Double-Tier Computation of Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment Based on Sectoral Disaggregation and Process Data Integration

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Double-Tier Computation of Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment Based on Sectoral Disaggregation and Process Data Integration
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english
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Chang, Yuan
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University of Florida
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Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
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University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Design, Construction, and Planning Doctorate, Design, Construction and Planning
Committee Chair:
Ries, Robert J.
Committee Co-Chair:
Kibert, Charles J
Committee Members:
Obonyo, Esther
Lindner, Angela S

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computation -- disaggregation -- lca
Design, Construction and Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Design, Construction, and Planning Doctorate thesis, Ph.D.
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Abstract:
The environmental and energy challengesassociated with turning society in a more sustainable direction are tremendousand urgent. Building and infrastructure construction, in step with developmentsin industry and transportation, has become an important energy consumer insociety. Precise calculation of building embodied energy is an important steptoward sustainable development. However, due to the lack of energy intensitydata on building materials and the high sectoral integration of input-outputlife cycle assessment models (I-O LCA), building embodied energy quantificationis limited by conventional I-O LCA model structure. This research developed a double-tiercomputational model to overcome the trade-offs of comprehensive system scopeand specific process considerations in process and input-output life cycleinventory methods and thereby improve the precision of building embodied energyquantification. Based on 2007 Chinese economic benchmark data, the constructionsector in Chinese input-output table was disaggregated by 14 sub-sectors,including 13 types of buildings and civil engineering projects. Using ahigh-rise education building as case building, this research conducted energypath extraction for the disaggregated I-O models and substituted the processenergy of the education building for the national average data to achieveprocess data integration. Overall, this study expanded theapplicability of I-O LCA models for specific individual products, improved thespecificity of the model results, and deepened the understanding of the resultsof different LCA models.
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Statement of Responsibility:
by Yuan Chang.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local:
Adviser: Ries, Robert J.
Local:
Co-adviser: Kibert, Charles J.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-02-28

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1 DOUBLE TIER COMPUTATION OF INPUT OUTPUT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT BASED ON SECTORAL DISAGGREGATION AND PROCESS DATA INTEGRATION By YUAN CHANG A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PAR TIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Yuan Chang

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3 To my family

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to give my most sincere gratitude to my chair Dr. Ries, a great mentor who guides my research trip in sustainability and life cycle assessment, and my co chair Dr. Kibert who teaches me the knowledge of green building and sustainable construction. I also sincerely appreciate my committee members, Dr. Obonyo and Dr. Lindner, for t heir profound knowledge keen insights, and persistent encouragement that accompany me on my way of pursuing doctorial degree and exploring the unknown. I would like to thank all BCN faculties who teach me complete knowledge in building construction. Bes ides, I also thank the warm helps of all BCN staff during my four year study. I would like to thank Professor Yaowu Wang and Assistant professor Qingpeng Man at Harbin Institute of Technology, China, and Associate professor Shuhua Lei at Shijiazhuang Tied ao University China, for their supports on my dissertation study. At last, I sincerely appreciate the supports and love my famil y ha s given to me. I love you forever.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page AC KNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 10 LIST OF ABBR EVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 12 A BSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 15 Background an d Motivation ................................ ................................ .................... 15 Research Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................. 16 Research Scope ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 17 Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 18 Contribution ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 18 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 20 Building Ene rgy ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 20 Embodied E nergy and O perational E nergy ................................ ...................... 20 Direct and I ndirect E nergy ................................ ................................ ................ 21 Production oriented classification ................................ .............................. 21 Tiered process energy classification ................................ .......................... 22 LCA Models ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 23 Process based LCA for Embodied Energy ................................ ....................... 23 Input Output LCA for Embodied Energy ................................ ........................... 24 Hybr id LCA for Embodied Energy ................................ ................................ .... 25 Sectoral Disaggregation and Energy Path Analysis in an I O LCA Model .............. 26 Mathematical Structure of an I O LCA Model ................................ ................... 26 Sectoral D isaggregation in I O LCA ................................ ................................ 29 New product ................................ ................................ ............................... 30 Existing product ................................ ................................ ......................... 31 Energy P ath A nalysis in the I O LCA M odel ................................ ..................... 34 Uncertainty for LCA Models ................................ ................................ .................... 37 System B oundary T runcation ................................ ................................ ........... 37 Study D ata ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 37 Data i ncompleteness and u navailability ................................ ..................... 37 Data s ources ................................ ................................ .............................. 38 Temporal and s patial d ifference ................................ ................................ 39 LCA M odel S elec tion and D evelopment ................................ ........................... 39

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6 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 41 The I O LCA Model for China ................................ ................................ ................. 41 Brief History of the Development of a National Economic Accounting System in China ................................ ................................ ............................ 41 Output Tables ................................ ................................ ................................ 43 Satellite Matrix for Sectoral Energy Intensity ................................ .................... 45 Sectoral Disaggregation in the I O LCA Model ................................ ....................... 46 Construction Sector Disaggregation ................................ ................................ 46 Allocation of Construction Sector Correlations ................................ ................. 49 Sectoral inte rmediate purchases ................................ ................................ 49 Sectoral intermediate investments ................................ ............................. 55 Allocation of Construction Sector Economic Gross Output .............................. 57 Energy Path Extraction for the Disaggregated I O LCA Model ............................... 59 Process Data Integration in the I O LCA Model ................................ ...................... 63 Case Study Building ................................ ................................ ......................... 63 Process Data Collection and Calculation ................................ ......................... 64 Substitution of Process D ata for Energy Path Data ................................ .......... 67 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ............... 69 Results: I O LCA Model s ................................ ................................ ........................ 69 Results: Disaggregated I O LCA Models ................................ ................................ 71 Results: Disaggregated I O LCA Models with Process Data Integration ................. 74 Results: Comparison of Different LCA Models ................................ ........................ 77 5 CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................. 83 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 83 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 84 Data U ncertainty ................................ ................................ ............................... 84 Data A vailability ................................ ................................ ................................ 85 Sample S election B ias ................................ ................................ ..................... 85 Recommendations and Future Research ................................ ............................... 85 APPENDIX A TECHNICAL COEFFICIENTS OF CONSTRUCTION SUB SECTOR PURCHASE IN 148 SECTOR I O LCA MODEL ................................ ..................... 87 B TECHNICAL COEFFICIENTS OF CONSTRUCTION SUB SECTOR PURCHASE IN 55 SECTOR I O LCA MODEL ................................ ....................... 94 C TECHNICAL COEFFICIENTS OF CONSTRUCTION SUB SECTOR INVESTMENT IN 148 SECTOR I O LCA MODEL ................................ ................. 97

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7 D TECHNICAL COEFFICIENTS OF CONSTRUCTION SUB SECTOR IN VESTMENT IN 55 SECTOR I O LCA MODEL ................................ ................. 104 E PROCESS BASED LCA MODEL FOR THE CASE BUILDING ............................ 107 F PROCESS BASED HYBRID LCA MODEL FOR THE CASE BUILDING .............. 108 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 112 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 118

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table pa ge 2 1 Structure of an input output table ................................ ................................ ....... 27 3 1 The I O tables in China ................................ ................................ ....................... 43 3 2 and 135 sector I O tables ............................... 44 3 3 Building material price in 2007 ................................ ................................ ............ 51 3 4 C ompleted floor area by region in 2007 ................................ .............................. 53 3 5 Ceramic sanitary ware consumption by different building types in 2007 ............ 55 3 6 Specif ic demand of each building type in 2007 ................................ .................. 56 3 7 Economic value by different building types in 2007 ................................ ............ 57 3 8 Top 5 energy paths by b uilding type in the second tier of 148 sector I O LCA model ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 59 3 9 Top 5 energy path s by building type in the second tier of 55 sector I O LCA model ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 62 3 10 Consumption of cement, sand and gravel of the case building .......................... 64 3 11 Material production energy of the case building ................................ ................. 65 3 12 Transportation energy of the case building ................................ ......................... 66 3 13 Construction energy of the case building ................................ ............................ 66 3 14 Ene rgy path substitution in the 148 sector I O model ................................ ......... 67 3 15 Energy path substitution in the 55 sector I O model ................................ ........... 67 4 1 Embodied en ergy of the education building calculated by the 135 and 42 sector I O model ................................ ................................ ................................ 69 4 2 Embodied energy of the education building calculated by the 148 and 55 sector I O model ................................ ................................ ................................ 71 4 3 Embodied energy intensity by building type in different I O model s ................... 73 4 4 Embodied energy of the education building calculated by the 148 and 55 sector I O model with process data integration ................................ .................. 74

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9 4 5 Building e mbodied energy intensity of existing studies ................................ ....... 82 A 1 Techn ical coefficients of construction sub sector purchase in the 148 sector I O LCA model ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 87 A 2 Sectors in the 148 sector I O LCA model ................................ ........................... 91 B 1 Technical coefficients of construction sub sector purchase in the 55 sector I O LCA model ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 94 B 2 Sectors in the 55 sector I O LCA model ................................ ............................. 95 C 1 Technical coefficients of construction sub sector investment in the 148 sector I O LCA model ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 97 D 1 Technical coefficients of construction sub sector investment in t he 55 sector I O LCA model ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 104 F 1 Materials and components manufacturing energy of the education building .... 110

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10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Building energy classification based on life cycle phase ................................ .... 21 2 2 Building energy classification based on tiered energy processes ....................... 22 2 3 Sectoral disaggregation in the I O LCA model ................................ .................... 32 2 4 Styles of sectoral disaggregation in the I O table ................................ ............... 34 2 5 Energy paths for building construction ................................ ................................ 35 2 6 Top down and bottom up energy path analysis ................................ .................. 36 3 1 Overview of the model development steps for both the 42 and 135 sector Chinese input output tables ................................ ................................ ................ 42 3 2 Shares of three industries in Chinese GDP in the last two decades ................... 44 3 3 Product oriented construction sector disaggregation ................................ .......... 47 3 4 Building disaggregation based on the use type, the location, th e structure type, and the primary material use ................................ ................................ ..... 48 3 5 Allocation of sectoral intermediate purchases to sub sectors in the disaggregated construction sector ................................ ................................ ...... 50 3 6 Traditional regions of China ................................ ................................ ................ 52 3 7 Allocation of heavy construction buildings to economic sectors ......................... 58 3 8 Structure of energy path substitution in the 148 sector I O model ...................... 68 3 9 Structure of energy path substitution in the 55 sector I O model ........................ 68 4 1 Top 10 sectoral energy of the education building in 135 sector I O model ......... 70 4 2 Top 5 sectoral energy of the education building in 42 sector I O model ............. 70 4 3 Technical coefficients of 14 sub sectors with energy intensive sectors in the 148 sector I O model ................................ ................................ .......................... 71 4 4 Top 10 sectoral energy of the education building in 148 sector I O model ......... 72 4 5 Top 5 sectoral energy of the education building in 55 sector I O model ............. 72

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11 4 6 Comparison of embodied energy calculated by 135 and 148 sector I O models for different building types ................................ ................................ ...... 75 4 7 Comparison of embodied energy calculated by 42 and 55 sector I O models for different building types ................................ ................................ .................. 75 4 8 Top 10 sectors in terms of embodied energy for the education building in 148 sector I O model with process data integration ................................ ........... 76 4 9 Top 5 sectors in terms of embodied energy for the education building in 55 sector I O model with process data integration ................................ .................. 77 4 10 Embodied energy of a 1 mill ion yuan educational building calculated by I O LCA models in the different stages of a two tier computation ............................. 78 4 11 Embodied energy and energy intensity of the education building calculated b y different LCA models ................................ ................................ ..................... 80 4 12 Conversion factor matrix for high rise education building embodied energy quantification of different LCA models ................................ ................................ 81 E 1 Process based LCA model structure and model results for the embodied energy of the education building ................................ ................................ ....... 107 F 1 Structure of process based hybrid LCA model for the embodie d energy of the education building ................................ ................................ ............................. 108

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12 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S CAAL A Concrete & Aggregates Association of LA CBMF China B uilding M aterial F ederation CIUDSRC China International Urbanization Development Strategy Research Com mittee CIWMB California Integrated Waste Management Board CNCIA China National Coatings Industry Association CPI C onsumer P rice I ndex GDP Gross d omestic product I O Input/output ISO International Organization for Standardization LCA Lif e C ycle A ssessment LCIA L ife C ycle I mpact A ssessment MHURDC Ministry of Housing and Urban Rural Development of P. R. China MPS Material p roduct s ystem MRC Ministry of Railways of P.R. China MTCE M etric tons of coal equivalents NBSC National Bureau of Statistics of China RAS R esidual allocation system U S EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

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13 Abstract of Disserta tion Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy DOUBLE TIER COMPUTATION OF INPUT OUTPUT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT BASED ON SECTORAL DISAGGREGA TION AND PROCESS DATA INTEGRATION By Yuan Chang August 2012 Chair: Robert J. Ries Cochair: Charles Kibert Major: Design, Construction and Planning The environmental and energy challenges associated with turning society in a more sustainable direction ar e tremendous and urgent. Building and infrastructure construction, in step with developments in industry and transportation, has become an important energy consumer in society. Precise calculation of building embodied energy is an important step toward sus tainable development. However, due to the lack of energy intensity data on building materials and the high sectoral integration of input output life cycle assessment models (I O LCA), building embodied energy quantification is limited by conventional I O L CA model structure. This research developed a double tier computational model to overcome the trade offs of comprehensive system scope and specific process considerations in process and input output life cycle inventory methods and thereby improve the pre cision of building embodied energy quantification. Based on 2007 Chinese economic benchmark data, the construction sector in Chinese input output table was disaggregated by 14 sub sectors, including 13 types of buildings and civil engineering projects. Usi ng a high rise education building as case building, this research conducted

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14 energy path extraction for the disaggregated I O models and substituted the process energy of the education building for the national average data to achieve process data integrati on. Overall, this study expanded the applicability of I O LCA models for specific individual products, improved the specificity of the model results, and deepened the understanding of the results of different LCA models.

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15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Backgroun d and Motivation Construction products are prerequisites for the existence and operation of any society. Residential buildings shield us from severe weather, schools provide space for knowledge acquisition, office buildings facilitate business transactions and roads and bridges support transportation communications. It has been estimated that buildings, roads, bridges and other facilities represent approximately 70% of the national wealth in the U.S (CAAL A, 2011). In addition to wealth, the energy consum ption related to the creation of the built environment are too significant to ignore. The building sector consumed 40% of the materials entering the global economy (CIWMB 2000) 17 withdrawals, and 25% of wood harvest (Augenbroe et al ., 1998). Being the largest developing country in the world, the annual average increase in building energy consumption in China has exceeded 10% in the last two decades. In 2004, building energy consumption constituted 21% of the national total energy consumption (Jiang and Yang, 2006). Due to accelerated urbanization in China, the residential building sector itself consumed 193 million metric tons of standard coal in 2007, which represented 11% of national end use energy consumption and ranked second a fter the industrial sector (Chen et al. 2008). This figure is likely to increase in the future because of the potential demand for new housing caused by rapid urbanization in conjunction with the pursuit of more comfortable living environments. It is pred icted that Chinese residential energy consumption will more than double by 2020, from 6.6 EJ in 2000 to 15.9 EJ in 2020 (Zhou et al ., composed of 33%

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16 of the population in 2007 (CIUDSRC 2009) and is expected to be 55% in 202 0 (Fang 2009). The urban population is expected to grow by 20 million every year, accompanied by construction of 2 billion square meters of buildings annually through 2020 (Zhou et al. 2008). Considering the limits of resources and energy, the above ment ioned challenge for a sustainable human natural system is urgent to understand and solve, and the precise calculation of the energy consumption of construction products is the first step towards this goal. Compared with operation energy, calculating the em bodied energy of construction products is difficult. This is because the source of embodied energy includes numerous manufacturing and service activities, which make it difficult to completely define the system boundary of a product and reflect the specifi c characteristics of its production processes. This research developed a double tier computational model to overcome the trade offs of comprehensive system scope and specific process considerations in process and input output life cycle inventory methods and thereby improve the precision of building embodied energy quantification. Research Problem Statement This research focused on two significant areas in the energy consumption of construction products. First, since buildings have a long operation perio d, the operation energy is typically a dominant share in life cycle energy. A large amount of research has focused on the energy consumption in the building operation phase. Using monthly utility bills or advanced energy simulation tools, the operation ene rgy of buildings is relatively easy to calculate. However, a well rounded and mature calculation approach to embodied energy of specific buildings is lacking. This research aims to improve

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17 completeness and precision of quantifying the embodied energy for s pecific buildings as well as lay the foundation for a better understanding of life cycle energy. Given the comprehensiveness of the economic input output technique, the input output life cycle assessment (I O LCA) model is widely acknowledged as the most effective tool for calculating the embodied energy of products. However, the high sectoral aggregation in the input output table constrains the categories of products that can be analyzed. In addition, since data in the IO table reflect the average perform ance of sectors, results of an I O LCA are the embodied energy of the average product in a given sector. Thus, the application of I O LCA to specific products is difficult. This research proposes to establish a channel between I O LCA and specific products by using sectoral disaggregation and specific process data integration, an d therefore improve the I O LCA Research Scope A double tier computational model for construction was developed D ifferent construction products such as buildings, roads, bridges, and tunnels, have different produ ct chains T his research target s buildings as the product but it is also applicable to other construction products. Given that different countries adopt different ways to organize their national economic accounts, the st ructure of I O tables for different countries va r ies For example, the I O table of the U.S. in 2002 has 428 sectors, while Chinese I O table in 2002 has 122 sectors. Generally, the I O LCA model with finer sectoral definition can be applied to China. Cons idering the rapid growth of building energy consumption in China as well as its relatively coarse sectoral categorization, this study will assist in assessing construction in China.

