Give the People What They Won't Say They Want

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Title:
Give the People What They Won't Say They Want The Challenge of Interactive News for a Public Caught in an Online Identity Crisis
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1 online resource (98 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Mallicoat, Megan E
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University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.A.M.C.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Mass Communication, Journalism and Communications
Committee Chair:
Zerba, Amy
Committee Members:
Rodgers, Ronald
Carlson, David E

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Subjects / Keywords:
facebook -- media -- news -- online -- self-presentation -- social
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
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Abstract:
This study examines the effect of publicness, or the feeling of public exposure, on how people interact with online news. As people increasingly move toward online news, news organizations are working to make their online presences more engaging. Interactivity, often achieved through social media integration,is one of the more popular methods on the market today. However, little scholarly research exists regarding consumers’ opinions of and expectations for interactive news. The present study is among the first of its kind to explore interactive news and social media integration. According to self-presentation theory, people care about the opinions others form about them, and so adjust their behavior accordingly. Those behavioral adjustments can often be classified as one of five self-presentation strategies: ingratiation, competence, intimidation, exemplification and supplication. Previous studies applied these self-presentation strategies to face-to-face communication, as well as communication through personal websites and blogs. They found the strategies of ingratiation and competence are used most often, and the remaining three strategies are used infrequently. In this exploratory experimental study, participants were assigned to one of three login conditions. The conditions were used to give participants varying feelings of publicness as they completed the experiment. Participants were asked to read 10 articles from a news website and write comments on five articles of their choosing. The findings show participants’ personal interests could significantly predict news stories selected. They also show attempts at self-presentation in comments most frequently utilized the strategies of ingratiation and competence, but intimidation was present as well.
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Megan E Mallicoat.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local:
Adviser: Zerba, Amy.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2014-08-31

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lcc - LD1780 2012
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UFE0044716:00001


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1 THE CHALLENGE OF INTERACTIVE NEWS FOR A PUBLIC CAUGHT IN AN ONLINE IDENTITY CRISIS By MEGAN ELIZABETH MALLICOAT A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Megan Elizabeth Mallicoat

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3 To my mom who taught me to be a lifelong learner, and who promised me 20 y ears ago that I would one day have to write a research paper

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my adviser and committee chair, Dr. Amy Zerba I first met her many years ago when she was a grad student and I was an undergrad in her Graphics of J ournalism class She has been a wonderful mentor to me throughout this process. For everything from a fantastic crash course in SPSS to in depth explanations of academic research (and so many things in between), I thank her. Many thanks also to Dr. Ron Rod gers and Professor Dave Carlson. This project is much stronger for their expertise. I would also like to thank Dr. Moon Lee. It was in her Mass Communication Theory class that I conceived the idea for this project. Her thoughtful insight and rigorous editi ng of my first draft helped me discover a love of research. Thanks go to the professors who let me recruit their students as participants: Dr. John Abbitt, Dr. Linda Clarke (and her teaching assistant Daniel Bonilla) and Dr. Dan Dickrell. Thanks also to the student organizations who assisted with my pilot study: Travis Garrison and the Fine Arts College Council; Dayme Sanchez and Pi Sigma Alpha; Mike Treiser and Delta Sigma Pi; and Arielle Zazik and Theta Tau. Finally, I would especially like to t hank my family. Thanks to my brother Josh for pilot testing my experiment. Thanks to my brother Jon for helping me troubleshoot some code. Thank you to my mom and dad Kathy and Dave Gales for instilling in me a love of education and encouraging me along the way. Their genuine interest means a great deal to me. Thanks to my daughter, Kailyn, who was born in the middle of this project. Th o se nights are now etched family folklore. One day I will tell her how we I hope it inspires her to love education and the process of learning. And most of all, thank you to my wonderful husband and best

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5 friend Shyra, for believing in me when I had doubts and for cheering me on when I wanted to quit. These may sound like stereotypical reasons, but they are oh so true. Thanks to him also for washing too many dishes, doing too many loads of laundry, and enduring too many bologna sandwich sup pers.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 11 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 14 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 18 The Internet as a Public Arena ................................ ................................ ............... 21 Interacting with the News ................................ ................................ ........................ 24 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 27 Independent Variables ................................ ................................ ............................ 33 Public Id entity ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 33 Personal Interests ................................ ................................ ............................ 33 Login Conditions ................................ ................................ ............................... 33 Facebook Use ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 34 Social Media Integration Opinions ................................ ................................ .... 34 Dependent Variables ................................ ................................ .............................. 35 Self Presentation ................................ ................................ .............................. 35 News Topic Selection ................................ ................................ ....................... 36 Media Use ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 36 4 RESU LTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 37 Self Presentation Strategies Present in Comments ................................ ................ 39 Ingratiation ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 40 Competence ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 41 Intimidation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 42 Exemplification and Supplication ................................ ................................ ...... 43 Social Media Integration Preferences and News Media Use ................................ .. 44 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 50 Major Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 50

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7 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 57 6 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 60 APPENDIX A EMAIL INVITE ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 62 B SCREENSHOTS OF PRE SCREENING SURVEY ................................ ................ 63 C NEWS WEBSITES INSTRUCTIONS PAGE ................................ ........................... 65 D NEWS WEBS ITES COMMENTING MODULES ................................ ..................... 66 E DESIGN OF NEWS WEBSITES ................................ ................................ ............. 69 F ORIGINAL SOURCE OF ASSOCIATED PRESS NEWS ARTICLES ..................... 71 Business ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 71 Entertainment ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 73 Politics ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 75 Science & Technology ................................ ................................ ............................ 77 Sports ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 79 G EXAMPLE OF HEADLINE SHEET ................................ ................................ ......... 82 H SCREENSHOTS OF POST TEST ................................ ................................ .......... 83 I DEBRIEFING FORM ................................ ................................ .............................. 93 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 94 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 98

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Presentational Strategies Classif ied By Attribution Sought (Jones, 1990) ................................ ................................ ......................... 20 4 1 Articles with Comments According to Login Condition ................................ ....... 46 4 2 Regression Analysis fo r Social Media Integration Preferences for Digital Media Use ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 47 4 3 Regression Analysis for Social Media Integration Preferences for Traditional Media Use ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 48 4 4 Regression Analysis for Predictor Variables for News Article Selection ............. 49

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page B 1 First screen of pre screening survey. ................................ ................................ 63 B 2 Second screen of pre screening survey. ................................ ............................ 64 B 3 Third screen of pre screening survey. ................................ ................................ 64 C 1 Example of the instructions page found on each news website. ........................ 65 D 1 Commenting module for the No Login condition. ................................ ................ 66 D 2 Commenting module for the News Organization Login condition. ...................... 67 D 3 Commenting module for the Social Media Lo gin condition. ................................ 68 E 1 News website home page. ................................ ................................ ................. 69 E 2 Example of an article on the news websites. ................................ ...................... 70 G 1 An example of a filled out headline sheet. ................................ .......................... 82 H 1 First screen of post test. ................................ ................................ ..................... 83 H 2 Seco nd screen of post test. ................................ ................................ ................ 83 H 3 Third screen of post test. ................................ ................................ .................... 84 H 4 Fourth screen of post test. ................................ ................................ .................. 84 H 5 Fifth screen of post test. ................................ ................................ ..................... 85 H 6 Sixth screen of post test. ................................ ................................ .................... 85 H 7 Seventh screen of post t est. ................................ ................................ ............... 86 H 8 Eighth screen of post test. ................................ ................................ .................. 87 H 9 Ninth screen of post test. ................................ ................................ .................... 87 H 10 Tenth screen of post test. ................................ ................................ ................... 88 H 11 Eleventh screen of post test. ................................ ................................ .............. 89 H 12 Twelfth screen of post test. ................................ ................................ ................ 90 H 13 Thirteenth screen of post test. ................................ ................................ ............ 91

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10 H 14 Fourteenth screen of post test. ................................ ................................ ........... 92 I 1 Image of the debriefing form. ................................ ................................ .............. 93

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11 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S CMC Computer mediated communication SNS Social Networking Sites

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12 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication THE CHALLENGE OF INTERACTIVE NEWS FOR A PUBLIC CAUGHT IN AN ONLINE IDENTITY CRISIS By Megan Elizabeth Mallicoat August 2012 Chair: Amy Zerba Major: Mass Communication This study examines the effect of publicness or the feeling of public exposure on how people interact with online news As people increasingly move toward online news news org anizations are working to make their online presence s more engaging Interactivity often achieved through social media integration, is one of the more popular methods on the market today. However, little scholarly res earch exists regarding consumer s opini ons of and expectations for interactive news The present study is among the first of its kind to explore interactive news and social media integration. According to self presentation theory, people care about the opinions others form about them, and so ad just their behavior accordingly. Th o se behavior al adjustments can often be classified as one of five self presentation strategies: ingratiation, competence, intimidation, exemplification and supplication. Previous studies applied these self presentation st rategies to face to face communication, as well as communication through personal websites and blogs They found the strategies of ingratiation and competence are used most often, and the remaining three strategies are used infrequently.

