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1 P ORTRAYALS OF WOMEN IMMIGRANTS TO SPAIN IN FICTION AND FILM : 1997 2011 By DONNA GILLESPIE A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEG REE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 Donna Gillespie
3 To my family
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank all of the members of my Dissertation Supervisory Committee: Professor Geraldine Nichols, Professor Carina G onzlez, Professor Luis Alvarez Castro, and Professor Sylvie Blum for her constant guidance, support, and encouragement over the past few years. Her in valuable feedback and insight throughout this proc ess was essential in my completing this project. I would also like to thank all of my professors at UF an d at the Saint Louis University Madrid campus for inspiring me to pursue a career in academia. like to thank my family; their love, patie nce, and support made this dissertation possible.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 10 Arpillera ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 Description of Project ................................ ................................ .............................. 11 2 SOCIO POLITICAL CONTEXT, MEDIA, LITERATURE REVIEW, AND THEORETICAL CONCEPTS ................................ ................................ .................. 18 Arpillera ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 18 Socio political Context and Media ................................ ................................ ........... 19 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 29 Theoreti cal Concepts ................................ ................................ .............................. 32 3 WOMEN IMMIGRANTS AS THE OTHER ................................ .............................. 41 Arpillera ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 41 African Women Immigrants ................................ ................................ ..................... 46 Latin American Women Immigrants ................................ ................................ ........ 57 Under Represented Groups ................................ ................................ .................... 69 4 LANGUAGE, RELATIONSHIPS, AND DIFFERENCES: MANIFESTATION OF RESISTANCE ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 73 Arpillera ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 73 Adoption or R ejection of a Different Language ................................ ....................... 76 Relationships with Native Born Spaniards ................................ .............................. 86 Affirming or Rejecting Differences ................................ ................................ .......... 97 5 SPACES OCCUPIED, LITERAL AND METAPHORIC, BY IMMIGRANT WOMEN ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 106 Arpillera ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 106 Physical Spaces Occupied: from the Periphery to the Center .............................. 109 Metaphoric Spaces: New Sub Communities are Formed ................................ ..... 122 6 CON CLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 129
6 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 134 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 141
7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Aprendemos unas de otras (picture provided by the Fundaci Ateneu Sant Roc ) ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 10 2 1 Viajo en avin (picture provided by the Fundaci Ateneu Sant Roc ) .................. 18 3 1 El reflejo de mis manos (picture provided by the Fundaci Ateneu Sant Roc ) ... 41 4 1 Nuestra clase de castellano (picture provided by the Fundaci Ateneu S ant Roc ) ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 73 5 1 La plaza roja II (picture provided by the Fundaci Ateneu Sant Roc) ............... 106
8 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy P ORTRAYALS OF WOMEN IMMIGRANTS TO SPAIN IN FICTIO N AND FILM : 1997 2011 By Donna Gillespie December 2012 Chair: Geraldine Nichols Major: Romance Languages Spanish The demographics of the immigrant population arriving to Spain have changed dramatically over the past few decades as a result of globalizat ion. With an increasing diversity of ethnic groups residing together in Spanish society, the issues of difference and integration come into question in a multicultural context. This dissertation analyzes the portrayal of recent immigration to Spain in wo immigrants and the particular issues they face. I examine works produced between 1997 2011 to see if there are identifiable changes in the representation of the woman immigrant: her power, autonomy and voice. I have cho sen to concentrate on written and cinematographic texts, in Spanish and Catalan, by the following authors and directors : Dulce Chacn, Najat El Hachmi, Luca Extebarria, Nieves Garc a Benito, Clara Obligado, Lourdes Ortiz Juana Salabert, Iciar Bollan, Ir ene Cardona, Isabel Coixet Chus Guitrrez, Ariadna Pujol, Helena Taberna, and Ana T orres I also include a brief stries) gathered in a catalog titled Arp illeras, dones cosint histries published by the Funda ci Ateneu Sant Roc in Barcelona. The inclusion of these tapestries in this study enriches its content by recognizing cultural production in an alternative form as a valuable complement to
9 literature and film produced by women on the topic of the represent ation of women immigrants in Spain. Drawing from the theories of Edward Said, Homi Bhahba, and Josefina Ludmer in literature, and Bill Nichols, Ella Shohat and Robert Stam in film, t his study focuses on the racial and socio cultural differences presented within my corpus that not only define these women, but also affect their integration into the hegemonic Spanish culture and society, resulting in the formation of a new sense of identity and community among the immigrants I will demonstrate this through an analysis of the portrayal of women immigrants as the Other and of the physical and metaphorical spaces they occupy.
10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Figure 1 1. Aprendemos unas de otras (picture provided by the Fundaci Ateneu Sant Roc ) (I would like to than k the Fundaci Ateneu Sant Roc for providing the pictur e images of all the arpilleras included in this dissertation.) Arpillera The arpillera year old native of Barcelona, Aurora Flores Moreno. In her written description of the tapestry, she emphasizes the collaboration of women, both Moroccan and Gypsy, as they learn to read and write at the Fundaci Ateneu Sant Roc.
11 todas juntas, las mujeres marroques y las mujer es gitanas. Unas aprendemos de las The warm colors chosen for the background are inviting to the viewer as are the rainbow of colors that comprise the written portion of the tapestry along wit h the buttons and ribbons that surround what appears to be either a table or blackboard. This selection of colors and themes reflects the multicultural setting in which these women different backgrounds, some immigrant and others not, set their differences aside as they come together to learn and empower themselves at a cultural center in the neighborhood of Sant Roc. 1 Description of Project Most of the twentieth century, Spain was a nation of emigrants whose citizens left for other European countries as well as for Latin America and the United States. They did so for political and economic reasons, including the Spanish Civil War and subsequent economic hardship throughout the count ry. 2 This trend changed in the nd Portuguese came to Spain in search of economic betterment. Irene Andres Surez dates the most recent wave of immigration to Spain to 1970, and attributes its subsequent integracin a la Unin Europea, las relaciones privilegiadas con Amrica Latina, la proximidad geogrfica con frica, el desarrollo de la industria del turismo, y el fuerte 1 Ethnic and Racial Configurations in Contemporary Spanish Culture Isabel Santaolalla two groups share a marginalized existence in contemporary Spain. 2 The number of emigrants reached 3,719,725 between 1961 70. Emigration subsequently declined in (Andres Surez 10).
12 descenso de la natalidad entre 1975 y 1985, son facto res que van a favorecer e This sharp increase in immigration has wrought profound changes in Spain over the past few decades and the demographics of the immigrant population itself have changed dramaticall y as a result of globalization. The increasing diversity of ethnic groups residing together in Spanish society brings the issues of difference and integration into relief. The salience of this phenomenon can be traced, as I will show, in cultural artifac ts and media coverage. Given the large corpus of works dealing with this topic, I have focused my study on literature and film featuring women immigrants and produced by women writers and directors, both Spanish and non Spanish. 3 This dissertation will e xamine the portrayal of recent women immigrants and their particular issues in uced between 1997 2011 As I trace the development of this material I will seek to contextualize it in an ever changing Spain. I posit that the racial an d socio cultural differences presented in these works not only define these women, but also affect their integration into the hegemonic Spanish culture and society This has resulted, at least in the works considered, in the formation of a new sense of id entity and community among the immigrants. 4 I will demonstrate this through an analysis of the portrayal of women immigrants as the Other and of the physical and metaphorical spaces they occupy. My study will trace the evolution of 3 Andres Su Europa: cine y migraciones desde el sur present a comprehensive outline of literature and film dealing with the topic of immigration to Spain. 4 I will borrow Carlota Sol and Snia Pare we understand the socio cultural integration of migrants as the process by which the latter are incorporated into the occupational and social structures and progressively accepts the institutions, beliefs, values and symbols of the receiving society without renouncin
13 portarits of the woman immigrant between earlier and more recent works taking the W omen immigrants are portrayed with more frequency over the years, and have been given new roles and i ncreased agency; indeed some are self representions. Still the issues of identity and integration persist. While the small size of my corpus precludes categorical assertions, I will also show differences in the representation of immigrants between Spani sh and non Spanish artists in their portrayal of these women. 5 I have chosen to concentrate on written and cinematographic texts of undeniable aesthetic merit in Spanish and Catalan, produced by relatively well known and often prize winning authors and d irectors. 6 The novels include: Hblame musa, de aquel varn (1998) by Dulce Chacn, Salsa (2002) by Clara Obligado, Jo tamb sc catalana (2004) by Najat El Hachmi, and Cosmofobia (2007) by Luca Extebarria. The short Garca Benito; texts from two short story collections by Lourdes Ortiz, Ftima de los naufragios (1998) and Ojos de gato (2011), and another from Las otras vidas (2005) by Clara Obligado. The cinematic narrat ives include the fictional films Flores de otro mundo (1999), directed by Icar Bollan; Un novio para Yasmina (2008), by Irene Cardona; Retorno a Hansala (2009), by Chus Guitrrez; and the documentary works Extranjeras (2003), 5 I will use the term s citizens will be noted as they occur. 6 The narratives included were w orks produced in Spanish and Catalan, the only other language of the known both inside and outside Catalonia; her novel ltim patriarca was translated into five languages. Jo tamb s c catalana is one of the few first person accounts that I was able to find on this topic.
14 directed by Helena Taberna; Si nos dejan (2004), by Ana Torres; Aguaviva (2006), by Invisibles (2007), by Isabel Coixet. catalog titled Arp illeras dones cosint histries [Arpilleras, Women Sewing Stories], published by the Fundaci Ateneu Sant Roc in Barcelona. These pieces are the work of sixty eight women in Barcelona (Spanish and non Spanish) who gathered to create a material representation of their emigration or immigration stories, collective and individual (3). The tapestries in this collection offer a unique insight into different life experiences by a diverse group of women coexisting in a multicultural society The image of an arpillera an d a brief analysis will be presented as an introductory component to each chapter I t was only in the mid to late nineties that women writers and directors began portr aying women immigrants from the latest wave of immigration, but there has been a consiste nt flow of narratives since then. 7 I selected works by well known writers and directors whose reflections on the topic encompass a range of literary and cinematograp hic styles and provide a feminine perspective on the lives of immigrant women in contempor ary Spain 8 In their study of arpilleras Alba Prez and Mar a Violo refer to Chilean arpilleristas s dictatorship lzan sus voces de hilo y aguja en denuncia a la situacin poltica del pas que les dejaba sin acceso a bienes 7 The literature section of Chapter 2 presents a more detailed review of male and female authored narratives featuring women immigrants. 8 been otherized for centuries. In fact, Gypsy women are th e authors of several of the tapestries in the
15 (45). These women were as are the women that created the tapestries I have included in this project who are mentioned by P rez and Vi olo. They affirm t Espaa, el primer taller de arpilleras se realiz los cinco primeros meses del a o 2009, P rez and Violo aver that visible in public spaces and exhibits around the world (52). They propose that there has been r esignificacin de la tradicional funcin de las labores artesanales femeninas, recuperando ese espacio como lugar de comunicacin e intercambio para las mujeres, que le s permite expresar su especifidad, es decir, su manera de experimentar el mundo, y su desacuerdo, su negativa a acept The women of Sant Roc (immigrants and Spaniards alike) who participated in the workshop in Badalona, also ra ise their voices in response to their current socio political situation by creating tapestries that express their hopes and fears in a rapidly changing multicultural Spanish society. The inclusion of these tapestries in my project enriches its content by recognizing cultural production in an alternative form as a valuable complement to literature and film produced by women on the topic of the representation of women immigrants in Spain. This project is divided into six chapters, including the introductory chapter. The second chapter details the socio political context of emigration and immigration patterns to and from Spain, media response to the immigration phenomenon, a literature review, and an introduction to the theoretical concepts that will be used to illuminate the changes in representation of the woman immigrant Other. It will include statistics for
16 this latest migration to Spain as well as official documents that outline changes in laws and regulations affecti ng the immigrant population, particul ar ly women. I will also discuss statistics gathered from the Instituto Nacional de Estadstica, and information from the Ley de Extranjera and the Plan Estratgico de Ciudadana e Integracin (PECI). Several articles and continuing sections of varied ne ws and media sources will serve to suggest how the media treat and how they present the image of the immigrant woman. The third chapter explores issues of identity, noting the many differences ascribed to women immigrants in their search for a sense of bel onging in their new surroundings. Their otherness tends to be defined in terms of gender, ethnicity, religion, and socio economic factors. I will discuss those shown to be different with respect to ethnicity and gender, who are portrayed in terms of thei r African, Latin American, and Caribbean heritages, or, in a few cases, their Chinese or Eastern European background. 9 I will also consider the representation of socioeconomic differences. I will first present earlier works and then the more recent; the re are over this time span, but the phenomenon nonetheless persists Given the limited size of my corpus, conclusions will be tentative. The fourth chapter fo cuses on the manifestations of resistance by the woma n immigrant observable in a different language, their dealings with Spaniards, and the affirmation or re jection of 9 I will study Caribbean women separately; the unique characteristics and differences they portray vary significantly from other Latin American women.
17 their own otherness. This chapter reveals the ambivalence felt by women immigrants as they adapt to their new environment. The fifth chapter explores the immigr both literal and metaphoric. I will first addr ess the personal and professional loci in which they move e xploring any shifts from peripheral or rural spaces to central or urban settings. I will then consider their occupation of metaphoric spaces, drawing from Dolores Juliano and Josefina Ludmer. Lastly community in response to persistent marginalization in th e hegemonic culture The final chapter will summarize the conclusions reached in the course of this study as presented in prior chapters. It will a lso note areas of research that remain to be explored Globalization and the emigration it has precipitated is an important topic for study. Spain, gateway between Africa and Europe and Latin America and Europe, has had an unprecedented growth in immigrat ion in the past few decades, paralleled by increased production of cultural artifacts that explore the topic. My analysis of the changes in the representation of immigrants in literature and film in the past fourteen years and more specifically, of women immigrants as portrayed by women writers and directors, will contribute to understanding the complexities of this transformational stage in Spain, and by extension, in the world.
18 CHAPTER 2 SOCIO POLITICAL CONTEXT, MEDIA, LITERATURE REVIEW, AND THEORETICA L CONCEPTS Figure 2 1. Viajo en avin (picture provided by the Fundaci Ateneu Sant Roc ) Arpillera This tapestry was made b y Sadaf Akram, a 20 year old woman from Pakistan. In her written description of the arpillera she affirms that she has only flow n three times: the first with her family to join her father already living in Barcelona, the second from Barcelona to Pakistan t o be married, and the third, back to Barcelona. The first flight was the only time she travelled in company, and she expresses some fear of travelling
19 alone. Currently awaiting the arrival of her new husband from Pakistan, she mentions the amount of paperwork that lies ahead of them (10). The arpillera displays a very dark, deep blue shade as its background. It contains a large plane and four triangular shapes that represent a mountainous landscape at the top of the tapestry, probably suggesting that those objects are distant The w oman portrays herself wearing traditio nal clothing and standing alone beside a door. This represe ntation of home is suspended in empty space. I conjecture that the dark colors chosen as the backdrop represent the fear she conveys in her description: fear of travel, of c hange, of being alone. Presumably the door is in Barcelona since she states Me g question whether or not that door, representing home and a sense of belonging, is in Barcelona or Pakistan. In the following section, statistics and research will show that women immigrants are increasingly taking the initiative to migrate independently; many Socio political Context and M edia There has been a significa nt increase in medi a attention to the topic of immigration in Spain in the past couple of decades, catalyzed by the dramatic demographic change that the country has experienced since the seventies. A newly multicultural Spanish society has initiated a conversation on immigr ation in the media, one that often leads to opposing points of view This chapter will discuss the mediatic portrayal of immigration, more specifically of women immigrants. I will also review earlier research and findings on the topic and outline the pri mary theoretical approaches that will be used to analyze the narratives selected and assess the changes found between earlier and more recent works.
20 The first focus of attention is the portrayal of women immigrants an d related demographic data in news and cultural reports available online, as well as in governmental and non profit organization reports. The sources include the Instituto Nacional de Estadstica ( INE ) the newspapers El Pas and El Mundo the Secretar a de Estado de Inmigrac in y Emigracin a nd the Spanish Red Cross, and other web pages highlighting cultural events and artifacts 1 After a brief look at the sources of information available to readers or viewers, I will consider the discourse and representations that emerge therefrom. These, in turn, are echoed in my corpus like veritable intertexts. According to The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism intertextuality is: conventions, unconscious practices, and texts. Every text is an intertext that borrows, knowingly or not, from the immense ar chive of previous culture. The term (inter)textuality with the parenthesis, capt ures the sense of textuality as being conditioned by this ine scapable historical intertext. (21) The depiction of women immigrants in these sources is problematic, as it is in the narratives of my corpus will show a disparity between the official statistics on (women) immigrants and images projected in the media. 1 The news media samp le is limited to articles from two Spanish newspapers, El Pas and El Mundo although I also reviewed items from ABC I chose El Pas and El Mundo because of their high circulation El Pas has selling left El Mundo ABC it has supported the ABC index related to immigration deal primarily with images of pateras, crime, and unemplo yment. A recent article about
21 In 2011, t he Instituto Nacional de Estadstica (INE) placed t he total foreign population in Spain at 5,730,667 (12.2% of the total population), 47.8% o f which are women (ine.es). The principle countries of origin are: Romania, 15.1%; Morocco, 1 3.4%; the UK, 6.8%; Ecuador, 6.3% ; and Colombia, 4.7% (ine.es). The proportion of female to male immigrants varies enormously by region of origin. Women constitute 60.1% of the Central American and Caribbea n immigrant population, 47.5% of those from the E U 27 56.0% of those from other European countries, 55.1% of the South Americans, 54.7% of Nor th Americans 40.1 % of the Asian immigrant population, and 37.1% of the Africans (ine.es). The four regions in Spain with the highest representation of women imm igrants are: Catalua with 553,293 women, the Comunidad de Madrid with 537,546, the Communit at Valenciana with 423,210 and A ndaluca with 336,000 (II PECI, 31). The majority of the immigrant population resides in urban centers, with women constituting al most half of the ir total number. There has been a steady rise in the immigrant population for years, although the census projects a slight decrease in the total registered foreign population for 2012. 2 The government has developed several strategies in rec ent years to address this new ly multicultural society now in grips of a serious economic recession One example 2014 a 262 page initiative of the Secretaria de Estado de Inmigracin y Emigraci n whose objective la integracin como uno de los ejes centrales de la poltica de inmigracin que, 2 on the 2012 projected census indicates that the actually a 0.7% decrease according to their statistics. The report affirms that the countries that represent the bigg est increase from the previous year ( in order from highest to lowest) are Romania, Pakistan, Morocco, and China. Those countries that represent the biggest decrease are Ecuador, Colombia, and Argentina. Women comprise 48.1% (2,746,809) of the total regis tered foreign population f or this year compared to men, a 0.3% increase from 2011 (47.8%, 2,741,061) (ine.es).
