Cultivating Self-Awareness in Counselors-In-Training through Group Supervision

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Title:
Cultivating Self-Awareness in Counselors-In-Training through Group Supervision
Physical Description:
1 online resource (115 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Del Moro, Ronald R.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Mental Health Counseling, Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education
Committee Chair:
Echevarria-Doan, Silvia C
Committee Members:
Miller, M David
Puig, Ana
Duffy, Ryan Daniel

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
counselors -- counselors-in-training -- countertransference -- group -- self-awareness -- supervision -- training
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Mental Health Counseling thesis, Ph.D.
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
This study investigated processes, strategies, and frameworks that took place during group supervision classes, which best cultivate the self-awareness of Mental Health and Marriage and Family Counselors-in-Training (CITs). It was designed to explore factors across multiple theoretical models, which contributed to the cultivation of self-awareness in CITs. In part, it was conducted in response to the counseling profession’s call to shift the focus from an emphasis on specific theories and interventions in training programs, to the salient common factors present in multiple approaches that lead to better client outcomes. A review of the literature is presented in support of the need for training programs to focus more on cultivating variables such as self-awareness and countertransference management to produce more efficacious counselors.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local:
Adviser: Echevarria-Doan, Silvia C.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ronald R. Del Moro.

Record Information

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UFRGP
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Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID:
UFE0044928:00001


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1 CULTIVATING SELF AWARENESS IN COUNSELORS IN TRAINING THROUGH GROUP SUPERVISION By RONALD R. DEL MORO A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Ronald R. Del Moro

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3 ur scholarly soul rest in peace

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank all my family and friends who have supported me throughout my life and during this academic journey. I give a special thank you to my mother and stepfather, who are by far my biggest fans on this planet. I thank Dr. Echevarria Doan for being a constant source of support (probably more so than she is aware of) through out this process. Dr. Echevarria Doan has made this journey fluid and allowed me to possess the notion that I can get this done without all the drama. I would also like to thank Dr. Ana Puig, whose door was always open to my many pop ins and questions. I also thank Dr. Miller for his calm and light hearted nature that helped me to take things a little less seriously. I would also like to thank Dr. Duf fy for jumping on board without hesitation. Thank you!

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 12 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ....................... 14 Purp ose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 16 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 16 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 16 Countertransference ................................ ................................ ......................... 16 Group Supervision ................................ ................................ ............................ 17 Self Aware ness ................................ ................................ ................................ 17 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 18 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 20 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ............. 22 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 22 Theoretical Framewor k ................................ ................................ ........................... 24 Codes of Ethics and Standards ................................ ................................ .............. 25 Supervision ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 27 Group Supervision ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 30 Self Awareness ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 31 Countertransference ................................ ................................ ......................... 34 Self Ref lection ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 36 Wellness ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 37 Multicultural Counseling ................................ ................................ ................... 38 Training Programs ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 38 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 44 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 47 Statement of Purpose ................................ ................................ ............................. 47 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 47 Descriptio n of the Population ................................ ................................ .................. 48

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6 Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 48 Sampling Procedure ................................ ................................ ......................... 48 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 50 Design of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 52 Delineation of Relevant Variables ................................ ................................ ........... 53 Independent Variables ................................ ................................ ..................... 53 Dependent Variable ................................ ................................ .......................... 55 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 55 Supervisee Level Questionnaire Revised (SLQ R) ................................ ......... 56 Reliability and Validity ................................ ................................ ...................... 57 Counselor Self Awareness Scale (CSAS) ................................ ........................ 57 Reliability and Validity ................................ ................................ ...................... 58 Experience of Group Supervision Questionnaire (EGSQ) ................................ 58 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 59 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 60 4 RESULTS OF THE STUDY ................................ ................................ .................... 63 Summary and Chapter Overview ................................ ................................ ............ 63 Descriptive Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ....................... 63 Results of Research Question Analysis ................................ ................................ .. 67 Descriptive Statistics ................................ ................................ ........................ 68 Reliability Statistics ................................ ................................ ........................... 69 Research Question One ................................ ................................ ................... 69 Research Question Two ................................ ................................ ................... 71 Summary of Findings ................................ ................................ .............................. 74 5 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 76 Research Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 78 Discussion of Results ................................ ................................ .............................. 79 Limita tions of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 81 Research Design ................................ ................................ .............................. 81 Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 81 Volunteer Participation ................................ ................................ ..................... 81 Self Reported Measures ................................ ................................ ................... 82 Concep tualization of Variables and Instrumentation ................................ ........ 82 Implications and Future Research ................................ ................................ .......... 83 Summation ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 84 APPENDIX A SURVEYS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 88 Superv isee Levels Questionnaire Revised (SLQ R) ................................ ............ 88 Counselor Self Awareness Scale ................................ ................................ ........... 91 Experience of Group Supervision Questionnaire ................................ .................... 94

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7 in Training Demographics ................................ ................................ ... 97 Group Supervisor Questionnaire ................................ ................................ ............ 99 B INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE ................................ ................................ ........... 100 C INFORMED CONSENT ................................ ................................ ........................ 102 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 105 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 114

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Mean and Standard Deviation of Variables ................................ ............................. 68 4 ................................ ................................ ......................... 70 4 ................................ ................................ ......................... 70 4 4 Regression analysis: Model summary b of self awareness and process focused group supervision ................................ ................................ ............................... 71 4 5 Regression analysis: Coefficients a of self awareness and process focused group supervis ion ................................ ................................ ............................... 71 4 6 Regression analysis: Model Summary b of self awareness and focus on self understanding ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 72 4 7 Regression analysis: Coefficients a of self awareness and focus on self understanding ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 72 4 8 Regression analysis: Model summary b of self awareness and use of immediacy ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 73 4 9 Regression analysis: Coefficients a of self awareness and use of immediacy ....... 73

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Descriptive data for gender of CITs ................................ ................................ ........ 64 4 2 Descriptiv e data for race of CITs ................................ ................................ ............. 65 4 ................................ ................................ 66 4 ................................ ................................ .............. 67

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10 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S COUNSELORS IN TRAINING (CIT) Masters and Doctoral level counselor education students. GROUP SUPVISION CLASS (GSC) SELF AWARENESS (SA) Group supervision course for counselors in training. Self awareness (SA) consists of both affective and cognitive components that denote where the counselor in training is in regards to self enlightened self awareness (Stoltenberg, McNeill, & Delworth, 1998).

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11 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy CULTIVATING SELF AWARENESS IN COUNSELORS IN TRAINING THROUGH GROUP SUPERVISION By Ronald R. Del Moro December 2012 Chair: Silvia Echevarria Doan Major: Mental Health Counsel ing Th is study investigate d processes, strategies, and frameworks that t ook place during group supervision classes, which best cultivate the self awareness of Mental Health and Marriage and Family Counselors in Training (CITs). It wa s designed to explore factors across multiple theoretical models, which contribute d to the cultiv ation of self awareness in CITs. In part, it wa s conducted in response to the counseling interventions in training programs, to the salient common factors present in multiple a pproaches that lead to better client outcomes. A review of the literature is presented in support of the need for training programs to focus more on cultivating variables such as self awareness and countertransference management to produce more efficaciou s counselors.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Individuals in today's society are engaged in a constant search for knowledge and ways to remedy sustained discomforts that impede daily living. As a profession, counseling is no different. At the heart of many co ntroversies surrounding therapy is the question: What works? Since its infancy, the counseling profession has sought to Considerable time and energy has been spent st udying which counseling theory is best. An extensive meta analysis of a century of empirical studies on therapy outcomes provides overwhelming support for a contextual, rather than a medical model of therapy (Wampold, 2001). view (e .g. the therapeutic relationship, counselor characteristics, and client strengths and resources) is based on what works in therapy (Hubble, Duncan & Miller, 2010). Professionals across the field concerned with counselor training are calling for a shift in focus from specific theories and interventions, to more salient factors that are present across therapeutic models and increase the likelihood of improved client outcomes (Miller, Hubble, & Duncan, 2008; Torres Rivera, Phan, Maddux, Wilbur, & Garrett, 200 6; Udang, 2010). therapy due to common factors places significant implications upon trainin g programs in terms of designing curricula that support variables related to counselor characteristics and the therapeutic alliance. This study will focus on one component that influences both of these common factors self awareness Self awareness (SA) is identified as a

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13 Miller et al., 2008; Stoltenberg, 1981). Self awareness is also a n intrinsic component of counseling professionals to increase their self awareness can be traced back to Freud himself who asserted that it was necessary in order to minimize the potential detrimental effects of counter transference on the counseling process (Oden, Miner Holden, & Balkin, 2009). Current professional standards like those outlined by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CA CREP) proclaim that self awareness is a fundamental and foundational component for counselor competency (CACREP, 2009). Well respected clinicians like Irvin Yalom (2005) also advocate that self awareness is a prerequisite to understanding others. Besides promoting personal wellness, self awareness also helps counselors take note of the impact they have on clients (American Counseling Association (ACA), 2005; American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA), 2010). Counselor educators and supervisors have a professional responsibility to promote self awareness in counselors in training (Burwell Pender & H a l i nski, 2008). With self awareness and then self acceptance, counselors in training (CITs) can be authentically empathetic, accepting, and genuine with clients. Although there is evidence that supports the importance of self awareness in counselor preparation, there seems to be a lack of literature, empirical evidence, and clear methods for ways to facilitate this aspect of training.

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14 Statement of th e Problem The ability to self reflect is widely recognized as salient in the development of successful counselors, yet research indicates counselor educators have encountered only limited success in achieving this objective with students (Guiffrida, 2005). Guiffrida estimated that up to 50% of all mental health practitioners seem to be unreflective Current literature address ing the constructs of self awareness and countertransference is lacking (Winstone & Gervis, 2006). Hayes and Gelso (2001) suggested future research be directed towards better understanding how therapists can effectively use their critical life experiences to be more efficacious counselors. Burwel Pender and Helinski (2008) surveyed professional members of the counseling community. T hey found up to 65% reported their training programs as inadequate in addressing issues of counter transference and feelings towards clients. understanding their counte rtransference is more salient than any theoretical orientation. Remarkably, the attention given to countertransference in the training of CITs in graduate programs has been scarce (Bemak & Epp, 2001). Schaeffer (2007) declares graduate training programs in training personal issues, despite the fact that developing self aware counselors is essential during training. Hansen (2009) claims there has been no critical appraisal in the counseling professional literature of how counselors become self aware. Another related issue is that multicultural competent counseling is contingent on awareness (Sue & Sue, 2003). According to some researchers, training programs rarely address the need to foster s elf aware counselors that can build competence in this area (Richardson & Molinaro, 1996). Lennie (2007) concluded that

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15 a clear study that identifies the factors that contribute to promoting self awareness in awareness in therapists is widely considered a salient construct across multiple theoretical orientations ; however little is known about how to cultivate this in clinical training (Hayes & Gelso, 2001; Lennie, 2007; Myers, Mobley, Booth, 2003; Moore & Silfe, 1987; Von Glassersf eld, 1988). Group supervision is an integral part of counselor training in CACREP accredited programs (CACREP, 2009). Gaining a clearer perspective on the practice, method, and utilization of group supervision is essential (Prieto, 1998). Establishin g empirically founded benefits to particular strategies, methods, and processes of group supervision is needed (Myers, Sweeny, & Witmer, 2000). Research devoted to documenting effective training processes that address complex concepts, like self awareness in counselor education programs is scarce (Grant, 2006). To summarize, it is clear there is a lack of attention in the current literature that awareness and countertransference management (Winstone & Gervis, 2006). The arena o from a trans theoretical perspective (Reupert, 2006). denotes the strategies, methods, and/or foci of supervision examined in this study integrate d across all theories a nd/or models of supervision (Calderwood, 2011). Additional research into trans theoretical supervisory strategies and methods that promote self awareness would contribute to the efficacy of supervision and the profession as a whole (Lennie, 2007; Norem, M agnuson, Wilcoxon, & Arbel, 2006). Moreover, if self awareness and countertransference management are critical to counseling, what can training programs do to cultivate these components? Which

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16 aspects of supervision best nurture self awareness and positi ve countertransference management? Are there frameworks that cut across theoretical orientations that are paramount in cultivating self awareness during group supervision? Purpose of the Study This study examine d how the gap between what works in therapy and the training of these concepts can be bridged, by specifically focusing on self awareness and counter transference. This study identif ied empirically supported training awareness that are trans theoretical. The purpose of this study wa s to determine to what extent different processes of group supervision impact self awareness in counselors in training. Research Questions 1. What components of supervision best cultivate self awareness in couns elors in training? 2. More specifically, do group supervision classes that utilize a therapist centered group supervision model cultivate self awareness in counselors in training to a significantly higher degree than other models that are less process oriented, less focused on the use of self, more client focused, and more focused on treatment planning ? Definition of Terms Countertransference Three basic branches that have helped define countertransference since the time includes all unconscious and conscious reactions the clinician has toward the client, and enberger & Hayes, 2002). For

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17 unresolved conflicts. Group Supervision Group supervi sion is defined as regular meetings of multiple counselors in training and a supervisor devoted to furthering their understanding of clients, themselves, and service delivery (Bernard & Goodyear, 2000 ; Melnick & Fall 2008 ). This process is deepened by th the dynamics between supervisees and their supervisor (Wilbur, 1994). Group supervision models can be characterized as psychotherapeutic, developmental, or based on social roles. Evidence supports a developmental a pproach to supervision (Bernard & Goodyear, 2000; Skovholt, 1992). In the developmental model, the counselor in training is viewed as an individual setting out on a journey of development that culminates in the emergence of a counselor identity (Stoltenbe rg, 1981). This study will adhere to the principles of the developmental model of counselor training. Self Awareness A comprehensive review of the literature on self awareness revealed that there is little discussion of the construct of self awareness and /or it is outdated, making its definition difficult (Richards, Campenni, & Muse Burke, 2010). In this study, to help define self awareness certain assumptions are presumed about self: (a) that it exists, (b) it is available for introspection, (c) it has a lasting essence, and (d) it can be represented by language (Hansen, 2009). These four assumptions are essential to the foundation upon which the construct of self awareness is founded.