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18 According to ISO 14040 and 14044 standards (ISO 2006 a, 2006b ), a complet e life cycle assessment consists of four steps: goal and scope, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and interpretation. This research focused on inventory and therefore LCA elements, such as normalization, grouping, and weighting, ar e not considered. Questions This research developed a double tier computation model that will allow I O LCA to be used to assess products at a more specific level. The questions to be answered include: I O LCA model: How best to disaggregate the highly agg regated construction output table and allow I O LCA based analysis using Chinese economic benchmark d ata for buildings in China Hybrid LCA model: How best to integrate I O LCA and process data of a specific building, and combine t he advantages of both complete system scope and specific process data. This integration of an I O LCA model and a process based LCA model would yield an I O based hybrid LCA model. Hybrid LCA model comparison: For China, there are two types of sectoral inp ut output statistics, namely, the broad sectoral classification data (42 sectors) and the narrow sectoral classification data (135 sectors) in 2007. The research determined the gap between the results of hybrid LCA models based on the two different sectora l categorizations. LCA model comparison: Determine the extent to which building embodied energy calculated by different LCA models (I O LCA, Process LCA, and I O based hybrid LCA) varies. Identify the causes of the gap among the model results. Contribution environmental impacts from cradle to grave. The definition of research system scope is the first step of an LCA study. However, given that the determination of system scope varies from researcher to researcher, LCA studies are vulnerable to the subjectiveness

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19 and incompleteness. Based on the sectoral input output correlations in an economic system, I O LCA models strengthen the scope definition of an LCA study. However, the m odel application is restrained by the sectoral classifications in an economy s I O table. The result of the model reflects the national average level of activity and lacks specificity. Furthermore, I O LCA models may be limited by data availability. The tw o tier computation framework makes contributions in the following aspects: Expand the scope of I O LCA model applications. This research splits aggregated sectors in an I O table which enables the model to be applied to more products Improve the specific ity of the model results. Using the energy paths in the disaggregated I O LCA model, this research substit ute d product specific process data for the national average sectoral data to better reflect the unique characteristics of the research object. Deepen the understanding of the results of different LCA models. This study compares and analyzes the gap between the embodied energy results calculated by process based LCA, 42 sector I O LCA, 135 sector I O LCA, 42 sector based hybrid LCA, and 135 s ector based hybrid LCA models

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20 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Building Energy Embodied E ner gy and O perational E nergy The life cycle of buildings consists of five phases: raw material extraction and manufacturing, transportation, construction, operation, and demolition. The life cycle energy of building is often categorized as embodied energy, operational energy, and demolition energy. There is no single definition for building embodied energy. It could be defined as ng, including the direct energy used in the construction and assembly process, and the indirect energy, that is required to manufacture the materials and components of t (Crowther, 1999) From the viewpoints of the production chain, the embod energy required to provide a product (both directly and indirectly) through all processes upstream (i.e. traceable backwards from the finished product to consideration of raw (Treloar et al., 2001). However, defining the building embodied energy rigidly based on a building life cycle phase might be incomplete In addition to the initial embodied energy (the above definitions solely focus on the building pre use phase), the building embodied energy could also consider the materials and components in building maintenance and refurbishments, i.e. the recurrent embodied energy (Ramesh et al 2010; Dixit et al ., 2010). The operational energy, which may also be called end use energy, is the energy required to pr ovide and maintain the indoor environment and fulfill the functions of the building. Operational energy is mainly consumed by heating, cooling, lighting, cooking,

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21 and hot water. Building operational energy largely depends on climatic conditions, indoor spa ce and area, the level of comfort required, and operating schedules. Demolition energy, or end of life energy, is the energy required to demolish the building and transport the waste material to landfill sites and (or) recycling plants. Cole and Kernan (1 996) added demolition energy into building embodied energy. To treat demolition energy as an independent energy category or group it with pre use embodied energy is mainly decided by the modeler in each study. The process based LCA model and hybrid LCA mod el usually calculate building demolition energy independently, while input output LCA models include demolition energy with embodied energy. The life cycle phase based building energy classification is shown in Figure 2 1. Fig ure 2 1. Building energy cla ssification based on life cycle phase Direct and I ndirect E nergy Production oriented classification Treloar (1998) maintained that the assessment of the direct and indirect requirements for energy is known as embodied energy an alysis, and that for buildings,

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22 the direct energy includes the energy used primarily on site, while the indirect energy includes primarily the energy required for the manufacture of building materials. Dixit et al. (2010) defined the direct and indirect e nergy of buildings in detail and further expanded the indirect energy to include operational energy. This building energy classification emphasizes the production process of buildings. Tiered process energy classification The tiered process energy classif ication is shown in Figure 2 2. The direct energy is defined as the energy consumed by the process under analysis. Indirect energy refers to the energy required to provide prerequisites i.e., the upstream energy, for each life cycle phase. For example, th e energy consumed by a steel smelting furnace is the direct energy, while the energy used to manufacture the steel smelting furnace is the indirect energy; The electricity consumed by an HVAC system is the direct energy, while the energy for mining coal fo r electricity generation is the indirect energy. The indirect energy of each life cycle phase has numerous sources due to the endless upstream process activity. This power series effect is explained and shown by Miller and Blair (1985). Figure 2 2 Building energy classification based on tiered energy processes

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23 LCA Models Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), also known as life cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle to grave analysis (U.S. EPA 2010), is a technique to assess energy and environmental impacts of a product throughout its entire life span. ISO 14040 (2006) states that products analyzed in LCA studies include both goods and services. experien ced 40 years of development in both methodology and application scope. More and more LCA studies with various types of modeling have been conducted in the fields of energy, environment, social politics, and economy. According to the differences in system s cope and theory, LCA approaches could be categorized as proce ss LCA, I O LCA, and hybrid LCA Process based LCA for E mbodied E nergy The initial and basic tool for an LCA study, process based LCA, systematically models the known energy and environmental in puts and outputs by utilizing a process flow diagram. According to ISO 14040 (2006), process based LCA consists of four steps, which are the goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and improvement measures. Since the process based LCA model closely models a certain product or service, the advantage of this model lies in the detailed process specific analyses, specific product comparisons, and model results tailored to a product (Bilec, 2007; Sharrard, 2007). Given that any product system has numerous exchanges with the external energy and resource system, the scope of a process based model expands to the point where the flow between processes are negligible. Scope definition is indispensable for process based LCA models which makes the study feasible. However, such limited and subjective system boundary definition is also the most

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24 obvious vulnerability of process based LCA models (Bullard et al., 1978; Mattila et al., 2010). Other drawbacks, such as time and costs intensiveness, data uncertainty, and difficulty replicating results have also been broadly criticized (Junnila, 2006 ; Sharrard et al., 2008). Input O utput LCA for E mbodied E nergy Economic input output analysis, developed by Wassily Leontief (1970), quantifies the interrelati onships among sectors of an economic system, enabling identification of direct and indirect economic inputs of purchases. Using economic input output analysis, 1986) impacts feasible. The I O LCA model for embodied energy is an integration of energy data with economic input output analysis techniques. Given that the economic interaction of a sector with other sectors in the economy in the economic input output table is complete, the I O LCA model has the advantage of a comprehensive system boundary. For the products of a certain sector, the economic input output analysis technique comprises th e direct and indirect requirements of inputs from all other sectors, and therefore the results of an I O LCA model used to calculate embodied energy is the sum of the direct and indirect energy. The indirect energy could be calculated by subtracting the se ctoral direct energy from the totals (Crawford 2009). Using publicly available data such as sectoral technical coefficients and sectoral energy consumption, the I O LCA model is time and cost saving, and yields reproducible results (Hendrickson et al., 1998). Since the foundation for the I O LCA model is the sector by sector economic interaction, the embodied energy calculated by

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25 the model represents the mean value of all of the goods and services provided in a sector (Hendrickson et al., 2005) This mea ns that the model is more suitable for a macro level study rather than for individual goods and services ( Chang et al., 20 11 ). The I O LCA model has the disadvantage of an inflexible model structure, a time lag from current practices, and a high dependency on data. Furthermore, this model is incapable of modeling a complete life cycle analysis on goods in that the economic input output table fails to reflect their full life cycle Hybrid LCA for E mbodied E nergy Hybrid LCA models aim to combine the advantage s of process based LCA and I O LCA models, and yield complete and accurate results (Bullard et al., 1978; Suh et al., 2004; Suh and Nakamura, 2007). With hybrid LCA models, the embodied impacts of goods could be included with an economy wide scope, and imp acts in the operation and end of life phases could be specifically analyzed (Bilec et al., 2010). In general, there are three types of hybrid LCA models: the tiered hybrid LCA, input output based hybrid LCA, and integrated hybrid LCA. For building life cy cle energy, the tiered hybrid LCA calculates the direct i.e., construction, and downstream energy, operation maintenance, and demolition energy, and several important lower order upstream energy flows of the product system using a process based approach, while the remaining higher order upstream energy, such as material extraction and manufacturing, are calculated using an I O LCA model. The input output based hybrid LCA model disaggregates existing sector(s) or adds new sector(s) to the I O table and ap plies the process data to the I O system. The mathematical computation of this model is completely illustrated by Joshi (2000), who further demonstrated the model application by comparing the environmental burden of

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26 plastic and steel fuel tanks. The concep t of energy paths (Treloar 1998) targets the energy flow between sectors, and replaces significant energy paths with specific process energy data. Lenzen and Crawford (2009) optimized the method for path exchange. The energy path oriented input output bas ed hybrid LCA model fulfills the combination of process LCA and I O LCA models without modifying any sector in the I O table, and is considered a nearly perfect approach in the life cycle analysis of buildings (Langston and Langston 2008). The integrated hybrid LCA model is a mixed unit approach. The process based system is represented in a technology matrix by physical units per unit operation time of each process while the input output system is represented by monetary units. The two systems are connecte d by the flows crossing the boundaries. The computational structure of the integrated model is illustrated by Heijungs and Suh (2002). It can be seen that the essence of the hybrid LCA approach lies in the integration of specific process data with the comp lete boundary of the I O LCA model. Although the hybrid approach could substantially overcome the drawbacks of system boundary truncation, problems such as double counting, data and time intensiveness, and complexity still remain. The detailed strength and weakness of each type of hybrid model have been comprehensively summarized by Suh and Huppes (2005). Sectoral Disaggregation and Energy Path Analysis in an I O LCA Model Mathematical S tructure of an I O LCA M odel The basis for an I O LCA model is the inpu t output technique developed by Leontief (1986). Through recording and analyzing the sectoral transaction in a society, the structure and operational state of the economic system in a society is revealed. In an I O tabl e, there are three balances ( Table 2 1):

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27 Horizontal balance Intermediate consumption + final demand import = total output Vertical balance Intermediate input + value added = total input Overall balance Total input = total output sectoral total input = sectoral total output Sum of int ermediate input = sum of intermediate consumption Table 2 1. Structure of an input output table Sector 1 2 3 ... n Final demand Input & others Total outputs 1 x 11 x 12 x 13 ... x 1n f 1 O 1 X 1 2 x 21 x 22 x 23 ... x 2n f 2 O 2 X 2 3 x 31 x 32 x 33 ... x 3n f 3 O 3 X 3 .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... n x n1 x n2 x n3 ... x nn f n O n X n V alue a dd ed v 1 v 2 v 3 ... v n GDP Total inputs X 1 X 2 X 3 ... X n For sector to ( 2 1) Where is the output of sector to sector and is the f inal demand for sector In a given society, the interaction between sector i and sector j is represented by the capital flow that sector i inputs into sector j or the proportion of sector i capital that is the output of s ector j The latter is a unitless factor less than 1, which is called the technical coefficient : ( 2 2)

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28 The set of technical coeffic ients of all the sectors within the economic system forms a n order square matrix A (nn) which is called the technical coefficient matrix. Inserting ( 2 2) into ( 2 1): ( 2 3) Then, the economy wide final demand for n commodities or services are ( 2 4) If matrix A represents the technical factors of all industry sectors, vector represents the outputs of the industrial sectors, and vector represents the final demand of sectors, then (2 5) where is the identity matrix. Multiply both sides of equation ( 2 5) by then ( 2 6) is called the Leontief inverse matrix. Through equation ( 2 6), it can be seen that if the final demand of a given sector y is available, the economic outputs x of its correlated sectors can be calculated with the aid of the technical matrix. Such a method outputs of this sector throughout the economic system. Since x contains all output produced (direct and indirect), the external energy and emission function per economic unit of output can be used for finding the ov erall energy and environmental impacts for a

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29 given amount of output produced by summing across the impacts generated by each ( 2 7) where is the ecological impacts of type i e.g., energy consumption or an environmen tal emission; i type energy intensity or i type envi ronmental emission intensity. Expressing equation ( 2 7) in the form of matrix: ( 2 8) where f is the total ecological impact. E is the energy intensity and environmental emission intensity matrix, which is also called the satellite matrix. The dimension of the satellite matrix E is (in) The value of i depends on the scope of the research, i.e., the number of ecological items. For example, if the research includes m types of energy and n sorts of environmental emissions, then i=m+n Sectoral D isaggregation in I O LCA The number of sectors in an I O table varies from country to country. In some cases, the same country will have I O tables of diff erent dimensions. The dimension of the I O table determines the specificity of the scope of the sectors in the I O LCA model. In general, the I O LCA model based on a more specific sector classification is capable of analyzing more products. However, since compiling an I O table product by product is time and labor intensive, products with similar manufacturing proces ses are usually grouped in one sector in the national account. This is called sector aggregation. As a result, the aggregated sector would need to be disaggregated when calculating the

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30 embodied energy of a specific product. Else, the results of the I O LCA model are the average value for the sector. The sectoral aggregation problem in an I O model could present itself in the following two ways, which are illustrated by Joshi (2000): New product If the research product is new, it could be treated as a new h ypothetical industry sector. The nn technical matrix A would be extended to a (n+1)(n+1) technical matrix A*. Let a be the technical coefficients of current matrix, the extended technical matrix is: ( 2 9) Given that the product is new to the current economic system, it does not contribute to existing sectors. Thus, the first n row and column elements remain unchanged, while the value of the first n elements in the n+1 row is zero. The elements of the n+1 the monetary value of input required from sector i to produce an unit economic value of the product. Similarly, let be the column vector of energy consumption required by an unit monetary value output of sector n+1 The new energy intensity matrix is reformulated as: ( 2 10) The final demand vector for the new product is: ( 2 11) According to formula ( 2 8), the energy consumption for producing value of new product or the energy consumption required by the value of new product

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31 exogenous demand is: ( 2 12) Existing product As it is mentioned above, when compiling the I O table, sectors of similar products are usually grouped to a more comprehensive sector. The sector account in an I O table has multiple tiers, an d one sector might contain several sub sectors. To calculate the energy consumption associated with the production of a specific sub sector product, the sub sector should be isolated into an independent first level sector in the I O table. In Figure 2 3, i f a study proposes to study the product m a which is a part of sector m split the sector m into m a and the rest of products in m called m b As a result, the n order sectoral technical matrix A is extended to an n+1 square matrix A*. Since the correlation between sectors in the I O table is linear, the disaggregation of sector m would not affect the correlations between other sectors, thus the coefficients in the shaded areas in A and A* are identical. Therefore, there are 4n unknown coefficients and 2n 1 c onstraints for A*. Given that the products within m a and m b are similar, their effects on the intermediate inputs of sector m (the m column vector) could be identified by their respective shares of the sectoral totals. Let s be the share of product m a in t he total output of sector m The sectoral intermediate input constraints are: ( 2 13) For the sectoral intermediate consumption from m m row vector), the value of products t hat each sector purchased from sector m is the sum of m a and m b

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32 The sectoral intermediate consumption constraints are: ( 2 14) ( 2 1 5) Sector 1 2 m ... n 1 a 11 a 12 a 1m a 1... a 1n 2 a 21 a 22 a 2m a 2 ... a 2 n m a m1 a m2 a mm a m... a mn ... a ... 1 a ...2 a ...m a ... ... a ... n n a n1 a n2 a nm a n... a nn Sector 1 2 m a m b ... n 1 a 11 a 12 a 1 ma a 1 mb a 1 ... a 1 n 2 a 21 a 22 a 2 ma a 2 mb a 2 ... a 2 n m a a ma 1 a ma 2 a ma ma a ma mb a ma... a ma n m b a mb 1 a mb 2 a mb ma a mb mb a mb... a mb n ... a ... 1 a ...2 a ...ma a ...mb a ... ... a ... n n a n1 a n2 a n ma a n mb a n... a nn Figure 2 3 Sectoral disaggregation in the I O LCA model Elements of the m a colu mn vector are the value of materials or components purchased from other sectors in one unit of product m a which could be obtained from product, elements of the m a row vector could be calculated as the share of m a in one Similarly, the energy intensity factor of sector m could be split into and A* (n+1 n+1) A (n n)

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33 based on the shared factor s could be obtained by the ratio of manufacturing energy to m a is calculated by to balance The satellite matrix E* is: ( 2 16) If the process energy of m a production is unavailable, it could be assumed that the sub sector of m a and m b has the same energy intensity : The satellite matrix E* then is: ( 2 17) The final demand vector for the new product is: ( 2 18) The above approach is applicable for sectoral aggregation when the products have a parallel structure. However, for sectors that consist of multiple sub sectors within a product chain, the sector will not be properly disaggregated if the share of each sub Figure 2 4). For example, in the Chinese national I O table, the construction sector i ncludes civil engineering construction, building construction, installation, decoration, and others (building repairing, sub contracting management fees, etc). It is obvious that the civil engineering and installation and decoration sub sectors do not cons ume the same proportions of sub sector products, e.g., cement and brick. Splitting the technical coefficient of the construction sector with the cement and brick production sector by the proportion of economic value of the installation and decoration sub s ectors is not reasonable. Instead, the material flow between the sub sector and other sectors in the national economic system should be the reference for disaggregation.

