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Determination of the Thermal Properties and Heat Transfer Characteristics of High Concentration Orange Pulp

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044789/00001

Material Information

Title: Determination of the Thermal Properties and Heat Transfer Characteristics of High Concentration Orange Pulp
Physical Description: 1 online resource (108 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Munoz, Juan Fernando
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: citrus -- conduction -- convection -- heat-tranfer -- high-concentration -- laminar -- orange -- properties -- pulp -- thermal
Food Science and Human Nutrition -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Food Science and Human Nutrition thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Orange pulp strongly contributes to the sensory and texture properties of fruit juicesand other beverages. High concentrated pulp (HCP) is difficult to pasteurizebecause its high apparent viscosity results in laminar flow regimes. Therefore, heat transfer occurs mostly by conduction. Determination of the thermalproperties and heat transfer characteristics of HCP is essential for modelingand optimizing the thermal process of this fluid. Specific heat capacity (Cp), thermal diffusivity (a),and thermal conductivity (k), weredetermined for orange pulp concentrations of ˜ 500 to 800 g L-1. Specificheat was between 4025 and 4068 J kg-1 K-1;  a rangedfrom 1.50 to 1.56 x 10-7 m2 s-1; and kwas between 0.63 and 0.66 W m-1 K-1. For Cp, a, and k, no significant differences(p>0.05) were found among the different pulp concentrations. Local andoverall heat transfer coefficients, radial temperature profiles, and pressuredrops were determined by heating and cooling the pulp in a tubular heatexchanger at selected flow rates. The local heat transfer coefficients rangedfrom 1342 to 7755 W m-2 °C-1, while the overall heattransfer coefficients were between 1241 and 6428 W m-2 °C-1.These values increased with velocity and decreased with pulp concentration.Pressure drop was between 147 and 244 kPa for a pipe length of 3.4 m. Pressuredrop was higher for more concentrated pulp, and increased with flow rate. Theinformation obtained in this study can be used to optimize equipment design andprocess conditions to maximize heat transfer and minimize pressure drop, for processingHCP aseptically.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Juan Fernando Munoz.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Reyes De Corcuera, Jose Ignacio.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044789:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044789/00001

Material Information

Title: Determination of the Thermal Properties and Heat Transfer Characteristics of High Concentration Orange Pulp
Physical Description: 1 online resource (108 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Munoz, Juan Fernando
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: citrus -- conduction -- convection -- heat-tranfer -- high-concentration -- laminar -- orange -- properties -- pulp -- thermal
Food Science and Human Nutrition -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Food Science and Human Nutrition thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Orange pulp strongly contributes to the sensory and texture properties of fruit juicesand other beverages. High concentrated pulp (HCP) is difficult to pasteurizebecause its high apparent viscosity results in laminar flow regimes. Therefore, heat transfer occurs mostly by conduction. Determination of the thermalproperties and heat transfer characteristics of HCP is essential for modelingand optimizing the thermal process of this fluid. Specific heat capacity (Cp), thermal diffusivity (a),and thermal conductivity (k), weredetermined for orange pulp concentrations of ˜ 500 to 800 g L-1. Specificheat was between 4025 and 4068 J kg-1 K-1;  a rangedfrom 1.50 to 1.56 x 10-7 m2 s-1; and kwas between 0.63 and 0.66 W m-1 K-1. For Cp, a, and k, no significant differences(p>0.05) were found among the different pulp concentrations. Local andoverall heat transfer coefficients, radial temperature profiles, and pressuredrops were determined by heating and cooling the pulp in a tubular heatexchanger at selected flow rates. The local heat transfer coefficients rangedfrom 1342 to 7755 W m-2 °C-1, while the overall heattransfer coefficients were between 1241 and 6428 W m-2 °C-1.These values increased with velocity and decreased with pulp concentration.Pressure drop was between 147 and 244 kPa for a pipe length of 3.4 m. Pressuredrop was higher for more concentrated pulp, and increased with flow rate. Theinformation obtained in this study can be used to optimize equipment design andprocess conditions to maximize heat transfer and minimize pressure drop, for processingHCP aseptically.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Juan Fernando Munoz.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Reyes De Corcuera, Jose Ignacio.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044789:00001


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1 DETERMINATION OF THE THERMAL PROPERTIES AND HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH CONCENTRATION ORANGE PULP By JUAN FERNANDO MUOZ HIDALGO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Juan Fernando Muoz Hidalgo

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3 To my wife Carolina who supported and helped me to achieve my goals throughout my graduate studies

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4 ACKNOWLED GMENTS I would like to thank my family and friends for their support and encouragement. I also thank my academic advisor Dr. Reyes for sharing his knowledge, for encouraging me to work independently, and for giving me the tools to overcome hurdles during m y research. I would also like to thank my graduate committee members, Dr. Teixeira and Dr. Ehsani for their valuable contributions to this work. Finally, I would like to give special thanks to all who helped me throughout my research and graduate studies: Shelley Jones, John Henderson, Sabrina Terada, Elyse Payne, Thao Nguyen, Giovanna Iafelice, and Zhou Yang.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ 4 LI ST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ .......................... 12 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 15 CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ......................... 17 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 17 Theoretical Backg round ................................ ................................ ......................... 18 Orange Pulp and High Concentration Orange Pulp ................................ ......... 18 Thermal Properties of Foods ................................ ................................ ........... 20 Specific heat ................................ ................................ ............................. 21 Thermal conductivity ................................ ................................ ................. 22 Thermal diffusivity ................................ ................................ ..................... 23 Principles of Heat Transfer in Fluids ................................ ................................ 23 Heat transfer by conduction ................................ ................................ ...... 23 Heat transfer by convection ................................ ................................ ...... 24 Overall heat transfer coefficient ................................ ................................ 25 Steady state and unsteady state heat transfer ................................ .......... 26 Flow of Fluids Concepts Relevant to this Study ................................ ............ 27 The Reynolds number ................................ ................................ ............... 27 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 28 Functional and Nutritional Properties of Citrus Pulp ................................ ........ 28 Orange Pulp Industrial Applications ................................ ................................ 29 Pasteurization of Orange Pulp ................................ ................................ ......... 30 Flow Characteristics of HCP and other Viscous Fluids ................................ .... 31 Thermal Properties of Fruit Pulps a nd of other Viscous Fluids ........................ 34 Heat Transfer Coefficient of Fruit Pulps and other Viscous Fluids ................... 36 Alternative Technologies for Pa steurizing Fruit Pulps, Purees, and other Viscous Products ................................ ................................ ......................... 37 Research Objectives ................................ ................................ ............................. 40 Figures and Tables ................................ ................................ ................................ 42 2 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH CONCENTRATION ORANGE PULP ........... 44 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 44 Materials and Me thods ................................ ................................ .......................... 44

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6 Sample Preparation ................................ ................................ ........................ 44 Pulp Concentration Adjustment ................................ ................................ ....... 45 Moi sture Content ................................ ................................ ............................. 45 Density ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 46 Specific Heat Capacity ................................ ................................ .................... 46 Thermal Diffu sivity ................................ ................................ ........................... 48 Thermal conductivity ................................ ................................ ....................... 50 Statistical Analysis ................................ ................................ .......................... 50 Results a nd Discussion ................................ ................................ ......................... 50 Moisture Content and Density ................................ ................................ ......... 50 Thermal Properties of Orange Pulp ................................ ................................ 51 Specific heat capacity ................................ ................................ ............... 51 Thermal diffusivity ................................ ................................ ..................... 52 Thermal conductivity ................................ ................................ ................. 53 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 54 Figures and Tables ................................ ................................ ................................ 55 3 DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS AND HEAT TRANSFER CHARA CTERISTICS OF HIGH CONCENTRATION ORANGE PULP ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 59 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 59 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ .......................... 60 Samples Preparation ................................ ................................ ....................... 60 Experimental Setup ................................ ................................ ......................... 60 Determination of Local and Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients ....................... 62 Temperature Profiles ................................ ................................ ....................... 64 Pressure Drop ................................ ................................ ................................ 65 Regression Analysis ................................ ................................ ........................ 65 Results and Discussion ................................ ................................ ......................... 65 Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficients ................................ .................... 65 Temperature Profiles ................................ ................................ ....................... 72 Pressure Drop Determinations ................................ ................................ ........ 76 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 7 8 Significance of this Research ................................ ................................ ................ 79 Overall Conclusions ................................ ................................ ............................... 81 Future Work ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 82 Figures and Tables ................................ ................................ ................................ 84 APP EN DIX A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE HEAT TRANFER COEFFICIENTS O BTAINED IN T HE HEATING AND COOLING SECTIONS O F T HE H EAT E XCHANGER ... 100 B COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PRESSURE DROPS OBTAINED IN THE HEATING AND COOLING SECTIONS OF THE HEAT EXCHANGER ................ 102

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7 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................ 104 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ......................... 108

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 1 Specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of viscous fluids and other common liquid foods ................................ ................................ ........................ 43 1 2 Heat transfer coefficient of viscous fluids and other common liquid foods. ........ 43 2 1 Average (n = 3) moisture content and density of orange pulp at different concentrations ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 57 2 2 Experimental values obtained for the ca lorimeters heat capacity ..................... 58 2 3 Mean values of the thermal properties of orange pulp at selected concentrations ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 58 3 1 Experimental flow rates and velocities used for determining the heat transfer coefficients for different pulp concentrations. ................................ ..................... 87 3 2 Calculated local and overall h eat transfer coefficients for different pulp concentrations and velocities, in the heating section of a tubular heat exchanger. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 88 3 3 Calculated local heat transfer coefficients for different pulp concentrations and velocities, in the cooling section of a tubular heat exchanger. ..................... 89

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Simplified flow diagram for industrial production of orange juice, low concentration orange pulp (LCP), a nd high concentration orange pulp (HCP). Modified from Braddock (1999). ................................ ................................ ........ 42 1 2 Combined convective and conductive heat tra nsfer (Singh and Heldman 2009). ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 42 2 1 FMC Quick Fiber Test instrument used for determ ining orange pulp concentration ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 55 2 2 Experiment setup for determining specific heat capacity of orange pulp samples ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 55 2 3 Time temperature graph for determining orange pulp specific heat capacity. .... 56 2 4 Time temperature graph for determining the heat loss to the surroundings to calculate the specific heat capacity. ................................ ................................ .. 56 2 5 Materials and methods used to determine the thermal diffusivity of orange pulp. ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 57 3 1 Schematic representation of equipment setup for determination of te mperature profiles and heat transfer coefficients of high concentration orange pulp. ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 84 3 2 Schematic representation of s et of thermocouples inserted at different radial directions of the inner pipe and thermocouple attached to the pipes surface to measure the wall temperature. ................................ ................................ ...... 84 3 3 Set of thermocouples inserted at different radia l directions at the pipes exit ..... 85 3 4 Schematic representation of the temperature profile when orange pulp flows in the heating section of a tubular heat exchanger. ................................ ........... 85 3 5 Data acquis ition board used to record data ................................ ....................... 86 3 6 Equipment setup ................................ ................................ ............................... 86 3 7 Loc al heat transfer coefficients as function of velocity in the heating section 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 90

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10 3 8 Local heat transfer coefficients as function of velocity in the cooling section of 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 90 3 9 Overall heat transfer coefficients as function of velocity in the heating section 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 91 3 10 th e heating section of heat exchanger for pulp concentrations of 516, and 617 g L 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 92 3 11 ) heat transfer coefficients as function of velocity in the heating section of heat exchanger for pulp concentrations of 712, and 801 g L 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 93 3 12 Temperature profiles obtained for 516 6 g L 1 orange pulp concentration in 4 m 3 s 1 ................................ ............................... 94 3 13 Temperature profiles obtained for 516 6 g L 1 orange pulp concentration in 4 m 3 s 1 ................................ ............................... 94 3 14 Temperature profiles obtained for 617 7 g L 1 orange pulp concentration in 4 m 3 s 1 ................................ ............................... 95 3 15 Temperature profiles obtained for 617 7 g L 1 orange pulp concentration in the cooling section of a tubular heat exchanger at flow rates 4 m 3 s 1 ................................ ............................... 95 3 16 Temperature profiles obtained for 712 12 g L 1 orange pulp concentration in 4 m 3 s 1 ................................ ............................... 96 3 17 Temperature profiles obtained for 712 12 g L 1 orange pulp concentration in 4 m 3 s 1 ................................ ............................... 96 3 18 Temperature profiles obtained for 801 13 g L 1 orange pulp concentration in the heating section of a tubular heat exchanger at flow 4 m 3 s 1 ................................ ............................... 97 3 19 Temperature profiles obtained for 801 13 g L 1 o range pulp concentration in 4 m 3 s 1 ................................ ............................... 97

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11 3 20 Hypothesized mixed flow of HCP ................................ ................................ ...... 98 3 21 Pressure drop as function of flow rate in the heating section of heat exchanger, for pul g L 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 98 3 22 Pressure drop as function of flow rate in the cooling section of heat g L 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 99

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12 LIST OF ABBREVIA TIONS Area (m 2 ) Inside surface area of the pipe (m 2 ) Outside surface area of the pipe (m 2 ) Specific heat capacity ( J kg 1 K 1 ) Specific heat of the reference liquid ( J kg 1 K 1 ) Diameter (m) Friction f actor Gravity acceleration (9.81 m(s 2 ) 1 ) P roportionality factor for gravitational force (1 kg m (s 2 N) 1 ) Local heat transfer coefficient ( W m 2 C 1 ) HCP High concentration orange p ulp HDP High density orange pulp Heat capacity of the calorimeter ( J K 1 ) Consistency coefficient (Pas) Thermal conductivity ( W m 1 K 1 ) Length (m) LCL Low concentration orange pulp Mass (kg) Reference liquid weight (kg) Sample weight (kg) Flow behavior index Pressure at the inlet of the pipe (kPa)

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13 Pressure at the outlet of the pipe (kPa) Heat (J) Rate of heat transfer (W) Total heat content at the final state (J) Total heat content at the initial state (J) Radius (m) Reynolds number Rey nolds number for power law fluids in laminar flow Temperature (C) Final equilibrium temperature (K) Outlet temperature of the product (C) Inlet temperature of the cold fluid or product (C) Outlet temperature of the heating media (C) Inlet temperature of the heating media (C) Reference liquid initial temperature in calorimetric analysis (K) Sample initial temperature in calori metric analysis (K) T w Apparent wall temperature (C) Time required to reach equilibrium temperature (s) Overall heat transfer coefficient ( W m 2 C 1 ) Overall heat transfer coefficient based on the inside area of a pipe (W m 2 C 1 ) Velocity ( m s 1 ) Average velocity (m s 1 )

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14 Weight (kg) Length or thickness (m) Elevation (m) Thermal diffusivity ( m 2 s 1 ) P Pressure drop (kPa) P / L Pressure drop per unit of length (kPa m 1 ) Temperature difference (K or C) Logarithmic mean temperature difference Heat loss rate, temperature variation over time (C s 1 ) Shear rate (s 1 ) Density ( kg m 3 ) Shear stress (Pa) o Yield s tress (Pa) Viscosity (Pas)

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15 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science DETERMINATION OF THE THERMAL PROPERTIES AND HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH CONCENTRATION ORANGE PULP By Juan Fernando Muoz Hidalgo August 2012 Chair: Jos I. Reyes De Corcuera Major: Food Science and Human Nutrition Orange pulp strongly contributes to the sensory and texture properties of fruit ju ices and other beverages. High concentrated pulp (HCP) is difficult to pasteurize because its high apparent viscosity results in laminar flow reg imes. Therefore, heat transfer occurs mostly by conduction. Determination of the thermal properties and heat transfer characteristics of HCP is essential for modeling and optimizing the thermal process of this fluid. Specific heat capacity ( Cp ) thermal di ffusivity ( ), and thermal conductivity ( k ), were determined for orange pulp concentrations of to 800 g L 1 Specific heat was between 4025 and 4068 J kg 1 K 1 ; ranged from 1.50 to 1.56 x 10 7 m 2 s 1 ; and k was between 0.63 and 0.66 W m 1 K 1 For Cp k n o significant differences (p >0.05) were found among the diff erent pulp concentrations. L ocal and overall heat transfer coefficients, radial temperature pr ofiles, and pressure drops were determined by heating and cooling the pul p in a tubular heat exchanger at selected flow rates. The local heat transfer coefficients ranged from 1342 to 7755 W m 2 C 1 while the overall heat transfer coefficients were between 1241 and 6428 W m 2 C 1 The se values increased with velocity and dec reased with pulp concentration. Pressure drop was between 147 and 244 kPa for a pipe length of 3.4 m Pressure drop was higher for

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16 more concentrated pulp, and increased with flow rate. The information obtained in this study can be used to optimize equipmen t d esign and process conditions to maximize heat transfer and minimize pressure drop, for processing HCP aseptically.

