Conflict Analysis and Capacity Building for Community-Based Management of Endangered and Nuisance Wildlife in Japan

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Title:
Conflict Analysis and Capacity Building for Community-Based Management of Endangered and Nuisance Wildlife in Japan
Physical Description:
1 online resource (85 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Sakurai, Ryo
Publisher:
University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Interdisciplinary Ecology
Committee Chair:
Jacobson, Susan K
Committee Members:
Monroe, Martha C
Oli, Madan K
Wald, Kenneth D
Israel, Glenn D

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
bear -- japan -- media -- risk -- trust -- wildlife
Interdisciplinary Ecology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Interdisciplinary Ecology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
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Abstract:
Human-wildlife conflicts which include agricultural damage and occasional human casualties are worldwide problems. Understanding social aspects of wildlife management including people’s values and attitudes regarding wildlife and wildlife issues is important for mitigating potential conflicts and garner long-term public support. In order to fill the gap of human dimension studies in Japan, I conducted studies to examine the contents of the media report regarding Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus), local residents’ perception regarding human-bear conflicts, and how those perceptions and behavioral intentions could be changed through a community wildlife damage prevention program. I conducted a content analysis of 348 articles of local and national newspapers and found that proportion of negative articles that explain risk from bears increased in a year when more bears appeared than normal year. The study suggested that researchers and government officials in Japan need to have more communication with media representatives to enhance people’s knowledge regarding bears as well as broader perspective of bear management. To understand residents’ perceptions of risks and acceptance capacity of bears as well as the influence of social trust on the perception, I conducted a survey to residents in Hyogo Prefecture. Based on 1,210 surveys (52% response rate), most of residents felt the risk from bears had increased (81%) and believed that there were too many bears around the village (83%). Social trust was significantly correlated with residents’ risk perception, and significantly predicted residents’ behaviors to report bear sightings. The study suggested the importance for agencies to strengthen the social trust to increase residents’ actions for reducing human-bear conflicts and improve conservation of bears in Japan. To evaluate the effects of the community wildlife damage prevention program, we compared residents’ cognitive factors between a district which received the treatment program and a control district in Tochigi Prefecture. Based on 198 responses from both districts, residents in the model district had significantly higher scores in perceived behavioral control knowing methods to prevent damage by wildlife. The studies showed the important role the field of human dimensions of wildlife management can play to the scientific community and general public in Japan.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ryo Sakurai.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local:
Adviser: Jacobson, Susan K.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-06-30

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UFRGP
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Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID:
UFE0045017:00001


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1 CONFLICT ANALYSIS AND CAPACITY BUILDING FOR COMMUNITY BASED MANAGEMENT OF ENDANGERED AND NUISANCE WILDLIFE IN JAPAN By RYO SAKURAI A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FU LFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 20 12

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2 20 12 Ryo Sakurai

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3 To my parents

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are numerous people that I would like to thank for assisting with or encouraging this project. First, I would like to thank the Supporting Organization for Research of Agricultural and Life Science in Tokyo and Toyooka City of Hy ogo, for sponsoring the project Second, I thank Dr. Gouhei Ueda, Naoko Matsuda, Tetsuya Maruyama, Dr. Stuart J. Carlton, and Dara Wald for providing instructive comments and advice for the project. Third special thanks go to the School of Natural Resourc es and Environment for admitting me to their Interdisciplinary Ecology program; my committee members, Dr. Madan Oli, Dr. Glenn Israel, Dr. Martha Monroe, Dr. Kenneth Wald, and to my advisor Dr. Susan K. Jacobson of the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Co nservation. Susan has been always helpful, enthusiastic, encouraging creative and a great mentor for over five years of the Master s and PhD program and I cannot possibly put my gratitude into words. I could not accomplish my research and the graduate st udy so successfully without such a wonderful advisor. Last but not least, sincere thanks go to my parents for their endless support and encouragement.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 11 2 MEDIA COVERAGE OF BLACK BEAR MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN ............................ 14 Opening Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 14 Asiatic Black Bear s in Japan ................................ ................................ ........................... 14 Conceptual Background ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 16 Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 18 Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 19 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 19 Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 19 Coding ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 20 A nalysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 21 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 21 Article Length and Frames ................................ ................................ .............................. 21 Coverage of Bear Related Risks ................................ ................................ ..................... 22 Topics Covered in Articles ................................ ................................ .............................. 22 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 24 Management Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 26 3 PUBLIC RISK PERCEPTION AND SOCIAL TRUST OF BEARS IN JAPAN ................. 30 Opening Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 30 Conceptual Framework ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 32 Risk Perception ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 32 Social Trust ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 33 Wildlife Acceptance Capacity ................................ ................................ ......................... 34 H ypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 35 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 35 Study Site ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 35 Survey Instrument ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 37 Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 37 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 38

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6 Demographic Variables ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 38 Distribution of Cognitive Variables and Behaviors ................................ ........................ 38 Relationships between Social Trust and Risk Perception ................................ ............... 39 Relationships between Risk Perception and Acceptance Capacity ................................ 39 Rel ationships between Social Trust and Behaviors ................................ ......................... 40 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 40 Relationships between Risk Perception and Social Trust ................................ ............... 40 Relationship between Social Trust and Behaviors ................................ .......................... 42 Limitation of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 44 4 ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF A WILDLIFE EDUCATION PROGRAM ON JAPANESE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS ................................ ........ 49 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 49 The oretical Background ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 52 Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 55 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 56 Study Site ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 56 Questionnaire ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 57 Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 57 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 57 Descriptive Information ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 57 Comparison of Treatment District of Fukahodo and Control District of Kuno .............. 58 Asse ssing the Association between Five Variables and Behavioral Intentions .............. 58 Comparison of Reported Comments between Two Districts ................................ .......... 59 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 59 Limitation of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 63 5 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 73 LIST OF R EFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 75 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 85

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 A comparison of the most mentioned topics, impacts from bears, solutions, and sources of information in national and local newspapers ................................ .................. 28 2 2 Reports of risk and negative wording regarding bears ................................ ...................... 29 3 1 point scale of social trust of town and prefectural government, risk perception regarding bear issues, and self assessed knowledge of avoiding bear conflicts ................................ ................................ ................ 45 3 2 Multiple regression analysis using risk perception items as dependent variables and social trust and demographic items as independent variables ................................ ........... 46 4 1 Activities implemented in Fukahodo as a model district from June 2010 to July 2011 .... 66 4 2 Questionnaire items and resp onse scale of cognitive factors ................................ ............. 67 4 3 Questionnaire items and response scale of experience and socio demographics factors. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 68 4 4 do and Kuno. Mean score was calculated from 5 point Likert scale (1=Disagree, 2=Slightly disagree, 3=Neither of options, 4=Slightly agree, 5=Agree) for all variables except knowledge level which is average score of 6 knowledge questions (0=Wrong answer/I d 1=Correct answer) ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 69 4 5 Comments provided by residents in the two districts (numbers represent the frequencies of the comments). ................................ ................................ ........................... 70

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 Location of the study sites; Kami town and Tanto town. ................................ .................. 48 4 1 Location of Fukahodo and Kuno in Utsunom iya Prefecture ................................ ............. 71 4 2 Association of cognitive variables and behavioral intention in Fukahodo. The numbers represent standardized coefficients. (*p<0.05, **p<0.01) ................................ .. 72 4 3 Association of cognitive variables and behavioral intention in Kuno. The numbers represent standardized coefficients. (*p<0.05, **p<0.01) ................................ ................. 72

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9 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to t he Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy By Ryo Sakurai December 2012 Chair: Susan Jacobson Major: Interdisciplinary Ecology Human wildlife conflicts which include agricultural damage and occasional human casualties are worldwide problems. Understanding social aspects of wildlife managem ent including people s values and attitudes regarding wildlife and wildlife issues is important for mitigating potential conflicts and garner long term public support. In order to fill the gap of human dimension studies in Japan, I conducted studies to ex amine the contents of the media report regarding Asiatic black bear ( Ursus thibetanus ), local residents perception regarding human bear conflicts, and how those perceptions and behavioral intentions could be changed through a community wildlife damage pre vention program. I conducted a content analysis of 348 articles of local and national newspapers and found that proportion of negative articles that explain risk from bears increased in a year when more bears appeared than normal year. The study suggested that researchers and government officials in Japan need to have more communication with media representatives to enhance people s knowledge regarding bears as well as broader perspective of bear management. To understand residents perceptions of risks an d acceptance capacity of bears as well as the influence of social trust on the perception, I conducted a survey to residents in Hyogo

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10 Prefecture. Based on 1,210 surveys (52% response rate), most of residents felt the risk from bears had increased (81%) and believed that there were too many bears around the village (83%). Social trust was significantly correlated with residents risk perception, and significantly predicted residents behaviors to report bear sightings. The study suggested the importance for agencies to strengthen the social trust to increase residents actions for reducing human bear conflicts and improve conservation of bears in Japan. To evaluate the effects of the community wildlife damage prevention program, we compared residents cognit ive factors between a district which received the treatment program and a control district in Tochigi Prefecture. Based on 198 responses from both districts, residents in the model district had significantly higher scores in perceived behavioral control kn owing methods to prevent damage by wildlife. The studies showed the important role the field of human dimensions of wildlife management can play to the scientific community and general public in Japan.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Human wildlife conflicts whic h include agricultural and property damage as well as occasional human casualties occur all over the world where wildlife and people live in close proximity (Conover 2002; Johnson et al. 2006). In order to mitigate the conflicts, it is important that local residents have appropriate knowledge and techniques to prevent damage, and are motivated to engage in interventions I t is also important for agenc ies to implement outreach and communication program s that meet the needs of local residents (Decker et al. 2 001). Citizen participation in decision making and implementation of wildlife management actions is also important since it can mitigate potential conflicts and garner long term public support (Decker et al. 2001; Fulton et al. 2004). This makes it necessa ry to study people s value s and attitudes regarding wildlife and wildlife issues, and factors that influence th e se cognitive factors. The academic field that was specifically developed to understand these social aspects of human wildlife issues is called t he human dimensions of wildlife management. The human dimensions of wildlife management evolved in North America in the 1970s. The objective of this field was to gather information of social aspects of human wildlife issues t o help wildlife management stak eholders implement effective decision making actions (Manfredo 1989). Human dimensions studies contributed in providing information for mitigating conflicts between stakeholders ( Gore et al. 2009 ; Baruch Mordo et al. 200 9) pre dicting local residents atti tudes and behaviors (Aipangiguly et al. 2002), and implementing polic ies that reflect local residents opinions (Jacobson et al. 2010) regarding human wildlife issues. In Japan, the field of human dimensions of wildlife management is not well recognized an d studies regarding social dimensions (e.g. public attitudes toward wildlife) is limited (Sakamoto 2002; Sakurai & Enari 2010). Several qualitative anthropological studies have

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12 examined Japanese perception s of sika deer (Knight 2003), wild boar (Knight 2 003), Japanese macaques (Maruyama 2006), and oriental white stork s (Kikuchi 2003) ; however the number of quantitative studies conducted are limited. This dissertation research fill s the gap of human dimensions studies in Japan by examining the contents of media report s regarding Asiatic black bear ( Ursus thibetanus ), local residents perceptions and behavioral intentions regarding human bear conflicts, and how those cognitive factors could be changed through a community wildlife damage prevention program. The first study, Media Coverage of Black Bear Management in Japan used content analysis to understand how newspaper articles portrayed Asiatic black bears which are considered nuisances in Japan because of the agricultural damage and occasional human cas ualties they cause Mass media is an important factor that influence people s perceptions toward a certain topic (Detjen 1995), and Japan is known as the Newspaper Country supporting three of the world s largest circulation newspaper s (World Association of Newspaper 2005). I analyzed articles in five categories : topic, effect and interaction, solution, source of information, and risk regarding human bear issues. The second study, Public Risk Perception, Social Trust, and Acceptance Capacity Regarding Bears in Hyogo, Japan analyzed residents perception of Asiatic black bears and human bear issues in Hyogo Prefecture. We used variables related to risk perception, social trust, and acceptance capacity which are important factors for predicting people s attitu des and behavioral intentions (Slovic 1987; Siegrist et al. 2000; Decker & Purdy 1988). This study became one of the first efforts in Japan to examine the relation of these three cognitive factors in the field of wildlife management.