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34 Figure 2 4 Styles of sectoral disaggregation in the I O table Energy P ath A nalysis in the I O LCA M odel The basis for energy path analysis in I O LCA model is the power series Figure 2 5 shows that the activity for a certain value of building construction requires inputs from other sectors in an economic syst em, which is reflected in the sectoral correlation of the construction sector with other sectors. Using the energy consumption intensity factor for each sectoral correlation, the sectoral correlation would then be regarded as a piece of an embodied energy path, i.e., the embodied energy of a building product is the sum of all the energy paths linked to the construction sector. Given that the sectoral correlation presented by an I O table is comprehensive, the embodied energy calculated by the sum of the ene rgy path is complete. For an economic system having n sectors, formula (8) could be expanded as: (2 19) where is the energy related to the pure production of the final product and is called the direct energy. In terms of the case in Figure 2 5, is the building construction energy, is the energy consumption directly required by the building product, such as the first level building material energy, tr ansportation energy, and related services energy. is the indirect energy that represents the

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35 Figure 2 5 Energy paths for building construction energy related to producing all goods and services neede d to produce the final demand, i.e., the sectoral and all following related tiers and sectors as shown in Figure 2 5. In a more general sense, the energy consumption of sector could be calculated by ( Lenzen and Crawford, 2009): ( 2 20) Formula ( 2 20) decomposes the rigid I O LCA model to a more flexible sector by sector format, which allows substituting the specific process data for the national average value in the I O LCA model so as to reflect the c haracteristics of the production chain for a certain product. The work involved in energy path analysis exponentially increases as the number of tiers in the analysis increases. For a n sector economic system, it can be seen that tier 1 has n energy paths, tier 2 has n n ( n 2 ) energy paths, tier 3 has n 3 energy paths. Although each energy path could be traced mathematically, it is hard for a researcher to

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36 consider them all in practice. Theoretically, a threshold value is set so as to identify the paths with significant value (Treloar, 1997), which can then be replaced by specific process data ( Lenzen and Crawford, 2009 ) We call this top down model development. However, since all LCA studies have data constraints, the energy path analysis could be conducted b ottom up. This means: collect as much process data as possible, and then replace the corresponding energy paths regar dless of their significance ( Figure 2 6). Figure 2 6 Top down and bottom up energy path analysis

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37 Uncertaint y for LCA Models System B oundary T runcation System scope definition is the first step for any LCA study, which sets appropriate boundaries for an LCA study. However, a truncated system scope suffers from subjectivity, which causes some inconsistency betwee n the results of LCA studies (Junnila and Horvath, 2003). For buildings, exclusion of certain energy inputs in building components, such as elevators and interior doors, and some processes in the building life cycle, such as maintenance and demolition, wou ld cause uncertainty in results (Ding, 2004). Lenzen (2000) found that the truncation errors from variable boundaries can vary with the type of product or process considered, and could be on the order of 50%. The system boundary truncation in an LCA study can occur in two ways: vertical truncation and horizontal truncation. Vertical truncation means that the energy and environmental impacts stop at the point upstream when impacts are insignificant and intangible in the product chain of the analyzed product Horizontal truncation ends at the process or product where impacts are insignificant to the product. Given that an I O LCA model is based on the input output correlation of sectors in an economic system whose system scope is complete and comprehensive, p rocess based LCA potentially can have high system boundary truncation uncertainty. Raynolds et al ., (2000) called for establishing a unified system boundary selection method so that comparative assessment would be possible. Study D ata Data i ncompleteness a nd u navailability Completeness and availability of data are vital prerequisites for an LCA study (Alcorn and Wood, 1998), and partial data limits the scope of the inventory in the

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38 building energy calculation. For example, when developing I O and hybrid LC A models for a country, sectoral energy consumption statistics can be relatively coarse. Furthermore, compared to sectoral energy data, statistics on sectoral emissions are not common, which makes hard to calculate the full environmental impacts of product s. For a process based LCA model, one may lack the full on site construction energy due to the complex and numerous construction activities. Some critical process data may be kept confidential, especially for new products and technologies (Hendrickson et a l., 2005). On the other hand, researchers who cannot access primary data sources are likely to rely on secondary data sources, which would introduce error into the study. This is because the data sources are either improperly matched or have diffe rent syst em boundaries (Menzies et al., 2007). Data s ources Data sources for LCA studies mainly consist of officially published data, site specific data obtained through investigation and LCA software databases. Officially published data may lack consistency due to different statistical methods or different definitions for categories. For example, the added value of the Chinese construction industry in the statistical yearbook is different from the data in the construction industry yearbook. The sectoral classific ation in the Chinese I O table is not the same as the sectoral classification for the energy consumption statistics. This data diversity would hamper the calculation of the building energy by I O and hybrid LCA models. In terms of on site data collected th rough investigation, the specific conditions of the site may not be adequately described which limits the use of the data for other studies (Miller, 2001). Commercial LCA software, such as GaBi and SimaPro, have significantly advanced LCA studies. However, there is no LCA software database that universally covers all

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39 process data especially when the geographic and temporal attributes of the data are considered. Temporal and s patial d ifference LCA studies have a high dependency on data, and the impact of tem poral differences on study results can be significant. Old process data from out of date technology or manufacturing processes may fail to reflect more recent technology with lower energy and emissions. In addition, sectoral technical coefficients in an I O table usually have a time lag of 3 to 5 years, which makes an I O LCA model hard to use for a prospective study. The standard errors of economic requirements are approximately 10% to 20% (Lenzen, 2000). Although technical coefficients could be projected for a future year by using a residual allocation system (RAS), this approach requires sectoral output and sectoral intermediate input and consumption for the projected year, which would inevitably involve uncertainty and error. Similarly, spatial differen ces in data are also responsible for variations in LCA results ( Huijbregts 1998) Countries differ not only in terms of geography and climatic characteristics, but also in raw material quality, production processes, economic data, transportation distances energy tariffs, and others (Dixit et al., 2010). All of these differences reduce the reproducibility of specific data from one location to another. LCA M odel S election and D evelopment Since the strengths and weaknesses of each type of LCA model are diffe rent, proper model selection is important. For a new product that is not included in an existing I O sectoral account or a unique product with a specific production chain, a process based LCA model is preferred for the study. When developing an I O LCA mod el, it should be noted that the model is mainly

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40 applicable to a region or country that does not heavily rely on imports (Heijungs and Suh, 2002). Furthermore, highly aggregated sectors in an I O table should be split in a way that aligns the sectoral accou nts in the technical coefficient and satellite matrices and makes the model more applicable to individual products, processes, and services. By integrating process data into an I O model to generate a hybrid LCA model, the double counting of the process ba sed and I O models must be considered and addressed. Otherwise, model results may overestimate the inventory (Strmman et al., 2009). It can been seen that due to the advantage of systematic thinking and quantitative analysis, LCA has provided engineer ma nager, policy maker, etc., an important tool for understanding and assessing the impacts of products and services from their cradle to grave. Existing studies have comprehensively defined and analyzed the strengths, weaknesses, and computational structures of LCA models, and applied LCA models to the fields of energy, environment, and society. However, since the I O LCA model has high data dependency and is constrained by the maturity of the economic system, enhancing the specificity of an I O LCA model and developing a hybrid LCA model that is applicable to more types of products and services contributes to the completeness and preciseness of LCA studies.

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41 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Focusing on the sectoral accounts in the Chinese economic system, this study aims to develop a two tier computational framework for an I O LCA model by sectoral disaggregation and process data integration, so as to yield more complete and reliable results for quantifying building embodied energy. For China, there are two types of I O tables that are based on broad and narrow sectoral classifications respectively. The broad sectoral classification I O table is more compatible with the sectoral energy consumption data in statistical yearbooks. However, the relatively coarse sectora l category precludes specific decomposition for energy paths. On the other hand, the narrow sectoral classification I O table is more flexible for defining energy paths that could be replaced with process data, but the mapping to sectoral energy intensity is more difficult. Therefore, given these trade offs for model development, this study developed two sets of models and examined the gap between model results. The overview of the study is shown in Figure 3 1. The I O LCA Model for China Brief History of t he Development of a National Economic Accounting System in China The national economic accounting system in China began with the National Bureau of Statistics in 1952. From 1952 to 1984, the national economic account in China used the Material Product Syst n organization for the political and economic cooperation between socialist countries set up by the Soviet Union. However, with the transition from a planned economy to a mark et economy, the weaknesses of MPS became obvious. As a result, the central government turned to the System of National

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42 Accounts (SNA) to better reflect the operation of the national economy. From 1985 to 1992, the MPS and SNA co existed in China, and the S NA become the primary method for national economic accounting after 1993. The evolution of Chinese economic input output tables is shown in Table 3 1. Figure 3 1 Overview of the model development steps for both the 42 and 135 sector Chinese input output tables

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43 Table 3 1. The I O tables in China Note: et is extension table Technical C oefficient M atrices for S ectoral C I n put O utput T ables Technical coefficients in the I O table are objectively decided by the factors such as sectoral productivity, technical development, and the national structure of the economy. Since the dramatic change in sectoral productivity and economi c structure in a country in a short tim e interval are usually rare ( Figure 3 2), sectoral technical coefficients of a certain country or region are relatively stable over the short term. Benchmark year Type Account Note goods sectors 1973 Physical 61 The first I O table in China 1981 Physical 146 Production sector only Monetary 26 Production sector onl y 1983 (et) Monetary 22 Production sector only 1987 Monetary 118 101 production and 17 non production sectors. Establish I O table compilation system: compile complete I O table for the year ending with 2 and 7, the extension table (brief table) for t he year ending with 0 and 5. 1990 (et) Monetary 33 1992 Physical 151 Add a new sector for wastes Monetary 119 1995 (et) Monetary 33 1997 Monetary 124 2000 Monetary 2002 Monetary 42 and 122 Adopted a new industrial classification syst em in the national economy (Industrial Classification and Codes of the National Economy GB/t4754 2002) 2005 (et) Monetary 47 2007 Monetary 42 and 135

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44 Figure 3 2 Shares of three industries in Chinese GDP in the last two decades For China the latest I O table is based on the 20 07 economic benchmark data ( Table 3 1). The 42 and 135 sector I O tables are obviously different in their sectoral classification. The comparison of these two I O tables is shown in Table 3 2. T able 3 2 and 135 sector I O tables Number of sectors Primary industry Secondary industry Tertiary industry Strength and weakness 42 sector I O table 1 25 16 Sector disaggregation is consistent with sectoral statistics, suc h as energy consumption, employment, and occupational health and safety. However, sectoral classification is coarse and reflects limited types of goods and services. 135 sector I O table 5 90 40 Finer sectoral classification that shows economic informati on for more goods and services. However, relevant sectoral data in various statistical yearbooks is not as detailed as this classification. It can be seen from Table 3 2 that the industry classification in the 135 sector I O table is much finer than tha t in the 42 sector I O table. This sector classification on the one hand presents economic information for more goods and services, and significantly

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45 expands the specificity of the I O LCA model. On the other hand, the 135 sector classification disaggregat es the manufacturing and service sectors more fully, which more precisely depicts the material flows within the economic system and facilitates material flow analysis for certain goods. For example, for buildings, the non metal product sector in the 42 sec tor I O table is divided into 7 sectors including cement production, glass production, fire resistant material production, this contributes to the quantification of building material flow. The disadvantage of the 135 sector I O table lies in correlating re levant sectoral data in various statistical yearbooks in China, which are mainly based on the coarse sector classification, and fails to allocate sectoral impacts at the 135 sector level. This makes the precise compilation of the satellite matrix for the 1 35 sector I O LCA model difficult. In terms of these two sorts of I O tables, a trade off between flexible and specific sectoral material flow description and matching sectoral impacts data for the satellite matrix development is obvious. Therefore, this study developed two sets of I O LCA models based on the 42 and 135 sector I O data respectively. The technical coefficients for each model are directly obtained from the 2007 Input output Table of China published by the National Bureau of Statistics of C hina in 2009 (NBSC, 2009). Satellite M atrix for S ectoral E nergy I ntensity The annual statistical yearbook in China includes sectoral energy consumption data including total energy consumption, coal, coke, crude oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, fuel oil, na tural gas, and electricity. It should be noted that the energy data is sector oriented, and there are overlaps between the different types of energy. For example, for the agricultural sector, the coal consumed for electricity generation has been recorded a s sectoral coal consumption and the electricity has also been counted

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46 as sectoral electricity use. The conversion between different energy products is not considered. This kind of energy recording helps identifying the demand for each type of energy at a n ational level and thus facilitates the management of the national energy strategy and security. However, the sectoral total energy consumption, in metric tons of coal equivalents (mtce) is a net value that deletes the double counting. The sectoral energy c onsumption statistics is based on 48 sectors, which is approximately consistent with the 42 sector I O table. Therefore, sectoral energy intensities, i.e., the energy consumption per unit economic output, can be directly calculated. However, the 135 sector I O table, with a more specific sector classification needs to be mapped to the 48 sector energy consumption statistics. To map the 135 sec tors in the I O table to the 48 sectors in energy consumption data, it was assumed that the energy use of each sub sector correlates to the higher level sector relative to its economic output, thus each sub sector has the same energy intensity. Although this assumption would generate uncertainties and affect model results, it is a reasonable way to develop the satellit e matrix of the I O LCA model under the data constraints of the Chinese statistics system, because the sub sectors have high similarity in production process, technology selection, or even raw material consumption. The satellite matrix for the I O LCA mod el is straighter forward. The energy intensity for each sector is calculated by dividing the sectoral energy by sectoral output. Sectoral Disaggregation in the I O LCA Model Construction S ector D isaggregation The construction sector in the Chinese I O tabl e consists of five sub sectors, namely civil engineering construction, building construction, installation, decoration, and

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47 others (building repairing, sub contract management, etc). The sectoral final product includes civil engineering projects and buildi ngs. Installation and decoration are related to either civil engineering projects or buildings. Therefore, the construction sector in general could be disaggregated into two sectors, as shown in Figure 3 3. Figure 3 3 Product oriented construction sector disaggregation In order to further disaggregate the construction sector in China, building construction trends in China were examined. Broadly speaking, compared to the variety in civil engineering projects, buildings have rel atively few types. The material use, construction equipment requirements, and construction technology of different types of buildings have a high degree of similarity. In addition, China is experiencing a rapid urbanization with an annual growth rate of 1% There are over 20 billion square meters of building floor area built every year, and much of this urban construction uses similar construction materials and techniques. Therefore, this study classified buildings by use type, i.e., residential and commerc ial, location, i.e., urban and rural, and by structural type, i.e., masonry wood and steel reinforced concrete ( Figure 3 4). The construction sector in the I O LCA model is therefore disaggregated into fourteen sub sectors: civil engineering projects, rur al steel concrete residential buildings, rural masonry wood residential buildings, urban residential buildings, office, plant and

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48 Figure 3 4 Building disaggregation based on the use type, the location, the structure type, and the primary material use warehouse, wholesale and retail, hotel and restaurant, educational, residential services, research, culture, sports and entertainment, healthcare and medicine, and other buildings. It should be clarified that the structure of rura l residential buildings in China includes steel concrete, masonry wood, clay, wood, and bamboo. However, the share

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49 of clay, wood, and bamboo buildings in annually new built rural buildings is insignificant, 3.6% and 6% in 2006 and 2007 respectively. Thus, this study focuses on the rural residential buildings with steel concrete and masonry wood structure. Allocation of C onstruction S ector C orrelations Given that this study disaggregated the construction sector in 2007 Chinese 42 and 135 sector I O tables i nto 1 4 sub sectors, dimensions of the disaggregated I O tables expanded to be 55 and 148 sectors respectively. Sector correlations for the new I O tables are determined by the sectoral purchases and investments in civil engineering projects, and 1 3 types o f buildings. In other words, resource and services input s of construction sub sectors. Sectoral intermediate purchase s Since there are numerous goods and services in the I O table, it is hard to determine the demand of construction products good by good. I nstead the goods and services in the economic system are categorized by specific items and general items. The specific items are the goods that directly correlate with construction products, such as cement, steel, and glass, while the general items are the indirect inputs, such as agriculture, food and beverages, and education, which vary very little across different construction products. For sub specific items, this study sampled buildings in different area of China t o generate material intensities of each building type, i.e., the steel use per square meters of office building, and material consumptions of each building sub sector could be calculated by building area. The consumption of civil engineering projects on th e specific items are calculated by I O table balancing. In other word, subtract the value of 13 building sub sectors from construction sector total. In

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50 terms of general items, Construction sector intermediate purchase is distributed to the sub sectors by t he ratio of their economic output. The allocation of sectoral intermediate purchases to sub sectors in the disaggregated construction sector is shown in Figure 3 5 Figure 3 5 Allocation of sectoral intermediate purchases to sub sectors in the disaggregated construction sector Specific demand The inventory of specific demand mainly focuses on building m aterials, and includes 13 items : s teel, cement, concrete, wood, brick, sand, gravel, stone, lime, glass, paint, ceramic tile and ceramic sanitary ware. The monetary value of each building sub The material price in 2007 is calculated by quantity of sale and revenue of each construction material sector ( CBMF, 2008 ), please refer to Table 3 3

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51 Table 3 3 Building material price in 2007 Item Unit Price Steel y uan/ton 3 703 Cement y uan/ton 290 Concrete y uan/m 3 200 Wood y uan/m 3 1 100 Brick y uan/piece 0.42 Sand y uan/m 3 50 Gravel y uan/m 3 55 Lime y uan/ton 210 Glas s y uan/m 2 27 Paint y uan/ton 12 000 Ceramic Tile y uan/m 2 27 Ceramic sanitary ware y uan/set 135 The completed area of each type of building is obtained by 2008 China Statistical Yearbook on Construction (NBSC, 2008a). The data of residential buildings i n the statistical yearbook includes both urban and rural residential buildings, and needs disaggregating. The completed area per person for rural steel concrete and masonry wood structure are obtained by the 2008 China Rural Statistical Yearbook ( NBSC, 200 8 b ), 0.64m 2 per person and 0.29 m 2 per person respectively. Rural population is obtained by 2008 China Statistical Yearbook (NBSC, 2008 c ). The completed area of urban residential buildings is calculated by subtracting the rural area from the residential to tals. The material intensity (material consumption per square meters) of each building type is estimated by sampling buildings. Since building design standard varies by climate zone and seismic zone, material intensity of certain type of buildings at diffe rent locations varies. To alleviate sample bias, this study adopted the traditional classification of China territory and sampled buildi ngs in each area ( Figure 3 6 ). Based on the 2008 China Statistical Yearbook on Construction (NBSC, 2008a) t he completed area of each building type in 6 regions in 2007 is shown in Table 3 4

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52 Figure 3 6 Traditional regions of China The data sources for building material intensity are the Building Evaluation Manual ( Wang, 1996 ), Assets Evaluation Data & Parameters ( Bi, 2002 ), and building quantity takeoffs in Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, and other cities ( CECN 201 2 ; SCCMI 2011 ). These data sources cover most types of building, expect for the residential services and rural residential building types Given that residenti al services buildings in China are usually in low rise (less than 3 floors), their material intensities are estimated by data derived from the analysis of dormitor ies Other buildings are assumed to be low rise and have the similar intensities with residen tial services buildings. The material data for rural steel concrete and masonry wood residential buildings lacks in both national statistics system and existed publications, investigations are conducted in some villages in Beijing and Harbin. Besides, rura l residential building design drawings of Shanxi, Anhui, Jiangxi and other provinces were referred for quantity takeoffs The data are averaged and assumed to be the national average value.

