American and Pakistani Student Perceptions of Female Political Leaders

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Title:
American and Pakistani Student Perceptions of Female Political Leaders
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1 online resource (96 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Wahidi, Anam
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.A.M.C.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Mass Communication, Journalism and Communications
Committee Chair:
Zerba, Amy
Committee Members:
Treise, Deborah M
Armstrong, Cory

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
bhutto -- clinton -- gender -- khar -- pakistan -- palin -- president -- role -- social -- theory -- us
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
The U.S. was on the verge of embracing either a female for president or vice president in 2008. But the campaigns of Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin were unsuccessful. Across the world, Pakistan has elected a female prime minister twice. This survey study explores young people’s perceptions of female politicians with regard to their success and failure in the U.S. and Pakistan. The purpose of the study is to understand possible stereotypes of female politicians in high office in both countries.Social role theory can be used to explain gender stereotypes of female candidates running for high office.  The results of a survey conducted by the author in March 2012 showed American students preferring a candidate with higher masculine and feminine traits,compared to Pakistani/Pakistani American students. The study also found that American participants rated both American female politicians Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin lower in masculine and feminine traits when compared to their ideal candidate for president.   In contrast, the study found that Pakistani/Pakistani American participants rated Pakistani female politicians Benazir Bhutto and Hina Rabbani Khar higher in masculine and feminine traits when compared to their ideal candidate for prime minister. Exploring these differences in perceptions is essential to understanding the success or failures of females in American and Pakistani politics. This study extends research on the perceptions of gender roles, and the impact of such portrayals on the political success of females in the U.S. and Pakistan.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Anam Wahidi.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local:
Adviser: Zerba, Amy.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-02-28

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UFRGP
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Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID:
UFE0044704:00001


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1 AMERICAN AND PAKISTANI STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF FEMALE POLITICAL LEADERS By ANAM WAHIDI A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Anam Wahidi

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3 I dedicate this thesis to my wonderful parents. Tha nk you for your endless love, support and encouragement Without you this milestone would not have been possible.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This thesis would not have been possible without the help and support of many individuals, who have all helped me in some valuable way or the other. It is with immense gratitude that I acknowledge the support and help of my adviser, Dr. Amy Zerb a Without her expertise and constructive criticism, I would never have bee n able to complete this thesis. I am grateful for all of the time she generously spen t helping me improve my skills as a researcher I know I have come a long way from when I started my thesi s based on a simple question I would also like to thank members of my thesis committee, Dr. Co ry Armstrong and Dr. Debbie Treise. Their invaluable insight was incredibly helpful in strengthening my study. I want to especially thank the amazing faculty, staff and students at the University of Florida for making my experience here so wonderful. Although I have only been at the University of Florida for a short time, it has been very memorable. It has been an honor to have the opportunity to learn from such an accomplished faculty. I have also made some amazing friends during my time here who have been a great source of support and inspiration. I will surely always look back at the time I spent in Gainesville with fondness I wish to thank Dr. Anthony Esposito, who during my time at Edinboro University of Pennsy lvania inspired me to work harder and aim higher. His encouragement was a great source of motivation for me as I applied to graduate programs and eventu ally decided to move to Florida. His encouragement and persistence continue even today, and may eventually be a contributing factor if I decide in the future to return to graduate school for another degree.

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5 I am indebted to my beloved fam ily Words fail t o express how much I appreciate my parents for inspiring me with their hard work and encouragement Our regular Skype sessions have been a great source of comfort and support for me as I have worked toward this deg ree. I am also very thankful to my brother Ash ar for always being willing to lend a helping hand in whatever way possible. This thesis would not have been possible without the great friendship and unwavering support of Garima Pa rker and Matthew Quiring. I want to thank both of them for being such amazing friends, despite several states being between us. I can not thank Garima enough for always being more of a sister than a friend to me, and Matthew for always f inding a way to make me smile.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 10 2 R EVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ .................... 13 Social Role Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ 13 Masculine and Feminine Traits ................................ ................................ ............... 16 Benazir Bhutto ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 21 Hina Rabbani Khar ................................ ................................ ........................... 23 Sarah Palin ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 27 Hillary Clinton ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 29 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 30 3 METHOD ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 31 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 39 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 52 Major Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 52 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 59 6 CONCLU SION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 62 APPENDIX A U.S. STUDENT SURVEY ................................ ................................ ....................... 64 B PAKISTANI/PAKISTANI AMERICAN STUDENT SURVEY ................................ .... 77 C PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ...................... 88 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 89 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 96

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Mean scores of characteristics attributed to the campaign success of female politicians. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 63

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8 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication AMERICAN AND PAKISTANI STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF FEMALE POLITICAL LEADERS By Anam Wahidi August 2012 Chair: Amy Zerba Major: Mass Communication The U.S. was on the verge of embracing either a female for president or vice president in 2008. But the campaigns of Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin were unsuccessful. Across the world, Pakistan has elected a female prime minister twice. This survey study to their success and failure in the U.S. and Pakistan. The purpose of the study is to understand possible stereotypes of female politicians in high office in both countries. Social role theory can be used to explain gender stereotypes of female candidates running for high office. The results of a survey conducted by the author in March 2012 showed American students preferring a candidate with higher masculine and feminine tra its, compared to Pakistani/Pakistani American students. The study also found that American participants rated both American female politicians Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin lower in masculine and feminine traits when compared to their ideal candidate for president In contrast, the study found that Pakistani/Pakistani American participants rated Pakistani female politicians Benazir Bhutto and Hina Rabbani Khar higher in masculine

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9 and feminine traits when compared to their ideal candidate for prime minis ter. Exploring these differences in perceptions is essential to understanding the success or failures of females in American and Pakistani politics. This study extends research on the perceptions of gender roles, and the impact of such portrayals on the po litical success of females in the U.S. and Pakistan.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Interest in the presidential races in the U.S. and election for prime minister in Pakistan are anxiously anticipated events with heightened media coverage. Female leaders, such as Benazir Bhutto, who was elected as prime minister of Pakistan twice (1988 and 1993), est Minister of State for foreign affairs in 2011 and Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin, who both campaigned in 2008, brought more public and media attention to female politicians. This study examines the views of female politicians in two countries Pakis tan and the U.S. purpose is to explore the underlying reasons behind those viewpoints. Are female politicians running for high office thought of as more successful in Pakistan or the U.S., and why? Do the way young people perceive gender roles play a role in how they think about female political leaders? Social role theory provides the framework for this study. The existence of gender differences in occupational roles can influence gender stere otyping of traits for males and females, according to social role theory (Eagly & Stefen, 1984; Eagly & Wood, 1999). An online survey was conducted to ask Pakistani/Pakistani American and American students at universities in the U.S. about their perspecti ves on female voters and they have the power to, arguably, alter possible societal biases against female politicians. Research also points toward the importance of understan ding and appealing to young voters. Research conducted by the Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (2009) showed an increase in youth voter

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11 turnout (those under the age of 30) of more than 50% compared to the 2004 presidential elections. It was t he third highest rate of increase for this age group in voting in the U.S. Recent data from the Current Population Survey (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010) also found that young female voters were voting at higher rates when compared to young male voters in the U.S. In Pakistan the importance of the youth vote is also gaining considerable attention as the median age for the Pakistani population is 21 (Pakistan, CIA World Factbook 2011). After witnessing the recent rise in supporters for the Pakistan Tehreek e Insaaf party, other political parties in Pakistan have started to research and reflect on ways to read into the youth vote (Manan, 2011). The deputy general secretary of the Pakistan Musli m League (N) recently told a Pakistani newspaper that his party had neglected the youth as a target audience in recent years resulting in the loss of their support (Manan, 2011) However, he also emphasized in his statement that his party wa s beginning to direct its attention toward this group This study is unique in that it examines perceptions of American and their respective societies, and the success, failures and characteristics of popular female political figures. The stu dy also explores the ideal vision of president/prime minister and how that ideal image compares to the perception of recent female political figures. The findings could provide a deeper understanding of the cultural differences in perception of the role of women in high offices that may often be assumed. Ultimately, the findings could shed light on attributes of female politicians that this sample of young

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12 adults want and dislike in a candidate which could provide research for political campaigns.

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13 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE opinions about female political leaders in Pakistan and the U.S. is a challenging task that requires a thorough understanding of several issues: social role theory, gender roles, women in politics, and young voters in both countries. The following chapter details each of those issues. Social Role Theory In the 1980s, Eagly introduced social role theory by examining sex differences and gender stereotypes (1987) The theory suggests that the existence of gender differences in occupational roles influences gender stereotyping of traits in society. In other words, observable differences in social roles and behaviors attributed to gender are a reflection of the soci al structure of a society (Eagly, 1987). For example, men who are more likely to be employed and independent are often associated with a more assertive role referred to in the li responsible for rearing children, are viewed as nurturing caregivers and referred to as attributed to men, and women and the term focuses o n others. Eagly and Stefen also found that when the occupations of men and women were not revealed, qua lities were attributed to them. F or example men were considered highly agentic, while women were considered highly communal. However, the two researcher social roles where women who were part time employees were considered to be

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14 considerate and dedicated to their homemaker duti es and men who were part time employees were considered to be lazy and unwilling to shoulder their responsibilities. Eagly and Wood (1999) observed that men and women in society tend to adapt qualities that are not innate to them, but that comply with rol es which they are socially assigned Therefore, men adapt more assertive characteristics to enter the competitive workforce, while women adapt nurturing qualities to become primary caregivers to their children. Eagly and Wood (1999) assert that social role theory is based on the premise that human behavior is strongly influenced by culture, the surrounding practices, and beliefs that surround them. Social roles can be exerted through societal expectations, but they can also be internalized by individuals (W ood & Eagly, 2009). Diekman and Eagly (2008) found that individuals were likely to feel the need to em brace gender role expectations and often avoid contradicting them. In another study, Eagly and Steffen (1984) surveyed students and staff on a university campus and found that men and women were often perceived stereotypically when their employment status was not shared. Men were often assumed to be employed, and females were not. Women were perceived as being more agentic if they were employed as opposed t o their male counterparts, even though their wages may d iffer. Eagly and Steffen attributed this to the learned social observation of most participants who perceive women as having a choice to enter the workforce. Therefore, participants perceived women wh o were employed to be more agentic. Eagly and Steffen concluded from their study that a difference in gender perceptions would likely not exist in society once society did not have a gender gap E ducation alone s he posited, i s not sufficient or powerful e nough in itself to change perceptions

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15 Eagly and Diekman (2006) further suggested that differe nces in gender attitudes toward politics can also be linked to social roles of men and women in a society. Diekman and Schneider (2010) therefore suggest that bot h genders are more likely to share political attitudes if th ey also share a similar variety of specific roles in society. In politics, a clear gender gap appeared in the 1980s in voting patterns when more women distanced themselves from supporting conservative candidates (Norris, 2003). After a significant difference in voting preferences between genders was observed during t he 1996 and 2000 U.S. presidential elections, Eagly, Diekman, Schneid er and Kulesa (2003) suggested that this difference existed because of the lower social position of women in society. However, today women have also been increasingly engaged in politics and activism for their own rights (Eagly & Diekman, 2002) and as a result pay more attention to candidates who address issues specifically relevant to them. Males may not choose a candidate based on gender because there is no social movement specifically t en genders could have the potential to impact U.S. elections. In the U.S., women vote more than men (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010) and according to Schaffner (2005) political candidates interested in attracting v otes from female voters are more likely to target issues that are specifically relevant or of interest to women. Eagly, Diekman, Johannesen Schmidt and Koenig (2004) explored the correlation between role occupancies of male and females and their views on socio political issues. The researchers surveyed 137 men and 124 women in a large metropolitan airport (with a control group of 112 men and 119 women in a lab setting on a Midwest university campus). The results showed that women were more likely (along

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16 wi th other racial minorities) than men to sympathize with issues regarding rights of women and homosexuals. For example, wom en are more likely to show an interest in supporting government actions, such as supporting the homeless and aiding medical care and e ducation (Schlesigner & Heldman, 2001). On the other hand, men are more likely to support civil liberties and a strong military. They are also most likely to endorse aggression and as a result, support mi litary interventions (Nincic & Nincic, 2002). Eagly, Diekman, Schneider, & Kulesa (2004) concluded that a difference in perception of salient political allocation of gender roles, despite women in some places having important roles in the workforce, suc h as government. This difference on issue salience has been shown to impact performance of women in professional positions. Kahn & Goldenberg (1991b) found that women running for high office were at a disadvantage because of the manner in which they were s tereotyped by the media (for their sexuality and their historical circumstances) and urged women to make adjustments to tackle and overcome these stereotype s. Eagly et al. (2004) maintained however, that once the gender gap has of gender roles will also ref lect in the attitudes of gender toward a broad spectrum of issues. Masculine and Feminine Traits The personal attributes questionnaire is an instrument c reated by Spence and Helmreich (1978) based on their own pilot work. The scale consists of a list of 24 words, which belong to one of three equal groups: the M scale (for masculine traits) the F scale (for feminine traits) and the M F scale (for masculine and feminine traits) Spence and Helmreich found that items on the M sc ale were most likely to be attributed to men, while still being considered socially desirable in both sexes. Similarly, items on the F