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13 In this explorator y experimental study, participants were assigned to one of t hree login conditions. The conditions were used to give participants varying feelings of publicness as they completed the experiment. Participants were asked to read 10 articles from a news websit e and write comments on five articles of their choosing The f indings show could significantly predict news stories selected They also show attempts at self presentation in comment s most frequently utilized the strategie s of ingratiation and competence, but intimidation was present as well

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14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION gathered around their television sets to listen to him. He delivered The News. E nding each broadcast with his now idea that his news was The News. Fast forward to modern day. Families might still physically gather in the same room, but Internet connected devices outnumber p eople, and news sources are too numerous to count. The News is no longer. In its place is a constant barrage of information with no filter. The idea of a central authority figure in news delivery is also largely diminished ( P ew Research Center 2010 b ). The only mputer or even a smartphone connected to the Internet. And so for the traditional media industry, whose audiences are declining and which arguably has one foo t in a grave lined with information that is out of date before it is printed or broadcasted, the idea of interactive news has sparked hope for the future. Interactivity is a broad concept, and as such likely has numerous definitions. In the most basic sen se, interactivity is what sets traditional news apart from online news (Kopper, Kolthoff, & Czepek, 2000). Online journalism is different than print journalism because of interactive technology that affords the reader the opportunity respond, interact The present study to claim that all definitions have been thoroughly expounded. For purposes of this study, i nteractive news is defined as Internet delivered news that is refined according to user preferences and/or allows the user to interact by posting comments, sharing with social

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15 network contacts, and other similar proactive actions. The former is a more pass ive approach, while the latter is inherently active. The two are not mutually exclusive; they could easily be combined for a more comprehensive interactive news strategy. Why do news organizations care about revitalizing news? A report published by the Pe w Research Center found that 59% of Americans now get their news from a combinatio n of offline and online sources. O f those consumers, 65% reported they have no single favorite news website ( Pew Research Center 2010 b ). I n a 2012 report by P ew from the Internet, whereas 20% sai d they get it from newspapers. Meanwhile, traffic to news sites from search engines is declining, but traffic from social media sites is incre asing. R eaders s o m e t i m e s read the news from within the social media websites w hich could affect ad vertising revenue ( P ew Research Center, 2012). Thus for purely business reasons news organizations are searching for ways to differentiate themselves. The prevailing model of personal interaction with news content increasingly requires social media integr ation. Practically speaking, this means that to interact with news content, users often must be willing to do so publicly. Media organizations have turned to Facebook to help personalize their news websites. CNN, The New York Times and Fox News, to name a few, now extend to users the option to integrate their existing Facebook accounts with the news website to create a more personal experience. While personalized interactivity may seem simple on the surface, it is complicated b y a uniquely human phenomen on: P eople tend to care what other people think, and so

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16 of a dramaturgical perspective of human behavior means that people behave in a manner intended to create a specif ic im pression (Goffman ). Leary and Kowalski (1990) indicate that individuals engage in impression management or self presentation tactics (p. 34) Therefore, they frequently exhibit be havior intended to make themselves appear more attractive to other people. Accordingly, the theoretical framework of self presentation is a key component of this study. Behavior motivated by self presentation is not limi ted to face to face interaction i t is observed in online activity also (e.g. Dominick, 1999; Trammell & Keshelashvili, 2005). Suler (2002) suggested that people invest energy into managing their online identities, which may or may not accurately reflect their conventional identities. Livi ngstone (2008) found that teenagers sometimes will purposefully include false information within social networking profiles. Reasons and motivations vary (and are not necessarily malicious in nature), but nonetheless can result in skewed information feedin g an interactive news system. Thus it seems plausible that the concept of interactive news has a fundamental flaw. Can a product so personal as interactive news be successfully delivered via a platform so public as the Internet? What consequences, if any, do interactive news systems face if users choose to prioritize self presentation above accurate personalization of their news? The purpos e of this research, therefore, wa s to determine if the public nature of social media impacts the way people interact wi th news and in turn impacts the potential for the success of online news delivery.

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17 A post test only experimental design w as conducted to examine the effect of news. A w eb based system resembling a mainstream news website and populated with Associated Press news content was developed as the testing environment. A sample of college students was randomly placed in one of three conditions: No Login, News Organization Login a nd Social Media Login. The experiment was designed to mirror current trends in mainstream news delivery. Increasingly, news websites ask users t o interact with news stories publicly by commenting or sharing links, often with site logins or their social med ia logins. However, no research has examined the impact that those conditions have engagement with stories and willingness to use online news websites The goal of this study was to determine what effect publicness has upon people consuming new s and how they interact with it

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18 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The framework for this study was based on self presentation theory. The following interactive news experience by integrating social media, specifically Facebook. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959) asserted that when in the company of others, people continuously attempt to detect behavioral cues exhibited by those around them. Such cues facilitate individual discernment of the intricacies of social settings, and subsequently empower individuals with information to use to manipulate social circumstances to their own advantage. This need not be as nefarious as it may sound on the surface, but rather it speaks to the human tendency to engage in behavior motivated by self presentation (Baumeister & Tice, 1986), and to deliberately speak and act according to the requirements of social situations (Snyder, 1987). Simply stated, h uman beings routinely act in a manner that leads to desired results. That intentional behavior can easily be observed at all stages of life (Banerjee & Yuill, 1999). Consider the toddler who throws a temper tantrum in the toy aisle of a large retail store; or the teenage girl who behaves flirtatiously in the presence of the boy who catches her eye; or the professional hoping for a promotion who works 80 hours a week and dresses in a manner consistent with executives. In the social media environment, conside r job seeking college graduates who remove unprofessional photos and comments from their Facebook pages to avoid making the wrong impression with potential employers.

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19 People assign value to the impressions and perceptions other people form about them, and as a result usually attempt to control such perceptions through their behavior. Leary and Kowalski (1990) offer ed a practical example: Millions of people become paralyzed at the prospect of speaking or performing in public because they are worried about the audience's evaluation of them. Even in relatively mundane encounters at home, work, school, and elsewhere, people monitor others' reactions to them and often try to convey images of themselves that promote their attainment of desired goals. (p. 34) Un derstanding how to communicate within the framework Goffman described is a skill incumbent upon all people; it is an essential element of how people assimilate themselves into their respective environments. Th o se cultural interactions are a learned skill ( Kroeber, 1955). By observing the actions and reactions of other people, individuals al definition of who they are in other words, their concept of self provides an explanation for nearly all aspects of their b ehavior (Markus & Wurf 1987). Triandis (1989) defined the concept of private self as that people associate with themselves and the public self as that which others associate with them (p. 507) Social Identity Theory (T ajfel & Turner, 1979) extends the concept of self and his knowledge of his me mbership of a social group (or groups) together with the value social identity theory, therefore, is the process of social categorization (Tajfel, 1978), which suggest s people can be classified by sets of roughly defined attributes applicable at least in part to all group members (Hogg, 2004). Social categorization allows people

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20 to define their role s and place s in society (Tajfel, 1978), and therefore part of their own self identities as well. Self presentation also referred to as impression management is the process people use when attempting to influence and control the perceptions of other people (Leary & Kowalski, 1990). Traditionally, self presentation behavior e ndeavors to engender favora ble impressions (James, 1890). To accomplish this individuals may at 1986 p. 867 ). Broadly, Roth et al. argue d he presence of (p. 867) to create favorable impressions. Jones (1990) derived five self presentation strategies from his research in interpersonal interactions: i ngratiation, self promotion 1 intimidation, exemplification and supplication People who used those strategies wanted others to perceive them as possessing certain attributes specific to the particular strategy: Table 2 1. Presentat ional Strategies Classified By Attribution Sought (Jones, 1990) Strategy Attribution Sought Ingratiation Likable Self Promotion Intimidation Dangerous (ruthless, volatile) Exemplification Worthy (suffers, dedicated) S upplication Helpless (handicapped, unfortunate) Adapted from Jones, E. E. (1990). Interpersonal perception. New York: W.H. Freeman. (p. 198) 1 Studies often refer to this trait a

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21 presentation strategy categories in an empirical analysis of 319 pe rsonal home pages He common characteristics for each self presentation strategy (p. 648) : Ingratiation : Saying positive things about others or saying mildly negative things about yourself, statements of modesty, familiarity, and humor. Competence : Claims about abilities, accomplishments, performance, and qualifications. Intimidation : Threats, statements of anger, and potential unpleasantness. Exemplification : Ideological commitment or militancy for a cause, self sacrifice, and self disc ipline. Supplication : Entreaties for help and self deprecation. Dominick hypothesized that, similar to face to face communication, the strategie s of ingratiation and competence would be employed most frequently on personal home pages and intimidation leas t frequently. He found that approximately 58% of males and 63% of females used the ingratiation technique, and approximately 33% of males and 28% of females used competence. The remaining three techniques were seldom observed. Similarly, in studies of the self presentation and identity management tactics of bloggers, both Trammell and Keshelashvili (2005) and Bortree (2005) found that bloggers frequently utilize d the self presentation strategies of competence and ingratiation. The Internet as a P ublic A rena En absolutely public (Gonzales & Hancock, 2008), but accessed privately. Furthermore, it facilitates an unprecedented level of communication on a global scale, but carries with it

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22 a certain air of anonymity. Still, Internet users engage in identity management efforts online, just as in face to face interactions (e.g. Walther, Anderson & Park, 1994; Gonzalez & Hancock, 2008). The key differentiating factor between the Internet and be accessed through a computer 2 ; some researchers argue that computer mediated ye ars, the prevailing opinion among social psychologists was that technology removed many of the social cues normally used in face to face communicative interaction (Kiesler & Siegel, 1984). Scholars argued that CMC resulted in impersonal, task oriented, and in some instances even hostile communication (Johansen, Vallee & Spangler, 1979; Rice 1984). However, Walther, Van Der Heide, Hamel & Shulman (2009) astutely observed that the Internet was not created with intentions of fostering relationships; only recen tly has it become a tool for interpersonal communication. Social Presence Theory asserts that communication is increasingly effective as Christie, 1976). Technology, partic ularly early examples of CMC, can sometimes remove non verbal social cues. Culnan and Markus (1987) broadly termed this model idea that reduced cues communication is less successful. More r ecent studies assert that CMC benefits from modern multimedia technology because CMC is no longer text based, and therefore may not be as one dimensional as 2 The author recognizes that other electronic devices, such as smartphones, facilitate Internet access. devices capable of accessing the Internet.