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53 Table 3 4 C ompleted floor area by region in 2007 Building North Northeast East South central Southwest Northwest ( million m 2 ) Plant and warehouse 22.4 13.8 265.6 64.6 17.9 6 .0 Urban R esidential 37.4 18.2 415.7 80.3 36.2 15.1 Rural M W R 42 .0 41.3 24.2 24.3 23.7 9.9 Rural S C R 34.1 17.5 145 .0 134.7 78.4 15.4 Of fice 18.6 6.6 87.8 33.3 11.8 6.1 Wholesale and retail 4.1 1.5 24.7 7.1 4.5 1.8 Hotel and restaurant 3.3 1.1 18.2 6.1 3 .0 1.2 Residential services 2.7 1.4 12.1 3.5 2 .0 0.6 Educational 7.5 3.6 35 .0 20 .0 9.8 4.1 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.9 0.2 3.8 1.2 0.4 0.2 Healthcare and medicine 2.9 1.2 11 .0 5.3 1.9 0.9 Research 1.6 0.6 8.6 4.6 2.5 1.2 Other buildings 6.2 2.9 29.7 1.6 6.9 2.5 It should be clarified that in the aforementioned building material intensit y data, the cemen t, sand, and gravel consumption of buildings include both cement mortar and concrete. However, cement mortar and concrete should be allocated to different sectors in Chinese I O tables. The cement used in cement mortar is distributed to the sector of manufacture of cement, l ime and plaster, while the concrete purchased from batching plant is distributed to the sector of manufacture of products of cement and plaster. Since rural masonry wood residential buildings, residential services buildings, and other buildings are low ris e buildings, it is assumed that these three sub sectors have no concrete consumption. In 2007, approximately 20% of the concrete consumption in building construction are purchased from batching pla nt This rate was applied to the cement disaggregation. Thi s study also assumed that concrete produced from batching plant is C40. 1 cubic meter of C40 concrete consists of 441 kilogram cement, 627

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54 kilogram sand, and 1 164 kilogram gravel. All of the material intensity data are generated in a bottom up way, exc ept for paint, which uses a top down approach. The 2008 China Paint and Coatings Industry Annual ( CNCIA, 2009 ) presents an approach to estimating the paint consumption based on building area. The i nterior wall area is assumed to be 2.5 times the building f loor area and the e xterior wall area is assumed to be 0.7 times the building floor area. In 2007, 74% of the interior wall area and 48% of the exterior wall area use paint. Therefore, t he paint consumed is: C eramic til e use incl udes the bathroom and kitchen (if include d, based on building type ) floor, bathroom and kitchen wall, and the exterior wall of the building The area of the bathroom and kitchen floor is estimated by its proportion of the total building area. This percenta ge is estimated by sampling floor plans for each type of building. For calculating the wall area of the bathroom and kitchen, the assum ptions are that the rooms are square, the height of ceramic tile is 2.2 meter s and the door and window area offset s cons truction waste. I t is also assumed that 45% of building exterior wall area has ceramic tile. T he ceramic sanitary ware includes wash basin s toilet s and urinal s The number of fixtures is calculated by sampling the floor pla ns for each buildin g type ( T abl e 3 5 ) Based on the aforementioned data, the monetary value of specific demand s of each building type could be calculated ( T able 3 6 )

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55 Table 3 5 Ceramic sanitary ware consumption by different building types in 2007 Building Completed building area Inte nsity Consumption ( million m 2 ) ( set m 2 ) ( 10 4 set ) Plant and warehouse 390.3 0.014 546.4 Urban residential 602.9 0.044 2 652.7 Rural masonry wood residential 165.3 0.040 661.3 Rural steel concrete residential 425.0 0.040 1 700.1 Office 1 64.1 0. 020 328.3 Wholesale and retail 4 3 7 0.015 65.6 Hotel and restaurant 3 2.8 0.045 147.6 Residential services 2 2.3 0.020 44.5 Educational 80.0 0.045 360.0 Culture, sports and entertainment 23.3 0.016 37.2 Healthcare and medicine 19.1 0.032 61.3 R esearch 6.7 0.018 12.1 Other buildings 64.3 0.018 115.8 General demand In addition to the 1 2 types of building materials, all other products and services in the Chinese economic system are treated as a general demand and are allocated to the disaggre gated 14 sub sectors by their product value ( NBSC, 2008 a ; NBSC, 2008b ) to estimate the sub secto ral intermediate purchase s ( Table 3 7 ) Th erefore, the technical coefficients of the 14 sub sectors to the general demand sector s are the same. However, this un certainty is offseted by the strength of I O LCA model in complete system boundary. A precise disaggregation of technical coefficient s of certain sector s into several sub sectors requires the publication of more detailed sectoral data. Sectoral intermediat e investment s The sectoral investments of the 13 building sub sectors are determined by matching these building sub sectors with their corresponding sectors, and adopting the value of the construction sector intermediate investments to these sectors. For e xample, since entertainment buildings are consumed by three sectors of c ultural and a rt a ctivities, s ports a ctivities, and e ntertainment in Chinese I O account, the intermediate

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56 Table 3 6 Specific demand of each building type in 2007 Building type Stee l Cement Concrete Wood Brick Sand Stone Lime Glass Paint Ceramic tiles Ceramic sanitary ware ( million yuan ) Plant & warehouse 53 299 23 618 27 322 13 050 20 713 8 500 9 202 3 220 2 580 2 638 3 597 738 U rban r esidential 106 844 37 597 41 1 17 15 428 24 712 13 868 9 439 4 074 5 901 4 075 8 135 3 581 R ural masonry wood residential 0 7 671 0 14 548 19 025 10 333 6 820 1 042 802 1 118 2 097 893 R ural s teel concrete residential 54 300 24 159 27 202 13 091 24 501 10 79 1 10 847 11 916 3 923 2 873 5 283 2 295 Office 37 472 10 414 11 489 8 134 8 065 3 630 2 719 919 1 349 1 109 1 686 443 Wholesale and retail 6 989 2 741 3 061 3 086 3 449 884 721 184 189 296 434 89 Hotel & restaurant 8 186 2 682 2 296 1 912 1 446 786 458 225 232 222 538 199 Residential services 1 685 1 018 1 559 581 1 857 527 307 168 106 151 245 60 Education 20 156 5 097 5 600 3 241 5 307 1 648 1 375 437 532 541 939 486 Culture, sports a nd entertainment 3 990 1 588 1 628 1 754 1 951 591 414 136 167 157 246 50 Healthcare and medicine 2 964 1 261 1 340 1 104 1 330 418 247 155 135 129 268 83 Research 1 343 312 469 145 533 142 119 36 46 45 80 16 Others 4 866 2 940 4 503 1 678 5 365 1 522 888 484 307 435 677 156

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57 Table 3 7 Economic value by different building types in 2007 Building type Output value Percentage ( million y uan ) ( % ) Plant and warehouse 381 16 7 12.3 Urban residential 877 31 4 28.3 Rural masonry wood residential 58 344 1.9 Rural steel concrete residential 274 999 8.9 Office 207 969 6.7 Wholesale and retail 49 59 9 1.6 Hotel and restaurant 41 77 2 1.3 Residential services 28 82 6 0.9 Educational 92 33 6 3.0 Cultur e, sports and entertainment 37 07 2 1.2 Healthcare and medicine 27 234 0.9 Research 10 09 6 0.3 Other buildings 81 70 8 2.6 Civil engineering projects 926 860 29.9 investment s of the construction sector to these three sectors are used as the interme diate investment of the entertainment sub sector ( Figure 3 7 ) The civil engineering products are consumed by the railway transportation, road transportation, water transportation, air transportation, pipeline transportation, and t elecom & o ther i nformatio n t ransmission s ervices sectors. Allocation of C onstruction S ector E conomic G ross O utput In an I O table, the gross output of a sector could be calculated by summing up the value of sectoral intermediate purchase s and value added For the disaggregated 14 sub sectors, calculations of their sectoral intermediate purchases have been illustrated in the aforementione d section. The value added consists of employee compensation, profit and capital consumption allowances, and indirect business taxes For the 14 co nstruction sub sectors, the value added items occur in the construction process and are close ly correlated to the production of contractors. Although the pr ofit rate of the 14 sub sectors var ies these sub sectors are all in the Chinese construction indust ry and it

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58 Figure 3 7 Allocation of heavy construction buildings to economic sectors could be assumed that the intensity of the sectoral value added of the 14 sub sectors are the same. In other word s the value added of the c onstruction sector is distributed to the 14 sub sectors by the share of the sectoral intermediate purchase s The technical coefficients of the construction sub sectors in the 148 and 55 sector I O LCA model are shown in the Appendix A D.

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59 Energy Path Ext raction for the D isaggregated I O LCA Model An I O LCA model has a complete system boundary, and include s a comprehensive production chain process for products by considering the contribution of every product and service correlated with the final product However, given th at the foundation of this model ( the sectoral input output technical coefficients matrix and sectoral energy intensity matrix ) are national level data, the specificity of model the results for individual products is compromis ed. Energy pat h extraction is an approach to breaking down the holistic production chain energy generated by the I O LCA model, and screening out the significant process energy S ubstituting these significant energy paths with specific data improves the precision of the energy estimate To determine the significant energy path s for 13 building types in both the 5 5 sec tor and 14 8 sector I O LCA model s the energy path s for 1 million y uan of building product production is calculated. For buildings, the first tier energy p ath is construction energy. When di stributing construction sector energy to 14 sub sectors, this study assumed that the sub sectoral energy consumption is correl ated with their economic output and therefore the 13 building types have the same construction energy intensity. The top 5 second tier energy path s for each building type in the 148 sector I O model are shown in Table 3 8. Table 3 8 Top 5 energy paths by building type in the second tier of 148 sector I O LCA model Building type Path 1 Path 2 Path 3 Path 4 Path 5 Plant and warehouse Rolling of steel Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials Manufacture of products of cement and plaster Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster Loading, unloading, portage and other transport services

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60 Table 3 8. Continued Building type Path 1 Path 2 Path 3 Path 4 Path 5 Urban residential Rolling of steel Loading, unloading, portage and other transport services Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster Manufacture of products of cement and plaster Rural masonry wood residential Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster Loading, unloading, portage and other transport services Manufa cture of pottery and porcelain Manufacture of synthetic materials Rural steel concrete residential Rolling of steel Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster Manufacture of products of cement and plas ter Loading, unloading, portage and other transport services Office Rolling of steel Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials Manufacture of products of cement and plaster Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster Loading, unloading, portag e and other transport services Wholesale and retail Rolling of steel Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials Manufacture of products of cement and plaster Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster Loading, unloading, portage and other trans port services Hotel and restaurant Rolling of steel Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials Manufacture of products of cement and plaster Loading, unloading, portage and other transport services Re sidential services Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials Rolling of steel Manufacture of products of cement and plaster Loading, unloading, portage and other transport services Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster

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61 Table 3 8. Continued Building type Path 1 Path 2 Path 3 Path 4 Path 5 Educational Rolling of steel Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster Manufacture of products of cement and plaster Loading, un loading, portage and other transport services Culture, sports and entertainment Rolling of steel Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials Loading, unloading, portage and other transport services Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster Manu facture of products of cement and plaster Healthcare and medicine Rolling of steel Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster Loading, unloading, portage and other transport services Manufacture of pro ducts of cement and plaster Research Rolling of steel Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials Loading, unloading, portage and other transport services Manufacture of products of cement and plaster Manufacture of synthetic materials Other buildings Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials Rolling of steel Manufacture of products of cement and plaster Loading, unloading, portage and other transport services Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster It can be seen from that f or 1 3 building types the top 5 energy paths are primarily building material manufactur ing sectors such as steel, brick, and cement, and the transport ation services sector Since urban residential buildings and most public buildings in China have steel or reinforced concrete structure s energy consumption of steel rolling is an important energy path On the contrary, rural masonry wood residential buildings and residential service buildings in China have high consumption o f brick, and these building types are most correlated with the energy consumption of the

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62 brick stone and other building materials manufactur ing sector. Given that the 148 sector I O LCA model reflects more types of commodities than the 55 sector model, the extracted energy paths for the 13 building types are more specific and detailed. Since sectors in the 55 sector I O LCA model are highly aggregated, the extracted energy paths are broader and are not specific enough to be mapped to process energy ( Table 3 9 ) For example, the road and railway transportation energy for a given building could replace the energy path of the road transportation and railway transportation sector s respectively in the 148 sector I O model. However, substituting the se two process energy data for the energy path of the t raffic, transport and storage sector in the 55 sector I O model would remove the energy associated with water, air, urban public and pipeline transportation. Table 3 9 Top 5 energy path s by buildin g type in the second tier of 55 sector I O LC A model Building type Path 1 Path 2 Path 3 Path 4 Path 5 Plant and warehouse Manufacture of nonmetallic mineral products Smelting and rolling of metals Traffic, transport and storage Chemical industry Processing of petroleum, coking, processing of nuclear fuel Urban residential Manufacture of nonmetallic mineral products Smelting and rolling of metals Traffic, transport and storage Chemical industry Processing of petroleum, coking, processing of nuclear fuel Rural masonry wood residential Manufacture of nonmetallic mineral products Traffic, transport and storage Chemical industry Processing of petroleum, coking, processing of nuclear fuel Processing of timbers and manufacture of furniture Rural steel concrete residential Manufacture of nonmetallic mine ral products Smelting and rolling of metals Traffic, transport and storage Chemical industry Processing of petroleum, coking, processing of nuclear fuel

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63 Table 3 9 Continued Building type Path 1 Path 2 Path 3 Path 4 Path 5 Office Man ufacture of nonmetallic mineral products Smelting and rolling of metals Traffic, transport and storage Chemical industry Processing of petroleum, coking, processing of nuclear fuel Wholesale and retail Manufacture of nonmetallic mineral products Smelting and rolling of metals Traffic, transport and storage Chemical industry Processing of petroleum, coking, processing of nuclear fuel Hotel and restaurant Manufacture of nonmetallic mineral products Smelting and rolling of metals Traffic, transport and stora ge Chemical industry Processing of petroleum, coking, processing of nuclear fuel Residential services Manufacture of nonmetallic mineral products Traffic, transport and storage Smelting and rolling of metals Chemical industry Processing of petroleum, coki ng, processing of nuclear fuel Educational Smelting and rolling of metals Manufacture of nonmetallic mineral products Traffic, transport and storage Chemical industry Processing of petroleum, coking, processing of nuclear fuel Culture, sports and enterta inment Manufacture of nonmetallic mineral products Smelting and rolling of metals Traffic, transport and storage Chemical industry Processing of petroleum, coking, processing of nuclear fuel Healthcare and medicine Manufacture of nonmetallic mineral produ cts Smelting and rolling of metals Traffic, transport and storage Chemical industry Processing of petroleum, coking, processing of nuclear fuel Research Manufacture of nonmetallic mineral products Smelting and rolling of metals Traffic, transport and stor age Chemical industry Processing of petroleum, coking, processing of nuclear fuel Other buildings Manufacture of nonmetallic mineral products Traffic, transport and storage Smelting and rolling of metals Chemical industry Processing of petroleum, coking, processing of nuclear fuel Process Data Integration in the I O LCA Model Case S tudy B uilding The case study building is an education building in China. It is located in Shijiazhuang, China, and has a total floor area of 49,166 m 2 The building has two pa rts:

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64 the main building and the podium. The main building is 81 meters in height (19 stories above and 2 stories below ground). The building has a beam slab raft foundation and frame shear wall structure. The podium has 6 stories above ground and 2 below gr ound with both pier and strip foundations and a reinforced concrete frame structure. The seismic design is 7 degree. The construction started in June 2009 and was completed in November, 2011. The total cost of the building is 74 540 000 yuan. Process D ata C ollection and C alculation The building materials and components with significant quantity or costs were included in this study It should be not ed that the concrete consumption of the case building includes concrete batching plant purchases and on site us e. 51 017 m 3 concrete ( 6 481 252 yuan ) was purchased from a concrete batching plant and takes over 70% in total concrete consumption ( Table 3 10 ) Table 3 10 Consumption of cement, sand and gravel of the case building Materials Construction site (ton) C oncrete batching plant (ton) Cement 6 250 10 939 Sand and gravel 11 030 32 655 Productivity of the batching plant is 100m 3 /h and the energy intensity is 250kW h/ h, 200kW h/ h for the batching machine and 50kW h/ h for the belt conveyor. Production energy fo r the concrete is 127 543kWh or 460GJ. Production energy of typical building materials was calculated by material consumption and energy intensity ( Table 3 11 ) In terms of the transportation energy, materials of either significant physical features (weigh t or volume) or high monetary costs were considered. Ground transportation distance was calculated using Google Earth (Google Inc 2007) and the rail transportation distance was determined by the data published by the Ministry of

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65 Table 3 11 Material pro duction energy of the case building Materials Energy intensity Production energy Unit Quantity Unit Intensity (GJ) Steel ton 3 600 GJ/ton 20 72 000 Cement (on site) ton 6 250 GJ/ton 3 18 750 Cement (batching plant) ton 10 939 GJ/ton 3 32 817 Concre te (batching plant) m 3 51 017 GJ/ m 3 0.009 460 Plasterboard ton 90 GJ/ton 4.5 405 Brick ton 4 876 GJ/ton 2.5 12 190 Ceramic tiles ton 736 GJ/ton 5.5 4 048 Sand (on site) ton 8 680 GJ/ton 0.15 1 302 Gravel (on site) ton 2 350 GJ/ton 0.15 353 Sand and gravel (batching plant) ton 32 655 GJ/ton 0.15 4 898 Glass ton 274 GJ/ton 7.5 2 055 Wood ton 195 GJ/ton 0.3 59 Lime ton 4 950 GJ/ton 4 19 800 Paint ton 55 GJ/ton 23 1 265 Railways (M RC 2005). In 2009, the energy intensity of railway freight was 5.3 metric tons of coal equivalent per million tons of cargo per kilometer (M RC 2009). This is a comprehensive index including rail maintenance, locomotive repairing, and other aspects The specification manuals of the trucks used in material transportation w ere referred for their diesel consumption intensi ties. The inventory of material transportation and relevant energy and emissions are shown in Table 3 12 C onstruction energy included diesel, electricity and gasoline. The diesel was consumed by heavy equip ment such as an excavator, loader, bulldozer, diesel generator and air compressor. The electricity was mainly consumed by equipment such as a windlass, tower crane, mortar and concrete mixer, welding machine, cutting machine and electrical drill. Gasoline fueled equipment included a light truck, forklift, sprinkler truck and a centrifugal water pump. For the construction energy of the case building, the construction workload was quantified according to both national and provincial Construction Bill of Quan tities Specification (MHURDC 2008; HBCD 2009)

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66 and then multiplied by the quota of machine shift energy consumption ( HBCD 2008), please refer to Table 3 13 Table 3 12 Transportation energy of the case building Items D istance Ways of shipping Energy c onsumption (km) Type Quantity (kg) Cement CP to CBP 36 14 ton bulk cement truck diesel 16 974 CP to CS 28 14 ton bulk cement truck diesel 7 537 Sand & stone CP to CBP 40 10 ton truck diesel 58 273 CP to CS 32 10 ton truck diesel 27 741 Steel SP to RS 10 10 ton truck diesel 1 132 BJ to SJZ 277 Railway electricity 82 994 (kWh) RS to CS 11 10 ton truck diesel 1 245 Concrete 10 10 m 3 concrete mixer truck diesel 35 184 Brick 65 5 ton truck diesel 11 724 SBS water proof roof ing material 15 5 t on truck diesel 361 Glass curtain and blackboard 7 5 ton truck diesel 139 Dry hang stone 8 5 ton truck diesel 36 Xry wall insulation board and polystyrene foam board 60 5 ton truck diesel 748 Wood door, steel door, glass door and fireproof rolling shut ter door 13 5 ton truck diesel 100 Polymer mortar and anti crack mortar 55 5 ton truck diesel 1 062 Galvanized iron wire and steel wire mesh 52 5 ton truck diesel 144 Elevator 985 5 ton truck diesel 442 10 ton truck diesel 527 Note: CP is cemen t plant, CBP is concrete batching plant, CS is construction site, SP is steel plant, RS is railway station, BJ is Beijing, SJZ is Shijiazhuang. Table 3 13 Construction energy of the case building Energy Unit Quantity Diesel kg 98 843 Gasoline kg 6 408 Electricity kWh 1 565 680 Sum GJ 10 122