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17 scale were most likely to be attributed to women, while still being considered socially desirable in both sexes. The M F scale however, was found to be imbalanced in terms of attributes socially desirable in both sexes. On the M F scale, ideal masculine attributes and feminine attributes were found to be on opposite sides of the semantic differential scales Overall, the M scale has masculine, agentic characteristics, which inc lude aggression and dominance. T he F scale has feminine, expressive items, which describe emotional vulnerability and the need for e motional support. A nd the M F scale consists of a combination of the two. Spence and Helmreich (1978) consistently found pronounced differences between genders on all three scales, with men scoring higher on the M and M F scales, and women scoring higher on the F scale. Fu rther research has also st rengthened the validity of the Pe rsonal Attributes Questionnaire in explaining differences in traits found between sexes (Helmreich & Spence, 1978; Helmreich, Spence, & Holahan, 1979; Helmreich, Spench & Wilhelm, 1981; Klein & Willerman, 1979; Spence et al., 1979; Yoder, Rice, Adam s, Priest & Prince, 1982). Spence and Helmreich (1978) said the gender trait differences are consistent, regardless of age, ethnicity and socio economi c background differences However, research found some differences in consistency when the questionnaire was administered to diverse populations, including gays/lesbians, female varsit y athletes and Ph.D. scientists. Those three groups were specifically chosen by the researchers because of the ster eotypes concerning gender traits that are associated with them. Gays/lesbians are distinguishable f or their sexual orientation, Ph D scientists are distinguishable for their high attainment of education and female varsity athletes are

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18 distinguishable for their athletic success. In 1974, Ward found (as cited in Spence & Helmreich, 1978) differed significantly from the colle ge samples of Spence, Helmreich & Stapp (1975). Ward (1974) found le sbians scored significantly higher than college females on the masculine and masculine feminine scale, and significantly lower on the feminine scale compared to college females. Similarly, Ward (1974) found male homosexuals scored significantly lower on th e masculine and masculine feminine scale compared to college males, and also scored higher on the feminine scale compared to them. Spence and Helmreich (1978) administered the personal attributes questionnaire to female varsity athletes and found their re sponses to also differ from the college sample. The majority of the athletes, compared to the college sample, were considered to be androgynous as they scored high on both the feminine and masculine traits. Spence and Helmreich (1978) attributed those fi ndings as a demonstration of females embracing masculine roles in their efforts to succeed at competitive sports. Responses from Ph D scientists also showed similar results. Spence and Helmreich (1978) found male Ph D scientists scored higher on masculin e traits, compared to males from the college sample. However, female Ph D scientists also scored higher on masculine traits, compared to females from the college sample. Overall, female Ph D scientists showed a similar trend to the varsity athletes in th eir tendency to be androgynous. Spence & Helmreich (1978) attribute this to those females being in an agentic field that is not common for women.

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19 Based on research involving the personal attributes questionnaire being administered in foreign countries, S pence and Helmreich (1978) found more in common between the foreign participants and American participants, than what they found to be different. Spence and Helmreich (1978) describe one of their studies which included 95 male and 89 female Lebanese stud ents, who were all fluent in English and attending the American University in Beirut. Both researchers found the response patterns regarding gender traits for this sample to be similar to the responses of American students. While the survey was conducted i n a Middle Eastern country, the sample was largely non Muslim and likely to be different from the general population because they were afforded the opportunity to study at a co educational institution. But Spen ce and Helmreich (1978) caution researchers to be aware of broad generalizations. The researchers found that agentic and instrumental characteristics were usually regarded as masculine, while communal and expressive characteristics wer e usually regarded as feminine. However this gender association is not always the case. In some societies, socialization and social expectations can define sex stereotypes differently. Spence and Hemreich (1978) were especially cautious about broad generalizations because they did not have an opportunity to administer their personal attributes questionnaire to diverse populations outside of the U.S. Gender Roles and the Place of Women in Politics in Pakistan gende r roles that exist in society. Therefore, i t is essential to focus on gender roles in countries often stereotyped as ha ving traditional gender roles, such as Pakistan

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20 The Islamic Republic of Pakistan was recently ranked in the bottom five countries s Gender Gap Report 2011. The report was based on several measures, which include: gender gaps in salaries; workforce participation and highly skilled employment; access to basic and higher level education; representation in decision making opportunties; l ife expectancy; and sex rat ios ratios (Hausemann, Tyson & Zahidi, 2011). The plight of wo men in Pakistan has been a long winding journey. In measures against women taken by the government of General Zia ul Haq at the time (Jamal, 2005). Those measures included the Hudood Ordinance No.VII of 1979. According to that ordinance, if a woman was unable to have four male witnesses to show that she had been raped, she would be acc used of the crime of adultery Although the forum was not able to change this ordinance, which still exists today, the formation of this forum is often considered a historic milestone for women in Pakistan. The forum gave Pakistani women a voice and establ ished a marked change in the perception of women and their relationship with the government (Mumtaz & Shaheed, 1987). Women in Pakistan have creation as an independent state in August onsidered the chief of stat e and the prime minister is considered the head of the government. The bicameral Parliament (also known as the Majlis e Shoora) consists of the Senate. Four of those seats are reserved for women for each of the four provincial as semblies, and one seat recent senatorial elections in 2009, 17% of the seats went to women, which fulfilled the delegated quota for women cameral parliament

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21 consists of the national assembly with 342 seats. Women are allocated seats to each of the four provinces, the federally administered tribal areas and the federal capital al assembly elections in 2008, women won 22% of the seats (76), more seats than were designated to them (International Organization of Parliaments, 2011). 1947. After the creation although she did not seem to s how a personal interest or ambition in politics af ter her she decided to contest the presidential elections in 1964 to challenge the military leadership of Ayub Khan. Jinnah was not successful but her campaign did not go by unnotic ed by the public (Ziring, 1994). Benazir Bhutto Benazir most famous political dynasties, the Bhuttos of Pakistan. She was the eldest daughter Party (PPP). Z.A. Bhutto also served as the president of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973, and later the prime minister of Pakis military staged a successful coup under the leadership of General Zia ul Haq and later arrested Z.A. Bhutto on charges of authorizing the murder of a political opponent. In 1979, Z.A. Bhutto was executed afte r what many considered to be a controversial trial.

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22 Benazir Bhutto was educated at Harvard and Oxford before she joined politics. While her father was imprisoned, Benazir lived in exile in the United Kingdom and party in 1982. She was the first Pakistani woma Benazir returned to Pakistan in 1986 and after the death of General Zia ul Haq in an airplane crash, contested her first election s in 1988 at the age of 35 and became state. Bhutto held office for two terms, from 1988 to1990 and 1993 to 1996, but did not complete an entire elected term both time s due to charges of corruption (Ziring, 1994). In 1999, Bhutto left Pakistan to live in a self imposed exile overseas. In 2007, president Pervez Musharraf signed an ordinance into law that removed all previous charges of corruption against a number of pol iticians, including Bhutto. Many perceived Bhutto returned from exile to Pakistan in October 2007. On December 27, 2007 detonated arty Parliamentarians), which has dominated Pakistani politics for decades (Houtman, 2008). balance her feudal background, which included her arranged marriage to Asif Ali Zarda ri, who she was fiercely loyal to, despite criminal allegations against him over the

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23 years. Bhutto also was well known for her fiercely rhetorical position against her oppone nts (both foreign and domestic). She earn ed her self L Ziri family led to questions arising regarding her ability to lead Pakistan (Ziring, 199 4). killed under mysteri ous circumstances. Murtaza Bhutto became involved in politics at ed a militant group outside of Pakistan to launch a military campaign against the Pakistani military government. Murtaza Bhutto later returned to Pakistan after winning a provincial election as an independent candidate while in exile and was assassinated o utside his politics was found dead in his apartment while living in France in 1985. Benazir sister has not shown an interest in joining politics. Hina Rabbani Kha r Similar to Bhutto, Hina Rabbani Khar also belongs to a feudal family of the village and her paternal uncle, Ghul am Mustafa Khar, have been involved in Pakistani politics for decades. Her father has been a member of the provincial and national assembly, and her uncle has had a long history in politics. Ghulam Mustafa Khar was a close ally of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, and in later had a falling out with Bhutto upon her return to Pakistan in 2007 and was consequently removed from her political party.

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24 Hina Rabbani Khar attended graduate school at the U niversity of Massachusetts. In 2002, H.R. Khar was encouraged by her father to contest the elections, as her father and uncle were both unable to contest due to a law introduced that disqualified politicians from contesting elections if they did not at le H.R. Khar was first elected into the National Assembly in 2002 at the age of 24, as a member of the Pakistan Muslim League (Q), and then again in 2008 as a member of e and Economic Affairs and became the first female to present the Pakistani budget before the National Assembly. In early 2011, she was sworn in as the Minister of State for foreign affairs and became the youngest person to hold this position. fascination with Khar has had little to do with her professional experience and work. Khar wa s criticized for her young age and her appearance. For example, her initials and the name of her designer bag became a Twitter trend worldwide (Taseer, 2011). As s he arrived in India for highly anticipated talks with the government in 2011, she was greeted with hysteria from the Indian media that took an para 1 and para 4 ). message to the youth of Pakistan as it was not earned or deserved because she was young and inexperienced. Fatima Bhutto criticized the shallow environment of Pakistani

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25 prominent figures in Pak istani politics. Her education and achievements are in stark contrast to many of the dark allegations that some of her family members are accused of, including abuse. Gender Roles and the Place of Women in Politics in the U.S. Mor e research has been conducted on g ender roles and the attitudes toward women in politics in the U.S. than in Pakistan. Women in the U.S. have had the right to vote since a constitutional amendment in 1920. In the 2010 congressional elections, women in the U.S. won a total of 92 seats (17%). The same year w omen won 17 seats (17%) in the S enate (Women in Congress, 2012). Reasons attributed to why there have been fewer female representatives in U.S. politics include: a low number of women who seek political of fice/positions (Deber 1982 ); fewer campaign funds for women to run for offi ce (Epstem, 1981; Gertzog, 1979) ; they are often in races with well known male candidates (Bernstem,1986; Gertzog and Simard 1982); and the stereotyping of female candidates (Boles & Durio, 1981; Boles & Durio, 1980; Bowman, 1984; Sapiro, 1982 ). When examining perceptions of female candidates, it is important to consider the current issues at the time, such as healthcare refo rm, education, foreign policy and military stances. Kahn (1994b) found that in certain elections and current issue environments, the fact that female voters are stereotyped and viewed as honest and compassionate may be advantageous to them. For example, is sues related to healthcare or the trustworthiness of candidates may help female candidates more as they can be perceived as more competent to deal with such issues. Nonetheless, this advantage is very calculated and strictly dependent on the current issues and political environment of the time of the election (Kahn, 1994b). Although male candidates

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26 receive coverage on both masculine and feminine issues, such as budget and healthcare, female candidates only receive coverage on feminine issues, which lowers t heir credibility (Banwart, Bystrom & Robertson, 2003). The U.S. has not had many female candidates enter the presidential race. In 1984, Geraldine A. Ferraro, a congresswoman from Queens accepted the Democratic nomination for vice president but was not suc cessful. Her campaign alongside finances her controversial views on abortion, her supposed lack of experience and a focus on her appearance. Elizabeth Dole also entered the bid for the presidential race in coverage that mostly focused on her appearance and not her stance on issues (Aday & Devitt, 2001). The coverage surrounding her also focus ed heavily on her family in contrast to other candidates (Heldman, Carrol & Olson, 2005). Kahn (1992) content analyzed U.S. newspaper coverage of male and female senator candidates (between 1982 and 1986) to determine differences between the coverage. The leading newspaper in terms of circulation was used for each state. They found that the coverage given to women lacked an in depth analysis of issues and was also much more negative than the coverage of their male counterparts. The news coverage of female c andidates was also remarkably less when compared to coverage given to male candidates. In another related study, Kahn and Goldenberg (1991a) found that when female candidate names were replaced in articles about male candidates of the same level, voters t ended to show more approval toward them. However, gender stereotypes

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27 seemed to help female candidates the most as they were most often considered to be and education (Kah n, 1994a). The authors oberved that this advantage to females realistically had little scope because the media coverage exam ined showed a bias toward male oriented issues, such as national security as opposed to healthcare. Therefore, unless female candida tes could exert some control over the media coverage they receive, they would be unable to use this to their advantage (Kahn, 1994a). Studies have found that female candidates continue to receive more coverage from the media as opposed to male candidates on their appearance, personality and family (Aday & Devitt, 2001; Bystrom, 2006; Devitt, 2002; Heldman, Carrol & Olson, 2005; Kahn, 1994; Kahn & Goldenberg, 1991b). Sarah Palin Governor Sarah Palin of Alaska was the next female candidate who accepted the n omination for vice president 24 years after Ferraro. At the age of 44, Palin was the first woman to secure a spot on the Republican presidential ticket. Palin graduated from the University of Idaho with a dual degree in journalism and political science. Pr ior to being chosen as a candidate to run for vice president in 2008, Palin had served as the mayor of a small town in Alaska from 1996 to 2002 and was the first woman and youngest person to be elected governor of Alaska in 2006. She was still governor at the time of her nomination for vice president. After returning from her vice presidential campaign, Palin stepped down as governor of Alaska, having only completed half of her four year term. Palin presented herself as a mother, wa s an opponent of abortion and as a life time member of the National Rifle Association. Although Palin was successful in

