, a n d m y i n t e rpre t e r, a n d m y a d v iser i n th e US A W e w i l l de s troy th e c a s s e t t e t h a t w e rec o rd th e i n t e r v iew o n in l e ss t ha n on e y ea r. W e w i l l ho ld y ou r id en t i ty a s e c r e t, in c a se t h e l a w g i v e s y o u p ro b l e m s ab o u t it. W e w i l l b e p ub l i s h ing a f e w a c ad e m ic a rtic l e s, bu t w e w on pu t y ou r n a m e o r an y th ing tha t w ou ld id en t i f y y o u in t h e se a rtic l e s. T h e re is n o sli g h t c h a n ce o f ris k d i r e ct b e ne f its, o r c om p en s a ti o n f o r y o u a t a l l f o r h e l p ing u s. Y o u a re f ree t o s t o p re s po n d ing t o q ue sti on s a n y t i m e y o u like. Y o u d on ha v e t o res p o n d to a q ue s t i o n t h a t y o u d on w ish to res po n d t o Yo u c a n de ci d e w he n y o u w an t, f o r u s t o de s tr o y th e no t e s a n d t h e aud io rec o rding w e m a d e d u r i n g th e i n t e r v iew. If y o u ha v e a q ue sti o n y o u w ou ld l i ke t o a sk u s ab o u t t h is res e a rch, p le a se c on t a ct m e a t (4 0 7 ) 7 5 6 8 1 5 7 o r w r ite m e a n e ma il a t : c w o jt a le @u f l. e d u o r m y s upe r v isor, D r M .E S w ish e r at (3 52 ) 2 7 3 3 53 8 o r e ma il h e r at m e s w @u f l. e d u Q u e sti o n s o r r epo rts o f y ou r r ig h ts a s a p e rson w h o ha s pa rtic i pa t e d i n re s ea rch c a n b e a dd res s e d d i r e ctly a t t h e o f f ice UFI R B, U n i v e rs i ty o f Florid a p o st a l b o x 11 2 25 0 G a in e s v i l le, FL 3 2 61 1 ; p h (3 5 2 ) 392 0 43 3 I ha v e re a d a ll t ha t is w r i t te n h e re a n d I u n de r st an d m y ri g h ts. I a c c ep t v o lu n t a r i l y m y pa r ticip a ti o n in t h is in te rv i e w an d I ha v e rec e i v e d a c op y o f t h is d e scr i p ti on Si g na t u re o f t h e p e rs o n pa rtic ip a ti n g Da t e T h an k y o u f o r h e lpi n g u s. Cel e ste W o jt a l e w i c z Gra du a te St u den t

PAGE 172

172 The Role of M i c rofin a nce on F e m a le En t r e pr e R es i l i e ncy in H a iti Q ue sti o nna i r e M y nam e is C e les t e W o jt a le w i c z I a m a g ra d ua te s t u de n t a t t h e U n i v e rs i t y o f Florida in t h e U n i t e d St a t e s. M y ad v isor is D r M ick i e S w ish e r in t h e D e p a rt m en t o f F a m i l y Y ou th & C o m m u n ity S cie n c e s a t t h e U n i v e rs i ty o f F l o r i da As pa rt o f m y res ea rch, a f ield a ssist an t a n d I w i l l b e c on d u cti n g i n t e r v ie w s t o l ea rn a b ou t f e ma le m ic r oen tre p r e n e u r s v i e w s o n ho w v a r i ou s a ss e ts a f f e c t t h e ir bu s i ne ss e s an d t h e s t ra t e g ies t he y e mp loy t o ope ra t e t he ir bu s i ne s s e s. T h e i n t e r v i e w w i l l last be t w ee n 4 5 m in u t e s a n d 3 h o u rs d e p e nd ing o n t h e e x t en t o f in fo r m a ti o n t h a t y o u a r e i n t e re s ti n g in s h a r i n g w ith u s. Y o u d o n o t ha v e t o an s w e r a n y q ue sti o n y o u d o n o t w ish to an s w e r. Y ou r int e rv i e w w i ll b e c on d u ct e d in p e rson a t a time an d p lace t h a t is c o n v en ie n t to y ou W i th y ou r p e r m iss i o n w e w ou ld l i ke t o aud i o t a p e t h is in te r v ie w O n ly th e f i e ld a ssis t an t a n d I w i l l ha v e a cc e ss t o t h e ta pe The t a p e w i l l no t b e t r a n scr i be d a n d w i ll b e e ras e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e s t ud y Y ou r id e n tity w i l l b e k e p t c on f id e n ti a l t o t h e e x t en t p ro v id e d b y l a w an d it w i l l no t b e re v ea led in a n y pub l i c a ti on s. T h e re a re n o a n t ic i pa t e d risk s c o m p en s a ti o n o r o t he r d i r e ct b e n e f its t o y o u a s a p a rtic i pan t in t h is i n t e r v i e w Y o u a re f ree t o w it hd raw y ou r c on s e n t t o p a rtic i pa te an d ma y d isc o n ti n u e y ou r p a rtic ip a ti o n in t h e in te r v i e w a t an y t i m e w it hou t c on s e qu en c e If y o u ha v e a n y q ue sti on s a bo u t t h is res ea r c h p ro t o c o l, p le a s e c o n t a ct m e a t (4 0 7 ) 7 5 6 81 5 6 o r a t c w o jt a le @ u f l ed u o r m y s upe r v iso r D r M E. S w ish e r at (3 52 ) 2 7 3 3 53 8 o r a t me s w @ u f l. e du Q ue s ti on s o r c on c e rns a b ou t y ou r r i g h ts a s a res ea r ch pa rtic ip an t ma y b e d i r e c t e d to t h e UF I RB o f f ice, U n i v e rs i ty o f Florid a B o x 112 2 50 G a in e s v i l le, FL 32 6 11; ph ( 3 52) 3 92 0 433. I ha v e b ee n re a d t h e p roc edu re de scr i b e d ab o v e an d I u nde rs t an d w ha t is re q ue st e d o f me I v o lu n t a r i ly a g ree t o p a rtic i pa te in t h e i n t e r v i e w an d I h a v e rec e i v e d a c op y o f t h is de scr i p ti o n Si g na t u re o f p a rtic i pa n t Da t e T h an k y o u f o r y ou r h e l p Ce les te W o j tal e w i c z Gr a duate St u dent

PAGE 173

173 W l tifin a ns m a n f a n m bizni s m a n k a p v i v a n A y iti K e s y o ne Non m w e n s e C e les t e W o j t a l e w i c z M w e n se y o n e ti d y a n n a n g ra d y e n a n I n i v e rs i te Flor i d a O z e t a z ini. K o s e y e m w e n se Dr. M ick i e S w ish e r n a n e ta Florid a j e ne s ep i c om i n o te s i an s na n i n i v e site sila. M a p m e n n e n rec h e ch k on s en a n f a s o n f i ki a p f e k ome s y o t e fe e s pe s y a l m a n a p re t r a nb l e m a n te 20 1 0 l a Non k a b f inn i n t e vy o u a n a n y o n e d t a n m e m w k apa b p ran v a le t a n w v le po u re p on n k e s y o n y on W o u k a p a b p ran n e n p o t t a n po u in te vy o u a Asist a n m lan p a le k r e y o l li v a tra d w i si no u b e z w e n sa pa k e kre y o l m w e n a n p a f inn kle t ou t t a n S i w da ko n a p a n rej i stre in te vy o u a M a p g e n po u m e k r i k e k ti de t a y to u w i pan d a n i n t e vy o u a M w e n se s e l mo u n k a p ka k o t e ep i li t i de t a y m w e n t e e k r i y on e p i in te rp r e t l a a k k o s e y e m lan o si na n e t a z ini. N o u g e n p o u n d e t w i k a s e t ke n o u t e an rej i stre i n t e vy o u a n a n m w en s ke y o n a ne N a p k e nb e i d a n tite w a n s e k r e p o u si lal w a t a ka b a w p w ob lem p o u s a N a p g e n po u n p ibli y e k e k a tik d e e t i d no u an men no u p a p me t e n o n w n i an y e n k i ka i d a n t i f y e w na n p iblicas y o n a tik n o u y o Pa g e n kras ris, b en e f is d i r e k o u b y e n k o m p an s a s y o n p o u w oume m ki t e v le j i s e d e n ou W l ib p o u w si pa n n re p on n k e s y o n n o u n en p o t le w vle W p a d w e re p o n n y o n k e s y o n ke w p a t s w e t e re p o nn W k a p a b d e side ki le po u n de t w i ti n t no u t e e k r i y o a k pa w o l no u t e a n rejistre pa n d a n i n t e v y o u a Si w t a g e n y o n k e s y o n w o u v le po se k o s e na n n o u n sa y o k a p fe rec he c h sa a Si l v oup le k on t a k t e m na n ( 4 07 ) 7 5 6 8 15 6 o u b y e n e k r i m na n imel s a a c w o jt a le @ u f l. e d u o ub y e n si p e v ise m l a n Do k te M. E S w ish e r n a n ( 3 52 ) 2 7 3 3 5 3 8 oub y e n e k r i l na n i me l sa a me s w @ u f l. e d u K e s y o n oub y e n r ap o k o n s e n a n d w a w e t a n ke y o n mo u n k a p p a t i sipe n a n y o n re c he ch ka ad re s e d i r e k t e ma n na n b i w o UFIRB, I n i v e site Florida b w a t p o st a l 1 12 2 50 Ga i n e s v i l le FL 3 2 6 1 1 ; p h (3 5 2 ) 39 2 0 43 3 M w e n t e li t ou t s a ki e k ri an le a e m w e n k o m p ra n n d w a m w en M w e n a ks e p te v o lo n t e m a n po u m pa t i sipe n a n i n t e vy o u a n e m w e n t e r e s e v w a y o n k op i d e de skr i p s y o n l. Si g na ti mo u n k a p p a tisipe Dat M e si de sk e w t e a k s ep t e e d e n Cel e ste W o jt a l e w i c z Eti d y e n G ra d y e