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67 Substitution of P rocess D ata for E nergy P ath D ata The p rocess data of the education building is allocated to the relevant sectors in 148 and 55 sector I O accounts, and then substituted for the respective ener gy path s The energy path substitution in the 148 sector I O model is shown in Table 3 14 and Figure 3 8 Similarly the energy path substitution in the 148 sector I O model is shown in Table 3 15 and Figure 3 9 Table 3 14 Energy path substitution in th e 148 sector I O model Sector Process energy Path energy Variation (GJ) Construction 10 122 14 023 3 901 R olling of s teel 72 000 27 628 44 372 Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster 38 550 5 759 32 791 Manufacture of products of cement and plaster 865 5 828 4 963 Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials 1 3,845 8 671 5,174 Manufacture of pottery and porcelain 4 048 1 483 2 565 Manufacture of glass and its products 2 055 554 1 501 Processing of timbers, manufacture of wood, bamboo rattan, palm and straw products 59 481 422 Manufacture of paints, printing inks, pigments and similar products 1,265 506 759 Transport via railway 299 337 38 Transport via road 3 759 3 493 266 Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster 32 817 1 549 31 268 Manufacture of brick, stone and other building materials 4 898 71 4 827 Transport via road 3 209 81 3 128 Net value 11 7,327 Table 3 15 Energy path substitution in the 55 sector I O model Sector Process energy Path energy Variation (GJ) Con struction 10 122 13 928 3 806 Smelting and rolling of metals 72 000 22 336 49 664 Manufacture of nonmetallic mineral products 5 9,363 22 143 3 7,220 Processing of timbers and manufacture of furniture 59 334 275

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68 Table 3 15 Continued Sector Proces s energy Path energy Variation (GJ) Chemical industry 1 265 4 496 3 231 Traffic, transport and storage 4 057 7 935 3 878 Manufacture of nonmetallic mineral products 37 715 3 699 34 016 Traffic, transport and storage 3 209 478 2 731 Net value 11 2 ,441 Figure 3 8 Structure of e nergy path substitution in the 148 sector I O model Figure 3 9 Structure of e nergy path substitution in the 55 sector I O model

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69 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSI ON Results: I O LCA Model s The embodied energy of the education building was calculated by using the building costs as input into the final construction sector of the 42 and 135 sector I O models developed from 2007 Chinese economic benchmark data. It can b e seen from Table 4 1 that the embodied energy of the education building was calculated to be 294 537 GJ and 278 909 by the 135 and 42 sector I O model respectively 2 2 The two I O models gener ate close results. This is because the construction sector in both the 135 and 42 sector I O models is highly aggregated, cove ring various types of buildings such as residential buildings, office buildings, and education buildings, and civil engineering p rojects such as bridges, roads, and ports. Technical coefficients are published by governmental authorit ies and did not affect result s Result gaps are caused by sectoral energy intensities ; i n other words, the satellite matrix in the I O model. This prov es that homogeneity assumption is applicable for I O model development. Table 4 1 Embodied energy of the education building calculated by the 135 and 42 sector I O model Model Embodied energy Embodied energy intensity ( GJ ) ( GJ m 2 ) 135 sector I O mod el 294 537 6.0 42 sector I O model 278 909 5.7 Since t he sectoral energy consumption statistics are based on 48 sectors, which is approximately consiste nt with the 42 sector I O table the satellite matrix established in the 42 sector I O model is more objective, which involves less sectoral energy splitting and merging. The embodied energy of the education building is high ly concentrat ed in

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70 the top sectors. In the 135 sector I O model, the top 10 sector s account for 62% of the total embodied energy (Fig ure 4 1) T he t op 5 sector s represent 71% of the total embodied energy in the 42 sector I O model (Figure 4 2) The e mbodied energy of the education building is primarily from the metal and building materials production sectors. Figure 4 1 Top 10 sect oral energy of the e ducation building in 135 sector I O model Figure 4 2 Top 5 sectoral energ y of the education building in 42 sector I O model

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71 Since the production and supply of electric power and heat power sector is an important energ y provider in Chinese society, the sectoral energy is significant in building embodied energy. Results: Disaggregated I O LCA Models The e mbodied energy of the education building is calculated to be 242 471 GJ and 212 721 GJ in the disaggregated 148 and 55 sector I O m odel respectively ( Table 4 2 ) Compared with the results of aggregated I O models, embodied energy calculated by the disaggregated 148 and 55 sector I O model is lower. This is because the education building is less material intensive than civil engineeri ng projects, especially considering materials have high embodied energy, such as steel and cement. In other words, for a given monetary value education building s consume fewer energy intensive materials than civil engineering project s ( Figure 4 3 ) Table 4 2 Embodied energy of the education building calculated by the 148 and 55 sector I O model Model Embodied energy Embodied energy intensity ( GJ ) ( GJ m 2 ) 148 sector I O model 242 471 4.9 55 sector I O model 212 721 4.3 Figure 4 3 Technical coe fficients of 14 sub sectors with energy intensive sectors in the 148 sector I O model

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72 Similarly, Figure 4 4 and Figure 4 5 demonstrate the high concentration of sectoral energy in the embodied energy of the education building. However, the top 10 and top 5 energy sectors vary between the aggregated and disaggregated I O models. Sectoral disaggregation reflect s character istic s of education buildings. For example, compared Figure 4 4 Top 10 sectoral energy of the e ducation building in 148 sector I O model Figure 4 5 Top 5 sectoral energy of the education b uilding in 55 sector I O model

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73 with the homogeneous product chain of construction projects, education buildings in China have higher dependency on steel; compared with civil engineering projects, bui lding construction energy is a more significant percentage of total embodied energy; and since building materials and components are more diver se transportation sector energy is more important for building embodied energy. It can be seen that the aggregat ed 135 and 42 sector I O LCA models are based on the assumption that buildings and civil engineering projects in China have the same material intensity, the so called product homogeneity assumption of the I O technique. The aggregated I O models veil the uni queness of material consumption of different building types and affect the preciseness of building embodied energy quantification. Table 4 3 illustrates differences in building embodied energy intensity for aggregated and disaggregated I O LCA models. Table 4 3 Embodied energy intensity by building type in different I O model s Building type 135 sector I O model 148 sector I O model 42 sector I O model 55 sector I O model ( 2 ) Plant and warehouse 4.2 2.5 4.0 2.2 Urban residential 3.3 2.9 Rural masonry wood residential 1.3 1.2 Rural steel concrete residential 2.1 1.9 Office 3.2 2.8 Wholesale and retail 2.9 2.6 Hotel and restaurant 3.4 3.0 Residential services 2.8 2.5 Educational 3.2 2.8 Culture, sports a nd entertainment 3.7 3.2 Healthcare and medicine 3.3 2.9 Research 3.5 3.1 Other buildings 2.8 2.4

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74 For the aggregated 135 and 42 sector I O models, the embodied energy intensity of 13 types of buildings is respectively calculated to be 4.2 2 and 4.0 2 and the embodied energy for all 13 building types is significantly overestimate d. It can be seen from Figure 4 6 and Figure 4 7 that for most building types building embodied energy is 20% to 50% overestimated primarily due t o the aggregation of the construction sector in I O model. Since rural masonry wood residential buildings have comparatively light weight structure, they do not consume energy intensive materials such as steel and concrete, results of the aggregated I O mo del are over 200% higher than the disaggregated model. Results: Disaggregated I O LCA Models with Process Data Integration In terms of the 148 and 55 sector I O model s with process data integration, the embodied energy of the education building is estimat ed to be 359 798 GJ and 325 162 GJ, respectively ( Table 4 4 ) Table 4 4 Embodied energy of the education building calculated by the 148 and 55 sector I O model with process data integration Model Embodied energy Embodied energy intensity ( GJ ) ( 2 ) 148 sector I O model with process data integration 359,798 7.3 55 sector I O model with process data integration 32 5,162 6.6 In the 148 sector I O model with process data integration, the net value of the process data substitution is 117 327 GJ, and represents a 48% increase over the 148 sector I O model. In the 55 sector I O model with process data integration, the net value of the process data substitution is 112 441 GJ, a 53% increase compared the 55 sector I O model. The significant increase in em bodied energy is caused by the relatively high

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75 Note: percentage is calculated by (1 35 sector model value 1 48 sector model value) / 1 48 sector model value Figure 4 6 Comparison of embodied energy calculated by 135 and 1 48 sector I O models for diff erent building type s Note: percentage is calculated by (42 sector model value 55 sector model value) / 55 sector model value Figure 4 7 Comparison of embodied energy calculated by 42 and 55 sector I O models for different building types

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76 cement and concrete consumption of the case building, which has a frame shear wall and a reinforced concrete frame structure Furthermore, road transportation energy related to the education building is 266 GJ higher than the national average energy consumption for the construction sector while railway transportation energy is 38 GJ less. This is the result of local purchas ing of building materials such as cement, sand, steel, brick, plastics, and ceramic products. The majority of these materials are produced in the neighboring counties and cities, within 100 kilometers of the construction site. It can be seem from Figure 4 8 a nd Figure 4 9 that the top 10 sector s in the 148 sector I O model with process data integration accounts for 74% of the total embodied energy of the case building, and the top 5 sector s in the 55 sector I O model represent 81% ed energy Integrat ing process data into the I O model could cumulatively increase the top ten sector s percentage of total buildi ng embodied energy Figure 4 8 Top 10 sector s in terms of embodied energy for the education b uilding in 148 sector I O mo del with process data integration

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77 Figure 4 9 Top 5 sector s in terms of embodied energy for the education building in 55 sector I O model with process data integration Results: Comparison of Different LCA Models The impacts of the two tier computatio n al structure of I O LCA model on building embodied energy calculation are demonstrated by using 1 million y uan in the education building sector as a function al unit ( Figure 4 10 ) In conventional I O modeling, prior to the two tier structure, I O models w ould assume that the product chain of buildings and civil engineering projects are the same, and yield the same embodied energy for 1 million yuan of demand, regardless of whether the product is a building or a civil engineering project This results in es timates of 3 951 GJ and 3 742 GJ in the 135 and 42 sector I O model respectively. Based on the characteristics of material consumption of different construction products, sectoral disaggregation (the first tier, or the tier one computational structure de velop ed in this study) enable s I O models to distinguish buildings and civil construction projects and better distinguish their respective embodied energy intensity The tier one I O model calculates an embodied energy of a 1 million yuan education buildin g as 3 253 GJ and 2 854 GJ by the 148 and 55 sector I O

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78 Figure 4 10 Embodied energy of a 1 million yuan education al building calculated by I O LCA models in the different stages of a two tier computation models respective ly However, the results of the disaggregated I O models are still at a national level and do not reflect any specificity of the building, including materials and local conditions such as transportation distances. This drawback is address e d by

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79 substituting more specific process data for the energy path in the I O model (the second tier of the two tier computational structure develop ed in this study).The embodied energy of the function al unit calculated with the second tier I O model is 4,805 GJ and 4,340 GJ for the 148 and 55 sector models respectively, which is 16 22% higher than the base models and 48 52% higher than the disaggregated models. The two tier computation al framework successfully combines process based LCA with I O LCA by coupling specific pro cess data related to the research subject with econom y wide sectoral correlation The work contributes to the envision ed mainstream practice shift in a more vibrant and rigorous develop ment in industrial ecology ( Majeau Bettez et al., 2011). To better und erstand the building embodied energy results of the aggregated I O model, the disaggregated I O model, and the disaggregated I O model with process data integration the results were compared to other LCA models. In addition to comparing the three model s results to one another, the results were compared to a process based LCA model and process based hybrid LCA model The structure and development of the process based and process based hybrid LCA models are shown in Appendix E and F Figure 4 11 shows that the embodied energy and energy intensity of the case building vary among different LCA models. Due to the limited system boundary, the embodied energy calculated with the process based LCA model has the lowest value. Compared to civil engineering projects buildings have a less energy intensive production chain ( Figure 4 3). The refore, the aggregated I O models that include civil engineering, building construction, and finishing in one sector have higher embodied

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80 energy compared to disaggregated I O models Given that the education building is a high rise building that has high consumption of cement, concrete, and steel, hybrid LCA models better reflect the uniqueness of the specific building and in this case, have high er estimates of embodied energy Figure 4 11 Embodied energy and energy intensity of the education building calculated by different LCA models Based on the embodied energy quantified by different LCA models, a conversion factor matrix among different LCA model results could be developed ( Figure 4 12 ) The matrix could provide a fast conversion of different LCA model estimates for embodied energy of high rise education buildings in China. On the other hand, the matrix reflects the gaps between different LCA models. F or example, in the fir st row, the embodied energy conversion factor of aggregated I O LCA models, disaggregated I O LCA models, and hybrid LCA models is 1.53, 1.21, and 1.76 respectively. Results of the aggregated I O LCA model was 53% higher than the process based LCA model t he

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81 d isaggregated I O LCA model was 21% higher, and the hybrid LCA model was 76% higher. It should be noted that the structure of the conversion factor matrix is relatively stable, while the value of each matrix element varies by case building type A reaso nable range for each conversion factor could be determined using additional case studies. Figure 4 12 C onversion factor matrix for high rise education building embodied energy quantification of different LCA models Compari sons of different LCA model results have been done by former studies. Suh (2004) concluded that results of I O LCA models vary 80% to 125% compared to process based LCA models, and hybrid LCA models have 20% to 75% larger results than process based LCA mo dels. Junnila et al., (2006) revealed that I O LCA model produces constantly higher (50 70%) results in embodied impacts quantification. Williams (2004) and Ferrao and Nhambiu (2009) found that process based results are 30 60% lower than the I O and hybri d models. Sharrard et al., (2008) illustrated that the result s of hybrid LCA models are 5 15% higher than I O LCA models.

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82 T able 4 5 lists the building embodied energy quantified by former studies. It can be seen that results of this study on the whole are comparable to existing studies. Table 4 5 Building e mbodied energy intensity of existing studies Building structure LCA m odel Intensity (GJ 2 ) Reference Concrete Process based 3.2 Adalberth, 1999 Concrete Process based 3.5 Steel concrete Process b ased 3.4 Steel brick Process based 4.7 Buchanan and Levine, 1999 Steel concrete Process based 4.5 Junnila et al., 2006 U.S. average I O 8.2 Stein et al., 1980 Sweden average I O 6.2 Nssna et al., 2007 Concrete Process based I O 6.8 Kofoworola and G heewala 2009 Steel concrete I O with process data integration 6.7 Sharrard et al., 2008

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83 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS, LIMITAT IONS AND RECOMMENDAT IONS Conclusions This study developed a computational framework to strengthen the specificity of I O LCA models in building embodied energy quantification. On one hand, focusing on the national economic system of China, this study split the highly aggregated construction sector into 14 sub sectors, including 13 types of buildings and civil engineering projects, and de veloped 55 and 1 48 sector I O LCA models. Based on the computational structure of I O LCA and energy path analysis, this study integrated process data of specific products into the disaggregated 55 and 1 48 sector I O LCA models to further improve model p erformance. A high rise education building was selected to demonstrate the framework operation and examine model results. Since the construction sector in the Chinese economic system was disaggregated and then integrated in the I O LCA model, differences i n the 13 types of buildings and civil engineering projects in terms of material and service demands were included which contributes to the improvement of I O LCA models fo r construction in China By substituting the specific process energy of an individu al building for the national average energy path in an I O LCA model, the uniqueness of the specific building was reflected, which is a significant enhancement for life cycle assessment modeling of construction projects In terms of embodied energy of the education building case study, differences between the 42 and 135 sector I O model, and the 55 and 148 sector I O model are comparatively insignificant. For the aggregated I O model, disaggregated I O model, and disaggregated I O model with process data integration, the disaggregated I O

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84 model with process data integration has the highest embodied energy estimates and the disaggregated I O model has lowest estimates Compared to civil engineering projects, education buildings in China are less material in tensive. In other words, for a given monetary demand, an education building will use less energy intensive materials, such as cement and steel, and thus have a lower total embodied energy. However, c ompared with the average product chain for education buil dings in China, the case building has a high rise design and relatively higher consumption of cement, concrete, and steel, thus significant ly high er embodied energy than the national average embodied energy of education buildings with equivalent monetary v alue. The two tier computation of an I O LCA model accelerates the convergence of sectoral path energy in total building embodied energy. Therefore, sectoral disaggregation and process data integration effectively enhance the specificity I O LCA models for individual products and services Limitations This study developed a computational framework to improve the specificity of I O LCA model for individual building s and building types However, because of the high data dependency of the LCA study, this rese arch has the following limitations : Data U ncertainty The economic and energy consumption statistics in China are not uniform. The economic input output table has 135 sectors while the energy consumption data is available in 48 sectors. When developing the satellite matrix for 135 sector I O LCA model, it is assumed that the sub sectors of certain upper level sector s have the same energy intensity. Although the differences in energy use per unit economic output among the 48 sectors (steel production vs. agri culture, for example) are generally greater than the differences between the energy use per unit economic output of the

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85 sub sectors (agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fisheries, for example), uncertainty is introduced by splitting the 48 sector energy data into the 135 sector economic data Data A vailability Since the two tier computational framework combined the results of an I O model and process data, data requirements are high and data availability is limited by the immaturity of the current statistics system in China For example, in the I O LCA model, the 135 sector level energy consumption is not available and the intermediate purchase s and investment s of the construction sector at the product level does not exist On the other hand, given that the material and component inventory of the case building could not be considered item by item, the process energy used to replace the energy path in the I O LCA model is relatively incomplete and was limited to the top sectors in terms of embodied e nergy Sample S election B ias When calculating the intermediate purchase of 13 types of buildings, this study sampled over 100 buildings in 6 regions in China to determine a general material intensity (material use by unit economic value of buildings) for each building type However, since buildings are unique even buildings of the same use type will vary their material consumption can also significantly vary Recommendations and F uture Research LCA stud ies ha ve high data dependency. The two tier I O LCA model developed by this research is a hybrid model and needs complete national data such as sectoral technical coefficients and energy consumption, and specific process data related to the research subject. The development of a national statistical system is critical for reducing

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86 model uncertainty. With additional data published and included in the satellite matrix of an I O LCA model the results would be more precise. On the other hand, the process energy of research subjects should be comprehensively inv estigated and traced back upstream so as to facilitate process data integration and reflect the specificity of the research subject. When disaggregating I O LCA models, more buildings should be sampled to calculate material intensities of each type of buil ding and determine sectoral intermediate purchase s Due to the diversity of civil engineering projects and data limit ation s, this research focused on buildings and did not disaggregate civil engineering projects in the I O LCA model. A f uture study could c ontinue this work and disaggregate civil engineering projects and further expand the scope of the model. This study used MATLAB as the platform for the I O model and focused on computational structure of two tier I O model development. To facilitate model use, a user friendly toolbox should be developed in a future study. Furthermore, in addition to 2007 economic benchmark data, more benchmark year data could also be included to develop time series models and quantify the embodied energy of buildings in dif ferent year s