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17 CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction The demand for minimally processed and fresh like foods has continuously increased in recent y ears. Beverage and juice consumers are demanding products that have closer sensory characteristics and nutritional properties to freshly hand squeezed juices ( Berlinet and others 2007 ) Orange pulp, a by product obtained from the industrial production of orange juice, strongly contributes to the aroma, flavor, and texture properties of unprocessed and fresh like juices ( Rega and others 2004 ) The increase in demand for orange pulp in the market, particularly in Asia, has raised the need to study the product's physical properties and heat transfer characteristics for industrial optimization of handling and pasteurization systems. The types of orange pulp that are commercially available are: unwashed, washed, and wholesome juice vesicles. Washed pulp refers to juice vesicles obtained a fter th e juice and soluble solids have been recovered from pulp or pulpy juice streams by water extraction. Wholesome juice vesicles are very difficult to produce ( Kimball 1991 ) Unwashed pulp, which is the focus of this literature review and this research, will be explained in further detail and will be referred to as orange pulp in this thesis In 2010/11 season, an estimate of 700 thousand metric tons of orange pulp were produced in the United States ( USDA 2011 ) which cor respond to an estimated value of $520 million. To date, many citrus processors produce orange pulp at concentrations around 500 g L 1 as determined by the quick fiber test. Commercializing pulp with higher concentrations is economically more efficient, si nce reduces shipping and stor age costs However, pulp at concentrations above 500 g L 1 also referred to as high

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18 concentration orange pulp (HCP) or high density pulp (HDP) is difficult to handle in conventional equipment due to its high apparent viscosity H igh concentration pulp today is generally not produced aseptically because the pressure drop in tubular pasteurizers is very high. In most cases pulp is pasteurized at around 500 g L 1 then concentrated in a non aseptic finisher, stored and sold as a f rozen product. Storage of frozen pulp involves high energy costs and higher risk of spoilage ( Levati 2010 ; Braddock 1999 ) Optimization of equipment design for production of aseptic HCP requires to determine the heat transfer characteristics of this fluid, and to obtain its thermophysical properties. This information has not been published. The overall objective of this study was to det ermine HCPs thermal properties and heat transfer characteristics at different flow rates, in the heating and cooling sections of a tubular heat exchanger. This information is essential for modeling processing operations involving heat transfer and for designing and optimizing equipment to produce HCP aseptically. This chapter presents the theoretical background on orange pulp processing as well as the fundamentals of thermal properties and heat transfer in tubular heat exchangers, relevant concepts on flow of fl uids, and a review of the studies that have been published regarding citrus pulp and other viscous fluids such as juice concentrates, fruit purees and pastes. The specific objectives of this study are also presented in this section. Theoretical Background Orange Pulp and High Concentration Orange Pulp Orange pulp is the dispersion of burst juice vesicles in a small fraction of juice that is obtained from the orange juice finishing and centrifugation process. This fraction of fruit is rich in sugars, and al so contains fibers and other residual substances ( Tripodo

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19 2004 ) Orange pulp contains an average of 19.7% of total solids, and represents approximately 5% of the weight of fresh oranges ( Martnez and Carmona 1980 ; Kimball 1991 ) Figure 1 1 shows a general flow diagram of the industrial process for obtaining orange juice and pulp from the orange fruit. After extraction, orange juice is pumped to finishers for separation of part of the ruptured juice vesicles, or pulp. The aim of recovering pulp is to manufacture large pulp sacs from the pulpy juice stream, with most of the juice removed ( Braddock 1999 ) Minimum residual juice in the pulp is necessary for transportation purposes. Depending on the market value of pulp and juice, juice processors favor the yield of one or the other product, by adjusting finishing conditions. When the pulpy juice passes through the first finisher, the pulp in the extracted juice is concentrated to approximately 500 g L 1 In the industry, this semi concentrated pulp is pasteurized using a tubular heat exchanger. Pasteurization is generall y conducted at 90 C, for 0.5 to 1.0 min, followed by cooling to 2 to 5 C. Due to the difficulties for pumping the semi concentrated pulp, heat exchangers with larg e horizontal tubes and spiral baffles are necessary for efficient pasteurization ( Braddock 1999 ) After chilling, the semi concentrated pulp juice mixture can be further 1 ) in a second finisher. Because this finisher is not aseptic, after packaging the concentrated pulp is stored at frozen temperatures to inhibit any residual enzyme activity as well as microbial growth ( Kimball 1991 ) From a practical and economic standpoint, pulp with this concentration level is preferred by the industry, since high concentrated pulp results in lower tra nsportation and storage costs.

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20 The most common process for obtaining high concentration orange pulp has some disadvantages. It requires two steps for concentration, since high concentration pulp is difficult to handle in conventional tubular pasteurizer s due to its high viscosity, its rheology and its flow characteristics. Pulp concentrations above 500 g L 1 are difficult to mi x uniformly resulting in high temperature differences within the fluid ; therefore, it is difficult to achieve unifo rm thermal treat ment conditions ( Levati 2010 ) In addition, pumping in conventional tubular heat exchangers results in high pressure drop wh en handling very viscous fluids Another drawback of this process is that in the pasteurization of the pre concentrated pulp (500 g L 1 ), the carrier juice contained in the mix ture juice pulp (approximately 50% juice) is over exposed to high temperatures when achieving the required pasteurization conditions for the pulp. This temperature over exposure may affect the juices sensory characteristics ( Yeom and others 2000 ; Levati 2010 ) Thermal Properties of Foods Thermophysical properties are necessary for the design and prediction of heat t ransfer operations during handling, processing, canning, and distribution of food. Theoretical and empirical relations used to design and operate processes involving heat transfer require knowledge of the thermal properties of foods under consideration. Th ermal properties can be defined as those properties that control the transfer and storage of heat in a particular food ( Lozano 2005 ) In this research, the thermal properties that are relevant to the design of heat exchangers were studied: Specific heat capacity, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. This section is based on Lozano (2005) and Singh and Heldman (2009).

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21 Water content significantly influences all thermophysical properties. Some thermal properties can be calculated directly from the water content of a food. However, most foods are complex materials, and their contents of proteins, fats, and carbo hydrates highly differ from one fo od to another. Therefore, food composition has variable effects on the thermal properties of a composite food material. Thermal properties are also dependent on the te mperature, as well as the chemical composition and phys ical structure of food Some models have been developed to predict the thermal properties of foods. Some of these mod els take into account the food composition, and also assess a physical representation of the food under study. However, often the values es timated by these models have significant discrepancies when compared to experimental values. These differences are mainly due to the complex physicochemical structure of food products; for example the complex interactions that occur between the different c omponents of a food, or the physical changes that some food components undergo with temperature variations. ( Mercali and others 2011 ) Speci fic heat Specific heat is the amount of heat that is gain or lost by a unit of mass of product to achieve a unit change in temperature, without a change in state: (1 1) Where is the heat gained or lost, is the mass, is the temperature change in the food; and is the specific heat. Specific heat is an essential part of thermal analysis of food processing and of equipment used in heat t ransfer operations. Specific heat of food materials is a function of the various components that constitute a food, its moisture content, temperature and

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22 pressure. Specific heat increases as the foods moisture content increases. Since in most food process ing applications pressure is kept constant, specific heat at constant pressure is used. Specific heat can be estimated by using predictive equations, which are empirical mathematical models mainly based in the major components of foods. Another method used for specific heat measurement is differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The advantages of DSC are that measurement is rapid, only a very small sample is needed for analysis, and the results are comparable to those obtained from standard calorimeters. Sp ecific heat can also be determined using a calorimeter, where a known amount of a reference liquid of known specific heat capacity and initial temperature is placed in contact with a known amount of sample at different temperatures, allowing them to reach an equilibrium temperature. An energy balance based on equation 1 1, and that takes into account the heat losses to the surroundings, allows calculating the specific heat of the sample ( Hw ang and Hayakawa 1979 ) This method will be explained in detail in Chapter 2. Thermal conductivity Thermal conductivity ( is an intrinsic property of a material, and represents the amount of heat that is conducted per unit of time through a unit thickness of the material if a unit temperature difference exists across the thickness. The SI unit for thermal conductivity is: (1 2) Most f oods with high moisture contents have thermal conductivity values closer to that of water. Several empirical models have been proposed to estimate thermal conductivity of foods. Some of the simplest models consider that the different

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23 components of foods ar e arranged in layers either parallel or normal to the heat flow. Most of the empirical expressions proposed to calculate the thermal conductivity of foods are functions of temperature, and/or water content. Thermal diffusivity Thermal diffusivity ( ) is a ratio between thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat: (1 3) Physically, the thermal diffusivity represents the cha nge in temperature produced in a unit volume of unit surface and unit thickness, containing a unit of matter, by heat flowing in a unit of time under unit temperature differences between opposite faces. The units of thermal diffusivity are m 2 s 1 Principl es of Heat Transfer in Fluids Heat transfer by conduction Conduction is the mode of heat transfer where energy is transferred at a molecular level. One theory that describes conductive heat transfer states that as molecules of a material accumulate thermal energy, they vibrate with higher amplitude of vibration while confined in their lattice. These vibrations are transmitted from one molecule to another without translatory movement of the molecules. Heat is conducted from regions of higher temperature to r egions of lower temperature. Another theory states that conduction takes place at a molecular level due to the movement of free electrons, which carry thermal and electrical energy. In conductive heat transfer, there is no movement of the material undergoi ng heat transfer. The rate of heat transfer by conduction can be expressed by Fouriers law:

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24 (1 4) Where is the rate of heat fl ow in the direction of heat transfer by conduction; is the thermal conductivity; is the area through which heat flows; is the temperature; and is length. Heat transfer by convection When a flowing flu id is heated or cooled by coming into contact with a solid body that is at a different temperature than the fluid, heat exchange will occur between the fluid and the solid body. This mode of heat transfer is known as convection. There are two forms of conv ective heat transfer: Forced convection, which involves the use of mechanical means to induce the movement of the fluid. And free convection, when there is a temperature gradient caused by density differences within the system; these differences in density produce fluid movement. Both forms of convection may result in laminar or turbulent flow of the fluid, but turbulence generally happens under forced convection heat transfer. Natural convection only occurs in a gravitational field. When a flowing fluid c omes into contact with the surface of a flat plate, the rate of heat transfer from the solid body to the fluid is proportional to the surface area of the solid in contact with the fluid, and the temperature difference between them. The convective heat tran sfer coefficient can be expressed by an equation called Newtons law of cooling. The heat transfer coefficient is a mathematical explanation of the temperature difference between the fluid and the surface of the solid that arises from the movement of the f luid: (1 5)

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25 Where is the rate of heat transfer; is the convective heat coefficient; is the surface area of the solid; Ts is the temperature of the solid surface ; and T is the temperature of the fluid. The convective heat transfer coefficient is not a property of the material. This coefficient depends on some properties of the fluid such as density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity; the velocity of the fluid; geometry and roughness of the surface of the solid body in contact with the fluid. Overall heat transfer coefficient Conductive and convective heat transfer may occur simultaneously in many heat transfer applications. For example, when a fluid with a temperature higher than environment temperature flows inside a pipe, heat is first transfer by forced convection from the inside fluid to the inside surface of the pipe, th en through the pipe wall material by conduction, and finally from the outer pipe surface to the surrounding environment by free convection. Figure 1 2 shows the temperature profile of combined conductive and convective heat transfer for the described examp le of the fluid flowing inside a pipe. Equation 1 6 can be used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient: (1 6) Where is the overall heat transf er coefficient based on the inside area of the pipe; is the inside surface area of the pipe; is the inside convective heat transfer coefficient; and are the inside and outside radius respectively; is the pipes length; is the thermal conductivity of the pipe material; is the convective heat transfer coefficient at the outside surface of the pipe ; and is the outside surface area of the pipe

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26 The ove rall heat transfer coefficient ( can also be expressed as: (1 7) Integrating this equation in order to apply it to the entire area of the heat exchanger, t he logarithmic mean temperature difference ( ) is introduced. To us e the it is assumed that: t he overall heat transfer coefficient is constant; the specific heat of the heating or cooling media and of the fluid are constant; the heat dissipated to the ambient is negligible; and the flow is steady, either parallel or countercurrent ( McCabe and others 1985 ) : (1 8) Where the logarithmic mean temperature difference is calculated as: (1 9) Where is the inlet temperature of the heating media; is the product inlet temperature; is the outlet temperature of the heating media; and is product outlet temperature. Steady state and unsteady state heat transfer When studying heat transfer of foods, the conditions may be steady state or unsteady state. Steady state occurs when time does not affect the temperature distribution within the material, although temperature may be different at different locations within the object. Unsteady state conditions imply that temperature changes with time at a particular location. Even though strictly speaking, steady state conditions are not common, their mathematical analysis is much simpler. Therefore, steady state conditions are often assumed to analyze problems involving heat transfer and to obtain useful information for designing equipment and processes.