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23 it once was considered to be (Soukup, 2000). Indeed, the very lack of tradition al social cues may in some cases allow the user to focus more intently on identity management and other interpersonal aspects of communication (Walther & Parks, 2002). CMC extends to the user unique methods of gathering information that cannot be achieved through traditional communication (Ramirez, Walther, Burgoon & Sunnafrank, 2002). ion by belonging to as many niche groups as they desire. With no obligation to share information between groups, people may choose to use the Internet as a tool to develop specific aspects of themselves (Suler, 2002; Papacharissi, 2002). Presently, such gr oups are commonly found in the form of social networks. Social Network Sites (SNS) have come into vogue in mainstream culture during the last decade. Generally, SNS include visible user profiles and lists of connected contacts within the same network (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). Facebook is perhaps the most popular SNS accompanied by Twitter, Google+ and dozens of others SNS allow users to manipulate their self presentations and connect with other users (Boyd, 2004); the publicly displayed connections help us ers network and validate profile information (Donath & Boyd, 2004). However, despite the established scholarly understanding of the Internet as a public environment, immersion in SNS can leave users with a false impression of privacy. Evidence of this phen already the content displa

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24 content that could have already been accessed, should the user have chosen to proactively do so. The news feed effectively removed the necessity for action on the part of Facebook users beca use it aggregated the recent activity of their contacts. Introduction of the news feed feature caused significant backlash, protests, and petitions for it to be removed (Cashmore 2006a, Cashmore 2006b). In a publication inspired by the Facebook news f eed c risis, Boyd (2008) suggested that when social Interacting with the N ews On January 2 0, 2009, CNN.com extended to Facebook users the opportunity to time inauguration activities. At its pea inaugural address, 1.3 million user s were simultaneously logged in ( R. Holt 3 personal communication, January 2009 media meets social media experiment was a relatively novel phenomeno n. S ince then, CNN.com and numerous additional mainstream media websites have largely integrated with Facebook the aspects of their sites that can be personalized for individual users. With a CNN account linked to a Faceb ook profile, users can easily an d sometimes uni ntentionally announce to their networks of contacts that a news item caught their interest. Or, if users are so moved as to want to comment on an article or suggest it to a friend, this often requires posting in the name of Facebook (and t hus 3 Broadcasting. The author exchanged with her a series of emails discussing the project.

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25 possibly announcing to all Facebook contacts that they have done so). The New York Times recently released a system within its website that utilizes a combination of recommendations from social media connections and user defined editorial preferences. Even some small town newspapers, like The Gainesville Sun now require users to comment via an existing Facebook account. In the collective effort to improve turned to Facebook fo r all or part of their interactivity efforts News industry analyst Ken Doctor says one reason for publishers to embrace Facebook is that the social media giant already has a large audience. By working with Facebook, the news industry stands to benefit fro m its existing popularity (Doctor, 2011). However, i ntegrating news websites with social media can mean relinquishing a part of editorial control to computer algorithms and suggestions from social contacts (Indvik, 2011). Also, personalization itself c an be a double edged sword. Lee & Lee (2009) found that when a user expects personalization the expectation often leads to a (p.448) in the effort to cull through information. However, when users feel a personalization system im pinges upon their freedom, they may respond by not using the system at all (Lee & Lee, 2009). Few published academic studies have examined interactive news, particularly from a communications perspective. Thurman (2011) summarized three types of online i (Jensen, 1998), and personalization (p. 396). Navigational interactivity allows the user ion, menus and links (Deuze, 2003). Conversational interactivity allows users to interact with

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26 each other, as well as journalists (Thurman, 2011). The third kind of interactive news Thurman described, p ersonalization can be explicit or implicit The forme r type consists of news filtered according to preferences directly stated by users, while the latter type encompasses news selected according to inferred preferences pieced together from indirect s urveys and/or browsing activity monitoring techniques. Addi definition of interactivity this study operationally defines interactive news as Internet delivered news classified into one or both of the following two categories: news that is editorially filtered according to user prefe rences (whether stated explicitly or gathered implicitly), as Thurman suggests; or news that allows users to interact by posting comments and/or sharing with an established network of Internet based contacts (practically speaking, social media networks). M any online news systems incorpo rate elements of both aspects. Tho heading of interactive news Based on self presentation theory and the current trend of making online news interactive the following study s et out to examine these research questions and hypothesis : RQ1: How are attempts at self presentation shown through commenting, particularly with regard to login condition? RQ 2 regarding social media integration play a r ole in media use? H1: Login condition, personal interests and public identity will significantly predict the types of news stories participants choose to read.

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27 CHAPTER 3 METHOD OLOGY A post test only experimental design w as conducted to examine particip selection of news stories and commenting behavior with varying degrees of publicness. A web based system resembling a mainstream, modern news website w as developed as the testing environment. The site was populated with aggregated Associated Press ne ws content from five categories: Business, Entertainment, Politics, Science & Technology and Sports To achieve a meaningful comparison of the varying degrees of publicness, three conditions were employed: No Login, News Organization Login and Social Media Login. The experiment was originally designed for participants to be able to complete it on their personal computers at a location of their choosing. It was conducted in this manner during two weeks in April 2012, using participants recruited through fou r University of Florida student organization s To encourage participation, for every student who completed the experiment, t he researcher agreed to give a donation of $2 However, this approach failed to yield an adequate numb er of participants in a reasonable amount of time: in a two week span, only 35 participants completed the experiment. Additionally, 48 people began the experiment but did not complete it. This drop off rate indicated a pro blem with the experiment design. P erhaps the experimental design asked too much of participants at home on their own time or perhaps the incentive was not sufficient Because of the low turnout and high drop off rate in the pilot study the experiment was moved to a lab setting and partic ipants were recruited through undergraduate

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28 classes with extra credit as an incentive. The experiment was changed to draw a larger sample size and to control for external variables Participants were chosen from college studen ts enrolled in three undergraduate courses at the University of Florida. The three classes were: EGM 2511 (Engineering Mechanics Statics), EML 4304C (Thermo/Fluid Design and Laboratory), and MAN 3025 (Principles of Management). Together, these classes re presented a pool of 544 undergraduate students. The three instructors agreed to assist the researcher by offering a small amount of extra credit in exchange for participation (one point). In accordance with University of Florida Institutional Review Board guidelines, the instructors also made available an alternate extra credit assignment for those students who did not wish to participate in the research or did not qualify to participate. The instructors sent an email invite one week in advance of the stud y inviting them to participate in the experiment (s ee Appendix A) A reminder email was also sent a few days in advance. Students were given six lab session s to ch oose from over a three day period from May 29 through 31, 2012. Students were instructed to contact the researcher via email in advance to sign up for a session. The target sample size was 90, which allowed for 30 participants in each of the three conditions. From the pool of invited students (N=544) 135 students ( 25 %) contacted the researcher to sign up for the experiment, and 122 attended their scheduled session s T he lab room comfortabl y sat 22 participants, each at individual computer stations and 25 participants were recruited for each session. The researcher over recruited for each sessi on to account for no shows. Sixteen students had to be

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29 turned away because of computer availability 1 Th o se students were still given extra credit for participating. Nine surveys were considered incomplete and removed from the analysis Four completed surv eys were removed because participants were older than the desired age range for this experiment. 2 The total number of participants was 93, divided among the three conditio n groups: No Login (N=32), News Organization Login (N=30), and Social Media Login (N= 31). Participants were randomly assigned to their condition groups through a brief pre screening survey built in Qualtrics. The experimental website required Facebook logins for the Social Media Login condition. Thus, all participant s were re quired to actively use Facebook regardless of whether or not they were randomly placed in that condit i on The definition of an active Facebook user was adapted from sev eral provided by Facebook 3 : A user w as considered to be active when they h ad a personal Facebook account and checked it at least once a week Participants assigned to the Social Media Login condition were asked to use their personal Facebook logins to access the experiment website Participants were informed of this possibility prio r to agreeing to participate in the study. Participants assigned to the N ews Organization Login condition were asked to log in to the experiment website using their real names and email addresses. Participants were informed of this possibility prior to agre e ing to participate in the study, as well. The experiment was conducted in the University of Florida College of Journalism A web browser was the only software necessary for 1 In some cases, all 22 seats were not available bec ause the computers were not functioning properly. 2 The age range of participants was limited to 18 28 years old. 3 https://www.facebook.com/help/search/?q=active+users

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30 the experiment. Firefox was used in most cases an d Internet Explorer was used where Firefox was not available Upon a rrival, the researcher checked participants in and directed them to open computer stations. Participants were instructed to read through the on screen informed consent statement, but to wa s to begin the experiment. The experiment included three elements: a brief pre screening survey, a news website and a post test survey: The software Qualtrics was used to participants were self identified active Facebook users (see Appendix B) Upon Qualtrics randomly assigned each of the p articipants to one of the three condition groups (No Login, News Organization Login and Social Media Login) and redirected him or her to the URL Par ticipants were taken first to an opening page that provided the e xperiment instructions (see Appendix C) From here, participants clicked a link to begin the experiment. The link redirected them to the news website home page. In the case of News Organization Login participants, they were directed to first create an acco unt for the news website After creating the account and logging in with it participants were then redirected to the news website home page. Three websites were built for the experiment. They were identical in every way except the method u sed to login and leave comments (s ee Appendix D). Login methods varied according to condition group: No Login Condition: No authentication required

