Young People and Mobile TV News Behaviors

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Title:
Young People and Mobile TV News Behaviors
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1 online resource (74 p.)
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english
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Bowe, Kristen E
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University of Florida
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Degree:
Master's ( M.A.M.C.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Mass Communication, Journalism and Communications
Committee Chair:
Zerba, Amy
Committee Members:
Cleary, Johanna
Ostroff, David H

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Subjects / Keywords:
college -- gratifications -- mobile -- smartphone -- student -- tv -- uses
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
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Abstract:
The present study examines the news motivations for young people to use traditional televisionsets and TV mobile news. Uses and Gratifications approach provided theframework to examine motives for using the two mediums for TV news. The authorsurveyed 443 college students ages 18 to 24 at a large university, and askedthe participants about their mobile TV news behaviors and news interests. Research shows that young adults mainly use the Internet for news consumption, with television ranking second as a news source. As mobile phone usage and video watching is continuing to increase among young people ages 18 to 30, theresearcher was interested in examining the motivations for young people to watch mobile TV news. The study asked participants about their media use; motivations for watching TV news on traditional TV sets and on mobile devices; preferences for specific attributes and features of mobile TV news; willingness to pay for mobile news; and news interests. The study found participants tended to watch TV news on TV sets for surveillance and boredom significantly more than on mobile devices. The study found the sample of young people strongly desired customization and personalization when accessing news on a mobile device.  The results showed their news interest varied with different news media.
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kristen E Bowe.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local:
Adviser: Zerba, Amy.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2014-08-31

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lcc - LD1780 2012
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UFE0044680:00001


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1 YOUNG PEOPLE AND MOBILE TV NEWS BEHAVIORS By KRISTEN BOWE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNIC ATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Kristen Bowe

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3 To my mom and dad

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my parents and my sisters : Jennifer, Emily, Katelyn, Jillian and Amanda for whom without their support would not be presenting t his thesis today. I would also like to thank my committee co chairs Dr. Amy Zerba and Dr. Johanna Cleary, and Dr. David Ostroff for their knowledge and guidance through this process.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGME NTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 6 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 9 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 11 Uses and Gratification Theory and television ................................ .......................... 11 Evolution of mobile devices ................................ ................................ .................... 16 Evolution of Mobile TV news ................................ ................................ ................... 18 Convergence of traditional and mobile media ................................ ......................... 21 ................................ ................................ ......................... 23 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 28 Introductory Remarks ................................ ................................ .............................. 28 Measurements ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 29 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 35 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 45 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 50 Looking Forward ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 51 APPENDIX: SURVEY ................................ ................................ ............................... 53 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 68 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 74

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6 LIST OF TABLES Table P age 4 1 Sample Device Use ................................ ................................ ............................ 41 4 2 Simple Regression of News Features and Willingness to Pay ........................... 42 4 3 Simple Regression of N ews Interest on Media Platform ................................ ..... 43

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7 Abstract of T hesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Commun ication YOUNG PEOPLE AND MOBILE TV NEWS BEHAVIORS By Kristen Bowe August 2012 Chair: Amy Zerba Major: Mass Communication The present study examines the news motivations for young people to use traditional television sets and TV mobile news Uses and Gr atifications approach provided the framework to examine motives for using the two mediums for TV news. The author surveyed 443 college students ages 18 to 24 at a large university and asked the participants about their mobile TV news behaviors and news in terests. R esearch shows that young adults mainly use the Internet for news consumption, with television ranking second as a news source. As mobile phone usage and video watching is continuing to increase among young people ages 18 to 30, the researcher was interested in examining the motivations for young people to watch mobile TV news The study asked participants about their media use; motivations for watching TV news on traditional TV sets and on mobile devices ; preferences for specific attributes and fe atures of mobile TV news ; will ingness to pay for mobile news; and news interests. The study found participants tended to watch TV news on TV se ts for surveillance and boredom significantly more than on mobile devices The study found the sample of young pe ople strongly desired customization and personalization when accessing news

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8 on a mobile device. The results showed their news interest varied with different news media

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9 C HAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Today, fewer young people are watching traditional television for news and instead more are moving toward news on the Internet ( Diddi & LaRose, 2006; Huang, 2009; Mitchelstein & Boczkowski, 2010; Ogan, Ozakca & Groshek, 2008; Pew Internet and American Life, 2002; Pew Research Center 2011 ). With this change, the stud y examines whether young people would be more inclined to use their mobile devic e to watch television news. The millennium has brought about an abundance of mobile devices that have changed how news is consumed ( Einav, 2010; Goggin, 2009; Meadows, 2010). P ew Internet & American Life (2011) reports 85% of Americans have a cell phone subscription. The mobile device has come to downloadable mobile applicati ons and through third party platforms that offer channel surfing experiences for mobile users (Meadows). For the purpose of this study, mobile devices are devices that integrate communication and multimedia functions ( Westlund, 2008) Devices include n etbo oks, iPad iPod and smart phones, such as Android and iPh one The survey asked a convenience sample of college students about their uses or perceived uses of watching television news on mobile devices; their news topic interests as they relate to media use; attributes of mobile TV news that they like or do not like; as well as what features, if any, t hey would be willing to pay for, for mobile TV news service. A goal of the study was to compare mobile television news motives as they relate to traditional TV news motives. The main purpose of the study was to understand what young people desire from mob ile television news. The goal of the study is to provide suggestions to the

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10 media industry about how to access young adults as news consumers and mobile dev ice users. The media could make more money and perhaps mitigate the erosion of media consumption, The Uses and Gratifications Theory provides the fra m ework for which to examine motives for watching TV news on a TV set and mobile device. Chapter 1 has reviewed the importance of this study and its implications for media, young people and the future of mobile TV news consumption. Chapter 2 reviews relevant research on the Uses and Gratification s Theory, television news, mobile television news, the growth of mobile devices and why young people are so important when studying the mobile television news audience. Y oung people are seen as uninterested in news and research has reflected that disintere st (Mindich, 2005 ; Ogan, Ozakca, and Groshek, 2008; Putnam, 2000 ). Chapter 3 outlines the method used, the sample, the variables that were measured and the statistical tests that were conducted. Chapter 4 reports the survey results media use, motives for watching TV news, news interests and preferences for attributes and features regarding mobile TV news. Chapter 5 discusses the impact of these findings and its connection to the Uses and Gratifications Theory, previous research the limitations of the study and implications for future research in this area.

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11 C HAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW To examine the motives for using mobile devices for TV news, it is important to first understand how the Uses and Gratifications Theory is used to motives for using media in general The following chapter highlights previous Uses and Gratifications studies on TV uses as well as Internet and mobile device uses. The theory provides insight to possible motivations for young people to ac cess TV news on mobile devices. In addition, the chapter provides background information of the evolution of traditional TV use to mobile device use. Examining the evolution of media and technology provide s key information about how news consumption behavi ors have changed over time. Lastly, this chapter will focus on the current news behaviors of young adults that further address es the importance of studying the cohort. Use s and Gratification Theory and t elevision With digital media influencing television use patt erns, it is important to examine how the media can serve its audience. Television is considered a passive medium where users do not have to actively engage with the medium to receive information (Krugman & Hartley, 1970; McLuhan, 2003). Uses and Gratifications Theory reflects the active choice of watching a broadcast message (Rubin, 2002). Blumler (1979) found engagement with television occurs at three different points: before exposure, during consumption and after the media experience (Blumler). Audience attention often is measured by asking viewers to recall information. Uses and Gratifications Theory research started in the 194 1 w hen Herta Herzog explored the satisfactions audiences said they derived from accessing daytime radio programs. First Herzog (1941) found listeners reported having an emotional release,