PAGE 174

174 12 08 2 011 B a ck tra n sla t i o n b y And rew T a rter ( a n d re w ta rter @ u f l. e du ) The Role of M i c rofin a nce i n F e m a l e Busin e s s w om e n W ho Li v e i n Haiti P a rtic i pa n t Co n s en t F o rm M y nam e is C e les t e W o jt a le w i c z I a m a g ra d ua te s t u de n t a t t h e U n i v e rs i t y o f Florid a US A My ad v iser is D r M ick i e S w ish e r in t h e st a te o f Flori d a y o u th an d c o m m u n ity scie n ce a t t h is un i v e rs i t y I a m c o n du cti n g r e s ea rch a b o u t w om e n w h o a re i n v o l v e d in c o m me rce, e s p e cially a f t e r t h e ea rth q ua k e o f 20 1 0 W e c a n f i n ish t h e i n t e r v i e w in on e h ou r s t i me bu t y o u c a n ta k e a s l on g a s y o u w an t to res po n d t o a q ue s ti on Y o u c a n t a ke an y t i m e y o u w an t f o r t h e i n t e rv i e w M y a ssist an t s pea ks C re o le a n d h e w i ll t ra n sla t e i f w e n ee d b e c au s e m y Cre o le is no t s u p e r stro n g If y o u a re a l r i g h t w ith i t w e wi l l aud i o rec o rd t h e i n t e r v i e w I w i l l a lso ta ke no t e s d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v ie w I a m t h e on ly pe rson w h o c a n a cc e ss t he se n o t e s, a n d a lso m y in te r v i e w e r a n d m y a d v iser in t h e US A W e w i ll de stroy th e c a s s e t t e w e u s e d in t h e in te r v i e w in l e ss th a n o n e y ea r s t i m e W e w i l l ho ld y ou r id en t i ty s e c r e t un less t h e l a w g iv e s y o u a p ro b l e m f o r t h a t. W e w i l l pub l i sh a f e w a rtic l e s a bou t ou r s t ud y b u t w e w on pu t y ou r n a m e o r an y t h ing th a t c ou ld i d en t i f y y o u in t h e se p ub l i c a ti o n s. Th e r e is n o sli g h t r i sk, d i r e ct b e n e f it, o r c om p en s a ti o n f o r y o u w h o w ou ld just like to he lp u s. Y o u a re f r e e t o s t o p res p ond i n g t o q ue sti on s a n y t i m e y o u like. Y o u d on ha v e t o res p o n d to a q ue sti o n t h a t y o u d on de si r e t o res p o n d t o Y o u c a n de ci d e w he n y o u w an t u s t o de stroy ou r n o t e s, a n d t h e w o rds w e rec o rd e d du r ing th e i n t e r v i e w If y o u ha v e a q ue sti o n y o u w ou ld l i ke t o a sk u se a b ou t t h e res e a rch w e a re c on d u cti n g p le a se c on t a ct m e a t ( 407 ) 7 5 6 8 15 6 o r w r i te m e a n e ma il a t c w o jt a le @ u f l e d u o r m y s upe r v isor, D r M E S w ish e r at (3 52 ) 2 7 3 3 5 3 8 o r w r i te he r a n e ma i l a t m e s w @ u f l. e d u Q ue sti o n s o r re po rts c on c e rning t h e ri g h ts o f a pe rs o n p a rtic i pa ti n g i n res ea r c h c a n b e add res s e d d i r e ctly t o t h e o f f ice o f UFIRB, U n i v e rs i t y o f Florid a p o s t a l bo x 11 2 2 5 0 G a in e s v i l l e FL 3 26 1 1 ; p h (3 5 2 ) 3 9 2 0 4 33 I ha v e re a d a ll t ha t is w r i t te n a bo v e a n d I u n d e rsta n d m y ri g h ts. I a c c ep t v o lu n t a r i ly m y pa rtic i pa ti o n in t h e i n t e rv i e w an d I rec e i v e d a c op y o f th is de scr i p ti on Si g na t u re o f t h e p e rs o n pa rtic ip a ti n g Da t e T h an k y o u f o r h e lpi n g u s. Cel e ste W o jt a l e w i c z Gra du a te St u den t

PAGE 175

175 The Role of M i c rofin a nce on F e m a le En t r e pr e R es i l i e ncy in H a iti P a rtic i pa n t O b s e r v a ti o n T h an k y o u f o r y ou r p a r ticip a ti o n a n d y ou r h e l p w ith th e i n t e r v ie w O v e r t h e ne x t w ee k, I w i ll a cc om p an y y o u a n d I w i l l ob s e r v e y ou r int e ractio n s w ith p eop le y o u c o m e in c o n t a c t w ith in y ou r b u sin e ss. I w an t to ob s e r v e ho w y o u a c h ie v e y ou r b u si n e ss g oa ls. I on ly w an t to a c c o m pan y y o u o n bu si n e ss rel a t e d a cti v ities. I d o n o t in te n d t o o b s e r v e an y pe rso n a l a cti v ities un r e la te d to y ou r b u sin e ss. No w let m e r e m i n d y o u o f y ou r r i g h ts. Y o u c a n p ick an y t i m e a n d p l a ce f o r t h e ob s e r v a ti on s. I w i l l t a ke n o t e s du r i n g th e ob s e r v a ti on T h e on ly pe o p le w h o w i l l s e e m y no t e s a re m e a n d m y ad v isor in t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s. W e w i l l de stroy th e n o t e s w it h in on e y ea r. W e w i l l k e e p y ou r id e n tity c on f i de n ti a l to t h e e x t en t p ro v id e d b y l a w W e w i l l p u b l i sh s om e a rtic l e s in t h is s t ud y bu t w e w i l l no t pu t y ou r n a m e o r i d en t i f y y o u in an y pub l i c a t i o n Th e re a re n o a n ticip a t e d risk s c o mp e n s a t i o n o r direct b en e f its t o y o u a s f o r he lpi n g u s. Y o u a re f r e e t o s t o p t h e o b s e r v a ti o n a t a n y t i me Y o u d o no t ha v e t o l e t m e ob s e r v e an y t h ing y o u d o n o t w an t m e to ob s e r v e Y o u c a n de cide t ha t y o u w an t u s t o de stroy th e no t e s a t an y t i me If y o u ha v e a n y q ue sti on s a bo u t t h is res ea r c h p ro t o c o l, p le a s e c o n t a ct m e a t (4 0 7 ) 7 5 6 81 5 6 o r a t c w o jt a le @ u f l ed u o r m y s upe r v iso r D r M E. S w ish e r at (3 52 ) 2 7 3 3 53 8 o r a t me s w @ u f l e du Q ue s ti on s o r c on c e rns a b ou t y ou r r i g h ts a s a res ea r ch pa rtic ip an t ma y b e d i r e c t e d to t h e UF I RB o f f ice, U n i v e rs i ty o f Florid a B o x 112 2 50 G a in e s v i l le, FL 32 6 11 ; p h ( 3 52 ) 3 9 2 0 433 I ha v e b ee n re a d t h e p roc edu re de scr i b e d ab o v e an d I u nde rs t an d m y r ig h ts. I v o lu n t a r i ly ag ree t o pa r ticip a te i n t h e i n t e r v i e w an d I h a v e rec e i v e d a c op y o f th is de scr i p ti o n Si g na t u re o f p a rtic i pa n t Da t e T h an k y o u f o r y ou r h e l p Ce les te W o j tal e w i c z Gr a duate Student