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31 News Organization Login Condition: Participants created a login using their real names and email addresses. Social Media Lo gin Condition: Participants used their personal Facebook login information to authenticate. The news websites included the same set of 100 articles, in the same gr aphical arrangement and order. T he home page design included a list of headlines and the firs t paragraph of each story Photos were not included here because they represent similar reasons, color was also limited; the design used black and white only. The fi ve news category sections were presented in the main n avigation in alphabetical order (see Appendix E ) The experiment websites were populated with a set of 100 articles from the Associated Press Twenty AP stories were taken from each of the following fiv e categories: Business, Entertainment, Politics, Science & Technology and Sports (see Appendix F ) classification system. Two Associated Press websites were us ed as sources of news: www.apexchange.com was the primary source and http://hosted.ap.org was the secondary source 4 All Business and Entertainment articles came from AP Exchange. Thr ee Politics articles and thre e S ports articles were pulled from hosted.ap.org. AP Exchange did not have a science or technology section, so all Science & Technology a rticles came from hosted.ap.org: 10 articles were classified as science stories and 10 articles were classified as tech nology stories The articles pulled must have met the following criteria : 4 http://www.apexchange.com/ and http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/fronts/HOME?SITE=AP

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32 They were 300 words or longer ; When possible, c ontain ed no time element in the first or second paragraph; And were straight news stories, not columns or question and answer articles Because the Associated Press published a limited number of articles within the required date range five articles were used that were shorter than 300 words (5%) and 30 articles were used that contained some kind of time element in the first or second paragraph (30%) 5 Articles were selected during the three days prior to the start of the experiment. The oldest article used was published on May 21, 2012, and the newest article used was published on May 28, 2012 Stories were selected in the order listed on the AP Exchange and hosted.ap.org websites. Photographs were included on the story pages only when available. They were placed in the same position within each article (immediately following the first paragraph on the left side of the page with text w rapping to the right of the image ). If more than one photograph was available, only the first one was used. Participants were instructed to read 10 stories and comment on five stories. To help them keep track of their reading, they were given a sheet of pa per to jot down headlines and check off comments as they read (see Appendix G) To track participant activity, each website used a plugin that recorded user browsing activity according to IP address. This was later cross referenced with IP addresses record ed by the Qualtrics surveys. With this information, the researcher was able to identify the stories read and co mments left by each participant and then link them to the post test survey responses 5 In these cases, the researcher attempted to use articles that were not breaking news (i.e., no articles no obituaries, etc.), and used articles that were as recent as possible.

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33 Upon completion of the task s participants click ed a link indicating they we re finished. They were then directe d to the post test survey. The po st test survey asked participants a number of questions designed to provide the researcher with a better understanding of their personal interests, public identities, op inions on social media integ ration, and media use habits. The survey also asked participants about their commenting habits; Facebook use and number of friends ; and demographic information such as major, gender, age and race. Independent Variables Public I dentity This in dependent variable was measured by as king participants to rate on a 7 y are likely to think I have an interest in the following topics: Politics; Business; Science & Personal Interests The independent variable of Personal Interests was measured by asking participants to rate on the sam e 7 point Likert scale how much they agree or disagree Login Condition s Participants in the No Login condition (N=32) we re not required to log in to the news website used in the experiment. When a No Login condition user le ft a comment, it display ed as being from an anonymous user. In this condition, users were truly completely anonymous. Participants in the News Organizati on Login condition (N=30)

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34 were wer e instructed to provide their first and last names create and later publish usernames, and also to use their real email accounts to verify the created news website accounts. When a News Organization Login condition user left a comment, it displayed as being from the username created by the participant. Participants in the Social Media Login condition (N=31) were instructed to log in to the experi ment website with their existing Facebook login informat ion. The experiment website utilize d when participants log ged in, they legitimately logged in with their personal Facebook accounts. Upon successf ul login, partic ipants saw visual reminders of the public nature of the method used to access the system: for example, their actual Facebook profile pictures were visible. Facebook Use Participants were asked in the post test survey how many days a week they check their Facebook accounts in a typical week Measured on an 8 point scale, p articipants rate d the frequency of their Facebook use from 0 1 0 days 7 days If participants reported checking their Facebook accounts every day, they were given an additional question that asked about how many times per day they check Facebook. This follow up que stion was an open ended, forced numeric entry question Participants also were asked to quantify how many Facebook friends they have. Social M edia Integration Opinions This independent variable was measured on a 7 point Likert scale that ask ed participants how much they like the idea of interacting with news stories in the following ways interface; commenting

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35 on news story links that others have shared on Facebook, commenting on news stories on news websites using their Facebook account, commenting on news stories on news websites anonymously, emailing news story links to others, posting news story links on Facebook, using Facebook applications that automatically post links to the news stories they read/watch/listen to, reading news stories posted by news organizations on Twitter (i.e., @GainesvilleSun, @CNN, @NYTimes), and posting news st ory links on Twitter Participants rate d Strongly Like Because this study focused only on Facebook integration and use, the non Facebook social media integration questions we re not used in the analysis. Dependent Variables Self Presentation Self Presentation is defined as how people present themselves to the public. The were examined. The researcher used textual analysi s or a content analysis of the linguistic properties of texts (Carley, 1993), to categorize each comment using the scale developed by Jones (1990) and Dominick (1999 p.648 ) The categories were: Ingratiation : Saying positive things about others or saying mildly negative things abou t yourself, statements of modesty, familiarity, and humor. Competence : Claims about abilities, accomplishments, performance, and qualifications. Intimidation : Threats, statements of anger, and potential unpleasantness. Exemplification : Ideological commit ment or militancy for a cause, self sacrifice, and self discipline. Supplication : Entreaties for help and self deprecation.

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36 News Topic Selection News topic selection was classified into five general categories, adapted from the cl assification system: Business, Entertainment, Politics, Science & Technology, and Sports. To determine if the login condition, public identity, and personal interests could predict the news topics that participants would select to read, a regression analy sis was conducted. The login conditions were treated as two binary variables (0=No Login, 1=Social Media Login, and then as 0=No Login, 1=News Organization Login). Five separate regressio n analysis tests were conducted: one for each of the five news topics Media Use This variable was measured on an 8 point scale that asked participants how often they use the following sources in a week to get news: a daily print newspaper, TV news, online news websites (i.e. CNN.com, NYTimes.com, Gainesville.com), radio (i .e., NPR), your Facebook news feed Twitter, aggregate websites (i.e., Google News or Yahoo), mobile news apps, blogs and email. Participants rate d the frequency of their use of those news sources from 0 1 0 days 8 7 days A regression analysis was conducted to examine how opinions about social media integration (measured as described above) could predict media use.

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37 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Students from three courses (two engineering classes and one business class) at the Unive rsity of Florida (N= 544 ) were invited to participate in the experimental study during six one hour sessions between May 29 and 31, 2012. Responses from a total of 93 participants between the ages of 18 28 were used in the analysis. T his study chose to spec ifically explore the news selection and commenting behavior of young adults (18 28) The participants were divided nearly equally between three condition groups: the No Login c ondition group with 32 participants the News Organization Login c ondition group with 30 participants and the Social Media Login c ondition group with 31 participants. Participants in the No Login condition wrote comments on the experiment website anonym ously meaning they were not required to login or leave any identifying informatio n ; participants in the News Organization Login condition wrote comments on news stories after logging into an account created specifically for the experiment and that username appeared alongside their comments ; and participants in the Social Media Login c ondition wrote comments on stories by first logging into their personal Facebook accounts. For those participants, their Facebook avatars and real names appeared next to their comments. Among the 93 participants, 6 5% were male and the mean age was 23. Abou t 54% were business majors, 32% were engineering majors, and 14% were various other majors. About 58% of the sample was w hite, 17% Asian, 15% Hispanic, 7% Black or African American, 1% American Indian or Alaska Native, and 2% o ther. By comparison the aver age age of full and part time University of Florida undergraduates was 21 in 2001 and 45% were male. The race percentages of the sample were each within three

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38 percentage points of the university s race breakdown of students in 2011 with the exception of To be eligible to participate, all students were required to be active Facebook users, meaning they had to have a Facebook account and check it at least once a week. Of the sample 84% reported checking their Facebook account s at least five days a week, and 57% reported checking it every day. Regarding their media use in a typical week, 52% said they read a daily print newspaper one to three days a week, but 39% reported not reading news paper at all. About 2% said they read a newspaper every day. Almost half of the participants (49%) reported watching TV news one to three days a week but at all. Nine percent said they watch it every day. Online news was slightly more popular among participants in that 17% said they use online news websites every day. But still, a bout 40% reported reading/watching/listening to online news websites one to three days a week, and 22% them at all in a typical week. Near ly 30% reported reading their Facebook n ews feeds as a daily news source. About 71% of the participants followed the instructions and left exactly five comments; 20% left more than five, and 9% l eft less than five. In the cases of those who left more than five comments, only the first five submitted were counted. For those who left less than five comments, the comments they did submit were counted. A total of 451 comments were analyzed. Participants in each of the three conditions left comments on about ha lf of the available 100 articles: the No Login condition group commented on 49 articles, the News Organization Login condition group wrote comments on 52 articles, and the Social Media Login condition group commented on 48 articles The news

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39 category break down of articles commented on was similar between the three conditions. As Table 4 1 shows, Science & Technology articles were among the most commented on stories across all three conditions, and Business stories were among the least commented on across al l three conditions. Self Presentation Strategies Present in Comments RQ 1 addressed self presentation strategies and the types of comments participants wrote on news stories Comments were coded according to the scale developed by Jones (1990) and Dominick (1999) A textual analysis was used to analyze the comments. Comments were each assigned to one of the five self presentation strategies, acco rding to their content and attitude In a few cases, comments had two self presentation strategies present. I n tho se cases, the researcher assigned a single category based on the main point of the comment Regarding the self presentation strategies employed, ingratiation and competence were used most often regardless of the login condition. People who use the ingrat iation strategy do so in hopes of being liked, whereas people who use the competence strategy typically do so out of a desire to be respected (Jones, 1990; Dominick, 1999) According to the findings shifted with login conditions. About half of the comments in the Social Media Login condition were categorized as ingratiation For the No Login condition, about a third of the comments employed ingratiation. Conversely, nearly half of the comments left by partic ipants in the No Login condition used the competence strategy and in the Social Media Login condition, about one third of the comments were categorized as competence. Intimidation was used regularly as well, across all three conditions. The intimidation s trategy is defined as having ruthless or volatile characteristics. The strategies of