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18 Self er feelings, as well as an understanding from where these feelings originated and how these feelings impact and are impacted by others. Burwell Pender and Halenski (2008) declare that with increased levels of self awareness, a counselor is able to differ entiate and put aside personal needs in order to best serve the client while maintaining professional boundaries. This idea of counselors being able to differentiate and put aside personal values while working with clients is closely associated with count ertransference. Self awareness (SA) consists of both affective and cognitive components that denote where the counselor in training is in regards to self preoccupation, awareness of awareness (Stoltenberg, McNeill, & Delworth, 1998). Stoltenberg at el. (1998) refer to self and other awareness goes beyond the intrapersonal realm. In order to be truly self aware, one must also be aware of how others impact and are impacted by you (Stoltenberg et al. 1998). While I am in and other m, self awareness, in this study. Significance of the Study The counseling profession emphasizes the need for counselors to become aware of their values, biases, beliefs, and interpersonal dynamics so they can best serve However, there is a lack of empirical findings support ing the methods that can be used to nurture this process (Bemak & Epp, 2001; Grant, 2006; Hayes & Gelso, 2001; Lennie, 2007; Norem et al., 2006; Sue & Sue, 2003). Guiffrida (2005) asserts the pedagogi cal methods employed by counselor

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19 education programs are in need of revision to prepare counselors for the complex and The literature suggests group supervision provides a rare and critical opportunity for counselors in (p.32). To get in touch with our deepest self, as she suggested, counselors in trai ning must be willing to actively look for it and students be provided a space to do so during their training. Previous research has focused on the importance of counselors becoming self aware (De Stefano et al., 2007; Hayes & Gelso, 2001; Miller et al., 2008). Previous studies offer evidence t hat supports the need for the construct of self awareness to be re examined and to better understand how to cultivate this in CITs (Bliss, 2005; Hansen, 2009; Grant, 2006; Oden, Miner Holden, & Balkin, 2009). Ther e is also little known about how to best utilize group supervision in the training of counselors to be (Grant, 2006; Prieto, 1998). Additional research into supervisory strategies, frameworks, and methods that promote self awareness would contribute to th e efficacy of supervision, counselor training, and the profession as a whole (Norem, et al., 2006). According to Stoltenberg et al. (1998), the goal of each individual therapist is to reach a place of acceptance of all of her/his professional strengths and weaknesses, with high levels of empathy and understanding. Rosenberger and Hayes (2002) emphasized the need for future research to explore ways in which training programs can increase self awareness in counseling students. The existing base of empirical literature concerning group supervision is in need of more support (Prieto, 1998;

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20 Rosenberger & Hayes, 2002). This study help ed identify specific aspects, strategies, and related processes that will assist counselor educators in learning how to incorpora te these critical factors in training programs. As counselors, gaining greater awareness of personal issues in order to be aware of and able to beneficially work through these issues when triggered during sessions with clients will benefit clients, the profession, and oneself. As Aponte, Powell, Brooks, Watson, Litzke, Lawless, and Johnson (2009) point out, it is not that CITs need to remedy all of their personal issues; they need to sharpen the skill of fully using themselves as the person they are to day. In order to get in touch with self (in the present sense), CITs must be willing to actively seek it. Group supervision can provide opportunities for such an awareness to come to fruition. This study sought to determine if, and to what extent differe nt aspects and processes of group supervision cultivate self awareness, and thus provide a blue print for training programs to better train self aware counselors in the future. Limitations 1. Each supervisor will bring a level of their own personality and her or his biases, values, and style to the process of their chosen theory, method, and strategies of supervision. Assessing exactly what they do and how they conduct supervision within their given processes will be difficult; thus attributing differences in measured self awareness to particular processes alone is complex. 2. A relatively small sample size was used in t his study. The researcher had a goal of 60 supervisee survey respondents but he received 53 completed surveys 3. Self reported measures are limited due to social desirability bias. 4. Other variables that may confound the findings include the culture of t he program (e.g. degree to which the program invites introspective discourse; allowing students to be more open or closed to the idea and exercise of looking at oneself by participants, group cohesion).

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21 5. There is a disproportionate amount of survey respondents from the South Eastern region of the US decreasing the generalizability of the study. 6. Results from this study provide some evidence that counselors in training perce ption of attention to different components of the group supervision process is rather subjective. There was significant variance of responses to some of the same questions on how much time was spent on different supervision components from students in the same group supervision (the subjectivity of perception ).

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22 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERA TURE Overview and clinical skills shape the process of counseling (Hayes & Gelso, 2011). The greater the awareness counselors possess about their own selves, the greater their ability to develop a deeper knowledge and/or acceptance of their clients (Ronnestad & Skovholt, 1993). By attending to this aspect of training, counsel or educators can help raise self awareness of C IT s, which can help CITs manage countertransference in ways that benefit the client (Hansen, 2009; Oden et al., 2009). A common belief in the counseling profession is that self understanding is a prerequisit e for understanding others (Sumeral & Borders, 1996). Raising self awareness is essential for counselors to be authentic and genuine because they cannot teach what they do not know (Stoltenberg, 1981; Yalom, 2005). Through self awareness, the counselor t rainee can be genuinely empathic, acceptant, and congruent with clients (Bowen, 1994). Skovholt and McCarthy (1988) declared the literature clearly suggests that individuals, CITs included, experience numerous significant events in their professional and personal lives that need to be addressed. Supervision groups based on developmental models can be used to help CITs in their personal development and acquisition of counseling skills (Yalom, 2005). Using group supervision as a means towards personal dev elopment is not a new idea (e.g., Torres Rivera, Phan, Maddux, Wilbur, & Garrett, 2001). Bernard and understanding of themselves as clinicians. Personal life greatly impacts our

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23 professional functioning. Whether counselors are aware of them or not, personal issues lives, like others, may involve painful experiences with family and/or self. It is important for counselors to be aware of how these experiences impact professional endeavors. The literature indicates self awareness and introspection are critical to counselors in training becoming efficacious professional counselors (De Stefano et al., 2007; Loganbill, et al., 1982; McNeill & Delworth, 1998; Miller et al., 2008; Stoltenberg, 1981). Professional mental health literature, counselor accreditation standards, and ethical codes assert that higher levels of counselor self awareness ar e positively correlated with therapeutic effectiveness (Lennie, 2005; Oden et al., 2009). With so much evidence that supports the need for CITs to cultivate self awareness, the lack of awareness and the mo st efficacious methods for doing so, presents the need for further research. Previous research shows self understanding is one of the most important therapeutic factors in supervision. Tobin (2006) asserts therapists must be aware of their own feelings a nd reactions toward clients in order to maintain a healthy and egalitarian relationship. Findings demonstrate that effective counselors at high developmental stages embody high levels of self awareness (e.g., Loganbill et al., 1982; Stoltenberg et al., 19 98; Wheeler et al., 2008; Wilbur, 1994). In response to the literature, counselor educators have called for a shift in training and supervision to give more attention to fostering self awareness in counselors in training (Borders, 1998; Hubble et al., 200 4; Torres Rivera Phan, Maddux, Wilbur, & Garrett 2001; Wampold, 2001; Yalom, 2005).

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24 Theoretical Framework Existential Theory provides the theoretical foundation for this study. The core tenet of existentialism is cultivating self awareness (Yalom, 19 80), which makes this theory the appropriate cornerstone of this study. The goal of existential therapy is to life (Fern a ndo, 2007). In existential therapy the counselor client relationship is salient; this relationship (Wilkes & Milton, 2006). The primary goal of Existential Theory is to raise self awareness of the four b asic human conditions: that we will die, in decisive moments we are alone, we have the freedom to choose our life, and we struggle to create meaning in a world where our life meaning is not handed to us (Jacobsen, 2007). The process of existential therap y is a coming together of the client and counselor in the here and now, in an effort to reach moments of authentic encounter to face these universal human dilemmas (Yalom, 1980). Requirements such as genuineness, acceptance, and warmth are not what the co unselor must do, but what the counselor must be her or his authentic self the main goals of the counselor and client alike (Groth, 2008). Existential Supervision follows the same path as Existential Theory and Therapy with relationship, encounter, and meaning making being central to its foundation (du Plock, 2009). Du Plock goes on to say: (existential) supervision i s a piece of p ractical research into our ope nn es s to, and limitations on, being in relationship with clients. In such an approach the supervisor and supervisee become co researchers of the phenomenon 'relationship'. The labels we employ to indicate the li fe

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25 problems clients present are subordinate to th e relational ground on which the therapist and client attempt to meet. (du Plock, 2009, p. 301) Prior to beginning a practice of existential therapy and/or supervision, counselors must sharpen the main counseling tool they will be using: the self (Yalom during the counseling process is articulated as follows : We cannot say to them, you and your problems. Instead we must speak of us and our problems, because our lif e, our existence, will always be riveted with death, love to loss freedom to fear, and growth to separation. We are all in this together. (Yalom, 1989, p. 14) Existential Theory supports the need for counselors to become more self aware. Counselors i n training ability to bring their authentic selves into the counseling process is precipitated by CITs raising their self awareness in supervised training is the focus of this research, based on the foundatio n of Existential Theory. Codes of Ethics and Standards responsibility is to do no harm, to benefit others, and to strive for excellence in their profession (ACA, 2005). The American Counseling Association continually stresses that counselor self awareness is a critical aspect of counselor effectiveness (ACA, 2005). Counselors are responsible for their personal wellness and awareness of their impact on clients (ACA 2005; AMHCA, 2010; CACREP, 2009 ). The code of ethics of the American Mental Health Counselors Association (2010) requires counselors to have self awareness of their knowledge, values, skills, and needs when entering into a helping relationship.

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26 Counselor education program s, supervisors, and counselor educators have a professional responsibility to foster self awareness in CITs (ACA, 2005; Burwell Pender & Halinski, 2008). CACREP supports the notion that counselor education programs provide space for CITs to cultivate se lf awareness (SA) so that counselors maintain professional boundaries (Oden, et al., 2009). The 2009 CACREP standards state awareness, sensitivity to others, and the skills needed The Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) is an accrediting body created by ACA that provides a nationally based standards review process for the counseling profession's graduate level preparation programs (Urofs ky & Sowa, 2004). CACREP supports the notion that counselor education programs provide space for CITs to cultivate self awareness (SA) so that counselors maintain professional boundaries (Oden, et al., 2009). The 2009 CACREP standards state students must awareness, sensitivity to others, and CACREP standards suggest that self awareness is a fundamental foundational component of counselor training (CACREP, 2009). Self awareness is mentioned counselors to develop and demonstrate self awareness. CACREP standards (2009) require that s to their limitations, self awareness, and understand the effects of sexism, power, privilege, racism, and oppression in their life. CACREP standards support the idea o f the saliency

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27 al., 2009). The American Counseling Association (2005) code of ethics refer s to SA several times and points out that counselors explore their own identities and must be are aware of: (a) the responsibilities and intimacy in the counseling relationship, (b) their own values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors and how these apply in a diverse society, (c) their influential positions with respect to clients, (d) signs of impairment from their own mental, physical and emotional problems, and that (e) counselors assist one another in recognizing their impairment (ACA, 2005). The Asso ciation for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) Standards for Counseling Supervisors requires supervisors to facilitate counselors in training self national conference, hi s number one challenge to the association was a call to all of its members to raise their self awareness (Locke, 2001). Self awareness is the first fundamental component counselors are obliged to begin working on in their development (Locke, 2001). Skovho lt, Ronnestad, and Helge (1992) sought to find the broad themes and dimensions in counselor development and found continuous self reflection constituted the central developmental process. Supervision Supervision is key in training counselors to be to deve lop and maintain self awareness and countertransference management skills (Winstone & Gervis, 2006). Bernard and Goodyear (2009) refer to clinical supervision as the signature pedagogy of the mental health profession, typifying the preparation of practiti oners in our profession. Educators, trainers, and professional accrediting bodies believe supervision of

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28 member of the profession (Holloway & Neufeldt, 1995). Cobia and P ipes (2002) state supervision is the process of teaching and training and monitor the level of service provided. Counseling is more than simply knowing techniques and th eory; counseling involves knowing oneself and supervision must be more than instruction, direction, and/or consultation (Meier & Davis, 2001). Holloway and Neufeldt (1995) reviewed the literature in an effort to examine characteristics of supervision relat ed to therapist and client factors. Their results underscore a need for standardized supervision for all training programs. Wheeler and Richards (2007) reported on a systemic review of the empirically supported evidence related to the impact of supervisi on on the therapeutic process. They concluded the supervision process has a positive effect on the supervisee and the therapeutic process as a whole. Wheeler et al. (2007) found supervision to have a particular impact on efficacy, self awareness, and positive outcomes with clients. Numerous models of supervision support the use of a developmental approach (Bernard & Goodyear, 2009; Skovholt, 1992). In the developmental model, the counselor in training is viewed as an individual, sett ing out on a developmental journey that culminates in the emergence of a counselor identity (Stoltenberg, 1981). According to Stoltenberg, this culmination point marks the time at which the CIT has integrated skills and theory and possess a significant le vel of self awareness. Loganbill et al. (1982) provided one of the first comprehensive models for developmental supervision. The central focus of the developmental model is

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29 counselors in training develop through process related stages that are cyclic al and always changing. Loganbill et al. (1982) identified three overarching stages; (a) stagnation (b) confusion, and (c) integration. of supervision has emerged as a prominent theory. T supervision models (Bernard & Goodyear, 2009) Stoltenberg et al. (1998) conclude d counselors in training develop through three levels over time as evidenced by changes in: (a) self and other awareness t he level of awareness of the client, self preoccupation, and self actualization, (b) motivation the investment, interest and effort expended in training, and (c) autonomy the changes in level of independence. Again, instead of simply using self aware ness, Stoltenberg et al. (1998) utilize the term self and other awareness to highlight the saliency of moving beyond the intrapersonal and also being aware of those around you. According to Stoltenberg et al. (1998), the goal for each counselor in train ing is to reach a place of acceptance of all of her/his professional strengths and weaknesses, while being able to empathize with and understand clients and themselves. In order to A developmental approach to supervision assists counselors in training in the crucial endeavor of raising their level of personal and professional awareness, no matter where CITs are in their level of development. f self as counselor and helping them to develop a deeper knowledge and/or acceptance of their clients are appropriate supervisory tasks at all developmental levels (Ronnestad & Skovholt, 1993). Group