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13 The third study, Asse ssing the Impact of a Wildlife Education Program on Japanese Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions evaluated the influence of a wildlife outreach program in Tochigi Prefecture by comparing residents who participated in the community boar ( Sus scrofa ) semina r (treatment group), non participants living in the same district (semi treatment group), and residents in the neighbor ing village (control group). I used variables of the Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen 1985) and risk perception and social trust for the analysis. I also qualitatively analyzed open ended comments that respondents wrote in the questionnaire to understand residents opinions regarding wildlife issues. These three studies reveal ed the important social aspects of wildlife management in Japan t hat stakeholders and managers can utilize when designing management interventions to meet residents needs This is an important contribution to human dimensions research in Japan

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14 CHAPTER 2 MEDIA COVERAGE OF BLACK BEAR MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN Asiatic blac k bears ( Ursus thibetanus ) are listed as threatened in Japan, but are generally considered nuisances due to agricultural and property damage as well as human casualties. We analyzed Japanese media coverage of black bears to better understand social discour se and potential influences on public perceptions about bear conservation Content analysis of 348 articles in a local and national newspaper revealed that the number of articles regarding black bears and proportion of negative articles that describe risk of bears increased concomitant with a rise in bear sightings. Local news paper coverage included more articles about risk from bears than national news papers This potentially reflects and can amplify local residents perceptions of risk The proportion of thematic and episodic articles was unrelated to increases in bear appearances More extensive communications with media representatives by Japanese biologists, government officials and police is necessary to enhance public k nowledge of bears and lead to b roader perspectives of bear management issues. Opening Statement Asiatic Black Bear s in Japan Asiatic black bear ( Ursus thibetanus ) is a n IUCN (2008) Vulnerable Specie s and has an estimated population of 8 4 00 1 2 6 00 in Japan ( Japan Bear Network 2007 ). In rural areas of Japan human bear conflicts include damage to agriculture and forestry crops as well as human casualties (Japan Bear Network 2007 ; Ministry of the Environment 2008 ). Previous studies have found that people living near bear habitat in Japan tend to fear b e a r s and have negative attitudes toward them, preferring to destroy bears that appear near a village (Kameda et al. 2007; Ministry of the Environment 2007; Uchikoshi 2007). In the drought of 2006, when large numbers of bears appeared around h uman settlements, 4,846 black bears were captured and most (n=4,340) were

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15 killed (Ministry of the Environment, 2008) The mortality might have accounted for about 50% of the total population (Japan Bear Network 2007). In the same year, 142 people were inju red and 3 people were killed by black bears (Ministry of the Environment 2008). In general, residents response when they see bears near human settlements is to call the local government officials or police and ask them to kill the bears. T he local governm ents and police in turn ask licensed hunters to kill the bears (Huygens et al. 2001; Huygens et al. 2004; Japan Bear Network 2007). Since there are few local or prefectural agencies that deal with wildlife issues, in Japan, police officers whose specialty is not wildlife, handle wildlife issues, in most cases (Yamanaka 2006). Residents negative attitudes and perception of risks from bears have been identified as obstacles to conservation and sustainable management of bears in Japan (Roy 1998; Sakurai & Jac obson 2011). Important factors that influences people perceptions about an issue include social norm (Manfredo 2008), value (Decker et al. 2001), knowledge (Hungerford & Volk 1990), direct and indirect experience (Millar & Millar 1996), and media coverag e (Slovic 1987; Detjen 1995; Muter et al. 2009). News stories potentially affect public perception of wildlife and how wildlife should be managed (Siemer et al. 2007). Wildlife often attracts people s attention and becomes newsworthy when their management becomes controversial or tragic incidents occur, such as a fatality caused by wildlife (Gore et al. 2005; Siemer et al. 2007). Conflicts and high consequence incidents are two features that are frequently covered in newspaper stories (Muter et al. 2009). I n Japan, wildlife controversies routinely appear in newspaper stories (Knight 2003). As described below, media provide a dual role of both framing and reflecting public opinion. This study examines the newspaper coverage of black bears in Japan to assess h ow newspapers portray bears and bear incidents, and the implications for better management.

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16 Conceptual Background Risk perception is the instinctive risk judgment that people have and generally form through learning about a hazard (Slovic 1987). Risk perce ption can influence people s attitudes, beliefs and behaviors (Gore et al. 2005). The social amplification of risk is a concept based on a combination o f consequence of actual events and psychological, social, and cultural processes (Jaeger et al. 2001). T his concept suggests that mass media can amplify people s concern about a specific risk event even when the actual risk is relatively low (Gore et al. 2005). The media s tendency to describe a situation as more dangerous than it really is can increase peop le s risk perception such as crime reporting leading to short term panic about crime (McQuail 2005). Media has dual role of both influencing public opinions and also reflecting public perceptions and political agendas (Boykoff & Rajan 2007). In general, m edia influence people s perception and opinion through agenda setting and framing effect s (Price et al. 1997). An agenda setting effect refers to the selection of newsworthy stories that can lead audience s to a specific media induced view (Price et al. 1 997). For example, the number of stories or length of articles published about a topic can lead the public to think that the issue is important or not. The f raming effect describes how media framing the way incidents and issues are portrayed by media affe ct s how audience s understand them (Pri ce et al. 1997). Although television and the Internet have become the main sources that people rely on for news, newspaper s still play an important role for the public to learn about social issues (Pew Research Center 2008). In Japan, most citizens depend on news paper s for general information Japan is known as the three of the world s larg est circulation newspapers : Yomiuri with 14,067,000 circulation Asahi with 12,121,000, and Mainichi with 5,587,000 (Pharr & Krauss 1996; World Association of Newspapers 2005) N a specific

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17 topic, such as black bears in Japan, due to agenda setting and framing effects (Mikami et al. 1995) A survey of rural Japanese residents revealed that newspapers were an important source of information regarding bears and bear issues (Sakurai et al. 2 012a ). The negative attitudes of rural Japanese toward bears (Uchikoshi 2007; Ministry of the Environment 2007; Sakurai & Jacobson 2009) emphasize the importance of analyzing how and what newspapers are reporting about bears. wildlife interactions, few studies have attempted t o understand news coverage of wildlife problems and their influence on public opinion (Siemer et al. 2007). Gore et al. (2005) found that mass media reports of the first fatality caused by a bear ( Ursus americanus ) in New York did not affect people s risk perception after the incident and suggested this might be due to the fact that media reported the incident with statistical data showing how rare the incident was. A study of news coverage a bout cougars ( Puma concolor ) in California found that during the 1990s when human cougar conflicts increased, news articles became negative, yet editorial coverage remained supportive of cougar conservation (Wolch et al. 1997). Another study found that news coverage of bears in New York tended to be episodic rather tha n thematic ( focusing on specific bear incidents rather than providing information about general management activities ), and that coverage blamed problems on residents rather than the wildlife agenc y (Siemer et al. 2007). News coverage of the Florida panthe r ( Puma concolor coryi ) found more reports about the risk s of panthers in local newspapers published near panther habitat and therefore in greater proximity to risks than news papers with circulation far from panthers however overall risks from panther s we re portrayed as consistently low (Jacobson et al. 2011 ). The question of whether media cause social amplification of risk about wildlife is still largely unanswered and more research is needed

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18 in this area. One of a few studies regarding media coverage of environmental issues in Japan suggested that agenda setting effects of the newspaper on public perception is long term and cumulative in nature (Mikami et al. 1995). In Japan, biologists have contended that mass media negatively affect s how people perceive bears (e.g. causing them to assume bear s are always dangerous ) by featuring only tragic incidents of bear attacks (Japan Bear Network 2007; Yokoyama 2009). However, little research has been conducted to analyze the actual characteristics of the media cov erage regarding bear issues and risk amplification in Japan Purpose of Study T his study used a content analysis of media coverage of bears to understand how bears and bear incidents are portrayed in Japanese newspapers C ontent analysis is a systematic ev aluation of text or images used in the communication context that can be replicable using valid measurement methods (Lombard et al. 2002; Riffe et al. 2005). We compared coverage during years with high bear appearance and low appearance rates and between l ocal coverage in bear habitat and national coverage in Japan from 2005 2007. T o understand how black bears are portrayed and bear incidents are reported we selected the year 2006 2007 because of the large number of bears appearing in and near towns due to lack of food availability in forests (Japan Bear Network 2007) which resulted in some of the highest number s of bears captured (n=4,839) and killed (n=4,335), as well as human injuries (n=145) on record (Ministry of the Environment, 2008). In contrast, 2 005 2006 had relatively few bears appearing around residential areas, with a typical annual number of human injuries (n=56) and bears being culled (n=719) (Ministry of the Environment 2008). Understanding how media portrayed the bear incidents as public is sues can help wildlife managers improve public outreach and better collaborate with stakeholders and residents in the management and policy making processes.