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87 APPENDIX A TECHNICAL COEFFICIEN TS OF CONSTRUCTION SUB SECTOR PURCHASE IN 148 SECTOR I O LCA MODEL Table A 1 Technical coefficients of construction sub sector purchase in the 148 sector I O LCA model Sector Plant and warehouse Urban reside ntial Rural m w residential Rural s c residential Office Wholesale and retail Hotel and restaurant Residential services Education Culture, sports and entertain ment Healthcare and medicine Research Other buildings Civil engineering projects 1 0.00219140 0.00219140 0.00219140 0.00219140 0.00219140 0.00219140 0.00219140 0.00219140 0.00219140 0.00219139 0.00219139 0.00219140 0.00219140 0.00219140 2 0.00194274 0.00194274 0.00194274 0.00194274 0.00194274 0.00194274 0.00194274 0.00194274 0. 00194274 0.00194273 0.00194273 0.00194274 0.00194274 0.00194274 3 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 4 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 5 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 6 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090793 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 7 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 8 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000 0000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 9 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 10 0.01330738 0.013 30736 0.01330737 0.01330738 0.01330736 0.01330736 0.01330739 0.01330740 0.01330737 0.01330734 0.01330734 0.01330737 0.01330738 0.01330738 11 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000 0000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 12 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 13 0.00004322 0.00 004322 0.00004322 0.00004322 0.00004322 0.00004322 0.00004322 0.00004322 0.00004322 0.00004322 0.00004322 0.00004322 0.00004322 0.00004322 14 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000 00000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 15 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 16 0.00000000 0.0 0000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 17 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 18 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 19 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 20 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0 0000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 21 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 22 0.00152127 0 .00152127 0.00152127 0.00152127 0.00152127 0.00152127 0.00152127 0.00152128 0.00152127 0.00152127 0.00152127 0.00152127 0.00152127 0.00152127 23 0.00062897 0.00062897 0.00062897 0.00062897 0.00062897 0.00062897 0.00062897 0.00062897 0. 00062897 0.00062897 0.00062897 0.00062897 0.00062897 0.00062897 24 0.00171079 0.00171079 0.00171079 0.00171079 0.00171079 0.00171079 0.00171079 0.00171079 0.00171079 0.00171078 0.00171078 0.00171079 0.00171079 0.00171079 25 0.00009405 0.00009405 0.00009405 0.00009405 0.00009405 0.00009405 0.00009405 0.00009405 0.00009405 0.00009405 0.00009405 0.00009405 0.00009405 0.00009405 26 0.00001143 0.00001143 0.00001143 0.00001143 0.00001143 0.00001143 0.00001143 0.00001143 0 .00001143 0.00001143 0.00001143 0.00001143 0.00001143 0.00001143 27 0.00002105 0.00002105 0.00002105 0.00002105 0.00002105 0.00002105 0.00002105 0.00002105 0.00002105 0.00002105 0.00002105 0.00002105 0.00002105 0.00002105 28 0.00039973 0.00039973 0.00039973 0.00039973 0.00039973 0.00039973 0.00039973 0.00039973 0.00039973 0.00039973 0.00039973 0.00039973 0.00039973 0.00039973 29 0.00018032 0.00018032 0.00018032 0.00018032 0.00018032 0.00018032 0.00018032 0.00018032 0.00018032 0.00018032 0.00018032 0.00018032 0.00018032 0.00018032 30 0.00353252 0.00353252 0.00353252 0.00353252 0.00353252 0.00353252 0.00353253 0.00353253 0.00353252 0.00353251 0.00353251 0.00353252 0.00353252 0.00353252 31 0.00003611 0.00003611 0.00003611 0.00003611 0.00003611 0.00003611 0.00003611 0.00003611 0.00003611 0.00003611 0.00003611 0.00003611 0.00003611 0.00003611 32 0.01689567 0.00867849 0.12305530 0.02349239 0.01930178 0.03070601 0.02259021 0.00994601 0.01732447 0.02334689 0.01999932 0.00708351 0.01013518 0.01345811 33 0.00104922 0.00104921 0.00104922 0.00104922 0.00104921 0.00104921 0.00104922 0.00104922 0.00104922 0.00104921 0.00104921 0.00104922 0.00104922 0.00104922 34 0.0008363 4 0.00083634 0.00083634 0.00083634 0.00083634 0.00083634 0.00083634 0.00083634 0.00083634 0.00083634 0.00083634 0.00083634 0.00083634 0.00083634 35 0.00035171 0.00035171 0.00035171 0.00035171 0.00035171 0.00035171 0.00035171 0.00035171 0.00035171 0.00035171 0.00035171 0.00035171 0.00035171 0.00035171

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88 Table A 1 Continued Sector Plant and warehouse Urban residential Rural m w residential Rural s c residential Office Wholesale and retail Hotel and restaurant Residential services Education Culture, sports and entertain ment Healthcare and medicine Research Other buildings Civil engineering projects 36 0.00046408 0.00046408 0.00046408 0.00046408 0.00046408 0.00046408 0.00046408 0.00046408 0.00046408 0.00046408 0.00046408 0.00046408 0.00046408 0.00046408 37 0.01873056 0.01873054 0.01873056 0.01873057 0.01873054 0.01873054 0.01873057 0.01873060 0.01873055 0.01873050 0.01873051 0.01873055 0.01873056 0.01873056 38 0.00146991 0.00146991 0.00146991 0.001469 91 0.00146991 0.00146991 0.00146991 0.00146991 0.00146991 0.00146990 0.00146990 0.00146991 0.00146991 0.00146991 39 0.00046826 0.00046826 0.00046826 0.00046826 0.00046826 0.00046826 0.00046826 0.00046826 0.00046826 0.00046826 0.0004682 6 0.00046826 0.00046826 0.00046826 40 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 41 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000 000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 42 0.00341595 0.00229239 0.00945232 0.00515582 0.00263265 0.00294064 0.00261922 0.00257731 0.00289007 0.00209274 0.002345 37 0.00221415 0.00262633 0.01072456 43 0.02105270 0.02105267 0.02105269 0.02105270 0.02105267 0.02105267 0.02105271 0.02105274 0.02105268 0.02105263 0.02105263 0.02105268 0.02105269 0.02105269 44 0.00183474 0.00183473 0.00183474 0.0018 3474 0.00183473 0.00183473 0.00183474 0.00183474 0.00183474 0.00183473 0.00183473 0.00183474 0.00183474 0.00183474 45 0.00026977 0.00026977 0.00026977 0.00026977 0.00026977 0.00026977 0.00026977 0.00026977 0.00026977 0.00026977 0.00026 977 0.00026977 0.00026977 0.00026977 46 0.00038600 0.00038600 0.00038600 0.00038600 0.00038600 0.00038600 0.00038600 0.00038600 0.00038600 0.00038600 0.00038600 0.00038600 0.00038600 0.00038600 47 0.00012260 0.00012260 0.00012260 0.000 12260 0.00012260 0.00012260 0.00012260 0.00012260 0.00012260 0.00012260 0.00012260 0.00012260 0.00012260 0.00012260 48 0.00141543 0.00141542 0.00141543 0.00141543 0.00141542 0.00141542 0.00141543 0.00141543 0.00141542 0.00141542 0.0014 1542 0.00141543 0.00141543 0.00141543 49 0.00817894 0.00817893 0.00817894 0.00817895 0.00817893 0.00817893 0.00817895 0.00817896 0.00817894 0.00817892 0.00817892 0.00817894 0.00817894 0.00817894 50 0.03474667 0.02344038 0.07369334 0.06 473755 0.02689230 0.02909857 0.03434738 0.02029399 0.02957370 0.02294296 0.02564624 0.01701935 0.02067998 0.12981520 51 0.03537440 0.02312872 0.00000000 0.04881536 0.02726283 0.03045224 0.02712375 0.02668972 0.02992858 0.02167164 0.024 28786 0.02292894 0.02719736 0.09416442 52 0.04973665 0.02701053 0.30600217 0.08279733 0.03420388 0.05029623 0.03177734 0.04608253 0.04452553 0.03936125 0.03616046 0.03877392 0.04695901 0.10169543 53 0.00333979 0.00331949 0.00678342 0.0 0704038 0.00320049 0.00187586 0.00274380 0.00181877 0.00284233 0.00222774 0.00244524 0.00225146 0.00185336 0.02452576 54 0.00561194 0.00659066 0.02528405 0.01360006 0.00505130 0.00520402 0.00870516 0.00521624 0.00761338 0.00394126 0.00 634702 0.00469630 0.00503051 0.01653920 55 0.01307750 0.01307748 0.01307749 0.01307750 0.01307748 0.01307748 0.01307751 0.01307753 0.01307749 0.01307746 0.01307746 0.01307749 0.01307750 0.01307750 56 0.00414223 0.00414222 0.00414223 0. 00414223 0.00414222 0.00414222 0.00414223 0.00414224 0.00414222 0.00414221 0.00414221 0.00414223 0.00414223 0.00414223 57 0.00393717 0.00393717 0.00393717 0.00393717 0.00393717 0.00393717 0.00393717 0.00393718 0.00393717 0.00393716 0.0 0393716 0.00393717 0.00393717 0.00393717 58 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 59 0.06900680 0.06010052 0.00000000 0 .09744270 0.08891725 0.06953820 0.09670864 0.02884282 0.10772678 0.05311791 0.05370580 0.06564199 0.02939141 0.29234893 60 0.00057917 0.00057917 0.00057917 0.00057917 0.00057917 0.00057917 0.00057917 0.00057917 0.00057917 0.00057917 0. 00057917 0.00057917 0.00057917 0.00057917 61 0.00202372 0.00202372 0.00202372 0.00202372 0.00202372 0.00202372 0.00202372 0.00202372 0.00202372 0.00202371 0.00202371 0.00202372 0.00202372 0.00202372 62 0.01425609 0.01425607 0.01425608 0.01425609 0.01425607 0.01425607 0.01425610 0.01425612 0.01425608 0.01425604 0.01425604 0.01425608 0.01425609 0.01425609 63 0.03622998 0.03622993 0.03622996 0.03622999 0.03622993 0.03622994 0.03623000 0.03623005 0.03622995 0.03622986 0 .03622986 0.03622996 0.03622997 0.03622997 64 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 65 0.00012462 0.00012462 0.00012462 0.00012462 0.00012462 0.00012462 0.00012462 0.00012462 0.00012462 0.00012462 0.00012462 0.00012462 0.00012462 0.00012462 66 0.00345988 0.00345988 0.00345988 0.00345988 0.00345987 0.00345988 0.00345988 0.00345989 0.00345988 0.00345987 0.00345987 0.00345988 0.00345988 0.00345988 67 0.00385253 0.00385252 0.00385252 0.00385253 0.00385252 0.00385252 0.00385253 0.00385253 0.00385252 0.00385251 0.00385251 0.00385252 0.00385253 0.00385252 68 0.01219873 0.01219872 0.01219873 0.01219874 0.01219872 0.01219872 0.01219874 0.01219876 0.01219872 0.01219869 0.01219869 0.01219873 0.01219873 0.01219873 69 0.00761160 0.00761159 0.00761160 0.00761160 0.00761159 0.00761159 0.00761160 0.00761161 0.00761159 0.00761157 0.00761158 0.00761160 0.00761160 0.00761160 70 0.00041240 0.00041240 0.00041240 0.00041240 0.00041240 0.00041240 0.00041240 0.00041241 0.00041240 0.00041240 0.00041240 0.00041240 0.00041240 0.00041240 71 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000000 0 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 72 0.00156653 0.00156653 0.00156653 0.00156653 0.00156653 0.00156653 0.00156653 0.00156653 0.00156653 0.00156653 0.00156653 0.00156653 0.00156653 0.00156653 73 0.00036172 0.00036172 0.00036172 0.00036172 0.00036172 0.00036172 0.00036172 0.00036172 0.00036172 0.00036172 0.00036172 0.00036172 0.00036172 0.00036172 74 0.00337952 0.00337951 0.003379 52 0.00337952 0.00337951 0.00337951 0.00337952 0.00337952 0.00337951 0.00337951 0.00337951 0.00337952 0.00337952 0.00337952

PAGE 89

89 Table A 1 Continued Sector Plant and warehouse Urban residential Rural m w residential Rural s c residential Office Wholesale and retail Hotel and restaurant Residential services Education Culture, sports and entertain ment Healthcare and medicine Research Other buildings Civil engineering projects 75 0.00054367 0.00054367 0.00054367 0.00054367 0.00054367 0.00054 367 0.00054367 0.00054367 0.00054367 0.00054367 0.00054367 0.00054367 0.00054367 0.00054367 76 0.00037481 0.00037481 0.00037481 0.00037481 0.00037481 0.00037481 0.00037481 0.00037482 0.00037481 0.00037481 0.00037481 0.00037481 0.000374 81 0.00037481 77 0.00083367 0.00083366 0.00083367 0.00083367 0.00083366 0.00083366 0.00083367 0.00083367 0.00083366 0.00083366 0.00083366 0.00083366 0.00083367 0.00083367 78 0.00623817 0.00623816 0.00623816 0.00623817 0.00623816 0.0062 3816 0.00623817 0.00623818 0.00623816 0.00623815 0.00623815 0.00623816 0.00623817 0.00623816 79 0.02919573 0.02919569 0.02919571 0.02919573 0.02919569 0.02919569 0.02919574 0.02919578 0.02919571 0.02919563 0.02919564 0.02919571 0.02919 572 0.02919572 80 0.00064741 0.00064741 0.00064741 0.00064741 0.00064741 0.00064741 0.00064741 0.00064741 0.00064741 0.00064741 0.00064741 0.00064741 0.00064741 0.00064741 81 0.00474645 0.00474645 0.00474645 0.00474645 0.00474645 0.004 74645 0.00474646 0.00474646 0.00474645 0.00474644 0.00474644 0.00474645 0.00474645 0.00474645 82 0.00006320 0.00006320 0.00006320 0.00006320 0.00006320 0.00006320 0.00006320 0.00006320 0.00006320 0.00006320 0.00006320 0.00006320 0.0000 6320 0.00006320 83 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 84 0.00088475 0.00088475 0.00088475 0.00088475 0.00088475 0.00 088475 0.00088475 0.00088475 0.00088475 0.00088475 0.00088475 0.00088475 0.00088475 0.00088475 85 0.00024797 0.00024797 0.00024797 0.00024797 0.00024797 0.00024797 0.00024797 0.00024798 0.00024797 0.00024797 0.00024797 0.00024797 0.000 24797 0.00024797 86 0.00169338 0.00169337 0.00169338 0.00169338 0.00169337 0.00169337 0.00169338 0.00169338 0.00169337 0.00169337 0.00169337 0.00169338 0.00169338 0.00169338 87 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0 0000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 88 0.00295245 0.00295245 0.00295245 0.00295245 0.00295245 0.00295245 0.00295245 0.00295246 0.00295245 0.00295244 0.00295244 0.00295245 0.00 295245 0.00295245 89 0.00036549 0.00036549 0.00036549 0.00036549 0.00036549 0.00036549 0.00036549 0.00036549 0.00036549 0.00036549 0.00036549 0.00036549 0.00036549 0.00036549 90 0.00304112 0.00304111 0.00304112 0.00304112 0.00304111 0. 00304111 0.00304112 0.00304112 0.00304112 0.00304111 0.00304111 0.00304112 0.00304112 0.00304112 91 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0 0000000 0.00000000 92 0.01318836 0.01318834 0.01318835 0.01318836 0.01318834 0.01318834 0.01318837 0.01318838 0.01318835 0.01318831 0.01318832 0.01318835 0.01318836 0.01318836 93 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0 .00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 94 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037089 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0. 00037088 0.00037088 95 0.00953476 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 96 0.00000000 0.00953474 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 97 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953475 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0 .00000000 0.00000000 98 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953476 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 99 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953474 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 100 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953474 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 101 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953476 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 102 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000 000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953477 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 103 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953475 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000 000 0.00000000 0.00000000 104 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953472 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 105 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0 0000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953473 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 106 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0 0953475 0.00000000 0.00000000 107 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953476 0.00000000 108 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953475 109 0.00242297 0.00242296 0.00242297 0.00242297 0.00242296 0.00242296 0.00242297 0.00242297 0.00242297 0.00242296 0.00242296 0.00242297 0.00242297 0.00242297 110 0.02514875 0.02514872 0.02514874 0.02514875 0.02514871 0.02514872 0.02514876 0.02514880 0.02514873 0.02514866 0.02514867 0.02514873 0.02514875 0.02514874 111 0.00108855 0.00108855 0.00108855 0.00108 856 0.00108855 0.00108855 0.00108856 0.00108856 0.00108855 0.00108855 0.00108855 0.00108855 0.00108855 0.00108855 112 0.00276200 0.00276200 0.00276200 0.00276201 0.00276200 0.00276200 0.00276201 0.00276201 0.00276200 0.00276200 0.00276 200 0.00276200 0.00276200 0.00276200 113 0.00083255 0.00083255 0.00083255 0.00083255 0.00083255 0.00083255 0.00083255 0.00083255 0.00083255 0.00083255 0.00083255 0.00083255 0.00083255 0.00083255