PAGE 176

176 W l ti f in a n s m a n fa n m bizni s m a n a k v i v a n a y iti O b s e v a s y o n pa tisi p a n M esi pou ed w ou a v ek inte vy ou ke nou te gen y en b y en bo n e M t ouj o u ap f e re c he c h m w en y v le m a nde w ed w ou a nk. m ta re n m e n ako n pa y e w epi o bse v e k m a n sa y e a v ek m o u n ki v ini nan k on t ak a v ew di r an sen e n p w och e n. M se l man v le ako p a y e w nan bi z nis apar a m m an ki g en y en anpil akti v ite. M pa ko n te obse v e k r as akti v ite pes o nel nan bi z nis w ou a. K ou l y e a kit e m r a p le w tou t d w a w W k a pa b p ran n e n p t t a n w o u v l e p o u o b s e v a s y o n y o M g e n p o u m e k r i k e k t i n t p a n da n ob s e v a s y o n a n S e l mo u n k a p k a p a b w e n t y o a k pa w l m w e n t e a n rej i stre y o se m w e n ep i k on s e y e m l a n n a n e t a z ini. Nap kra z e k a s e t la n a n m w en s ke y o n an Nap k e nb e i da n tit e w a n s e k r e pou si l a l w a ta k aba w p w ob lem po u s a N a p g e n po u n p ibli y e k e k a tik d e e t i d no u an men no u p a p me t e n o n w n i an y e n kika id a n t i f y e w na n p iblicas y o n a tik n o u y o pa g e n kras ris, b e n e f i s d i r e k o u b y e n k o m pa n s a s y o n p o u w oume m ki te v le j i s e d e n o u .w lib pou w k an p e ob s e v a s y o n y o an e np t k e l m o ma n W p a d w e kit e m o bs e v e y o n b a g a y w o u pa t v lem o b s e v e W k a p a b d e side a ne n p t k e l m o m a n w po u n de t w i no t s a y o n o u t e e k r i a Si w t a g e n y o n k e s y o n w o u v le po se k o s e na n n o u n s a y o k a p fe re c he ch s a a Si l v oup le k o t a k t e m n a n (4 0 7 ) 7 5 6 81 5 6 o ub y e n e k r im n a n imel sa a c w o jt a l e @ u f l. e d u o u b y e n sip e v isem l an do k te M .E s w ish e r n a n ( 3 52 ) 2 7 3 3 5 3 8 oub y e n e k r il n a n imel sa a me s w @ u f l. e d u K e s y o n o u b y e n ra p o k o n s e n a n d w a w e t an ke y o n m ou n k a p pa tisi p e na n y o n re c he c h ka a d rese d i r e kt em a n na n b iw o UFIRB, i n i v e site f l o r i d a b w a t po s t a l l i se 11 2 25 0 Ga i n e s v i l l e ,FL 3 2 6 11 ; p h ( 3 52 )3 9 2 04 3 3 M w e n t e li t ou t s a ki e k ri an le a e m w e n k o m p ra n n d w a m w en M w e n a ks e p te v o lo n t e m a n po u m pa t i sipe n a n in t e vy o u a n e m w e n t e r e s e v w a y o n k op i d e de skr i p s y on l. Si g na ti mo u n k d a t M e si de sk e w t e a k s ep t e e d e n Ce les te W o j tal e w i c z Eti d y a n G ra d y e

PAGE 177

177 12 08 2 01 1 B a ck tra n sla t i o n b y And rew T a rter ( a n d re w ta rter @ u f l. e d u ) Role o f M i c ro f i n an ce o n F e ma le B u si n e ss W om a n L i v e s in H a iti P a rtic i pa n t O b s e r v a t ion C on s en t F o rm T h an k y o u f o r y ou r h e l p w ith th e i n t e r v iew w e a re h a v ing v er y ea r l y I a l w a y s do ing m y res ea rch, an d I l i ke t o a sk f o r y ou r h e lp a g a in. I w ou ld l i ke to a cc om p an y y o u a n d ob s e r v e ho w y o u a re w ith peop le w h o c o m e in d i r e ct c o n t a c t w i t h y o u d u r i n g th e ne x t w ee k. I on ly w an t to a cc om p an y y o u o n bu s i ne ss t ha t is a p pa re n t t o ha v e a l o t o f a cti v i t y I n o t in t e re s t e d in ob s e r v ing y ou r p e rso na l a cti v ities in y ou r b u si n e ss. Now l e t m e rec a ll f o r y o u a ll o f y ou r r i g h ts. Y o u c a n p ick an y t i m e y o u like f o r t h e se ob s e r v a ti on s. I w i l l t a ke n o t e s du r i n g th e ob s e r v a ti on T h e o n ly pe o p le w h o w i l l b e ab le to s e e t h e se no t e s I w r i te a re m e a n d m y ad v i s e r in t h e U n it e d S t a t e s. W e w i l l de stroy t h e c a ss e t t e in l e ss t ha n o n e y ea r. W e w i l l ho ld y ou r id en t i ty s e c r e t, in c a s e t h e l a w g i v e s y o u p ro b le m s f o r t ha t W e w i l l pub l i sh a f e w a c a d e m ic a rtic l e s a b ou t th is s t u d y bu t w e w i l l no t p u t y ou r n a m e o r an y t h ing tha t c ou ld i d e n t i f y y o u in the s e a rtic l e s. T h e re is n o e x pe c t e d risk, d i r e ct be ne f it o r c o m pen s a ti o n f o r y o u a t a l l ju s t y o u a idi n g u s. Y o u a re a t l i be rty t o s t a n d t h e ob s e r v a ti on s a t a n y mo m e n t. Yo u d on h a v e t o l e t me o b s e r v e an y t h ing y o u don w an t m e to o b s e r v e Y o u c a n d e cide a t an y m om en t t ha t y o u w an t u s t o de stroy th e n o t e s w e too k. If y o u ha v e a q ue sti o n y o u w ou ld l i ke t o a sk u s ab o u t t h e re s ea rch w e a re do in g p l ea se c on t a c t m e a t (4 0 7 ) 7 5 6 81 5 6 o r w r i te m e a n ema il a t c w o jt a le @u f l ed u o r m y s upe r v isor, D r M E S w ish e r at (3 52 ) 2 7 3 3 5 3 8 o r e m a il he r a t me s w @u f l. e d u Q ue sti o n s o r re po rts a bou t t h e ri g h ts o f s o me on e w h o p a rtic i pa t e s in res ea rch c a n b e add res s e d d i r e ctly t o t h e o f f ice o f UFIRB, U n i v e rs i t y o f Florid a p o s t a l bo x 11 2 2 5 0 G a in e s v i l le, FL 3 26 1 1 ; p h (3 5 2 ) 3 9 2 0 4 33 I ha v e re a d a ll t ha t is w r i t te n a bo v e a n d I u n d e rsta n d m y ri g h ts. I a c c ep t v o lu n t a r i ly m y pa rtic i pa ti o n in t h e i n t e rv i e w an d I ha v e rec e i v e d a c op y o f t h is d e scr i p ti on Si g na t u re o f t h e p e rs o n pa rti c i p a ti n g Da t e T h an k y o u f o r h e lpi n g u s. Ce les te W o j tal e w i c z Gr a duate St u dent