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30 supervision is a forum to address these types of circum stances, thus providing an awareness. Group supervision helps CITs feel more secure about their doubts and questions, providing a space for CITs to realize they are not alone (Prieto, 1998). Group Supervision Group supe rvision can be defined as an exercise in which supervisors oversee of group process to enhance learning (Kees & Leech, 2010). Bernard and Goodyear (2000) talk about th e multiple models of group supervision and provide overwhelming evidence in support of a developmental approach to supervision. According to Bernard and Goodyear (2009), group supervision provides a variety of beneficial outcomes for counselors in trainin g including the following: (a) it offers the trainee a more comprehensive supervision experience, (b) it bridges the gap between the classroom and the practice of counseling itself, (c) it is consistent with the research on collaborative learning and cogn itive skill development, (d) it is consistent with evidence that novices can learn conceptually from each other more efficiently than they can from an expert, (e) it can help supervisees put their failures in perspective, (f) it gives supervisees a greater exposure of perspectives that no single supervisor could provide and a broader perspective by which to judge themselves, and (g) it develops Riva (2008) reviewed literature over the past decade regar ding group supervision research. Her findings support the claims made by Bernard and Goodyear (2009), with an emphasis on the importance of group process. Wilbur and Roberts Wilbur (1994)

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31 conducted a seven year study of group supervision. The authors di d an extensive review of the literature, building a case for their specific study. Their results supported a developmental approach to supervision, the desirability of group supervision, and awareness. De Stefano et al. (2007) studied the impact of group supervision on counselors in training after experiencing a clinical impasse. The results support a developmental approach to group supervision and the benefits of self awareness for counselors in training The authors underline the usefulness of group supervision, particularly in increasing self awareness and providing validation and support for trainees (De Stefano et al., 2007). Further, increased levels of self awareness in CITs were found to increase rapport with and acceptance of their clients, thus adding to positive client outcomes. Self Awareness The importance of self awareness is widely acknowledged in the counseling profession as one of the few constructs embraced by nearly all theoretical orientations (De Stefano et al., 2007; Hansen, 2009; Miller et al., 2008). Self awareness (SA) is defined as counselors in training understanding of how their past and current personal lives, as well as their attitudes, biases, and values, affect their cl inical practice, so that they can use their emotional responses to their patients and own benefit (Saunder s et al. 2007). Richards, Campenni, and Muse Burke (2010) refer to self awareness as iors, emotions, and cognitions.

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32 Self awareness is an evolving process of self observation, happening in both the here and now and then and there (Yalom, 1980). As an individual increases his/her level of self awareness, she/he will better understand why a nd what one feels, as well as the behaviors that follow. This understanding of what we as therapists feel and why and consequently how we respond and act during the therapeutic process is critical (Aponte & Carlsen, 2009; Guiffrida, 2005, Yalom, 2005). The idea that higher levels of counselor self awareness are related to enhanced counselor therapeutic effectiveness has appeared in the professional mental health literature, CACREP standards, theoretical writings, and research articles since Freud (Oden et a l., 2009). A qualitative study conducted by Norem et al. (2006) revealed stellar supervisees possess high levels of self awareness; defined as having the ability to identify weaknesses and strengths, self monitor, and being acutely aware of their emotion al experiences and reactions in sessions with clients. They found the personal qualities of counselors are better predictors of clinical performance than intellectual ability. Comstock (2005) asserts the need for developing self awareness for the purpose relational movements; done in, not out of, engagement. This includes recognition of our personality, our strengths and weaknesses, and our likes and dislikes. Self awareness is often a prerequisite for effective communication and interpersonal relations, as well as for developing empathy for others (Hansen, 2009). Counselors in training are triggered in session and often experience high levels of anxiety. Novice counselors who suffer with high levels of anxiety are not able to be effective with their clients (Skinstad,

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33 1993). Anxiety alone can be decreased when self awareness is increased (De Steno, 2007). Counselors use themselves within the client counselor relationship to: (a) establish rapport, (b) develop trust and empathy, and (c) choose and implement interventions (Aponte & Carlsen, 2009). Therapy is a marriage of the personal and the view affect the counseling relationship in terms of the relationship, client conceptualization, therapeutic goals, and treatment planning (Richardson & Molinaro, 1996). Vespia (2002) found the most important supervisee attributes are (a) a willingness to Ronnestad (1992) claim critical self reflection is the salient distinction between counselors who develop and grow throughout their career and those who languish and burn out. Burwell Pender and Halinski (2008) declare, with increased levels of self awareness, a counselor is able to differentiate and put aside personal needs in order to best serve the client wh ile maintaining professional boundaries. In the following sub sections, concepts that are closely related to self awareness the counselor client relationship. Domains o f self awareness such as countertransference, self reflection, wellness, and multicultural competence will be defined to give more of a concrete picture of what is being talked about and how it applies to the therapeutic relationship.

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34 Countertransference Self awareness becomes most salient when discussing the concept of countertransference (CT), as CT can be extremely destructive to the counseling process if counselors have little self awareness of their reactions (Freud, 1959; Winstone & Gervis, 2006). Countertransference (CT) is an example of what Stoltenberg and other awareness is speaking to in regards of moving beyond the self. Definitions of CT have varied over time, yet all have included that CT must be attended t o. If counselors fail to respond to their CT reactions they are not likely to be of service to clients (Gelso, Latts, Gomez, & Fassinger, 2002). Winstone and Gervis (2006) recognized researchers and practitioners across the spectrum of theoretical backgr ounds promote the importance of countertransference management for effective and safe practice by declaring that without self awareness the counseling relationship will be compromised. Counselors must first be self aware of CT feelings and only then will they be able to have an opportunity to synthesize their reactions into a reasonably coherent response that benefits the client and/or the therapeutic relationship (Winstone & Gervis, 2006). Burnwell Pender and Halenski (2008) define countertransference as issues and/or feelings in the therapist that have potential to negatively influence the therapeutic nature of the client counselor relationship. Countertransference occurs when a client. This response cannot be avoided; it is simply part of being human. Burnwell Pender and Halinski (2008) call for counselor education programs to better emphasize the multiple issues of countertransference.

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35 Hayes (2004) discussed how countertran sference (CT) has the potential to be the greatest danger and the best tool. Moments of CT can provide valuable insight and serve to strengthen the process if practitioners can properly recognize and integrate these feelings. Counselors who possess a sol id theoretical foundation without self awareness seem to be insufficient in their management of CT (Hayes & Gelso, 2011). Rosenberger and Hayes (2002) conducted a comprehensive review of the empirically supported literature on countertransference and fou nd: (a) the need for counselors to raise their levels of self awareness in order to effectively address reactions were usually triggered by content connected with the counselors levels of counselor self awareness of their emotions in regards to clients plays a crit ical role in managing CT. associated with therapeutic quandaries and less successful client outcomes (Grant, countertransference effectively is positively related to positive client outcomes. Richardson and Molinaro (1996) found emerging themes in the overall body of empirically documented research that concluded CT undoubtedly manifests in counseling (e.g., di storted perceptions in clients, inaccurate recall of client material, blocked understanding, counselor anxiety and withdrawal). The authors conclude the requirement of counselors to address his or her personal issues can help remedy therapeutic impasses a nd assist in the prevention of future ones.

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36 Bemak and Epp (2001) explored countertransference in the development of graduate students and found little attention given to the topic. They pointed out a gap between the importance of managing countertransfere nce and the attention given to this construct in training programs. Bemak and Epp (2001) found: (a) CT to be an issue that all counselors experience, (b) there is a lack of supervision and/or training focusing issues and emotional responses is a effectiveness, and (e) training and supervision that examine countertransference is essential. Hayes and Gelso (2011) performed thre e meta analyses, which revealed that successfully managing countertransference is related to better therapy outcomes. In 2001, Hayes and Gelso found counselors peer rated as excellent, experience CT in 80% of their sessions, debunking the myth that good c ounselors do not experience CT. The better CITs are able to manage their CT, the greater the improvement noted by their clients at the end of counseling (Gelso et al., 2002). Self Reflection McAuliffe (2002) explored how counseling students developed an d found from the immediate surroundings, and reflect. Self reflection (SR) and the ability to utilize this awareness for the benefit of the client are major compone nts of the professional counselor (Skovholt & Ronnestad, 1992). Urdang (2010) stresses the urgency for the development of S R in students in the mental health fields; stating self reflectiveness increases clinical competence and can prevent boundary violations and

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37 counselor burnout. Self reflectiveness is a cornerstone in the development of the professional self, which needs to be cultivated and nurtured (Urdang, 2010). Wellness Counselors maintain their personal wellness and clinical efficacy by prioritizing and attending to self awareness and self care (Warren, Morgan, Morris, & Morris, 2010). Research supports healthier coun selors (e.g., fewer unresolved issues and more stable boundaries) have less CT reactions and more positive clinical outcomes (Hayes & Gelso, 2001). Under the foundation section of the 2009 CACREP standards, ating in activities that contribute to culturally defined state of being in which mind, bo dy, and spirit are integrated in a way goal of wellness is to maximize human potential of ourselves and our clients, and thus Myers et al., (2003) advocated for counseling programs to pay more attention to the wellness of their students, emphasizing the importance of self care, identity awareness, and emotional wellness. Each of these variables is direc tly related to self awareness. In a quantitative study that surveyed 148 mental health professionals, well being and SA were found to be significantly positively correlated (Richards et al., 2010). Counselors have a responsibility to do no harm, benefit others, and strive for excellence in their profession (ACA, 2005). With a clear link between self care and SA, training programs and CITs alike would benefit from placing more emphasis on promoting self care, wellness and self awareness during their trai ning (Richards, et al., 2010).

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38 Multicultural Counseling awareness have the most impact in fostering multicultural competence (Suthakaran, 2011). Therapists and counselors in training benefit from opportuniti es that foster self exploration and self understanding ; self exploration and self understanding provide a foundation of basic counseling skills needed to be effective with diverse client populations (Garrett, Borders, Crutchfield, Torres Rivera, Brotherton & Curtis, 2001). As diversity increases in communities across the country, there is a growing need for multiculturally competent counselors. According to the literature, personal awareness is one of the three major components of multicultural counselin g (Torres Rivera et al., 2001). Sue and Sue (2003) stressed the need for counselors to learn about themselves before they can even attempt to learn about others. They emphasized the point that ues, and biases to effectively work with the diverse populations present in the counseling process today. In an article discussing counselor self awareness and multicultural competence authors proclaim self awareness is critical and must be identified and incorporated in counselor training programs. By not engaging in significant self awareness, counselors run the great risk of potentially harming a client (Richardson & Molinaro, 1996). Training Programs Chen (1998) outlined three empirical studies that indicat ed how important it was for counselor education programs to train counselors to be more self aware. In many programs across the nation, there seems to be a coddling (wanting to keep students comfortable with a lack of challenge and profound discourse) of co unselors in training

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39 methods, even those that are experientially base d, fail to produce reflective practitioners because of the lack of challenges in real world contexts. For instance, Duckworth (1986) found students were rarely challenged personally to look at how their unresolved issues played out in the therapy room with clients. In a profession that challenges people every day to take responsibility, why are we not expecte d to take responsibility for ourselves? (Aponte, 2009). Aponte points out it is not simply about counselors achieving greater resolution to their personal issues or simply grea ter self awareness but about the pursuit of a sophisticated mastery of self within the counseling relationship and technical process. This mastery strives for greater self awareness, increased freedom from the restrictiveness of personal issues, and an el evated level of skill in the intentional and conscious use of self in line with the philosophical and technical aspects of theoretical foundation (Aponte, 2009). Research shows novice counselors often disregard theory and revert to their natural inst incts (Skovholt & Ronnestad, 1992). This reinforces the importance of CITs identifying and understanding their personal frames of reference. Counselors in training benefit from being able to critically respond to one another in ways that both challenge an d support, as a means to better understand themselves and what they are asking of their clients. Guiffrida (2005) also performed a comprehensive review of the literature and supports self reflection by CITs during their training. He proposes a model tha t

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40 encourages students to increase their self awareness in groups and in conjunction with journaling exercises. Duckworth (1986) asserted the most beneficial reflection occurs when students are challenged in real world, authentic situations. Group supervis ion is an opportunity to challenge CITs in authentic and genuine contexts that are not feasible in other experiential exercises. Therapist centered supervision models address both the personal and technical components of the counseling process (Aponte & C arlsen, 2009). Bemak and Epp (2001) make several suggestions for the training of counselors to be in group supervision. They propose that training (a) incorporate a strong affective component, (b) establish an acceptance of working with deep rooted reac tions and feelings, (c) move towards emotionally charged material rather than away from it, (d) have the supervisor be present and engaged in order to elicit deeper emotional responses from CITs, (e) encourage risk taking by the supervisor and CITs, (f) ha ve supervisors teach CITs how to discuss their deep feelings about clients and/or peers in a respectful manner, and (g) accentuate the awareness of CITs, by allowing students to further explore their reactions and unresolved issues in and out of the superv ision process. All the training in the world on the basics cannot prepare a counselor on how to recognize and work through the many ways in which clients trigger personal unresolved issues and other issues of counter transference. Tseliou (2010) advocat ed for a shift in focus in the training of CITs to be more dialectical, reflexive, and collaborative in