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19 Hypotheses Our study tested two hypotheses based on predicted differences in newspaper coverage du e to frequency of bear appearances and proximity to risk H ypothesis 1. During years of high bear appearances newspapers will publish (a) more (b) longer (c) more episodic and (d) more negative articles than in years with low bear appearances. H ypothes is 2. The local news paper with circulation in close proximity to bear risk will publish more negative articles emphasizing risk than the national news paper. Methods Sample Two trained coders examined and coded newspaper articles regarding bear issues publi shed from April 2005 to the end of March 2007. We chose the Yomiuri the largest news paper in the world by circulation which is published all over Japan with a circulation of 14,067,000 ( World Association of Newspapers 2005 ) and Shinano Daily the most po pular news paper in Nagano prefecture with a circulation of about 48 8 ,000 ( Hamada et al. 2009 ). We chose Nagano because the prefecture had the highest number of bears captured (704 bears) and human injuries (16 cases) in 2006 in Japan. The majority of artic le s that discussed bears in the Yomiuri ( Ursus arctos ) which also inhabits Japan We used an electronic search engine ( G search Limited ) to i dentify those articles which include d 1,046 articles from April 2005 to March 2006, and 1,462 article s from April 2006 to March 2007. A rticles in Shinano Daily siatic black bear and brown bear; we searched the Shinano Daily text. We identified 764 articles from April 2005 to March 2006, and 913 articles from April 2006

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20 to March 2007 in Shinano Daily We eliminated ar ticles that did not mention the Asiatic black bear specifically in the headline This sorting narrowed the samples to 194 articles in 2005 and 624 articles in 2006 in Yomiuri and 31 articles in 2005 and 118 articles in 2006 in Shinano Daily For an adequat e sample size (Lombard et al. 2002), we randomly chose 100 articles each from 2005 and 2006 in the Yomiuri and included all the articles from the Shinano Daily Coding A coding sheet explaining categories and criteria for coding articles was created based on prior content analysis of bear related media coverage in the US (Gore et al. 2005; Siemer et al. 2007). Two coders were trained to use this coding sheet and input their responses in Excel. Categories of codes included topics discussed, impact of bear issues (e.g. economic, health and safety, psychological, ecological, and social), types of solutions discussed, the risk s portrayed, and sources used for the information T o assess intercoder reliability, w e used both the percentage agreeme nt and Scott s pi which attempts to account for random agreement between coders (Riffe et al. 2005). After coder training, two coders evaluated 10 dummy articles about black bears published in a different newspaper ( Asahi ) in 2005 and got 92.4% agreement. Coders reviewed each variable that had different coding results to improve coding to increase the agreement level. A second evaluation, using 10 different dummy articles, resulted in a 93.0% agreement rate. We also conducted Scott s Pi test for the sample articles (n=29) of Yomiuri 2005 that both Coder 1 and Coder 2 coded for this study. Overall the Scott s Pi value was 0.74. agreement reliability tests indicated adequate reliability for this study.

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21 A nalysis We used a nalysi s of variance (ANOVA) and C hi square tests to identify differences between comparison groups with a p value of less than 0.05 to designate significance ( SPSS version 18 ) Results We analyzed a total of 149 articles from the local news paper, Shinano Daily and 199 articles from the national news paper, Yomiuri Article L ength and F rames The number of articles about black bear s increased from 764 to 913 in the national newspaper and 31 to 118 in the local newspaper from the low bear appearance ( 2005 ) to high bear appearance ( 2006 ) years The a verage words per article w as 332 (SD = 297 ) for the national newspaper in 2005 and 365 (SD = 261 ) in 2006 The average number of words in the local newspaper was 380 (SD = 156 ) in 2005, and 499 (SD = 236 ) words in 2006. A rticles in the local newspaper were longer than the national newspaper (F=7.966, p<0.01) and articles in the high bear appearance year were longer (F=5.545, p<0.05) supporting the first hypothesis. The majority of articles used episodic frames (6 5 %) more often than thematic frames ( 26 %). The national news paper had more episodic stories than the local news paper (F=6.538, p<0.05). The percentage of episodic articles decreased from 77% in 2005 to 6 8 % in 2006 although this difference was not significant. Neve rtheless, the difference within each newspaper was significant. For the national newspaper, episodic articles in 2006 (89%) significantly increased from those of 2005 (75%) (X 2 =4.798, p<0.05) For the local newspaper, episodic articles in 2006 (50%) signif icantly decreased from 2005 (85%) (X 2 =9.453, p<0.01). The results for the national newspaper support ed the first hypothesis that the year with fewer bear

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22 appearances would be associated with articles with more thematic frames while the results from the loc al newspaper did not support the hypothesis Coverage of Bear Related Risks Articles that mentioned the probability of threats/attack by bears increased from 36% in 2005 to 6 1 % in 2006 ( x 2 =18.440, p<0.01). M ore articles referred to increased bear related r isk in 2006 than 2005 ( x 2 =26.832, p<0.01). This finding supported the last prediction of Hypothesis 1 that the year of high bear appearances would have more articles describing risk of bears. Slightly more articles mentioned that bear related risk w as una cceptable increas ing from 58 % in 2005 to 62% in 2006, however this increase was not statistically significant The local newspaper had more articles that mentioned the probability of threats/attack by bears (x 2 =13.355, p<0.01), bear related risk as unacce ptable (x 2 =11.297, p<0.01), and bear related risk as increasing (x 2 =19.357, p<0.01) than the national newspaper (Yomiuri). Also the local newspaper had more articles that used negative words, Kowai (scary), Osoroshii (awful), Kiken (dangerous), Abun ai (dangerous) than the national newspaper (x 2 =9.212, p<0.01). The se findings support ed the second hypothesis. Topics Covered in Articles The f our most commonly mentioned topics were : a problem interaction with bears (56%), government s response to a b ear incident (49%), bear sighting (47%), and police response to a bear incident (21%) (Table 2 1). Topics about education or bear conservation were mentioned in less than 20% of all articles. There were more articles about a problem interaction w ith bears in 2006 than in 2005 (F=14.004, p<0.01). The national newspaper had more articles regarding police response to a bear incident (F=13.882, p<0.01), while the local newspaper had more articles about relocation of bears (F=15.963, p<0.01)

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23 Comm only mentioned impact s of bear included: worry or fear about human injuries caused by bears (51%), damage caused by bears to either property or human s (39%) and human injuries or deaths caused by black bears (33%) (Table 2 1). Neither newspaper loca tion nor year had a significant effect on portrayal of bear impacts Ecological issues such as concern about maintaining a viable bear population were mentioned in only 7% of articles. The most mentioned solutions to bear conflicts presented in the article s were teach people how to live with bears (51%), and increase warning s and be more careful (46%) (Table 2 1). More than 10% of articles mentioned: trap and mov e bears (17%), lethal control of individual problem bears (15%), make noise while walki ng in the mountain (13%), and capture and release with aversive conditioning to let bears become afraid of people (11%). Among those solutions, trapping and moving bears (F=22.751, p<0.01) and capture and release with aversive conditioning to let bea rs become afraid of people (F=14.201, p<0.01) were mentioned more in the local newspaper than the national newspaper. Lethal control of individual problem bears (F=13.572, p<0.01) and capture and release with aversive conditioning to let bears become a fraid of people (F=4.866, p<0.05) were mentioned more in the 2006 news papers than in 2005. P robability of threats or attack was discussed in 51% of articles, however only 1% identified risk with supporting statistics. Most articles mentioned that the lev el of bear related risk is unacceptable (61%), and 17% of articles mentioned that bear related risk is increasing (Table 2 2). Source s of information in the articles were mostly from the police (31%), local government (25%), prefectural government (22%), regular citizens (19%), researchers (16%), and hunters (10%) (Table 2 1). Among th e se information sources, police was

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24 mentioned more frequently in the national newspaper (F=32.340, p<0.01) while local government (F=18.733, p<0.01), regular citizens (F=6.856, p<0.01), and researchers (F=16.655, p<0.01) were mentioned more in the local newspaper. Discussion Japan is known as one of the most media saturated societies in the world (Pharr and Krauss, 1996) having three of the world s largest newspapers in circulation. Newspapers play an important role as an information source for the majority of citizens (Minami, 2009). Newspaper s are one of the most important sources of information regarding wildlife and wildlife issues in Japan (Sakurai et a l. 2 012a ). Because of this saturation, public perception of black bears and bear conflicts both influences and could be influenced by how the newspaper report s bear management and conflicts in Japan. We found that most articles about black bears in Japa n related problem interactions with bears, worry or fear about injuries by bears, and bear related damage to property or humans. In other words, most articles about bears in Japan were about human bear conflicts These findings are similar to those of Gore et al. (2005) and Siemer et al. (2007) who found that wildlife topics appear in the news mostly when wildlife causes problems for human s The m ajority of articles mentioned teaching people how to live with bears and increasing warnings to be careful as potential solutions to the problems ; thus, more articles explained the need to change human behavior rather than the need to eliminate bears (e.g. increase hunting and lethal control of bears) to reduce the conflicts However, most bears that appeared or were captured in 2006 were destroyed (Ministry of the Environment 2008). This discrepancy shows that although the importance of human actions (e.g. increasing residents knowledge and conducting interventions to reduce bear conflicts) was emphasized in the media, in reality destroying bears remained the primary management action This could be due to various factors, such as lack of staff to educate

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25 residents and/or government budget to translocate bears (Japan Bear Network, 2007) or it may reflect res idents negative attitudes and intolerance toward bears (Sakurai & Jacobson 2011). Bear related risk was mentioned more in the high bear appearance year (2006) and in the local rather than national news paper as predicted. It is likely that the more newspap er s mention the risk of bears, the higher readers risk perception toward bears become s, potentially affecting attitudes toward the animals (Muter et al., 2009).The fact that people s attitudes toward bears tend to be more negative in rural than u rban areas (Hosoda et al. 2009; Tsubota & Yamazaki 2011, p338) might simply reflect their closer proximity to the threats of bears, but also explained by the potential influence suggested by the media s role in amplifying the perception of risk (Gore et al 2005). The local newspaper might be influenc ing local residents to feel more risk from bears and polarizing public opinion toward bears. Less than 2% of the articles identified the risk with any supporting statistics about the frequenc y of risk This fin ding is different from a study in New York where 60% of bear related articles explained risk with supporting statistics (e.g., statement s such as 1 out of 5 million encounter s with bears generate a fatal attack ) (Gore et al. 2005). People s risk percepti on may real possibili ty of threats especially if the hazard is not voluntary nor controllable (Slovic 1987; Thornton & Quinn 2010) The primary information source s about bears cited in Japane se newspapers were the police, rather than government environmental personnel or wildlife expert s at universities or non governmental organizations. In Japan, when wildlife causes problems, police must resolve the situatio n and discuss the conflict with th e press in most cases, since local or prefectural agencies do not specifically deal with wildlife issues This can result in reporting that does not cover the full range of management or conservation options and issues.