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40 e xemplification which is characterized by moral uprightness and supplication which has a helpless quality, appeared only a handful of times. The following is an overvie w of the findings for each strategy, a summary of the self presentation strategies coding scale, and 1 : Ingratiation Though participants in all conditions used ingratiation heavily, participants in the Social Media Login c ondition used it most often This strategy i ncludes p ositive statements about others or mildly negative things about self statements of modesty, familiarity, and humor ( Dominick 1999 p. 648; Jones, 1990 ) In the present study, certain common themes ar ose from many comments. These comments did not necessarily fit the description listed above regarding the ingratiation strategy, but they did seem to have the objective of the strategy: to come across as likeable. Given that Jones (1990) did not intend for his list of attributes and strategies to be exhaustive the researcher amended the criteria for the ingratiation strategy accordingly. Thus, statements that express c amaraderie or sympathy fall into this category, as do s ta tements that have no real substa nce or state the obvious and g eneral questions In this context, comments of that nature are considered ingratiation because they represent a safe, almost benign, self presentation approach. They are not meant to call attention to the commenter, as the se lf promoting competence strategy does ; they are not power oriented, pushy or threatening, as intimidation is; they are not morally based and they are not pleas for help, as are exemplification and supplication. Rather, they are 1 spelling, grammar, etc., errors were intentionally not corrected.

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41 meant to contribute (albeit minimally in some cases) in a friendly manner to a larger conversation of commenting. Examples of ingratiation comments gleaned from the present study include: Federer will go down as one of the greatest of all times. Rack up those Grand Slams! ( Positive statement about others.) fe (Positive statement about others.) Biebs!!! I want to know the whole story! Did he put him in a choke hold? A few uppercuts? Did he smash his face in the turbuckl e? Bieber for president!! (Humor.) How will this affect the population (General questions, no real substance.) The common thread throughout the comments classified as ingratiation is a desire to be liked Participants approached this in many different ways but their comments are held together as a group by a clear likeable quality More than three fourths of participants utilized the ingratiation self presentation strategy at least one time. Competence The self presentation strategy of c ompetence also wa s used frequently across all conditions, but most heavily by participants in the No Login or anonymous, condition. This strategy i ncludes c laims about abilities, accomplishments, performance, and qualifications ( Dominick 1999, p. 648; Jones, 1990 ) As w ith ingratiation, common themes arose within this group as well. For similar reasons, therefore, the researcher amended this strategy to also include s tatements that assert special understanding, offer explanations, or attempt to solve a problem. Examples of competence comments from the present study include: I have been watching the Indy 500 for years. As an Italian I love Andretti and refer more people should watch it. ( Make s a claim about qualifications and asserts understanding .)

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42 Pasta is a large industry in Italy, and it should be perfected. I think the blind test is great because it lets individuals not be biased into brands but on the actuality of the pasta. The industry should be lead by what individuals like and not just producing it for the means of more production but also quality. (Asserts understanding and offers explanations.) Is using this internet data to market to interested voters any different from Romney spen ding more on advertising on Fox news and Obama spending more on advertising on CNN? I wouldn't say they are exploiting the data. The data from who watched certain channels is used to the same advantage. Why is it different that we are not in the computer a ge instead of the television age? (Asserts understanding and offers explanation.) The similarity between comments classified as competence is a desire to be respected. Participants accomplished this with different methods: some bragged about themselves, ot hers offered explanations or attempted to solve a problem. However, the underlying motivation in all competence comments was the same: participants wanted others to respect them. More than three quarters of all participants emp loyed this strategy at least once Intimidation Participants in all conditions utilized intimidation Though it was not the strategy used most often, it was used regularly and somewhat evenly among all three conditions. The intimidation self presentation strategy i ncludes t hreats, st atements of ange r, and potential unpleasantness ( Dominick 1999, p. 648; Jones, 1990 ) As with ingratiation and competence, common themes also arose out of comments in this area Thus, the research er amended intimidation to also include sarcasm and s tateme nts that harshly correct others or put others in their place. Examples of comments using the intimidation strategy include: will and a belief that the free market fairy will find a way to make a profit from constructing and maintaining

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43 roads for example. The child like understand of tax systems in this country is shoc king. ( Statements of anger and potential unpleasantness .) Also @ *** really think about what it is to run a country in a socio economic context. (Statements of anger and potential unpleasantness, sarcasm, harshly corrects others .) I ntimidation is not used often in previous studies, but was used roughly one fifth of the time in the present experiment. People who use the intimidation strategy do so out of a desire for power in a relationship (Dominick 1999; Jones, 1990). More than one half of participants wrote at least one comment classified as intimidation. Exemplification and Supplication Exemplification and supplication were used only a handful of times in the experiment. Exemplification i ncludes statements that express i deological commitment or militancy for a cause, self sacrifice, and self discipline ( Dominick 1999, p 648; Jones, 1990 ) It also includes statements with undertones of moral superiority ( Dominick 199 9 p. 648 ). Examples of comments using the exemplification strategy include: rs too.. im serious! (Undertones of moral superiority .) If you still believe Romney is wrong for wanting to build our military back up, read There are groups of people out ther e threatening to hurt people just for wanting to see Lady Gaga perform. Just imagine what they want to do to any American who believes they should be able to express themselves any way they want. Now I to them killing anyone who believes in the freedom to express themselves haha (Undertones of moral superiority .) Supplication i ncludes for help and self deprecation. ( Dominick 1999, p. 648; Jones, 1990 ) Only one comm ent used this strategy:

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44 I but we should not be in the Middle East in the first place. Like my Grandpa used to say, them weapon elections have been choosing the lesser of the two evils and it keeps getting worse. (Helpless quality.) In the present study, as in past research, th ese strategies were used infrequently. About one tenth of participants used the exemplification strategy at least once, and no one used it more than twice. One participant left a single comment categorized as supplica tion. Social Media Integration Preferences and News Media Use RQ2 asked, h regarding social media integration play a role in media use? A regression analysis showed that social media integration preferences significantly pred icted media use for two of the five types of Internet based media (news websites and the Facebook news feed ), but could not significantly predict media use for traditional media types (newspapers, TV news and radio) among the participants ( Tables 4 2 and 4 3 ). A preference for posting news story links on Facebook ( =.61, p=.001) significantly predicted a tendency to get news from online news websites, F (6, 86) = 2.91, p=.013. A preference for posting news story links on Facebook explained 11.1% of the variance for using news websites as a news source. A preference for =.58, p=.007, F (6, 86) = 3.44, p=.004) and a preference for using Facebook applications that automatically post links to the stories a participant reads/watches/listens to ( = 41,

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45 p=.023, F (6, 86) = 3.44, p=.004) significantly predicted use of the Facebook news feed as a source of news. The directions of use, however, were different. For every unit increase (one point on a 7 point Likert scale) of liking to read/watch/listen to news source increased by .58, holding all other variables constant. But for every one unit increase in a preference for using Facebook applications that automatically post li nks to news stories read/watched/listened to, the use of the Facebook news feed as a news source decreased .41, holding all other variables constant. Those factors explained 13.7% of the variance for getting news from the Facebook news feed. No significant findings were found for social media integration preferences and the use of aggregate websites, blogs and mobile news apps, as well as for newspapers, television news, and radio. H1 addressed the ability of login conditions, personal interests and public identity to predict the types of news articles participants would select to read. The login conditions were treated as binary variables (0=No Login, 1=Social Media Login, and then as 0=No Login, 1=News Organization Login). A regression analysis was conduct ed type of news stories a participant chose to read for three of the five news topics. A personal interest in entertainment ( =.4, p=.004) significantly predicted choosing an entertainment article, F (4, 88) = 3.98, p=.005; an interest in politics ( =.24, p=.018) significantly predicted selecting political articles, F (4, 88) = 3.25, p=.015; and a personal interest in sports ( = .33, p=.022) significantly predicted choosing sports stories, F (4, 88) = 11.81, p=<.001. ( Table 4 4 .)