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41 practice. Group supervision would be better served if the process adopted more of an open, exploratory dialectical attitude (Moore & Silfe, 1987). Bound ary issues: Supervision is a complex part of training that, by its very nature, foments issues of dual relationships (Bernard & Goodyear, 2009). The question of where to draw the line between therapy and supervision is so complex that it is unlikely that anyone will develop a simple boundary that will gain universal agreement (Pearson & Piazza, 1997). Training programs that emphasize growth in CITs for the sake of improving their clinical effectiveness struggle with this question. In particular, it present s training programs with issues regarding how to better train CITs in their use of self in keeping with ethical codes and accreditation standards in ways that does not cross over into therapy (Aponte et al., 2009). A developmental model of group supervisio n that requires counselors in training to be self reflective is demanding. These types of models require both the supervisor and the supervisees to be willing to take risks and to be honest during supervision sessions (Torres Rivera et al., 2001). Everyo ne involved may have to work a little harder. There is a higher level of genuineness and honesty required by each person involved that may even cause old wounds to open. Students may need to find resources for support to tend their needs outside of their program, and educators/supervisors may have to be more proactive in making sure students are taking care of themselves. Ethical questions are raised when supervision tends to the issues, values, and biases of the therapist. There are fears of problems arising with dual relationships,

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42 support. On a more practical level, there is concern about the availability of resources, assessment, and standards. These are understandable reasons to have reservations about incorporating more self reflection into training programs ; but at what cost to counselors, clients, and/or the profession as a whole ? We need to keep in mind the spirit behind the concern about dual relationships, which is to prevent exploitation by persons who have professional power over supervisees, trainees, students, and patients. Unless we do this, we can become ensnared in purely legalistic distinctions that burden professional relationships rather than nourish an d protect them. (Aponte, 1994, p.4) Aponte (1994) recommended conditions and guidelines for facilitators to help ensure the supervisory process does not become exploitive: Supervision is not therapy. Personal issues are to be discussed only in regards to how they play out with clients. CITs need to understand the implications of the qualities of supervisory relationship and have freedom to continue or refuse any aspect of the relationship. rvision is not appropriate. Any intention to take advantage of the CITs in any way violates numerous ethical boundaries and professional standards When/if there is potential for the CITs to be hurt in the supervisory process, it is the responsibility o f the supervisor to be clear in how this benefits the CIT professionally and provide support and resources for the CIT Consent must be obtained from CITs at the beginning of supervision that they will be discussing personal histories and current life expe riences with regard to how they impact their clinical work. CITs only share what they wish to reveal. CITs will pursue support outside of supervision when appropriate. The American Counseling Association (2005) has established ethical codes. These codes d irectly address some of the concerns mentioned above (ACES, 1995):

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43 2.11 Personal issues should be addressed in supervision only in terms of the effect of these issues on clients and on professional functioning. 2.12 Supervisors, through ongoing supervise e assessment and evaluation, should be aware of any personal and professional limitations of supervisees that are likely to impede future professional performance. T his is almost a requirement presented to the supervisor to figure out what, if any, supervisor to fulfill his/her ethical responsibility without asking CITs personal q uestions regarding their professional work. Cobia and Boes (2000) admit there is not a foolproof way to prevent ethical dilemmas in supervision but outlined a method for minimizing potential problems. They suggest the use of professional disclosure statements and developing (and adhering to) a specific plan for supervision. The professional disclosure statement can be outlined in course syllabi, which also needs to outline the potential benefits, risks, and expectations of the supervisory process. Supervisees have a right to know (a) how assessments will be made, (b) against what standards they will be judged, (c) limits of confidentiality, and (d) how feedback will be shared (Cobia & Boes, 2000). No matter how much preparation and prevention, it is ultimately the responsibility of the facilitator and the program to make sure students know the relevant statutes and professional codes of the supervisory process, as well as the moral principles of non maleficence, beneficence, justice and fidelity and how these concepts relate to the supervisory process. One of the first and foremost points to be established at the outset is that supervision is not therapy (Aponte et al., 2009). The goal of supervision is to make CITs better clinicians; any person al growth is a bonus. A supervision model that looks

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44 in training personal struggles, as much as their capacity to use these personal struggles and vulnerabilities to make them better cl group supervision unless the issues directly relate to their clinical practice, even if CITs volunteer this personal information. Summary Yalom (2005) has continually called for interperson al learning and emotional awareness insight for counselors in training. During developmental group supervision, CITs are able to explore their struggles, which lead to learning and problem solving (Werstlein, 1994). The developmental group supervision m odel allows CITs to explore themselves. It is this self exploration that allows the therapist to be most effective when working with clients (Lennie, 2007). Another salient aspect for CITs is discovering they are not struggling alone. Hearing the succes s and the frustrations of peers in group supervision gives CITs a more realistic model by which they can critique themselves and build confidence (Bernard & Goodyear, 2009; Werstlein, 1994). Effective counselors at high developmental stages embody high lev els of self awareness as counselor and helping them develop a deeper knowledge and/or acceptance of their clients are appropriate supervisory tasks at all developmental levels (Ronnestad & Sko vholt, 1993). If counselors in their ability to work with clients and thus limiting the clients opportunity to grow (Borders 1998). Schaeffer (2007) discovered graduate programs d o not sufficiently address counselors in training personal issues that may or may not play out in the therapy room.

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45 change is directly correlated with their ability to relate struggles (Aponte et al., 2009). Group supervision can be used to aid CITs in their personal development and, thus, the development of counseling skills, leading to increased positive client outcomes (Yalom, 2005). T here is hope that self exploration will become as commonplace in training programs as treatment planning and client conceptualization (Burwell Pender et al., 2008; Wampold, 2001). Group supervision serves as a useful venue in which counselors can deal wit h their strengths and weaknesses, as they become increasingly aware of self, professionally and personally. In an interview Irvin Yalom called for counselors to: G ain as much self understanding as possible; because the most important and effective way we can really help the patient is through our own selves. We have to be able to relate deeply and openly to patients. This means that we have to do a lot of work on ourselves, work which evolves continually throughout our lives. (Shaunghnessy, 2005, p. 35) G roup supervision provides counselors in training an opportunity to gain self awareness; experientially learning to be vulnerable, sit with sadness, deepen connections, and experientially learn about acceptance and empathy. It can be a place to help studen ts learn how to lower walls, take risks and acknowledge others opinions without becoming overly defensive. All this can be done while CITs gain understanding that they are not alone in their struggles and/or doubts. learn in group supervision on an emotional level what they may have only known intellectually by experiencing what self disclosure entails and how difficult it is to reveal feelings of vulnerability. Self awareness and introspection are the best tools fo r improving as a professional

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46 counselor (Pearson, 2004). Counselor education programs need for supervisors in a group format, to provide a space in which counselors in training have an opportunity for self exploration and understanding rather than spendin g the majority of time on subjects like case conceptualization (Carter et al., 2009). Torres Rivera et al., (2006) present evidence supporting the need to increase CITs relational skills and self awareness. The authors clearly identify a gap between the importance of the counseling relationship discussed in every introductory counseling text and the training that follows. Group supervision is one of the most effective environments to nurture the honesty needed for counselors in training to develop into m ulticulturally competent, efficacious professional counselors (Suthakaran, 2011). The American Counseling Association (2009) standards state a need for counselors to become aware of their values, biases, beliefs, and interpersonal dynamics in order to best serve culturally diverse clients (Sue & Sue, 2003). Yalom (2005) asserts counselors are only able to serve clients needs by pro vide s insight into determining how well counselor education programs pay attention to cultivating self awareness and which methods, strategies, and processes are best at doing so.

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47 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Statement of Purpose CACREP standards promote self awareness a s a foundational component for counselor competency (CACREP, 2009). This declaration has been substantiated throughout the literature (De Stefano et al., 2007; Loganbill et al., 1982; McNeill & Delworth, 1998; Miller et al., 2008; Stoltenberg, 1981). Despite this counselor characteristic being deemed important, research is lacking on the ways in which to cultivate self awareness in counselors in training (CIT), particularly from a trans theoretical perspective (Reupert, 2006; Winstone & Gervis 2006). There is a need to establish empirically supported methods, processes, and strategies of group supervision that cultivate self awareness in counselors in training from a trans theoretical (integrating across all theories and/or models of supervi sion) perspective (Schaeffer, 2007; Hansen, 2009). This study attempt ed to answer the data collection, sample and sampling procedures, design of study, relevant variab les, and data analysis. Limitations of the chosen methodology are also discussed. Research Questions The following research questions w ere examined in this study. 1. What components of supervision best cultivate self awareness in counselors in training? 2. More specifically, do group supervision classes that utilize a therapist centered group supervision model cultivate self awareness in counselors in training to a significantly higher degree than other models that are less process oriented, less focused on the use of self, more client focused, and more focused on treatment planning ?

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48 Description of the Population This study investigated the extent to which different processes of group supervision impact ed self awareness in counselors in training in an effort toward producing more effective counselors. The population of this study was comprised of counselors in training in Marriage and Family and/or Mental Health Counseling programs. The sample was comprised of CITs enrolled in group supervision class in CACREP accredited programs in the United States of America during the summer 2012 term Sample before collecting data for this study. The researcher recruit ed a to tal of 53 respondents who were counselors in training in Mental Health and /or Marriage and Family Counseling programs enrolled in group s upervision class over the summer 2012 term The counselor education students in this study w ere recruited on a volunte er basis. Both masters and doctoral students in Counselor Education training programs participated in this study The sample for this study included a wide range of students at differing levels in their programs of differing genders, ages, and tracks so t hat the researcher could explore how these variables impact ed the variability of self awareness over the course of the study. Sampling P rocedure Snowballing and convenience sampling procedures w ere utilized for this study. Snowball sampling is a techniq ue for finding research subjects where one subject gives the researcher another potential contact, who may also provide another potential

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49 contact (Vogt, 2005). Vogt (2005) refers to convenience sampling as a sample of subjects convenient for the researche r to utilize. An invitation w as sent to Counselor Educators, focusing on department chairs and group supervisors, to assist in the recruitment of CITs for this research (APPENDIX B). The invitations w as sent out via email on the list serves of American Counseling Association (ACA), American Mental Health Counseling Association (AMHCA), Associations for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW), Association for Counseling and Supervision (ACES), and the un moderated listserv concerning counselor education and supe rvision (CESNET) The researcher also employ ed the assistance from the faculty at Counselor Education Departments via email to ask colleagues across the country for participation. Invitations to participate were extended from July 12 th 2012 through August 24 th 2012. ( http://www.cacrep.org/ directory/directory.cfm ) to obtain a list of full time MHC an d MFT programs in the search yielding a total of 317 results. The researcher co ntacted each Clinical Mental Health, Counselor Education and Supervision, and/or Marriage and Family program listed by phone or email, and inquired if they offered group supervision during summer 2012. If the program offered group supervision during their summer email with an invitation to participate (APPENDIX B). Emails were sent to department chairs when the identity of the group supervisor was not available.

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50 The primar y investigator reached 181 CACREP Counselor Education programs three of these programs confirmed they offered Group Supervision over the 2012 summer term. Upon confirma tion, the primary investigator was given the name of the group supervisor and/or the department head. Each of these connections were contacted by phone and email. Nineteen programs agreed to disseminate the invitation to participate to the group supervis or and/or group supervisees (depending on the contact). The primary investigator was also invited to two group supervision classes in his own program, where he gave a brief synopsis of the study (under 2 minutes) to introduce students to his study, and i nvite them to participate. These CITs were later provided a link to the Group Super vis ion Survey by their group supervisor like all other participants. Data Collection Through descriptive research methods, the researcher investigated what happened du ring group supervision class (GSC) to determine the relationship between awareness. Data w ere collected from July 19 th 2012 through August 29 th 2012 via an online survey method hosted by surveymonkey.com The survey was developed to capture information on the structure awareness. SurveyM onkey developed and owned by Ryan Finley is a user friendly online survey tool that collects dat a and provides a statistica l breakdown of results (Massat, McKay, & Moses, 2009). SurveyMonkey removes web addresses upon receipt of data to insure anonymity of participants. Questions met the standard of minimal harm

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51 to participants Participants w ere informed that participation was voluntary and that all responses we re confidential and anonymous. The Group Supervision Survey wa s composed of three research questionnaires ( each containing 13 items or less) plus five demographic questions. Instructions on how t o complete each survey section were provided. The survey was piloted on four teen volunteer graduate students to obtain an approximation of time required to complete th e survey. The average time required to complete the survey was less than 8 minutes. The researcher received feedback that some items in the first section (questions from the SLQ R) were oddly worded, making the questions confusing and difficult to read. The researcher w as not able to make any changes to these items because they were part of a published survey that has validity and reliability tests reported as is. The only change made after pilot testing was, after the 26 th item on the online survey, t o This was included to give the participant a momentary break and let them know the survey was almost complete in order to decrease attrition. Participating g roup sup ervisor s provide d the ir supervisees a link to the online Group Supervision Survey The informed consent (A ppendix C) was provided at the beginning of the survey. The informed consent form include d a brief overview of the study, purpose, assurance of conf The informed consent also informed participants that by beginning the survey, they acknowledge they have read the information and agree to participate in the research,

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52 with the knowledge they are free to withdraw at any time without penalty. Once participants consent ed to participate, the survey appear ed on their screen. The survey consisted of two Likert type questionnaires measur ing their level of self awareness, a t hirteen item 7 point Likert type questionnaire about their experience of group supervision, and a six item questionnaire regarding their demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, year in program, track and University ). These questionnaires were lumped into one larger 44 item onl ine survey, divided into 4 sections: a) SLQ R, b) CSAS, c) EGSQ, and d) demographics. The cumulative questionnaire was titled Group Supervision Survey The average time taken by participating CITs to complete the Group Supervision Survey was 7 minutes. S upervisors w ere also asked to fill out a four item questionnaire (gender age, program affiliation, and theoretical orientation) with a link provided in the invitation to participate titled Supervisor Demographics The average time taken by participating supervisors to complete the survey was 2 minutes 20 seconds. Design of Study This study s ought to determine the relationship between the trans theoretical processe s and foci of group supervision and the awareness. That is, it sought to determine which supervision foci best cultivate d self awareness in counselors in trainin g regardless of the model and/or theory of supervision utilized T his study implement ed a correlation descriptive research design to clarify the magnitude and direc tion of relationship between particular supervision processes and levels of self awareness of counselors in training enrolled in CACREP accredited programs. Descriptive research attempts to describe characteristics of a given population (Houser, 1998).