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28 drawing large crowds, she was crit icized for her civics knowledge. As reported in an interview with a U.S. journalist, Palin appeared unsure about t he du ties of a vice president. S tating that t he vice president of the U.S. was in charge of the U.S. S e nate Her candidacy was also impacted by the news of her unwed, 17 year pregnancy. Palin received media attention that focused on her portrayal as a mother duties as vice president while also being a mother of five children, including a pregnant teenage daughter and a young son with special needs (Kantor & Swarn s, 2008). for female politicians in the United States, as she was the first female from the Republican party to be on the presidential ticket. Gibson and Heyse (2010) analyzed P the persona that Palin attempted to portray and how it actually undermined feminist ambitions in the political arena. Although Palin vividly portrayed herself as a woman, mot her and wife, she also emphasized traditional gender roles, maintaining herself as a strong cr edentials, based on his m ilitary experience compared to S public service experience, and t hen work in Chicago and the Senate (Gibson & Heyse, 2010). Upon her return to Alaska after her unsuccessful campaign for vice presid ent, Palin faced several accusations of unethical behavior, which included back taxes that she owed to the state. Reports also emerged that she had spent hundreds of thousands

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29 of dollars on a stylist for her and her family. Palin was found to have violated ethics by using her political influence in an effort to have her former brother in law, a state trooper dismissed. Palin has said she has no intentions to run for president in the future. In 2010, she became an official contributor to the Fox News Channe l and later, Palin unofficially became a spokesperson for the Tea Party movement. She delivered the key note address at their first convention in February of that same year. Hillary Clinton During the same election season of 2008, Hillary Clinton was defe ated by Barack Obama. Although the campaigns of Clinton and Palin were almost a quarter of a century opposed to their political experience and stances (Heflick & Gol denberg, 2011; Uscinski & Gorren, 2011). Hillary Clinton graduate d from Wesley C ollege and later attended the Yale Law family policy after her husband Bill Clinton was elected Arkansas Attorney General. Clinton joined the Rose Law firm and in 1988 and 1991 was named one of the 100 most powerful lawyers in America. As first lady of Arkansas (1979 to 1981 and again from 1983 to 1992), Hillary participated in several boards and committees. Later during her h served as one of his chief advisers. As first lady (1993 to 2001), Clinton also played a prominent role in e appointed her to head the Task Force on National Health Care. The Clintons endur Hillary was forced to encounter the uncomfortable publicized infidelities of her husband,

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30 once in 1992 and then again in 1998. In 2001, Clinton became the first female senator of New York and first wife of a president to seek and win national office. She was re elected in 2006. Early in 2007, at the age of 60, Hillary announced her intentions to run for president of the U.S. She did not receive the Democratic nomination for president in November 2008 conceding defeat to Obama. She became the U.S. Secretary of S tate in 2009 and was the third women in U.S. history to hold this position. Based on social role theory and studies related to female politicians, media cove rage, and research conducted by Spe nce and Helmreich (1978), this study sets out to answer the following research questions: Research Questions RQ1. How do American and Pakistani students differ i n their reasons for why the U.S. has not had a female president? RQ2. What characteristics do American and Pakistani/Pakistani American participants attribute to the success of certain political female figures in high office in their respective countries? RQ3. How do American and Pakistani/Pakistani American participants differ in their vision of an ideal candidate for president/prime minister in their respective country? RQ4. How do American participants differ in their views of masculine and feminine traits that describe their ideal U.S. president and those traits that describe a female politica l leader in high office (Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin)? RQ5. How do Pakistani/Pakistani American participants differ in their views of masculine and feminine traits that describe their ideal prime minister and those traits that describe a female politi cal leader in high office in Pakistan (Benazir Bhutto and Hina Rabbani Khar)?

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31 CHAPTER 3 METHOD Researchers have increasingly embraced online survey research because of its convenience and because the internet has become more accessible to the general public (Wellman, 2004). Surveys allow researchers to collect data from a segment of the population a bout a specific topic, and then apply the results to a larger population (Groves, Fowler, Couper, Lepkowski & Singer, 2006). Online surveys in particular are helpful for researchers as they allow respondents to be directed towards specific questions, based on their responses (Atkeson, Adams, Bryant, Adams, Zilberman, & Saunders, 2011). This can be helpful as it can filter out respondents by not asking them questions that are not relevant to them. An online survey was conducted to examine American and Pakist ani/Pakistani respective countries. The American survey consisted of 35 questions and the Pakistani/Pakistani American survey consisted of 32 questions. After answer ing respondents were directed to take either the Pakistani or American survey based on their response. The survey ended if they did not qualify to take either questionnaire: either if they were not 18 years or older, and/or if they were not citizens of either the U.S. or Pakistan. Students who were dual citizens of both the U.S. and Pakistan were asked to rate what nationality/nationality heritage they iden tified with most. T hey then were directed to either survey American or Pakistani/Pakistani American survey b ased on how they answered a 7 point Likert scale question. Participants who indicated that they

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32 were dual citizens of Pakistan and the U.S. were asked on a scale of rected to the Pakistani survey. Both the American and Pakistani surveys were streamlined and designed to mirror one another. (A ppendix A and B.) The Pakistani/Pakistani Ameri can participants were all members of Pakistani student associations at 10 differe nt universities across the U .S. The author contacted 25 universities organization online Of those organizations, 10 responded and agreed to participate. T he author then contacted charitable/volunteer organizations at the same universities for a sample of American participants for the survey. The volunteer organizations contacted for this study were offered an incentive. Each member of the organization who comp leted the survey woul d received $1 for their organization. Each organization could earn up to $80 maximum. The limit was placed so that all the organizations would be guaranteed an equal chance at participation, regardless of their size. At the end of two weeks, organizations were sent a check made out to their organization based on participation. The participating student organizations ranged from 50 to more than 100 active members. Incentives are an important aspect of survey research as they encourage participation and improve survey completion rates. They also acknowledge the significance of participants to the research process (Huby & Hughes, 2001).

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33 A majority of the questions used a 7 point Likert scale to measure the opinions of students on their interest in politics, political e ngagement and their vision of an ideal president or prime minister, as well as their opinion s on certain political female leaders in their respective home country. Participants were informed at the beginning of the survey that the survey explored college s issues in two countries: the U.S. and Pakistan. Participants were made aware of this information regarding the survey because they would be asked whether they and/or one of their parents/guardians was a cit izen of either country so that they could be directed toward the appropriate survey. Dependent v ariables ; Reasons attributed to the U.S. not having a female president. This dependent variable was measured by asking participants five questions on a 7 poin Participants in both groups were asked how much they agreed or disagreed with the following statements: There has not been a female candidate superior enough. There hav e not been enough female politicians in the political arena. A woman may struggle to fulfill the image of the president of the United States of America. Many U.S. voters do not feel that a woman can fulfill the role of president. Many American voters fear that their vote for a female president will not count because it is highly unlikely that she will win. A T test with Bon ferroni adjustment was used to compare any differences attributed to the U.S. not having a female president between American stud ents and Pakistani students for each individual statement (RQ1).

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34 Characteristics attributed to the success or failure of certain female candidates in the U.S./Pakistan This dependent variable was measured by first asking U.S. participants if they were fa miliar with who Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin were. Pakistani/Pakistani American students were asked if they were familiar with who Benazir Bhutto and Hina Rabbani Khar were. Participants who answered they were familiar with the candidates were then aske d how much each of the following Gender, experience, age, image, and personality. The survey also asked about Participants familiar with Clinton rated her family life (daughter, Chelsea Clinton) and husband (Bill Clinton). Participants familiar with Palin rated her family life (husband, Todd Palin) and daughter (Bristol Palin). Participants familiar with Bhutto r ated her family life (husband, children) and her father (Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto). And participants familiar with Khar rated her family life (husband, children) and her ancestral family (The Khars). The scale ranged from 1 to 7 Means were compared to examine the more prominent and least prominent characteristics attributed the success or failure of the political campaigns of these female politicians (RQ2). Characteristics of an ideal candidate for president/prime minister. This dependent variable was measured by asking American and Pakistani/Pakistani American to indicate the extent to which they considered a list of 24 characteristics to describe their vision of a president/p rime minister. A semantic differential scale was used and participants were instructed to choose the point that came closest to the

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35 adjective that described their ideal leader. The list o f 24 words were taken from the Personal Attri butes Questionnaire crea ted by Spence and Helmreich (1978), which consisted of three groups of eight descriptions that could be use d to rate male characteristics female characteristics, and male female characteristics. For purpose of this study, M F scales were reversed so that masculine scores were on the higher end. characteristics describes a president of the United States/prime minister of Pakistan. Each pair of words describes contradictory characteri stics that is you cannot be both at the same time. Please mark the circle that is closest to the word that describes your The response statements were as follows: M F 1. Not at all aggressive/Very aggressive* M 2. Not at all independent/Very independent* F 3. Not at all emotional/Very emotional* M F 4. Very submissive/Very dominant* M F 5. Not at all excitable in a major crisis*/Very excitable in a major crisis M 6. Very passive/Very active* F 7. Not at all able to devote self completely to others/ Able to devote self completely to others* F 8. Very rough/Very gentle* F 9. Not at all helpful to others/Very helpful to others* M 10. Not at all competitive/Very competitive* M F 11. Very home oriented/Very worldly* F 12 Not at all kind/Very kind* M F M F 14. Feelings not easily hurt*/Feelings easily hurt F 15. Not at all aware of feelings of others/Very aware of feelings of others* M 16. Can make dec isions easily*/Has difficulty making decisions M 17. Gives up very easily/Never gives up easily* M F 18. Never cries*/Cries very easily M 19. Not at all self confident/Very self confident* M 20. Feels very inferior/Feels very superior* F 21. Not at all und erstanding of others/Very understanding of others* F 22. Very cold in relations with others/Very warm in relations with others* M F 23. Very little need for security*/ Very strong need for security

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36 M 24. Goes to pieces under pressure/Stands up well unde r pressure* The letters next to each statement indicate M for masculinity, F for femininity and M F for masculine feminine. The M F scores were reversed so that the masculine traits were on the higher end, as shown by the asterisk. Spence and Helmreich (1978) reported their Cronbach alpha values for the M, F and M F scales respectively in a college group sample, where the size was unspecified as .85, .82 and .78 (pp. 35). Yoder, Rice, Adams, Priest and Prince II (1982) combined their M and M F scores af ter administering the personal attributes questionnaire to a group of 1,007 male and 78 female freshman cadets. They reported their Cronbach alpha values for the combined M and M F scales, and the F scale respectively as .76 and .72 (pp. 654). For purpuses of this study, t he male characteristics and the male female characteristics were added together for a composite masculine score; and the female characteristics were summed for a composite feminine score. An independent samples t test was run to see whethe r there was any significant difference between American and Pakistani/Pakistani American participants vision of an ideal president/prime minister based on RQ3. Characteristics of a female candidate for president/prime minister. This variable was measured by asking American and Pakistani/Pakistani American to indicate the extent to which they considered the same list of 24 characteristics to describe a female politician who they were familiar with. American students rated Clinton and Palin (RQ4) and Pakist ani/Pakistani American students rated Bhutto and Khar (RQ5). Participants rated the women by choosing a point on a semantic differential scale that came closest to the words they would agree with that described each women.

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37 T he male characteristics and the male female characteristics (once reversed to match) were added together to f orm a composite masculine score, and the female characteristics were summed to form a composite feminine score. A paired samples t test was conducted to explore whether there was any significant difference between ton and/or Palin (RQ4). A paired samples t test also was conducted to examine Pakistani/Pakistani minister and their perceptions of Bhutto and/or Khar (RQ5). C ivic Learning and Engagement (2009) showed an increase in youth voter turnout (those under the age of 30) of more than 50% compared to the 2004 presidential elections. It was the third highest r ate of increase for this age group in voting in the U.S. Recent data from the Current Population Survey (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010) also found that young female voters were voting at higher rates when compared to young male voters in the U.S. In Pakistan t he importance of the youth vote is also gaining considerable attention as the median age for the Pakistani population is 21 (Pakistan, CIA World Factbook, 2011). After witnessing the recent rise in supporters for the Pakistan Tehreek e Insaaf party, other political parties in Pakistan have started to research and reflect on ways to read into the youth vote (Manan, 2011). The deputy general secretary of the Pakistan Muslim League (N) recently told a Pakistani newspaper that his party had neglected the youth as a target audience in recent years resulting in the loss of their support (Manan, 2011). However, he also emphasized in his statement that his party was beginning to direct its attention toward this group.

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38 This study is unique in that it examines perceptions of American and their respective societies, and the success, failures and characteristics of popular female political figures. The study also explores the ideal vision of president/prime minister and how that ideal image compares to the perception of recent female political figures. The findings could provide a deeper understanding of the cultural differences in perception of the role of women in high offic es that may often be assumed. Ultimately, the findings could shed light on attributes of female politicians that this sample of young adults want and dislike in a candidate, which could provide research for political campaigns.