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27 Flow of Fluids Concepts Relevant to this Study The Reynolds number The Reynolds number is a dimensionless number used f or describing quantitatively the flow characteristics of a fluid flowing in a pipe or on the surface of objects of different shapes. The Reynolds number allows predicting the flow regime, i.e. laminar or turbulent, under selected flow conditions. Reynolds number states that the critical velocity at which laminar flow changes into turbulent flow, depends on the following parameters: The diameter of the pipe ( ) and the viscosity ( ) density ( ) and average velocity ( ) of the fluid. These factors were combined in the following expression, which allows obtaining a definite value to specifically identify the kind of flow that a Newtonian fluid will have under certain flow conditions ( McCabe and other s 1985 ; Singh and Heldman 2009 ) : (1 10) The transition from laminar to turbulent flow may occur over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. For Newtonian fluids, below Reynolds numbers of 2100, laminar flow is always identified, but this type of flow can still be encountered up to Reynolds numbers of several thousand under special conditions. Under norma l conditions, the flow is turbulent above 4000. A transition region is found between 2100 4000, where the flow can be laminar or turbulent depending upon the conditions at the pipes inlet and on the distance from the inlet ( McCabe and others 1985 ) For non Newtonian fluids, the generalized Reynolds number for power law fluids ( ) can be calculated with the following expr ession: (1 11)

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28 Where is the flow behavior index; and is the consistency coefficient, which are the power law parameters obtained from rheological and viscosity determinations. For no n Newtonian fluids, turbulent flow regimes occur at Reynolds numbers above 2100 with pseudoplastic fluids, for which < 1. Literature Review Functional and Nutritional Properties of Citrus Pulp The increasing market demand for orange pulp in recent years is mainly due to its contribution to aroma, flavor, and texture of unprocessed and fresh like juices. Pulp has a strong effect on the sensory perception and texture properties of citrus juices and other beverages. It influences aroma and t aste perceptions. This may be explained by physicochemical and cognitive effects. The former due to the fact that fresh pulp contains high amounts of key aroma compounds such as acetaldehyde and terpenes. The cognitive effects may be explained by the tacti le properties of pulp that impart a particular tactile sensation in the mouth of juice consumers ( Rega and others 2004 ; Berlinet and others 2007 ) From the total volatile compounds of fresh squeezed oran ge juice, it was found that orange pulp represented 80% ( Br at 2003 ) It was also reported that most citrus pulps ha d relatively high contents of carotenoids, influencing the color of citrus juices ( Agocs and others 2007 ) B esides its functionality in beverage applicatio ns, some nutritional properties have been attributed to orange pulp in a number of publications. The nutritional compounds found in citrus juices were also found in citrus by products such as pulp. Orange pulp is a source of phenolic compounds, dehydroascorbic and ascorbic acids, which are well known antioxidants ( Gil Izquierdo and others 2002 ) There are some discrepancies in literature related to the dietary fiber content in orange pulp. While some au thors stated

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29 that orange pulp had relatively low fiber content, others emphasize d the nutritional benefits that orange pulp may have on diet, due to its fiber content. Larrea and others (2005) re ported that orange pulp contained approximately 24% o f solid material, whi ch included 9.8% of proteins, 2.4% of lipids, 2.7% of ash contents, 9.3% of total c arbohydrates from which 74.9% was dietary fiber (consisting of 54.8% of insoluble dietary fiber and 20.1% of soluble dietary fiber). Ingestion of foods containing dietary fi ber has been recommended for weight loss According to these authors, pectin, which is the main source of s oluble fiber in orange pulp, had effec ts in reducing the absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine, thus, reducing the level of serum gluco se ( Larrea and others 2005 ) However, orange pulp fiber contribution depend s in the amount of pulp that is included in a parti cular product formulation. Orange Pulp Industrial Applications Due to the functional properties of orange pulp, the primary use of this product is for mixing with juice concentrates and beverage bases to impart texture, body, and pulpy characteristics to reconstituted juices and drinks. Some patents have been published detailing product formulation based on citrus pulps and other citrus by products. A method for producing a clouding agent from orange pulp and orange peel for applications in soft drink bev erages was patented ( Lashkajani 1999 ) This cloudin g agent contributed to the opaqueness and particular flavor of citrus juice beverages. Orange pulp has volatile compounds that contribute to flavor, aroma and also adjusts the viscosity of beverag es. Currently frozen unwashed pulp containing natural juice solids is the most frequently used material for prod uct formulation. Orange pulp has been proposed as constituent for formulating jams, gel like desserts, and glaze coatings. Frozen pulp has

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30 also been used for preparing aerated frozen fruit desserts ( Braddock 1999 ) Citrus pulps have a high water and oil holding capacity. For this reason, orange pulp may be used as thickener and gelling agent in beverages and gels type products, and for formulating low caloric foods. Orange pulp has been used for formulating baked products such as cookies and cakes as a substitute for some of the flour, with good results in flavor, excellent water binding capacity, and less calories than the original formula ( Passy and Mannheim 1983 ) In other studies, biscuits formulated with 15% of extruded orange pulp had higher preference levels compared to the control, in terms of flavor, texture, and general acceptance. The total fiber content in biscuits formu lated with extruded orange pulp was also higher than the control ( Larrea and others 2005 ) The use of extrusion process to improve the functional and nutritional properties of orange pulp has also been reported, making it more suitable for food applications. These and other applications show that there are several potential uses for citrus pulp as a functional ingredient for a variety of food products. Pasteurization of Orange Pulp To date, high concentration orange pulp is generally not produced aseptically due to the difficulties to handle this fluid in conventional tube pasteurizers. In very viscous fluids, heat is transferred mostly by conduction, and radial temperature gradients result in non uniform process. In c onventional tube heat exchangers high pressure drop s occur when handling viscous fluids. H igh concentration pulp is mainly commercialized frozen, which involves high energy costs and lower shelf life compared to aseptic pulp. If the product is abused during manufacture or thawing, microbiological problems m ay occur, as yeasts and molds can utilize the sugars present in the pulp ( Braddock 1999 )

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31 The main purpose of citrus products pasteurization is to inactivate the enzyme pectin methylesterase (PME), which is responsible for some undesirable changes during storage. P ectin methylesterase aff ects the colloidal stability of citrus juices and promotes the browning effect in citrus products during storage ( Nikdel and others 1993 ) This enzyme causes cloud loss of orange juice by deesterification of pectin. Heat pasteurization of orange products is used to inactivate PME which has higher thermal resistance than vegetative microorganisms. Between 90 and 100% reduction of the PME activity is normally achieved through heat pasteurization ( Yeom and others 2000 ) Publications detailing the process conditions for pasteurizing orange pulp and high concentration orange pulp are limited. A standard paste urization process for low concentration orange pulp was reported by Gil Izquierdo and other s (2002), by heating the product to 95 C for 30 s, followed by refrigeration at 4 C. Braddock (1999) reported similar conditions for microbe and enzyme inactivatio n in orange pulp: Pasteurization at 90 C for 0.5 1.0 min, followed by cooling to 2 5 C, using heat exchangers with large horizontal tubes and spiral baffles. For 850 g L 1 concentration pulp, Levati (2010) reported a pasteurization treatment of 98 C for 90 s using a JBT tubular heat exchanger with static mixers. The product was then filled aseptically However, Levati stated in his study that it is a current challenge to process high concentration pulp in tubular heat exchangers, due to the high pressure drop resulting from its high viscosity, its particular rheological behavior, and the difficulties to achieve a uniform thermal treatment. Flow Characteristics of HCP and other Viscous Fluids For optimum design of continuous heat processing plants, it is f undamental to understand the flow properties of fluids over an adequate temperature range ( Cabral

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32 and others 2010 ) Since the rheological parameters of fluids chan ge significantly with temperature and concentration, modeling and optimization of heat transfer operations is a major challenge ( Gabs and others 2003 ) Studies with high concentration orange pulp showed that the rheological ch aracteristics of this fluid varied significantly with temperature and concentration. High concentration pulp presented a clear non Newtonia n behavior, and showed the behavior of a shear thinning (pseudoplastic) fluid when plotting shear rate and shear stress ( Payne 2011 ) This means that its apparent viscosity decreased with increasing rate of shear stress ( Tavares and others 2007 ) Payne (2011) also found that orange pulp with concentrations between 600 to 900 g L 1 had laminar flow when flowing inside tubular pipes. Levati (2010) also reported that HCP flowed under laminar regime when conducting flow simulations in circular pipes and annular heat exchanger. In laminar flow, time dependence is manifested due to the s tructural changes that the product has during flow ( Gabs and others 2003 ) For HCP, these structural changes may be explained by the gelation process that occurs in the pulp when heated. The realignment of the pulp inside the pipe, and the separation of fibers and liquid while flowing at high temperatures (above 50 C) may cause erratic results when measuring and calculating different parameters such as temperature profiles, velocity, and heat transfer coefficient s ( Levati 2010 ) It was reported that HCP presented slippage when flowing in tubular pipes. Slippage refers t o separation of liquid from the solid particles at the wall surface of the pipe. It was found that the slippage coefficient increased with higher flow rates, and with higher shear stress at the wall ( Payne 2011 )

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33 In the reviewed publi cations regarding the rheological and flow properties of viscous fluids, the authors determined which mathematical model was more suitable for describing each fluids behavior. For non Newtonian fluids, one of the most widely used is the Ostwald De Waele m odel, also known as the power law model: n (1 12) Where is the shear stress; K is the consistency index; is the shear rate; and n is the flow behavior index. When fluids are concentrated, an additional resistance flow may affect, which i s represented by the yield stress o This is known as the Herschel Bulkley model ( Telis Romero and others 1999 ) : o n (1 13) For high concentration orange pulp, Levati (2010) reported that the rheological behavior of this fluid was well described by the power law model. However, Payne (2011) stated tha t HCP was a power law fluid only at very low shear rates. W ith the presence of slippage, HCP no longer behaved as a power law fluid. Regarding other fluids, Telis Romero and collaborators (1999) reported that concentrated orange juice behaved as a pseudopl astic fluid with yield stress. Its rheological behavior was best represented by the Herschel Bulkley model. They also found that as long as there were temperature changes during flow, the rheological properties of the fluid were not constant along the tube length. In another study with frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) with 46.6 to 65.0 Brix, it was found that the shear rate shear stress data at all concentrations was best described by the power law model ( Tavares and others 2007 ) In o ther publications, authors stated that th e power law model best described the flow of

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34 tomato concentrates, concentrated orange juice, concentrated kiwi juice, peach and plum puree, and other fruit purees. For guava pulp, the rheological properties were well described by power law with yield stress, exhibiting highly non Newtonian nature ( Harnanan a nd others 2001 ) Thermal Properties of Fruit Pulps and of other Viscous Fluids Knowing the thermophysical properties of food is necessary for research and engineering applications such as pumping, heating, cooling, freezing, drying and evaporation. Ther mal properties are essential for modeling, simulation and optimization of heat transfer operations in food processing ( Mercali and others 2011 ) During processing, properties like density, thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity, may go through significant changes depending on composition, temperature, and physical structure of food. These properties can be predicted as a function of tempe rature and the major components of foodstuffs: Water, protein, fat and carbohydrates. But significant discrepancies may exist between the estimated and the experimental values due to the complex physicochemical structure of foods ( Bon and others 2010 ) Theref ore, experimental methods are necessary to determine the thermal properties of foods more accurately. Orange pulps thermal properties have not been reported. Values of specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity for other viscous fluids and common liq uids are presented in Table 1 1 In a study with banana puree with an average soluble solid concentration of 22 Brix, the specific heat and thermal conductivity were estimated using the purees composition. The estimated value for specific heat was 3642.5 J kg 1 K 1 and for thermal conductivity was 0.595 W m 1 K 1 ( Ditchfield and others 2007 )

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35 In a study with mango pulp, the thermal conductivity was determined using a cell wh ere the heat transmitted by conduction was measured (by electrical resistance) across the sample placed between two concentric copper cylinders. Thermal conductivity was measured at different temperatures and water contents. It was found that thermal condu ctivity was more dependent of moisture content than of temperature. The values obtained ranged from 0.377 to 0.622 W m 1 K 1 increasing significantly with mango pulps water content. The specific heat capacity for mango pulp was also determined using the same experimental set up as for the thermal conductivity, but using a different mathematical solution. The values obtained ranged between 2730 to 4093 J kg 1 K 1 varying significantly with moisture content ( Bon and others 2010 ) The thermal properties of acerol a and blueberry pulps were determined by Mercali and othe rs (2011). The specific heat was determined using a calorimeter. For acerola pulp with 8% solids content, the specific heat was 4172.4 J kg 1 K 1 for an average temperature of 37 C. There was no sig nificant difference between the values of acerola pulp specific heat and the theoretical values for water. The specific heat for blueberry pulp with 16% of solids was 3720.9 J kg 1 K 1 for an average temperature of 38 C. There was significant difference b etween the values found for blueberry pulp and those of water It was also found that as moisture content increased in the product, its specific heat was higher ( Mercali and others 2011 ) The thermal diffusivity of acerola and blueberry pulps was determined based on the analytical solution for the heat diffusion equation in a long cylinder. The thermal conductivity of these pulps was calculated us ing equation 1 3. The thermal diffusivity of acerola pulp was 1.53 x 10 7 m 2 s 1 while for blueberry pulp a value of 1.51 x 10 7 m 2 s 1

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36 was obtained. The thermal conductivity of acerola pulp at 40 C was 0.65 W m 1 K 1 while for blueberry pulps, the valu es were 0.57 and 0.64 W m 1 K 1 for pulps with 14% and 16% of solid content respectively. It was fo und that thermal conductivity was more dependent on moisture content than on temperature ( Mercali and others 2011 ) Heat Transfer Coefficient of Fruit Pulps and other Viscous Fluids Determination of heat transfer coefficients is essential to model aseptic processing of fluids that have a complex r he ological behavior, such as high concentration orange pulp. The heat transfer coefficients for citrus pulps have not been published. Studies with other viscous fluids have show n that the h eat transfer coefficient depends on the fluid thermophysical proper ties and flow regime, as well as on operating conditions for a particular heat exchanger (geometry and surface roughness) ( Ditchfield and others 2007 ) Several expressions can be fo und in the literature to determine the heat transfer coefficient, but experimental determinations that include process parameters are few Equipment design largely depends on reliable equations to explain heat transfer, pressure loss, and energy requiremen ts. Hence, it is imperative to calculate the heat transfer coefficients considering real process parameters ( Ditchfield and others 2006 ) Table 1 2 shows heat transfer coefficients values found in literature for some common liquids and viscous fluids such as fruit purees and pulps. In a study with orange juice during pasteurization in a plate heat exc hanger, the heat transfer coefficients were calculated. The values for orange juice varied from 983 to 6500 W m 2 C 1 while for water (using the same processing conditions as OJ) ranged from 8387 to 24245 W m 2 C 1 The heat transfer coefficient was cor related as a linear function of orange juice viscosity and the channel velocity in the plate heat exchanger ( Kim and others 1999 ) In a study with a model sucrose solution in a falling

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37 film evaporator, the values obtained for the heat transfer coefficient ranged between 1908 to 6168 W m 2 C 1 The main source of variation was the stage (effect) of evaporation; the heat transfer coefficient decreased as the sucrose solution became more concentrated ( Prost and others 2006 ) For tomato pulp, the heat transfer coefficients were calculated when heating the pulp in a scraped surface h eat exchanger. The heat transfer coefficient varied between 625 and 911 W m 2 C 1 The authors found that the values obtained were affected by the flow rate, rotor speed and steam temperature ( Sangrame and others 2000 ) Ditchfield and other s (2007) calculated the heat transfer coefficient s of banana puree with a soluble solid concentration of 22 Brix in a tubular heat exchanger. The heat transfer coefficients obtained ranged from 655 to 1070 W m 2 C 1 The authors found that all varia bles studied: flow rate, steam temperature and length / diameter (L/D) ratio, significantly affected the heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer coefficient increased at higher flow rates, smaller L/D ratios, and higher heating medium temperatures. It was also found that there was a significant temperature difference between the banana puree that was near the pipes wall and the product located at the center, and that this difference was smaller at lower flow rates ( Ditchfield and others 2007 ) Alternative Technologies for Pasteurizing Fruit P ulps, Purees, and other Viscous Products The use of thermal treatment for pasteurizing citrus products may cause irreversible alterations of the fresh like flavor, reduction of nutrients, and the initiation of undesirable browning reactions in the juice ( Berlinet and others 2007 ; Yeom and others 2000 ) In a study where orange pulp was pasteurized at 90 C for 30 s, it was found that