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12 which was described as the relief of not feeling alone. Second, listeners reported the ability to fictionalize themselves in order to imagine a happier situation and in essence formulate d a parasocial relationship with radio characters. Lastly, Herzog found radio soap operas allowed listeners to reflect on their own situations and confront their real life problems. Harold in depth research on why p eople chose to listen to the radio (Lasswe ll, 1948). Lasswell found the communication process performs three functions: (a) surveillance of the environment and its threats and opportunities, (b) the correlation between society and the environment and (c) transmission of ideas in a society. Katz, Blumler and Gurevitch (1973) described audience behavior s that helped to further develop uses and gratificatio n effects in later res earch. Those gratification behaviors include: 1. The audience is active and goal o riented in media selection; 2. The audience is actively participating in the media; 3. Media competes with other media to gain audience attention; 4. Audiences are self aware; and 5. Audiences use the media to reflect on their own situations. According to the Uses and Gratifications Theory, people are active media participants because they become motivated and goal oriented when selecting media (Blumler, 1979; Papacharissi & Rubin, 2000; Rubin, 2002; Yang & Chan Olmstead, 2009). The theory explains how the audience chooses to participate and select media, which are competing with each other, in order to seek out information, find interests or also is influenced by their socioeconomic environments and influe nces, according to the theory (Rubin). The

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13 theory explains how people will rely on information and return to media that they find useful. With TV use, Blumler (1979) found that people were looking to fulfill needs in certain dimensions such as (1) general information seeking, including surveillance and reality exploration; (2) decisional utility, such as specific seeking of information to make decisions; (3) entertainment or diversion from reality in the concepts of escape from boredom and relief of everyd ay activities; (4) interpersonal utility, or conversational interactions with others; and (5) parasocial interaction or making relationships by allowing an audience member to take information and reflect on personal experiences to gain understanding of th eir environment. Bantz (1982) found surveillance was a strong motivator for why young people watch TV. Uses and G ratifications Theory has been applied to examine motives for online media use because of the level that consumers engage with this medium (Lee, 2010). Online media, unlike traditional media, allow people to select news stories base d on their needs and interests. Ha and James (1998) wrote media have transformed from a mass produced and mass feast of niche and sp ecialties (p.459). Research has found college students use the Internet for surveillance, information seeking, entertainment, interpersonal utility and passing time (Papacharissi & Rubin, 2000 ; Vincent & Basil, 1997 ). Papacharissi and Rubin found that us ers were typically goal oriented and selective when choosing what they look at on the Internet. Their study found th at the Internet is an alternative to other media when those media are not fulfilling the needs of the individual. The researchers also found that those who used the Internet to fulfill needs of affection, inclusion, expression,

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14 social interaction, control, and surveillance, tended to use the Internet the most compared to other Internet users (p. 192). Ruggierio (2000) described how Internet u sage differs from person to person with some users having speci fic intentions to use a website versus other websites. The author contends that audiences are fractured into smaller and more elite audiences similar to different magazine niches. With the Inte rnet, there is no targeted community as a primary audience. Ruggiero explained how the Internet is an individual activity and users seek and create information on it. The Internet provides more possibilities than traditional media in the form of communicat ion. reasons for using mobile commun ication devices ( Choi, Kim & McMillan 2009 ; Ozcan & Kocak, 2003; Ruggiero, 2000 ; Wei, 2000 ). Ozcan and Kocak (2003) found cell phone ownership wa s much higher in the demographic of ages 18 to 25 than any other group. Dimmick, Feaster and Hoplamazian ( 2011) found p ortable or mobile media are particularly high in gratification opportunities, and a medium such as a smartphone delivers interesting and useful content that can fill the needs o f the individual The same perceived utilities for traditional media have been found for use of the Internet on mobile devices: information seeking, escape, interaction, personal communication and relaxation (Yang & Chan Olmstead, 2009). Schroeder (2010) categorized mobile phones as serving two purposes: interpersonal communication and access to online news. Choi, Ki m and McMillan (2009) examined Uses and G ratification factors of media and mobile devices and attitud es. The researchers chose to survey students ages 18 to

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15 30 because, they argued, students are key consumers of the mobile market with more free time, expandable income and higher likelihood of owning a mobile phone than a landline phone. The study found pe rmanent access and immediate access motives influenced mobile phone usage. The study also found that immediate access to television programs anytime and anywhere is a top reason for mobile TV use. Other (Choi et al.). Research has found status and relaxation score low on motives for using a cellular device ( Leung & Wei, 2000; Ozcan & Kocak, 2003). Leung & Wei (2000) define d status as the motivation to look stylish, fash ionable and relaxation as the ability to talk on the phone when wanting to gossip, relieve boredom and pass the time. The gratification dimensions of mobility, immediacy and instrumentality are considered strong factors for cellular device use (Leung & Wei 2000) However, t here have yet to be any published academic studies on watch ing TV news on mobile devices This study will address those questions and provide important insight into the process. LaRose and Eastin (2004) defined media attendance as news routines that become habitual creating a behavior in which consumers will turn to a medium they are accustomed to using (TV on a TV set) rather than turning to a new medium (TV on a mobile device) because they are used to accessi ng a specific medium. LaRose and Eastin describe d the behavior as the consumer lapsing into habitual patterns of media consumption in order to conserve mental energy and time rather than having to engage in an active selection. Diddi and LaRose (2006) foun d college students news behaviors were similar to the media attendance habit In other words, o nce a behavior is

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16 establish ed it becomes the go to habit to get a news fix (Diddi & LaRose ) Diddi and LaRose speculated that as the habits build, college aged news consumers will turn to their preferred news source to relieve their sense of needing to know what is going on in the world (p. 195). The researchers found that young people were likely to turn to cable and broadcast tele vision out of habit (Diddi & La Rose). The present study extends Uses and Gratifications research by asking: RQ1: on a TV set similar or different to motives for watching mobile TV news? Evolution of mobile devices Goggin (2009) d efined a mobile device as a small portable device, tablet or phone in which users can watch content on the go. This device does not include laptops, for pur poses of this study because laptops are considered too large in physical size The cell phone is the first evidence of a mobile device with Internet capabilities (Goggin). The mobile phone has become more than a talking device and rather represents converged new communication services. The mobile phone has become a staple in communication (Peters, 2005). Mobile phones have been around for about three decades but have become an important device with defining contemporary culture and i ts growth in society (Goggin). Cellular phone technology was initially adopted in the 1980s because it offered an amount of pri vacy to conversations (Goggin, 2009; Groening, 2010). Utilizing radio technology (similar to cordless phones, citizens band radio and even television), cellular phones transmit conversations in such a fashion as to disallow eavesdropping and keep the c onversation secluded and private. As technology advanced, specifically in the 1990s, mobile phones became smaller and more portable. The cell phone included

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17 advanced features, such as a phone book, calendar and texting. The cell phone became more a part of Wireless Internet access combined with mobile devices entered the scene in 1999 (Groening 2010 ). The largest leap in mobile technology came in 2000 when Sharp introduced the first camera phone (Pure Mobile, 2011), followed by a la unch for music Palm introduced the Treo in 2001 and RIM produced the Blackberry in 2002 allowing people to use their phone as an event planner and calendar. In 2007, the iPhone changed the phon e landscape again. It was a small pocket sized computer with a touch screen interface called a smartphone. S martphone s are equipped with multimedia capabilities including video and still camera, virtual keyboard, multi tasking capabilities and a marketpla ce for apps, or mobile applications that can do various functions, such as gaming and work related tasks, among other features. The cell phone is particularly popular with users interested in fashion, entertainment and the world of telecommunication (Goggi n). With the smartphone (2011 ) found consumers increasingly want and expect constant access to entertainment and news content regard less of their position in time or space. The researchers found s mall porta ble communication devices or mobile media, such as the smartphone are playing key roles in providing the public with information. The researchers found mobile device platforms allow people to fill gaps in their daily routines to get information whenever/wherever compared to other more tradit ional channels of communication. The use of mobile has been found to create groups motivated to participate in networked individualism and communities of choice (Bro ddason, 2006). As more consumers are