PAGE 90

90 Table A 1 Continued Sector Plant and wa rehouse Urban residential Rural m w residential Rural s c residential Office Wholesale and retail Hotel and restaurant Residential services Education Culture, sports and entertain ment Healthcare and medicine Research Other buildings Civil engineering proj ects 114 0.00004597 0.00004597 0.00004597 0.00004597 0.00004597 0.00004597 0.00004597 0.00004597 0.00004597 0.00004597 0.00004597 0.00004597 0.00004597 0.00004597 115 0.03556546 0.03556541 0.03556544 0.03556546 0.03556540 0.03556541 0. 03556548 0.03556552 0.03556543 0.03556534 0.03556534 0.03556544 0.03556545 0.03556545 116 0.00745423 0.00745422 0.00745423 0.00745424 0.00745422 0.00745422 0.00745424 0.00745425 0.00745423 0.00745421 0.00745421 0.00745423 0.00745423 0. 00745423 117 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 118 0.01494711 0.01494709 0.01494710 0.01494711 0.01494709 0.01494709 0.01494712 0.01494714 0.01494710 0.01494706 0.01494706 0.01494710 0.01494711 0.01494711 119 0.00002938 0.00002938 0.00002938 0.00002938 0.00002938 0.00002938 0.00002938 0.00002938 0.00002938 0.00002938 0.00002938 0.00002938 0.00002938 0.00002938 120 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 121 0.02338246 0.02338243 0.02338245 0.02338246 0.02338242 0.0233 8243 0.02338247 0.02338250 0.02338244 0.02338238 0.02338238 0.02338245 0.02338246 0.02338245 122 0.00087459 0.00087459 0.00087459 0.00087459 0.00087459 0.00087459 0.00087459 0.00087459 0.00087459 0.00087458 0.00087458 0.00087459 0.0008 7459 0.00087459 123 0.00799222 0.00799221 0.00799222 0.00799222 0.00799221 0.00799221 0.00799222 0.00799223 0.00799221 0.00799219 0.00799219 0.00799222 0.00799222 0.00799222 124 0.00674590 0.00674589 0.00674590 0.00674590 0.00674589 0. 00674589 0.00674590 0.00674591 0.00674589 0.00674588 0.00674588 0.00674590 0.00674590 0.00674590 125 0.00200928 0.00200928 0.00200928 0.00200928 0.00200928 0.00200928 0.00200928 0.00200928 0.00200928 0.00200927 0.00200927 0.00200928 0. 00200928 0.00200928 126 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 127 0.00110307 0.00110307 0.00110307 0.00110307 0.00110307 0.00110307 0.00110307 0.00110308 0.00110307 0.00110307 0.00110307 0.00110307 0.00110307 0.00110307 128 0.00188106 0.00188106 0.00188106 0.00188106 0.00188106 0.00188106 0.00188106 0.00188106 0.00188106 0.00188105 0.00188105 0.00188106 0.00188106 0.00188106 129 0.00051081 0.00051081 0.00051081 0.00051081 0.00051081 0.00051081 0.00051081 0.00051081 0.00051081 0.00051081 0.00051081 0.00051081 0.00051081 0.00051081 130 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.0007 0689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 131 0.00836147 0.00836146 0.00836147 0.00836148 0.00836146 0.00836146 0.00836148 0.00836149 0.00836147 0.00836145 0.00836145 0.0083 6147 0.00836147 0.00836147 132 0.00001176 0.00001176 0.00001176 0.00001176 0.00001176 0.00001176 0.00001176 0.00001176 0.00001176 0.00001176 0.00001176 0.00001176 0.00001176 0.00001176 133 0.00165151 0.00165150 0.00165150 0.00165151 0. 00165150 0.00165150 0.00165151 0.00165151 0.00165150 0.00165150 0.00165150 0.00165150 0.00165151 0.00165151 134 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 135 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 136 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 137 0.00018968 0.00018968 0.00018968 0.00018968 0.00018968 0.00018968 0.00018968 0.00018968 0.00018968 0.00018968 0.00018968 0.00018968 0.00018968 0.00018968 138 0.00145697 0.00145696 0.00145697 0.00145697 0.00145696 0.00145696 0.00145697 0.00145697 0.00145697 0.00145696 0.00145696 0.00145697 0.00145697 0.00145697 139 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.0003 3081 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.00033080 0.00033080 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.00033081 140 0.00033201 0.00033201 0.00033201 0.00033201 0.00033201 0.00033201 0.00033201 0.00033201 0.00033201 0.00033201 0.0003 3201 0.00033201 0.00033201 0.00033201 141 0.00006034 0.00006034 0.00006034 0.00006034 0.00006034 0.00006034 0.00006034 0.00006034 0.00006034 0.00006034 0.00006034 0.00006034 0.00006034 0.00006034 142 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 143 0.00053327 0.00053327 0.00053327 0.00053327 0.00053327 0.00053327 0.00053327 0.00053327 0.00053327 0.00053327 0. 00053327 0.00053327 0.00053327 0.00053327 144 0.00013744 0.00013744 0.00013744 0.00013744 0.00013744 0.00013744 0.00013744 0.00013744 0.00013744 0.00013744 0.00013744 0.00013744 0.00013744 0.00013744 145 0.00007323 0.00007323 0.00007323 0.00007323 0.00007323 0.00007323 0.00007323 0.00007323 0.00007323 0.00007323 0.00007323 0.00007323 0.00007323 0.00007323 146 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 147 0.00069174 0.00069174 0.00069174 0.00069174 0.00069174 0.00069174 0.00069174 0.00069174 0.00069174 0.00069174 0.00069174 0.00069174 0.00069174 0.00069174 148 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.0001 2038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038

PAGE 91

91 Table A 2 Sectors in the 148 sector I O LCA model No Sector No. Sect or No. Sector 1 Farming 23 Processing of s oft d rinks and p urified t ea 45 Manufacture of c hemical p roducts for d aily u se 2 Forestry 24 Manufacture of t obacco 46 Manufacture of m edicines 3 Animal h usbandry 25 Spinning and w eaving, p rinting and d yeing of c otton and c hemical f iber 47 Manufacture of c hemical f iber 4 Fishery 26 Spinning and w eaving, d yeing and f inishing of w ool 48 Manufacture of r ubber 5 Services in s upport of a griculture 27 Spinning and w eaving of h emp and t iffany 49 Manufacture of p lastic 6 Mining and w ashing of c oal 28 Manufacture of t extile p roducts 50 Manufacture of c ement, l ime and Plaster 7 Extraction of p etroleum and n atural g as 29 Manufacture of k nitted f abric and i ts p roducts 51 Manufacture of p roducts of c ement and p laster 8 Min ing of f errous m etal o res 3 0 Manufacture of t extile w earing a pparel, f ootwear and c aps 52 Manufacture of b rick, s tone and o ther b uilding m aterials 9 Mining of n on f errous m etal o res 3 1 Manufacture of l eather, f ur, f eather( d own) and i ts p roducts 53 Manufac ture of g lass and i ts p roducts 10 Mining and p rocessing of n onmetal o res and o ther o res 32 Processing of t imbers, m anufacture of w ood, b amboo, r attan, p alm and s traw p roducts 54 Manufacture of p ottery and p orcelain 11 Grinding of g rains 33 Manufacture of f urniture 55 Manufacture of f ire resistant m aterials 12 Processing of f orage 34 Manufacture of p aper and p aper p roducts 56 Manufacture of g raphite and o ther n onmetallic m ineral p roducts 13 Refining of v egetable o il 35 Printing, r eproduction of r ecording m edia 57 Iron smelting 14 Manufacture of s ugar 36 Manufacture of a rticles for c ulture, e ducation and s ports a ctivities 58 Steelmaking 15 Slaughtering and p rocessing of m eat 37 Processing of p etroleum and n uclear f uel 59 Rolling of s teel 16 Processing o f a quatic p roduct 38 Coking 60 Smelting of f erroalloy 17 Processing of o ther f oods 39 Manufacture of b asic c hemical r aw m aterials 61 Smelting of n on f errous m etals and m anufacture of a lloys 18 Manufacture of c onvenience f ood 40 Manufacture of f ertilizers 62 Rolling of n on f errous m etals 19 Manufacture of l iquid m ilk and d airy p roducts 41 Manufacture of p esticides 63 Manufacture of m etal p roducts 20 Manufacture of f lavoring and f erment p roducts 42 Manufacture of p aints, p rinting Inks, p igments and s imila r p roducts 64 Manufacture of b oiler and p rime m over 21 Manufacture of o ther f oods 43 Manufacture of s ynthetic m aterials 65 Manufacture of m etalworking m achinery 22 Manufacture of a lcohol and w ine 44 Manufacture of s pecial c hemical p roducts 66 Manufacture of l ifters

PAGE 92

92 Table A 2 Continued. No Sector No Sector No. Sector 67 Manufacture of p ump, v alve and s imilar m achinery 86 Manufacture of household audiovisual apparatus 105 Healthcare and medicine building 68 Manufacture of o ther g eneral p urpose m achinery 87 Manufacture of other electronic equipment 106 Research building 69 Manufacture of s pecial p urpose m achinery for m ining, m etallurgy and c onstruction 88 Manufacture of measuring instruments 107 Other building 70 Manufacture of s pecial p urpose m achinery for c hemical i ndustry, p rocessing of t imber and n onmetals 89 Manufacture of mac hinery for cultural activity & o ffice w ork 108 Civil engineering project s 71 Manufacture of s pecial p urpose m achinery for a griculture, f orestry, a nimal h usbandry and f ishery 90 Manufacture of artwork, other manufacture 109 Transport v ia r ailway 72 Manufacture of o ther s pecial p urpose m achinery 91 Scrap and waste 110 Transport v ia r oad 73 Manufacture of r ailroad t ransport e quipment 92 Production and supply of electri c power and heat power 111 Urban p ublic t raffic 74 Manufacture of a utomobiles 93 Production and distribution of gas 112 Water t ransport 75 Manufacture of b oats and s hips and f loating d evices 94 Production and distribution of water 113 Air t ransport 76 M anufacture of o ther t ransport e quipment 95 Plant & warehouse 114 Transport v ia p ipeline 77 Manufacture of g enerators 96 Urban r esidential building 115 Loading, u nloading, p ortage and o ther t ransport s ervices 78 Manufacture of e quipments for p ower t ransmi ssion and d istribution and c ontrol 97 Rural masonry wood r esidential building 116 Storage 79 Manufacture of w ire, c able, o ptical c able and e lectrical a ppliances 98 Rural steel concrete residential building 117 Post 80 Manufacture of h ousehold e lectric an d n on electric a ppliances 99 Office building 118 Telecom & o ther i nformation t ransmission s ervices 81 Manufacture of o ther e lectrical m achinery and e quipment 100 Wholesale and retail building 119 Computer s ervices 82 Manufacture of communication equipmen t 101 Hotel and restaurant 120 Software i ndustry 83 Manufacture of radar and broadcasting equipment 102 Residential services building 121 Wholesale and r etail t rades 84 Manufacture of computer 103 Education al building 122 Hotels 85 Manufacture of elect ronic component 104 Culture, sports and entertainment building 123 Catering s ervices

PAGE 93

93 Table A 2 Continued. No Sector No Sector No. Sector 124 Banking, s ecurity, o ther f inancial a ctivities 133 Geological p rospecting 142 Social w elfare 125 Insu rance 134 Management of w ater c onservancy 143 Journalism and p ublishing a ctivities 126 Real e state 135 Environment m anagement 144 Broadcasting, m ovies, t elevisions and a udiovisual a ctivities 127 Leasing 136 Management of p ublic f acilities 145 Cultural an d a rt a ctivities 128 Business s ervices 137 Services to h ouseholds 146 Sports a ctivities 129 Tourism 138 Other s ervices 147 Entertainment 130 Research and e xperimental d evelopment 139 Education 148 Public m anagement and s ocial o rganization 131 Professio nal t echnical s ervices 140 Health 132 Services of s cience and t echnology e xchanges and p romotion 141 Social s ecurity

PAGE 94

94 APPENDIX B TECHNICAL COEFFICIEN TS OF CONSTRUCTIO N SUB SECTOR PURCHASE IN 5 5 SECTOR I O LC A MODEL Table B 1 Technical coefficient s of construction sub sector purchase in the 55 sector I O LCA model Sector Plant and warehouse Urban residential Rural m w residential Rural s c residential Office Wholesale and retail Hotel and restaurant Residential services Education Culture, sports an d entertain ment Healthcare and medicine Research Other buildings Civil engineering projects 1 0.00413414 0.00413413 0.00413414 0.00413414 0.00413413 0.00413413 0.00413414 0.00413415 0.00413413 0.00413412 0.00413412 0.00413414 0.00413414 0.00 413414 2 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090793 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 0.00090792 3 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 4 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000 0000 5 0.01330738 0.01330736 0.01330737 0.01330738 0.01330736 0.01330736 0.01330739 0.01330740 0.01330737 0.01330734 0.01330734 0.01330737 0.01330738 0.01330738 6 0.00390425 0.00390425 0.00390425 0.00390425 0.00390425 0.00390425 0.0039 0425 0.00390426 0.00390425 0.00390424 0.00390424 0.00390425 0.00390425 0.00390425 7 0.00070659 0.00070659 0.00070659 0.00070659 0.00070659 0.00070659 0.00070659 0.00070659 0.00070659 0.00070659 0.00070659 0.00070659 0.00070659 0.000706 59 8 0.00356863 0.00356863 0.00356863 0.00356864 0.00356863 0.00356863 0.00356864 0.00356864 0.00356863 0.00356862 0.00356862 0.00356863 0.00356863 0.00356863 9 0.01689567 0.00867849 0.12305530 0.02349239 0.01930178 0.03070601 0.022590 21 0.00994601 0.01732447 0.02334689 0.01999932 0.00708351 0.01013518 0.01696202 10 0.00165213 0.00165213 0.00165213 0.00165213 0.00165213 0.00165213 0.00165213 0.00165214 0.00165213 0.00165213 0.00165213 0.00165213 0.00165213 0.0016521 3 11 0.02020047 0.02020045 0.02020046 0.02020048 0.02020044 0.02020045 0.02020048 0.02020051 0.02020046 0.02020041 0.02020041 0.02020046 0.02020047 0.02020047 12 0.03913827 0.03913822 0.03913825 0.03913828 0.03913821 0.03913822 0.03913 829 0.03913834 0.03913824 0.03913814 0.03913815 0.03913825 0.03913827 0.03913826 13 0.12880946 0.08348978 0.41176299 0.21699068 0.09661080 0.11692692 0.10469744 0.10010126 0.11448353 0.09014484 0.09488683 0.08566998 0.10172022 0.424246 10 14 0.06900680 0.06010052 0.00000000 0.09744270 0.08891725 0.06953820 0.09670864 0.02884282 0.10772678 0.05311791 0.05370580 0.06564199 0.02939141 0.36179867 15 0.03622998 0.03622993 0.03622996 0.03622999 0.03622993 0.03622994 0.0362 3000 0.03623005 0.03622995 0.03622986 0.03622986 0.03622996 0.03622997 0.03622997 16 0.02922630 0.02922626 0.02922628 0.02922630 0.02922625 0.02922626 0.02922631 0.02922635 0.02922628 0.02922620 0.02922620 0.02922628 0.02922629 0.02922 629 17 0.00465972 0.00465971 0.00465972 0.00465972 0.00465971 0.00465971 0.00465972 0.00465973 0.00465972 0.00465970 0.00465971 0.00465972 0.00465972 0.00465972 18 0.04166142 0.04166137 0.04166141 0.04166143 0.04166136 0.04166137 0.041 66145 0.04166150 0.04166139 0.04166129 0.04166129 0.04166140 0.04166142 0.04166142 19 0.00288931 0.00288930 0.00288931 0.00288931 0.00288930 0.00288930 0.00288931 0.00288931 0.00288930 0.00288930 0.00288930 0.00288931 0.00288931 0.0028 8931 20 0.00331794 0.00331794 0.00331794 0.00331794 0.00331794 0.00331794 0.00331794 0.00331795 0.00331794 0.00331793 0.00331793 0.00331794 0.00331794 0.00331794 21 0.00304112 0.00304111 0.00304112 0.00304112 0.00304111 0.00304111 0.00 304112 0.00304112 0.00304112 0.00304111 0.00304111 0.00304112 0.00304112 0.00304112 22 0.00000000 0.00000001 0.00000017 0.00000005 0.00000009 0.00000050 0.00000071 0.00000120 0.00000043 0.00000120 0.00000181 0.00000538 0.00000072 0.000 00007 23 0.01318836 0.01318834 0.01318835 0.01318836 0.01318834 0.01318834 0.01318837 0.01318838 0.01318835 0.01318831 0.01318832 0.01318835 0.01318836 0.01318836 24 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.0 0010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 0.00010811 25 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037089 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00037088 0.00 037088 26 0.00953475 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 27 0.00000000 0.00953474 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 28 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953475 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0 0000000 29 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953475 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 30 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953474 0.00000000 0 .00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 31 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953473 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0. 00000000 32 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953477 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 33 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953470 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 34 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953475 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0 .00000000 35 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953478 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000

PAGE 95

95 Table B 1 Continued Sector Plant and warehouse Urban residential Rural m w residential Rural s c residential Office Wholesale and retail Hotel and restaurant Residential services Education Culture, sports and entertain ment Healthcare and medicine Research Other buildings Civil engineering projects 36 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953477 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 37 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953486 0.00000000 0.00000000 38 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953477 0.00000000 39 0.00000000 0.0000000 0 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953475 40 0.07532049 0.07532039 0.07532046 0.07532051 0.07532038 0.07532040 0.07532053 0.07532063 0.07532044 0.07532024 0.07532025 0.07532045 0.07532048 0.07532048 41 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 0.00021025 42 0.01497649 0.014976 47 0.01497648 0.01497649 0.01497646 0.01497647 0.01497649 0.01497651 0.01497647 0.01497644 0.01497644 0.01497648 0.01497648 0.01497648 43 0.02338246 0.02338243 0.02338245 0.02338246 0.02338242 0.02338243 0.02338247 0.02338250 0.0233824 4 0.02338238 0.02338238 0.02338245 0.02338246 0.02338245 44 0.00886681 0.00886680 0.00886680 0.00886681 0.00886679 0.00886680 0.00886681 0.00886682 0.00886680 0.00886678 0.00886678 0.00886680 0.00886681 0.00886681 45 0.00875518 0.00875 517 0.00875518 0.00875518 0.00875517 0.00875517 0.00875518 0.00875520 0.00875517 0.00875515 0.00875515 0.00875517 0.00875518 0.00875518 46 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.000560 73 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 0.00056073 47 0.00349494 0.00349494 0.00349494 0.00349494 0.00349494 0.00349494 0.00349495 0.00349495 0.00349494 0.00349493 0.00349493 0.00349494 0.00349494 0.00349494 48 0.00070689 0.0007 0689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 0.00070689 49 0.01002477 0.01002476 0.01002477 0.01002478 0.01002476 0.01002476 0.01002478 0.01002479 0.01002 477 0.01002474 0.01002474 0.01002477 0.01002477 0.01002477 50 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 0.00004930 51 0.00164664 0.001 64664 0.00164664 0.00164664 0.00164664 0.00164664 0.00164665 0.00164665 0.00164664 0.00164664 0.00164664 0.00164664 0.00164664 0.00164664 52 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.0003 3081 0.00033080 0.00033080 0.00033081 0.00033081 0.00033081 53 0.00039236 0.00039236 0.00039236 0.00039236 0.00039236 0.00039236 0.00039236 0.00039236 0.00039236 0.00039236 0.00039236 0.00039236 0.00039236 0.00039236 54 0.00143568 0.00 143568 0.00143568 0.00143568 0.00143568 0.00143568 0.00143568 0.00143568 0.00143568 0.00143567 0.00143567 0.00143568 0.00143568 0.00143568 55 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.000 12038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 0.00012038 Table B 2 Sectors in the 55 sector I O LCA model No Sector No. Sector No. Sector 1 Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry & fishery 6 Manufacture of f oods and t obacco 11 Processing of p etroleum, c oking, p rocessing of n uclear f uel 2 Mining and washing of coal 7 Manufacture of t extile 12 Mining and processing of nonmetal ores and other ores 3 Extraction of petroleum and natural gas 8 Manufacture of t extile w earing a pparel, f ootwear, c ap s, l eather f ur, f eather( d own) and i ts products 13 Manufacture of f oods and t obacco 4 Mining of metal ores 9 Processing of t imbers and m anufacture of f urniture 14 Manufacture of t extile 5 Mining and processing of nonmetal ores and other ores 10 Papermaki ng, p rinting and m anufacture of a rticles for c ulture, e ducation and s ports a ctivities 15 Manufacture of t extile w earing a pparel, f ootwear, c aps, l eather, f ur, f eather( d own) and i ts products