22 teniendo en cuenta el acervo de la Unin Europea en materia de inmigracin y proteccin internacional, apuesta por lograr un marco de conviv encia de identidades y 2010) and to implemen t new strategies to facilitate integration an nivel ptimo de convivencia Several figures attest to immigrants in socio political activities. The Plan states that in 2009 there were 488 registered foreign associations in Andaluca, Madrid, Murcia, Valencia and Barcelona (the majority formed after 2005) (43). In the economic sector, the II PECI shows that although statistics are currently unreliable because of the economic crisis in Spain, in Feb. 2011, 11.19% of immigrants were registered as independent workers according to Social Se curity charts (46). It is noted that women s precarios, duracin determinada o tiempo parcial inmigrantes se han convertido en l deres cvicos dentro de sus comunidades y han dado el salto hacia la poltica (55) The Plan acknowledges that the economic crisis has had a significant impact on its strategies and evaluations; although the majority of the Spanish populat ion supports pursue citizenship and to vote, this endorsement is contingent upon the immigrants abiding by Spanish law. T he Plan states: se vive en el momento de redactar este nuevo Plan coincide con un in cremento del discurso limitador. Sera un error que avanzara la percepcin equivocada de que la
23 igualdad no es una necesidad bsica, sino una cuestin secundaria de la que se puede prescindir en tiempo de crisis (emphasis in the original, 54). The sectio emphasizing the need to effect their Spanish society: Es por ello que, aunque el principio de igualdad de trato es un principio rector de todo el Plan, incorporado en todas las reas de intervencin de modo transversal, se ha querido incorporar, en el conjunto de las reas transversales, este rea de Gnero, con la intencin de reforzar la aplicacin del mainstreaming de gnero al conjunto de polticas pblicas de ciudadana e integracin y, al mismo tiempo, visibilizar la necesidad de contemplar acciones positivas dirigidas especficamente a situaciones de especial vulnerabilidad que afectan fun damentalmente a las mujeres... (216) Lastly, the plan discusses the new phenomenon female an 18% increase in the past fifteen years (248) T he PECI affirms : Por un lado, se ha incrementado el n mero de mujeres que migran, y, por o tro lado, se ha producido una importante transformacin cualitativa en sus proyectos migratorios : las mujeres han pasado de formar p arte de un proyecto migratorio familiar, iniciado por un varn, generalmente su pareja, a desempear un rol ms independient e y autnomo; son ellas las que, c ada vez ms, toman la iniciativa y el protagonismo de la cadena migratoria. (248) The Plan also addresses changes made over the years to the Ley de Extranjera. The growing de bate and concern regarding the integration (or lack thereof) of the immigrant population in to Spanish society is evident, although t he foregoing statistics show that i mmigrants are participating in social, economic, and political activities in Spanish society (as demonstrated by the number of foreign associations, the percentage of business owners, and emerging civic leadership) That is not well portrayed in the media, as t he news articles, stories and images discussed below will demonstrate.
24 The first image that appears on the ma in page of the perma nent site titled El Pa s is that of a crowded group of immigrants waiting in line with paperwork in hand for what is probably a governmental administrative process. On this web page, there are links to news regarding immigration, to several organizations dedicated to immigration (such as Red Acoge and ATIME Asociacin de trabajadores e inmigrantes marroques), and to documents that outline statistics, laws and regulations regarding im migration in Spain. The photographs in the news section primarily show men and items related to arriv ing in Spain 3 The online edition of El Mundo featured a special report in 2006 Inmigrantes, en busca de futuro It includes several sub sec tions that provide the reader with statistics, testimonials, laws and regulations, and photogr aphs. The collage of portraits in the section includes the brief audible testimony of several immigrants of different nationalities commenting on their experiences in Spain. The majority present immigrants (both women and men) with various accents; they discuss the trials they face in their new environment: hunger, solitude (as many have sold all of their personal belongings and left their families behin d ), the challenge of acquiring legal status in Spain, their hope for a better life, and a longing to re turn to their country of origin The gallery of photos that appear in a separate section highlight despair, tragedy, bod ies washed ashore, and tears; they are portrayed as a vulnerable popula tion in their new surroundings. 3 John Hooper describes bottomed boat equipped with an outboard motor, which is used f or inshore fishing on both sides of the Straits. Most pateras are designed for up to seven people, but the immigrant traffickers were soon packing in as many as twenty five. In any case, pateras are fragile, easily capsized vessels that are not intended f or the open 291).
25 The Spanish Red Cross recently feat ured an online magazine Memoria 2010 their website. One section includes the immigr ant population as a group in need of assistance; the accompanying image is of a young man crouched down and covered with a Red Cross blanket. According to their statistics, 195,524 immigrants benefited from ar. Such examples show or stress the vulnerability of the immigrant population in general The following relate specifically to women, the focus of this study In the article, comunica cin written for AmecoPress in 2008, Bonnie Rodrguez reviews a conference that was held at Casa Am rica Comunicacin In this review, she quotes one of the panelists, who affirms: La invisibilidad de las mujere s inmigrantes extra comunitarias se inscribe en un fenmeno de mayor alcance hasta llegar a una t otal desvalorizacin del papel mbito econmico y sealado Peio Aierbe, citando las palabras de Dolor es Juliano. Tambin reflexiona sobre cmo los medios ms relevantes del pas sitan a las mujeres inmigrantes en personas involuntarias y que no so n dueas (amecopress.net) According to Aierbe, the majority of the articles published about women immigrants deal with domestic violence, prostitution, (un)employment, and other topics that point to their victimization. Another panelist, Cristina P. Fraga, noted that drama and bias are what se lls and that the m edia primarily focus the news. : [ sic ] estn cargadas de estereotipos y prejuicios, la informacin m uchas veces no se contrasta con la realidad, no la mujer extranjera en la sociedad espa ola se ha transformado en los l colectivo inmigrante, [ sic ] decide salir de sus pases pa ra buscar
26 llegada se encuentran frente a una sociedad con diversas barreras sociales. (amecopress.net ) The panelists stress that the media present women immigrants as vulnerable, or they ignore them, and these are th e depictions that ultimately reach the Spanish and global population. After decades of presence in the Spanish community, and in spite of statistics that show a steady increase of the pe rcentage of female immigrants biased representations persist Anothe r example of the victimization of women immigrants in the Spanish news elpais.com ), by J. Srvulo Gonz lez. It features two women from Nigeria and Morocco who participated in a workshop for the long course, special consideration for employment in the private sector workshop be cause they failed to comply with language requirements. podido detectar una falta de integracin y problemas con el lenguaje por lo que no es capaz d e seguir la dinmica del resto del grupos [sic] por la correcta comprensin del elpais.com ). The governmental report calls for democracy, In interest in representing and exploring immigration in their works. For example, an article publish ed in El Pas
27 documentary El artista emigrado by David Orejas, which follows the daily life of three immigrant artists (one a Colombian painter, Libia Ins Toro) Another attempt to demonstrate the prese nce of immigrant artists who are active of the immigrant population. This ongoing project, sub sidized by the Ministerio de Trabajo e Inmigracin and the Fondo Social Europeo, presents the works of over 200 immigrant artists as a artists, musicians, photographers, and writers, female and male, with samples of their work. One of these is Mara Fernanda Ampuero, an Ecuadorian writer, who has written a narrative about the rel ationship between a Spanish woma and he r Ecuadorian caretaker. T he news media seems to have take n note that women comprise almost half of the immigrant population, focusing more attention on them, albeit still mostly in victimized situations. The recent conference at Casa Am rica shows that this bias has not escaped not ice. Aierbe reports that 53% of the news dedicated to women immigrants deals w ith domestic violence, 30% with the trafficking and prostitution, and 22% with employment issues based on news articles published for a period of 50 days prior to the conferenc ), clearly there is little opportunity for other representations. As long as the news report s primarily on such issues among women immigrants, the public will continue to envision these women as victims or pariahs, lacking individuality and voice, rather th an as active participants in their communities.
28 The re is a disconnect between the news about the immigrant population in Spain including reports on tragedy, crime, homelessness and unemploym ent among male immigrants and governmental NGO projects designed to encourage immigrant participation in socio cultural activities and public awareness of representation is essential in promoting a better understanding of women imm political situation, something that is presently lacking in the media More recently, news coverage reflects concern by the public that the immigrant population is taxing nemployment, social security). Mara Bruque tas and Francisco Javier Moreno found that while the immigrant population has had a positive statistical nonetheless 2008, la mayora de la poblacin espaola se mostraba, por primera vez, partidaria de re stringir la entrada de inmigrantes a nuestro pas This brief sample suggests what is available to the readers of these widely circulated newspapers on the topic of immigration in Spain. Artists who create narr atives on immigration do so for an audience whose ideas about the topic are based on biased media presentations. Some writers and directors strive to problematize this portrayal in their works. In an interview with Mara Cam cine es un medio fabuloso para denunciar, y si no para denunciar, por lo menos para The earlier narratives we will consider clearly show women immigrants as victims, whether of a shipwreck or o f a loss ultimately leading to suicide ( Ftima de los naufragios ) or of the need to secure legal sta tus in Spain ( Flores de otro mundo )
29 More recent texts portray the subtle transition that has taken place in the past several decades as women immigrants ar rive of their own volition, begin to occupy mainstream jobs (although many are still portrayed in service oriented jo bs), receive educatio n and become active in their communities. For example, in the documentary Extranjeras the women interviewed are give n a voice of their own and discuss the range of activities and employment in which they participate. Street vendors, nannies, business owners, university students and entertainers: these immigrants show a diverse range of skills and involvement in their c ommunities. In contraposition to this new portrayal of their achievement, women continue to report xenophobic attitudes, a sense of dislocation and little daily interaction with the dominant social class or with other ethnic communities. In a study of m u lticulturalism and the media, Ella Shohat and Robert Stam argue: to the very core of identity production. In a transnational world typified by the global circulation of i mages and sounds, goods and peoples, media spectatorship impacts collective victims in their new surroundings. But this seems to be changing, and we begin to see increased diversity, agency, representation, and self representation in cultural production. Literature Review Although various media sources have played a significant role in the development of t immigration has also figured inc reasingly in literature and film created for the most part by native born Spaniards Consequently there has
30 been an increase in research and analysis on the topic in academia, which I will explore in the following section and refer to throughout the dissertation. La inmigracin en la literatura espaola contempornea (2002), by Irene Andres is a significant study of the topic. It pr esents detailed statistics on recent immigration as well as an overview of the literary works published on the topic up to 2002. The authors catalog recurrent themes and evaluate the quality of literature being produced. Kunz affirms that Los espejismos by Gonzalo Hernndez Guarch is one of the earliest narratives on the topic of immigration; it is a novel that follows the plight of two immigrants, a Maghreb i and a Croatian, in their travels throughout Europe. It was written in 1972, but not published un til 1998 (114). As for women writers, he present s Nieves Garca Benito, Alicia Gimnez Bartlett, Lourdes Ortiz, and Encarna Cabello La cazadora 1995, as the earliest narrative on the topic of immigration by a woman author Of the wo rks he cited, is one of the first narratives written by a woman to devel op the role of a woman immigrant. en vano al extranjero como vecino, amigo o compaero del trabajo, y raras son las momento...la literatura de Espaa est todava tan alejada de una adecuada integracin del pluralismo cultural como lo I concur with y study complementary to his in some ways, and diff erent i n others. My time frame late nineties through 2011 covers a Spain that has more years of experience with immigrant s ; my cor pus consists solely of works written or
31 directed by women; the authors considered are both Spanish and immigrant. My findings, based on a different corpus, lead me to disagree with Kunz escritores espaoles que se ocupan seriamente del t ema lo hacen sobre todo por un compromiso humanitario y por solidaridad, pero, desde el punto de vista esttico, los Thanks in part to the increasing number of published works on this topic in more recent years, I hav e found a group of authors who have incorporated immigrants into excellent works of art. a comprehensive look at films on immigration into various European countries over the past several decades which also provides an extensive list of common themes that appear therein. Mara Cam Mujeres detrs de la cmara is another critical resource; it underlines the minimal presence of women directors in Spain: only ten prior to 1988, thirty and only eight who debuted between 2000 2004 (17; 309). From this small group, it w as a further challenge to find directors that focus on women immigrants. 4 (2005). The author focuses on the representation in film the present twentieth century Spanish cinematography whereas diverse groups of immigrants the twenty first century. 4 I am very grateful to Professor Mar a Cam Vela for suggesting several of the films that I have chosen to include i n this dissertation and to Professors Geraldine Nichols, ngeles Encinar, and Carmen Valcrcel for suggesting several of the novels and short stories included in my corpus.
32 Espaa hubo que esperar hasta los aos noventa para que, con el estreno de Las cartas de Alou (Montxo Armendriz, 1990), se viera proyectada en las pantallas de cine una realidad social que ya llevaba ti 5 Flores de otro mundo (Iciar Bolla n, 1999 ) is the earliest woman directed film cited; Bollan also assigned leading roles to women immigrants (24). Lastly, Santaolalla notes the current lack of self representatio n by minority groups in Spanish cinema (21). I concur with this finding; I was able to find only one woman immigrant director to include in this project, Ana Torres. The aforementioned studies, along with several other worthy academic essays dedicated to Spain and their representation. As for women, they only begin to appear in narrative and film produced by women in the mid 1990s but their portrayal has evolved since then, as I will show. Theoretical Concepts Several theoretical concepts have been particularly useful in casting a new light on the narratives studied in my project. I will briefly outline those I found pertinent to this study In order to analyze issues of identity amo ng immigrants as well as evaluate the literal and metaphoric placement of women immigrants in a multicultural milieu I use both postcolonial and cultural studies approaches. The writings of Edward Said, Gayatri Spivak, and Trinh T. Minh ha enrich ed my un woman immigrant, and those of Homi Bhab ha and Josefina Ludmer allow ed me to gain 5 Cartas de Alou (1990) by Dir. Montxo Armendriz (recipient of the Goya Award for best screenplay and cinematography in 1991) and Bwana (1996) by Dir. Imanol Uribe (recipient of awards at the San Sebastian Film Festival) are two of the earliest films depicting the latest wave of immigration. They portray this project.
33 a better understanding of the representation of spaces they occupy In addition, essays by Stuart Hall and Iain Chambers illuminate d the multiculturalism presented in the the topic in diverse visual media. S ome of these studies are more germane to earlier works and others for the later texts but all s harpened my understanding of the issues of identity and space Said dates Orientalism back to the late eighteenth century, and defines it as a has endured the test of time and expanded its geographical reach in order to ma intain the dominance of European Atlantic powers Said, the style for dominating, restructurin corpus. categorization, although Sp ain also has its own contradictory historical identity and has long been considered an exotic destination for intellectuals and tourists. 6 In spite of this history, Said includes Spain among the European countries with a tradition of Orientalism, less mar ked than in France or Britain, but still observable: Unlike the Americans, the French and th e British less so the Germans, Russians, Spanish, Portuguese, Italians, and Swis s have had a long tradition of what I shall be calling Orientalism, a way of c oming to terms with 6 Lou Charnon Deutsch e culture that has repressed a constitutive element of its historical identity, proje cting it onto the figure of the exoticized gypsy (Colmeiro 1998), and one that has represented, from the 1700s onward, an exoticized
34 the Orient experience. The Orient is not only adjacent to Europe; it is also the place of richest and oldest colonies, the source of its c ivilization and languages its cultural contestant, and one of its deepest and most recurring images of the Other. (1) He affirms that the European identity was ultimately defined by contrasting images such as: Europe/West/Occident/us in comparison to the Rest/East/Orient/them. Th is notion of European and Western culture as hegemonic and all the rest as inferior explain s the otherness persistently ascribed to the immigra nt woman The Spain in search of a better future for herself and for her family is instantly assigned an identity by virtue of her differences: she is the woman integrat e into the hegemonic culture. contempt for what is familiar and its shivers of delight in or fear of the earlier works of my corpus, this conception of the Other is patent in the portrayal of the woman immigrant. They are clearly de fined as the Other; they elicit emotions alternating between contempt and fear or delight, as Said notes. They are observed, marveled at, and judged, often targets of voyeuristic tendencies by the autochthonous population. At the same time, they are reje cted and feared because of their differences; their otherness and marginalized existe nce often leads to tragic ends. ientalism and the Other, I use Gayatri Chakravorty s analysis of the ambivalent based on gender, race, and socio cultural differences vis vis the adopted country.