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18 becomi ng connected through these mobile media, the tech nologies that support them are growing significantly in sophistication with regard to speed, reliability accessi bility and affordability ( comScore, 2012 ; Forge, Blackman & Bohlin, 2006 ). According to comSc smartphone pene tration has surpassed 40% of the U.S mobile phone market, a total of 98 million smartphone subscribers. The report also found mobile media use continues to prosper as wireless technology and third generation capabilities continue to become more accessible (comScore, 2012). Evolution of Mobile TV news The impact of mobile television has created a place where the adoption of cellular phones as a television platform has changed the role of television in the publi c/private sphere (Groening, 2010). Simply put, mobile television has altered how people view television in significant ways (Hardenbergh, 2010). Television became a household necessity between 1955 and 1975 because virtually everyone had a television. Howe ver, one television set could command the attention of an entire household, not just an individual (Hardenbergh). Television news did not have a variety of content options because there were only a few broadcast networks (Hardenbergh). CNN started in 1980 as the first cable news network with 24 hour programming. The 1984 Cable Act expanded access channels and news channels deregulated cable and with th at cable news grew rapidl y (National Cable and Telecommunication Association, 2011). With traditional tele vision sets, access to TV increased from one set per household to individual sets in each bedroom. Each family member could watch television in solitude. The concept of television news changed with the introduction of cable news in 1980 and eventually mobi le news. In the late 1990s, broadband cable opened up a new way to access media content using the Internet (Moyer, 2009). This

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19 development paved the way for mobile access today. Subscribers can watch Internet television news at home on a big screen and on their mobile devices. Mobile television has added more locations where people can access television (Hardenbergh; Meadows, 2010). Viewers have developed a personal space with mobile medium platforms for watching news (Hardenbergh). Fewer families gather as a unit to watch the nightly news as they once did. When consumers watch television at home, the television brings news and information into what is considered the relative safety, security and seclusion of the home. Mobile privatization allows for the in dividual to have one on one contact and productive way of analyzing a society that is isolating and connecting, atomizing and cosmopolitan, or inward dwelling but out ward privatization examines the relationship between communication and society in a mobile environment (Groening; Williams, 2003). Mobile privatization has impacted mobile television use because users are moving away fr om the home and creating their new home wherever their mobile device is (Williams). Unlike traditional media, which traditionally is consumed at a specific time and place during the day, mobile media frees the consumer from the space and time constraints ( Dimmick Feaster & Hoplamazian, 2011; Hemment, 2005). Mobile devices are driving 6.8% of Internet traffic with approximately two thirds of that traffic coming from mobile phones and the remainder from mobile tablet devices, according to a comScore report (2011) Media consumers are consuming more mobile content because of : third generatio n Internet availability ; a faster connection ; and

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20 stronger bandwidths to watch videos online (Meadows, 2010). According to e month period ending in June 2011, more than 16 million mobile users in the United States watched TV or a video on their mobile device. Mobile TV users ages 24 to 34 accounted for the largest viewing share with 31.8% of the mobile TV viewing population. T he youngest of adults (ages 18 24) accounted for 21.9% of the mobile TV viewing population. In comparison, adults ages 45 t o 44 accounted for 11.4% and those aged 55 and older accounted for 3.4% of the population. The online video trend is still in an earl y adoption stage but viewership is continuing to increase (Nielsen, 2011 ). Metzger, Flanagin and Zwarun (2003) predict ed online behaviors will change as technology becomes more infiltrated in society. With regard to traditional television use in the Unite d States Nielson (2011) reported television viewing as a traditional medium still remains high with the average American watching 159 hours of television each month. But online video has increased to 4 hours and 20 minutes a month which is one hour and 1 0 minutes more than what was spent in 2010 (Nielson, 2011). And nearly half of all Americans get some form of local news on a mobile device, according to a Pew Internet and American Life Project 2011 study. One crucial displacement effect of new media is t he reduction in time spent on using traditional media (Dimmick, Chen & Li 2004). Mobile device usage has become a part of young adult life and has had an i mpact their television use (Bro dasson, 2006). The Pew Research Center (2011) reported that every new s platform, except for the Internet, has either stalled or declined in viewership in 2010. Cable news, which includes the three big networks CN N, MSNBC and FOX News, saw its first a decline for the first time in 12 years Cable subscriptions also continue to

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21 decrease (National Cable Television Association 2011). Mitchelstein and Boczkowski (2010) found the use of news sites displaces offline news consumption for younger and more educated users. Traditionally, Internet news has been seen as a complement to traditional media platforms (Chan & Leung, 2005; Nguyen & Western, 2007), but as the online viewership continues to increase, it is necessary to study the reasons behind this move fr om traditional TV to online and/or mobile platforms. Convergence of tradit ional and mobile media More than a decade ago, researchers and theorists discussed the mobile vironment in which news stations push information to chooses what to wa tch (Hardenbergh 2010 ). Doc Searls of the Berkman Center for Internet and Society gone. It will have been a 60 year old experiment that will be followed by something els (Moyer, 2009, p. 74). Online broadcast news is about convergenc e (Karlsson & Strmbck, 2009), immediacy (Deuze, 2003; Pavlik, 2000) and interactivity (Boczkowski, 2004; Cover, 2006; Deuze, 2005). Convergence in its current media context refers to some combination of technologies, products, staffs and geography among previously distinct provinces of print, television and online media (Singer, 2003). Presently, the media are defining the direction for mobile television media in order to better meet on th e go consumer needs. As news becomes constantly updated, the public is able to receive information faster than before (Karlsson & Strmbck). With Internet and mobile platforms, users can choose what they want to watch based on their interest in the order the y want to watch it (Karlsson & Strmbck). Immediacy enables those working for

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22 online news media to continuously change, tweak or erase a ny published content. Karlsson and Strmbck wrote e hours, thirty seven minutes an (p.4) The term immediacy refers to the idea that the news cycle has become shorter with more information updates online as news occurs (Singer). Some researchers posit that online news immedi acy prevents people from accessing news about important public affairs and current events (Schoenbach, de Waal & Lauf, 2005). Still, some researchers write that browsing the Internet can increase public awareness particularly for young viewers because user s are made aware of public affairs by simply browsing as long as the information is appealing (Lupia & Philpot, 2005). Interactivity allows users to add information to the news content or context, therefore bypassing the media industry. Interactivity has g reatly impacted the notion of the active user. Lupia and Philpot contend young people are active news consumers. Chung and Yoo (2008) define medium interactivity as interactive communication where the medium and user are able to work with technology to mak e choices and control the communication process. Trombly (2003) found that young adults preferred the web mainly because they liked that feeling of control it gave them over their media experience. To examine mo bile TV news attributes (i e. immediacy and interactivity) and mobile TV news features (i e. p ersonalization) that young adults would be willing to pay for, the present study ask ed : RQ2: Which mobile TV news attributes, if any, are associated with the frequency of mobile TV news use? RQ3: Which mob willingness to pay for a mobile device television news subscription?