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53 Houser (1998) states correlation methods are used to understand and identify the relationship between multiple variables, such as supervision processes and levels of self positivism with the assumption tha t reality can be observed and measured with quantifiable data. This study utiliz ed an online survey method taking a cross section of a sample population at one point in time (Glass & Hopkins, 1996). Surveys are a research design in which a sample of sub jects a re drawn from a given population in order to make inferences about the population (Vogt, 2005). Questionnaires are a group of questions to which subjects respond (Vogt, 2005). Questionnaires are forms of measurement; thus, they are required to ad here to the same standards of validity and reliability as other research measures (Gall, Borg, & Gall, 2007). In addition, questionnaires are often used in educational research in order to collect data about issues that cannot be directly observed such as opinions, values, interests, and attitudes. particular issues and topics (Gall et al., 2007). Gall et al. qualified that in order for a ue opinions there must be evidence that validates the content of the items or another option available for the study to determine what the respondents expressed similar opinions on the other measures of the same construct. Delineation of Relevant Variabl es Indep endent V ariables Independent variables are variables that are used to explain or predict the values of another variable (Vogt, 2005). Vogt (2005) states, most researchers use le, whether in

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54 experimental or non experimental research. Predictor variable is another name for independent variable often used when discussing non experimental research designs such as correlation studies (Vogt, 2005). Independent variables are chosen due to their perceived connection with the dependent variable (Ott & Longnecker, 2005). There w ere six independent, or predictor variables in this study, each in reference to a respective Group Supervision Class, chosen due to their relationship with the dependent variable (self awareness): (1) Focus on process; (2) Focus on content; (3) Focus on countertransference; (4) Focus on personal wellness; (5) Focus on multiculturalism; and (6) Fo cus on self understanding. These independent variables are concepts identified throughout the literature on self awareness in counselors (Aponte, 2009) The researcher controlled for the program, and (g) model of supervision (according to supervisor). The independent variables were chosen because of their seeming relevancy to th e dependent variable of self awareness as outlined in the literature (Ott & Longnecker, 2001). Awareness of countertransference is discussed in the literature as a critical component of counselor development (Burwell Pender & Halinski, 2008; Freud, 1959). Personal wellness has been found to lead to more efficacious counselors (Richards et al., 2010; Schaeffer, 2007). Counselors must be aware of issues related to multiculturalism to be effective with a diverse client population (Sue & Sue, 2003; Suthakar an, 2011). Self understanding has been identified as a salient competency of

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55 effective counselors (Aponte & Carlsen, 2009; Ronnestad & Skovholt, 1993; Urdang, as well as b etween students themselves) in group supervision has been identified in the literature as a critical component of development (Comstock 2005; gren & Sundin, 2009; Yalom, 2005). These critical characteristics of counselor development (countertransference, personal wellness, multiculturalism, self understanding) found throughout the literature we re the independent variables in this study. The amount of focus given to process ( and its counterpoint, content) we re included as independent variables due to their saliency in the literature in regard to supervision. Dependent V ariable The dependent variable is the presumed effect in a study; so called because it prove cause, the dependent variable is the variable whose value is predicted by the independent variable (Vogt, 2005). Vogt (2005) states some authors use criterion or outcome variable in non experimental research. Counselors in awareness, measured by the Supervisee Levels Questionnaire Revised (SLQ R) and the Counselor Self Awareness Scale (CSAS), wa s the dependent, or criterion, variable in this study. Instrumentation Two separate survey instruments w ere used to measure the dependent variable, level of self awareness at the end of the semester in which they we re enrolled in group supervision class (GSC). Students w ere also invited to fill out a thirteen item questionnaire that attempt ed on

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56 class. The three questionnaires were combined into one 38 item Likert type survey (plus demographic information) titled Group Supervision Survey This study measure d self awareness by making use of the Supervisee Level Questionnaire Revised (SLQ R; Stoltenberg et al., 1998) and the Counselor Self Awareness Scale (CSAS; Oden et al., 2009). The researcher developed a questionnaire to describe what happened in the group supervision class (the focus of the class, attention paid to certain constructs et c. ) called the Experience of Group Supervision Questionnaire ( EGS Q). Higher scores on the SLQ R and the CSAS represent higher levels of self awareness. Scores range on the SLQ R from 12 84 points and on the CSAS from 13 91 points. For purposes of interp reting the EGSQ, high er scores represent more process oriented group supervision. Scores on the EGSQ range from 13 (content oriented) 91 (process oriented) total points. Items on the EGSQ were clustered, creating subscales related to foci of group super vision that measure each of the independent variables. Supervisee Level Questionnaire Revised (SLQ R) The SLQ awareness, motivation, and dependency autonomy (Leach & Stoltenberg, 1997). The 30 self rated items (score range = 30 210) use a seven point Likert scale with never and always as polar anchors (Lovell, 2002). The scoring key is broken into three distinct sections; (a) self and other awareness, (b) motivation, and (c) dependency autonomy. This study onl y utilize d the 12 self awareness items. Possible levels of self awareness score on the SLQ R range from 12 84 (Tryon, 1996). The SLQ R in full takes only a few minutes to complete

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57 (Lovell, 2002), and thus the self awareness portion take s approximately 2 3 minutes to complete. Reliability and Validity reported as .83, .74, and .64 with a total score of .88 (Leach & Stoltenberg, 1997; Lovell, 2002; Tyron, 1996). This study only look ed at the twelve questions on the SLQ R that measure self Stoltenberg, and Romans (1992) found the SLQ R to be an effective and appropriate measure of self awareness of CITs. Differences were examined in total scores and subscales between beginning, intermediate, and advanced groups to assess the SLQ correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the subscales of the SLQ R and were deemed an appr opriate measure of each of the constructs (McNeill et al., 1992). Counselor Self Awareness Scale (CSAS) This study also use d the Counselor Self Awareness Scale (CSAS; Oden et al., 2009) to measure self awareness. This second instrument w as used in order to further substantiate the results. The CSAS is a self reported measure of self awareness. Participants will indicate, on a 7 point Likert scale, the point that best represents their perception. The author define s self awareness as the feelings, and behaviors into consciousness, particularly in regards to the counselor client relationship (Oden et al., 2009). The CSAS can be found in Appendix A

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58 Reliability and Validity Oden et al., (2009) used Cronbac .95. Five full professor level counselor educators from CACREP accredited programs were consulted to establish evidence of test content. The items were found to be an appropriate measure of counselor self awareness (Oden et al 2009) Experience of Group Supervision Questionnaire (EGSQ) The researcher developed a thirteen item questionnaire to describe what happened in group supervision class from the student perspective. The EGSQ basically captures the degree to which group supervision class was focused on process versus content from the CITs perspective. gren, M., Jon s son, C., and Sundin, E. (2005) found that attitudes and perceptions of the foci of group supervision are important. In order to an swer the two research questions the researcher developed this questionnaire designed to describe the characteristics of the sample in regards to what happened during their group perspective. Eliciting reliable feedback from experts re garding the research questions is a valid research technique to help develop and improve the question format, face validity, and measurement scales used in the questionnaire (Turoff, 1970). The EGSQ was subject ed to evaluation and scrutiny by a team of four experts from across the country to ensure content validity. Each expert holds a doctoral degree and are full time faculty from separate CACREP accredited Counselor Education programs. The experts reviewed the questionnaire for ambiguity and content overlap to determin e if the questionnaire captured the intended constructs. Feedback was incorporated from each expert and multiple revisions were made before the final version. Revisions addressed the wording of questions and overall flow

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59 of the questionnaire. Definitions were added into individual items to clarify the meaning of: (a) client conceptualization, (b) techniques, (c) open dialogue between supervisees, (d) immediacy (here and now dynamics) (e) countertransference, and (f) self awareness. These were added because some experts felt some Masters level students may not know what the term(s) were referring to. Items on the EGSQ were clustered, creating subscales related to foci of group supe rvision that measure each of the independent variables. Items were sorted into clusters as follows: (a) f ocus on process (items 29, 30, 35, & 38); (b) f ocus on content (items 26, 27, & 28); (c) f ocus on countertransference (it ems 31, 34, 36, 37, & 38); ( d) f ocus on personal wellness (items 32 & 37); (e ) f ocus on multiculturalism (items 33, 34, 37, & 38) ; and (f ) f ocus on self understanding (items 34, 36, 37, & 38). Data Analysis Descriptive statistics, moment coefficient, stepwise li near regression analysis, reliability statistics, and an exploratory factor analysis were used to evaluate data pertaining to the research hypothesis of this study using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS ) version 20 Parametric and non pa rametric program) to analyze differences between groups The researcher moment coefficient to determine if a relationship exists between each inde pendent variable (foci of group supervision) and the dependent variable (CIT self awareness). T he researcher will describe the relationship numerically in terms of direction and magnitude of relationship using moment correlation coeffici ent with a significance level of o.o5.

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60 Multiple r egression analysis is the most appropriate statistical method for examining relationship between a continuous dependent variable (self awareness) and one or more independent variables (Glass & Hopkins, 199 6). A stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to see which, if any, independent variables predicted self awareness. A stepwise regression analysis was used because the number of independent variables and low sample size. After controlling for and track in program, and (g) model of supervision (according to supervisor); the researcher also explored th e overall relationship between each group supervision class and the level of self awareness of the counselors in training in that particular class (mod el of supervision) with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS Reliability statistics were performed since the researcher used a created instrument, the EGSQ. An exploratory factor analysis was run using principal axis components and oblique rotation for each of the scales representing group tural issues (d) personal wellness, (e) countertransference, and (f) self understanding. c omputed to assess whether the 13 items on the EGSQ were summed correctly to create the subscales related to the independent variables (process, content, etc.). Limitations This w as a preliminary exploratory cross sectional correlational study, thus causation cannot be implied. F indings are based on the premise that the variables examined are stable throughout time. Relationships found between variables may potentially be affect ed by other variables not measured and/or controlled for in this

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61 study. Also, the lack of random sampling procedures does not allow the results to be undoubt edly generalized to the target population of all counselors in t raining enrolled in Counselor Education programs. Using a self report measure added another limiting factor. There is potential for participants to exhibit social desirability in some of their responses. Social desirability bias is defined by Vogt (2 005) as the bias in results of surveys that comes from than in a way they actually feel. Also, due to the nature of online surveys, it cannot be known for certain if the person who responded to the questionnaire was the intended CIT who was part of a group supervision class. The relatively low sample size in this study is a limitation. The researcher would like to have had a greater number of participants from a larger pool of programs. Over half of the participants were affiliated with programs in the Southeast, without any participants from programs in the West. An argument can be made that the data cannot be generalized to C IT s nationwide. Though all counselors in training from participati ng group supervision classes were invited to participate, only those willing to volunteer their time actually d id so. An argument can be made that this may have le d to a selection bias in the population. Attrition may have be en a source of bias by the subjects who agreed to participate who fail ed to complete the survey in full ma king the sample less representative of the population (Vo gt, 2005). Since students may have been provided a brief description of the research itself this may have le d to a certain students being more or less motivated to participate.

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62 An other limitation is the new in st r ument created for this study, the EGSQ. With future use of this instrument, further in depth analysis of its reliability and validity would be beneficial. Independent variables measured with this instrument were only measured with 2 5 items. To get a richer understanding of the concepts measured by the EGSQ, one would like to compliment the EGSQ with another instrument and/or expand t he instrument with more items examining each construct. Again, this was an exploratory study and any line of research must start somewhere.

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63 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS OF THE STUDY Summary and Chapter Overview The purpose of this study was to identif y empirically supported trans theo retical training frameworks and strategies self awa reness. This study determine d the direction and magnitude of relationships between different strategies, processes, and foci of group supervision and CITs levels of self awa reness Demographic and descriptive data were obtained about the participants in this study. Descriptive statistics, moment coefficient, stepwise linear regression analysis, reliability st atistics and an exploratory factor analysis were used to evaluate data pertaining to the research hypothes e s of this study. Parametric and non parametric ANOVAs were run on all controlled variables (gender, age, race, program year, and educational institution ) to analyze differences between groups yielding no significant results. While the research hypothesis, description of the population, sample and sample procedures, data collection, delineation of relevant variables, in strumentation, data analysis, and m e tho do logical limitations of this study were reported in the previous chapter, this chapter will discuss the participants demographics, results of testing the hypotheses, clinically significant results, and an overall su mmary of findings. Descriptive Data Analysis Counselors in training from thirteen programs participated in this study. Response rates were as follows: 32% from the Northeast (n=16), 58% from the Southeast (n=29), 8% from the Middle West (n=4) and 2% from the Southwest region of the United States of America (n=1).

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64 Fifty three counselors in training volunteered to participate. Out of the 53 participants, 3 failed to provide demographic information. Fifteen supervisors volunteered to participate and 12 co mpleted the Supervisor Demographics survey in full. Two supervisors failed to provide a program or University they were affiliated with, and one did not provide an age (while adding that they felt experience was more Figures 4 1 through 4 4 outline the demographic and descriptive variables of the CITs who participated in this research study. Of the 50 CITs who completed the survey, 86% were female (n=43) and 14% were male (n=7). Four percent of CITs ide ntified as African American or Black (n=2), 6% identified Asian (n=3), 10% identified as Latino or Hispanic (n=5), 0% identified as Native American (n=0), 74% identified as White or Caucasian (n=37), 0% identified as Middle Eastern (n=0), 4% identified as Multiracial participating CITs ranged from 23 57, with a mean age of 29. Figure 4 1. Descriptive data for gender of CITs

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65 Figure 4 2. Descriptive data for race of CITs Ninety two percent of the CITs were Master level students (n=46) and 8% were Doctoral level students (n=4). Twenty eight percent were Master level Marriage and Family Track (MFT) (n=14), 62% were Master level Mental Health Counseling Track (MHC) (n=3 1), 2% were dual track of MFT and MHC (n=1), 6% were Doctoral level MFT (n=3), and 2% were at Doctoral level MHC (n=1).