35 To analyze the spaces that this group occupies, theoretic al concepts by Homi Bhabha and Josefina Ludmer have been especially useful, among others. In her book titled Aqu Amrica Latina: una especulacin, Ludmer considers temporal and spatial approaches to the contemporary Latin American novel. I will borrow h er conception of first century to consider works in my corpus published in the same time frame. More specifically, I will explore blur ring of the bipolar scheme as new agency and territories are presented in n ovels after the nineties (127). In her study of the Latin American cities portrayed in her corpus she affirms: ciudades brutalmente divididas del presente tienen en su interio r reas, edificios, habitaciones y ot ros espacios que funcionan como islas, con l The inhabitants of these urban islands (including immigrants, according to Ludmer) are outsiders and insiders at the same time ; they are outside of th e hegemonic culture and at the same time inside the city (131). presented in Madrid and Barcelon a by the artists in my corpus. Her approach attempts to obviate binary oppositions and views territories as a fusion geogrfica econmica social cultural poltica esttica legal afectiva gnero y de sex Much like the novel s Ludmer describes, the contemporary narratives I study present new territories in new literary structures and styles. In the more recent texts of my corpus, there is an increased tendency to present women immigrants in testimonial, autobiographical, and documentary narratives, allowing a multifaceted representation of ethnicities and diffe rences. Within these texts, their differences are no longer homogenized
36 binary oppositions are diffused, and the women immigrants speak from an imaginary conceptualized space. Third articulation of differences and cultural identity is in constant negotiation; it becomes a potential site of agency and resistance (67). His book, Location of Culture offers a contrast to the Imagined Communities n imagined political community and imagined as both inherently limited longer tied to a homogeneous nation emerge in post colonial studies as globalization (and its cultural products) obviate the boundaries of nations and blur binary oppositions. This study enco mpasses issues of identity and space within a multicultural contemporary Spanish society. Because of the predominance of a multicultural community within all of the narratives, it is imperative to include a theoretical framework from the field of cultural the Global: Globalization and E tizes the decline of the nation state in this era of globalization, suggesting that the response to this deterioration is two the sa postmodern, a moment in which it gets hold of everybody, of everything, where there is no differen ce that it cannot contain, no otherness it cannot speak, no marginality that it
37 His final reflections in the article point to the local responses to globalization, which will be evident in my narratives. He highlig hts two forms of globalization: (1) an older, corporate, enclosed, increasingl y defensive one that has to go back to nationalism and national cultural identity in a highly defensive way and to try to build barriers around it before it is eroded ; and (2) a form of the global postmodern that is trying to live with and at the same moment overcome, sublate, get hold of, and incorporate difference. (183 ) Hall affirms that a local response to globalization can be seen in the significant increase in representation of demonstration of empowerment and resistance. Among t he writers and directors that offer representations of women immigrants in my corpus, there are only three examples of self representation that offer unique perspectives on the life autobiography, Cla documentary. Moving into specific theoretical approaches related to film, I will be using concepts developed by Ella Shohat, Robert Stam, and Bill Nichols. In Unthinking Eurocentrism Shohat and Stam define multi culturalism in contemporary media. They present the term about dispersing power, about empo wering the disempowered, about transfo rming subordinating institutions and disco urses. I ts sympathies clearly go the underrepresented, the marginalized, and the oppressed t thinks and nities ive, generative participants at the very core of shar ed, conflictual history. (48) Their idea illuminates the more recent works in my corpus; although the women are
38 shown to be active participants in their new surroundings. The works successfully blur the center/periphery boundaries by presenting marginalized characters who assume agency and occupy a place of resista nce. As several of the films selected for this project are documentaries, I will refer to in film. They real, or even refracting the real, artistic di scourse constitutes a refraction of a refraction; abandoning the notion tha t artistic representations are at the same time thoroughly and irrevocably social, precisely because the discourses that art represents are themselves themselves, one should a lso draw attention to the institutions that generate, distribute, and arrange the reception of the media representations (184). Within my corpus, the majority of the films are directed by native born Spaniards, although one online documentary video was di rected and produced by an Argentine. All of these factors will each film In addition to Shohat and Stam, Bill Nichols is useful for the analysis of the documentary films in my corpus. I wil documentary to the films selected for this project; this type of documentary evokes a s worldview but the specific qualities that surround particular people, discrete events, social subjectivities, and historically situated
39 and no specific argument; using b oth interview and observational techniques, the directors e licit contemporary Spain Because I have chosen to focus solely on women migrants portrayed by women artists, I have also includ ed research that consider s gendered aspects of migration. investigation Europe is of particular importance for a study that focuses solely on women immigrants to Spain. Her work loo homogenizing female migrations by documenting some of the diversity of migratory patterns in contemporary Southern Europe (16). Many factors contribute to this multiplicity: the motivation for migration, transnational ties to families and countries of migration, with their focus on economic migrants from poorer sectors of their communities, primarily men or families led by men, can no longer yield a fruitful conceptual basis for understanding migration that she identifies are reflected in the narratives I have selected and affirm the importance of studies like mine that cast light on a largely neglected phenomenon in Spanish literature and film. In addition, the relationship between the immigrant woman
40 16) will be explored not only within the narratives, but also as seen by the artists who produce them. The theoretical concep ts presented in this chapter, devoted to identity, space, and multiculturalism, are essential to a multi faceted study like this one which explores each of these concepts This will facilitate the evaluation of the changes between earlier and later works in my corpus, and highlight the persistent invisibility of women immigrants in m imesis, representation; it is also utterance, an act of contextualized interlocution wri ters/directors (including testimonial, autobiographical, and documentary narratives), it is important to recognize that, as Shohat and Stam affirm, they are both representations of my corpus will be examined in relation to such issues, and in the process problematic
41 CHAPTER 3 WOMEN IMMIGRANTS AS THE OTHER Figure 3 1 El reflejo de mis manos (picture provided by the Fundaci Ateneu Sant Roc ) Arpillera Three women created this tapestry: Parveen Akhtar, Shazia Munawar, and Nusrat Parveen. The written description of the tapestry emphasizes not only the utility of these hands, but also their beauty, adorne d as they are with henna coloring and bracelets, a seamstress in Pakistan, but her current daily routine is limited to working in the home
42 and caring for her five childre n. The description concludes: borda r, cocinar, limpiar, peinar, escribir y mucho m The image above the hands is described as less 8). of vivid colors chosen for the henna painted hands. The image brings an important custom to our attention, one that women affirm their customs with this arpillera and assert their skills in the written description: they are as capable as anyone, even when they appear different from those within the cultural norm of their adopted country. The inclusion of an image of a mirror above the hands invites viewers to perceive which may be a first step toward building a truly pluralistic community. This arpillera project is an invaluable opportunity for self representation, and for expressing resistance to the cultural norm throug h the portrayal of their own customs. Diverse ethnic communities are coming to Spai n from all corners of the globe, a reality that is gaining representation in literature and film. As a new multicultural society evolves, issue s of difference and integrati on come to the fore. Spain, inheritor to a limited extent of the European sense of superiority ( not to forget that Spain has also been seen as the exotic Other to northern Europeans, as we have seen in Chapter 2, p p 34 35 ), now has varied ethnic groups c o existing within its society brought there by the economic dislocation of globalization 1 The demographics have changed, as has the representation of the Other in Spanish literature and f ilm over the past few decades. 1 Although I will use the term E urocentric to refer to Spain, which shar the difference between is worthy of consideration increased evidence of a shift to the latter term
43 Sandra Mart n (an e vis vis the immigrant population que ha formado la para cerrar fsicamente las fronteras del continente Europeo contra los inmigrantes. Al sumarse a es te movimiento exclusivi s ta, Espaa intenta (28). 2 The associated contribute to the problematic integration of immigrants (both legally and culturally) into the host country. T he earlier works of my corpus, primarily show African and Carib bean communities as the Other but in more recent works, portray the otherness of Eastern European, Chinese, and several other Latin American and African c ollectives The women of these communities are shown to be marginalized in their adopted country, not only in terms of gender, but also in terms of ethnic religious, and cultural differences. he Western creation he maintains: Knowledge of the Orient, because generated out of strength, in a sense creates the Orie nt, the Oriental, and his world [T] he Oriental is depicted as something one judges (as in a c ourt of law) something one studies and depicts (as in a curriculum) something one disciplines (as in a school or prison) something one ill ustr ates (as in a zoological manual). The po int is that in each of these cas es the Oriental is contained and repre sented by dominating frameworks. ( 40 ) es el antiguo discurso de la superioridad europea y su dominacin del sur P or el contrario, el ente simblico cuyo territorio est limpio de elementos ext 37). 2 los miembros de los estados europeos, se establece una l nea fronteriza, como si se tratase de una I use throughout this project los valores europeos son superiores, tiende a la homogeneizacin de las personas dentro del imaginario
44 This essay will explore the portrayal of women immigrants as the Other in a selection of contemporary Spanish written and cinematographic narratives. I will note the racial and socio cultural differences that the auth ors highlight as a way to define these women ( and by extension, their communities ), and to limit their integration into Spanish society. 3 I will explore the idea that the (re) presentation of these differences is a potential form of resistance within a pre viously homogeneous culture The increased diversity of the immigrant population in Spain (and the growth in total foreign population, reaching over 12% in 2011) has led writers and filmmakers alike to explore this new society The integration of the immi grant population into Spanish society has been prominent in government al studies and media news. The recently published 201 4 affirms, as we saw in Chapter 1, that integration is a primary goal; th e blueprint i s significantly more ambitious than that of the previous PECI 2007 2010 seeking el paso de un nive l satisfactorio de coexistencia una coincidencia en tiempo y espacio de carcter pacfico a un nivel ptimo de convivencia la cual supone la i nteraccin y T further define the objective of the Plan (extranjero s.mtin.es). It is in this sociopolitical context that women writers and filmmakers in Spain have under taken t o represent their newly multicultural environment and the challenges it presents in Spanish society. 4 3 Although integra tion, it cannot be assumed that such assimilation is their desire or objective (although some of the narratives clearly state it as a goal ). Their portrayal s as the Other in this chapter, and as forging new hybrid identities in Chapter 4 work to main tain their subordinate position outside the dominant culture. The images perpetuate a cycle of exclusion based on the ir differences. The producers of these narratives work to problematize these issues, often hoping to evoke a response of solidarity on part of the readers/spectators. 4 explains the often ambiguous and overlapping
45 In t he corpus selected for this chapter, the ethnic and socio cultural differences attributed to the female immigrant define her as the Other and perpetua te an existence The women in my corpus are subalterns by virtue of their eth nic origins and their gender; they confront a double marginalization. Isabel Santaolalla proposes different categorizations of alterity within the representation of diverse ethnic communities. She states: E s importante tener en cuenta la distinta carga de alteridad que acarrean aquellos individuos o grupos identificados con las antiguas colonias espaolas, (especialmente Hispanoamrica) y los proven ientes, por ejemplo, de pases asiticos o africanos que, incluso en aquellos pocos casos en los que hubo una relacin colonial, como es el caso de Marruecos, el Sahara o Guinea Ecuatorial, se siguen viendo como esencialmente ajenos a la cultura e identida d espaolas. (25) The following pages will describe the alterity of three loosely grouped collectives: African female immigrants, Latin American female immigrants, and women immigrants from lesser represented ethnic groups. We will consider examples of Ot herness presented in my texts and then analyze the changes in representation between earlier and more recent works In the Other and its associated stereotypes, h e refers to that is at once an object of desire and derision, an articulation of difference contained within the fantasy of origin and identity (67). The alterity of female African immigrants in the works studied here is conceptos de multi culturalismo y pluralismo. El primero reconoce la existencia de diferentes culturas, pero se rige por un sistema de valore s que las mantiene separadas y sometidas a la hegemona de una de ellas. El pluralismo, por el contrario, da prioridad a la integraci n de culturas y a la tolerancia de diferencias (2001: 61 el pluralismo se manifiesta como una sociedad abierta muy enriquecida por pertenencias mltiples, mientras que el multiculturalismo significa el desmembramiento de la comunidad pluralista en subgrupos de comunidades cerrad Rueda, 43 44, note 24). Accordingly, I will use the term multicultural to describe the Spanish society presented in my works, since none of my narratives presents a plur alistic society.
46 evident: they are mystified, objectified, margina lized in terms of ethnicity, personal relationships appearance and behavior The Latin American population is differentiated as well; although they speak the language of the autochthono us population, their work ethic is questioned and they are portrayed as assertive in claiming equality due in part to their colonial past. T he Caribbean immigrant women are often sexualized: they are bewitching but assigned marginalized s ervice oriented jobs. T he Chinese population in Extranjeras is depicted as isolated and insistent on retaining the ir language and cultural norms Let us consider specific examples of the ways these narratives define immigrant women in terms of t fiction N either the term Orient nor the concept of the West has any ontological stability; each is made up of human effort, partly affirmation, partly identification of the Other. That these supreme fic t ions lend themselves easily to manipulations and the organization of collective pas sion has never been more evident than in our time .. (xvii) African Women I mmigrants There are repres entations of the alterity of women immigrants in the following works: F tima de los naufragios (Ortiz), H blame musa de aquel var n (Chacn), Cosmofobia ( Etxebarria), Jo tamb sc catalana (El Hachmi), and Extranjeras autobiographical narrative and th incarnations Santaolalla studies the portrayal of difference in Spanish film in her book Los Otros W ith respect to Sub Saharans, she notes:
47 L a comunidad subsahariana no es la m s numerosa; sin embargo es una de las m s visibles, debido en parte a que el alto porcentaje de esta que se encuentra en situacin legal irregular le fuerza a ganarse la vida en trabajos ambulantes, a menudo en la calle. A pesar d e ello, no son los inmigrantes subsaharianos los que son objeto de ms discriminacin. Al contrario s aceptadas por la poblacin autctona, s lo por detr s de la hispana ( 120 ) The most highly represented African immigrant group in Spain, the Maghreb i bears the brunt of d iscriminatory behavior on part of the autochthonous population: ocupan la tanto en trminos numricos como en ser la que m s prejuicios y rechazo despierta en la poblacin nativa Le t us consider examples from our texts of the A frican immigrant woman ; I will point out differences among the women as well as between earlier and more recent narratives Hblame musa, de aquel varn Aisha is a Moroccan immigrant who works as a caretaker and housekeeper on a ranch in Punta Algorba, Spain. Although she befriends Matilde, an urban Spanish woman who accompanies her husband and as guests to the ranch as they work on a script for a movie, her difference s ultimately lead to her death. The reader learns of some o f Ais and traditions which she shares with Matilde as they work together in the kitchen. She d iscusses her imaginary wedding in Morocco with t he fianc she lost on the crossing from Africa to Spain. She also describes the traditional festive c lothing, the custom of painting henna on the hands and feet of the bride and wedding party and the ref uses to demonstrate for Matilde: Contrims, los seniores trabajan ms muy cerca. 106). 5 5 a especialmente aquella con que s e
48 Aish a, he r husband Pedro, and their Maghr eb ian immigrant friends, Farida and Yunes are invit ed to a movie premiere in town by the ranch owner Ulises, who is a fi lm director. He is fond of t he caretakers, but their p resence turns into a spectacl e : Aisha se deslizaba luminosa entre la gente, como un destello irresistible, y cada persona que dejaba atrs se vo lva para mirarla. No era extrao que Estela se recelara de su belleza, que envidiara la naturalidad de su encanto, la magia que desprenda s u exotismo involuntario, su vestido col or azafrn, la gracia con que paseaba sus babuchas por el saln repleto de mujere s calzadas con tacones altos. (151) brilliance fades in the final chapters of the narrative. As everyone gather s at the after p arty on the beach, the immigrant women stay at the perimeter to preserve their formal gowns, but standing apart they are set upon and killed by five local men: cazadores tenan acorraladas a sus presas ... ¡Hola, hola, cerdita! ... ¡Dile a esta perra que me mire! (152). The animalization of the women and the violence that ensues in their final moments in comparison to the exoticism portrayed in earlier events highlights the ambiguous demonstration of both fascination of the Other and xenophobic beha vior on part of the dominant social class a patera which capsized en route to Spain; her husband and young son perish Yet, s he awaits the ir arrival for over four years at t contact with the townspeople. The rumors escalate, and there are several interpretations of her presence. For exam ple, one fisherman maintains, deca Antonio, el pescador. A m al principio casi me daba m iedo. Pero ahora s que es s lo u ( 8 ). She is called a
4 9 ra los turis tas, la mendiga Her presence both disturbs and fascinates onlookers She is the object of the town priest set a blanket at her side and shor tly after she dons it, the narrator explains: y Lucas, el hijo de Antonio, afirma que cuando se cubri con aquella manta de franjas rojas y morada hubo una luz, un aura, que la encenda toda, y Lucas nio, asustado, se ech la mano a la boca por el espanto y fue corriendo a su madre gritando que la mujer no era mujer sino fantasma, aparicin o sue o, y que desprenda el fulgor de los peces sin desesc amar. ( 9 ) is solidified when a n unidentifiable washes up ashore; after cradling the young man for some time and drawing an audience, Ftima stands up, walks into the ocean and disappears into the horizon. At this moment the local de In her Maryanne Leonne also finds that : Many people gaze upon her: the narrator, town (451). Only the latter, the other survivor, could potentially confirm her name and her story. As a re cent fellow immigrant, his gaze is of particular interest. He initially tells the locals in his broken language Raro que mujer se salve, mujer mas dbil, He is the only one to approach her directly, and after their e Lo jurara con permiso de Al Pero es una F tima cambiada. La F tima que yo vi era m s joven, m t and the narrator d ando a entender que poda ser, pero que l no habra asegurado, que su
50 reconocimiento ya haba concluido y q ue no deca ni que s ni que no (16). Since not even he, who sat beside her on the ill fated patera can affirm with certainty who she is, her id entity is assigned by onlookers: she is clearly the woman immigrant Other without a voice. Unable to see her as a member of their community or even their world, they ascribe her mystical powers and after her disappearance into the seas, they exalt her to sainthood: amants A s the object of their gaze, Ftima is like a performer on stage. 6 Wearing her mask: pero era imposible percibir la edad tras aquel rostro c onvertido en m scara que guardaba seales de l (7), she assumes an identity imposed upon her by her audience. She is gazed upon by her spectators and remains silent throughout. Bhabha The disturbance of your voyeuristic look enacts the complexity and contradictions of your desire to see, to fix cultural difference in a containable, visible (50). 7 In this manner, both Ftima and Aisha are contained in a conceptual category of fixed Otherness, unable to overcome the binary opposi tions such as West/Self/us v. East/Other/them. 6 Bwana She look mirada como expression de deseo, y gaze mirada en la que el deseo esta imbricado con el poder, es decir, que construye al objeto de contemplacin como un draw from this defin ition to discuss several of the women immigrants in my corpus as objects of a (voyeuristic) gaze, including F tima 7 Although Cornejo Parriego finds that F tima undergoes a metamor phosis during the story and that n de un icono h brido y sincr tico en el que el mestizaje es a la vez cultural, est tico, religioso y racial (524), my view is that this transformation. Her exaltation to sainthood only further sets her apart from her onlookers. I agree
51 The portrayal of African women immigrants in more recent works introduces some Susana, a second generation immigrant whose parents are from Guinea, and Amina, also a second g eneration immigrant whose parents are from Morocco, struggle to adapt to their cosmopolitan surroundings, in this case Lavapies, a centrally located neighborhood in narrated in the chapter and Ami v 8 This novel intertwines the stories of Span ish and immigrant women who come together at an activity sponsored by social service s 9 The narrative i s presented as a series of interviews with these women, including Susana and Amina. The reader determines the objective of the interviews when o ne of the wom en at the C enter responds: Ver usted, yo creo que para su libro yo no le voy a servir de nada P orque usted est escribiendo un libro sobre el barrio, no? Pues eso, que yo le cuento lo que usted quiera, que ya les he dicho en el Centro que S ya s que usted no juzga y que no lo cont ar nunca, que es como si se lo contara a un m dico Adems, usted 169 ). The women are no longer speaking to their male psycholo gist Isaac, at the Center ; they are clearly aware of the difference in 8 in an altered mental state : Amin a explains alfaqu llen una palangana con agua hirviendo y luego me hizo beber unas hierbas que me hicieron vomitar y le dijo a mi madre que s que alguien hab a hecho uso de la sihr para tenerme bajo su (172). 9 ler de autoa Cosmofobia parallels the multi faceted talleres that the Fundaci Ateneu Sant Roc offers its community members. The arpillera project and the taller de autoayuda provide immigrant women an alternative space to learn, share their life stories, and develop a sense of community with other immigrants and Spaniards. Both of these workshops (one fictional and one existent) are dedicated specifically to women.