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23 Between media streaming services on the web and Internet TV connection devices, young people have more vi ewing options than before because of the Internet. The Pew Research Center (2011) reported that in 2010, the Internet surpassed television as the main source of national and international news for adults younger than 30. The study found that since 2007 you ng peopl e ages 18 to 29 years old citing the Internet as their main source of new has nearly doubled to 65% of the young adult population. The Internet has attracted more young people ages 18 and older to news more than any other form of media (Pew Interne t & American Life, 2002). But with the increased competition for attention between digital and conventional media, there are al media based news (Diddi & La Rose, 2006; Meijer, 2006; Mindich, 2005; Putnam, 2000). The Pew Research Center (2011) reported that the number of young people citing television as their main sourc e of news has decreased from 68% to 52% I t has been assumed that younger generations will automatically develop a need for n ews and information once they move into adulthood (Diddi & La Rose). However, that transition is no longer the (Didi & LaRose ; Meijer ). Young people report that they are le ss likely to participate in traditional news because they are far busier than their parents were, and that their lifestyles are fast paced in comparison to their parents (Mindich; Huang, 2009). Mindich contends young people consume news to gain basic knowl edge to refer to in conversation, and like to control what news to access and how to access it. Online news access is related to socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and age. Online news audiences tend to have more years of education and higher

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24 in comes than nonusers (Mitchelstein & Boczkowski, 2010 ; Nguyen & Western, 2007 ). Young people are early adopters of technology and are more willing and open to new channels of communication and media exposure (Dimmick Feaster & Hoplamazian, 2011 ). Huang (20 09) found young people use technology and incorporate it into their everyday life more rapidly than older gener ations. According to a Nielsen study (2010) young people in the U.S. ages 15 to 24 lead smartphone adoption by 5% over any other age group. Acco rding to the study, price was the biggest motivator for cell phone adoption. Of those young smartphone users, 94% considered themselves advanced data users for downloading applications, the Internet, messaging and multimedia. comScore (2009) found that you ng males ages 18 to 34 were the most likely to use their mobile devices daily for news and information on the Internet. comScore al so found women ages 18 to 24 accessed the mobile Internet frequently. College students have made particularly heavy use of t echnology from everything from downloading music to online education courses (Ogan, Ozakca, and Groshek, nd daily routines (Metzger, Flanagin & Zwarun even called the that college students believe the Internet has had a positive impact in their lives because of the convenience. Huang (2009) described young people in his research findings as a group who likes the Internet for its quick and frequent updates, easy navigation attributes handiness, and an escape from work to news and relaxation. In addition, he described the importance of specific attributes of the Internet that young

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25 people sought which included quality content, rich media, filtering for relevant news, customization, interactivity and free access. Diddi & LaRose (2006) found college students formed news habits on the Internet because it has become a major information source. They found the motivations to escape or pass time is usually the highest among college students. Huang (2009) also found in 28 interviews with a sample of young people that the majority of the respondents reported they tune into news be cause it serves as a temporary escape from their routines and priorities. R esearch has described young adults have been have particular time for news (Diddi & LaRose ; Pew Rese arch Center, 2011 ). Huang found young people prefer short stories, a concise writing style, and multimedia visual presentations. Research has shown most young adults do believe it is important to keep up with current events and turn to news when making imp ortant decisions ( Mindich, 2005; Schlagheck, 1998). The majority of young people, ages 15 to 25, say they trust traditional news media outlets and their websites, such as CNN, MSNBC and local TV stations, to tell them the news (Huang). est i n news topics varies by study. Young people are traditionally not seen as interested in politics ( Banaji, 2008; Lupia & Philpot, 2005; Mindich, 2005; Putnam, 2000) Stone and Wetherington (1979) found young adult males ages 18 to 34 prefer crime and vi olence news, and females ages 18 to 34 prefer human interest and feature news. Hartman (1987) surveyed 18 to 35 year olds about the USA Today readership and found men prefer sports and women prefer the main news which is defined as local, national and int ernational news. Stone and Boudreau (1995)

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26 compared the news interests of young people ages 18 to 34 from the 1980s to the 1990s and found young people are interested in national news, weather, sports and classified ads. The researchers hypothesized that y ounger audiences were more interested in entertainment news than hard news, but found that it was not the case. Schlagheck (1998) contends that the media and society is underestimating young eir newspaper reading habits and news interests and found sports topped their news interests, followed by comics, classified ads, front page news and local news. More recently, Huang (2009) found young people ages 15 to 30 reported enjoying sports, world, local, weather, and entertainment news and edutainment programs on networks, such as Discovery, A&E and the History Channel. More recently, Pew Research Center (2010) has found young people are likely to access smartphone applications for entertainment (ga mes, music, food, travel and sports) as well as those that help people find information they need and accomplish tasks (maps and navigation, weather, news, banking). Because findings on news interests among young adults are mixed, the present study examine s news interests in relation to media choice by asking: RQ4: How do news topic interests predict medium platform choice? The previous uses and gratifications research provides the foundation for exploring mobile television news motives in comparison with other media. This chapter attempted to summarize the findings from previous studies regarding the history of mobile devices, television as a medium, the Internet, mobile phone use and young research on mobile

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27 to fill that gap in the research

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28 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Introductory Remarks To evaluate mobile news television motives and behaviors, an online su rvey was administered to undergraduate students taking six different classes at the University of Florida (see Appendix 1) Those students were enrolled in Principles of Advertising, Principles of Public Relations, Cognitive Psychology and Principles of B iology and TV and American Society were sent an email invitation with the survey link that asked them to take the survey, which was built in Qualtrics Survey research was selected for this study because it is the best method to use when researchers are us ing a large group of individuals as the unit of analysis (Babbie, 2011). Only those respondents between the ages 18 and 24 who currently have or had a mobile device with Internet access were included in the analysis. For purposes of this study, a mobile de vice is defined as a small PDA device, tablet or phone in which users can watch content on the go (Goggin, 2009). The survey asked participants: how likely they are to watch television news on their mobile devices instead of a non portable computer or a te levision set; what they like about mobile television news and television news on a traditional television set; how often they use certain media platforms in a typical week; what they like about television news on a TV set and viewing television news on the ir mobile device; how willing they would be to subscribe to mobile TV news services, if they do not already; and what features about mobile television news wo uld they more likely to pay for, for mobile news television. Participants who completed the survey received extra credit, the amount of which was determined by each professor. Students in Principles of Biology did not receive

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29 extra credit for their participation in the study and were strictly volunteers. The survey consisted of 20 questions and student s were given two weeks to complete the survey. asked to ensure confidentiality. Participants were asked at the end of the survey for their student ID number, which was sent t o their professor for extra credit purposes. To ensure confidentiality, those numbers were stripped from the survey results when the two Measurements Television news mot ives. This variable was measured using a Uses and Gratifications scale adopted from Vincent and Basil (1997) about college students motives for watching TV news on a traditional TV set Those motives include: s ) escape ( ) boredom ) and entertainment First, participants were asked how often they watch TV news in a typical week. The response choices were: 0 days, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days and Ever y D ay. Only those participants who answered 1 or more days a week were asked about their TV news television news viewing motives. The statement television news on a TV set So I can understand the world; To find out things I need to know about daily life; Because it makes me want to learn more about things; Because it helps me learn things about myself and others; It shows me what society is like nowadays; So I can learn about what might happen to me;

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30 It helps me judge what political leaders are really like; So I can keep up with what the government is doing; So I can talk with other people about what's covered; It helps me satisfy my curiosity; So I can learn what is going on in the country and world; It helps me get away from everyday worries; It helps me when I want to be cheered up; It helps me forget about school/homework; It helps me take my mind off things; It helps me relax; When I have nothing better to do; Just because it's on; Because it passes the time; Especially when I'm bored; When there's no one els e to talk to or be with; and Because it's a good thing to turn on when I am alone A factor analysis was conducted to collapse uses into categories. Mobile television news motives. This variable was measured using the same 7 point scale as the television n ews motives. A filter question asked participants if they have ever watched TV news on a mobile device or disagree with the series of moti answered the same motive statements usi ng the same 7 point Likert scale only the perceived motives. A factor analysis was conducted to collapse uses into categories. To compare television news motives and mobile TV news motives (RQ1 ), paired samples t tests were conducted with a Bonferroni adjustment to compare each group TV news motives and mobile TV news motives for each group : Those who watch TV news on a

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31 TV set and TV news on a mobile device (Group A) and those who watch TV news on a TV set but do not watch mobile TV news. Mobile TV news attributes. This variable was measured by asking participants, using a 7 D is how much they disagree or agree with statements regarding features of mobile TV mobile device answered questions about mobile TV news attributes. Because no previous scale existed at the time of the stud y for mobile news attributes in published academic research, the following statements were developed by the author for exploratory purposes. The statement How much do you agree with the following characteristics of mobile TV news nd the response statements were: Offers a variety of news; Offers quality news stories; Offers a good value for the news I get; Saves time in searching for the news I want; Saves money in getting the news I want; Offers ways to interact with the news; Of fers personalization; Is timely with frequent updates; Offers searchability; and Offers additional info through related links; have watched TV news on a mobile device, w ere presented with the same list of 7 D isag A