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46 An interest in entertainment and politics explained a small percentage of the variance for selecting those story topics 11.5% and 8.9%, respectively, and an interest in sports explained 32% of the variance for choosing to read a sports story, holding all other variables constant. No significant findings surfaced for login conditions and public identity, which was defined as the topics that others would think the participants would be interested in, for the types of articles participants selected to read. Additionally, personal interests were not found to be significant for business articles or science and technology articles. Table 4 1 Articles with Comments According to Login Condition Condition Groups TOTAL Articles Business Entertain ment Politics Science & Tech. Sports No Login 49 7 8 7 17 10 News Organization 52 7 9 9 17 10 Social Media 48 7 13 5 13 10

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47 Table 4 2 Regression Analysis for S ocial Media Integration Preferences for Digital Media Use Social Media Integration Predictor V ariables News Sources Used in a Typical Week News Websites Aggregate Websites Blogs Facebook News Feed Mobile News Apps Reading/watching/ listening to news st ories interface .14(.21) .14(.24) .09(.15) .58(.21)** .12(.23) Commenting on news story links that others have shared on Facebook .08(.30) .28(.34) .30(.21) .52(.29) .12(.32) Commenting on news stories on news websites using a Fac ebook account .26(.22) .05(.25) .24(.16) .28(.29) .19(.24) Commenting on news stories anonymously .02(.16) .12(.18) .22(.11) .29(.16) .15(.18) Posting news story links on Facebook .61(.18)*** .26(.20) .04(.12) .27(.17) .45(.19) Using Facebook applic ations that automatically post links to news stories read/watch ed /listen ed to .11(.18) .05(.20) .18(.13) .41(.18)* .21(.19) R=. 111 R= 037* R=. 008 R=. 137 R=. 038* NOTE: Betas are reported and standard errors are in parentheses. *p<.05, **p<.01, *** p .001

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48 Table 4 3 Regression Analysis for Social Media Integration Preferences for Traditional Media Use Social Media Integration Predictor V ariables News Sources Used in a Typical Week Newspapers TV News Radio Reading/watching/listening to ne ws .03(.14) .24(.19) .07(.17) Commenting on news story links that others have shared on Facebook .11(.19) .2(.27) .02(.25) Commenting on news stories on news websites using a Facebook account .21(.14) .11(.2) .05(.1 8) Commenting on news stories anonymously .1(.11) .21(.15) .03(.14) Posting news story links on Facebook .16(.11) .08(.16) .11(.15) Using Facebook applications that automatically post links to news stories read/watch ed /listen ed to .24(.12) .26(.17) .04(.15) R=. 034 R=. 013 R= .049 NOTE: Betas are reported and standard errors are in parentheses. *p<.05, **p<.01, *** p<.001

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49 Table 4 4 Regression Analysis for Predictor Variables for News Article Selection Predictor V ariables Dependent Variabl es Business Entertainment Politics Sci/Tech Sports Login condition Social Login .46(.30) .50(.37) .30(.38) .33(.46) .77(.42) News Org anization Login .48(.31) .34(.38) .15(.29) .09(.47) .87(.43)* Interests Public Identity .04(.11) .08 (.15) .02(.10) .22(.20) .26(.15) Personal Interests .22(.11) .40(.13)** .24(.10)* .15(.19) .33(.14)* R=.044 R=.115 ** R=. 089* R=. 041 R=. 32*** NOTE: Betas are reported and standard errors are in parentheses. *p<.05, **p<.01, *** p<.001

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50 CHAPTE R 5 DISCUSSION This study is unique in that it applied the strategies of self presentation theory in analyzing the types of comments left on news stories, as well as in determining if publicness affect ed the online news stories that participants ch ose to r ead. The central ten e t of self p resentation theory is that people care what other people think of them, and because of that, act accordingly The experimental study found that login condition and public identity d id not significantly predict news selection but that overall personal interest wa s a strong factor. The study also found that t he self presentation strategies of ingratiation and competence were used most frequently in online comments The self presentation strategy of intimidation was present as well. Major Findings The first major finding was that two self presentation strategies ingratiation and competence were most often used in comments, regardless of login conditions. This finding is consistent with previous research, which found ingratia tion and competence to be the self presentation strategies used most often in face to face communication (Jones, 1990), as well as on personal websites (Dominick, 1999) and by bloggers on blog websites ( i.e., Trammell & Keshelashvili 2005 ). Commenting on stories is a fundamentally different type of communication than face to face conversation and blog. Leaving a comment on a news story allows the commenter to briefly join a larger conversation without claiming ownership of or responsibility for the conversation as a whole.

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51 T he results showed a shift in strategy depending on the login condition. Participants who were part of the No Login condition group and therefore were more likely to retain a feeling of anonymity throughout the experiment used the self presentation strategy of competence about half of the time, and ingratiation less often. However, participants who were in the Social Media Login condition and t herefore were more likely to feel a greater sense of public ness about the comments they left using their personal Facebook accounts used the self presentation strategy of ingratiation about half of the time, and competence less often. Participants in the Ne ws Organization Login condition which was designed to feel more public than the No Login condition but less public than t he Social Media Login condition were directly between the other two condition groups in their use of both ingratiation and compe tence. One possible explanation for this finding speaks to the age old psychological truth highlighted in favorable impressions. As Jones (1990 ) wrote undoubtedly a per vasive human desire (p. 177) T he person who employs the ingratiation technique desire s to be perceived by others as likeable (Jones, 1990). In the present study, participants in t he most public condition group, the Social Media Login condition tended to resor t to the self presentation technique that makes people seem likeable. Participants in that condition authored comments that complimented others, included humor, and were generally good natured. Participants were less likely in their comments to speak like experts or claim special understanding of the issues at hand. However, participants in the No Login condition frequently play ed the part of the expert relying often on the self presentation technique of competence Th os e participants

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52 more so than partic ipants from the other two conditions o ften o ffered explanations and solutions to problems. For each self presentation strategy, there is both risk to and reward for the person who employs it. For example, while ingratiation is intended to provoke positi ve feelings about the person who displays this characteristic the strategy can cause people to perceive the person as Exhibitors of the competence strategy desire to be respected as they promote them selves, but in so doing they risk seeming intellectually superior in a way that might cast them in an unfavorable light among their peers ( Jones, 1990). The present findings indicate that the risk of intellectually alienating others may have been w orth it to when participants could interact without identifying themselves, they used the competence self presentation strategy about half the time. But when particip ants had to communicate using their real identities especially Facebook, which connects them to their individual social circles that figure decreased. There is the possibility that participants may have written socially desirable comments that tended t o show what they knew about a story because of the artificial physical lab setting Socially desirable responses are a we akness of experimental and survey research methods. A second major finding was that the self presentation strategy of intimidation was employed more often by participants in this study than participants have used it in previous studies ( e.g., Dominick, 1999 ) Earlier studies found that, though ingratiation and competence are used rather frequently, the remaining three strategies intimi dation, exemplification and supplication are seldom observed in communication

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53 Those latter three strategies are characteristically more unpleasant in nature than the first two strategies (Jones, 1990). While participants in the current study did not use exemplification and supplication often intimidation was used in roughly one out of every five comments. The frequency varied slightly with the login conditions, but was consistently used by participants in each of the three conditions This study does no t conclusively answer what may have caused participants to employ the intimidation technique so frequently in this online news environment, regardless of a sense of publicness brought on by condition group. However, o ne possible explanation is that some pe ople may feel a freedom to be malicious toward others while on the Internet. In the context of cyber bullying, Kowalski and Limber (2007) observed that the p. S28), because of which some people may think they can play the role of the bully or the intimidator without harming other people Psychologists including Suler (2004) call it which is when people sometimes behave online in ways they would n ot in person. This effect can sometimes d rive people to be nicer online than they w ould normally be in person B ut online disinhibition is not always a good thing. p. 321 ). T his let down of ude language, harsh criticisms, anger, hatred, even threats p. 321 precisely what lies at the core of presentation strategy of intimidation This reveals a potential for something int riguing some people appear to thrive off of the hidden communication it facilitates. T hat theory

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54 of invisibility on the Internet may partially explain why some indivi duals write hate speech in online comments or attack other people with words online While there were n o extreme examples of bullying in the present study, examples of bully like intimidation were observed. Some participants used profanity. Others respond ed with harsh criticism to comments left by previous participants. Still others made sweeping statements of anger directed at individuals, society or both The author of the present study suggests extending strategy of self prese ntation with the hallmark characteristics of bullying cyber bullying in particular These traits help to explain the motivations of persons who employ volatile comments To date, ingratiation and competence are the best understood self presentation strate gies (Jones, 1990). Exploring intimidation in greater detail can help to broaden our understanding of this strategy in an online environment A third major finding showed that personal interest in news topics can sometimes predict the types of news stories that participants select to read online In the present study, personal interest significantly predicted three of the five news categories ( E ntertainment, P olitics and S ports). It did not predict news story selection for the remaining two categories ( B usiness and S cience & T echnology). This personal interest finding is consistent with a previous study by Althaus and Tewksbury (2002) who found that news consumption by online readers of The New York Times is more close ly tied to personal interests than it is for print readers of the newspaper. However, in the present study the amount of variance explained by personal interest s of news topics and its impact on news story selection was still relatively low in most cases This result means there are other possible explanations for

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55 why participants chose the news stories they did. Another reason for choosing certain stories online could be the p lacement of stories on the web page (Nielsen & Pernice, 2010) In the present st udy, the same stories appeared in the same order for each participant. The first several articles were among the most often read and the most often commented on articles. The researcher attempted to design an experimental website that mirrored a real life news website in that the newest stories appeared first. The author advises future researchers to randomize the order of headlines on a news website, if possible, to control for this possible ordering effect. Interestingly, interest in Business and Science & Technology did not significantly predict news story selection in any of the three conditions. It is important to note that Business and Science & Technology were the two topics most closely associated with the majors of a majority of the student particip ants (enrolled in business and engineering courses). Th o se news topics were also the least read and the most read topics, respectively. Business articles were read 80 times, and Science & Technology articles were read 338 times. It is possible that no sign ificance was found between the three login conditions because the business and engineering majors were spread out randomly across the groups In other words, the participants shared an interest in Science & Technology stories, and a disinterest in Business stories across the three conditions. Inviting participants from courses with business and engineering majors is a n acknowledged weakness in the methodology. The author suggests that future researchers select a broader sample of college majors or occupatio ns in examining online news interest s