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26 The proportion of thematic and epis odic frame s presented in the articles changed from 2005 to 2006. Episodic articles increased in the national newspaper which supported our hypothesis and followed the result of a study in New York that found that more bear encounters would result in more e pisodic articles covering these events (Siemer et al. 2007). I n contrast thematic articles increased in the local newspaper. T hematic articles explain ing why bear incidents are increasing and how the general human bear conflicts occur around the country, also increased in the year of high bear appearance This might be because the local risks made the topic more salient, and therefore, more detailed information about the context and background of bear populations were of interest to the reporters, editors and the public This was found in a study in Florida where newspapers published thematic articles about panther s, reflecting public interest in this issue (Jacobson et al. 2011 ). Management Implications Previous studies have found that local residents livi ng adjacent to bear habitats in Japan tend to have negative attitudes toward bears, preferring to kill bears (Hugyens et al. 2001; Uchikoshi 2007; Sakurai & Jacobson 2011). Most of the bears captured in 2006 were killed, which seemed to address local resid ents demand s although the high mortality may affect population (Tsubota & Yamazaki 2011). Newspapers have the potential to influence people s perception of a topic (Detjen 1995; Muter et al. 2009), and officials in the Ministry of the Enviro nment could reach out to reporters to ensure that bear incidents are accurately reported and that the conservation context and full range of management issues become part of public discourse if bears are to survive in Japan. Currently, articles about bears appear in newspaper s when they cause problems, and articles that explain ecological aspects of bears are limited. In order to improve public knowledge about bears and broader perspectives of bear issues researchers and government

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27 officials must work to p rovide objective, scientifically based information to the press. When reporting bear incidents, newspaper s need to receive appropriate statistics regarding the possibilities of risk. Understanding the frequency of a threat does not necessarily hinder peopl e from having negative affective response s to dramatic incidents (Riley & Decker 2000). Nevertheless, it can help people have a more accurate perception of the risks from bears and threats they are facing based on scientific data Newspaper s can play a rol e in disseminating accurate information from reliable sources (Mikami et al. 1995). Conservation of bears in Japan will depend in part on effective use of newspapers as a mean of public communication by biologists and government officials.

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28 Table 2 1. A comparison of t he most mentioned topics, impacts from bears, solutions, and sources of information in national and local news papers 49% 57% 32% 69% 40% 43% 58% 59% 40% 54% 58% 43% 46% 46% 52% 61% 38% 29% 32% 49% 35% 24% 23% 42% 51% 45% 61% 54% 49% 43% 52% 44% 5% 8% 23% 32% 46% 45% 19% 10% 19% 14% 45% 33% 23% 19% 10% 25%

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29 Table 2 2 Reports of r isk and negative wording regarding bears

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30 CHAPTER 3 PUBLIC RISK PERCEPTION AND SOCIAL TRUST OF BEARS IN JAPAN Human carnivore conflict ch allenge s wildlife managers globally In Japan, the Asiatic b lack b ear ( Ursus thibetanus ) is listed as a Vulnerable Species under IUCN Red List of Threatened Species In Hyogo prefecture it is listed as an Endangered Local Population but bears are consid ered a nuisance because of agricultural damage and occasional human casualties. The bear population in the prefecture is increasing and human bear conflicts are concomitantly expected to worsen We conducted a mail survey of residents in 58 villages to exa mine residents perceptions of risks and accepta nce of bears and the influence of social trust on perceptions Based on 1,210 surveys (52% response rate ), 81% of residents felt that risks from bears had increased and 83% believed there were too many bears around the village. Risk perception was negatively correlated with acceptance capacity of bears. Social trust was significantly correlated with risk perception and was a significant factor predicting residents behavior to report bear sightings. I n contrast to expected findings, g reater perceived risk from bears was correlated with increased social trust with government offices but also was associated with efforts to take preventive action. This study reveals the importance for agencies to stren gthen social trust to increase residents activities to reduce human bear conflicts and improve conservation of bears in Japan Opening Statement Human carnivore conflict stemming from economic damage to agriculture and forestry as well as human casualtie s is challenging world wide (Bruskotter & Shelby 2010; Thornton & Quinn 2010). Asiatic black bear ( Ursus thibetanus ) is categorized as a Vulnerable Species by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and the international trade of this species is controlled by the C o nvention on International Trade in Endangered Species (Japan Bear Network 2007a). In

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31 Japan, human bear conflicts have been a serious problem resulting from agricultural damage and occasional livestock and human casualties (Roy 1998; Japan Bear Ne twork 2007a; Sakurai & Jacobson 2009). In the decade 2000 10, large numbers of bears have appeared around villages during three years: 2004, 2006, and 2010, due to lack of food in their mountain habitat. Bears rely on mast and other foods, and are known to travel from the mountains to look for food in lean years (Yokoyama 2009). When natural foods are scarce, human bear conflicts increase (Howe et al. 2010). During 2006, when large numbers of bears appeared near towns more than 4,340 bears, estimated to be about 50% of the entire population in Japan (Japan Bear Network 2007a), were captured and mostly killed (Ministry of Environment 2008). L arge scale killing of bears affect Japan s bear population (Huygens et al. 2001). Management of a sustainable bear pop ulation with minimum human bear conflicts has been a challenge for Japanese wildlife managers (Japan Bear Network 2007a; Sakurai & Jacobson 2011). One of the biggest challenges in large carnivore conservation is garnering and maintaining public support and understanding (Barlow et al. 2010; Bruskotter & Shelby 2010). For this reason, human values and attitudes must be considered if bear management programs are to be successful and sustainable (Fulton et al. 2004; Thornton & Quinn 2010). In Japan, local resi dents attitudes toward bears are generally negative and bears are seen as fierce animals because of occasional human casualties (Knight 2006; Japan Bear Network 2007a; Sakurai & Jacobson 2011). This is understandable considering that from April 2006 to Ma rch 2007, 142 people were injured, and 3 were killed by black bear s (Ministry of the Environment 2008). Although agenc y managers ask residents to take preventive action such as reporting bear sightings and conducting interventions to minimize conflicts (Mi nistry of the Environment 2008), residents tend to ask the government to kill bears rather than tak e preventive

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32 action (Hugyens et al. 2001). R esidents negative attitude toward bears is a major obstacle to bear conservation in Japan (Roy 1998). T o better understand people s perceptions toward black bears, we based our study on a framework of risk perception (Gore et al. 2009), social trust in management agencies (Siegrist et al. 2000), and wildlife acceptance capacity (Gigliotti et al. 2000) W e conducted a survey of local residents in northern Hyogo prefecture In Japan, few surveys have been undertaken to understand the cognitive components affecting people s perceived risk and social trust in the field of natural resource management. Literature on these factors outside of the US and Europe is lacking (Vi k lund 2003). Also, despite the broad array of human wildlife interactions in Japan, few studies of wildlife acceptance capacity have been conducted This study is one of the first to examine the relation s hip between social trust, risk perception, and wildlife acceptance capacity in Japan. Conceptual F ramework Risk Perception Risk assessment can be conducted by evaluating the risk itself and conceptualized or perceived risk that individuals express about th e threat they believe they are facing (Renn 1998; Jaeger et al. 2001). Risk perception studies have examined people s evaluation of threats, dangerous activities and/or technology (Slovic 1987 ) and more recently, wildlife risks (for review, see Gore et al. 2009). Studies have found that people can misjudge the level of risk, overestimating the relatively infrequent risks with catastrophic consequences such as airplane crashes and underestimating the more frequent, but less consequential risks such as the n egative effects of excessive dieting (Jaeger et al. 2001). This misjudgment contributes to the gap between the perceived risk of the lay non expert public, which is not necessarily based on the technical

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33 probability of hazards, and that of experts which is more likely correlate d with technical risk estimates (Slovic 1987; Kleinhesselink & Rosa 1991). An encounter with or being attacked by carnivores such as bears is a low probability high consequence event (Thornton & Quinn 2010). T o understand people s p erception of risk regarding human bear conflicts, we measured perceptions of frequency: human bear conflicts are increasing, and personal risk: concerns over the safety of children because bears may live nearby, concerns about the agricultural damage by bears, and worry of walking outside where bears may live nearby. These variables were selected b ased on previous studies (e.g., Riley & Decker 2000; Gore et al. 2006 ), and through discussion with local wildlife managers for applicability to human bea r conflicts at the study site. Social Trust Another significant factor that influences people s perceptions of risk is social trust, defined as a willingness to depend on agencies or individuals responsible for managing environmental or public health and s afety (Siegrist et al. 2000; Siegrist et al. 2005). D ifferences in perceived risk between experts and lay people are caused not only by misjudgment of the public but also the level of trust the public has toward experts, agencies, and industries ( Sjoberg 1999). G reater social trust is associated with greater support for managing agencies practices (Cvetkovich & Winter 2003). Vaske et al. (2004) found that hunters who did not participate in hunting because of concern s about disease were less trusting of th e managing agency. A decline of trust in agencies can have critical consequences as people start to doubt management decisions and instead rely on less valid sources of information (Needham & Vaske 2008). Moreover, communication programs conducted by wildl ife management agencies can be ineffective if people have distrust or high risk perceptions (Sjoberg 1999). Although the concept of risk perception has started to gain attention from wildlife managers (Gore et al. 2009), there

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34 have been limited studies con ducted to understand public risk perception and social trust in the field of wildlife management (Needham & Vaske 2008). Vaske et al (2004) measured social trust toward a wildlife agency by using items about the agency credibility based on their provisio n of opportunities to listen to people s concerns, and items about the believability of different types of information provided by the government A study regarding public trust toward the government in Japan found that two way communication between agenc ies and citizens is important for establishing trust rather than just information disclosure (Maeda & Miyahara 2003). In our study, we used items asking whether the local town or regional prefectural government provided adequate information to residents ab out bears and if the governments provided adequate opportunities to listen to people s concerns. In our study site, wildlife managers in both the town and prefectural government ask ed residents living adjacent to bear habitats to report sightings and signs of bears to help the government take preventive measures Measures included radio broadcasts warning of nearby bears and information to prevent damage by bears such as protecting persimmon ( Diospyros kaki ) and other fruit trees from bears, which are main attractants of bears to the villages (Hyogo prefecture 2009). We examined whether residents protecting their property or their self assessed knowledge about reducing bear conflicts are associated with social trust in local and prefectural governments. Wildlife Acceptance Capacity Wildlife acceptance capacity (WAC) is the maximum wildlife population level that people find acceptable in an area (Gigliotti et al. 2000). It is important for wildlife managers to understa nd public perceptions of the appropriate and acceptable population numbers of wildlife species because wildlife habitats include both public and private lands, and democratic