PAGE 178

178 L I S T O F RE F EREN C E S A bba ssi, J. & L u tj en s, S. (E d s.) ( 2 002 ). Rer e ad ing w o m e n in L a tin A m e r i ca an d t h e Car i bbe a n : t h e po l i tic a l e c o n o m y o f g e nde r L an h am M D : Ro w ma n & L ittl e f i e ld P ub l i s he rs, I n c. Ac o st a B e le n E & Bo s e C. (1 9 95 ). Col on ia l i s m struct u ral s u bo rd i na ti o n a n d e m po w e r m en t: Wo m e n in t h e D e v e lo p m en t Proc e ss in La tin A m e r i ca a n d t h e Car i bbe a n I n C. B o se an d E Ac o s t a B e len (E d s.) W om e n i n t h e La tin A me r i c a n De v e lo pm e n t Pro c e ss. ( 15 36 ). P h i l a d e lp h i a PA: T e mp l e U n i v e rs i ty Press. A d c o ck, R. & C o l l ier, D (2 0 0 1 ). Me a s u reme n t v a l i d it y : A s ha red s t an da rd f o r q ua l i t a ti v e an d q u a n tit a ti v e res ea r c h A m e r i c a n Po l i tic a l Scie n ce R e vi e w 95 (3), 5 2 9 54 6 A d g e r, W ( 20 0 0 ). S o cial a n d e c o l o g ical resil i en c e : A re t he y rel a t ed ? Pro g ress in Hu m a n Geog r a ph y 2 4 3 4 7 3 64 A g no r, P Ca n u t o O. & P e rei r a d a S i l v a L (2 010 ). On G e n de r a n d G r o w t h : The Role o f I n t e rg e n e rati on a l He a lth E xt e r n a l i ti e s an d Wo m en s O cc upa ti ona l Co n strai n ts P o l i cy R e s ea rch W o rk i n g P a pe r 5 492 The W o r l d B a n k P o v e rty Re du cti o n a n d Ec o no m ic Ma n a g em e n t N e tw o rk A l A m in, M.D. & C h o w dhu r y T (2 0 0 8 ). W o me n p o v e rty an d e m p o w e r men t: An in v e sti g a ti o n i n to t h e d a rk s i d e o f m ic ro f in a n c e Asi a n A f f a i r s 3 0 1 6 29. Allen, T., (1998). From 'informal sectors' to 'real economies': changing conception of Africa's hidden livelihoods. Contemporary Politics 4 (4), 357 373. A nde r s on C. (2 0 0 2 ). M ic r o c r ed it, s o cial c a p it a l, a n d c o m m o n p oo l Res ou rces. Wo r l d Dev e lo p m en t 3 0 (1) 9 5 105. B a i l e y K. D. (1 9 94 ). T y po lo g ies a n d t a x on om ie s : An i n tro d u cti o n t o c lass i f ica t ion t e c hn i q ue s ( q u an ti t a t iv e a pp l i c a ti on s in t h e s o cial s ci e n c e s ) T h o u s an d O a ks, Cali f o rn i a : S a g e P u b l i c a ti on s B a rker, R. ( 1 999 ). T h e s o cial w o rk dicti o na ry ( 4 th ed .). W a s h in g t on D.C.: NA S W Press. B a r r ie n t o s, S ., K a bee r, N. a n d H o ss a i n N. ( 2 003 ) T h e g en d e r d i m en sio n s o f t h e g lo ba l i z a ti o n o f p r o du c ti on b a ck g ro un d p a p e r f o r t h e W o r l d C o mm i ssion o n t h e S o cial Di m e n sio n s o f Gl oba l i s a ti o n I L O, G e ne v a B ene r a L & S t i mp s o n C. (1 9 87 ). Wo m en hou s eho ld s a n d t h e e c ono m y. T h e Do ug lass s e r i e s o n w o m en 's l i v e s an d t h e m ean ing o f ge n de r N e w B ru n s w ick ( N .J ): Rut g e rs U n i v e r s ity P ress. B e rn a rd, R. (2 0 00 ). S o cial r e s ea rch m e t h o d s : Q ua l i t a tive an d q u a n t it a tive a pp ro a c he s. T h ou s a n d O a ks, C A : S AGE P ub l i c a ti o n s, I n c.

PAGE 179

179 B e rn a rd, R. & R y an G (2 0 1 0 ). A n a l y z ing q u a l i t a tive d a t a : s yst e m a tic a pp r o a c he s T h ou s a n d O a ks, C A : S AGE P ub l i c a ti o n s I n c. Blaikie, P Ca n no n T ., D a v is, I ., & W i s ne r, B. (E d .). ( 1 9 94 ). At r i sk: na t u ral h a z a rds, pe o p le's v u l n e ra b i l ity, an d d isas te r s L o n d on : R ou tl e d g e Bla n c, B. (1 9 98 ). W o m e n v endo rs' w o rk hist o r i e s in Po r t au Pr i n c e : w ha t less on s c a n b e le a rn e d f o r r e s ea rch a n d a c ti on ? E n vi ro n m en t a n d Urb an i z a ti o n 1 0 (1) 1 8 7 20 0 B on a n n o G. (2 0 0 4 ). L o ss, tra um a a n d h u m a n resil i en c e : H a v e w e un d e resti m a t e d t h e hu m a n c a p a city t o th r i v e a f t e r e x tre m e ly a v e rs i v e e v en ts? A m e r i c a n P syc ho l o g ist 59 2 0 28. B ou rdi e u P (1 9 86 ). T h e f o r m s o f c ap it a pp 24 1 2 58 in Rich a rd s o n J G H a n d boo k o f Th eo ry a n d R e s ea rch f o r t h e S o ciol o g y o f E d u c a ti o n W e s t po rt C o n ne ctic u t : Gre en w oo d p ress B o s e r u p E. (1 9 70 ). W o m a n s r o le in e c on om ic d ev e lo p m en t N e w Y o rk: St. M a Press. Bret t J. (2 0 0 6 ). W e s a c r an d ea t l e ss: T h e s t ruct u r a l c o mp le x ities o f m ic r o n a n ce pa rtic i pa ti o n Hu m a n O rg an i z a ti o n 65 (1) 8 19 Brock h a u s, R.H. ( 1 98 0 ). T h e e f fe ct o f j o b d issa t i s f a cti o n o n t h e d e ci s ion t o s ta rt a bu sin e s s J ou r na l o f S m a ll Bu sin e ss Ma na ge m en t 18 ( 1), 3 7 4 3 Br i tish B ro ad c a sti n g C o rp o rati o n (B B C) N e w s (2 010 ). Haiti de v a st a t e d b y m a ssi v e q ua ke A ma ssi v e 7 0 ma g n it u d e ea rth q ua k e ha s s t ruck t h e C a r i bb e a n n a ti o n o f Haiti. Re t r i e v e d o n F e b ru a ry 19 2 0 1 0 f r om : h t tp : / / n e w s v o t e bb c .c o u k/mp a p p s/ p a g e t o o ls / p r i n t /ne w s. bb c. c o u k / 2 / h i/ a m e r i c a s/ 84 5 56 2 9 .s t m Bro w n D. & Ku l ig J. ( 19 9 6 / 97 ). T h e c on c ep t o f resil i en c y : T h e o ret i c a l l e ss on s f r o m c o m m u n ity res ea rch. He a lth an d C an a d ian S o cie t y 4 2 9 52. Brown, S. F. n o c ry: F emale h eaded h ouseholds in the c Judith Mirsky and Marty Radlett (eds.), Face a New Century (London: Panos/ Zed) 101 18. Browne, I., & Misra, J. (2003). The intersection of gender and race in the labor market. Annual Review of Sociology 29 487 513. Br y man A. (2 0 0 4 ). S o cial R e s ea rch Me t h o d s 2 E d O x f o rd: U n i v e r s ity P ress. Bu l l I T h o ma s, H. & W i l l a r d G. ( 19 9 5 ). E n tre p re n eu rship: Pe rs p e c tiv e s o n t h eo ry bu i l d in g N e w Y o rk: Pe r g amo n B oo ks, E lse v ier.