52 sharing their stories with a woman. The author chooses to present these women with a voice of their own as they share their tr ials in first person narrative. Susana obtains employment at the clothing store Mango, where she deals with customers w ho clearly see her as different : las seoras de la tienda slo haban visto negras en la tele, en los documentales, de esas dando saltos con las tetas al aire pidiendo que llueva, y claro, pues me vean un poco masai 73 ). In one instance, she encounters a Spanish woman in the store w ho is startled by her perfect Spanish accent : pega un grito como si le hubi luego, cuando se da cuenta de la metedura de pata, para intentar arreglarla, va y me ( 73 ). She describes another instance where a young girl is startled by h er appearance and yells: 74 ). The mother apologizes by explaining to Susana that her daughter has a doll that looks just like her at home and that she has never seen a black person before in their neighborhood. Susana is marginalized in her personal relationships and socio economically; she is victimized and resorts to counseling at the center. She is presented as crazy (her boyfriend Silvio insists on this), as black, as a doll, as economically disadvantaged, as violent (she hits Silvio in one instance), and as a victim (she resorts to the community s ervice center for counseling). Amina also tells her story to the interviewer. She begins: nac en Algeciras. Mi padre viva en Tnger, pero trabajaba en Algeciras, en la costa,
53 the owner of the apartment she cleaned She had recently left an emotionally abusive partner (Karim) and had begun dating another more ideal man (Hisham, also of Moroccan descent.) Amina can o nly recount the beginning of the sexual advances made by Yamal as she was working, and the passionate kiss they shared, but claims to have fainted and woken up alone, unable to recall what happened in the interim. Shortly thereafter, Yamal brought a gift (a large plant) to her home and she claims: s empezaron los sue os. Yo soaba con el dragn todas las noches, me despertaba aterrorizada. Y despus recuerdo poco. Mi madre dice que empec a hablar con otras voces, que hablaba sin parar y que g (171 ). Her concerned chouwaffa was cast upon her; she is immediately taken to Tangier to recei ve a cure from the que alguien habia hecho uso de la sihr par a tene (172). ites an article on her special case (using a pseudonym for patient confidentiality) and insists that these occurrences were a re sult Malika evita admitir sus prop ios deseos y apetencias al elaborar un discurso mgico segn el cual ella no pudo rechazar los avances de su ( 236 3 7 ) Her psychologist also affirms in his article: mo la enfermedad mental y la experiencia religiosa so n inseparables en algunos casos. La explicacin de este caso nos sirve para entender por qu debemos conocer el marco cultural de nuestro pacientes ( 235 ). Amina i incredulity but insists:
54 pas y en nuestro mundo las cosas son diferentes y que yo s lo que viv, pero no ( 172 ). s otherness is manifested in her cultural and religious beliefs Her personal experience is discounted by her couns elor, and she becomes simply a case to be researched and discussed by other professionals. Not only is she portrayed as being bewitched by Yamal, she is misunderstood by the clinicians at the Center. She is defined by Isaac with myriad terms and symptoms: cambios en el tono de voz, sensacin de presencia extraa en diferentes partes del cuerpo, p rdidas de conciencia, agitacin, delirio, ano rexia, discurso incoherente, alteracin dramtica del humor e, incluso, algunas crisis que pudieran ser manifestaciones sintomticas de tipo epilptico. ( 235 ) Interestingly, Isaac has a slight change of heart after his own experience with Yamal; he too won autobiographical narrative, Jo tamb sc catalana Its protagonist is presented with a series of challenges in her new country; she arrives in Vic at age eight. 10 In the prologue, Najat address es the phenomenon of immigration and reflects on the effects of globalization and migrations. She affirms that above all the socio political issues surrounding a migran adaptation to their adopted country, people are still at the base deixen en segon terme un fet cabdal: en tots aquests casos, tant si s n deu o deu mil els nouving uts, tant si se com si el seu viatje ha quedat 10 Ana Rueda provides the following details about El Hachmi: she was b orn in 1979 in Nador, Morocco establece en Catalua. Actualmente porta DNI espaol. Aunque su lengua materna es bereber, de tradicin oral, la primera lengua e n que recibe instruccin acadmica y con la que se identifica es la
55 12). Her story recounts struggles of adaptation during her childhood, adolescence and young adulthood in Vic and Ba rcelona As a young girl, Najat is thrilled to have her hands painted with henna to celebrate the eve of the final day of Ramadan. Her mother does it carefully and the protagonist Me les mirava una vegada i una altra i em fascinava la intensit at del color, (66). Delighted with the work of art on her hands and eager to share it with others, she encounters a local saleswoman who asks her mquina escurabutxaques, de vegades ben rossa, de vegades pl roja, em mirava mig sorpresa, mig fastiguejada -Shocked by this disapproval and completely humiliated, Najat has a life changing moment : Des d n: una, la marroquina, seguia amb els costums anhelats, jugava a fe r de n via amb els mocador s de la mare, somiava en festes catalana, es most rava de portes enfora She fears judgment from the native population and struggles with an identity crisis as she longs to express and explore her cultural and religious customs, yet also take part in the traditions of her adopted country. Najat muse s: Quan alg demanant es que et desintegris, que esborris qualsevol rastre de temps anteriors, de vestigis culturals or religiosos, que ho oblidis tot i nom s recordis els seus records, el seu passat T he documentar y Extranjeras presents interviews with several African women. One young Senegalese woman who sells scarves, hats, and gloves on the street for
56 Extranejras ). This young woman w orks on the streets, helps her sister with the baby, and prepares food to feed over forty people in their apartment. She recalls that the police investigated to ensure they did not have an illegal restaurant in their home. Another group of African women interviewed Rasha, Paz, and Mila they discuss their lives and current situation in Spain. In fluent Spanish they express different opinions about racism that they encounter in their surroundings. After mentionin g her difficulty in merely hailing a taxi cab, one of the women summarizes: Extranjeras ). Although literary and cinematographic critics have affirmed that, amo ng African immigrants, the Maghr eb i an population encounters the g reatest discrimination in Spain, the women portrayed in both the earlier and more recent works of my corpus are equally marginalized and defined by their differences, ethnic origins, and socio cultural practices. Ftima is mystified and Aisha is objectifi identity crisis because of her differences and cultural practices, and the women in Extranjeras discuss the xenophobic attitudes of the locals. They are clearly the Other in their adopted country. One notable difference between earlier and more recent portrayals of African women immigrants is the increased agency ascribed to the women. In the earlier works, Ftima is voiceless and Aisha More recently, there is an increase in first person narrative: the fictional characters
57 autobiographical (the only autobi ography written by a woman immigrant in Spain that I was able to find), and the women in Extranjeras are interviewed for the documentary. These changes, giving the woman immigrant different roles and new agency, allow readers or viewers to better understa nd their life stories. In a sociological context Floya Anthias and Gabriella Lazaridis comment on the benefits of such a changed perspective : Some attempts to gender migration have tended to overemphasize the role of structures and constraints and at tim es have produced an impression that women are victims of circumstances. Introducing agency into migration theory, whilst also recognizing that such agency is conducted in given structural and institutional contexts, enables a more multifaceted approach th at can pay attention to the lived experiences of migrant women. ( 6 ) Latin American Women I mmigrants Moving into the otherness ascribed to the Latin American woman immigrant in Spanish literature and film, the following paragraphs will demonstrate that they too are marginalized by virtue of their ethnic and socio cultural differences. We see this in the Flores de otro mundo It is also ev ident in more Salsa Aguaviva Extranjeras and Si nos dejan Although these women often share a l anguage and certain historical periods with the native population, their otherness prevents them different than the rest of the Latin American community, I will discuss t hem separately. In his comprehensive study of migrations in European film, Jos Monterde contends: Ese factor digamos mitolgico sobre la sensualidad caribea, tanto femenina como masculina, es la que diferencia netamente el tratamiento de
58 la inmigracin caribea respecto a los restantes inmigrantes latinoamericanos, que sin embargo pertenecen a una misma comunidad lingstica, geopoltica e histrica. (134, note 68) The Ca ribbean woman immigrant is defined by her differences and her victimization in the narratives selected; she is overly sexualized and often works in service oriented jobs such as prostitution or caretaker positions. The eponymous is a young Jamaican immigrant who works as a prostitute in th e Casa de Campo in Madrid : el lote ven a de Jamaica o algo as, un sitio extico y caribeo, y daba gloria verlas con aquellas piernas como troncos, duras, perfectas y esas bocas con unos dientes tan blancos y una delantera imponente de agrrate para no c aer. chulo, Chano, falls in love with her and is killed when he tries to protect her from four local young men who attempt to take advantage of her The narrator worker and side : con las de color, que los atraen y los excitan, precisamente porque, bueno, les da asco (38). Marceli nda, who had also grown fond of her chulo, commits suicide at his side with the knife used by his killers: la Marcelinda desangrndose sobre el Chano, que tena los ojos muy abiertos; una escena de Romeo y Julieta (41). Her voice is silenced as was Fati The narrator recalls the haunting appearance of la saliva y apenas duermo. Era una piel marrn como de cera, de museo de terror, una mueca disecada co n los ojos de cristal, como esos alfileres de los acericos. ¡Haba She is overly sexualized as a young prostitute in life and objectified as a terrifying doll upon her death.
59 Bobby, the adolescent narrator. According to him, she is a forty something woman who emigrated from her native Caribbean island to New York, where her children were born. Later in the story the reader finds that she is from Santo Domingo. S caretaker and both reside in Madrid during the events of the narrative. Amrica invites Bobby into her world; she takes him to a dance hall she frequents in the city. Bobby is magnetized by her appearance as they prepare for their excursion : Calzaba unos altsimos zapatos rojos con lazadas negras sobre las medias color harina, y llevaba un vestido amarillo, aretes en los lbulos y una diadema muy historiadora sobre el pelo crespo y engominado He recalls the ritual she per formed pri or to their outing: antes de salir nos haba protegido a ambos contra el mal de ojo perfilndonos los cuerpos Anticipating potential issues with the locals, she wishes to protect them both in a ritual th at clearly foreshadows the tragic event to follow Bobby is introduced to her friends at the dance hall and continues to be mesmerized by Am esence, as are the rest of the attendees : haban dejado de bailar a su alrededor, la miraban i gual que unos hipnotizados, y ahora ella se des lizaba sola, y doblaba las rodi llas y la cintura y giraba y giraba, c omo si fuese una figura de humo ( 402 ). As the object of this voyeuristic gaze, she has a hypnotizing effect upon her onlookers, clearly th e sexualized Other. She is the object of the young Shortly after this eventful night, Bobby has to move back to the U.S. with his mother while Amrica stays in Madrid with his father. A fter being unable to convince
60 Amrica to go with them, the narrator becomes upset and refuses to give her a last kiss He finds out about her death short ly after sending her a taped apology from the U.S., guilt ridden because of his behavior casa del abuelo Frank, le envi una cinta donde le peda perdn. No s si lleg a escucharla antes de que la mataran a palos y a cad enazos unos skins en una madrugada de sbado, de regreso, sin duda, de ese saln de baile donde ella se (403). The voice of Am rica is also silenced with a violent and untimely death. T he film Flor es de otro mundo portrays two Caribbean women, Milady from Cuba and Patri cia from the Dominican Republic; they stand out in the village by virtue of their ethnicity, gender and immigrant status. 11 A theatrical spectacle ensues in the small rural town, Sant a Eulalia, as soon as the busload of women ( including several immigrants) arrives for the special singles/mixer event organized to introduce and pote ntially marry off the visitors to local As the women step off the bus, the Guardia Civil, a local marching band, and countless townspeople gather to receive them. Cheers, whistles, music and curious onlookers accompany the women as they parade towards the town hall in a carnivalesque fashion; the came ra zooms i n on one of the Afro tight yellow leotard. These women are sexualized from the moment they arrive. 11 Flores de otro mundo has been the subject of several academic studies. Particularly useful studies on Other ness and mestizaje in the film include: Ballesteros, Van Liew, Martin Mrquez and Martn Cabrera See bibliography.
61 Milady, a n Afro Cuban who had been Carmelo is treated similarly from the moment of her arrival. She first appears s tep ping out of a fitted halter top, sunglasses, and tight red, white and blue (with stars and stripes) leggings and tennis shoe heels Maria Van Liew affirms: rrival with all its imperialist symbolism of displacement determines her sexualized body 5). The older local men are dumbfounded by her exotic appearanc e as are the onlookers from the local bar. Carmelo quickly covers her up with his jacket ; her provider, her protector. The camera focuses on her expression of disdain as she raises her glasses to find older men gawking at her as they si t on the fountain and stare. Later in the film, she is harassed by young locals who visit the bar where she is briefly employed. mis ( Flores de otro mundo ). The Spaniard towards Milady contrast s with the we lcome given to the immigrants in the opening Milady is not at home in Santa Eulalia. She is the erotic Other th at is both desired and disdained not part of her ultimate plan), she hitches a r ide to Valencia to seek entertainment at a night club. The cinematographer chooses close face as she dances the night away at the disco. This technique mirrors
62 statement: e ups of legs ... or a face integrate into the narrative a different mode of eroticism. One part of a fragmented body destroys the Renaissance space, the illusion of depth demanded by the narrative, it gives flatness, the quality of a cut out or icon ra erotic icon, for a brief moment in time. The last freeze frame in the disco is an image of last time we see j oy in her demeanor. Her confidence her provocative appearance, and her excitement quickly diminish when she returns to the village ; Carmelo hits her in the face in a fit of rage after h e finds out she has been away suspicious of her mysterious adventures ; the fantasy dims. In sweatshirt; a drastic change in appearance in comparison to earlier scenes. She e is an effort to dominate and control the same qualities that attracted him initially. Milady eventually disappears, unable to adapt to an imposed domestic lifestyle in her new surroundings. Not only was she harassed by C armelo, but also by young men at the bar, as well as by a local woman threatened by the arrival of these immigrant women. As Dolores Juliano notes S e produce con respecto a las mujeres inmigrantes, un fenmeno de di storsin de su imagen, que hace que a pesar de que la inmensa mayora de ellas se desempean en activi dades no relacionadas con la sex ualidad principalmente como asistentas dom sticas, cuida doras de anciano s y nios, venta, hostelera o restauracin solo s e visualicen aquellas cuyas actividades se relacionan con el mbito sexual ( 126 )
63 hipervisibilidad as they become the center of attention of medical and legal discourses, and because they Marcelinda, Amrica, and Milady are ob served and judged by the locals; their stage presence is both exciting and threatening at the same time. They are erotic figure cycle of marginalization. Said affirms that: A field is often an enclosed space. The idea of representation is a theatrical one: the Orient is the stage on which the whole East is confined. On this stage will appear figures whose role it is to represent the larger whole from which they emanate. The Orient then seems to be, not an unlimited extension beyond the familiar European world, but rather a closed field, a theatrical stage affixed to Europe. (63) They are ultimately contained in this closed space that Said describes, an d therefore stage presence at the dance party, Ro meo a nd Juliet like suicide, and the procession of immigrant women in Flores de otro mundo are all p erformances that ethnic and cultural otherness in a Eurocentric Spanish society. The Latin Americans portrayed in more recent wo rks include Caribbeans as well as immigrants from several other countries in Latin America, a significantly more diverse group of women than in earlier narratives. Monterde maintains: s lo en los ltimos veinte a os cuando llega u na verdadera emigra cin econmica, sea de forma paulatina y continuada (desde Ecuador, Per, Colombia, Bolivia, etc.), sea de forma
64 Andres Surez confirms that more recent Latin American immigration came to Spain out of economic hardship: I ntelectuales, tcnicos y profesionales primero, y ms tarde una abundante poblacin inculta y mal preparada para afrontar las exigencias del mercado espaol. Se produjo entonc es en los autctonos un sentimiento de saturacin que gener cierta xenofobia como demuestra la acuacin por ( 16 ) W omen in more recent narratives are portrayed in various guises, not simply as a monolithic Other as we shall see. Omara, an Afro Salsa is still the Other; she frequents the underground Salsa club in Madrid, works as a nanny for a Spanish family, performs witchcraft and believes she has absorbed the alter ego of o ne of her female acquaintances at the Club, an Argentinean writer: (76). Omara is fired from one of her jobs as a nanny after frightening the children with stories a bout the alter ego she absorbed: Pobre mujer. Se ha quedado sin trabajo. Parece que esta maana, en lugar de acompaar a los nios al colegio, se los llev a la plaza y se puso a contarles una historia extrasima sobre un indio en pelotas del que estaba enamorada y que viva de robar vacas aqu y all En realid ad, daba igual, porque Omara ya haba empezado a rerse a las carcajadas y a revolear los ojos con cara de loca, a tiritar. La seora, claro, se asust. Es lgico, ella trabaja, y Omara estaba todo el d a sola, a cargo de los nios. ( 77 78 ) Her cultural practices make her threatening ; i demonstrates drastic differences and has not been assimilated into the host culture. She is eventually employed again as a nanny by an acquaintance at the Club, and continues he r of earlier works.
65 The Latin American women immigrants in later works are also defined by their difference but they are assigned new roles Aguaviva (2006), Angela, an Argentinean Chilean mother of four and Graciela, an Argentinean wife and mother, emigrate to the small depopulated town of Aguaviva, Spain. They are assured employment upon the condition they stay for at least five years in tow n. These women and their families were brought to Spain by the mayor who carefully selected Argentinean families that would eas ily integrate (the families are white and speak Spanish), but they are isolated within their new surroundings. Angela, whose f amily struggles economically and who works different seasonal jobs (a s a pool attendant in the summer and labor er at a rabbit farm in the winter), is only seen interacting with her immediate family. Graciela and her husband acquire ownership of an abandon ed restaura nt along the highway; she discusses the xenophobic attitudes of the locals and is often shown alone, using the public payphone to report news to her family in Argentina; at the restaurant; or with another Argentinean family In one of her phone estoy lejos, entiendo lo que le ( Aguaviva ). Her lonel iness and isolation consume her; Graciela sympathizes with her Aunt (recently deceased) who migrated to Spain before her. In this documentary, there is a scene where the local men discuss the arrival of Eastern European men prior to these Latin American families and plainly assert that the One of the locals proclaims: on los rumanos. Los argentinos, los sudamericanos, todos, Aguaviva ). Their work ethic is called into question by the locals and their evident isolation from the autochthonous population points to a lack of
66 integration into Spanish society In one of the frames, the camera focuses on graffiti on an abandoned building. Its bold black letters, complete with misspellings reads: ARGETINO, NI RUMAN, NI It is apparent that not all of the locals are heeding the words we hear from Aguaviva ). Thirteen years after the publication of her collection of short stories in F tima de los naufragios Lourdes Ortiz published a second collection, Ojos de gato (2011). This offers an excellent opportunity to compare women immigrants portrayed by the same llection that assigns a significant role to a woman be defined by her Otherness Donato is a successful businessman from Albacete who attends a social event organize d by his work at a brothel, La curva empi nada on the outskirts of Madrid. It is his first visit to such an establishment. He was so intrigued by his experience and his desire to re live the fantasy, r ecordar a la mulata en realidad casi no poda recordarla al da siguiente pero la imaginaba tersa, hermosa, joven. Una mujer salvaje, casi una diosa que se entregaba a l en un rito de iniciacin, un himeneo sagrado. Mucha fantasa que le pona los diente s petite young woman cleaning one of the rooms: y l pudo ver su nariz chata, sus rasgos ai la mujer casi nia pareca envuelta en un halo, From these first descriptions of the young
67 girl, the reader is able to determine that not only is she an immigrant, but she is also attributed angelic qualities beyond this world, clearly the Other. Dona to approaches this young girl, Benedicta, and after their physical encounter, Afterwards, he leaves the money beside the bed, and begins to feel g ¡De todas formas la muchacha era rara de cojones Medio anormal. Tena una Uncertain of whether or not she was a virgen, or o f her age, his encounter absorbs his thoughts and he returns once again to the establishment: el recuerdo de la mulata, aquella msica quizs una habanera peligrosa, sensual, que sala del peque Once he arrives, a man como muchas de su tierra. Dice que ha visto a dios. Ya sabe Ven dioses por todas partes, como si todava estuvieran en la selva o en el p ramo o donde quiera que vivan en sus (25) Donato is told that this yo ung girl was approximately thirteen years old and establishme nt the man at the front desk refers to her as a possible acquaintance of Donato gets the address and visits her home where he finds her lying in a bed with her arms folded across h er chest as several men and women kneel on the staircase and all around her. A woman whispers to him: el infant e Es un
68 nio bendito como la madre, un angelito. Rcele, ande, rcele. No tenga miedo. Dicen que no sangr, qu e fue un milagro, as que ella es virgen, lo mismito que la Madre que he claims she was just a visi on. Her assigned otherness ultimately allows Donato to escape respons ibility, his feelings of guilt, and continue his successful modern lifestyle. earlier to more recent collection of short stories. Ftima, Marcelinda, and Benedicta are all prese nted in third person, without a voice of their own. Each is assigned a role that leads to victimization and exacerbates otherness. Both Ftima and Benedicta are exalted as a blessed Virgin, and all three are ultimately silenced: Ftima and Marcelinda com mit suicide, and Benedicta lies silent in her bed described by the narrator as an marginalized spaces; integration into the hegemonic culture is far from reach. Taber Extranjeras presents various Latin American immigrant women. Filmed as a series of interviews, it presents images and voices from a multicultural group of women (Ecuador, Peru, Poland, Romania, Senegal, China, etc). The South Americans include immigrants from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Peru. One Ecuadorian cuts hair at the Retiro Park to earn a living and claims, espaoles emigraron a nuestro pas y se trajeron la mejor riqueza, entonces ellos tambin deben de darnos esa op ortunidad para nosotros y para toda la gente que Shortly after this statement, police arrive to close down the illegal street businesses ; desperate to make a living, another woman yells out at them askin g if they would prefer they prostitute th emselves She plea ds:
69 autoridades, que por favor, entiendan, que somos inmigrantes ( Extranjeras ). These women are marginalized socio economically and forced to work illegally on the streets. ntary, Si nos dejan also presents South American women living in Barcelona. In a series of interviews with immigrants, MaryCarmen, a employment. At the time of the documentary, MaryCarmen had been living in Barcelona for ten years (three of them illegally). She claims that she came with She identifies with her fellow Venezuelan co o me siento catalana, yo no me siento espaola, yo me siento sudaca. Y mientras m s racismo veo, m ( Si nos dejan ). The difficulty of integrating with the l ocals, the trials of obtaining legal status, and her current occupation all marg inal ize her in her adopted country. Under Represented G roups Other under represented ethnic groups only appear in the more recent narratives of my corpus; they include immigrants from China and Eastern European countries such as Romania, the Ukraine, and P oland. The only narrative in my corpus that assigns a primary role to women from these countries is Extranjeras Although statistics show that these groups represent a large percentage of the immigrant population, their representation continues to be min imal in contemporary Spanish literature and film. With respect to the Chinese population, Santaolalla affirms that in Spanish film menudo se ha recurrido a justificar la escasa presencia de lo chino en las manifestaciones culturales espaolas haciendo refer e ncia a la actitud cerrada del grupo (148). Andres Su rez corroborates this idea in her analysis of the minimal
70 representation of the Asian population in literature and mantains : culturales y religiosas tienen tendencia a permanecer e ntre ellos y a no mezclarse con los aborgenes. Para estos, los asiticos suelen construi r un verdade r (17). 12 In regard to the Easter n European c ountries Santaolalla recognizes an increased erspectiva de la Europa occidental, la pero tambin muy o m la Europa hegemnica 53) Extranjeras is unique in its presentation of women from varied ethnic backgrounds living in Madrid, including from these under repre sented countries The interviews allow the spectator to hear the ses mainly close up shots of the wom en as they tell their stories. T he immigrant women portrayed represent c ommuni t ies from all over the world, each with socio cultural differences that are shown to perpetuate their marginal position in Spa nish society. Th e Chinese women discuss ties to their culture of origin and the importance of passing on their language and traditions to future generations. One woman discusses the fact that there are very few Chinese women with Spanish men A second generation Chinese teen who speaks fluent Spanish, Lily Lin Chen, discusses her interaction with classmates and their cultural differences; she asserts that she is laughed at on the 12 An exception to this finding is the film Biutiful (2010), directed by Alejandro Gonz lez I rritu, who presents a multicultural group of immigrants residing in Barcelona, including the Chinese popul ation (among others).