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39 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The surve y was sent to 1,165 participants belonging to one of 24 student organizations from 10 universities from across the United States. Out of the 24 organizations that participated in the survey, 10 of them were Pakistani student associations. A total of 170 pa rticipants completed the survey, for a response rate of 14%. Of those 129 were completed by American students, and 41 were completed by Pakistani/Pakistani American students. The survey was active for two weeks in March 2012. All of the American partici pants indicated that at least one of their parents/guardians was an American citizen. Participants who indicated that they were what nationality/national heritage did they identify There were four Pakistani Americ ans (with dual citizenship of both Pakistan and the U.S.) who completed the American survey. For those dual citizens who took the American survey, the average number of years for them having lived in Pakistan was six years and the average number of years f or the m living in the U.S. was 15 years. Sixty six percent of the 129 American participants were female, while the average age for these participants was 21. About a quarter of the American participants classified themselves as juniors in college (26%), 1 9% classified themselves as seniors, 19% were sophomores, 18% were graduate students, 16% were freshman, and only 1

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40 the participants were white (56%), 37% reported were nic, In terms of religion, more than half of the 129 American participants classified themselves as Christians (51%), with 61% of those Christians classifying themselves as Catholics, 23% Protestants an d 17% another d enomination of Christianity. Nineteen percent of the American participants were Muslims, 12% were Atheists, and 10% The sample for this survey was more divers e in relation to religion compared with the national population. According to the latest American relig ious identification survey (American Religious Identity Survey 2008), 76% of the total U.S. population consider themselves to be Christians, 1% are Jewi sh, 0.5 % are Muslims, another 0.5% are Buddhists, 0.7 % consider themselves to be Atheists. Seventy eight percent of the American participants indicated on the survey that they were registered to vote, with a majority of the American participants registe red as Democrats (47%). A quarter of the participants were registered to vote as Republican (26%), 22% as independent also indicated that they were planning to vote in the 2012 U.S. presidential elections in November, which was eight months away at the time of the survey According to the current population survey (U.S. Census Bureau, 2 010) conducted in November 2010, 65% of Americans reported that they were registered to vote. Out of all the ag e groups, 18 24 years old reported the lowest numbers of registered voters with only 45% from this age group reporting that they were registered to vote. More young adults in the present sample reported being registered

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41 to vote compared to those in the national average A ccording to research conducted by Gallup (2009) residents in most states identified themselves as Democrat, or favored them as opposed to being Republican in 2008. Similarly, almost half the sample in this study (47%) reported being Dem ocrat. Out of all of the American participants, three shared that they had voted for Hillary Clinton during the 2008 Democratic presidential primaries. Of those registered to vote in the 2008 presidential elections, 22% of the American participants repor ted that they had voted for then Senator Barack Obama, while 10% of the participants voted for Senator John McCain. Other participants indicated that they had not voted or were not registered to vote at the time of those elections. A majority of American participants also shared that they were interested in following U.S. national politics. Sixty six percent of the participants rated themselves on a 7 point Likert scale in which quarters of the American participants shared that they spent anywhere from 0 to 2 days listening and reading about the U.S. presidential race of 2012 every week of the survey in March 2012. A majority of the 41 Pakistani part icipants were male (63%) with the average age being 23. All of the Pakistani/Pakistani American participants indicated that at least one of their parents/guardians was a Pakistani citizen. There were however, 10 dual c itizens of both Pakistan and the U.S. who completed the Pakistani survey. Those he

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42 Pakistani survey, the average number of years living in Pakistan was 13 and the average number of years living in the U.S. was 10. Twenty nine percent of the Pakistani participants classified themselves as graduate students, 22% were juniors, 17% chose sophomores and only 7% were freshmen. Of the 41 Pakistani/Pakistani American participants, 78% of p articipants indicated that their mother tongue was Urdu, while 12% This is in contrast to figures from the CIA Factbook on Pakistan (2012) which reported that a majority of Pakistani s indicate th eir mother tongue is Punjabi (48%), while 12 % reported Sindhi, 10% Saraiki, 8% Pashtu, 8% indicated Urdu 3% Balochi, Hindko 2% Brahui 1%and English, Burashaski and other 8%. In terms of religion, 37 out of 41 (90%) of the Pakistani/Pakistani American participants classified themselves as Muslims, with 86% of those Muslims indicating that they were Sunnis and 14% indicating that they were Shiites. One participant was Hindu, CIA Factbook (2012) reflected a similar breakdown of the Pakistani population by religion. Muslims make up 95 (Sunni 75% and Sh iites 20%) followed by 5% including Christians and Hindus. In terms of political affiliations, 49% of Pakistani/Pakistani American participants said they were supporters of the Pakistan Tehreek i Insaaf (PTI) party, 32% reported no political affiliation, 7% supported the Mutahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) party, 5% supported the political party currently in majority control of the government, the Pakistan Muslim

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43 League (Nawaz) 2% supported All Pakistan Muslim L eague (APML) and 2% were Pakistani/Pakistani American participants appeared divided on their intention to vote in the upcoming 2013 general elections in Pakistan with 49% of the Pa kistani/Pakistani American participants reporting that they planned to vote, 27% who said they would not vote, and 24% said that they had not decided yet. A survey conducted in 2012 by the International Republican Institute (IRI) in Pakistan (as cited in Abbassi, 2012) showed strong support for the Pakistan Tehreek e Insaaf (PTI) party similar to the sample of this study The IRI survey found support for the Pakistan Tehreek e Insaaf (PTI) was the strongest with 33% of those surveyed, followed by PML (Naw A majority of Pakistani/Pakistani American participants (83%) shared that they l politics on a 7 point scale in which kistani national politics. M ore than half (54%) of the Pakistani/Pakistani American participants reported spending anywhere from 0 to 2 days listening and reading about the Pakistani general elections to be held in 2013. RQ1 asked, how do American and Pakistani students differ on their reasons for why the U.S. has not had a female president? A t test was conducted to compare mean scores for each group of students on five individual statements on reasons attributed to the U.S. for not having a female president. A Bonferronni adjustment was applied to reduce the chances of a Type 1 error. The p value for five statement t test th at must be met was a .01. No significant group differences were found. However, because this is

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44 an exploratory study, the statements that were signifi cant below .05 are reported To check if there was a significant difference between reasons attributed to the U.S. not having a female president between male and female participants, t tests were conducted. There was no significance found for either American or Pakistani/Pakistani American male and female participants for why U.S. has not had a female presiden t. politici (M =5.15, sd= 1.40) higher than Pakistani students ( M =4.54, sd=1.36), t (168) = 2.45, p=.015. Pakistani/Pakistani American participants rated M =4.83, sd=1.67) higher than American students ( M =4.15, sd= 1.76), t (168) = 2.19, p= .03. The remaining three st atements from RQ1 did not show significant group differe nces. American participants ( M = 3.93, sd=1.88) and Pakistani participants ( M = 3.51, sd= been a female candidate superior enou significant group difference between American participants ( M =3.36, sd=1.92) and Pakistani/Pakistani American participants ( M woman may struggle to fulfill the image of the president of t (168)= .84, p= .401. No significant difference was found between American participants ( M =4.56, sd= 1.55) and Pakistani/Pakistani American participants ( M =4.88, sd=1.54) in U.S. voters do not feel that a woman can fulfill (168) = 1.16, p= .249.

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45 RQ2 asked, what characteristics do American and Pakistani/Pakistani American participants attribute to the success of certain political female figures in hig h office in who each person was, were asked to rate attributes on a 7 point Likert scale. Participants were asked whether gender, experience, age, image and personality of heir family live s. Because the female politicians -Hillary Clinton, Sarah Palin, Bena zir Bhutto, and Hina Rabbani Khar -cannot be compared, only descriptive statistics are reported. Nearly all of the American participants (122 of 129) indicated that they were familiar with who Hillary Clinton was, while 112 indicated that they were fami liar with included her experience ( M = 5.23, sd= 1.35), her age ( M =4.77, sd= 1.07), which was 60 at the time of the Democratic presidential primaries in 2008 and her image ( M =4.29, sd= helsea Clinton) was rated high ( M = 4.28, sd=1.14) as a characteristic that attributed to the success of her campaign. No significant differences were found between males and females regarding attributes that ign among American voters. ( Table 4 1) her age ( M =3.94, sd=1.17), which was 44 at the time of her run for vice presiden cy in 2008 among American participants, her experience was said to have hurt her campaign a lot ( M =2.33, sd=1.50). ( Table 4 1) To check if there was a significant difference between characteristics attributed to P

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46 failure among male and female parti cipants, t tests were conducted No significant differences were found. Almost all Pakistani/Pakistani American participants (40 out of 41) indicated that they were familiar with who Bhutto was, while 31 participants ind icated that they were familiar with Khar. Bhutto was 35 years old at the time she first became prime minister of Pakistan in 1988. her personality ( M = 6.03, sd= 1.07) and her image ( M = 5.90, sd= 0.93). An additional ristic that attributed to her success ( M = 6.45, sd= 0.93). (T able 4 1) To determine if there were significant differences between male and female participants on their opinions of Bhutto, a t test was conducted. Only one significant father more favorably as a characteristic that aided her political career ( M = 6.93, sd= 0.27) compared to males ( M = 6.19, sd= 1.06); t (38)= 3.35, p=.002. most likely attributed to her personality ( M = 5.32, sd= 1.40), her image ( M = 5.19, sd= 1.25) and her gender ( M = 4.58, sd= 1.09) according to Pakistani/Pakistani American participants Khar was 24 years old at the time she first won a seat in the Pakistani National Assembly in 2002. ( Table 4 attributed as a strong reason for her success ( M = 5.97, sd= 1.17) by Pakistani/Pakistani American participants. A t test showed no significant difference between characteristics

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47 Table 4 1 Mean scores of characteristics attributed to the campaign success of female politicians. Characteristics Clinton Palin Bhutto Khar Gender 3.35 (1.34) 3.66 (1.42) 4.65 (1.31) 4.58 (1.09) Experience 5.23 (1.35) 2.33 (1.50) 5.00 (1.47) 4.32 (1.14) Age 4.77 (1.07) 3.94 (1.17) 4.68 (0.93) 4.45 (1.15) Image 4.29 (1.63) 2.70 (1.74) 5.90 (0.93) 5.19 (1.25) Personality 4.07 (1.70) 3.09 (1.82) 6.03 (1.07) 5.32 (1.03) N= 122 112 40 31 Note: Standard deviations reported in parenthesis between male and female participants, among Pakistani/Pakistani American participants. RQ3 asked, how do American and Pakistani/Pakistani American participants differ in their vision of an ideal candidate for president/prime minister in their respective country? American and Pakistani/Pakistani American participants indicated the extent to which they considered a list of 24 characteristics to describe their vision of a president/prime minister. The list of words was divided into 16 words that indicated masculine characteristics, and eight words that indi cated feminine characteristics. The 16 masculine traits and masculine feminine traits ( 6 statements were reversed to be considered masculine) were added together for both American and Pakistani/Pakistani American participants for a composite masculi ne score (Cronbach alpha=.82 ) and the

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48 eight feminine tr aits were summed and averaged for a composite feminine score (Cronbach alpha=.87). An independent samples t test found a significant difference between American participants ( M= 4.92, sd=0.92) and Pakistani/Pakistani American participants (M =3.85, sd=1.35 ) on their rating of feminine traits for their vision of a president/prime minister. American participants favored a candidate w ith stronger feminine traits, compared to Pakistani/Pakistani American participants (equal variances not assumed); t (50.58) = 4 .66, p< .001 An independent samples t test also showed a significant difference between American participants (M= 4.98, sd=0.59) and Pakistani/Pakistani American participants ( M= 4.10, sd= 0.97) on their preference for masculine traits for their vision of a president/prime minister, t (44)= 5.24, p< .001 (equal variances not assumed). In other words, American participants expressed a strong er preference for a candidate with masculine characteristics compared to Pakistani/Pakistani American students. To chec k if there was a significant difference between American and president/prime minister in their respective country between male and female participants, t tests were conducted. Ther e was a significant difference found between both males and females. RQ4 asked, how do American participants differ in their views of masculine and feminine traits that describe their ideal U.S. president and those traits that describe a female political leader in high office (Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin)? Again, the 16 masculine traits were added together for a composite masculine score, and the eight

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49 feminine traits were summed and averaged for a composite feminine score. There was no significant di fference found between American male and female participants for a comparison between Hillary Clinton and their ideal vision of a president for the U.S. on both masculine, t (120)= 1.96, p= .053 and feminine traits, t (120)= 0.63, p= .95. A paire d samples t test was conducted separately for each female politician to determine if there was a signifi cant difference between participants ideal president, and the characteristics attributed to Clinton and Palin. American ratings of feminine traits of an ideal U.S. president (M=4.94, sd=0.92) was significantly higher than feminine traits of Clinton ( M= 4.60, sd=0.84), t (121) = 3.40, p= .013. American participants ( M= 4.99, sd=0.92) who reported knowing who Palin was also ra ted feminine traits for an ideal U.S. president significantly higher than feminine traits for Palin ( M= 4.12, sd=0.94), t (111) = 7.07, p< .001. It is important to note that a significant difference was found between males and females on their rating of fe minine traits of Palin versus feminine traits of an ideal candidate for U.S. president. Females rated Palin higher ( M= 4.33, sd=1.01) compared to males ( M= 3.93, sd=0.75); t (110) = 2.12, p= .036. In terms of masculine traits, American participants showed a significant difference in their preference for masculine traits for an ideal candidate for U.S. president compared to the masculine traits of both Clinton and Palin. A paired samples t test showed American participants preference for masculine traits in an i deal presidential candidate ( M= 4.98, sd= 0.58) to be significantly higher than for Clinton ( M= 4.81, sd=0.84); t (121) = 2.52, p=.013. A paired samples t test also showed for an ideal U.S. presiden t ( M=