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32 Frequency of mobile TV news use. This dependent variable was measured by first asking participants if they have ever watched TV news on a mobile device. For mobile device in a typical week. Response choices were: 0 days, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days and Every day. To measure which mobile TV news attributes predict frequency of mobile TV news use (RQ2), a stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted. Willingness to pay for mobile device televis ion news. This dependent variable be paid for to access. For those participants who an s asked how willing they are to pay for such service on a scale of 1 to 7, l l Willing Mobile TV news features. Because this is an exploratory study, a follow up quest ion listed a series of ay for certain point willingness to pay scale were asked about specific mobile TV news features and the exclusion of other features that they would be willing to pay for. Because no previous mobile TV news features sc ale existed in published studies at the time the author developed a list of statements to measure mobile TV news features exploratory purposes. Participan ts answered, using the same 7 point scale of Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree how much they agreed with statements that answer the statement

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33 Get exclusive co Have the option for closed caption videos; View high resolution videos; To see related video stories; To watch shorter video segments (i.e. 30 seconds); To not have advertisements on video stories; To have advertisements on video stories that are based on my interests; To be able to choose video stories based on my interests; To connect to video stories fast; To search for video stories easily; To watch high quality news reporting; and To tune into reporters whom I can trust A second question point scale for willingness to pay for mobile services to rank what method of payment they would prefer if they were to subscribe to mobile television services. The response ch oices included: subscription fee, pay per video news story; package deal (mobile, computer, TV access); and other. To measure which m obile TV news features could predict willingness to pay for mobile TV (RQ3), a regression analysis was conducted. News topi c interests. This variable was measured by using a Pew Research Center (2011) scale regarding local news interest. The scale was expanded to include more general news topics rather than local topics only. News topic interests were measured by asking respo ndents how interested they were in the following news topics on a 7 poin ll nte The topics were: breaking news; ed ; en tertainment ; international news ; lifestyle; loc al news; national news; politics; sports ; technology; and weather. News platform choice. This dependent variable was measured by asking students how frequently they use news media platforms in a typical week. The media questions include: Read a print newspaper (excluding c ampus newspaper); read news on a major news website(s), such as CNN.com, MSBNC.com, NYTimes.com, etc.;

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34 listen to news on radio, like NPR; read/watch/listen to news on a mobile device; Watch local TV news (GTN, TV20, WUFT); watch Network TV news (ABC, NBC, CBS); and watch cable TV news (CNN, F ox, MSNBC). Response choices wer e: 0 days, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days and Every d ay. To measure how news topic interest on platform choice (RQ4) a regression analysis was conducted

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35 CHAPTER 4 RESUL TS A total of 1,140 respondents completed the survey yielding a 63% response rate. Out of 1,140 participants, 103 (9%) did not own a smartphone or mobile device (first qualifying question), and, therefore, were excluded from the study. Out of the remaining not fit the age range of 18 to 24 years old. This group of individuals also was excluded from the final sample. A total of 443 respondents qualified for the study (40% ne t response rate). The majority of the respondents were female (67 %). The demographics of the responden ts were comprised of white (64%), Black (9%), Hispanic (19%), Asian (5 %), and Other (3 %). The most frequently reported mobile device was an A pple iPhone (37.9%) (Table 4 1 p.42 ) Most of the 443 participants described mobile TV news as applications on their mobile device with speeds ranging from fast connection to slow connection. Of those 229 participants who responded they watch TV news on a mobile dev ice, in the past week, the respondents reported watching TV news on the following topics: breaking news (63%), entertainment (63%), sports (55%) and weather (57%) They spent an average of two hours and 45 minutes with mobile TV news. Preliminary ANOVA te sts were conducted for each research question to determine if there were differences between the different classes on the results. No significant differences were found. similar o r different to motives for watching mobile TV news? A factor analysis was conducted and similar statements were collapse d into categories. The categories used

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36 were the same ones cit ed by Vincent and Basil (1997): surveillance, escape, and boredom. Because of a survey error, entertainment as a use was not included in the questionnaire (see Limitations) Two separate factor analysis tests were conducted for two sets of participants regarding their motives for watching TV news: individuals who watch TV news on a TV set and watch TV news on a mobile device (Group A) and individuals who watch TV news on a TV set but do not watch TV news on a mobile : .95 for surveillance, .95 for escape B for mobile TV news were : .97 surveillance, .96 for escape and .95 for boredom. Paired samples T tests were conducted separately to examine the motives of those individuals who watch TV news on a TV s et at least one day a week and watch d those participants who watch TV news on a TV set at least one day a week but reported that they do not watch TV news on a mobile device. For Group A, significant differences were found for surveillance only For Group A, there was a significant difference between people who watch TV news on a television set at least one d ay a week ( M = 5.00, sd= .97) and watch TV news on a mobile device ( M = 4.77, sd= 1.18) with regard to surveillance as a motive, t (185) = 3.26, p= .001. For this same group of individuals, there was a significant difference between TV set news motives ( M = 3.53, sd= 1.41) and a mobile TV news ( M =3.70, sd= 1.53) with regard to escape as a motive, t (185) = 2.01, p= .045. Because a Bonferroni adjustment was made to control for a possible Type 1 error, the adjusted p value was .0166. Therefore,

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37 with the adjustm ent, the motive escape was found to be not significant. T here was no significant difference between TV set news motives ( M = 4.25, sd= 1.34) and mobile TV news ( M =4.13, sd= 1.50) with regard to boredom as a motive, t (181) = 1.42, p= .16. For participants who do not watch TV on a mobile device but watch TV news on a television set at least one day a week (Group B), significant differences were found for two of the three uses tested: surveillance and boredom. There was a significant difference between TV new s set motives ( M = 4.99, sd= 1.11) and future mobile TV news motives ( M = 4.43, sd= 1.39) with regard to surveillance, t (169) = 5.49, p< .001. In addition, there was a significant difference between TV news set motives ( M = 4.27, sd= 1.35) and future mobile TV news motives ( M = 3.79, sd= 1.58) with regard to boredom, t (174) = 4.53, p< .001. However, there was no significant difference between TV news set motives ( M = 3.19, sd= 1.49) and mobile TV news motives ( M = 3.16, sd= 1.47) with regard to escape, t (176 ) = .28, p=.778. RQ2 asked, which mobile TV news attributes, if any, are associated with the frequency of mobile TV news use? This question was answered by participants who reported they watched TV news on a mobile device (Group A of RQ1). A simple linear regression was conducted to determine predictive news attributes on mobile TV news use. Of the 11 news attributes examined one was found to be a significant positive offers additional information through use. However, that attribute explains a small percentage of the variance, 5.4% [ F =(1, offers

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38 mobile device TV news use increases by .30. pay for a mobile device telev ision subscription? The questions was answered by all mobile device subscription. A stepwise linear regression was conducted to determine lingness to pay for a mobi le subscription. Of the eight statements about mobile features, two were found to be positive predictors of willingness to pay for a mobile TV subscription. The advertisements on video stories that are based on my pay for a mobile TV news subscription, F (2,127) =29.84, p<.001. By adding the feature the R 2 ed 31% of the variance in willingness to pay the frequency fo increases by .20. (T able 4 2 p. 43 with the mode of $5 for payment selection RQ4 asked, how do news topic inter est predict medium platform choice? The news topic interests included: breaking news, entertainment, international news,

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39 lifestyle, local news, national news, politics, sports, technology and weather. A linear regression was conducted for each news platfor m which included: read news on a major news website (CNN.com, MSNBC.com, NYtimes.com, etc.), read a print newspaper, watch TV on a TV set, listen to news on the radio, watch TV news online and watch TV news on a mobile device to determine which news topic if any interest could predict use of a medium. For watching TV news on a TV set, the results showed that interests in national significantly predicted watching TV news on a TV set, F (10, 440) =4.80, p<.001. That mean s that for every unit increase in interest on U.S. news, politics and sports, participants use of TV news on a traditional TV set increases by .25, .17 and .14, respectively, holding all other variables constant. Interest in national news, politics and spo rts explain 7 .8% of the variance ( Table 4 3 p.44 ). For watching TV news online, the findings showed that interest i news online, F = (10, 275) =2.99, p=.001. That means that for every unit increase on the interest in sports or politics, the frequency of watching TV news online increases by .15 and .23, respectively. Interest in sports and politics explained 6 .5% of the variance ( Table 4 3 p.44 ). .23 p = .014) significantly predic websites (CNN.com, MSNBC.com, NYTimes.com, etc.), F (10, 365) =3.42, p<.001. For every unit increase in interest in politics on a 7

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40 motivation read news on a majo r new s website increases by .14 but f or every unit increase on interest in weather, there was a decrease in motivation to read news on a major news website by .22. However, politics and weathe r explained 6% of the variance. The analysis did not find that the news topic interests measured could significantly predict TV news on a mobile device, F (10, 200) =1.71, p=.08; and radio news, F (10, 162) =1.65, p=.10; reading print newspapers, F (10, 225) =1.35, p=.208.