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38 the thermal process significantly reduced the total phenolic compounds content. Thermal pasteurization of pulp also ca used a loss of 58% and 79% of total vitamin C and L ascorbic acid respectively, and a loss of 47% of pulps antioxidant capacity, mainly due to the loss of phenolic compounds ( Gil Izquierdo and others 2002 ) It has also been found that exposure of p ulps to high tem peratures caused overdrying of pulp and affected the dietary fiber and protein content ( Passy and Mannheim 1983 ) The use of alternative processing technologies to obtain food products and beverages that are safe for consumption and that retain most of their initial quality in terms of nutrition, sensory characteristics, and functionality is currently being researched. A number of recent stu dies regarding the denominated emerging technologies as alternatives for pasteurizing diverse food products have been published. Some of these not conventional processes are: Microwave energy, ohmic heating, and high pressure technology. Currently, most of these technologies are relatively expensive and various technical is sues still remain unclear. However, it is important to encompass these technologies and consider them as an alternative for processing viscous fluids and other foods containing solid particles. The use of microwave energy to pasteurize citrus beverages and concentrated juices has been reported. This technology has the following advantages: Food is directly heated, no heat transfer films are used, the temperature is easier to control, and foods retain more nutritional components than in thermal processing ( Nikdel and others 1993 ) Nick del and others (1993) reported that pasteurization of pulpy orange juice with microwave energy gave promising results in terms of enzyme inactivation,

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39 heating, PME was i nactivated in 98.5 and 99.5% at temperatures near 75 C for 10 15 s of residence time. This was compared to 99% of PME inactivation by traditional pasteurization at 90.5 C for 15 s. The authors concluded that pasteurization using microwave energy in conti nuous mode was effective for pulpy juice pasteurization. As of most of these relatively new technologies, more research is necessary to apply microwave energy at industrial scales. Pasteurization of fruit purees by ohmic heating has been studied. Ohmic hea ting is based on the direct passage of electrical current through the food, with heat generated as a result of electrical resistance. The main advantage of this process over thermal processing, is rapid and uniform heating, resulting in less thermal damage to the product ( Rahman 2007 ) Ohmic heating is suitable for pumpable foods, and it can be used for sterilization of liquid and vis cous products ( I cier and Ilicali 2005 ) Ohmic heating has been found to be effective for microorganism destruction in foods such as fruit purees. However, the electrical conductivity of fruit purees depe nds strongly on temperature, ionic concentration, moisture content, and pulp con centration Thus, mathematical models have to be developed for determining the optimal process conditions (temperature, voltage) and the properties of different foods (heat resistance, electrical conductivity) to be used for pasteurization of foods ( Icier and Ilicali 2005 ) The application of high pressure processing (HPP) as an alternative to thermal treatment for inactivation of PME and preservation of citrus products has been studied. It was found that the activation of PME in orange juice and c oncentrate d orange juice depended on the pressure level used, on the pressure holding time, and on the acidity and soluble solids content of the product ( Basak and Ramaswamy 1996 ) In another

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40 study, it was found that stabilization of pulpy orange juice with high pressure processing required a minimum of 500 MPa to sufficiently reduce PME activity. It was also reported that inactivation of PME was enhanced by combining HPP with thermal treatment of 50 C, and that the orange juice treated with HPP retained its fresh like quality for several months when stored at 4 C ( Nienaber and Shellhammer 2001 ) But the use of pressures above 500 MPa may require expensive equipment, whi ch is a drawback for using this technology now days. The reviewed literature show ed that there is potential for the use of these technologies for pasteurization and for aseptically processing highly viscous products such as orange pulp, fruit purees, an d pastas. However, most of these emerging technologies are relatively expensive today. In addition, the need for future research in these fields is still very extensive. Research Objectives The overall objective of this study was to determine the main pa rameters needed to optimize the design of a pasteurization system for producing high concentration orange pulp aseptically The specific objectives of this research were (1) to d etermine the thermal properties of high concentration orange pulp : Specific he at capacity t hermal diffusivity and t hermal conductivity ; and (2) t o determine the heat transfer characteristics of HCP in tubular heat exchangers: Calculate the local heat transfer coefficient s in the heating and cooling section of a the heat exchanger fo r different pulp concentrations and fluid velocities ; c alculate the overall heat transfer coefficient s for the selected processing conditions in the heating section of the heat exchanger ; and obtain the temperature profiles and pressure drops when heatin g and cooling orange pulp with different concentrations at selected flow rates

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41 Determining t he specific heat capacity is important for thermal analysis of food processing and of equipment where heat t ransfer operations are involved, e.g. for determining t he amount of energy required to heat a food to pasteurization temperatures. In addition, the specific heat capacity was used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients of HCP The thermal diffusivity was used to calculate the thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity is necessary for calculations involving rate of conductive heat transfer in food processing operations and equipment design. Determining t he heat transfer coefficients is necessary to design and optimize equipment dimensions such as the pipe length and diameter of a heat exchanger, or process conditions such as flow rate, required for accomplishing a desired rate of heat transfer. The temperature profiles allowed determining the way heat flowed across the radial layers of HCP flowing in a tubu lar pipe, and to assess the type of flow regime in which HCP flowed for the selected experimental conditions. This information, combined with the pressure drop determinations, can be used to optimize the design of tubular heat exchangers to produce HCP ase ptically, with minimum pressure drop and maximum heat transfer. This information can also be used to assess if tubular heat exchangers are the most suitable equipment to pasteurize highly concentrated orange pulp.

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42 Figures and Tables Figu re 1 1. Simplified flow diagram for industrial production of orange juice, low concentration orange pulp (LCP), and high concentration orange pulp (HCP). Modified from Braddock (1999). Figure 1 2. Combined convective and conductive heat transfer ( Singh and Heldman 2009 ) Defects Chiller Oranges Extractor Pulpy juice and defects Finisher Juice LCP 500 g/L Pasteurizer Finisher Package Frozen Storage HCP 600 1000 g/L Pulpy juice Cyclone Juice

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43 Table 1 1. Specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of viscous fluids and other common liquid foods Fluid Specific Heat Capacity J kg 1 K 1 Thermal Conductivity W m 1 K 1 1 Banana puree (22 Brix) 2 Mango pulp 3 Acerola pu lp 3 Blueberry pulp with 14% solids 3 Blueberry pulp with 16% solids 4 Strawberry pulp 4 Blackberry pulp 4 Red raspberry pulp 4 Blueberry pulp 5 Blueberry syrup 5 Tomato soup concentrate 5 Honey 5 Apple sauce 5 Apple Juice 5 Orange juice 5 Wa ter at 20C 5 Water at 25C 5 Water at 60C 5 Water at 65C 3643 2730 4093 4172 4050 3721 3755 3967 3542 3754 3528 3836 3717 3931 3445 3676 3882 4181 4188 0.595 0.377 0.622 0.650 0.570 0.640 0.502 0.516 0.436 0.431 0.597 0.658 1. ( Ditchfield and others 2007 ) 2. ( Bon and others 2010 ) 3. ( Mercali and others 2011 ) 4. ( Souza and others 2008 ) 5. ( Singh and Heldman 2009 ) Table 1 2 Heat transfer coefficient of viscous fluids and other common liquid foods Fluid Flow Rate m 3 s 1 Heat Transfer Coeff. W m 2 K 1 1 Banana puree 2.3 5.1 x10 5 655 1070 Local h in a tubular heat exchanger 2 Tomato pulp 6.5 8.5 x10 4 625 911 Overall U, in scrap surf. evaporator 3 Sucro se solution 6.7 5.2 x10 5 1908 6168 Overall U, in falling film evaporator 4 Orange juice 1.5 3.5 x10 4 983 6500 Overall U, in plate heat exchanger 4 Water 2.2 2.6 x10 3 8387 24245 Local h in plate heat exchanger 1. ( Ditchfield and others 2007 ) 2. ( Sangrame and others 2000 ) 3. ( Prost and others 2006 ) 4. ( Kim and others 1999 )

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44 CHAPTER 2 THERMAL PROPERTIES O F HIGH CONCENTRATION ORANGE PULP Introduction Thermal properties are those that control the transfer and storage of heat in a particular food ( Lozano 2005 ) Thermal properties of most foods are significantly influenced by water content. These properties a re also affected by temperature and by the chemical composition and physical structure of food. Therefore, experimental methods are necessary to accurately determine the thermal properties of food. The objective of this study was to determine the thermal p roperties of HCP that are relevant to the design of heat exchangers for aseptic processing of this fluid. Specific heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity, were determined for orange pulp 1 The specific heat capacity obtained in this study w as used to further calculate the heat transfer coefficients of HCP flowing in a tubular heat exchanger In addition, knowledge of these pro perties is necessary for modeling, simulation and optimization of process operations which involve heat transfer. Materials and Methods Sample Preparation Orange pulpy juice was obtained by juicing Valencia oranges in FMC extractors (JBT model 591 Lakela nd, Florida) at the Citrus Research and Education Center (CREC) pilot plant. The pulpy juice was pasteurized in a stainless steel tubular heat exchanger (Feldmeier Equipment, Inc. Syracuse, NY.). Pasteurization was conducted at 90 C for a minimum holding time of 60 s and then cooling to 4 C, to inactivate the enzyme pectin methylesterase (PME). Inactivation of PME was important to avoid deesterifica tion of pectin, which caused a rapid separation of liquid from the fibers when

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45 pulp was stored and changes i n pulp concentration due to product gelation After pasteurization, the pulp was separated from the juice using a FMC screw finisher (JBT Model 35, Hoopeston, Illinois) at 50 psi with a J.U. 52 mesh screen. Orange pulp with a concentration of 920 g L 1 was obtained, as determined using a FMC Quick Fiber Test. Sodium benzoate was added to the pulp (0.5%) as an anti mold agent. Pulp was stored in a cold room at 8 C before taking samples for conducting the different tests. Pulp Concentration Adjustment To a djust pulp concentration, 920 g L 1 pulp was diluted with pasteurized orange juice to concentrations of 801 13, 712 12, 617 7, and 516 6 g L 1 Pulp concentration was determined using a FMC Quick Fiber Test instrument (Figure 2 1). Approximately 50 0 mL of pulp were weighted and placed in the 20 mesh screen of the Quick Fiber apparatus. After 2 minutes of mechanical shaking, the pulp and the screen were weighted, and by subtracting the weight of the screen, the weight of the pulp was obtained. Pulp c oncentration was determined as: (2 1) Moisture Content Orange pulp moisture content was determined in triplicate for each of the pulp concentrations studied. Approximately five grams of sample were weighted in a small al uminum pan using an analytical balance (Denver Instrument Co., Denver, Colorado). The aluminum pan containing the sample was placed in an oven (Central Scientific Co, New York) at 75 C, and it was weighted each hour until stable weight w as reached (seven hours). Pulp moisture content was measured as: (2 2)

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46 Where is the weight of the sample after reaching steady weight, and is the initial weight of the sample. Density Orange pu lp density for each of the pulp concentrations studied was determined in triplicate at 20 C using a 25 mL volumetric cylinder (TEKK, USA) and an analytical balance (Denver Instrument Co., Denver, Colorado). Specific Heat Capacity The specific heat capaci ty was determined using a method developed by Hwang and Hayakama (1979) and adapted by Mercali and others (2011) with minor modifications: An insulated stainless steel double wall 0.3 L thermo flask (Thermos, Rolling Meadows, Illinois) was adapted to be u sed as a calorimeter. A thermocouple type K was inserted into its geometric center. Approximately 200 g of water at 70 C (reference liquid) were weighted and placed inside the calorimeter. The system was closed and placed on a shaker (New Brunswick Scient ific Co, Edison, New Jersey) for 15 minutes, allowing the temperatures of the water and of the calorimeter to equilibrate. Approximately 75 g of pulp, which were previously placed in low density polyethylene bags and stored in a refrigerator overnight, wer e placed inside the calorimeter at an polyethylene ba g was used because of the pulp hygroscopic characteristics, which may affect the heat analysis of the experiment as the pulp would dissolve in the reference water and incorporate it into its matrix ( Hwang and Hayakawa 1979 ) In addition, the plastic bag helped drop the sample rapidly and easily into the c alorimeter, minimizing heat dissipation during sample addition. The system was maintained with constant agitation until reaching a final equilibrium temperature (Figure 2 2). An energy balance,

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47 based on the law of energy conservation, allowed calculating t he specific heat capacity of the sample: (2 3) (2 4) Where is the total heat content at the initial state; is the total heat content at th e final state; and is the heat loss factor (heat dissipation to the surroundings). Replacing equation 2 4 in 2 3 and rearranging as done by Hwang and Hayakama (1979): (2 5) Where is the specific heat of the sample; is the specific heat of the reference liquid; and are the masses of the sample and reference liquid respectively; and are the initial temperatures of the sample and reference liquid respectively; is the final equilibrium temperature; is the time required for the sample to reach an equilibrium temperature with the calorimeter; is the heat capacity of the calorimeter ; and is the heat loss rate. The temperature was recorded using a data acquisition board (National Instruments, model NI TB 9214) and a computer program written in LabVIEW 10.0. The final equilibrium temperature ( ) and the time required to reach this temperature ( ) were obtained from the linear portion of the time temperature graph of each experiment (Figure 2 3). The specific heat capacity was calculated in triplicate for each of the studied orange pulp concentratio ns using equation 2 5.

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48 To determine the heat capacity of the calorimeter ( ) and the energy loss rate ( the method described above was used, but using distilled water as the sample: Approximately 200 g of water at 70 C (reference liquid) were weighted and placed inside the calorimeter. About 100 g of water at room temperature (sample) were weighted, and its initial temperature was measured. The sample water was poured inside the calorimeter in contact with the reference water. The system was immediately closed and kept in the shaker for constant agitation until reaching equilibrium temperature. To measure the heat loss to the surroundings, the system was left in the shaker for approximately 60 min, and from the slope of the linear portion of the t emperature vs. t ime graph (Figure 2 heat capacity of the calorimeter ( ) was obtained by using equation 2 5 and solving for : (2 6) Using the mean value o f obtained from 10 replicates, the experimental apparatus was validated by conducting experiments to determine the specific heat capacity of distilled water, and comparing these values with the ones obtained in the literature. These results a re presented in the Results and Discussion section. Thermal Diffusivity The thermal diffusivity was determined based on the method used by Mercali and others (2011). This technique is based on the analytical solution for the heat diffusion equation in a c ylinder. A copper cylinder (40 mm length and 20 mm diameter) was used for this experiment (Figure 2 5a). At one end of the cylinder, a thermocouple type K was inserted into its geometric center through a rubber stopper and sealed with marine

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49 epoxy. On the other end, the cylinder was filled with pulp sample and a rubber stopper was placed to seal the system. The cylinder filled with pulp sample was immersed in a water bath at 25 C until reaching constant temperature. After reaching equilibrium, the initial temperature was recorded, and the system was transferred to another thermostatic bath with a temperature of 55C. The cylinder was immersed in this bath until reaching e quilibrium temperature with the water. Throughout the experiment, the temperature was recorded using the same data acquisition system and program as for the specific heat capacity determination. Integrating as a function of radius the analytical solution of the energy conservation equation for cylindrical coordinates in a non steady state, as done by Mercali and others (2011), the following equation was obtained: (2 7) Where is the temperature as function of time and radius of the cylinder; is the initial temperature is the equilibrium temperature ; is the thermal diffusivity ; i s the radius of the cylinder ; is the time to r ea ch equilibrium temperature ; and is a constant. Adjusting the temperature data versus time to equation 2 7, a linear correlation between ln vs. time was obtained. By determining the slope of the linear portion of this curve, the thermal diffusivity of the sample can be calculated: (2 8)

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50 The thermal diffusivity at 40 C was calculated in triplicate for each of the studied orange pulp concentrations. The temperature o f 40 C was the average between the initial bath temperature (25 C) and the second bath temperature (55 C). Figure 2 5b shows a time vs. dimensionless temperature graphs used for determining the slope and calculating the thermal diffusivity of orange pul p. Thermal conductivity Thermal conductivity of the studied orange pulp concentrations was calculated using equation 1 3 and solving for : (2 9) Where is the ther mal conductivity (W m 1 K 1 ); is the thermal diffusivity (m 2 s 1 ); is the density (kg m 3 ); and is the specific heat capacity (J kg 1 K 1 ). Statistical Analysis To determine the effect of pulp concentration on spe cific heat, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity, 1 way ANOVA (p < 0.05) was carried out using statistical software (JMP Version 9.0.2, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). If the effect was found to be significant, Students t test with 95% confi dence level was carried out to determine significant differences among pulp concentrations. Results and Discussion Moisture Content and Density Orange pulp moisture content and density for the different pulp concentrations are presented in Table 2 1. The moisture content and density values obtained were very similar for all concentrations. For pulp concentrations of 617, 712, and 801 g L 1 the moisture content was between 82.0 0.001 and 82.1 0.002 %, while for 516 g L 1 it was slightly higher: 82.7 0.001 %. These values were in agreement with the literature.