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50 4.96, sd= 0.58) to be significantly higher than their rating of masculine traits for Palin ( M= 3.99, sd=0.79), t (111) = 11.56, p<.001. RQ5 asked, how do Pakistani/Pakistani American participants differ in their views of masculine and feminine traits that describe their ideal prime minister and those traits that describe a female political leader in high office in Pakistan (Benazir Bhutto and Hina Rabbani Khar)? Composite masculine scores and composite feminine scores were used in the analysis. A pa ired samples t test was conducted for each female politician to determine if president and the characteristics attributed to Bhutto and Khar. Pakistani/Pakistani American participants (n=39) showed a significant difference in their preference for feminine traits in their perception of an ideal candidate for prime minister of Pakistan and those feminine traits that best describe Bhutto and Kha ( M= 4 .69, sd=0.86) were rated significantly higher than that of an ideal c andidate for prime minister ( M= 3.84, sd=1.37); t (38) = 3.17, p= .003. Similarly, Khar traits ( M= 4.26, sd=0.68) were rated significantly higher than the feminine traits of an ideal candidate for prime minister ( M= 3.69, sd=1.31); t (29) = 2.2, p=.036. In terms of masculine traits, Pakistani/Pakistani American students showed a significant difference in their preference for masculine traits in an ideal candidate for prime minis ter and those of Bhutto and Khar. However, unlike the American uline traits ( M= 4.67, sd=0.49 ) were rated higher than the masculine traits of an ideal candidate for prime minister of Pakistan ( M= 4.06, sd=0.98) t (38) = 3.98, p< .0 M= 4.30, sd=0.41) were also rated

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51 significantly higher than those of an ideal candidate for prime minister ( M= 3.84, sd=0.91); t (29) = 2.64, p=.013. To check if there was a significant difference between Pakistani/Pakistani A versus their vision of Bhutto and Khar (masculine and feminine traits), t tests were conducted. There was no significant difference found between Pakistani/Pakistani Amer ican male and female participants for a comparison between Khar and their ideal vision of a Pakistani prime minister on both masculine and feminine traits. H owever, t tests findings showed a significant difference between males ( M= 4.52, sd=0.52) and femal es ( M= 4.88, sd=0.44) on their ratings of m asculine traits of Bhutto compared to those of an ideal candidate for prime minister, for females rated Bhutto higher compared to males, t (38)= 2.18, p= .036.

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52 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION This study set out to understand the differences in views between American and Pakistani/Pakistani American students in terms of their opinions about female politicians and related political iss ues. Social role theory provided the framework for this study. The theory states that differences in gender occupations within a society perpetuate gender stereotypes. The study found that American and Pakistani/Pakistani American participants hold very different preferences in terms of what kind of characteristics they want in an ideal candidate for president/prime minister. Both groups rated female politicians from their countries very differently compared to their ideal leader with American participants rating masculine and feminine t raits for their ideal candidate significantly higher. American participants found female politicians did not meet their ideal candidate for president, while Pakistani/Pakistani students found their female politicians exceeded their ideal traits for prime m inister. Major Findings The first major finding showed that both American and Pakistani/Pakistani American students showed a preference for an ideal candidate for president/prime minister with higher masculine traits compared to feminine traits. However, in comparison, American students showed an overall preference for a candidate with both higher masculine and feminine traits compared to Pakistani/Pakistani American students. Social role theory explains that human behavior is strongly influenced by people & Wood, 1999). The theory helps partially explain why American and Pakistani/Pakistani American participants rated feminine traits lower than masculine traits for their visions of an ideal

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53 president/ prime minister. The U.S. has never had a female president. Women in the U.S. C ongress hold 17% of the total seats and 17% of the total seats in the U.S. senate after the most recent elections in 2010 (Women in Congress, 2012). Because females are not stron gly represented in the U.S. government, American participants may not associate women and the ir traits with an ideal leader, when applying social role theory. Pakistan has had a female prime minister twice. H owever, Pakistani/Pakistani American participant s also rated feminine traits for their ideal prime minister lower than masculine traits. Pakistani/Pakistani American participants are aware of the plight of women in their country. Although Pakistani women are represented in government similar to U.S. wom en, there are quotas in place to guarantee their place there. These observations about the subordinate position of women in Pakistani society may have influenced the participants to rank feminine traits lower for an ideal candidate. It is important to ke ep in mind that the personal attributes questionnaire is based on responses from American participants, which may not translate identically for participants from other cultures/countries, such as Pakistan. Studies have shown that the questionnaire is relia ble in other cultures but the studies carried out are few Even so, this study was administered to a sample that was receiving a westernized education. Future researchers may want to administer the personal attribute questionnaire in more countries to con tinue to test the reliability of its masculine and femin in e scales. of masculine and feminine traits of Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin were not as high as those same traits for their ideal candidate for president. Could an inability of Clinton and Palin to match either ideal masculine or feminine traits partially explain why both

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54 candidates were unsuccessful in their respective campaigns? Unfortunately, the findings presente d here can only be attributed to the 129 participants of this study. unrealistic? It would have been helpful to know how American participants ranked successful candidates for p resident (such as Barack Obama and George Bush) against their ideal vision of a president. Perhaps those successful male candidates also do not meet the ideal vision for president based on masculine and feminine traits A comparison like this would be necessary to further explain and understand what traits would be helpful for a female candidate to be successful in a U.S. presidential race. In other wo rds, if male candidates were rated poorly on masculine/feminine traits compared to participan the gender of a candidate may be less of an issue in the success or failure of a campaign. In contrast, Pakistani/Pakistani American participants rated Bhutto and Khar higher in feminine traits when compared to feminine traits for th eir vision of an ideal candidate for prime minister. Similarly, Pakistani/Pakistani American participants also rated Bhutto and Khar higher in masculine traits when compared to masculine traits for their vision of an ideal candidate for prime minister. C ou ld it be that participants rated both tho se candidates more favorably because, in retrospect, they were successful in their campaigns? It is hard to say for certain what aspects of a candidate may influence n for prime minister in the future, would participants view her differently not knowing the outcome of her effort s? It would have been interesting to ask Pakistani/Pakistani American participants about other Pakistani

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55 female politicians who may not have been as successful as Bhutto and Khar in their political careers. In the case of Bhutto and Khar it seems that having exceeded expectations did not hurt their campaigns. While masculine traits are often perceived as necessary to a successful high office career, future studies could examine how feminine traits add to that success or hurt it. It is not affected negatively if they had been rated lower in feminine traits than the ideal vision of a prime minister. Similar to examining the traits of Obama or Bush, a comparison of Pakistani/Pakistani Ameri masculine and feminine traits would be helpful in guiding how to interpret the findings of this study. According to Eagly and Steffen (1984) women and men can be perceived to have traits that are not stereotypically associated with them. Women can be perceived (having more feminine traits), even if social norms dictate otherwise. Both researchers explain that t his can happen, for instance, with working women who were more likely to be perceived as agentic because those women are often perceived as having the choice of entering the workforce, and success in the workforce is often associated with masculine charact eristics. This association, that females who are successful or have a career must have masculine traits, reinforces the findings of this study where American rate masculine traits high in their ideal candidate for president/prime minister.

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56 A third major finding showed varying responses in terms of characteristics that were perceived to help or hurt the campaigns of female political candidates in the U.S. characteristics cannot be compared because the women, as individuals are quite different from each other. Their campa igns and offices were also different. For example, r president, while Palin was on the presidential ticket with Republican Senator John McCain as his running mate. Both candidates also entered their campaigns with different professional experience s An interesting observation from these responses was that characteristic was rated favorable for all four female candidates Clinton, Palin, Bhutto and Khar. A one another. Clinton was 60 at the time of her campaign, Palin was 4 4, Bhutto was 35 at the time she became prime minister and Khar was 24 when she was first elected into the National Assembly. W hy would participants find age to be a helpful characteristic for all four candidates? Perhaps particip ants were not aware of the age gap between the candidates or maybe female candidates ar e perceived as younger because they appear different from a male dominated field icipants why they believed certain characteristic hurt or helped a candidate. than hurtful to her campaign. For Palin, her image and experience were rated low by participa nts. This may be a result of some of the media coverage she received during

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57 her campaign. Participants rated gender as neither helpful nor hurtful to the candidates. This finding suggest s that American participants did not find gender as a characteristic t hat weighs in on the success of a political campaign. According to social role theory, this result would suggest that American participants may not have notice d an y gender imbalance in the position and power in politics. A focus group could help provide de eper understanding of how participants define many of the characteristics measured (i.e. image, experience, gender, age) and how they feel these characteristics can help or Pakistani/Pakistani American participants r be more helpful than hurtful to her campaign. They rated her particularly high for her s long history of personal and political struggle Pakistani participants, according to the social role theory, are aware of the hardships of Pakistani women, they may have thought that a woman as successful as Bhutto must have excelled in many ways to achieve such success. A follow up question could have rated to be more helpful than hurtful to her campaign. Her personality and image were also rated high. Bhutto and Khar are two very different candidates, who entered politics at different times and in under different circumstances. A content analysis of the media coverage that Bhutto and Khar received would be helpful in further understanding the kind of image and personalities of these women are portrayed to have. A future attribut e

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58 candidate. tly high in contributing toward the success of their campaigns. high. This finding is especially useful for future studies in examining how political family t ies play a role in the success or failure of female political leaders in compa rison with personal traits. (image and personality) is associated with their families The Bhuttos and K hars are both strong political dynasties in Pakistan and their elite reputations may have further In general, it seems important to consider that all the female political figures in this study may have benefited from their family ties. Bhutto, Khar and Clinton were all associated with prominent and successful male political figures, while Palin also received prominence for her role as a mother and a wife. Those associations may have impacted the ma nner in which the successes of these female political figures are perceived and also their actual experiences during their careers. Perhaps the success stories of Bhutto and Khar would be very different if they had not been a part of the Bhutto and Khar dy nasties. Similarly, Clinton may have struggled for recognition had she not been the former first lady of the United States. And Palin may have lacked media attention that focused on her being a mother of five children. Future studies closely examine family ties to understand how would argue, that some of these female candidates rise to the top because of male rve in high

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59 office. Over all, the findings suggest that American female politicians who do not completely embrace both ideal masculine and feminine traits could be less successful at winning high office positions More research is needed that explores both male and female characteristics of political leaders to determine what is at the root of the differences in perception. Lastly, female politicians could benefit greatly by trying to understand those traits that are most important to voters and work on strengthening those attributes. Limitations This su rvey used a convenience sample of college students, therefore the findings cannot be generalized to the general population in both countries. Fowler (2009) contend s that surveys (especially surveys conducted online) cannot reach every person. Instead, this study lays the groundwork for future research that explores the masculine and feminine traits of political leaders. This survey specifically targeted young adults the next generation of voters. Research has shown that the youth vote increased significantly during the 2008 U.S. presidential elections. This section of the population is an important age group to study because they will shape the direction of future e lections over the next few decades. The 2008 U.S. presidential race also was different because it was the first time that female politicians played such prominent role in the presidential election. Young voters and their i nterest in politics is an area tha t is ripe for study. Future research may want to reach out to a larger sample that is more representative of the general population in both countries using a combination of online, telephone and on site polling. A weakness of this study in particular was that it surveyed Pakistani/Pakistani Americans currently residing i n the U.S. It is likely that tho se Pakistanis/Pakistani Americans have been influenced by both Pakistan and U.S.