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35 government s must heed public wants and needs (Zinn et al. 2000). Generally, wildl ife acceptance capacity decrease s as people perceive more risk (Riley & Decker 2000). We measured wildlife acceptance capacity by asking about people s p references about current bear population numbers (e.g., Riley & Decker 2000). H ypotheses We tested thre e hypotheses for this study based on theories of social trust, risk perception and WAC: 1. Trust in government is negatively correlated with perceptions of risks from bears. 2. Trust in government is correlated with 1) engagement in more behaviors to prevent hu man bear conflicts, 2) increased self assessed knowledge of ways to keep bears away from homes 3. Increased r isk perception is correlated with decreased acceptance capacity of bears. Methods Study Site We distributed our surveys in two towns : Kami and Tanto, which are located in the northern Hyogo Prefecture of Japan (Figure 3 1). Kami extends 369km 2 and includes 74 villages with 21,010 residents, whereas Tanto extends 16 2 km 2 and includes 42 villages with 5,241 residents (Toyooka City 2010; Kami town 2011). Th e b ear population in the prefecture once decreased to less than 100 in the 1990s because of hunting and depredation kills as well as habitat degradation (Wildlife Management Office 1996). Hunting has been prohibited since 1996, and the population was liste d as an Endangered Local Population in Hyogo Prefecture in 2003 (Hyogo Prefecture 2009). Conservation efforts were made under the Specified Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan of Hyogo Prefecture enacted in 2003 (Hyogo Prefecture 2009), and the popul ation of bears increased to approximately 650 according Sakata et al. ( 2011). With the increased bear population, the status of bears in Hyogo Prefecture was modified from

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36 Endangered to Vulnerable Local Population in 2011 (Hyogo Prefecture 2011), however h uman bear conflicts are increasing as well in these regions (Yokoyama et al. 2008). The amount of agricultural damage caused by bears varies annually I n a high bear appearance year such as 2006 agricultural damage amounted to about $180,000 (Hyogo Prefe cture 2009). There have been five cases of reported human casualties caused by bears in Kami from 1998 to 2009 and no incidents in Tanto (Hyogo Prefecture 2009). In 2010, a lack of food resources in the mountains resulted in reports of 1,623 bear sightings around the towns (Wildlife Management Research Center, Hyogo 2011) and five human casualties in Hyogo prefecture, the highest on record (Ministry of Environment 2011). In Hyogo prefecture, both town government and prefectural government deal with bear man agement in different capacities Managers in the town government have more direct communication with residents when human bear conflicts occur since, in many cases, town staff goes to the damage sites first to investigate. In both Kami and Tanto, the town government warn s residents through radio broadcasts when bears appear around human settlements. In Kami, the town government mails fliers with information about bears to all households every year. M anagers at the prefectural government organize broader sca le interventions such as education seminars and participatory management programs in villages or certain regions of town. R esearchers at the Wildlife Research Center associated with Hyog o prefectural government release the captured bear s after negative c onditioning ( e.g., scaring bears by making noise). In Hyogo, the prefectural government has the authority to allow the capturing of bears. The Specified Conservation and Management Plan provides the criteria of whether to release or kill the captured bears and the prefectural and town governments as well as the Wildlife Research Center decide which criteria applies the situation after the discussion. Hyogo is one of the only

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37 prefectures in Japan with a governmental wildlife research institution with traine d staff to communicate with residents and conduct interventions to minimize human wildlife conflicts (Japan Bear Network 2007b). In our survey, we distinguished between the local town and prefectural governments in questions regarding social trust to under stand differences in people trust in these agencies. Survey Instrument We distributed a written survey to all households in all 42 villages in Tanto where human bear conflicts occur widely and in 16 of 74 villages in Kami, Hyogo prefecture where there w as a high occurrence of reported human bear conflicts based on information from government officials T o understand human bear issues in the region before the development of the survey, we conducted personal interviews with 55 stakeholders including resi dents, hunters, village chiefs, and town office managers in the study area (Sakurai et al. 2011). Survey design followed conventional guidelines (Dillman 2007 ) and was pilot tested using a small number of residents and revised for clarity. The survey had 5 0 items including 4 risk perception items, 4 social trust items, 1 self assessed knowledge item, 1 wildlife acceptance capacity item, 2 behavior, and 5 demographic items. A total of 2,315 surveys were distributed with the help of village chiefs and distric t leaders in each village. Each survey was delivered to the post box at every house and was subsequently collected from each house by village chiefs and district leaders after 2 4 weeks in July 2010. We received 1,210 completed surveys, which corresponds t o a 52.3% response rate. Analysis We used SPSS Version 18 for the statistical analysis. Internal consistency of variables in two categories, social trust and risk perception, were measured by reliability analysis reported as Cronbach s alpha. Linear regres sion and logistic regression analys e s were used to measure the

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38 association among variables (e.g. social trust, risk perception, and wildlife acceptance capacity). We included demographic variables as independent variables in linear regression and logistic regression analysis to account for demographic differences. We used ANOVA to measure the association between demographic factors (e.g. gender, age) and social trust. We selected a p value of less than 0.05 for statistical significance. Results Demographic Variables Among the respondents, 72% were male and 61% were older than 60 years old. According to the most recent census, the male population was 45% in Kami and 48% in Tanto, and about 35% of residents were older than 60 in both Kami and Tanto (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication 2005; Kami town 2009) Distribution of Cognitive Variables and Behaviors In general, people thought town government s were doing a better job than the prefectural government in providing information about bears (mean sco re: town= 2.98, prefecture= 2.51) and opportunities to listen to people s concerns (mean score: town= 2.87, prefecture= 2.50) (Table 3 1). The four variables of the social trust had a Cronbach s alpha of 0.89, and removing any item lowered this value. Most residents felt that risk from bears was increasing for all four variables: increase in human bear conflicts concerns over children s safety concerns about crop damage and worry of walking outside (mean score of four variables =4.16). The alpha reliability for four risk perception items was 0.85 and deleting any of the variables did not improve the alpha value. The m ean score of self assessed knowledge was 1.93 meaning only a small portion of respondents agreed that they knew how to keep bears a way (Table 3 1). Most (83%) respondents thought that there were too many bears. Twenty nine percent of respondents reported sightings of bears. The majority of respondents ( 83 %) had persimmon and/or chestnuts

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39 trees in their backyard, and among them, about half (46%) conducted activities to prevent wildlife damage. The t rust in government index was higher among women (F = 22.616, p < 0.01), and among respondents younger than 40 years old and those older than 70 years old (F = 6.531, p < 0.01).There were no s ignificant gender differences in reporting bear sightings (X 2 = 0.548, p = 0.459) or conducting intervention s to prevent damage by bears (X 2 = 0.114, p = 0.736). A ge groups did not differ in reporting sightings (Wald = 0.227, p = 0.634), however o lder peop le were more likely to conduct interventions to prevent damage by bears (Wald = 11.210, p < 0.01). Relationships between Social Trust and Risk Perception Among the social trust variables, only town government provided information was correlated with perc eption s of an increase of human bear conflicts (r = 0.04, p < 0.05) (Table 3 2). Town government provided information ( B = 0.11, p < 0.05) and prefectural government provided information ( B = 0.13, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with people s perceptions of an increase of human bear conflicts. Gender was significantly associated with concerns over children s safety ( B = 0.08, p < 0.05), concerns about crop damage ( B = 0.08, p < 0.05), and worry of walking outside ( B = 0.10, p < 0.01). Age w as significantly associated with people s concerns about crop damage ( B = 0.08, p < 0.05). Overall, the degree of predictability of risk perception was m inimal. Only 1.1% of the variability was explained by social trust and demographic variables for percep tion s of increase s in human bear conflicts (Table 3 2) Relationships between Risk Perception and Acceptance Capacity All four risk perception variables were negatively correlated with acceptance capacity of bears (human bear conflicts: r = 0.30, p < 0.01, concerns over children s safety: r = 0.34, p < 0.01, concerns about crop damage: r = 0.37, p < 0.01, worry of walking outside: r = 0.33, p <

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40 0.01) (Table 3 3). Concerns over children s safety (B = 0.11, p < 0.05), concerns about crop damage (B = 0.19 p < 0.01), worry of walking outside ( B = 0.10, p < 0.05) were negatively associated with the acceptance capacity of bears. Both gender and age were significantly correlated with acceptance capacity. Adjusted R 2 value showed that 16.7% of variability in people s acceptance of bears was explained by risk perception and demographic variables Relationships between Social Trust and Behaviors Among four social trust variables, only town government provided adequate opportunities to listen to people s concern s was associated with people s behavior to report sightings of bears (Wald = 4.69, p < 0.05) (Table 3 4). While social trust variables were not significantly associated with people s behaviors to conduct interventions to prevent bear damage, age was assoc iated with people s behaviors (Wald = 7.07, p < 0.05) (Table 3 5). All four social trust variables were significantly correlated with people s self assessed knowledge (Table 3 6). Town government listened to people was significantly associated with whether people reported they knew how to keep bears away. Six percent of self assessed knowledge variability was explained by social trust variables and demographic variables. Discussion Relationships between Risk Perception and Social Trust Over 80% of residents in this study felt they were threatened by human bear conflicts and believed there were too many bears around town, thus exceeding residents tolerance or Wildlife Acceptance Capacity (Gigliotti et al. 2000). W omen reported greater social trus t than men in the context of this study of trust toward the government regarding bear management while o ther studies conducted in Western countries have found that men report more social trust in scientists (Siegrist 2000). This suggests possible cultural difference s between Japan and the West Elder ly

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41 residents over 70 years old were more likely to trust the government which has been reported in other studies (Zenkyo 2009; Ooyama 2010) and were more likely to conduct intervention s to prevent bear damage. Several variables of social trust were significant factors in predict ing risk perception regarding bear issues, and risk perception was significantly associated with the wildlife acceptance capacity. Greater social trust in the town government was associat ed with an increase of risk perception This does not support our first hypothesis or results of previous studies (Siegrist et al. 2000; Vaske et al. 2004). A cross cultural study by Viklund (2003) revealed that people s perceived risk of nuclear radiation risks and other general risks decreased as social trust increased in the UK, France, and Sweden. In our study, increasing perceived risk with increas ing social trust may stem from the type of government information provided to residents in the area. The t own government office usually uses radio broadcasts to alert people when bears appear around residential areas and warns them to be careful. This study indicates that the town effectively warned people of bear threats yet concomitantly increased their per ception of risk. In contrast, greater trust in the prefectural government was associated with a decrease in risk perception. Public i nterventions and interactions by the prefectural government differed from the town government. The prefectur al government o rganize d general bear education seminars and outreach activities that are usually not related to specific bear damage while the town government provides broadcasts and warn s residents when ever there are bear incidents. Residents reported a lower trust in the prefectural government than town government Previous studies in Japan found that people s social trust of the central government is generally lower than of local government due to less transparency in t he central government (Ikeda 2010). In contrast, in Australia people s trust of state government was higher than that of local