71 ro, porque por ejemplo, en su colegio no tienen un chino, o un africano, o un americano. Pero la verdad es que s siempre por mucho que le caiga bien, siempre al final dice, acaba diciendo pero es c ( Extranjeras ) Lily recognizes her otherness and even manages to f ind a way to justify the behavio r of the locals. Extranjeras also presents several Polish women including Anna and Kamila, a mother and daughter team who work at a bar in Alcal; they discuss their difficulties adapting to their adopted c ountry. In fluent Spanish, the daughter discusses her challenges at a school she used to attend an lo tpico de the majority of students were gypsies and states me dieron Extranjeras ). Even so, over time, she belonging to this third grou discuss the xenophobic attitudes they face in the community and their difficulty adapting to their new surroundings. The women immigrants seen or portrayed in these narratives are all set or kept apart fro m the hegemonic culture by racial, religious or cultural differences The representation of their otherness persists in both the earlier and more recent narratives in my corpus, and integration remains a key issue throughout. However, the artists ascribe increased agency in more recent works permittin g new voices to be heard. The persistent victimization and marginalization, as women, as immigrants, as different, as the Other, limits the possibility of integration into Spanish society. Said mai inv o lves the construction of opposites and
72 whose actuality is always subject to the continuous i nterpretation and re interpreta Each age and society re ( 332 ). Although the immigrants in more recent works exercise resistance, have increased agency, and take on new roles as we will see in the following chapter their socio economic marginalization persists. The portrayal shifts from marginalized indi viduals in earlier works to marginalized collectiv es in more recent narratives. First, t he individuals, and later the collectives, are contained and the divisive issues of race and socio economic disadvantage persist and seem to impede their integration i nto Spanish society if that is indeed what they seek What is their ? The answer to this question will be explored in the following two chapters by analyzing manifestations of resistance and the spaces occupied by women i mmigrants portrayed Bhabha states: (12). The significant changes observed in the portrayal of immigrant women in S pain between the earlier and more recent works in my corpus reflect the changing concept of alterity in an increasingly multicultural Spanish society. In more recent works, the women are represented in a variety of roles and spaces; they begin to negotiate their new place and to transcend some of the stereotyping that the perception of Otherness abets and p erpetuates.
73 CHAPTER 4 LANGUAGE, RELATIONSHIPS, AND DIFFERENCES: MANIFESTATION OF RESISTANCE Figure 4 1. Nuestra clase de castellano (picture provide d by the Fundaci Ateneu Sant Roc ) Arpillera A twenty eight year old Moroccan woman, Fatima Oldwen, created this tapestry. In the accompanying description, she states that she studied until she was thirteen and 88). She expresses her desire to learn to
74 read and write well and talks about the class she is currently taking at the Foundation. She also expresses the need to learn Spanish to deal with administrative and medical procedures; for the present she has to depend on her husband to translate paperwork. She notes that the class provides a chance to learn to read and write and the opport ido una clase, donde mujeres extranjeras de todos los sitios vienen para aprender a leer y escribir. Y no slo para eso, sino tambin The four women portrayed in this tapestry represent a diverse group; the variety of colors used for their hair (from black and brown to green and rainbow like colors) a nd their different types of clothing depict a multicultural group. They sit around a table facing each other, a grouping that promotes conversation and interaction, reflecting ground, and the black block like figures in the middle of the table represent what appears to be a computer, something that Fatima also indicates that she enjoys using in the classes. The year that is written on the blackboard, 2009, is a critical element in the piece. This Foundation provides valuable resources to remedy illiteracy and lower language barriers for locals and foreigners in its community well into the twenty first century. The women in this tapestry, much like those of my narrative corpus, search out opportunities to improve language skills in order to better maneuver within their socio political context. The representation of women immigrants as the Other has changed significantly over the past fifteen years, as can be observed in depictio ns of her power, autonomy,
75 stereotyping and this perpetuates their marginal position in soc iety. In Chapter 3 we Orientalism and its associated binary oppositions: Orient/Occident, East/West, enunciation and his discourse on hybridity, which allows us to perceive the ways in which difference is articulated as a strategy of resistance. This chapter will also consider the often ambivalent nature o f the woma tain her cultural borderline engagements of cultural difference may as often be consensual as ns of cultural engagement are seen particularly in the newer works Trinh T. Minh ha explores the ambivalence of immigrants : Not quite the same, not quite the other, s he stands in that undetermined threshold place where sh e constantly drifts in and out. Undercutting the inside/outside opposition, her intervention is necessa rily that of both not quite an insider and not quite an outsider. She is, in o ther words, this inappropriate other who moves about with alw ays at le ast two gestures: that of while persisting in her di fference I otherness arrived at. (418) ifferences that the women portrayed find a place of resistance I will focus specifically here on adoption or rejection of a different language, their relationships with Spaniards, and the ir affirmation or rejection of their own differenc e as a way of exploring changes I have observed in the representation of The latter works portray increased agency among the women immigrants.
76 Another noteworthy change i n th e narratives produced after 2001 is the increase in testimonial, autobiographi cal, and documentary discourse which facilitates representation of varied ethnicities and differences. Divergences ar e no longer homogenized binary oppositions are diffused, and the woman immigrant speak s from the metaphorical liminal space that Homi Bhabha calls the To develop this idea, Bhabha builds on liminal space which allows for displac ement of binary oppositions: The stairwell as lim inal space, in between the designations of identity, becomes the process of symbolic interaction, the connective tissue that constructs the difference between upper and lower, black and white. The hither and thither of the stairwell, the tempo ral movemen t and passage that it allow s prevents identities at either end of it from settling into primordial polarities. The interstitial passage between fixed identification opens up the possibility of a cultural hybridity that entertains difference without a n as sumed or imposed hierarchy. (4) A threshold, where articulation of differences and cultural identity is constantly negotiated, offers a potential venue for agency and resistance (2). Adoption or Rejection of a Different L anguage In several of t he earlier n arratives considered, little attention was paid to the In Dulce Chac voice and Marcelinda articulates only a few words and phrases in broken Spanish. The (7). silence permit s an identity to be imposed upon her; she has no voice of her own. Ana Rueda mentions this lack of voice in her study of migration literature la literatura de la migracin delata tambin la falta de voz del inmigrante, ya que sin
77 identidad propia es dif (59). With respect to Ftima, she observes: ella identidades dispares, contradictorias, quiz gratuitas, llegando a mitificarla como Madonna o Virgen m ilagro The young Jamaican protagonist of can only muster a few broken phrases in efforts to communicate with her chulo, Chano, and her customers. The few words she enunciates o cinco palabras para que pudieran manejarse, y era gracioso orlas con aquellas eses tan (26). The narrator initially thinks that Marcelinda and the group of women s he works el lote vena assigned to her, in this case ; she is obligated to prostitute herself, mis pronounces as According to the narrator, this young girl also say s accent, but not in Spanish That she has learned little hard ly matters in the end; she is rendered speechless and commits suicide af Of the earlier narratives, Aisha in has a more significant relationship to the language. Although her Spanish is also broken (the omniscient narrator recounts the events that led up to her death using a dialogue that language with limited vocabulary), she is able to develop relationships with Spaniards thanks to having some abili ty to use their language Aisha wishes to lea rn Spanish as a means to an end:
78 Aisha a aprender, para papeles necisit words indicates to the reader that she speaks with an accent, and this di stances her from the native population. Her broken syntax and her accent set her apart; she is the Other who regardless of her efforts to communicate is still seen as different. She clearly desire s to learn the language to secure legal residency in the country. She met con Pedro. Se encontraron en una clase de alfabetizacin, ella haba ido a aprender el While her Spanish is sup erior to Ftima and Ma silenced in the end ; all three die suddenly The more recent works in my corpus portray a range of proficiency and attitudes to learn ing Spanish ; some wish to affirm their cultural identity by expressing t hems elves in their own language. Some narratives continue to deny the principal character a voice. is one of the voiceless; we hear story thanks to the letters she receives from her sister who is living in Bolivia Rosa. 1 The camera follows Nora in her daily activities in Madrid while voice as she reads the letters she has written to her sister The film begins with Nora awaking on a mattress in a crowded bathroom where another wo man also sleeps. Her long day consists of taking various means of public transportation and working two service oriented jobs : she is a caretaker at a center for older adults and a nanny for a Spanish family of Chagas disease i n Bolivia, and she subsequently migrated to Madrid and send s money back to her family. 2 In the letters, 1 Invisibles production.
79 Rosa asks Nora if she remembers a game they used to play as little girls, the invisibles rampant in Latin America is making them even more invisible as a group icated through this series of letters, and although the viewer gets an idea of her desperate situation, her voice is never heard. The use of at ive documentary eliciting a response from the spectator with respect to the socio economic condition s in Bolivia and the solitary life of an immigrant woman surviving in Madrid. She is just as invisible in her pre sent day situation in Madrid as she was playing a childhood game with her sister in Bolivia Despite t his recent example of a voiceless immigrant, many women in the newer narratives demonstrate increased agency and are able to express themselves both in Spanish and in their native language (when it differs) Discussing recurrent themes in migration narratives, Ana Rueda notes receptor se constituye a menudo en barrera cultural para el inmigrante No obstante, el bilingismo y el poliglotismo (berber, r abe, francs, espaol) son un arma Mastery of Spanish will prove to be a powerful tool for many of the women in my corpus. I will consider the language issues presented in the portrayal of several women: Vi viana in Salsa the Chinese women in Extranjeras and Najat in Jo tamb sc catalana. 2 In the final segment of the documentary, the viewer learns more about the Chagas disease ; a written description of the i llness is presented as voices of children are heard singing about it. The text presented chinche que habita en el adobe de las chabolas: la vinchuca. T ambin se la conoce por la enfermedad de la muerte sbita Afect a a 18 millones de personas en L atinoamrica que viven en la pobreza este momento ningn laboratorio del mundo est investigando para desarrollar un remedio contra la enfermedad de Chagas. En e ste momento hay 1800 medicamentos pendientes de patente destinados al ( Invisibles
80 residing in Madrid, a p robable alter ego of the author Although she s hares a language with the autochthonous population, she is marginalized because of her dialect. She is rejected both in Spain and Argentina because of her blended language A ttempt ing to adapt to her current situation dooms her as a writer; she is unable to publish in Argentina or in Spain. On one of her trips to Argentina to meet cinco aos trabajando en este manuscrito y tengo que or lo que estoy oyendo: all, que es demasiado argentino, en A rgentina que es demasiado espa ol. Tendr que Her infuriate Viviana. She Mierda (joder), dijo Viviana, o mas bien lo pens, porque nadie le suelta una puteada (un taco) a un editor en la cara aunque te est rechazando un libro a menos que sea suicida, qu pelotudeces me est largando este boludo (qu coo me est soltando este gilipollas ) bet the same language, is an internal form of defiance for Viviana. But she is at the mercy of the publisher and her actions comply with the powerful hegemonic culture; she meeting even though she is offended by his behavior. Upon her return to Madrid, she abandons he r pseudonym, Felicitas Coliqueo, and lays her pen aside 3 Maria Bernath story through Felicitas Coliqueo it is done so orally, outside the dominant cultural norm. 3 witchcraft and later in the novel, transmits Fe tory to the young girl she cares for
81 lingstica impuesta por la cultura dominante, es decir, desde fuera de la ciudad masculina letrada, la cautiva slo logra contar su historia oralmente This defiance results in submission; taking the advice of Omara, Viviana writes down a long list of Argentinean words and expressions and literally freezes them, hoping to bury them and erase them permanently from use. She acknowledges that upon doing so she not only eliminates many of the struggles she has encountered as an exile, but also much of her identity. pobres palabras exiliadas; y pobre de ella tambin, oblig ada a vivir en otra lengua: desde ahora su idioma ser clandestino, un boca a boca, una clave secreta. Y, poco a poco, se ir Viviana is unable to tolerate this state of ambivalence, living in between two worlds and two languages. She f inds solace at the underground Salsa club, among other immigrants and Spaniards, where dance and rhythm serve as the primary language of Although Viviana never achieves succe ss as a writer, there is hope in her story when she recuperates her dialect at the end of the novel Bernath notes that the author is an e to communicate their life experiences (14). In addition, her resistance to assimilation is demonstrated in the conclusion where she has the final say in Argentine She is at the club with the owner Jamaica, and declares: maica; la vida, como dicen en mi tierra, es una
82 T he Chinese collective portrayed in the documentary Extranjeras provides a nother example of the changes in representation of immigrants. They have greater agency and express resistance to the dominant culture through language use more so than earlier characters T hese women are the first group in docu mentary; they are a united and cohesive band that seeks to maintain their culture by continuing to speak their own language The director of a Chinese school in Madrid discusses its growth from an initial size of 70 students to its current total of over 300 We see a few minutes of a classroom session with Chinese children; afterwards, the teacher Wang Jue, addresses the came ra and Entonces si ese chino naci aqu, si no sabe cultura china, no sabe letra china. Yo creo que para todos c hinos my transcription, Extranjeras ). Many of t he women interviewed speak fairly fluent S panish, but they stress that they speak Chinese at home and they reiterate the importance of passing on their language to their children. The adults interviewed speak with an accent, but the teenagers speak native Spanish. Taberna also includes a Sudanes e business owner in this series of interviews. Fanta Faustino Roro owns a hair salon, where she is interviewed alongside her employee s. She is tri lingual [Arabic, English, and Spanish] and comments on the fact She affirms : Extranjeras ). Fanta has lived in Spain for eight years; she is a passionate and energetic woman whose otherness impacts her business Her language abilities and drive are eclipsed by her alterity, as we see when Taberna invites the spectator inside and presents an image of potential success thwarted by cu ltural barriers Both the Chinese women as a group and Fanta
83 as an individual take a stand and demonstrate tha t they can maintain their language of origin (and in some case several other languages) alongside Spanish. These women accept that knowing Spanish is vital for improving their personal and economic situations, yet have no plans to abandon their language o f origin, as they proudly state In her analysis of Extranjeras Cristina Martnez Carazo observe dicotoma entre nativo e inmigrante ya que el recin llegado monopoliza la pantalla, invirtiendo as la realidad al otorgar una posicin ce ntral al otro, relegado en la realidad The series of close up shots in each of the interviews grants this central position to the immigrant s as their stories unfold befo re the viewers. in Jo tamb sc catalana demonstrates both a desire to integrate and a drive to retain her own language and culture. These goals, that develop over time as she acclimates to her new surroundings, provoke an internal conflict in this young immigrant who a s an eight year old, a rrives in Vic El Hachmi relates this tale (or autobiography) chronologically, first through the eyes of a young child, and later as an adolescent and young adult. 4 She did not see herself as different until others told her she was. In the prologue, she states that for her, writing is a means of understanding; the text l a felicitat a cavall entre dos m is dedicated to language: The protagonist recalls her fervor for learning Catalan as a young girl; it meant the 4 In the prologue, there is an indication that this novel con tains autobiographical elements: Desprs es barreres, per navegar entre els recor ds (i no noms en aquest relat de tipus autobiogrfic, sin en tots els relats que inicio hi ha un boc de mi
84 possibility of studying making friends, an d feeling part of a community una necessitat vital, hi havia pocs marroquins a Vic, e ntendre el catal era obrir se les portes a un nou mn, tenir les claus per accedir a la intimitat dels hab (38). S he learned the language at a very young age and spoke it at school and with friends, but every time she attempt ed to speak it to the locals they answered her in Castilian. catalans els ofn que es parli la seva llengua, tot plegat deu tenir m s a veu re amb la se la. O s que en el fons tot a aquesta gent que em contesten sempre en castell, continuen pensant com a parlants de llengua minoritria ? (52) As an adult with a young child, she continues to wonder if they will also address her son in Castilian as he grows up in Catalo nia. The prot greater than that of her friend La Cati. tating that it No cal, tota la vida que he dit incens i no vindrs tu, de fora, a dir me com haig de parlar la meva llengua This conversation demonstrates as far as her Catalan interlocutors are concerned, that her immigrant status deprives her of the right to show he r superior knowledge of Ca talan; friendship ends. S he persists in speaking Catalan, even though she is consistently addressed in Castilian S Berber language) with her family and her son. El Hachmi refuses to abandon these minor itarian languages, demonstrating her willingness to buck the cultur al norm Rueda states that Jo tamb sc catalana novela en la que el idioma opera al mismo
85 tiempo como instrumento identificador de la protagonista y tambin de resistencia contra e her identification with the Berber language as well as Catalan but her desire to adapt and become an integral part of her new surroundings is frustrated by locals who look at her and see a stereotype instead of an individual In a discussion with her Catalan language teacher she is made aware of the fact that she is the only one actually thinks in her adopted language Catalan. No et sentis de dos llocs alhora, que tinguis dues llenges maternes, encara que una sigui adoptada Uncertain of her normalcy, she persi sts in her otherness. She finds a place of resistance between these two worlds, her voice is heard and her story is told ; she is an immigr ant writer living in Spain who accesses the dominant culture by publishing her autobiographical novel in a Catalonian editorial, Columna. Language is tied to cultural identity, and in many of the recent works in my corpus, immigrant women acclimate to their adopted countr y by learning Castilian or Catalan, while refusing to abandon their language of origin. This in betwe en state is indicative of their migrant status. T hey are not quite the same, yet not quite the other in Minh formulation. Such indeterminacy often leads to internal conflict as demonstrated by the iscusses the complexity of this involves a movement in which neither the points of departure nor those of arrival are immutable or certain. It calls for a dwelling in language, in histories, in identities that are const
86 T he ambivalence expressed by the women immigrants with respect to language use, and the evidence of conflicts over cultural identity, are not surprising The following section will explore rel ationships with native Spaniards and note any observable changes in the depiction of their agency and resistance to assimilation to the cultural norm Relationships with Native Born Spaniards Women immigrants portrayed in this corpus form some sort of pers onal relationships with Spaniards, yet they are also shown as disconnected from them, particularly in earlier works. More recently, they are seen in varied intercultural relationships, although disjunction persists. Some are completely isolated, while oth ers form work and persona l relationships with Spaniards. The women often express ambivalence about their relationships; the y desire to belong as well as uphold their cultural traditions and customs. Beginning with the earlier texts, the protagonist of solitary Moroccan immigran t who is voiceless and isolated. S he is the Other who has no interaction with the locals, although they develop a unilateral relationship with her : she is the object of their gaze and c uriosity. They exalt her to sainthood for her stoic dedication to awaiting the arrival of her husband and son, lost as the reader knows when their boat capsized on the voyage from Africa. She keeps vigil for more than four years at the shore line Despite her isolatio n, local women empathize with her; they attempt to put themselves in her place and relate to her situation and story (one they have invented for her when she arrived in their small fishing village). One of the local women claims:
87 Si a m la mar se me llev ara un hijo y un esposo que ten a la fuerza de un roble, ¡ ¡Bastante hace ella con soportar lo que tiene que soportar! Yo no s si est loca o est cuerda. Pero a veces, cuando la veo all fija, me dan ganas de ponerme a su lado y quedarme all quieta a su vera, porque yo s bien lo que es perder a un padre y a un abuelo, ¡que el mar es muy suyo y muy traicionero!, y no sabe el que no lo ha pasado lo que es el dolor, lo que es la desesperacin, lo (17) Even though this woman finds a common tie (loss of a loved one at sea ) this unilateral sentiment is expressed from afar; she never tries to befriend Ftima. Another moment body rec ently washed ashore. The townspeople assume that he is her son, although Marcelino recognizes: muerto, que es otro m s de los muchos que escupen las aguas ltimamente, que no tiene nad a que ver con la mora, que ese es de tierra m s adent ro, del Seneg al o del Congo o de sabe Dios d Ignoring this claim, the local women approach F tima: y poco a poco una a una se fueron acercando las mujeres del pueblo con su ofrenda de flores amarillas y roja s y violetas (21 ). One falls to her knees, and they all start praying to the grieving woman. Their actions reflect sympathy, but also fear. They have revered Ftima as a saint, but with whom they never t ruly develop a meaningful relationship. They do not attempt to stop her as she enters into the sea and disappears. The Otherness ascribed to women immigrants in earlier narratives leads at times to destructive or dependent relationships with Spaniards. F or example, the protagonist of impressionable teen prostitute who grows fond of her chulo, Chano. She is the Other to the narrator, to her boss, and to her clients : que hay muchos que los pone a cien llamarlas negras y decir
88 She is so marginalized socially that her only comfort is from the young man who works to maintain prostitution in the area, although it exploits the young girl he has fallen for. The narrator Es una chavala, t una nia No tendr m deca y se pona en plan sen timental, de salvamundos: que po brecilla, que fuera de su tierra, que a lo mejor la haban vendido sus padres o algo as, o que la haban enga ao (27) Both F ti ma and Marcelinda serve the locals as some form of escape from their own realities or they are the objects of patronizing attitudes; at the same time they are marginalized because of their alterity. d Spaniard, and they work as caretakers for Ulises. A lthough she is fond of her husband, she freq uently remembers and refers to the fiance she lost on the crossing f rom Morocco to Spain. Ulises is very fond of his staff, but he is still their boss. One of his guests, the I t is Matilde who is most fond of Aisha and they spend many hours in the kitchen together: rieron juntas. Y a partir de entonces, Matilde a cudi a la cocina cada da y pas las horas hablando con Aisha y perdindole el miedo a su gata. La confianza dio paso al cario (92). Yet Matilde only stumbles upon this relationship with Aisha as an escape from her failing marriage; she slips away fro m her husband by working with Ai sha in the kitchen. Like Ftima and Marcelinda, Aisha fills a ga 5 We never 5 Hblame musa, de aquel var n ) Mara del Mar Lpez This corresponds with my interpretation of unsatisfactory reality.