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51 Martinez and Carmona (198 0) reported that orange pulp had an average moisture content of 80.3%, while Kimball (1991) reported a range of 80 85% moisture content for this product. Compared to oth er fruit pulps, the values obtained were also within th e same range. Blueberry pulp had an average moisture content of 82% ( Mercali and others 201 1 ) while mango pulp had an average moisture content of 83.7% ( Bon and others 2010 ) Moisture content did not vary with pulp concentration. Since orange juice contains approximately 12% of soluble solids ( similar soluble solids content as in pulp), when pul p was concentrated in the finisher, the soluble solids contained in the juice were also removed from the concentrated pulp. This may explain why the water content was similar for the different pulp concentrations. With all pulp concentrations having almos t the same moisture content, similar density values were expected for the different pu lp concentrations. Orange pulp density at 20 C ranged between 1.03 0.004 and 1.06 0.001 g mL 1 The values were close to the density of water It was expected that o range pulp had slightly higher density than water, due to its solid content of 18%. The density values obtained were also similar to that of other fruit pulps. Mercali and othe rs (2011) reported density values between 0.97 and 1.03 g mL 1 for acerola pul p, and between 0.98 and 1.05 g mL 1 for blueberry pulp. In this study, the values varied with temperature and the products water content. Thermal Properties of Orange Pulp Specific heat capacity The results obtained for the calorimeters heat capacity ( Hk ) determination are shown in Table 2 2. The average value of Hk was 60.1 10.2 J K 1 This value was An average value of 4187.3 J kg K 1 was obtained for water, which deviated by less

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52 than 0.1% from waters Cp values reported in the literature (Table 1 2). Therefore, the calorimeter was validated for determining orange pulps specific heat capacity. The experimental results for the determination of orange pulps specific heat capacity are shown in Table 2 3. The specific heat capacity at 30 C for t he 4 pulp concentrations ranged from 4025.0 to 4068.4 J kg 1 K 1 The statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) among the specific heat of the different pulp concentrations. However, there was significant difference between the specific heat of orange pulp and water (p < 0.05), meaning that it will not be correct to assume the Cp of water as the Cp of orange pulp for further calculations. Since moisture content in all pulp concentrations was between 82 and 83%, and the specific heat capacity strongly depends on water content, it was expected that Cp would be similar for all pulp samples. Orange pulps specific heat has not been reported in the literature. Comparing with other fruit pulps, orange pulps specific heat was similar to some of the reported values for mango pulp ( Bon and others 2010 ) and acerola pulp ( Mercali and others 2011 ) and higher compared to the reported values of blueberry, strawberry, red raspberry, and blackberry pulps ( Souza and others 2008 ) The specific h eat capacity for this group of fruit pulps, which are shown in Table 1 2, ranged from 3528 to 3967 J kg K 1 In general, specific heat increased with higher product moisture content. Thermal diffusivity The average thermal diffusivity at 40 C for 516 g L 1 pulp was 1.50 0.01 x 10 7 m 2 s 1 while for pulp concentrations between 617 and 801 g L 1 the mean thermal diffusivity values were between 1.55 0.07 and 1.56 0.04 x 10 7 m 2 s 1 (Table 2 3). The thermal diffusivity of water at 30 C is 1.48 x 10 7 m 2 s 1 ( Singh and Heldman 2009 )

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53 Since semi concentrated pulp ( 500 g L 1 ) had slightly higher moisture content than higher pulp concentrations, its thermal diffusivity may be closer to that of water. However, statistical analysis indicated that there were not significant differences (p > 0.05) between the thermal di ffusivity values obtained for the different pulp concentrations. Orange pulps thermal diffusivity values were close to the ones reported for other fruit pulps. The thermal diffusivity values for acerola, blueberry, and tomato pulp were: 1.53, 1.51, and 1 .48 x 10 7 m 2 s 1 respectively ( Mercali et al. 2011 ; Singh and Heldman 2009 ) As the products moisture content increased, the thermal diffusivity was lower, becoming closer to that of water. Thermal co nductivity The calculated thermal conductivity for the different orange pulp concentrations is presented in Table 2 3. The values obtained for pulp concentrations between 516 and 801 g L 1 were between 0.63 and 0.66 W m 1 K 1 showing no significant differ ences between them (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) either with water. Thermal conductivity for orange pulp has not been reported. However, the values obtained were within the range reported for other fruit pulps. For mango pul p with 9% moisture content (dry basis), a thermal conductivity ranging between 0.59 and 0.62 W m 1 K 1 was reported ( Bon and others 2010 ) Mercali and others (2011) reported values of 0.65, 0.57, and 0.64 W m 1 K 1 for acerola, blueberry pulp with 14% solids, an d blueberry pulp with 16% solids respectively. As for the other thermal properties, thermal conductivity was dependent on the products moisture content.

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54 Conclusion In this study, moisture content, density, specific heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity were determined for orange pulp concentrations of 500 to 800 g L 1 For all pulp concentrations moisture content was between 82.1 and 82.7%. Density values ranged from 1.03 to 1.06 g mL 1 For all pulp concentrations, specific heat capacity was between 4025.0 to 4068.4 J kg 1 K 1 ; thermal diffusivity ra nged from 1.50 to 1.56 x 10 7 m 2 s 1 ; and thermal conductivity was between 0.63 and 0.66 W m 1 K 1 The thermophysical properties of food strongly depend on moisture content. Since moisture content was very similar for all pulp concentrations, there were n o significant differences (p > 0.05) between the mean values obtained for specific heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity for the different pulp concentrations. Thermal conductivity of pulp was not significantly different (p > 0.05) c ompared to that of water. However, the specific heat was significantly different (p < 0.05) from the values reported for water. The results of the thermal properties of orange pulp f e ll in a similar range of values that have been reported for other fruit pulps with similar moisture content. The reproducibility of results in this study (Table 2 3) show ed that the methods used for determining the thermal properties of orange pulp are valid and can be used for determining the thermal properties of other food products. The values obtained for thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of orange pulp can be used to obtain the thermal characteristics of this product, and to optimize process operations involving heat transfer.

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55 Figures and Tables Figure 2 1. FMC Quick Fiber Test instrument used for determining orange pulp concentration. Photo courtesy of author. Figure 2 2. Experiment setup for determining specific heat capacity of orange pulp samples. Photos courtesy of author.

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56 Figure 2 3. Time te mperature gra ph for determining orange pulp specific heat capacity. Figure 2 4. Time temperature graph for determining the heat loss to the surroundings to calculate the specific heat capacity.

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57 a) b) Figure 2 5. Materials and methods used to determine the thermal diffusivity : a) Copper cylinder (photo courtesy of the author) and b) Time vs. dimensionless temperature graph. The slope of the lin ear portion of this curve allowed calc ulating the thermal diffusivity of orange pulp. Table 2 1. Average (n = 3) moisture content and density of orange pulp at different concentrations. Errors were calculated as standard deviations. Pulp Concentration g L 1 Moisture Content % Density at 20 C kg m 3 516 6 82.7 0.001 1037.0 4.4 617 7 82.1 0.002 1056.5 1.0 712 12 82.0 0.002 1038.7 7.5 801 13 82.1 0.001 1033.7 1.5

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58 Table 2 2. Experimental values obtained for the calorimeters heat capacity (n=10). Test Calorimeter s heat capacity ( Hk) J K 1 1 65.98 2 72.10 3 66.86 4 68.93 5 48.31 6 48.82 7 47.57 8 55.41 9 54.08 10 72.67 Mean 60.07 Std. Deviation 10.23 Table 2 3. Mean values of the thermal properties of orange pulp at selected concentrations Errors re present standard deviations (n=3) Pulp Concentration g L 1 Specific Heat Capacity J kg 1 K 1 Thermal Diffusivity m 2 s 1 Thermal Conductivity W m 1 K 1 516 6 4025.0 37.1 1.50 0.01 x 10 7 0.63 617 7 4051.2 64.1 1.55 0.02 x 10 7 0.66 712 12 4 055.7 32.1 1.56 0.04 x 10 7 0.66 801 13 4068.4 12.5 1.55 0.07 x 10 7 0.65

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59 CHAPTER 3 DETERMINATION OF HEA T TRANSFER COEFFICIE NTS AND HEAT TRANSFE R CHARACTERISTICS OF H IGH CONCENTRATION OR ANGE PULP Introduction Determination of heat transfer coefficients is essential to model aseptic processing of fluids that have a complex rheological behavior, such as high concentration orange pulp. The heat transfer coefficients and heat transfer characteristics of orange pulp have not been reported. The h eat transfer coefficient is not a property of a material. It depends on thermophysical properties of a fluid such as density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity, the velocity an d flow regime of the fluid, the geometry and roughness of the s urface of the solid body in contact with the fluid ( Singh and Heldman 2009 ) Several expressions can be found in the literature to determine the heat transfer coefficient. However, for equipment design, it is imperative to calculate the heat transfer co efficients considering real process parameters ( Goldstein and others 2005 ) The objectives of this study were: (1) t o determine the local and overall heat transfer coefficients for orange pulp concentrations of approximately 500, 600, 700, and 800 g L 1 at diffe rent velocities in a concentric pipe heat exchanger; (2) t o obtain the radial temperature profiles when heating and cooling orange pulp at the selected concentrations, in order to explain how he at is transferred in this fluid; and (3) to determine the pres sure drop that results from the flow of orange pulp at selected concentrations in tubular pipes, at different flow rates. This information is necessary to optimize equipment design and the process conditions for producing high concentration orange pulp (HC P) aseptically

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60 Materials and Methods Samples Preparation Orange pulp with concentrations of 516 6, 617 7, 712 12, and 801 13 g L 1 was obtained as detailed in the Materials and Methods section of Chapter 2. Since pulp concentration tends to incre ase with extended processing, its concentration was measured and adjusted, if necessary, after every three experimental runs. Experimental Setup Experiments were conducted in a stainless steel double tube heat exchanger (Feldmeier Equipment, Inc. Syracuse NY) located at the CREC at University of Florida. Figure 3 1 shows the schematic equipment setup used in this study. Approximately 40 L of orange pulp with concentrations of 516, 617, 712, and 801 g L 1 were pumped from a feeding tank into the heat exch anger using a diaphragm pump (Hypro, model 9910 D1064, New Brighton, MN). Tests were run in the heating and cooling sections of the heat exchanger for each pulp concentration. The length and diameter of each section were 3.40 m and 0.0254 m (1 in) respecti vely. An electromagnetic flow meter (Rosemount, model 8732, Chanhassen, MN) was used to measure the flow rate. Flow rates were adjusted with a glove valve on a by pass that diverted part of the inlet flow back to the feeding tank. For each pulp concentrati on and heat exchanger section, experiments were run at minimum five different flow rates. Two pressure transducers (Omegadyne Inc., models PX43EO 060GI and PX44EO 500GI, Sunbury, OH) were mounted at the inlet and outlet of the heat exchangers experimental section to measure the initial and final pressure. Pulp initial temperature (T i ) was measured with a thermocouple type K, placed in the bottom of the feeding tank. To measure pulp average final temperature, a set of five

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61 thermocouples (T 0 T 4 ) type K we re inserted at the exit of each section (heating and cooling) using multiconductor feedthroughs (Omega, Stamford, CT), as shown in Figures 3 2 and 3 3. These thermocouples were inserted at a radial distance of 12.7, 10.0, 7.0, 4.0, and 1.0 mm from the pipe wall. At first, a static mixer with a thermocouple attached to its end was placed at the exit of the pipe to mix the pulp uniformly and measure its final temperature. However, the static mixer did not produce a uniform temperature and pulp average final t emperature measurements were not accurate. Therefore, we removed the sta tic mixer and determined pulp final temperature as the arithmetic mean of the temperatures obtained with the set of five thermocouples described above. For experiments conducted in the heating section, hot water (heating media) temperature was set at 76 1 C; for tests conducted in the cooling section water temperature was set at 4 1 C. Due to the heat exchanger design, the flow of the heating media was countercurrent to the produc ts flow, while the flow of the cooling media was parallel. To measure the apparent wall temperature (T w ), an exposed junction thermocouple type K was well attached to the inner pipes external surface at the exit of the heating and cooling sections. The whole tube at the exit was insulated with foam pipe insulation to avoid heat losses to the surroundings and reasonably approximate the actual wall temperature (Figure 3 2). It was assumed that the temperature difference between the internal and external su rfaces of the pipe was negligible. Figure 3 4 shows a schematic representation of how heat flowed when pulp was flowing in the heating section of the heat exchanger, and where the wall temperature was measured. We selected this point to measure T w because it was not possible to place the thermocouple

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62 inside the pipes wall without getting it in contact with the heating media or the product. Hence there was no other practical way of determining such temperatures. H owever, it is clear that this temperature wa s only an approximation to the actual wall temperature. For each experiment run, pulp at room temperature was pumped into the system only once (without recirculation), and temperatures, flow rate, and pressures were recorded after reaching steady state, u sing a data acquisition board model NI TB 9214, and a computer program written in LabVIEW 10.0 both from National Instruments,(Austin, TX) (Figure 3 5). A total of 48 experiments were conducted and each condition was carried out once (Table 3 3). A pictur e of the equipment setup is shown in Figure 3 6. Determination of Local and Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients The conventional definition of the heat flow for a fluid flowing in the heating or cooling section of a pipe, and the energy balance equation app lied to a section of a pipe, were combined to calculate the local heat transfer coefficient s ( Grato and others 2006 ; Ditchfield and others 2007 ) : (3 1) Where, is the heat transfe r r ed ; is the heat transfer coefficient; is the heat transfer area; is the wall temperature; and is pulp average final temperature. is pulp specific heat capacity; is pulp density; and is the volume of the heat exchanger. Rearranging and integrating equation 3 1 as done by Ditch field and others ( 2007), resulted in the following expression: (3 2)

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63 Where is pulp inlet temperature; is the pipe diameter; is the velocity; and is the tube length. Orange pulp density and specific heat capacity were determined as explained in Chapter 2. The average velocity was calculated dividing the vo lumetric flow rate by the pipes cross section area. To calculate the local heat transfer coefficient using equation 3 2, we assumed the following: Pulp density, thermal conductivity, and specific heat were constant throughout the range of temperatures of the experiments; natural convection effects were negligible; and steady flow was reached. The relationship between the calculated heat transfer coef ficients with velocity and pulp concentration was determined Due to the difficulties involved in measuring accurately the wall surface temperature to calculate h the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) was also calculated for each pulp concentration a nd flow rate in the heating section of the heat exchanger. These values were compared to those obtained for h in order to obtain a more conservative approach for future calculations involving the heat transfer coefficient. The overall heat transfer coeffi cient was calculated using equation 1 7 and solving for U : (3 3) Where was calculated using equation 2 4, and the logarithmic mean temperature difference w as calculated as follows: (3 4)