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56 Current events may also explain why participants selected certain news. For example, a t the time of the experiment, the 2012 U.S. presidential election was about five months away. The Republican P arty was in the middl e of its series of primary elections. The Texas primary election was held the first day of the experiment (May 29, 2012 ). Former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney clinched the GOP nomination by winning the Texas primary Primaries in California, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico and South Dakota were held a few days after the experiment concluded (June 5, 2012). Th os e external factors may have played a role in the news selection process for some participants. H1 hypothesized that public identi ty and login conditions would predict the news stories they selected. The login conditions did not significantly predict story selection. This finding suggests that those factors logging in anonymously, using a news organization login, and using a person al Facebook account to log in may not play a role or may play a lesser role in the news story selection process. The researcher recognizes that the different login conditions used in the experiment may not have created a complete sense of publicness amon g participants in particular in the Social Media Login condition That sense of publicness is a requirement of self presentation theory The news websites appeared the same for each condition, except for the com menting module (s ee Appendix D ) It i s possible that this design inadvertently gave participants in the Social Media Login condition an undue feeling of anonymity while reading articles, as they did not have to use their Facebook accounts when selecting articles, but only when leaving c omments. If the experiment website had posted headlines of stories read onto the Facebook timelines of the Social

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57 Media Login participants for example, that sense of publicness might have felt more authentic and the results may have been different as well Also, the News Organization Login condition may not have successfully mirrored real life conditions for some participants. The researcher acknowledges there are numerous methods used to create these logins For example, s h, others use a cartoon avatar; some display full names, others use made up user names; and some require the accounts to be authenticated, others do not. This experiment used just one of the many methods, and this design may have a f fected t he sense of pub licness created for users in the News Organization Login condition. Limitations One of the primary limitations of this study is the lab environment in which the experiment was conducted. The researcher conducted the study in a lab room that comfortably sa t 22 students but they were seated directly next to each other. Artificial settings are a weakness of experiments (Wimmer & Dominick, 2000) With the controlled lab environment, participants may have felt as if they were being watched, even though they we re instructed to read through the stories on the website as they normally would peruse a news website. An experimental setting, however, was preferred to control for any external variables that an at home environment would bring, such as other distractions online. A pilot test of 83 participants using an at home method found that participants were unlik ely to complete the experiment. In the pilot study, 35 participants reached the post test survey stage of the experiment, and even fewer still completed it The researcher believes that future studies mig ht successfully utilize the at home method, but a much more enticing incentive would be necessary.

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58 A second limitation is the short shelf life of news stories. Every effort was made to ensure the Associated Pr ess news selected was as recent as possible. The oldest article used was originally published on May 21, 2012, and the newest article used was originally published on May 28, 2012. However, the experiment ran from May 29 through May 31, 2012, so p articipan ts in the later sessions experienced news that was dated by a few days 24 hour news cycle, news that is several days old is considered old. T he author recognizes that this time element may have impacted some participants as they made d ecisions about which stories to choose. A third limitation is that the sample was comprised of college student volunteers and the findings can only be applied to those 93 participants Indeed, the results may have been very different if the participants h ad been older or were already invested in their careers. In the present study, t he participants were between the ages of 18 and 28 a common age group that researchers study when examining young adult news behavior ( Pew Research Center, 2010 a ) More researc h on age group differences and online commenting is needed because participants of a different age group likely could yield entirely different results Also, participants took part in the experiment in exchange for extra credit. That external incentive ma y have impacted their answers unintentionally or intentionally, toward what they perceived was desired of them. To reduce this possible effect, the researcher instructed participants that they should choose news genuinely of interest to them because they were not being tested in any way. Finally, the subjectivity of textual analysis is a limitation of the present study language means different things in different contexts (Fairclough, 2003). The many

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59 nuances of the English language have a major impact o n the meaning behind comments. I t is not possible something was wonderful and fantastic, or if he or she sarcastically meant that something was not a good situation. Despite its limitations, though textual analysis was appropriate for and useful in analyzing the comments written in the present study beca use it helped to identify and interpret the strategies participants used to present themselves (McKee, 2003).

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60 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION Times are changing. News delivery is changing. And so the mainstream news industry must change too or risk becoming unpro fitable and being replaced by something else entirely To improve the industry must strive to better understand interactive news Social media integration has great potential as a method of interactivity However, exceedi ngly little is known about consumers opinions regarding this approach. The present study is among the first of its kind to study the emerging field of interactive news. As such, i t attempted to create a foundation for future research with a methodology t hat could be replicated and built upon More research is ne eded in the area of publicness, particularly how publicness affects news selection. This concept is essential to the success of online ne ws distribution. If publicness a ffects news selection, publi shers may need to adjust their editorial strategies accordingly. An expe rimental construct that public ly report s the online news stories participants read could be another way to examine self presentation strategies and interactive news More research is a lso needed to better understand the behavior and motivations of those who leave comments on online news stories Commenting is a different kind of communication than face to face communication or blog publishing. Existing research is relevant, but cannot b e applied without first studying self presentation and commenting further. A content analysis of comments left on actual news stories instead of those left o n an experimental website could examine the same five self presentation strategies explored her e Specifically more research is needed on the self presentation strategy of intimid ation. Jones (1990) acknowledged that ingratiation and competence are the best

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61 understood of the set of five self presentation strategies. The prevalence of the intimidati on strategy in this online context presents a new opportunity for scholars to deepen our understanding of this strategy. There were several aspects of interactive news that fell outside the scope of this study, but would be equally intriguing to investigat e. For example, how well can aggregate news s people are interested in ? How does their ability to do so compare with traditional editorial judgment ? Th o se services often function by user s submitting a list of personal news preferences. This raises the question of self presentation again : A re Internet users willing to provide accurate representations of their news interests in order to receive optimal news results from aggregate services? Or does the feeling of publicness and a corresponding desire to manage impressions take precedence? Interactive news is a broad topic with seemingly endless implications and applications. Currently, very little research exists. This study begins to explo re the emerging field of interactive news an area of study that has numerous questions in need of answers

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62 APPENDIX A EMAIL INVITE Dear UF student, graduate student at the University of Florida conducting an experiment f or my opinions about Facebook and your media use. You will also be asked to read news stories, of your choosing, on a website as part of this experiment. participate in the experiment. It wil l take you no more than 30 minutes. It will be held in the Research Lab in extra credit for [INSERT CLASS HERE] You would also be helping out a fellow UF student. To be eligible to participate in the study, you m ust sign up for a time specified below by Sunday, May 27, 2012, by 5 p.m. To participate, please email Megan Mallicoat at mmallicoat@ufl.edu and specify which of Tuesday, May 29, at 12:30 p.m. Tuesday, May 29, at 2 p.m. Wednesday, May 30, at 12:30 p.m. Wednesday, May 30, at 2 p.m. Thursday, May 31, at 12:30 p.m. Thursday, May 31, at 2 p.m. PLEASE NOTE: You must have a Facebook account to par ticipate in this study, and some students may be asked to log into Facebook for the study. We will not have access to your account or any personal information, but know that you may be asked to participate in the experiment using Facebook. Please be assu red that your individual responses will remain confidential and will only be reported as part of the group results. These results will be used solely for academic purposes and for possible academic publication. Your decision not to participate will not aff ect your standing with the University of Florida. The first page of the survey tells you about any risks involved in this study as well as your rights as a participant. If you have any questions about the experiment, please feel free to email me at mmallicoat@ufl.edu or my faculty supervisor, Amy Zerba, at azerba@jou.ufl.edu Thank you in advance for helping a fellow Gator by taking the time to participate. Best regard s, Megan Mallicoat University of Florida Graduate Student Approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board 02. Protocol #2012 U 363.

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63 A PPENDIX B SCREENSHOTS OF PRE SCREENING SURVEY Figure B 1 First screen of pre screening survey.

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64 Figure B 2 Second screen of pre screening survey. Figure B 3 Third screen of pre screening survey.

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65 A PPENDIX C NEWS WEBSITE S INSTRUCTIONS PAGE Figure C 1 Example of the i nstructions page found on each news website

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66 A PPENDIX D NEWS WEBSIT ES COMMENTING MODULE S Figure D 1 Commenting module for the No Login condition.

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67 Figure D 2 Commenting module for the News Organization Login condition.

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68 Figure D 3 Commenting module for the Social Media Login condition.

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69 APPENDIX E DESIGN OF NEWS WEBSITES Figure E 1 News website home page.

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70 Figure E 2 Example of an article on the news websites.

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71 A PPENDIX F ORIGINAL SOURCE OF A SSOCIATED PRESS NEWS ARTICLES Business http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=6ab5b6fcc9ff43b3bc35a355a 0c71583&links=39320,USA BL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=0f4eab127d4a4a8bbc 7fa9b1b161f469&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP US Earns Tiffany&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=defd7de16a8b456e8b7e907e 8ea6928d&links=39320,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=3121745e0f204240 91fdd 1992c096c93&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP US RI Schilling~s Company Governor&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=79ff1319703b4db78df837f3a 72a635e&links=39320,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=264294ad2e9e4660b c5591912ad7a389&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP US Durabl e Goods&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=1fa2b9278b934995b12acb98 289b8fe3&links=39320,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=89bc66c61e1f426ea 48f5e49d962708c&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP US Bank Earnings&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=0 bf3e65ae0e94ede9438ffbbf 2d01e36&links=39320,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=8ba81fc8fdc344b3ac a673bd8c34f753&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP US Gulf Oil Spill Fishing Slump&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=157787ae14cb48448a35c3a5 2227a36d&links=39320,USA BL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=e0041166df48499a 92c6009f32882c60&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP US Food Stamp Fraud&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=766be7da08824e0ca293db4 702e97894&links=39320,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=3f918f5eb9e248eb 8 217aa1055054f1b&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP EU Germany Britain Financial Crisis&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=21ada34b3be94eb4b3ede3b b0112335f&links=39320,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=200614f60ff94f4ba 730933fc818db8e&Token=&media=Text&slug =AP US Pentagon Clean Energy&format=nitf&site=1