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42 government (Mazur & Curtis 2006). Our result s may reflect general trends in Japan regarding the central government, or may indicate less interaction or satisfaction with the Hyo g o prefectural government Relationship between Social Trust and Behaviors The social trust variable town government provided opportunities to listen to residents concerns about bears was a significant factor in explaining residents reaction to report bear sightings, supporting our second hypothesis. The fact that town listened to residents concerns was more important in explaining the reaction than town provided information suggests that not only a one way information channel but a two way dial ogue with citizens is important for building trust (Maeda & Miyahara 2003). Because people s perceptions of government performance are correlated with the degree of social trust people have (Ooyama 2010), it will be vitally important for both town and pref ectural government in Japan to increase public trust by improving activities to foster people s behaviors to prevent bear damage. Social trust was correlated with residents self assessed knowledge of how to keep bears away. In the short term, increasing s ocial trust can be effective in encouraging people to engage in preventive behaviors such as reporting sightings and protecting crops, and giving confidence to residents in controlling and preventing bear conflicts. Taking action and believing that they ca n prevent the conflict are the first steps to create a community where residents feel that they can mitigate bear conflicts (Yokoyama 2009). It is important for residents to realize that they can prevent bear problems since a lack of perceived control in h andl ing issues can foster more negative attitudes toward bear s (Huygens et al. 2004). Our findings revealed that people s acceptance capacity of bears decreased as risk perceptions increased, which supports our third hypothesis. However, residents accepta nce capacity of bears needs to increase before a sustainable bear population can be achieved. T his

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43 suggests decreasing both real and perceived risk would have a n effect on residents acceptance capacity of bears (Decker et al. 2001). Therefore, the town go vernment s long term policy to increase basic warnings about bears needs to include more detailed information and outreach activities or it might fail to build a community where residents are more wildlife tolerant and can coexist with bears. Management Im plication For government entities charged with protecting public safety and managing wildlife, it is a balancing act between sufficiently warning residents of threats from bears in order to encourage preventive actions and not encouraging more negative att itudes and lowered acceptance capacity. It is important that engaging in preventive behaviors become the social norm in the region so that interpersonal communication channels support efforts by government education and outreach programs to reduce conflic ts (Pretty 2003; Pretty & Smith 2004). O nly 13% of respondents reported knowledge of how to keep bears away from their homes, similar to other studies that have found low public knowledge regarding bears and how to mitigate bear problems in Japan (Huygens et al. 2001 ; Japan Bear Network 2007a). According to the theory of planned behavior (Azjen 1985) residents will take preventive actions only if they perceive that they have the knowledge and necessary skills to perform them. This suggests the need to comm unicate more effectively with residents about the characteristics and behaviors of bears so that people will have accurate knowledge about how to reduce conflicts (Marker et al. 2003 ; Thornton & Quinn 2010), which can potentially improve attitudes toward b ear conservation ( Espinosa & Jacobson 201 2) In response to th ese study findings the Tajima branch office of Hyogo prefecture has started a series of bear education seminars and active intervention programs for residents living in the region. Because know ledge alone do es not necessarily reduce residents worry regarding wildlife issues (Riley & Decker 2000; Jacobson 2009 ), other factors

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44 such as social learning which provides opportunities for the public to participate and work together in reducing barriers and solving problems may help residents to increase feelings of control and potentially increase the acceptance capacity toward bears (Pretty & Smith 2004). Previous studies have demonstrated that public participation can also increase people s acceptanc e and support for a management decision as well as the decision making process (Arvai 2003). Efforts made by the Hyogo prefectural government to provide opportunities for residents and managers to engage in a dialogue (Maeda & Miyahara 2003) and participat e in goal setting and management may eventually build a more trusting relationship and support sustainable bear management Limitation of Study A limitation of this study is the difference of sampling in each town. While all villages in Tanto were included 16 villages were purposefully selected in Kami town for the survey. However, results showed that a similar proportion of residents experienced agricultural damage by bears in each town (Tanto: 40.3%, Kami: 40.0%) which suggests residents had similar expe rience s with bears. Another limitation is the small number of variables that were used to measure social trust. Other studies have included additional aspects of social trust ( e.g., Vaske et al. 2004) such as agency credibility and trustworthiness In our study, we include d two variables and two levels of government, but because of space limitations we were not able to incorporate additional facets of social trust.

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45 Table 3 1. Residents average scores based on a 5 point scale of social trust of town and prefectural government, risk perception regarding bear issues, and self assessed knowledge of avoiding bear conflicts 1 1 Variables coded on a 5 point scale : 1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=neither agree nor disagree, 4=agree, 5=str ongly agree

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46 Table 3 2 Multiple regression analysis using risk perception items as dependent variables and social trust and demographic items as independent variables

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47 Table 3 3. Multiple regression analysis with acceptance capacity of b ears as a dependent variable and risk perception and demographic variables as independent variables Table 3 4. Logistic regression model used to predict pe ople s behavior to report sightings of bears with social trust and demographic items a s independent variables (n=576) Table 3 5. Logistic regression model used to predict people s behaviors to cond uct interventions to prevent bear conflicts with social trust and demographic items as independent variables (n=799) Table 3 6. Multiple regression analysis with self assessed knowledge (know how t o keep bears away) as a dependent variable and social trust and demographic items as independent variables

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48 Figure 3 1. Location of the study sites; K ami town and Tanto town

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49 CHAPTER 4 ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF A WILDLIFE EDUCATION PROGRAM ON JAPANESE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS Human wildlife conflicts are common in agricultural communities and mountainous villages in Japan. Tochigi prefectur e has one of the highest amounts of wildlife damage in the country. To reduce wildlife damage, the Nature Preservation Division of Tochigi Prefecture launched a wildlife damage prevention program. We evaluated the effects of this program on tudes and behavioral intentions by comparing differences between a district receiving the treatment program to a control district. We conducted a written survey of every household in each district (n=423), and received a total of 198 responses. Residents i n the model district reported significantly higher perceived behavioral control regarding wildlife damage than the control district residents ( t = 1 956 p<0.05), suggesting a meaningful impact was generated by the program. The evaluation identified some pot perceived behavioral control and knowledge level as well as the limitation of the diffusion effect among residents in the model district. Background Outreach programs and interventions to prevent wildlife damage ha ve been implemented by local governments, NGOs, and other parties all over the world in areas where human wildlife conflicts occur (Treves et al. 2009). However, most of these activities are focused on program implementation and lack a systematic evaluatio n process (Pullin & Knight 2001 ; Gore et al. 2006). Program evaluation is a process of systematically investigating the effectiveness of the programs by utilizing social research methods and can include both a scientific aspect (e.g. theory testing) and pr agmatic aspect (e.g. audience satisfaction) (Rossi et al. 2004). According to Ferraro & Pattanyak (2006), the reasons for absence of evaluation in the field of wildlife management include lack of (1) political will for implementing accountability, (2) reco gnition of

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50 evaluation techniques among practitioners, and (3) a long term timeline and funding that allows practitioners to include the evaluation process in the project. The situation is similar in Tochigi prefecture (Fig ure 4 1), located in central Japan which had the third highest amount of agricultural damage in the country in 2007 (Ministry of Agriculture 2007). Several projects have been conducted by local governments (e.g. city government, town office) and researchers to prevent wildlife damage. Howe ver, most of them were not evaluated in detail to determine whether the damage had decreased or residents had increased activities to prevent wildlife damage after the program. Without assessing the effect of the program, it is hard to judge if it should b e continued, or how the program should be revised to increase its efficiency (Rossi et al. 2004 ; Jacobson 2009). Only limited studies have been conducted to understand the effect of outreach programs rease their behavioral intentions for preventing wildlife damage world wide. Previous studies have found mixed results, with some programs resulting in significant impacts ( Pandion Systems, Inc 2006; Schwartz & Gunther 2006 ; Dunn et al. 2008 ; Espinosa & Ja cobson 2012 ; Sakurai et al. 2012 b ) and others with little effect (Gore & Knuth 2006). Gore and Knuth (2006) implemented an outreach education York State, and eva luated the results by comparing treatment towns to control towns (where the outreach was not implemented). They found that only one of six bear conflict related human behaviors (composting food waste) changed after the program, while no other behaviors, k nowledge levels, or attitudes showed any changes, and concluded that a one year program might not be enough to make a difference (Gore & Knuth 2006). In contrast, Sakurai et al.

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51 (2012 b ) found from a time series study that a one day community bear education seminar in In Japan, human wildlife conflicts are common problems in agricultural communities and mountainous villages and agricultural damage in the countr y amounts to about 20 billion yen (about $200 million) every year (Ministry of Agriculture 2011). In order to effectively reduce human wildlife conflicts in the village, it is important that residents and stakeholders cooperate in preventing wildlife damag e (Nature Conservation Society of Japan 2010 ; Ford Thompson et al. 2012). This collective action is needed because even if individuals conduct interventions to prevent damage, if neighbors fail to properly manage food and trash, wildlife will likely appear awareness and knowledge regarding wildlife issues. Currently, dem ographic trends, such as aging residents and depopulation of rural communities, combined with a lack of necessary knowledge regarding wildlife issues make it challenging for the local community to implement participatory and sustainable interventions (Kawa i 2009) In Tochigi, agricultur al damage was mainly caused by boars ( Sus scrofa ) (56%), deer ( Cervus nippon ) (21%), masked palm civet ( Paguma larvata ) ( 13 %) and macaques ( Macaca fuscata ) (7%) (Division of Rural Development of Tochigi Prefecture 2011). T h e Nature Preservation Division of the prefectural government is responsible for managing wildlife and encouraging their damage prevention activities, the division launched a wildlife damage In this program, the Nature Preservation Division designated specific districts as model districts and offered a variety of

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52 activities every few months, including seminars regar ding wildlife issues, field trips to check damage sites, and implementation of interventions such as cutting abandoned fruit trees which attract wildlife (Table 4 1). Through implementing these activities, the Nature Preservation Division aimed to foster r esidents knowledge regarding wildlife issues, confidence and willingness to engage in damage prevention actions. The goal for the Division was to provide opportunities and prompts through the program to trigger local residents to start implementing wildli fe damage prevention activities on their own with sufficient skills, knowledge, and motivation. Therefore, although the districts were designated as model districts in a top down approach, the goal was that the community based management (Brosius et al. 19 98; Cinner et al. 2009) would take place eventually in each district without help from the government. Six districts in the prefecture were designated as model districts based on the prevalence of wildlife damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Model District Program by those in a control district. To better understand the impacts of the program, we framed our study using the three vari ables ( attitudes toward damage control behaviors, s ubjective norm, and perceived behavioral control ) related to the Theory of Planned Behavior, and additionally included variables associated with risk perception and social trust to analyze the program. The oretical Background prevention activities W e used several variables related to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which is a well tested social psychological theory for behavioral intentions to identify the key constructs TPB is a developed model of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and assumes that human beings engage in behavior based on their

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53 available information and considera tion of performance outcome (Ajzen 1985). Although testing the TPB requires measuring a set of variables including beliefs (behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and control beliefs), we had limited space to include items in the questionnaire and could no t use all elements. We, therefore, used a mix of beliefs and attitudes statement about attitudes toward general behavior of wildlife damage prevention, expectation of neighbors or family (subjective norm), and the perception that an individual has the abil ity to conduct the behavior (perceived behavioral control). According to previous studies in North America, these three factors significantly 1999 ; Martin & Mc Curdy 2009 ; Sorice & Conner 2010). Previous studies have found that cognitive factors of TPB, such as perceived behavioral control, changed after interventions that al. 2010). Social psychological theories are not widely recognized or tested in Japan compared to the U.S. (Suenaga 2003) although several studies based on TPB which examined environmental friendly behaviors found a significant relationship between TPB v ariables and behavioral intentions (Hayabuchi 2008) In addition to the three variables perception and social trust to examine if these additional variables would strengthen the explanatory power of the model in predicting p R isk perception is the threat or danger that individuals believe they are facing (Gore et al. 2009), and is examined 1987 willingnes s to depend on agencies or individuals who are responsible for managing environment or public health (Siegrist et al. 2005). Social trust could be examined by items including agency credibility and believability of the information provided by the governmen t (Vaske et al. 2004).