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64 Where is the inlet temperature of the heating media; is pulp inlet temperature; is the outlet temperature o f the heating media; and is pulp average outlet temperature. The outlet temperature of the heating media ( ) was measured for pulp concentrations of 600 and 700 g L 1 with a temperature sensor l ocated at exit of the heat exchanger. This te mperature was measured at selected flow rates ranging from 3.1 x 10 5 to 6.5 x 10 4 m 3 s 1 The values w ere plotted as function of flow rate and an equation obtained from linear regression analysis (R 2 =0.9935) w as used to estimate values for the rest of pulp concentrations and flow rates covered in this research Temperature Profiles Temperature profiles in the radial direction of the pipe, which is the same direction as heat flow, where determined with the temperatures measured with the set of five thermocouples located at the exit of the heat exchangers section (Figure 3 2). For each experimental run, the se temperatures were plotted as function of distance from the pipe wall. The differences between the curves obtained for the different pulp concentrations and flow rates were analyzed in terms of flow regime and heat transfer. To assess the flow regimes fo r each experiment, the Reynolds number was estimated using the friction factor, which was calculated using Bernoullis equation: (3 5) (3 6) Wh ere is the friction factor; and are the outlet and inlet pressures; is the pulp density; is the gravity acceleration; is the elevation; is the proportionalit y

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65 factor for gravitational force; is the velocity; is the pipe diameter; and is the pipe length. Pressure Drop The pressure drop for each experimental run was determined with the pressure difference between the p ressure at the inlet and the pressure at the outlet of the heat exchanger section: ( 3 7) The obtained pressure drop values were plotted as function of pulp concentration and flow rate, to determine th e type of relationship between these variables. Regression Analysis Regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between velocity and the heat transfer coefficients obtained for the different pulp concentrations, in both sec tions of the tubular heat exchanger. Results and Discussion Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficients Local heat transfer coefficients obtained in the heating section for the different pulp concentrations and flow rates ranged from 1342 to 7765 W m 2 C 1 For the cooling section, the local heat transfer coefficients ranged from 1441 to 7757 W m 2 C 1 The ranges were very similar for both sections. For the heating section, the calculated overall heat transfer coefficient values were between 1241 and 6 428 W m 2 C 1 a bit lower than the range obtained for the local heat transfer coefficients. Table 3 2 shows the local and overall heat transfer coefficients obtained in the heating section, and Table 3 3 shows the local heat transfer coefficients obtaine d in the cooling section for the different pulp concentrations and flow rates. These values were obtained for velocities

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66 between 0.3 and 1.7 m s 1 that correspond to flow rates between 1.6 and 8.5 x 10 4 m 3 s 1 (Table 3 1). For all pulp concentrations, the heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing velocities. Figures 3 7 and 3 8 show the calculated heat transfer coefficients as a function of velocity and pulp concentration, for the heating and cooling sections respectively. In the heating sect ion, similar heat transfer coefficient values were obtained for pulp concentrations of 516 and 617 g L 1 at similar velocities. For 712 g L 1 pulp, the heat transfer coefficients were lower compared to those obtained for lower pulp concentrations at simila r velocities, and were close to the values obtained for 801 g L 1 pulp at similar velocities. Figure 3 7 shows that the range of heat transfer coefficients obtained for 801 g L 1 pulp was very narrow (1342 to 2549 W m 2 C 1 ) compared to the other concentr ations. This was in part due to the fact that at this concentration, it was not possible to reach the same range of flow rates as for the other concentrations. As flow rate (velocity) affects the heat transfer coefficient, the range of h values became narr ower as the range of flow rates for a particular pulp concentration was smaller. Figure 3 8 shows that in the cooling section, a similar trend was obtained as for the heating section. However, the range of local heat transfer coefficients obtained for the 617 and 712 g L 1 concentrations was narrower compared to those obtained for these concentrations in the heating section. In addition, in contrast with the heating section, there was a pronounced difference at the higher velocities between the values obta ined for the 516 g L 1 and for 617 g L 1 concentrations. The differences obtained for different pulp concentrations will be explained further in this section. Figures A 1 and A 2 (Appendix A ) show a comparison between the local heat transfer coefficients obt ained

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67 in the heating and in the cooling section for each pulp concentration. These graphs suggest that for all pulp concentrations, the relationship between heat transfer coefficient and velocity may be described with a linear equation. Linear regression s howed that a correlation coefficient R 2 above 0.95 was obtained for all linear fits, 1 1 pulp in both sections, where R 2 was between 0.92 and 0.94. At higher pulp concentrations, it was more difficult to achieve steady flow rate s due to its higher apparent viscosity, which might explain why the relation was less linear for these concentrations ( Payne 2011 ) Tables 3 2 and 3 3 also show the slopes and intercepts obtained from the linear regression analysis. I n the heating section, the slopes obtained from the local heat transfer coefficient vs. velocity curves ( h / ) ranged between 4370 to 5615 for pulp 1 with standard error ranging from 233 to 405. For the sa me concentrations, the slopes obtained from the overall heat transfer coefficient vs. velocity curves ( U / ) were between 3410 to 5262, with an error between 1 pulp, the slopes were considerably lower than for lower concentrations. For h / and U / the slopes were 2024 300 and 1704 361 respectively. The slopes for 800 g L 1 pulp were lower because the flow rates reached for this concentration were smaller, hence obtaining a narrower range of heat transfer coefficients. In the cooling section, the slope h / 1 concentration was 7235 608 much higher compared to the slopes obtained for the higher concentrations. For 1 pulp, the slopes obtained were similar; they ranged from 1273 to 2927 with an error between 201 to 433. For these concentrations, the range of heat 1 which explains why their

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68 slopes were closer. Regarding the intercepts, we expected that these values would be close to zero. However, for some pulp concent rations, large negative or positive values 1 concentrations in the heating 1 in the cooling section. Probably at very low flow rates, the relationship between the heat tra nsfer coefficients with velocity is less linear, or it 800 g L 1 concentrations were more reasonable, probably because at this concentration very low velocities were re ached, which allow predicting better the h and U values that will be obtained when velocity is zero. In general, the local heat transfer coefficients were lower in the cooling than in the heating section for the same pulp concentrations at simila r flow rates. McCabe and others (1985) explained that for very viscous fluids, when heated, the lower viscosity near the wall makes the velocity profile more like a plug flow, with a steep gradient near the wall and a smaller gradient near the center, lead ing to higher rate of heat transfer. In the other hand, when a viscous fluid is cooled, the velocity gradient at the wall decreases, resulting in lower rate of heat transfer. The differences in the heat transfer coefficients were also due to differences in flow rate. Payne (201 1) reported that orange pulp had laminar flow at concentrations between 500 to 850 g L 1 Levati (2010) also reported laminar flow for 850 g L 1 orange pulp. As pulp concentration increased, pulp had higher apparent viscosity and beha ved more like a paste, making it impossible to achieve the same flow rates with the diaphragm pump compared to the lower concentrations, resulting in lower heat transfer coefficients. At higher velocities, the movement of the product particles inside the p ipe was higher compared t o lower

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69 velocities, which favored heat transfer from the heating media to the product and within the product. This was evidenced by the wall temperature measurements. At high flow rates, the wall temperature varied considerably aft er each experiment compared to its initial value. While for low flow rates, the wall temperature after each experiment was close to its initial measurement. This indicated that at higher velocities, the rate of heat exchange between the heating / cooling m edia and the product increased, causing higher temperature differences in the walls surface. Figures 3 7 and 3 8 show that local heat transfer coefficients were higher for pulp concentrations of 516 and 617 g L 1 compared to those obtained for 712 and 8 01 g L 1 at similar velocities. These graphs also show that for the lower pulp concentrations, at velocities above 1.5 m s 1 the heat transfer coefficients tend ed to increase faster (higher slope) compared to the other concentrations. This was particularly observed for concentrations of 516 and 617 g L 1 in the heating section, and for 516 g L 1 in the cooling section. Pulp 1 flowed like a solid block inside tubular pipes. The radial movement of particles and fluid near the wall for this concentration was 1 which was not favorabl e for heat transfer. This caused a larger temperature gradient between the pulp at the center of the pipe and the wall, affecting the rate of heat transfer for higher pulp concentrations. However, the lower flow rates that were ob tained for higher pulp concentrations play ed a major role on the differences found for the heat transfer coefficients, as explained previously. The local heat transfer coefficients obtained for low and high concentration orange pulp were higher compared to values that have been reported for other pulps and

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70 purees. Ditchfield and others (2007) reported local heat transfer coefficients of 654.8 to 1070.4 W m 2 C 1 for banana puree in a tubular heat exchanger. However, the range of velocities used in this study ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 m s 1 much lower than the velocities that we used for orange pulp (0.3 to 1.7 m s 1 ). For velocities close to 0.4 m s 1 Ditchfield and others (2007) obtained heat transfer coefficients between 800 and 1070 W m 2 C 1 For sim ilar velocities, the heat transfer coefficients obtained for HCP were between 969 and 1441 W m 2 C 1 which were close to the values obtained for banana puree. In our study, these low velocities were only obtained for orange pulp concentrations of 801 g L 1 In the same study with banana puree, the authors also found that heat transfer coefficients increased at higher flow rates, smaller L/D ratios, and higher heating medium temperatures. In addition, there was a high temperature difference between the ban ana puree that was near the pipes wall and the product located at the center, especially at lower flow rates, which was in agreement to what we found for orange pulp. For tomato pulp, Sangrame and others (2000) reported overall heat transfer coefficients of 625 to 911 W m 2 C 1 in a thin film scrapped surface evaporator, for flow rates of approximately 6.5 to 8.5 x 10 4 m 3 s 1 These values were considerably smaller compared to the overall heat transfer coefficients obtained for orange pulp at similar flo w rates. These differences were probably due to the different equipment and operating conditions used in each experiment, and due to tomato pulp higher apparent viscosity (100,000 to 250,000 cP) compared to orange pulp (33,000 to 234,000 cP for concentrati ons between 503 and 795 g L 1 ) ( Payne 2011 ) Prost and othe rs (2005) reported overall heat transfer coefficients ranging from 983 to 6500 W m 2 C 1 for sucrose solutions in a falling film evaporator. The obtained values varied with

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71 op erating conditions and with sugar concentrations. This range of overall heat transfer coefficient is close to the one obtained for orange pulp. Figure 3 9 shows the overall heat transfer coefficients obtained in the heating section for the different pul p concentrations and velocities. The range of values obtained was similar to that obtained for the local heat transfer coefficients in the heating section. The overall heat transfer coefficients were very similar for concentrations of 516, 617, and 712 g L 1 For 801 g L 1 the overall heat transfer coefficients were lower, mainly due to the lower flow rates reached at this concentration. Figures 3 10 and 3 11 show a comparison between the local and overall heat transfer coefficients obtained for each pulp concentration, as a function of velocity. These graphs show that the difference between the local and the overall heat transfer coefficients was greater for the lower concentrations, while for 712 and 801 g L 1 concentrations, both heat transfer coefficien ts were similar. For concentrations of 516 and 617 g L 1 the difference between h and U ranged from 1250 to 2240, and from 802 to 1375 W m 2 C 1 respectively. For 712 and 801 g L 1 the difference between h and U was between 184 to 463, and 59 to 278 W m 2 C 1 respectively. Since at high pulp concentratio n the laminar flow regime occurred throughout the cross section of the pipe, the predominant way of heat transfer for these concentrations was conduction. This may explain why the overall convective heat transfer coefficient bec ame very similar to the convective local heat transfer coefficient at high pulp concentrations. Laminar flow and heat transfer by conduction will be discussed in the next section of this chapter. For the local heat transfer coeffic ient calculation, it was assumed that the flow rate of the heating media was much larger than the flow rate of the product. Hence, it was assumed that the

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72 temperature variation in the heating media was negligible, and it was not considered for the calculat ion of h However, the temperature of the heating media d id change with the products flow rate. When pulp flowed at higher velocities, after reaching steady conditions, the inlet and outlet temperature of the hot water changed in relation to its initial v to 600 g L 1 flow ed at higher velocities than lower concentrations, the temper ature of the heating media dropped more for these concentrations. For example, for 516 g L 1 pulp flowing at 7.9 x 10 4 m s 1 the temperature o f the heating media decreased approximately 7 C after reaching steady state, while for 712 g L 1 pulp flowing at 3.9 x 10 4 m s 1 the temperature dropped about 1 C. This also explains why the overall heat transfer coefficient varied more for lower pulp concentrations in relation to the local heat transfer coefficient. Since for high concentration pulp the values were very similar, either the overall or the local heat transfer coefficients can be used for design and optimization of equipment and process o perations. Temperature Profiles The temperature profiles in a radial direction of the tubular pipe were obtained for every experimental condition. Figures 3 12 to 3 19 show the temperature profiles obtained for each pulp concentration in the heating and c ooling sections of the heat exchanger, at selected flow rates. All graphs show that when the pulp was heated, its temperature was maximum at the wall, and decreased towards the center. And when the pulp was cooled, the temperature was minimum at the wall a nd increased towards the center of the pipe. This was obv iously expected since heat flowed in a radial direction, from the heating media to the wall, from the wall to the product, and within the product ( McCabe and others 1985 ) For all experiments, the temperature of pulp at the

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73 center of the pipe was close to its initial temperature. Since we only used one heating or one cooling sec tion of 3.40 m each, the distance was too short to cause a higher increase in temperature in the center of the pipe at the flow rates reached in this study. In general, the temperature of pulp at the wall was close to the walls surface temperature at the lower flow rates, but as flow rates were higher, the difference between these temperatures increased. This was expected because at lower flow rates the residence time was longer, allowing the pulp temperature at the wall to become closer to that of the hea ting surface. In the heating section, for pulp concentrations of 516 and 617 g L 1 the temperature profile was linear at lower flow rates (4.4 to 5.6 x 10 4 m 3 s 1 ). At higher flow rates (6.4 to 7.9 x 10 4 m 3 s 1 ) the difference between the temperature s measured at 1, 4, and 7 mm from the pipes wall decreased, and the curve became less steep at these points, resulting in a less linear profile compared to the lower fl ow rates. As flow rate increased there was more molecular movement in the flowing prod uct, favoring heat transfer and consequently equilibrating more the temperatures measured in a radial direction ( Bhamidipati and Singh 1994 ) In the cooling section, for all pulp concentrations, the temperature profiles were also more linear for the lower than for the higher flow rates. However, a marked division was observed between the first two points that are closer to the wall (1 and 4 mm from the wall) and the rest. For all pulp concentrations and for most flow rates, the temperature between these two points was relatively close, and after the third point (7 mm from the wall), the temperature curves became steeper. This effect may be attributed to the presence of slippage at the wall that was reported by Payne (2011) for

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74 low and high concentration orange pulp in tubular pipes. When slippage at the wall is manifested, a thin layer of liquid is f ormed at the interface of the fluid and the wall, ( Barnes 1995 ) Slippage caused a mixed flow, which may have induce d changes in viscosity between both faces and thus, changes in the velocity and temperature profiles. Probably this type of temperature profile was mainly observed in the cooling sectio n because as explained by McCabe and others (1985), the velocity gradient at the wall is different for a viscous fluid that is heated than for a viscous fluid that is cooled. The temperature profiles obtained for the higher pulp concentrations (712 and 80 1 g L 1 ) in the heating section were different compared to those obtained for the lower concentrations. For higher concentrations, the temperature difference between the pulp at the wall and the pulp at the center was larger. This was due in part to the lo wer flow rates reached at these concentrations, but probably also due to the lower rate of heat transferred within more concentrated pulp. In contrast to the temperature profiles L 1 the temperature profile became less linear at lower flow rates (2.4 to 3.9 m 3 s 1 ). However, this very low range of flow rates was only obtained for these concentrations. For concentrations of 712 and 801 g L 1 the temperature curve was s teep for the points located at 1, 4, and 7 mm from the wall, and then the temperature measurements were close between the points located at 10 and 12.7 (center) mm from the wall. For these latter points, their temperatures were very similar to the pulps i nlet temperature, indicating that the rate of heat transfer was lower for higher concentrations. This means that at these concentrations, heat was mainly transmitted to the radial space located at