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60 cultures and their views shared may be quite different from Pakistanis who h ave lived their entire lives in Pakistan. In the future, a researcher may want to administer the survey in Pakistan to lower the chances of any cultural bias or influence. In addition to any cultural bias, although survey research is a popular method used by researchers, it does have its share of problems. Survey response bias also may play a role resulting in participants giv ing socially desirable answers, such as overstating their voting behavior (Fowler, 2009). Furthermore, it would also be insightful f or a future study to ask participants more questions about their general political knowledge. Those questions could ask about structure of government, the constitution and prominent key political figures of that time. rating them as well their political roles or the role for which they were campaigning Perhaps those most knowledgeab le had more favorable or less favorable opinions Clinton, Palin, Bhutto or Khar than those who knew less about politics. The sample study also had unequal sample sizes. The American sample (n= 129) was much larger than the Pakistani/Pakistani American sa mple (n= 41). According to Zimmerman (1987), if sample sizes are unequal the inequality of variances can have an effect on significance levels and inverse the probability of Type 1 errors. When applicable a Bonferroni adjustment was used to reduce those ch ances. Also, the survey had a response rate of 14%. There are many reasons for a low survey response rate Steeh (1981) suggested that participants have often been overexposed to surveys and therefore lack interest in completing them. Por ter, Whitcomb and W eitzer (2004) also

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61 suggest that survey researchers specifically targeting students must consider that students may often be contacted to complete multiple surveys during an academic year, which may result in survey fatigue. The survey was sent out in March which can be a busier time of the year for many students as they are reaching the end of an academic semester/year. The survey also was sent to the presidents of student organizations at different universities who sent the survey out at different times. Furthermore, although the sur vey did provide an incentive to the participating organizations, not individual members, an individual monetary incentive may have been more effective. Research has shown that incentives are an important aspect of survey resear ch (Huby & Hughes, 2001). T he author surveyed students from several universities in the U.S. to reach Pakistani students. Future researchers may want to consider working with large r national organization s to reach groups from various cou ntries Finally, the bulk of research on the social role theory that conducted by Eagly mostly took place in the early 1980s. Because of this, a large body of the research referred to in this study is less recent This study attempts to extend social role theory research into the political realm of the 21st century and compares masculine/feminine traits across two cultures

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62 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION The findings lay the foundation for future research regarding the success of female poli ticians running for high o ffice. Young American and Pakistani/Pakistani American participants in this study were found to be different in their perceptions of masculine and feminine traits of political leaders. But a deeper analysis is needed to truly understand why those differenc es exist. Social role theory explains how differences in gender perceptions are a reflection of the imbalance present between genders within a culture. Further research is needed to understand how important it is for candidates to match expectations. Findi ngs from this study do not clearly suggest whether candidates must avoid falling below the expectations, or whether they should always excel high above them to achieve success. More importantly this study showed a preference for a candidate who can show both male and female traits. A person who can be emotional, gentle, very kind and very aware of the feelings of others while also being very competitive, superior, aggressive and dominant. The findings showed that gender played little to no role in the suc cess or failure of the political candidate s running for high office examined in this study This study is particularly fruitful because of its academic and practical applications. It extends the use of the personal attributes questionnaire to a non America n group. The findings are also applicable to female politicians, their campaigns, and political analysts, who are attempting to understand the difficulties associated with women en tering races for high office

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63 Table 4 1 Mean scores of character istics attributed to the campaign success of female politicia ns. Characteristics Clinton Palin Bhutto Khar Gender 3.35 (1.34) 3.66 (1.42) 4.65 (1.31) 4.58 (1.09) Experience 5.23 (1.35) 2.33 (1.50) 5.00 (1.47) 4.32 (1.14) Age 4.77 (1.07) 3.94 (1.17) 4.68 (0.93) 4.45 (1.15) Image 4.29 (1.63) 2.70 (1.74) 5.90 (0.93) 5.19 (1.25) Personality 4.07 (1.70) 3.09 (1.82) 6.03 (1.07) 5.32 (1.03) N= 122 112 40 31 Note: Standard deviations reported in parenthesis

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64 APPENDIX A U.S. STUDENT SURVEY The first part of the survey will be used to filter participants. Participants who are citizens of Pakistan and/or recognize themselves as Pakistani (due to their ship status) will take the Pakistani Student survey; while all American citizens (including children of Pakistani nationals who no longer consider themselves to be Pakistani) will take the survey for American students. Anyone who does not qualify for either category will not be asked any further questions after this section. Filter Questions I. This survey explores college students' perceptions of politicians and political issues in two countries Pakistan and the U.S. You will be asked a few qualifying questions to direct you to the appropriate survey. 1) Are you 18 years of age or older? (yes/no) 2) Are you a citizen of the U.S.? Yes/no 3) Do you have a parent(s) or guardian who is a citizen of the United States? Yes/no 4) Are you a citizen of the Is lamic Republic of Pakistan? Yes/no 5) Do you have a parent(s) or guardian who is a citizen of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan? Yes/no Q6, Q7 and Q8 will only be asked of students who indicate they are dual citizens of the U.S. and Pakistan. 6) How many years have you lived in the U.S.? _________ 7) How many years have you lived in Pakistan? ________ 8) With which nationality/national heritage do you identify yourself most? (Pick one) American Pakistani Both, Pakistani and American

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65 American Student Sur vey II. Now we are going to ask you a few questions about voting and your interest and opinions regarding U.S. politics. owing national politics in the U.S.? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2) Please indicate the extent that each of the following characteristics describes a president of the United States. Each pair of words describes contradictory characteristics that is you cannot be both at the same time. Please mark the circle that is closest to the word that describes your vision of a president. (This does not have to be president Obama; previous presidents or candidates; or future candidates) Not at all aggressive 1 2 3 4 5 Very aggressive Not at all independent 1 2 3 4 5 Very independent Not at all emotional 1 2 3 4 5 Very emotional Very submissive 1 2 3 4 5 Very dominant Not at all excitable in Very excitable in a major crisis 1 2 3 4 5 a major crisis Very active 1 2 4 4 5 Very passive Not at all able to devote Able to devote self self completely to others 1 2 3 4 5 completely to others Very rough 1 2 3 4 5 Very gentle Not at all helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 Very helpful to others Not at all competitive 1 2 3 4 5 Very competitive Very home oriented 1 2 3 4 5 Very worldly Not at all kind 1 2 3 4 5 Very kind Indifferent to others approval 1 2 3 4 5 approval Feelings not easily hurt 1 2 3 4 5 Feelings easily hurt Not at all aware of Very aware of feelings feelings of others 1 2 3 4 5 of others \ Can make decisions easily 1 2 3 4 5 Has difficulty making decisions Gives up very easily 1 2 3 4 5 Never gives up easily Never cries 1 2 3 4 5 Cries very easily Very self confident 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all self confident Feels very inferior 1 2 3 4 5 Feels very superior Not at all understanding Very understanding of of others 1 2 3 4 5 others Very cold in relations Very warm in relations with others 1 2 3 4 5 with others Very strong need for Very little need for Security 1 2 3 4 5 security Goes to pieces Stands up well under pressure 1 2 3 4 5 under pressure

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66 3) Are you a registered to vote in 2012? Yes/no 4) Did you vote in the Republican or Democratic Party presidential Primary in 2008? (This is not the same as the U.S. presidential election on Nov. 4, 2008)? Yes, Republican Primary Yes, Democrat Primary Did not vote in party primary I was 18 but not reg istered to vote Did not vote and was not registered Not sure 5) If yes to Republican in Q4 did you vote for Sen. John McCain in the 2008 Republican Party presidential primary?(Yes/no/rather not say)? 6) If yes to Democrat in Q4 did you vote for then Sen Hillary Clinton in the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primary? (yes/no/rather not say)? 7) Did you vote in the 2008 presidential elections between Sen. John McCain and Sen. Barack Obama? (Yes/no) 8) If yes in Q7 whom did you vote for in the 2008 pr esidential elections? Obama McCain Do not want to say Other _________________ 9) Are you planning to vote in the 2012 presidential elections? Yes/no/Undecided 10) With which U.S. political party do you mostly identify with? Republican Democrat Independent Libertarian Party Other ______________________________ 11) If answer Republican Party on Q4; 10: Have you voted in a 2012 Republican Party Primary (regardless of state)? Yes/Plan to vote/Do not plan to vote/Undecided/Other ___________________ 12) For t hose who answered 2 or higher on Q1 campaigning for or supporting a presidential candidate? Political involvement can include volunteer ing for campaigns; helping register voters; participating in community meetings; attending a rally or speech; donating money; etc. Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Very much

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67 13) For those who answered 2 or higher on Q1 : In a typical week, about how many days do you spend listening to or reading about the 2012 U.S. presidential elections and campaigns. 0 days/1 day/ 2 days/ 3 days/ 4 days/ 5 days/ 6 days/ Everyday 14) For those who answered 2 or higher on Q1, news about politics? Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A lot TV News 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Daily print newspaper, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 not campus paper Major news websites 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Print news magazines 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Radio 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Blogs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Facebook 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Twitter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Friends and/or family members 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Other ___________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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68 III. Now we are going to ask you a few questions about previous presidents and gender. 1) Please indicate how much you agree or disagree with the following statements that some have suggested are reasons why the U.S. has not had a female president: Str ongly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Disagree Agree There has not been a female candidate superior enough. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 There have not been enough female politicians in the political arena. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A woman may struggle to fulfil l the image of the president ofthe United States of America. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Many U.S. voters do not feel that a woman can fulfill the role of president. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Many American voters fear that their vote for a female president will not count because it is highly unlikely that she will win. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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69 IV. Now we are going to ask you a few questions about Hillary Rodham Clinton. 1) Are you familiar with who Hillary Rodham Clinton is? (yes/no/not sure) Proceed further only if yes ans wered for Q1. 2) In 2007 and 2008, Hillary Clinton ran for president of the United States. Her in June 2008. INSTRUCTIONS: Please rate your response on a scale of 1 t much you believe the following characteristics about Hillary Clinton impacted her campaign for presidency. 7= Helped her campaign a lot 6= Helped h er campaign 5= Helped her campaign some 4= Neither helped nor hurt her campaign 3= Hurt her campaign some 2= Hurt her campaign 1= Hurt her campaign a lot Hurt he r campaign a lot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Helped her campaign a lot a. Gender 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 b. Experience 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 c. Age 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 d. Image 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 e. Personality 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f. Family life (Daughter Chelsea Clinton) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 g. Husband (Bill Clinton) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3) Please indicate the extent that each of the following characteristics describes Hillary Clinton during her run for president of the United States in 2008. Please mark the circle that is closest to the word that best describes her during her campaign for president. Not at all emotional 1 2 3 4 5 Very emotional Not at all kind 1 2 3 4 5 Very kind Indifferent to others approval 1 2 3 4 5 approval Feelings not easily hurt 1 2 3 4 5 Feelings easily hurt Not at all aware of Very aware of feelings feelings o f others 1 2 3 4 5 of others

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70 Very submissive 1 2 3 4 5 Very dominant Not at all excitable in Very excitable in a major crisis 1 2 3 4 5 a major crisis Very active 1 2 4 4 5 Very passive Not at all able to devote Able to devote self self completely to others 1 2 3 4 5 completely to others Not at all helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 Very helpful to others Very rough 1 2 3 4 5 Very gentle Not at all competitive 1 2 3 4 5 Very competitive Very home oriented 1 2 3 4 5 Very worldly Can make deci sions easily 1 2 3 4 5 Has difficulty making decisions Not at all understanding Very understanding of of others 1 2 3 4 5 others Very cold in relations Very warm in relations with others 1 2 3 4 5 with others Very strong need for Very little need for Security 1 2 3 4 5 security Gives up very easily 1 2 3 4 5 Never gives up easily Goes to pieces Stands up well under pressure 1 2 3 4 5 under pressure Never cries 1 2 3 4 5 Cries very easily Very self confident 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all self confident Feels very inferior 1 2 3 4 5 Feels very superior Not at all aggressive 1 2 3 4 5 Very aggressive Not at all independent 1 2 3 4 5 Very independent ongly 7= Strongly Agree 6= Agree 5= Somewhat Agree 4= Neither Agree or Disagree 3= Somewhat Disagree 2= Disagree 1=Strongly Disagree Hillary Strongly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Clinton: Disagree Agree Represented a face for female empowerment when she ran for president. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Was able to enter the race

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71 nominat ion for president because she was a woman. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Largely received support from women. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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72 V. Now we are going to ask you a few questions about Sarah Palin. 1)Are you familiar with Sarah Palin? Yes/no/not sure Proceed further onl y if yes answered for Q1. 2)In August 2008, Republican presidential candidate John McCain announced that he had chosen Sarah Palin as his running mate. McCain did not win the presidential race in 2008. INSTRUCTIONS: Please rate your response on a scale much you believe the following characteristics about Sarah Palin impacted her campaign for vice presidency. 7= Helped her campaign a lot 6= H elped her campaign 5= Helped her campaign some 4= Neither helped nor hurt her campaign 3= Hurt her campaign some 2= Hurt her campaign 1= Hurt her campaign a lot Hurt her campaign a lot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Helped her campaign a lot a. Gender 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 b. Experience 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 c. Age 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 d. Image 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 e. Personality 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f. Family life (husband Todd Palin) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 g. Daughter Bristol Palin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3) Please indicate the extent that each of the following characteristics describes Sarah Palin during her run for vice president of the United States in 2008. Please mark the circle that is closest to the word that best describes her during her campaign for vice president. Not at all independent 1 2 3 4 5 Very independent Very strong need for Very little need for Security 1 2 3 4 5 security Goes to pieces Stands up well under pressure 1 2 3 4 5 under pressure Very submissive 1 2 3 4 5 Very dominant Not at all excitable in Very excitable in a major crisis 1 2 3 4 5 a major crisis

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73 Indifferent to others approval 1 2 3 4 5 approval Very rough 1 2 3 4 5 Very gentle Not at all able to devote Able to devote self self completely to others 1 2 3 4 5 completely to others Not at all competitive 1 2 3 4 5 Very competitive Very active 1 2 4 4 5 Very passive Very home oriented 1 2 3 4 5 Very worldly Not at all kind 1 2 3 4 5 Very kind Not at all helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 Very helpful to others Very self confident 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all self confident Feelings not easily hurt 1 2 3 4 5 Feelings easily hurt Not at all aware of Very aware of feelings feelings of others 1 2 3 4 5 of others Never cries 1 2 3 4 5 Cries very easily Can make decisions easily 1 2 3 4 5 Has difficulty making decisions Feels very inferior 1 2 3 4 5 Feels very superior Not at all understanding Very understanding o f others 1 2 3 4 5 of others Gives up very easily Never gives up 1 2 3 4 5 easily Very cold in relations Very warm in relations relations with others 1 2 3 4 5 with others Not at all emotional 1 2 3 4 5 Very emotional Not at all aggressive 1 2 3 4 5 Very aggressive 4) On a scal 7= Strongly Agree 6= Agree 5= Somewhat Agree 4= Neither Agree or Disagree 3= Somewhat Disagree 2= Disagree 1=Strongly Disagree Sarah Strongly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Palin: Disagree Agree

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74 She represented a face for female empowerment when she was nominated as runnin g mate. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 vice president because she was a woman. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 She largely received support 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 from women.