PAGE 180

180 B u tl e r L ., Morla n d L & Le skin, G ( 2 007 ). P s y c ho lo g ical resil i en ce in th e f a ce o f t e r r o r i s m I n B B o n g a r, L Bro w n L B eu t l e r, J. Breck e n r i d g e & P Zi mba r d o (E d s.) Ps y c ho lo g y o f t e r r o r i sm (4 0 0 4 17 ). N Y : O x f o rd U n i v e rs i ty Pre ss. Ca m p be l l D. T & St a n le y J. C. (1 9 6 3 ). E x p e r i m en t a l an d qua s i e x pe r i m en t a l de si g n s f o r r e s ea rc h S k o kie, I L : Ra n d Mc N a l l e y Ch a m be rs, R. & C on w a y G. (1 9 9 2 ). S u s t a i n ab le r ural l i v e l i hood s: P ractical c o n c e p ts f o r t h e 2 1 s t Ce n t u r y IDS D i sc u ss io n P ape r 296 I DS, Br ig h t on U K Ch a r ma z K. ( 20 0 4 ). G ro un d e d t h e o r y In S Na g y H e ss e Bib e r & P L e a v y (E d s.), A pp r o a c he s to qua l i t a t i ve res ea rc h : A r ea d e r o n t heo ry an d p ractic e N e w Y o rk: O x f o rd Uni v e rs i ty P ress. Ch a r ma z K. ( 20 0 6 ). C on structi n g g r o un d e d t h eo ry. A p ractical g u ide th r o u g h q ua l i t a ti v e a n a lys i s Th ou s an d O a ks, CA: S AGE P ub l i c a ti o n s I n c. Ch en M A. (2 0 01 ). W om e n in t h e i n f o r m a l s e ct o r: A g lo ba l p ict u r e t h e g lo ba l mo v e m en t. SA I S R e v i e w 2 1 ( 1), 7 1 8 2 C l if f J ( 1 9 9 8 .) D o e s o n e si z e f it a l l ? E x p lor i n g th e rel a ti o n s h ip b e tw ee n a t t i t ude s t o w a rds g r o w t h g end e r a n d bu si n e ss si z e ." J ou rn a l o f B u sin e ss V e n t u r i n g 13 523 5 42 Coll i n s, O. F., & Mo o r e D. G ( 1 964 ). T h e en t e rpr i sing m an E a st L a n sin g M I: M i c h i g a n St a te U n i v e rs i t y E a st Lan sin g M I: M i c h i g a n St a te U n i v e rs i ty Co m b e s, J. & G u i l la u m on t, P. ( 2 002 ). C o m m o d ity p r i ce v o la t i l i t y v u l n e ra b i l ity an d de v e lo p m en t De v e lo p m en t P o l i cy R e view 2 0 25 3 9 Co n g e r, L ( 2 008 ) U S AID M i c r oen t e rpr i se D e v e lo pm e n t: A Ma n da t o ry R e f e re n c e f o r ADS S e r i e s 20 0 Re t r i e v e d o n F eb ru a ry 19 20 1 0 f r o m : h t t p :/ / w w w .i adb o r g / m if/M i c r oen t e r p r i s e A m e r i c a s / 20 0 8 /i n d e x .c f m Co o k, T & C a mp b e l l D. (1 984 ). T h e de si g n an d c on d u ct o f q ua si e x pe r i men ts a n d true e x pe r i men ts i n t h e f ie l d s e t t i n g s. In M. D u n n e t t e ( E d .), H a nd b oo k o f i ndu s trial p s y c ho lo g y (p p 22 3 3 26 ). Chica g o : R an d Mc N a l l y Corbin, J. & S tr a u ss, A (1 9 9 0 r o u nd e d t h eo ry r e s ea rch: P ro c e d u res, c a n on s, a n d e v a l ua ti v e c r i t e r i a Q ua l i t a tive So cio l og y 13 (1), 3 21 Corbin, J. & S tr a u ss, A (2 0 0 7 ). B a sics o f q ua l it a ti v e res ea rch: Tec h n i q ue s an d p roc e d u res f o r de v e lo p ing g ro unde d t h e o ry ( 3 rd ed .). Th ou s a n d Oa k s, CA: S a g e C r e s w e l l J. W ( 20 0 3 ). Res ea rch de si g n : qu a l it a tiv e qu a n tit a tive a n d m ixed m e t hod s app r o a c he s (2 n d e d .). T h ou s a n d O a ks, C A : S a g e

PAGE 181

181 C r e s w e l l J. W ( 20 0 7 ). Qua l i t a ti v e i n q u i r y an d res ea rch de si g n : C h o o sing a m on g f i v e tra d itio n s ( 2 n d E d ). T h ou s a n d O a ks, CA: Sa g e Cu t t e r, S L Br o u f f B J., & S h i r le y W L ( 2 003 ). S o cial v u ln e ra b i l i ty t o en v i r onm e n t a l ha z a rds, S o cial Scie n c e Q u a rterly 84 (2), 2 4 2 261. Da na L P (1 9 96 e l f emp lo y m e n t in t h e C a nad i a n s u b a rct i c: a n e x p lora to ry s tud y Ca nad i a n J o u rn a l o f A d m inistra t ive Scie n c e s 1 3 (1), 6 5 77 De Vau s D. ( 2 00 1 ). R e s ea rch D e sign in So c i a l Res ea rc h L on d on : S a g e P u b l i c a ti on s L t d Dolisca, F, Cart e r, R. D M cDa n iel, J.M, S h an non D A & J o l l y C. M (2 0 0 6 ). F a c t o rs in f l uen cing f a r me pa rtic i pa ti o n in f o restry ma na ge me n t p ro g ra m s : A c a se s t ud y f r o m H a iti F o rest Ec o l og y a n d M a n a ge m en t 236 3 2 4 31. D r u ck e r, P ( 1 973 ). Ma na g e m en t: T a sks, r e s pon sibil i ti e s, p ractice s New Y o rk: Harp e r & R o w Pub l i s he r s Du bo is, L (2 0 0 4 ). Av e nge rs o f t h e n e w w o r l d : The s to ry o f t h e H a i t ian R e v o l u ti o n MA: Har v a rd U n i v e rs i t y P r e ss. Du n f o rd C ( 2 0 0 1 ). Bu i l d ing b a ck b e t t e r l i v e s. S u st a i nab l e i n t e g rati o n o f m ic ro f i n an ce an d edu c a ti o n in c h i l d s u rv i v a l, re p ro d u ctive hea l t h a n d H I V/ A IDS p rev en t i o n f o r t h e poo re s t e n tre p r e n e u rs. Fre e d o m f rom H u nge r M ic r o c r ed it S u m m it Ca m pa ig n D upu y A. ( 1 989 ). H a iti in t h e w o r l d e c on o m y : C l a ss, r ace a n d u n d e rd e v e lo p m en t since 1 700 B o u ld e r: W e s t v iew P ress. Durkh e i m E ( 1 964) The d iv i sion o f l abo r in s o cie t y tra n s. G Si m p s o n New Y o rk: F r e e P ress. El l is, F. & M d o e N ( 2 0 03) L i v e l i ho o d s a n d r u ral p o v e rty r edu cti o n in T an z an ia. Wo r l d D e v e lo p m en t 31 (8), 13 6 7 1 3 8 4 E na rs o n E. (1 9 98 ). T h ro u g h w ome n s e y e s: A G e nde r e d R e s ea rch A g end a f o r D i s a st e r S o cial Scie n c e I n : D i s a st e rs 22 (2), 15 7 1 7 3 E na rs o n E. & Mor r o w B. (1 9 98 ). W h y g e n d e r? W h y w o m e n ? A n I n tro du cti o n t o w o m e n a n d d isas t e r. I n : B. H. M o r r o w & E P E na r s o n ( E d s.), T h e g ende red t e r r a in o f d isas t e r: T h r ou g h w omen 's e y e s ( p p 1 8 ). W e s t po rt, C o n n .: P r a e g e r. E na rs o n E. (2 0 00 ). G en d e r a n d N a t u ral D i s a st e rs, I PC R R W o rk in g Pape r n o 1 I nte r n a ti o n a l L ab o u r O r g an i z a ti on