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75 7 mm from the wall, but from this distance to the center, t he temperature was almost the same as the initial temperature. This was not observed for the lower pulp concentrations in the heating section. This suggests that for high concentration pulp, heat was transferred mostly by conduction, and that the convectiv e heat transfer to the liquid layer at the surface of the pipe was small. The Reynolds number was estimated for each condition that was carried out in this study, to assess the type of flow regime that was obtained in each case. All the estimated Reynolds numbers were between 3 and 90 indicating laminar flow for all pulp concentrations. This confirmed what was found by Levati (2010) and Payne (2 011), who reported laminar flow for low and high concentration orange pulp. In laminar flow, heat transfer occur s by conduction. In general, most temperature profiles obtained in this study were linear, which is in agreement with laminar flow. As discussed, the temperature profiles became less linear for the highest flow rates at the lower concentrations, or for ver y low flow rates at the higher concentrations. For the lower concentrations, even though the flows were predominantly laminar, there may be a certain degree of turbulence that allowed reaching higher flow rates and increased the rate of heat transfer. The higher flow rates reached at the lower concentrations cause d more movement of particles when the product flow ed inside the pipe. This explains why the heat transfer coefficients were higher at these conditions, and this may explain why the temperature prof iles were less linear. McCabe and others (1985) explained that flow is truly laminar only in conditions were temperature changes and viscosity gradients are small. But variations in viscosity across the tube distort the velocity distribution profile of lam inar flow. When a fluid is heated, the layer near the wall has a lower viscosity than

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76 the layers near the center, causing an increase in the velocity gradient at the wall. In ral convection to set in, distorting the flow lines of the fluid. Regarding the less linear temperature profiles obtained for very low flow rates at high pulp concentrations, McCabe and others (1985) stated that in laminar flow at low velocities and at lar ge temperature drops, natural convection may occur to a very high extent. The effects of natural convection in tubes is found almost entirely in laminar flow, since at very low nvection. The different factors discussed: Slippage, probable natural convection, density and viscosity gradients, may have contributed to obtain distorted temperature profiles for some of the conditions carried out in this research. Figure 3 20 shows the hypothesized mixed flow of HCP, where heat was probably transferred by convection at the liquid layer at the Pressure Drop Determinations The pressure drops that resulted from pumping orange pulp with concentrations of 500 to 800 g L 1 in the heating and cooling sections of a tubular heat exchanger were plotted as funct ion of flow rate in Figures 3 21 and 3 22 The pressure drop increased with higher flow rates for all pu lp concentrations. As shown in the graphs, the pressure drop was higher for lower pulp concentrations. In the heating section, the pressure drop ranged from 147 to 157 kPa for 516 g L 1 from 159 to 175 kPa for 617 g L 1 from 184 to 207 kPa for 712 g L 1 and from 159 to 169 kPa for 801g L 1 For this last concentration, the pressure drop values were not as high as expected due to the lower flow rates that were reached for this concentration. The same occurred for the cooling section, were

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77 the pressure dro ps were between 168 to 189 kPa for 516 g L 1 196 to 220 kPa for 617 g L 1 217 to 253 kPa for 712 g L 1 and 170 to 210 kPa for 801 g L 1 Figures B 1 and B 2 (Appendix B ) show that for all pulp concentrations the pressure drop was considerably higher in t he cooling section than in the heating section. It was expected that pressure drop would be higher in the cooling section, for higher pulp concentrations, and at higher flow rates. At higher temper atures and lower concentrations the apparent viscosity of t he liquid phase probably decreased; this facilitated the movement of particles, generating less pressure while flowing. At higher flow rates, there was more interaction of particles within the fluid, generating more friction, and thus, more resistance to f low. Consequently, the pressure drop was higher with increasing flow rates ( Singh and Heldman 2009 ) Comparing to the pressure drops per unit of pipe length ( P/L ) obtained by Payne (2011) for orange pulp concentrations between 529 and 870 g L 1 flowing in t he same tubular heat exchanger, t he values obtained in our study were higher but i n the same order of magnitude In the cooling section of the heat exchanger, Payne (2011) o btained experimental P/L ranging between 3 7. 9 and 5 6. 3 kPa m 1 while in the heating section, the values obtained were between 8 5 and 5 0. 5 kPa m 1 We o btained P/L values r anging b etween 4 9. 4 a nd 7 4. 4 kPa m 1 in the cooling section and between 4 3. 2 a nd 6 0. 9 kPa m 1 in the heating section. The higher pressure drops per length unit obtained i n our study c an be attributed to the fact that in Payne s experiments pulp flowed through the heat exchanger at constant temperature while we heated or cooled the pulp. Since changes in apparent viscosity with temperature are exponential, it i s reasonable that the difference s i n P/L w ere larger in the heating than in the cooling

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78 section. In addition, the v ariability between orange pulp used in each study ( e.g. source, d ifferen t extraction and finishing processes ) probably also contributed t o the differences found between t hese studies. The pressure drops obtained in our study were higher compared to values reported for other viscous fluids such as fruit purees. For apricot, apple, nectarine, and strawberry purees, pressure drops of approximately 55 to 120, 35 to 180, 10 to 50, and 10 to 45 kPa were reported respective ly ( Yeow and others 2002 ) The correspondent range of flow rates for these pressure drops was from 2.8 x 10 5 to 1.6 x 10 3 m 3 s 1 The flow rates used for orange pulp in our study fell in the range of flow rates reported by Yeow and othe rs (2002). In this study, a pipe with 0.025 m diameter and 7 m length was used, which doubled the length used in the experiments with HCP. The authors did not report the apparent viscosity of the purees; probably these value s were greater for orange pulp, which may be the main cause for the pressure drop differences found. For 850 g L 1 orange pulp, Levati (2010) reported pressure drops between 375 to 500 kPa at flow rates from 1.4 to 1.8 x 10 3 m 3 s 1 in a tubular pipe with 0.025 m diameter, at 50 C. These values were higher compared to the values that we obtained for pulp concentrations between 712 and 801 g L 1 in the heating section (163 to 207 kPa). However, the flow rates reported by Levati were much higher than the one s reached in this study for HCP. The pressure drops obtained in this research can be used in combination with heat transfer data obtained, for modeling and optimization of heat transfer operations for HCP. Conclusions For orange pulp concentrations of app roximately 500, 600, 700 and 800 g L 1 flowing in the heating and cooling sections of a tubular heat exchanger, the heat

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79 transfer coefficients varied linearly with velocity. As velocity increased, higher heat transfer coefficients were obtained. The local heat transfer coefficients were higher for lower pulp concentrations, mainly due to the higher velocities that were reached at these concentrations, which favor ed heat transfer. Orange pulp with concentrations close to 800 g L 1 flowed like a solid block i n tubular pipes. This caused that the flow rates reached for this concentration were very low, hence reducing the rate of heat transfer within the fluid. The overall heat transfer coefficients obtained in the heating section for the different pulp concentr ations at different velocities, did not vary considerably compared to the local heat transfer coefficients. The values of h and U 1 At these concentrations, heat was transferred mostly by conduction, which explained why the local and overall convective heat transfer coefficients were very similar. The temperature profiles and es timated Reynolds numbers indicated that orange pulp with concentrations f rom 500 to 800 g L 1 flowed under laminar regime. These curves also indicated the presence of slippage at the wall surface, which distorts the temperature profiles at the distances lo cated near the wall. The pressure drop measured in the heat exchanger increased at higher flow rates, and was higher for more concentrated pulp. Also, higher pressure drops were found in the cooling section of the heat exchanger. Significance of this Rese arch In this research, the thermal properties, heat transfer coefficients, and heat transfer characteristics of HCP in tubular heat exchangers were determined. This information had not been previously published. This data can be used to evaluate process op erations which involve heat transfer, to design and optimize equipment dimensions and characteristics for thermal processing of HCP, and to obtain HCP heat

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80 transfer characteristics with different equipment and processing conditions. For example, the specif ic heat of HCP can be used to obtain energy balances using the conventional definition of heat flow (equation 2 4). We can determine the energy required to heat HCP from an initial temperature to a desired final temperature at a given mass flow rate. With this energy requirement, it is possible to determine the required mass flow rate and temperature of the heating or cooling media in the equipment under evaluation. The specific heat capacity can also be used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients for other types of heat exchangers, or other process conditions. The thermal conductivity is useful to calculate the rate of conductive heat transfer along the radial direction of a tubular pipe. Since in HCP heat is mostly transferred by conduction, the therm al conductivity plays a major role for designing and optimizing thermal processes and equipment for this fluid, e.g. to calculate the required heat transfer area to heat HCP from T i to T f in a tubular pipe. The results from this study showed that for H CP, turbulent flow was not possible to achieve under the conditions carried out in these experiments. The relatively low heat transfer coefficients obtained for highly concentrated pulp, the high temperature gradients within the product, and the high press ure drops, indicated that the heat exchanger dimensions and pump characteristics used in this research were not suitable for pasteurizing HCP. The heat transfer coefficients obtained for HCP can be used to determine the required equipment dimensions and ch aracteristics to pasteurize this fluid. Applying the same equations used in this research, the minimum pipe length and diameter that will allow reaching pasteurization temperatures for HCP flowing in a tubular pipe can be calculated. Nonetheless, the requi red dimensions might not be

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81 applicable from a practical and commercial standpoint. The obtained temperature profiles suggested that we would probably need a very long pipe to reach the desired temperature in the pulp located at the center of the pipe. In a ddition, a very high power pump would probably be required to overcome the pressure drop built inside the pipe, and induce turbulent flow to enhance heat transfer. Therefore, tubular heat exchangers are probably not the most suitable equipment to pasteuriz e highly concentrated pulp. T he heat transfer coefficients and thermal properties obtained in this research can still be used for design and optimization purposes, especially for optimizing equipment to handle orange pulp with lower concentrations (< 700 g L 1 ). Overall Conclusions The thermal properties of orange pulp with concentrations of approximately 500, 600, 700, and 800 g L 1 were determined in this research. The specific heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity, were not signi ficantly different (p > 0.05) among pulp concentrations. Orange pulp specific heat capacity was significantly different (p < 0.05) compared to water, while the thermal conductivity was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from to the values reported for water. The local and overall heat transfer coefficients of low and high concentration orange pulp, increased linearly with fluid velocity, and decreased with pulp concentration. Heat transfer coefficients were lower for highly concentrated pulp due to its radial temperature profiles suggested that HCP flowing in tubular pipes presented slippage at the wall, flowed under laminar regime, and that heat in this fluid was mainly t ransferred by conduction. The estimated Reynolds numbers confirmed laminar flow for all pulp concentrations. Pressure drop for HCP flowing in a tubular heat exchanger

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82 increased with flow rate and with pulp concentration. Pressure drop was higher in the coo ling than in the heating section of the heat exchanger, for same pulp concentrations and similar flow rates. The process conditions and equipment used in this research did not allow reaching turbulence for HCP. In order to induce turbulent flow and enhan ce heat transfer, high power pumps and larger equipment dimensions would probably be required. Hence, scrap ed surface heat exchangers can be an alternative to tubular pasteurizers, for producing highly concentrated pulp aseptically. Future Work In this study, we did not cover the higher rang e of orange pulp concentrations: f rom 850 to 1000 g L 1 because it was not possible to pump pulp concentrations above 800 g L 1 with the diaphragm pump used in these experim ents. Another type of pump such as a progr essive cavity pump, would allow determining the heat transfer coefficients and temperature profiles for this higher range of concentrations, which would be valuable information for citrus processors and equipment designers. For future studies involving hea t transfer in tubular heat exchangers, it would be useful to measure the inlet and outlet temperature of the heating or cooling media in order to calculate accurately the overall heat transfer coefficients in both sections. this study will allow calculating the required equipment dimensions and process conditions for pasteurizing HCP in tubular pipes. However, it is possible that these requirements might not be applicable from a commercial and practical standpoint. Therefore, it would be useful to combine the pressure drop, heat transfer data, and thermal properties obtained in this research, to determine the equipment requirements,

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83 utility consumption, potential capacities in order to minimize pressure drop and maximize heat transfer. This information may lead to conduct further experiments with other types of heat exchangers, or to experiment with different pipe dimensions, in order to find the optimal equipment to produc e HCP aseptically.

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84 Figures and Tables Figure 3 1. Schematic representation of equipment setup for determination of temperature profiles and heat transfer coefficients of high concentration orange pulp. Figu re 3 2. Schematic representation of set of thermocouples inserted at different radial directions of the inner pipe (at 12.7, 10.0, 7.0, 4.0, and 1.0 mm from the pipe wall), and thermocouple attached to the pipes surface to measure the wall temperature.

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85 Figure 3 3. Set of thermocouples inserted at different radial directions at the pipes exit. Photo courtesy of author. Figure 3 4. Schematic representation of the temperature profile when orange pulp flows in the heating section of a tubular heat exchang er.

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86 Figure 3 5. Data acquisition board used to record data. Photo courtesy of author. Figure 3 6. Equipment setup. Photo courtesy of author.

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87 Table 3 1. Experimental flow rates and velocities used for determining the heat transfer coefficients for di fferent pulp concentrations. Pulp concentration g L 1 Heating Section Cooling Section Flow Rate x 10 4 m 3 s 1 Velocity m s 1 Flow Rate x 10 4 m 3 s 1 Velocity m s 1 516 6 1 4.4 0.9 4.4 0.9 5.3 1.0 5.4 1.1 6.4 1.3 5.9 1.2 7.2 1.4 6.3 1.2 7.9 1.6 7.5 1.5 8.3 1.6 7.8 1.5 617 7 4.2 0.8 3.8 0.7 4.5 0.9 3.9 0.8 4.9 1.0 4.4 0.9 5.6 1.1 5.3 1.0 6.4 1.3 5.6 1.1 7.0 1.4 6.9 1.4 7.6 1.5 7.3 1.4 712 12 3.9 0.8 2.7 0.5 4.4 0.9 3.1 0.6 5.9 1.2 3.7 0.7 7.4 1.5 6.0 1.2 8.5 1.7 6.3 1. 2 6.7 1.3 801 13 2.1 0.4 1.6 0.3 2.4 0.5 2.1 0.4 3.5 0.7 2.9 0.6 4.1 0.8 3.6 0.7 4.8 0.9 4.8 1.0 5.1 1.0 1 The errors shown for pulp concentration are the correspondent standard deviations.