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75 VI. You made it. This is the last set of question. In this section, we want to learn m ore about you. 1) What is your gender? Male/Female 2) What is your age? _______ 3)What is your classification in college? Freshman/First year Sophomore Junior Senior Graduate student Unclassified 4) Are you a person of Hispanic, Latino or Spanish origin? No, not of Hispanic, Latino or Spanish origin Yes, Mexican, Mexican Am., Chicano Yes, Puerto Rican Yes, Cuban Yes, another Hispanic, Latino or Spanish origin. Please enter origin, for example, Argentinian, Columbian, Dominican, Nicaraguan, S alvadoran, Spaniard, and so on. _________ 5) What is your race? White Black, African Am. or Negro American Indian or Alaskan Native. Please enter name of enrolled or principal tribe. _______ Asian Indian Chinese Filipino Japanese Korean Vietnamese Other Asian. Please enter, for example, Hmong, Laotian, Thai, Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on.____ Native Hawaiian Guamanion or Chamorro Samoan Other Pacific Islander. Please enter, for example, Fijian, Tongan, and so on.______ 6) How would you describe your religious affiliation?

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76 Christian (Protestant) Christian (Catholic) Christian (Other) _____ Jewish Muslim Hindu Buddhist Atheist Other _______ 7) Of what student organization are you a member of? (Drop down list)

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77 APPENDIX B PAKISTANI/PAKISTANI AMERICAN STUDENT SUR VEY The first part of the survey will be used to filter participants. Participants who are citizens of Pakistan and/or recognize themselves as Pakistani (due to their citizenship status) will take the Pakistani Student survey; while all American citizens (including children of Pakistani nationals who no longer consider themselves to be Pakistani) will take the survey for American students. Anyone who does not qualify for either category will not be asked any further questions after this section. Filter Questions I. This survey explores college students' perceptions of politicians and political issues in two countries Pakistan and the U.S. You will be asked a few qualif ying questions to direct you to the appropriate survey. 1) Are you 18 years of age or older? (yes/no) 2) Are you a citizen of the U.S.? Yes/no 3) Do you have a parent(s) or guardian who is a citizen of the United States? Yes/no 4) Are you a citizen of t he Islamic Republic of Pakistan? Yes/no 5) Do you have a parent(s) or guardian who is a citizen of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan? Yes/no Q6, Q7 and Q8 will only be asked of students who indicate they are dual citizens of the U.S. and Pakistan. 6) How many years have you lived in the U.S.? _________ 7) How many years have you lived in Pakistan? ________ 8) With which nationality/national heritage do you identify yourself most? (Pick one) American Pakistani Both, Pakistani and American

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78 Pakistani/Pakistani American Student Survey II. Now we are going to ask you a few questions about voting and your interest and opinions regarding Pakistani politics. h 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2) Please indicate the extent that each of the following characteristics describes a prime minister of Pakistan. Each pair of words describes contradictory cha racteristics that is you cannot be both at the same time. Please mark the circle that is closest to the word that describes your vision of a prime minister. (This does not have to be prime minister Yousaf Gillani; previous prime ministers or candidates; or future candidates) Not at all aggressive 1 2 3 4 5 Very aggressive Not at all independent 1 2 3 4 5 Very independent Not at all emotional 1 2 3 4 5 Very emotional Very submissive 1 2 3 4 5 Very dominant Not at all excitable in Very excitable in a major crisis 1 2 3 4 5 a major crisis Very active 1 2 4 4 5 Very passive Not at all able to devote Able to devote self self completely to others 1 2 3 4 5 completely to others Very rough 1 2 3 4 5 Very gentle Not at all help ful to others 1 2 3 4 5 Very helpful to others Not at all competitive 1 2 3 4 5 Very competitive Very home oriented 1 2 3 4 5 Very worldly Not at all kind 1 2 3 4 5 Very kind Indifferent to others approval 1 2 3 4 5 appr oval Feelings not easily hurt 1 2 3 4 5 Feelings easily hurt Not at all aware of Very aware of feelings feelings of others 1 2 3 4 5 of others Can make decisions easily Has difficulty making 1 2 3 4 5 decisions Gives up very easily 1 2 3 4 5 Never gives up easily Never cries 1 2 3 4 5 Cries very easily Very self confident 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all self confident Feels very inferior 1 2 3 4 5 Feels very superior Not at all understanding Very understanding of of others 1 2 3 4 5 others Ve ry cold in relations Very warm in relations with others 1 2 3 4 5 with others Very strong need for Very little need for Security 1 2 3 4 5 security Goes to pieces Stands up well under pressure 1 2 3 4 5 under pressure

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79 3) Are you regi stered to vote in Pakistan? Yes/no 4) Did you vote in the Pakistani general elections in 2008? (yes/no) 5) Are you planning to vote in the next general elections in Pakistan? Yes/No/Undecided 6) For those who answered 2 or higher on Q1 : On a scale of 1 campaigning for or supporting a Pakistani political party? Political involvement can include volunteering for campaigns; helping register voters; parti cipating in community meetings; attending a rally or speech; donating money; etc. Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Very much 7) For those who answered 2 or higher on Q1 : In a typical week, about how many days do you spend listening to or reading about the 201 3 Pakistani national elections/campaigns. 0 days/1 day/ 2 days/ 3 days/ 4 days/ 5 days/ 6 days/ Everyday 8) For those who answered 2 or higher on Q1, news about Pakistani politics? Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A lot TV News 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Daily print newspaper, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 not campus paper Major news websites 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Print news magazines 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Radio 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Blogs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Facebook 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Twitter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Friends and/or family members 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Other ___________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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80 III. Now we are going to ask you a few questions about previous U.S. presidents and gender. 1) Please indicate how much you agree or disagree with the following statements that some have suggested are reasons why the U.S. has not had a f emale president: Strongly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Disagree Agree There has not been a female candidate superior enough. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 There have not been enough female politicians in the political arena. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A woman may struggle to fulfill the image of the president ofthe United States of America. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Many U.S. voters do not feel that a woman can fulfill the role of president. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Many American voters fear that their vote for a fe male president will not count because it is highly unlikely that she will win. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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81 IV. Now we are going to ask you a few questions about Benazir Bhutto. 1) Are you familiar with who Benazir Bhutto is? (yes/no/not sure) Proceed furthe r only if yes answered for Q1. 2) In 1988 Benazir Bhutto was sworn in as the prime minster of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Bhutto was the first (and only) female prime minister of Pakistan. INSTRUCTIONS: Please rate your response on a scale of 1 much you believe the following characteristics about Benazir Bhutto impacted her campaign for prime minister/Chair of Pakistan's People's Party. 7= Helped her campaign a lot 6= Helped her campaign 5= Helped her campaign some 4= Neither helped nor hurt her campaign 3= Hurt her campaign some 2= Hurt her campaign 1= Hurt her campaign a lot Hurt her campaign a lot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Helped her campaign a lot a. Gender 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 b. Experience 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 c. Age 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 d. Image 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 e. Personality 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f. Family life (Husband, children) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 g. Father, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3) Please indicate the extent that each of the following characteristics describes Benazir Bhutto during her political career. Please mark the circle that is closest to the word that best describes her during her campaign for prime minister. Not at all emoti onal 1 2 3 4 5 Very emotional Not at all kind 1 2 3 4 5 Very kind Indifferent to others approval 1 2 3 4 5 approval Feelings n ot easily hurt 1 2 3 4 5 Feelings easily hurt Not at all aware of Very aware of feelings feelings of others 1 2 3 4 5 of others Very submissive 1 2 3 4 5 Very dominant Not at all excitable in Very excitable in

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82 a major crisis 1 2 3 4 5 a major crisis Very active 1 2 4 4 5 Very passive Not at all able to devote Able to devote s elf self completely to others 1 2 3 4 5 completely to others Not at all helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 Very helpful to others Very rough 1 2 3 4 5 Very gentle Not at all competitive 1 2 3 4 5 Very competitive Very home oriented 1 2 3 4 5 Very worldly Can m ake decisions easily 1 2 3 4 5 Has difficulty making decisions Not at all understanding Very understanding of of others 1 2 3 4 5 others Very col d in relations Very warm in relations with others 1 2 3 4 5 with others Very strong need for Very little need for Security 1 2 3 4 5 security Gives up very easily 1 2 3 4 5 Never gives up easily Goes to pieces Stands up well und er pressure 1 2 3 4 5 under pressure Never cries 1 2 3 4 5 Cries very easily Very self confident 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all self confident Feels very inferior 1 2 3 4 5 Feels very superior Not at all aggressive 1 2 3 4 5 Very aggressive Not at all inde pendent 1 2 3 4 5 Very independent 7= Strongly Agree 6= Agree 5= Somewhat Agree 4= Neither Agree or Disagree 3= Somewhat Disagree 2= Disagre e 1=Strongly Disagree Benazir Strongly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Bhutto: Disagree Agree She represented a face for female empowerment in Pakistan as the Chair of Prime Minister of Pakistan. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 She was successful in her political career because she

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83 was a woman. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 She largely received support from women. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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84 V. Now we are going to ask you a few questions about Hina Rabbani Khar. 1)Are you familiar with Hina Rabbani Khar? Yes/no/not sure Proceed further only if yes answered for Q1. 2) In 2002, Hina Rabbani Khar first won a seat in the Pakistan National Assembly. In 2009, she presented the Pakistani budget before the National Assembly. In February 2011, she was appointed as the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs. much you believe the following characteristics about Hina Rabbani Khar impacted her campai gn for a seat in the national assembly. 7= Helped her campaign a lot 6= Helped her campaign 5= Helped her campaign some 4= Neither helped nor hurt her campaign 3= Hurt her campaign some 2= Hurt her campaign 1= Hurt her campaign a lot Hurt her campaign a lot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Helped her campaign a lot a. Gender 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 b. Experience 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 c. Age 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 d. Image 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 e. Personality 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f. Family life (Husband, children) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 g. Family, Khar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3) Please indicate the extent that each of the following characteristics describes Hina Rabbani Khar during her run for a seat in the Pakistani national assembly. Please mark the circle that is closest to the word that best describes her during her campaign for a seat in the national assembly. Very strong need for Very little need for Security 1 2 3 4 5 security Feels very inferior 1 2 3 4 5 Feels very superior Not at all understanding Very understanding of of others 1 2 3 4 5 others Gives up very easily 1 2 3 4 5 Never gives up easily Goes to pieces Stands up well

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85 under pressure 1 2 3 4 5 under pressure Very submissive 1 2 3 4 5 Very dominant Not at all excitable in Very excitable in a major crisis 1 2 3 4 5 a major crisis Indifferent to others approval 1 2 3 4 5 approval Very rough 1 2 3 4 5 Very gentle Not at all helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 Very helpful to others Very self confident 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all self confid ent Feelings not easily hurt 1 2 3 4 5 Feelings easily hurt Not at all aware of Very aware of feelings feelings of others 1 2 3 4 5 of others Very home oriented 1 2 3 4 5 Very worldly Not at all independent 1 2 3 4 5 Very independent Not at all ab le to devote Able to devote self self completely to others 1 2 3 4 5 completely to others Not at all competitive 1 2 3 4 5 Very competitive Very active 1 2 4 4 5 Very passive Not at all kind 1 2 3 4 5 Very kind Can make decisions easily 1 2 3 4 5 H as difficulty making decisions Never cries 1 2 3 4 5 Cries very easily Very cold in relations Very warm in relations with others 1 2 3 4 5 with others Not at all emotional 1 2 3 4 5 Very emotional No t at all aggressive 1 2 3 4 5 Very aggressive 7= Strongly Agree 6= Agree 5= Somewhat Agree 4= Neither Agree or Disagree 3= Somewhat Disagree 2= Disagree 1=Strongly Disagree Hina Rabanni Strongly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Khar: Disagree Agree She represents female empowerment in Pakistan. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 She has been successful in her political career because she is a woman. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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86 She largely receives support from women. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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87 VI. You made it. This is the last set of question. In this section, we want to learn more about you. 1) What is your gender? Male/Female 2) What is your age? _______ 3)What is your classification in college? Freshman/First year Sophomore Junior Senior Graduate student Unclassified 4) What is your religious affiliation? Muslim (Sunni) Muslim (Shiite) Chis tian Hindu Quadiani/Ahmedi Scheduled caste Other ______ 5) What is your mother tongue? Urdu Punjabi Sindhi Pushto Balochi Kashmiri Saraiki Hindko Brahvi Other ______ 6) What political party do you support? Pakistan Muslim League (N) Pakistan Muslim League (Q) Mutahida Quami Movement (MQM) Mutahida Mujlis a Amal (MMA) Awami National Party (ANP) Pakistan Tehreek e Insaaf (PTI) All Pakistan Muslim League (APML) Other (Please enter) None 7) Of what student org anization are you a member of? (Drop down list)

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88 APPENDIX C PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES QUESTIONNAIRE (Spence and Helmreich, 1978) M F 1. Not at all aggressive/Very aggressive* M 2. Not at all independent/Very independent* F 3. Not at all emotional/Very emotional* M F 4. Very submissive/Very dominant* M F 5. Not at all excitable in a major crisis*/Very excitable in a major crisis M 6. Very passive/Very active* F 7. Not at all able to devote self completely to others/ Able to devote self completely to others* F 8. Very rough/Very gentle* F 9. Not at all helpful to others/Very helpful to others* M 10. Not at all competitive/Very competitive* M F 11. Very home oriented/Very worldly* F 12. Not at all kind/Very kind* M F 13. Indifferent to others approval*/Highly needf M F 14. Feelings not easily hurt*/Feelings easily hurt F 15. Not at all aware of feelings of others/Very aware of feelings of others* M 16. Can make decisions easily*/Has difficulty making decisions M 17. Gives up very easily/Never g ives up easily* M F 18. Never cries*/Cries very easily M 19. Not at all self confident/Very self confident* M 20. Feels very inferior/Feels very superior* F 21. Not at all understanding of others/Very understanding of others* F 22. Very cold in relations with others/Very warm in relations with others* M F 23. Very little need for security*/ Very strong need for security M 24. Goes to pieces under pressure/Stands up well under pressure* The scale to which each item is assigned is indicated by M (Masculin ity), F (Femininity) and MF (Masculinity Femininity) Items with an asterisk indicate the extreme masculine response for the M and M F scales and the extreme feminine response for the F scale.