PAGE 182

182 Farmer, P. (1993). Aids and a ccusation: Haiti and the geography of blame. Berkley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press Far me r, P (1 9 94 ). The u s e s o f H a iti. Mo n r o e ME: C o mm o n C o u ra g e P ress. Fer na n de z K e l l y P. (1 989 ). Bro a d en ing t h e Sc op e : G e n d e r a n d i n t e rn a ti o na l e c on o m ic de v e lo p m en t S o c i o lo g ical F o ru m 4 (4), 61 1 6 35 Fer na n do J (E d .) ( 2 0 06 ). M ic r o fi n a n c e : P e r i ls an d p ros p e ct s Lo nd o n: Ro u tl ed g e Folk e C. ( 2 006 ). R e si l ie n c e : t h e e me r g en ce o f a p e rsp e cti v e f o r s o cial e c o lo g ical s y st em s a n a l y s e s Gl o ba l E n vi ro n m en t a l Ch a ng e 1 6 (3), 2 5 3 2 67 Fo n c h in g on g C. C. ( 2 005 ) Ne g o t i a ti n g li v e l iho o d s be y o n d B e i j in g : t h e bu rd e n o f w ome n f o o d v e n do rs i n t h e i n f o r ma l e c o nom y o f L i m b e C a me r o on I n t e r n a ti o na l S o cial S ci e n ce J ou rn a l 57 2 4 3 253. Fo n k o z e (2 0 10 ). B u i ld ing th e E c on o m ic F o u n da ti o n s f o r D e mo c r a cy in H a iti. R e trie v e d o n F e b ru a ry 16 20 1 0 from h t tp : / / w w w f on k o z e o r g /i nne w s/ ea rth q u a k ene w s. h t m l G a rtn e r, W .B ., S ha v e r, K G a t e w oo d E & K a t z J., (1 994 ). Fi n d ing th e E n tr e p re n e u r in E n tre p r e n e u rship E n t re p r en e u rship T h eo ry an d Practice 1 8 (3), 5 9. G eo r g e A. L ., & B e nn e t t A. (2 0 05 ). Ca s e s t ud ies an d t h e o ry d e v e l op m en t in t h e s o cial scie n c e s C a m b r i d g e M a ss: M IT P ress. Gi bb o n s, E. & G a r f iel d R. (1 9 9 9 ). T h e imp a ct o f e c on o m ic s a n cti o n s o n h ea lth a n d hu m a n ri g h ts in H a iti, 1 99 1 1 99 4 A m e r i c a n J ou rn a l o f P ub l i c H ea l t h 89 (1 0 ), 14 9 9 1 50 4 Gila d B. a n d L e v in e P (1 9 8 6 ). A be h a v ioral mo d e l o f e n tre p r e neu r i a l s u p p l y J ou rn a l o f S m a ll Bu sin e ss M a n age m en t 2 4 (4), 4 4 53. Gl a s e r, B & S tra u ss, A. (1 9 67 ). T h e d isco v e ry of g r o un d e d t h e o ry: Stra t e g ies f o r q ua l i t a tive r es e a rc h C h ica g o : Aldi n e G od sc h a lk, D. ( 2 0 0 3 ). U r ba n h a z a rd m iti g a t i on : C r e a ti n g resil i en t c i ti e s. Na t u ral H a z a rds Revi e w 4 13 6 1 43 G oe t z A. M ., & G up t a R. S. ( 1 996 ). W h o t a k e s t h e cre d i t ? G e n d e r, po w e r, an d c on trol o v e r l oa n u se in rur a l c r ed it p ro g r a m s in B an g la de s h W o r l d D e v e lo p me n t, G r e a t Br i t a in. Ha g en E. E. ( 1 962 ). O n t h e t h eo ry o f s o cial c ha n ge : H o w e c o no m ic g ro w t h b eg in s Ho m e w ood I l l in o is: D o rsey P res s Has h e m i S S c h u ler S ., & R i l e y A (2 0 06 ). R u ral C r ed it P ro g ra m s a n d W om en 's E m p o w e r men t i n B an g la de s h Wo r l d D e v e l o p m en t 2 4 (4), 6 3 5 65 3

PAGE 183

183 He nn ink, M., Hu t t e r, I & Ba i l e y A. ( 20 1 1 ). Q ua l i t a tive res ea rch m e t hod s L o nd o n : S a g e P ub l i c a ti o n s. Holl i n g C. & Gu n de rs o n L (2 0 02 ). R e si l ie n c e a n d a da p ti v e c y cles. I n G un d e rso n Lan c e H. a n d H o l l in g C.S P ana rch y W a s h i n g t o n DC: I sl a n d Pre s s. Hu n t, J. & K a s y na t h an N. (2 0 0 1 ). P a t h w a y s t o e mpo w e r m e n t? R e f l e cti on s o n m ic ro f in a n ce an d t ra n s f o r m a ti o n in g en d e r r e la t io n s i n S o u th A si a G e n d e r a n d Dev e lo p m en t 9 (1), 4 2 52 I n t e r n a ti o n a l L ab o u r O r g an i z a ti o n (I L O), ( 20 0 9 ): Gl o b a l E mp lo y m e n t T r e nd s f o r W om e n J ohn s on S. a n d R o g a l y B. (1 996 ). M ic r o fi n a n ce a n d p o v e rty r ed u cti o n O x f o r d : O x f a m. K ab e e r, N. ( 1 994 ). R e v e rsed R ea l i ti e s: G en d e r H i e rarchi e s in D e v e lo p m en t T h o u g h t. K ab e e r, N. ( 1 995 ). N e c e ss a r y S u f f ic i e n t o r i r rele v an t? W om en W a g e s an d I n tr a hou s eho ld Po w e r R e l a ti on s in Ur b a n B an g la d e s h S u ss e x : I n s tit u t e o f Dev e lo p m en t S t ud ie s W o r king Pa p e r 2 5 K ab e e r, N. ( 2 003 s s e ssing th e W i de r S o c i a l Imp a cts o f M i c r o na n ce S e r v ices: Co n c e p t, Me t hod s Fi n d in g IDS bu l l e t i n 3 4 (4), 1 0 6 11 4 K n i g h t, F. ( 1 92 1 ), Risk, u n c e rtai n t y a n d p r o fit Chic a g o : Uni v e rs i t y o f C h ica g o Press. Kr i z ne r, I. (1 9 7 3 ). Co m pe titi o n a n d E n tre p r e n eu rship. U n i v e rs i t y o f Chic a g o P ress, Chic a g o I L La n d str o m H. ( 2 008 ) E n tre p r e n e u rship res e a rch: A m iss i n g link in ou r u n de rst a nd ing o f t h e k n o w l ed g e e c o n om y J o u rn a l o f I n t e l le ct ua l C a p it a l 9 ( 2 ), 3 01 322 La t i f e e H. ( 2 0 0 6 ). T h e F u t u r e o f M i c r o fi nan c e : Vis i on i n g t h e W h o Wh a t, Wh e n Wh y, an d H o w o f M ic r o fi n a n ce E x p an si o n O v e r t h e N e xt 1 0 Y e a r s Gr a m e e n T rust. La w less, R. (1 9 9 0 ). H a iti: A res e a rch h an d b o o k. New Y o rk: G a r l an d Pub La w less, R. (1 9 9 2 ). H a iti's b a d p ress: O r i g in s de v e l op m en t, a n d c o n s eq u en c e s. Roc he s t e r, V t: S c h en k ma n B o o ks. L inc o ln, Y S., & G u ba Y (1 985 ) N a t u ral i stic i nqu i r y S a g e B e v e r l y Hi l ls, CA. Lu n dah l, M. ( 19 8 4 ) P ap a D o c: I nno v a t o r in t h e p r e da t o ry s t a t e S c and ia 50 3 9 78. M a g ne r, M. (2 0 0 7 ). M i c r o f i n an c e : a P la t f o rm f o r S o cial C h an g e Gr a me e n F o un d a ti o n W a s h i n g t o n D.C.: G r a me e n F o un d a ti o n P ub l ica t ion S e r i e s.

PAGE 184

184 M an c u s o J R. ( 1 973 ). Fun a n d g u ts: The e n tre p re n eur s ph i l o s o p h y Re ad in g M A: A dd is o n W e s l e y M a rsh a l l A. ( 1 890 ), Pr i n cipl e s o f e c o no m ic s Lo n don : Mac m i l l a n M a ssia h J. ( 19 8 6 ). W o rk i n t h e L i v e s o f C a r i bb e a n W ome S o c i a l an d E c o no m ic St ud ies 3 5 1 7 7 2 4 0 M a y ou x L (1 995 ). Fr o m V ic io u s t o V i r t u o u s C i rc l e s? G e n de r a n d M ic r o E n t e rpr i se Dev e lo p m ent Oc c a si o na l P a pe r No. 3 UNIFEM. Unit e d N a ti on s F o u rth W o r l d Co n f e r e nc e o n W ome n M a y ou x L (1 997 ). T h e Ma g ic I n g re d ie n t ? M ic r o f i n an ce a n d W ome n po w e r me n t. A B r ie f ing P a pe r pr e p a red f o r t h e M i c r o Cre d it S u mm it, W a s h in g t o n M a y ou x L (1 999 ). ` Q ue sti o n ing V i r t uou s Sp i rals: M ic r o f in a n ce an d W ome n 's E m p o w e r men t i n A f ri c a ', J ou r na l o f I n t e rn a ti o na l Dev e l o p m en t 1 1 9 5 7 9 8 4 M a y ou x L (2 000 ). M i c r o Fin an ce an d t h e Em po w e r men t o f W ome n A R e v iew o f t h e K e y I ss ue s. G e n e v a I L O. M a y ou x L (2 001 ). T a ckl i n g th e do w n si d e : S o cial c ap i t a l, w omen em p o w e r men t a n d m ic r o f i nan c e in C a me ro on Dev e l op m en t an d C h a ng e 32 4 3 5 4 6 4 M a x w e l l J. (2 005 ). Q u a l i t a tive re s ea rch de si g n : A n i n t e r a cti v e app r o a ch (2 n d e d ) T h ou s a n d O a ks, C A : S a g e M cC l e l l and D. C. ( 1 9 6 1 ). The a c h ievi n g s o c i e t y Pr i n c e t o n : V a n N o stra n d R e i nho l d M i l e ti, D. L ( 1 999 ). D i s a st e rs by de si g n a r e a ss e ssme n t o f na t u ral ha z a rds in t h e Unit e d S t a t e s. W a sh DC: J o s e p h H en ry P re s s. M in t z S. (1 971 ). Me n w ome n a n d t r a de C o m pa rative S t ud i e s in S o cie t y a n d Hist o ry 13 24 7 2 69 M in t z S. (1 974 ). Car i bb e a n Tra n s f o r m a t io n s. B a lt i mo re, M D J o h n s H op kins U n i v e rs i t y M in t z S. (2 011 ). Prat i k : Haiti a n pe rs o na l e c o no m ic rela t io n s h ip s J oh n H op kins Uni v e rs i t y : O AC Pr e ss In t e r v en ti o n S e r i e s # 2 M o g had a m V (1 9 99 ). nde r an d g lo ba l i z a ti on : F e ma le l a b o r a n d w omen mob ili z a ti on J ou r n a l o f Wo r l d Syst e m s R e s ea rc h 5 (2), 3 6 7 3 8 8 M om s e n J. ( 1 9 9 3 ). D e v e lo p m en t a n d G e n de r Div i sio n s o f L a b ou r in t h e R u ral E a s t e rn Car i bbe a n I n Mo m s en J. (E d ). W ome n a n d Ch an g e in t h e C a r i bb e an : A P a n Car i bbe a n Pe r s pe cti v e (2 3 2 2 46 ). L o n do n : J a me s C u r r e y M o s e r, C. (1 9 98 ). T h e a ss e t v u ln e r a b i l ity f r a me w o rk: re a ss e ssing u rb a n p o v e rty re du cti o n s t ra t e g ies Wo r l d D e v e lo p m en t 2 6 (1), 1 19