PAGE 96

96 Table B 2 Continued No Sector No. Sector No. Sector 16 Manuf acture of g eneral p urpose and s pecial p urpose m achinery 30 Office building 44 Hotels and c atering s ervices 17 Manufacture of t ransport e quipment 31 Wholesale and retail building 45 Financial i ntermediation 18 Ma nufacture of e lectrical m achinery and e quipment 32 Hotel and restaurant 46 Real estate 19 Manufacture of c ommunication e quipment, c omputer and o ther e lectronic e quipment 33 Residential services building 47 Leasing and b usiness s ervices 20 Ma nufacture of m easuring i nstrument and m achinery for c ultural a ctivity & o ffice w ork 34 Education al building 48 Research and e xperimental d evelo pment 21 Manufacture of a rtwork, o ther m anufacture 35 Culture, sports and entertainment building 49 Comprehensive t echnical s ervices 22 Scrap and w aste 36 Healthcare and medicine building 50 Management of w ater c onservancy, e nvironment and p ublic f acilities 23 Production and s upply of e lectric p ower and h eat p ower 37 Research building 51 Services to h ouseholds and o ther s ervices 24 Production and d istribution of g as 38 Other building 52 Education 25 Production and d istribution of w ater 39 Civil engineering project s 53 Health social security and social welfare 26 Plant & warehouse 40 Traffic, t ransport and s torage 54 Culture, s ports and e ntertainment 27 Urban r esidential building 41 Post 55 Public m anagement and s ocial o rganization 28 Rural masonry wood r esidential building 42 Information t ransmission, c omputer s ervices and s oftware 29 Rural steel concrete residential building 43 Wholesale and r etail t rades

PAGE 97

97 APPENDI X C TECHN ICAL COEFFICIENTS OF CONSTRUCTION SUB SECTOR INVESTMENT IN 148 SECTOR I O LCA MODEL Table C 1 Technical coefficients of construction sub sector investment in the 148 sector I O LCA model Sector 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Plant and warehouse 0.0003 7794 0.00023517 0.00003672 0.00009345 0.00031359 0.00132987 0.00112120 0.00033389 0.00040241 0.00033010 0.00019209 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000000 00 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Research 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000000 0 0.00000000 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Table C 1 Continued Sector 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Plant and warehouse 0.000182 83 0.00013312 0.00036901 0.00020563 0.00015051 0.00027290 0.00022495 0.00020964 0.00024767 0.00033239 0.00051528 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Ru ral m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 R esearch 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000

PAGE 98

98 Table C 1 Continued Sector 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Plant and warehouse 0.0003298 2 0.00035576 0.00020322 0.00022007 0.00016127 0.00014662 0.00025811 0.00028003 0.00022830 0.00023232 0.00022810 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rur al m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000 00000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0 0000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.0 0000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Re search 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0 .00000000 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Table C 1 Continued Sector 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Plant and warehouse 0.00018316 0.00029218 0.00018452 0.00061323 0.00025088 0.00052782 0.00053212 0.00020183 0.00020043 0.00056436 0.00033247 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rura l m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000 0000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0 .00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Res earch 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0. 00000000 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000

PAGE 99

99 Table C 1 Continued Sector 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Plant and warehouse 0.00026999 0.00037810 0.00012493 0.00022083 0.00012625 0.00031147 0.00020486 0.00029511 0.00025586 0.00020350 0.00063003 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000 000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000 00000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.000 00000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rese arch 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0 0000000 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Table C 1 Continued Sector 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 Plant and warehouse 0.00021590 0 .00019703 0.00018632 0.00047988 0.00009751 0.00012072 0.00007152 0.00015740 0.00038972 0.00037926 0.00016047 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000000 00 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0 0000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000 0000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.0000 0000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Resea rch 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00 000000 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000

PAGE 100

100 Table C 1 Continued Sector 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 Plant and warehouse 0.00022130 0. 00025811 0.00034854 0.00049865 0.00021737 0.00030972 0.00074123 0.00020572 0.00037724 0.00041228 0.00019302 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000000 0 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000 000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.00000 000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Resear ch 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000 00000 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Table C 1 Continued Sector 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Plant and warehouse 0.00022805 0.0 0011737 0.00033440 0.00018496 0.00013590 0.00066587 0.00007877 0.00017379 0.00015852 0.00036069 0.00027803 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000 00000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000000 00 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.000000 00 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Researc h 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000 0000 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000

PAGE 101

101 Table C 1 Continued Sector 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Plant and warehouse 0.00014741 0.00 016694 0.00009203 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953476 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 U rban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953474 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953475 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953476 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953474 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000 0000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000000 0 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.0000000 0 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Research 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000 000 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00030494 0.00059144 0.00119203 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Table C 1 Continued Sector 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 Plant and warehouse 0.000 00000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0 .00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00953474 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000 000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00953476 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953477 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953475 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953472 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953473 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Research 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953475 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953476 0.00000000 0.000000 00 0.00000000 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953475 0.00595036 0.00430893

PAGE 102

102 Table C 1 Continued Sector 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 Plant and wareh ouse 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0 .00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00296857 0.00192223 0.03162204 0.00000000 0.00013277 0.00016177 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000000 00 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00312978 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Research 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000000 0 0.00000000 0.00000000 Civil engineering projects 0.00406407 0.00010794 0.00078069 0.01335359 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00177281 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Table C 1 Continued Sector 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 Plant and warehouse 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0 0000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00072180 0.00339671 0.01218734 0.00560945 0.00072444 0.00012357 0.00000000 0.00238784 0.00323268 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000000 0 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00891733 0.00102101 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00000000 0 .00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and enter tainment 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0 .00000000 0.00000000 Research 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00291251 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000

PAGE 103

103 Table C 1 Continued Sector 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 Plant and warehouse 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0 0000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00234017 0.00615340 0.01620294 0.02431043 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00928863 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00724324 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.02510802 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Research 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00579853 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00572699 0.01272655 0.00226749 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Table C 1 Continued Sector 144 145 146 147 148 Plant and warehouse 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.01474331 0.02351985 0.00220244 0.00000000 Healthcare and medic ine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Research 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.01970643 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.01446787 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000

PAGE 104

104 APPENDIX D TECHNICAL COEFFICIEN TS OF CONSTRUCTION S UB SECTOR INVESTMENT IN 55 SECTOR I O LCA MODEL Table D 1 Technical coefficients of construction sub sector investment in the 55 sector I O LCA model Sector 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Plant and warehouse 0.00023167 0.00132987 0.00112120 0.00036204 0.00033010 0.00025739 0.00020464 0.00025941 0.00023060 0.00021023 0.00055891 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0 0000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Research 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Table D 1 Continued Sector 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 2 2 Plant and warehouse 0.00033384 0.00029478 0.00029127 0.00015740 0.00029525 0.00026703 0.00021295 0.00015193 0.00022849 0.00016694 0.00009203 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000 00000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000 0000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0 .00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports a nd entertainment 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Research 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0. 00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000

PAGE 105

105 Table D 1 Continued Sector 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Plant and warehouse 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953475 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953474 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000 000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953475 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000000 00 0.00953475 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953474 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0 0000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953473 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953477 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.0000 0000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953470 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000 0000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Research 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Civil engineering projects 0.00030494 0.00059144 0.00119205 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Table D 1 Continued SECTOR 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Plant and warehouse 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000000 00 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000000 0 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00046493 0.03162205 0.00003478 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00 000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00312978 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00252183 Residential services 0.00000000 0.00000 000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00953475 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and entertainment 0.00000000 0.00953478 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953477 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000 000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Research 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953486 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953477 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000 00000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00953475 0.00268459 0.00000000 0.00135987 0.00000000 0.00000000

PAGE 106

106 Table D 1 Continued Sector 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 P lant and warehouse 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Urban residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000000 0 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural m w residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Rural s c residential 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Office 0.00127425 0.01218734 0.00075486 0.00000000 0.00253031 0.01808343 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Wholesale and retail 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000 00000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Hotel and restaurant 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Residential services 0.00000000 0.000000 00 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00759418 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Education 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00724324 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Culture, sports and e ntertainment 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.01001878 0.00000000 Healthcare and medicine 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.000000 00 0.00000000 0.00000000 Research 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00291251 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 Other buildings 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.0000 0000 0.02453293 0.00000000 0.01446787 Civil engineering projects 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000

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1 07 APPENDIX E P ROCESS BASED LCA MODEL FOR THE CASE BUILDIN G For the c ase building, a process based LCA model is developed based on investigated specific process and on site data ( Table 3 11 ) The model s tructure and results are shown in Figure E 1. Figure E 1 Process based LCA model structu re and model results for the embodied energy of the education building

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108 A PPENDIX F PROCESS BASED HYBRID LCA MODEL FOR THE CA SE BUILDING A process based hybrid LC A model was developed to calculate the embodied energy of the education building. Given that th e 135 sector Chinese I O table reflects the sectoral transactions for more commodity types, a n I O model based on 2007 135 sector Chinese economic data was used to calculate the embodied energy of building materials manufacturing and fuel production. The p rocess model based on specific on site data was developed for transportation, concrete batch ing, and building construction ( Figure F 1 ). Figure F 1 Structure of process based hybrid LCA model for the embodied energy of the ed ucation building The study proceeded with the following steps : Step 1: Calculate the embodied energy of building materials manufacturing by the I O model E i is embodied impacts; T i is transportation impacts; P c is construction impacts; P b is concrete batching impacts; EI is embodied impacts; BEI is building embodied i mpacts Construction Pre construction Total BEI P c P b T n T 6 T 5 T 4 T 3 T 2 T 1 E n E 4 E 3 E 2 E 1 Cement & sand Metal products Plastic products Wood products Appliances Concrete batching plant Construction site Building )

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109 Step 2: Calculate the energy of concrete manufacturing by the process data of concrete batching plan t Step 3 : Calculate the energy and emissions in transporting main building materials from factory or plant to construction sit e Step 4 : Calculate the energy of building construction Step 5 : Sum up the energy consumption in transportation, concrete ba tching, and building construction, and then calculate the embodied impacts of those energy generation and supply. Step 6 : Sum up the result of step (1) to (5) to figure out the total embodied energy of the case building The demand vector of the hybrid mo del is composed of the purchase price of building materials and components The direct purchase price of building materials and components was estimated to be 90% of the bid price and t he purchase prices are converted by consumer price index (CPI) to gene rate their counterparts in 2007. The manufacturing energy of building materials and components are shown in Table B 1 The transportation and construction energy are shown in the Table 3 12 Table 3 12, and Table 3 13. W ith the 135 sector I O model, the em bodied energy for these direct energy generation and supply was calculated to be 12 089 GJ. With the developed process based hybrid LCA model, the total embodied energy of the education building was calculated to be 309 965 GJ, and the embodied energy int ensity was 6.3 2

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110 Table F 1 Materials and components manufacturing energy of the education building Sector Building materials or components Costs ( y uan) Energy (GJ) Manufacture of cement, lime and gypsum #325 cement, #425 cement, #525 cement, white cement, lime power, gypsum power, etc. 5 598 589 25 641 Manufacture of cement, and gypsum products Gypsum board, cement perlite, cement slag, grey soil, aerated concrete block, etc. 407 607 2 195 Manufacture of tiles, masonry and other building materials Brick, asphalt, asphalt felt, polymer grout, polystyrene board, sodium acrylate, SBS water proof reeling material, Xry wall insulation board, etc 15 524 635 78 648 Manufacture of metal products Iron products, aluminum products, steel bar, iron wires, angle steel, round steel, section steel, spike, nut, galvanized iron sheet, lightgage steel joist, steel pipe, copper wire, threaded connector, composite steel formwork, etc. 22 801 146 88 542 Manufacture of refractory materials Silicate aluminu m refractory fiber board, asbestos board, mineral wool board, etc. 465 556 2 049 Manufacture of rubber products Rubber watertight strip, rubber mat, high pressure rubber hose, etc. 150 213 556 Manufacture of plastic products Plastic film, plastic blind s, plastic extruded plate, plastic pipe, etc. 574 195 2 166 Processing of timber, manufacture of wood, bamboo, rattan, palm and straw products Wood screw, wood skirting board, pine lumber, sawn timber, wood formwork, wood door, etc. 748 227 1 698 Manuf acture of pump valve compressor and similar machinery Gate valve, check valve, butterfly valve, thread globe valve, pump, drainage pump, etc. 263 521 820 Manufacture of wires, cables, optical cables, and electric apparatus Insulated wires, cable, earthed busbar, etc. 963 281 3 220

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111 Table F 1 Continued. Sector Building materials or components Costs ( y uan) Energy (GJ) Manufacture of equipment for power transmission & distribution control Junction box, insulated conductor, electric box, etc. 262 6 00 820 Manufacture of glass and glass products Glass curtain, blackboard, etc. 1 881 497 9 279 Manufacture of ceramic and ceramic products Ceramic brick, ceramic joint, basin, toilet, etc. 3 866 012 18 469 Manufacture of chemical fibers Fiberglass me sh, nylon nut, cellulose glycolate, etc. 633 400 2 634 Manufacture of special chemical article Electric power compounded grease 29 078 146 Manufacture of dope, printing ink, pigment and similar products SBS water proof adhesive, glass and ceramic adhes ive, polyvinyl chloride hot melt adhesive, alkyd antirust paint, phenol aldehyde varnish, etc. 390 138 2 137 Manufacture of household electrical and non electrical appliances Lighting, fan, etc. 12 972 838 37 524 Manufacturing of other special e quipmen t Elevator 900 000 2 781 Water p roduction and Supply Water 111 137 381

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115 Lenzen M., Crawford, R., 2009 The path exchange method for hybrid LCA Environ mental Sci ence & Technol ogy 43(21), 8251 8256 Leontief, W.W. 1970 Environmental repercussions and the economic structure: a n i nput o utput a pproach. Review of Economics and Statistics 52(3), 262 271. Leontief, W.W. 1986. Input Output Economics. 2 nd Ed Oxford University Press, New York. Majeau Bettez G., Strmman H.A., Hertwich G.E., 2011. Ev aluation of process and input o utput based life cycle inventory data with regard to truncation and aggregation issues Environ mental Sci ence & Technol ogy 45(23), 10170 10177 Mattila J T Pakarinen S Sokka L 2010 Quantifying the total environmental impacts of an industrial symbiosi s a c omparison of p rocess h ybrid and i o utput l ife c ycle a ssessment. Environ mental Sci ence & Technol ogy 44(11) 4309 4314 Menzies G.F., Turan S., Banfil P.F.G. 2007 Life cycle assessment and embodied energy: a r eview. Construction Materials 160(4) 135 143 MHURDC ( Ministry of Housing and Urban Rural Development of P.R. China ), 2008. Construction B ill of Q uantities S pecification (GB50500 2008). China Planning Press Beijing. Miller J.A. 2001 Embodied energy a life cycle of transportation energy embo died in construction materials. COBRA 200 1, London United Kingdom Miller, R.E., Blair P.D. 1985. Input O utput A nalysis: F oundation and E xtensions Prentice Hall New Jersey. MRC (Ministry of Railways of P.R.China), 2005. Railway Freight R ate. China Railway Publishing House, Beijing. MRC (Ministry of Railways of P.R.China), 2009. China Railway Statistics Announcement. (accessed 2010). Nssna J., Holmberg, J., Wade skog A., Nyman, M., 2007. Direct and indirect energy use and carbon emissions in the production phase of buildings: An input output analysis. Energy 32(9), 1593 1602. NBSC (National Bureau of Statistics of China) 2009 2007 Chinese Input output Table C hina Statistics Press, Beijing. NBSC (National Bureau of Statistics of China) 2008 a 2008 China Statistics Yearbook on Construction China Statistics Press, Beijing.

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116 NBSC (National Bureau of Statistics of China) 2008 b. 2008 China Rural Statistical Year book. China Statistics Press, Beijing. NBSC (National Bureau of Statistics of China) 2008 c 2008 China Statistics Yearbook China Statistics Press, Beijing. Ramesh T Prakasha R Shuklab K K 2010 Life cycle energy anal ysis of buildings: An overv iew. Energ y and Buildings 42(10) 1592 1600 Raynolds M., Fraser R., Checkel D. 2000 The relative mass energy economic (RMEE) method for system boundary selection. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 5(1) 37 46. SCCMI (Shanghai Construct ion & Construction Material Industry), 2011. Construction Costs Information Database. < http://www.ciac.sh.cn/ztzl_bzde.aspx > (accessed 2011) Sharrard A 2007. Greening Construction Processes with an Input Output Based Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment Mod el. Ph.D. Dissertation. Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, United States. Sharrard L A Matthews H S Ries J R 2008 Estimating c onstruction p roject e nvironmental e ffects u sing an i nput o utput b ased h ybrid l ife c ycle a ssessment m odel. J ournal of Infrastruct ure Syst em 14(4) 327 336. Stein, R.G., Stein, C., Buckley, M., Green, M., 1980. Handbook of Energ y Use for Building Construction Department of Energy, Division of Industrial Energy Conservation, Working Report Strmman H.A., Peters P.G. Hertwich G.E. 2009 Approaches to correct for double counting in tiered hybrid life cycle inventories. Journal of Cleaner Production 17(2) 248 254. Suh, S. 2004 Functions, commodities and environmental impacts i n an ecological economic model. Ecolog ical Economics 48(4), 451 467. Suh S Huppes G. 2005 Methods for lif e cycle inventory of a product. Journal of C leaner P roduction 13 ( 7 ) 687 697. Suh S Lenzen M Treloar G.J., Hondo H Horvath A Huppes G Jolliet O Klann U Krewitt W Moriguchi Y Munksgaard J Norris G. 2004 System boundary selection in life cycle inven tories using hybrid approaches. Environ mental Sci ence & Technol ogy 38 (3), 657 664.

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117 Suh S Nakamura S. 2007 Five years in the area of input output and hybrid LCA. Int ernational J ournal of Life Cycle Assess ment 12(6) 351 352. Treloar G.J. 1997 Extracting e mbodied e nergy p aths from i nput o utput t ables: t owards an i nput o utput based h ybrid e nergy a nalysis m ethod Economic Systems Research 9( 4 ), 375 39 1. Treloar G J 1998. A Comprehensive Embodied En ergy Analysis Framework. Ph.D. D issertation. Deakin University V ictoria Australia Treloar G J L ove P E D Holt G D. 2001 Using national input output data for embodied energy analysis of individ ual residential buildings Constr uction Management and Economics 19(1) 39 61. U S EPA ( Environmental Protection Agency ), 2010 Defini ng Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). (accessed 2012) Wang, D., 1996 Building Appraisal and Valuation Manual China A rchitecture & B uilding P ress Beijing. Williams, E. D., 2004. Energy intensity of computer manufacturing: hybrid assessment combining process and economic input Output methods. Environ mental Sci ence & Technol ogy 38( 22 ), 6166 6174 Zhou N., McNeil A M., Levine Mark. 2009 Energy for 500 million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residenti al Energy Consumption in China. Berkeley National Laboratory Working Report Zhou N., Nishida M Gao,W.J. 2008 Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Buildi ng Energy Consumption in China. Berkeley National Laboratory Working Report

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118 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Yuan Chang received his Bachelor of Management in construction engineering and m anagement at Shiji azhuang Tiedao University in China in 2004. He proceeded to study at Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture and obtained a Master of Management in management science and e ngineering in 2007. In 2008, Yuan was admitted to M.E. Rinker, Sr. School of Building Construction at the University of Florida and awarded Alumni Fellowship. Yuan s research interests focus on building sustainability and life cycle assessment.