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89 LIST OF REFERENCES Abbassi S. (2012, May 5). PTI leads among Pakistani political parties: IRI poll. The News Tribe. Retrieved from http://www.thenewstribe .com/2012/05/05/pti leads among pakistan political parties iri poll/#.T70608VSTFl Aday, S., & Devitt, J. (2001). Style over substance: Newspaper coverage of Elizabeth The Harvard International Journal of Press Politics, 6 (2), 52 73. doi: 10.1177/108118001129172134 Atkeson, L.R., Adams, A.N., Bryant, L.A., Adams, A.N., Zilberman, L., & Saunders, K.L. (2011). Considering mixed mode surveys for questions in political behavior: Using the internet and mail to get quality data at reasonable costs. Political Behavior, 33(1), 161 178. doi: 10.1007/s11109 010 9121 1 Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence: An essay on psychology and religion. Chicago: Rand McNally. Banwart, M. C., Bystrom, D., & Robertson, T. (2003). From the primary to the general election: A comparative analysis of candidate media coverage in mixed gender 2000 races for governor and U.S. Senate. American Behavioral Scientist 46 (5), 658 676. doi: 10.1177/0002764202238491 Bernstem R. (1986). Why are there so few women in the house? Western Political Quarterly, 39 155 164. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/448421 Boles, J. & Durio, H. (1980). Science Association: Socia l stereotyping of males and females in elected office. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Chicago, IL. Boles, J. & Durio, H. (1981). Political woman and super woman, sex stereotyping of females in elected office. The implicat ions of an attitudinal study. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association: Chicago, IL. Bowman, A. (1984). Physical attractiveness and electability: looks and votes. Women and Politics 4, 55 65. doi: 10.1300/J014v04n04_0 5 Bystrom, D. (2006). Advertising, web sites, and media coverage: Gender and communication along the campaign trail. In S. J. Carroll & R. L. Fox (Eds.), Gender and elections: Shaping the future of American politics (pp. 169 188). Cambridge: Cambridge Un iversity Press. Ce ntral Intelligence Agency. (2012 ). The world factbook: South Asia:Pakistan. Retrieved https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the world factbook/g eos/pk.html

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90 CIRCLE. (2009). New census data confirm increase in youth voter turnout in 2008 election. CIRCLE. Retrieved from http://www.civicyouth.org/new census data confirm increase in youth voter turnout in 2008 election/ Pennsylvania. Journal of Politics 144 463 479. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2130596 Delhi gushes over new Pakistani minister. (2011, July 27). The Tribune Retrieved from http://tribune.com.pk/story/218360/delhi gushes over new pakistani minister/ Devitt, J. (2002). Framing gender on the campaign trail: Female gubernatorial candidates and thepress. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 79 (1), 445 463. doi: 10.1177 /107769900207900212 Diekman, A.B. & Eagly, A.H. (2008). Of men, women, and motivation: A role of congruity account. In J. Y. Shah & W. L. Gardner (Eds.), Handbook of motivation science (pp. 434 447). New York: Guilford. Diekman, A.B. & Schneider, M.C. ( 2010). A social role theory perspective on gender gaps in political attitudes. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34, 286 497. doi: 10.1111/j.1471 6402.2010.01598.x Eagly, A.H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior. New Jersey: Hillsdale. Eagly, A.H., & Diekman, A.B. (2002). The political paradox of gender: The attitudes of men and women toward socially compassionate and morally traditional policies, 1973 1998. Unpublished manuscript, Northwestern University. Eagly, A.H., Diekman, A.B., Schneider, M. C., & Kulesa, P. (2003). Experimental tests of an attitudinal theory of the gender gap in voting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29 (10), 1245 1258. doi: 10.1177/0146167203255765 Eagly, A. H., Diekman, A. B., Johannesen Schmidt, M. C., & Koen ig, A. G. (2004). Gender gaps in sociopolitical attitudes: A social psychological analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 796 816. Eagly, A.H. & Diekman, A.B. (2006). Examining gender gaps in sociopolitical attitudes: nd Venus. Feminism and Psychology, 16 26 34. Retrieved from http://fap.sagepub.com/content/16/1/26 Eagly, A.H., & Steffen, V.J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 735 754. doi: 10.1037/0022 3514.46.4.735

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91 Eagly, A.H. & Steffen, V.J. (1986). Gender stereotypes, occupational roles, and beliefs about part time employees. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 10, 252 262. doi: 10.1111/j.1471 6402.1986.tb00751.x Eagly, A.H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions versus social roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408 423. States. In Epstem C.F. & R.L. Closer (Ed). Access to power cross national studies of women and elites (pp. 124 146). Boston: George Allen and Unwin. Fatima Bhutto slams Hina Rabbani Khar. (2011, O ctober 5). The Tribune. Retrieved from http://tribune.com.pk/story/267597/fatima bhutto slams hina rabbani khar/ Fowler, F. J. (2004). Survey research methods. Thousand Oaks: Sa ge Publications. Gertzog, I. (1979). Changing patterns of female recruitment to the U.S. house of representatives Legislative Studies Quarterly 4, 429 445. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/439583 nomination frequency 1916 1978 American Politics Quarterly, 9, 449 466. doi: 10.1177/1532673X8100900404 ernal persona and performance of hegemonic masculinity at the 2008 republican national convention Communication Quarterly, 58 (3), 235 256. doi: 10.1080/01463373.2010.503151 Groves RM, Fowler FJ, Couper MP, Lepkowski JM, Singer E, et al. (2004) Survey Methodology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hausemann, R., Tyson, L.D., & Zahidi, S. (2011). The global gender gap report 2011. World Economic Forum. Retrieved from http://www.weforum.org/issues /global gender gap Heflick, N. & Goldenberg, J. (2011). Sarah Palin, a nation object(ifie)s: The role of appearance focus in 2008 U.S. presidential elections. Sex Roles, 65 (3/4), 149 155. doi: 10.1007/s11199 010 9901 4 Heldman, C., Carroll, S. J., & Ols Political Communication ,22, 313 335. doi: 10.1080/10584600591006564

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92 Helmreich, R., & Spence, J. T.(1978). The work and fa mily orientation questionnaire (WOFO): An objective instrument to assess components of achievement motivation and attitudes toward family and career. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 8, 35. Helmreich, R. L., Spence, J. T. & Holahan, C. K (1979). Psychological androgyny and sex role flexibility:A test of two hypotheses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1631 1644. doi: 10.1037/0022 3514.37.10.1631 Heilmreich, R.L., Spence, J.T., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1981). A psychometric ana lysis of the Personal attributes questionnaire. Sex Roles, 7 (11), 1097 1108. doi: 10.1007/BF00287587 Houtman, G. (2008). Benazir Bhutto (1953 2007). A conversation with Akbar Ahmed. Anthropology Today, 24 (1), 4 5. doi: 10.1111/j.1467 8322.2008.00557.x Huby, M. & Hughes, R. (2001). The effects in data using material incentives in social research. Social Work and Social Sciences Review, 9 (2), 5 16. International Organization of Parliaments (October 31, 2011). Women in national parliaments. IPU online. Retrieved from http://www.ipu.org/wmn e/classif.htm Jamal, A. (2005). Transnational feminism as critical practice. Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism, 5 (2), 57 82. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40338666 Jones, J.M. (2009, January 28). State of the states: Political party affiliation. Gallup. Retrieved from: http://www.gallup.com/poll/114016/state states political party affiliation.aspx Kahn, K.F. (1992). Does being male help? An investigation of the effects of candidate gender and campaign coverage on evaluations of U.S. senate candidates. The Journal of Politics 54 (2), 497 517. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2132036 Kahn, K.F. (1994a). Does gender make a difference? An experimental examination of sex stereotypes and press patterns in statewide campaigns. American Journal of Political Science, 38 (1), 162 195. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2111340 Kahn, K.F. (1994b). The distorted mirror: press coverage of women candidates for statewide office. The Journal of Politics, 56 (1), 154 173. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2132350

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93 Kahn, K. F. & Goldenberg, E.N. (1991a). Women candidates in the news: an examination of gender differences in U.S. senate campaign coverage. Public Opinion Quarterly 55 180 199. doi: 10.1086/269251 Kahn, K. F. & Goldenberg, E.N. (1991b). The media: obstacle or all y of feminists? Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 515 104 113. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1046931 Kantor, J., & Swarns, R. L. (2008, September 2). A new twist in the debate on mothers The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/02/us/ politics/02mother.html?pagewanted=print Klein, H. N., & Willerman, L.(1979). Psychological masculinity and femininity and typical and Maximal domin ance expression in women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 2059 2070. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/psp/37/11/2059.pdf Kosmin, B.A. & Keysar, A. (2009). American religious identity survey (ARIS 2008) summary report. ARIS 2008. Retrieved from http://commons.trincoll.edu/aris/publications/aris 2008 summary report/ Man an, A. (2011, November 2). Discovering Facebook: PML N prepares new plan to win youth vote. The Tribune. Retrieved from http://tribune.com.p k/story/286288/discovering facebook pml n prepares new plan to win youth vote/ Mumtaz, K. & Shaheed, F. (1987). Women of Pakistan: two steps forward, one step back? Lahore: Vanguard. Nincic, M. & Nincic, D. J. (2002). Race, gender, and war. Journal of P eace Research, 39 547 568. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1555342 Norris, P. (2003). The gender gap: Old challenges, new approaches. In S.J. Carroll (Ed.), Women and American politics: Ne w questions, new directions. (pp. 146 172). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Pakistan Census Bureau (n.d.). Population by mother tongue. Population Census Organization Retrieved from http://www.census.gov.pk/MotherTongue.htm Pakistan Census Bureau (n.d.). Population by religion. Population Census Organization. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov.pk/Religion.htm Porter, S.R., Whitcomb, M.E., and Weitzer, W.H. (2004). Multiple surveys of students and survey fatigue. New Directions for Institutional Research, 121 63 73. doi: 10.1002/ir.101

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94 Sapiro, V. (1982). If US senator Baker were a woman. An experimental stud y of candidate images. Political Psychology, 2 61 83. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3791285 elections American Journal of Political Science, 49, 803 817. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3647698 Schlesinger, M. & Heldman, C. (2001). Gender gap or gender gaps? New perspectives on support for government action and policies The Journal of Politics, 63, 59 92. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0022 3816.00059 Spence, J. T. & Helmreich, H.L. (1978). Masculinity & femininity: their psychological dimensions, correlates, and antecedents. Austin: University of Texas press. Spence, J. T., Helmreich, R. L., & Holahan, C. K. (1979). Negative and positive components of psychological masculinity and femininity and their relationships t o neurotic and acting out behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychological, 37, 1673 1682. Spence, J.T., Helmreich, R.L. & Stapp, J. (1975). Ratings of self and peers on sex role attributes and their relation to self esteem and conceptions of masculinity and femininity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 29 39. Steeh, C. G. (1981). Trends in nonresponse rates, 1952 1979. Public Opinion Quarterly, 59, 66 77. Taseer S. (2011, August 2). Hina Rabbani Khar offers hope to Pakistan. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/aug/02/hina rab bani khar hope pakistan U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Current Population Survey. U.S. Census Buearu. Retrieved from: http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/socdemo/voti ng/publications/p20/2010/tables.h tml Clinton during the 2008 Democratic primary. Political Research Quarterly, 64 (4), 884 896. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1046931 Ward, S. (1974). Range of sex role identity and self esteem in a homosexual sample. Unpublished honors thesis, University of Texas, Austin.

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96 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Anam Wahidi was born in 1988 in State College, Pennsylvania. She spent her early years living in Gainesville, Fl orida with her parents and brother while her father completed his Ph.D. at the University of Florida. She returned with her family to Islamabad, Pakistan in 1994. After completing her A Levels from Lahore Grammar School, she returned to the U.S. in August 2006. In 2010, s he received her Bachelor of Ar ts in Mass Communication from Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.