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41 Table 4 1 Sample Device Use Device Frequency P ercent (%) iPhone 168 38 None Specified 139 32 Android Phone 59 13 Blackberry 25 6 Other 22 5 iPod 14 3 iPad 13 3 Android Tablet 1 0 Windows 2 0 Total 443 100

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42 Table 4 2. Simple Regression of News Features and Willingness to Pay Attribu te Model 1 Model 2 B SE B SE See related videos .41*** .06 .26** .10 Advertisements on stories .20** .1 based on my interests Get exclusive content I can't get anywhere else Have the option for closed caption videos View high resolution videos Watch short video segments (ie. 30 seconds) Not have advertisements on my video stories Be able to choose video stories based on my interests Constant .52 .21 0.43 .22 Observations 129 129 Adjusted R squared .29 .31 p < .05, ** p < .01,*** p < .001 (two tailed)

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43 Table 4 3 Simple Regression of News I nterest on Media Platform News Interest Platform Choice TV news on a TV Set TV News Online Major News Website B SE B SE B SE Breaking News .01 .09 .01 .11 .15 .11 Entertainment .07 .09 .13 .10 .04 .09 International .09 .08 .10 .11 .15 .10 Lifestyle .08 .09 .03 .10 .17 .09 Local .02 .08 .03 .11 .14 .09 National News .25* .12 .20 .15 .16 .14 Politics .17** 06 .23*** .10 .15* .07 Sports .14** .05 .15* .17 .02 .06 Technology .09 .08 .04 .09 .01 .09 Weather .12 .08 .10 .10 .23* .09 Constant .83 .70 1.03 .84 .92 .78 Adjusted R Squared .08 .07 .06 p < .05, ** p < .01,*** p < .001 (two tailed)

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44 Table 4 3. Continued News Interest Platform Choice TV News Mobile Device Radio Print Newspaper B SE B SE B SE Breaking News .05 .96 .08 .13 .03 .12 Entertainment .20 .12 0.33 .13 .14 .10 International .03 .13 .23 .13 .03 .10 Lifestyle .08 .12 .15 .13 .10 .10 Local .22 .11 .18 .12 .23 .10 National News .04 .18 .09 .2 .03 .15 Politics .17 .09 .25 .1 .07 .08 Sports .06 .08 .02 .09 .02 .07 Technolog y .20 .12 .02 .11 .03 .10 Weath er .08 0.12 .002 .13 .09 .10 Constant 2.0 .97 2.6 .84 1.68 .98 Adjusted R Squared .03 .04 .01 p < .05, ** p < .01,*** p < .001 (two tail ed)

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45 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The present study explored how motives for watching traditional television news viewing on a television set compare to the motives for watching mobile television news among a sample of young people. The Uses and Gratification Theory provided the framework for this study. The theory explains how users will choose a medium to satisfy certain needs and subsequently not use other media by choice. An important component of the Uses and Gratifications Theory is that the audience is a ctive in choosing which form of media to use to satisfy a need. However, no published academic study to date has been conducted to observe the similarities and differences between viewing television news on a traditional TV television set and/or on mobile devices among young adults ages 18 to 24. The scale used to measure TV news motives was adopted from a Uses and Gratifications scale used by Vincent in Basil knowledge. The Uses and Gratifications scale used for this study encompassed three gratifications, which included surveillance, escape and boredom. The present study did not include entertainment for reasons explained in the limitations section. Overall the ound participants were more motivated to use their television set than their mobile devices for surveillance purposes. In addition, the study found customization and personalization are important features and mobile device attributes to include when resear ching the future of mobile device television news. The first major finding of the study showed there was a significant difference between participants who watch ed television on a TV set and watch ed TV news on a mobile device with regard to surveillance (RQ 1). The same result was found among

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46 those participants who watch TV news on a TV set and those who do not watch TV news on a mobile device. The findings are consistent with research that suggests surveillance is a strong motivator for young people to view television (Bantz, 1982) and TV news (Vincent & Basil 1997; Diddi & LaRose, 2006). In addition, television sets are a highly accessed medium by young people (Pew Research Center, 2011). This study suggests this sample of young adults is not accessing telev ision news on a mobile device in general. One possibility for why these respondents may be more motivated to access TV news on a TV set for surveillance purposes could be because of the flexibility that TV sets can provide. There is the possibility to acce ss multiple screens and channels with larger screen sizes compared to mobile devices which have limited access to one screen that is much smaller than a TV set. Another possibility for why surveillance was a stronger motivation for watching TV on a TV set in comparison to watching TV on a mobile device could be explained by media attendance habits, which LaRose and Eastin (2004) define d as young people being more motivated to use a medium they routinely access (a TV set) before using a newer medium (cellul ar device). The participants in this study may watch TV news on a TV set because they are used to turning to the TV set when they want to watch what is going on locally and elsewhere more so than a newer medium, such as a smartphone or a tablet. Surveillan ce as a news motive is often described as active not passive. Users must seek out information. Television has traditionally been seen as a passive medium (Krugman & Hartley, 1970; McLuhan, 2003). Perhaps with the increasing ways to access news media in tod society, the young adults in the study may be actively choosing their television set over a new medium.

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47 In addition, among 214 participants who reported they did not watch TV news on mobile devices, the findings showed a significant difference betwee n TV news on a TV set and future mobile TV news motives with regard to boredom. In other words, participants reported they were more motivated to watch TV news on a TV set for boredom than they would be for mobile TV news. The concept of media attendance c ould again be related to why people who do not use mobile devices would be more motivated to turn to traditional TV set news for boredom than would be motivated to turn TV news on a mobile device. In other words, they turn to TV news on a TV set when they are bored more than mobile TV news. In addition, young people may be more motivated to turn to their television sets out of boredom because smartphones may not satisfy boredom needs (Ozcan & Kocak, 2003; Schroeder, 2010; Yang & Chan Olmstead, 2009) and may be seen as more utilitarian. Mobility, immediacy and instrumentality are considered strong factors for cellular device use (Leung & Wei, 2000). It could be that m obile devices could be thought of as devices for quick information on the go rather than passi ng time with TV news. How participants described mobile devices was not measured, however. Huang (2009) contends young people consume news mostly to gain basic knowledge to refer to in conversation. In addition, he described young people as a group who lik e quick and frequent updates, easy navigation, handiness, and an escape from work to news and relaxation. No significant differences were found for the motive of escape between TV news on a TV set and mobile TV news. A second major finding showed an impor tance of personalization and customization in regard to frequency of mobile device use and willingness to pay (RQ2