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72 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=ef910cee0e004215989854a6 9224b269&links=39320,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=70f99a909d1b4c9ba 6797a2874be5833&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP US Detergent Packets Poison Calls&fo rmat=nitf&site=1 h ttp://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=ef43207987d44f45ae190e9f4 3dfdc37&links=39320,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=b47efdfe7b2541b8b06 44b0b9242987e&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP EU Italy Pasta~s Power&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=8 b20b7b22d2e415baac6952 5f920902d&links=39320,USABL,WK22Y2012,W22Y2012&fid=96fcdc452a184ff7b 20f6feb754efc19&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP EU Britain Lawmakers Expenses&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=35aa8bc775e441c586dc3571 115fb2ee &links=39320,USABL,WK22Y2012,W22Y2012&fid=8c8379e8b3244a858 7072db8b89907bd&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP US Airlines No Seats Together Senator&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=dec65e4c1d0e45f2ae37c81d c8757ee6&links=39320,USABL,WK22Y2012,W 22Y2012&fid=d578f1dcb766469bb f5d50fd55c549a4&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP EU Ukraine Corporate Takeovers&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=553ebdb86a3f468aa583bccc e287eaae&links=39320,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=a03667fa6a414d55 a7986979824d7c df&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP EU Spain Financial Crisis&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=40a80f3ceda44b79a0e62ba7 f2dcf04a&links=39320,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=48109c44f49c40a68b f8de68fe7038c0&Token=&media=Text&slug=BC US -Facebook Small%20Investors&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=286f6fd2b98948b5b341f4edc c59e793&links=39320,USABL,WK22Y2012,W22Y2012&fid=625a571cc6a64ef19b 9e014843874511&Token=&media=Text&slug=BC US -America~s%20Gasoline %20Obsession,1st%20Ld Writethru&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=04a8f0dc8f8a41ddb1065c424 1cb0ee0&links=39320,USABL,WK22Y2012,W22Y2012&fid=3e711de720e34233b 30a3515b5dda25d&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP US Wall Street Week Ahead&format=nitf&sit e=1

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73 http://www.apexc hange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=508db311dfc14a719b7d9766 f3710d05&links=39320,USABL,WK22Y2012,W22Y2012&fid=60d5ca18730a46ea8 46851da71a0b49b&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP ML Iraq Unspent Aid&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=6da16306 92c943cca1e0e2a7 dd704c23&links=39320,USABL,WK22Y2012,W22Y2012&fid=873fcd4511d3479b9 e8fe20e2bca5755&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP US Broken Budgets Unleashing the Tax Man&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=d3e486df78564b3f81989d87 cf81f5cc&links=39 320,USABL,WK22Y2012,W22Y2012&fid=91f541165a2d491cbd 208fd270634979&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP EU Ireland EU Referendum&format=nitf&site=1 Entertainment http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=959d8281e1d44014afcf85ae 592e1a00&links=39329,USABL,WK21Y2012 ,W21Y2012&fid=30cf926f4ae047d0a 8d8df771c0d6f7f&Token=&media=Text&slug=BC US -Fifty%20Shades%20of%20Fan%20Fiction&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=84ae282cc0a945319c4df44e b0fc529f&links=39329,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=8 58b720309974679a 84c711b92956c39&Token=&media=Text&slug=BC AS -Thailand Lady%20Gaga,3rd%20Ld Writethru&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=eca3ae89ece74c9681d291a1 7b62a495&links=39329,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=105b03fade1a40a0 918f5c6f15d374b6&Tok en=&media=Text&slug=AP US Film Josh Brolin&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=8b991497ebcb4bc384b9eb64 e1e3e9f4&links=39329,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=3920b56c2a8f415f8a b8df0842192c6b&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP EU Germany Duerer Exhibit&form at=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=12c187f777ea460fb6cb87a5a 3744af1&links=39329,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=379ae66a7ab845768 01ac2c4d7fe6780&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP US American Idol Contracts&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx? id=e35c7f9fed144b0fab360f9cc9 e3a166&links=39329,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=4c19c41e29d94f52bf8 62362f715d29e&Token=&media=Text&slug=BC US -People Chris%20Harrison&format=nitf&site=1

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74 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=36f32326d6394f15933cfc03a dd32851&links= 39329,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=192c56fc8b73458093 64ba810b12cb54&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP EU France Cannes On The Road&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=b441f3bc582e41b7a65c0891 2ccb718d&links=39329,USABL,W K21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=a0ba23847af041eab c6a43cf1df17cf7&Token=&media=Text&slug=BC AF -Nigeria Shakespeare%20in%20Yoruba,1st%20Ld Writethru&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=fea684e009204a39b39cc20fb 01cea42&links=39329,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012& fid=9dea943af00c4892af 80cf58cb557ef8&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP EU People Janet Jackson&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=e47fcf8e7b7941f5b9af1c90d1 edd4f1&links=39329,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=c62f657e1696410694b ebc3d313622af&Token=&media= Text&slug=AP US Spelling Doll Lawsuit&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=c015f67cef034f6fb2fdc4431a 375d73&links=39329,USABL,WK22Y2012,W22Y2012&fid=2b78343e8d7d4b9b9f 5ee534d1c43899&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP EU France Cannes Nicole Kidman &format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=fbfcac4b89e74825ad926f555 5c4fc07&links=39329,USABL,WK22Y2012,W22Y2012&fid=4977559bb34b43f886 bdc3552590b045&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP EU France Cannes Robert Pattinson&format=nitf&site=1 http:// www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=d20dd552877046f08b9edde6 a08a4bb2&links=39329,USABL,WK22Y2012,W22Y2012&fid=829f96eac292428b8 a3bd558af3222c8&Token=&media=Text&slug=BC AS -Indonesia Lady%20Gaga,3rd%20Ld Writethru&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/p ages/OneUp.aspx?id=f3f794e96c544a98adf1d4aaa 0cdee5d&links=39329,USABL,WK22Y2012,W22Y2012&fid=83f51037e6bc4ec9ab 97655113a0cfa2&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP US Michelle Obama Beyonce Concert&format=nitf&site=1 http://www.apexchange.com/pages/OneUp.aspx?id=50e40f16a0264359ba6edf a2 b6c302b1&links=39329,USABL,WK21Y2012,W21Y2012&fid=6c10e01e98bf4541b 63feccf28e4bcee&Token=&media=Text&slug=AP US People Jenna Jameson&format=nitf&site=1

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82 A PPENDIX G EXAMPLE OF HEADLINE SHEET Figure G 1 An example of a filled out headline shee t

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83 APPENDIX H S CREENSHOTS OF POST TEST Figure H 1 First screen of post test. Figure H 2 Second screen of post test.

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84 Figure H 3 Third screen of post test. Figure H 4 Fourth screen of post test.

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85 Figure H 5 F if th screen of post te st. Figure H 6 Sixth screen of post test.

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86 Figure H 7 Seventh screen of post test.

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87 Figure H 8 Eighth screen of post test. Figure H 9 Ninth screen of post test.

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88 Figure H 10 Tenth screen of post test.

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89 Figure H 11 Eleventh screen of post test.

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90 Figure H 12 Twelfth screen of post test.

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91 Figure H 13 Thirteenth screen of post test.

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92 Figure H 1 4 Fourteenth screen of post test.

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93 APPENDIX I DEBRIEFING FORM Figure I 1. Image of the debriefing form

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94 LIST OF REFER ENCES Issue Importance Among Readers of the Paper and Online Versions of the New York Times. Communication Research 29(2), 180 207. Banerjee, R., & Yuill, N. (1999). Chil dren's understanding of self presentational display rules: Associations with mental state understanding. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 17, 111 124. Baumeister, R.F. & Tice, D.M. (1986). Four Selves, Two Motives, and a Substitute Process Self Regulation Model. In R.F. Baumeister (ed.), Public Self and Private Self (pp. 63 74). New York, NY: Springer Verlag. Bortree, D. (2005). Presentation of self on the web: An ethnographic study of teenage girls' weblogs. Education, Communication & Informati on 5(1), 25 39. Boyd, D.M. (2004). Friendster and Publicly Articulated Social Networking. Proceedings of ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 1279 1282. New York, NY: ACM Press. Boyd, D.M. (2008). Facebook's Privacy Trainwreck: Exposure, Invasion, and Social Convergence. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 14(1), 13 20. Boyd, D.M., & Ellison, N. B. (2008). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer Mediated Co mmunication 13(1), 210 230. Carley, K. (1993), Coding Choices for Textual Analysis: A Comparison of Content Analysis and Map Analysis. Sociological Methodology 23, 75 126. Cashmore, P. (2006a, September 5). Facebook's Facelift An Invasion of Privacy. m ashable.com. Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2006/09/05/facebooks facelift mini feeds and news feeds/ Cashmore, P. (2006b, September 6). Facebook Backlash. masha ble.com. Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2006/09/06/the facebook backlash begins/ Culnan, M.J. & Markus, M.L. (1987). Information Technologies. In F.M. Jablin, L.L. Putnam, K.H. Roberts, & L.W. Porter (Eds.), Handbook of Organizational Communication: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (pp. 420 443). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Deuze, M. (2003) The Web and its Journalisms: Considering the Consequences of Different Types of Newsmedia Onl ine. New Media & Society 5(2), 203 230. Doctor, K. (2011). The Newsonomics of f8. Retrieved from http://www.niemanlab.org/2011/10/the newsonomics of f8/

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98 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Megan Mallicoat was born i n 1981 and grew up in Tampa, Fla After graduating from Sickles High School in 1999, she moved to Gainesville, Fla., to go to college at the University of Florida. She earned a B.S. in journalism with a specialization in online media in 2003. Since then, she has worked full time in communications and marketing for the College of Engineering a t UF. In 2007, she began to work part time on her S he and her husband, Shyra, were married in 2010. They welcomed their first child Kailyn Ann, in January 2012 and live in Florahome, Fla.