89 hear directly from any of them, and their voices are as marginal as their position in society. Among the earlier narratives, Bolla Flores de otro mundo explores more deeply the relationships between immigrant women an d native born Spaniards. Milady is physically abused by her Spanish boyfriend who brought her to Santa Eulalia from Cuba. This destructive relationship ends in despair; Milady arrives as a young, confident, and provocative woman but leaves a subdued and defeated possession; even her clothing changes from tight fitting and revealing outfits to baggy clo thes that fully cover her body. Her previous training and studies to be a lab technician for a sugar company in Cuba prove worthless in Santa Eulalia. Hi red at a local bar, she is even criticized by a woman who works there: mos a ver lo que dura sta aqu. El dinero y los papeles, y en cunto los tienen, Flores de otro mundo ). Unable to withstand the abuse, isolation and imposed domesti c duties, she flees from town. In the same film, Patricia a Dominican immigrant who has resided in Spain for four years, marries Damin, a local farmer, to secure her legal status in Spain (although later we find out that she is legally still married to her ex hus band Fran, also an immigrant). Her two children are her priority and she attends the singles event in this isolated rural town in an attempt to find a husband, become a legal resident, build a home for her family, and feel some sense of permanency in Spa in. Although initially their marriage is one of convenience th relationship with Dami n is a success; they respect and care for each other. a traditional Spanish housewife, is strained and painful. The new daughter in law cannot do
90 anything right: she fails in the kitchen (she cooks the beans without broth), she invites her immigrant friends from Madrid without asking permission, and she befr iends the only other immigrant woman in town, of whom the mother also disapproves. The initial close conversation prepares us for what follows. Her face mirrors severe disapproval o f this Dominican immigrant, far from the ideal Spanish woman that she would have preferred for her son. Helma Lutz comments on the relationship between the European woman and the one defined as Other : en estos discursos de alteridad radical, tnica y nacional, m s que en la diferencia sexual. En esta oposicin la mujer europea sirve de modelo con el que medir a las mujeres 137 ). In this light, it is practically impossi ble for Patricia to measure up to her model Spanish counterpart. Although Patricia is never truly seen interacting with anyone in town other than her Spanish family and immigrant friends, on several occasions she resists the stereotyping that surrounds her An example of this resistance can be found in the dialogue with Damin when she confesses that she is still legally married to her ex husband. Her deception infuriates Damin, who questions whether or not she was a prostitute in Madrid before her arriv al in Santa Eulalia (a clear demonstration that stereotyping persists among the locals). Patricia attempts to break free from this image, and insists that is not something she would ever do. She confesses that evidently she came there to find a husband, t o get her papers and to secure a home for her children. Eventually, Damin forgives her and after insisting that she leave, unpacks the car and asks her to
91 stay. Patricia achieves her goals in Santa Eulalia and finds her voice and place of resistance, al beit from a marginal position. Some of the newer narratives also portray isolation among the women immigrant population. In Invisibles ( a fitting title for thi s series of short documentaries), Nora is another example of a voiceless who has no sense of community. We see her interacting with others only as she prepares for her day competing for space with her immigrant roommate in the very bathroom where they both sleep. Her arduous day and her trajectory to and from work is completely solitary ; in one of the letters she receives from her sister, Rosa writes que est In the film Aguaviva (2006), Graciela, Angela, and their families, all from Argentina, are also isolated from the locals in the village. They have some minimal interaction with members of the elderly community an d an occasional visit from the p riest, but we see them interacting primarily with their families or other immigrant friends. The film evokes a sense of isolation and loneliness as the camera fol lows the families in the ir daily activities, without any significa nt contact with Spaniards. Graciela distanced tone, he suggests a book for her to read and asks her if she is taking anything for her grief. For this woman, this outsider, who is clearly distressed in these shots, the superficiality perpetuates the invisible barriers betwe en them Many of the texts produced after 2000 feature more significant relationships between women immigrants and Spaniards, and although these continue to be problematic, they allow the women more room to maneuver and dissent. They also
92 experience incre ased ambivalence, as seen by their behavior and decisions. Susana in Cosmofobia (2008) enters into a relationship with a Spanish man, Silvio, that becomes abusive, at first emotionally but then physically as well. Unable to leave him for econ omic and personal reasons she lacks self esteem she gets counseling ocial services center. She is a Spanish citizen whose parents are from Guinea, as she tells her interviewer; she speaks as well about her relationship with Si her struggle with her appearance, and her challenges at work. Born in Alcal de Henares, she identifies herself as a Spaniard but is seen as different. disapprov es of her negrita le deca a las vecinas y yo no soy racista ni nada de eso, faltara m s, pero pienso, claro, que si el da de maana tienen un nio, en el colegio al cr o le pueden l lamar de todo... (84). Unsure of herself and of what her life would be like without Silvio, she withstands five years of unhappiness and abuse. Although oppressed at work and at home, Susana resists the stereotyping forced upon her as a black woman in S pain and she defies her family in pursuing a relationship with someone from a different ethnic She explains what happened during one heated argument: aterr adora se entromete en la escena como una obsesin cargada de ecos y lo veo todo en retrospectiva. Y, como ahora no tengo seis aos, puedo defenderme. Y veo en Silvio a mi padre y le pego una bofetada, porque le odio. Y entonces l coge lo que tiene m s a 83). Susana is doubly
93 marginalized, as a woman and as someone of African descent Although she recognizes her own bravery, she knows that the consequences will be serious. He will eventually return, wh ich frightens her, but at the same time she does not want to be alone; her ambivalence is perpetuated by her dependency on Silvio and results in the sacrifice of her well being. Working within the confines of her marginalized existence, she inevitably comp ares herself to her European counterpart and is critical of her own physical and emotional state. Susana commen ts on her inadequacies dejar a Silvio, pero luego me miro en el espejo y me veo tan gorda que pienso que nadie me va a querer; si, adems soy una histrica y una perfeccionista y una castradora, y tengo un humor de perros que no hay quien me lo aguante ( 68 ). In the ehaviors demonstrated by the inferiority of the black man and superiority of the the Negro, having been made inferior, proceeds from humiliating insecurity through strongly voiced self accusation to despair. The attitude of the black man toward the white, or toward his own race, often duplicates almost completely a constellation of delirium, frequently bordering on the region of the behavior in Cosmofobia mirrors this finding as she frequently is self critical and voices her insecurities regarding her physical and emotional states. Claude Rheal Malary finds that for the immigrant woman in Spain todos los signos contribuyen a que forme su identidad social a base de la internalizacin de la represi n. Las invitaciones a verse a s misma como inferior a otro(a) son discernibles
94 en los trminos binarios, casi manique stas, que la sociedad ofrece: blanca/no blanca, e ( 182 ). The reader sympathizes with Susana, searching f or her voice and identity and trying unsuccessfully to move S he dreams of another reality entrar en el hogar de una de esas familias felices ( 91 ). Amina, another main chara cter in Cosmofobia comments on the interaction between Spaniards and immigrants in the neighborhood (Lavapies). She was born in adrid in the construction business and in other reader (162). Amina was born in Spain and went to school all throughout her childhood and adolescence in Spain. This sec ond generation Moroccan woman remarks tambin sab a que no me casara con un espaol, porque aqu de mestizaje nada. Los diferentes grupos se toleran, pero no se relacionan. Por eso no hay graves problemas, pero hay convivencia, no intercambios, no She is resigned to the fact that practically non existent and furthermore her boyfriend would have to convert to Islam to marry her. espaoles no lo hacen (163). The Mo roccan protagonist of Un novio para Yasmina also develops personal relation ships with Spaniards 6 In one of the first scenes, Yasmina is seen walking confidently down the street in a rural Spanish town. She is wearing a tank top, knee length sk irt, and flip flops; her wavy hair, worn loosely, falls to her shoulders. She 6 Un novio para Yasmina is a Calzada, Badajoz, and Mortijo.
95 is the image of a contemporary Moroccan woman living in Spain and provides a contrast to the traditional Moroccan woman language classroom who wears full length clothing and a head scarf At the beginning of the film, she meets with her Spanish boyfriend, a policeman, and she raises the topic of marriage. puedo casar Un novio para Yasmina ). Soon after, worr ied about her work situation (at the beginning of the film Yasmina works as a checker in a local grocery store) and his siblings are suspicious of her intentions. A thei r relationship comes to an end. Later in the film Javi pursues Yasmina again, but realizes he is too late when he dis covers she has married another. Yasmina, who is fluent in Spanish and one of the best students in the s, befriends Lola and Mari, two local women who Javi, Lola takes her in and decides to help find her a Spanish boyfriend in order to secure her legal status in Spain. Th is camaraderie soon turns to mistrust: Lola In a conversation with Por qu hacemos todo esto? Nosotros nos involucramos con ellos, ( Un novio para Yasmina ). T h opened door into her bedroom, we see Yasmina performing her prayer ritual on a rug while
96 wearing a head scarf Jorge, sympathetic to her desperate situation, decides to find a solution to her problem; he will pay a local man to marry her. His friend Alfredo agrees to the arrangement. At the celebration, with fellow Moroccans and local employees of the Association, Alfredo tries to exchange his life story with Yasmina and she pulls away f Qu carcter la morita is, and continues working toward educational and professional goals during the year it takes to secure her papers and be able to apply for a divorce. The other immigrant women at the Center, students at the language class that Yasmina now teaches, are cur is better, a relationship with a Moroccan or a Spanish man. Yasmina responds that the marriage to Alfredo is p urely instrumental. We are left to wonder about the veracity of her response. Although we see her pursue her goals with determination, in the final scene she runs into Alfredo on their one year anniversary. She apologizes to him for her abrupt behavior a sense, she defers to Alfredo, a man who initially expressed opposition to everything she valued and required to achieve her goals: the institution of marriage and education. He appears to comply with her request in the final scene, leaving the viewer to actions in the film and the end is thus ambiguous.
97 Yasmina affirms her cultural identity in the confines of her own home and personal Spanish language, and her contemporary dress. She, too, fluctuates between two worlds, and two identities. But Yasmina also breaks new ground in the portrayal of women immigrants; she never abandons her goals and maneuvers her pawns so as to assert her status as an independent woman living in Spain. Assi gned a significant role In her analysis of women fi lm directors in Spain, Mara Cam Vela notes: ha interesado a muchas de ellas es el g nero de cine de per sonajes o intimista que explora principalmente las relaciones de pareja o la a (29). Cam ; fil ng a woman search ing for a sense of belonging yet retaining her cultural ties as demonstrated through her varying relationships with both Spaniards and other immigrants. The women immigrants presented, whether they are isolated from the autocht h onous popul ation or form some sort of relationship with native Spaniards, remain in a peripheral position vis vis their new affiliations. Although some of the more recent works show the women in intercultural relationships, these are often problematic, destructive or exploitative. The alterity ascribed to these outsiders impedes the development of a truly pluralistic community. Affirming or Rejecting D ifferences Women immigrants express resistance to or acceptance of their own ethnic and cultural differences in a ll the works of my corpus. Beginning with Aisha in H blame musa, de aquel var n the women are shown to value their traditions. Aisha tells
98 Matilde about the wedding gifts from her marriage to Pedro, and relates how her imagined marriage to Munir in Esaui ra would have been, had he not died. The compromises she makes in wedding Pedro in Spain few gifts, for example owe partly to their economic situation, but they do not negate the fact that many of the ceremonial rituals were retained, including trying to c Pedro tamin guapo, ms raro en chilaba blanca grande, zaragel grande blanco, babuchas tamin raro en pies de Pedro. Tarbuch grande tamin en cabeza de Pedro. Pedro se pone de marroqu para boda pero n o parece marroqu en ropa de marroqu Pedro only dressed in traditional Moroccan clothing for the wedding, but he also A m me hizo que me hiciera musurman, porque sta no se casaba con un cristiano. Ven mal eso d e casarse con un cristiano, sabe? Y yo tuve que pasar por el aro, y pas, claro que pas, porque esta cosa tan chica me tena sorbo el seso. Y otava me lo tiene y son muchos aos pa mayo. Pero el nombre no me lo cambi, no seora por casi lo consigue la morita (102 03). Although Aisha insists on these matters, she also accepts gifts from her Spanish boss, Ulises, to wear at the wedding that was held on his property, in Aguama rina. In this way, Aisha portrays a hybrid identity; the reader envisions her wearing her between two worlds, negotiating the terms. Although ma rginalized, she maintains her rituals and customs in the ce lebration of her marriage to a Spaniard. She also finds a voice and affirms her differences by refusing to compromise her cultural traditions.
99 Another earlier narrative, Flores de otro mundo also portrays an immigrant woman affirming her differences as a method of resistance to her socio political circumstances. During a gathering with her friends and family from Madrid Patricia has an encounter with her disapproving mother in law. As she and the guests cook, chat, laugh, and dance to Caribbean music, P in law walks in. She is appalled and protests this get together in her home She asks Patricia to consult with her prior to inviting visitors into their home again. A frustrated and embarrassed Patricia takes a stand and yells back at he r ; she exclaims that they will always be welcome and have a meal and home wherever she may be. Patricia is marginalized in this small town; this visit from her family and friends reaffirms her identification with them a s well as her isolation in her new surroundings. At the same time, she struggles to adapt to her new family and social situation as a married housewife in a half deserted rural town. In the end she repairs her relationship with her mother in law and comm its to staying in Santa Eulalia in hopes to secure a better future for her family. 7 Luis Martin Cabrera explores the power found within the margins in this film and Flores de otro mundo represents nothing other than the ruptur e of the linear history of modernity and the emergence of (opening up to) a space of power within those margins that, until now, have been occluded or obfuscated by the Graciela in Aguaviva is another ex ample of this ambivalence as women attempt to retain their ethnic and cultural identities, yet adapt to their new surroundings. She 7 Madrid.
100 hangs the Argentinean flag outside of her restaurant in a demonstration of identification with her country of origin. She is unnerved by the xenophobic attitudes of the locals and ultimately takes down the flag ; she is shocked to find that business improves and concludes that the lack of clients was due to the Argentinean flag She is determined to hang it again and she does ; business improves and in the fin al segments of the documentary the viewer sees the flag flying once again. In his analysis of third millennium documentary films Jean Claude Seguin notes : lo que sorprende de este nuevo documental es la capacidad no s l o de decir la realidad mltiple, sino de convertirse en discurso de protesta, de lucha, de contestacin frente al sistem a (56). when she hangs in front of her restaurant, demonstrates her qu iet resistance to her socio political and personal situation in Aguaviva. The protagonist in Jo tamb sc catalana presents a fervid desire to integrate into push her to qu estion her own identity at a very young age. The narrator recalls that one of her teachers encouraged her to participate in a writing contest, and she won; the thrilled by t he prize, she is bothered that she is identified as a Moroccan and not simply such episodes that lead to an internal conflict resulting in the affirmation of her ethnic ro ots. She states: que et desintegris, que esborris qualsevol rastre de temps anteriors, de vestigis culturals o religiosos, que ho oblidis tot i noms recordis els seus records, el seu
101 passat 90 ). Unwilling to make this compromise years later she instills the importance of both cultures and languages in her son, Rida. The narrator addresses him in the ative No donar nd re la llengua dels teus avantpassats hauria sigut un crim contra la teva formaci I contra els llaos cada resi stance is the publication of this autobiographical novel in Catalan, by which she gains access to the channels of representation and affirms her hybrid identity Extranjeras provides another example of immigran t women affirming their cultural differences. This group of women gathers in Alcobendas to share cooking recipes from their native countries; immigrants from Colombia, Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, and several others participate. The Colombian Angel a Botero introduces the organization and discusse s the type of cocina ecuatoriana, colombiana, Per, mahoritania, Argelia [ sic ] Venezuelan woman then teaches the others about a traditional meal in her country and presents her dish to the viewers. In doing so, she mentions : adaptacin difcil estoy Extranjeras ). The organizer ngela discusses the need for this type of intercultural space : Que estar en la cocina nos junta, es un ritual Ms que llenarnos es alimentarnos de los saberes y de la compaa de mujeres que vienen de otros pases, y que la mejor manera para comenzar a confiar y a creer en las otras es haciendo cosas juntas y hacer un plato de cocina entre todas. ( Extranjeras ) These women find a space to aff irm t heir identities, form an intercult ural group and express their differences. Such spaces and the inherent human need for a sense of community will be explored more in depth in the following chapter.