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48 and RQ3). For participants who reported they used a mobile device, the ability to have additional information through related links significa frequency of mobile device TV news use. In addition, all participants (except those who willing to pay for mobile TV news to see relate d news videos and have advertisements related to their interests. By allowing users to access additional information, see additional news videos and have advertisements related to their interests, young people are able to have more active control over thei r experiences and an increased ability to interact with and personalize their news. Past research has found young people want interactivity and control over media participation (Chung & Yoo, 2008; Lupia & Philpot, 2005). Chung and Yoo define d interactivity as a way to bypass the media industry and have more in teraction and control over news. The present findings are also consistent with Trombly (2003) and Lupia & Philpot (2005) findings that young people interact with the media to fulfill the desire to bro wse for appealing information. Lupia and Philpot report young people are likely to browse for information and then stop when their interest is perked. Young people are active seekers of information. Therefore if information is made more readily to young pe ople, it would make their browsing abilities easier. The sample of young people may be reporting this desire for control by requesting these news attributes. In addition, Huang (2009) reported young people seek Internet news for attributes, which included quality content, rich media, filtering for relevant news, customization, interactivity and free access. Because young people like those features, perhaps they are in turn seeking those same attributes from mobile device news videos. Presently, the majority of major mobile news applications do not

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49 offer the feature of related video news stories alongside their video stories (ie. CNN, MSNBC, AP Mobile). The findings suggest these participants are active users of news and technology and are willing to pay to h ave customization and personalization. Perhaps the related video feature on YouTube is behind this preference or video habit. predict news media choice (RQ4). This finding is s upported by the Uses and Gratifications Theory that explains how participants choose a specific medium to satisfy a need. P ast research has had mixed findings on news interests and young adults (Hartman, 1987; Huang, 2009; Stone & Boudreau, 1995; Stone & W etherington, 1979; Schlagheck, 1998) T his study found participants were likely to watch TV news on a TV set for national news, political and sports interests; access major news websites for political interests but not so much for weather interests; and tu ne into TV news online for sports and political interests. It is important to note that an interest in politics by participants could stem from the upcoming U.S. presidential election in November 2012, which was six months from when the study was conducted The present findings are inconsistent with past research that has indicated young people are not interested in politics as a news interest (Banaji, 2008; Lupia & Philpot, 2005; Mindich, 2005; Putnam, 2000). However, Vincent and Basil (1997) reported that young people are motivated to know what is going on in political elections. The interest in sports is consistent with previous studies that report sports as a news interest commonly sought among young adults (Huang, 2009; Schlagheck, 1998; Stone and Boud reau, 1995). national news on traditional TV sets is consistent with a previous study that showed young people trust news media

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50 outlets and their websites, such as CNN, MSNBC and local TV stations, to tell them the news (Huang 2006). Interest in weather negatively predicted use of major news websites. A rise of mobile applications including weather application s and weather sites could be contributing to this behavior. Y oung people 18 to 29 are the strongest demographic of mo bile application use (Pew Research Center, 2010). The results did use of print newspaper and radio. It is important to note those news media are not strongly used by y oung people compared to older adults (Pew Research Center, 2011). Limitations The author recognizes several limitations to this study. First, the sample was made up of college students, a convenience sample, at a single university, and therefore the findi ngs cannot be generalized to the general population. However, because young adults are the most likely to watch mobile television (Nielsen, 2011; comScore, 2012) the study sample comprises of the age group (18 to 24) which is most likely to watch mobile TV Another limitation included the absence of the entertainment gratification factor in the survey acknowledged by the researcher. The researcher attempted to make the survey shorter because the questions were asked under multiple contexts when comparing t raditional TV set new motives and mobile TV news motives and inadvertently left the entertainment questions out of the survey. Future research may want to explore the entertainment gratification factors for watching TV news on a mobile device. A second li mitation of the study coincides with how this study was conducted. The researcher chose to create scales for TV news attributes and TV news features, because there were no scales at the time that measured mobile device features and

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51 attributes for TV news. Because the findings for RQ2 and RQ3 were small in their variances, future research may want to explore customization and personalization with qualitative research because it could provide a more in depth analysis of mobile device use and willingness to pa y. Researchers could conduct in depth interviews to discover other unreported features of mobile TV news that could be related to mobile device frequency use and willingness to pay. Findings from those interviews could be used to develop scales of attribu tes and features regarding TV news. Looking Forward The present study attempted to deepen our understanding of mobile TV news uses among a sample of young adults (18 to 24). However, because the research has indicated that young participants were motivate d to use traditional media to satisfy their needs, more research is needed to explore why motivations to use traditional TV may differ from mobile device motives In addition, more research is needed to examine specific mobile TV news motives to learn how to better reach this generation of news consumers. As use of traditional media are declining in audience numbers, the news industry must find stronger ways to reach a segment of the population who is moving from traditional media and toward online media an d mobile devices. The present study shows how these young participants wanted customization and personalization with regard to mobile TV news. The n ews media could incorporate more of those aspects into their newscasts and video applications. The findings in this study have indicated young people are willing to pay for news; therefore the industry should find ways to gain revenue from this demographic. Looking forward, the industry may want to look into allowing users to have more interaction with mobile T V news videos and access to

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52 related content. The industry could provide better customization and personalization for its audiences by allowing viewers to create user profiles, similar to YouTube channels. Users can create a profile, upload their own news v ideos, as well as mark their news interests so the news organization can list relevant content, related videos and Overall, t he findings in this study are just the beginning to understanding mobile media and th e Uses and Gratifications of mobile device TV news among a young adult sample.

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53 APPENDIX SURVEY 1. Do you currently own a mobile device (netbook, tablet, smartphone such as iPhone or Android iPad iPod )? This does not include a laptop. _____Yes ___ __No 2. If so, what mobile device(s) do you presently use? ___________________________________ 3. In a typical week, how often do you Read a print newspaper (excluding campus newspaper) 0 days 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 day s Every day Read news on a major news website(s), such as CNN.com, MSBNC.com, NYTimes.com, etc. 0 days 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days Every day Listen to news on radio, like NPR 0 days 1 day 2 da ys 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days Every day Read/watch/listen to news on a mobile device 0 days 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days Every day

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54 Watch Cable TV ne ws (CNN, Fox, MSNBC) 0 days 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days Every day Watch TV news online 0 days 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days Every day Watch TV news on your mobile device 0 days 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days Every day 4. Not at all Interested Very Interested Breaking News 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Business 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Education 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Entertainment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Health and Science 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 International News 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Watch TV news on a TV Set 0 days 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days Ev ery day Watch local TV news (GTN, TV20, WUFT) 0 days 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days Every day Watch Network TV news (ABC, NBC, CBS) 0 days 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days Every day

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55 Lifestyle 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Local News 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 National News 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 News of the Absurd 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Politics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Religion 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sports 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 State New s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Technology 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Weather 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (NOTE: Q4 is for those who answered that they watch TV news in a typical week at least 1 day a week or more on Q3.) 5. How much do you agree with the following statement I watch television news on traditional TV set (not a mobile device): Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree so I can under stand the world around me 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to find out things I need to know about daily life 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 because it makes me want to learn more about things 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 because it helps me learn abou t myself

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56 and others 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it shows me what society is like nowadays 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so I can learn about what might happen to me 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 It helps me judge what political leaders are really like 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so I can keep up with what the government is doing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so I can talk with other people about what is covered 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me satisfy my curiosity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so I can learn about what is going on in the country/world 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me get away from everyday worries 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me when I want to be cheered up 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me for get about school/homework 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me take my mind off things 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me relax 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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57 when I have nothing better to do 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 just because it's on 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 because it passes the time especially when m bored 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 when there's no one else to talk to or be with 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 because it's a good thing to turn on when m alone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. Have you ever watched TV news (videos) on a mobile device? This does not mean YouTube, Hulu and Netflix but from TV news sites or apps. ____ Yes ____ No ____ Not sure bile device? ________________ in this past week watching mobile TV news? ________ Hours ________ Minutes watch videos on the following news topics? Breaking News Yes No Business Yes No

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58 Education Yes No Entertainment Yes No Health and Science Yes No International News Yes No Lifestyle Yes No Local News Yes No National News Yes No News of the Absurd Yes No Politics Yes No Religion Yes No Sports Yes No State News Yes No Technology Yes No Weather Yes No following statements for why you may watch TV news on a mobile device. I watch TV news on a mobile device: Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree so I can understand the world around me 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to find ou t things I need