PAGE 185

185 M o s e r, C. (2 0 06 ). As s e t ba s e d A pp r o a c he s t o Po v e rty Re du cti o n in a G l o ba l i z e d Co n t e x t: An i n tro d uc ti o n t o a ss e t a cc u mu l a ti o n po l i cy an d s u m m a ry o f w o rksh o p f i n d in g s. Gl o b a l E c on o m y an d D e v e lo p m e n t W o r king P a p e r. T h e B r oo kin g s I n stit u t i o n Nor r is F., S t e v en s S & P f e f f e r ba u m B (2 00 8 ). Co m m u n ity resil i en ce a s a me t a p h o r, t heo r y s e t o f c a pa citi e s a n d s t ra t e g y f o r dis a st e r r ead i ne ss. A m e r i c a n J o u rn a l o f Com m un ity P syc ho lo g y 41 ( 1 2 ), 1 2 7 15 0 N Ze n g ou T a y o M .J. ( 19 9 8 ). F a n m s e p o to m it a n : Haiti a n w oma n is th e p i l lar o f s o cie t y Fe m inist Revi e w 5 9 1 1 8 1 4 2 O g a to G S., B o o n E K & S ub r a m a n i J. (2 0 0 9 ). I m p ro v ing A cc e ss t o Pro du cti v e Res ou rces an d A g r i c u lt u ral Se r v ices t h ro u g h G en d e r E mpo w e r m e n t : A C a se St ud y o f Thr e e R u ral C o m m u n ities in A m b o D istr i ct, E t h i o p ia. J ou rn a l o f Hu m a n Ec o lo g y 2 7 ( 2 ) 8 5 1 0 0 P a n A m e r i c a n H e a lth Or g an i z a ti o n (2 010 ). H a iti He a lth Se c t o r O v e r v i e w P a t t o n M ( 1 9 9 0 ). Q ua l i t a tive e v a lu a ti o n a n d r e s ea rch m e t h o d s Ne w bu ry Pa rk, CA: S a g e Pitt, M., K h a nd k e r, S & C a rt w r i g h t, J. (2 0 06 ) E m po w e r i n g W om e n w ith M i c r o Fin an c e : E v id en ce f r o m B an g l a de s h Ec o no m ic Dev e lo p m en t a n d C u l t u ral Ch a n g e 5 4 (4) 791 8 31 P o lk i n g ho rn e D. E ( 1 9 89 ). P h e n o me n o lo g ical res ea rch m e t h od s. I n R. S. Va l l e & S Hall i n g (E d s.), E x ist en ti a l phe n o m eno l o g ical pe rsp e cti v e s in p s y c ho lo g y (p p 4 1 60 ). N e w Y o rk: P le n u m P re s s. Pret e s, M (2 0 0 2 ). M ic r oe q u i t y an d M i c r o n a n c e Wo r l d D e v e lo p m en t 3 0 (8) 1 3 41 52. P u t n a m R. (2 0 01 ). B o w l i n g Alo n e : T h e C o l la p se a n d R e vi v a l o f A m e r i c a n Com m un ity. New Y o rk: S i m o n a n d Sc hu s t e r. Ra th g ebe r, E. ( 1 990 ). W I D W A D, G ad : T r e n d s in R e s ea rch an d P r a ctic e J o u rn a l o f Dev e lo p i n g A r e a s 2 4 48 9 5 02 Re ddo c k R. (1 9 9 4 ) W o m en l a b o r a n d p o l i tics in Tr i n id a d a n d T ob ag o L o nd o n : Z e d B oo ks. R i c h P ( 1 992 ). The O r g an i z a ti ona l T a x o n o m y : De f initi o n a n d D e si g n Ac a de m y o f M ana g e m en t Revi e w 1 7 (4), 758 7 81 Ro d r iq ue z M ., Ri ca rt, J. & S an c h e z P. (2 0 0 2 ) S u st a i nab le D e v e lo p me n t a n d S u st a i n ab i l ity o f C o m p e titi v e Ad v an t a g e : A D y nam ic a n d Su s t a i n ab l e V iew o f t h e f i r m C r ea tivity a n d I n no v a t i o n M a na g e m en t 11 (3), 1 3 5 1 4 6

PAGE 186

186 Ru t t e r, M. ( 1 993 ). R e si l ie n c e : S o m e c o n c e p t u a l c on si d e r a ti o n s. J o u rn a l o f A d o lesc e n t He a lt h 14 6 2 6 6 3 1 R y an G. W & B e rn a r d H. R. ( 2 0 03 ) T e c h n i q ue s t o I d e n t i f y T h e me Field Me th o d s 1 5 (1) 85 10 9 S a f a H. (1 9 95 ). Ec o no m ic Res t ruc t u r i n g an d G en d e r S u bo rdi n a ti o n La tin A m e r i c a n Pe rsp e ctiv e s 2 2 (2), 32 5 0 S a y J. B (1 8 03 ). T rai t d c on o m ie po l i ti q u e P a r i s (E n g l i sh v e rs i on : A T re a tise o n P o l i tic a l Ec o n o m y : o r The P r o du cti o n D i str i b u ti on a n d C o n s u m p ti o n o f W e a l t h tra n sla t e d f r o m t h e f o u rth F r en ch ed iti o n b y C. R. P r i n s e p Kit c he n e r: O n t a r i o ). Sc he i n be r g S. an d M a cM i l l an I. (1 9 88 ). An e l e v e n c ou n try s tud y o f t h e mo ti v a ti on s to st a rt a bu si n e ss. In B Ki r c hh o f f W L on g W Mc M u l l an K.H. V e s pe r, an d W W e t z e l, e d s., F ro n ti e rs o f e n tre p r en e u rship r e s ea rch. W e l l e sle y M A: Bab s o n Colle g e Sc h ro e de r, R. ( 1 993 ). S had y P ractic e : G e n d e r a n d t h e p o l i tic a l e c o l o g y o f res o u rce st ab i l i z a ti o n in G a m b i a n g a rd en / o rch a rd s E c ono m ic G eog r a ph y 69 34 9 3 65 Sc h u m p e t e r, J A., ( 1 9 3 4 ). The T heo ry o f E c o n o m ic Dev e lo p m en t Har v a rd U n i v Press, Ca m b r i d g e M A ( t h i r d p r i n t, 1 949 ). Sc h u m p e t e r, J. A ., (1 9 42 ), Ca p i t a l i s m S o cialism an d D e m o c r a c y 5 t h e d ., H a r p e r & Brot he rs, New Y o rk, N Y G eo r g e A l l e n & U n w in, Lond o n 1 9 7 6 S c h w a r z N. (1 999 ) S e l f Re p o rts: How th e Q ue sti o n s S h a p e t h e An s w e r s A m e r i c a n Psyc ho l o g ist 5 4 (2), 9 3 105. Sen, A. (19 8 7). G en der and coo p erati v e conflict s Hels i nki: W orld Inst i tute f or D e v el o pment Eco no mics Re s earc h S ha p e ro, A. (1 975 ) T h e d ispl a c ed un c o m f o r t ab le en tr e p re n e u r. P s yc ho lo g y T o d a y 9 (6), 8 3 8 8 S h i v a V. (1 9 88 ). St a y ing a l i v e : Wo m en e c o l og y a n d de v e l op m en t Lo n don : Z e d P ress. Press. S m it h R. (1 9 88 ). Kin s h ip a n d c lass in t h e We st I n d ie s C a m b r i d g e : Ca m b r i d g e Uni v e rs i t y P ress. S mu c k e r, G R., W h i t e T A ., & B a nn ist e r, M. ( 20 0 2 ). L a n d t e n u re an d t h e a do p ti o n o f a g r i c u lt u ral t e c h n o lo g y in H a i t i. CAPRI w o rk i n g pape rs, 6 I n t e rn a ti o n a l Fo o d P o l i cy R e s ea rch I n sti t u te (IFPRI). S o m me r, R. & S o m me r, B (1 9 86 ). A p ractic a l g u ide to b e h a v ior r es ea rch: T oo ls a n d t ec hn i q ues N e w Y o r k : O x f o rd U n i v e rs i t y