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66 Four percent of the CITs were in the 1 st year of their Masters program (n=2), 58% were in the 2 nd year of their Masters program (n=29 ), 20% were in the 3 rd year of their Masters program (n=10), 8% were in the 4 th year of their Masters program (n=4), 4% were in the 1 st year of their Doctoral program (n=2), 2% were in the 2 nd year of her/his Doctoral program (n=1), 2% were in the 3 rd year of her/his Doctoral program (n=1), and Figure 4

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67 Figure 4 Fifteen supervisors participated in this study. Eighty percent identified as female 62, with a mean age of 39 years old/young. Participating supervisors reported using the following supervision and/or counseling models: (a) psychoanalytic, (b) client cente red, (c) humanistic, (d) counselor centered, (e) relational cultural, (f) developmental, (g) cognitive behavioral (CBT), and (h) peer supervision. Results of Research Question Analysis The analyses of data for this study were performed using SPSS version 20. moment correlation was used to determine the direction and magnitude of the relationships between the dependent variable (CITs self awareness as measured by the SLQ R and CSAS) and the independent variables (foci of group

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68 supervisio R and the CSAS represent higher levels of self awareness in CITs. Scores range on the SLQ R from 12 84 points and on the CSAS from 13 91 points. For purposes of interpreting the EGSQ high scores represent a more process oriented group supervision. Scores on the EGSQ range from 13 (content oriented) 91 (process oriented) total points. Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, and sample size) for the SLQ R, CSAS, EGSQ, and each independent variable are presented in Table 4 1. The range of scores are as follows: (a) SLQ R (12 84 points); (b) CSAS (13 91 points); (c) EGSQ (13 91 points); (d ) f ocus on process (4 28 points); (e ) f ocu s on content (3 21 points); (f ) f ocus on countertransference (5 35 points); (g ) f ocus on personal wellness (2 14 points); (h ) f ocus on multicul turalism (4 28 points ) ; and (i ) f ocus on self under standing (4 28 points ). Table 4 1 Mean and Standard Deviation of Variables Me an Std. Deviation N SLQ R 60.53 8. 441 53 CSAS 73.66 8.896 53 EGSQ 57.87 11.021 53 PROCESS 18.67 6.392 53 CONTENT 10.23 3.704 53 COUNTER TRANSFERENCE 23.63 7.239 53 PERSONAL WELLNESS 8.98 2.919 53 MULTICULTURAL ISSUES 18.22 5.819 53 SELF UNDERSTANDING 18.63 5.796 53

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69 Reliability Statistics In order to further assess the reliability of the survey used in this study, R, CSAS, and EGSQ. Results from the analyses of the SLQ R indicate similar alpha scores between the 8 ) and the reported reliability of the instrument (.83) in the literature (Lovell, 2002). Results from the analyses of the CSAS sample the report ed reliability of .95 in the literature (Oden et al., 2009). alpha = .83). Results from the reliability analyses of the EGSQ indicate strong reliability for the EGSQ clust ers and individual items. EGSQ subscales are as follows: (a) .831 for focus on process; (b) .846 for focus on therapist centered processes; (c) .868 for focus on countertransference; (d) .806 for focus on multicultu ralism; and (e) .825 for focus on self understanding. Results indicate countertransference, and self understanding are internally consistent further validating the EGSQ sc ales created by the researcher. Research Question One The first research question asked which components of group supervision best cultivate self awareness in CITs? A Pearson product moment correlation was computed to assess the relationship between the dependent (self awareness as measure by the SLQ R and CSAS) and the independent variables (foci of group supervision as measured by the EGSQ). The researcher describe d the relationship

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70 numerically in terms of direction and magnitude of relationship using moment correlation coefficient with a significance level of 0 0 5. Results indicate that the SLQ R and CSAS are significantly positively correlated Scores on the CSAS were also significantly correlated with scores on the EGSQ Process, m ulticulturalism, and self understanding were the independent variables significantly correlated with self awareness (as measured by the SLQ R and CSAS). Each of th e se independent variables were significantly correlated in a positive direction. Table s 4 2 and 4 3 summarize the results. Table 4 2 (A) SLQ R CSAS EGSQ PROCESS CONTENT SLQ R 1 .595 ** .205 .318* .110 Sig. (2 tailed) .000 .140 .023 431 N 53 53 53 53 53 CSAS .595 ** 1 .316* .329* .101 Sig. (2 tailed) .000 .021 .018 .470 N 53 53 53 53 53 *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2 tailed). ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 tailed). Table 4 3 COUNTER TRANSFERENCE PERSONAL WELLNESS MULTI CULTURALISM SELF UNDERSTANDING SLQ R Correlation .113 .252 .179 .137 Sig. (2 tailed) .421 .069 .200 .326 N 53 53 53 53 CSAS Correlation .252 .200 .275* .275* Sig. (2 tailed) .069 .151 .046 .046 N 53 53 53 53 *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2 tailed).

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71 Research Question Two The second research question asked, more specifically, do group supervision classes that adhere to more aspects of a therapist centered group supervision model c ultivate self awareness in counselors in training to a significantly higher degree than other models that are less process oriented, less focused on the use of self, more client focused, and more focused on treatment planning? A stepwise linear regressio n analysis was used to find the most parsimonious set of predictors most effective in predicting levels of self awareness. The stepwise variables (Ott & Longnecker, 2005). Results indicate there is a mild statistically significant positive relationship between the cultivation of self awareness and focus on process. Tables 4 4 and 4 5 present the results. Table 4 4 Regression analysis: Model s ummary b of self awareness and process focused group supervision Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics Durbin Watson R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Sig. F Change 1 .316 a .100 .082 8.524 .100 5.640 1 51 .021 1.705 a. Predictors: (Constant), PROCESS b. Dependent Variable: CSAS Table 4 5 Regression analysis: Coefficients a of self awareness and process focused group supervision Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. 95.0% Confidence Interval for B Collinearity Statistics B Std. Error Beta Lower Bound Upper Bound Tolerance VIF 1 (Constant) 65.4 6 3.646 17.9 6 .000 58.13 9 72.777 PROCESS .439 .185 .316 2.375 .021 .068 .810 1.000 1.00 a. Dependent Variable: CSAS

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72 The statistical multiple regression calculated an F statistic for group supervision with a focus on process and self awareness (as measured by the CSAS) where R 2 =.100, F 1,51 =5.64, p=.021. These results are statistically significant with the alpha set at .05. Thus, group supervi sion with a focus on process explains 10% of the varia nce in self awareness as measured by the CSAS. Self Awareness (as measured by the CSAS) will increase .44 point for every point increase in focus on process (as measured by the EGSQ). Results also indi cate a significant positive correlation for CITs level of self awareness (as measured by SLQ R) and time spent focusing on self understanding in group supervision. The model predicts that with every point increase of group ivation of self understanding, self awareness (as measured by the SLQ) increases 2.6 points. Results are reported in T able s 4 6 and 4 7. Table 4 6 Regression analysis: Model Summary b of self awareness and focus on self understanding Model R R Sq u a re Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics Durbin Watson R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Sig. F Change 1 .390 a .152 .134 7.939 .152 8.768 1 49 .005 1.372 awareness (awareness of feelings, as well as an understanding from where these feelings originated 37and how these feelings impact and are impacted by others) b. Dependent Variable: SLQ R Table 4 7 Regression analysis: Coefficients a of self awareness and focus on self understanding Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standard Co e fficients t Sig. 95.0% Confidence Interval for B Collinearity Statistics B Std. Error Beta Lower Bound Upper Bound Tol l e r ance VIF 1 (Constant) 47.557 4.451 10.68 .000 38.61 56.50 37 cultivation of self awareness 2.583 .872 .390 2.96 1 .005 .830 4.336 1.00 1.0 0 a. Dependent Variable: SLQ R

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73 Results of the stepwise regression analysis also indicate a statistically significant positive awareness (as measured by the CSAS) and the use of immediacy in group supervision. Results affirm the use of immediacy in group supervision explains 18.1% of the varia nce in self awareness as measured by the CSAS. The results are presented in Table s 4 8 and 4 9. Table 4 8 Regression analysis: Model summary b of self awareness and use of immediacy Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics Durbin Watson R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Sig. F Change 1 .425 a .181 .164 8.268 .181 10.823 1 49 .002 1.867 and classes b. Dependent Variable: CSAS Table 4 9 Regression analysis: Coefficients a of self awareness and use of immediacy Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. 95.0% Confidence Interval for B Collinearity Statistics B Std. Error Beta Lower Bound Upper Bound Tolerance VIF 1 (Constant) 63.692 3.233 19.699 .000 57.195 70.190 35 U se of immediacy 2.128 .647 .425 3.290 .002 .828 3.428 1.000 1.000 a. Dependent Variable: CSAS The analyses run computed a number of statistically significant results. moment coefficients computed found a statistically significant relationship between the two measures of self awareness (SLQ R and CSAS) at the 0 01 alpha level. Results affirm statistically significant relationship s between the EGSQ and both the SLQ R and CSAS at the .05 alpha level. Results also indicate that there is a statistically significant relationship between self awareness (as measured by the

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74 CSAS) and group supervision with a focus on process, multiculturalism, and self understanding. Results from the regression analyses found process focused group supervision as the only significant predictor of self awareness. The statistical multiple reg ression calculated an F statistic for group supervision with a focus on process and self awareness (as measured by the CSAS) where R 2 =.100, F 1,51 =5.64, p=.021 (Table 4 2 ). Summary of Findings The purpose of this study was to identify empirically support ed trans theoretical strategies and frameworks that foster the cultivation of self awareness in CITs. Counselors in training enrolled in group supervision class during the summer 2012 team were the sample for this study. The participating CITs were surve yed to find the relationship between self awareness and different foci of group supervision. Participants filled out a 44 item online survey that measured levels of self awareness, experience of group supervision, and demographic information. A Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was computed to assess the relationship between self awareness and different foci of group supervision. Results indicate all independent variables in this study are positively correlated with self awareness (as measur ed by both the SLQ R and CSAS) with the exception of content focused group supervision. significantly positive correlation between self awareness and group supervision that focuses on process, multicultural issu es, and self understanding of CITs. Results from the multiple regression analysis awareness will be raised when group supervision is process oriented.

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75 cs, results of testing the hypotheses, clinically significant results, and provided an overall summary of findings. The next chapter will have a more in depth discussion of the results, limitations of the study, clinical implication, and suggestions for f uture research.

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76 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS Self a wareness in therapists is universally considered a salient construct across multiple theoretical orientations ; however little is known about how to cultivate this in clinical training (Ha yes & Gelso, 2001) A c ommon belief in the counseling profession is that self understanding is a prerequisite for understanding others (Sumeral & Borders, 1996). Lennie (2007) noted the need for a clear study to identify factors that contribute to pr omoting self awareness in CI Ts The ability to self reflect is widely recognized as salient in the development of successful counselors, yet research indicates counselor educators have encountered only limited success in achieving this objective with students ( Guiffrida, 2005). Hay es and Gelso (2001) suggested future research be directed towards better understanding how therapists can effectively use their critical life experiences to be more efficacious counselors. CACREP standards (2009) suggest that self awareness is a fundamental foundational c omponent of counselor training. Skovholt and Ronnestad (1992) claim critical self reflection is the salient distinction between counselors who develop and grow throughout their career and those who lang uish and burn out. Burwell Pend er and Halinski (2008) declare that with increased levels of self awareness, a counselor is able to differentiate and put aside personal needs in order to best serve the client Bernard and Goodyear (2009) defined the purpose of group supervision as und erstanding of self as counselor are appropriate supervisory tasks at all developmental levels (Ronnestad & Skovholt, 1993). The lit erature suggests group

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77 supervision provides a rare and critical opportunity for counselors in training to look inward. Prieto (2008) discussed the essential need to gain a clearer picture in regard to the practice, method, and utilization of group superv ision. Grant (2006) also highlighted the need for r esearch devoted to documenting effective training processes that address complex concepts, like self awareness, in counse lor education programs Establishing empirically founded benefits t o particular st rategies, foci and processes of gro up supervision is necessary (Myers et al. 2000). In response to the literature, t his study attempted to add to the literature aiming to increas e the efficacy of training programs in producing effective counselors. Th is study examined which trans theoretical processes and/or foci of group supervision best cultivated self awareness in counselors in training. The study employed CITs who were enrolled in group supervision class during the summer 2012 term. Research par ticipants completed a one time 44 item Likert type online survey at the end of the summer term. The independent variables in this study were chosen due to their relevancy to the dependent variable of self awareness as outlined in the literature (Ott & Lo ngnecker, as well as between students themselves) in group supervision has been identified in the literature as a critical component of development (Comstock 2005; gren & Sundin, 2009; Yalom, 2005). Awareness of countertransference is discussed in the literature as a critical component of counselor development (Burwell Pender & Halinski, 2008; Freud, 1959). Personal wellness has been found to lead to more efficacious

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78 cou nselors (Richar ds et al., 2010 ). In order for counselors to be effective with diverse client populations, they need to be aware of issues related to multiculturalism (S ue & Sue, 2003 ). Self understanding has been identified as a salient competency of eff ective counselors (Aponte & Carlsen, 20 09 ). These critical characteristics of counselor development (countertransference, personal wellness, multiculturalism, self understanding) found throughout the literature we re the independent variables in this stud y. The amount of focus given to proces s and its counterpoint, content, we re included as independent variables due to their saliency in regard to supervision Demographic and descriptive data were obtained about the participants in this study. Descriptiv e statistics, moment coefficient, stepwise linear regression analysis, reliability statistics and an exploratory factor analysis were used to evaluate data pertaining to the research hypothesis of this study. This chapter will present a brief description of the research sample, discussion of the research results, limitations of the study, implications for practice and future research, and conclusion. Research Sample A total of 53 CITs participated in this stu dy Three participants failed to enter their respective demographic information. The participants were from thirteen programs across the United States of America Response rates were as follows: 32% from the Northeast (n=16), 58% from the Southeast (n= 29), 8% from the Middle West (n=4) and 2% from the Southwest region of the United States of America (n=1). Eighty six percent were female (n=43) and 14% were male (n=7).