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88 Table 3 2. Calculated local and overall h eat transfer coefficients for different pulp concentrations and velocities, in the heating section of a tubular heat exchanger. Data obtained from regression analysis is also shown. Pulp concentration g L 1 Velocity ( ) m s 1 Local heat transfe r coefficient ( h ) W m 2 C 1 Overall heat transfer coefficient ( U ) W m 2 C 1 Slope h / Intercept h / R 2 Slope U / Intercept U / R 2 516 6 1 0.9 4044 2788 Slope 4370 331 Interc. 354 440 R 2 0.98 Slope 3410 151 Interc. 157 200 R 2 0.99 1.0 5162 3417 1.3 5849 4190 1.4 6414 4718 1.6 6978 5022 1.6 7765 5525 617 7 0.8 3285 2483 Slope 5615 405 Interc. 1092 468 R 2 0.97 Slope 4582 393 Interc. 1134 455 R 2 0.96 0.9 38 69 3130 1.0 4619 3447 1.1 5447 3889 1.3 5739 4548 1.4 6486 4845 1.5 7401 6027 712 12 0.8 1670 1486 Slope 4693 233 Interc. 1725 287 R 2 0.99 Slope 5262 172 Interc. 2477 212 R 2 0.99 0.9 2434 2214 1.2 3922 3642 1.5 5160 4993 1.7 5964 6428 801 13 0.4 1342 1241 Slope 2024 300 Interc. 469 226 R 2 0.92 Slope 1704 361 Intercept 514 272 R 2 0.85 0.5 1468 1408 0.7 1587 1360 0.8 2252 2059 0.9 2348 2070 1.0 2549 2301 1 The errors shown for pulp concentration are the correspondent standard deviations.

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89 Table 3 3. Calculated local heat transfer coefficients for different pulp concentrations and velocities, in the cooling section of a tubular heat exchanger. Data obtained from regression analysis is also shown. Pulp concentration g L 1 Velocity ( ) m s 1 Local heat transfer coefficient ( h ) W m 2 C 1 Slope h / Intercept h / R 2 516 6 1 0.9 2620 Slope 7235 608 Interc 3826 758 R 2 0.97 1.1 3979 1.2 4273 1.2 5105 1.5 6518 1.5 7757 617 7 0.7 3158 Slope 1981 201 Interc. 1817 217 R 2 0.95 0.8 3399 0.9 3731 1.0 3745 1.1 3982 1.4 4576 1.4 4631 712 12 0.5 2384 Slope 1273 255 Inte rc. 1875 258 R 2 0.93 0.6 2220 0.7 2807 1.2 3508 1.2 3389 1.3 3894 801 13 0.3 960 Slope 2927 433 Interc. 216 273 R 2 0.94 0.4 1441 0.6 1986 0.7 2528 1.0 2808 1 The errors shown for pulp concentration are the correspondent standard deviations.

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90 Figure 3 7. Local heat transfer coefficients as function of velocity in the heating section of heat exchanger, for pulp concentrations of 516 ( ), 617 ( ), 712 ( ), and 801 ( ) g L 1 Figure 3 8. Local heat transfer coefficients as function of velocity in the cooling section of heat exchanger, for pulp concentrations of 516 ( ), 617 ( ), 712 ( ), and 801 ( ) g L 1

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91 Figure 3 9. Overall hea t transfer coefficients as function of velocity in the heating section of heat exchanger, for pulp concentrations of 516 ( ), 617 ( ), 712 ( ), and 801 ( ) g L 1

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92 a) b) Figure 3 10. Local ( ) and overall ( ) heat transfer coefficients as function o f velocity in the heating section of heat exchanger, for pulp concentrations of a) 516, and b) 617 g L 1

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93 a) b) Figure 3 11. Local ( ) and overall ( ) heat transfer coefficients as function of velocity in the heating section of heat exchanger, for pu lp concentrations of a) 712, and b) 801 g L 1

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94 Figure 3 12. Temperature profiles obtained for 516 6 g L 1 orange pulp concentration in the heating section of a tubular heat exchanger at flow rates of 4.4 ( ), 5.3 ( ), 6.4 ( ), and 7.9 ( ) x 10 4 m 3 s 1 Figure 3 13. Temperature profiles obtained for 516 6 g L 1 orange pulp concentration in the cooling section of a tubular heat exchanger at flow rates of 4.4 ( ), 5.4 ( ), 6.3 ( ), and 7.5 ( ) x 10 4 m 3 s 1

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95 Figure 3 14. Temperature profiles obta ined for 617 7 g L 1 orange pulp concentration in the heating section of a tubular heat exchanger at flow rates of 4.5 ( ), 5.6 ( ), 6.4 ( ), and 7.6 ( ) x 10 4 m 3 s 1 Figure 3 15. Temperature profiles obtained for 617 7 g L 1 orange pulp concentr ation in the cooling section of a tubular heat exchanger at flow rates of 3.8 ( ), 4.4 ( ), 5.3 ( ), and 6.9 ( ) x 10 4 m 3 s 1

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96 Figure 3 16. Temperature profiles obtained for 712 12 g L 1 orange pulp concentration in the heating section of a tubular h eat exchanger at flow rates of 3.9 ( ), 4.4 ( ), 5.9 ( ), and 7.4 ( ) x 10 4 m 3 s 1 Figure 3 17. Temperature profiles obtained for 712 12 g L 1 orange pulp concentration in the cooling section of a tubular heat exchanger at flow rates of 2.7 ( ), 3.7 ( ), 6.0 ( ), and 6.7 ( ) x 10 4 m 3 s 1

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97 Figure 3 18. Temperature profiles obtained for 801 13 g L 1 orange pulp concentration in the heating section of a tubular heat exchanger at flow rates of 2.4 ( ), 3.5 ( ), 4.1 ( ), and 5.1 ( ) x 10 4 m 3 s 1 Figure 3 19. Temperature profiles obtained for 801 13 g L 1 orange pulp concentration in the cooling section of a tubular heat exchanger at flow rates of 2.1 ( ), 2.9 ( ), 3.6 ( ), and 4.8 ( ) x 10 4 m 3 s 1

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98 Figure 3 20. Hypothesized mixed flow of HCP. A thin layer of liquid (slippage) was formed close to the pipe surface, where heat was transferred by convection. While a thick plug of pulp flowed under laminar regime and heat was transferred mostly by conduction. Figure 3 21 Pressure drop as function of flow rate in the heating section of heat exchanger, for pulp concentrations of 516 ( ), 617 ( ), 712 ( ), and 801 ( ) g L 1

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99 Figure 3 22 Pressure drop as function of flow rate in the cooling section of heat exchanger, for pulp concentrations of 516 ( ), 617 ( ), 712 ( ), and 801 ( ) g L 1

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100 APPENDIX A COMPARISON BETWEEN T HE HEAT TR ANSFER COEFFICIENTS OBTAINED IN THE HEATING AND COOL ING SECTIONS OF THE HEAT EXCHANGER a) b) Figure A 1. Heat transfer coefficients as a function of velocity in the heating ( ) and cooling ( ) sections of heat exchanger for : a) 516 and b) 617 g L 1 orange pulp concentration.

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101 a ) b) Figure A 2. Heat transfer coefficients as a function of velocity in the heating ( ) and cooling ( ) sections of heat exchanger for : a) 712 and b) 801 g L 1 orange pulp concentration.

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102 APPENDIX B COMPARISON BETWEEN T HE PRESSURE DROPS OBTAI NED IN THE HEATING AND COOLING SECTIONS OF THE HEAT EXCHANGE R a) b) Figure B 1 Pressure drop as a function of flow rate for a) 516, and b) 617 g L 1 pulp concentrations, in the heating ( ) and cooling ( ) sections of a tubular heat exchanger.

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103 a) b) Figure B 2 Pressure drop as a function of flow rate for a) 712, and b) 801 g L 1 pulp concentrations, in the heating ( ) and cooling ( ) sections of a tubular heat exchanger.

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104 LIST OF REFERENCES Agocs A, Nagy V, Szabo Z, M ark L, Ohmacht R & Deli J. 2007. Comparative study on the carotenoid composition of the peel and the pulp of different citrus species. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 8(3):390 394. Barnes HA. 1995. A review of the slip (wall depletion) of p olymer solutions, emulsions and particle suspensions in viscometers its cause, character, and cure. Journal of Non Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 56:221 251. Basak S & Ramaswamy HS. 1996. Ultra high pressure treatment of orange juice: a kinetic study on inact ivation of pectin methyl esterase. Food Research International 29(7):601 607. Berlinet C, Guichard E, Fournier N & Ducruet V. 2007. Effect of pulp reduction and pasteurization on the release of aroma compounds in industrial orange juice. J Food Sci 72(8):S 535 S543. Bhamidipati S & Singh RK. 1994. Thermal time distributions in tubular heat exchangers during aseptic processing of fluid foods. Biotechnology Progress 10(2):230 236. Bon J, Vquiro H, Benedito J & Telis Romero J. 2010. Thermophysical properties o f mango pulp (Mangifera indica L. cv. Tommy Atkins). Journal of Food Engineering 97(4):563 568. Braddock RJ. 1999. Handbook of citrus by products and processing technology. John Wiley. Brat P. 2003. Distribution of Volatile Compounds in the Pulp, Cloud, an d Serum of Freshly Squeezed Orange Juice J Agr Food Chem 51:3442 3447. Cabral RAF, Gut JAW, Telis VRN & Telis Romero J. 2010. Non Newtonian flow and pressure drop of pineapple juice in a plate heat exchanger. Braz. J. Chem. Eng. 27(4):563 571. Ditchfield C Tadini CC, Singh RK & Toledo RT. 2006. Velocity and temperature profiles, heat transfer coefficients and residence time distribution of a temperature dependent Herschel Bulkley fluid in a tubular heat exchanger. Journal of Food Engineering 76(4):632 638. Ditchfield C, Tadini CC, Singh RK & Toledo RT. 2007. Heat transfer during thermal processing of a temperature dependent non Newtonian fluid in a tubular heat exchanger. Chemical Engineering and Processing 46(5):472 476.

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105 Gabs AL, Telis VRN, Tadini CC & T elis Romero J. 2003. Effect of time dependant rheological behavior on the laminar flow of frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) in a circular pipe at subzero temperatures. 2nd Mercosur Congress on Chemical Engineering. 4th Mercosur Congress on Process Sy stems Engineering Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. p. 1 10. Gil Izquierdo A, Gil M & Ferreres F. 2002. Effect of Processing Techniques at Industrial Scale on Orange Juice Antioxidant and Beneficial Health Compounds. J Agr Food Chem 50:5107 5114. Goldstein RJ, Ecke rt ERG, Ibele WE, Patankar SV, Simon TW, Kuehn TH, Strykowski PJ, Tamma KK, Bar Cohen A, Heberlein JVR, Davidson JH, Bischof J, Kulacki FA, Kortshagen U, Garrick S & Srinivasan V. 2005. Heat transfer -a review of 2002 literature. International Journal of H eat and Mass Transfer 48(5):819 927. Grato ACA, Silveira JV & Telis Romero J. 2006. Laminar forced convection to a pseudoplastic fluid food in circular and annular ducts. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 33(4):451 457. Harnanan SW, T ejinder S & Bains GS. 2001. Effect of processing, preservation and storage on rheology of guava pulp. Journal of Texture Studies 32(4):271 284. Hwang MP & Hayakawa K I. 1979. A Specific Heat Calorimeter for Foods. J Food Sci 44(2):435 448. Icier F & Ilical i C. 2005. Temperature dependent electrical conductivities of fruit purees during ohmic heating. Food Research International 38(10):1135 1142. Kim HB, Tadini CC & Singh RK. 1999. Heat transfer in a plate exchanger during pasteurization of orange juice. Jou rnal of Food Engineering 42(2):79 84. Kimball DA. 1991. Citrus Processing Quality Control and Technology. New York. Larrea M. 2005. Effect of some operational extrusion parameters on the constituents of orange pulp. Food Chemistry 89(2):301 308. Larrea M, Chang Y & Martinezbustos F. 2005. Some functional properties of extruded orange pulp and its effect on the quality of cookies. LWT Food Science and Technology 38(3):213 220. Lashkajani H, inventor. 1999 Oct 12, 1999. Method for producing a clouding agent using citrus pulp. United States patent 5,965,177. Levati M. 2010. Rheological Behavior of Citrus Pulp and its Application to Aseptic Processing. JBT FoodTech Parma, Italy. p. 32 46. Lozano JE. 2005. Food Engineering. In: Barbosa Cnovas, G., editor). En ciclopedia of Life Support Systems Paris: EOLSS Publishers/UNESCO 2005. p. 45 64.

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106 Martnez J & Carmona F. 1980. Composition of Citrus Pulp. Animal Feed Science and Technology 5(1):1 10. McCabe WL, Smith JC & Harriot P. 1985. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering Fourth Edition ed. Singapore: McGraw Hill International Book Co. Mercali GD, Sarkis JR, Jaeschke DP, Tessaro IC & Marczak LDF. 2011. Physical properties of acerola and blueberry pulps. Journal of Food Engineering 106(4):283 289. Nienaber U & Shellhammer TH. 2001. High Pressure Processing of Orange Juice: Combination Treatments and a Shelf Life Study. J Food Sci 66(2):332 336. Nikdel S, Chen CS, Parish ME, MacKellar DG & Friedrich LM. 1993. Pasteurization of citrus juice with microwave energy in a continuous flow unit. J Agr Food Chem 41(11):2116 2119. Passy N & Mannheim H. 1983. The Dehydration, Shlef Life and Potential Uses of Citrus Pulps. Journal of Food Engineering 2:19 34. Pa yne E. 2011. Rheological Properties of High and Low Density Orange Pulp. Lake Alfred: University of Florida. Prost JS, Gonzlez MT & Urbicain MJ. 2006. Determination and correlation of heat transfer coefficients in a falling film evaporator. Journal of Foo d Engineering 73(4):320 326. Rahman S. 2007. Food Preservation Aspects of Ohmic Heating. In: Rahman, S., editor). Handbook of Food Preservation Second ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. Taylor and Francis Group. p. 742 748. Rega B, Fournier N, Nicklaus S & Guichard E. 2004. Role of pulp in flavor release and sensory perception in orange juice. J Agr Food Chem 52(13):4204 4212. Sangrame G, Bhagavathi D, Thakare H, Ali S & Das H. 2000. Performance evaluation of a thin film scraped surface evaporator for conc entration of tomato pulp. Journal of Food Engineering 43(4):205 211. Singh P & Heldman D. 2009. Introduction to Food Engineering Fourth ed. Burlington, MA. USA: Elsevier Inc. Souza D, Marczak LDF & Tessaro IC. 2008. Estudo das Propriedades Fsicas de Polpa s e Nctares de Pequenos Frutos. Porto Alegre: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. p. 168 170.

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107 Tavares DT, Alcantara MR, Tadini CC & Telis Romero J. 2007. Rheological Properties of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice (FCOJ) as a Function of Concentrat ion and Subzero Temperatures. International Journal of Food Properties 10(4):829 839. Telis Romero J, Telis VRN & Yamashita F. 1999. Friction factors and rheological properties of orange juice. Journal of Food Engineering 40(1 2):101 106. Tripodo M. 2004. Citrus waste recovery: a new environmentally friendly procedure to obtain animal feed. Bioresource Technology 91(2):111 115. USDA. 2011. Citrus Fruits 2011 Summary. Chicago. Yeom HW, Streaker CB, Zhang QH & Min DB. 2000. Effects of pulsed electric fields o n the quality of orange juice and comparison with heat pasteurization. J Agr Food Chem 48(10):4597 4605. Yeow YL, Perona P & Leong YK. 2002. A Reliable Method of Extracting the Rheological Properties of Fruit Purees from Flow Loop Data. J Food Sci 67(4):14 07 1411.

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108 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Juan Fernando Muoz was born in Quito, Ecuador. In 2003 he obtained a Food Engineering degree in Universidad San Francisco de Quito. From 2003 to 2010, he worked in the food industry, mainly in the R&D field developing vege table fats and oils for industrial applications and food products for mass consumption. In 2010, J.F. Muoz began his graduate studies at Uni versity of Florida to pursue a m asters degree in Food Science and Human Nutrition. He is expected to complete his studies in August 2012, and intends to return to the industry to work in what he feels more passionate about: Research and development.