102 Bill Nichols, in an article written in 1983, discusses th around strings of interviews strikes me as a strategic response to the recognition that neither can events speak for themselves nor can a single voice speak with ultimate films by women directors in Spain about immigrants. Extranjeras a series of interviews without a commentator, elicits a response from its viewers by presenting the personal testimony of a diverse group of women about the satisfactions and challenges they face as immigrants in contemporary Spain. All of the women depicted in the works discussed in this chapter vacillate between attempting to retain their cultural identity of origin and accommodating to their new su rroundi ngs. Bhabha asserts: What is theoretically innovative, and politically crucial, is the need to think beyond narratives of originary and initial subjectivities and to foc us on those moments or processes that are produced in the articulation o f cultural in betwe spaces provide the terrain for elabo rating strategies of selfhood singular or communal that initiate new signs of identity, and innovate sit es of collaboration, and contestation, in the act of defi ning the idea of society itself. (1 2) between ire to Las otras vidas an Argentinian doctoral student discusses her identity in a conversation wi th her new Spanish friend Nora. Argeola catapult, definiendo por fin mi identidad. No hay casa cuando se deja un pas, se vive a la intemperi e, el corte no
103 Identity in the globalized, interconnected world is no longer tied to a homogeneous nation state; rather new interpretations of identity emerge in post colonial studies that obviate the boundaries of nations and transcend binary oppositions. Global migrations permit new subjectivities to emerge at the same time as racism and xenophobia persist. Women immigrants in more rec ent narratives of my corpus transcend some of the stereotyping associated with Othering permitting a different sense of identity and community to emerge The y voice literally or met aphorically their resistance to the xenophobic attitudes that continue to marginalize them in Spanish society. The emergence of mul ticultural societies in a globalized context diffuses such binary oppositions as Or ient/Occident or Other/Self Stuart Hall observes: New subjects, new genders, new ethnicities, new regions, and new communities all hitherto excluded from the major forms of cult ural representation, unable to locate themselves exc ept as decentered or subaltern have emerged and have acquired throu gh struggles, sometimes in very m arginalized ways, the means to speak for themselves for the first time. And the discourse of power in our society, the discourses of the dominant regimes, have been certainly threatened by this decentered cultural empowerm ent of the marginal and the local. (183) We have in fact observed a hybrid cultural identity being shaped with this latest wave of women immigrants ties to place of origin, while at the sa me time asserting a desire to acclimate to their The enlloc, s estar susps en el no re The contemporary wome n immigrant s in my corpus many of whom lack the socioeconomic privilege of the native population, speak f
104 terms of language, relationships, and their own differences) and even if their spot lies outside the dominant culture. In a sense, they broaden the marginal space of enunc iation for future voices In this chapter we have seen three examples of women immigrants who produced their own narratives within their adopted country. Two published their works in publishing houses based in Spain (El Hachmi and Obligado) and Ana Torres documentary has been made available on a global platform, YouTube. Each author has inserted herself at least partially in her narrative. This self representation and intimate portrayal of their personal lives and experiences allows others to see more clearly the changing cultural identities of such communities and the reasons for their ambivalence. They are in search of a new identity, one that lies both outside and inside the dominant culture, a hybrid identity; they are the same, yet different. Readers or spectators gain a deeper understanding of the life experiences of migrants permitting them to understand how their differences perpetuate a non integrated existence e of being rootless, of living between worlds, between a lost past and a non integrated ). The woman immigrant faces a significant challenge in finding her place in European society. subaltern subject, the track of sexual difference is doubly effaced ... If, in the contest of colonial production, the subaltern has no history and cannot spe ak, the subaltern female is eve
105 Although the more recent narratives show the persistence of stereotyping and xenophobic attitudes, they demonstrate a significant change from earlier texts in presenting a diverse range of voice s and a heterogeneous mix of women immigrants. The women in these newer texts negotiate to retain their ethnic ties while adapting to their new milieu. They are also shown not as solitary and peripheral but as a diverse community of women. The following chapter explores the transition between earlier and more recent narratives, and considers the types of community formed in the texts as a more diverse group of immigrant women are portrayed in a multicultural environment in their adopted country.
106 CH AP TE R 5 SPACES OCCUPIED, LITERAL AND METAPHORIC, BY IMMIGRANT WOMEN Figure 5 1. La plaza roja II (picture provided by the Fundaci Ateneu Sant Roc) Arpillera Two Spanish women created this arpillera : Francisca Carmona Cabezas and Mara Ruiz Rubio. Accordi ng to the accompanying text, their intent was to present an image of their neighborhood, the Plaza Roja. This pessimistic vision of the main plaza in their barrio represents the reality that surrounds them con los banco s de hierro rotos, la papelera sin
107 (32). The dark green coloring the seemingly uncomfortable brown benches, and the leafless tree are uninviting to the viewer The written text implies that this plaza is at the cent er of a multicultural community (32) yet the park is empty. The narrative voice explains that she has lived in the neighborhood for forty four years, and that in years past, the plaza was a meeting place where children and families gathered for conversation and social activities. This arpillera this multicultural neighborhood are unwelcoming The glimmer of hope lies in the bright yellow image of the sun shining over the park. This representation is a step towards awareness of current community spaces available such as the Plaza Roja (and its current condition), and demonstrates that this g my corpus reflect the absence of community as demonstrated here; the plaza is empty. Yet the different groups of women in more recent n arratives are often seen congregating in visible and public spaces such as the Plaza Roja. Such increased visibility of immigrant women and the spaces they occupy raises awareness of the types of community they form in their new surroundings. Zygmunt Baum Wasted Lives: Modernity and its Outcasts Th ere are always too many of them of whom there should be fewer
108 are the fol ks of whom there should be more ( 34 ). He reinforces the idea that the routinely violates i communities they form as they negotiate between inside and outside positions in contemporary Spanish society. With the sharp increase in immigration to Spain in the late twentieth and early twenty first centuries, not only has cultural production begun to explore the identity (and often ambivalent nature) of the woman immigrant as Other, but also the spaces occupied by these women in their adopted country. This chapter fi rst presents the physical spaces occupied by women immigrants within the narratives and subsequently discusses the metaphorical spaces they inhabit drawing from concepts developed by Dolores Juliano and Josefina Ludmer. In discussing physical spaces, I w ill refer to the home, and personal and professional spaces I also present metaphorical spaces community among the immigrants. This chapter presents the change in the spaces occ upied by these protagonists between earlier and more recent works. In an article that explores the conceptualization of space, Doreen Massey affirms: is the sphere of the potential juxtaposition of different narratives, of the potenti al forging of new relations, spatiality is also a source of the production of new trajectories, new stories It is a source of the production of new spaces, new identities, new relations and differences 38 ). The narratives selected show a change in
109 acquire new agency and new relations in their shift from peripheral to central spaces, both literal and metaphoric, between earlier and more and this, in turn, allows for the existence of more than one voice in that space (28). This multiplicity is primarily evident in the more recent narratives in my corpus and serves to present a certain resistance to the socio cultural norm. Physical Space s Occupied : from the Periphery to the Cent er The characters in this corpus occupy spaces that range and in some cases progress from peripheral to more central positions. One of the latter is the where, as Iain Chambers affirms: Here, at least, the living evidence of repressed histories and dead empires is not so easily consigned to oblivion: The marginal positioning i s seen particularly in the earlier works : Ftima de los naufragios Hblame musa, de aquel varn Flores de otro mundo The more recent narratives, in contrast, place the characters in urban areas (although some continue in marginal positions): Aguaviva Si nos dejan Retorno a Hansala, and Cosmofobia Extranjeras Salsa Jo tamb sc catalana and Un novio para Yasmina 1 as we have seen, F tima dwe never leaving her spot on the outskirts of the small fishing village. She eventually b aquella estatua hecha de arena y sufrimiento que de She is 1 Gabriella Lazaridis discuss of marginalization and social exclus (7 8).
110 in a fixed position literally and metaphorically, and be comes one with her surround ings. At the end she is enveloped by the sea; her permanent marginal presence is never compromised. Another example of a woman im migrant who remains fixed on the perim eter of society is the eponymous protagonist of Jamaica n prostitute who works in the Casa de Campo, a park located on the outskirts of Madrid viene mucho recatado The narrator refers to these reserved working class men who are cautious about their affairs at the Casa de Campo, and prefer to mai scenes. depicted outside of this environment; there she lives and dies (by suicide just as Ftima does) there. Aisha in Dulce Chac al so resides on the perimeter of her living and working space; she and her husband are T hey are not only marginalized in their living and working space, but also in the community; las reuniones peridicas en casas abandonadas (92) to interact with other immigrants searching for missing frie nds and fami ly members. At the beach party after the film premiere, Aisha chooses to stay at a distance as qued en un banco del paseo martimo, junto target and kill them. Andrea, the movie star and organizer of the party, regrets not Se reprochara haber permitido que no se (160). After their death, the
111 narrator reveals the significance of their names y muri su Ironically, she is one that dies at the hands of locals in the end. from the name of the fictional then recalls what Estela (a guest at the r condescending ly y lleguen a Punto Algorba, y (174). year old Moroccan who is summoned by her father to join him and her brothers in Murcia. This first person narrative depicts the isolation and des pair of an immigrant woman who is marginalized first by her own family and customs ( she is blamed for her the death of her mother who suffered complications after her birth and ultimately died ), and subsequently by the autochthonous population and her fami ly in her adopted country. She makes the treacherous crossing on a patera side. Immediately after her arrival, and fleeing from the police, she runs into a local and his donkey in the mountains un h Isla, as they call her, stays with and submits to this man miedo: un cansancio m s v iejo que el de mi abuela se apoder de mis sueos. No pude volver a Kenifra Her father fin She narrates her story from the confines of Mi padre me encerr aqu, donde ahora estoy, en una habitacin de su casa, sin luz y sin ventanas, esperando que l nazca vivo o muerto y
112 oliendo a humedad sin una lgrima. Slo Karim, el nio vecino, da tres golpes en la pared por las tardes. locked up while the men are working. She tells her story of physical and emotional isolation, certain that death awaits her as soon as the baby is born. She finds consolation in talking to the walls that surround her, walls that literally and metaphorically keep her in a tight ly sealed and contained space, far from any true interaction or integration into society. In the film, Flores de otro mundo, Patricia moves from Madrid to rural Santa Eulalia, in hopes of meeting a local man to marry and thus secure her residency in Spain. Because Santa Eul alia is sponsoring a match making weekend, and Patricia is searching for route to legal residence in Spain which marriage with a Spaniard would provide, she boards the bus for this rural location Shortly after her arrival, she marries D amin and stays in town to begin a family with him; this secluded and abandoned environment strips her of her occupation as a beautician and of her ties to friends and family (her cultural identity). Her occupation as a housewife keeps her in a marginal r like role at home has her running errands, taking care of the animals, and cleaning house. In one scene, her Aunt and friends come from Madrid to visit and as they come through the main entrance of the home where the anima ls are kept, they joke that she not only cares for but lives with the animals. igrant women. In their study of female migrations in Spain Carlota Sol and Snia Parella note work sphere (given the kind of job carried out and the conditions accepted) and in the
113 socio economic sphere (they are not considered as social actors or agents who decide In the more recent narratives of the corpus, women continue to inhabit the margins, but some have moved into new spaces as well. Graciela in Aguaviva is a n example of the persistent peripheral posit ioning of the w oman immigrant: she and her husb and live in town but the restaurant they are given to run is an isolated locale on the outskirts of town. The first image of their new space is an old, rusted sign and the establishment sits behind a padlocked gate; images of abandonment, entrapment and seclusion underline the marginalization she encounters in the town As they prepare for the opening of the restaurant, we hear Graciela speaking with her husband while the segment, the camera focuses on a window through which we view the town at a distance. Graciela is physically removed from the town center in an abandoned restaurant that she now run s. Although restaurant ownership is a new role designated to some of the women immigrants in newer narratives, Graciela and her husband gain employment at the establishment on specific terms. In 2000, the mayor of Aguaviva undertook to repopulate Aguaviva with immigrants from South America and Ro mania. The initiative is El Pais in 2006: La noticia surgi en 2000 a 21 kilmetros de Foz Calanda, en Aguaviva. Este pueblo fue pionero en la repoblacin con inmigrantes. Su alcalde, Luis Brici o, del PP, hizo un llamamiento a familias que ayudasen a paliar el xodo que les haba llevado en 70 aos a perder las dos terceras partes de su poblacin. "Nos dimos c uenta de que en 20 aos el pueblo estara desierto. Se iban entre 20 y 30 habitantes a l ao y tenamos 600". As que vol a Argentina y se trajo a 10 familias, de las que quedan tres en Aguaviva. ( elpais.com )
114 In exchange for their papers and a job opportunity, the immigrants were required to stay and work in Aguaviva for five years Although this sounds like an ideal situation for these new neighbors an article in an Argentinean newspaper, (200 1) presents the struggles that the Argentinean immigrants suffered upon arrival; the pay for their work was minimal and their spending was monitored by the mayor. One of the immigrants proclaimed in an interview, "Me siento vigilado. Y eso es lo peor. El alcalde controla hasta lo que compramos en el mercado" ( lanacion.com ). Graciela and Angela (another Argentinean Chilean woman who appears i n this documentary) are assigned different jobs in Aguaviva, but these do not assure their economic security; Graciela struggles to attract clients to her restaurant, and Angela is seen discussing the challenge of paying bills with her seasonal jobs (as a pool attendant and hired hand on a rabbit farm). families who maintain a peripheral position as the camera follows them around in their daily lives. Because of the cyclic nature of the film, which begins and ends in the winter season, the spectator might conclude that the marginalization of women immigrants will persist in their uncertain future in Aguaviva. However, the final segment of the film offers some hope; an elderly man who is watching the immig rant children play in a park affectionately reaches out to pat the head of one of the children, suggesting the possibility of future acceptance and acknowledgement by the locals of new multicultural neighbors in this small rural town interview documentary Si nos dejan also portrays the socio economic marginalization of women immigrants focusing o n Barcelona. 2 Juanita an Ecuadorian 2 hay que resear el cortometraje Si nos dejan (2004), donde la argentina Ana Torres, ella misma
115 who migrated to Spain alone, sells drinks on the beach out of a portable cooler; she works to sen d money to her family in Ecuador. She confirms that she is an illegal Muy difcil, no s por qu ( S i nos dejan ). She comments that her roots are in Ecuador and that she was raised, married, had children, an d was divorced in her home country. Despite her commentary, she is portrayed walking up and down the beach literally the margins of the country smiling and singing to some of her clients. In a haunting and beautiful voice, s he sings h includes the following lyrics n uevo. Si nos dejan ). This love song (originally a Mexican mariachi song) is full of hope and the lyrics anticipate a brighter future f fulfilled the dreams associated with it. Shohat and Stam emphasize the importance of film: Music, both d iegetic and non diegetic, is crucial fo r spectatorial identification. Lubricating the spectatorial psyche and oiling the w heels of narrative continuity, lates our sympathies, extracts our tears, excites our gla nds, relaxes our puls es, and triggers our fears, in conjunction with the image and in the service of th e larger purposes of the film. ( 209) as title of the film. Spe ctators identify with this immigrant woman, singing about hope salesperson is indicative of her marginal socio inmigrante ilegal, da la palabra a seis i nmigrantes de diversos orgenes residentes en la parte vieja de la roduced and directed by an immigrant woman.
116 economic status and suggest s h er emotional isolation; she states that her only hope is to be able to return home someday to her family and children. Ana Torres inserts herself into the documentary; we hear her voice on occasion, see her reflection, or see the shadow of her bike as she rides through the streets of Barcelona (using a point of view camera shot) looking for work and making her film. At the beginning Todos los que fuimos de nuestro lugar tal vez tengamos es o. Algo, un objetivo incierto, una esperanza. Y aunque no hemos logrado eso, no queremos perder. Perder la Si nos dejan ). These initial words foreshadow the disappointment and in some cases, despair, that the im migrants face in Barcelona. In one of the final scene s, several immigrants are dancing at a hair salo n as the neo by Arturo y la M quina del Sabor plays in the background The immigrants interviewed there expr ess dismay at the xenophobic attitudes they face and the difficulties of adaptation. At the end of the film we see a side shot of the director seated at her computer working on the documentary. Written text is displayed on screen that informs us what the interviewees are currently doing sigue en la playa de San Sebastin vendiendo latas y cantando para sus a Si nos dejan ). Torres still rs, but instead of cleaning house s as she was doing in one of the earlier segm ents ( shown from a point of view shot), she is working on this documentary. She is also marginalized in her new surroundings, and even in her own film. She chooses to include herself, but using a technique that does not allow us to see a close up shot of her as we do the other immigrants; she places and maintains herself at the periphery
117 identification with a marginal status as she is an immigrant herself facing daily challenges in her new surroundings. Lei la, in Retorno a Hansala is a Moroccan immigrant living in Los Barrios, Spain; she also struggles to adapt to her new home. She shares a run down apartment with several other families; there are images of garbage outside and inside, as well. T here are m attresses lined up against the walls and duffle bags packed with belongings stacked on top of each other. After having lived in Spain for five years, she has legal status and works in a fish packaging factory; she sends money to her family in Hansala regu larly. She feels guilty about the death of her brother, Rachid, in the crossing from Africa as she had sent him the money for the trip. A special friendship forms between Leila and the owner of the morgue Mart n, a Spanish man whose recent separation fr om his adulterous wife allows him to focus his time on one of his professional goals: to bodies to their fami lies Leila depends on Mart n to help home and much of the plot develops in Hansala In the final segment, we see Leila and Mart n sitting on a bench overlooking the ocean with Africa visible in the distance. Leila, who is marginalized by virtue of her living conditions and her work, turns to a Spaniard for help Although some of the new er films show women immigrants in marginal personal and professional spaces, several of the more recent narratives also portray them in new spaces and roles. The women of Cosmofobia Extranjeras and Salsa all occupy metropolitan loci ; they reside in Madr id. In speaking about urban spaces, Chambers recomposing that the wider horizons and the inter and trans cultural networks of the
118 Susana ( Cosmofobia ) works at a corporate clothing store, and the diverse group of women presented in Extranjeras occupy jobs ranging from illegal street vendors to business owners Viviana is a writer in Salsa and Najat is a university professor in Jo tamb sc catalana several issues. Her interviewer for the job displays discriminatory behavior (althou gh she is hired regardless), the job is only part time and pays too little t o support her. Susana is one of many immigrants depicted in the novel; all live in Lavapi s, the oldest Valero Costa finds that in Cosmofobia : (37 ), c orroborating that at least part of the immigrant population in Madrid lives inside the traditional city center in this novel. Miriam, a Spaniard who lives in the barrio, takes her children to a park outside of Lavapies in a more affluent neighborhood All los nios todos son blancos (93). The invisible walls that divide the Spaniards from the in the text: Es curioso que a dos mundos tan diferentes los separe slo una calle ancha. A un lado, el Barrio de las Letras, los lofts de diseo, los bares para turistas, los teatros, los hoteles y las cafeteras; al otro, los inmigrantes, los nios derivados de los Servicios Sociales, los borrachos con sus litronas, los latin kings las mar as, las navajas, los traficantes de hachs (94) The immigrants are grouped together with delinquents and drug users. The multicultural groups co exist in the heart of the city forced to confront their fear of the s, and in the Centro Social ). There is also new subject positioning in the documentary Extranjeras ; the women are owners of restaurant s hair salon s s and are teachers (Alongside these occupations there are more traditional ones for immigr ant women: domestic
119 service related jobs or selling on the streets as they struggle to meet their basic needs.) The women in Extranjeras (both mainstream and marginal) frequent El Retiro Park for c ultural gatherings, they meet at the Atocha train station to mingle, they attend the and they perform in clubs. It is noteworthy that these characters occupy spaces in central Madrid. They are seen frequenting very visible public places; a su bversive strategy in these novels that challenges the homogenizing norm of the dominant culture. 3 Extranjeras offers new representation s of women immigrants living, working and participating in social activities within an ethnically diverse cosmopolitan so ciety. The interviews in the film present and her daughter, who is a University law student. We are also introduced to the tri lingu al Sudanese hair daughter works, a Chinese woman dedicated to teaching her language to future generations, a young Polish lawyer seeking employment, and a group of African dance rs and musicians called that perform s at local venues. In an interview with Professor Mara Cam Vela, the director of this docu mentary, Helena Taberna, revealed that she intentionally chose to exclude the types of immigrants who are over represented in the media : Las mujeres inmigrantes que yo muestro jams tienen un titular en un peridico Ese fue mi reto: tomar las vidas ms pequeas, las aparentemente menos interesantes puesto que no son noticia nunca y huir 3 Cristina Martinez Carazo offers an excellent analysis of the spaces occupied by women immigrants in Extranjeras emble mticos como La Cibeles, Atocha y el Retiro se vacan de su valor tradicional como iconos nacionales y en cierto sentido universales en la medida en que funcionan como smbolos de Espaa reconocibles desde el exterior y se reformulan a partir de la presenc ia del otro
120 de los elementos ms dramt icos como son las pateras y la prostitucin. Adems quera demostrar que existe una inmigracin, que es la mayoritaria, que est perfectamente integrada socialmente ( Gua didctica: Extranjeras 52) those of the other authors and directors of the more recent narratives; very few portray women prostitutes or the vicissitudes of crossing to Spain on a patera Their works challenge the predominant images in the media and offer an intimate view of the d aily life, struggles, and concerns of women immigrants, thus offering the public an alternate vision of this population. The women portrayed or interviewed are more like a strategy that attempts to obviate the persisten t binary oppositions that grip societies beset by globalization. The protagonists of Salsa and Jo tamb sc catalana also present alternative images of the contemporary woman immigrant living in Spain: one is a writer and the other is a university p rofesso r. In Un novio para Yasmina the protagonist also exemplifies this tendency to portray women immigrants in more central roles. As an independent Moroccan woman, she clearly states her goal of acquiring a doctorate at a u niversity in Spain. Although her l iving arrangements are unstable (she goes from her set her apart from earlier representations. Yasmina acquires a position teaching Spanish to other Moroccan women and ch ildren, and towards the end of the film, she is shown driving a car to a school to provide translation services. This image of independent mobility is a first in the corpus; other characters have been depicted using primarily public means of transportatio n such as the bus, train, metro, or simply walking or bicycling. Geographers Mona
121 Domash and Joni Seager discuss the mobility of women, commenting on the effect of freeing them from mobility b alance of power can disrupt communities and liberate women almost as quickly as any other social transformation. The patriarchal grip slips when women get (121). Towards the end of the film, Yasmina acquires the radiates confidence and independence as she strives to reach her personal and professional goals. She is even criticized by other men who is the T tienes buen t rabajo, buen sueldo. Con esa pinta te crees espaola, te has olvidado de d Un novio para Yasmina ). B oth Spaniards and Moro ccans question h er success and motives through out the film Her receives criticism from both ends. Discriminatory attitudes persist as seen in the same scene when the local teacher discusses the immigrant student in tr All of these examples demonstrate that in more recent portrayals, the woman immigrant is no longer limited to roles in prostitution, selling on the streets or servic e jobs. B usiness owners and economically independent women emerge; new subjectivities come to the fore within the discourse on immigration. In earlier narratives, women are physically marginalized in rural and obscure spaces and are prostitutes, occupy domestic jobs, or are homebound In recent narratives urban spaces predominate and women hold a diverse range of jobs, or are business owners.