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79 Four percent of CITs identified as African American or Black (n=2), 6% identified Asian (n=3), 10% identified as Latino or Hispanic (n=5), 0% identified as Native American (n=0), 74% identified as White or Caucasian (n=37), 0% identified as Middle Eastern (n=0), 4% identified as Multiracial (n=2), and 2% identified as other (filling in 57, with a mean age of 29. Ninety two percent of the CITs were Master level students (n=46) and 8% were Doctoral level students (n=4). Twenty eight percent were Master level Marri age and Family Track (MFT) (n=14), 62% were Master level Mental Health Counseling Track (MHC) (n=31), 2% were dual track of MFT and MHC (n=1), 6% were Doctoral level MFT (n=3), and 2% were at Doctoral level MHC (n=1). Discussion of Results The literature indicates self awareness and introspection are critical to counselors in training becoming efficacious professional coun selors (De Stefano et al., 2007 ). Professional mental health literature, counselor accreditation standards, and ethical codes assert t hat higher levels of counselor self awareness are positively correlated with therapeutic effectiveness (Lennie, 2005; Oden et al., 2009). Findings from past studies demonstrate that effective counselors at high developmental stages embody high levels of self awareness (e.g., Loganbill et al., 1982; Stoltenberg et al., 1998; Wh eeler et al., 2008 ). Riva (2008) reviewed literature over the past decade regard ing group supervision research and findings support the claims made by Bernard and Goodyear (2009) th at emphasize the importance of process in group supervision

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80 between self awareness and group supervision that focuses on process, multicultural issues, and self understanding o f CITs. Results from the multiple regression analysis awareness will be raised when group supervision is process oriented. esults indicate that process oriented group supervision classes have a sig nificant positive relationship with the cultivation of self awareness. Thus, when group supervision has a focus on process, with an open dialogue between supervisees that incorporates multicultural issues, personal wellness, self understanding while kee ping the dialogue in the here and awareness is raised. On the other side of the coin, results indicate that content oriented group supervision classes (techniques, client conceptualization, and treatment planning) have an inverse re lationship with cultivation of self awareness. These results are salient for training programs interested in producing self aware counselors providing empirical support for group supervision classes to rely more on process than content. Results from the multiple regression analyses further support the findings found through bivariate analyses in this study. These clinically significant results indicate that when group supervision focuses on process, uses of immediacy (here and now dynamics) and focus on awareness are positively impacted. T hese results support the notion that training programs aim ing self awareness would benefit by incorporating more process into group supervision classes. These findings also support

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81 the numerous claims made throughout the literature that incorporating more therapist centered process into group supervision is beneficial (Aponte, 20 09). Limitations of the Study There were a number of limitations in this study that compromised the accredited programs. These include the research design, sample, volunt ary participation, self reported measures, conceptualization of variables, and instrumentation. Research Design This study was a cross sectional correlational study, thus causation cannot be implied. These findings were based on the premise that the va riables examined were stable throughout time. The relationship found between variables may have been affected by other variables not controlled for and/or measured. Also the lack of random sampling does not allow the results to be undoubtedly generalized to the population of all CITs enrolled in CACREP accredited Counselor Education programs. Sample The relatively low sample size is one of the greatest limitations in this study The sample size may be the primary reason for the lack of statistical sign ificance in the majority of the statistical analysis. Another limitation to the generalizability of our sample is that over half of the participants were affiliated with programs in the Southeastern region of the United States. Volunteer Participation There may have been a selection bias in the population due to the nature of volunteer participation. Although CITs from various programs were invited to

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82 participate, only a small percentage actually completed the study. Since the students may have been p rovided a brief description of the research, this may have led to certain students being more or less motivated to participate. Self Reported Measures Using a self report measure adds another limiting factor. There is potential for participants to exhibi t social desirability in some of their responses. Social desirability bias is defined by Vogt (2005) as the bias in results of surveys that comes from than in a way they actually feel. The instruments employed in this study incorporated the following terms: awareness, empathize, confronting, interpersonal impact, immediacy, open dialogue, countertransference, safety, strengths, and vulnerability. Many of these constru cts are subjectively conceptualized and understood. Also, due to the nature of online surveys, it cannot be known for certain if the person who responded to the questionnaire was the intended CIT who was part of a group supervision class. Conceptualizat ion of Variables and Instrumentation The main variable of this study was self awareness. Recalling chapter 2, there are various definitions for self awareness in the literature. Even though this study employed two separate measures of self awareness, it still is a difficult construct to measure and define, especially with only 25 self reported items. The same can be said for most of the other independent variables in this study (process, content, personal wellness, multiculturalism, and self understandi ng). Another limitation in this study was the use of a new instrument created for this study, the Experience of Group Supervision Survey ( EGSQ ) Though this instrument

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83 was subjected to evaluation and scrutiny by a team of experts to ensure content validi ty, more examination of this instrument is desired. A factor analysis was run on the EGSQ with valid reliability scores reported, but the sample was not large enough to determine statistical significance. The independent variables in this study were onl y measured by 2 5 items with the new EGSQ. For a richer understanding of the complex concepts measured by the EGSQ, one would like to compliment the EGSQ with another instrument and/or expand the instrument with more items for each construct. Implicat ions and Future Research This study sought to determine whether a group supervision class that adheres to more aspects of a process and/or therapist centered model cultivates self awareness in counselors in training to a significantly higher degree than mo re content and/or client centered oriented models. Results indicate that process oriented group supervision models that are more therapist centered do indeed cultivate self awareness more so than content based client centered models. The only caveat is t he correlations are weak, although statistically significant. Future research is needed on the EGSQ. The literature continually calls for a clearer picture of what constitutes effective group supervision (Grant, 2006; Myers et al., 2000). The EGSQ addr esses this need directly. The needs purported in the literature along with the positive results of the factor analysis of the EGSQ lead the researcher to believe this instrument has considerable potential to be utilized in future research that is looking at group supervi si on processes, foci, and methods. Further validity and reliability of the EGSQ is needed.

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84 Implications of this study are significant in terms of supervision and training in counseling This study provides evidence of a positive relatio nship between self awareness and group supervision that focuses on therapist centered process. Future research that quantifies change in self awareness over the course of group supervision would be beneficial. Future research findings that continue to support the premise that process oriented therapist centered models of supervision cultivate self awareness more so than other models, may be used to inform accrediting bodies such as CACREP as well as professional co unseling associations (e.g. ACA ) of the need to consider implementing a requirement for more process oriented models of group supervision into their training programs. Summation The greater the awareness counselors possess about their own selves, the greater their ability to develop a deeper knowledge and/or acceptance of their clients (Ronnestad & Skovholt, 1993). Raising self awareness is essential for counselors to be authentic and genuine because they cannot teach what they do not know (Yalom, 2005). The s been under researched, particularly from a trans theoretical perspective (Reupert, 2006). Additional research into trans theoretical supervisory strategies and methods that promote self awareness would contribute to the efficacy of supervision and the p rofession as a whole (Nor em et al., 2006). Schaeffer (2007) declared graduate training programs do not sufficiently address in training personal issues, despite the fact that developing self aware counselors is essential during training. Hanse n (2009) claimed there has been no

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85 critical appraisal in the counseling professional literature of how counselors become self aware. The American Counseling Association stresses that counselor self awareness (SA) is a critical aspect of counselor effecti veness (ACA, 2005). Counselors are responsible for their personal wellness and awareness of their impact on clients (ACA 2005; AMHCA, 2010; CACREP, 2009 ). The code of ethics of the American Mental Health Counselors Association (2010) requires counselors to have self awareness of their knowledge, values, skills, and needs when entering into a helping relationship. Counselor education programs, supervisors, and counselor educators have a professional responsibility to foster self awareness in CITs (ACA, 20 05). CACREP supports the idea of the saliency for Counselor Education Pr ograms to provide space for CIT s to cultivate SA (Oden, et al., 2009). The 2009 CACREP standards state awareness, sensitivity to others, and the skills needed The researcher of this study heed ed the call of many leaders, ethical standards, and accrediting bodies and explored which foci of group supervision best cultivate self awareness in counselors in training. This chapter presented a discussion of research results and implications for future research and training of CITs. Findings of this study have determine d that process oriented group supervision with a focus on a therapist centered approach cultivated se lf awareness to a greater degree than content oriented client centered approaches. This study also provides the foundation for a valid and reliable new instrument to measure the salient constructs of group supervision.

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86 clearly state a need for counselors to become aware of their values, biases, beliefs, and interpersonal dynamics in order to best serve culturally diverse clients (Sue & Sue, 2003). Yalom (2005) asserts counselors are only able to serve clients needs by first being acutely counselor education programs evidence on the importance of cultivating self awareness in group supervision and which methods, strategies, and processes are best at doing so. The results of this preliminary study provide empirical support implying that a shift in the training of future counselors would be beneficial for training programs that desire to produce self aware counselors. For t hese programs, t he time of group supervision classes focused on treatment planning and t echniques may be over. As a profession we need to cultivate counselors that are highly self aware and group supervision seems to be an efficacious place to do so The results of this study support Yalom (2005) work in that g roup supervision can be used to aid CITs in their personal development and, thus, the development of counseling skills, leading to increased positi ve client outcomes This study empirically supports the notion that group supervision that focuses on process, with an open dialogue between supervisees addressing multicultural issues, personal wellness, and self understanding of CITs while keeping the dialogue in the here and now is an effective way to cultivate self awareness in counselors to be. This study substantiates the notion that g roup supervision serves as a useful venue in which counselors can deal with their strengths and weaknesses, as they become increasingly a ware of self, professionally and personally. Like Wampold

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87 (2001), I have hope that self exploration will become as commonplace in training programs as treatment planning and clien t conceptualization The results of this study provide e vidence in support of this, while also offering an outline on how to do so.

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88 APPENDIX A SURVEYS Supervisee Levels Questionnaire Revised (SLQ R) In terms of your own current behavior, please answer the items below according to the following scale: 1: NEVER 2: RA RELY 3: SOMETIMES 4: HALF THE TIME 5: OFTEN 6: MOST OF THE TIME 7: ALWAYS 1. I feel genuinely relaxed and comfortable in my counseling/therapy sessions. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. I am able to be spontaneous in counseling/therapy, yet my behavior is relevant. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. I am able to apply a consistent personalized rationale of human behavior in working with my clients. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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89 4. I feel comfortable in confronting my clients. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. Much of the time in counseling/therapy, I find myself thinking about my next response, instead of fitting my intervention into the overall picture. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. During counseling/therapy sessions, I find it difficult to concentrate because of my concern with my own performance. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. I find I am able to understand my clients' view of the world, yet help them objectively evaluate alternatives. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. I find I am able to empathize with my clients' feelings states, but still help them focus on problem resolution. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9. I am able to adequately assess my interpersonal impact on clients and use that knowledge therapeutically. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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90 10. I am adequately able to assess the client's interpersonal impact on me and use that therapeutically. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11. I believe I exhibit a consistent professional objectivity, and ability to work within my role as a counselor without undue over involvement with my clients. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12. I belie ve I exhibit a consistent professional objectivity, and ability to work within my role as a counselor without excessive distance from my clients. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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91 Counselor Self Awareness Scale In terms of your own curren t behavior, please answer the items below according to the following scale: 1: NEVER 2: RARELY 3: SOMETIMES 4: HALF THE TIME 5: OFTEN 6: MOST OF THE TIME 7: ALWAYS 1. I am aware of my own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. I am aware of the reasons for my behavior. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. I am aware of my personal beliefs about and attitudes toward people who are different than me. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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92 4. I am aware of my own needs. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. I am aware of how the ways that I relate to others might impact my effectiveness as a counselor. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. I am aware of the reasons I feel the ways I do. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. I am aware of how my feelings and attitudes might affect my ability to be objective. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. I am aware of aspects of my personality that may hinder my ability to maintain professional boundaries. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9. I am aware of the reasons I make the choices I make. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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93 10. I am aware of how my experiences might affect my interactions with clients. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11. I am aware of how my beliefs and attitudes might affect my relationships with clients. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12. I am aware of the reasons I think the ways I do. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13. I am awa needs first. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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94 Experience of Group Supervision Questionnaire In terms of your own experience of group supervision class, please answer the items below according to the following scale as explained previously. 1: NEVER 2: RARELY 3: SOMETIMES 4: HALF THE TIME 5: OFTEN 6: MOST OF THE TIME 7: ALWAYS In regards of your personal experience of group supervision class, how much focus/time/energ y was placed on: 1. Client conceptualization ( generating ideas that explain and summarize the client's presenting issues without much consideration of the relational dynamics with the attending counselor in training)? NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. Techniques (theoretically based methods, interventions, and strategies to use with clients)? NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. Treatment planning? NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. Open dialogue between supervisees about cl ients?

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95 NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. Open dialogue between supervisees about each other (e.g. how supervisees experience one another in and/or outside of class)? NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. taking place during sessions with clients? NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. Personal wellness/self NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. Multicultural dynamics between the attending supervisee and her or his client ? NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9. NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10. and classes? NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11. that may be based on personal and/or unresolved issues)? NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12. Supervisee awareness (supervisee's personal reactions to clients that may be based on personal and/or unresolved issues)? NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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96 13. Creating a safe space to share your vulnerabilities and explore strengths an d weaknesses in regard to working/connecting with clients? NEVER ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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97 in Training Demographics 1. Which gender do you most identify with ? a. Female b. Male 2. How old are you? 3. What is your track of study? a. Masters level Marriage and Family Therapist ( MFT ) b. Masters level Mental Health Counselor ( MHC ) c. Masters level dual track of MHC and MFT d. Doctoral level MFT e. Doctoral level MHC f. Doctoral level dual track of MHC and MF T 4. What year of study are you completing ? a. 1 st year o f Masters program b. 2nd year of Masters program c. 3rd year of Masters Program d. 4th year of Masters Program e. 1st year of PhD f. 2nd year of PhD g. 3rd year of PhD h. 4th year of PhD i. 5th year of PhD j. Other 5. What College or University do you currently attend?