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54 performance. According to previous studies in Japan, the more people positively perceive government performance and higher risk they per ceive, the more people engage in behaviors to prevent the damage (Sakurai et al. 2010). In order to understand the potential effects of the program, we examin ed residents cognitive variables related to TPB and additional variables, as well as level of kno wledge regarding wildlife and damage prevention techniques between residents in the model district and a control district with no program. Previous studies have found that people generate positive perceptions toward certain behaviors by learning about the benefits and engaging in the behaviors with other s, as well as sharing experiences to develop a common framework for joint action (Krasny et al. 2009). If the program is successful, we predicted that participants of the education program in the model dist rict will shift toward more positive attitudes, and increase subjective norm and perceived behavioral control regarding engaging in damage preventative act ion s. We also predicted that by knowing about the wildlife issues occurring in and around the distric t, participants will in crease their risk perception toward these issues a nd enhance their agreement toward government performance in provid ing information regarding wildlife issues and opportunities to listen to by word of mouth based on the theory of diffusion of innovation (Rogers 1995). According to this theory, the new idea and changes spread and get accepted in the co mmunity from innovators and early adopters I n our study sites, village chiefs and leaders of agricultural association s who participated in most of the activities are most likely the early adapters A p revious stud y

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55 regarding human wildlife conflicts in Ja pan found that village chief s w ere the main source s of the information for villagers (Sakurai et al. 2012 a ). We predicted that residents in the model district will have highe r scores in cognitive variables (attitudes toward behaviors, s ubjective norm, perc eived behavioral control, risk perception, perception of government performance, behavioral intention) and knowledge regarding wildlife issues than residents in the control district after the Model District Program occurred for one year We also assessed i f the five variables ( attitudes toward behaviors, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions in each district. By understanding which variables are strongly linked to behavioral i ntention among residents in the district, program administrators can revise the content of the activities to increase those key variables (e.g. perceived behavioral control). From previous studies (Rossi & Armstrong 1999 ; Martin & McCurdy 2009 ; Sakurai et al. 2010 ), we predicted that all five Open ended comments written voluntarily, at the end of the questionnaire, were dlife issues in the two districts. Hypotheses We tested two hypotheses: 1. Residents in the model district will have significantly higher score s than residents in the control district, in attitudes toward damage control behaviors, s ubjective norm, perceived b ehavioral control, risk perception, social trust, behavioral intention, and knowledge.

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56 2. Five v ariables (attitudes toward behaviors, s ubjective norm, perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention risk perception and social trust) will significantly explain behavioral intention in both districts. Methods Study Site We conducted a questionnaire survey at two districts; Fukahodo and Kuno (Figure 4 1). Both districts are located in the southwest part of Kanuma city (about 490km 2 with about 100,000 reside nts) of Tochigi Prefecture. Fukahodo has 198 households in 8.20km 2 and was designated as a Model District in 2010 because of its relatively high degree of wildlife damage occurring compared to other districts in the city. As a Model District, eight activit ies including a field trip to check the damage sites several meetings, and a seminar targeting children and parents regarding boar issues were conducted from June 2010 until July 2011 (Table 4 1). Kuno is located next to Fukahodo and has 274 households in 6.36km 2 In Kuno, no activities to prevent wildlife damage have been conducted by the government. We chose Fukahodo and Kuno as our study sites because these districts adjoin each other and ha ve similar characteristics including number of residents and am ount of damage caused by and behavioral intentions between these two districts, we aimed to understand the effect of the Model District Program. In Fukahodo, we di stributed a written questionnaire to all households (n=198) through community s bulletin with the cooperation of the non September of 2011. In Kuno, we distributed the questionnaire to all household s (n=225) printed in the telephone book (NTT East 2011) via postal mail in November 2011.

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57 We were unable to test for non response bias because the survey was conducted anonymously and we could not identify the non respondents. Questionnaire The survey had 37 items including : attitudes toward behavior (1 item), s ubjective norm (2 items), perceived behavioral control (2 items), behavioral intention (1 item), risk perception (2 items), social trust (4 items), knowledge (6 items), damage experience (1 item), socio demographics ( 3 items), and free opinion (open ended question) (Table 4 2 and 4 3). Analysis We used SPSS version 18 to conduct all the statistical analysis. We conducted a chi square test to analyze the difference in frequencies in gender, occupation, and damage experi ence in two districts. We conducted one way ANOVA with Post hoc Tukey comparison s and Independent Samples t test s residents in the model and the control district as well as differences in people s demographic characteristic s and cognitive factors We also conducted a multiple regression analysis to understand the relationship between demographic characteristics, cognitive factors, and behavioral intention. We used a p value of less than 0.05 for st atistical significance. Results Descriptive Information We received 99 responses (response rate=50%) in Fukahodo and 99 responses (response rate=44%) in Kuno. While respondents in both districts were similar in their average age (Fukahodo:56 years old, Kun o:59 years old), there was a significant differences in gender (Fukahodo: 75% male, Kuno:91% male) (X 2 =7.415, p<0.01). Also, there was a significant 2 =28.339, P<0.01). More respondents in Fukah odo were company employees (Fukahodo: 42.9%, Kuno: 23.9%) and

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58 homemakers (Fukahodo: 14.3%, Kuno:2.2%). In Kuno, more respondents were engaged in agriculture or forestry (Fukahodo: 4.4%, Kuno: 25.0%). There was no significant difference in wildlife damage e xperienced ( X 2 = 1 547 p=0.16), by 56% of residents in Fukahodo and 46% in Kuno. In both districts, boars caused the most damage followed by monkeys and deer. Comparison of Treatment District of Fukahodo and Control District of Kuno Among the cognitive fact ors we examined, perceived behavioral control was the only factor that showed a significant difference (F=3.826, p=0.05) between the two districts. Residents in Fukahodo had higher confidence in their ability to preventing wildlife damage than those in Kun o (t=1.96, p=0.05) All other variables including risk perceptions and social trust did not show any significant difference (Table 4 4). Trends showed respondents in Fukahodo had higher knowledge regarding boars and damage prevention than those in Kuno alth ough the difference was not significant (Table 4 4). A NOVA revealed the significant difference in residents behavioral intentions between gender (F=4.637, p<0.05) and among occupation s (F=4.714, p<0.01), as well as the significant difference in subjective norm among occupation (F=3.024, p<0.01). M en had significantly higher behavioral intention (t= 2.153, p<0.05). The post hoc Tukey comparison revealed that a griculture/forestry related residents had significantly higher subjective norm than company employe e (p<0.05), and significantly higher behavioral intention than company employee (p<0.01), governmental official (p<0.05), and unemployed (p<0.01) The unemployed had significantly lower behavioral intention than self employed (p<0.05) and student (p<0.05) There were no significant differences for other variables Assessing the A ssociation between F ive V ariables and B ehavioral I ntentions Regression analysis revealed that in Fukahodo, only s ubjective norm (p<0.01) and risk perception (p<0.05) significantly explained behavioral intentions while the effects of other

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59 variables (attitudes toward behaviors, perceived behavioral control, and social trust) were not significant (Figure 4 2). Five variables explained 32.8% of the variance of behavioral intentions. In Kuno, s ubjective norm (p<0.01) and risk perception (p<0.01) significantly explained behavioral intentions while the influence of other variables were not significant (Figure 4 3). Five variables explained 43.1% of the behavioral intentions Although two v ariables, significantly explained the behavioral intentions, hypothesis 2 was rejected as suite of variables did not influence the dependent variable. Comparison of Reported Comments between Two Districts Seven respondents provided comments at the end of t he questionnaire regarding wildlife issues in Fukahodo; 21 respondents wrote comments in Kuno (Table 4 5 ). Discussion Program evaluation is still a developing area in the field of wildlife management (Gore et al. 2006 ; Dunn et al. 2008), and this study con tributed to demonstrating the potential influence of the one The Model District Program has not yet achieved the full engagement among residents as we had not seen the district wise difference. Since the Model District Program is still continuing and activities are implemented in the district, the results of the study serve to show the importance of a formative evaluation (conducted in the early stage of program development) which helps guide the program improv ement and re design the contents of the program. While the previous studies regarding the evaluation of program s in the field of wildlife management w ere mostly summative e valuation s (Gore & Knuth 2006 ; Dunn et al. 2008), this evaluation is one of the few studies that assessed mid term effects that could help improve the program, and en able d monitor ing change s of behavioral intentions, and behaviors in the future.

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60 l control differed. Respondents in the Model District Program of Fukahodo were more likely to report that they knew how to prevent damage by wildlife. It suggests that in Fukahodo, teaching methods to prevent wildlife damage in the seminar and providing op portunities where residents could damage prevention activities. Besides implementation of the Model District Programs, there are not any differences in the local damage experiences) between these two districts, and it might be natural to think that the the ev aluation of an intervention to promote walking among citizens revealed the increase of This followed the result of the previous study regarding the evaluat ion of the bear community seminar in Japan which found that perceived behavioral control had the biggest increase among he seminar (Sakurai et al. 2 012 b ). Our study implied that intervention could possibly change pe field such as the wildlife management. Besides perceived behavioral control, no significant differences in other cognitive factors (attitudes toward behaviors, s ubjective norm, behavioral intention s, social trust, and risk perception) were found. These results imply the possibility that the Model District Program with several activities (seminars and meetings) for one year might not be enough to make a significant difference between residents at Fuk ahodo and those in Kuno. This followed the results of Gore & term program at least more than a year is necessary to generate a town level behavioral change.