122 Metaphoric Spaces: New Sub Communities are F ormed The newer narratives portray a multicultural group of women immigrants pursuing a different sense of community. This was i mpossible for characters in earlier works, who lived in isolating circumstances. I will denote these n ew groupings as sub communities as they are formed outside the dominant culture and are shown to be multi or inter cultural. These groups coalesce and function in the city, yet very seldom mix with the autochthonous population and therefore remain outside the hegemonic culture. In her book, Las que saben: subculturas de mujeres Dolores Juliano examines the concept of los secto res desvalorizados, incluidos por la cultura dominante en categoras particulares y homogeneizadoras (las mujeres, los indios, los interpretaciones del mundo, a la vez que continan y cuestionan l as propuestas dominantes, pues por el hecho de generarse como mensajes o como conductas alternativas subvierten la presunta universalidad de las categoras conceptuales a partir de las cuales se las define En realidad, lo que caracteriza una subcultura e s su fragmentacin y carencia de objetivos explcitos. (18) As we shall see, the differences portrayed in these narratives contribute to the discourse of multiculturalism corporating the forma tion of new multicultural sub comm unities. Each demonstrates resistance to the dom inant culture by affirming difference in public spaces. These collectives permit the expression of native religious and socio cultural practices in their ado pted country and function as what Josefina Ludmer calls an ur : la vez adentro de la ciudad, que es lo social, donde se demarcan ntidamente los niveles y ocurre la historia y tambin subversin Esa es su posi cin exterior
123 (131). We will look at the communities formed in Extranjeras Cosmofobia, and Salsa Extranjeras portrays one of the most diverse group of women in a single narr ative. The majority of the women interact (or speak of doing so) solely with other members of their ethnic group, or wi th other minority communities such as that brings together women from Venezuela, Colombia, the Dominican Rep ublic, etc. in Alcobendas to share recipes and stories with each other and build trust and awareness of their differences and similarities. The camera also follows a couple of young immigrant women from Ecuador (Paulina and Andrea) as they attend their we ekly Sunday gathering with other Ecuad orians in the Retiro Park. This single cultural group socializes together: they cook a feast of typical Ecuadorian food and pla y games, and they work together, cutting hair, sell ing drinks to tourists, and perform ing as musicians for onlookers. They work illegally to make ends meet in a defined space clearly set apart to express their cultural traditions and affirm their ethnicity. Paulina and Andrea they might find in Extranjeras ). They see the purpos e of these weekly meetings to be : s vinculados y organizados m s ( Extranjeras ). Cham bers discusses the disruptive quality of the metropolitan : For the modern metropolitan figure is the migrant: she and he are the active formulators of metropolitan aesthetics and life styles, reinventing the languages and appropriating the streets of the master. This presence disturbs a previous order. Such an interruption enlarges the potential as the urban script is rewritten and an earlier social order and cultural authority is now turned inside out and dispersed. ( 23 )
124 Extranjeras also presents a group of Polish and Ukrain ian women. Through their experiences and stories, the spectator views an other inter cultural community in Madrid. Joanna is a Polish lawyer who came to Madrid to join her boyfriend; the camera follows her to the neighborhood of Aluche where she meets wit h other Polish women (and men) to look for work and make connections. There is a weekly open air market; a space for them to converse with each other and make connections, send and receive packages, The women then go to All of these examples in Extranjeras demonstrate a lack of interaction wi th the autochthonous population. Taberna comments on this in her Gua didctic a ; she discusses the separation of the immigrant population from the dominant culture: Hasta ahora estn aportando su mano de obra y existe una separacin de la sociedad espaola y la del emigrante. No se mezc lan. Existen guetos incluso de las propias comu nidades. Los chinos no se mezcl an con los de Bangladesh y los ecuatorianos no se mezclan con los argentinos o peruanos. O sea, tampoco hay interaccin entre ellos. No es un fenmeno social exclusivo de Espaa En todos los pases receptores de flujos migra torios se pro ducen estos guetos que, si por un lado frenan el proceso de integracin, por otro les permiten mantener la lengua y les proporcionan un refugio en cuan (51) Extranjeras like many recent narratives in my corpus il lustrates the existence of sub communities that form and function outside/inside Spanish society. 4 There are a few narratives that portray immigrants developing a sense of community with Spaniards. When this occurs, h owever, it is because the locals are 4 Mart nez n de una imagen dislocada del inmigrante perfilada a partir de su victimizaci n o de su criminalidad, por una visi n de su acoplamiento y d e su relativa integraci n laboral (a pesar de vivir una cultura del gueto) abre paso a una percepci (273). In my view, the presentation of an alternative image of the woman immigrant in Extranjeras reinforces their lack of cultural integration ; the women presented form s ub communities outside the dominant culture.
125 hese sub communities or are marginalized for emotional or physical reasons T he in ter in Cosmofobia is an example of a Spanish and immigrant sub communit y. The various chara cters in the novel present different perspective s on life and relationships in Madrid. Much of the action centers around friendship whose services include : support for women and older adults, Spanish language classes for immigrants, transcultural mental health, immigration and law services, workshops, daycare, etc: Mi hija suele ser la nica nia rubia. Los dems nios casi siempre son morenos. Los hay chinos, pakistanes [sic], marroques, de Bangla Desh [sic], ecuato rianos, colombianos, senegaleses, nigerianos Hay madres marroques y egipcias con velo y yilaba ecuatorianas con vaqueros ceidsimos, senegaleses con tnica s estampadas, y alguna espaola las menos vestida con vaqueros de su talla. (17) No character is given more importance than another and the novel portrays the development of relationships between them: Spaniards and immigrants, wealthy and poor, artists and working professionals, etc. polycentric multicul turalism by presenting both Spanish and immigrant characters (without developing one more than the other) and by interweaving their life stories and demonstrating connections between them all. One of the women asserts: relaciones muy profun das, si t e haces amiga de alguien del grupo, se convierte en algo muy serio; es como si la conocieras de toda la vida, aunque siempre nos dicen que In the novel, the center/periphery bo undaries blur, but the parallel portrayal of the lack of a truly intercultural environment outside the Center reinforces the divisions that persist in Spanish society. This sub community of women is positioned outside the
126 dominant culture because of the ci rcumstances of their personal a nd professional encounters; all confront either emotional or physical abuse or problems that bring them to the Center for help. Their victimization brings them together as they share their stories on the inside, yet they are not encouraged to maintain these relationships with the group on the outside. Claudia, que es la novia de Isaac, que este es un barrio multicultural, pero no (176). Salsa portrays an other intercul tural sub community; it gather s at a Los Bongoseros de Bratislava. This locale unites the protagonists in the narrative: Omara, Ulises, Viviana, Jamaica, Marga, Gloria, and Jot ab. Both immigrants and Spaniards frequent the establishment to escape from their lives on the outside Ludmer discusses a different sense of territory portrayed in the Latin American novel she studies, developing the idea of the a spac e where binary divisions are blurred T habitantes porque los une por rasgos preindividuales, biolgicos, postsubjetivos; por un The Salsa Club t classes and races to interact and forget about their lives on the outside with pasadizos que recorren los subsuelos hay una plaza tomada por la poblacin oscura que de da se busca la vida y de no What unites this group case it is desire and the sensual Salsa dance that binds th em together and eliminates the differences so evident on the outside
127 pre biologic tendencies reign: desire and passion. Just as Ludme r finds of Latin American novels, in Los Bongoseros de Bratislava: Los habitantes de la isla parecen haber per dido la sociedad o algo que la representa en la forma de familia, clase, t rabajo, razn y ley, y a veces nacin Se definen en plural y forman una comunidad que no es la familia ni la del trabajo ni tampoco la de la clase social, sino al go difer ente que puede incluir todas esas categoras al mismo tiempo, en sincro y en fusin. (131) This synchronization, much like dance, allows them to experience a harmonious retreat even if it is for a brief period of time, and break away from the dominant cul ture that otherizes them in their outside lives. Here their differences are negligible; their lives are temporarily fused into one common denominator, their rhythm and dance, in their harmonious urban island. All of these communities represent novel space s being occupied in the more recent narratives ; like those loci presented by Ludmer they have strict boundaries y los lmites o cesura identifican a la isla como zona exterior/interior: como territorio adentro de la ciudad (y por ende de la sociedad) y a la vez afuera, en la divisin (131). This chapter has shown a change in the portrayals of immigrant women: if in the works of the nineties they occupy marginal and peripheral pers onal and professional spaces, often in rural settings, the more rece nt works portray the women in more central and urban positions and spaces. The transition from a homogeneous representation of the immigrant Other in earlier texts to heterogeneous portrayals of a diverse group of immigrant women in the newer narratives i s evident. Yet even though more central spa ces are occupied, the women still remain outside the dominant culture. The sub communities that they form with each other, with other ethnic groups, and on occasion
128 with Spaniards, can be viewed as subversive in sofar as these associations allow the immigrants to assert their ethnicity and practice their traditional customs in very visible, public spaces. Bhabha maintains: Political empowerment, and the enlargement of the multiculturalis t cause, come from posing questions of solidarity and community from the interstitial perspective. Social differences are not simply given to experience through an already authenticated cultural tradition; they are the signs of the emergence of co ( 3) The immigrant women portrayed in these narratives are empowered in these interstitial spaces; although they are persistently marginalized, their agency is portrayed in a variety of personal and professional spaces, and in their sub communities, which no t only incre ase their visibil ity, but in some cases, diffuse their differences (as in Salsa ). Fiction and film of the new millennium question binary classifications, such that the division between center and periphery begins to blur as Ludmer observes of contemporary Latin American novel: despus de 1990 se ven ntidamente otros territorios y sujetos, otras temporalidades y configuraciones narrativas: otros mundos que no reconocen los moldes bipolares tradicionales. Que absorben, contaminan y desdiferenc ian lo separado y opuesto y trazan otras fronteras 127 ). Bauman corroborates this contamination in his study and proposes must be integration into Spanish society, these sub communities that the women immigrants form in their adopted country, are places of agency and resistance within the dominant culture that p e rsistently marginalizes them.
129 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION The objective of this study has been to analyze the portrayal of women immigrants to Spain in various literary, cinematographic, and visual narratives produced solely by women. It has explored the signi ficant changes in that portrayal over several decades. The earlier texts of the corpus, from 1997 2000, underscore the invisibility of immigrant women: they are otherized and depicted in marginalized professional and personal Al hold domestic or service jobs and live in peripheral spaces, literal lt and metaphoric ally They are outsiders in their adopted c ountry and isolated in what are often deplorable living conditions. These images align with those published contemporaneously in the press which continue to predominate in the media. In contrast, the women appearing in the narratives dating from 2001 2 011 are adjudicated a certain level of agency and consequently find a place of resistance within se group of women forge new hybrid identities, occupy more central spaces in urban settings, own business es and begin to form a new sense of community. While the spaces they occupy continue to lie outside the dominant culture, they are a place of resista nce and self expression. Their hybrid identities and the sub inhabit provide interstitial spaces of power that permit a heterogeneous expression of culture and ethnicity in often visible public arenas.
130 T he authors and directors of the newer narratives choose different narrative styles and structures to communicate their stories. There is an increase in documentary films, autobiographies, and testimonial fiction. Another significant change is the presence of authors, d ir ectors, and artisans who are themselves immigrants These two change s permit Helena Taberna specifically chooses the documentary form to convey her me ssage about immigration in Madri d: Por es o a m me gustara que mi documental ayud ase a abrir puentes, a conocer a estas mujeres, a los inmigrantes. El conocimi ento profundo nos acerca. Para poder resolver los conflictos, hay que hablar de ellos, hay que mirarlos desde muchos ngulos, hay que ob servar, hay que sent ir, conocer, saber como piensa el otro. Hay que perder el miedo al otro, al diferente. ( Gua didctica 52) I have chosen to concentrate specific ally on works produced by women and I have identified significant changes in their portray als of this demographic. In Cam evident is their common resistance to any sort of categorization. Most, including many of the women studied here, reject the idea of being labeled or grouped under such Cabrales, 50 51). Similarly, women directors d Vela 22). Yet both critics argue that there is a specific feminine point of view behind the narratives that place women in central roles and challenge patriarchal representations (Cam Vela, 22). I agree with this observation that women occupy central roles and that these works give voice to previously silenced groups, as evidenced in my corpus. The resistance to categorization is understandable given that they themselves are attempt ing to break free from labels and stereotypes in a patriarchal society.
131 Each of the women immigrants in my corpus i s assigned a central role, whether it be to highlight her otherness and marginalization or show her strength and voice in challenging circumstances. This close up portraya l of women by women is effective in presenting an alternative to the stereotype of t he woman immigrant, often that of the homogeneous Other who is a victim in her adopted country. Women writers offer new visions for their readers, yet also continue to convey the often isolating and oppressive circumstances that this group continue s to en dure. T heoretical concepts develop ed by Said, Bhabha, and Ludmer, among others, have allowed me to explore more deeply the portrayal of the w oman immigrant Their persistent otherness drives the emergence of hybrid identities. T he marginalization they e ndure in the dominant culture lead s them to form sub communities which permit the forging of new attitudes and cultural express ions These interstitial spaces provide a s ite of resistance to the hegemonic culture which persistently labels them as outcasts or victims. In the course of my research, I identified several areas of interest f or future research One would be a comparative analysis of the portrayal of men and women immigrants in contemporary Spanish narratives by women and by men My findings w ere limited due partly to the very contemporareousness of the topic and partly to the necessarily restricted size of my corpus but those should not be obstacles to future researchers I would have liked to find more self representati ons, but that proved impossible: in time, more will surface. The scarcity of narratives by women immigrants demonstrates their limited access to channels of representation. What will be (re)presented in the next twenty years? Will the portrayal of women immigrants
132 continue on the path demonstrated here, or will xenophobia fiscal crisis, affect integration and cultural production? What types of communities will grow up among immigrants and the autochthonous population? Will second and third generation immigrants offer new images of women? All of these questions merit attention in a ra pidly changing Spanish society. We can only wonder what will be the effect of the current mass exodus of i mmigrants from Spain online newspaper El Pais lists several short videos and articles published in June 2012 that highlight the return of immigrants to their native countries. Faced by the economic hardship brought about by the crisis, some agreed to acce Spanish government to return home. en Espaa, vivo mal en mi being separated by the return of some of its members to Ecuador. The grandfather s empezado a despedirlos en el aeropuerto porque el nico dinero que tienen es el que les ha dado el Gobierno para marcharse, el del plan de Retorno: 400 euros por persona This dramatic shift in migratory patterns will certainly have an effect on future cultural production abou t the immigrant community. Issues of difference and integration continue to dominate the lives of immigrant women and cultural production related to immigrants living in Sp ain. As the multicultural face of Spanish society continues to morph, so will its portrayal in contemporary narratives. We have seen significant changes in the depiction of women immigrants over the past fourteen years. As newer portrayals of women occup ying different roles in Spanish society become available, it is to be hoped that there will be a more inclusive
133 and heterogeneous representation of immigrant women as well as more examples of self representation In an interview with Mara Cam Vela, Hele na Taberna states quite Gua didctica 53). She is referring to the final scene in her documentary when the immigrant women she is filming at the music club embrace her and include her in the final camera shot. Her interp retation of this final act is one of hope and positivity. We can only await with interest the picture to be drawn in the future, as testimonials, autobiographies, novels and documentaries present the varied countenances of women immigrants to Spain.
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136 Gikand i, Simon. "Globalization and the Claims of Postcoloniality." Postcolonialisms: An Anthology of Cultural Theory and Criticism. Ed. Gaurav Desai and Supriya Nair. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2005. 608 34. Graham, Helen and Jo Labanyi, eds. Spanish Cultural Studies. An Introduction Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. Print. Gregorio Gil, Carmen. Migraci n femenina: su impacto en las relaciones de g nero Madrid: Narcea, 1998. Identity: Community, Culture, Difference J. Rutherford, ed. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1990. 222 37. --. McClintock, Mufti and Shohat 173 87. Henseler, Christine. En sus propias palabras: escritoras espa olas ante el mercado literari o Madrid: Ediciones Torremozas, 2003. Hooper, John. The New Spaniards 2nd edition. London: Penguin, 2006. Iglesias Santos, Montserrat, Ed. Imgenes del otro: identidad e inmigracin en la literatura y el cine Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 2010. elpais.com El P as Pri sacom, n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2011. elmundo.es El Mundo Mundinteractivos, 2005. Web. 13 Nov. 2011. Instituto Nacional de Estadstica ce del Padrn municipal a 1 d www.ine.es Notas de Prensa, 4 Apr. 2011. Web. 26 Aug. 2011 --. provisionales 9 Apr. 2012 Web. 11 May 2012. --Padrn municipal: cifras oficiales de Web. 10 Apr. 2011. Invisibles Dir. Isabel Coixet, et al. Pinguin films, 2007 (viewed on YouTube, August 2012) < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MO3bMnvRkSE&feature=fvsr > Mujeres de Eds. Carmen Gregorio Gil and Beln Agrela Romero Granada: Universidad de Granada, 2002. 123 134.
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141 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Donna Gillespie received her Bachelor of Arts in Spanish and Zoology from Miami University in 1995 and her Bachelor of Science in Physical Therapy from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 1999. She received her Master of Arts from the Saint Louis Uni versity Madrid campus in 2007 At the University of Florida, s he was awarded the Department of Spanish and Portuguese Studies 2012 Summer Doctoral Student Scholarship and the Award for Cooperative Leadership in Teaching Spanish in 2 011