PAGE 187

187 S on n C., & Fish e r, A. (1 998 ). S en s e o f c om mun it y : C o m m un ity resil i en t res p o n s e s to opp ressi o n a n d c han g e J o u rn a l o f Com m un ity P syc ho l og y 2 6 4 57 4 7 2 Sti n c h c o m b e A. L (1 9 6 8 ). Co n s truc t ing s o ci a l t heo r i e s N e w Y o rk: H a rco u rt, B r a ce & W o r l d Stra u ss, A & C o rbi n J (1 99 8 [ 1 9 90 ]). B a sics o f q ua l i t a ti v e res ea rch: T e c hn i q ue s a n d p roc e d u res f o r de v e lo p ing g ro unde d t h e o r y Th ou s an d O a ks, CA: Sag e S w a rtley D. & T ou s s a in t J. ( 20 0 6 ). H a iti C o un try Ana l y sis o f T r op i c a l For e stry an d Bio d i v e rs i ty (S e cti on s 11 8 an d 1 1 9 o f t h e F o r e i g n A ssist an c e A ct ) T a nn e n b a u m F. (1 9 47) Slave an d c it i z en t h e N eg ro i n t h e A m e r i c a s New Y o rk: A A. K n op f T h o m a s, D. R. (2 0 0 3 ). A Ge n e ral I ndu c ti v e App ro a c h f o r Q ua l i t a ti v e D a ta A na l y sis. A m e r i c a n J ou rn a l o f E v a lu a ti o n 2 7 (2), 2 3 7 2 46 T i m m o n s, J. (1 9 99 ). N e w v en t u re s t r a t eg ie s : E n t r ep r e n e u rship f o r t h e 21 s t c e n t u r y 5 th E d B u rr Rid g e I L : Irw i n M cGraw H i l l. T h e W o r l d B an k G r ou p (2 00 6 Dec e m b e r ) ( R epo rt N o 3 77 2 0 HT) I n t e r i m Stra t e g y No t e f o r t h e R e p ub l i c o f H a itii f o r t h e P e r i o d FY 0 7 0 S. T ro u i l lo t M R. (1 990 ) Haiti, St a t e A ga inst N a ti on : T h e O r i g ins a n d L ega cy o f Duv a l i e r i s m N e w Y o r k : M on t h ly R e v iew P re s s. Unit e d N a ti on s D e v e l o pm e n t Pro g ra m m e ( 2 0 08 ). H u ma n D e v e lo p m en t R e po rt. h t t p :/ / w w w undp o r g /H a iti. Unit e d N a ti on s D e v e l o pm e n t ( 2 009 ). G e nde r Ass e ssme n t h t tp : / / u n st a t s u n o r g / u n s d / d e mo g ra p h ic/ p ro du cts / W o r l d s w om e n / W W20 1 0 Re po rt _b y % 20 c h a p t e r B W / Wo rk_ B W p d f Unit e d N a ti on s I n t e r na t io na l S t r a t e g y f o r D i s a st e r Re du c ti o n (U N I S D R ) (2 010 ). D i s a s t e r t h ro u g h a d i f fe re n t l en s : B e h ind e v e ry e f f e c t, t he re is a c au s e Unit e d N a ti on s ( 2 012 ). D i s a st e r resil i en t S o c i e ti e s. http://www.un.org/en/sustainablefuture/disasters.shtml U n it e d N a ti on s D e v e l o pm e n t Pro g ram (U N DP), (2 0 1 0 ). T h e M i l l en ium D e v e lo p m e n t G oa ls R e p o rt U N New Y o rk. http/www.un.org/millenniumgoals.pdf Unit e d N a ti on s D e v e l o pm e n t Pro g ram (U N DP), (2 0 1 1 ). Su s t a i n ab i l ity an d E q u it y : A B e t te r F u t u re f o r All H u ma n D e v e lo p m en t R e p o rt http//hdr2011 eorg eventbrite.com

PAGE 188

188 V and s bu r g e r, E & B i g g e rsta f f, M. ( 2 0 04 ). E v a lu a ti o n o f t h e s t ress a d jus t m en t a n d ad a p t a ti o n m o de l a m o n g fam i l ies r e po rting e c on o m ic p res s u re. J o u rn a l o f Fa m i l y So cial W o rk 8 ( 2 ), 65 8 4 V a n St a v e re n I. ( 2 00 1 ). G en d e r bi a s e s in f i n an c e G e nde r an d D e v e lo p m en t 9 (1), 9 24. V e s pe r, K .H. ( 1 990 ). New v e n t u re s tra t e g ie s N ew Jersey: P re n ti c e H a ll. W eb e r M (1 9 30 / 1 9 9 2 ). The p r o t e s t an t e t h ic an d t h e s p i r it o f c a p i t a l i s m Lon d on U K : Ro u tl ed g e W e r ne r, E & S m it h R. (1 982 ). V u l ne ra b l e bu t in v inci b le: A l o n g it ud in a l st u d y o f resil i en t c h i l d ren a n d y ou t h New Y o rk: M cG r a w H i l l, W il en tz A ( 2 01 0 ). T h e Rai n y S e a s o n : H a iti t h e n a n d n o w New Y o rk: S i m o n a n d Sc hu s t e r. Y oun g K. (1 9 97 ). G e nde r a n d d e v e lo p m en t I n N. V is v ana t h an L D u gg an L N i s on o f f & N. W i e g e rs m a ( E d s.). T h e Wo m en G e n d e r a n d D e v e l o p m en t Re ade r. N e w J e rse y : Z e d B oo ks, L t d Ze ph i r C. ( 1 995 ). Haiti a n w o m e n b e t w e e n r e p ression an d de m o c r a cy. P o r t au Pr i n c e Ha ti: ENFOFANM Ed i t io n s.

PAGE 189

189 BI O GRAPHIC A L S K E T CH Cel e ste ho lds a M a s t e r s de g ree in P ub l i c Ad m inistra t i o n a n d a B a c he l o r o f Scie n ce de g ree in Cr i m in a l J u stice w ith a m i no r in Ps y c ho lo g y f r o m th e U n i v e rs i t y o f Ne b rask a S h e re c e i v e d he r P h D in I n t e rdisc i p l i na ry E c o lo g y f rom t h e U n i v e rs i ty o f Flori d a in t h e f a ll o f 2 012 Pr io r to mo v ing t o Florid a Cel e ste w a s Di r e ct o r o f a n a ti o na l l y rec o g n i z e d g an g re du c ti o n p ro g r a m b a s e d in S ou t he rn C a l i f o rnia, a n d o v e rse e n b y th e Fe de ral O f f ice o f J u v e n i l e J u st i ce a n d D e l i n q uen c y P re v en ti on Cel e ste ha s e x t en si v e e x pe r i en ce in c o m m un ity s er v ices, ha v ing bee n a t rain e r in New Y o rk, T e x a s, P enn s y l v an ia, I l l in o is, a n d A r i z ona Ce l e ste li v e d a n d w o rked in B ue n o s A i r e s, A r g en ti n a a n d s p en t t i m e in O s a k a J ap a n S h e a lso t ra v e led e x t en si v e l y t hroughout H a iti as well as o t he r p a rts o f t h e C a r i b b ea n an d Latin A me r i c a