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59 to know about daily life 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 because it makes me want to learn more about things 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 because it helps me learn about myself and others 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it shows me what society is like nowadays 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so I can learn about what might happen to me 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 It helps me judge what political leaders are really like 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so I can keep up with what the g overnment is doing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so I can talk with other people about what is covered 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me satisfy my curiosity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so I can learn about what is going on in the countr y/world 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me get away from everyday worries 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me when I want to be cheered up 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me forget about

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60 school/homework 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me take m y mind off things 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me relax 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 when I have nothing better to do 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 just because it's on 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 because it passes the time especially when m bored 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 when there's no one else to talk to or be with 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 because it's a good thing to turn on when m alone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 news on a mobile device? _________________ why they would watch TV news on their mobile device. How much do you agree or disagree with the following statements for why you would watch TV news on a mobile device. I would watch TV news on a mobile device: Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree so I can understand the world around me 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to find out things I need to know about daily life 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 because it makes me want to learn more

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61 about things 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 because it helps me learn about myself and others 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it shows me what society is like nowadays 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so I can learn about what might happen to me 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 It helps me judge what political leaders are really like 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so I can keep up with what the government is doing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so I can talk with other people about what is covered 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me satisfy my curiosity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so I can learn about what is g oing on in the country/world 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me get away from everyday worries 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me when I want to be cheered up 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me forget about school/homework 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it helps me take my mind off things 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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62 it helps me relax 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 when I have nothing better to do 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 just because it's on 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 because it pass es the time especially when m bored 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 when there's no one else to talk to or be with 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 because it's a good thing alone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 uch do you agree with the following I watch TV news on my mobile device because it: Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree has a variety of news 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 has quality news stories 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 is a good value for the news I get 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 saves time in searching for news I want 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 saves money in getting the news I want 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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63 offers ways to interact with news 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 offers personalization 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 is timely with frequent updates 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 offers news stor y searchability 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 offers additional info t hrough related links 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a mobile device? ________________ 15. (For those who I would watch mobile news because it: Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree has a variety of news 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 has quality news stories 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 is a good value for the news I get 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 saves time in searching for news I want 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 saves money in getting the news I want 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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64 offers ways to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 interact with news offers personalization 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 is timely with frequent updates 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 offers news story searchability 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 offers additional info through related links 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16. Do you pay for any services that offer TV news on your mobile device? This does not include Hulu, YouTube and/or Netflix, which are entertainment based. a. _____ Yes b. _____ No c. _____ Not sure Not at all Willing Very Willing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18. (For those who answered 2 or higher on Q11) How much do you agree with the I would be willing to pay for mobile TV news if I could: Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree get exclusive content I can't anywhere else 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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65 have the option for closed caption videos 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 view high resolution videos 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to see related video stories 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to watch short video segments (ie. 30 seconds) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to not have advertisements on vide o stories 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to have advertisements on video stories that are based on my interests 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to be able to choose video stories based on my interests 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to connect t o videos fast 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to watch high quality reporting 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to tune into reporters whom I can trust 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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66 19. Which type of payment would you be willing to make for mobile TV news service? a. _____ One time fee b. ______ Subscription fee c. ______ Pay per video news story d. ______ Package deal (mobile, computer, TV access) e. ______ Other 20. How much would you be willing to pay for access to mobile TV news using the type of payment you selec ted above? $___________ 21. What is your gender? _____Male _____Female 22. What is your age? _____ 23. How would you best describe your ethnicity/race? ___ White or Caucasian ___ Black or African American ___ Hispanic or Latino ___ Asian ___ Na tive Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander ___ Alaska Native ___ American Indian ___ Native American ___ Other ____________________ 24. What is your major? _____________________________ 25. Which class are you receiving extra credit in for participati ng in this study? _______________________________ 26. Please write your UFID for extra credit purposes only. This number will only be used to report your participation to your instructor. Your UFID number will be removed from

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67 your responses when the survey closes for analysis purposes. _____________________________

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69 comScore (2009, March 16). Mobile Internet Becoming A Daily Activity For Many. Retrieved from http://www.comscore.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2009/3/Daily_Mobile_Int ernet_Usage_Grows Cover, R. (2006). Audience Inter/active: interactive media, narrative control and reconceiving audience history, New Media & Society, 8(1),139 58. Deuze M. (2003). The Web and Its Journalism: considering the consequences of Different types of news media online, New Media & Society, 5(2), 203 30. Deuze, M. (2005). What is journalism? Professional identity and ideology of journalists reconsidered, Journali sm, 6(4), 442 64. Diddi, A. & LaRose, R. (2006). Getting Hooked on News: The Uses and gratifications and the Formation of News Habits Among College Students in an Internet Environment. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50 (2), 193 210. Dimmick, J. Chen, Y. & Li, Z. (2004). Competition Between the Internet and Traditional News Media: The Gratification Opportunities Niche Dimension. The Journal and Media Economics, 17(1), 19 33. Dimmick, J., Feaster, J.C, & Hoplamazian G. J. (2011). News in the inte rstices: The niches of mobile media in space and time. New Media Society, 13(23), 1265 128. Einav, G. (2010). The Economics of Information, Communication and Entertainment: The Impacts of Digital Technology in the 21st Century. New York: Springer http://www.cellphones.org Forge S., Blackman, C. & Bohlin, E. (2006). Constructing and using scenarios to forecast demand for future mobile communications services. Foresight 8(3), 36 54. Goggin, G. (2009). Adapting the Mobile Phone: The iPhone and its Consumption. Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies, 23(2), 231 244. Groening, S. (2010). 2010 From 'a box in the theater of the world' to 'the wor ld as your living room': cellular phones, television and mobile privatization. New Media Society, 12(8), 1331 1347 Ha, L., & James, E. L. (1998). Interactivity Reexamined: A Baseline Analysis of Early Business Web Sites. Journal of Broadcasting & Electron ic Media, 42 (4), 457 Hardenbergh, M. (2010). The Death of Television. The Free Library Retrieved from www.thefreelibrary.com

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72 Palmgreen, P., L. Wenner & J.D. Rayburn (1980). Relations Between Gratifications Sought and Obtained: A Study of Television News. Communication Research, 7, 161 192. Papacharissi, Z., & Rubin, A. M. (2000). Predictors of Internet usage. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 44 175 196. Pavlik, J. (2000) The Impact of Technology on Journalism. Journalism Studies, 1(2), 229 37. Peters, O. (2005). Always Connected: A Longitudinal Field Study of Mobile Communicati on. Telematics and Informatics, 22(3), 239 256. Pew Internet & American Life Project (2011, February 3). Generations and their gadgets. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http ://pewinternet.org/Reports/2011/Generations and gadgets.aspx Pew Internet and American Life (2002). The Internet Goes to College How Students are http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media/Files/Reports/2002/PIP_College_Report.pdf.p df Pew Research Center Project for Excellence in Journalism (2011). State of the News Media: An Annual Report on American Journ alism. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://stateofthemedia.org/ Pew Research Center Project for Excellence in Journalism (2011). Internet Gains on ite Internet than TV Retrieved from http://www.people press.org/2011/01/04/internet gains on television as publics main news source/ Pew Researc h Center Project for Excellence in Journalism (2010). Who is listening, watching, reading and why. The Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www .people press.org/2010/09/12/section 4 who is listening watching reading and why/ http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1727/cell phone apps -popular download demographics Put nam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster. Pure Mobile (2011). The Origins of Camera Phones. Retrieved from http://www.puremobile.com/ca meraphones.asp

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74 BIOGRAPHICAL SKE TCH Kristen Bowe from the University of Florida in the summer of 2012 technology and adoption among young people Kristen grew up in Westchester, New York, a nd has five older sisters and two loving parents. Kristen moved to Gainesville in 2006 and has received both Journalism and Communications at the University of Florida.