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61 B oth in Fukahodo and Kuno, residents who felt more social pressure to conduct interventions and risk perception regarding wildlife issues more likely showed intentions to implement interventions. S ubjective norm was the strongest predictor of behavioral intentions in both districts. This is different from the results of previous studies conducted in the U.S. in which attitudes toward behaviors were greater predictors of behavioral intentions (Hrubes et al. 2001 ; Martin & McCurdy 200 9 ). This suggests that cultural differences in collectivistic countries suc h as those in Asia where following what others do and meeting public expectation is indispensable part of promoting countries such as the U.S. (Hashimoto et al. 2008). Because social norm helps predict behavioral intentions, for these behaviors to become a widely accepted norm, it may be important for the program to emphasize community activities. One way to achieve this is by targeting respected social groups or individuals (e. g. district chief) in outreach and education programs to increase their awareness and foster model behaviors. According to the Theory of Diffusion of Innovation, the new ideas and behaviors are more likely spread to people in communities influenced by grou ps and individuals with high social class (Rogers 1995). Other potential way to increase the subjective norm might be to distribute leaflets that explain the activities implemented in the district, and comments of the residents who participated in the acti vity a few times every month. By reading the leaflets and knowing that other residents including the village chief have been involved in activities, and engaged in actions, residents may realize that engaging in wildlife damage actions has become the no rm of the district and this in turn will increase participation in activities (McKenzie Mohr & Smith 2006).

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62 In both Fukahodo and Kuno, risk perception significantly influenced behavioral intentions. Standardized coefficient score of risk perception in Kuno was more than twice of Fukahodo implying a possibility that in a district without any interventions or outreach programs implemented, risk perception might define whether or not residents conduct damage prevention interventions. Three times more responden ts (20%) wrote comments in Kuno than in Fukahodo. Among 21 comments in Kuno, half of them were negative about worries, frustration, or requests to government regarding wildlife management issues. Prior research has shown that providing opportunities where residents can ask questions and interact with government agencies increased government (Maeda & Miyahara 2003). In our example, seminars and meetings of the Model Dis trict Program in Fukahodo provided opportunities where residents could share their frustration and questions to officials of the government and researchers occasionally. This might have contributed to the limited number of comments written in the questionn aire in Fukahodo. Understanding the outcomes and impacts of a program requires systematic evaluation using various methods and long term observation. This study was the first approach to identify the effect of a newly launched wildlife damage prevention pr ogram in Tochigi, Japan. Offering a variety of activities over a year provides residents with multiple opportunities to participate even if they miss some of the activities. However, program staff found that implementing a program that lasts more than a ye well as participation high (Tochigi Prefecture, personal communication). Additionally there was an unpredicted effect generated by the program. In Fukahodo, a designation of the Mod el District in 2010 prompted residents to organize a new group,

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63 Association for P rotecting Satoyama (forests around the villages managed by villagers) for preventing agricultural damage from wildlife. This residential association implemented activities to cut bush around the human settlements and agricultural fields to make a buffer zone between wildlife habitats In 2011 dozens of residents participated (District Chief personal communication). The creation of such a residential association and implemen tation of those activities initiated by residents and not by the government, are important step s for community based management; in which the community takes initiative in making decisions and conducting necessary measures reflecting local conditions (Cin ner et al. 2009). Longer objectives are achieved in the future and also utilizing other evaluation methods such as oral interviews and on the ground observations of program results would be important to under stand the broader impact of the program. Limitation of the Study One of the limitations of this study is the design of the research. The most valid and reliable method to evaluate the effect of the program is the experimental design where randomly selected individuals are allocated to treatment or control group, and data are collected from these groups before and after the program (Rossi et al. 2004 ; Ernst et al. 2009). However, random assignment is often difficult in environmental education settings, and t herefore experimental studies are seldom used (Ernst et al. 2009). In this study, since the Model District Program was already started when the authors began the evaluation study, and since the model district was not randomly selected, it was impossible to design and implement an experimental study. We, therefore, conducted a quasi experimental design method, instead. Other limitation of the study is the sampling bias which might have affected the lack of a significant difference in most of cognitive variab les between respondents of two districts.

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64 Although these two districts have residents with similar socio demographic characteristics, respondents in Kuno were more likely men and engaged in agriculture or forestry than those in Fukahodo. This might be due to the difference of survey methods. Previous studies found that the difference in survey methods could differ the characteristics of survey respondents such as gender (Sax et al. 2003). While people may feel more obligated to answer the questionnaire sent by district leaders whom they know well (in Fukahodo), people may be less likely respond to questionnaires and post it when the survey was distributed by mail by a stranger (in Kuno). Therefore, it might be possible that, in Kuno, residents who were inter ested in and/or concerned with wildlife issues more likely answered the survey. The male bias of respondents was seen in a previous study conducted in Japan regarding wildlife issues in which the majority of respondents (75%) were found to be male althoug h the questionnaire specified a member of the households with the nearest birthday to answer the que stionnaire (Sakurai et al. 2012 a ). On the other hand, our analysis revealed that there is not any significant association between gender or occupation and p erceived behavioral control suggesting that sampling bias did not affect this result. There was a significant association between gender/occupation and behavioral intention, and also between occupation and social norm. Since respondents in Kuno were biased to male and agriculture/forestry related occupation, there is a possibility that social norm and behavioral intention scores in Kuno were higher than those of general population in the district. It is difficult to speculate the actual scores of general po pulation as the questionnaire was answered anonymously, and a non response foll ow up survey was not conducted. Finally, the broad term we used for the variables of the survey, such as conducting interventions to prevent wildlife damage might have prevent ed us from assessing the specific

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65 effects of the program and/or examining the direct relationship between variables. There are various actions effective for preventing wildlife damage such as erecting fences and cutting bush. Future studies need to include a specific behaviors such as I will erect an electronic fence and I will cut the bush around my house in the survey instrument to conduct more rigorous assessment of the impact of the program.

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66 Table 4 1 Activities implemented in Fukahodo as a model distr ict from June 2010 to July 2011

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67 Table 4 2. Questionnaire items and response scale of cognitive factors.

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68 Table 4 3. Questionnaire items and response scale of experience and socio demographics factors.

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69 Table 4 o. Mean score was calculated from 5 point Likert scale (1=Disagree, 2=Slightly disagree, 3=Neither of options, 4=Slightly agree, 5=Agree) for all variables except knowledge level which is average score of 6 knowledge questions (0=Wrong answer/ 1=Correct answer)

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70 Table 4 5 Comments provided by residents in the two districts (numbers represent the frequencies of the comments).

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71 Figure 4 1. Location of Fukahodo and Kuno in Utsunomiya Prefecture

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72 Figure 4 2 Association of cognitive variables and behavioral in tention in Fukahodo. The numbers represent standardized coefficients. (*p<0.05, **p<0.01) Figure 4 3 Association of cognitive variables and behavioral intention in Kuno. The numbers represent standardized coefficients. (*p<0.05, **p<0.01)

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73 CHAPTER 5 C ONCLUSION Human dimensions of wildlife management is a developing field in wildlife conservation in Japan. The findings of the dissertation studies suggest ways to improv e media content to increase readers awareness regarding bear issues and increasing pe ople s social trust toward wildlife agenc ies and public acceptance capacity of bears Results also suggest how programs can influence local residents willingness to engage in damage prevention activities to mitigate wildlife conflicts Content analysis of Japanese newspaper s regarding black bears revealed that most articles published were about human bear conflicts; problem interactions with bears and bear related damage. Also bear related risk was mentioned more in year s of high bear appearances and in th e local newspaper T here were few articles that explained risk with any supporting statistics. Results of the study shows the importance for researchers and government officials to work together to provide objective and scientific information to the press, so that readers would improve their knowledge about bears and have a broader perspectives of this management issue s Survey s of residents perception of black bears found that most respondents perceive bears as a risk and believe there are too many bears around the ir village s The study showed t he more people trust ed the government, the more likely that they took damage prevention action s The study revealed how social trust influence s people s risk perception and behaviors, and suggest that the government need s to understand residents perceptions and increase public participation in decision making to increase trust. The e valuation study of a wildlife damage prevention program revealed that residents in the model district had significantly higher perceive d behavioral control than those in the neighbor ing (control) district suggesting the potential impact of the program. Participants of the

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74 community boar seminar had significantly higher behavioral intention, social norm, knowledge and perceived behavioral control regarding wildlife issues than non participants in the same district o r residents in the control district. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between non participants of the model district and residents of the control district which might imply the limitation of the diffusion effect to neighbors in the model district. It is important for the government to continue implementing outreach activities to foster residents motivation for engaging in damage prevention actions, and also to keep monitoring the outcomes of the program including changes in residents attitudes and behavioral intentions. The s eries of studies in this dissertation found that research methods (e.g. content analysis) and theories (e.g. Theory of Planned Beha vior) that are well used in North America could be applied to Japan to understand people s cognitive factors as well as local situation. The three studies contributed in providing information for building the practical and theoretical basis in human dimens ions of wildlife management in Japan. The studies also had practical value. The Hyogo Prefectural government launched a community bear education seminar throughout the prefecture for enhancing people s behaviors to prevent bear damage based on the results this dissertation Tochigi Prefectural government utilized the outcome of this research to improve the content of the ir activities to address the local situation and reflect the residents needs. These case studies of social aspects of wildlife issues as w ell as application of the results in Japanese management settings indicate the important role the field of human dimensions of wildlife management can play to the scientific community and general public in Japan.

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85 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ryo Sakurai graduated from Keio University, Tokyo in J apan in March 2007 with a Ba chelor of Law. During his undergraduate y ear s, he has participated in various wildlife conservation activities all over Japan, including a conservation survey of wild bears at Karuizawa in Nagano and a research intern of endang ered Tsushima wild cat at Tsushima Wildlife Conservation Center of Ministry of Environment at Tsushima in Nagasaki In August 2007, he began his graduate work, as an Ambassadorial Scholar of Rotary Club, in the School of Natural Resources and Environment w ith the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation at the Universi ty of Florida and received Master s degree in May 2009 He started his PhD program in August 2009 in the same school and the department at the University of Florida and until now (November 2012), he has published ten peer reviewed papers both in English and Japanese and received an Outstanding Graduate Research Award from the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation of University of Florida. He plans to pursue his career as a researcher of human dimensions of wildlife manageme n t, hoping to contribute to solving human wildlife conflicts in Japan.