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98 6. Which race do you most identify with? a. African American or Black b. Asian c. Latino or Hispanic d. Middle Eastern e. Multiracial f. Native American g. Pacific Islander h. White or Caucasian i. Other (please specify)

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99 Group Supervisor Questionnaire 1. Which theoretical model of counseling and/or model of supervision do you adhere to? 2. 3. Which gender do you most identify with ? a. Female b. Male 4. How old/young are you? 5. What program/University are you affiliated with?

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100 APPENDIX B INVITATION TO PARTIC IPATE This is an invitation to help gain participants for a research study titled: Cultivating Self Awareness in Counselors in Training through Group Supervision. I am asking for your assistance in recruiting current masters and doctoral level Mental Health and Marriage and Family Counselors in Training currently enrolled in Group Supervis ion over the 2012 summer term. The purpose of this study is to determine to what extent different trans theoretical processes of gr oup supervision impact self awareness in counselors in training. This (IRB): Protocol # 2012 U 0731. Recruits will be invited to fill out one short online survey within two weeks of the final meeting day of the summer 2012 semester. The anonymous survey will take about ten minutes to complete in full. If you choose to assist with the provision of counselors in training, currently enrolled in group supervision for the summer, pleas e provide them with the link below assist your students in completing the survey will be greatly appreciated! https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/GroupSupSurvey Group supervision instructors will be asked to provide their basic demographics along with information about their theoretical approach to group supervision. Group supervisors can fill out their survey by cli cking the link below. https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/GroupSupervisorInformation

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101 Please email me at rondel@ufl.edu or call me at 352.283.0028 if I can provide you with more information about the study. Please feel free to forward this email to other potential programs and/or group supervisors who may be willing to participate. Thank you, Ronald R. Del Moro Doctoral F ellow Counselor Education University of Florida

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102 APPENDIX C INFORMED CONSENT Protocol Title: Cultivating Self Awareness in Counselors in Training through Group Supervision. Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participat e in this study. Purpose of the research study: This study will identify empirically supported, trans theoretical training frameworks and awareness. The purpose of this study is to determine to what extent d ifferent processes of group supervision impact self awareness in counselors in training. What you will be asked to do in the study: Participants will be asked to complete one 38 item online survey at the end of their group supervision class during the sum mer 2012 semester. Participants will also be asked to fill out their basic demographics (age, gender, ethnicity, year in program, and track). Time required: All group participants will be registered for group supervision class in their program of study. T he one time self report online survey will take approximately 5 10 minutes to complete in full. Risks and Benefits: There are no foreseeable risks for participating in this study. A potential benefit is that Counselors in Training (CIT) self awareness ma y be raised by simply thinking about

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103 some of the questions. Another benefit is that participants will be contributing to the knowledge base of research associated with counselor education and supervision. Compensation : There is no compensation for participating in this study. Confidentiality: not be recorded. Participants will be asked to present gender, age, ethnicity, and year in the program. When the stu dy is completed and the data have been analyzed, all identifiable information will be destroyed. Voluntary participation: Participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study : Ronald R. Del Moro Counselor Education Program University of Florida rondel@ufl.edu Cell Phone 352.283.0028 This st udy is being supervised and chaired by: Silvia Echevarria Doan, Ph.D., LMFT, LCSW Counselor Education Program School of Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education University of Florida silvia@coe.ufl.edu Office: (352)273 4323

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104 Whom to cont act about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office Box 112250 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 2250 Phone (352) 392 0433 Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. By beginning the survey, you acknowledge that you have read this information and agree to participate in this research, with the knowledge that you are free to withdraw your participation at any time without penalty.

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105 LIST OF REFERENCES Airasian, A., Gay, L., & Mills, G. (2006). Educational Research: Competencies for analysis and application (8 th ed). New Jersey: Pearson Publishing. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (2001). AAMFT Code of Ethics. Retrieved October 21, 2011 from http://www.aamft.org/imis15/Content/Legal_Ethics/Code_of_Ethics.aspx. American Counseling Association (2005). ACA code of ethics and standards of practice. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.counseling.org/Resources/ CodeOfEthics /TP/Home/CT2.aspx American Mental Health Counselors Association (2010). AMHCA code of ethics. Retrieved November 20, 2011 from https://www.amhca.org/assets/news/ AMHCA_Code_of_Ethics_2010_w_pagination_cxd_51110.pdf Aponte, H. J. (1994). HOW PERSONAL CAN TRAINING GET? Journal of Marital & Family Therapy 20 (1), 3 15. Aponte, H. J., & Carol Carlsen, J. J. (2009). An Instrument for Person of the Therapist Supervision. Journal of Marital & Family Therapy, 35(4), 395 405. Aponte, H. J., Powell, F., Brooks, S., Watson, M. F., Litzke, C., Lawless, J., & Johnson, E. (2009). Training the Person of the Therapist in an Academic Setting. Journal Of Marital & Family Therapy 35 (4), 381 394. Bemak, F., & Epp, L. (2001). Countertransference in the development of graduate student group counselor s: Recommendations for training. Journal for Specialists In Group Work 26 (4), 305 318. Bernard, J., & Goodyear, R. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (4 th ed .). Columbus, OH: Person. Bliss, S. (2005). A case for developing the emotional capaci ties of social workers: A commentary on 'Promoting self awareness: Infant observation training as a 62. Borders, D. (1998). Personality development: Theoretical, empirical, and clinical investigatio ns of Loevinger's conception of ego development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Bowen, V. (2001). Supervising the counselor: a cyclical model (2 nd ed.) New York, NY: Psychology Press. Burwell Pender, L. & Halinski, K. (2008). Enh anced Awareness of Countertransference. Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory & Research, Vol. 36 Issue 2 p38 59, 14.

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106 Calderwood, K. A. (2011). Adapting the Transtheoretical Model of Change to the Bereavement Process. Social Work 56 (2), 10 7 117. Chen, C. (1998). The Self Awareness Training Program in Counselor Education. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Cobia, D. C., & Boes, S. R. (2000). Professional Disclosure Statements and Formal Plans for Supervision: Two Strategies for Minimizing the Risk of Ethical Conflicts in Post Master's Supervision. Journal of Counseling & Development 78 (3), 293. Cobia, D. C., & Pipes, R. B. (2002). Mandated Supervision: An Invention for Disciplined Professionals. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80(2) 140. Comstock, D (2005). Diversity and Development. Belmont, CA: Thomas Brooks/Cole. Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Re lated Educational Programs (CACREP). (2009). 2009 Standards. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.cacrep.org/doc/2009%20 Standards%20with%20cover.pdf. De Stefano, J., D'Iuso, N., & Blake, E. (2007). Trainees' experiences of impasses in counseling and t he impact of group supervision on their resolution: A pilot study. Counseling & Psychotherapy Research : 7, 1 42 47. D u Plock, S. (2009). An Existential Phenomenological Inquiry into the Meaning of Clinical Supervision. Existential Analysis: Journal Of Th e Society For Existential Analysis 20 (2), 299 318. Duncan, B., Miller, S., Wampold, B., & Hubble, M. (2010). The heart and soul of change: Delivering what works in therapy (2nd ed.) Washington, DC US: American Psychological Association Ellis M. & Ladany, N. (1996). Clinical supervision research from 1981 to 1993: A methodological critique. Journal of Counseling Psychology: Vol. 43, Issue 1, p 35. Farber, E. W. (2010). Humanistic existential psychotherapy competencies and the supervisory process. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 47 (1), 28 34. Fernando, D. M. (2007). Existential Theory and Solution Focused Strategies: Integrat ion and Application. Journal Of Mental Health Counseling, 29(3), 226 241. Field, A. P. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS : (and sex and drugs and rock 'n' roll) (3 rd ed) Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications Freud, S. (1959). The dynamics of transference. In J. Strachey, The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth Press.

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107 Gall, M., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (1996). Educational research: An introduction (6th ed.) White Plains, NY England: Longma n Publishing. Garrett, M., Borders, L., Crutchfield, L., & Torres Rivera, E., Brotherton, D., & Curtis, R. (2001). Multicultural Supervision: A paradigm of cultural responsiveness for supervisors. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development: 29, 147 158. Gelso, C. J., Latts, M. G., Gomez, M. J., & Fassinger, R. E. (2002). Countertransference management and therapy outcome: An initial evaluation. Journal Of Clinical Psychology 58 (7), 861 867. Glass, G. V., & Hopkins, K. D. (1996). Statistical met hods in education and psychology (3rd ed.) Needham Heights, MA US: Allyn & Bacon. Grant, J. (2006). Training Counselors to Work With Complex Clients: Enhancing Emotional Responsiveness Through Experiential Methods. Counselor Education & Supervision 45 (3) 218 230. Groth, M. (2008). Authenticity in existential analysis. Existential Analysis, 19(1), 81 101. Guiffrida, D. A. (2005). The Emergence Model: An Alternative Pedagogy tor Facilitating Self Reflection and Theoretical Fit in Counseling Students. Coun selor Education & Supervision, 44(3) 201 213. Hansen, J. T. (2009). Self Awareness Revisited: Reconsidering a Core Value of the Counseling Profession. Journal Of Counseling & Development 87 (2), 186 193. Hayes, J. A., & Gelso, C. J. (2001). Clinical implications of research on countertransference: Science informing practice. Journal Of Clinical Psychology 57 (8), 1041 1051 Hayes, J. A., Gelso, C. J., & Hummel, A. M. (2011). Managing countertransference. Psychotherapy 48 (1), 88 97. Hendricks, B., Bradley, L. J., Southern, S., Oliver, M., & Birdsall, B. (2011). Ethical code for the International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors. The Family Journal 19 (2), 217 224. Hightower, E. (1988). Four Illustrations of He althy Personality: A prescription for living the good life. Journal Of Clinical Psychology 44 (4), 527 535. Holloway E. & Neufeldt S. ( 1995). Supervision: Its contributions to treatment efficacy. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology: Vol. 63 Is sue 2. Houser, R. (1998). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.

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108 Hubbs, D. L., & Brand, C. F. (2005). The Paper Mirror: Understanding Reflective Journaling. Journal of Experiential Educatio n, 28(1) 60 71. Hyman, R. (1979). Construct Validity of Shostrom's Personal Orientation Inventory: A Systematic Summary. Measurement And Evaluation In Guidance V12, n3 p174 82. Jacobsen, B. (2007). Authenticity and our basic existential dilemmas: Founda tional concepts of existential psychology and therapy. Existential Analysis, 18(2), 288 296. Kees, N. L., & Leech, N. L. (2002). Using Group Counseling Techniques to Clarify and Deepen the Focus of Supervision Groups. Journal For Specialists In Group Work 27 (1), 7 15. Leach, M. M., & Stoltenberg, C. D. (1997). Self efficacy and counselor development: Testing the. Counselor Education & Supervision 37 (2), 115. Lennie, C. (2007). The role of personal development groups in counselor training: understanding factors contributing to self awareness in the personal development group. British Journal of Guidance & Counseling: 35(1), 115 129. Linton, J. (2003). A Preliminary Qualitative Investigation of Group Processes in Group Supervision: Perspectives of Master The Journal for specialists in group work: Vol. 28 Issue 3. Locke, D. (2001). ACES at Its Best: Celebrating the Human Spirit. Counselor Education & Supervision: Vol. 40, Issue 4. Locke, D. (2009). It's Time We Brought Introspection Out of the Closet. Perspectives on Psychological Science : Vol. 4, Issue 1. Loganbill, C., Hardy, E., & Delworth, U. (1982). Supervision: A conceptual model. Counseling Psychologist: 10(1), 3 42. Love ll, C. (2002). Development and Disequilibration: Predicting Counselor Trainee Gain and Loss Scores on the Supervisee Levels Questionnaire. Journal Of Adult Development 9 (3), 235. Massat, C., McKay, C., & Moses, H. (2009). Monkeying around: Use of Survey M onkey as a Tool for School Social Work. School Social Work Journal 33 (2), 44 56. McAuliffe, G. J. (2002). Student Changes, Program Influences, and Adult Development in One Program of Counselor Training: An Exploratory Inductive Inquiry. Journal Of Adult Development 9 (3), 205.

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114 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ronald Ranieri Del Moro is a Licensed Mental Health Counselor who received his D octor of Philosophy from the Universi ty of Florida in the fall of 2012. He was born in a suburb of New York City in 1976 Upon graduating from high school, he headed south to Virginia to pursue his Bachelor of Science in Interpersonal Communication from James Madison University. A fter gra duating from James Madison University Ron moved to Central America to teach local children in a remote cloud forest. D uring this time he became increasingly aware of the many invisible privileges he was granted simply by being born into a white middle cl ass family. Ron spent the better part of the next six years travelling around the world while working at the Omega Institute for Holistic Studies. As a result from working at Omega and traveling Ron recognized the importance of mental health in a holist ic framework. H e gained multiple certifications in alternative health disciplines, most notably in Transformational Breathwork ; a healing modality that utilizes a specific breathing pattern to help individuals heal themselves physically, mentally, and em otionally. In 2005 Ron moved to Gainesville and entered the Couns elor Education Program. He soon realized his passion and skill s in working with diverse clientele in an array of settings with a special interest in group work During his practicum experience at the Alachua County Crisis Center he witnessed how salient and beneficial group supervision can be in the training of counselors personally and professionally. Group effectiveness with cl ients but also help ed him become a better person in all area s of his life. It was this experience at the crisis center that this study found its roots.

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115 In 2008 Ron continued his scholarl y pursuits and entered into the University of Counselor Edu cation Ph D prog ram Since then, Ron has focused on learning to be an effective counselor educat or clinician, and supervisor while cultivating his own self awareness Sexual Trauma and Inte rpersonal Violence Education Program while carr y i ng a full Counselor. Ron hopes to pursue a career in Counselor Education with a focus on the training and supervision of counselors to be in a group format